WorldWideScience

Sample records for magnetic levitation technology

  1. Magnetic levitation Maglev technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Hyung-Suk

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of magnetic levitation (Maglev) technologies, from fundamental principles through to the state-of-the-art, and describes applications both realised and under development. It includes a history of Maglev science and technology showing the various milestones in its advancement. The core concepts, operating principles and main challenges of Maglev applications attempted across various fields are introduced and discussed. The principle difficulties encountered when applying Maglev technology to different systems, namely air gap control and stabilization, are addressed in detail. The book describes how major advancements in linear motor and magnet technologies have enabled the development of the linear-motor-powered Maglev train, which has a high speed advantage over conventional wheeled trains and has the potential to reach speed levels achieved by aircraft. However, many expect that Maglev technology to be a green technology that is applied not only in rail transportat...

  2. Magnetic levitation

    OpenAIRE

    Štěpánek,B.; Paleček,M.

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with magnetism and its influence on superconducting materials. We describe the discovery and development of superconductivity, superconducting levitation and its use in future technology - called. MAGLEV speed trains. We show the interaction of the magnetic field of a strong neodymium magnet and high-temperature superconductor, cooled with liquid nitrogen at about -200 ° C. Of superconductors at this temperature becomes perfect diamagnetic material. That is ejected from the ma...

  3. Scaffold-free, label-free and nozzle-free biofabrication technology using magnetic levitational assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfenov, Vladislav A; Koudan, Elizaveta V; Bulanova, Elena A; Karalkin, Pavel A; Pereira, Frederico DAS; Norkin, Nikita E; Knyazeva, Alisa D; Gryadunova, Anna A; Petrov, Oleg F; Vasiliev, M M; Myasnikov, Maxim; Chernikov, Valery P; Kasyanov, Vladimir A; Marchenkov, Artem Yu; Brakke, Kenneth A; Khesuani, Yusef D; Demirci, Utkan; Mironov, Vladimir A

    2018-05-31

    Tissue spheroids have been proposed as building blocks in 3D biofabrication. Conventional magnetic force-driven 2D patterning of tissue spheroids requires prior cell labeling by magnetic nanoparticles, meanwhile a label-free approach for 3D magnetic levitational assembly has been introduced. Here we present first-time report on rapid assembly of 3D tissue construct using scaffold-free, nozzle-free and label-free magnetic levitation of tissue spheroids. Chondrospheres of standard size, shape and capable to fusion have been biofabricated from primary sheep chondrocytes using non-adhesive technology. Label-free magnetic levitation was performed using a prototype device equipped with permanent magnets in presence of gadolinium (Gd3+) in culture media, which enables magnetic levitation. Mathematical modeling and computer simulations were used for prediction of magnetic field and kinetics of tissue spheroids assembly into 3D tissue constructs. First, we used polystyrene beads to simulate the assembly of tissue spheroids and to determine the optimal settings for magnetic levitation in presence of Gd3+. Second, we proved the ability of chondrospheres to assemble rapidly into 3D tissue construct in the permanent magnetic field in the presence of Gd3+. Thus, scaffold- and label-free magnetic levitation of tissue spheroids is a promising approach for rapid 3D biofabrication and attractive alternative to label-based magnetic force-driven tissue engineering. . © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  4. Magnetically Levitated and Guided Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Puci

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the fundamentals of magnetic levitation technology. A general background of the magnetic levitation is given in this article, including applications of this technology, several comparisons with other types of technologies, the real stage of its development, etc. Further in the paper, the two main types of magnetically levitated systems are compared within their subgroups, on characteristics and specifications basis. A comparison between the AC and DC power supplies for these systems, including the pros and cons of each type, is also provided in the paper.

  5. A magnetic levitation rotating plate model based on high-Tc superconducting technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Li, Jipeng; Sun, Ruixue; Qian, Nan; Deng, Zigang

    2017-09-01

    With the wide requirements of the training aids and display models of science, technology and even industrial products for the public like schools, museums and pleasure grounds, a simple-structure and long-term stable-levitation technology is needed for these exhibitions. Opportunely, high temperature superconducting (HTS) technology using bulk superconductors indeed has prominent advantages on magnetic levitation and suspension for its self-stable characteristic in an applied magnetic field without any external power or control. This paper explores the feasibility of designing a rotatable magnetic levitation (maglev) plate model with HTS bulks placed beneath a permanent magnet (PM) plate. The model is featured with HTS bulks together with their essential cryogenic equipment above and PMs below, therefore it eliminates the unclear visual effects by spray due to the low temperature coolant such as liquid nitrogen (LN2) and additional levitation weight of the cryogenic equipment. Besides that, a matched LN2 automation filling system is adopted to help achieving a long-term working state of the rotatable maglev plate. The key low-temperature working condition for HTS bulks is maintained by repeatedly opening a solenoid valve and automatically filling LN2 under the monitoring of a temperature sensor inside the cryostat. With the support of the cryogenic devices, the HTS maglev system can meet all requirements of the levitating display model for exhibitions, and may enlighten the research work on HTS maglev applications.

  6. Electric vehicles, magnetic levitation and superconductive levitation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyczalek, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    This is a technological assessment of electric automotive vehicles, high speed magnetic levitation trains and hyperspeed superconductive magnetic levitation trains in Japan. It includes conventional battery electric vehicles for the automotive application, conventional magnetic levitation trains with peak speeds of 300 km/h and superconductive levitation trains capable of speeds over 500 km/h in transcontinental service. These electric vehicles have been under development since 1971 and are now considered ready for introduction into intercity commercial service. Conventional magnetic levitation trains are targeted to connect New Chitose International Airport with Sapporo and shorter connections in LasVegas, Philadelphia and Miami. The first superconductive train is planned for the Osaka to Tokyo link by the year 2000, a distance of 515 km. The initial step has been taken with approval of funding for the first five year phase of construction beginning with the Kansai project near Osaka

  7. Pendair and magnetic levitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliss, D S

    1979-11-01

    World-wide developments in air cushioned and magnetic levitation, (MAGLEV) vehicles, mainly trains and urban area people movers, are reviewed and the merits of the two systems are reviewed. It is concluded that air cushion systems are simpler, cheaper, and more efficient than MAGLEV systems. (LCL)

  8. Magnetic propulsion for magnetically levitated trains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melville, P H

    1973-12-01

    One of the main problems associated with magnetically levitated trains is the means of propulsion. A system is described whereby the repulsion from the superconducting magnets, in addition to levitating the train, can also be used to propel it.

  9. Superconducting levitation applications to bearings and magnetic transportation

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, Francis C

    1994-01-01

    Presents the fundamental principles governing levitation of material bodies by magnetic fields without too much formal theory. Defines the technology of magnetic bearings, especially those based on superconductivity, and demonstrates the key roles that magnetics, mechanics and dynamics play in the complete understanding of magnetic levitation and its bearings. Features extensive figures and photos of Mag-Lev devices and summarizes recent U.S. research studies in an effort to regain the lead in Mag-Lev technologies

  10. Magnetic levitation configuration incorporating levitation, guidance and linear synchronous motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, H.T.

    1993-10-19

    A propulsion and suspension system for an inductive repulsion type magnetically levitated vehicle which is propelled and suspended by a system which includes propulsion windings which form a linear synchronous motor and conductive guideways, adjacent to the propulsion windings, where both combine to partially encircling the vehicle-borne superconducting magnets. A three phase power source is used with the linear synchronous motor to produce a traveling magnetic wave which in conjunction with the magnets propel the vehicle. The conductive guideway combines with the superconducting magnets to provide for vehicle levitation. 3 figures.

  11. Magnetic levitation and MHD propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tixador, P [CNRS/CRTBT-LEG, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1994-04-01

    Magnetic levitation and MHD propulsion are now attracting attention in several countries. Different superconducting MagLev and MHD systems will be described concentrating on, above all, the electromagnetic aspect. Some programmes occurring throughout the world will be described. Magnetic levitated trains could be the new high speed transportation system for the 21st century. Intensive studies involving MagLev trains using superconductivity have been carried our in Japan since 1970. The construction of a 43 km long track is to be the next step. In 1991 a six year programme was launched in the United States to evaluate the performances of MagLev systems for transportation. The MHD (MagnetoHydroDynamic) offers some interesting advantages (efficiency, stealth characteristics, ..) for naval propulsion and increasing attention is being paid towards it nowadays. Japan is also up at the top with the tests of Yamato I, a 260 ton MHD propulsed ship. (orig.).

  12. Magnetic levitation and MHD propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tixador, P.

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic levitation and MHD propulsion are now attracting attention in several countries. Different superconducting MagLev and MHD systems will be described concentrating on, above all, the electromagnetic aspect. Some programmes occurring throughout the world will be described. Magnetic levitated trains could be the new high speed transportation system for the 21st century. Intensive studies involving MagLev trains using superconductivity have been carried our in Japan since 1970. The construction of a 43 km long track is to be the next step. In 1991 a six year programme was launched in the United States to evaluate the performances of MagLev systems for transportation. The MHD (MagnetoHydroDynamic) offers some interesting advantages (efficiency, stealth characteristics, ..) for naval propulsion and increasing attention is being paid towards it nowadays. Japan is also up at the top with the tests of Yamato I, a 260 ton MHD propulsed ship. (orig.)

  13. A novel HTS magnetic levitation dining table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yiyun; Huang, Huiying

    2018-05-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk can levitate above or suspend below a permanent magnet stably. Many magnificent potential applications of HTS bulk are proposed by researchers. Until now, few reports have been found for real applications of HTS bulk. A complete set of small-scale HTS magnetic levitation table is proposed in the paper. The HTS magnetic levitation table includes an annular HTS magnetic levitation system which is composed of an annular HTS bulk array and an annular permanent magnet guideway (PMG). The annular PMG and the annular cryogenics vessel which used to maintain low temperature environment of the HTS bulk array are designed. 62 YBCO bulks are used to locate at the bottom of the annular vessel. A 3D-model finite element numerical method is used to design the HTS bulk magnetic levitation system. Equivalent magnetic levitation and guidance forces calculation rules are proposed aimed at the annular HTS magnetic levitation system stability. Based on the proposed method, levitation and guidance forces curves of the one YBCO bulk magnetic above PMG could be obtained. This method also can use to assist PMG design to check whether the designed PMG could reach the basic demand of the HTS magnetic levitation table.

  14. Propulsion of magnetically levitated trains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipf, S L

    1976-05-01

    A propulsion system for magnetically levitated trains is proposed. A method of periodically energizing magnetic loops on a train moving over a periodically undulating track allows the net repulsive magnetic force to tilt forward or backward for either propulsion or braking. The principle is explained and a specific example discussed. Approximate calculations show feasibility. Problems requiring technical solutions which cannot be considered present state-of-the-art are AC losses at frequencies up to 20 Hz and mechanical fatigue properties at low temperatures. Suitable primary power could be derived from hydrogen-fueled turbines yet to be developed.

  15. Quantum Spin Stabilized Magnetic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, C. C.; Pöchhacker, V.; Kustura, K.; Cirac, J. I.; Romero-Isart, O.

    2017-10-01

    We theoretically show that, despite Earnshaw's theorem, a nonrotating single magnetic domain nanoparticle can be stably levitated in an external static magnetic field. The stabilization relies on the quantum spin origin of magnetization, namely, the gyromagnetic effect. We predict the existence of two stable phases related to the Einstein-de Haas effect and the Larmor precession. At a stable point, we derive a quadratic Hamiltonian that describes the quantum fluctuations of the degrees of freedom of the system. We show that, in the absence of thermal fluctuations, the quantum state of the nanomagnet at the equilibrium point contains entanglement and squeezing.

  16. Vibration converter with magnetic levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladilin, A. V.; Pirogov, V. A.; Golyamina, I. P.; Kulaev, U. V.; Kurbatov, P. A.; Kurbatova, E. P.

    2015-05-01

    The paper presents a mathematical model, the results of computational and theoretical research, and the feasibility of creating a vibration converter with full magnetic levitation in the suspension of a high-temperature superconductor (HTSC). The axial and radial stability of the active part of the converter is provided by the interaction of the magnetic field of ring-shaped permanent magnets and a hollow cylinder made of the ceramic HTSC material. The force is created by a system of current-carrying coils whose magnetic field is polarized by permanent magnets and interacts with induced currents in the superconducting cylinder. The case of transition to the superconducting state of HTSC material in the field of the permanent magnets (FC mode) is considered. The data confirm the outlook for the proposed technical solutions.

  17. Superconducting pipes and levitating magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Yan; Rizzato, Felipe B

    2006-12-01

    Motivated by a beautiful demonstration of the Faraday and the Lenz laws in which a small neodymium magnet falls slowly through a conducting nonferromagnetic tube, we consider the dynamics of a magnet falling coaxially through a superconducting pipe. Unlike the case of normal conducting pipes, in which the magnet quickly reaches the terminal velocity, inside a superconducting tube the magnet falls freely. On the other hand, to enter the pipe the magnet must overcome a large electromagnetic energy barrier. For sufficiently strong magnets, the barrier is so large that the magnet will not be able to penetrate it and will be levitated over the mouth of the pipe. We calculate the work that must done to force the magnet to enter a superconducting tube. The calculations show that superconducting pipes are very efficient at screening magnetic fields. For example, the magnetic field of a dipole at the center of a short pipe of radius a and length L approximately > a decays, in the axial direction, with a characteristic length xi approximately 0.26a. The efficient screening of the magnetic field might be useful for shielding highly sensitive superconducting quantum interference devices. Finally, the motion of the magnet through a superconducting pipe is compared and contrasted to the flow of ions through a trans-membrane channel.

  18. Magnetic levitation and superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, C.

    1989-01-01

    The paper explains the impressive advances made in the development of superconducting magnets, in cryogenic engineering, and in the development of drive and vehicle concepts in Japan in the period following termination of West German development work for the electrodynamical system (MLU 001, MLU 002). The potentials engineering due to the development of high-Tc superconductors are discussed. (orig./MM) [de

  19. An ionization chamber with magnetic levitated electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Kawaguchi, T

    1999-01-01

    A new type of ionization chamber which has magnetically levitated electrodes has been developed. The electrodes are supplied voltages for the repelling of ions by a battery which is also levitated with the electrodes. The characteristics of this ionization chamber are investigated in this paper.

  20. Magnetic levitation configuration incorporating levitation, guidance and linear synchronous motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Howard T.

    1993-01-01

    A propulsion and suspension system for an inductive repulsion type magnetically levitated vehicle which is propelled and suspended by a system which includes propulsion windings which form a linear synchronous motor and conductive guideways, adjacent to the propulsion windings, where both combine to partially encircling the vehicle-borne superconducting magnets. A three phase power source is used with the linear synchronous motor to produce a traveling magnetic wave which in conjunction with the magnets propel the vehicle. The conductive guideway combines with the superconducting magnets to provide for vehicle leviation.

  1. Development of superconducting magnets for magnetically levitated trains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, E.; Iwamoto, M.; Ogino, O.; Kawamura, T.

    1974-01-01

    Superconducting magnets will play a vital role in magnetically levitated trains, producing lift, guidance and propulsion forces. The main problems in the design are the current density of coils and the cryogenic thermal insulation. This paper describes the development of full-scale levitation magnets with length of 1.55m and width of 0.3 or 0.5m. Dynamic levitation tests using small model magnets are also presented. (author)

  2. Feedforward Control of Magnetically Levitated Planar Actuators

    OpenAIRE

    Bloemers, T.; Proimadis, I.; Kasemsinsup, Y.; Tóth, R.

    2018-01-01

    The present report summarizes the work conducted during the internship on Feedforward Control of the Magnetic Levitation Setup. Different feedforward strategies, specifically tailored for this setup, are developed and reviewed. These feedforward methods explicitly take the intrinsic position-dependent behavior of the magnetic levitation setup into account. Additionally, closed-loop stability of the given setup is assessed. All investigations are carried out under the rigid-body assumption of ...

  3. Levitation of a magnet by an alternating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, W; Hunt, M O; Summerskill, W S H

    2013-01-01

    An experiment is described in which a small strong cylindrical magnet is levitated by a vertical non-uniform alternating magnetic field. Surprisingly, no superimposed constant field is necessary, but the levitation can be explained when the vertical motion of the magnet is taken into account. The theoretical mean levitation force is (0.26 ± 0.06) N, which is in good agreement with the levitated weight of (0.239 ± 0.001) N. This experiment is suitable for an undergraduate laboratory, particularly as a final year project. Students have found it interesting, and it sharpens up knowledge of basic magnetism. (paper)

  4. The power of magnetic levitation-Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, F.C.

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses how new magnetic-levitation (MAGLEV) transportation technologies can be used to relieve airport congestion. New superconducting materials may improve the cost/benefits ratio for some MAGLEV systems. According to the author, postponement of research in MAGLEV technology in the United States will mean the loss of jobs and worsening trade balances near the end of the decade

  5. The Development Prospects of Magnetically Levitated Trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Nikšić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the up-to-date research in developingmagnetically levitated (MAGLEV motorcars. It presents thehistorical overview of the development of the most famousmagnetic levitation systems of today.Apart from describing the operation method and the technicalfeatures of each system, the paper ana(vses the advantagesand drawbacks of certain systems, as well as the advantagesand drawbacks of magnetically levitated motorcars comparedto conventional railway.The paper presents the plans for the future as well as the systemswhich have the highest prospects of being also commerciallyand not just experimentally used.

  6. Magnetic levitation and MHD propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tixador, P.

    1994-04-01

    Magnetic levitation and MHD propulsion are now attracting attention in several countries. Different superconducting MagLev and MHD systems will be described concentrating on, above all, the electromagnetic aspect. Some programmes occurring throughout the world will be described. Magnetic levitated trains could be the new high speed transportation system for the 21st century. Intensive studies involving MagLev trains using superconductivity have been carried out in Japan since 1970. The construction of a 43 km long track is to be the next step. In 1991 a six year programme was launched in the United States to evaluate the performances of MagLev systems for transportation. The MHD (MagnetoHydroDynamic) offers some interesting advantages (efficiency, stealth characteristics, ...) for naval propulsion and increasing attention is being paid towards it nowadays. Japan is also up at the top with the tests of Yamato I, a 260 ton MHD propulsed ship. Depuis quelques années nous assistons à un redémarrage de programmes concernant la lévitation et la propulsion supraconductrices. Différents systèmes supraconducteurs de lévitation et de propulsion seront décrits en examinant plus particulièrement l'aspect électromagnétique. Quelques programmes à travers le monde seront abordés. Les trains à sustentation magnétique pourraient constituer un nouveau mode de transport terrestre à vitesse élevée (500 km/h) pour le 21^e siècle. Les japonais n'ont cessé de s'intéresser à ce système avec bobine supraconductrice. Ils envisagent un stade préindustriel avec la construction d'une ligne de 43 km. En 1991 un programme américain pour une durée de six ans a été lancé pour évaluer les performances des systèmes à lévitation pour le transport aux Etats Unis. La MHD (Magnéto- Hydro-Dynamique) présente des avantages intéressants pour la propulsion navale et un regain d'intérêt apparaît à l'heure actuelle. Le japon se situe là encore à la pointe des d

  7. Design, implementation and control of a magnetic levitation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameli, Ehsan

    Magnetic levitation technology has shown a great deal of promise for micromanipulation tasks. Due to the lack of mechanical contact, magnetic levitation systems are free of problems caused by friction, wear, sealing and lubrication. These advantages have made magnetic levitation systems a great candidate for clean room applications. In this thesis, a new large gap magnetic levitation system is designed, developed and successfully tested. The system is capable of levitating a 6.5(gr) permanent magnet in 3D space with an air gap of approximately 50(cm) with the traveling range of 20x20x30 mm3. The overall positioning accuracy of the system is 60mum. With the aid of finite elements method, an optimal geometry for the magnetic stator is proposed. Also, an energy optimization approach is utilized in the design of the electromagnets. In order to facilitate the design of various controllers for the system, a mathematical model of the magnetic force experienced by the levitated object is obtained. The dynamic magnetic force model is determined experimentally using frequency response system identification. The response of the system components including the power amplifiers, and position measurement system are also considered in the development of the force model. The force model is then employed in the controller design for the magnetic levitation device. Through a modular approach, the controller design for the 3D positioning system is started with the controller design for the vertical direction, i.e. z, and then followed by the controller design in the horizontal directions, i.e. x and y. For the vertical direction, several controllers such as PID, feed forward and feedback linearization are designed and their performances are compared. Also a control command conditioning method is introduced as a solution to increase the control performance and the results of the proposed controller are compared with the other designs. Experimental results showed that for the magnetic

  8. Eddy current damping for magnetic levitation: downscaling from macro- to micro-levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbuken, C; Khamesee, M B; Yavuz, M

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic levitation of miniaturized objects is investigated in this paper. A magnetic levitation setup is built to implement one-dimensional magnetic levitation motion. It was observed that as the levitated object becomes smaller, magnetic levitation suffers more from undesired vibrations. As a solution, eddy current damping is offered and implemented successfully by placing conductive plates close to the levitated object. An analytical expression for damping coefficient is derived. Experimentally, it is shown that eddy current damping can reduce the RMS positioning error to the level of more than one third of its original value for a 0.386 g object levitated in an air-gap region of 290 mm. The proposed system has the potential to be used for micro-manipulation purposes in a high motion range of 39.8 mm

  9. Eddy current damping for magnetic levitation: downscaling from macro- to micro-levitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbuken, C; Khamesee, M B; Yavuz, M [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-09-21

    Magnetic levitation of miniaturized objects is investigated in this paper. A magnetic levitation setup is built to implement one-dimensional magnetic levitation motion. It was observed that as the levitated object becomes smaller, magnetic levitation suffers more from undesired vibrations. As a solution, eddy current damping is offered and implemented successfully by placing conductive plates close to the levitated object. An analytical expression for damping coefficient is derived. Experimentally, it is shown that eddy current damping can reduce the RMS positioning error to the level of more than one third of its original value for a 0.386 g object levitated in an air-gap region of 290 mm. The proposed system has the potential to be used for micro-manipulation purposes in a high motion range of 39.8 mm.

  10. Levitating a Magnet Using a Superconductive Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juergens, Frederick H.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presented are the materials and a procedure for demonstrating the levitation of a magnet above a superconducting material. The demonstration can be projected with an overhead projector for a large group of students. Kits to simplify the demonstration can be purchased from the Institute for Chemical Education of the University of Wisconsin-Madison.…

  11. Magnetic levitation -The future transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rairan, Danilo

    2000-01-01

    The paper made a recount of the main advantages and disadvantages of the traditional systems of transport with base in electric power and it shows as the systems that use the magnetic levitation they are the future of the transport. Additionally it presents the physical principle of operation of the two main systems developed at the present time

  12. Method for obtaining large levitation pressure in superconducting magnetic bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, John R.

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus for compressing magnetic flux to achieve high levitation pressures. Magnetic flux produced by a magnetic flux source travels through a gap between two high temperature superconducting material structures. The gap has a varying cross-sectional area to compress the magnetic flux, providing an increased magnetic field and correspondingly increased levitation force in the gap.

  13. Trial Application of Pulse-Field Magnetization to Magnetically Levitated Conveyor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihito Miyatake

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetically levitated conveyor system using superconductors is discussed. The system is composed of a levitated conveyor, magnetic rails, a linear induction motor, and some power supplies. In the paper, pulse-field magnetization is applied to the system. Then, the levitation height and the dynamics of the conveyor are controlled. The static and dynamic characteristics of the levitated conveyor are discussed.

  14. Graphene levitation and orientation control using a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Chao; Lin, Feng; Wang, Zhiming M.; Bao, Jiming; Hu, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies graphene levitation and orientation control using a magnetic field. The torques in all three spatial directions induced by diamagnetic forces are used to predict stable conditions for different shapes of millimeter-sized graphite plates. We find that graphite plates, in regular polygon shapes with an even number of sides, will be levitated in a stable manner above four interleaved permanent magnets. In addition, the orientation of micrometer-sized graphene flakes near a permanent magnet is studied in both air and liquid environments. Using these analyses, we are able to simulate optical transmission and reflection on a writing board and thereby reveal potential applications using this technology for display screens. Understanding the control of graphene flake orientation will lead to the discovery of future applications using graphene flakes.

  15. Aerodynamics of magnetic levitation (MAGLEV) trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetz, Joseph A.; Marchman, James F., III

    1996-01-01

    High-speed (500 kph) trains using magnetic forces for levitation, propulsion and control offer many advantages for the nation and a good opportunity for the aerospace community to apply 'high tech' methods to the domestic sector. One area of many that will need advanced research is the aerodynamics of such MAGLEV (Magnetic Levitation) vehicles. There are important issues with regard to wind tunnel testing and the application of CFD to these devices. This talk will deal with the aerodynamic design of MAGLEV vehicles with emphasis on wind tunnel testing. The moving track facility designed and constructed in the 6 ft. Stability Wind Tunnel at Virginia Tech will be described. Test results for a variety of MAGLEV vehicle configurations will be presented. The last topic to be discussed is a Multi-disciplinary Design approach that is being applied to MAGLEV vehicle configuration design including aerodynamics, structures, manufacturability and life-cycle cost.

  16. Magnetic levitation railways. 2. enlarged ed. Magnetschwebebahnen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miedtank, R [comp.

    1989-01-01

    The bibliography contains 129 literature references, mostly with German abstracts on: Representation of the magnetic levitation railway (MAGLEV railway) as a fast modern railway; type of design of tracks and stations; manufacture of track supports made of steel and reinforced concrete with the accuracy required for this fast railway system. Introduction of experimental sections and planning study for this means of transport. (orig./HP).

  17. Energy-Based Controller Design of Stochastic Magnetic Levitation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the control problem of magnetic levitation system, in which velocity feedback signal is influenced by stochastic disturbance. Firstly, single-degree-freedom magnetic levitation is regarded as an energy-transform action device. From the view of energy-balance relation, the magnetic levitation system is transformed into port-controlled Hamiltonian system model. Next, based on the Hamiltonian structure, the control law of magnetic levitation system is designed by applying Lyapunov theory. Finally, the simulation verifies the correctness of the proposed results.

  18. Characteristics on electodynamic suspension simulator with HTS levitation magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.; Bae, D.K.; Sim, K.; Chung, Y.D.; Lee, Y.-S.

    2009-01-01

    High-T c superconducting (HTSC) electrodynamic suspension (EDS) system basically consists of the HTSC levitation magnet and the ground conductor. The levitation force of EDS system is forms by the interaction between the moving magnetic field produced by the onboard levitation magnet and the induced magnetic field produced by eddy current in the ground conductor. This paper deals with the characteristics of the EDS simulators with high-T c superconducting (HTS) levitation magnet. Two EDS simulator systems, rotating type EDS simulator and static type EDS simulator, were studied in this paper. The rotating type EDS simulator consists of a HTS levitation magnet and a 1.5 m diameter rotating ground conductor, a motor, the supporting structure and force measuring devices. In the static type EDS simulator, instead of moving magnetic field, AC current was applied to the fixed HTS levitation magnet to induce the eddy current. The static type EDS simulator consists of a HTS levitation magnet, a ground conductor, force measuring devices and supporting structure. The double-pancake type HTSC levitation magnet was designed, manufactured and tested in the EDS simulator.

  19. Characteristics on electodynamic suspension simulator with HTS levitation magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Bae, D. K.; Sim, K.; Chung, Y. D.; Lee, Y.-S.

    2009-10-01

    High- Tc superconducting (HTSC) electrodynamic suspension (EDS) system basically consists of the HTSC levitation magnet and the ground conductor. The levitation force of EDS system is forms by the interaction between the moving magnetic field produced by the onboard levitation magnet and the induced magnetic field produced by eddy current in the ground conductor. This paper deals with the characteristics of the EDS simulators with high- Tc superconducting (HTS) levitation magnet. Two EDS simulator systems, rotating type EDS simulator and static type EDS simulator, were studied in this paper. The rotating type EDS simulator consists of a HTS levitation magnet and a 1.5 m diameter rotating ground conductor, a motor, the supporting structure and force measuring devices. In the static type EDS simulator, instead of moving magnetic field, AC current was applied to the fixed HTS levitation magnet to induce the eddy current. The static type EDS simulator consists of a HTS levitation magnet, a ground conductor, force measuring devices and supporting structure. The double-pancake type HTSC levitation magnet was designed, manufactured and tested in the EDS simulator.

  20. Stability of magnets levitated above superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, L.C.; Logothetis, E.M.; Soltis, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    The stability of a permanent magnet levitated above a slab of hard superconductor is considered. The force on a dipole magnet over a perfectly diamagnetic disk is calculated. It is found that the radial component of the force is directed outward and is 10%--20% of the image (vertical) force near the edge. Estimates of the magnetic friction force due to flux motion in a hard superconductor are made using Bean's model. The magnitude of the magnetic friction is large enough to stabilize the magnet over most of the disk for typical values of the critical current in ceramic superconductors (∼10 3 A/cm 2 ), but too small for the highest values reported (>10 6 A/cm 2 ). It is conjectured that flux trapping due to inhomogeneities gives rise to transient restoring forces

  1. Magnetic levitation in orbitron system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zub, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper devoted to proof the existence of stable quasi-periodic motions of the magnetic dipole that is under the action of the external magnetic field and homogeneous field of gravity. For proof we used energy-momentum method that is the group-theoretic method of Hamiltonian mechanics. Numerical simulation shows the possibility of realization of stable motions with physically reasonable parameters of the system.

  2. Mixed-μ magnetic levitation for advanced ground transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, F.M.

    1977-12-01

    The possibility of applying the mixed-μ principle for magnetic levitation to ground transport systems is examined. The system is developed specifically for suspension and useful lift to passive weight ratios exceeding 8:1 have been calculated. Application to a hybrid system where conventional wheel drive is used in conjunction with magnetic levitation is explained for urban transport. (author)

  3. Ultrasensitive Inertial and Force Sensors with Diamagnetically Levitated Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat-Camps, J.; Teo, C.; Rusconi, C. C.; Wieczorek, W.; Romero-Isart, O.

    2017-09-01

    We theoretically show that a magnet can be stably levitated on top of a punctured superconductor sheet in the Meissner state without applying any external field. The trapping potential created by such induced-only superconducting currents is characterized for magnetic spheres ranging from tens of nanometers to tens of millimeters. Such a diamagnetically levitated magnet is predicted to be extremely well isolated from the environment. We propose to use it as an ultrasensitive force and inertial sensor. A magnetomechanical readout of its displacement can be performed by using superconducting quantum interference devices. An analysis using current technology shows that force and acceleration sensitivities on the order of 10-23 N /√{Hz } (for a 100-nm magnet) and 10-14 g /√{Hz } (for a 10-mm magnet) might be within reach in a cryogenic environment. Such remarkable sensitivities, both in force and acceleration, can be used for a variety of purposes, from designing ultrasensitive inertial sensors for technological applications (e.g., gravimetry, avionics, and space industry), to scientific investigations on measuring Casimir forces of magnetic origin and gravitational physics.

  4. Sensorless magnetically levitated system with reduced observer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, T [Inst. fuer Elektrische Maschinen, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Henneberger, G [Inst. fuer Elektrische Maschinen, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Ress, C [Inst. fuer Elektrische Maschinen, RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The present paper describes the use of a reduced observer for a hybrid excited magnetic levitation system. The latter is part of a contactless and energy saving driven conveyance system. Thereby one has to select the working point of the system in such a way, that the force due to the weight of the vehicle including its load will be compensated only by the permanent magnets. The linearized model is observable even if only the current in the coils is measured. Therefore it seems reasonable to evaluate the other variables of the state vector by an observer. Thus the sensors for the airgap can be omitted. Using an observer has another advantage as well. It will tune the airgap automatically to the value which is necessary in order to operate the system in the most energy saving way. The whole design was simulated. (orig.)

  5. Magnetically levitated autoparametric broadband vibration energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurmann, L.; Jia, Y.; Manoli, Y.; Woias, P.

    2016-01-01

    Some of the lingering challenges within the current paradigm of vibration energy harvesting (VEH) involve narrow operational frequency range and the inevitable non-resonant response from broadband noise excitations. Such VEHs are only suitable for limited applications with fixed sinusoidal vibration, and fail to capture a large spectrum of the real world vibration. Various arraying designs, frequency tuning schemes and nonlinear vibratory approaches have only yielded modest enhancements. To fundamentally address this, the paper proposes and explores the potentials in using highly nonlinear magnetic spring force to activate an autoparametric oscillator, in order to realize an inherently broadband resonant system. Analytical and numerical modelling illustrate that high spring nonlinearity derived from magnetic levitation helps to promote the 2:1 internal frequency matching required to activate parametric resonance. At the right internal parameters, the resulting system can intrinsically exhibit semi-resonant response regardless of the bandwidth of the input vibration, including broadband white noise excitation. (paper)

  6. Magnetic orientation of paraffin in a magnetic levitation furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K.; Umeki, C.; Mogi, I.; Koyama, K.; Awaji, S.; Motokawa, M.; Watanabe, K.

    2004-04-01

    Containerless melting of paraffin under a magnetic levitation condition has been performed by using a cryogen-free hybrid magnet and two kinds of laser furnaces. One is local irradiation of CO 2 laser light at the top of the sample. The other is homogeneous irradiation of YAG laser light with a concave ring mirror. In the latter case, reduction of the Marangoni convection on the surface of the sample and the magnetic orientation of paraffin molecules were observed. The magnetic anisotropy of the spherical sample was confirmed by the measurement of magnetization and X-ray diffraction.

  7. Magnetic orientation of paraffin in a magnetic levitation furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K.; Umeki, C.; Mogi, I.; Koyama, K.; Awaji, S.; Motokawa, M.; Watanabe, K

    2004-04-30

    Containerless melting of paraffin under a magnetic levitation condition has been performed by using a cryogen-free hybrid magnet and two kinds of laser furnaces. One is local irradiation of CO{sub 2} laser light at the top of the sample. The other is homogeneous irradiation of YAG laser light with a concave ring mirror. In the latter case, reduction of the Marangoni convection on the surface of the sample and the magnetic orientation of paraffin molecules were observed. The magnetic anisotropy of the spherical sample was confirmed by the measurement of magnetization and X-ray diffraction.

  8. Magnetic orientation of paraffin in a magnetic levitation furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K.; Umeki, C.; Mogi, I.; Koyama, K.; Awaji, S.; Motokawa, M.; Watanabe, K.

    2004-01-01

    Containerless melting of paraffin under a magnetic levitation condition has been performed by using a cryogen-free hybrid magnet and two kinds of laser furnaces. One is local irradiation of CO 2 laser light at the top of the sample. The other is homogeneous irradiation of YAG laser light with a concave ring mirror. In the latter case, reduction of the Marangoni convection on the surface of the sample and the magnetic orientation of paraffin molecules were observed. The magnetic anisotropy of the spherical sample was confirmed by the measurement of magnetization and X-ray diffraction

  9. Effects of magnetic history on the levitation characteristics in a superconducting levitation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xingyi [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disaster and Environment and Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Zhou Youhe [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disaster and Environment and Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China)], E-mail: zhouyh@lzu.edu.cn; Zhou Jun [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disaster and Environment and Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China)

    2008-07-15

    Using an updated high-temperature superconductor maglev measurement system, influences of the motion mode in which both the superconductor and the magnet are placed close to each other on the magnetic forces and their relaxation are measured. It is found that Method 1, in which the magnet coaxially approaches the superconductor which is subsequently displaced laterally, leads to reduce the relaxation both in the levitation force and in the lateral force in comparison to Method 2, where lateral displacement of superconductor occurs before vertical motion of the magnet. The results are relevant for the practical levitation systems.

  10. Magnetically levitated space elevator to low-earth orbit.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, J. R.; Mulcahy, T. M.

    2001-07-02

    The properties of currently available NbTi superconductor and carbon-fiber structural materials enable the possibility of constructing a magnetically levitated space elevator from the earth's surface up to an altitude of {approx} 200 km. The magnetic part of the elevator consists of a long loop of current-carrying NbTi, composed of one length that is attached to the earth's surface in an east-west direction and a levitated-arch portion. The critical current density of NbTi is sufficiently high that these conductors will stably levitate in the earth's magnetic field. The magnetic self-field from the loop increases the levitational force and for some geometries assists levitational stability. The 200-km maximum height of the levitated arch is limited by the allowable stresses of the structural material. The loop is cryogenically cooled with helium, and the system utilizes intermediate pumping and cooling stations along both the ground and the levitated portion of the loop, similar to other large terrestrial cryogenic systems. Mechanically suspended from the basic loop is an elevator structure, upon which mass can be moved between the earth's surface and the top of the loop by a linear electric motor or other mechanical or electrical means. At the top of the loop, vehicles may be accelerated to orbital velocity or higher by rocket motors, electromagnetic propulsion, or hybrid methods.

  11. Magnetically levitated space elevator to low-earth orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, J. R.; Mulcahy, T. M.

    2001-01-01

    The properties of currently available NbTi superconductor and carbon-fiber structural materials enable the possibility of constructing a magnetically levitated space elevator from the earth's surface up to an altitude of(approx) 200 km. The magnetic part of the elevator consists of a long loop of current-carrying NbTi, composed of one length that is attached to the earth's surface in an east-west direction and a levitated-arch portion. The critical current density of NbTi is sufficiently high that these conductors will stably levitate in the earth's magnetic field. The magnetic self-field from the loop increases the levitational force and for some geometries assists levitational stability. The 200-km maximum height of the levitated arch is limited by the allowable stresses of the structural material. The loop is cryogenically cooled with helium, and the system utilizes intermediate pumping and cooling stations along both the ground and the levitated portion of the loop, similar to other large terrestrial cryogenic systems. Mechanically suspended from the basic loop is an elevator structure, upon which mass can be moved between the earth's surface and the top of the loop by a linear electric motor or other mechanical or electrical means. At the top of the loop, vehicles may be accelerated to orbital velocity or higher by rocket motors, electromagnetic propulsion, or hybrid methods

  12. Efficient Fuzzy Logic Controller for Magnetic Levitation Systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    ABSTRACT: Magnetic levitation is a system of suspending a body or a complete system against gravity. Suspending a system ... disturbance signal was applied to the input of the control system. Fuzzy ..... Automatic Control System, fifth edition.

  13. Canadian high speed magnetically levitated vehicle system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atherton, D L [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, Ont.; Belanger, P R; Burke, P E; Dawson, G E; Eastham, A R; Hayes, W F; Ooi, B T; Silvester, P; Slemon, G R

    1978-04-01

    A technically feasible high speed (400 to 480 km/h) guided ground transportation system, based on the use of the vehicle-borne superconducting magnets for electrodynamic suspension and guidance and for linear synchronous motor propulsion was defined as a future modal option for Canadian application. Analysis and design proposals were validated by large-scale tests on a rotating wheel facility and by modelling system components and their interactions. Thirty ton vehicles carrying 100 passengers operate over a flat-topped elevated guideway, which minimizes system down-time due to ice and snow accumulation and facilitates the design of turn-outs. A clearance of up to 15 cm is produced by the electrodynamic interaction between the vehicle-borne superconducting magnets and aluminum guideway strips. Propulsion and automatic system control is provided by the superconducting linear synchronous motor which operates at good efficiency (0.74) and high power factor (0.95). The vehicle is guided primarily by the interaction between the LSM field magnet array and flat null-flux loops overlying the stator windings in the guideway. The linear synchronous motor, electrodynamic suspension as well as levitation strip joints, parasitic LSM winding losses and limitations to the use of ferromagnetic guideway reinforcement were investigated experimentally on the test wheel facility. The use of a secondary suspension assures adequate dynamic stability, and good ride quality is achieved by optimized passive components with respect to lateral modes and by an actively controlled secondary suspension with respect to vertical motion.

  14. Magnetic levitation force between a superconducting bulk magnet and a permanent magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J J; He, C Y; Meng, L F; Li, C; Han, R S; Gao, Z X

    2003-01-01

    The current density J(ρ, z) in a disc-shaped superconducting bulk magnet and the magnetic levitation force F SBM z exerted on the superconducting bulk magnet by a cylindrical permanent magnet are calculated from first principles. The effect of the superconducting parameters of the superconducting bulk is taken into account by assuming the voltage-current law E = E c (J/J c ) n and the material law B = μ 0 H. The magnetic levitation force F SBM z is dominated by the remnant current density J' 2 (ρ, z), which is induced by switching off the applied magnetizing field. High critical current density and flux creep exponent may increase the magnetic levitation force F SBM z . Large volume and high aspect ratio of the superconducting bulk can further enhance the magnetic levitation force F SBM z

  15. Simulation of magnetization and levitation characteristics of HTS tape stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anischenko, I. V.; Pokrovskii, S. V.; Mineev, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    In this work it is presented a computational model of a magnetic levitation system based on stacks of high-temperature second generation superconducting tapes (HTS) GdBa2Cu3O7-x. Calculated magnetic field and the current distributions in the system for different stacks geometries in the zero-field cooling mode are also presented. The magnetization curves of the stacks in the external field of a permanent NdFeB magnet and the levitation force dependence on the gap between the magnet and the HTS tapes stack were obtained. A model of the magnetic system, oriented to levitation application, is given. Results of modeling were compared with the experimental data.

  16. A novel permanent magnetic rail for HTS levitation propulsion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, F.; Tang, Y.; Ren, L.; Li, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Halbach Array has a characteristic advantage that the spatial fundamental field is canceled on one side of the array while the field intensity on the other side is enhanced. So this array could be used in the design of high temperature superconducting permanent magnetic levitation rail to improve the surface magnetic field and levitation force. This paper compared the surface magnetic field of the Halbach Array rail and two conventional levitation rails at first. Then proposed the potential advantages of Halbach Array applied in permanent magnetic rail system. But the Halbach Array rail is mechanical instability. An novel improved Halbach Array rail is proposed in this paper. The new structure combined the advantages of traditional structure and Halbach Array structure, solved the problem of mechanical instability, and carried on the advantage of Halbach Array on the magnetic field distribution at the same time.

  17. Polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide under magnetic levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Y; Katsumoto, Y; Ohishi, Y; Koyama, M; Ohno, K; Akita, M; Inoue, K; Tanimoto, Y

    2006-01-01

    A study of an effect of the magnetic levitation on polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide at room temperature was carried out. The magnetic levitation environment, which is created by strong and upward magnetic force counterbalanced with the downward gravitational force, is multiple environment consisting of both the microgravity and the strong magnetic field which is lacking in a space vehicle orbiting around the earth. In this work, the effect was evaluated from the viewpoint of the number-average molecular weight (M n ) and the polydispersity (the index of the molecular weight distribution) of the synthesized polymer. A small extent (∼10 %) of the effect was observed on both the parameters. When the polymer was synthesized under the magnetic levitation environment, M n increased while the polydispersity decreased as compared with those of the polymer synthesized under the gravity

  18. Research on typical topologies of a tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yiheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic levitation vibration isolators have attracted more and more attention in the field of high-precision measuring and machining equipment. In this paper, we describe a tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator. Four typical topologies of the tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator are proposed. The analytical expression of magnetic force is derived. The relationship between levitation force, force density, force ripple and major structural parameters are analysed by finite element method, which is conductive to the design and optimization of the tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator. The force characteristics of different topologies of the tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator are compared and evaluated from the aspect of force density, force ripple and manufacturability. In comparison with conventional passive magnetic levitation vibration isolators, the proposed tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator shows advantage in higher force density.

  19. Vibration measurements and analyses for a magnet-superconductor levitated system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Zheng; Liu Yu; Yang Wenjiang; Qiu Ming

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic levitation technology, having the characteristics of low cost and high quality, has been considered a preferable option for the next generation of launcher systems. A world-wide research design on the conceptual level has been carried out on the highly reusable space transportation systems by applying magnetic levitation to the launch assistance. Recently, a research plan has been implemented in our laboratory by constructing a scale-model suspension system with high temperature superconductor (HTS henceforth) bulks over a 7 m Nd-Fe-B permanent-magnet (PM henceforth) track for the launch assistance. An experimental platform was built to investigate the dynamic responses of the PM-HTS interaction at different field-cooled positions. The critical frequencies and amplitudes which lead to the instability of levitation drift were investigated. The stiffness and the vibration damping were also discussed at the zero-field-cooled position

  20. Levitation of a magnet over a flat type II superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellman, F.; Gyorgy, E.M.; Johnson, D.W. Jr.; O'Bryan, H.M.; Sherwood, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Levitation of a magnet over a type II superconductor where the field at the superconductor exceeds H/sub c/ 1 is described and shown. The penetration and pinning of the flux lines in the superconductor cause the position of the magnet to be stable over a flat disk; a complete Meissner effect would make this position unstable. Furthermore, the observed dependence of the height of levitation on such variables as the thickness of the superconducting disk and the size of the magnet are consistent with a model described in this paper based on the energy cost of flux penetration through vortices and inconsistent with a Meissner effect model

  1. Linear stability analysis of a levitated nanomagnet in a static magnetic field: Quantum spin stabilized magnetic levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, C. C.; Pöchhacker, V.; Cirac, J. I.; Romero-Isart, O.

    2017-10-01

    We theoretically study the levitation of a single magnetic domain nanosphere in an external static magnetic field. We show that, apart from the stability provided by the mechanical rotation of the nanomagnet (as in the classical Levitron), the quantum spin origin of its magnetization provides two additional mechanisms to stably levitate the system. Despite the Earnshaw theorem, such stable phases are present even in the absence of mechanical rotation. For large magnetic fields, the Larmor precession of the quantum magnetic moment stabilizes the system in full analogy with magnetic trapping of a neutral atom. For low magnetic fields, the magnetic anisotropy stabilizes the system via the Einstein-de Haas effect. These results are obtained with a linear stability analysis of a single magnetic domain rigid nanosphere with uniaxial anisotropy in a Ioffe-Pritchard magnetic field.

  2. Measuring viscosity with a levitating magnet: application to complex fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even, C; Bouquet, F; Deloche, B; Remond, J

    2009-01-01

    As an experimental project proposed to students in fourth year of university, a viscometer was developed, consisting of a small magnet levitating in a viscous fluid. The viscous force acting on the magnet is directly measured: viscosities in the range 10-10 6 mPa s are obtained. This experiment is used as an introduction to complex fluids and soft matter physics

  3. Measuring Viscosity with a Levitating Magnet: Application to Complex Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, C.; Bouquet, F.; Remond, J.; Deloche, B.

    2009-01-01

    As an experimental project proposed to students in fourth year of university, a viscometer was developed, consisting of a small magnet levitating in a viscous fluid. The viscous force acting on the magnet is directly measured: viscosities in the range 10-10[superscript 6] mPa s are obtained. This experiment is used as an introduction to complex…

  4. Magnetic Levitation Force Measurement System at Any Low Temperatures From 20 K To 300 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Sukru; Guner, S. Baris; Coskun, Elvan

    2015-03-01

    Most of the magnetic levitation force measurements in previous studies were performed at liquid nitrogen temperatures. For the levitation force of MgB2 and iron based superconducting samples, magnetic levitation force measurement system is needed. In this study, magnetic levitation force measurement system was designed. In this system, beside vertical force versus vertical motion, lateral and vertical force versus lateral motion measurements, the vertical force versus temperature at the fixed distance between permanent magnet PM - superconducting sample SS and the vertical force versus time measurements were performed at any temperatures from 20 K to 300 K. Thanks to these measurements, the temperature dependence, time dependence, and the distance (magnetic field) and temperature dependences of SS can be investigated. On the other hand, the magnetic stiffness MS measurements can be performed in this system. Using the measurement of MS at different temperature in the range, MS dependence on temperature can be investigated. These measurements at any temperatures in the range help to the superconductivity properties to be characterized. This work was supported by TUBTAK-the Scientific and technological research council of Turkey under project of MFAG - 110T622. This system was applied to the Turkish patent institute with the Application Number of 2013/13638 on 22/11/2013.

  5. Magnetic levitation systems using a high-Tc superconducting bulk magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsaki, Hiroyuki [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Kitahara, Hirotaka [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Masada, Eisuke [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Recent development of high-performance high-Tc bulk superconductors is making their application for electromagnetic force use feasible. We have studied electromagnetic levitation systems using high-Tc bulk superconducting material. In this paper, after an overview of superconducting magnetic levitation systems, with an emphasis on high-Tc bulk superconductor applications, experimental results of a high-Tc bulk EMS levitation and FEM analysis results of magnetic gradient levitation using bulk superconductor are described. Problems to be solved for their application are also discussed. (orig.)

  6. Levitation performance of YBCO bulk in different applied magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W.; Wang, S.Y.; Jing, H.; Zheng, J.; Jiang, M.; Wang, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    The maglev performance of bulk high-T c superconductor (HTS) is investigated above three different types of permanent magnet guideways (PMGs). The main difference among these PMGs is the method used to concentrate the magnetic flux. The experimental results indicate that the levitation force depends only in part on the peak value of the magnetic field. The variation of the vertical component of the magnetic field (B z ), and the structure of the magnetic field are also responsible for the levitation force. These results imply that the permanent magnet with high coercive force is better at concentrating flux th an iron. The conclusions contribute in a very helpful way to the design and optimization of PMGs for HTS maglev systems

  7. Levitation performance of YBCO bulk in different applied magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W. [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)], E-mail: asclab@asclab.cn; Wang, S.Y.; Jing, H.; Zheng, J.; Jiang, M.; Wang, J.S. [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2008-07-01

    The maglev performance of bulk high-T{sub c} superconductor (HTS) is investigated above three different types of permanent magnet guideways (PMGs). The main difference among these PMGs is the method used to concentrate the magnetic flux. The experimental results indicate that the levitation force depends only in part on the peak value of the magnetic field. The variation of the vertical component of the magnetic field (B{sub z}), and the structure of the magnetic field are also responsible for the levitation force. These results imply that the permanent magnet with high coercive force is better at concentrating flux th an iron. The conclusions contribute in a very helpful way to the design and optimization of PMGs for HTS maglev systems.

  8. Dynamic characteristics and finite element analysis of a magnetic levitation system using a YBCO bulk superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, H; Ishiyama, A

    2004-01-01

    We have been developing a magnetic levitating device with two-dimensional movement, namely a 'levitating X-Y transporter'. For the real design of a levitating X-Y transporter, it is necessary to clarify the levitation characteristics, such as the lift, the levitation height and the stability against mechanical disturbances. Furthermore various kinds of force may be applied to the levitating part and cause mechanical oscillation. Therefore the characteristics of oscillation are also important factors in the dynamic stability of such a levitation system. In this paper, we examine experimentally the lift and the restoring force and develop a new simulation code based on the three-dimensional hybrid finite and boundary element method to analyse the dynamic electromagnetic behaviour of the HTS bulk. We have investigated a suitable permanent-magnet arrangement to enhance the levitation characteristics through experiment and numerical simulation. We can then determine the suitable conditions for stable levitation from those results

  9. Annoyance caused by the sounds of a magnetic levitation train

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.

    2004-01-01

    In a laboratory study, the annoyance caused by the passby sounds from a magnetic levitation (maglev) train was investigated. The listeners were presented with various sound fragments. The task of the listeners was to respond after each presentation to the question: "How annoying would you find the

  10. Force analysis of linear induction motor for magnetic levitation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, A.A.; Nemlioglu, C.; Sahin, F.; Verdel, A.J.D.; Compter, J.C.; Lomonova, E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the analyses of thrust and normal forces of linear induction motor (LIM) segments which are implemented in a rotating ring system. To obtain magnetic levitation in a cost effective and sustainable way, decoupled control of thrust and normal forces is required. This study includes

  11. Efficient fuzzy logic controller for magnetic levitation systems | Shu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper magnetic levitation controller using fuzzy logic is proposed. The proposed Fuzzy logic controller (FLC) is designed, and developed using triangular membership function with 7×7 rules. The system model was implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK and the system responses to Fuzzy controller with different input ...

  12. Lateral restoring force on a magnet levitated above a superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, L.C.

    1990-01-01

    The lateral restoring force on a magnet levitated above a superconductor is calculated as a function of displacement from its original position at rest using Bean's critical-state model to describe flux pinning. The force is linear for small displacements and saturates at large displacements. In the absence of edge effects the force always attracts the magnet to its original position. Thus it is a restoring force that contributes to the stability of the levitated magnet. In the case of a thick superconductor slab, the origin of the force is a magnetic dipole layer consisting of positive and negative supercurrents induced on the trailing side of the magnet. The qualitative behavior is consistent with experiments reported to date. Effects due to the finite thickness of the superconductor slab and the granular nature of high-T c materials are also considered

  13. Reduction of characteristic RL time for fast, efficient magnetic levitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqing Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the reduction of characteristic time in resistor-inductor (RL circuit for fast, efficient magnetic levitation according to Kirchhoff’s circuit laws. The loading time is reduced by a factor of ∼4 when a high-power resistor is added in series with the coils. By using the controllable output voltage of power supply and voltage of feedback circuit, the loading time is further reduced by ∼ 3 times. The overshoot loading in advance of the scheduled magnetic field gradient is equivalent to continuously adding a resistor without heating. The magnetic field gradient with the reduced loading time is used to form the upward magnetic force against to the gravity of the cooled Cs atoms, and we obtain an effectively levitated loading of the Cs atoms to a crossed optical dipole trap.

  14. On the force relaxation in the magnetic levitation system with a high-Tc superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolyak, B M; Zakharov, M S

    2014-01-01

    The effect of magnetic flux creep on the lift force in a magnet/superconductor system was studied. It was shown experimentally that in the case of real levitation (when a levitating object bears only on a magnetic field) the suspension height and consequently the lift force did not change over a long period of time. When the levitating object is fixed for some time (i.e. a rigid constraint is imposed on it), the levitation height decreases after removal of the external constraint. It is assumed that free oscillations of the levitating object slow down the flux creep process, which is activated when these oscillations are suppressed. (paper)

  15. Magnetic levitation force between a superconducting bulk magnet and a permanent magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J J; He, C Y; Meng, L F; Li, C; Han, R S; Gao, Z X [Department of Physics, Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructure and Mesoscopic Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2003-04-01

    The current density J({rho}, z) in a disc-shaped superconducting bulk magnet and the magnetic levitation force F{sup SBM}{sub z} exerted on the superconducting bulk magnet by a cylindrical permanent magnet are calculated from first principles. The effect of the superconducting parameters of the superconducting bulk is taken into account by assuming the voltage-current law E = E{sub c}(J/J{sub c}){sup n} and the material law B = {mu}{sub 0}H. The magnetic levitation force F{sup SBM}{sub z} is dominated by the remnant current density J'{sub 2}({rho}, z), which is induced by switching off the applied magnetizing field. High critical current density and flux creep exponent may increase the magnetic levitation force F{sup SBM}{sub z}. Large volume and high aspect ratio of the superconducting bulk can further enhance the magnetic levitation force F{sup SBM}{sub z}.

  16. Magnetic levitation by induced eddy currents in non-magnetic conductors and conductivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iniguez, J; Raposo, V; Flores, A G; Zazo, M; Hernandez-Lopez, A

    2005-01-01

    We report a study on magnetic levitation by induced ac currents in non-magnetic conductors at low frequencies. Our discussion, based on Faraday's induction law, allows us to distinguish the two components of the current responsible for levitation and heating, respectively. The experimental evaluation of the levitation force in a copper ring revealed the accuracy of our analysis, clearly illustrating its asymptotic behaviour versus frequency, and validating it for the qualitative analysis of magnetic levitation and heating in conductors of different shapes such as tubes and discs, composed of collections of conductive loops. The analysis of the results allows precise values of its electrical conductivity to be found. With the help of a simulation technique, this work also reveals the progressive deformation undergone by magnetic induction lines due to magnetic screening when frequency increases

  17. Magnetic levitation by induced eddy currents in non-magnetic conductors and conductivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iniguez, J; Raposo, V; Flores, A G; Zazo, M; Hernandez-Lopez, A [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, E-37071, Salamanca (Spain)

    2005-11-01

    We report a study on magnetic levitation by induced ac currents in non-magnetic conductors at low frequencies. Our discussion, based on Faraday's induction law, allows us to distinguish the two components of the current responsible for levitation and heating, respectively. The experimental evaluation of the levitation force in a copper ring revealed the accuracy of our analysis, clearly illustrating its asymptotic behaviour versus frequency, and validating it for the qualitative analysis of magnetic levitation and heating in conductors of different shapes such as tubes and discs, composed of collections of conductive loops. The analysis of the results allows precise values of its electrical conductivity to be found. With the help of a simulation technique, this work also reveals the progressive deformation undergone by magnetic induction lines due to magnetic screening when frequency increases.

  18. Magnetic levitation/suspension system by high-temperature superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, I.; Hsu, J.; Jamn, G.; Lin, C.E.; Wu, M.K.

    1997-01-01

    Recently, with the advance of materials processing techniques, such as top-seeding and melt-texturing (TSMT) method, very large single-grained Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) samples up to several centimeters in diameter can be produced. Each sample is capable of levitating over kilograms of weight. A HTS magnetic levitation (MagLev) transportation prototype has been constructed at National Cheng-Kung University (NCKU) to validate the concept of HTS-MagLev system based on Meissner effect. This HTS-MagLev is an inherent stable levitation system, unlike traditional MagLev system that requires sensors and feedback circuits to dynamically adjust its unstable levitation position. In this report, the results of various magnetic levitation parameters, such as different permanent magnet configurations, relative levitation stability, levitation force, etc., as well as magnetic field intensity and distribution will be discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  19. A containerless levitation setup for liquid processing in a superconducting magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui-Meng; Yin, Da-Chuan; Li, Hai-Sheng; Geng, Li-Qiang; Zhang, Chen-Yan; Lu, Qin-Qin; Guo, Yun-Zhu; Guo, Wei-Hong; Shang, Peng; Wakayama, Nobuko I

    2008-09-01

    Containerless processing of materials is considered beneficial for obtaining high quality products due to the elimination of the detrimental effects coming from the contact with container walls. Many containerless processing methods are realized by levitation techniques. This paper describes a containerless levitation setup that utilized the magnetization force generated in a gradient magnetic field. It comprises a levitation unit, a temperature control unit, and a real-time observation unit. Known volume of liquid diamagnetic samples can be levitated in the levitation chamber, the temperature of which is controlled using the temperature control unit. The evolution of the levitated sample is observed in real time using the observation unit. With this setup, containerless processing of liquid such as crystal growth from solution can be realized in a well-controlled manner. Since the levitation is achieved using a superconducting magnet, experiments requiring long duration time such as protein crystallization and simulation of space environment for living system can be easily succeeded.

  20. Adaptive Spindle Balancing Using Magnetically Levitated Bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BARNEY, PATRICK S.; LAUFFER, JAMES P.; PETTEYS, REBECCA; REDMOND, JAMES M.; SULLIVAN, WILLIAM N.

    1999-01-01

    A technological break through for supporting rotating shafts is the active magnetic bearing (AMB). Active magnetic bearings offer some important advantages over conventional ball, roller or journal bearings such as reduced frictional drag, no physical contact in the bearing, no need for lubricants, compatibility with high vacuum and ultra-clean environments, and ability to control shaft position within the bearing. The disadvantages of the AMB system are the increased cost and complexity, reduced bearing stiffness and the need for a controller. Still, there are certain applications, such as high speed machining, biomedical devices, and gyroscopes, where the additional cost of an AMB system can be justified. The inherent actuator capabilities of the AMB offer the potential for active balancing of spindles and micro-shaping capabilities for machine tools, The work presented in this paper concentrates on an AMB test program that utilizes the actuator capability to dynamically balance a spindle. In this study, an unbalanced AMB spindle system was enhanced with an LMS (Least Mean Squares) algorithm combined with an existing PID (proportional, integral, differential) control. This enhanced controller significantly improved the concentricity of an intentionally unbalanced shaft. The study included dynamic system analysis, test validation, control design and simulation, as well as experimental implementation using a digital LMS controller

  1. Correlations Between Magnetic Flux and Levitation Force of HTS Bulk Above a Permanent Magnet Guideway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huan; Zheng, Jun; Zheng, Botian; Qian, Nan; Li, Haitao; Li, Jipeng; Deng, Zigang

    2017-10-01

    In order to clarify the correlations between magnetic flux and levitation force of the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk, we measured the magnetic flux density on bottom and top surfaces of a bulk superconductor while vertically moving above a permanent magnet guideway (PMG). The levitation force of the bulk superconductor was measured simultaneously. In this study, the HTS bulk was moved down and up for three times between field-cooling position and working position above the PMG, followed by a relaxation measurement of 300 s at the minimum height position. During the whole processes, the magnetic flux density and levitation force of the bulk superconductor were recorded and collected by a multipoint magnetic field measurement platform and a self-developed maglev measurement system, respectively. The magnetic flux density on the bottom surface reflected the induced field in the superconductor bulk, while on the top, it reveals the penetrated magnetic flux. The results show that the magnetic flux density and levitation force of the bulk superconductor are in direct correlation from the viewpoint of inner supercurrent. In general, this work is instructive for understanding the connection of the magnetic flux density, the inner current density and the levitation behavior of HTS bulk employed in a maglev system. Meanwhile, this magnetic flux density measurement method has enriched present experimental evaluation methods of maglev system.

  2. A study on stable levitation of permanent magnet transportation system with coreless linear synchronous motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiwaki, H [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Musashi Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Watada, M [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Musashi Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Torii, S [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Musashi Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Ebihara, D [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Musashi Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    In the permanent magnet levitation system, it is impossible to stabilize the motion of the vehicle in both levitation and guidance directions only by permanent magnet. Therefore, the authors proposed the combined system of permanent magnet for levitation and coreless linear synchronous motor (coreless LSM). To design the coreless coils for LSM, the method to calculate the spring coefficient between coreless coil and permanent magnet for LSM is shown. By using this method, the spring coefficients of the three coil arrangements are compared and coreless coil is designed. Furthermore, the authors showed the possibility of stabilizing the motion of the levitation system with coreless LSM. (orig.)

  3. Experimental verification of radial magnetic levitation force on the cylindrical magnets in ferrofluid dampers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wenming, E-mail: wenming_y@126.com [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Pengkai [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Hao, Ruican [School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Polytechnic, Beijing 100176 (China); Ma, Buchuan [Beijing Institute of Aerospace Control Devices, Beijing 100854 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Analytical and numerical calculation methods of the radial magnetic levitation force on the cylindrical magnets in cylindrical vessels filled with ferrofluid was reviewed. An experimental apparatus to measure this force was designed and tailored, which could measure the forces in a range of 0–2.0 N with an accuracy of 0.001 N. After calibrated, this apparatus was used to study the radial magnetic levitation force experimentally. The results showed that the numerical method overestimates this force, while the analytical ones underestimate it. The maximum deviation between the numerical results and the experimental ones was 18.5%, while that between the experimental results with the analytical ones attained 68.5%. The latter deviation narrowed with the lengthening of the magnets. With the aids of the experimental verification of the radial magnetic levitation force, the effect of eccentric distance of magnets on the viscous energy dissipation in ferrofluid dampers could be assessed. It was shown that ignorance of the eccentricity of magnets during the estimation could overestimate the viscous dissipation in ferrofluid dampers. - Highlights: • Experimental method measuring magnetic levitation force of ferrofluid was studied. • A simple but rather witty apparatus was designed and tailored. • The apparatus can measure forces in a range of 0–2.0 N with an accuracy of 0.001 N. • Existing methods calculating magnetic levitation force were verified experimentally.

  4. Experimental verification of radial magnetic levitation force on the cylindrical magnets in ferrofluid dampers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Wenming; Wang, Pengkai; Hao, Ruican; Ma, Buchuan

    2017-01-01

    Analytical and numerical calculation methods of the radial magnetic levitation force on the cylindrical magnets in cylindrical vessels filled with ferrofluid was reviewed. An experimental apparatus to measure this force was designed and tailored, which could measure the forces in a range of 0–2.0 N with an accuracy of 0.001 N. After calibrated, this apparatus was used to study the radial magnetic levitation force experimentally. The results showed that the numerical method overestimates this force, while the analytical ones underestimate it. The maximum deviation between the numerical results and the experimental ones was 18.5%, while that between the experimental results with the analytical ones attained 68.5%. The latter deviation narrowed with the lengthening of the magnets. With the aids of the experimental verification of the radial magnetic levitation force, the effect of eccentric distance of magnets on the viscous energy dissipation in ferrofluid dampers could be assessed. It was shown that ignorance of the eccentricity of magnets during the estimation could overestimate the viscous dissipation in ferrofluid dampers. - Highlights: • Experimental method measuring magnetic levitation force of ferrofluid was studied. • A simple but rather witty apparatus was designed and tailored. • The apparatus can measure forces in a range of 0–2.0 N with an accuracy of 0.001 N. • Existing methods calculating magnetic levitation force were verified experimentally.

  5. Anti-levitation of Landau levels in vanishing magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, W.; Baldwin, K. W.; West, K. W.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; Tsui, D. C.

    Soon after the discovery of the quantum Hall effects in two-dimensional electron systems, the question on the fate of the extended states in a Landau level in vanishing magnetic (B) field arose. Many theoretical models have since been proposed, and experimental results remain inconclusive. In this talk, we report experimental observation of anti-levitation behavior of Landau levels in vanishing B fields (down to as low as B 58 mT) in a high quality heterojunction insulated-gated field-effect transistor (HIGFET). We observed that, in the Landau fan diagram of electron density versus magnetic field, the positions of the magneto-resistance minima at Landau level fillings ν = 4, 5, 6 move below the ``traditional'' Landau level line to lower electron densities. This clearly differs from what was observed in the earlier experiments where in the same Landau fan plot the density moved up. Our result strongly supports the anti-levitation behavior predicted recently. Moreover, the even and odd Landau level filling states show quantitatively different behaviors in anti-levitation, suggesting that the exchange interactions, which are important at odd fillings, may play a role. SNL is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energys National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  6. Characteristics of The Magnet Wheel As A Magnetic Levitation Device of Induction Type

    OpenAIRE

    藤井, 信男; 小川, 幸吉; 松本, 敏雄; Nobuo, FUJII; Kokichi, OGAWA; Toshio, MATSUMOTO; 九州大学; 大分大学; 安川電機; Kyushu University; Oita University; Yaskawa Electric Co., Ltd.

    1996-01-01

    A new type of magnetic wheel called the "magnet wheel" has been proposed. The magnet wheel has both magnetic levitation and linear drive functions combined into one. In the magnet wheel, the permanent magnets are rotated over the conducting plate so that an induction type of repulsive lift force is obtained. To produce thrust from the drag torque which is simultaneously induced with the lift force, the "tilt type" and "partial overlap type" magnet wheels have been proposed. Poor power factor ...

  7. Analyzing Forensic Evidence Based on Density with Magnetic Levitation

    OpenAIRE

    Lockett, Matthew; Mirica, Katherine A.; Mace, Charles R.; Blackledge, Robert D.; Whitesides, George M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a method for determining the density of contact trace objects with magnetic levitation (MagLev). MagLev measurements accurately determine the density (±0.0002 g/cm3) of a diamagnetic object and are compatible with objects that are nonuniform in shape and size. The MagLev device (composed of two permanent magnets with like poles facing) and the method described provide a means of accurately determining the density of trace objects. This method is inexpensive, rapid, and ve...

  8. Paramagnetic ionic liquids for measurements of density using magnetic levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwambok, David K; Thuo, Martin M; Atkinson, Manza B J; Mirica, Katherine A; Shapiro, Nathan D; Whitesides, George M

    2013-09-03

    Paramagnetic ionic liquids (PILs) provide new capabilities to measurements of density using magnetic levitation (MagLev). In a typical measurement, a diamagnetic object of unknown density is placed in a container containing a PIL. The container is placed between two magnets (typically NdFeB, oriented with like poles facing). The density of the diamagnetic object can be determined by measuring its position in the magnetic field along the vertical axis (levitation height, h), either as an absolute value or relative to internal standards of known density. For density measurements by MagLev, PILs have three advantages over solutions of paramagnetic salts in aqueous or organic solutions: (i) negligible vapor pressures; (ii) low melting points; (iii) high thermal stabilities. In addition, the densities, magnetic susceptibilities, glass transition temperatures, thermal decomposition temperatures, viscosities, and hydrophobicities of PILs can be tuned over broad ranges by choosing the cation-anion pair. The low melting points and high thermal stabilities of PILs provide large liquidus windows for density measurements. This paper demonstrates applications and advantages of PILs in density-based analyses using MagLev.

  9. Magnetic levitation on a type-I superconductor as a practical demonstration experiment for students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, M R; Lahera, D E; Suderow, H

    2012-01-01

    We describe and discuss an experimental set-up which allows undergraduate and graduate students to view and study magnetic levitation on a type-I superconductor. The demonstration can be repeated many times using one readily available 25 l liquid helium dewar. We study the equilibrium position of a magnet that levitates over a lead bowl immersed in a liquid hand-held helium cryostat. We combine the measurement of the position of the magnet with simple analytical calculations. This provides a vivid visualization of magnetic levitation from the balance between pure flux expulsion and gravitation. The experiment contrasts and illustrates the case of magnetic levitation with high temperature type-II superconductors using liquid nitrogen, where levitation results from partial flux expulsion and vortex physics. (paper)

  10. Magnetic levitation on a type-I superconductor as a practical demonstration experiment for students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, M. R.; Lahera, D. E.; Suderow, H.

    2012-09-01

    We describe and discuss an experimental set-up which allows undergraduate and graduate students to view and study magnetic levitation on a type-I superconductor. The demonstration can be repeated many times using one readily available 25 l liquid helium dewar. We study the equilibrium position of a magnet that levitates over a lead bowl immersed in a liquid hand-held helium cryostat. We combine the measurement of the position of the magnet with simple analytical calculations. This provides a vivid visualization of magnetic levitation from the balance between pure flux expulsion and gravitation. The experiment contrasts and illustrates the case of magnetic levitation with high temperature type-II superconductors using liquid nitrogen, where levitation results from partial flux expulsion and vortex physics.

  11. On-board cryogenic system for magnetic levitation of trains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldus, S A.W.; Kneuer, R; Stephan, A

    1975-02-01

    An experimental car based on electrodynamic levitation with superconducting magnets was developed and manufactured with an on-board cryogenic system. This system has to cope with new conditions and cryogenic tasks. It can be characterized in principle by liquid helium heat exchanger units, compressors, transfer lines, rotable and movable couplings and junctions. All transfer lines and couplings consist of three coaxial ducts for three different streams. Processes and components are discussed, and a brief description of the first results for the whole system under simulation conditions is given.

  12. On-board cryogenic system for magnetic levitation of trains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asztalos, St.; Baldus, W.; Kneuer, R.; Stephan, A.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental car based on electrodynamic levitation with superconducting magnets has been developed and manufactured by AEG, BBC, Siemens and other partners, together with Linde AG as the firm responsible for the on-board cryogenic system. This system has to cope with new conditions and cryogenic tasks. It can be characterized in principle by liquid helium heat exchanger units, compressors, transfer lines, rotatable and movable couplings and junctions. All transfer lines and couplings consist of three coaxial ducts for three different streams. This paper reports on processes and components. A brief description of the first results for the whole system under simulation conditions is given. (author)

  13. Separation of mixed waste plastics via magnetic levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Xie, Jun; Gu, Fu; Sharmin, Nusrat; Hall, Philip; Fu, Jianzhong

    2018-06-01

    Separation becomes a bottleneck of dealing with the enormous stream of waste plastics, as most of the extant methods can only handle binary mixtures. In this paper, a novel method that based on magnetic levitation was proposed for separating multiple mixed plastics. Six types of plastics, i.e., polypropylene (PP), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polyamide 6 (PA6), polycarbonate (PC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), were used to simulate the mixed waste plastics. The samples were mixed and immersed into paramagnetic medium that placed into a magnetic levitation configuration with two identical NdFeB magnets with like-poles facing each other, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was employed to verify the separation outputs. Unlike any conventional separation methods such as froth flotation and hydrocyclone, this method is not limited by particle sizes, as mixtures of different size fractions reached their respective equilibrium positions in the initial tests. The two-stage separation tests demonstrated that the plastics can be completely separated with purities reached 100%. The method has the potential to be industrialised into an economically-viable and environmentally-friendly mass production procedure, since quantitative correlations are determined, and the paramagnetic medium can be reused indefinitely. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Expansion joint for guideway for magnetic levitation transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, T.D.

    1993-02-09

    An expansion joint that allows a guideway of a magnetic levitation transportation system to expand and contract while minimizing transients occurring in the magnetic lift and drag forces acting on a magnetic levitation vehicle traveling over the joint includes an upper cut or recess extending downwardly from the upper surface of the guideway and a non-intersecting lower cut or recess that extends upwardly from the lower surface of the guideway. The side walls of the cuts can be parallel to each other and the vertical axis of the guideway; the depth of the lower cut can be greater than the depth of the upper cut; and the overall combined lengths of the cuts can be greater than the thickness of the guideway from the upper to lower surface so that the cuts will overlap, but be spaced apart from each other. The distance between the cuts can be determined on the basis of the force transients and the mechanical behavior of the guideway. A second pair of similarly configured upper and lower cuts may be disposed in the guideway; the expansion joint may consist of two upper cuts and one lower cut; or the cuts may have non-parallel, diverging side walls so that the cuts have a substantially dove-tail shape.

  15. The levitation characteristics of the magnetic substances using trapped HTS bulk annuli with various magnetic field distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.B.; Ikegami, T.; Matsunaga, J.; Fujii, Y.; Onodera, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The spherical solenoid magnet can make a various magnetic field distributions. •We generated a large magnetic gradient at inner space of HTS bulks. •The levitation height of samples was improved by the reapplied field method. •The levitation height depends on the variation rate of magnetic field gradient. -- Abstract: We have been investigating the levitation system without any mechanical contact which is composed of a field-cooled ring-shaped high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks [1]. In this proposed levitation system, the trapped magnetic field distributions of stacked HTS bulk are very important. In this paper, the spherical solenoid magnet composed of seven solenoid coils with different inner and outer diameters was designed and fabricated as a new magnetic source. The fabricated spherical solenoid magnet can easily make a homogeneous and various magnetic field distributions in inner space of stacked HTS bulk annuli by controlling the emerging currents of each coil. By using this spherical solenoid magnet, we tried to make a large magnetic field gradient in inner space of HTS bulk annuli, and it is very important on the levitation of magnetic substances. In order to improve the levitation properties of magnetic substances with various sizes, the external fields were reapplied to the initially trapped HTS bulk magnets. We could generate a large magnetic field gradient along the axial direction in inner space of HTS bulk annuli, and obtain the improved levitation height of samples by the proposed reapplied field method

  16. Magnetic levitation and stiffness in melt-textured Y-Ba-Cu-O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, J.R.; Mulcahy, T.M.; Salama, K.; Selvamanickam, V.; Weinberger, B.R.; Lynds, L.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic levitation and stiffness have been measured in several systems composed of a permanent magnet elastically suspended above a stationary melt-textured sample of Y-Ba-Cu-O. The levitation force and vertical stiffness have been calculated on the basis of magnetization measurements of the same system, and the calculated results showed excellent agreement with the experimental measurements. Based on the force and magnetization measurements, it is predicted that the same Y-Ba-Cu-O material configured in a geometry suitable for magnetic bearings could produce a levitation pressure of 100--400 kPa at 20 K

  17. Superconducting bulk magnet for maglev vehicle: Stable levitation performance above permanent magnet guideway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Z.; Zheng, J.; Li, J.; Ma, G.; Lu, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, S.; Wang, J.

    2008-01-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev vehicle is well known as one of the most potential applications of bulk high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) in transported levitation system. Many efforts have promoted the practice of the HTS maglev vehicle in people's life by enhancing the load capability and stability. Besides improving the material performance of bulk HTSC and optimizing permanent magnet guideway (PMG), magnetization method of bulk HTSC is also very effective for more stable levitation. Up to now, applied onboard bulk HTSCs are directly magnetized by field cooling above the PMG for the present HTS maglev test vehicles or prototypes in China, Germany, Russia, Brazil, and Japan. By the direct-field-cooling-magnetization (DFCM) over PMG, maglev performances of the bulk HTSCs are mainly depended on the PMG's magnetic field. However, introducing HTS bulk magnet into the HTS maglev system breaks this dependence, which is magnetized by other non-PMG magnetic field. The feasibility of this HTS bulk magnet for maglev vehicle is investigated in the paper. The HTS bulk magnet is field-cooling magnetized by a Field Control Electromagnets Workbench (FCEW), which produces a constant magnetic field up to 1 T. The levitation and guidance forces of the HTS bulk magnet over PMG with different trapped flux at 15 mm working height (WH) were measured and compared with that by DFCM in the same applied PMG magnetic field at optimal field-cooling height (FCH) 30 mm, WH 15 mm. It is found that HTS bulk magnet can also realize a stable levitation above PMG. The trapped flux of HTS bulk magnet is easily controllable by the charging current of FCEW, which implies the maglev performances of HTS bulk magnet above PMG will be adjustable according to the practical requirement. The more trapped flux HTS bulk magnet will lead to bigger guidance force and smaller repulsion levitation force above PMG. In the case of saturated trapped flux for experimental HTS bulk magnet, it is

  18. Superconducting bulk magnet for maglev vehicle: Stable levitation performance above permanent magnet guideway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Z.; Zheng, J.; Li, J.; Ma, G.; Lu, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, S. [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Wang, J. [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)], E-mail: jsywang@home.swjtu.edu.cn

    2008-06-15

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev vehicle is well known as one of the most potential applications of bulk high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) in transported levitation system. Many efforts have promoted the practice of the HTS maglev vehicle in people's life by enhancing the load capability and stability. Besides improving the material performance of bulk HTSC and optimizing permanent magnet guideway (PMG), magnetization method of bulk HTSC is also very effective for more stable levitation. Up to now, applied onboard bulk HTSCs are directly magnetized by field cooling above the PMG for the present HTS maglev test vehicles or prototypes in China, Germany, Russia, Brazil, and Japan. By the direct-field-cooling-magnetization (DFCM) over PMG, maglev performances of the bulk HTSCs are mainly depended on the PMG's magnetic field. However, introducing HTS bulk magnet into the HTS maglev system breaks this dependence, which is magnetized by other non-PMG magnetic field. The feasibility of this HTS bulk magnet for maglev vehicle is investigated in the paper. The HTS bulk magnet is field-cooling magnetized by a Field Control Electromagnets Workbench (FCEW), which produces a constant magnetic field up to 1 T. The levitation and guidance forces of the HTS bulk magnet over PMG with different trapped flux at 15 mm working height (WH) were measured and compared with that by DFCM in the same applied PMG magnetic field at optimal field-cooling height (FCH) 30 mm, WH 15 mm. It is found that HTS bulk magnet can also realize a stable levitation above PMG. The trapped flux of HTS bulk magnet is easily controllable by the charging current of FCEW, which implies the maglev performances of HTS bulk magnet above PMG will be adjustable according to the practical requirement. The more trapped flux HTS bulk magnet will lead to bigger guidance force and smaller repulsion levitation force above PMG. In the case of saturated trapped flux for experimental HTS bulk

  19. Magnetic levitation in the analysis of foods and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirica, Katherine A; Phillips, Scott T; Mace, Charles R; Whitesides, George M

    2010-06-09

    This paper describes a method and a sensor that use magnetic levitation (MagLev) to characterize samples of food and water on the basis of measurements of density. The sensor comprises two permanent NdFeB magnets positioned on top of each other in a configuration with like poles facing and a container filled with a solution of paramagnetic ions. Measurements of density are obtained by suspending a diamagnetic object in the container filled with the paramagnetic fluid, placing the container between the magnets, and measuring the vertical position of the suspended object. MagLev was used to estimate the salinity of water, to compare a variety of vegetable oils on the basis of the ratio of polyunsaturated fat to monounsaturated fat, to compare the contents of fat in milk, cheese, and peanut butter, and to determine the density of grains.

  20. Levitation performance of the magnetized bulk high-T{sub c} superconducting magnet with different trapped fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W. [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University (ASCLab), Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); National Laboratory of Rail Transit, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Wang, J.S., E-mail: tonny@mars.swjtu.edu.c [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University (ASCLab), Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); National Laboratory of Rail Transit, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Liao, X.L.; Zheng, S.J.; Ma, G.T.; Zheng, J. [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University (ASCLab), Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); National Laboratory of Rail Transit, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Wang, S.Y. [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University (ASCLab), Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); National Laboratory of Rail Transit, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} The different trapped fields bring entirely different levitation performance. {yields} The force relaxation characters is directly bound up with the trapped field. {yields} The higher trapped field not means better levitation performance. {yields} An profitable internal induced current configuration will benefit to suppress flux motion. - Abstract: To a high-T{sub c} superconducting (HTS) maglev system which needs large levitation force density, the magnetized bulk high-T{sub c} superconductor (HTSC) magnet is a good candidate because it can supply additional repulsive or attractive force above a permanent magnet guideway (PMG). Because the induced supercurrent within a magnetized bulk HTSC is the key parameter for the levitation performance, and it is sensitive to the magnetizing process and field, so the magnetized bulk HTSC magnets with different magnetizing processes had various levitation performances, not only the force magnitude, but also its force relaxation characteristics. Furthermore, the distribution and configuration of the induced supercurrent are also important factor to decide the levitation performance, especially the force relaxation characteristics. This article experimentally investigates the influences of different magnetizing processes and trapped fields on the levitation performance of a magnetized bulk HTSC magnet with smaller size than the magnetic inter-pole distance of PMG, and the obtained results are qualitatively analyzed by the Critical State Model. The test results and analyses of this article are useful for the suitable choice and optimal design of magnetized bulk HTSC magnets.

  1. 13th International Conference on Magnetically Levitated Systems and Linear Drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains short papers on research being conducted throughout the world on magnetically levitated systems, mainly consisting of trains, and magnetic linear drives. These papers have been index separately elsewhere on the data base

  2. 13th International Conference on Magnetically Levitated Systems and Linear Drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report contains short papers on research being conducted throughout the world on magnetically levitated systems, mainly consisting of trains, and magnetic linear drives. These papers have been index separately elsewhere on the data base.

  3. A review of dynamic characteristics of magnetically levitated vehicle systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Y.; Chen, S.S.

    1995-11-01

    The dynamic response of magnetically levitated (maglev) ground transportation systems has important consequences for safety and ride quality, guideway design, and system costs. Ride quality is determined by vehicle response and by environmental factors such as humidity and noise. The dynamic response of the vehicles is the key element in determining ride quality, while vehicle stability is an important safety-related element. To design a guideway that provides acceptable ride quality in the stable region, vehicle dynamics must be understood. Furthermore, the trade-off between guideway smoothness and levitation and control systems must be considered if maglev systems are to be economically feasible. The link between the guideway and the other maglev components is vehicle dynamics. For a commercial maglev system, vehicle dynamics must be analyzed and tested in detail. This report, which reviews various aspects of the dynamic characteristics, experiments and analysis, and design guidelines for maglev systems, discusses vehicle stability, motion dependent magnetic force components, guideway characteristics, vehicle/ guideway interaction, ride quality, suspension control laws, aerodynamic loads and other excitations, and research needs.

  4. Guideways for high speed magnetically levitated train systems - TRANSRAPID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkner, H [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany); Grossert, E [IBF Dr. Falkner GmbH, Braunschweig/Berlin (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The superspeed maglev system Transrapid is a rapid train system designed for speeds ranging from 300 to 500 km/h, using new no-contact levitation, guidance and propulsion system technologies, which will soon be used for an actual operational line. On the Transrapid Test Facility in Emsland (TVE), suitibility studies have been carried out since 1984. In 1989, work began on the plans for a reference line. Different guideway constructions, designed for the actual operational line are discussed in the following article. (orig.)

  5. A 'V' shaped superconducting levitation module for lift and guidance of a magnetic transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ovidio, G.; Crisi, F.; Lanzara, G.

    2008-01-01

    A novel, YBCO based, magnetic transportation system (MagTranS) is presented and described. The feasibility of this system has been successfully tested and confirmed in a laboratory using a scaled demonstrator system. The MagTranS levitation system uses a stable, self-balancing 'V' shaped superconducting module for both lift and guidance of vehicles. The work concept of the MagTranS levitation module is described and differences with regards to the maglev current systems are highlighted. The results of levitation tests performed using a measurement set-up are presented and discussed. Lastly, levitation module performance studies are also carried out using numerical finite element analysis

  6. Vertical Magnetic Levitation Force Measurement on Single Crystal YBaCuO Bulk at Different Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Sukru; Guner, Sait Baris; Ozturk, Kemal; Ozturk, Ozgur

    Magnetic levitation force measurements of HTS samples are performed with the use of liquid nitrogen. It is both convenient and cheap. However, the temperature of the sample cannot be changed (77 K) and there is problem of frost. So, it is necessary to build another type of system to measure the levitation force high Tc superconductor at different temperatures. In this study, we fabricated YBaCuO superconducting by top-seeding-melting-growth (TSMG) technique and measured vertical forces of them at FC (Field Cooling) and ZFC (Zero Field Cooling) regimes by using our new designed magnetic levitation force measurement system. It was used to investigate the three-dimensional levitation force and lateral force in the levitation system consisting of a cylindrical magnet and a permanent cylindrical superconductor at different temperatures (37, 47, 57, 67 and 77 K).

  7. High speed magnetically levitated transport systems: Technical and economic aspects. Sistemi di trasporto ad alta velocita' a levitazione magnetica: Considerazioni tecniche ed economiche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinelli, G; Morini, A [Padua Univ. (Italy)

    1992-11-01

    In assessing the current state of technology relative to high speed (400 to 500 km/h) magnetically levitated (MAGLEV) transportation systems, this paper compares the technical aspects of the two main types of suspension systems now being developed specifically for these transportation systems, i.e., attractive electromagnetic using conventional magnets, and repulsive electrodynamic using superconducting magnets. Commercialization prospects for these systems are reviewed by analyzing areas where high speed levitated trains could compete against conventional rail and air transportation systems. The technology review includes progress reports on research and developments activities taking place in Germany and Japan, as well as, descriptions of some recent applications of this technology.

  8. Running Performance of a Pinning-Type Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, M; Iwamoto, T; Furuse, M; Fuchino, S; Ishii, I

    2006-01-01

    A pinning-type superconducting magnetic levitation guide with bulk high-Tc superconductors was studied for use as a goods transportation system, an energy storage system, etc. A superconducting magnetic levitation running test apparatus with a circular track of ca. 38 m length, 12 m diameter, which comprises the magnetic rail constituted by Nd-B-Fe rare-earth permanent magnets and steel plates, was manufactured to examine loss and high-speed performance of the magnetic levitation guide. Running tests were conducted in air. These tests clarify that a vehicle supported by a superconducting magnetic levitation guide runs stably at speeds greater than 42 km/h above the circular track

  9. Running Performance of a Pinning-Type Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, M.; Iwamoto, T.; Furuse, M.; Fuchino, S.; Ishii, I.

    2006-06-01

    A pinning-type superconducting magnetic levitation guide with bulk high-Tc superconductors was studied for use as a goods transportation system, an energy storage system, etc. A superconducting magnetic levitation running test apparatus with a circular track of ca. 38 m length, 12 m diameter, which comprises the magnetic rail constituted by Nd-B-Fe rare-earth permanent magnets and steel plates, was manufactured to examine loss and high-speed performance of the magnetic levitation guide. Running tests were conducted in air. These tests clarify that a vehicle supported by a superconducting magnetic levitation guide runs stably at speeds greater than 42 km/h above the circular track.

  10. Improvement of the superconducting magnetic levitation system for the determination of the magnetic flux quantum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, T.; Sakamoto, Y.; Shiota, F.; Nakayama, K.; Nezu, Y.; Kikuzawa, M.; Hara, K.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe an improvement of the preliminary superconducting magnetic levitation system in progress for the absolute determination of the magnetic flux quantum. This improvement includes the development of the flux-up method to determine the flux in terms of the Josephson voltage. The improvement is essential for the determination of the magnetic flux quantum as well as of the coil current in terms of the Josephson voltage and quantized Hall resistance

  11. Magnetic levitation on a type-I superconductor as a practical demonstration experiment for students

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio, M. R.; Lahera, D. E.; Suderow, H.

    2012-01-01

    We describe and discuss an experimental set-up which allows undergraduate and graduate students to view and study magnetic levitation on a type-I superconductor. The demonstration can be repeated many times using one readily available 25 liter liquid helium dewar. We study the equilibrium position of a magnet that levitates over a lead bowl immersed in a liquid hand-held helium cryostat. We combine the measurement of the position of the magnet with simple analytical calculations. This provide...

  12. Terrestrial Microgravity Model and Threshold Gravity Simulation using Magnetic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, N.

    2005-01-01

    What is the threshold gravity (minimum gravity level) required for the nominal functioning of the human system? What dosage is required? Do human cell lines behave differently in microgravity in response to an external stimulus? The critical need for such a gravity simulator is emphasized by recent experiments on human epithelial cells and lymphocytes on the Space Shuttle clearly showing that cell growth and function are markedly different from those observed terrestrially. Those differences are also dramatic between cells grown in space and those in Rotating Wall Vessels (RWV), or NASA bioreactor often used to simulate microgravity, indicating that although morphological growth patterns (three dimensional growth) can be successfully simulated using RWVs, cell function performance is not reproduced - a critical difference. If cell function is dramatically affected by gravity off-loading, then cell response to stimuli such as radiation, stress, etc. can be very different from terrestrial cell lines. Yet, we have no good gravity simulator for use in study of these phenomena. This represents a profound shortcoming for countermeasures research. We postulate that we can use magnetic levitation of cells and tissue, through the use of strong magnetic fields and field gradients, as a terrestrial microgravity model to study human cells. Specific objectives of the research are: 1. To develop a tried, tested and benchmarked terrestrial microgravity model for cell culture studies; 2. Gravity threshold determination; 3. Dosage (magnitude and duration) of g-level required for nominal functioning of cells; 4. Comparisons of magnetic levitation model to other models such as RWV, hind limb suspension, etc. and 5. Cellular response to reduced gravity levels of Moon and Mars. The paper will discuss experiments md modeling work to date in support of this project.

  13. Terrestrial Microgravity Model and Threshold Gravity Simulation sing Magnetic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, N.

    2005-01-01

    What is the threshold gravity (minimum gravity level) required for the nominal functioning of the human system? What dosage is required? Do human cell lines behave differently in microgravity in response to an external stimulus? The critical need for such a gravity simulator is emphasized by recent experiments on human epithelial cells and lymphocytes on the Space Shuttle clearly showing that cell growth and function are markedly different from those observed terrestrially. Those differences are also dramatic between cells grown in space and those in Rotating Wall Vessels (RWV), or NASA bioreactor often used to simulate microgravity, indicating that although morphological growth patterns (three dimensional growth) can be successiblly simulated using RWVs, cell function performance is not reproduced - a critical difference. If cell function is dramatically affected by gravity off-loading, then cell response to stimuli such as radiation, stress, etc. can be very different from terrestrial cell lines. Yet, we have no good gravity simulator for use in study of these phenomena. This represents a profound shortcoming for countermeasures research. We postulate that we can use magnetic levitation of cells and tissue, through the use of strong magnetic fields and field gradients, as a terrestrial microgravity model to study human cells. Specific objectives of the research are: 1. To develop a tried, tested and benchmarked terrestrial microgravity model for cell culture studies; 2. Gravity threshold determination; 3. Dosage (magnitude and duration) of g-level required for nominal functioning of cells; 4. Comparisons of magnetic levitation model to other models such as RWV, hind limb suspension, etc. and 5. Cellular response to reduced gravity levels of Moon and Mars.

  14. High-Sensitivity Measurement of Density by Magnetic Levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiroski, Alex; Kumar, A A; Soh, Siowling; Harburg, Daniel V; Yu, Hai-Dong; Whitesides, George M

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents methods that use Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) to measure very small differences in density of solid diamagnetic objects suspended in a paramagnetic medium. Previous work in this field has shown that, while it is a convenient method, standard MagLev (i.e., where the direction of magnetization and gravitational force are parallel) cannot resolve differences in density mm) because (i) objects close in density prevent each other from reaching an equilibrium height due to hard contact and excluded volume, and (ii) using weaker magnets or reducing the magnetic susceptibility of the medium destabilizes the magnetic trap. The present work investigates the use of weak magnetic gradients parallel to the faces of the magnets as a means of increasing the sensitivity of MagLev without destabilization. Configuring the MagLev device in a rotated state (i.e., where the direction of magnetization and gravitational force are perpendicular) relative to the standard configuration enables simple measurements along the axes with the highest sensitivity to changes in density. Manipulating the distance of separation between the magnets or the lengths of the magnets (along the axis of measurement) enables the sensitivity to be tuned. These modifications enable an improvement in the resolution up to 100-fold over the standard configuration, and measurements with resolution down to 10(-6) g/cm(3). Three examples of characterizing the small differences in density among samples of materials having ostensibly indistinguishable densities-Nylon spheres, PMMA spheres, and drug spheres-demonstrate the applicability of rotated Maglev to measuring the density of small (0.1-1 mm) objects with high sensitivity. This capability will be useful in materials science, separations, and quality control of manufactured objects.

  15. Design, manufacture and performance evaluation of HTS electromagnets for the hybrid magnetic levitation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, S.Y.; Hwang, Y.J.; Choi, S.; Na, J.B.; Kim, Y.J.; Chang, K.S.; Bae, D.K.; Lee, C.Y.; Ko, T.K.

    2011-01-01

    A high speed electromagnetic suspension (EMS) maglev has emerged as the solution to speed limit problem that conventional high-speed railroad has. In the EMS maglev, small levitation gap needs uniform guide-way which leads to increase the construction cost. The large levitation gap can reduce the construction cost. However it is hard for normal conducting electromagnet to produce larger magneto-motive force (MMF) for generating levitation force as increased levitation gap. This is because normal conductors have limited rating current to their specific volume. Therefore, the superconducting electromagnet can be one of the solutions for producing both large levitation gap and sufficient MMF. The superconducting electromagnets have incomparably high allowable current density than what normal conductors have. In this paper, the prototype of high temperature superconducting (HTS) electromagnets were designed and manufactured applicable to hybrid electromagnetic suspension system (H-EMS). The H-EMS consists of control coils for levitation control and superconducting coils for producing MMF for levitation. The required MMF for generating given levitation force was calculated by both equations of ideal U-core magnet and magnetic field analysis using the finite element method (FEM). The HTS electromagnets were designed as double pancakes with Bi-2223/Ag tapes. Experiments to confirm its operating performance were performed in liquid nitrogen (LN 2 ).

  16. Design, manufacture and performance evaluation of HTS electromagnets for the hybrid magnetic levitation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, S. Y.; Hwang, Y. J.; Choi, S.; Na, J. B.; Kim, Y. J.; Chang, K. S.; Bae, D. K.; Lee, C. Y.; Ko, T. K.

    2011-11-01

    A high speed electromagnetic suspension (EMS) maglev has emerged as the solution to speed limit problem that conventional high-speed railroad has. In the EMS maglev, small levitation gap needs uniform guide-way which leads to increase the construction cost. The large levitation gap can reduce the construction cost. However it is hard for normal conducting electromagnet to produce larger magneto-motive force (MMF) for generating levitation force as increased levitation gap. This is because normal conductors have limited rating current to their specific volume. Therefore, the superconducting electromagnet can be one of the solutions for producing both large levitation gap and sufficient MMF. The superconducting electromagnets have incomparably high allowable current density than what normal conductors have. In this paper, the prototype of high temperature superconducting (HTS) electromagnets were designed and manufactured applicable to hybrid electromagnetic suspension system (H-EMS). The H-EMS consists of control coils for levitation control and superconducting coils for producing MMF for levitation. The required MMF for generating given levitation force was calculated by both equations of ideal U-core magnet and magnetic field analysis using the finite element method (FEM). The HTS electromagnets were designed as double pancakes with Bi-2223/Ag tapes. Experiments to confirm its operating performance were performed in liquid nitrogen (LN2).

  17. Design, manufacture and performance evaluation of HTS electromagnets for the hybrid magnetic levitation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, S.Y.; Hwang, Y.J.; Choi, S.; Na, J.B.; Kim, Y.J.; Chang, K.S. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, D.K. [Chungju National University, Chungju 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, C.Y. [Ultra High-Speed Train Research Department, Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang-Si 437-757 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, T.K., E-mail: tkko@yonsei.ac.kr [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    A high speed electromagnetic suspension (EMS) maglev has emerged as the solution to speed limit problem that conventional high-speed railroad has. In the EMS maglev, small levitation gap needs uniform guide-way which leads to increase the construction cost. The large levitation gap can reduce the construction cost. However it is hard for normal conducting electromagnet to produce larger magneto-motive force (MMF) for generating levitation force as increased levitation gap. This is because normal conductors have limited rating current to their specific volume. Therefore, the superconducting electromagnet can be one of the solutions for producing both large levitation gap and sufficient MMF. The superconducting electromagnets have incomparably high allowable current density than what normal conductors have. In this paper, the prototype of high temperature superconducting (HTS) electromagnets were designed and manufactured applicable to hybrid electromagnetic suspension system (H-EMS). The H-EMS consists of control coils for levitation control and superconducting coils for producing MMF for levitation. The required MMF for generating given levitation force was calculated by both equations of ideal U-core magnet and magnetic field analysis using the finite element method (FEM). The HTS electromagnets were designed as double pancakes with Bi-2223/Ag tapes. Experiments to confirm its operating performance were performed in liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}).

  18. Super high-speed magnetically levitated system approaches practical use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Shoji; Nakao, Hiroyuki; Takemasa, Hisashi

    1988-10-01

    The JR-MAGLEV, a super high-speed magnetically levitated system, has been under development since the inauguration with the manufacturing of a succession of trial vehicles. In 1987, the trial vehicle recorded a speed of 400 km/hr as a 2-car formation with passengers. As a participant in the Maglev project, Toshiba has been contributing to the development of superconducting magnets, the main element of the system, as well as auxiliary power sources and the cycloconverter to be used in the substations. A prototype vehicle for commercial service, MLU 002, was manufactured in March 1988 and is now under testing with the aim of achieving a target speed of 420km/hr. The main parameters of superconducting magnet are as follows; magnetomotive force of 700 kA and number of coils of 3 poles/2 trains/ 2 cars, and the magnets are light weight which is almost the limits with the weight ratio to rolling stock of 0.25. As measures to protect vaporization loss of helium for coil-cooling, a relicfaction process of the helium vapor by use of Claude cycle refrigerator was adopted. A circulating current cycloconverter with 16 MVA was developed for the travel motion. The cycloconverter enabled to receive power directly from an electric power company, the output current becomes complete sine wave, and the problems on traveling control were solved. 6 references, 8 figures, 3 tables.

  19. Safety of High Speed Magnetic Levitation Transportation Systems: Preliminary Safety Review of the Transrapid Maglev System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-01

    The safety of various magnetically levitated trains under development for possible : implementation in the United States is of direct concern to the Federal Railroad : Administration. This report, one in a series of planned reports on maglev safety, ...

  20. Transcription profiling of Drosophila exposed to a levitation magnet for different lengths of time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Drosophila samples were exposed to the levitation magnet inside a 25mm diameter tubes with 3 ml of yeast-based Drosophila food in the bottom and a chamber of only 5...

  1. Multi-Objective PID-Controller Tuning for a Magnetic Levitation System using NSGA-II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gerulf K. M.; Yang, Zhenyu

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the issue of PID-controller parameter tuning for a magnetic levitation system using the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II). The magnetic levitation system is inherently unstable and the PID-controller parameters are hard to find using conventional methods....... Based on four different performance measures, derived from the step response of the levitation system, the algorithm is used to find a set of non-dominated parameters for a PID-controller that can stabilize the system and minimize the performance measures....

  2. Vibrational Properties of High- Superconductors Levitated Above a Bipolar Permanent Magnetic Guideway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Wang, Jiasu

    2014-05-01

    A bipolar permanent magnetic guideway (PMG) has a unique magnetic field distribution profile which may introduce a better levitation performance and stability to the high- superconducting (HTS) maglev system. The dynamic vibration properties of multiple YBCO bulks arranged into different arrays positioned above a bipolar PMG and free to levitate were investigated. The acceleration and resonance frequencies were experimentally measured, and the stiffness and damping coefficients were evaluated for dynamic stability. Results indicate that the levitation stiffness is closely related to the field-cooling-height and sample positioning. The damping ratio was found to be low and nonlinear for the Halbach bipolar HTS-PMG system.

  3. Apparatus and method for reducing inductive coupling between levitation and drive coils within a magnetic propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F.

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus and method is disclosed for reducing inductive coupling between levitation and drive coils within a magnetic levitation system. A pole array has a magnetic field. A levitation coil is positioned so that in response to motion of the magnetic field of the pole array a current is induced in the levitation coil. A first drive coil having a magnetic field coupled to drive the pole array also has a magnetic flux which induces a parasitic current in the levitation coil. A second drive coil having a magnetic field is positioned to attenuate the parasitic current in the levitation coil by canceling the magnetic flux of the first drive coil which induces the parasitic current. Steps in the method include generating a magnetic field with a pole array for levitating an object; inducing current in a levitation coil in response to motion of the magnetic field of the pole array; generating a magnetic field with a first drive coil for propelling the object; and generating a magnetic field with a second drive coil for attenuating effects of the magnetic field of the first drive coil on the current in the levitation coil.

  4. Magnetic levitation using high temperature superconducting pancake coils as composite bulk cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, A; Hopkins, S C; Baskys, A; Glowacki, B A; Kalitka, V; Molodyk, A

    2015-01-01

    Stacks of superconducting tape can be used as composite bulk superconductors for both trapped field magnets and for magnetic levitation. Little previous work has been done on quantifying the levitation force behavior between stacks of tape and permanent magnets. This paper reports the axial levitation force properties of superconducting tape wound into pancake coils to act as a composite bulk cylinder, showing that similar stable forces to those expected from a uniform bulk cylinder are possible. Force creep was also measured and simulated for the system. The geometry tested is a possible candidate for a rotary superconducting bearing. Detailed finite element modeling in COMSOL Multiphysics was also performed including a full critical state model for induced currents, with temperature and field dependent properties and 3D levitation force models. This work represents one of the most complete levitation force modeling frameworks yet reported using the H-formulation and helps explain why the coil-like stacks of tape are able to sustain levitation forces. The flexibility of geometry and consistency of superconducting properties offered by stacks of tapes, make them attractive for superconducting levitation applications. (paper)

  5. Levitation and lateral forces between a point magnetic dipole and a superconducting sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Khateeb, H M; Alqadi, M K; Alzoubi, F Y; Albiss, B; Hasan, M K; Ayoub, N Y

    2016-01-01

    The dipole–dipole interaction model is employed to investigate the angular dependence of the levitation and lateral forces acting on a small magnet in an anti-symmetric magnet/superconducting sphere system. Breaking the symmetry of the system enables us to study the lateral force which is important in the stability of the magnet above a superconducting sphere in the Meissner state. Under the assumption that the lateral displacement of the magnet is small compared to the physical dimensions of our proposed system, analytical expressions are obtained for the levitation and lateral forces as a function of the geometrical parameters of the superconductor as well as the height, the lateral displacement, and the orientation of the magnetic moment of the magnet. The dependence of the levitation force on the height of the levitating magnet is similar to that in the symmetric magnet/superconducting sphere system within the range of proposed lateral displacements. It is found that the levitation force is linearly dependent on the lateral displacement whereas the lateral force is independent of this displacement. A sinusoidal variation of both forces as a function of the polar and azimuthal angles specifying the orientation of the magnetic moment is observed. The relationship between the stability and the orientation of the magnetic moment is discussed for different orientations. (paper)

  6. Study on control method of running velocity for the permanent magnet-HTSC hybrid magnetically levitated conveyance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, R.; Ikeda, M.; Sasaki, R.; Ohashi, S.

    2011-01-01

    The hybrid magnetically levitated carrying system is developed. Control method of running velocity of the carrier is studied. Running velocity is controlled by current of the propulsion coils. Propulsion characteristcs are improved. We have developed the magnetically levitated carrying system. In this system, pinning force of high temperature bulk super conductor (HTSC) is used for the levitation and guidance. Four HTSCs are installed on the carrier. The magnetic rail is set on the ground, and flux from the magnetic rail is pinned by HTSCs. To increase levitation force, repulsive force of the permanent magnet is used. The hybrid levitation system is composed. The permanent magnet is installed under the load stage of the carrier. Repulsive force by the permanent magnet between the load stage on the carrier and the magnetic rail on the ground is used to support the load weight. Levitation and guidance one by pinning effect of the YBaCuO HTSC in the carrier is used to levitate the carrier body. The load stage is separated from the carrier flame and can move freely for vertical direction levitation. For the propulsion system, electromagnet is installed on the surface of the magnetic rail. In this paper, control method of running velocity of the carrier is studied. Propulsion force is given as follows; Air core copper coils are installed on the magnetic rail. Interaction between current of these coils and permanent magnets on the carrier generates propulsion force. Running velocity is controlled by current of the propulsion coils. It is also changed by position of the carrier and the load weight. From the results, stability of the propulsion system is given, and propulsion characteristics are improved.

  7. Study on control method of running velocity for the permanent magnet-HTSC hybrid magnetically levitated conveyance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishio, R.; Ikeda, M.; Sasaki, R. [Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Ohashi, S., E-mail: ohashi@kansai-u.ac.jp [Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    The hybrid magnetically levitated carrying system is developed. Control method of running velocity of the carrier is studied. Running velocity is controlled by current of the propulsion coils. Propulsion characteristcs are improved. We have developed the magnetically levitated carrying system. In this system, pinning force of high temperature bulk super conductor (HTSC) is used for the levitation and guidance. Four HTSCs are installed on the carrier. The magnetic rail is set on the ground, and flux from the magnetic rail is pinned by HTSCs. To increase levitation force, repulsive force of the permanent magnet is used. The hybrid levitation system is composed. The permanent magnet is installed under the load stage of the carrier. Repulsive force by the permanent magnet between the load stage on the carrier and the magnetic rail on the ground is used to support the load weight. Levitation and guidance one by pinning effect of the YBaCuO HTSC in the carrier is used to levitate the carrier body. The load stage is separated from the carrier flame and can move freely for vertical direction levitation. For the propulsion system, electromagnet is installed on the surface of the magnetic rail. In this paper, control method of running velocity of the carrier is studied. Propulsion force is given as follows; Air core copper coils are installed on the magnetic rail. Interaction between current of these coils and permanent magnets on the carrier generates propulsion force. Running velocity is controlled by current of the propulsion coils. It is also changed by position of the carrier and the load weight. From the results, stability of the propulsion system is given, and propulsion characteristics are improved.

  8. A levitation force and magnetic field distribution measurement system in three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.M.; Chao, X.X.; Shu, Z.B.; Zhu, S.H.; Wu, X.L.; Bian, X.B.; Liu, P.

    2006-01-01

    A levitation force and magnetic field distribution measurement system in three dimension has been designed and constructed, which can be used for the levitation force measurement between a superconductor and a magnet, or magnet to magnet in three dimensions; and for the measurement of magnetic field distribution in three dimensions according to your need in space. It can also give out the dynamical changing result of magnetic field density with time during levitation force measurement. If we change the sensor of the detector of the measurement system, it also can be used for other kinds of measurement of physical properties. It is a good device for the measurement of magnetic properties of materials. In addition the device can also be used to work at carving in three dimensions

  9. Superconducting permanent magnets and their application in magnetic levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, L.; Krabbes, G.; Fuchs, G.; Pfeiffer, W.; Mueller, K.H.

    2002-01-01

    Superconducting permanent magnets form a completely new class of permanent magnets. Of course, they must be cooled to 77 K or below. At very low temperatures (24 K) their magnetization can be a factor of 10 higher than that of the best conventional magnets, providing magnetic forces and energies which are up to two orders of magnitude higher. These new supermagnets became only recently available by the extreme improvement of the quality of melt-textured massive YBa 2 Cu 3 O x samples. Besides having a high magnetization, these superconducting permanent magnets can freeze in any given magnetic field configuration allowing completely new applications like superconducting transport systems or superconducting magnetic bearings. (orig.)

  10. Analyzing forensic evidence based on density with magnetic levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockett, Matthew R; Mirica, Katherine A; Mace, Charles R; Blackledge, Robert D; Whitesides, George M

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a method for determining the density of contact trace objects with magnetic levitation (MagLev). MagLev measurements accurately determine the density (± 0.0002 g/cm(3) ) of a diamagnetic object and are compatible with objects that are nonuniform in shape and size. The MagLev device (composed of two permanent magnets with like poles facing) and the method described provide a means of accurately determining the density of trace objects. This method is inexpensive, rapid, and verifiable and provides numerical values--independent of the specific apparatus or analyst--that correspond to the absolute density of the sample that may be entered into a searchable database. We discuss the feasibility of MagLev as a possible means of characterizing forensic-related evidence and demonstrate the ability of MagLev to (i) determine the density of samples of glitter and gunpowder, (ii) separate glitter particles of different densities, and (iii) determine the density of a glitter sample that was removed from a complex sample matrix. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Levitation performance of high-T{sub c} superconductor in sinusoidal guideway magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W. [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)], E-mail: asclab@asclab.cn; Wang, J.S.; Jing, H.; Jiang, M.; Zheng, J.; Wang, S.Y. [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2008-12-01

    The vertical component of the Halbach array's magnetic field exhibits a sinusoid distribution because of the closed magnetic flux area between two neighbouring poles, so this field can be regarded as the sinusoidal magnetic field. This article mainly discusses the influence of the closed flux region on the levitation performance of the bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS). Moreover, the levitation performance is compared between the closed and diverging region of magnetic flux. The experimental results can be analyzed by the magnetic circuit theory and the frozen-image model. The analysis indicates that the closed region of magnetic flux can influence the levitation performance of bulk HTS obviously and provide an extra useful guidance force. These conclusions are helpful to optimize the HTS Maglev system.

  12. A novel superconducting magnetic levitation method to support the laser fusion capsule by using permanent magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojia Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel magnetic levitation support method is proposed, which can relieve the perturbation caused by traditional support methods and provide more accurate position control of the capsule. This method can keep the perfect symmetry of the octahedral spherical hohlraum and has the characteristics in stability, tunability and simplicity. It is also favorable that all the results, such as supporting forces acting on the superconducting capsule, are calculated analytically, and numerical simulations are performed to verify these results. A typical realistic design is proposed and discussed in detail. The superconducting coating material is suggested, and the required superconducting properties are listed. Damped oscillation of the floating capsule in thin helium gas is discussed, and the restoring time is estimated. Keywords: ICF capsule support, Magnetic levitation, Symmetry, PACS Codes: 52.57.Fg, 74.70.Ad, 74.78.-W

  13. Optical and magnetic measurements of gyroscopically stabilized graphene nanoplatelets levitated in an ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagornykh, Pavel; Coppock, Joyce E.; Murphy, Jacob P. J.; Kane, B. E.

    2017-07-01

    Using optical measurements, we demonstrate that the rotation of micron-scale graphene nanoplatelets levitated in a quadrupole ion trap in high vacuum can be frequency-locked to an applied radiofrequency electric field Erf. Over time, frequency-locking stabilizes the nanoplatelet so that its axis of rotation is normal to the nanoplatelet and perpendicular to Erf. We observe that residual slow dynamics of the direction of the axis of rotation in the plane normal to Erf is determined by an applied magnetic field. We present a simple model that accurately describes our observations. From our data and model, we can infer both a diamagnetic polarizability and a magnetic moment proportional to the frequency of rotation, which we compare to theoretical values. Our results establish that trapping technologies have applications for materials measurements at the nanoscale.

  14. Interaction between propulsion and levitation system in the HTSC-permanent magnet conveyance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, S.; Nishio, R.; Hashikawa, T.

    2010-01-01

    The magnetically levitated conveyance system has been developed. Pinning force of high temperature bulk superconductors (HTSC) are used for the levitation and the guidance of the carrier. The magnetic rail is set on the ground, and flux from the magnetic rail is pinned by HTSCs on the carrier body. To increase the load weight, the repulsive force of the permanent magnet is introduced. The hybrid levitation system is composed. The repulsive force by the permanent magnet between the load stage on the carrier and the magnetic rail on the ground is used to support the load weight. As the load stage is connected to the carrier body by the linear sliders, the mass of the load weight does not act on the carrier body. The interaction between the electromagnet and the permanent magnet under the load stage generates the propulsion force. The electromagnet is constructed by the air core coils, and excited only when the load stage passes. The interaction between the propulsion and the levitation system is investigated. Disturbance of the propulsion system on the levitation and the guidance force is measured. The results show the influence of the propulsion electromagnet on the pinning force is little, and this propulsion system works effectively.

  15. Interaction between propulsion and levitation system in the HTSC-permanent magnet conveyance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, S., E-mail: ohashi@ipcku.kanasi-u.ac.j [Kansai University 3-3-35, Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Nishio, R.; Hashikawa, T. [Kansai University 3-3-35, Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    The magnetically levitated conveyance system has been developed. Pinning force of high temperature bulk superconductors (HTSC) are used for the levitation and the guidance of the carrier. The magnetic rail is set on the ground, and flux from the magnetic rail is pinned by HTSCs on the carrier body. To increase the load weight, the repulsive force of the permanent magnet is introduced. The hybrid levitation system is composed. The repulsive force by the permanent magnet between the load stage on the carrier and the magnetic rail on the ground is used to support the load weight. As the load stage is connected to the carrier body by the linear sliders, the mass of the load weight does not act on the carrier body. The interaction between the electromagnet and the permanent magnet under the load stage generates the propulsion force. The electromagnet is constructed by the air core coils, and excited only when the load stage passes. The interaction between the propulsion and the levitation system is investigated. Disturbance of the propulsion system on the levitation and the guidance force is measured. The results show the influence of the propulsion electromagnet on the pinning force is little, and this propulsion system works effectively.

  16. Lift to Drag Ratio Analysis in Magnetic Levitation with an Electrodynamic Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutarra-Leon, Angel; Cordrey, Vincent; Majewski, Walerian

    Our experiments explored inductive magnetic levitation (MagLev) using simple permanent magnets and conductive tracks. Our investigations used a circular Halbach array with a 1 Tesla variable magnetic field on the outer rim of the ring. Such a system is usually called an Electrodynamic Wheel (EDW). Rotating this wheel around a horizontal axis above or below a flat conducting surface should induce eddy currents in said surface through the variable magnetic flux. The eddy currents produce, in turn, their own magnetic fields, which interact with the magnets of the EDW. We constructed a four-inch diameter Electrodynamic Wheel using twelve Neodymium permanent magnets and demonstrated that the magnetic interactions produce both lift and drag forces on the EDW. These forces can be used for levitation and propulsion of the EDW to produce magnetic levitation without coils and complex control circuitry. We achieved full levitation of the non-magnetic aluminum and copper plates. Our results confirm the expected behavior of lift to drag ratio as proportional to (L/R) ω, with L and R being the inductance and resistance of the track plate, and ω being the angular velocity of the magnetic flux. Supported by grants from the Virginia Academy of Science, Society of Physics Students, Virginia Community College System, and the NVCC Educational Foundation.

  17. Vertical cryostat for guidance and propulsion of superconducting magnetic levitation vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, H.; Arima, K.

    1974-01-01

    The superconducting magnetic levitation vehicle requires two types of magnet: one for levitation, and one for guidance and propulsion (linear synchronous motor). Cryostats for these magnets have to satisfy three fundamental conditions; lightness, small heat leak, and enough strength to ensure the electromagnetic forces. A prototype vertical cryostat was designed for research into on-board cryostats for guidance and propulsion. A small refrigerator can be connected to the cryostat, to facilitate testing of the fundamental refrigeration system on board. The performance of the cryostat, and the test results, are reported in this paper. (author)

  18. Magnetic Signals of High-Temperature Superconductor Bulk During the Levitation Force Measurement Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huan; Zheng, Jun; Qian, Nan; Che, Tong; Zheng, Botian; Jin, Liwei; Deng, Zigang

    2017-05-01

    In order to study the commonly neglected magnetic field information in the course of levitation force measurement process in a superconducting maglev system, a multipoint magnetic field measurement platform was employed to acquire magnetic signals of a bulk high-Tc superconductor on both the top and the bottom surface. Working conditions including field cooling (FC) and zero field cooling were investigated for these vertical down and up motions above a permanent magnet guideway performed on a HTS maglev measurement system. We have discussed the magnetic flux variation process based on the Bean model. A magnetic hysteresis effect similar to the levitation force hysteresis loop of the bulk superconductor was displayed and analyzed in this paper. What is more valuable, there exists some available magnetic flux on the top surface of the bulk superconductor, and the proportion is as high as 62.42% in the FC condition, which provides an experimental hint to design the superconductor bulk and the applied field for practical use in a more efficient way. In particular, this work reveals real-time magnetic flux variation of the bulk superconductor in the levitation application, which is the other important information in contrast to the macroscopic levitation and guidance force investigations in previous studies, and it enriches the existing research methods. The results are significant for understanding the magnetic characteristic of superconductors, and they can contribute to optimize the present HTS maglev system design.

  19. Modeling of a compliant joint in a Magnetic Levitation System for an endoscopic camera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simi, M.; Tolou, N.; Valdastri, P.; Herder, J.L.; Menciassi, A.; Dario, P.

    2012-01-01

    A novel compliant Magnetic Levitation System (MLS) for a wired miniature surgical camera robot was designed, modeled and fabricated. The robot is composed of two main parts, head and tail, linked by a compliant beam. The tail module embeds two magnets for anchoring and manual rough translation. The

  20. Integrating Cell Phone Imaging with Magnetic Levitation (i-LEV) for Label-Free Blood Analysis at the Point-of-Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baday, Murat; Calamak, Semih; Durmus, Naside Gozde; Davis, Ronald W; Steinmetz, Lars M; Demirci, Utkan

    2016-03-02

    There is an emerging need for portable, robust, inexpensive, and easy-to-use disease diagnosis and prognosis monitoring platforms to share health information at the point-of-living, including clinical and home settings. Recent advances in digital health technologies have improved early diagnosis, drug treatment, and personalized medicine. Smartphones with high-resolution cameras and high data processing power enable intriguing biomedical applications when integrated with diagnostic devices. Further, these devices have immense potential to contribute to public health in resource-limited settings where there is a particular need for portable, rapid, label-free, easy-to-use, and affordable biomedical devices to diagnose and continuously monitor patients for precision medicine, especially those suffering from rare diseases, such as sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, and chronic fatigue syndrome. Here, a magnetic levitation-based diagnosis system is presented in which different cell types (i.e., white and red blood cells) are levitated in a magnetic gradient and separated due to their unique densities. Moreover, an easy-to-use, smartphone incorporated levitation system for cell analysis is introduced. Using our portable imaging magnetic levitation (i-LEV) system, it is shown that white and red blood cells can be identified and cell numbers can be quantified without using any labels. In addition, cells levitated in i-LEV can be distinguished at single-cell resolution, potentially enabling diagnosis and monitoring, as well as clinical and research applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Electrodynamic levitated train. Erlangen large-scale test plant is being converted to long stator technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muckelberg, E

    1976-10-01

    The development work for a future high-power fast train have been marked for years by the competition of two magnetic levitation systems, i.e., the electrodynamic levitation system (EDS) with superconducting magnets and the electromagnetic levitation system (EMS). The present study particularly deals with the EDS system. The vehicle is driven by a linear motor. The levitation height is between 10 cm and 30 cm without any complicated control in the EDS system. The disadvantage with this system, however, is that a starting and landing device is needed as a certain starting speed is required before the levitation process fully begins. The first levitation tests were possible on a round course at the beginning of May 1976. A second test stand is being put into operation at present. The first results are reported. Finally, possible development trends are indicated. It seems possible that the end project 'high-power fast train' will be a combination of the EMS and EDS systems.

  2. A theoretical study of the influence of superconductor and magnet dimensions on the levitation force and stability of maglev systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del-Valle, Nuria; Sanchez, Alvaro; Navau, Carles; Chen Duxing

    2008-01-01

    The levitation force and stability of superconducting levitation devices are strongly dependent on both the geometry and dimensions of the components and the cooling process of the superconductor. In this work we study these effects in levitating systems consisting of an infinitely long superconductor and a guideway of different arrangements of infinitely long parallel permanent magnets. Using a model based on the critical-state model and a magnetic-energy minimization procedure, taking into account the demagnetization fields, we analyze the influence of parameters of the system such as the width and height of the superconductor and those of the permanent magnets on the levitation force and stability for two different cooling processes, field cooling and zero-field cooling. The theoretical predictions are compared with existing experimental data. From the results obtained, we provide some general trends on how the dimensions of the components of maglev systems could be chosen to improve both the levitation force and the stability.

  3. A theoretical study of the influence of superconductor and magnet dimensions on the levitation force and stability of maglev systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del-Valle, Nuria; Sanchez, Alvaro; Navau, Carles; Chen Duxing [Grup d' Electromagnetisme, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona), Catalonia (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    The levitation force and stability of superconducting levitation devices are strongly dependent on both the geometry and dimensions of the components and the cooling process of the superconductor. In this work we study these effects in levitating systems consisting of an infinitely long superconductor and a guideway of different arrangements of infinitely long parallel permanent magnets. Using a model based on the critical-state model and a magnetic-energy minimization procedure, taking into account the demagnetization fields, we analyze the influence of parameters of the system such as the width and height of the superconductor and those of the permanent magnets on the levitation force and stability for two different cooling processes, field cooling and zero-field cooling. The theoretical predictions are compared with existing experimental data. From the results obtained, we provide some general trends on how the dimensions of the components of maglev systems could be chosen to improve both the levitation force and the stability.

  4. Comprehensive comparison of the levitation performance of bulk YBaCuO arrays above two different types of magnetic guideways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Zigang; Qian, Nan; Che, Tong; Jin, Liwei; Si, Shuaishuai; Zhang, Ya; Zheng, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The permanent magnet guideway (PMG) is an important part of high temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev systems. So far, two types of PMG, the normal PMG and Halbach-type PMG, are widely applied in present maglev transportation systems. In this paper, the levitation performance of high temperature superconductor bulks above the two PMGs was synthetically compared. Both static levitation performance and dynamic response characteristics were investigated. Benefiting from the reasonable magnetic field distribution, the Halbach-type PMG is able to gain larger levitation force, greater levitation force decay during the same relaxation time, bigger resonance frequency and dynamic stiffness for the bulk superconductor levitation unit compared with the normal PMG. Another finding is that the Halbach-type PMG is not sensitive to the levitation performance of the bulk levitation unit with different arrays. These results are helpful for the practical application of HTS maglev systems. - Highlights: • The effect of PMG configurations to levitation performances is investigated. • Bigger force and greater force decay are obtained on Halbach-type PMG. • Halbach-type PMG is not sensitive to the levitation force in various bulk arrays. • Practical issues including costs and assembly of PMGs are considered.

  5. Comprehensive comparison of the levitation performance of bulk YBaCuO arrays above two different types of magnetic guideways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Zigang, E-mail: deng@swjtu.cn [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Qian, Nan; Che, Tong; Jin, Liwei [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Si, Shuaishuai [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); School of Electrical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Zhang, Ya; Zheng, Jun [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China)

    2016-12-15

    The permanent magnet guideway (PMG) is an important part of high temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev systems. So far, two types of PMG, the normal PMG and Halbach-type PMG, are widely applied in present maglev transportation systems. In this paper, the levitation performance of high temperature superconductor bulks above the two PMGs was synthetically compared. Both static levitation performance and dynamic response characteristics were investigated. Benefiting from the reasonable magnetic field distribution, the Halbach-type PMG is able to gain larger levitation force, greater levitation force decay during the same relaxation time, bigger resonance frequency and dynamic stiffness for the bulk superconductor levitation unit compared with the normal PMG. Another finding is that the Halbach-type PMG is not sensitive to the levitation performance of the bulk levitation unit with different arrays. These results are helpful for the practical application of HTS maglev systems. - Highlights: • The effect of PMG configurations to levitation performances is investigated. • Bigger force and greater force decay are obtained on Halbach-type PMG. • Halbach-type PMG is not sensitive to the levitation force in various bulk arrays. • Practical issues including costs and assembly of PMGs are considered.

  6. Thickness dependence of the levitation performance of double-layer high-temperature superconductor bulks above a magnetic rail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, R.X.; Zheng, J.; Liao, X.L.; Che, T.; Gou, Y.F.; He, D.B.; Deng, Z.G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thickness optimization of double-layer bulk HTSC arrangement is studied. • The new bulk HTSC arrangement makes better use of the flux distribution of the magnetic rails. • Levitation performance can be enhanced with the optimization. • The optimization can meet large levitation force requirements for HTS Maglev system. - Abstract: A double-layer high-temperature superconductor (HTSC) arrangement was proposed and proved to be able to bring improvements to both levitation force and guidance force compared with present single-layer HTSC arrangement. To fully exploit the applied magnetic field by a magnetic rail, the thickness dependence of a double-layer HTSC arrangement on the levitation performance was further investigated in the paper. In this study, the lower-layer bulk was polished step by step to different thicknesses, and the upper-layer bulk with constant thickness was directly superimposed on the lower-layer one. The levitation force and the force relaxation of the double-layer HTSC arrangement were measured above a Halbach magnetic rail. Experimental result shows that a bigger levitation force and a less levitation force decay could be achieved by optimizing the thickness of the lower-layer bulk HTSC. This thickness optimization method could be applied together with former reported double-layer HTSC arrangement method with aligned growth sector boundaries pattern. This series of study on the optimized combination method do bring a significant improvement on the levitation performance of present HTS maglev systems

  7. Thickness dependence of the levitation performance of double-layer high-temperature superconductor bulks above a magnetic rail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, R.X.; Zheng, J.; Liao, X.L.; Che, T.; Gou, Y.F.; He, D.B.; Deng, Z.G., E-mail: zgdeng@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Thickness optimization of double-layer bulk HTSC arrangement is studied. • The new bulk HTSC arrangement makes better use of the flux distribution of the magnetic rails. • Levitation performance can be enhanced with the optimization. • The optimization can meet large levitation force requirements for HTS Maglev system. - Abstract: A double-layer high-temperature superconductor (HTSC) arrangement was proposed and proved to be able to bring improvements to both levitation force and guidance force compared with present single-layer HTSC arrangement. To fully exploit the applied magnetic field by a magnetic rail, the thickness dependence of a double-layer HTSC arrangement on the levitation performance was further investigated in the paper. In this study, the lower-layer bulk was polished step by step to different thicknesses, and the upper-layer bulk with constant thickness was directly superimposed on the lower-layer one. The levitation force and the force relaxation of the double-layer HTSC arrangement were measured above a Halbach magnetic rail. Experimental result shows that a bigger levitation force and a less levitation force decay could be achieved by optimizing the thickness of the lower-layer bulk HTSC. This thickness optimization method could be applied together with former reported double-layer HTSC arrangement method with aligned growth sector boundaries pattern. This series of study on the optimized combination method do bring a significant improvement on the levitation performance of present HTS maglev systems.

  8. MAGLEV `95. 14th international conference on magnetically levitated systems. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The proceedings present the papers of the 14th International Conference on Magnetically Levitated Systems held in Bremen, FRG, in November 1995. For 70 of 74 papers a separate subject analysis has been carried out. 4 papers are not available in the proceedings. (HW)

  9. Noncontact orientation of objects in three-dimensional space using magnetic levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Yang, Dian; Yu, Hai-Dong; Nemiroski, Alex; Tricard, Simon; Ellerbee, Audrey K; Soh, Siowling; Whitesides, George M

    2014-09-09

    This paper describes several noncontact methods of orienting objects in 3D space using Magnetic Levitation (MagLev). The methods use two permanent magnets arranged coaxially with like poles facing and a container containing a paramagnetic liquid in which the objects are suspended. Absent external forcing, objects levitating in the device adopt predictable static orientations; the orientation depends on the shape and distribution of mass within the objects. The orientation of objects of uniform density in the MagLev device shows a sharp geometry-dependent transition: an analytical theory rationalizes this transition and predicts the orientation of objects in the MagLev device. Manipulation of the orientation of the levitating objects in space is achieved in two ways: (i) by rotating and/or translating the MagLev device while the objects are suspended in the paramagnetic solution between the magnets; (ii) by moving a small external magnet close to the levitating objects while keeping the device stationary. Unlike mechanical agitation or robotic selection, orienting using MagLev is possible for objects having a range of different physical characteristics (e.g., different shapes, sizes, and mechanical properties from hard polymers to gels and fluids). MagLev thus has the potential to be useful for sorting and positioning components in 3D space, orienting objects for assembly, constructing noncontact devices, and assembling objects composed of soft materials such as hydrogels, elastomers, and jammed granular media.

  10. Separation and enrichment of enantiopure from racemic compounds using magnetic levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaochuan; Wong, Shin Yee; Bwambok, David K; Atkinson, Manza B J; Zhang, Xi; Whitesides, George M; Myerson, Allan S

    2014-07-18

    Crystallization of a solution with high enantiomeric excess can generate a mixture of crystals of the desired enantiomer and the racemic compound. Using a mixture of S-/RS-ibuprofen crystals as a model, we demonstrated that magnetic levitation (MagLev) is a useful technique for analysis, separation and enantioenrichment of chiral/racemic products.

  11. The dynamics of the magnetic levitation train. Zur Dynamik der Magnetschwebebahn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogorelov, D

    1986-08-01

    One is concerned in a detailed way, with the dynamics and control of the integrated support/drive system of a magnetic levitation vehicle. The magnet chain is regarded as the support system, while a synchronous longitudinal stator and an induction motor are regarded as the drive. Data are given on the model of a magnetic levitation train and its system of equations (differential equations of the integrated support/drive system, equations of the elastic vehicle) and on the steady state behaviour of this system and a linearised system of equations. Further, one is also concerned with the dynamics and control of the magnet chain (effect of winding distribution and the place of sensors on the dynamics of the magnet chain) and the dynamics and control of the integrated support/drive system (structure and coupling analysis of coupling, control of the drive, simulation). (HWJ).

  12. Damping and non-linearity of a levitating magnet in rotation above a superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druge, J; Jean, C; Laurent, O; Méasson, M-A; Favero, I

    2014-01-01

    We study the dissipation of moving magnets in levitation above a superconductor. The rotation motion is analyzed using optical tracking techniques. It displays a remarkable regularity together with long damping time up to several hours. The magnetic contribution to the damping is investigated in detail by comparing 14 distinct magnetic configurations and points towards amplitude-dependent dissipation mechanisms. The non-linear dynamics of the mechanical rotation motion is also revealed and described with an effective Duffing model. The magnetic mechanical damping is consistent with measured hysteretic cycles M(H) that are discussed within a modified critical state model. The obtained picture of the coupling of levitating magnets to their environment sheds light on their potential as ultra-low dissipation mechanical oscillators for high precision physics. (paper)

  13. Levitation properties of superconducting magnetic bearings using superconducting coils and bulk superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Yuuki; Seino, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Ken [Railway Technical Research Institute, 2-8-38 Hikari-cho, Kokubunji-shi, Tokyo 185-8540 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    We have been developing a flywheel energy storage system (FESS) with 36 MJ energy capacity for a railway system with superconducting magnetic bearings (SMBs). We prepared two kinds of models using superconducting coils and bulk superconductors (SCs). One model demonstrated SMB load capacity of 20 kN and the other model proved non-contact stable levitation and non-contact rotation with SMBs. Combining these results, the feasibility of a 36 MJ energy capacity FESS with SMBs completely inside a cryostat has been confirmed. In this paper, we report the levitation properties of SMBs in these models.

  14. Levitation properties of superconducting magnetic bearings using superconducting coils and bulk superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Yuuki; Seino, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Ken

    2010-01-01

    We have been developing a flywheel energy storage system (FESS) with 36 MJ energy capacity for a railway system with superconducting magnetic bearings (SMBs). We prepared two kinds of models using superconducting coils and bulk superconductors (SCs). One model demonstrated SMB load capacity of 20 kN and the other model proved non-contact stable levitation and non-contact rotation with SMBs. Combining these results, the feasibility of a 36 MJ energy capacity FESS with SMBs completely inside a cryostat has been confirmed. In this paper, we report the levitation properties of SMBs in these models.

  15. Confinement improvement with magnetic levitation of a superconducting dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, D.T.; Mauel, M.E.; Boxer, A.C.; Ellsworth, J.L.; Kesner, J.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first production of high beta plasma confined in a fully levitated laboratory dipole using neutral gas fuelling and electron cyclotron resonance heating. As compared with previous studies in which the internal coil was supported, levitation results in improved confinement that allows higher-density, higher-beta discharges to be maintained at significantly reduced gas fuelling. Contrary to previous supported dipole plasma results which had the stored energy consisting in a hot electron population, a significant plasma stored energy is shown to reside in the bulk plasma. By eliminating supports used in previous studies, cross-field transport becomes the main loss channel for both the hot and the background species. This leads to a significant improvement in bulk plasma confinement and a dramatic peaking of the density profile. Improved particle confinement assures stability of the hot electron component at reduced neutral pressure.

  16. The effect of magnet size on the levitation force and attractive force of single-domain YBCO bulk superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W M; Chao, X X; Bian, X B; Liu, P; Feng, Y; Zhang, P X; Zhou, L

    2003-01-01

    The levitation forces between a single-domain YBCO bulk and several magnets of different sizes have been measured at 77 K to investigate the effect of the magnet size on the levitation force. It is found that the levitation force reaches a largest (peak) value when the size of the magnet approaches that of the superconductor when the other conditions are fixed. The absolute maximum attractive force (in the field-cooled state) increases with the increasing of the magnet size, and is saturated when the magnet size approaches that of the superconductor. The maximum attractive force in the field-cooled (FC) state is much higher than that of the maximum attractive force in the zero field-cooled (ZFC) state. The results indicate that the effects of magnetic field distribution on the levitation force have to be considered during the designing and manufacturing of superconducting devices

  17. Simulation of magnetization and levitation properties of arrays of ring-shaped type-II superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jun, E-mail: linxj8686@163.com; Huang, Chenguang; Yong, Huadong; Zhou, Youhe, E-mail: zhouyh@lzu.edu.cn

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • A strong magnetic coupling appears if the gap between the superconducting rings is small. • The saturation magnetization of superconducting rings is related to the radial gap but independent of the vertical gap. • The array of rings in a non-uniform field experiences a levitation force, which increases with increasing height or thickness of the rings. - Abstract: This paper presents an analysis of the magnetic and mechanical properties of arrays of superconducting rings arranged in axial, radial, and matrix configurations under different magnetic fields. In terms of the Bean's critical state model and the minimum magnetic energy method, the dependences of the magnetization and levitation behaviors on the geometry, number, and gap of the superconducting rings are obtained. The results show that when the applied field is spatially uniform, the magnetic property of the superconducting array is associated with the gaps between the rings. For the case of small gaps, the entire array becomes not easy to be fully penetrated by the induced currents, and the magnetic field profiles of which are almost the same as ones in a single large ring. If the superconducting array is fully penetrated, its saturation magnetization value is affected by the radial interval and, however, is almost independent of the vertical separation. When the applied field produced by a cylindrical permanent magnet is nonuniform, the superconducting array will be subjected to a levitation force. The levitation force increases monotonically and finally reaches a saturation value with increasing height or thickness of the rings, and such saturation value is closely related to the inner radius of the array.

  18. Density determination of nail polishes and paint chips using magnetic levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peggy P.

    Trace evidence is often small, easily overlooked, and difficult to analyze. This study describes a nondestructive method to separate and accurately determine the density of trace evidence samples, specifically nail polish and paint chip using magnetic levitation (MagLev). By determining the levitation height of each sample in the MagLev device, the density of the sample is back extrapolated using a standard density bead linear regression line. The results show that MagLev distinguishes among eight clear nail polishes, including samples from the same manufacturer; separates select colored nail polishes from the same manufacturer; can determine the density range of household paint chips; and shows limited levitation for unknown paint chips. MagLev provides a simple, affordable, and nondestructive means of determining density. The addition of co-solutes to the paramagnetic solution to expand the density range may result in greater discriminatory power and separation and lead to further applications of this technique.

  19. Influence of lateral displacement on the levitation performance of a magnetized bulk high-Tc superconductor magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W.; Wang, J.S.; Ma, G.T.; Zheng, J.; Tuo, X.G.; Li, L.L.; Ye, C.Q.; Liao, X.L.; Wang, S.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Compared with the permanent magnet, the magnetized bulk high-T c superconductor magnet (MBSCM) can trap higher magnetic field due to its strong flux pinning ability, so it is a good candidate to improve the levitation performance of high-T c superconductive (HTS) maglev system. The trapped magnetic flux of a MBSCM is sustained by the inductive superconducting current produced by the magnetizing process and is susceptible to the current intensity as well as configuration. In the HTS maglev system, the lateral displacement is an important process to change the superconducting current within a MBSCM and then affects its levitation performance, which is essential for the traffic ability in curve-way, the loading capacity of lateral impact and so on. The research about influence of lateral displacement on the levitation performance of MBSCM is necessary when MBSCM is applied on the HTS maglev vehicle. The experimental investigations about the influence of lateral displacement on the levitation performance of a MBSCM with different trapped fluxes and applied fields are processed in this article. The analyses and conclusions of this article are useful for the practical application of MBSCM in HTS maglev system.

  20. Influence of lateral displacement on the levitation performance of a magnetized bulk high-T{sub c} superconductor magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W., E-mail: tonny-violet@163.com [College of Nuclear Technology and Automation Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059 (China) and Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Wang, J.S.; Ma, G.T.; Zheng, J. [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); National Laboratory of Rail Transit, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Tuo, X.G.; Li, L.L. [College of Nuclear Technology and Automation Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059 (China); Ye, C.Q.; Liao, X.L. [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); National Laboratory of Rail Transit, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Wang, S.Y. [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); National Laboratory of Rail Transit, Chengdu, 610031 (China)

    2012-03-15

    Compared with the permanent magnet, the magnetized bulk high-T{sub c} superconductor magnet (MBSCM) can trap higher magnetic field due to its strong flux pinning ability, so it is a good candidate to improve the levitation performance of high-T{sub c} superconductive (HTS) maglev system. The trapped magnetic flux of a MBSCM is sustained by the inductive superconducting current produced by the magnetizing process and is susceptible to the current intensity as well as configuration. In the HTS maglev system, the lateral displacement is an important process to change the superconducting current within a MBSCM and then affects its levitation performance, which is essential for the traffic ability in curve-way, the loading capacity of lateral impact and so on. The research about influence of lateral displacement on the levitation performance of MBSCM is necessary when MBSCM is applied on the HTS maglev vehicle. The experimental investigations about the influence of lateral displacement on the levitation performance of a MBSCM with different trapped fluxes and applied fields are processed in this article. The analyses and conclusions of this article are useful for the practical application of MBSCM in HTS maglev system.

  1. Modeling of prominence threads in magnetic fields: Levitation by incompressible MHD waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pécseli, Hans; Engvold, OddbjØrn

    2000-05-01

    The nature of thin, highly inclined threads observed in quiescent prominences has puzzled solar physicists for a long time. When assuming that the threads represent truly inclined magnetic fields, the supporting mechanism of prominence plasma against gravity has remained an open issue. This paper examines the levitation of prominence plasma exerted by weakly damped MHD waves in nearly vertical magnetic flux tubes. It is shown that the wave damping, and resulting `radiation pressure', caused predominantly by ion-neutral collisions in the `cold' prominence plasma, may balance the acceleration of gravity provided the oscillation frequency is ω~ 2 rad s^-1 (f~0.5 Hz). Such short wave periods may be the result of small-scale magnetic reconnections in the highly fragmentary magnetic field of quiescent prominences. In the proposed model, the wave induced levitation acts predominantly on plasma - neutral gas mixtures.

  2. Integrated null-flux suspension and multiphase propulsion system for magnetically-levitated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rote, D.M.; He, J.; Johnson, L.R.

    1994-01-04

    A propulsion and stabilization system are described comprising a series of coils mounted vertically on the walls of the guideway to provide suspension, lateral guidance, and propulsion of a magnetically levitated vehicle. This system further allows for altering the magnetic field effects by changing the relative position of the loops comprising the coils either longitudinally and/or vertically with resulting changes in the propulsion, the vertical stability, and the suspension. 8 figures.

  3. Integrated null-flux suspension and multiphase propulsion system for magnetically-levitated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rote, Donald M.; He, Jianliang; Johnson, Larry R.

    1994-01-01

    A propulsion and stabilization system comprising a series of FIG. 8 coils mounted vertically on the walls of the guideway to provide suspension, lateral guidance and propulsion of a magnetically levitated vehicle. This system further allows for altering the magnetic field effects by changing the relative position of the loops comprising the FIG. 8 coils either longitudinally and/or vertically with resulting changes in the propulsion, the vertical stability, and the suspension.

  4. On-board power supply system of a magnetically levitated vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, M.; Maki, N.; Saitoh, T.; Kobayashi, T.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a possible on-board power supply system for a magnetically levitated train is presented and its obtainable electrical power is estimated. The system uses special superconducting magnets. These magnets are used only for generating electrical power. Some induction coils to pick up high frequency components are set in front of the magnets. The special superconducting magnets and the induction coils will be mounted only at the head car and the tail car out of 14 cars in a train. The estimation shows that is possible to obtain more than 630kW of electrical power

  5. Position feedback control of a nonmagnetic body levitated in magnetic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J H; Nam, Y J; Park, M K; Yamane, R

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the position feedback control of a magnetic fluid actuator which is characterized by the passive levitation of a nonmagnetic body immersed in a magnetic fluid under magnetic fields. First of all, the magnetic fluid actuator is designed based on the ferrohydrostatic relation. After manufacturing the actuator, its static and dynamic characteristics are investigated experimentally. With the aid of the dynamic governing relation obtained experimentally and the proportional-derivative controller, the position tracking control of the actuator is carried out both theoretically and experimentally. As a result, the applicability of the proposed magnetic fluid actuator to various engineering devices is verified.

  6. Levitation force on a permanent magnet over a superconducting plane: Modified critical-state model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Z.J.

    1997-01-01

    The authors consider a model system of a permanent magnet above a semi-infinite superconductor. They introduce a modified critical-state model, and carry out derivations of the levitation force acting on the magnet. A key feature of the modification allows the current density to be less than the critical value. The theoretical results show an exponential relationship between the force and the distance. Analytical expressions are developed for permanent magnets in the form of a point dipole, a tip of a magnetic force microscope, and a cylindrical magnet. In the latter case, the exponential relationship has been observed in numerous experiments but without previous interpretation

  7. Design approaches and parameters for magnetically levitated transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danby, G.T.; Powell, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Mechanically levitated transport system approaches are assessed with regard to thrust power needs, track cost, suspension stability, and safety. The null flux suspension appears as the favored approach, having the least thrust power requirements, highest stability, and lowest amount of track material. Various null flux configurations are described, together with operating parameters. The Linear Synchronous Motor (LSM) propulsion system is also described for propelling the suspended vehicles. Cryogenics and superconductivity aspects are discussed and the effect of high T/sub c/ superconductors evaluated

  8. Equivalent Coil Model for Computing Levitation Forces Between Permanent Magnets and High Temperatures Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavia Santos, S.; Garcia-Tabares, L.

    1998-05-01

    A new simple theory has been developed for the study of levitation forces between a permanent magnet and a HTc superconductor. This theory is based on the assumption that both, the magnet and the superconductor, can be modelled by an equivalent coil placed on their surface. While the current flowing through the permanent magnet is constant, the equivalent current through the superconductor can be iether corresponding to screen the overall flux or a constant current corresponding to critical current density when the superconductor is saturated. A test facility has been designed and built for measuring levitation forces at variable approaching speeds. Comparison between theoretical and experimental measurements are presented in the report as well as a general description of the test facility. (Author)

  9. Research on active magnetic levitation of multiple high-T{sub c} superconductors; Fukusu no baruku chodendotai wo mochiita akuteibu jikifujo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishi, K.; Tachi, K.; Sawa, K. [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan); Iwasa, K. [Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory, Cambridge (United States); Nagashima, K.; Fujimoto, H. [Railway Technical Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Miyamoto, T.; Tomita, M.; Murakami, M. [Superconducting Research Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-25

    This paper describes a new [electromaglev] system, in which multiple Y-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors are levitated on a DC magnet. In this system, we have succeeded in controlling the levitation height and force like the case of a single bulk system. We also simulated the total levitation force for multiple bulks, which were in good agreement with the experimental results. (author)

  10. High Temperature Superconducting Magnets with Active Control for Attraction Levitation Transport Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry; Jenkins, Richard G.; Goodall, Roger M.; Macleod, Colin; ElAbbar, Abdallah A.; Campbell, Archie M.

    1996-01-01

    A research program, involving 3 British universities, directed at quantifying the controllability of High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) magnets for use in attraction levitation transport systems will be described. The work includes measurement of loss mechanisms for iron cored HTS magnets which need to produce a flux density of approx. 1 tesla in the airgap between the magnet poles and a ferromagnetic rail. This flux density needs to be maintained and this is done by introducing small variations of the magnet current using a feedback loop, at frequencies up to 10 Hz to compensate for load changes, track variation etc. The test magnet assemblies constructed so far will be described and the studies and modelling of designs for a practical levitation demonstrator (using commercially obtained HTS tape) will be discussed with particular emphasis on how the field distribution and its components, e.g., the component vector normal to the broad face of the tape, can radically affect design philosophy compared to the classical electrical engineering approach. Although specifically aimed at levitation transport the controllability data obtained have implications for a much wider range of applications.

  11. Force characteristic analysis of a magnetic gravity compensator with annular magnet array for magnetic levitation positioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yiheng; Kou, Baoquan; Liu, Peng; Zhang, He; Xing, Feng; Yang, Xiaobao

    2018-05-01

    Magnetic levitation positioning system (MLPS) is considered to be the state of the art in inspection and manufacturing systems in vacuum. In this paper, a magnetic gravity compensator with annular magnet array (AMA-MGC) for MLPS is proposed. Benefiting from the double-layer annular Halbach magnet array on the stator, the proposed AMA-MGC possesses the advantages of symmetrical force, high force density and small force fluctuation. Firstly, the basic structure and operation principle of the AMA-MGC are introduced. Secondly, the basic characteristics of the AMA-MGC such as magnetic field distribution, levitation force, parasitic force and parasitic torque are analyzed by the three-dimensional finite element analysis (3-D FEA). Thirdly, the influence of structural parameters on force density and force fluctuation is investigated, which is conductive to the design and optimization of the AMA-MGC. Finally, a prototype of the AMA-MGC is constructed, and the experiment shows good agreement with the 3-D FEA results.

  12. Design of a 2-DOF Control and Disturbance Estimator for a Magnetic Levitation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes a systematic two-degree freedom control scheme to improve the reference input tracking and load disturbance rejection for an unstable magnetic levitation system. The proposed control strategy is a two-step design process. Firstly, a proportional derivative controller is introduced purposely to get the desired set-point response of the magnetic levitation system and then, an integral square error (ISE performance specification is used for designing a set-point tracking controller. Secondly, a disturbance estimator is designed using the desired closed loop complimentary sensitivity function for the rejection of load disturbances. This leads to the decoupling of the nominal set-point response from the load disturbance response similar to an open loop control manner. Thus, it is convenient to optimize both controllers simultaneously as well as separately. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is validated through simulation.

  13. The effect of ac magnetic fields on the lifting power of levitating superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolyak, B M; Ermakov, G V; Chubraeva, L I

    2007-01-01

    This study deals with the decrease in the levitation force under the action of an ac field up to the frequency at which oscillations of the superconducting suspension are limited by inertia. The lifting force was measured as a function of the ac field amplitude and the exposure time. It was shown that the force quickly decreased at the moment the ac field was applied and then continued diminishing, but at a lower rate. A qualitative model was proposed, taking into account two effects of the ac field on the magnetization of the levitating superconductor: a complete destruction of the critical state in some section of the superconductor (to a depth λ ac ) and the initiation of a faster magnetic relaxation in the region where the induction gradient is preserved

  14. Exclusively welded steel track for the magnetic levitation (Maglev) system Transrapid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindmann, R; Schwindt, G

    1988-10-01

    The development of high-speed magnetic levitation has made enormous headway over the past decade in West Germany. Its operational maturity is forthcoming. The paper exemplifies the high state of development by taking the steel track as example. Design, fabrication, equipment and erection are entered into in detail. Extremely high requirements of accuracy for the shape of track beams form the governing boundary conditions.

  15. Characteristics of propulsion system of the magnetic levitation vehicle named ML-100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, S

    1975-07-01

    A running test of a vehicle suspended by a superconducting magnetic levitation system and driven by a fixed primary linear induction motor (LIM) system was carried out. The test results of the temperature rise of the reaction plate and apparent power of propulsion system are described. Experimental results agree fairly well with calculated values. The effect of appropriate location of several kinds of LIM stators corresponding to running speed pattern are presented.

  16. Levitation force and magnetization in bulk and thin film high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riise, A.B

    1998-04-01

    The authors present high-resolution measurements of the repulsive vertical force and its associated stiffness between a Nd-B-Fe magnet and a YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ superconductor in cylindrical geometry. The results are compared with theoretical predictions. The calculations are based on a model in which the superconductor is assumed to be either a sintered granular material or consisting of grains embedded in a nonactive matrix so that only intragranular currents are important. The critical state model is applied to each grain individually and closed form expressions for both vertical force F z and stiffness are obtained in a configuration with cylindrical symmetry. The model explains all features of the experimental results in a consistent way. A good quantitative agreement has been obtained using only three adjustable parameters. Several central aspects of the phenomenon of magnetic levitation with high-T c superconductors are presented. High-resolution measurements are made of the repulsive vertical force and its associated stiffness as well as the horizontal stabilizing force and the stiffness governing lateral vibrations. The results obtained at 77 K using a granular YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ sample and Nd-Fe-B magnet in a rectangular levitation configuration are compared with theoretical predictions. The calculations, which are based on the critical state model with the assumption that it applies to the grins individually, give closed-form expressions for all the measured quantities. It is concluded that the present model explains all features of the observations in a consistent way. Using only three adjustable parameters a good agreement exists also at a quantitative level. Experimental studies and theoretical modelling of the levitation force on a permanent magnet placed above a superconducting thin film are offered. It is shown that measurements of the levitation force is a simple and precise method to determine the critical current density in thin films

  17. Levitation force and magnetization in bulk and thin film high T{sub c} superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riise, A.B

    1998-04-01

    The authors present high-resolution measurements of the repulsive vertical force and its associated stiffness between a Nd-B-Fe magnet and a YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} superconductor in cylindrical geometry. The results are compared with theoretical predictions. The calculations are based on a model in which the superconductor is assumed to be either a sintered granular material or consisting of grains embedded in a nonactive matrix so that only intragranular currents are important. The critical state model is applied to each grain individually and closed form expressions for both vertical force F{sub z} and stiffness are obtained in a configuration with cylindrical symmetry. The model explains all features of the experimental results in a consistent way. A good quantitative agreement has been obtained using only three adjustable parameters. Several central aspects of the phenomenon of magnetic levitation with high-T{sub c} superconductors are presented. High-resolution measurements are made of the repulsive vertical force and its associated stiffness as well as the horizontal stabilizing force and the stiffness governing lateral vibrations. The results obtained at 77 K using a granular YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} sample and Nd-Fe-B magnet in a rectangular levitation configuration are compared with theoretical predictions. The calculations, which are based on the critical state model with the assumption that it applies to the grins individually, give closed-form expressions for all the measured quantities. It is concluded that the present model explains all features of the observations in a consistent way. Using only three adjustable parameters a good agreement exists also at a quantitative level. Experimental studies and theoretical modelling of the levitation force on a permanent magnet placed above a superconducting thin film are offered. It is shown that measurements of the levitation force is a simple and precise method to determine the

  18. Design of a Discrete Tracking Controller for a Magnetic Levitation System: A Nonlinear Rational Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gómez-Salas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes a discrete-time nonlinear rational approximate model for the unstable magnetic levitation system. Based on this model and as an application of the input-output linearization technique, a discrete-time tracking control design will be derived using the corresponding classical state space representation of the model. A simulation example illustrates the efficiency of the proposed methodology.

  19. Using magnetic levitation for non-destructive quality control of plastic parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennek, Jonathan W; Nemiroski, Alex; Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Bwambok, David K; Yang, Dian; Harburg, Daniel V; Tricard, Simon; Ellerbee, Audrey K; Whitesides, George M

    2015-03-04

    Magnetic levitation (MagLev) enables rapid and non-destructive quality control of plastic parts. The feasibility of MagLev as a method to: i) rapidly assess injection-molded plastic parts for defects during process optimization, ii) monitor the degradation of plastics after exposure to harsh environmental conditions, and iii) detect counterfeit polymers by density is demonstrated. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Spinning rate decay of levitated high-Tc superconductors in rotational magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terentiev, A.N.; Kutukova, E.O.; Kuznetsov, A.A. (Inst. of Chemical Physics, Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russia)); Mozhaev, A.P. (Moscow State Univ., Dept. of Chemistry (Russia))

    1992-04-01

    The rotation damping of a levitated superconductor was examined in the static field of a ring-shaped magnet and in the rotating field of coils. It was demonstrated that the pinning force mainly contributed to magnetic friction while the influence of a viscous component was negligible. The rotating magnetic field created a torque, reducing the angular deceleration under relaxation. Dependence of the rotational field-induced torque on the field-intensity was step-like. A relationship between the step-like behavior of rotational field-induced torque and pinning center distribution is discussed. The origins of friction torque and rotational field-produced torque are discussed. (orig.).

  1. The correspondence to the practical application for normalconducting magnetic levitation vehicle systems in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuma, Takeshi [Traffic Safety and Nuisance Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Matsumoto, Akira [Traffic Safety and Nuisance Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Masada, Eisuke [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The normal conducting magnetic levitation vehicle systems have been researched and developed as a new transportation means mainly in Japan and Germany. In order to introduce the magnetic levitation type of transportation systems as a public transport means, it is necessary to evaluate and confirm the system from the viewpoints of safety, and to promote the preparation of technical standards in Japan. For this reason, the Ministry of Transport of Japan set up a study committee titled `Survey / Study of Technical Evaluation Methods Concerning Normalconducting Magnetic Levitation Vehicle of Transportation Systems` in 1989. Among the primary type of HSST vehicles the H-100 type (maximum speed is approximately 100 km/h) being tested in Nagoya (at present, total running distance reaches about 60,000 km) was used to evaluate the safety and reliability through the test results, and the feasible study was put in practice through a model line setted on the assumption of practical use. This paper describes the payability in the case of introduction of H-100 by a model line. (orig.)

  2. Modeling and control for a magnetic levitation system based on SIMLAB platform in real time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundher H.A. Yaseen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic Levitation system becomes a hot topic of study due to the minimum friction and low energy consumption which regards as very important issues. This paper proposed a new magnetic levitation system using real-time control simulink feature of (SIMLAB microcontroller. The control system of the maglev transportation system is verified by simulations with experimental results, and its superiority is indicated in comparison with previous literature and conventional control strategies. In addition, the proposed system was implemented under effect of three controller types which are Linear–quadratic regulator (LQR, proportional–integral–derivative controller (PID and Lead compensation. As well, the controller system performance was compared in term of three parameters Peak overshoot, Settling time and Rise time. The findings prove the agreement of simulation with experimental results obtained. Moreover, the LQR controller produced a great stability and homogeneous response than other controllers used. For experimental results, the LQR brought a 14.6%, 0.199 and 0.064 for peak overshoot, Setting time and Rise time respectively. Keywords: Magnetic levitation system, Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR, PID control, Lead compensation

  3. Optimization of a Hybrid Magnetic Bearing for a Magnetically Levitated Blood Pump via 3-D FEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shanbao; Olles, Mark W; Burger, Aaron F; Day, Steven W

    2011-10-01

    In order to improve the performance of a magnetically levitated (maglev) axial flow blood pump, three-dimensional (3-D) finite element analysis (FEA) was used to optimize the design of a hybrid magnetic bearing (HMB). Radial, axial, and current stiffness of multiple design variations of the HMB were calculated using a 3-D FEA package and verified by experimental results. As compared with the original design, the optimized HMB had twice the axial stiffness with the resulting increase of negative radial stiffness partially compensated for by increased current stiffness. Accordingly, the performance of the maglev axial flow blood pump with the optimized HMBs was improved: the maximum pump speed was increased from 6000 rpm to 9000 rpm (50%). The radial, axial and current stiffness of the HMB was found to be linear at nominal operational position from both 3-D FEA and empirical measurements. Stiffness values determined by FEA and empirical measurements agreed well with one another. The magnetic flux density distribution and flux loop of the HMB were also visualized via 3-D FEA which confirms the designers' initial assumption about the function of this HMB.

  4. Tilted Magnetic Levitation Enables Measurement of the Complete Range of Densities of Materials with Low Magnetic Permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiroski, Alex; Soh, Siowling; Kwok, Sen Wai; Yu, Hai-Dong; Whitesides, George M

    2016-02-03

    Magnetic levitation (MagLev) of diamagnetic or weakly paramagnetic materials suspended in a paramagnetic solution in a magnetic field gradient provides a simple method to measure the density of small samples of solids or liquids. One major limitation of this method, thus far, has been an inability to measure or manipulate materials outside of a narrow range of densities (0.8 g/cm(3) MagLev"-to increase the range of densities that can be levitated magnetically. Tilting the MagLev device relative to the gravitational vector enables the magnetic force to be decreased (relative to the magnetic force) along the axis of measurement. This approach enables many practical measurements over the entire range of densities observed in matter at ambient conditions-from air bubbles (ρ ≈ 0) to osmium and iridium (ρ ≈ 23 g/cm(3)). The ability to levitate, simultaneously, objects with a broad range of different densities provides an operationally simple method that may find application to forensic science (e.g., for identifying the composition of miscellaneous objects or powders), industrial manufacturing (e.g., for quality control of parts), or resource-limited settings (e.g., for identifying and separating small particles of metals and alloys).

  5. Magnetic levitation and its application for education devices based on YBCO bulk superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.M.; Chao, X.X.; Guo, F.X.; Li, J.W.; Chen, S.L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A small superconducting maglev propeller system has been designed and constructed based on YBCO bulk superconductors. • Several small maglev vehicle models have been designed and constructed based on YBCO bulk superconductors. • The models can be used as experimental or demonstration devices for the magnetic levitation applications. -- Abstract: A small superconducting maglev propeller system, a small spacecraft model suspending and moving around a terrestrial globe, several small maglev vehicle models and a magnetic circuit converter have been designed and constructed. The track was paved by NdFeB magnets, the arrangement of the magnets made us easy to get a uniform distribution of magnetic field along the length direction of the track and a high magnetic field gradient in the lateral direction. When the YBCO bulks mounted inside the vehicle models or spacecraft model was field cooled to LN 2 temperature at a certain distance away from the track, they could be automatically floating over and moving along the track without any obvious friction. The models can be used as experimental or demonstration devices for the magnetic levitation applications

  6. Magnetic levitation and its application for education devices based on YBCO bulk superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, W.M., E-mail: yangwm@snnu.edu.cn; Chao, X.X.; Guo, F.X.; Li, J.W.; Chen, S.L.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • A small superconducting maglev propeller system has been designed and constructed based on YBCO bulk superconductors. • Several small maglev vehicle models have been designed and constructed based on YBCO bulk superconductors. • The models can be used as experimental or demonstration devices for the magnetic levitation applications. -- Abstract: A small superconducting maglev propeller system, a small spacecraft model suspending and moving around a terrestrial globe, several small maglev vehicle models and a magnetic circuit converter have been designed and constructed. The track was paved by NdFeB magnets, the arrangement of the magnets made us easy to get a uniform distribution of magnetic field along the length direction of the track and a high magnetic field gradient in the lateral direction. When the YBCO bulks mounted inside the vehicle models or spacecraft model was field cooled to LN{sub 2} temperature at a certain distance away from the track, they could be automatically floating over and moving along the track without any obvious friction. The models can be used as experimental or demonstration devices for the magnetic levitation applications.

  7. Comparison of simulation and experiment on levitation force between GdBCO bulk superconductor and superconducting magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, S., E-mail: satoshi@sum.sd.keio.ac.j [Department of System Design Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Nagashima, K.; Seino, H. [Railway Technical Research Institute, 2-8-38 Hikari-cho, Kokubunji, Tokyo 185-8540 (Japan); Murakami, T.; Sawa, K. [Department of System Design Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    High temperature bulk superconductors have significant potential for various engineering applications such as a flywheel energy storage system. This system is expected to decrease the energy loss by using bulk superconductors for the bearing. Recently, the authors have developed a new superconducting magnet to realize large levitation force. In this system, the axial component of magnetic field is canceled each other but the radial component of magnetic field expects to be enhanced. Thus, it was expected that the large levitation force can be realized and its time relaxation will be decreased. And in the previous paper, the levitation force and its time relaxation were measured under the various conditions by using this new magnet. But it is difficult to consider what phenomenon has happened in the bulk from only experimental results. In addition the quantitative evaluation cannot be done only by the experimental results, for example, the influence of the magnetic field penetration and magnetic distribution around a bulk superconductor on the maximum force and so on. Thus, in this paper, the authors simulated the levitation force of bulk superconductor by using ELF/MAGIC, which is a three-dimensional electromagnetic analytical software. In the simulation the bulk was considered as a rigid body and the simulation was executed under the same conditions and model with the experiment. The distribution of magnetic field and the levitation force were obtained and discussed.

  8. Comparison of simulation and experiment on levitation force between GdBCO bulk superconductor and superconducting magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, S.; Nagashima, K.; Seino, H.; Murakami, T.; Sawa, K.

    2009-01-01

    High temperature bulk superconductors have significant potential for various engineering applications such as a flywheel energy storage system. This system is expected to decrease the energy loss by using bulk superconductors for the bearing. Recently, the authors have developed a new superconducting magnet to realize large levitation force. In this system, the axial component of magnetic field is canceled each other but the radial component of magnetic field expects to be enhanced. Thus, it was expected that the large levitation force can be realized and its time relaxation will be decreased. And in the previous paper, the levitation force and its time relaxation were measured under the various conditions by using this new magnet. But it is difficult to consider what phenomenon has happened in the bulk from only experimental results. In addition the quantitative evaluation cannot be done only by the experimental results, for example, the influence of the magnetic field penetration and magnetic distribution around a bulk superconductor on the maximum force and so on. Thus, in this paper, the authors simulated the levitation force of bulk superconductor by using ELF/MAGIC, which is a three-dimensional electromagnetic analytical software. In the simulation the bulk was considered as a rigid body and the simulation was executed under the same conditions and model with the experiment. The distribution of magnetic field and the levitation force were obtained and discussed.

  9. Planar rotational magnetic micromotors with integrated shaft encoder and magnetic rotor levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guckel, Henry; Christenson, T. R.; Skrobis, K. J.; Klein, J.; Karnowsky, M.

    1994-01-01

    Deep x-ray lithography and electroplating may be combined to form a fabrication tool for micromechanical devices with large structural heights, to 500 micron, and extreme edge acuities, less than 0.1 micron-run-out per 100 micron of height. This process concept which originated in Germany as LIGA may be further extended by adding surface micromachining. This extension permits the fabrication of precision metal and plastic parts which may be assembled into three-dimensional micromechanical components and systems. The processing tool may be used to fabricate devices from ferromagnetic material such as nickel and nickel-iron alloys. These materials when properly heat treated exhibit acceptable magnetic behavior for current to flux conversion and marginal behavior for permanent magnet applications. The tool and materials have been tested via planar, magnetic, rotational micromotor fabrication. Three phase reluctance machines of the 6:4 configuration with 280 micron diameter rotors have been tested and analyzed. Stable rotational speeds to 34,000 rpm with output torques above 10 x 10(exp -9) N-m have been obtained. The behavior is monitored with integrated shaft encoders which are photodiodes which measure the rotor response. Magnetic levitation of the rotor via reluctance forces has been achieved and has reduced frictional torque losses to less than 1 percent of the available torque. The results indicate that high speed limits of these actuators are related to torque ripple. Hysteresis motors with magnetic bearings are under consideration and will produce high speed rotational machines with excellent sensor application potential.

  10. Magnetic field is the dominant factor to induce the response of Streptomyces avermitilis in altered gravity simulated by diamagnetic levitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diamagnetic levitation is a technique that uses a strong, spatially varying magnetic field to simulate an altered gravity environment, as in space. In this study, using Streptomyces avermitilis as the test organism, we investigate whether changes in magnetic field and altered gravity induce changes in morphology and secondary metabolism. We find that a strong magnetic field (12T inhibit the morphological development of S. avermitilis in solid culture, and increase the production of secondary metabolites. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: S. avermitilis on solid medium was levitated at 0 g*, 1 g* and 2 g* in an altered gravity environment simulated by diamagnetic levitation and under a strong magnetic field, denoted by the asterix. The morphology was obtained by electromicroscopy. The production of the secondary metabolite, avermectin, was determined by OD(245 nm. The results showed that diamagnetic levitation could induce a physiological response in S. avermitilis. The difference between 1 g* and the control group grown without the strong magnetic field (1 g, showed that the magnetic field was a more dominant factor influencing changes in morphology and secondary metabolite production, than altered gravity. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We have discovered that magnetic field, rather than altered gravity, is the dominant factor in altered gravity simulated by diamagnetic levitation, therefore care should to be taken in the interpretation of results when using diamagnetic levitation as a technique to simulate altered gravity. Hence, these results are significant, and timely to researchers considering the use of diamagnetic levitation to explore effects of weightlessness on living organisms and on physical phenomena.

  11. Fluid force predictions and experimental measurements for a magnetically levitated pediatric ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throckmorton, Amy L; Untaroiu, Alexandrina; Lim, D Scott; Wood, Houston G; Allaire, Paul E

    2007-05-01

    The latest generation of artificial blood pumps incorporates the use of magnetic bearings to levitate the rotating component of the pump, the impeller. A magnetic suspension prevents the rotating impeller from contacting the internal surfaces of the pump and reduces regions of stagnant and high shear flow that surround fluid or mechanical bearings. Applying this third-generation technology, the Virginia Artificial Heart Institute has developed a ventricular assist device (VAD) to support infants and children. In consideration of the suspension design, the axial and radial fluid forces exerted on the rotor of the pediatric VAD were estimated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) such that fluid perturbations would be counterbalanced. In addition, a prototype was built for experimental measurements of the axial fluid forces and estimations of the radial fluid forces during operation using a blood analog mixture. The axial fluid forces for a centered impeller position were found to range from 0.5 +/- 0.01 to 1 +/- 0.02 N in magnitude for 0.5 +/- 0.095 to 3.5 +/- 0.164 Lpm over rotational speeds of 6110 +/- 0.39 to 8030 +/- 0.57% rpm. The CFD predictions for the axial forces deviated from the experimental data by approximately 8.5% with a maximum difference of 18% at higher flow rates. Similarly for the off-centered impeller conditions, the maximum radial fluid force along the y-axis was found to be -0.57 +/- 0.17 N. The maximum cross-coupling force in the x direction was found to be larger with a maximum value of 0.74 +/- 0.22 N. This resulted in a 25-35% overestimate of the radial fluid force as compared to the CFD predictions; this overestimation will lead to a far more robust magnetic suspension design. The axial and radial forces estimated from the computational results are well within a range over which a compact magnetic suspension can compensate for flow perturbations. This study also serves as an effective and novel design methodology for blood pump

  12. Three-dimensional eddy current analysis of cryostat outer-vessel in superconductive magnetically levitated vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonaka, S.; Sakamoto, T.; Veno, T.

    1987-01-01

    The eddy currents on the cryostat outer-vessel of an SCM(superconducting magnet) are investigated taking into account of the non-contact on-board power generator system. Numerical expressions are developed by combining a Fourier series method and an integral equation method. It becomes clear that the 5-th space harmonic field which is due to the ground levitation coils, is a dominant factor in the eddy currents of the outer-vessel, and that a concentration of the currents occurs in the corner on the inner side of the bottom of the cryostat outer-vessel. Designs such as the distance between the two arrays of the ground levitation coils, and the lateral location of the induction coils of the power generator are also discussed

  13. Magnetic levitation and its application for education devices based on YBCO bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W. M.; Chao, X. X.; Guo, F. X.; Li, J. W.; Chen, S. L.

    2013-10-01

    A small superconducting maglev propeller system, a small spacecraft model suspending and moving around a terrestrial globe, several small maglev vehicle models and a magnetic circuit converter have been designed and constructed. The track was paved by NdFeB magnets, the arrangement of the magnets made us easy to get a uniform distribution of magnetic field along the length direction of the track and a high magnetic field gradient in the lateral direction. When the YBCO bulks mounted inside the vehicle models or spacecraft model was field cooled to LN2 temperature at a certain distance away from the track, they could be automatically floating over and moving along the track without any obvious friction. The models can be used as experimental or demonstration devices for the magnetic levitation applications.

  14. Ab initio quantum chemical calculation as a tool of evaluating diamagnetic susceptibility of magnetically levitating substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Y [Department of Mathematical and Life Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Tanimoto, Y [Faculty of Pharmacy, Osaka Ohtani University, Nishikiorikita, Tondabayashi 584-8540 (Japan)], E-mail: fuji0710@sci.hiroshima-u.ac.jp

    2009-03-01

    On magnetic force evaluation necessary for magnetically levitated diamagnetic substances, isotropic diamagnetic susceptibility estimation by the ab initio quantum chemical calculation using Gaussian03W was verified for more than 300 molecules in a viewpoint of the accuracy in the absolute value and the calculation level affording good cost performance. From comparison, the method of B3PW91 / 6-311+G(d,p) was found to give the adequate absolute value by the relation of (observed) = (1.03 {+-} 0.005) x (calculated) - (1.22 {+-} 0.60) x 10{sup -6} in a unit of cm{sup 3} mol{sup -1} and good cost performance.

  15. Ab initio quantum chemical calculation as a tool of evaluating diamagnetic susceptibility of magnetically levitating substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Y; Tanimoto, Y

    2009-01-01

    On magnetic force evaluation necessary for magnetically levitated diamagnetic substances, isotropic diamagnetic susceptibility estimation by the ab initio quantum chemical calculation using Gaussian03W was verified for more than 300 molecules in a viewpoint of the accuracy in the absolute value and the calculation level affording good cost performance. From comparison, the method of B3PW91 / 6-311+G(d,p) was found to give the adequate absolute value by the relation of (observed) = (1.03 ± 0.005) x (calculated) - (1.22 ± 0.60) x 10 -6 in a unit of cm 3 mol -1 and good cost performance.

  16. The influence of inhomogeneous magnetic field over a NdFeB guideway on levitation force of the HTS bulk maglev system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lifeng; Deng, Jiangtao; Li, Linbo; Feng, Ning; Wei, Pu; Lei, Wei; Jiang, Jing; Wang, Xiqin; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Yong

    2018-04-01

    Dynamic responses of high temperature superconducting bulk to inhomogeneous magnetic field distribution of permanent magnet guideway, as well as enlarged amplitude of magnetic field obtained by partially covering the permanent magnet guideway (PMG) with iron sheets in different thickness, are investigated. Experiments show that the instantaneous levitation force increases with the increase of the variation rate of magnetic field (dB/dt). Meanwhile, inhomogeneous magnetic field from PMG causes the decay of levitation force. The decay of levitation force almost increases linearly with the increase of alternating magnetic field amplitude. It should be very important for the application of high-speed maglev system.

  17. A 'V' shaped superconducting levitation module for lift and guidance of a magnetic transportation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ovidio, G. [Transportation Area - DAU, University of L' Aquila, Poggio di Roio, 67040 L' Aquila (Italy)], E-mail: dovidio@dau.ing.univaq.it; Crisi, F.; Lanzara, G. [Transportation Area - DAU, University of L' Aquila, Poggio di Roio, 67040 L' Aquila (Italy)

    2008-07-15

    A novel, YBCO based, magnetic transportation system (MagTranS) is presented and described. The feasibility of this system has been successfully tested and confirmed in a laboratory using a scaled demonstrator system. The MagTranS levitation system uses a stable, self-balancing 'V' shaped superconducting module for both lift and guidance of vehicles. The work concept of the MagTranS levitation module is described and differences with regards to the maglev current systems are highlighted. The results of levitation tests performed using a measurement set-up are presented and discussed. Lastly, levitation module performance studies are also carried out using numerical finite element analysis.

  18. Stability of magnetic tip/superconductor levitation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alqadi, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    The vertical stability of a magnetic tip over a superconducting material is investigated by using the critical state and the frozen image models. The analytical expressions of the stiffness and the vibration frequency about the equilibrium position are derived in term of the geometrical parameters of the magnet/superconductor system. It is found that the stability of the system depends on the shape of the superconductor as well as its thickness. (paper)

  19. Transient heat transfer analysis of superconducting magnetic levitating flywheel rotor operating in vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochida, A.; Kudo, K.; Higasa, H.

    1999-07-01

    In the present study, transient temperature rise is analyzed in a flywheel type power storage system operated in vacuum environment. The flywheel rotor is levitated by high-temperature-superconducting magnetic bearing to reduce the bearing loss. Though the superconductor is cooled by liquid nitrogen, the temperature of the whole system rises due to Joule heating in the coils of the bearings and the motor during the operation. If the temperature should reach the critical temperature of the permanent magnet used for the magnetic bearings after long time operation, the magnetic bearings lose their effect. The heat generated in the levitated rotor diffuses within it by heat conduction and finally emitted to its surrounding solid materials by thermal radiation from the rotor surfaces across vacuum layer. Numerical simulation is carried out calculating the transient radiative-conductive heat transfer and time-dependent profiles of temperature within the rotor are obtained. The results are compared with the experimentally obtained temperatures by measured a test model of 1kWh power storage and the measured profiles of the temperature rise of the rotor fit very well with the calculated ones. Using this simulation tool, the effects of the surface emissivity of the materials of the rotor and the stator, the temperature of the surrounding casings and the thermal conductivity of the materials on the temperature profiles in the system are estimated.

  20. Magnetically levitated mesenchymal stem cell spheroids cultured with a collagen gel maintain phenotype and quiescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha S Lewis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Multicellular spheroids are an established system for three-dimensional cell culture. Spheroids are typically generated using hanging drop or non-adherent culture; however, an emerging technique is to use magnetic levitation. Herein, mesenchymal stem cell spheroids were generated using magnetic nanoparticles and subsequently cultured within a type I collagen gel, with a view towards developing a bone marrow niche environment. Cells were loaded with magnetic nanoparticles, and suspended beneath an external magnet, inducing self-assembly of multicellular spheroids. Cells in spheroids were viable and compared to corresponding monolayer controls, maintained stem cell phenotype and were quiescent. Interestingly, core spheroid necrosis was not observed, even with increasing spheroid size, in contrast to other commonly used spheroid systems. This mesenchymal stem cell spheroid culture presents a potential platform for modelling in vitro bone marrow stem cell niches, elucidating interactions between cells, as well as a useful model for drug delivery studies.

  1. Effect of guideway discontinuities on magnetic levitation and drag forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossing, T.D.; Korte, R.; Hull, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Transients in the lift and drag forces on a NdFeB permanent magnet were observed as the magnet passed over various discontinuities in a rotating aluminum disk at velocities of 4 to 25 m/s. For full cuts in the disk, the amplitude of the lift and drag transients and the wave form of the drag transient depend on the width, and the amplitudes are much larger than for partial cuts. The use of a backing plate to join two cut segments is ineffective

  2. Bulk synthesis of monodisperse magnetic FeNi3 nanopowders by flow levitation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanjun; Chen, Yan; Kang, Xiaoli; Li, Song; Tian, Yonghong; Wu, Weidong; Tang, Yongjian

    2013-10-01

    In this work, a novel bulk synthesis method for monodisperse FeNi3 nanoparticles was developed by flow levitation method (FL). The Fe and Ni vapours ascending from the high temperature levitated droplet was condensed by cryogenic Ar gas under atmospheric pressure. X-ray diffraction was used to identify and characterize the crystal phase of prepared powders exhibiting a FeNi3 phase. The morphology and size of nanopowders were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The chemical composition of the nanoparticles was determined with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The results indicated that the FeNi3 permalloy powders are nearly spherical-shaped with diameter about 50-200 nm. Measurement of the magnetic property of nanopowders by a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID, Quantum Design MPMS-7) showed a symmetric hysteresis loop of ferromagnetic behavior with coercivity of 220 Oe and saturation magnetization of 107.17 emu/g, at 293 K. At 5 K, the obtained saturation magnetization of the sample was 102.16 emu/g. The production rate of FeNi3 nanoparticles was estimated to be about 6 g/h. This method has great potential in mass production of FeNi3 nannoparticles.

  3. Microgravity simulation by diamagnetic levitation: effects of a strong gradient magnetic field on the transcriptional profile of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herranz Raul

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many biological systems respond to the presence or absence of gravity. Since experiments performed in space are expensive and can only be undertaken infrequently, Earth-based simulation techniques are used to investigate the biological response to weightlessness. A high gradient magnetic field can be used to levitate a biological organism so that its net weight is zero. Results We have used a superconducting magnet to assess the effect of diamagnetic levitation on the fruit fly D. melanogaster in levitation experiments that proceeded for up to 22 consecutive days. We have compared the results with those of similar experiments performed in another paradigm for microgravity simulation, the Random Positioning Machine (RPM. We observed a delay in the development of the fruit flies from embryo to adult. Microarray analysis indicated changes in overall gene expression of imagoes that developed from larvae under diamagnetic levitation, and also under simulated hypergravity conditions. Significant changes were observed in the expression of immune-, stress-, and temperature-response genes. For example, several heat shock proteins were affected. We also found that a strong magnetic field, of 16.5 Tesla, had a significant effect on the expression of these genes, independent of the effects associated with magnetically-induced levitation and hypergravity. Conclusions Diamagnetic levitation can be used to simulate an altered effective gravity environment in which gene expression is tuned differentially in diverse Drosophila melanogaster populations including those of different age and gender. Exposure to the magnetic field per se induced similar, but weaker, changes in gene expression.

  4. Super high-speed magnetically levitated system approaches: practical use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, S; Nakao, H; Takemasa, H

    1988-01-01

    The JR-MAGLEV, utilizing superconducting magnets, has been under development since 1970 with the manufacturing of a succession of trial vehicles such as the LSM 200, ML 100, ML 500 and MLU 001. In 1979, the ML 500 trial vehicle achieved a world-record speed of 517 km/h. This was followed by the MLU 001, which recorded a speed of 350 km/h as a 3-car formation in 1986 and 400 km/h as a 2-car formation with passengers in 1987. As a result of the satisfactory results obtained by the MLU 001, a prototype vehicle for commercial service, the MLU 002, was manufactured in March 1988 and is now under testing at the Miyazaki test track, with the aim of achieving a target operational speed of 420 km/h.

  5. Radiation monitoring in a synchrotron light source facility using magnetically levitated electrode ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Hirofumi; Kawaguchi, Toshirou; Utsunomiya, Yoshitomo; Ishibashi, Kenji; Ikeda, Nobuo; Korenaga, Kazuhito

    2009-01-01

    We developed a highly accurate differential-type automatic radiation dosimeter to measure very low radiation doses. The dosimeter had two ionization chambers, each of which had a magnetically levitated electrode and it was operated in a repetitive-time integration mode. We first installed the differential-type automatic radiation dosimeter with MALICs at a high-energy electron accelerator facility (Kyushu Synchrotron Light Research Center Facility) and measured the background and ionizing radiations in the facility as well as the gaseous radiation in air. In the background dose measurements, the accuracy of the repetitive-time integration-type dosimeter was three times better than that of a commercial ionization chamber. When the radiation dose increased momentarily at the electron injection from the linac to the operating storage ring, the dosimeter with repetitive-time integral mode gave a successful response to the actual dose variation. The gaseous radiation dose in the facility was at the same level as that in Fukuoka City. We confirmed that the dosimeter with magnetically levitated electrode ionization chambers was usable in the accelerator facility, in spite of its limited response when operated in the repetitive-time integration mode. (author)

  6. Modeling and control for a magnetic levitation system based on SIMLAB platform in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Mundher H. A.; Abd, Haider J.

    2018-03-01

    Magnetic Levitation system becomes a hot topic of study due to the minimum friction and low energy consumption which regards as very important issues. This paper proposed a new magnetic levitation system using real-time control simulink feature of (SIMLAB) microcontroller. The control system of the maglev transportation system is verified by simulations with experimental results, and its superiority is indicated in comparison with previous literature and conventional control strategies. In addition, the proposed system was implemented under effect of three controller types which are Linear-quadratic regulator (LQR), proportional-integral-derivative controller (PID) and Lead compensation. As well, the controller system performance was compared in term of three parameters Peak overshoot, Settling time and Rise time. The findings prove the agreement of simulation with experimental results obtained. Moreover, the LQR controller produced a great stability and homogeneous response than other controllers used. For experimental results, the LQR brought a 14.6%, 0.199 and 0.064 for peak overshoot, Setting time and Rise time respectively.

  7. Civilian applications for superconducting magnet technology developed for defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.A.; Klein, S.W.; Gurol, H.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy years after its discovery, superconducting technology is beginning to play an important role in the civilian sector. Strategic defense initiative (SDI)-related research in space- and ground-based strategic defense weapons, particularly research efforts utilizing superconducting magnet energy storage, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), and superconducting pulsed-power devices, have direct applications in the civilian sector as well and are discussed in the paper. Other applications of superconducting magnets, which will be indirectly enhanced by the overall advancement in superconducting technology, include high-energy physics accelerators, magnetic resonance imaging, materials purifying, water purifying, superconducting generators, electric power transmission, magnetically levitated trains, magnetic-fusion power plants, and superconducting computers

  8. A fuzzy control technique for a magnetically levitated system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Verso, G [C.N.R., Ce.Ri.S.E.P., Palermo (Italy); Trapanese, M [Dipt. di Ingegneria Elettrica, Univ. di Palermo (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the results of some analytical and numerical investigations on a control approach for magnetically leviated systems. This approach is based on fuzzy logic. It has been widely demonstrated that traditional control systems consent to maintain a stiff control on the air gap length. However, the traditional approaches could cause at very high speed, a vertical acceleration of the vehicle cabin larger than the maximum value currently allowed by the ISO standard. It is aim of this work to investigate the possibilities that a fuzzy controller offer in order to solve this problem. In order set up the controller, every mechanical degree of freedom is modelled in terms of some linguistic variables. These linguistic variables are described by several fuzzy sets. It must be noted that, doing so, the disturbances can be described in terms of fuzzy sets, too. A single-mass-model of the vehicle is considered in the paper. The features of the controller are numerically simulated under several types of disturbances and they are compared with a traditional control approach. It is shown how some parameters (especially the vertical acceleration) improve their behaviour. (orig.)

  9. Countermeasure for the magnetic drag force in guideway structure of superconducting magnetic levitation Vehicle system (MAGLEV); Chodendo jiki fujoshiki tetsudo no kozobutsu ni okeru denjiki taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, A [JR Railway Technical Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-02-15

    As for the levitation vehicle system, the vehicle is equipped with superconducting magnets and is levitated about 10cm by the electromagnetic force that works between the push coil and levitation guide coil laid on the ground and it runs 500km an hour. But, the running resistance and energy loss called as magnetic resistance caused by the electromagnet phenomenon that generates between the superconducting magnets and structures (steel products) generate. In this paper, the magnet resistance generated in guideway structure of superconducting magnetic levitation vehicle system and its countermeasures therefor are introduced. The main countermeasures against the magnetic resistance are as follows. The steel products have to be as arranged as separated from the superconducting magnets as far as possible in the permissible design limit. Based on the analysis results the low magnetic steel would be used in an area within 1.5m from the strand of the superconducting magnet. The contact resistance of the joints part of loop-shaped components would be bigger so as to do not cause the loop current. And the big component would be divided into small parts when it is used near to the superconducting magnets. 5 refs., 10 figs.

  10. Relationship of the Levitation Force Between Single and Multiple YBCO Bulks Above a Permanent Magnet Guideway Operating Dive-Lift Movement with Different Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, R.; Wang, S. Y.; Liao, X. L.; Deng, Z. G.; Wang, J. S.

    2013-04-01

    In practical applications, the acceleration and deceleration motions inevitably happen in the operation of high temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev trains. For further research of the maglev properties of YBaCuO bulk above a permanent magnet guideway (PMG), by moving a fixed vertical distance, this paper studies the relationship of the levitation force between single and multiple YBCO bulks above a PMG operating dive-lift movement with different angles. Experimental results show that the maximal levitation force increment of two bulks than one bulk is smaller than the maximal levitation force increment of three bulks than two bulks. With the degree decreasing, the maximal levitation force increment of three bulks is bigger than the maximal levitation force increment of two bulks and one bulk, and the hysteresis loop of the levitation force of the three-bulk arrangement is getting smaller.

  11. A Shaftless Magnetically Levitated Multifunctional Spacecraft Flywheel Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Ken; Thornton, Richard; Clark, Tracy; Beaman, Bob G.; Dennehy, Neil; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Presently many types of spacecraft use a Spacecraft Attitude Control System (ACS) with momentum wheels for steering and electrochemical batteries to provide electrical power for the eclipse period of the spacecraft orbit. Future spacecraft will use Flywheels for combined use in ACS and Energy Storage. This can be done by using multiple wheels and varying the differential speed for ACS and varying the average speed for energy storage and recovery. Technology in these areas has improved since the 1990s so it is now feasible for flywheel systems to emerge from the laboratory for spacecraft use. This paper describes a new flywheel system that can be used for both ACS and energy storage. Some of the possible advantages of a flywheel system are: lower total mass and volume, higher efficiency, less thermal impact, improved satellite integration schedule and complexity, simplified satellite orbital operations, longer life with lower risk, less pointing jitter, and greater capability for high-rate slews. In short, they have the potential to enable new types of missions and provide lower cost. Two basic types of flywheel configurations are the Flywheel Energy Storage System (FESS) and the Integrated Power and Attitude Control System (IPACS).

  12. Deep cooling of optically trapped atoms implemented by magnetic levitation without transverse confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Zhou, Tianwei; Zhai, Yueyang; Xiang, Jinggang; Luan, Tian; Huang, Qi; Yang, Shifeng; Xiong, Wei; Chen, Xuzong

    2017-05-01

    We report a setup for the deep cooling of atoms in an optical trap. The deep cooling is implemented by eliminating the influence of gravity using specially constructed magnetic coils. Compared to the conventional method of generating a magnetic levitating force, the lower trap frequency achieved in our setup provides a lower limit of temperature and more freedoms to Bose gases with a simpler solution. A final temperature as low as ˜ 6 nK is achieved in the optical trap, and the atomic density is decreased by nearly two orders of magnitude during the second stage of evaporative cooling. This deep cooling of optically trapped atoms holds promise for many applications, such as atomic interferometers, atomic gyroscopes, and magnetometers, as well as many basic scientific research directions, such as quantum simulations and atom optics.

  13. Design Optimization of a Magnetically Levitated Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvester for Body Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancharoen, K.; Zhu, D.; Beeby, S. P.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a magnetically levitated electromagnetic vibration energy harvester based on magnet arrays. It has a nonlinear response that extends the operating bandwidth and enhances the power output of the harvesting device. The harvester is designed to be embedded in a hip prosthesis and harvest energy from low frequency movements (< 5 Hz) associated with human motion. The design optimization is performed using Comsol simulation considering the constraints on size of the harvester and low operating frequency. The output voltage across the optimal load 3.5kΩ generated from hip movement is 0.137 Volts during walking and 0.38 Volts during running. The power output harvested from hip movement during walking and running is 5.35 μW and 41.36 μW respectively..

  14. Laboratory Scale Prototype of a Low-Speed Electrodynamic Levitation System Based on a Halbach Magnet Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniguez, J.; Raposo, V.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the behaviour of a small-scale model of a magnetic levitation system based on the Inductrack concept. Drag and lift forces acting on our prototype, moving above a continuous copper track, are studied analytically following a simple low-speed approach. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical…

  15. Levitation characteristics of HTS tape stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokrovskiy, S. V.; Ermolaev, Y. S.; Rudnev, I. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    Due to the considerable development of the technology of second generation high-temperature superconductors and a significant improvement in their mechanical and transport properties in the last few years it is possible to use HTS tapes in the magnetic levitation systems. The advantages of tapes on a metal substrate as compared with bulk YBCO material primarily in the strength, and the possibility of optimizing the convenience of manufacturing elements of levitation systems. In the present report presents the results of the magnetic levitation force measurements between the stack of HTS tapes containing of tapes and NdFeB permanent magnet in the FC and ZFC regimes. It was found a non- linear dependence of the levitation force from the height of the array of stack in both modes: linear growth at small thickness gives way to flattening and constant at large number of tapes in the stack. Established that the levitation force of stacks comparable to that of bulk samples. The numerical calculations using finite element method showed that without the screening of the applied field the levitation force of the bulk superconductor and the layered superconductor stack with a critical current of tapes increased by the filling factor is exactly the same, and taking into account the screening force slightly different.

  16. Modeling of hysteretic behavior of the levitation force between superconductor and permanent magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xing-da, E-mail: shuxdw@gmail.com [School of Information Engineering, Guangdong Medical College, No. 2, Eastern Wenming Road, Zhanjiang 524023 (China); Xu, Ke-Xi, E-mail: kxxu@staff.shu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Cao, Yue; Hu, Shun-bo; Zuo, Peng-xiang; Li, Guan-dong [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Experimental results on hysteretic behavior of the levitaion force are presented. ► Hysteresis loop for the first descent/ascent cycle of magnet is largest. ► Hysteresis loop for the second and subsequent cycles almost overlap each other. ► Yang’s frozen-image model cannot describe this characteristic of levitation force. ► An updated frozen-image model is developed to describe these experimental results. -- Abstract: The hysteretic behavior of the levitation force between a permanent magnet and a melt-textured-growth YBCO bulk has been investigated under both zero-field cooling (ZFC) and field cooling (FC) processes. It is found that both in ZFC and FC measurements, the hysteresis loop for the first descent/ascent cycle of magnet is relatively larger than that for the second or third cycle, and the hysteresis loops for Cycle 2–4 have the same area. These results can be qualitatively understood in terms of the critical state model. To describe these experimental results, we develop an updated frozen-image model, which is obtained by modifying the change rules of the vertical movement image in the advanced frozen-image model proposed by Yang et al. Comparing with the advanced frozen-image model proposed by Yang et al., our model cannot only give the hysteretic characteristic in the first descent–ascent cycle of magnet, but also show the hysteresis loops with the same area for the second and subsequent cycles.

  17. Growth anisotropy effect of bulk high temperature superconductors on the levitation performance in the applied magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, J.; Liao, X.L.; Jing, H.L.; Deng, Z.G.; Yen, F.; Wang, S.Y.; Wang, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The single-layer bulk HTSC with AGSBP obtains better levitation performance than that of MGSBP. • The double-layer bulk with AGSBP obtains better levitation performance than that of MGSBP too. • The double-layer bulk finding is contrast to MGSBP if pursuing high trapped field. • The optimization is highlighted by simple and easy operation, thus economical in the practice. -- Abstract: Growth anisotropies of bulk high temperature superconductors (HTSCs) fabricated by a top-seeded melt texture growth process, that is, different pinning effect in the growth sectors (GSs) and growth sector boundaries (GSBs), possess effect on the macro flux trapping and levitation performance of bulk HTSCs. Previous work (Physics Procedia, 36 (2012) 1043) has found that the bulk HTSC array with aligned GSB pattern (AGSBP) exhibits better capability for levitation and suppression of levitation force decay above a permanent magnet guideway (PMG) compared with misaligned GSB pattern (MGSBP). In this paper, we further examine this growth anisotropy effect on the maglev performance of a double-layer bulk HTSC. In contrast to reported trapped flux cases (Supercond. Sci. Technol. 19 (2006) S466), the two superposed bulk HTSCs with same AGSBP with PMG are found to show better maglev performance. These series of results are helpful and support a new way for the performance optimization of present HTS maglev systems

  18. Growth anisotropy effect of bulk high temperature superconductors on the levitation performance in the applied magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, J., E-mail: jzheng@swjtu.edu.cn; Liao, X.L.; Jing, H.L.; Deng, Z.G.; Yen, F.; Wang, S.Y.; Wang, J.S.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The single-layer bulk HTSC with AGSBP obtains better levitation performance than that of MGSBP. • The double-layer bulk with AGSBP obtains better levitation performance than that of MGSBP too. • The double-layer bulk finding is contrast to MGSBP if pursuing high trapped field. • The optimization is highlighted by simple and easy operation, thus economical in the practice. -- Abstract: Growth anisotropies of bulk high temperature superconductors (HTSCs) fabricated by a top-seeded melt texture growth process, that is, different pinning effect in the growth sectors (GSs) and growth sector boundaries (GSBs), possess effect on the macro flux trapping and levitation performance of bulk HTSCs. Previous work (Physics Procedia, 36 (2012) 1043) has found that the bulk HTSC array with aligned GSB pattern (AGSBP) exhibits better capability for levitation and suppression of levitation force decay above a permanent magnet guideway (PMG) compared with misaligned GSB pattern (MGSBP). In this paper, we further examine this growth anisotropy effect on the maglev performance of a double-layer bulk HTSC. In contrast to reported trapped flux cases (Supercond. Sci. Technol. 19 (2006) S466), the two superposed bulk HTSCs with same AGSBP with PMG are found to show better maglev performance. These series of results are helpful and support a new way for the performance optimization of present HTS maglev systems.

  19. Growth anisotropy effect of bulk high temperature superconductors on the levitation performance in the applied magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J.; Liao, X. L.; Jing, H. L.; Deng, Z. G.; Yen, F.; Wang, S. Y.; Wang, J. S.

    2013-10-01

    Growth anisotropies of bulk high temperature superconductors (HTSCs) fabricated by a top-seeded melt texture growth process, that is, different pinning effect in the growth sectors (GSs) and growth sector boundaries (GSBs), possess effect on the macro flux trapping and levitation performance of bulk HTSCs. Previous work (Physics Procedia, 36 (2012) 1043) has found that the bulk HTSC array with aligned GSB pattern (AGSBP) exhibits better capability for levitation and suppression of levitation force decay above a permanent magnet guideway (PMG) compared with misaligned GSB pattern (MGSBP). In this paper, we further examine this growth anisotropy effect on the maglev performance of a double-layer bulk HTSC. In contrast to reported trapped flux cases (Supercond. Sci. Technol. 19 (2006) S466), the two superposed bulk HTSCs with same AGSBP with PMG are found to show better maglev performance. These series of results are helpful and support a new way for the performance optimization of present HTS maglev systems.

  20. Magnetic fusion technology

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Fusion Technology describes the technologies that are required for successful development of nuclear fusion power plants using strong magnetic fields. These technologies include: ? magnet systems, ? plasma heating systems, ? control systems, ? energy conversion systems, ? advanced materials development, ? vacuum systems, ? cryogenic systems, ? plasma diagnostics, ? safety systems, and ? power plant design studies. Magnetic Fusion Technology will be useful to students and to specialists working in energy research.

  1. Bond graph modeling and LQG/LTR controller design of magnetically levitation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Shik; Park, Jeon Soo [Busan National Univ. (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-09-01

    A logical and systematic procedure to derive a mathematical model for magnetically levitation (MAGLEV) systems with a combined lift and guidance is developed by using bond graph modeling techniques. First, bond graph is contructed for the 1{sup st}-dimensional MAGLEV system in which three subsystems (energy feeding, track and vehicle) are considered. And, the 2{sup nd}-dimensional MAGLEV system in which lift and guidance dynamics are coupled is modeled by using the concept of multi-port field in bond graph languages. Finally, the LQG/LTR control system is designed for a multivariable MAGLEV system with stagger configuration type. In this paper, it has been shown that the bond graph is an excellent effective method for modeling multi-energy domain systems such as MAGLEV systems with uncertainties such as mass variations, track irregularities and wind gusts. (Author).

  2. Bond graph modeling and LQG/LTR controller design of magnetically levitation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Shik; Park, Jeon Soo

    1991-01-01

    A logical and systematic procedure to derive a mathematical model for magnetically levitation (MAGLEV) systems with a combined lift and guidance is developed by using bond graph modeling techniques. First, bond graph is contructed for the 1 st -dimensional MAGLEV system in which three subsystems (energy feeding, track and vehicle) are considered. And, the 2 nd -dimensional MAGLEV system in which lift and guidance dynamics are coupled is modeled by using the concept of multi-port field in bond graph languages. Finally, the LQG/LTR control system is designed for a multivariable MAGLEV system with stagger configuration type. In this paper, it has been shown that the bond graph is an excellent effective method for modeling multi-energy domain systems such as MAGLEV systems with uncertainties such as mass variations, track irregularities and wind gusts. (Author)

  3. Design and implementation of a 2-DOF PID compensation for magnetic levitation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arun; Rakesh Krishnan, T; Tejaswy, Pailla; Mandal, Abhisek; Pradhan, Jatin K; Ranasingh, Subhakant

    2014-07-01

    This paper employs a 2-DOF (degree of freedom) PID controller for compensating a physical magnetic levitation system. It is shown that because of having a feedforward gain in the proposed 2-DOF PID control, the transient performance of the compensated system can be changed in a desired manner unlike the conventional 1-DOF PID control. It is also shown that for a choice of PID parameters, although the theoretical loop robustness is the same for both the compensated systems, in real-time, 2-DOF PID control may provide superior robustness if a suitable choice of the feedforward parameter is made. The results are verified through simulations and experiments. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Seismometer using a vertical long natural-period rotational pendulum with magnetic levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Yuji; Araya, Akito; Hidano, Kazuo

    2005-01-01

    We have demonstrated a highly sensitive/wideband vertical-component seismometer using an astatic rotational pendulum to obtain a long natural period. This seismometer employs magnetic levitation for removing any parasitic resonances of a spring to support a weight due to gravity and the thermal dependence of the spring constant. The pendulum has a cylindrical plunger-type permanent magnet that has a weight at one side of its end edge. The plunger magnet is inserted into a uniform magnetic field generated by a window-frame-type permanent magnet, and attached to two crossed-leaf spring hinges as a rotational axis outside of the bore of the magnet. Magnetic forces applied to the plunger magnet counterbalance the gravitational force at the weight. To realize stable operation of the rotational pendulum without any unnecessary movements of the plunger magnet, a tilt of lines of the magnetic force in the bore of the window-frame magnet was compensated by a tilted magnetic-pole surface near to its opening. The field uniformity reached 10 -4 owing to this compensation. The thermal dependence of a magnetic field strength of about 10 -3 /K was also compensated by as much as 9x10 -5 /K by Ni-Fe metal having a negative permeability coefficient. The metal was attached along the sidewalls of the window-frame magnet. To determine the feedback control parameters for a feedback control seismometer, the natural period of a prototype rotational pendulum was measured. It was more than 8 s, and was able to be changed from 5 to 8 s by using an additional magnetic spring, similar to the voice coil actuator of a speaker. This change was in accordance with theoretical calculations, and showed that the pendulum movement did not include a big nonlinearity caused by the tilt of the lines of the magnetic force. No parasitic resonances were found during experiments. A velocity feedback-control circuit and a capacitance position detector to measure the weight position were applied to the

  5. Measuring binding of protein to gel-bound ligands using magnetic levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Nathan D; Mirica, Katherine A; Soh, Siowling; Phillips, Scott T; Taran, Olga; Mace, Charles R; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S; Whitesides, George M

    2012-03-28

    This paper describes the use of magnetic levitation (MagLev) to measure the association of proteins and ligands. The method starts with diamagnetic gel beads that are functionalized covalently with small molecules (putative ligands). Binding of protein to the ligands within the bead causes a change in the density of the bead. When these beads are suspended in a paramagnetic aqueous buffer and placed between the poles of two NbFeB magnets with like poles facing, the changes in the density of the bead on binding of protein result in changes in the levitation height of the bead that can be used to quantify the amount of protein bound. This paper uses a reaction-diffusion model to examine the physical principles that determine the values of rate and equilibrium constants measured by this system, using the well-defined model system of carbonic anhydrase and aryl sulfonamides. By tuning the experimental protocol, the method is capable of quantifying either the concentration of protein in a solution, or the binding affinities of a protein to several resin-bound small molecules simultaneously. Since this method requires no electricity and only a single piece of inexpensive equipment, it may find use in situations where portability and low cost are important, such as in bioanalysis in resource-limited settings, point-of-care diagnosis, veterinary medicine, and plant pathology. It still has several practical disadvantages. Most notably, the method requires relatively long assay times and cannot be applied to large proteins (>70 kDa), including antibodies. The design and synthesis of beads with improved characteristics (e.g., larger pore size) has the potential to resolve these problems.

  6. The high-sensitive magnetic levitated electrode ionization chamber of the noncontacting type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Toshiro; Yoshimura, Atsushi

    1999-01-01

    There are two types of ionization chamber using magnetically levitated electrode: one is that by Tanaka et al. and the other, by authors'. The latter lacks the sensitivity relative to the former and thereby to solve the problem, authors made an improvement so that the electrode charge could be readout by noncontact after the leviated electrode was electrified by noncontact for an interval. This new type ionization chamber made it possible to measure the quite low dose radiation with stability and high sensitivity. Actually, the electrode was suspended by the teflon thread fixed on the steel cup levitated magnetically in the ionization chamber of which wall was covered by Al and equipped with an electrostatic charger for the electrode by noncontact. After measurement, the electrode was moved in the Faraday cage placed under the chamber to readout the voltage. For operation conditions of the apparatus, observation was done on the relationship between ionization current by 137 Cs and the applied voltage. For actual measurement, ionizations by low dose γ ray derived from KCl which containing 40 K in a small amount and by Rn at the fine and rainy days were measured. The exposure rate by KCl (500 g bottle) was found to be 12.7 x 10 -10 C/kg·h with the background value of 9.8 x 10 -10 . Rn concentrations in the air were 112.3 and 18.34 Bq/m 3 for 1 hr in the rainy and fine day, respectively, in Fukuoka City. (K.H.)

  7. Levitation in paramagnetic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunne, P.A. [School of Physics and CRANN, Trinity Collge, Dublin 2 (Ireland)]. E-mail: pdunne2@tcd.ie; Hilton, J. [School of Physics and CRANN, Trinity Collge, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Coey, J.M.D. [School of Physics and CRANN, Trinity Collge, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2007-09-15

    Magnetic levitation of diamagnetic and paramagnetic substances in a paramagnetic liquid is explored. Materials ranging from graphite to tin and copper can be made to float at ambient temperature in concentrated solutions of dysprosium nitrate, when an electromagnet or four-block permanent magnet array is used to produce a gradient field. Simulations illustrate the stable regions for levitation above the permanent magnets; and a novel eight-block configuration is proposed, which allows denser materials such as gold or lead to be levitated.

  8. Levitation in paramagnetic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunne, P.A.; Hilton, J.; Coey, J.M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic levitation of diamagnetic and paramagnetic substances in a paramagnetic liquid is explored. Materials ranging from graphite to tin and copper can be made to float at ambient temperature in concentrated solutions of dysprosium nitrate, when an electromagnet or four-block permanent magnet array is used to produce a gradient field. Simulations illustrate the stable regions for levitation above the permanent magnets; and a novel eight-block configuration is proposed, which allows denser materials such as gold or lead to be levitated

  9. Modeling of a compliant joint in a Magnetic Levitation System for an endoscopic camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel compliant Magnetic Levitation System (MLS for a wired miniature surgical camera robot was designed, modeled and fabricated. The robot is composed of two main parts, head and tail, linked by a compliant beam. The tail module embeds two magnets for anchoring and manual rough translation. The head module incorporates two motorized donut-shaped magnets and a miniaturized vision system at the tip. The compliant MLS can exploit the static external magnetic field to induce a smooth bending of the robotic head (0–80°, guaranteeing a wide span tilt motion of the point of view. A nonlinear mathematical model for compliant beam was developed and solved analytically in order to describe and predict the trajectory behaviour of the system for different structural parameters. The entire device is 95 mm long and 12.7 mm in diameter. Use of such a robot in single port or standard multiport laparoscopy could enable a reduction of the number or size of ancillary trocars, or increase the number of working devices that can be deployed, thus paving the way for multiple view point laparoscopy.

  10. Lift force fluctuations of magnetically levitated vehicles with an integrated synchronous linear motor and their significance for the technical security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mnich, P; Huebner, K D

    1980-07-15

    In this paper the influence of the motor current on the magnetic force is investigated by an analytical method. With the integrated synchronous linear motor the reactions of the current sheet on the excitation field are depending on the pole angle and the amplitude of the current sheet. For an undisturbed operation - current sheet and induction wave in phase - the influence of the motor current on the magnetic force can be neglected. In case of a disturbed performance, i.e. when the pole angle is changing periodically, fluctuations of the magnetic force will be found. This effect has to be compensated by a reserve magnetic force in the levitation control. With the technical data for the new magnetic levitation pilots plants (International Traffic Fair 1979 at Hamburg and Transrapid - Pilot Plant Emsland) the stated relations are evaluated. Approximated relations for the levitation force are derived. For comparison, a finite-difference computer programme from the 'Institut fuer elektrische Maschinen, Antriebe und Bahnen, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig' is applied. The approximated relations developed in this paper are verified - with a sufficient precision - by the numerical calculations.

  11. Magnetic levitation as a platform for competitive protein-ligand binding assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Nathan D; Soh, Siowling; Mirica, Katherine A; Whitesides, George M

    2012-07-17

    This paper describes a method based on magnetic levitation (MagLev) that is capable of indirectly measuring the binding of unlabeled ligands to unlabeled protein. We demonstrate this method by measuring the affinity of unlabeled bovine carbonic anhydrase (BCA) for a variety of ligands (most of which are benzene sulfonamide derivatives). This method utilizes porous gel beads that are functionalized with a common aryl sulfonamide ligand. The beads are incubated with BCA and allowed to reach an equilibrium state in which the majority of the immobilized ligands are bound to BCA. Since the beads are less dense than the protein, protein binding to the bead increases the overall density of the bead. This change in density can be monitored using MagLev. Transferring the beads to a solution containing no protein creates a situation where net protein efflux from the bead is thermodynamically favorable. The rate at which protein leaves the bead for the solution can be calculated from the rate at which the levitation height of the bead changes. If another small molecule ligand of BCA is dissolved in the solution, the rate of protein efflux is accelerated significantly. This paper develops a reaction-diffusion (RD) model to explain both this observation, and the physical-organic chemistry that underlies it. Using this model, we calculate the dissociation constants of several unlabeled ligands from BCA, using plots of levitation height versus time. Notably, although this method requires no electricity, and only a single piece of inexpensive equipment, it can measure accurately the binding of unlabeled proteins to small molecules over a wide range of dissociation constants (K(d) values within the range from ~10 nM to 100 μM are measured easily). Assays performed using this method generally can be completed within a relatively short time period (20 min-2 h). A deficiency of this system is that it is not, in its present form, applicable to proteins with molecular weight greater

  12. Densimetry in compressed fluids by combining hydrostatic weighing and magnetic levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masui, R.; Haynes, W.M.; Chang, R.F.; Davis, H.A.; Sengers, J.M.H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A magnetic suspension densimeter is described that has been built for measuring the density of compressed liquids at pressures up to 15 MPa in the temperature range 20 0 --200 0 C with an uncertainty of 0.1%. The densimeter combines the principle of magnetic levitation of a buoy with that of liquid density determination by hydrostatic weighing. To accomplish this, the support coil is suspended from an electronic balance, and the balance readings are recorded (1) with the buoy at rest, and (2) with the buoy in magnetic suspension. Details are given of the construction of the cell, coil, buoy, and thermostat. The procedure is described by which cell and buoy are aligned so that the suspended buoy does not touch the cell wall. Test data on the densities of seven different liquids were obtained at room temperature. They agree with reliable literature values to within 0.1%. In a separate experiment, the bulk thermal expansion coefficient of the buoy material was determined. This experiment and its results are also given here

  13. Levitation of water and organic substances in high static magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaugnon, E.; Tournier, R.

    1991-08-01

    The levitation of various diamagnetic liquid and solid substances such as water, ethanol, acetone, bismuth, antimony, graphite, wood and plastic has been achieved at room temperature in a strong inhomogeneous static magnetic field. These experiments were performed in the hybrid magnet at the Service National des Champs Intenses (CNRS, Grenoble). These findings show that high field superconducting magnets could be used to provide a contactless, low gravity environment for the elaboration of a wide range of materials. En utilisant les forts champs magnétiques produits par la bobine hybride du Service National des Champs Intenses (CNRS, Grenoble), nous avons obtenu àtempérature ambiante la lévitation de substances diamagnétiques solides ou liquides telles que l'eau, l'alcool, l'acétone, le bismuth, l'antimoine, le graphite, le bois et le plastique. Ces résultats montrent que les bobines supraconductrices peuvent être utilisées pour l'élaboration de nombreux matériaux en gravité réduite, sans contact avec un contenant.

  14. Motion stability of the magnetic levitation and suspension with YBa2Cu3O7-x high-Tc superconducting bulks and NdFeB magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jipeng; Zheng, Jun; Huang, Huan; Li, Yanxing; Li, Haitao; Deng, Zigang

    2017-10-01

    The flux pinning effect of YBa2Cu3O7-x high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk can achieve self-stable levitation over a permanent magnet or magnet array. Devices based on this phenomenon have been widely developed. However, the self-stable flux pinning effect is not unconditional, under disturbances, for example. To disclose the roots of this amazing self-stable levitation phenomenon in theory, mathematical and mechanical calculations using Lyapunov's stability theorem and the Hurwitz criterion were performed under the conditions of magnetic levitation and suspension of HTS bulk near permanent magnets in Halbach array. It is found that the whole dynamical system, in the case of levitation, has only one equilibrium solution, and the singular point is a stable focus. In the general case of suspension, the system has two singular points: one is a stable focus, and the other is an unstable saddle. With the variation of suspension force, the two first-order singular points mentioned earlier will get closer and closer, and finally degenerate to a high-order singular point, which means the stable region gets smaller and smaller, and finally vanishes. According to the center manifold theorem, the high-order singular point is unstable. With the interaction force varying, the HTS suspension dynamical system undergoes a saddle-node bifurcation. Moreover, a deficient damping can also decrease the stable region. These findings, together with existing experiments, could enlighten the improvement of HTS devices with strong anti-interference ability.

  15. A control method of the rotor re-levitation for different orbit responses during touchdowns in active magnetic bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Mindong; Liu, Tao; Wang, Zixi; Yan, Shaoze; Jia, Xiaohong; Wang, Yuming

    2018-05-01

    Touchdown can make active magnetic bearings (AMB) unable to work, and bring severe damages to touchdown bearings (TDB). To resolve it, we presents a novel re-levitation method consisting of two operations, i.e., orbit response recognition and rotor re-levitation. In the operation of orbit response recognition, the three orbit responses (pendulum vibration, combined rub and bouncing, and full rub) can be identified by the expectation of radial displacement of rotor and expectation of instantaneous frequency (IF) of rotor motion in the sampling period. In the rotor re-levitation operation, a decentralized PID control algorithm is employed for pendulum vibration and combined rub and bouncing, and the decentralized PID control algorithm and another whirl damping algorithm, in which the weighting factor is determined by the whirl frequency, are jointly executed for the full rub. The method has been demonstrated by the simulation results of an AMB model. The results reveal that the method is effective in actively suppressing the whirl motion and promptly re-levitating the rotor. As the PID control algorithm and the simple operations of signal processing are employed, the algorithm has a low computation intensity, which makes it more easily realized in practical applications.

  16. Design of a Mathematical Unit in FPGA for the Implementation of the Control of a Magnetic Levitation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Raygoza-Panduro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of an automatically generated mathematical unit, from a program developed in Java that describes the VHDL circuit, ready to be synthesized with the Xilinx ISE tool. The core contains diverse complex operations such as mathematical functions including sine and cosine, among others. The proposed unit is used to synthesize a sliding mode controller for a magnetic levitation system. This kind of systems is used in industrial applications requiring high level of mathematical calculations in small time periods. The core is designed to calculate trigonometric and arithmetic operations in such a way that each function is performed in a clock cycle. In this paper, the results of the mathematical core are shown in terms of implementation, utilization, and application to control a magnetic levitation system.

  17. Laboratory scale prototype of a low-speed electrodynamic levitation system based on a Halbach magnet array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iniguez, J; Raposo, V

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the behaviour of a small-scale model of a magnetic levitation system based on the Inductrack concept. Drag and lift forces acting on our prototype, moving above a continuous copper track, are studied analytically following a simple low-speed approach. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical calculations. 3D-numerical simulations are also used to highlight the significance of the edge effects and to extrapolate the results to higher speeds

  18. Laboratory scale prototype of a low-speed electrodynamic levitation system based on a Halbach magnet array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iniguez, J; Raposo, V [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, E-37071 (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    In this paper we analyse the behaviour of a small-scale model of a magnetic levitation system based on the Inductrack concept. Drag and lift forces acting on our prototype, moving above a continuous copper track, are studied analytically following a simple low-speed approach. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical calculations. 3D-numerical simulations are also used to highlight the significance of the edge effects and to extrapolate the results to higher speeds.

  19. The attenuation of the levitation force of HTS bulk exposed to AC magnetic field on the above NdFeB guideway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Minxian; Wang Yan

    2012-01-01

    The characteristic of the levitation force relaxation was studied by experiment. The levitation force is attenuated with the application of the AC external magnetic field. The decay increases with the amplitude of the A external magnetic field. The decay is almost independent of the frequency of AC field. In the present High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) maglev vehicle system, the air gaps between the adjacent permanent magnets make the magnetic fields above the NdFeB guideway non-uniform. So it is required to study the characteristics of levitation force of the HTS bulk affected by the non-uniform applied magnetic fields along the moving direction. In this paper, we have studied the characteristics of the levitation force relaxation by an experiment in which AC magnetic field generated by an electromagnet is used to simulate the time-varying magnetic field caused by the inhomogeneity of the NdFeB guideway. From the experiment results, it is found that the levitation force is attenuated with the application of the AC field, and the attenuation is increased with the amplitude of the AC field, but the attenuation is almost independent of the frequency the AC magnetic field.

  20. The attenuation of the levitation force of HTS bulk exposed to AC magnetic field on the above NdFeB guideway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Minxian, E-mail: liukey_sjtu@263.net [School of Computer Science and Technology, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, Sichuan 621010 (China); Wang Yan [Luoyang Institute of Science and Technology, Luoyang, Henan 471023 (China)

    2012-01-15

    The characteristic of the levitation force relaxation was studied by experiment. The levitation force is attenuated with the application of the AC external magnetic field. The decay increases with the amplitude of the A external magnetic field. The decay is almost independent of the frequency of AC field. In the present High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) maglev vehicle system, the air gaps between the adjacent permanent magnets make the magnetic fields above the NdFeB guideway non-uniform. So it is required to study the characteristics of levitation force of the HTS bulk affected by the non-uniform applied magnetic fields along the moving direction. In this paper, we have studied the characteristics of the levitation force relaxation by an experiment in which AC magnetic field generated by an electromagnet is used to simulate the time-varying magnetic field caused by the inhomogeneity of the NdFeB guideway. From the experiment results, it is found that the levitation force is attenuated with the application of the AC field, and the attenuation is increased with the amplitude of the AC field, but the attenuation is almost independent of the frequency the AC magnetic field.

  1. TID and I-TD controller design for magnetic levitation system using genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debdoot Sain

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the design of controllers for magnetic levitation (Maglev system in both simulation and real time. Local linearization around the equilibrium point has been done for the nonlinear Maglev system to obtain a linearized model transfer function. In this study, the design of integral-tilted-derivative (I-TD controller has been proposed for the Maglev system and its performance is compared with conventional tilted-integral-derivative (TID controller. In this study, TID controller parameters have been optimized through genetic algorithm (GA and those set of values have been employed for the design of I-TD controller. A performance comparison between TID and I-TD controller is then investigated. The analysis shows the superiority of I-TD controller over TID controller in terms of maximum overshoot, gain margin and phase margin. The settling time remains almost same in both the cases. In future, a detailed study of robustness in presence of model uncertainties will be incorporated as a scope of further research.

  2. Magnetic Levitation To Characterize the Kinetics of Free-Radical Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shencheng; Semenov, Sergey N; Nagarkar, Amit A; Milette, Jonathan; Christodouleas, Dionysios C; Yuan, Li; Whitesides, George M

    2017-12-27

    This work describes the development of magnetic levitation (MagLev) to characterize the kinetics of free-radical polymerization of water-insoluble, low-molecular-weight monomers that show a large change in density upon polymerization. Maglev measures density, and certain classes of monomers show a large change in density when monomers covalently join in polymer chains. MagLev characterized both the thermal polymerization of methacrylate-based monomers and the photopolymerization of methyl methacrylate and made it possible to determine the orders of reaction and the Arrhenius activation energy of polymerization. MagLev also made it possible to monitor polymerization in the presence of solids (aramid fibers, and carbon fibers, and glass fibers). MagLev offers a new analytical technique to materials and polymer scientists that complements other methods (even those based on density, such as dilatometry), and will be useful in investigating polymerizations, evaluating inhibition of polymerizations, and studying polymerization in the presence of included solid materials (e.g., for composite materials).

  3. The Prestressed Track Beam Testing Technology of Shanghai Electromagnetic Levitation Train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-biao WANG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Shanghai electromagnetic levitation train (maglev is the first one that is constructed and operated commercially in the world. Many technological problems have to be tackled during its construction, and the most difficult problem in the civil engineering part is the making of prestressed track beam. It requires high precision because of its special function. The stretching control of the pre-tensioning force and the post-tensioning force in the making of prestressed track beam is most important during the construction. This paper introduces and analyses the technical features of vibrating wire sensors as well as the development, the research and the application of force sensor for pulling force measurement of anchor cable.

  4. Stationary levitation and vibration transmission characteristic in a superconducting seismic isolation device with a permanent magnet system and a copper plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, S., E-mail: s.sasaki@ecei.tohoku.ac.j [Electrical Engineering Department, Graduate School, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aoba Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Shimada, K.; Yagai, T.; Tsuda, M.; Hamajima, T. [Electrical Engineering Department, Graduate School, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aoba Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Kawai, N.; Yasui, K. [Okumura Corporation, 5-6-1 Shiba, Minato-ku, Tokyo 180-8381 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    We have devised a magnetic levitation type superconducting seismic isolation device taking advantage of the specific characteristic of HTS bulk that the HTS bulk returns to its original position by restoring force against a horizontal displacement. The superconducting seismic isolation device is composed of HTS bulks and permanent magnets (PM rails). The PMs are fixed on an iron plate to realize the same polarities in the longitudinal direction and the different polarities in the transverse direction. The superconducting seismic isolation device can theoretically remove any horizontal vibrations completely. Therefore, the vibration transmissibility in the longitudinal direction of the PM rail becomes zero in theory. The zero vibration transmissibility and the stationary levitation, however, cannot be achieved in the real device because a uniform magnetic field distribution in the longitudinal direction of PM rail cannot be realized due to the individual difference of the PMs. Therefore, to achieve stationary levitation in the real device we adopted a PM-PM system that the different polarities are faced each other. The stationary levitation could be achieved by the magnetic interaction between the PMs in the PM-PM system, while the vibration transmitted to the seismic isolation object due to the magnetic interaction. We adopted a copper plate between the PMs to reduce the vibration transmissibility. The PM-PM system with the copper plate is very useful for realizing the stationary levitation and reducing the vibration transmissibility.

  5. Stationary levitation and vibration transmission characteristic in a superconducting seismic isolation device with a permanent magnet system and a copper plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, S.; Shimada, K.; Yagai, T.; Tsuda, M.; Hamajima, T.; Kawai, N.; Yasui, K.

    2010-01-01

    We have devised a magnetic levitation type superconducting seismic isolation device taking advantage of the specific characteristic of HTS bulk that the HTS bulk returns to its original position by restoring force against a horizontal displacement. The superconducting seismic isolation device is composed of HTS bulks and permanent magnets (PM rails). The PMs are fixed on an iron plate to realize the same polarities in the longitudinal direction and the different polarities in the transverse direction. The superconducting seismic isolation device can theoretically remove any horizontal vibrations completely. Therefore, the vibration transmissibility in the longitudinal direction of the PM rail becomes zero in theory. The zero vibration transmissibility and the stationary levitation, however, cannot be achieved in the real device because a uniform magnetic field distribution in the longitudinal direction of PM rail cannot be realized due to the individual difference of the PMs. Therefore, to achieve stationary levitation in the real device we adopted a PM-PM system that the different polarities are faced each other. The stationary levitation could be achieved by the magnetic interaction between the PMs in the PM-PM system, while the vibration transmitted to the seismic isolation object due to the magnetic interaction. We adopted a copper plate between the PMs to reduce the vibration transmissibility. The PM-PM system with the copper plate is very useful for realizing the stationary levitation and reducing the vibration transmissibility.

  6. Next-generation mass standard using the superconducting magnetic levitation method; Chodendo jiki fujoho ni yoru jisedai shitsuryo hyojun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miki, Yukinobu; Shiota, Fuyuhiko; Fujii, Yusaku [National Research Laboratory of Metrology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1999-10-25

    The Present mass standard based on the prototype of the kilogram has some serious problems such as surface contamination and unrecoverablity in the case of damage or loss. Research on monitoring and finally replacing the present mass standard are therefore encouraged and some approaches have been proposed. In this article, the superconducting magnetic levitation method, which is one of the approaches that also makes use of the unique properties of superconductivity, is reviewed together with a brief description about mass and electric standards. (author)

  7. Levitation Performance of Two Opposed Permanent Magnet Pole-Pair Separated Conical Bearingless Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascak, Peter; Jansen, Ralph; Dever, Timothy; Nagorny, Aleksandr; Loparo, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    In standard motor applications, rotor suspension with traditional mechanical bearings represents the most economical solution. However, in certain high performance applications, rotor suspension without contacting bearings is either required or highly beneficial. Examples include applications requiring very high speed or extreme environment operation, or with limited access for maintenance. This paper expands upon a novel bearingless motor concept, in which two motors with opposing conical air-gaps are used to achieve full five-axis levitation and rotation of the rotor. Force in this motor is created by deliberately leaving the motor s pole-pairs unconnected, which allows the creation of different d-axis flux in each pole pair. This flux imbalance is used to create lateral force. This approach is different than previous bearingless motor designs, which require separate windings for levitation and rotation. This paper examines the predicted and achieved suspension performance of a fully levitated prototype bearingless system.

  8. Experimental study on stabilizing range extension of diamagnetic levitation under modulated magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, T C S; Wong, P L; Liu, K P, E-mail: 50578230@student.cityu.edu.h, E-mail: meplwong@cityu.edu.h, E-mail: mekpliu@cityu.edu.h [Manufacturing Engineering and Engineering Management Department, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-01-01

    The real energy-free levitation exists with the help of diamagnetic material. Its ultra-high sensitivity to force is particularly attractive to micro/nano force sensing. A key parameter: Levitation Stabilizing Local Range, LR (allowable moving range of the floater) is critical to the load and self-rotating performance. Besides, larger LR reduces the energy loss due to the eddy current and has greater application potential. Recently, an idea of extending the LR by a modulating coil array has been validated using numerical simulation. This paper takes the next move to carry out an experimental study on the shape effect of stacked coil arrays with different currents on LR.

  9. Numerical investigation of the relationship between magnetic stiffness and minor loop size in the HTS levitation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of minor loop size on the magnetic stiffness has not been paid attention to by most researchers in experimental and theoretical studies about the high temperature superconductor (HTS magnetic levitation system. In this work, we numerically investigate the average magnetic stiffness obtained by the minor loop traverses Δz (or Δx varying from 0.1 mm to 2 mm in zero field cooling and field cooling regimes, respectively. The approximate values of the magnetic stiffness with zero traverse are obtained using the method of linear extrapolation. Compared with the average magnetic stiffness gained by any minor loop traverse, these approximate values are Not always close to the average magnetic stiffness produced by the smallest size of minor loops. The relative deviation ranges of average magnetic stiffness gained by the usually minor loop traverse (1 or 2 mm are presented by the ratios of approximate values to average stiffness for different moving processes and two typical cooling conditions. The results show that most of average magnetic stiffness are remarkably influenced by the sizes of minor loop, which indicates that the magnetic stiffness obtained by a single minor loop traverse Δz or Δx, for example, 1 or 2 mm, can be generally caused a large deviation.

  10. Magnetic Suspension Technology Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keckler, C.R.; Groom, N.J.; Britcher, C.P.

    1993-01-01

    In order to identify the state of magnetic suspension technology in such areas as rotating systems, pointing of experiments or subsystems, payload isolation, and superconducting materials, a workshop on Magnetic Suspension Technology was held at the Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, on 2-4 Feb. 1988. The workshop included five technical sessions in which a total of 24 papers were presented. The technical sessions covered the areas of pointing, isolation, and measurement, rotating systems, modeling and control, and superconductors. A list of attendees is provided. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report

  11. High-speed magnetic levitation system TRANSRAPID. History, development program, first application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiescholek, U [Federal Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Technology, Bonn (Germany); Rogg, D [Dornier SystemConsult, Friedrichshafen (Germany); Mayer, W J [Dornier SystemConsult, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Basing on the origins of the MAGLEV system development in Germany the Transrapid train is described. The TRANSRAPID drive is an synchronous long-stator linear motor. Levitation, guidance and propulsion as well as braking are performed completely without contact with the guideway, at any speed. The first track will be the Berlin Hamburg track with a length of 283 km. (HW)

  12. Evaluation of environmental control technologies for magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-01

    The peripheral magnetic fields of several energy-related technologies are calculated, and shielding options are studied for three field intensities as possible exposure levels: 200 G, 10 G, and 0.3 G. Seven fusion reactor designs are studied. For a 200-G field level, shielding is not required. For the 10- and 0.3-G levels, land is the most economical shielding method, with shield coils an acceptable alternative at 0.3 G. Nonnuclear technologies studied are superconducting magnetic energy storage, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electric generators, magnetically levitated vehicles, superconducting ac generators, and underground transmission lines. Superconducting ac generators and underground transmission lines require no shielding. The superconducting magnetic energy storage coil requires no shielding for 200 G. Both a shield coil and land are needed to meet 10 G or 0.3 G. The MHD generator needs no shielding to 200 G and 10 G. Land is the most economical means of meeting the 0.3 G level. Most of the magnetically levitated vehicles require no shielding to 200 G. The field on-board can be reduced from 200 to 25 G, depending upon the vehicle design, with shield coils. The use of iron, or another permeable material, is necessary to reduce the field to 10 G or 0.3 G. However, iron introduces too much added weight to allow efficient operation.

  13. Electrodynamic support and/or guide device for a magnetic levitation train. Elektrodynamische Trag- und/oder Fuehrungsvorrichtung fuer eine Magnetschwebebahn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtenberg, A

    1979-02-15

    The invention refers to an electrodynamic support and/or guide device for a magnetic levitation train, in which magnets, particularly superconducting magnets are situated on a vehicle, which has rail-like electrically conducting plates or loops on the track. The purpose of the invention is to describe such an electrodynamic support and/or guide device, which can achieve contactless support or guidance of an electrodynamic levitation vehicle when stopped. According to the invention, the problem is solved by the magnetic fields of the support and/or guide magnets acting on the electrically conducting plates or loops of the track being controlled so that moving magnetic fields relative to the vehicle are produced. In this way it is possible to support and/or to guide the vehicle electro-dynamically from standstill to the maximum speed and to drive or brake it.

  14. Friction in levitated superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, E.H.

    1988-01-01

    A type I superconductor levitated above a magnet of low symmetry has a unique equilibrium position about which it may oscillate freely. In contrast, a type II superconductor has a continuous range of stable equilibrium positions and orientations where it floats rigidly without swinging or orbiting as if it were stuck in sand. A strong internal friction conspicuously indicates the existence and unpinning of flux lines in oxide superconductors levitated above liquid nitrogen. It is shown how these effects follow from the hysteretic magnetization curves and how the energy is dissipated

  15. Improved Outcome of Cardiac Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Infants and Children Using Magnetic Levitation Centrifugal Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, Giovanni Battista; Hoxha, Stiljan; Torre, Salvatore; Rungatscher, Alessio; Menon, Tiziano; Barozzi, Luca; Faggian, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has traditionally been and, for the most part, still is being performed using roller pumps. Use of first-generation centrifugal pumps has yielded controversial outcomes, perhaps due to mechanical properties of the same and the ensuing risk of hemolysis and renal morbidity. Latest-generation centrifugal pumps, using magnetic levitation (ML), exhibit mechanical properties which may have overcome limitations of first-generation devices. This retrospective study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of veno-arterial (V-A) ECMO for cardiac indications in neonates, infants, and children, using standard (SP) and latest-generation ML centrifugal pumps. Between 2002 and 2014, 33 consecutive neonates, infants, and young children were supported using V-A ECMO for cardiac indications. There were 21 males and 12 females, with median age of 29 days (4 days-5 years) and a median body weight of 3.2 kg (1.9-18 kg). Indication for V-A ECMO were acute circulatory collapse in ICU or ward after cardiac repair in 16 (49%) patients, failure to wean after repair of complex congenital heart disease in 9 (27%), fulminant myocarditis in 4 (12%), preoperative sepsis in 2 (6%), and refractory tachy-arrhythmias in 2 (6%). Central cannulation was used in 27 (81%) patients and peripheral in 6. Seven (21%) patients were supported with SP and 26 (79%) with ML centrifugal pumps. Median duration of support was 82 h (range 24-672 h), with 26 (79%) patients weaned from support. Three patients required a second ECMO run but died on support. Seventeen (51%) patients required peritoneal dialysis for acute renal failure. Overall survival to discharge was 39% (13/33 patients). All patients with fulminant myocarditis and with refractory arrhythmias were weaned, and five (83%) survived, whereas no patient supported for sepsis survived. Risk factors for hospital mortality included lower (pumps in infants and children yields outcomes absolutely comparable to

  16. Evaluation of Landing Characteristics Achieved by Simulations and Flight Tests on a Small-scaled Model Related to Magnetically Levitated Advanced Take-off and Landing Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohacs, D.; Voskuijl, M.; Siepenkotter, N.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to simulate and measure on a small-scaled model the landing characteristics related to take-off and landing (TOL) operations supported by a magnetic levitation (MAGLEV) system as ground-based power supply. The technical feasibility and the potential benefits of using

  17. The Levitation Control System for the Levitated Dipole Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, D. T.; Hansen, A. K.; Mauel, M. E.; Pedersen, T. Sunn; Dagen, S.; Kesner, J.; Liptac, J.

    2001-10-01

    The confining field in the Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX) is provided by a 1/2 ton levitated superconducting dipole magnet. This floating coil is charged with 1.5 MA current and will be levitated continuously for the eight hour experimental run day. Earnshaw's theorem states that there exists no statically stable configuration for levitation of magnets. In LDX, the floating coil is levitated by a smaller dipole levitation coil 1.5 meters above. This configuration is unstable vertically, but stable in tilt or horizontal motion. The position of the coil will be monitored with a set of eight laser position detectors giving redundant measurements of the five degrees of freedom of the floating coil. The levitation will then be stabilized by feedback control of the current in the levitation coil. The feedback system is a digital system running on a real time operating system platform. This system is programmed, monitored, and controlled by a second computer using Matlab Simulink. The system is currently being tested on a small model and a larger test is planned before LDX operation. Results from these tests and optimizations will be presented.

  18. A magnetically levitated electrode ionization chamber of the noncontact measurement type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Toshiro; Yoshimura, Atsushi

    2002-01-01

    A new type of ionization chamber with levitated electrode has been developed. In this ionization chamber, an ion-collection electrode levitates in the air without getting any physical support from the insulator. The electrode is charged by an electrostatic charger without physical contact. The charge of the electrode is read out at a Faraday cage periodically at a given time interval without physical contact. Because its electrode levitates, the ionization chamber produces no background current caused by leaks or piezo current. In addition, as the charging of its electrode and the read-out of its charge are carried out without physical contact, no irregular charge or contact potential difference due to the chattering between electrode and contact point occurs. Through experiments, it was found that this ionization chamber was able to measure the γ-ray dose such as the environmental radiation with a high degree of sensitivity. The minimum detectable value of ionization current when accumulated for 1 h is about 1.3x10 -17 A

  19. A magnetically levitated electrode ionization chamber of the noncontact measurement type

    CERN Document Server

    Kawaguchi, T

    2002-01-01

    A new type of ionization chamber with levitated electrode has been developed. In this ionization chamber, an ion-collection electrode levitates in the air without getting any physical support from the insulator. The electrode is charged by an electrostatic charger without physical contact. The charge of the electrode is read out at a Faraday cage periodically at a given time interval without physical contact. Because its electrode levitates, the ionization chamber produces no background current caused by leaks or piezo current. In addition, as the charging of its electrode and the read-out of its charge are carried out without physical contact, no irregular charge or contact potential difference due to the chattering between electrode and contact point occurs. Through experiments, it was found that this ionization chamber was able to measure the gamma-ray dose such as the environmental radiation with a high degree of sensitivity. The minimum detectable value of ionization current when accumulated for 1 h is a...

  20. Campaign for Levitation in LDX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, D. T.; Hansen, A. K.; Mauel, M. E.; Ortiz, E. E.; Boxer, A. C.; Ellsworth, J. L.; Karim, I.; Kesner, J.; Michael, P. C.; Zhukovsky, A.

    2006-10-01

    In the past year, preparations have been made for the first flight of the Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX). LDX, which consists of a 560 kg superconducting coil floating within a 5 m diameter vacuum chamber, is designed to study fusion relevant plasmas confined in a dipole magnetic field. During the spring, a high temperature superconducting levitation coil was integrated into the LDX facility. Testing was undertaken to verify the thermal performance of the coil under expected levitation conditions. In addition, a real-time operating system digital control system was developed that will be used for the levitation control. In July, plasma experiments were conducted with all superconducting magnets in operation. While still supported, roughly 75% of the weight of the floating coil was magnetically lifted by the levitation coil above. A series of plasma experiments were conducted with the same magnetic geometry as will be the case during levitation. During August, the second generation launcher system will be installed. The launcher, which retracts beyond the plasma's last closed field lines during operation, is designed to safely catch the floating coil following an unexpected loss of control. After this installation, levitation experiments will commence.

  1. Nonmagnetic concrete. Guide for the superconductive magnetically levitated train system (Maglev); Hijisei concrete. Chodendo jiki fujoshiki tetsudoyo guide way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tottori, S; Sato, T [Railway Technical Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-07-01

    Non-magnetization is applied to concrete structures with which magnetic environment is a problem, such as a guideway for superconductive magnetically levitated train system (Maglev) and geomagnetism observation facilities. As an example, this paper introduces the conception and the design methods of guideways for Maglev. If reinforcing bars or tensing materials of common steel are placed close to a vehicle, inductive current is generated in the steel due to moving magnetic field, causing a problem to form part of driving resistance. The inductive current includes loop current and eddy current. The former current may be prevented if the contact resistance in steels with each other is about one ohm or more, but the latter current has no other means but to minimize it as long as the material is electrically conductive. Conceivable measures may include the use as reinforcing bars of non magnetic high Mn-steel with electric specific resistance of 4 to 5 times as large as that for common steel reinforcing bars, and the use of continuous reinforcing fibers such as aramid. The latter material requires strength design especially importantly, but has obtained good result when it was constructed at the experimental linear motor train guideway at Miyazaki, Japan. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Magnetically levitated railway with common reaction rail for a linear motor drive and an electro dynamic side guidance arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, R

    1977-04-07

    The invention concerns a magnetically levitated railway with common reaction rail for the linear motor drive and the electrical side guidance arrangement. While the electro-dynamic hovering process requires a high electrical conductivity of the reaction rails in order to reduce eddy current losses, these should show a relatively high resistance for the asynchronous linear motor to reduce losses of propelling force. These contradictory requirements can be fulfilled for a common reaction rail made of homogeneous material of high electrical conductivity according to the invention, by providing slits at right angles to the driving axis in the part of the reaction rail allocated to the linear motor. Thus the guidance system retains a low ohmic resistance, while the part of the reaction rail allocated to the windings of the linear motor has a relatively low ohmic secondary resistance, by which the border and end effects which reduce the propelling force can be appreciably reduced.

  3. Initial crystallization and growth in melt processing of large-domain YBa2Cu3Ox for magnetic levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, D.

    1994-10-01

    Crystallization temperature in YBa 2 Cu 3 O x (123) during peritectic reaction has been studied by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and optical microscopy. It has been found that YBa 2 Cu 3 O x experiences partial melting near 1,010 C during heating while crystallization takes place at a much lower temperature range upon cooling indicating a delayed nucleation process. A series of experiments have been conducted to search for the initial crystallization temperature in the Y 2 BaCuO x + liquid phase field. The authors have found that the slow-cool period (1 C/h) for the 123 grain texturing can start at as low as 960 C. This novel processing has resulted in high-quality, large-domain, strongly pinned 123 magnetic levitators

  4. Normal spectral emissivity measurement of molten copper using an electromagnetic levitator superimposed with a static magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Ryo; Inoue, Takamitsu; Baba, Yuya; Sugioka, Ken-ichi; Kubo, Masaki; Tsukada, Takao; Fukuyama, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    The normal spectral emissivity of molten copper was determined in the wavelength range of 780–920 nm and in the temperature range of 1288–1678 K, by directly measuring the radiance emitted by an electromagnetically levitated molten copper droplet under a static magnetic field of 1.5 T. The spectrometer for radiance measurement was calibrated using the relation between the theoretical blackbody radiance from Planck's law and the light intensity of a quasi-blackbody radiation source measured using a spectrometer at a given temperature. As a result, the normal spectral emissivity of molten copper was determined as 0.075 ± 0.011 at a wavelength of 807 nm, and it was found that its temperature dependence is negligible in the entire measurement temperature range tested. In addition, the results of the normal spectral emissivity and its wavelength dependence were discussed, in comparison with those obtained using the Drude free-electron model. (paper)

  5. Velocity damper for electromagnetically levitated materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, R.J.

    1994-06-07

    A system for damping oscillatory and spinning motions induced in an electromagnetically levitated material is disclosed. Two opposed field magnets are located orthogonally to the existing levitation coils for providing a DC quadrupole field (cusp field) around the material. The material used for generating the DC quadrupole field must be nonconducting to avoid eddy-current heating and of low magnetic permeability to avoid distorting the induction fields providing the levitation. 1 fig.

  6. A six-degree-of-freedom magnetic levitation fine stage for a high-precision and high-acceleration dual-servo stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, MyeongHyeon; Jeong, Jae-heon; Gweon, DaeGab; Kim, HyoYoung

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel six-degree-of-freedom magnetic levitation fine stage for a dual-servo stage. The proposed fine stage is levitated and actuated, using a voice coil motor actuator with a Halbach magnet array. For a dual-servo stage, fine stage performance is deeply intertwined with coarse stage performance. Because the fine stage is installed over the coarse stage, the overall size of the fine stage can be limited by the moving plate of the coarse stage. Therefore, magnetic flux modeling and optimization are performed to manufacture optimal fine stages. To control the fine stage, actuator kinetics and sensor kinematics are proposed. Homing control is implemented by using linear variable differential transformers, whereas fine control is implemented by capacitance sensors and laser interferometers. Finally, experimental results of in-position stability, moving range, and repeatability are presented. (paper)

  7. The Mechanism Study of Alternating Arc(ACMagnetic Levitation Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic levitation (no bearings motor by using magnetic force to make rotor suspend and drive realize its high or ultra-high speed rotating. The stator’s structure of traditional no bearing magnetic levitation motor is double winding which is polar logarithmic difference 1 of 2 sets of winding (torque winding and suspension winding and embedded in the stator. Using two inverter respectively for the two sets of winding to go into the same frequency current in order to realize the suspension of the rotor and motor’s driven, small carrying capacity of motor’s structure, controlling complex system. This paper based on the traditional motor technology puts forward a kind of arc principle and respectively decorates two arc motors in horizontal and vertical direction symmetric to rotor according to the electromagnetic bearing suspension technology that is constituted the arc magnetic levitation induction motor. Establishing air-gap transformation regular between rotor and stator (air-gap length motor is under the effect of interference. Based on the electromagnetic theory establishing distribution regular of the air-gap magnetic induction intensity. Virtual displacement principle is used to establish electromagnetism mathematical model and motor electromagnetism levitation. By the finite element analysis carrying on simulation research to the magnetic induction intensity, electric magnetic levitation force and distribution features of electromagnetic torque and so on.

  8. How to Simply Demonstrate Diamagnetic Levitation with Pencil Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudelkova, Vera

    2016-01-01

    A new simple arrangement how to demonstrate diamagnetic levitation is presented. It uses pencil lead levitating in a track built from neodymium magnets. This arrangement can also be used as a classroom experiment.

  9. Numerical simulation of a simple low-speed model for an electrodynamic levitation system based on a Halbach magnet array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iniguez, J.; Raposo, V.

    2010-01-01

    The design and analysis of a small prototype of a magnetic levitation system at low-speed using a Halbach-type magnet array is presented here. For that purpose, we have arranged a copper rim over a carbon fiber wheel, which is driven by an electric motor in presence of the magnet array, in such a manner that allows performing the experiment readily. The analysis of the system is undertaken under a two-dimensional (2D)-approach which permits computing and extending the study of our model to higher speeds. Our work is completed with a series of experimental measurements of lift and drag forces for different circumstances. Initially, the drag force is significant but after the compensation speed (when both forces balance) it slowly decreases. Conversely, the lift force becomes progressively bigger in such a manner that it attains quickly noteworthy values. We observe that the theoretical compensation speed is always minor than the experimental one and that the measured values for both forces are slightly smaller than the expected, although the main features of the experiment are well matched by our numerical simulation.

  10. Numerical simulation of a simple low-speed model for an electrodynamic levitation system based on a Halbach magnet array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iniguez, J., E-mail: nacho@usal.e [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, E-37071 (Spain); Raposo, V. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, E-37071 (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    The design and analysis of a small prototype of a magnetic levitation system at low-speed using a Halbach-type magnet array is presented here. For that purpose, we have arranged a copper rim over a carbon fiber wheel, which is driven by an electric motor in presence of the magnet array, in such a manner that allows performing the experiment readily. The analysis of the system is undertaken under a two-dimensional (2D)-approach which permits computing and extending the study of our model to higher speeds. Our work is completed with a series of experimental measurements of lift and drag forces for different circumstances. Initially, the drag force is significant but after the compensation speed (when both forces balance) it slowly decreases. Conversely, the lift force becomes progressively bigger in such a manner that it attains quickly noteworthy values. We observe that the theoretical compensation speed is always minor than the experimental one and that the measured values for both forces are slightly smaller than the expected, although the main features of the experiment are well matched by our numerical simulation.

  11. Estimation of the radial force using a disturbance force observer for a magnetically levitated centrifugal blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, C N; Shinshi, T; Shimokohbe, A

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of the hydraulic forces in a magnetically levitated (maglev) centrifugal blood pump is important from the point of view of the magnetic bearing design. Direct measurement is difficult due to the absence of a rotor shaft, and computational fluid dynamic analysis demands considerable computational resource and time. To solve this problem, disturbance force observers were developed, using the radial controlled magnetic bearing of a centrifugal blood pump, to estimate the radial forces on the maglev impeller. In order to design the disturbance observer, the radial dynamic characteristics of a maglev impeller were evaluated under different working conditions. It was observed that the working fluid affects the additional mass and damping, while the rotational speed affects the damping and stiffness of the maglev system. Based on these results, disturbance force observers were designed and implemented. The designed disturbance force observers present a bandwidth of 45 Hz. In non-pulsatile conditions, the magnitude of the estimated radial thrust increases in proportion to the flowrate, and the rotational speed has little effect on the force direction. At 5 l/min against 100 mmHg, the estimated radial thrust is 0.95 N. In pulsatile conditions, this method was capable of estimating the pulsatile radial thrust with good response.

  12. High-temperature levitated materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, David L

    2010-01-01

    .... This can be avoided by suspending the sample through levitation. This technique also makes metastable states of matter accessible, opening up new avenues of scientific enquiry, as well as possible new materials for technological applications...

  13. Realistic control considerations for electromagnetically levitated urban transit vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billing, J R

    1976-04-01

    A discussion is given of realistic control considerations of suspension dynamics and vehicle/guideway interaction for electromagnetically-levitated urban transit vehicles in the context of revenue applications. The emphasis is on safety, reliability, and maintainability rather than performance. An example urban transit system is described, and the following considerations of dynamics and control are examined: stability, magnet force requirements, magnet airgap requirements, vehicle ride, and component failures. It is shown that it is a formidable problem to ensure suspension stability under all conditions; that operation on curves is a critical magnet and control system design case; that operation of the magnets in the non-linear regime is unavoidable and that component failures will be a major problem. However, good vehicle ride is to be expected. It is concluded that magnetic levitation suspension technology requires substantial development effort before it can be considered suitable for revenue operation.

  14. Thrust Reduction of Magnetic Levitation Vehicle Driven by Long Stator Linear Synchronous Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Tsun Tseng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The propulsion technology of long stator linear synchronous motors is used to drive high-speed maglev trains. The linear synchronous motor stator is divided into sections placed on guideway. The electric power supplies to stator sections in which the train just passes in change-step mode for long-distance operation. However, a thrust drop will be caused by change-step machinery for driving magnetic vehicle. According to the train speed and vehicle data, the change-step mode has three types of operation, namely premature commutation, simultaneous commutation, and late commutation. Each type of operation has a different thrust drop which can be affected by several parameters such as jerk, running speed, motor section length, and vehicle data. This paper focuses on determining the thrust drop of the change-step mode. The study results of this paper can be used to improve the operation system of high-speed maglev trains.

  15. Nothing beats hovering to Groningen, Netherlands. Magnetic levitated trains in North Netherlands; Er gaat niets boven zweven naar Groningen. Magneettrein naar Noord-Nederland oplossing voor woningnood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steentjes, A. [ed.

    2001-03-14

    One of the impacts of the construction of a magnetic levitated train road in the northern part of the Netherlands is that it can solve the house shortage in this part of the Netherlands. An overview is given of the discussions that are taking place with respect to the plans to improve the transportation infrastructure in the northern provinces in order to make those regions more attractive for residents.

  16. Inhomogeneity of surface magnetic field over a NdFeB guideway and its influence on levitation force of the HTS bulk maglev system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Longcai; Wang Jiasu; He Qingyong; Zhang Jianghua; Wang Suyu

    2007-01-01

    Superconducting maglev vehicle system was one of the most promising applications of HTS bulks. The NdFeB guideway in this system was composed of many NdFeB permanent magnets and screws, so the air gaps (airgaps) between two permanent magnets and the screws would result in the inhomogeneity of the surface magnetic field. In this paper, we studied the magnetic inhomogeneity over the permanent magnet guideway (PMG) used in high-temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev vehicle system and its influence on the levitation force of the HTS bulk. Firstly, we measured the transverse magnetic field above the airgap, the screw and the place under where there was no airgap and screw. It was found that the magnetic field 10 mm above the guideway was roughly uniform. Secondly, we investigated the influence of the magnetic inhomogeneity of the PMG on levitation force of the bulk superconductor. From the experiment results, we found that the influence was very small, and would be ignored. Therefore, we could conclude that the PMG made by this method satisfied the requirements of the HTS maglev vehicle system in a quasi-static state

  17. Inhomogeneity of surface magnetic field over a NdFeB guideway and its influence on levitation force of the HTS bulk maglev system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Longcai [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, P.O. Box 152, Chengdu 610031 (China)]. E-mail: zhlcai2000@163.com; Wang Jiasu [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, P.O. Box 152, Chengdu 610031 (China); He Qingyong [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, P.O. Box 152, Chengdu 610031 (China); Zhang Jianghua [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, P.O. Box 152, Chengdu 610031 (China); Wang Suyu [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, P.O. Box 152, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2007-08-01

    Superconducting maglev vehicle system was one of the most promising applications of HTS bulks. The NdFeB guideway in this system was composed of many NdFeB permanent magnets and screws, so the air gaps (airgaps) between two permanent magnets and the screws would result in the inhomogeneity of the surface magnetic field. In this paper, we studied the magnetic inhomogeneity over the permanent magnet guideway (PMG) used in high-temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev vehicle system and its influence on the levitation force of the HTS bulk. Firstly, we measured the transverse magnetic field above the airgap, the screw and the place under where there was no airgap and screw. It was found that the magnetic field 10 mm above the guideway was roughly uniform. Secondly, we investigated the influence of the magnetic inhomogeneity of the PMG on levitation force of the bulk superconductor. From the experiment results, we found that the influence was very small, and would be ignored. Therefore, we could conclude that the PMG made by this method satisfied the requirements of the HTS maglev vehicle system in a quasi-static state.

  18. Analysis of levitation characteristics of radial-type superconducting magnetic bearings; Rajiarugata chodendojikijikuju no fujotokusei kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuyama, H.; Takizawa, T. [NSK Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    1999-11-25

    In the design of a large-scale flywheel. load capacity and bearing constants (i.e. spring and damping constants) should be accurately calculated. In this report, a newly developed analysis method for radial-type superconducting magnetic bearings (SMBs) composed of several couples of magnet rings and magnetic material spacers is described. The analysis based both on electromagnetic FEM of the magnetic field and the 2-dimensional Bean model for analysis of the magnetization of type-2 superconductors. To obtain accurate magnetization hysteresis that reflects the complex magnetic fields, a superconductor is meshed into cells and then the electromagnetic force between the magnetic fields of magnetics and the magnetization of the superconductor are calculated. Recently, computer programs which can calculate the axial load capacity of radial-type SMBs have been developed. Furthermore, programs which can calculate bearing constants are close to being completed. Calculated results on axial load capacity showed good agreement with the experimental results. (author)

  19. Systematic Design of a Magnetically Levitated Brushless DC Motor for a Reversible Rotary Intra-Aortic Blood Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaxin; Logan, Thomas G; Smith, P Alex; Hsu, Po-Lin; Cohn, William E; Xu, Liping; McMahon, Richard A

    2017-10-01

    The IntraVAD is a miniature intra-aortic ventricular assist device (VAD) designed to work in series with the compromised left ventricle. A reverse-rotation control (RRc) mode has been developed to increase myocardial perfusion and reduce ventricular volume. The RRc mode includes forward rotation in systole and reverse rotation in diastole, which requires the IntraVAD to periodically reverse its rotational direction in synchrony with the cardiac cycle. This periodic reversal leads to changes in pressure force over the impeller, which makes the entire system less stable. To eliminate the mechanical wear of a contact bearing and provide active control over the axial position of the rotor, a miniature magnetically levitated bearing (i.e., the PM-Coil module) composed of two concentric permanent magnetic (PM) rings and a pair of coils-one on each side-was proposed to provide passive radial and active axial rotor stabilization. In the early design stage, the numerical finite element method (FEM) was used to optimize the geometry of the brushless DC (BLDC) motor and the maglev module, but constructing a new model each time certain design parameters were adjusted required substantial computation time. Because the design criteria for the module had to be modified to account for the magnetic force produced by the motor and for the hemodynamic changes associated with pump operation, a simplified analytic expression was derived for the expected magnetic forces. Suitable bearings could then be designed capable of overcoming these forces without repeating the complicated FEM simulation for the motor. Using this method at the initial design stage can inform the design of the miniature maglev BLDC motor for the proposed pulsatile axial-flow VAD. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Levitating Micro-Actuators: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill V. Poletkin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Through remote forces, levitating micro-actuators completely eliminate mechanical attachment between the stationary and moving parts of a micro-actuator, thus providing a fundamental solution to overcoming the domination of friction over inertial forces at the micro-scale. Eliminating the usual mechanical constraints promises micro-actuators with increased operational capabilities and low dissipation energy. Further reduction of friction and hence dissipation by means of vacuum leads to dramatic increases of performance when compared to mechanically tethered counterparts. In order to efficiently employ the benefits provided by levitation, micro-actuators are classified according to their physical principles as well as by their combinations. Different operating principles, structures, materials and fabrication methods are considered. A detailed analysis of the significant achievements in the technology of micro-optics, micro-magnets and micro-coil fabrication, along with the development of new magnetic materials during recent decades, which has driven the creation of new application domains for levitating micro-actuators is performed.

  1. Orientation and thickness dependence of magnetic levitation force and trapped magnetic field of single grain YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-y} bulk superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Y.; Go, S. J.; Joo, H. T. [Korea Science Academy of Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Y. J.; Park, S. D.; Jun, B. H.; KIm, C. J. [Neutron Utilization Technology Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The effects of the crystallographic orientation and sample thickness on the magnetic levitation forces (F) and trapped magnetic field (B) of single grain YBCO bulk superconductors were examined. Single grain YBCO samples with a (001), (110) or (100) surface were used as the test samples. The samples used for the force-distance (F-d) measurement were cooled at 77 K without a magnetic field (zero field cooling, ZFC), whereas the samples used for the B measurement were cooled under the external magnetic field of a Nd-B-Fe permanent magnet (field cooling, FC). It was found that F and B of the (001) surface were higher than those of the (110) or (100) surface, which is attributed to the higher critical current density (J{sub c}) of the (001) surface. For the (001) samples with t=5–18 mm, the maximum magnetic levitation forces (F{sub max}s) of the ZFC samples were larger than 40 N. About 80% of the applied magnetic field was trapped in the FC samples. However, the F and B decreased rapidly as t decreased below 5 mm. There exists a critical sample thickness (t=5 mm for the experimental condition of this study) for maintaining the large levitation/trapping properties, which is dependent on the material properties and magnitude of the external magnetic fields.

  2. Solutions stability of one-dimensional parametric superconducting magnetic levitation model analysis by the first approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvets', D.V.

    2009-01-01

    By the first approximation analyzing stability conditions of unperturbed solution of one-dimensional dynamic model with magnetic interaction between two superconducting rings obtained. The stability region in the frozen magnetic flux parameters space was constructed.

  3. Measurement method of moving vehicle in the magnetic levitation and propulsion system using high-Tc superconducting bulks; Koon chodendo barukutai wo riyoshita fujo suishin shisutemu no suishin tokusei keisoku shuho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuwa, Y.; Mizuma, T.

    1999-06-07

    The transportation system using simple magnetic levitation system got in the combination of high-temperature superconductivity bulk body and permanent magnet, which caught a quantum magnetic flux, is devised in great numbers, and the model equipment has also been manufactured. In the meantime, a grasp of levitation and guide characteristics is necessary for the case in which this levitation system is applied to the simple individual transportation system, and the measurement of the levitation characteristics is indispensable for the reason. In the conventional research, the measurement of the levitation characteristics has not been very much made. There was due to be no technique which measured kinetic characteristics of noncontacting surfacing and running travel body. In this study, measuring method for measuring these levitation characteristics was devised, and it was applied to actual measurement by the production of the model test equipment. Through this measurement, the purpose of this study is to show with that it is applicable for the real test equipment as this measuring method judges possibility of application to simple transportation system. (NEDO)

  4. Real-Time Adaptive Control of a Magnetic Levitation System with a Large Range of Load Disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhizhou; Li, Xiaolong

    2018-05-11

    In an idle light-load or a full-load condition, the change of the load mass of a suspension system is very significant. If the control parameters of conventional control methods remain unchanged, the suspension performance of the control system deteriorates rapidly or even loses stability when the load mass changes in a large range. In this paper, a real-time adaptive control method for a magnetic levitation system with large range of mass changes is proposed. First, the suspension control system model of the maglev train is built up, and the stability of the closed-loop system is analyzed. Then, a fast inner current-loop is used to simplify the design of the suspension control system, and an adaptive control method is put forward to ensure that the system is still in a stable state when the load mass varies in a wide range. Simulations and experiments show that when the load mass of the maglev system varies greatly, the adaptive control method is effective to suspend the system stably with a given displacement.

  5. Magnetic Particle Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Luiz C.A.; A. Rios, Rachel V.R.; Fabris, Jose D.; Lago, Rachel M.; Sapag, Karim

    2004-01-01

    An exciting laboratory environment is activated by the preparation and novel use of magnetic materials to decontaminate water through adsorption and magnetic removal of metals and organics. This uncomplicated technique is also adaptable to the possible application of adsorbents to numerous other environmental substances.

  6. Overview and Status of the Levitated Dipole Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, D. T.; Hansen, A. K.; Mauel, M. E.; Ortiz, E.; Sunn-Pedersen, T.; Dagen, S.; Ellsworth, J.; Karim, I.; Kesner, J.; Minervini, J.; Michael, P.; Zhukovsky, A.

    2002-11-01

    The Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX) is the first experiment designed to study high-β plasmas confined by a magnetic dipole with near classical energy confinement. The primary goal of the initial phase of LDX operation is the study of plasma behavior near marginal stability for interchange modes at high-β. Other areas of investigation include dipole confinement characteristics, the formation of convective cells within the closed field line geometry and the possibility of non-local transport. LDX consists of three superconducting magnets and highlights the role of innovative magnetic technology that makes possible explorations of entirely new confinement concepts. We describe the LDX machine design and detail the fabrication status of the superconducting floating-coil, charging-coil, and levitation-coil as LDX nears plasma operations. An overview of the project goals, overall program plan, and current status of the experiment will also be presented.

  7. ELSA- The European Levitated Spherical Actruator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M.; Serin, J.; Telteu-Nedelcu, D.; De La Vallee Poussin, H.; Onillon, E.; Rossini, L.

    2014-08-01

    The reaction sphere is a magnetic bearing spherical actuator consisting of a permanent magnet spherical rotor that can be accelerated in any direction. It consists of an 8-pole permanent magnet spherical rotor that is magnetically levitated and can be accelerated about any axis by a 20-pole stator with electromagnets. The spherical actuator is proposed as a potential alternative to traditional momentum exchange devices such as reaction wheels (RWs) or control moment gyroscopes (CMGs). This new actuator provides several benefits such as reduced mass and power supply allocated to the attitude and navigation unit, performance gain, and improved reliability due to the absence of mechanical bearings. The paper presents the work done on the levitated spherical actuator and more precisely the electrical drive including its control unit and power parts. An elegant breadboard is currently being manufactured within the frame of an FP7 project. This project also comprises a feasibility study to show the feasibility of integrating such a system on a flight platform and to identify all the challenges to be solved in terms of technology or components to be developed.

  8. Minor loop dependence of the magnetic forces and stiffness in a PM-HTS levitation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Based upon the method of current vector potential and the critical state model of Bean, the vertical and lateral forces with different sizes of minor loop are simulated in two typical cooling conditions when a rectangular permanent magnet (PM above a cylindrical high temperature superconductor (HTS moves vertically and horizontally. The different values of average magnetic stiffness are calculated by various sizes of minor loop changing from 0.1 to 2 mm. The magnetic stiffness with zero traverse is obtained by using the method of linear extrapolation. The simulation results show that the extreme values of forces decrease with increasing size of minor loop. The magnetic hysteresis of the force curves also becomes small as the size of minor loop increases. This means that the vertical and lateral forces are significantly influenced by the size of minor loop because the forces intensely depend on the moving history of the PM. The vertical stiffness at every vertical position when the PM vertically descends to 1 mm is larger than that as the PM vertically ascents to 30 mm. When the PM moves laterally, the lateral stiffness during the PM passing through any horizontal position in the first time almost equal to the value during the PM passing through the same position in the second time in zero-field cooling (ZFC, however, the lateral stiffness in field cooling (FC and the cross stiffness in ZFC and FC are significantly affected by the moving history of the PM.

  9. Minor loop dependence of the magnetic forces and stiffness in a PM-HTS levitation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Li, Chengshan

    2017-12-01

    Based upon the method of current vector potential and the critical state model of Bean, the vertical and lateral forces with different sizes of minor loop are simulated in two typical cooling conditions when a rectangular permanent magnet (PM) above a cylindrical high temperature superconductor (HTS) moves vertically and horizontally. The different values of average magnetic stiffness are calculated by various sizes of minor loop changing from 0.1 to 2 mm. The magnetic stiffness with zero traverse is obtained by using the method of linear extrapolation. The simulation results show that the extreme values of forces decrease with increasing size of minor loop. The magnetic hysteresis of the force curves also becomes small as the size of minor loop increases. This means that the vertical and lateral forces are significantly influenced by the size of minor loop because the forces intensely depend on the moving history of the PM. The vertical stiffness at every vertical position when the PM vertically descends to 1 mm is larger than that as the PM vertically ascents to 30 mm. When the PM moves laterally, the lateral stiffness during the PM passing through any horizontal position in the first time almost equal to the value during the PM passing through the same position in the second time in zero-field cooling (ZFC), however, the lateral stiffness in field cooling (FC) and the cross stiffness in ZFC and FC are significantly affected by the moving history of the PM.

  10. Effective method to control the levitation force and levitation height in a superconducting maglev system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Peng-Tao; Yang Wan-Min; Wang Miao; Li Jia-Wei; Guo Yu-Xia

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the width of the middle magnet in the permanent magnet guideways (PMGs) on the levitation force and the levitation height of single-domain yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) bulks has been investigated at 77 K under the zero field cooled (ZFC) state. It is found that the largest levitation force can be obtained in the system with the width of the middle magnet of the PMG equal to the size of the YBCO bulk when the gap between the YBCO bulk and PMG is small. Both larger levitation force and higher levitation height can be obtained in the system with the width of the middle magnet of the PMG larger than the size of the YBCO bulk. The stiffness of the levitation force between the PMG and the YBCO bulk is higher in the system with a smaller width of the middle magnet in the PMG. These results provide an effective way to control the levitation force and the levitation height for the superconducting maglev design and applications. (paper)

  11. Superconductivity and magnet technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubell, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    The background theory of superconducting behavior is reviewed. Three parameters that characterize superconducting materials with values of commercial materials as examples are discussed. More than 1000 compounds and alloy systems and 26 elements are known to exhibit superconducting properties under normal conditions at very low temperatures. A wide variety of crystal structures are represented among the known superconductors. The most important ones do seem to have cubic symmetry such as the body-centered cubic (NbZr and NbTi), face-centered cubic (NbN), and the A15 or β-tungsten structures (Nb 3 Sn), V 3 Ga, Nb 3 Ge, Nb 3 Al, and V 3 Si). Attempts to understand some of the particular phenomena associated with superconductors as a necessary prelude to constructing superconducting magnets are discussed by the author. The origin of degradation is briefly discussed and methods to stabilize magnets are illustrated. The results of Oak Ridge National Laboratory design studies of toroidal magnet systems for fusion reactors are described

  12. Levitation force relaxation under reloading in a HTS Maglev system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Qingyong; Wang Jiasu; Wang Suyu; Wang Jiansi; Dong Hao; Wang Yuxin; Shao Senhao

    2009-01-01

    The loading capacity of the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) Maglev vehicle is an important parameter in the practical application. It is closely related to the levitation force of the HTS bulk. Many papers reported that the levitation force showed the relaxation characteristic. Because different loads cause different levitation gaps and different applied magnetic fields, the levitation force relaxations under the different loads are not the same. In terms of cylindrical YBCO bulk levitated over the permanent magnetic guideway, the relationship between the levitation force relaxation and the reloading is investigated experimentally in this paper. The decrement, the decrement rate and the relaxation rate of the levitation force are calculated, respectively. This work might be helpful for studying the loading capacity of the HTS Maglev vehicle

  13. Levitation force relaxation under reloading in a HTS Maglev system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Qingyong [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, M/S 152, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)], E-mail: hedoubling@gmail.com; Wang Jiasu; Wang Suyu; Wang Jiansi; Dong Hao; Wang Yuxin; Shao Senhao [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, M/S 152, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)

    2009-02-01

    The loading capacity of the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) Maglev vehicle is an important parameter in the practical application. It is closely related to the levitation force of the HTS bulk. Many papers reported that the levitation force showed the relaxation characteristic. Because different loads cause different levitation gaps and different applied magnetic fields, the levitation force relaxations under the different loads are not the same. In terms of cylindrical YBCO bulk levitated over the permanent magnetic guideway, the relationship between the levitation force relaxation and the reloading is investigated experimentally in this paper. The decrement, the decrement rate and the relaxation rate of the levitation force are calculated, respectively. This work might be helpful for studying the loading capacity of the HTS Maglev vehicle.

  14. A simple levitation system using wireless power supply system and Lorentz force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Koichi; Tanaka, Masako

    2016-01-01

    A new type of magnetic levitation mechanism has been proposed. The feature of this mechanism is using wireless power supply system and Lorentz forces for levitation. The stability of levitation is performed by passive control by magnetic flux configuration between permanent magnets and active control of electromagnets. In this paper, the concept of levitation mechanism is introduced, FEM analyses for levitation force and wireless power supply performance is examined. In concept two types of levitation systems which are different on the point of active control directions are introduced. In FEM analyses, the required current for levitation and the directions of generating forces are calculated. In the study of wireless power supply system, the required voltage for the levitation is expected. Finally the feasibility of the proposed levitation system will be verified. (paper)

  15. Single axis control of ball position in magnetic levitation system using fuzzy logic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Narayan; Tripathy, Ashis; Sharma, Priyaranjan

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the design and real time implementation of Fuzzy logic control(FLC) for the control of the position of a ferromagnetic ball by manipulating the current flowing in an electromagnet that changes the magnetic field acting on the ball. This system is highly nonlinear and open loop unstable. Many un-measurable disturbances are also acting on the system, making the control of it highly complex but interesting for any researcher in control system domain. First the system is modelled using the fundamental laws, which gives a nonlinear equation. The nonlinear model is then linearized at an operating point. Fuzzy logic controller is designed after studying the system in closed loop under PID control action. The controller is then implemented in real time using Simulink real time environment. The controller is tuned manually to get a stable and robust performance. The set point tracking performance of FLC and PID controllers were compared and analyzed.

  16. Expression of transcription factors after short-term exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures to hypergravity and simulated microgravity (2-D/3-D clinorotation, magnetic levitation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbick, M.; Dijkstra, C.; Larkin, O. J.; Anthony, P.; Davey, M. R.; Power, J. B.; Lowe, K. C.; Cogoli-Greuter, M.; Hampp, R.

    Gravity is an important environmental factor that controls plant growth and development. Studies have shown that the perception of gravity is not only a property of specialized cells, but can also be performed by undifferentiated cultured cells. In this investigation, callus of Arabidopsis thaliana cv. Columbia was used to investigate the initial steps of gravity-related signalling cascades, through altered expression of transcription factors (TFs). TFs are families of small proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific promoter sequences. Based on microarray studies, members of the gene families WRKY, MADS-box, MYB, and AP2/EREBP were selected for investigation, as well as members of signalling chains, namely IAA 19 and phosphoinositol-4-kinase. Using qRT-PCR, transcripts were quantified within a period of 30 min in response to hypergravity (8 g), clinorotation [2-D clinostat and 3-D random positioning machine (RPM)] and magnetic levitation (ML). The data indicated that (1) changes in gravity induced stress-related signalling, and (2) exposure in the RPM induced changes in gene expression which resemble those of magnetic levitation. Two dimensional clinorotation resulted in responses similar to those caused by hypergravity. It is suggested that RPM and ML are preferable to simulate microgravity than clinorotation.

  17. Temperature dependence of levitation force and its relaxation in a HTS levitation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Jun; Zhang Xingyi [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disaster and Environment, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Zhou Youhe, E-mail: zhouyh@lzu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disaster and Environment, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China)

    2010-03-01

    Using a modified Gifford-McMahon refrigerator to cool the cylindrical bulk YBaCuO superconductor within the region of 100-10 K, and using an updated high-temperature superconductor (HTS) maglev measurement system, the levitation force and its time relaxation at different temperatures between a YBaCuO bulk superconductor and a permanent magnet (PM) have been measured under zero-field cooling. It is found that decrease the cooling temperature of HTS can decrease the hysteresis of magnetization and increase the maximum levitation force of each hysteresis loop. For the relaxation of levitation force, if the temperature is continually lowered to 10 K after the relaxation measurement at given cooling temperature is performed for 600 s, the levitation force will continue to decrease sharply with the lowering of temperature even though it will get stable if the temperature is not lowered. Our results shown in this work are a benefit to the understanding of levitation systems.

  18. Levitation properties of maglev systems using soft ferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Guang; Zhou, You-He

    2015-03-01

    Soft ferromagnets are widely used as flux-concentration materials in the design of guideways for superconducting magnetic levitation transport systems. In order to fully understand the influence of soft ferromagnets on the levitation performance, in this work we apply a numerical model based on the functional minimization method and the Bean’s critical state model to study the levitation properties of an infinitely long superconductor immersed in the magnetic field created by a guideway of different sets of infinitely long parallel permanent magnets with soft ferromagnets between them. The levitation force, guidance force, magnetic stiffness and magnetic pole density are calculated considering the coupling between the superconductor and soft ferromagnets. The results show that the levitation performance is closely associated with the permanent magnet configuration and with the location and dimension of the soft ferromagnets. Introducing the soft ferromagnet with a certain width in a few configurations always decreases the levitation force. However, for most configurations, the soft ferromagnets contribute to improve the levitation performance only when they have particular locations and dimensions in which the optimized location and thickness exist to increase the levitation force the most. Moreover, if the superconductor is laterally disturbed, the presence of soft ferromagnets can effectively improve the lateral stability for small lateral displacement and reduce the degradation of levitation force.

  19. Controlling charge on levitating drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, Ryan T; Westphall, Michael S; Smith, Lloyd M

    2007-08-01

    Levitation technologies are used in containerless processing of materials, as microscale manipulators and reactors, and in the study of single drops and particles. Presented here is a method for controlling the amount and polarity of charge on a levitating drop. The method uses single-axis acoustic levitation to trap and levitate a single, initially neutral drop with a diameter between 400 microm and 2 mm. This drop is then charged in a controllable manner using discrete packets of charge in the form of charged drops produced by a piezoelectric drop-on-demand dispenser equipped with a charging electrode. The magnitude of the charge on the dispensed drops can be adjusted by varying the voltage applied to the charging electrode. The polarity of the charge on the added drops can be changed allowing removal of charge from the trapped drop (by neutralization) and polarity reversal. The maximum amount of added charge is limited by repulsion of like charges between the drops in the trap. This charging scheme can aid in micromanipulation and the study of charged drops and particles using levitation.

  20. Technology of magnetically driven accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brix, D.L.; Hawkins, S.A.; Poor, S.E.; Reginato, L.L.; Smith, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    The marriage of Induction Linac technology with Nonlinear Magnetic Modulators has produced some unique capabilities. It appears possible to produce electron beams with average currents measured in amperes, at gradients exceeding 1 MeV/meter, and with power efficiencies approaching 50%. A 2 MeV, 5 kA electron accelerator has been constructed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to demonstrate these concepts and to provide a test facility for high brightness sources. The pulse drive for the accelerator is based on state-of-the-art magnetic pulse compressors with very high peak power capability, repetition rates exceeding a kilohertz and excellent reliability

  1. Technology of magnetically driven accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birx, D.L.; Hawkins, S.A.; Poor, S.E.; Reginato, L.L.; Smith, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    The marriage of Induction Linac technology with Nonlinear Magnetic Modulators has produced some unique capabilities. It appears possible to produce electron beams with average currents measured in amperes, at gradients exceeding 1 MeV/meter, and with power efficiencies approach 50%. A 2 MeV, 5 kA electron accelerator has been constructed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to demonstrate these concepts and to provide a test facility for high brightness sources. The pulse drive for the accelerator is based on state-of-the-art magnetic pulse compressors with very high peak power capability, repetition rates exceeding a kilohertz and excellent reliability

  2. Optics for five-dimensional measurement for correction of vertical displacement error due to attitude of floating body in superconducting magnetic levitation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiota, Fuyuhiko; Morokuma, Tadashi

    2006-01-01

    An improved optical system for five-dimensional measurement has been developed for the correction of vertical displacement error due to the attitude change of a superconducting floating body that shows five degrees of freedom besides a vertical displacement of 10 mm. The available solid angle for the optical measurement is extremely limited because of the cryogenic laser interferometer sharing the optical window of a vacuum chamber in addition to the basic structure of the cryogenic vessel for liquid helium. The aim of the design was to develop a more practical as well as better optical system compared with the prototype system. Various artifices were built into this optical system and the result shows a satisfactory performance and easy operation overcoming the extremely severe spatial difficulty in the levitation system. Although the system described here is specifically designed for our magnetic levitation system, the concept and each artifice will be applicable to the optical measurement system for an object in a high-vacuum chamber and/or cryogenic vessel where the available solid angle for an optical path is extremely limited

  3. Urban Maglev Technology Development Program : Colorado Maglev Project : part 1 : executive summary of final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    The overall objective of the urban maglev transit technology development program is to develop magnetic levitation technology that is a cost effective, reliable, and environmentally sound transit option for urban mass transportation in the United Sta...

  4. Urban Maglev Technology Development Program : Colorado Maglev Project : part 2 final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    The overall objective of the urban maglev transit technology development program is to develop magnetic levitation technology that is a cost effective, reliable, and environmentally sound transit option for urban mass transportation in the United Sta...

  5. Levitated Duct Fan (LDF) Aircraft Auxiliary Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Emerson, Dawn C.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.

    2011-01-01

    This generator concept includes a novel stator and rotor architecture made from composite material with blades attached to the outer rotating shell of a ducted fan drum rotor, a non-contact support system between the stator and rotor using magnetic fields to provide levitation, and an integrated electromagnetic generation system. The magnetic suspension between the rotor and the stator suspends and supports the rotor within the stator housing using permanent magnets attached to the outer circumference of the drum rotor and passive levitation coils in the stator shell. The magnets are arranged in a Halbach array configuration.

  6. Superconducting magnets technologies for large accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogitsu, Toru

    2017-01-01

    The first hadron collider with superconducting magnet technologies was built at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory as TEVATRON. Since then, the superconducting magnet technologies are widely used in large accelerator applications. The paper summarizes the superconducting magnet technologies used for large accelerators. (author)

  7. Dual levitated coils for antihydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, J. D.; Ordonez, C. A.

    2013-04-01

    Two coaxial superconducting magnetic coils that carry currents in the same direction and that are simultaneously levitated may serve for antihydrogen plasma confinement. The configuration may be suitable for use by a collaboration at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator facility to test fundamental symmetries between the properties of hydrogen and antihydrogen. Nested Penning traps are currently used to confine recombining antihydrogen plasma. Symmetry studies require the production of sufficiently cold antihydrogen. However, plasma drifts within nested Penning traps can increase the kinetic energy of antiprotons that form antihydrogen atoms. Dual levitated coils may serve to confine relatively large, cold, dense non-drifting recombining antihydrogen plasmas. A minimum-B magnetic field that is produced by the coils could provide for atom trapping. A toroidal plasma is confined between the coils. High density plasmas may be possible, by allowing plasma pressure to balance mechanical pressure to keep the coils apart. Progress is reported on theoretical and experimental efforts. The theoretical effort includes the development of a classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulation of confinement. The experimental effort includes levitation of a NdFeB permanent ring magnet, which produces a magnetic field that is qualitatively similar to the field that would be produced by the two coaxial superconducting magnetic coils. Liquid-nitrogen-cooled Bi-2223 high-temperature-superconducting components, with a critical temperature of 108 K, were used to levitate the ring magnet. An issue concerning keeping the plane of the levitated ring horizontal is discussed.

  8. Equivalent Coil Model for Computing Levitation Forces Between Permanent Magnets and High Temperatures Superconductors; Modelo de Espira Equivalente para el Calculo de Fuerzas de Levitacion Magnetica entre Imanes Permanentes y Superconductores de Alta Temperatura Critica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavia Santos, S; Garcia-Tabares, L

    1998-05-01

    A new simple theory has been developed for the study of levitation forces between a permanent magnet and a HTc superconductor. This theory is based on the assumption that both, the magnet and the superconductor, can be modelled by an equivalent coil placed on their surface. While the current flowing through the permanent magnet is constant, the equivalent current through the superconductor can be iether corresponding to screen the overall flux or a constant current corresponding to critical current density when the superconductor is saturated. A test facility has been designed and built for measuring levitation forces at variable approaching speeds. Comparison between theoretical and experimental measurements are presented in the report as well as a general description of the test facility. (Author)

  9. The General Atomics low speed urban Maglev technology development program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop magnetic levitation technology that is a cost effective, reliable, : and environmentally friendly option for urban mass transportation in the United States. Maglev is a revolutionary : approach in w...

  10. Effective method to control the levitation force and levitation height in a superconducting maglev system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng-Tao; Yang, Wan-Min; Wang, Miao; Li, Jia-Wei; Guo, Yu-Xia

    2015-11-01

    The influence of the width of the middle magnet in the permanent magnet guideways (PMGs) on the levitation force and the levitation height of single-domain yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) bulks has been investigated at 77 K under the zero field cooled (ZFC) state. It is found that the largest levitation force can be obtained in the system with the width of the middle magnet of the PMG equal to the size of the YBCO bulk when the gap between the YBCO bulk and PMG is small. Both larger levitation force and higher levitation height can be obtained in the system with the width of the middle magnet of the PMG larger than the size of the YBCO bulk. The stiffness of the levitation force between the PMG and the YBCO bulk is higher in the system with a smaller width of the middle magnet in the PMG. These results provide an effective way to control the levitation force and the levitation height for the superconducting maglev design and applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51342001 and 50872079), the Key-grant Project of Chinese Ministry of Education (Grant No. 311033), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120202110003), the Innovation Team in Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2014KTC-18), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. GK201101001 and GK201305014), and the Outstanding Doctoral Thesis Foundation Project of Shaanxi Normal University, China (Grant Nos. X2011YB08 and X2012YB05).

  11. Superconductor technology for fusion magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dustmann, C.H.; Juengst, K.P.; Komarek, P.; Krafft, G.; Krauth, H.; Maier, P.; Ries, G.; Schauer, W.; Schmidt, C.; Seibt, E.; Turowski, P.

    1976-11-01

    The development of advanced suoerconductors for magnets in fusion experiments is an essential problem. In this report the parameters of a big Tokamak magnet system are presented and the resulting constraints for the conductor are given. Comparing this constraints with the state of the art of the magnet and conductor technology, the goals of the needed conductor development are defined. Existing conductor concepts are described. Based on considerations on the main problems (cooling concepts, mechanical stress analysis, stabilization, ac-losses) a concept of an economically feasable and cryogenically stabilized flat cable conductor is developed. Typical parameters of a 10 kA conductor with NbTi at 8 T are given. The experimental investigations needed for the conductor development are discussed. Existing devices for measurements of Isub(c), ac-losses and the behaviour of the conductor under mechanical stress are described and typical experimental results are presented. The need of the completion of the measuring devices and programmes is stressed. The construction of a versatile conductor test facility is proposed. (orig.) [de

  12. The effect on the multipolar electromagnet for the levitation of thin iron plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osabe, H [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Musashi Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Watada, M [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Musashi Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Torii, S [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Musashi Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Ebihara, D [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Musashi Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The thin iron plate is needed to be transported without the degradation of the quality of surface, and magnetic levitation technology is one of the solutions to satisfy these requirements. Magnetic saturation in the objective, however, is a severe problem for the levitation of the thin iron plate. Design and evaluation method of the electromagnet is studied to avoid the saturation. In this paper, the shape of the electromagnet is studied to obtain the maximum attractive force without the saturation in the thin iron plate. The magnetic saturation position is investigated first, and it is proved that the saturation occurs in the iron plate especially when it is very thin. Therefore, the preferable shape of electromagnet should be investigated to secure the large cross sectional area of flux path in the plate. The authors propose the Multipolar electromagnet to solve this problem. The relationship between the electromagnet shape and the cross sectional area of flux path in the plate is studied. (orig.)

  13. Levitation and guidance force relaxations of the single-seeded and multi-seeded YBCO superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdioglu, M.; Ozturk, K.; Kabaer, M.; Ekici, M.

    2018-01-01

    The stable levitation and guidance forces at higher force levels are important parameters for technological applicability of high temperature superconductors (HTSs) in Maglev and Flywheel energy storage systems. In this study, we have investigated the levitation and guidance force relaxation of both the single-seeded and multi-seeded YBCOs for different (HTS)-permanent magnetic guideway (PMG) arrangements in different cooling heights (CH). The measured saturated force values of Halbach PMG arrangements are bigger than the maximum force values of other PMGs. It is determined that the normalized magnetic levitation force (MLF) and normalized guidance force (GF) relaxation rate values decrease while the relaxation rates increase with increasing magnetic pole number and the effective external magnetic field area for both the single-seeded and multi-seeded YBCO. Also it can be said that the force stability at the higher force value of Halbach PMG arrangement indicates that the relaxation quality of Halbach PMG is better than that of the others. Additionally, it can be said that both the MLF and GF relaxation qualities of the multi-seeded YBCOs are better than that of the single-seeded ones. This magnetic force and relaxation results of the single-seeded and multi-seeded YBCOs are useful to optimize the loading capacity and lateral reliability of HTS Maglev and similar magnetic bearing systems.

  14. Superconducting Magnet Technology for the Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todesco, E.; Ambrosio, G.; Ferracin, P.; Rifflet, J. M.; Sabbi, G. L.; Segreti, M.; Nakamoto, T.; van Weelderen, R.; Xu, Q.

    In this section we present the magnet technology for the High Luminosity LHC. After a short review of the project targets and constraints, we discuss the main guidelines used to determine the technology, the field/gradients, the operational margins, and the choice of the current density for each type of magnet. Then we discuss the peculiar aspects of each class of magnet, with special emphasis on the triplet.

  15. Superconducting Magnet Technology for the Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todesco, E. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland). TE Dept.; Ambrosio, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Ferracin, P. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland). TE Dept.; Rifflet, J. M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland). TE Dept.; Sabbi, G. L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Segreti, M. [Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Saclay (France); Nakamoto, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); van Weelderen, R. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland). TE Dept.; Xu, Q. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan)

    2015-10-01

    In this section we present the magnet technology for the High Luminosity LHC. After a short review of the project targets and constraints, we discuss the main guidelines used to determine the technology, the field/gradients, the operational margins, and the choice of the current density for each type of magnet. Then we discuss the peculiar aspects of each class of magnet, with special emphasis on the triplet.

  16. Improved acoustic levitation apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, L. H.; Johnson, J. L.; Oran, W. A.; Reiss, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    Concave driver and reflector enhance and shape levitation forces in acoustic resonance system. Single-mode standing-wave pattern is focused by ring element situated between driver and reflector. Concave surfaces increase levitating forces up to factor of 6 as opposed to conventional flat surfaces, making it possible to suspend heavier objects.

  17. Acoustic Levitation With One Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, Martin B.

    1987-01-01

    Higher resonator modes enables simplification of equipment. Experimental acoustic levitator for high-temperature containerless processing has round cylindrical levitation chamber and only one acoustic transducer. Stable levitation of solid particle or liquid drop achieved by exciting sound in chamber to higher-order resonant mode that makes potential well for levitated particle or drop at some point within chamber.

  18. A Double-Decker Levitation Experiment Using a Sandwich of Superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Anthony T.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Shows that the mutual repulsion that enables a superconductor to levitate a magnet and a magnet to levitate a superconductor can be combined into a single demonstration. Uses an overhead projector, two pellets of "1-2-3" superconductor, Nd-Fe-B magnets, liquid nitrogen, and paraffin. Offers superconductor preparation, hazards, and disposal…

  19. High magnetic fields science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Miura, Noboru

    2003-01-01

    This three-volume book provides a comprehensive review of experiments in very strong magnetic fields that can only be generated with very special magnets. The first volume is entirely devoted to the technology of laboratory magnets: permanent, superconducting, high-power water-cooled and hybrid; pulsed magnets, both nondestructive and destructive (megagauss fields). Volumes 2 and 3 contain reviews of the different areas of research where strong magnetic fields are an essential research tool. These volumes deal primarily with solid-state physics; other research areas covered are biological syst

  20. In situ Investigation of Magnetism in Metastable Phases of Levitated Fe83B17 During Solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirinale, D.G.; Messina, D.; Rustan, G.E.; Kreyssig, A.; Prozorov, R.; Goldman, A.I. (Ames); (Iowa State)

    2017-11-01

    In situ measurements of structure, density, and magnetization on samples of Fe 83 B 17 using an electrostatic levitation furnace allow us to identify and correlate the magnetic and structural transitions in this system during its complex solidification process. In particular, we identify magnetic ordering in the metastable Fe 23 B 6 / fcc Fe coherently grown structures and primitive tetragonal Fe 3 B metastable phase in addition to characterizing the equilibrium Fe 2 B phase. Our measurements demonstrate that the incorporation of a tunnel-diode oscillator circuit within an electrostatic levitation furnace enables investigations of the physical properties of high-temperature metastable structures.

  1. Magnetic Spinner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouseph, P. J.

    2006-01-01

    A science toy sometimes called the "magnetic spinner" is an interesting class demonstration to illustrate the principles of magnetic levitation. It can also be used to demonstrate Faraday's law and a horizontally suspended physical pendulum. The levitated part contains two circular magnets encased in a plastic housing. Each magnet stays…

  2. Acoustic-Levitation Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Granett, D.; Lee, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    Uncontaminated environments for highly-pure material processing provided within completely sealed levitation chamber that suspends particles by acoustic excitation. Technique ideally suited for material processing in low gravity environment of space.

  3. Acoustic Levitation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammell, P. M.; Wang, T. G.; Croonquist, A.; Lee, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    Dense materials, such as steel balls, continuously levitated with energy provided by efficient high-powered siren in combination with shaped reflector. Reflector system, consisting of curved top reflector and flat lower reflector, eliminates instability in spatial positioning of sample.

  4. Electrostatic Levitator Electrode Layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Schematic of Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) electrodes and controls system. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

  5. Electrostatic Levitator Layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) general layout with captions. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

  6. A review of magnetic heat pump technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barclay, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The area of technology classified as heat pumps generally refers to refrigerators, heat pumps and heat engines. This review is restricted to the literature on magnetic refrigerators and magnetic heat pumps which are referred to interchangeably. Significant progress has been made on the development of engineering prototypes of cryogenic, nonregenerative magnetic refrigerators utilizing conductive heat transfer in the 0.1 K to 20 K temperature range. Advances have also been made in analysis of regenerative magnetic refrigerators and heat pumps utilizing the active magnetic regeneration (AMR) concept. Units based on AMR are being modeled, designed and/or built to operate in various temperature ranges including 1.8-4.5 K, 4-15 K, 15-85 K, and 270-320 K. The near room temperature units have been scaled to 50 kW as both refrigerators and heat pumps. The progress of magnetic refrigeration over the last three years is summarized and discussed

  7. Technology-development needs for magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M. Jr.; Baker, C.C.; Conn, R.W.; Krakowski, R.A.; Steiner, D.; Thomassen, K.I.

    1983-03-01

    The technology-development needs for magnetic fusion have been identified from an assessment of the conceptual design studies which have been performed. A summary of worldwide conceptual design effort is presented. The relative maturity of the various confinement concepts and the intensity and continuity of the design efforts are taken into account in identifying technology development needs. A major conclusion of this study is that there is a high degree of commonality among the technology requirements identified for the various confinement concepts

  8. Cryogenically enhanced magneto-Archimedes levitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catherall, A T; Lopez-Alcaraz, P; Benedict, K A; King, P J; Eaves, L [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2005-05-01

    The application of both a strong magnetic field and magnetic field gradient to a diamagnetic body can produce a vertical force which is sufficient to counteract its weight due to gravity. By immersing the body in a paramagnetic fluid, an additional adjustable magneto-buoyancy force is generated which enhances the levitation effect. Here we show that cryogenic oxygen and oxygen-nitrogen mixtures in both gaseous and liquid form provide sufficient buoyancy to permit the levitation and flotation of a wide range of materials. These fluids may provide an alternative to synthetic ferrofluids for the separation of minerals. We also report the dynamics of corrugation instabilities on the surface of magnetized liquid oxygen.

  9. Cryogenically enhanced magneto-Archimedes levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catherall, A T; Lopez-Alcaraz, P; Benedict, K A; King, P J; Eaves, L

    2005-01-01

    The application of both a strong magnetic field and magnetic field gradient to a diamagnetic body can produce a vertical force which is sufficient to counteract its weight due to gravity. By immersing the body in a paramagnetic fluid, an additional adjustable magneto-buoyancy force is generated which enhances the levitation effect. Here we show that cryogenic oxygen and oxygen-nitrogen mixtures in both gaseous and liquid form provide sufficient buoyancy to permit the levitation and flotation of a wide range of materials. These fluids may provide an alternative to synthetic ferrofluids for the separation of minerals. We also report the dynamics of corrugation instabilities on the surface of magnetized liquid oxygen

  10. Stable And Oscillating Acoustic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, Martin B.; Garrett, Steven L.

    1988-01-01

    Sample stability or instability determined by levitating frequency. Degree of oscillation of acoustically levitated object along axis of levitation chamber controlled by varying frequency of acoustic driver for axis above or below frequency of corresponding chamber resonance. Stabilization/oscillation technique applied in normal Earth gravity, or in absence of gravity to bring object quickly to rest at nominal levitation position or make object oscillate in desired range about that position.

  11. Internal resonance of an elastic body levitated above high-Tc superconducting bulks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokuzawa, T; Toshihiko, S; Yoshizawa, M

    2010-01-01

    In high-Tc superconducting magnetic levitation systems, levitated bodies can keep stable levitation with no contact and no control and thus their damping is very small. Thanks to these features, their applications to various apparatus are expected. However, on account of their small damping, the nonlinearity of electromagnetic levitation force can give notable effects upon motion of the levitated bodies. Therefore this nonlinearity must be taken into account to accurately analyze the dynamical behavior of the levitated bodies. Structures of such a levitated body can show elastic deformation if the large electromagnetic force acts on it. Therefore, we need to deal with the model as an elastic body. As mentioned above, nonlinear characteristics easily appear in this elastic vibration on account of the small damping. Especially when the ratio of the natural frequencies of the eigenmodes is integer, internal resonance can occur. This nonlinear resonance is derived from nonlinear interactions among the eigenmodes of the elastic levitated body. This kind of internal resonance of an elastic body appearing in high-Tc superconducting levitation systems has not been studied so far. This research especially deals with internal resonance of a beam supported at both its ends by electromagnetic forces acting on permanent magnets. The governing equation with the nonlinear boundary conditions for the dynamics of a levitated beam has been derived. Numerical results show internal resonance of the 1st mode and the 3rd mode. Experimental results are qualitatively in good agreement with numerical ones.

  12. Variable-Position Acoustic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Stoneburner, J. D.; Jacobi, N.; Wang, T. G.

    1983-01-01

    Method of acoustic levitation supports objects at positions other than acoustic nodes. Acoustic force is varied so it balances gravitational (or other) force, thereby maintaining object at any position within equilibrium range. Levitation method applicable to containerless processing. Such objects as table-tennis balls, hollow plastic spheres, and balsa-wood spheres levitated in laboratory by new method.

  13. Superconducting magnet for 'ML-100'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, R; Fujinaga, T; Tada, N; Kimura, H

    1974-07-01

    A magneticaly levitated experimental vehicle (Ml-100) was designed and constructed in commemoration of the centenary of the Japanese National Railways. For magnetic levitation the vehicle is provided with two superconducting magnets. In the test operation of the vehicle, these superconducting magnets showed stable performance in levitating vehicle body.

  14. Swissmetro - high speed underground transportation system propulsion, levitation and guiding system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jufer, M [Lab. of Electromechanical and Electrical Machines, Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Cassat, A [Lab. of Electromechanical and Electrical Machines, Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Macabrey, N [Lab. of Electromechanical and Electrical Machines, Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    The idea behind Swissmetro is to move travelers underground between the main cities of Switzerland at a speed of up to 500 km/h in a tube under partial vacuum. The train, carrying 800 passengers, would travel without contact to the infrastructure through an application of linear motor technology and magnetic levitation. The energy consumption of the system will be low, due to the reduced air resistance and the absence of wheel-rail contact. This publication describes the electromechanical and electromagnetic specific devices such as: The linear, short stator motors; the levitation system with electromagnets; the guidance system with electromagnets; the energy transmission system to the vehicle by induction, using a linear transformer. After a preliminary study, the Swissmetro project started an industrial study of 4 years in order to obtain the concession license from the Swiss government. (orig.)

  15. A levitation instrument for containerless study of molten materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordine, Paul C; Merkley, Dennis; Sickel, Jeffrey; Finkelman, Steve; Telle, Rainer; Kaiser, Arno; Prieler, Robert

    2012-12-01

    A new aero-acoustic levitation instrument (AAL) has been installed at the Institute for Mineral Engineering at RWTH University in Aachen, Germany. The AAL employs acoustically stabilized gas jet levitation with laser-beam heating and melting to create a contact-free containerless environment for high temperature materials research. Contamination-free study of liquids is possible at temperatures in excess of 3000 °C and of undercooled liquids at temperatures far below the melting point. Digital control technology advances the art of containerless experiments to obtain long-term levitation stability, allowing new experiments in extreme temperature materials research and to study operation of the levitation instrument itself. Experiments with liquid Al(2)O(3) at temperatures more than 3200 °C, 1200 °C above the melting point, and with liquid Y(3)Al(5)O(12) far below the melting point are reported. Fast pyrometry and video recording instruments yield crystallization rates in undercooled liquid Al(2)O(3) as a function of temperature. Levitation of dense liquid HfO(2) at temperatures above 2900 °C is demonstrated. Capabilities are described for resonant frequency matching in the three-axis acoustic positioning system, acoustic control of sample spin, and position control of standing wave nodes to stabilize levitation under changing experimental conditions. Further development and application of the levitation technology is discussed based on the results of experiments and modeling of instrument operations.

  16. Research on levitation coupled with standing wave levitation and electromagnetic levitation:

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Xiao Yang; Li, Xinbo; Liu, GuoJun; Liu, JianFang; Liu, XiaoLun; Lu, Song

    2013-01-01

    In order to solve the problem caused by metal materials' inability to be cooled without contact with other materials after being heated by electromagnetic levitation, a new method is proposed: using a standing wave levitator to levitate the melted metal. The standing wave levitator adopts a concave spherical surface on the emitter and the reflector. Using ANSYS software, the transducer and the standing wave fields were simulated. Based on the simulation, the distribution and the maximum acous...

  17. Development of a disposable magnetically levitated centrifugal blood pump (MedTech Dispo) intended for bridge-to-bridge applications--two-week in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Eiki; Someya, Takeshi; Kitao, Takashi; Kimura, Taro; Ushiyama, Tomohiro; Hijikata, Wataru; Shinshi, Tadahiko; Arai, Hirokuni; Takatani, Setsuo

    2010-09-01

    Last year, we reported in vitro pump performance, low hemolytic characteristics, and initial in vivo evaluation of a disposable, magnetically levitated centrifugal blood pump, MedTech Dispo. As the first phase of the two-stage in vivo studies, in this study we have carried out a 2-week in vivo evaluation in calves. Male Holstein calves with body weight of 62.4–92.2 kg were used. Under general anesthesia, a left heart bypass with a MedTech Dispo pump was instituted between the left atrium and the descending aorta via left thoracotomy. Blood-contacting surface of the pump was coated with a 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine polymer. Post-operatively, with activated clotting time controlled at 180–220 s using heparin and bypass flow rate maintained at 50 mL/kg/min, plasma-free hemoglobin (Hb), coagulation, and major organ functions were analyzed for evaluation of biocompatibility. The animals were electively sacrificed at the completion of the 2-week study to evaluate presence of thrombus inside the pump,together with an examination of major organs. To date, we have done 13 MedTech Dispo implantations, of which three went successfully for a 2-week duration. In these three cases, the pump produced a fairly constant flow of 50 mL/Kg/min. Neurological disorders and any symptoms of thromboembolism were not seen. Levels of plasma-free Hb were maintained very low. Major organ functions remained within normal ranges. Autopsy results revealed no thrombus formation inside the pump. In the last six cases, calves suffered from severe pneumonia and they were excluded from the analysis. The MedTech Dispo pump demonstrated sufficient pump performance and biocompatibility to meet requirements for 1-week circulatory support. The second phase (2-month in vivo study) is under way to prove the safety and efficacy of MedTech Dispo for 1-month applications. © 2010, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2010, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation

  18. Heartmate 3 fully magnetically levitated left ventricular assist device for the treatment of advanced heart failure -1 year results from the Ce mark trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabatsch, Thomas; Netuka, Ivan; Schmitto, Jan D; Zimpfer, Daniel; Garbade, Jens; Rao, Vivek; Morshuis, Michiel; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Marasco, Silvana; Damme, Laura; Pya, Yuriy

    2017-04-04

    The HeartMate 3 Left Ventricular Assist System (LVAS) (St. Jude Medical Inc., St Paul, MN) with full magnetic levitation allows for wide and consistent blood flow paths and an artificial pulse designed for enhanced hemocompatibility. The HeartMate 3 received market approval in the European Union in 2015 following completion of a multicenter study. After reaching the 6-month study endpoint, patients continue to be followed for 2 years with the 1-year results presented herein. A prospective, non-randomized study included adults with advanced heart failure and ejection fraction (EF) ≤ 25%, cardiac index (CI) ≤ 2.2 L/min/m2 while not on inotropes, or inotrope dependent, or on optimal medical management for 45/60 days. Fifty patients-54% bridge to transplant (BTT) and 46% destination therapy (DT)-were enrolled and implanted with the HeartMate 3. At baseline, 92% of the patients were INTERMACS profiles 2-4, with cardiac index 1.8 + 0.5 L/min/m 2 and 58% were supported with inotropes. At 1 year, 74% of the patients remain on support, 18% expired, 6% transplanted, and 2% explanted. The adverse events include 12% gastrointestinal bleeding, 16% driveline infections, 18% strokes, and 2% outflow graft thrombosis. There was no hemolysis, pump thrombosis or pump malfunction through 1 year. The six-minute walk test distance increased from a mean of 273 m to 371 m (P <0.0001). EQ-5D quality-of-life score increased from a mean of 52.7 to 70.8 (P = 0.0006). The 1-year HeartMate 3 LVAS results show survival and adverse-event profile are similar to other approved devices, with no pump thrombosis or pump failure. Patient's functional status and quality of life significantly improved over time. Clinicaltrials.gov registration number: NCT02170363 . Registered June 19, 2014.

  19. Holographic acoustic elements for manipulation of levitated objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzo, Asier; Seah, Sue Ann; Drinkwater, Bruce W.; Sahoo, Deepak Ranjan; Long, Benjamin; Subramanian, Sriram

    2015-10-01

    Sound can levitate objects of different sizes and materials through air, water and tissue. This allows us to manipulate cells, liquids, compounds or living things without touching or contaminating them. However, acoustic levitation has required the targets to be enclosed with acoustic elements or had limited manoeuvrability. Here we optimize the phases used to drive an ultrasonic phased array and show that acoustic levitation can be employed to translate, rotate and manipulate particles using even a single-sided emitter. Furthermore, we introduce the holographic acoustic elements framework that permits the rapid generation of traps and provides a bridge between optical and acoustical trapping. Acoustic structures shaped as tweezers, twisters or bottles emerge as the optimum mechanisms for tractor beams or containerless transportation. Single-beam levitation could manipulate particles inside our body for applications in targeted drug delivery or acoustically controlled micro-machines that do not interfere with magnetic resonance imaging.

  20. Eddy damping effect of additional conductors in superconducting levitation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhao-Fei; Gou, Xiao-Fan

    2015-12-01

    Passive superconducting levitation systems consisting of a high temperature superconductor (HTSC) and a permanent magnet (PM) have demonstrated several fascinating applications such as the maglev system, flywheel energy storage. Generally, for the HTSC-PM levitation system, the HTSC with higher critical current density Jc can obtain larger magnetic force to make the PM levitate over the HTSC (or suspended below the HTSC), however, the process of the vibration of the levitated PM, provides very limited inherent damping (essentially hysteresis). To improve the dynamic stability of the levitated PM, eddy damping of additional conductors can be considered as the most simple and effective approach. In this article, for the HTSC-PM levitation system with an additional copper damper attached to the HTSC, we numerically and comprehensively investigated the damping coefficient c, damping ratio, Joule heating of the copper damper, and the vibration frequency of the PM as well. Furthermore, we comparatively studied four different arrangements of the copper damper, on the comprehensive analyzed the damping effect, efficiency (defined by c/VCu, in which VCu is the volume of the damper) and Joule heating, and finally presented the most advisable arrangement.

  1. Development of superconducting magnets for the Canadian electrodynamic Maglev vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, A.A.; Ensing, H.J.; Tillotson, M.; Westera, W.

    1986-01-01

    A review is presented on the current status of superconducting magnet developments for the Canadian electrodynamic Maglev transportation system. Various design aspects of the levitation and linear synchronous motor magnets, appropriate for the current vehicle concepts, are discussed. In addition, recent experimental work is outlined on the development of a suitable epoxy impregnation technology for the superconducting coils

  2. Optimization of a superconducting linear levitation system using a soft ferromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agramunt-Puig, Sebastia; Del-Valle, Nuria; Navau, Carles; Sanchez, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Study of the levitation of a superconducting bar over different magnetic guideways. ► A soft ferromagnet within permanent magnets improves levitation stability. ► We study the best geometry for large levitation force with full stability. -- Abstract: The use of guideways that combine permanent magnets and soft ferromagnetic materials is a common practice in magnetic levitation transport systems (maglevs) with bulk high-temperature superconductors. Theoretical tools to simulate in a realistic way both the behavior of all elements (permanent magnets, soft ferromagnet and superconductor) and their mutual effects are helpful to optimize the designs of real systems. Here we present a systematic study of the levitation of a maglev with translational symmetry consisting of a superconducting bar and a guideway with two identic permanent magnets and a soft ferromagnetic material between them. The system is simulated with a numerical model based on the energy minimization method that allows to analyze the mutual interaction of the superconductor, assumed to be in the critical state, and a soft ferromagnet with infinite susceptibility. Results indicate that introducing a soft ferromagnet within the permanent magnets not only increases the levitation force but also improves the stability. Besides, an estimation of the relative sizes and shapes of the soft ferromagnet, permanent magnets and the superconductor in order to obtain large levitation force with full stability is provided

  3. Optimization of a superconducting linear levitation system using a soft ferromagnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agramunt-Puig, Sebastia; Del-Valle, Nuria; Navau, Carles, E-mail: carles.navau@uab.cat; Sanchez, Alvaro

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Study of the levitation of a superconducting bar over different magnetic guideways. ► A soft ferromagnet within permanent magnets improves levitation stability. ► We study the best geometry for large levitation force with full stability. -- Abstract: The use of guideways that combine permanent magnets and soft ferromagnetic materials is a common practice in magnetic levitation transport systems (maglevs) with bulk high-temperature superconductors. Theoretical tools to simulate in a realistic way both the behavior of all elements (permanent magnets, soft ferromagnet and superconductor) and their mutual effects are helpful to optimize the designs of real systems. Here we present a systematic study of the levitation of a maglev with translational symmetry consisting of a superconducting bar and a guideway with two identic permanent magnets and a soft ferromagnetic material between them. The system is simulated with a numerical model based on the energy minimization method that allows to analyze the mutual interaction of the superconductor, assumed to be in the critical state, and a soft ferromagnet with infinite susceptibility. Results indicate that introducing a soft ferromagnet within the permanent magnets not only increases the levitation force but also improves the stability. Besides, an estimation of the relative sizes and shapes of the soft ferromagnet, permanent magnets and the superconductor in order to obtain large levitation force with full stability is provided.

  4. Meissner-levitated micro-systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, T A; Samad, I; Hong, Z; Eves, D; Rastogi, A [Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, CB2 PZ (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-01

    Advanced silicon processing techniques developed for the Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) industry have been exploited in recent years to enable the production of micro-fabricated moving mechanical systems known as Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS). These devices offer advantages in terms of cost, scalability and robustness over their preceding equivalents. Cambridge University have worked for many years on the investigation of high temperature superconductors (HTS) in flywheel energy storage applications. This experience is now being used to research into superconducting Micro-Bearings for MEMS, whereby circular permanent magnet arrays are levitated and spun above a superconductor to produce bearings suitable for motors and other micron scale devices. The novelty in the device lies in the fact that the rotor is levitated into position by Meissner flux exclusion, whilst stability is provided by flux pinned within the body of the superconductor. This work includes: the investigation of the properties of various magnetic materials, their fabrication processes and their suitability for MEMS; finite element analysis to analyse the interaction between the magnetic materials and YBCO to determine the stiffness and height of levitation. Finally a micro-motor with the above principles is currently being fabricated within the group.

  5. Levitated crystals and quasicrystals of metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, Christopher [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goree, John A [Dept Phys and Astron., University of Iowa

    2012-07-25

    New scientific and technological opportunities exist by marrying dusty plasma research with metamaterials. Specifically, by balancing control and self-assembly, certain laboratory plasmas can become a generic levitation platform for novel structure formation and nanomaterial synthesis. We propose to experimentally investigate two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) levitated structures of metamaterials and their properties. Such structures can self assemble in laboratory plasmas, similar to levitated dust crystals which were discovered in the mid 1990's. Laboratory plasma platform for metamaterial formation eliminates substrates upon which most metamaterials have to be supported. Three types of experiments, with similar setups, are discussed here. Levitated crystal structures of metamaterials using anisotropic microparticles are the most basic of the three. The second experiment examines whether quasicrystals of metamaterials are possible. Quasicrystals, discovered in the 1980's, possess so-called forbidden symmetries according to the conventional crystallography. The proposed experiment could answer many fundamental questions about structural, thermal and dynamical properties of quasicrystals. And finally, how to use nanoparticle coated microparticles to synthesize very long carbon nanotubes is also described. All of the experiments can fit inside a standard International Space Station locker with dimensions of 8-inch x 17-inch X 18-inch. Microgravity environment is deemed essential in particular for large 3D structures and very long carbon nanotube synthesis.

  6. Modal bifurcation in a high-Tc superconducting levitation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, D; Fujiwara, S; Sugiura, T

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with modal bifurcation of a multi-degree-of-freedom high-T c superconducting levitation system. As modeling of large-scale high-T c superconducting levitation applications, where plural superconducting bulks are often used, it can be helpful to consider a system constituting of multiple oscillators magnetically coupled with each other. This paper investigates nonlinear dynamics of two permanent magnets levitated above high-T c superconducting bulks and placed between two fixed permanent magnets without contact. First, the nonlinear equations of motion of the levitated magnets were derived. Then the method of averaging was applied to them. It can be found from the obtained solutions that this nonlinear two degree-of-freedom system can have two asymmetric modes, in addition to a symmetric mode and an antisymmetric mode both of which also exist in the linearized system. One of the backbone curves in the frequency response shows a modal bifurcation where the two stable asymmetric modes mentioned above appear with destabilization of the antisymmetric mode, thus leading to modal localization. These analytical predictions have been confirmed in our numerical analysis and experiments of free vibration and forced vibration. These results, never predicted by linear analysis, can be important for application of high-T c superconducting levitation systems.

  7. Measurement of Levitation Forces of High-"T[subscript c] Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M.; Koblischka, M. R.; Hartmann, U.

    2010-01-01

    We show the construction of a so-called levitation balance which is capable of measuring the levitation forces between a permanent magnet and a superconducting high-T[subscript c] thin film sample. The underlying theoretical basis is discussed in detail. The experiment is performed as an introductory physics experiment for school students as well…

  8. Optical Levitation of a Mirror for Reaching the Standard Quantum Limit

    OpenAIRE

    Michimura, Yuta; Kuwahara, Yuya; Ushiba, Takafumi; Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Ando, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new method to optically levitate a macroscopic mirror with two vertical Fabry-P{\\'e}rot cavities linearly aligned. This configuration gives the simplest possible optical levitation in which the number of laser beams used is the minimum of two. We demonstrate that reaching the standard quantum limit (SQL) of a displacement measurement with our system is feasible with current technology. The cavity geometry and the levitated mirror parameters are designed to ensure that the Brownia...

  9. SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] magnet technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.

    1987-09-01

    To minimize cost of the SSC facility, small-bore high field dipole magnets have been developed;some of the new technology that has been developed at several U.S. national laboratories and in industry is summarized. Superconducting wire with high J/sub c/ and filaments as small as 5μm diameter is not produced iwht mechanical properties suitable for reliable cable production. A variety of collar designs of both aluminum and stainless steel have been used in model magnets. A low-heat leak post-type cryostat support system is used and a system for accurate alignment of coil-collar-yoke in the cryostat has been developed. Model magnets of 1-m, 1.8 m, 4.5 m, and 17 m lengths have been build during the past two years. 23 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Vibration Reduction System Using Magnetic Suspension Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spychała Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents considerations concerning the construction of vibration reduction system using magnetic suspension technology. Presents the results of simulation, numerical and experimental the bearingless electric motor, for which successfully used this type of solution. Positive results of research and testing have become the basis for the development of the concept of building this type of active vibration reduction system , at the same time acting as a support for a technical object, which is a jet engine. Bearing failures are manifested by loss or distortion of their mass, which leads to a total destruction of the roller bearing, and thus reflected in the security. The article presents the concept of building active magnetic suspension to eliminate the bearing system of classical rolling bearing and replace it with magnetic bearing.

  11. Force measurements for levitated bulk superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachi, Y.; Sawa, K.; Iwasa, Y.; Nagashima, K.; Otani, T.; Miyamoto, T.; Tomita, M.; Murakami, M.

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a force measurement system which enables us to directly measure the levitation force of levitated bulk superconductors. Experimental data of the levitation forces were compared with the results of numerical simulation based on the levitation model that we deduced in our previous paper. They were in fairly good agreement, which confirms that our levitation model can be applied to the force analyses for levitated bulk superconductors. (author)

  12. Force measurements for levitated bulk superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachi, Y. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama (Japan); ISTEC, Superconductivity Research Laboratory, 1-16-25 Shibaura, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan). E-mail: tachi at istec.or.jp; Uemura, N. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama (Japan); ISTEC, Superconductivity Research Laboratory, 1-16-25 Shibaura, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Sawa, K. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama (Japan); Iwasa, Y. [Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Nagashima, K. [Railway Technical Research Institute, Hikari-cho, Kokubunji-shi, Tokyo (Japan); Otani, T.; Miyamoto, T.; Tomita, M.; Murakami, M. [ISTEC, Superconductivity Research Laboratory, 1-16-25 Shibaura, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-06-01

    We have developed a force measurement system which enables us to directly measure the levitation force of levitated bulk superconductors. Experimental data of the levitation forces were compared with the results of numerical simulation based on the levitation model that we deduced in our previous paper. They were in fairly good agreement, which confirms that our levitation model can be applied to the force analyses for levitated bulk superconductors. (author)

  13. Poisson Spot with Magnetic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Matthew; Everhart, Michael; D'Arruda, Jose

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a unique method for obtaining the famous Poisson spot without adding obstacles to the light path, which could interfere with the effect. A Poisson spot is the interference effect from parallel rays of light diffracting around a solid spherical object, creating a bright spot in the center of the shadow.

  14. Cavity optomechanics in a levitated helium drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, L.; Schmidt, M. P.; Kashkanova, A. D.; Brown, C. D.; Harris, G. I.; Aiello, A.; Marquardt, F.; Harris, J. G. E.

    2017-12-01

    We describe a proposal for a type of optomechanical system based on a drop of liquid helium that is magnetically levitated in vacuum. In the proposed device, the drop would serve three roles: its optical whispering-gallery modes would provide the optical cavity, its surface vibrations would constitute the mechanical element, and evaporation of He atoms from its surface would provide continuous refrigeration. We analyze the feasibility of such a system in light of previous experimental demonstrations of its essential components: magnetic levitation of mm-scale and cm-scale drops of liquid He , evaporative cooling of He droplets in vacuum, and coupling to high-quality optical whispering-gallery modes in a wide range of liquids. We find that the combination of these features could result in a device that approaches the single-photon strong-coupling regime, due to the high optical quality factors attainable at low temperatures. Moreover, the system offers a unique opportunity to use optical techniques to study the motion of a superfluid that is freely levitating in vacuum (in the case of 4He). Alternatively, for a normal fluid drop of 3He, we propose to exploit the coupling between the drop's rotations and vibrations to perform quantum nondemolition measurements of angular momentum.

  15. Simplified Rotation In Acoustic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Gaspar, M. S.; Trinh, E. H.

    1989-01-01

    New technique based on old discovery used to control orientation of object levitated acoustically in axisymmetric chamber. Method does not require expensive equipment like additional acoustic drivers of precisely adjustable amplitude, phase, and frequency. Reflecting object acts as second source of sound. If reflecting object large enough, close enough to levitated object, or focuses reflected sound sufficiently, Rayleigh torque exerted on levitated object by reflected sound controls orientation of object.

  16. Acoustic Levitation Containerless Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whymark, R. R.; Rey, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    This research program consists of the development of acoustic containerless processing systems with applications in the areas of research in material sciences, as well as the production of new materials, solid forms with novel and unusual microstructures, fusion target spheres, and improved optical fibers. Efforts have been focused on the containerless processing at high temperatures for producing new kinds of glasses. Also, some development has occurred in the areas of containerlessly supporting liquids at room temperature, with applications in studies of fluid dynamics, potential undercooling of liquids, etc. The high temperature area holds the greatest promise for producing new kinds of glasses and ceramics, new alloys, and possibly unusual structural shapes, such as very uniform hollow glass shells for fusion target applications. High temperature acoustic levitation required for containerless processing has been demonstrated in low-g environments as well as in ground-based experiments. Future activities include continued development of the signals axis acoustic levitator.

  17. Generalized Superconductivity. Generalized Levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciobanu, B.; Agop, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the recent papers, the gravitational superconductivity is described. We introduce the concept of generalized superconductivity observing that any nongeodesic motion and, in particular, the motion in an electromagnetic field, can be transformed in a geodesic motion by a suitable choice of the connection. In the present paper, the gravitoelectromagnetic London equations have been obtained from the generalized Helmholtz vortex theorem using the generalized local equivalence principle. In this context, the gravitoelectromagnetic Meissner effect and, implicitly, the gravitoelectromagnetic levitation are given. (authors)

  18. About stability of levitating states of superconducting myxini of plasma traps-galateas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishaev, A.M.; Bush, A.A.; Denis'uk, A.I.; D'yakonitsa, O.Y.; Kamentsev, K.Y.; Kozintseva, M.V.; Kolesnikova, T.G.; Shapovalov, M.M.; Voronchenko, S.A.; Gavrikov, M.B.; Savelyev, V.V.; Smirnov, P.G.

    2015-01-01

    To develop a plasma trap with levitating superconducting magnetic coils it is necessary to carry out the search of their stable levitating states. With this purpose, based upon the superconductor property to conserve the trapped magnetic flux, in the uniform gravitational field the analytical dependence of the potential energy of one or two superconducting rings, having trapped the given magnetic fluxes, in the field of the fixed ring with the constant current from the coordinates of the free rings and the deflection angle of their axes from the common axis of the magnetic system has been obtained in the thin ring approximation. Under magnetic fluxes of the same polarity in coils the existence of the found from the calculations equilibrium levitating states for the manufactured HTSC rings stable relative to the vertical shifts of levitating rings and to the deflection angle of their axes from the vertical has been confirmed experimentally

  19. 3D modeling of forces between magnet and HTS in a levitation system using new approach of the control volume method based on an unstructured grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alloui, L., E-mail: lotfi.alloui@lgep.supelec.fr [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique de Paris - LGEP, CNRS UMR 8507, Supelec, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Universite Paris Sud-Paris 11, Plateau de Moulon, 11 rue Joliot Curie, 91192 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Laboratoire de modelisation des systemes energetiques (LMSE), Universite de Biskra, 07000 Biskra (Algeria); Bouillault, F., E-mail: bouillault@lgep.supelec.fr [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique de Paris - LGEP, CNRS UMR 8507, Supelec, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Universite Paris Sud-Paris 11, Plateau de Moulon, 11 rue Joliot Curie, 91192 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Bernard, L., E-mail: laurent.bernardl@lgep.supelc.fr [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique de Paris - LGEP, CNRS UMR 8507, Supelec, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Universite Paris Sud-Paris 11, Plateau de Moulon, 11 rue Joliot Curie, 91192 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Leveque, J., E-mail: jean.leveque@green.uhp-nancy.fr [Groupe de recherche en electronique et electrotechnique de Nancy, Universite Henry Poincare, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)

    2012-05-15

    In this paper we present new 3D numerical model to calculate the vertical and the guidance forces in high temperature superconductors taking into account the influence of the flux creep phenomena. In the suggested numerical model, we adopt a new approach of the control volume method. This approach is based on the use of an unstructured grid which can be used to model more complex geometries. A comparison of the control volume method results with experiments verifies the validity of this approach and the proposed numerical model. Based on this model, the levitation force's relaxation at different temperatures was also studied.

  20. Acoustic Levitation With One Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T. G.; Rudnick, I.; Elleman, D. D.; Stoneburner, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Report discusses acoustic levitation in rectangular chamber using one driver mounted at corner. Placement of driver at corner enables it to couple effectively to acoustic modes along all three axes. Use of single driver reduces cost, complexity and weight of levitation system below those of three driver system.

  1. Equilibrium positions due to different cooling processes in superconducting levitation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navau, C; Sanchez, A; Pardo, E; Chen, D-X

    2004-01-01

    The equilibrium position of a superconducting levitation device is determined not only by the geometry and electromagnetic properties of its components, but also by the cooling process of the superconductor. In this work we study the dependence of the equilibrium positions upon the cooling process by introducing diagrams of a new kind which display the different possibilities for a given levitation system. Using the critical state model and the principle of magnetic energy, we calculate different diagrams of this type for the case of a cylindrically symmetric permanent magnet-superconductor system. The results allow us to find out, for a given levitation system, which cooling process improves the capabilities of the system

  2. Review of Progress in Acoustic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Marco A. B.; Pérez, Nicolás; Adamowski, Julio C.

    2018-04-01

    Acoustic levitation uses acoustic radiation forces to counteract gravity and suspend objects in mid-air. Although acoustic levitation was first demonstrated almost a century ago, for a long time, it was limited to objects much smaller than the acoustic wavelength levitating at fixed positions in space. Recent advances in acoustic levitation now allow not only suspending but also rotating and translating objects in three dimensions. Acoustic levitation is also no longer restricted to small objects and can now be employed to levitate objects larger than the acoustic wavelength. This article reviews the progress of acoustic levitation, focusing on the working mechanism of different types of acoustic levitation devices developed to date. We start with a brief review of the theory. Then, we review the acoustic levitation methods to suspend objects at fixed positions, followed by the techniques that allow the manipulation of objects. Finally, we present a brief summary and offer some future perspectives for acoustic levitation.

  3. Densitometry By Acoustic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Eugene H.

    1989-01-01

    "Static" and "dynamic" methods developed for measuring mass density of acoustically levitated solid particle or liquid drop. "Static" method, unknown density of sample found by comparison with another sample of known density. "Dynamic" method practiced with or without gravitational field. Advantages over conventional density-measuring techniques: sample does not have to make contact with container or other solid surface, size and shape of samples do not affect measurement significantly, sound field does not have to be know in detail, and sample can be smaller than microliter. Detailed knowledge of acoustic field not necessary.

  4. Rigid levitation, flux pinning, thermal depinning, and fluctuation in high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, E.H.

    1991-01-01

    Here, the author shows that the strong velocity-independent frictional force on a levitating superconductor and on any type-II superconductor moving in a homogeneous magnetic field is caused by pinning and depinning of the magnetic flux lines in its interior. Levitation may thus be used to investigate the pinning properties of a superconductor, and friction in a superconductor bearing may be minimized by choosing appropriate materials and geometries

  5. On Some Aspects of Levitation Heating of Metal Bodies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mach, M.; Karban, P.; Doležel, Ivo

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2005), s. 5-10 ISSN 1335-8243 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/04/0095 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : electrodynamic levitation * induction heating * magnetic field Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  6. Spherical Nb single crystals containerlessly grown by electrostatic levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Y.S.; Takeya, H.; Hirata, K.; Togano, K.

    2003-01-01

    Spherical Nb (T m =2750 K) single crystals were grown via containerless electrostatic levitation (ESL). Samples became spherical at melting in levitation and undercooled typically 300-450 K prior to nucleation. As-processed samples were still spherical without any macroscopic shape change by solidification showing a uniform dendritic surface morphology. Crystallographic {111} planes exposed in equilateral triangular shapes on the surface by preferential macroetching and spotty back-reflection Laue patterns confirm the single crystal nature of the ESL-processed Nb samples. No hysteresis in magnetization between zero field and field cooling also implies a clean defect-free condition of the spherical Nb single crystals

  7. Anomaly detection using magnetic flux leakage technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempel, Raymond G. [BJ Pipeline Inspection Services, Alberta (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    There are many aspects to properly assessing the integrity of a pipeline. In-line-Inspection (ILI) tools, in particular those that employ the advanced use of Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) technology, provide a valuable means of achieving required up-to-date knowledge of a pipeline. More prevalent use of High Resolution MFL In-Line-Inspection tools is growing the knowledge base that leads to more reliable and accurate identification of anomalies in a pipeline, thus, minimizing the need for expensive verification excavations. Accurate assessment of pipeline anomalies can improve the decision making process within an Integrity Management Program and excavation programs can then focus on required repairs instead of calibration or exploratory digs. Utilizing the information from an MFL ILI inspection is not only cost effective but, as well, can also prove to be an extremely valuable building block of a Pipeline Integrity Management Program. (author)

  8. Integrated Magnetic MEMS Relays: Status of the Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Schiavone

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The development and application of magnetic technologies employing microfabricated magnetic structures for the production of switching components has generated enormous interest in the scientific and industrial communities over the last decade. Magnetic actuation offers many benefits when compared to other schemes for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS, including the generation of forces that have higher magnitude and longer range. Magnetic actuation can be achieved using different excitation sources, which create challenges related to the integration with other technologies, such as CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor, and the requirement to reduce power consumption. Novel designs and technologies are therefore sought to enable the use of magnetic switching architectures in integrated MEMS devices, without incurring excessive energy consumption. This article reviews the status of magnetic MEMS technology and presents devices recently developed by various research groups, with key focuses on integrability and effective power management, in addition to the ability to integrate the technology with other microelectronic fabrication processes.

  9. Eddy damping effect of additional conductors in superconducting levitation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Zhao-Fei; Gou, Xiao-Fan, E-mail: xfgou@hhu.edu.cn

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • In this article, for the eddy current damper attached to the HTSC, we • quantitatively investigated the damping coefficient c, damping ratio, Joule heating of the copper damper, and the vibration frequency of the PM as well. • presented four different arrangements of the copper damper, and comparatively studied their damping effects and Joule heating, and finally proposed the most advisable arrangement. - Abstract: Passive superconducting levitation systems consisting of a high temperature superconductor (HTSC) and a permanent magnet (PM) have demonstrated several fascinating applications such as the maglev system, flywheel energy storage. Generally, for the HTSC–PM levitation system, the HTSC with higher critical current density J{sub c} can obtain larger magnetic force to make the PM levitate over the HTSC (or suspended below the HTSC), however, the process of the vibration of the levitated PM, provides very limited inherent damping (essentially hysteresis). To improve the dynamic stability of the levitated PM, eddy damping of additional conductors can be considered as the most simple and effective approach. In this article, for the HTSC–PM levitation system with an additional copper damper attached to the HTSC, we numerically and comprehensively investigated the damping coefficient c, damping ratio, Joule heating of the copper damper, and the vibration frequency of the PM as well. Furthermore, we comparatively studied four different arrangements of the copper damper, on the comprehensive analyzed the damping effect, efficiency (defined by c/V{sub Cu}, in which V{sub Cu} is the volume of the damper) and Joule heating, and finally presented the most advisable arrangement.

  10. Ceramic high temperature superconductor levitating motor with laser commutator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roslan Abd Shukor; Lee Keng Heong

    1996-01-01

    The design of a magnetically levitating motor using a ceramic high temperature superconductor with laser commutator is discussed. A YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7-δ high temperature superconductor with 25 mm diameter and 6 mm thickness is used to levitate a Nd-Fe-B magnet (19.0 mm diameter and 4.8 mm thickness) which is attached symmetrically to a 150 mm long graphite rod. A smaller magnet (5.5 mm diameter and 2.0 mm thickness) is attached at each end of the rod with the appropriate poles arrangements. A suitable laser beam chopper is used to optically drive a solenoid which repels the smaller magnets thus driving the motor. A simple and efficient liquid nitrogen supply system is designed to cool the superconductor. The stability of the bearing is provided by the flux pinning in this type-II superconductor. Some characteristics of the motor are discussed

  11. Acoustic Levitation With Less Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Jacobi, N.

    1983-01-01

    Certain chamber shapes require fewer than three acoustic drivers. Levitation at center of spherical chamber attained using only one acoustic driver. Exitation of lowest spherical mode produces asymmetric acoustic potential well.

  12. Magnetic field applications in modern technology and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1985-05-01

    A brief summary is given of several major applications of magnetism. A description of the range of magnetic field intensities to which humans are exposed in technologies that utilize large stationary magnetic fields is given. 12 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Superconducting magnet technology for particle accelerators and detectors seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    This lecture is an introduction to superconducting magnets for particle accelerators and detectors, the aim being to explain the vocabulary and describe the basic technology of modern superconducting magnets, and to explore the limits of the technology. It will include the following: - Why we need superconducting magnets - Properties of superconductors, critical field, critical temperature - Why accelerators need fine filaments and cables; conductor manufacture - Temperature rise and temperature margin: the quench process, training - Quench protection schemes. Protection in the case of the LHC. - Magnets for detectors - The challenges of state-of-the-art magnets for High Energy Physics

  14. Experimental and theoretical studies of levitated quantum fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.; Halley, J.W.; Giese, C.F.

    1998-01-01

    We describe the opportunities for improved scientific understanding and technical manipulation of cryogenic fields, particularly molecular hydrogen, by the use of carefully designed magnetic field configurations produced with assemblies of permanent magnets. We discuss the levitation of hydrogen in order to perfect technical means for handling this and other cryogenic fluids. The development of the techniques to be explored here provide extraordinary opportunities for improved methods for handling rocket fuels and cryogenic fluids in low gravity environments

  15. Rotational loss of a ring-shaped flywheel supported by high Tc superconducting levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, Hidekazu; Tawara, Taichi; Shimada, Ryuichi.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental results for the rotational loss of a ring-shaped flywheel supported by high T c superconducting levitation. Superconducting levitation is appropriate for rotating a ring-shaped flywheel which has neither shaft nor hub because it is a non-contact and automatically stable levitation without any control systems. The rotational loss has been investigated using a small-scaled experimental machine consisting of 16 bulk superconductors 46 mm in diameter and a ring-shaped flywheel about 300 mm in diameter. The rotational loss decreased as the levitation gap height increased. In low-speed rotational regions, the rotational loss was in proportion to the rotation speed and depended more on the levitation gap. In high-speed rotational regions, the rotational loss was in proportion to the third power of the rotation speed and depended less on the levitation gap. The cubic rotational loss in He was reduced to one-fifth of that in air. The magnetic field pinned in bulk superconductors induces a loss in the materials composing the ring-shaped flywheel. The rotational loss of a ring-shaped flywheel supported by superconducting levitation can be reduced by improving the uniformity of the magnetic fields along the ring, enlargement of the bulk superconductor(s), and densely arranging the bulk superconductors. (author)

  16. System and Method for Obtaining Simultaneous Levitation and Rotation of a Ferromagnetic Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Subrata; Sarkar, Mrinal Kanti; Ghosh, Arnab

    2017-02-01

    In this work a practical demonstration for simultaneous levitation and rotation for a ferromagnetic cylindrical object is presented. A hollow steel cylinder has been arranged to remain suspended stably under I-core electromagnet utilizing dc attraction type levitation principle and then arranged to rotate the levitated object around 1000 rpm speed based on eddy current based energy meter principle. Since the object is to be rotating during levitated condition the device will be frictionless, energy-efficient and robust. This technology may be applied to frictionless energy meter, wind turbine, machine tool applications, precision instruments and many other devices where easy energy-efficient stable rotation will be required. The cascade lead compensation control scheme has been applied for stabilization of unstable levitation system. The proposed device is successfully tested in the laboratory and experimental results have been produced.

  17. Realizing Technologies for Magnetized Target Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurden, Glen A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-24

    Researchers are making progress with a range of magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) concepts. All of these approaches use the addition of a magnetic field to a target plasma, and then compress the plasma to fusion conditions. The beauty of MIF is that driver power requirements are reduced, compared to classical inertial fusion approaches, and simultaneously the compression timescales can be longer, and required implosion velocities are slower. The presence of a sufficiently large Bfield expands the accessibility to ignition, even at lower values of the density-radius product, and can confine fusion alphas. A key constraint is that the lifetime of the MIF target plasma has to be matched to the timescale of the driver technology (whether liners, heavy ions, or lasers). To achieve sufficient burn-up fraction, scaling suggests that larger yields are more effective. To handle the larger yields (GJ level), thick liquid wall chambers are certainly desired (no plasma/neutron damage materials problem) and probably required. With larger yields, slower repetition rates ({approx}0.1-1 Hz) for this intrinsically pulsed approach to fusion are possible, which means that chamber clearing between pulses can be accomplished on timescales that are compatible with simple clearing techniques (flowing liquid droplet curtains). However, demonstration of the required reliable delivery of hundreds of MJ of energy, for millions of pulses per year, is an ongoing pulsed power technical challenge.

  18. Levitation force of melt-textured YBCO superconductors under non-quasi-static situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z. M.; Xu, J. M.; Yuan, X. Y.; Zhang, C. P.

    2018-06-01

    The superconducting levitation force of a simple superconductor-magnet system under non-quasi-static situation is investigated experimentally. Two yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) samples with different performances are chosen from two small batches of samples prepared by the top-seeded melt-textured growth process. The residual carbon content of the precursor powders of the two batches is different due to different heat treatment processes. During the experimental process for measuring the levitation force, the value of the relative speed between the YBCO sample and the permanent magnet is higher than that in conventional studies. The variation characteristics of the superconducting levitation force are analyzed and a crossing phenomenon in the force-displacement hysteresis curves is observed. The results indicate that the superconducting levitation force is different due to the different residual carbon contents. As residual carbon contents reduce, the crossing phenomenon is more obvious accordingly.

  19. Technology transfer considerations for the collider dipole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodzeit, C.; Fischer, R.

    1991-03-01

    The R ampersand D program at the national laboratories has resulted in significant advances in design and fabrication methods for the Collider Dipole Magnets. The status of the transfer of the technology developed by the laboratories is reviewed. The continuation of the technology transfer program is discussed with a description of: (1) the relation of technology transfer activities to collider dipole product development; (2) content of the program relating to key magnet performance issues; and (3) methods to implement the program. 5 refs

  20. Quantized levitation states of superconducting multiple-ring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haley, S.B.; Fink, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    The quantized levitation, trapped, and suspension states of a magnetic microsphere held in equilibrium by two fixed superconducting (SC) microrings are calculated by minimizing the free energy of the system. Each state is a discrete function of two independent fluxoid quantum numbers of the rings. When the radii of the SC rings are of the same order as the Ginzburg-Landau coherence length ξ(T), the system exhibits a small set of gravity and temperature-dependent levels. The levels of a weakly magnetized particle are sensitive functions of the gravitational field, indicating potential application as an accelerometer, and for trapping small magnetic particles in outer space or on Earth. The equilibrium states of a SC ring levitated by another SC ring are also calculated. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  1. Matching Impedances and Modes in Acoustic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.

    1985-01-01

    Temperature differences accommodated with tunable coupler. Report discusses schemes for coupling sound efficiently from cool outside atmosphere into hot acoustic-levitation chamber. Theoretical studies have practical implications for material-processing systems that employ acoustic levitation.

  2. Principle and analysis of a linear motor driving system for HTS levitation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Jian X.; Guo, You G.; Zhu, Jian G.

    2007-01-01

    High temperature superconductor (HTS) high levitation force density with passive and self-stabilizing features allows a number of special applications to be developed. Linear motor driving systems are commonly required for those applications such as levitated transport systems. In this paper a prototype linear motor driving system with HTS is analyzed with calculation details including its magnetic fields and driving forces presented in the paper

  3. Levitation With a Single Acoustic Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Gaspar, M. S.; Allen, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Pair of reports describes acoustic-levitation systems in which only one acoustic resonance mode excited, and only one driver needed. Systems employ levitation chambers of rectangular and cylindrical geometries. Reports first describe single mode concept and indicate which modes used to levitate sample without rotation. Reports then describe systems in which controlled rotation of sample introduced.

  4. Overview of Planar Magnetic Technology — Fundamental Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    The momentum towards high efficiency, high frequency, and high power density in power supplies limits wide use of conventional wire-wound magnetic components. This article gives an overview of planar magnetic technologies with respect to the development of modern power electronics. The major...... advantages and disadvantages in the use of planar magnetics for high frequency power converters are covered, and publications on planar magnetics are reviewed. A detailed survey of winding conduction loss, leakage inductance and winding capacitance for planar magnetics is presented so power electronics...

  5. Nanomodified composite magnetic materials and their molding technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Timoshkov

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Advanced electro-magnetic machines and systems require new materials with improved properties. Heterogeneous 3D nanomodified soft magnetic materials could be efficiently applied. Multistage technology of iron particle surface nanomodification by sequential oxidation and Si-organic coatings will be reported. The thickness of layers is 0.5-5 nm. Compaction and annealing are the final steps of magnetic parts and components shaping. The soft magnetic composite material shows the features: resistivity is controlled by insulating coating thickness and equals up to ρ =10-4 Ω⋅m for metallic state and ρ =104 Ω⋅m for insulator state, maximum magnetic permeability is μm = 2500 and μm = 300 respectively, induction is up to Bm=2.1 T. These properties of composite soft magnetic material allow applying for transformers, throttles, stator-rotor of high-efficient and powerful electric machines in 10 kHz–1MGz frequency range. For microsystems and microcomponents application, good opportunity to improve their reliability is the use of nanocomposite materials. Electroplating technology of nanocomposite magnetic materials into the ultra-thick micromolds will be presented. Co-deposition of the soft magnetic alloys with inert hard nanoparticles allows obtaining materials with magnetic permeability up to μm=104, magnetic induction of Bs=(0.62–1.3 T. Such LIGA-like technology will be applied in MEMS to produce high reliable devices with advanced physical properties.

  6. Nanomodified composite magnetic materials and their molding technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoshkov, I.; Gao, Q.; Govor, G.; Sakova, A.; Timoshkov, V.; Vetcher, A.

    2018-05-01

    Advanced electro-magnetic machines and systems require new materials with improved properties. Heterogeneous 3D nanomodified soft magnetic materials could be efficiently applied. Multistage technology of iron particle surface nanomodification by sequential oxidation and Si-organic coatings will be reported. The thickness of layers is 0.5-5 nm. Compaction and annealing are the final steps of magnetic parts and components shaping. The soft magnetic composite material shows the features: resistivity is controlled by insulating coating thickness and equals up to ρ =10-4 Ωṡm for metallic state and ρ =104 Ωṡm for insulator state, maximum magnetic permeability is μm = 2500 and μm = 300 respectively, induction is up to Bm=2.1 T. These properties of composite soft magnetic material allow applying for transformers, throttles, stator-rotor of high-efficient and powerful electric machines in 10 kHz-1MGz frequency range. For microsystems and microcomponents application, good opportunity to improve their reliability is the use of nanocomposite materials. Electroplating technology of nanocomposite magnetic materials into the ultra-thick micromolds will be presented. Co-deposition of the soft magnetic alloys with inert hard nanoparticles allows obtaining materials with magnetic permeability up to μm=104, magnetic induction of Bs=(0.62-1.3) T. Such LIGA-like technology will be applied in MEMS to produce high reliable devices with advanced physical properties.

  7. Dynamics and stability of rigid rotors levitated by passive cylinder-magnet bearings and driven/supported axially by pointwise contact clutch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren Bøgh; Enemark, Søren; Santos, Ilmar

    2013-01-01

    A stable rotor—supported laterally by passive magnetic bearings and longitudinally by magnetic forces and a clutch—loses suddenly its contact to the clutch and executes abruptly longitudinal movements away from its original equilibrium position as a result of small increases in angular velocity...... by MCMB using several configurations of magnet distribution are described based on an accurate nonlinear model able to reliably reproduce the rotor-bearing dynamic behaviour. Such investigations lead to: (a) clear physical explanation about the reasons for the rotor's unstable behaviour, losing its...

  8. Optical levitation of a mirror for reaching the standard quantum limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michimura, Yuta; Kuwahara, Yuya; Ushiba, Takafumi; Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Ando, Masaki

    2017-06-01

    We propose a new method to optically levitate a macroscopic mirror with two vertical Fabry-P{\\'e}rot cavities linearly aligned. This configuration gives the simplest possible optical levitation in which the number of laser beams used is the minimum of two. We demonstrate that reaching the standard quantum limit (SQL) of a displacement measurement with our system is feasible with current technology. The cavity geometry and the levitated mirror parameters are designed to ensure that the Brownian vibration of the mirror surface is smaller than the SQL. Our scheme provides a promising tool for testing macroscopic quantum mechanics.

  9. United States Superconducting MHD Magnet Technology Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, A.M.; Marston, P.G.; Thome, R.J.; Iwasa, Y.; Tarrh, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    A three-faceted program supported by the U.S. Dep of Energy is described. These facets include basic technology development, technology transfer and construction by industry of magnets for the national MHD program. The program includes the maintenance of a large component test facility; investigation of superconductor stability and structural behavior; measurements of materials' properties at low temperatures; structural design optimization; analytical code development; cryogenic systems and power supply design. The technology transfer program is designed to bring results of technology development and design and construction effort to the entire superconducting magnet community. The magnet procurement program is responsible for developing conceptual designs of magnets needed for the national MHD program, for issuing requests for quotation, selecting vendors and supervising design, construction, installation and test of these systems. 9 refs

  10. Technology spin-offs from the magnetic fusion energy program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    A description is given of 138 possible spin-offs from the magnetic fusion program. The spin-offs cover the following areas: (1) superconducting magnets, (2) materials technology, (3) vacuum systems, (4) high frequency and high power rf, (5) electronics, (6) plasma diagnostics, (7) computers, and (8) particle beams

  11. Points with branching track in a vertical plane for a magnetic levitating railway. Weiche mit einer Fahrbahnverzweigung in einer vertikalen Ebene fuer eine Magnetschwebebahn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miericke, J

    1978-01-19

    The invention refers to points for a railway, which are used for the non-contact guiding of a vehicle by a magnet system on the electrodynamic repulsion principle, with a branching track lying in a vertical plane. The invention is characterized by the fact that mechanically moving means are provided on the vehicle, which, together with the magnetic reaction parts of the branching track form an additional magnet system. The moving means consist of at least 2 magnet coils, one of which is situated on the outside of the vehicle. The reaction parts are situated on the upper track side of the reaction rail. The moving means consist of 2 reaction plates, one of which is situated on the outside of the vehicle. Other design features are made clear by some system section drawings and 10 patent claims.

  12. Airborne chemistry: acoustic levitation in chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesson, Sabina; Nilsson, Staffan

    2004-04-01

    This review with 60 references describes a unique path to miniaturisation, that is, the use of acoustic levitation in analytical and bioanalytical chemistry applications. Levitation of small volumes of sample by means of a levitation technique can be used as a way to avoid solid walls around the sample, thus circumventing the main problem of miniaturisation, the unfavourable surface-to-volume ratio. Different techniques for sample levitation have been developed and improved. Of the levitation techniques described, acoustic or ultrasonic levitation fulfils all requirements for analytical chemistry applications. This technique has previously been used to study properties of molten materials and the equilibrium shape()and stability of liquid drops. Temperature and mass transfer in levitated drops have also been described, as have crystallisation and microgravity applications. The airborne analytical system described here is equipped with different and exchangeable remote detection systems. The levitated drops are normally in the 100 nL-2 microL volume range and additions to the levitated drop can be made in the pL-volume range. The use of levitated drops in analytical and bioanalytical chemistry offers several benefits. Several remote detection systems are compatible with acoustic levitation, including fluorescence imaging detection, right angle light scattering, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Applications include liquid/liquid extractions, solvent exchange, analyte enrichment, single-cell analysis, cell-cell communication studies, precipitation screening of proteins to establish nucleation conditions, and crystallisation of proteins and pharmaceuticals.

  13. Levitation characteristics of a high-temperature superconducting Maglev system for launching space vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wenjiang; Liu Yu; Chen Xiaodong; Wen Zheng; Duan Yi; Qiu Ming

    2007-01-01

    Maglev launch assist is viewed as an effective method to reduce the cost of space launch. The primary aerodynamic characteristics of the Maglev launch vehicle and the space vehicle are discussed by analyzing their aerodynamic shapes and testing a scale mode in a standard wind tunnel. After analyzing several popular Maglev systems, we present a no-controlling Maglev system with bulk YBaCuO high-temperature superconductors (HTSs). We tested a HTS Maglev system unit, and obtained the levitation force density of 3.3 N/cm 2 and the lateral force density of 2.0 N/cm 2 . We also fabricated a freely levitated test platform to investigate the levitation characteristics of the HTS Maglev system in load changing processes. We found that the HTS system could provide the strong self-stable levitation performance due to the magnetic flux trapped in superconductors. The HTS Maglev system provided feasibility for application in the launch vehicle

  14. Electron spin control and torsional optomechanics of an optically levitated nanodiamond in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tongcang; Hoang, Thai; Ahn, Jonghoon; Bang, Jaehoon

    Electron spins of diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers are important quantum resources for nanoscale sensing and quantum information. Combining such NV spin systems with levitated optomechanical resonators will provide a hybrid quantum system for many novel applications. Here we optically levitate a nanodiamond and demonstrate electron spin control of its built-in NV centers in vacuum. We observe that the strength of electron spin resonance (ESR) is enhanced when the air pressure is reduced. We also observe that oxygen and helium gases have different effects on both the photoluminescence and the ESR contrast of nanodiamond NV centers, indicating potential applications of NV centers in oxygen gas sensing. For spin-optomechanics, it is important to control the orientation of the nanodiamond and NV centers in a magnetic field. Recently, we have observed the angular trapping and torsional vibration of a levitated nanodiamond, which paves the way towards levitated torsional optomechanics in the quantum regime. NSF 1555035-PHY.

  15. Interpretation of the method of images in estimating superconducting levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Diaz, Jose Luis; Garcia-Prada, Juan Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Among different papers devoted to superconducting levitation of a permanent magnet over a superconductor using the method of images, there is a discrepancy of a factor of two when estimating the lift force. This is not a minor matter but an interesting fundamental question that contributes to understanding the physical phenomena of 'imaging' on a superconductor surface. We solve it, make clear the physical behavior underlying it, and suggest the reinterpretation of some previous experiments

  16. Fusion and technology: An introduction to the physics and technology of magnetic confinment fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    This book is an introduction covering all aspects of magnetic fusion and magnetic fusion technology. Physical property data relevant to fusion technology and a summary of fusion reactor design parameters are provided. Topics covered include: basic properties; equilibrium and transport confinement concepts; plasma heating; plasma wall interaction; magnetics; energy storage and transfer; interaction of radiation with matter; primary energy conversion and tritium breeding blanket; tritium and vacuum; and Fusion Reactor Design

  17. Compact and energy saving magnet technology for particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baurichter, A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that funding agencies and industrial users of particle accelerators get more and more alerted about costs of civil engineering, installation and operation, only little effort has been put into development of sustainable, energy and cost saving accelerator technology. In order to reduce the total-cost-of ownership of accelerator magnets, operating at high electrical power for twenty years or more, permanent magnet based Green Magnet technology has been developed at a consortium around Danfysik's R and D team. Together with our partners from ISA, Aarhus University, the Aarhus School of Engineering, the company Sintex and Aalborg University all obstacles in applying permanent magnet technology as e.g. thermal drift and inhomogeneities of magnetic fields have been overcome. The first Green Magnet has now been operated for more than half a year in an Accelerator Mass Spectrometry facility at the ETH in Zurich. The performance of this B=0.43T 90 deg. H-type bending magnet and the most recently builtB=1T, 30 deg. C-type Green Magnet for the synchrotron light source ASTRID2 at ISA in Aarhus will be presented. Danfysik also is designing, manufacturing and testing 60 compact magnet systems, developed at MAX-Lab for the new MAXIV 3.0 GeV synchrotron light source. In addition, 12 for the 1.5 GeV light source and another 12 for the new SOLARIS light source in Krakow, Poland are buying built. Up to a dozen or more magnet functions have been integrated into one yoke of these compact magnet systems, which makes the new MAXIV light sources compact, energy saving and at the same time very bright. Test results and design concepts of the new MAXIV and SOLARIS magnets will be presented. (author)

  18. MHD magnet technology development program summary, September 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-11-01

    The program of MHD magnet technology development conducted for the US Department of Energy by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology during the past five years is summarized. The general strategy is explained, the various parts of the program are described and the results are discussed. Subjects covered include component analysis, research and development aimed at improving the technology base, preparation of reference designs for commercial-scale magnets with associated design evaluations, manufacturability studies and cost estimations, the detail design and procurement of MHD test facility magnets involving transfer of technology to industry, investigations of accessory subsystem characteristics and magnet-flow-train interfacing considerations and the establishment of tentative recommendations for design standards, quality assurance procedures and safety procedures. A systematic approach (framework) developed to aid in the selection of the most suitable commercial-scale magnet designs is presented and the program status as of September 1982 is reported. Recommendations are made for future work needed to complete the design evaluation and selection process and to provide a sound technological base for the detail design and construction of commercial-scale MHD magnets. 85 references.

  19. MHD magnet technology development program summary, September 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-11-01

    The program of MHD magnet technology development conducted for the US Department of Energy by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology during the past five years is summarized. The general strategy is explained, the various parts of the program are described and the results are discussed. Subjects covered include component analysis, research and development aimed at improving the technology base, preparation of reference designs for commercial-scale magnets with associated design evaluations, manufacturability studies and cost estimations, the detail design and procurement of MHD test facility magnets involving transfer of technology to industry, investigations of accessory subsystem characteristics and magnet-flow-train interfacing considerations and the establishment of tentative recommendations for design standards, quality assurance procedures and safety procedures. A systematic approach (framework) developed to aid in the selection of the most suitable commercial-scale magnet designs is presented and the program status as of September 1982 is reported. Recommendations are made for future work needed to complete the design evaluation and selection process and to provide a sound technological base for the detail design and construction of commercial-scale MHD magnets. 85 references

  20. Large magnetic coils for fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarek, P.; Ulbricht, A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the current status of research in this field and outlines future tasks and experiments for the Next European Torus (NET). Research and development work accomplished so far permits generation and safe operation of magnetic fields up to 9 T by means of NbTi coils. Fields up to 11 T are feasible if the coils are cooled with superfluid helium at 1.8 K. The potential of the Nb 3 Sn coils promise achievement of magnetic fields between 12 and 13 T. (MM) [de

  1. Digital Controller For Acoustic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, D. Kent

    1989-01-01

    Acoustic driver digitally controls sound fields along three axes. Allows computerized acoustic levitation and manipulation of small objects for such purposes as containerless processing and nuclear-fusion power experiments. Also used for controlling motion of vibration-testing tables in three dimensions.

  2. The optical levitation of spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roosen, G.

    1979-01-01

    In this article we are dealing with optical levitation, that is the possibility of maintaining particles in a stable equilibrium position in air or vacuum by means of laser beams. In the first part, we review the methods used to calculate the force exerted on a sphere by a laser beam. The axial and transverse force components could be obtained either by applying Debye theory to laser beams which have a non-uniform energy distribution or by using, in the case of large spheres, a geometrical optics approach. From the results achieved with the geometrical optics approach, we derive, in a second part, the required stable equilibrium conditions for a sphere placed either in a vertical beam or in two horizontal ones having the same axis but opposite direction. In the last part, we describe in detail the levitation experiments carried out using either a vertical or two horizontal beams. In conclusion, we point out some applications of optical levitation, emphasizing especially the suspension by optical levitation of the targets used in laser fusion experiments. (author) [fr

  3. Permanent magnet motor technology design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gieras, Jacek F

    2009-01-01

    Demonstrates the construction of permanent magnet (PM) motor drives and supplies ready-to-implement solutions to common roadblocks along the way. This book also supplies fundamental equations and calculations for determining and evaluating system performance, efficiency, reliability, and cost. It explores modern computer-aided design of PM motors.

  4. Modal bifurcation in a high-T{sub c} superconducting levitation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, D; Fujiwara, S; Sugiura, T, E-mail: sugiura@mech.keio.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    This paper deals with modal bifurcation of a multi-degree-of-freedom high-T{sub c} superconducting levitation system. As modeling of large-scale high-T{sub c} superconducting levitation applications, where plural superconducting bulks are often used, it can be helpful to consider a system constituting of multiple oscillators magnetically coupled with each other. This paper investigates nonlinear dynamics of two permanent magnets levitated above high-T{sub c} superconducting bulks and placed between two fixed permanent magnets without contact. First, the nonlinear equations of motion of the levitated magnets were derived. Then the method of averaging was applied to them. It can be found from the obtained solutions that this nonlinear two degree-of-freedom system can have two asymmetric modes, in addition to a symmetric mode and an antisymmetric mode both of which also exist in the linearized system. One of the backbone curves in the frequency response shows a modal bifurcation where the two stable asymmetric modes mentioned above appear with destabilization of the antisymmetric mode, thus leading to modal localization. These analytical predictions have been confirmed in our numerical analysis and experiments of free vibration and forced vibration. These results, never predicted by linear analysis, can be important for application of high-T{sub c} superconducting levitation systems.

  5. Development of a Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education Integrated Program for a Maglev

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyoung Seo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop an MST Integrated Program for making a Maglev hands-on activity for higher elementary school students in Korea. In this MST Integrated Program, students will apply Mathematics, Science, and Technology principles and concepts to the design, construction, and evaluation of a magnetically levitated vehicle. The…

  6. On the horizontal wobbling of an object levitated by near-field acoustic levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cheol-Ho; Ih, Jeong-Guon

    2007-11-01

    A circular planar object can be levitated with several hundreds of microns by ultrasonic near-field acoustic levitation (NFAL). However, when both the sound source and the levitated object are circularly shaped and the center of the levitated object does not coincide with the source center, instability problem often occurs. When this happens, it becomes difficult to pick up or transport the object for the next process. In this study, when the center of the levitated object was offset from the source center, the moving direction of the levitated object was predicted by using the time averaged potential around the levitated object. The wobbling frequency of the levitated object was calculated by analyzing the nonlinear wobbling motion of the object. It was shown that the predicted wobbling frequencies agreed with measured ones well. Finally, a safe zone was suggested to avoid the unstable movement of an object.

  7. A simple and efficient levitation technique for noncontact coating of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A simple and very efficient gas jet levitation technique for levitating inertial ... Inertial confinement fusion targets; low Reynolds number levitation; fluid dynamics. ... any mechanical handling of these specified targets can cause damage beyond ...

  8. CLIQ. A new quench protection technology for superconducting magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Ravaioli, Emmanuele; ten Kate, H H J

    CLIQ, the Coupling-Loss Induced Quench system, is a new method for protecting superconducting magnets after a sudden transition to the normal state. It offers significant advantages over the conventional technology due to its effective mechanism for heating the superconductor relying on coupling loss and its robust electrical design, which makes it more reliable and less interfering with the coil winding process. The analysis of the electro-magnetic and thermal transients during and after a CLIQ discharge allows identifying the system parameters that affect the system performance and defining guidelines for implementing this technology on coils of various characteristics. Most existing superconducting magnets can be protected by CLIQ as convincingly shown by test results performed on magnets of different sizes, superconductor types, geometries, cables and strand parameters. Experimental results are successfully reproduced by means of a novel technique for modeling non-linear dynamic effects in superconducting...

  9. Rotational loss of a ring-shaped flywheel supported by high T{sub c} superconducting levitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teshima, Hidekazu [Nippon Steel Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). Advanced Materials and Technology Research Labs.; Tawara, Taichi; Shimada, Ryuichi

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes the experimental results for the rotational loss of a ring-shaped flywheel supported by high T{sub c} superconducting levitation. Superconducting levitation is appropriate for rotating a ring-shaped flywheel which has neither shaft nor hub because it is a non-contact and automatically stable levitation without any control systems. The rotational loss has been investigated using a small-scaled experimental machine consisting of 16 bulk superconductors 46 mm in diameter and a ring-shaped flywheel about 300 mm in diameter. The rotational loss decreased as the levitation gap height increased. In low-speed rotational regions, the rotational loss was in proportion to the rotation speed and depended more on the levitation gap. In high-speed rotational regions, the rotational loss was in proportion to the third power of the rotation speed and depended less on the levitation gap. The cubic rotational loss in He was reduced to one-fifth of that in air. The magnetic field pinned in bulk superconductors induces a loss in the materials composing the ring-shaped flywheel. The rotational loss of a ring-shaped flywheel supported by superconducting levitation can be reduced by improving the uniformity of the magnetic fields along the ring, enlargement of the bulk superconductor(s), and densely arranging the bulk superconductors. (author)

  10. Fast magnetic field computation in fusion technology using GPU technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiariello, Andrea Gaetano [Ass. EURATOM/ENEA/CREATE, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell’Informazione, Seconda Università di Napoli, Via Roma 29, Aversa (CE) (Italy); Formisano, Alessandro, E-mail: Alessandro.Formisano@unina2.it [Ass. EURATOM/ENEA/CREATE, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell’Informazione, Seconda Università di Napoli, Via Roma 29, Aversa (CE) (Italy); Martone, Raffaele [Ass. EURATOM/ENEA/CREATE, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell’Informazione, Seconda Università di Napoli, Via Roma 29, Aversa (CE) (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► The paper deals with high accuracy numerical simulations of high field magnets. ► The porting of existing codes of High Performance Computing architectures allowed to obtain a relevant speedup while not reducing computational accuracy. ► Some examples of applications, referred to ITER-like magnets, are reported. -- Abstract: One of the main issues in the simulation of Tokamaks functioning is the reliable and accurate computation of actual field maps in the plasma chamber. In this paper a tool able to accurately compute magnetic field maps produced by active coils of any 3D shape, wound with high number of conductors, is presented. Under linearity assumption, the coil winding is modeled by means of “sticks”, following each conductor's shape, and the contribution of each stick is computed using high speed Graphic Computing Units (GPU's). Relevant speed enhancements with respect to standard parallel computing environment are achieved in this way.

  11. Performance of the Conduction-Cooled LDX Levitation Coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, P. C.; Schultz, J. H.; Smith, B. A.; Titus, P. H.; Radovinsky, A.; Zhukovsky, A.; Hwang, K. P.; Naumovich, G. J.; Camille, R. J.

    2004-06-01

    The Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX) was developed to study plasma confinement in a dipole magnetic field. Plasma is confined in the magnetic field of a 680-kg Nb3Sn Floating Coil (F-coil) that is electromagnetically supported at the center of a 5-m diameter by 3-m tall vacuum chamber. The Levitation Coil (L-coil) is a 2800-turn, double pancake winding that supports the weight of the F-coil and controls its vertical position within the vacuum chamber. The use of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) Bi-2223 for the L-coil minimizes the electrical and cooling power needed for levitation. The L-coil winding pack and support plate are suspended within the L-coil cryostat and cooled by conduction to a single-stage cryocooler rated for 25-W heat load at approximately 20 K. The coil current leads consist of conduction-cooled copper running from room temperature to 80 K and a pair of commercially-available, 150-A HTS leads. An automatically filled liquid-nitrogen reservoir provides cooling for the coil's radiation shield and for the leads' 80-K heat stations. This paper discusses the L-coil system design and its observed cryogenic performance.

  12. Use of permanent magnets in accelerator technology: Present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbach, K.

    1987-01-01

    Permanent magnet systems have some generic properties that, under some circumstances, make them not only mildy preferable over electromagnets, but make it possible to do things that can not be done with any other technology. After a general discussion of these generic advantages, some specific permanent magnet systems will be described. Special emphasis will be placed on systems that have now, or are likely to have in the future, a significant impact on how some materials research is conducted

  13. Recent advances in the technology of superconducting accelerator magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.E.

    1985-05-01

    Recent progress in technology of high-current-density cables for SSC model magnets is summarized. NbTi cable with J/sub c/ up to 50% higher than Tevatron cable can be expected. Magnetization effects can be predicted and corrected with several new techniques. Development of Superconductor with 2 to 3 μm filament diameter and high J/sub c/ is expected. 15 refs., 3 figs

  14. Controlling Sample Rotation in Acoustic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Stoneburner, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Rotation of acoustically levitated object stopped or controlled according to phase-shift monitoring and control concept. Principle applies to square-cross-section levitation chamber with two perpendicular acoustic drivers operating at same frequency. Phase difference between X and Y acoustic excitation measured at one corner by measuring variation of acoustic amplitude sensed by microphone. Phase of driver adjusted to value that produces no rotation or controlled rotation of levitated object.

  15. Use of permanent magnets in accelerator technology: Present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbach, K.

    1987-05-01

    This report is a collection of viewgraphs discussing accelerator magnets. Permanent magnet systems have some generic properties that, under some circumstances, make them not only mildly preferable over electromagnets, but make it possible to do things that can not be done with any other technology. After a general discussion of these generic advantages, some specific permanent magnet systems will be described. Special emphasis will be placed on systems that have now, or are likely to have in the future, a significant impact on how some materials research is conducted. 4 refs., 33 figs

  16. Sub-Audio Magnetics: Miniature Sensor Technology for Simultaneous Magnetic and Electromagnetic Detection of UXO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    inputs such as laser altimeters and fluxgate magnetometers to determine heading errors etc. 2.2 Technology Development Introduction The technology...hardware and software development, testing and performance evaluation. Initial funding saw the development of a fast sampling magnetometer (called the...Electromagnetic Induction TMI Total Magnetic Intensity TM-6 Magnetometer system developed for SAM applications Tx Transmitter UXO Unexploded

  17. Acoustic Levitator With Furnace And Laser Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, Martin B.; Stoneburner, James D.

    1991-01-01

    Acoustic-levitation apparatus incorporates electrical-resistance furnace for uniform heating up to temperature of about 1,000 degrees C. Additional local heating by pair of laser beams raise temperature of sample to more than 1,500 degrees C. High temperature single-mode acoustic levitator generates cylindrical-mode accoustic resonance levitating sample. Levitation chamber enclosed in electrical-resistance furnace. Infrared beams from Nd:YAG laser provide additional local heating of sample. Designed for use in containerless processing of materials in microgravity or in normal Earth gravity.

  18. Nano-optomechanics with optically levitated nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukirch, Levi P.; Vamivakas, A. Nick

    2015-01-01

    Nano-optomechanics is a vibrant area of research that continues to push the boundary of quantum science and measurement technology. Recently, it has been realised that the optical forces experienced by polarisable nanoparticles can provide a novel platform for nano-optomechanics with untethered mechanical oscillators. Remarkably, these oscillators are expected to exhibit quality factors approaching ?. The pronounced quality factors are a direct result of the mechanical oscillator being freed from a supporting substrate. This review provides an overview of the basic optical physics underpinning optical trapping and optical levitation experiments, it discusses a number of experimental approaches to optical trapping and finally outlines possible applications of this nano-optomechanics modality in hybrid quantum systems and nanoscale optical metrology.

  19. Cylindrical acoustic levitator/concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Sinha, Dipen N.

    2002-01-01

    A low-power, inexpensive acoustic apparatus for levitation and/or concentration of aerosols and small liquid/solid samples having particulates up to several millimeters in diameter in air or other fluids is described. It is constructed from a commercially available, hollow cylindrical piezoelectric crystal which has been modified to tune the resonance frequency of the breathing mode resonance of the crystal to that of the interior cavity of the cylinder. When the resonance frequency of the interior cylindrical cavity is matched to the breathing mode resonance of the cylindrical piezoelectric transducer, the acoustic efficiency for establishing a standing wave pattern in the cavity is high. The cylinder does not require accurate alignment of a resonant cavity. Water droplets having diameters greater than 1 mm have been levitated against the force of gravity using; less than 1 W of input electrical power. Concentration of aerosol particles in air is also demonstrated.

  20. Optimization of a superconducting linear levitation system using a soft ferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agramunt-Puig, Sebastia; Del-Valle, Nuria; Navau, Carles; Sanchez, Alvaro

    2013-04-01

    The use of guideways that combine permanent magnets and soft ferromagnetic materials is a common practice in magnetic levitation transport systems (maglevs) with bulk high-temperature superconductors. Theoretical tools to simulate in a realistic way both the behavior of all elements (permanent magnets, soft ferromagnet and superconductor) and their mutual effects are helpful to optimize the designs of real systems. Here we present a systematic study of the levitation of a maglev with translational symmetry consisting of a superconducting bar and a guideway with two identic permanent magnets and a soft ferromagnetic material between them. The system is simulated with a numerical model based on the energy minimization method that allows to analyze the mutual interaction of the superconductor, assumed to be in the critical state, and a soft ferromagnet with infinite susceptibility. Results indicate that introducing a soft ferromagnet within the permanent magnets not only increases the levitation force but also improves the stability. Besides, an estimation of the relative sizes and shapes of the soft ferromagnet, permanent magnets and the superconductor in order to obtain large levitation force with full stability is provided.

  1. Health technology assessment of magnet therapy for relieving pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabloo, Jalal; Hamouzadeh, Pejman; Eftekharizadeh, Fereshteh; Mobinizadeh, Mohammadreza; Olyaeemanesh, Alireza; Nejati, Mina; Doaee, Shila

    2017-01-01

    Background: Magnet therapy has been used increasingly as a new method to alleviate pain. Magnetic products are marketed with claims of effectiveness for reducing pain of various origins. However, there are inconsistent results from a limited number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) testing the analgesic efficacy of magnet therapy. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of magnet therapy on reliving various types of pain. Methods: A systematic search of two main medical databases (Cochrane Library and Ovid Medline) was conducted from 1946 to May 2014. Only English systematic reviews that compared magnet therapy with other conventional treatments in patients with local pain in terms of pain relieving measures were included. The results of the included studies were thematically synthesized. Results: Eight studies were included. Magnet therapy could be used to alleviate pain of various origins including pain in various organs, arthritis, myofascial muscle pain, lower limb muscle cramps, carpal tunnel syndrome and pelvic pain. Results showed that the effectiveness of magnetic therapy was only approved in muscle pains, but its effectiveness in other indications and its application as a complementary treatment have not been established. Conclusion: According to the results, it seems that magnet therapy could not be an effective treatment for relieving different types of pain. Our results highlighted the need for further investigations to be done in order to support any recommendations about this technology.

  2. Novel technologies and configurations of superconducting magnets for MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lvovsky, Yuri; Stautner, Ernst Wolfgang; Zhang Tao

    2013-01-01

    A review of non-traditional approaches and emerging trends in superconducting magnets for MRI is presented. Novel technologies and concepts have arisen in response to new clinical imaging needs, changes in market cost structure, and the realities of newly developing markets. Among key trends are an increasing emphasis on patient comfort and the need for ‘greener’ magnets with reduced helium usage. The paper starts with a brief overview of the well-optimized conventional MR magnet technology that presently firmly occupies the dominant position in the imaging market up to 9.4 T. Non-traditional magnet geometries, with an emphasis on openness, are reviewed. The prospects of MgB 2 and high-temperature superconductors for MRI applications are discussed. In many cases the introduction of novel technologies into a cost-conscious commercial market will be stimulated by growing needs for advanced customized procedures, and specialty scanners such as orthopedic or head imagers can lead the way due to the intrinsic advantages in their design. A review of ultrahigh-field MR is presented, including the largest 11.7 T Iseult magnet. Advanced cryogenics approaches with an emphasis on low-volume helium systems, including hermetically sealed self-contained cryostats requiring no user intervention, as well as future non-traditional non-helium cryogenics, are presented. (topical review)

  3. Influences of cooling height and lateral moving speed on the levitation characteristics of YBaCuO bulks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jun; Zhang Xingyi; Zhou Youhe

    2009-01-01

    Using an updated high-temperature superconductor (HTS) maglev measurement system, electromagnetic forces between a YBaCuO bulk superconductor and a permanent magnet (PM) have been measured under different cooling height (CH) and different lateral moving speed of the PM. It is found that the influence of the moving speed on both the levitation and lateral force is substantial and as such the results shown in this work are a benefit to the understanding of levitation systems.

  4. Influences of cooling height and lateral moving speed on the levitation characteristics of YBaCuO bulks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Jun; Zhang Xingyi [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disaster and Environment, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Zhou Youhe, E-mail: Zhouyh@lzu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disaster and Environment, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China)

    2009-03-15

    Using an updated high-temperature superconductor (HTS) maglev measurement system, electromagnetic forces between a YBaCuO bulk superconductor and a permanent magnet (PM) have been measured under different cooling height (CH) and different lateral moving speed of the PM. It is found that the influence of the moving speed on both the levitation and lateral force is substantial and as such the results shown in this work are a benefit to the understanding of levitation systems.

  5. AB Levitator and Electricity Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    The author researched this new idea - support of flight by any aerial vehicles at significant altitude solely by the magnetic field of the planet. It is shown that current technology allows humans to create a light propulsion (AB engine) which does not depend on air, water or ground terrain. Simultaniosly, this revolutionary thruster is a device for the storage of electricity which is extracted and is replenished (during braking) from/into the storage with 100 percent efficiency. The relative...

  6. Preliminary analysis of patent trends for magnetic fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, L.O.; Ashton, W.B.; Campbell, R.S.

    1984-02-01

    This study presents a preliminary analysis of development trends in magnetic fusion technology based on data from US patents. The research is limited to identification and description of general patent activity and ownership characteristics for 373 patents. The results suggest that more detailed studies of fusion patents could provide useful R and D planning information

  7. CLIQ. A new quench protection technology for superconducting magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravaioli, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    CLIQ, the Coupling-Loss Induced Quench system, is a new method for protecting superconducting magnets after a sudden transition to the normal state. It offers significant advantages over the conventional technology due to its effective mechanism for heating the superconductor relying on coupling

  8. Magnetic Refrigeration – an Energy Efficient Technology for the Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Smith, Anders; Pryds, Nini

    2009-01-01

    . This magnetocaloric effect is inherent to all magnetic materials, but manifests itself stronger in some materials. The thermodynamically reversible nature of the magnetocaloric effect holds out the promise of a more energy efficient method of refrigeration compared to conventional compressor technology. Coupling...

  9. The magnetic diagnostics subsystem of the LISA Technology Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Aguilo, M; Garcia-Berro, E [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, c/Esteve Terrades, 5, 08860 Castelldefels (Spain); Lobo, A; Mateos, N; Sanjuan, J, E-mail: marc.diaz.aguilo@fa.upc.ed [Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya, c/Gran Capita 2-4, Edif. Nexus 104, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-05-01

    The Magnetic Diagnostics Subsystem of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) on board the LISA Pathfinder (LPF) spacecraft includes a set of four tri-axial fluxgate magnetometers, intended to measure with high precision the magnetic field at the positions they occupy. However, their readouts do not provide a direct measurement of the magnetic field at the positions of the test masses. Therefore, an interpolation method must be implemented to obtain this information. However, such interpolation process faces serious difficulties. Indeed, the size of the interpolation region is excessive for a linear interpolation to be reliable, and the number of magnetometer channels does not provide sufficient data to go beyond that poor approximation. Recent research points to a possible alternative to address the magnetic interpolation problem by means of neural network algorithms. The key point of this approach is the ability neural networks have to learn from suitable training data representing the magnetic field behaviour. Despite the large distance to the test masses and the insufficient magnetic readings, artificial neural networks are able to significantly reduce the estimation error to acceptable levels. The learning efficiency can be best improved by making use of data obtained from on-ground measurements prior to mission launch in all relevant satellite locations and under real operation conditions. Reliable information on that appears to be essential for a meaningful assessment of magnetic noise in the LTP.

  10. The magnetic diagnostics subsystem of the LISA Technology Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Aguilo, M; Garcia-Berro, E; Lobo, A; Mateos, N; Sanjuan, J

    2010-01-01

    The Magnetic Diagnostics Subsystem of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) on board the LISA Pathfinder (LPF) spacecraft includes a set of four tri-axial fluxgate magnetometers, intended to measure with high precision the magnetic field at the positions they occupy. However, their readouts do not provide a direct measurement of the magnetic field at the positions of the test masses. Therefore, an interpolation method must be implemented to obtain this information. However, such interpolation process faces serious difficulties. Indeed, the size of the interpolation region is excessive for a linear interpolation to be reliable, and the number of magnetometer channels does not provide sufficient data to go beyond that poor approximation. Recent research points to a possible alternative to address the magnetic interpolation problem by means of neural network algorithms. The key point of this approach is the ability neural networks have to learn from suitable training data representing the magnetic field behaviour. Despite the large distance to the test masses and the insufficient magnetic readings, artificial neural networks are able to significantly reduce the estimation error to acceptable levels. The learning efficiency can be best improved by making use of data obtained from on-ground measurements prior to mission launch in all relevant satellite locations and under real operation conditions. Reliable information on that appears to be essential for a meaningful assessment of magnetic noise in the LTP.

  11. A Simple, Inexpensive Acoustic Levitation Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schappe, R. Scott; Barbosa, Cinthya

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic levitation uses a resonant ultrasonic standing wave to suspend small objects; it is used in a variety of research disciplines, particularly in the study of phase transitions and materials susceptible to contamination, or as a stabilization mechanism in microgravity environments. The levitation equipment used for such research is quite…

  12. Off-Resonance Acoustic Levitation Without Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Allen, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Orthogonal acoustic-levitation modes excited at slightly different frequencies to control rotation. Rotation of object in square cross-section acoustic-levitation chamber stopped by detuning two orthogonal (x and y) excitation drivers in plane of square cross section. Detuning done using fundamental degenerate modes or odd harmonic modes.

  13. Acoustical-Levitation Chamber for Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Trinh, E.; Wang, T. G.; Elleman, D. D.; Jacobi, N.

    1983-01-01

    Sample moved to different positions for heating and quenching. Acoustical levitation chamber selectively excited in fundamental and second-harmonic longitudinal modes to hold sample at one of three stable postions: A, B, or C. Levitated object quickly moved from one of these positions to another by changing modes. Object rapidly quenched at A or C after heating in furnace region at B.

  14. Acoustic levitation methods for density measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, E. H.; Hsu, C. J.

    1986-01-01

    The capability of ultrasonic levitators operating in air to perform density measurements has been demonstrated. The remote determination of the density of ordinary liquids as well as low density solid metals can be carried out using levitated samples with size on the order of a few millimeters and at a frequency of 20 kHz. Two basic methods may be used. The first one is derived from a previously known technique developed for acoustic levitation in liquid media, and is based on the static equilibrium position of levitated samples in the earth's gravitational field. The second approach relies on the dynamic interaction between a levitated sample and the acoustic field. The first technique appears more accurate (1 percent uncertainty), but the latter method is directly applicable to a near gravity-free environment such as that found in space.

  15. Gravity enhanced acoustic levitation method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Allen, J. L.; Granett, D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An acoustic levitation system is provided for acoustically levitating an object by applying a single frequency from a transducer into a resonant chamber surrounding the object. The chamber includes a stabilizer location along its height, where the side walls of the chamber are angled so they converge in an upward direction. When an acoustic standing wave pattern is applied between the top and bottom of the chamber, a levitation surface within the stabilizer does not lie on a horizontal plane, but instead is curved with a lowermost portion near the vertical axis of the chamber. As a result, an acoustically levitated object is urged by gravity towards the lowermost location on the levitation surface, so the object is kept away from the side walls of the chamber.

  16. Polarized particle levitation in hexapole field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.B.; Kallio, G.A.; Robinson, K.S.

    1976-06-01

    Proposed here is a novel electrostatic levitation scheme which uses the force exerted by a non-uniform electric field on a polarized particle. The scheme differs from conventional quadrupole levitation devices principally in that the levitated particle is uncharged. In order to provide the proper force required to achieve dynamic stabilization, a very intense non-uniform time-varying electric field produced by a three-dimensional hexapole electrode structure is utilized. The primary advantage of this levitation scheme might accrue in target fabrication operations where particle charge is undesirable or where reproducible charging of the particles themselves is difficult, due to high resistivity. The disadvantages of this scheme, as compared to charged particle levitation, are (i) a more complex electrode structure and (ii) significantly higher voltages. The scheme has possible application to molecular mass spectrometry, in situations where un-ionized but strongly polar or polarizable molecules are to be trapped or confined for analysis

  17. Vortex flow in acoustically levitated drops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Z.L.; Xie, W.J. [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Wei, B., E-mail: bbwei@nwpu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2011-08-29

    The internal flow of acoustically levitated water drops is investigated experimentally. This study reveals a kind of vortex flow which rotates in the meridional plane of the levitated drop. The magnitude of fluid velocity is nearly vanishing at the drop center, whereas it increases toward the free surface of a levitated drop until the maximum value of about 80 mm/s. A transition of streamline shapes from concentric circles to ellipses takes place at the distance of about 1.2 mm from the drop center. The fluid velocity distribution is plotted as a function of polar angle for seven characteristic streamlines. -- Highlights: → We experimentally observe the internal flow of acoustically levitated water drops. → We present a fascinating structure of vortex flow inside the levitated water drop. → This vortex flow rotates around the drop center in the meridional plane. → Velocity distribution information of this vortex flow is quantitatively analyzed.

  18. Vortex flow in acoustically levitated drops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Z.L.; Xie, W.J.; Wei, B.

    2011-01-01

    The internal flow of acoustically levitated water drops is investigated experimentally. This study reveals a kind of vortex flow which rotates in the meridional plane of the levitated drop. The magnitude of fluid velocity is nearly vanishing at the drop center, whereas it increases toward the free surface of a levitated drop until the maximum value of about 80 mm/s. A transition of streamline shapes from concentric circles to ellipses takes place at the distance of about 1.2 mm from the drop center. The fluid velocity distribution is plotted as a function of polar angle for seven characteristic streamlines. -- Highlights: → We experimentally observe the internal flow of acoustically levitated water drops. → We present a fascinating structure of vortex flow inside the levitated water drop. → This vortex flow rotates around the drop center in the meridional plane. → Velocity distribution information of this vortex flow is quantitatively analyzed.

  19. Resonant Magnetic Field Sensors Based On MEMS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Manjarrez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS technology allows the integration of magnetic field sensors with electronic components, which presents important advantages such as small size, light weight, minimum power consumption, low cost, better sensitivity and high resolution. We present a discussion and review of resonant magnetic field sensors based on MEMS technology. In practice, these sensors exploit the Lorentz force in order to detect external magnetic fields through the displacement of resonant structures, which are measured with optical, capacitive, and piezoresistive sensing techniques. From these, the optical sensing presents immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI and reduces the read-out electronic complexity. Moreover, piezoresistive sensing requires an easy fabrication process as well as a standard packaging. A description of the operation mechanisms, advantages and drawbacks of each sensor is considered. MEMS magnetic field sensors are a potential alternative for numerous applications, including the automotive industry, military, medical, telecommunications, oceanographic, spatial, and environment science. In addition, future markets will need the development of several sensors on a single chip for measuring different parameters such as the magnetic field, pressure, temperature and acceleration.

  20. Resonant Magnetic Field Sensors Based On MEMS Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-May, Agustín L.; Aguilera-Cortés, Luz A.; García-Ramírez, Pedro J.; Manjarrez, Elías

    2009-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology allows the integration of magnetic field sensors with electronic components, which presents important advantages such as small size, light weight, minimum power consumption, low cost, better sensitivity and high resolution. We present a discussion and review of resonant magnetic field sensors based on MEMS technology. In practice, these sensors exploit the Lorentz force in order to detect external magnetic fields through the displacement of resonant structures, which are measured with optical, capacitive, and piezoresistive sensing techniques. From these, the optical sensing presents immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and reduces the read-out electronic complexity. Moreover, piezoresistive sensing requires an easy fabrication process as well as a standard packaging. A description of the operation mechanisms, advantages and drawbacks of each sensor is considered. MEMS magnetic field sensors are a potential alternative for numerous applications, including the automotive industry, military, medical, telecommunications, oceanographic, spatial, and environment science. In addition, future markets will need the development of several sensors on a single chip for measuring different parameters such as the magnetic field, pressure, temperature and acceleration. PMID:22408480

  1. Research and new technologies in transportation. Vol. 1. High-speed railway systems: Maglev technology. Forschung und neue Technologien im Verkehr. Bd. 1. Schnellbahnsysteme: Magnetbandtechnolgie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    High-speed magnetic levitation technology opens up a new dimension for long-distance passenger transport with speeds ranging between ground travel and flying. The status of development and test results of the German TRANSRAPID magnetic levitation system and corresponding activities abroad will be reported on. Both the new vehicle technology of the TRANSRAPID 07 and results of application studies at home and abroad will be presented. High-speed magnetic railway technology - status and development perspectives; readiness for service, safety and reliability, application studies. The book comprises 11 papers read at the symposium on the subject of high-speed trains. 14 papers have been recorded separately in this database. (orig./HW).

  2. Development of magnetic resonance technology for noninvasive boron quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, K.M.

    1990-11-01

    Boron magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) were developed in support of the noninvasive boron quantification task of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (PBF/BNCT) program. The hardware and software described in this report are modifications specific to a GE Signa trademark MRI system, release 3.X and are necessary for boron magnetic resonance operation. The technology developed in this task has been applied to obtaining animal pharmacokinetic data of boron compounds (drug time response) and the in-vivo localization of boron in animal tissue noninvasively. 9 refs., 21 figs

  3. Magnetic Tools for Lab-on-a-chip Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekas, Nikola Slobodan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This study establishes a set of magnetics-based tools that have been integrated with microfluidic systems. The overall impact of the work begins to enable the rapid and efficient manipulation and detection of magnetic entities such as particles, picoliter-sized droplets, or bacterial cells. Details of design, fabrication, and theoretical and experimental assessments are presented. The manipulation strategy has been demonstrated in the format of a particle diverter, whereby micron-sized particles are actively directed into desired flow channels at a split-flow junction by means of integrated microelectromagnets. Magnetic detection has been realized by deploying Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR) sensors--microfabricated structures originally developed for use as readout elements in computer hard-drives. We successfully transferred the GMR technology to the lab-on-a-chip arena, and demonstrated the versatility of the concept in several important areas: real-time, integrated monitoring of the properties of multiphase droplet flows; rapid quantitative determination of the concentration of magnetic nanoparticles in droplets of ferrofluids; and high-speed detection of individual magnetic microparticles and magnetotactic bacteria. The study also includes novel schemes for hydrodynamic flow focusing that work in conjunction with GMR-based detection to ensure precise navigation of the sample stream through the GMR detection volume, therefore effectively establishing a novel concept of a microfabricated magnetic flow cytometer.

  4. Tabletop Experimental Track for Magnetic Launch Assist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Advanced Space Transportation Program has developed the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly known as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) technology that could give a space vehicle a running start to break free from Earth's gravity. A Magnetic Launch Assist system would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at speeds up to 600 mph. The vehicle would shift to rocket engines for launch into orbit. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would electromagnetically propel a space vehicle along the track. The tabletop experimental track for the system shown in this photograph is 44-feet long, with 22-feet of powered acceleration and 22-feet of passive braking. A 10-pound carrier with permanent magnets on its sides swiftly glides by copper coils, producing a levitation force. The track uses a linear synchronous motor, which means the track is synchronized to turn the coils on just before the carrier comes in contact with them, and off once the carrier passes. Sensors are positioned on the side of the track to determine the carrier's position so the appropriate drive coils can be energized. MSFC engineers have conducted tests on the indoor track and a 50-foot outdoor track. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  5. The theory of quantum levitators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impens, Francois; Pereira Dos Santos, Franck; Borde, Christian J

    2011-01-01

    We develop a unified theory for clocks and gravimeters using the interferences of multiple atomic waves put in levitation by traveling light pulses. Inspired by optical methods, we identify a propagation invariant, which enables us to analytically derive the wave function of the sample scattering on the light pulse sequence. A complete characterization of the device sensitivity with respect to frequency or acceleration measurements is obtained. These results agree with previous numerical simulations and confirm the conjecture of sensitivity improvement through multiple atomic wave interferences. A realistic experimental implementation for such a clock architecture is discussed.

  6. The theory of quantum levitators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Impens, Francois [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira Dos Santos, Franck; Borde, Christian J, E-mail: francois.impens@obspm.fr [LNE-SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, LNE, CNRS, UPMC, 61 avenue de l' Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France)

    2011-06-15

    We develop a unified theory for clocks and gravimeters using the interferences of multiple atomic waves put in levitation by traveling light pulses. Inspired by optical methods, we identify a propagation invariant, which enables us to analytically derive the wave function of the sample scattering on the light pulse sequence. A complete characterization of the device sensitivity with respect to frequency or acceleration measurements is obtained. These results agree with previous numerical simulations and confirm the conjecture of sensitivity improvement through multiple atomic wave interferences. A realistic experimental implementation for such a clock architecture is discussed.

  7. Use of near field acoustic levitation sliding contact

    OpenAIRE

    Stolarski, TA; Woolliscroft, CI

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation into producing self-levitation effect using piezo-electric actuators (PZT). Self-levitation has been demonstrated and results are presented and discussed. A relationship between the levitation distance and weight of the levitating sample has been found. In addition the orientation and position of the PZTs has been found to affect the levitation distance. Modal shapes of the vibration plates used have been produced through modelling annd found to accurately...

  8. Automatic Tuning of PID Controller for a 1-D Levitation System Using a Genetic Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Gerulf K.m.

    2006-01-01

    The automatic PID control design for a onedimensional magnetic levitation system is investigated. The PID controller is automatically tuned using the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) based on a nonlinear system model. The developed controller is digitally implemented and tested...

  9. Quasiclassical approach to the weak levitation of extended states in the quantum Hall effect

    OpenAIRE

    Fogler, M. M.

    1997-01-01

    The two-dimensional motion of a charged particle in a random potential and a transverse magnetic field is believed to be delocalized only at discrete energies $E_N$. In strong fields there is a small positive deviation of $E_N$ from the center of the $N$th Landau level, which is referred to as the ``weak levitation'' of the extended state. I calculate the size of the weak levitation effect for the case of a smooth random potential re-deriving earlier results of Haldane and Yang [PRL 78, 298 (...

  10. Evaluation of airborne thermal, magnetic, and electromagnetic characterization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josten, N.E.

    1992-03-01

    The identification of Buried Structures (IBS) or Aerial Surveillance Project was initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development to demonstrate airborne methods for locating and identifying buried waste and ordnance at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Two technologies were demonstrated: (a) a thermal infrared imaging system built by Martin Marietta Missile Systems and (b) a magnetic and electromagnetic (EM) geophysical surveying system operated by EBASCO Environmental. The thermal system detects small differences in ground temperature caused by uneven heating and cooling of the ground by the sun. Waste materials on the ground can be detected when the temperature of the waste is different than the background temperature. The geophysical system uses conventional magnetic and EM sensors. These sensors detect disturbances caused by magnetic or conductive waste and naturally occurring magnetic or conductive features of subsurface soils and rock. Both systems are deployed by helicopter. Data were collected at four INEL sites. Tests at the Naval Ordnance Disposal Area (NODA) were made to evaluate capabilities for detecting ordnance on the ground surface. Tests at the Cold Simulated Waste Demonstration Pit were made to evaluate capabilities for detecting buried waste at a controlled site, where the location and depth of buried materials are known. Tests at the Subsurface Disposal Area and Stationary Low-Power Reactor-1 burial area were made to evaluate capabilities for characterizing hazardous waste at sites that are typical of DOE buried waste sites nationwide

  11. Evaluation of airborne thermal, magnetic, and electromagnetic characterization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josten, N.E.

    1992-03-01

    The identification of Buried Structures (IBS) or Aerial Surveillance Project was initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development to demonstrate airborne methods for locating and identifying buried waste and ordnance at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Two technologies were demonstrated: (a) a thermal infrared imaging system built by Martin Marietta Missile Systems and (b) a magnetic and electromagnetic (EM) geophysical surveying system operated by EBASCO Environmental. The thermal system detects small differences in ground temperature caused by uneven heating and cooling of the ground by the sun. Waste materials on the ground can be detected when the temperature of the waste is different than the background temperature. The geophysical system uses conventional magnetic and EM sensors. These sensors detect disturbances caused by magnetic or conductive waste and naturally occurring magnetic or conductive features of subsurface soils and rock. Both systems are deployed by helicopter. Data were collected at four INEL sites. Tests at the Naval Ordnance Disposal Area (NODA) were made to evaluate capabilities for detecting ordnance on the ground surface. Tests at the Cold Simulated Waste Demonstration Pit were made to evaluate capabilities for detecting buried waste at a controlled site, where the location and depth of buried materials are known. Tests at the Subsurface Disposal Area and Stationary Low-Power Reactor-1 burial area were made to evaluate capabilities for characterizing hazardous waste at sites that are typical of DOE buried waste sites nationwide.

  12. Magnetic Levitation and Newton's Third Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguia

    2007-01-01

    Newton's third law is often misunderstood by students and even their professors, as has already been pointed out in the literature. Application of the law in the context of electromagnetism can be especially problematic, because the idea that the forces of "action" and "reaction" are equal and opposite independent of the medium through which they…

  13. Particle levitation and laboratory scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of light scattering from aerosol particles can provide a non-intrusive in situ method for characterising particle size distributions, composition, refractive index, phase and morphology. When coupled with techniques for isolating single particles, considerable information on the evolution of the properties of a single particle can be gained during changes in environmental conditions or chemical processing. Electrostatic, acoustic and optical techniques have been developed over many decades for capturing and levitating single particles. In this review, we will focus on studies of particles in the Mie size regime and consider the complimentarity of electrostatic and optical techniques for levitating particles and elastic and inelastic light scattering methods for characterising particles. In particular, we will review the specific advantages of establishing a single-beam gradient force optical trap (optical tweezers) for manipulating single particles or arrays of particles. Recent developments in characterising the nature of the optical trap, in applying elastic and inelastic light scattering measurements for characterising trapped particles, and in manipulating particles will be considered.

  14. Levitated Optomechanics for Fundamental Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Muddassar; Bateman, James; Vovrosh, Jamie; Hempston, David; Ulbricht, Hendrik

    2015-05-01

    Optomechanics with levitated nano- and microparticles is believed to form a platform for testing fundamental principles of quantum physics, as well as find applications in sensing. We will report on a new scheme to trap nanoparticles, which is based on a parabolic mirror with a numerical aperture of 1. Combined with achromatic focussing, the setup is a cheap and readily straightforward solution to trapping nanoparticles for further study. Here, we report on the latest progress made in experimentation with levitated nanoparticles; these include the trapping of 100 nm nanodiamonds (with NV-centres) down to 1 mbar as well as the trapping of 50 nm Silica spheres down to 10?4 mbar without any form of feedback cooling. We will also report on the progress to implement feedback stabilisation of the centre of mass motion of the trapped particle using digital electronics. Finally, we argue that such a stabilised particle trap can be the particle source for a nanoparticle matterwave interferometer. We will present our Talbot interferometer scheme, which holds promise to test the quantum superposition principle in the new mass range of 106 amu. EPSRC, John Templeton Foundation.

  15. Parametric resonance in acoustically levitated water drops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, C.L.; Xie, W.J.; Wei, B.

    2010-01-01

    Liquid drops can be suspended in air with acoustic levitation method. When the sound pressure is periodically modulated, the levitated drop is usually forced into an axisymmetric oscillation. However, a transition from axisymmetric oscillation into sectorial oscillation occurs when the modulation frequency approaches some specific values. The frequency of the sectorial oscillation is almost exactly half of the modulation frequency. It is demonstrated that this transition is induced by the parametric resonance of levitated drop. The natural frequency of sectorial oscillation is found to decrease with the increase of drop distortion extent.

  16. Parametric resonance in acoustically levitated water drops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, C.L.; Xie, W.J. [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Wei, B., E-mail: bbwei@nwpu.edu.c [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2010-05-10

    Liquid drops can be suspended in air with acoustic levitation method. When the sound pressure is periodically modulated, the levitated drop is usually forced into an axisymmetric oscillation. However, a transition from axisymmetric oscillation into sectorial oscillation occurs when the modulation frequency approaches some specific values. The frequency of the sectorial oscillation is almost exactly half of the modulation frequency. It is demonstrated that this transition is induced by the parametric resonance of levitated drop. The natural frequency of sectorial oscillation is found to decrease with the increase of drop distortion extent.

  17. Optimization of levitation and guidance forces in a superconducting Maglev system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildizer, Irfan; Cansiz, Ahmet; Ozturk, Kemal

    2016-09-01

    Optimization of the levitation for superconducting Maglev systems requires effective use of vertical and guidance forces during the operation. In this respect the levitation and guidance forces in terms of various permanent magnet array configurations are analyzed. The arrangements of permanent magnet arrays interacting with the superconductor are configured for the purpose of increasing the magnetic flux density. According to configurations, modeling the interaction forces between the permanent magnet and the superconductor are established in terms of the frozen image model. The model is complemented with the analytical calculations and provides a reasonable agreement with the experiments. The agreement of the analytical calculation associated with the frozen image model indicates a strong case to establish an optimization, in which provides preliminary analysis before constructing more complex Maglev system.

  18. Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES). Results of a technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, T.; Juengst, K.P.; Brandl, V.; Maurer, W.; Nieke, E.

    1995-05-01

    The authors report on results of a Technology Assessment study commissioned by the German Federal Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Technology. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) technology with respect to the economical, political and organization structures in the Federal Republic of Germany. The main focus of the study was on the technical and economic potential of large-scale SMES for diurnal load levelling applications. It was shown that there is no demand for the development of large SMES in Germany in the short and medium term. A second range of applications investigated is storage of electric energy for immediate delivery or consumption of electric power in case of need or for periodic power supply within the range of seconds. Due to its excellent dynamic properties SMES has substantial advantages over conventional storage technologies in this field. For those so-called dynamic applications SMES of small and medium energy capacity are needed. It was shown that SMES may be economically attractive for the provision of spinning reserve capacity in electrical networks, in particular cases for power quality applications (uninterruptable power supply, UPS) and for the compensation of cyclic loads, as well as in some market niches. The use of SMES for storage of recuperated energy in electrical railway traction systems has been proven to be uneconomical. Mobile SMES applications are unrealistic due to technical and size limitations. In SMES systems the energy is stored in a magnetic field. Biological objects as well as technical systems in the vicinity of a SMES plant are exposed to this field. The knowledge on impacts of magnetic fields on sensitive technical systems as well as on living organisms and especially on effects on human health is rather small and quite uncertain. (orig./MM) [de

  19. Acoustic levitation in the presence of gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collas, P.; Barmatz, M.; Shipley, C.

    1989-01-01

    The method of Gor'kov (1961) has been applied to derive general expressions for the total potential and force on a small spherical object in a resonant chamber in the presence of both acoustic and gravitational force fields. The levitation position is also determined in rectangular resonators for the simultaneous excitation of up to three acoustic modes, and the results are applied to the triple-axis acoustic levitator. The analysis is applied to rectangular, spherical, and cylindrical single-mode levitators that are arbitrarily oriented relative to the gravitational force field. Criteria are determined for isotropic force fields in rectangular and cylindrical resonators. It is demonstrated that an object will be situated within a volume of possible levitation positions at a point determined by the relative strength of the acoustic and gravitational fields and the orientation of the chamber relative to gravity.

  20. Eutectic growth under acoustic levitation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, W J; Cao, C D; Lü, Y J; Wei, B

    2002-12-01

    Samples of Pb-Sn eutectic alloy with a high density of 8.5 x 10(3) kg/m(3) are levitated with a single-axis acoustic levitator, and containerlessly melted and then solidified in argon atmosphere. High undercoolings up to 38 K are obtained, which results in a microstructural transition of "lamellas-broken lamellas-dendrites." This transition is further investigated in the light of the coupled zone for eutectic growth and the effects of ultrasound. The breaking of regular eutectic lamellas and suppression of gravity-induced macrosegregation of (Pb) and (Sn) dendrites are explained by the complicated internal flow inside the levitated drop, which is jointly induced by the shape oscillation, bulk vibration and rotation of the levitated drop. The ultrasonic field is also found to drive forced surface vibration, which subsequently excites capillary ripples and catalyzes nucleation on the sample surface.

  1. Manipulation of biomimetic objects in acoustic levitation

    OpenAIRE

    Castro , Angelica

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contains 9 chapters making a total of 205 pages including articles. The articles are menctioned throughout the work and are listed as annexes. These articles were produced during the PhD.; Levitation is a promising tool for contactless guiding and non-toxic manipulation. Acoustic levitation by ultrasonic standing waves (USW) allows micron-scale particle manipulation in acoustic resonators. The main goal of this thesis is to explore the possibilities given by the acoustic levitatio...

  2. Control of Levitating Particle in Ultrasound Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhanov Dmitry

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental setup for ultrasonic controlled levitation in the air has been developed. Two phased arrays made of 91 ultrasonic radiators placed in front of each other are used. Arrays are focused in the region of particle levitation. The length of the focus area allows us to move the particles along it, controlling the standing waves through the phase difference of the two arrays.

  3. Levitation of Bose-Einstein condensates induced by macroscopic non-adiabatic quantum tunneling

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Katsuhiro; Kohi, Akihisa; Yamasaki, Hisatsugu; Perez-Garcia, Victor M.

    2006-01-01

    We study the dynamics of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in different vertical positions in the presence of an oscillating magnetic field. It is shown here how tuning appropriately the oscillation frequency of the magnetic field leads to the levitation of the system against gravity. This phenomenon is a manifestation of a macroscopic non-adiabatic tunneling in a system with internal degrees of freedom.

  4. [Acoustic Levitation Methods and Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Jacobi, N. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Methods are described for acoustically levitating objects within chambers of spherical and cylindrical shape. The wavelengths for chambers of particular dimensions are given, for generating standing wave patterns of any of a variety of modes within the chambers. For a spherical chamber the lowest resonant mode is excited by applying a wavelength of 3.02R, where R is the chamber radius. The two lowest pure radial modes for that chamber, are excited by applying wavelengths of 1.40R and 0.814R. For a cylindrical chamber of radius R, the lowest mode is at a wavelength of 3.41R, and the lowest pure radial modes are at wavelengths of 1.64R and 0.896R.

  5. An experimental study on magnet for electro-magnetic suspension MagLev vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Seop; Chung, Hyun Kap [Korea Institute of Machinery and Metals (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    This paper deals with characteristics of magnet that the levitation and guidance forces at static state and we tested and evaluated its. Also we compared to effect of levitation force with material and shape of guide way, focus on evaluation and method of test for the magnet of Urban Transit Maglev vehicle. (author). 3 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Magnetic Probe Construction using Thick-film Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, H.; Sakakibara, S.; Kubota, Y.; Yamada, H.

    2001-01-01

    Thick-film technology has been successfully adapted for the design and fabrication of magnetic probes of a new type suitable for use in the simultaneous ultra-high vacuum and high-temperature environment of a nuclear fusion device. The maximum usable temperature is expected to be around 900 degrees C. This new probe has a specific sensitivity (coupling area per unit volume) an order of magnitude higher than a conventional coil. The new probe in one implementation is capable of simultaneously measuring magnetic field in three orthogonal directions about a single spatial point and in two frequency ranges. Low-frequency coils have a measured coupling area of 296-323 cm squared and a frequency response of about 300 kHz. High-frequency coils have a design coupling area of 12-15 cm squared

  7. Matrix method for acoustic levitation simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Marco A B; Perez, Nicolas; Buiochi, Flavio; Adamowski, Julio C

    2011-08-01

    A matrix method is presented for simulating acoustic levitators. A typical acoustic levitator consists of an ultrasonic transducer and a reflector. The matrix method is used to determine the potential for acoustic radiation force that acts on a small sphere in the standing wave field produced by the levitator. The method is based on the Rayleigh integral and it takes into account the multiple reflections that occur between the transducer and the reflector. The potential for acoustic radiation force obtained by the matrix method is validated by comparing the matrix method results with those obtained by the finite element method when using an axisymmetric model of a single-axis acoustic levitator. After validation, the method is applied in the simulation of a noncontact manipulation system consisting of two 37.9-kHz Langevin-type transducers and a plane reflector. The manipulation system allows control of the horizontal position of a small levitated sphere from -6 mm to 6 mm, which is done by changing the phase difference between the two transducers. The horizontal position of the sphere predicted by the matrix method agrees with the horizontal positions measured experimentally with a charge-coupled device camera. The main advantage of the matrix method is that it allows simulation of non-symmetric acoustic levitators without requiring much computational effort.

  8. Levitation characteristics in an HTS maglev launch assist test vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wenjiang; Qiu Ming; Liu Yu; Wen Zheng; Duan Yi; Chen Xiaodong

    2007-01-01

    With the aim of finding a low-cost, safe, and reliable way to reduce costs of space launch, a maglev launch assist vehicle (Maglifter) is proposed. We present a permanent magnet-high temperature superconductor (PM-HTS) interaction maglev system for the Maglifter, which consists of a cryostat with multi-block YBaCuO bulks and a flux-collecting PM guideway. We obtain an optimum bulk arrangement by measuring and analysing the typical locations of HTSs above the PM guideway. We also measure the levitation abilities of the arrangement at different field cooled heights (FCHs) and different measuring distances (MDs), and find that the lower FCH and the lower MD both cause more magnetic flux to penetrate the HTSs, and then cause stronger lateral stability. A demonstration PM-HTS maglev test vehicle is built with four maglev units and two PM guideways with the length of 7 m. Its levitation characteristics in different FC and loading conditions are demonstrated. By analysing the maglev launch assist process, we assess that the low FC is useful for increasing the lateral stability of the Maglifter

  9. Optomechanics in a Levitated Droplet of Superfluid Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charles; Harris, Glen; Harris, Jack

    2017-04-01

    A critical issue common to all optomechanical systems is dissipative coupling to the environment, which limits the system's quantum coherence. Superfluid helium's extremely low optical and mechanical dissipation, as well as its high thermal conductivity and its ability cool itself via evaporation, makes the mostly uncharted territory of superfluid optomechanics an exciting avenue for exploring quantum effects in macroscopic objects. I will describe ongoing work that aims to exploit the unique properties of superfluid helium by constructing an optomechanical system consisting of a magnetically levitated droplet of superfluid helium., The optical whispering gallery modes (WGMs) of the droplet, as well as the mechanical oscillations of its surface, should offer exceptionally low dissipation, and should couple to each other via the usual optomechanical interactions. I will present recent progress towards this goal, and also discuss the background for this work, which includes prior demonstrations of magnetic levitation of superfluid helium, high finesse WGMs in liquid drops, and the self-cooling of helium drops in vacuum.

  10. Status of tritium technology development for magnetic-fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    The development of tritium technology for the magnetic fusion energy program has progressed at a rapid rate over the past two years. The focal points for this development in the United States have been the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos and the FED/INTOR studies supported by the Fusion Engineering Design Center at Oak Ridge. In Canada the Canadian Fusion Fuel Technology Project has been initiated and promises to make significant contributions to the tritium technology program in the next few years. The Japanese government has now approved funding for the Tritium Processing Laboratory at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute's Tokai Research Establishment. Construction on this new facility is scheduled to begin in April 1983. This facility will be the center for fusion tritium technology development in Japan. The European Community is currently working on the design of the tritium facility for the Joint European Torus. There is considerable interaction between all of these programs, thus accelerating the overall development of this crucial technology

  11. A low-frequency vibration energy harvester based on diamagnetic levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Yuta; Masuda, Arata; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo

    2017-04-01

    This article presents 3-degree-of-freedom theoretical modeling and analysis of a low-frequency vibration energy harvester based on diamagnetic levitation. In recent years, although much attention has been placed on vibration energy harvesting technologies, few harvesters still can operate efficiently at extremely low frequencies in spite of large potential demand in the field of structural health monitoring and wearable applications. As one of the earliest works, Liu, Yuan and Palagummi proposed vertical and horizontal diamagnetic levitation systems as vibration energy harvesters with low resonant frequencies. This study aims to pursue further improvement along this direction, in terms of expanding maximum amplitude and enhancing the flexibility of the operation direction for broader application fields by introducing a new topology of the levitation system.

  12. Translational and rotational dynamic analysis of a superconducting levitation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansiz, A [Electric-Electronic Engineering Department, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey); Hull, J R [Energy Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Gundogdu, Oe [Mechanical Engineering Department, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey)

    2005-07-01

    The rotational dynamics of a disc-shaped permanent magnet rotor levitated over a high temperature superconductor was studied experimentally and theoretically. The interaction between the rotor magnet and the superconductor was modelled by assuming the magnet to be a magnetic dipole and the superconductor a diamagnet. In the magnetomechanical analysis of the superconductor part, the frozen image concept was combined with the diamagnetic image, and the damping in the system was neglected. The interaction potential of the system is the combination of magnetic and gravitational potentials. From the dynamical analysis the equations of motion of the permanent magnet were stated as a function of lateral, vertical, tilt, precision and rotating angles. The vibration behaviour and correlation of the vibration of one direction with that of another were determined with a numerical calculation based on the Runge-Kutta method. The various vibrational frequencies identified were vertical, radial, tilt, precession and rotation. The tests performed for experimental verifications were translational and rotational. The permanent magnet was 'spun up' under vacuum conditions to analyse the dynamics of the free 'spin down' behaviour of the permanent magnet.

  13. Translational and rotational dynamic analysis of a superconducting levitation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cansiz, A; Hull, J R; Gundogdu, Oe

    2005-01-01

    The rotational dynamics of a disc-shaped permanent magnet rotor levitated over a high temperature superconductor was studied experimentally and theoretically. The interaction between the rotor magnet and the superconductor was modelled by assuming the magnet to be a magnetic dipole and the superconductor a diamagnet. In the magnetomechanical analysis of the superconductor part, the frozen image concept was combined with the diamagnetic image, and the damping in the system was neglected. The interaction potential of the system is the combination of magnetic and gravitational potentials. From the dynamical analysis the equations of motion of the permanent magnet were stated as a function of lateral, vertical, tilt, precision and rotating angles. The vibration behaviour and correlation of the vibration of one direction with that of another were determined with a numerical calculation based on the Runge-Kutta method. The various vibrational frequencies identified were vertical, radial, tilt, precession and rotation. The tests performed for experimental verifications were translational and rotational. The permanent magnet was 'spun up' under vacuum conditions to analyse the dynamics of the free 'spin down' behaviour of the permanent magnet

  14. Influence of movement direction on levitation performance and energy dissipation in a superconducting maglev system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Guang Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available During the regular operation of a maglev system, the superconducting levitation body may move away from the working position due to the external disturbance and the curved part of the guideway. Based on the A − V formulation of magnetoquasistatic Maxwell’s equations, in this paper, a two-dimensional numerical model is applied to study the influence of movement direction on a typical maglev system consisting of an infinitely long high-temperature superconductor and a guideway of two infinitely long parallel permanent magnets with opposite horizontal magnetization. After the highly nonlinear current-voltage characteristic of the superconductor is taken into account, the levitation performance change and the energy dissipation induced by the relative movement of the superconductor and the guideway are discussed. The results show that the levitation force, guidance force and power loss are strongly dependent on the movement direction and speed of the superconductor when it moves away from the working position. If the superconductor moves periodically through the working position, these three physical quantities will change periodically with time. Interestingly, the power loss drastically increases during the first cycle, and after the first cycle it starts to decrease and finally tends to a dynamic steady state. Moreover, an increase in the tilt angle of movement direction will improve the maximum levitation force and, simultaneously, enhance the energy dissipation of the maglev system.

  15. Influence of movement direction on levitation performance and energy dissipation in a superconducting maglev system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Guang; Yong, Hua-Dong; Zhou, You-He

    2017-11-01

    During the regular operation of a maglev system, the superconducting levitation body may move away from the working position due to the external disturbance and the curved part of the guideway. Based on the A - V formulation of magnetoquasistatic Maxwell's equations, in this paper, a two-dimensional numerical model is applied to study the influence of movement direction on a typical maglev system consisting of an infinitely long high-temperature superconductor and a guideway of two infinitely long parallel permanent magnets with opposite horizontal magnetization. After the highly nonlinear current-voltage characteristic of the superconductor is taken into account, the levitation performance change and the energy dissipation induced by the relative movement of the superconductor and the guideway are discussed. The results show that the levitation force, guidance force and power loss are strongly dependent on the movement direction and speed of the superconductor when it moves away from the working position. If the superconductor moves periodically through the working position, these three physical quantities will change periodically with time. Interestingly, the power loss drastically increases during the first cycle, and after the first cycle it starts to decrease and finally tends to a dynamic steady state. Moreover, an increase in the tilt angle of movement direction will improve the maximum levitation force and, simultaneously, enhance the energy dissipation of the maglev system.

  16. Velocity and rotation measurements in acoustically levitated droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Abhishek [University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Basu, Saptarshi [Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Kumar, Ranganathan, E-mail: ranganathan.kumar@ucf.edu [University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The velocity scale inside an acoustically levitated droplet depends on the levitator and liquid properties. Using Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV), detailed velocity measurements have been made in a levitated droplet of different diameters and viscosity. The maximum velocity and rotation are normalized using frequency and amplitude of acoustic levitator, and droplet viscosity. The non-dimensional data are fitted for micrometer- and millimeter-sized droplets levitated in different levitators for different viscosity fluids. It is also shown that the rotational speed of nanosilica droplets at an advanced stage of vaporization compares well with that predicted by exponentially fitted parameters. -- Highlights: ► Demonstrates the importance of rotation in a levitated droplet that leads to controlled morphology. ► Provides detailed measurements of Particle Image Velocimetry inside levitated droplets. ► Shows variation of vortex strength with the droplet diameter and viscosity of the liquid.

  17. Velocity and rotation measurements in acoustically levitated droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Abhishek; Basu, Saptarshi; Kumar, Ranganathan

    2012-01-01

    The velocity scale inside an acoustically levitated droplet depends on the levitator and liquid properties. Using Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV), detailed velocity measurements have been made in a levitated droplet of different diameters and viscosity. The maximum velocity and rotation are normalized using frequency and amplitude of acoustic levitator, and droplet viscosity. The non-dimensional data are fitted for micrometer- and millimeter-sized droplets levitated in different levitators for different viscosity fluids. It is also shown that the rotational speed of nanosilica droplets at an advanced stage of vaporization compares well with that predicted by exponentially fitted parameters. -- Highlights: ► Demonstrates the importance of rotation in a levitated droplet that leads to controlled morphology. ► Provides detailed measurements of Particle Image Velocimetry inside levitated droplets. ► Shows variation of vortex strength with the droplet diameter and viscosity of the liquid.

  18. Cavity Opto-Mechanics using an Optically Levitated Nanosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    center-of-mass motion of a levitated nanosphere. entanglement ∣ optical levitation ∣ quantum information One of the most intriguing questions associated...developed. Outlook An optically levitated opto-mechanical system can have remark- ably long coherence times, which potentially enables quantum phenomena...47) or facilitate novel quantum hybrid architectures (6). Note added: We have become aware of a recent, similar proposal to optically levitate and

  19. Anti-levitation in integer quantum Hall systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Avishai, Y.; Meir, Yigal; Wang, X. R.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of extended states of two-dimensional electron gas with white-noise randomness and field is numerically investigated by using the Anderson model on square lattices. Focusing on the lowest Landau band we establish an anti-levitation scenario of the extended states: As either the disorder strength W increases or the magnetic field strength B decreases, the energies of the extended states move below the Landau energies pertaining to a clean system. Moreover, for strong enough disorder, there is a disorder-dependent critical magnetic field Bc(W) below which there are no extended states at all. A general phase diagram in the W-1/B plane is suggested with a line separating domains of localized and delocalized states.

  20. Plasma resistivity measurements in the Wisconsin levitated octupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouchous, D.A.

    1980-11-01

    Resistivity measurements parallel to the magnetic field were made on gun injected plasmas ranging in density from 10 9 cm -3 to 10 1 parallelcm -3 in the Wisconsin levitated octupole with toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields. The 10 9 cm -3 plasma was collisionless with lambda/sub mfp/ > 100 mirror lengths, had T/sub e/ = 10 eV, T/sub i/ = 30 eV and was found to have anomalous resistivity scaling like eta = √T/sub e//n/sub e/ when E/sub parallel/ > E/su c/ is the Dreicer critical field. The 10 12 cm -3 plasma was collisional with lambda/sub mfp/ < mirror length, had T/sub e/ = T/sub i/ approx. = .2 eV and was found to have Spitzer resistivity when E/sub parallel/ < E/sub c/

  1. Dynamical behavior of granular matter in low gravity (diamagnetic levitation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, J.S.; Cothern, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    We report studies on the dynamics of macroscopic particles in a low-gravity 'magnetic levitation' environment. In a real sense, this allows the investigation of new states of granular matter. Particle ensembles (rods, spheres, or grains) can be held in a weak confining potential due to diamagnetic forces in a high-field-resistive magnet. In such a case 'kT' is not zero, and assemblies of particles undergo ergodic processes to find the lowest configurational ground state. This new area presents unique problems for video data acquisition and mathematical descriptions of the complex dynamic motions, interactions, and configurations of single and multiple particle assemblies. Three examples of such processes are presented

  2. Dynamical behavior of granular matter in low gravity (diamagnetic levitation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, J.S. E-mail: brooks@magnet.fsu.edu; Cothern, J.A

    2001-05-01

    We report studies on the dynamics of macroscopic particles in a low-gravity 'magnetic levitation' environment. In a real sense, this allows the investigation of new states of granular matter. Particle ensembles (rods, spheres, or grains) can be held in a weak confining potential due to diamagnetic forces in a high-field-resistive magnet. In such a case 'kT' is not zero, and assemblies of particles undergo ergodic processes to find the lowest configurational ground state. This new area presents unique problems for video data acquisition and mathematical descriptions of the complex dynamic motions, interactions, and configurations of single and multiple particle assemblies. Three examples of such processes are presented.

  3. Technology of magnetic abrasive finishing in machining of difficult-to-machine alloy complex surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujian MA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The technology of magnetic abrasive finishing is one of the important finishing technologies. Combining with low-frequency vibration and ultrasonic vibration, it can attain higher precision, quality and efficiency. The characteristics and the related current research of magnetic abrasive finishing, vibration assisted magnetic abrasive finishing and ultrasonic assisted magnetic abrasive finishing are introduced. According to the characteristics of the difficult-to-machine alloy's complex surface, the important problems for further study are presented to realize the finishing of complex surface with the technology of magnetic abrasive finishing, such as increasing the machining efficiency by enhancing the magnetic flux density of machining gap and compounding of magnetic energy and others, establishing of the control function during machining and the process planning method for magnetic abrasive finishing of complex surface under the space geometry restraint of complex surface on magnetic pole, etc.

  4. Levitation or suspension: Which one is better for the heavy-load HTS maglev transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Kang, Dong; Yang, X. F.; Wang, Fei; Peng, G. H.; Zheng, Jun; Ma, G. T.; Wang, J. S.

    2015-09-01

    Because of the limitation of permanent magnet (PM), the efficient of bulk high-Tc superconductor (HTSC) in a high-Tc superconducting (HTS) maglev system is not very high. It is better to magnetize the bulk HTSC with a high trapped field to increase the force density. The different application type of magnetized bulk HTSC in a maglev system, namely, levitation or suspension type, will bring quite different operation performance. This paper discusses the influence of application type on operation performance of magnetized bulk HTSC by experiments and simulations. From the discussion, it can be found which application type is better for the heavy-load HTS maglev system.

  5. Acoustic Measurement Of Periodic Motion Of Levitated Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, John L.; Barmatz, Martin B.

    1992-01-01

    Some internal vibrations, oscillations in position, and rotations of acoustically levitated object measured by use of microphone already installed in typical levitation chamber for tuning chamber to resonance and monitoring operation. Levitating acoustic signal modulated by object motion of lower frequency. Amplitude modulation detected and analyzed spectrally to determine amplitudes and frequencies of motions.

  6. Dynamics of acoustically levitated disk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, W J; Wei, B

    2004-10-01

    The acoustic levitation force on disk samples and the dynamics of large water drops in a planar standing wave are studied by solving the acoustic scattering problem through incorporating the boundary element method. The dependence of levitation force amplitude on the equivalent radius R of disks deviates seriously from the R3 law predicted by King's theory, and a larger force can be obtained for thin disks. When the disk aspect ratio gamma is larger than a critical value gamma(*) ( approximately 1.9 ) and the disk radius a is smaller than the critical value a(*) (gamma) , the levitation force per unit volume of the sample will increase with the enlargement of the disk. The acoustic levitation force on thin-disk samples ( gammaacoustic field for stable levitation of a large water drop is to adjust the reflector-emitter interval H slightly above the resonant interval H(n) . The simulation shows that the drop is flattened and the central parts of its top and bottom surface become concave with the increase of sound pressure level, which agrees with the experimental observation. The main frequencies of the shape oscillation under different sound pressures are slightly larger than the Rayleigh frequency because of the large shape deformation. The simulated translational frequencies of the vertical vibration under normal gravity condition agree with the theoretical analysis.

  7. Study on Transient Properties of Levitated Object in Near-Field Acoustic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bing; Chen, Chao; Zhao, Chun-Sheng

    2011-12-01

    A new approach to the study on the transient properties of the levitated object in near-field acoustic levitation (NFAL) is presented. In this article, the transient response characteristics, including the levitated height of an object with radius of 24 mm and thickness of 5 mm, the radial velocity and pressure difference of gas at the boundary of clearance between the levitated object and radiating surface (squeeze film), is calculated according to several velocity amplitudes of radiating surface. First, the basic equations in fluid areas on Arbitrary Lagrange—Euler (ALE) form are numerically solved by using streamline upwind petrov galerkin (SUPG) finite elements method. Second, the formed algebraic equations and solid control equations are solved by using synchronous alternating method to gain the transient messages of the levitated object and gas in the squeeze film. Through theoretical and numerical analyses, it is found that there is a oscillation time in the transient process and that the response time does not simply increase with the increasing of velocity amplitudes of radiating surface. More investigations in this paper are helpful for the understanding of the transient properties of levitated object in NFAL, which are in favor of enhancing stabilities and responsiveness of levitated object.

  8. Study on Transient Properties of Levitated Object in Near-Field Acoustic Levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Bing; Chen Chao; Zhao Chunsheng

    2011-01-01

    A new approach to the study on the transient properties of the levitated object in near-field acoustic levitation (NFAL) is presented. In this article, the transient response characteristics, including the levitated height of an object with radius of 24 mm and thickness of 5 mm, the radial velocity and pressure difference of gas at the boundary of clearance between the levitated object and radiating surface (squeeze film), is calculated according to several velocity amplitudes of radiating surface. First, the basic equations in fluid areas on Arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) form are numerically solved by using streamline upwind petrov galerkin (SUPG) finite elements method. Second, the formed algebraic equations and solid control equations are solved by using synchronous alternating method to gain the transient messages of the levitated object and gas in the squeeze film. Through theoretical and numerical analyses, it is found that there is a oscillation time in the transient process and that the response time does not simply increase with the increasing of velocity amplitudes of radiating surface. More investigations in this paper are helpful for the understanding of the transient properties of levitated object in NFAL, which are in favor of enhancing stabilities and responsiveness of levitated object. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  9. Design elements and quantitative results of synchronous longstator linear motors for high-speed magnetic trains taking the TRANSRAPID test facility in Emsland as an example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerst, R [Industrieanlagen-Betriebsgesellschaft mbH, Magnetbahn-Versuchsanlage, Lathen/Ems (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    In German high-speed magnetic train technology, iron-clad synchronous long-stator linear motors of levitation stator design are used to propel and brake the vehicles. This paper uses the propulsion design of the Transrapid test facility in Emsland (TVE) to illustrate in practical terms the dimensioning parameters for thrust calculations and their interdependencies. The paper is based on description conventions common for rotating electrical machines and rail technology. (orig.)

  10. Magnetic Launch Assist Experimental Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In this photograph, a futuristic spacecraft model sits atop a carrier on the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly known as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) System, experimental track at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Engineers at MSFC have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies that would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at very high speeds. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide, and about 1.5-feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  11. Magnetic Launch Assist Demonstration Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This image shows a 1/9 subscale model vehicle clearing the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly referred to as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev), test track during a demonstration test conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Engineers at MSFC have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies. To launch spacecraft into orbit, a Magnetic Launch Assist System would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at very high speeds. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a launch-assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide and about 1.5-feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  12. Workshop on technology issues of superconducting Maglev transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegrzyn, J.E.; Shaw, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    There exists a critical need in the United States to improve its ground transportation system. One suggested system that offers many advantages over the current transportation infrastructure is Maglev. Maglev represents the latest evolution in very high and speed ground transportation, where vehicles are magnetically levitated, guided, and propelled over elevated guideways at speeds of 300 miles per hour. Maglev is not a new concept but is, however, receiving renewed interest. The objective of this workshop was to further promote these interest by bringing together a small group of specialists in Maglev technology to discuss Maglev research needs and to identify key research issues to the development of a successful Maglev system. The workshop was organized into four sessions based on the following technical areas: Materials, Testing, and Shielding; Magnet Design and Cryogenic Systems; Propulsion and Levitation Systems; and, System Control and Integration

  13. Acoustic levitation of a large solid sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Marco A. B.; Bernassau, Anne L.; Adamowski, Julio C.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate that acoustic levitation can levitate spherical objects much larger than the acoustic wavelength in air. The acoustic levitation of an expanded polystyrene sphere of 50 mm in diameter, corresponding to 3.6 times the wavelength, is achieved by using three 25 kHz ultrasonic transducers arranged in a tripod fashion. In this configuration, a standing wave is created between the transducers and the sphere. The axial acoustic radiation force generated by each transducer on the sphere was modeled numerically as a function of the distance between the sphere and the transducer. The theoretical acoustic radiation force was verified experimentally in a setup consisting of an electronic scale and an ultrasonic transducer mounted on a motorized linear stage. The comparison between the numerical and experimental acoustic radiation forces presents a good agreement.

  14. Acoustic levitation of a large solid sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Marco A. B., E-mail: marcobrizzotti@gmail.com [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-090 (Brazil); Bernassau, Anne L. [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Adamowski, Julio C. [Department of Mechatronics and Mechanical Systems Engineering, Escola Politécnica, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-030 (Brazil)

    2016-07-25

    We demonstrate that acoustic levitation can levitate spherical objects much larger than the acoustic wavelength in air. The acoustic levitation of an expanded polystyrene sphere of 50 mm in diameter, corresponding to 3.6 times the wavelength, is achieved by using three 25 kHz ultrasonic transducers arranged in a tripod fashion. In this configuration, a standing wave is created between the transducers and the sphere. The axial acoustic radiation force generated by each transducer on the sphere was modeled numerically as a function of the distance between the sphere and the transducer. The theoretical acoustic radiation force was verified experimentally in a setup consisting of an electronic scale and an ultrasonic transducer mounted on a motorized linear stage. The comparison between the numerical and experimental acoustic radiation forces presents a good agreement.

  15. Acoustic levitation of a large solid sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Marco A. B.; Bernassau, Anne L.; Adamowski, Julio C.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that acoustic levitation can levitate spherical objects much larger than the acoustic wavelength in air. The acoustic levitation of an expanded polystyrene sphere of 50 mm in diameter, corresponding to 3.6 times the wavelength, is achieved by using three 25 kHz ultrasonic transducers arranged in a tripod fashion. In this configuration, a standing wave is created between the transducers and the sphere. The axial acoustic radiation force generated by each transducer on the sphere was modeled numerically as a function of the distance between the sphere and the transducer. The theoretical acoustic radiation force was verified experimentally in a setup consisting of an electronic scale and an ultrasonic transducer mounted on a motorized linear stage. The comparison between the numerical and experimental acoustic radiation forces presents a good agreement.

  16. Particle manipulation by a non-resonant acoustic levitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Marco A. B.; Pérez, Nicolás; Adamowski, Julio C.

    2015-01-01

    We present the analysis of a non-resonant acoustic levitator, formed by an ultrasonic transducer and a concave reflector. In contrast to traditional levitators, the geometry presented herein does not require the separation distance between the transducer and the reflector to be a multiple of half wavelength. The levitator behavior is numerically predicted by applying a numerical model to calculate the acoustic pressure distribution and the Gor'kov theory to obtain the potential of the acoustic radiation force that acts on a levitated particle. We also demonstrate that levitating particles can be manipulated by controlling the reflector position while maintaining the transducer in a fixed position.

  17. Particle manipulation by a non-resonant acoustic levitator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Marco A. B., E-mail: marcobrizzotti@gmail.com [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, CP 66318, 05314-970 São Paulo (Brazil); Pérez, Nicolás [Centro Universitario de Paysandú, Universidad de la República, Ruta 3 km 363, 60000 Paysandú (Uruguay); Adamowski, Julio C. [Department of Mechatronics and Mechanical Systems Engineering, Escola Politécnica, University of São Paulo, Av. Mello Moraes, 2231, 05508-030 São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-01-05

    We present the analysis of a non-resonant acoustic levitator, formed by an ultrasonic transducer and a concave reflector. In contrast to traditional levitators, the geometry presented herein does not require the separation distance between the transducer and the reflector to be a multiple of half wavelength. The levitator behavior is numerically predicted by applying a numerical model to calculate the acoustic pressure distribution and the Gor'kov theory to obtain the potential of the acoustic radiation force that acts on a levitated particle. We also demonstrate that levitating particles can be manipulated by controlling the reflector position while maintaining the transducer in a fixed position.

  18. Particle manipulation by a non-resonant acoustic levitator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Marco A. B.; Pérez, Nicolás; Adamowski, Julio C.

    2015-01-01

    We present the analysis of a non-resonant acoustic levitator, formed by an ultrasonic transducer and a concave reflector. In contrast to traditional levitators, the geometry presented herein does not require the separation distance between the transducer and the reflector to be a multiple of half wavelength. The levitator behavior is numerically predicted by applying a numerical model to calculate the acoustic pressure distribution and the Gor'kov theory to obtain the potential of the acoustic radiation force that acts on a levitated particle. We also demonstrate that levitating particles can be manipulated by controlling the reflector position while maintaining the transducer in a fixed position

  19. Levitation, coating, and transport of particulate materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    Several processes in various fields require uniformly thick coatings and layers on small particles. The particles may be used as carriers of catalytic materials (platinum or other coatings), as laser fusion targets (various polymer or metallic coatings), or for biological or other tracer or interactive processes. We have devised both molecular beam and electro-dynamic techniques for levitation of the particles during coating and electrodynamic methods of controlling and transporting the particles between coating steps and to final use locations. Both molecular beam and electrodynamic techniques are described and several advantages and limitations of each will be discussed. A short movie of an operating electrodynamic levitation and transport apparatus will be shown

  20. Electron spin control and spin-libration coupling of a levitated nanodiamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Thai; Ma, Yue; Ahn, Jonghoon; Bang, Jaehoon; Robicheaux, Francis; Gong, Ming; Yin, Zhang-Qi; Li, Tongcang

    2017-04-01

    Hybrid spin-mechanical systems have great potentials in sensing, macroscopic quantum mechanics, and quantum information science. Recently, we optically levitated a nanodiamond and demonstrated electron spin control of its built-in nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in vacuum. We also observed the libration (torsional vibration) of a nanodiamond trapped by a linearly polarized laser beam in vacuum. We propose to achieve strong coupling between the electron spin of a NV center and the libration of a levitated nanodiamond with a uniform magnetic field. With a uniform magnetic field, multiple spins can couple to the torsional vibration at the same time. We propose to use this strong coupling to realize the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick (LMG) model and generate rotational superposition states. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1555035-PHY.