WorldWideScience

Sample records for magnetic casimir-polder interaction

  1. Casimir-Polder interaction in second quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefele, Juergen

    2011-03-21

    The Casimir-Polder interaction between a single neutral atom and a nearby surface, arising from the (quantum and thermal) fluctuations of the electromagnetic field, is a cornerstone of cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED), and theoretically well established. Recently, Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) of ultracold atoms have been used to test the predictions of cQED. The purpose of the present thesis is to upgrade single-atom cQED with the many-body theory needed to describe trapped atomic BECs. Tools and methods are developed in a second-quantized picture that treats atom and photon fields on the same footing. We formulate a diagrammatic expansion using correlation functions for both the electromagnetic field and the atomic system. The formalism is applied to investigate, for BECs trapped near surfaces, dispersion interactions of the van der Waals-Casimir-Polder type, and the Bosonic stimulation in spontaneous decay of excited atomic states. We also discuss a phononic Casimir effect, which arises from the quantum fluctuations in an interacting BEC. (orig.)

  2. Casimir-Polder interaction in second quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiefele, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    The Casimir-Polder interaction between a single neutral atom and a nearby surface, arising from the (quantum and thermal) fluctuations of the electromagnetic field, is a cornerstone of cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED), and theoretically well established. Recently, Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) of ultracold atoms have been used to test the predictions of cQED. The purpose of the present thesis is to upgrade single-atom cQED with the many-body theory needed to describe trapped atomic BECs. Tools and methods are developed in a second-quantized picture that treats atom and photon fields on the same footing. We formulate a diagrammatic expansion using correlation functions for both the electromagnetic field and the atomic system. The formalism is applied to investigate, for BECs trapped near surfaces, dispersion interactions of the van der Waals-Casimir-Polder type, and the Bosonic stimulation in spontaneous decay of excited atomic states. We also discuss a phononic Casimir effect, which arises from the quantum fluctuations in an interacting BEC. (orig.)

  3. Coupled-oscillator theory of dispersion and Casimir-Polder interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, P. R.; Ford, G. W. [Physics Department, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1040 (United States); Milonni, P. W. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)

    2014-10-28

    We address the question of the applicability of the argument theorem (of complex variable theory) to the calculation of two distinct energies: (i) the first-order dispersion interaction energy of two separated oscillators, when one of the oscillators is excited initially and (ii) the Casimir-Polder interaction of a ground-state quantum oscillator near a perfectly conducting plane. We show that the argument theorem can be used to obtain the generally accepted equation for the first-order dispersion interaction energy, which is oscillatory and varies as the inverse power of the separation r of the oscillators for separations much greater than an optical wavelength. However, for such separations, the interaction energy cannot be transformed into an integral over the positive imaginary axis. If the argument theorem is used incorrectly to relate the interaction energy to an integral over the positive imaginary axis, the interaction energy is non-oscillatory and varies as r{sup −4}, a result found by several authors. Rather remarkably, this incorrect expression for the dispersion energy actually corresponds to the nonperturbative Casimir-Polder energy for a ground-state quantum oscillator near a perfectly conducting wall, as we show using the so-called “remarkable formula” for the free energy of an oscillator coupled to a heat bath [G. W. Ford, J. T. Lewis, and R. F. O’Connell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2273 (1985)]. A derivation of that formula from basic results of statistical mechanics and the independent oscillator model of a heat bath is presented.

  4. Coupled-oscillator theory of dispersion and Casimir-Polder interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, P. R.; Ford, G. W.; Milonni, P. W.

    2014-01-01

    We address the question of the applicability of the argument theorem (of complex variable theory) to the calculation of two distinct energies: (i) the first-order dispersion interaction energy of two separated oscillators, when one of the oscillators is excited initially and (ii) the Casimir-Polder interaction of a ground-state quantum oscillator near a perfectly conducting plane. We show that the argument theorem can be used to obtain the generally accepted equation for the first-order dispersion interaction energy, which is oscillatory and varies as the inverse power of the separation r of the oscillators for separations much greater than an optical wavelength. However, for such separations, the interaction energy cannot be transformed into an integral over the positive imaginary axis. If the argument theorem is used incorrectly to relate the interaction energy to an integral over the positive imaginary axis, the interaction energy is non-oscillatory and varies as r −4 , a result found by several authors. Rather remarkably, this incorrect expression for the dispersion energy actually corresponds to the nonperturbative Casimir-Polder energy for a ground-state quantum oscillator near a perfectly conducting wall, as we show using the so-called “remarkable formula” for the free energy of an oscillator coupled to a heat bath [G. W. Ford, J. T. Lewis, and R. F. O’Connell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2273 (1985)]. A derivation of that formula from basic results of statistical mechanics and the independent oscillator model of a heat bath is presented

  5. Dependence of the Casimir-Polder interaction between an atom and a cavity wall on atomic and material properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostepanenko, V M; Babb, J F; Caride, A O; Klimchitskaya, G L; Zanette, S I

    2006-01-01

    The Casimir-Polder and van der Waals interactions between an atom and a flat cavity wall are investigated under the influence of real conditions including the dynamic polarizability of the atom, actual conductivity of the wall material and nonzero temperature of the wall. The cases of different atoms near metal and dielectric walls are considered. It is shown that to obtain accurate results for the atom-wall interaction at short separations, one should use the complete tabulated optical data for the complex refractive index of the wall material and the accurate dynamic polarizability of an atom. At relatively large separations in the case of a metal wall, one may use the plasma model dielectric function to describe the dielectric properties of the wall material. The obtained results are important for the theoretical interpretation of experiments on quantum reflection and Bose-Einstein condensation

  6. Casimir-Polder shifts on quantum levitation states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crépin, P.-P.; Dufour, G.; Guérout, R.; Lambrecht, A.; Reynaud, S.

    2017-03-01

    An ultracold atom above a horizontal mirror experiences quantum reflection from the attractive Casimir-Polder interaction, which holds it against gravity and leads to quantum levitation states. We analyze this system by using a Liouville transformation of the Schrödinger equation and a Langer coordinate adapted to problems with a classical turning point. Reflection on the Casimir-Polder attractive well is replaced by reflection on a repulsive wall, and the problem is then viewed as an ultracold atom trapped inside a cavity with gravity and Casimir-Polder potentials acting, respectively, as top and bottom mirrors. We calculate numerically Casimir-Polder shifts of the energies of the cavity resonances and propose an approximate treatment which is precise enough to discuss spectroscopy experiments aimed at tests of the weak-equivalence principle on antihydrogen. We also discuss the lifetimes by calculating complex energies associated with cavity resonances.

  7. Laser Cooling and Trapping of Neutral Strontium for Spectroscopic Measurements of Casimir-Polder Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Eryn C.

    Casimir and Casimir-Polder effects are forces between electrically neutral bodies and particles in vacuum, arising entirely from quantum fluctuations. The modification to the vacuum electromagnetic-field modes imposed by the presence of any particle or surface can result in these mechanical forces, which are often the dominant interaction at small separations. These effects play an increasingly critical role in the operation of micro- and nano-mechanical systems as well as miniaturized atomic traps for precision sensors and quantum-information devices. Despite their fundamental importance, calculations present theoretical and numeric challenges, and precise atom-surface potential measurements are lacking in many geometric and distance regimes. The spectroscopic measurement of Casimir-Polder-induced energy level shifts in optical-lattice trapped atoms offers a new experimental method to probe atom-surface interactions. Strontium, the current front-runner among optical frequency metrology systems, has demonstrated characteristics ideal for such precision measurements. An alkaline earth atom possessing ultra-narrow intercombination transitions, strontium can be loaded into an optical lattice at the "magic" wavelength where the probe transition is unperturbed by the trap light. Translation of the lattice will permit controlled transport of tightly-confined atomic samples to well-calibrated atom-surface separations, while optical transition shifts serve as a direct probe of the Casimir-Polder potential. We have constructed a strontium magneto-optical trap (MOT) for future Casimir-Polder experiments. This thesis will describe the strontium apparatus, initial trap performance, and some details of the proposed measurement procedure.

  8. Repulsive Casimir-Polder potential by a negative reflecting surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qi-Zhang

    2015-07-01

    We present a scheme to generate an all-range long repulsive Casimir-Polder potential between a perfect negative reflecting surface and a ground-state atom. The repulsive potential is stable and does not decay with time. The Casimir-Polder potential is proportional to z-2 at short atom-surface distances and to z-4 at long atom-surface distances. Because of these advantages, this potential can help in building quantum reflectors, quantum levitating devices, and waveguides for matter waves.

  9. Repulsive Casimir-Polder forces from cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saharian, A.A.; Kotanjyan, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the Casimir-Polder force acting on a polarizable microparticle in the geometry of a straight cosmic string. In order to develop this analysis we evaluate the electromagnetic field Green tensor on the imaginary frequency axis. The expression for the Casimir-Polder force is derived in the general case of anisotropic polarizability. In dependence on the eigenvalues for the polarizability tensor and of the orientation of its principal axes, the Casimir-Polder force can be either repulsive or attractive. Moreover, there are situations where the force changes the sign with separation. We show that for an isotropic polarizability tensor the force is always repulsive. At large separations between the microparticle and the string, the force varies inversely with the fifth power of the distance. In the non-retarded regime, corresponding to separations smaller than the relevant transition wavelengths, the force decays with the inverse fourth power of the distance. In the case of anisotropic polarizability, the dependence of the Casimir-Polder potential on the orientation of the polarizability tensor principal axes also leads to a moment of force acting on the particle. (orig.)

  10. Casimir-Polder potential for a metallic cylinder in cosmic string spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saharian, A.A., E-mail: saharian@ysu.am [Department of Physics, Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian Street, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Kotanjyan, A.S. [Department of Physics, Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian Street, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia)

    2012-07-09

    Casimir-Polder potential is investigated for a polarizable microparticle in the geometry of a straight cosmic string with a metallic cylindrical shell. The electromagnetic field Green tensor is evaluated on the imaginary frequency axis. The expressions for the Casimir-Polder potential is derived in the general case of anisotropic polarizability for the both interior and exterior regions of the shell. The potential is decomposed into pure string and shell-induced parts. The latter dominates for points near the shell, whereas the pure string part is dominant near the string and at large distances from the shell. For the isotropic case and in the region inside the shell the both pure string and shell-induced parts in the Casimir-Polder force are repulsive with respect to the string. In the exterior region the shell-induced part of the force is directed toward the cylinder whereas the pure string part remains repulsive with respect to the string. At large distances from the shell the total force is repulsive.

  11. Dispersion forces in micromechanics: Casimir and Casimir-Polder forces affected by geometry and non-zero temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingsen, Simen Andreas Aadnoey

    2011-01-15

    The present thesis focuses on several topics within three separate but related branches of the overall field of dispersion forces. The three branches are: temperature corrections to the Casimir force between real materials (Part 1), explicit calculation of Casimir energy in wedge geometries (Part 2), and Casimir-Polder forces on particles out of thermal equilibrium (Part 3). Part 1 deals primarily with analysis of a previously purported thermodynamic inconsistency in the Casimir-Lifshitz free energy of the interaction of two plane mirrors - violation of the third law of thermodynamics - when the latter's dielectric response is described with dissipative models. It is shown analytically and numerically that the Casimir entropy of the interaction between two metallic mirrors described by the Drude model does tend to zero at zero temperature, provided electronic relaxation does not vanish. The leading order terms at low temperature are found. A similar calculation is carried out for the interaction of semiconductors with small but non-zero DC conductivity. In a generalisation, it is shown that a violation of the third law can only occur for permittivities whose low-frequency behaviour is temperature dependent near zero temperature. A calculation using path integral methods shows that the low temperature behaviour of the interaction of fluctuating Foucault currents in two mirrors of Drude metal is identical to that of the full Casimir-Lifshitz free energy, reasserting a previous finding by Intravaia and Henkel that such fluctuating bulk currents are the physical reason for the anomalous entropy behaviour. In a related effort, an analysis of the frequency dependence of the Casimir force by Ford is generalised to imperfectly reflecting mirrors. A paradox is pointed out, in that the effects of a perturbation of the reflecting properties of the mirrors in a finite frequency window can be calculated in two ways giving different results. It is concluded that optimistic

  12. CasimirSim - A Tool to Compute Casimir Polder Forces for Nontrivial 3D Geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedmik, Rene; Tajmar, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The so-called Casimir effect is one of the most interesting macro-quantum effects. Being negligible on the macro-scale it becomes a governing factor below structure sizes of 1 μm where it accounts for typically 100 kN m-2. The force does not depend on gravity, or electric charge but solely on the materials properties, and geometrical shape. This makes the effect a strong candidate for micro(nano)-mechanical devices M(N)EMS. Despite a long history of research the theory lacks a uniform description valid for arbitrary geometries which retards technical application. We present an advanced state-of-the-art numerical tool overcoming all the usual geometrical restrictions, capable of calculating arbitrary 3D geometries by utilizing the Casimir Polder approximation for the Casimir force

  13. Lateral Casimir-Polder forces by breaking time-reversal symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Weernink, Ricardo R. Q. P. T.; Barcellona, Pablo; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2018-03-01

    We examine the lateral Casimir-Polder force acting on a circular rotating emitter near a dielectric plane surface. As the circular motion breaks time-reversal symmetry, the spontaneous emission in a direction parallel to the surface is in general anisotropic. We show that a lateral force arises which can be interpreted as a recoil force because of this asymmetric emission. The force is an oscillating function of the distance between the emitter and the surface, and the lossy character of the dielectric strongly influences the results in the near-field regime. The force exhibits also a population-induced dynamics, decaying exponentially with respect to time on time scales of the inverse of the spontaneous decay rate. We propose that this effect could be detected measuring the velocity acquired by the emitter, following different cycles of excitation and spontaneous decay. Our results are expressed in terms of the Green's tensor and can therefore easily be applied to more complex geometries.

  14. Fermions on the low-buckled honey-comb structured lattice plane and classical Casimir-Polder force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Partha

    2016-05-01

    We start with the well-known expression for the vacuum polarization and suitably modify it for 2+1-dimensional spin-orbit coupled (SOC) fermions on the low-buckled honey-comb structured lattice plane described by the low-energy Liu-Yao-Feng-Ezawa (LYFE) model Hamiltonian involving the Dirac matrices in the chiral representation obeying the Clifford algebra. The silicene and germanene fit this description suitably. They have the Dirac cones similar to those of graphene and SOC is much stronger. The system could be normal or ferromagnetic in nature. The silicene turns into the latter type if there is exchange field arising due to the proximity coupling to a ferromagnet (FM) such as depositing Fe atoms to the silicene surface. For the silicene, we find that the many-body effects considerably change the bare Coulomb potential by way of the dependence of the Coulomb propagator on the real-spin, iso-spin and the potential due to an electric field applied perpendicular to the silicene plane. The computation aspect of the Casimir-Polder force (CPF) needs to be investigated in this paper. An important quantity in this process is the dielectric response function (DRF) of the material. The plasmon branch was obtained by finding the zeros of DRF in the long-wavelength limit. This leads to the plasmon frequencies. We find that the collective charge excitations at zero doping, i.e., intrinsic plasmons, in this system, are absent in the Dirac limit. The valley-spin-split intrinsic plasmons, however, come into being in the case of the massive Dirac particles with characteristic frequency close to 10 THz. Our scheme to calculate the Casimir-Polder interaction (CPI) of a micro-particle with a sheet involves replacing the dielectric constant of the sample in the CPI expression obtained on the basis of the Lifshitz theory by the static DRF obtained using the expressions for the polarization function we started with. Though the approach replaces a macroscopic constant by a microscopic

  15. Energy shift and Casimir-Polder force for an atom out of thermal equilibrium near a dielectric substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenting; Yu, Hongwei

    2014-09-01

    We study the energy shift and the Casimir-Polder force of an atom out of thermal equilibrium near the surface of a dielectric substrate. We first generalize, adopting the local source hypothesis, the formalism proposed by Dalibard, Dupont-Roc, and Cohen-Tannoudji [J. Phys. (Paris) 43, 1617 (1982), 10.1051/jphys:0198200430110161700; J. Phys. (Paris) 45, 637 (1984), 10.1051/jphys:01984004504063700], which separates the contributions of thermal fluctuations and radiation reaction to the energy shift and allows a distinct treatment of atoms in the ground and excited states, to the case out of thermal equilibrium, and then we use the generalized formalism to calculate the energy shift and the Casimir-Polder force of an isotropically polarizable neutral atom. We identify the effects of the thermal fluctuations that originate from the substrate and the environment and discuss in detail how the Casimir-Polder force out of thermal equilibrium behaves in three different distance regions in both the low-temperature limit and the high-temperature limit for both the ground-state and excited-state atoms, with special attention devoted to the distinctive features as opposed to thermal equilibrium. In particular, we recover the distinctive behavior of the atom-wall force out of thermal equilibrium at large distances in the low-temperature limit recently found in a different theoretical framework, and furthermore we give a concrete region where this behavior holds.

  16. Development of a Strontium Magneto-Optical Trap for Probing Casimir-Polder Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paul J.

    In recent years, cold atoms have been the centerpiece of many remarkably sensitive measurements, and much effort has been made to devise miniaturized quantum sensors and quantum information processing devices. At small distances, however, mechanical effects of the quantum vacuum begin to significantly impact the behavior of the cold-atom systems. A better understanding of how surface composition and geometry affect Casimir and Casimir-Polder potentials would benefit future engineering of small-scale devices. Unfortunately, theoretical solutions are limited and the number of experimental techniques that can accurately detect such short-range forces is relatively small. We believe the exemplary properties of atomic strontium--which have enabled unprecedented frequency metrology in optical lattice clocks--make it an ideal candidate for probing slight spectroscopic perturbations caused by vacuum fluctuations. To that end, we have constructed a magneto-optical trap for strontium to enable future study of atom-surface potentials, and the apparatus and proposed detection scheme are discussed herein. Of special note is a passively stable external-cavity diode laser we developed that is both affordable and competitive with high-end commercial options.

  17. Thermal Casimir-Polder forces on a V-type three-level atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen-Ran; Xu, Jing-Ping; Al-amri, M.; Zhu, Cheng-Jie; Xie, Shuang-Yuan; Yang, Ya-Ping

    2017-09-01

    We study the thermal Casimir-Polder (CP) forces on a V-type three-level atom. The competition between the thermal effect and the quantum interference of the two transition dipoles on the force is investigated. To shed light onto the role of the quantum interference, we analyze two kinds of initial states of the atom, i.e., the superradiant state and the subradiant state. Considering the atom being in the thermal reservoir, the resonant CP force arising from the real photon emission dominates in the evolution of the CP force. Under the zero-temperature condition, the quantum interference can effectively modify the amplitude and the evolution of the force, leading to a long-time force or even the cancellation of the force. Our results reveal that in the finite-temperature case, the thermal photons can enhance the amplitude of all force elements, but have no influence on the net resonant CP force in the steady state, which means that the second law of thermodynamics still works. For the ideal degenerate V-type atom with parallel dipoles under the initial subradiant state, the robust destructive quantum interference overrides the thermal fluctuations, leading to the trapping of the atom in the subradiant state and the disappearance of the CP force. However, in terms of a realistic Zeeman atom, the thermal photons play a significant role during the evolution of the CP force. The thermal fluctuations can enhance the amplitude of the initial CP force by increasing the temperature, and weaken the influence of the quantum interference on the evolution of the CP force from the initial superradiant (subradiant) state to the steady state.

  18. Quantum electrodynamics based on self-energy, without second quantization: The Lamb shift and long-range Casimir-Polder van der Waals forces near boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barut, A.O.; Dowling, J.P.

    1986-12-01

    Using a previously formulated theory of quantum electrodynamics based on self-energy, we give a general method for computing the Lamb shift and related Casimir-Polder energies for a quantum system in the vicinity of perfectly conducting boundaries. Our results are exact and easily extendable to a full covariant relativistic form. As a particular example we apply the method to an atom near an infinite conducting plane, and we recover the standard QED results (which are known only in the dipole approximation) in a simple and straightforward manner. This is accomplished in the context of the new theory which is not second quantized and contains no vacuum fluctuations. (author)

  19. Casimir-Polder forces on atoms in the presence of magnetoelectronic bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhmann, S.Y.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the CP force between a single neutral atom or molecule and neutral magnetoelectric bodies is studied. The focus lies on the pure vacuum CP force, i.e., the electromagnetic field is in general understood to be in its ground state. Furthermore, we assume that the atom-body separation is sufficiently large to ensure that the atom is adequately characterised as an electric dipole, while the body can be described by its macroscopic magnetoelectric properties; and that repulsive exchange forces due to the overlap between the electronic wave functions of the atom and the bodies can be neglected. Interactions due to non-vanishing net charges, permanent electric dipole moments, magnetisability, quadrupole (or higher multipole) polarisabilities of the atom and those resulting from non-local or anisotropic magnetoelectric properties of the bodies are ignored. (orig.)

  20. Casimir-Polder forces on atoms in the presence of magnetoelectronic bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhmann, S Y

    2007-07-05

    In this work, the CP force between a single neutral atom or molecule and neutral magnetoelectric bodies is studied. The focus lies on the pure vacuum CP force, i.e., the electromagnetic field is in general understood to be in its ground state. Furthermore, we assume that the atom-body separation is sufficiently large to ensure that the atom is adequately characterised as an electric dipole, while the body can be described by its macroscopic magnetoelectric properties; and that repulsive exchange forces due to the overlap between the electronic wave functions of the atom and the bodies can be neglected. Interactions due to non-vanishing net charges, permanent electric dipole moments, magnetisability, quadrupole (or higher multipole) polarisabilities of the atom and those resulting from non-local or anisotropic magnetoelectric properties of the bodies are ignored. (orig.)

  1. Inflationary magnetogenesis, derivative couplings and relativistic Van der Waals interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    When the gauge fields have derivative couplings to scalars, like in the case of the relativistic theory of Van der Waals (or Casimir-Polder) interactions, conformal invariance is broken but the magnetic and electric susceptibilities are not bound to coincide. We analyze the formation of large-scale magnetic fields in slow-roll inflation and find that they are generated at the level of a few hundredths of a nG and over typical length scales between few Mpc and $100$ Mpc. Using a new time parametrization that reduces to conformal time but only for coincident susceptibilities, the gauge action is quantized while the evolution equations of the corresponding mode functions are more easily solvable. The power spectra depend on the normalized rates of variation of the two susceptibilities (or of the corresponding gauge couplings) and on the absolute value of their ratio at the beginning of inflation. We pin down explicit regions in the parameter space where all the physical requirements (i.e. the backreaction constr...

  2. Dependences of the van der Waals atom-wall interaction on atomic and material properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caride, A.O.; Klimchitskaya, G.L.; Mostepanenko, V.M.; Zanette, S.I.

    2005-01-01

    The 1%-accurate calculations of the van der Waals interaction between an atom and a cavity wall are performed in the separation region from 3 nm to 150 nm. The cases of metastable He * and Na atoms near metal, semiconductor, and dielectric walls are considered. Different approximations to the description of wall material and atomic dynamic polarizability are carefully compared. The smooth transition to the Casimir-Polder interaction is verified. It is shown that to obtain accurate results for the atom-wall van der Waals interaction at short separations with an error less than 1% one should use the complete optical-tabulated data for the complex refractive index of the wall material and the accurate dynamic polarizability of an atom. The obtained results may be useful for the theoretical interpretation of recent experiments on quantum reflection and Bose-Einstein condensation of ultracold atoms on or near surfaces of different kinds

  3. Magnetic interactions between nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Frandsen, Cathrine

    2010-01-01

    We present a short overview of the influence of inter-particle interactions on the properties of magnetic nanoparticles. Strong magnetic dipole interactions between ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic particles, that would be superparamagnetic if isolated, can result in a collective state...... of nanoparticles. This collective state has many similarities to spin-glasses. In samples of aggregated magnetic nanoparticles, exchange interactions are often important and this can also lead to a strong suppression of superparamagnetic relaxation. The temperature dependence of the order parameter in samples...... of strongly interacting hematite nanoparticles or goethite grains is well described by a simple mean field model. Exchange interactions between nanoparticles with different orientations of the easy axes can also result in a rotation of the sub-lattice magnetization directions....

  4. Magnetic interactions through fluoride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kasper Steen; Sigrist, Marc; Weihe, Høgni

    2014-01-01

    support the parameter values and resolve |E| ≈ 0.04 cm(-1). The exchange coupling constant (J) is 1 order of magnitude smaller than that found in comparable systems with linear oxide bridging but comparable to typical magnitudes through cyanide, thus underlining the potential of fluoride complexes......The nature of the magnetic interaction through fluoride in a simple, dinuclear manganese(III) complex (1), bridged by a single fluoride ion in a perfectly linear fashion, is established by experiment and density functional theory. The magnitude of the antiferromagnetic exchange interaction...

  5. Super magnets for interaction regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biallas, G.; Fowler, W.; Diebold, R.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of using superconducting magnets in the beam interaction regions of particle accelerators is discussed. These higher field magnets can be shorter, leaving more room for detectors, but also must have a large aperture and magnetic shielding. The ''kissing geometry'' was investigated, and design and scaling considerations are given. A rough estimate of the cost of such superconducting magnets is given as an aid to the selection of interaction geometry

  6. Quantum electrodynamics with nonrelativistic sources. V. Electromagnetic field correlations and intermolecular interactions between molecules in either ground or excited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, E.A.; Thirunamachandran, T.

    1993-01-01

    Spatial correlations between electromagnetic fields arising from neutral sources with electric-dipole transition moments are calculated using nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics in the multipolar formalism. Expressions for electric-electric, magnetic-magnetic, and electric-magnetic correlation functions at two points r and r' are given for a source molecule in either a ground or an excited state. In contrast to the electric-electric and magnetic-magnetic cases there are no electric-magnetic correlations for a ground-state molecule. For an excited molecule the downward transitions contribute additional terms which have modulating factors depending on (r-r')/λ. From these correlation functions electric and magnetic energy densities are found by setting r=r'. These energy densities are then used in a response formalism to calculate intermolecular energy shifts. In the case of two ground-state molecules this leads to the Casimir-Polder potential. However, for a pair of molecules, one or both excited, there are additional terms arising from downward transitions. An important feature of these energies is that they exhibit an R -2 dependence for large intermolecular separations R. This dependence is interpreted in terms of the Poynting vector, which itself can be obtained by setting r=r' in the electric-magnetic correlation function

  7. Interaction of a charge with a thin plasma sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordag, M.

    2007-01-01

    The interaction of the electromagnetic field with a two-dimensional plasma sheet intended to describe the pi-electrons of a carbon nanotube or a C 60 molecule is investigated. By first integrating out the displacement field of the plasma or the electromagnetic field, different representations for quantities like the Casimir energy are derived which are shown to be consistent with one another. Starting from the covariant gauge for the electromagnetic field, it is shown that the matching conditions to which the presence of the plasma sheet can be reduced are different from the commonly used ones. The difference in the treatments does not show up in the Casimir force between two parallel sheets, but it is present in the Casimir-Polder force between a charge or a neutral atom and a sheet. At once, since the plasma sheet is a regularization of the conductor boundary conditions, this sheds light on the difference in physics found earlier in the realization of conductor boundary conditions as 'thin' or 'thick' boundary conditions in Phys. Rev. D 70, 085010 (2004)

  8. Magnetic behaviour of interacting antiferromagnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovich, V; Jung, G; Gorodetsky, G; Puzniak, R; Wisniewski, A; Skourski, Y; Mogilyanski, D

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic properties of interacting La 0.2 Ca 0.8 MnO 3 nanoparticles have been investigated. The field-induced transition from antiferromagnetic (AFM) to ferromagnetic (FM) state in the La 0.2 Ca 0.8 MnO 3 bulk has been observed at exceptionally high magnetic fields. For large particles, the field-induced transition widens while magnetization progressively decreases. In small particles the transition is almost fully suppressed. The thermoremanence and isothermoremanence curves constitute fingerprints of irreversible magnetization originating from nanoparticle shells. We have ascribed the magnetic behaviour of nanoparticles to a core-shell scenario with two main magnetic contributions; one attributed to the formation of a collective state formed by FM clusters in frustrated coordination at the surfaces of interacting AFM nanoparticles and the other associated with inner core behaviour as a two-dimensional diluted antiferromagnet. (paper)

  9. Interaction effects in magnetic oxide nanoparticle systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The interaction effects in magnetic nanoparticle system were studied through a Monte Carlo simulation. The results of simulations were compared with two different magnetic systems, namely, iron oxide polymer nanocomposites prepared by polymerization over core and nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite thin films prepared by ...

  10. Single-molecule magnets ``without'' intermolecular interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernsdorfer, W.; Vergnani, L.; Rodriguez-Douton, M. J.; Cornia, A.; Neugebauer, P.; Barra, A. L.; Sorace, L.; Sessoli, R.

    2012-02-01

    Intermolecular magnetic interactions (dipole-dipole and exchange) affect strongly the magnetic relaxation of crystals of single-molecule magnets (SMMs), especially at low temperature, where quantum tunneling of the magnetization (QTM) dominates. This leads to complex many-body problems [l]. Measurements on magnetically diluted samples are desirable to clearly sort out the behaviour of magnetically-isolated SMMs and to reveal, by comparison, the effect of intermolecular interactions. Here, we diluted a Fe4 SMM into a diamagnetic crystal lattice, affording arrays of independent and iso-oriented magnetic units. We found that the resonant tunnel transitions are much sharper, the tunneling efficiency changes significantly, and two-body QTM transitions disappear. These changes have been rationalized on the basis of a dipolar shuffling mechanism and of transverse dipolar fields, whose effect has been analyzed using a multispin model. Our findings directly prove the impact of intermolecular magnetic couplings on the SMM behaviour and disclose the magnetic response of truly-isolated giant spins in a diamagnetic crystalline environment.[4pt] [1] W. Wernsdorfer, at al, PRL 82, 3903 (1999); PRL 89, 197201 (2002); Nature 416, 406 (2002); IS Tupitsyn, PCE Stamp, NV Prokof'ev, PRB 69, 132406 (2004).

  11. Magnetic interactions in iron (III) porphyrin chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, J.; Subramanian, Japyesan; Fuhrhop, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    Intermolecular exchange interactions in iron(III) porphyrin chlorides (porphyrin = OEP, proto, TPP) have been studied by X-ray structure, EPR and magnetic susceptibility studies. The crystal structure of Fe(III)OEP-Cl was found to be different from that of the other two. Different types of exchange broadened EPR-spectra are obtained which are attributable to the arrangement in the crystals. The EPR results correlate well with magnetic susceptibility data. (orig.) [de

  12. Strongly interacting matter in magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Landsteiner, Karl; Schmitt, Andreas; Yee, Ho-Ung

    2013-01-01

    The physics of strongly interacting matter in an external magnetic field is presently emerging as a topic of great cross-disciplinary interest for particle, nuclear, astro- and condensed matter physicists. It is known that strong magnetic fields are created in heavy ion collisions, an insight that has made it possible to study a variety of surprising and intriguing phenomena that emerge from the interplay of quantum anomalies, the topology of non-Abelian gauge fields, and the magnetic field. In particular, the non-trivial topological configurations of the gluon field induce a non-dissipative electric current in the presence of a magnetic field. These phenomena have led to an extended formulation of relativistic hydrodynamics, called chiral magnetohydrodynamics. Hitherto unexpected applications in condensed matter physics include graphene and topological insulators. Other fields of application include astrophysics, where strong magnetic fields exist in magnetars and pulsars. Last but not least, an important ne...

  13. MFM study of magnetic interaction between recording and soft magnetic layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Yukio; Tanahashi, Kiwamu; Hirayama, Yoshiyuki; Kikukawa, Atsushi; Futamoto, Masaaki

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic force microscopy was used to study the magnetic interaction between the recording and the soft magnetic layers in double-layer perpendicular media by observing the magnetization structure from the soft magnetic layer side. There was a strong magnetic interaction between the recording and the soft magnetic layers. Introducing a thin nonmagnetic intermediate layer between the two layers greatly reduced the magnetic interaction and drastically reduced the medium noise

  14. Magnetic moments and the Skyrme interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipparini, E; Stringari, S; Traini, M [Trento Univ. (Italy). Dipartmento di Matematica e Fisica

    1977-12-12

    The magnetic properties of the Skyrme interaction have been studied by performing a restricted Hartree-Fock calculation in order to evaluate the magnetic polarizability and the corrections to the Schmidt moments in nuclei with closed jj shells plus or minus one nucleon. Different corrections to the Schmidt values have been evaluated and discussed: the M1 core polarization and the renormalization of the gyromagnetic factors due to exchange and spin-orbit forces. Several variants of the Skyrme interaction have been studied and discussed in detail.

  15. Role of Magnetic Interaction in Dense Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quasiparticle excitations and associated phenomena of energy and momentum transfer rates have been calculated in terms of the drag and the diffusion coefficients exposing clearly the dominance of the magnetic interaction over its electric counterpart. The results have been compared with the finite temperature results highlighting the similarities and dissimilarities in the two extreme regimes of temperature and density. Non-Fermi-liquid behavior of various physical quantities like neutrino mean free path and thermal relaxation time due to the inclusion of magnetic interaction has clearly been revealed. All the results presented in the current review are pertinent to the degenerate and ultradegenerate plasma.

  16. Interaction of magnetic resonators studied by the magnetic field enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumin Hou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is the first time that the magnetic field enhancement (MFE is used to study the interaction of magnetic resonators (MRs, which is more sensitive than previous parameters–shift and damping of resonance frequency. To avoid the coherence of lattice and the effect of Bloch wave, the interaction is simulated between two MRs with same primary phase when the distance is changed in the range of several resonance wavelengths, which is also compared with periodic structure. The calculated MFE oscillating and decaying with distance with the period equal to resonance wavelength directly shows the retardation effect. Simulation also shows that the interaction at normal incidence is sensitive to the phase correlation which is related with retardation effect and is ultra-long-distance interaction when the two MRs are strongly localized. When the distance is very short, the amplitude of magnetic resonance is oppressed by the strong interaction and thus the MFE can be much lower than that of single MR. This study provides the design rules of metamaterials for engineering resonant properties of MRs.

  17. Laser-plasma interactions in magnetized environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuan; Qin, Hong; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2018-05-01

    Propagation and scattering of lasers present new phenomena and applications when the plasma medium becomes strongly magnetized. With mega-Gauss magnetic fields, scattering of optical lasers already becomes manifestly anisotropic. Special angles exist where coherent laser scattering is either enhanced or suppressed, as we demonstrate using a cold-fluid model. Consequently, by aiming laser beams at special angles, one may be able to optimize laser-plasma coupling in magnetized implosion experiments. In addition, magnetized scattering can be exploited to improve the performance of plasma-based laser pulse amplifiers. Using the magnetic field as an extra control variable, it is possible to produce optical pulses of higher intensity, as well as compress UV and soft x-ray pulses beyond the reach of other methods. In even stronger giga-Gauss magnetic fields, laser-plasma interaction enters a relativistic-quantum regime. Using quantum electrodynamics, we compute a modified wave dispersion relation, which enables correct interpretation of Faraday rotation measurements of strong magnetic fields.

  18. Casimir Interaction from Magnetically Coupled Eddy Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intravaia, Francesco; Henkel, Carsten

    2009-09-01

    We study the quantum and thermal fluctuations of eddy (Foucault) currents in thick metallic plates. A Casimir interaction between two plates arises from the coupling via quasistatic magnetic fields. As a function of distance, the relevant eddy current modes cross over from a quantum to a thermal regime. These modes alone reproduce previously discussed thermal anomalies of the electromagnetic Casimir interaction between good conductors. In particular, they provide a physical picture for the Casimir entropy whose nonzero value at zero temperature arises from a correlated, glassy state.

  19. Dynamic interaction between rotor and axially-magnetized passive magnetic bearing considering magnetic eccentricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Søren; Santos, Ilmar

    2014-01-01

    with a multibody system composed of rigid rotor and flexible foundation. The magnetic eccentricities of the shaft magnets are modelled using the distances (amplitudes) and directions (phase angles) between the shaft axis and the centre of the magnetic fields generated. A perturbation method, i.e. harmonic......-linear stiffness. In this investigation passive magnetic bearings using axially- aligned neodymium cylinder magnets are investigated. The cylinder magnets are axially magnetised for rotor as well as bearings. Compared to bearings with radial magnetisation, the magnetic stiffness of axially-aligned bearings...... is considerably lower, nevertheless they allow for asymmetric stiffness mounting, and it could be beneficial for rotor stabilization. A theoretical model is proposed to describe the non-linear rotor-bearing dynamics. It takes into account non-linear behaviour of the magnetic forces and their interaction...

  20. Shaping distinct magnetic interactions in molecular compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filoti, George; Bartolome, Juan; Palade, Petru; Prisecaru, Ion; Valsangiacom, Cristina; Kuncser, Victor; Mindru, Ioana; Patron, Luminita

    2011-01-01

    Oxalates containing various 3d transitional elements and positive NH 4 or negative OH groups were newly synthesized. Each above-mentioned component has directly influenced the structure, the electronic or interaction properties, while some unexpected behaviors were revealed by various magnetic and Moessbauer measurements. The main magnetic parameters, the long-range anti-ferromagnetic couplings observed at very low temperature and, particularly the uncompensated moment are discussed in detail. The induced lower spin states for bivalent ions and especially the anti-parallel arrangement of the spins belonging to trivalent and bivalent iron inside the molecule are also emphasized. - Research highlights: → Nine new oxalates, with 3d elements, showing interesting characteristics were synthesized. →The oxalate units and the positive or negative groups have induced various magnetic properties. → The Moessbauer data revealed two different positions for each valence state of iron in molecule. → There is a competition of anti-ferromagnetic couplings inside the magnetic units and between them. → An overall ferri-magnetic long range ordering was demonstrated unambiguously.

  1. Microscopic origin of magnetism and magnetic interactions in ferropnictides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, M. D.; Mazin, I. I.

    2009-06-01

    One year after their initial discovery, two schools of thought have crystallized regarding the electronic structure and magnetic properties of ferropnictide systems. One postulates that these are itinerant weakly correlated metallic systems that become magnetic by virtue of spin-Peierls-type transition due to near nesting between the hole and the electron Fermi-surface pockets. The other argues that these materials are strongly or at least moderately correlated and the electrons are considerably localized and close to a Mott-Hubbard transition, with the local magnetic moments interacting via short-range superexchange. In this Rapid Communication we argue that neither picture is fully correct. The systems are moderately correlated but with correlations driven by Hund’s rule coupling rather than by the on-site Hubbard repulsion. The iron moments are largely local, driven by Hund’s intra-atomic exchange. Superexchange is not operative, and the interactions between the Fe moments are considerably long range and driven mostly by one-electron energies of all occupied states.

  2. Magnetic impurity coupled to interacting conduction electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schork, T.

    1996-01-01

    We consider a magnetic impurity which interacts by hybridization with a system of weakly correlated electrons and determine the energy of the ground state by means of a 1/N f expansion. The correlations among the conduction electrons are described by a Hubbard Hamiltonian and are treated to the lowest order in the interaction strength. We find that their effect on the Kondo temperature, T K , in the Kondo limit is twofold: first, the position of the impurity level is shifted due to the reduction of charge fluctuations, which reduces T K . Secondly, the bare Kondo exchange coupling is enhanced as spin fluctuations are enlarged. In total, T K increases. Both corrections require intermediate states beyond the standard Varma-Yafet ansatz. This shows that the Hubbard interaction does not just provide quasiparticles, which hybridize with the impurity, but also renormalizes the Kondo coupling. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  3. Intense Magnetized Plasma-Wall Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Bruno S. [UNR; Fuelling, Stephan [UNR

    2013-11-30

    This research project studied wall-plasma interactions relevant to fusion science. Such interactions are a critical aspect of Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) because flux compression by a pusher material, in particular the metal for the liner approach to MIF, involves strong eddy current heating on the surface of the pusher, and probably interactions and mixing of the pusher with the interior fuel during the time when fusion fuel is being burned. When the pusher material is a metal liner, high-energy-density conditions result in fascinating behavior. For example, "warm dense matter" is produced, for which material properties such as resistivity and opacity are not well known. In this project, the transformation into plasma of metal walls subjected to pulsed megagauss magnetic fields was studied with an experiment driven by the UNR 1 MA Zebra generator. The experiment was numerically simulated with using the MHRDR code. This simple, fundamental high-energy-density physics experiment, in a regime appropriate to MIF, has stimulated an important and fascinating comparison of numerical modeling codes and tables with experiment. In addition, we participated in developing the FRCHX experiment to compress a field-reversed-configuration (FRC) plasma with a liner, in collaboration with researchers from Air Force Research Laboratory and Los Alamos National Lab, and we helped develop diagnostics for the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) at LANL. Last, but not least, this project served to train students in high-energy-density physics.

  4. Collisionless reconnection: magnetic field line interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Treumann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic field lines are quantum objects carrying one quantum Φ0 = 2πh/e of magnetic flux and have finite radius λm. Here we argue that they possess a very specific dynamical interaction. Parallel field lines reject each other. When confined to a certain area they form two-dimensional lattices of hexagonal structure. We estimate the filling factor of such an area. Anti-parallel field lines, on the other hand, attract each other. We identify the physical mechanism as being due to the action of the gauge potential field, which we determine quantum mechanically for two parallel and two anti-parallel field lines. The distortion of the quantum electrodynamic vacuum causes a cloud of virtual pairs. We calculate the virtual pair production rate from quantum electrodynamics and estimate the virtual pair cloud density, pair current and Lorentz force density acting on the field lines via the pair cloud. These properties of field line dynamics become important in collisionless reconnection, consistently explaining why and how reconnection can spontaneously set on in the field-free centre of a current sheet below the electron-inertial scale.

  5. 3D Analytical Calculation of the Interactions between Permanent Magnets

    OpenAIRE

    Allag , Hicham; Yonnet , Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Up to now, the analytical calculation has been made only when the magnets own parallel magnetization directions. We have succeeded in two new results of first importance for the analytical calculation: the torque between two magnets, and the force components and torque when the magnetization directions are perpendicular. The last result allows the analytical calculation of the interactions when the magnetizations are in all the directions. The 3D analytical expressions...

  6. The magnetic interaction of Janus magnetic particles suspended in a viscous fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seong, Y.; Kang, T.G.; Hulsen, M.A.; den Toonder, J.M.J.; Anderson, P.D.

    2016-01-01

    We studied the magnetic interaction between circular Janus magnetic particles suspended in a Newtonian fluid under the influence of an externally applied uniform magnetic field. The particles are equally compartmentalized into paramagnetic and non-magnetic sides. A direct numerical scheme is

  7. Study of the magnetic interaction in nanocrystalline Pr–Fe–Co–Nb–B permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dospial, M.; Plusa, D.; Ślusarek, B.

    2012-01-01

    The magnetic properties of an isotropic, epoxy resin bonded magnets made from Pr–Fe–Co–Nb–B powder were investigated. The magnetization reversal process and magnetic parameters were examined by measurements of the initial magnetization curve, major and minor hysteresis loops and sets of recoil curves. From the initial magnetization curve and the field dependencies of the reversible and irreversible magnetization components derived from the recoil loops it was found that the magnetization reversal process is the combination of the nucleation of reversed domains and pinning of domain walls at the grain boundaries and the reversible rotation of magnetization vector in single domain grains. The interactions between grains were studied by means of δM plots. The nonlinear behavior of δM curve approve that the short range intergrain exchange coupling interactions are dominant in a field up to the sample coercivity. The interaction domains and fine magnetic structure were revealed as the evidence of exchange coupling between soft α-Fe and hard magnetic Nd 2 Fe 14 B grains. - Highlights: ► Coercivity of the Pr–Fe–Co–Nb–B magnet is determined by the pinning of domain walls at the grain boundaries. ► Rotation of magnetization vector and domain walls bowing also give the contribution to the initial and demagnetization process. ► δM behavior shows that the dominant interaction is the short range exchange one among soft magnetic α-Fe and hard magnetic Pr 2 Fe 14 B grains.

  8. Interaction of Mutually Perpendicular Magnetic Fields in HTSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyev Aleksandr Fedorovich

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article a problem of interaction of the crossed magnetic fields in superconductors is considered. Superconducting materials have nonlinear magnetic properties. It allows using a non-linear magnetic susceptibility for measurement of feeble magnetic fields. We place a wire of superconducting material in a constant parallel uniform magnetic field. Then we let through a wire the alternating current leak. Interaction of mutual and perpendicular variation magnetic fields, with adequate accuracy is described by Ginzburg-Landau's equations. Approximate solution of the written equations is received. The component of a magnetic field parallel to a wire contains a variable component. Frequency of a variable component of the magnetic field is equal to the doubled current frequency. Amplitude of the variable component of the magnetic field is proportional to strength of the constant magnetic field. The experimental installation for research of interaction of mutually perpendicular magnetic fields is created. The cylinder from HTSC of ceramics of the YBa2Cu3O7-x was used as a sensor. Dependence of amplitude of the second harmonica of a variation magnetic field on strength of a constant magnetic field is received.

  9. Interaction mechanisms and biological effects of static magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1994-06-01

    Mechanisms through which static magnetic fields interact with living systems are described and illustrated by selected experimental observations. These mechanisms include electrodynamic interactions with moving, ionic charges (blood flow and nerve impulse conduction), magnetomechanical interactions (orientation and translation of molecules structures and magnetic particles), and interactions with electronic spin states in charge transfer reactions (photo-induced electron transfer in photosynthesis). A general summary is also presented of the biological effects of static magnetic fields. There is convincing experimental evidence for magnetoreception mechanisms in several classes of lower organisms, including bacteria and marine organisms. However, in more highly evolved species of animals, there is no evidence that the interactions of static magnetic fields with flux densities up to 2 Tesla (1 Tesla [T] = 10{sup 4} Gauss) produce either behavioral or physiolocical alterations. These results, based on controlled studies with laboratory animals, are consistent with the outcome of recent epidemiological surveys on human populations exposed occupationally to static magnetic fields.

  10. Interaction of bootstrap-current-driven magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.

    1991-10-01

    The formation and interaction of fluctuating neoclassical pressure gradient driven magnetic islands is examined. The interaction of magnetic islands produces a stochastic region around the separatrices of the islands. This interaction causes the island pressure profile to be broadened, reducing the island bootstrap current and drive for the magnetic island. A model is presented that describes the magnetic topology as a bath of interacting magnetic islands with low to medium poloidal mode number (m congruent 3-30). The islands grow by the bootstrap current effect and damp due to the flattening of the pressure profile near the island separatrix caused by the interaction of the magnetic islands. The effect of this sporadic growth and decay of the islands (''magnetic bubbling'') is not normally addressed in theories of plasma transport due to magnetic fluctuations. The nature of the transport differs from statistical approaches to magnetic turbulence since the radial step size of the plasma transport is now given by the characteristic island width. This model suggests that tokamak experiments have relatively short-lived, coherent, long wavelength magnetic oscillations present in the steep pressure-gradient regions of the plasma. 42 refs

  11. Magnetization reversal processes of isotropic permanent magnets with various inter-grain exchange interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tsukahara

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We performed a large-scale micromagnetics simulation on a supercomputing system to investigate the properties of isotropic nanocrystalline permanent magnets consisting of cubic grains. In the simulation, we solved the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation under a periodic boundary condition for accurate calculation of the magnetization dynamics inside the nanocrystalline isotropic magnet. We reduced the inter-grain exchange interaction perpendicular and parallel to the external field independently. Propagation of the magnetization reversal process is inhibited by reducing the inter-grain exchange interaction perpendicular to the external field, and the coercivity is enhanced by this restraint. In contrast, when we reduce the inter-grain exchange interaction parallel to the external field, the coercivity decreases because the magnetization reversal process propagates owing to dipole interaction. These behaviors show that the coercivity of an isotropic permanent magnet depends on the direction of the inter-grain exchange interaction.

  12. Biological interactions and human health effects of static magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1994-09-01

    Mechanisms through which static magnetic fields interact with living systems will be described and illustrated by selected experimental observations. These mechanisms include electrodynamic interactions with moving ionic charges (blood flow and nerve impulse conduction), magnetomechanical interactions (orientation and translation of molecular structures and magnetic particles), and interactions with electronic spin states in charge transfer reactions (photo-induced electron transfer in photosynthesis). A general summary will also be presented of the biological effects of static magnetic fields studied in the laboratory and in natural settings. One aspect of magnetic field effects that merits special concern is their influence on implanted medical electronic devices such as cardiac pacemakers. Several extensive studies have demonstrated closure of the reed switch in pacemakers exposed to relatively weak static magnetic fields, thereby causing them to revert to an asynchronous mode of operation that is potentially hazardous. Recommendations for human exposure limits are provided

  13. Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions and adiabatic magnetization dynamics in molecular magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raedt, H; Miyashita, S; Michielsen, K; Machida, M

    A microscopic model of the molecular magnet V-15 is used to study mechanisms for the adiabatic change of the magnetization in time-dependent magnetic fields. The effects of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, the most plausible source for the energy-level repulsions that lead to adiabatic changes

  14. Single-atom gating and magnetic interactions in quantum corrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo, Anh T.; Kim, Eugene H.; Ulloa, Sergio E.

    2017-04-01

    Single-atom gating, achieved by manipulation of adatoms on a surface, has been shown in experiments to allow precise control over superposition of electronic states in quantum corrals. Using a Green's function approach, we demonstrate theoretically that such atom gating can also be used to control the coupling between magnetic degrees of freedom in these systems. Atomic gating enables control not only on the direct interaction between magnetic adatoms, but also over superpositions of many-body states which can then control long distance interactions. We illustrate this effect by considering the competition between direct exchange between magnetic impurities and the Kondo screening mediated by the host electrons, and how this is affected by gating. These results suggest that both magnetic and nonmagnetic single-atom gating may be used to investigate magnetic impurity systems with tailored interactions, and may allow the control of entanglement of different spin states.

  15. Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and magnetic anisotropies in Uranium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandratskii, L. M.

    2018-05-01

    We report on the first-principles study of complex noncollinear magnetic structures in Uranium compounds. We contrast two cases. The first is the periodic magnetic structure of U2Pd2In with exactly orthogonal atomic moments, the second is an incommensurate plane spiral structure of UPtGe where the angle between atomic moments of nearest neighbors is also close to 90°. We demonstrate that the hierarchy of magnetic interactions leading to the formation of the magnetic structure is opposite in the two cases. In U2Pd2In, the magnetic anisotropy plays the leading role, followed by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) interaction specifying the chirality of the structure. Here, the interatomic exchange interaction does not play important role. In UPtGe the hierarchy of the interactions is opposite. The leading interaction is the interatomic exchange interaction responsible for the formation of the incommensurate spiral structure followed by the DMI responsible for the selected chirality of the helix. The magnetic anisotropy is very weak that is a prerequisite for keeping the distortion of the helical structure weak.

  16. Exchange interactions, spin waves, and transition temperatures in itinerant magnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Turek, Ilja; Kudrnovský, Josef; Drchal, Václav; Bruno, P.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 59 (2003), s. 112-147 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/02/0943; GA AV ČR IAA1010203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : exchange interactions * itinerant magnetism Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism http://psi-k.dl.ac.uk/psi-k/newsletters.html

  17. The effect of dipolar interaction on the magnetic isotope effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojaza, Matin; Pedersen, Jørgen Boiden; Lukzen, Nikita

    2010-01-01

    A multi-channel kinetic description is used to study the magnetic isotope effect (MIE) in zero magnetic field. The maximal isotope effect is equal to the number of channels, two for the hyperfine interaction but four for the electron spin dipole–dipole interaction of the intermediate radical pair....... Quantum mechanical calculations agree with these conclusion and show that large MIE may be obtained even in the presence of a strong exchange interaction. The observed magnesium isotope effect on the rate of enzymatic synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is approximately 3 implying that the dipolar...... interaction is responsible for the effect. Our calculations provide support for the proposed mechanism....

  18. Magnetic interaction between spatially extended superconducting tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    2002-01-01

    A general description of magnetic interactions between superconducting tunnel junctions is given. The description covers a wide range of possible experimental systems, and we explicitly explore two experimentally relevant limits of coupled junctions. One is the limit of junctions with tunneling...... been considered through arrays of superconducting weak links based on semiconductor quantum wells with superconducting electrodes. We use the model to make direct interpretations of the published experiments and thereby propose that long-range magnetic interactions are responsible for the reported...

  19. Study of the magnetic interaction in nanocrystalline Pr-Fe-Co-Nb-B permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dospial, M.; Plusa, D.; Ślusarek, B.

    2012-03-01

    The magnetic properties of an isotropic, epoxy resin bonded magnets made from Pr-Fe-Co-Nb-B powder were investigated. The magnetization reversal process and magnetic parameters were examined by measurements of the initial magnetization curve, major and minor hysteresis loops and sets of recoil curves. From the initial magnetization curve and the field dependencies of the reversible and irreversible magnetization components derived from the recoil loops it was found that the magnetization reversal process is the combination of the nucleation of reversed domains and pinning of domain walls at the grain boundaries and the reversible rotation of magnetization vector in single domain grains. The interactions between grains were studied by means of δM plots. The nonlinear behavior of δM curve approve that the short range intergrain exchange coupling interactions are dominant in a field up to the sample coercivity. The interaction domains and fine magnetic structure were revealed as the evidence of exchange coupling between soft α-Fe and hard magnetic Nd2Fe14B grains.

  20. Investigation of magnetic interactions in sulfides by means of magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veen, G. van.

    1978-01-01

    Investigations have been designed to gather more information about magnetic pair interactions in sulfides by isomorphic substitution of the magnetic ions in suitable chosen diamagnetic host lattices and measurement of electron spin resonance of coupled pairs and of electron spin resonance or electron nuclear double resonance of the hyperfine interaction due to the nuclei of diamagnetic cations. The greater part of this thesis is devoted to preliminaries of magnetic resonance interpretation and sample selection and preparation. The measurements on the magnetically diluted compounds, which are described, only have an exploratory nature. (Auth.)

  1. Magnetic dynamics of weakly and strongly interacting hematite nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Bender Koch, Christian; Mørup, Steen

    2000-01-01

    The magnetic dynamics of two differently treated samples of hematite nanoparticles from the same batch with a particle size of about 20 nm have been studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy. The dynamics of the first sample, in which the particles are coated and dispersed in water, is in accordance with...... down by interparticle interactions and a magnetically split spectrum is retained at room temperature. The temperature variation or the magnetic hyperfine field, corresponding to different quantiles in the hyperfine field distribution, can be consistently described by a mean field model...... for "superferromagnetism" in which the magnetic anisotropy is included. The coupling between the particles is due to exchange interactions and the interaction strength can be accounted for by just a few exchange bridges between surface atoms in neighboring crystallites....

  2. Entanglement and Zeeman interaction in diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hichri, A.; Jaziri, S.

    2004-01-01

    We present theoretically the Zeeman coupling and exchange-induced swap action in spin-based quantum dot quantum computer models in the presence of magnetic field. We study the valence and conduction band states in a double quantum dots made in diluted magnetic semiconductor. The latter have been proven to be very useful in building an all-semiconductor platform for spintronics. Due to a strong p-d exchange interaction in diluted magnetic semiconductor (Cd 0.57 Mn 0.43 Te), the relative contribution of this component is strongly affected by an external magnetic field, a feature that is absent in nonmagnetic double quantum dots. We determine the energy spectrum as a function of magnetic field within the Hund-Mulliken molecular-orbit approach and by including the Coulomb interaction. Since we show that the ground state of the two carriers confined in a vertically coupled quantum dots provide a possible realization for a gate of a quantum computer, the crossing between the lowest states, caused by the giant spin splitting, can be observed as a pronounced jump in the magnetization of small magnetic field amplitude. Finally, we determine the swap time as a function of magnetic field and the inter dot distance. We estimate quantitatively swap errors caused by the field, establishing that error correction would, in principle, be possible in the presence of nonuniform magnetic field in realistic structures

  3. Modulation of intermolecular interactions in single-molecule magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heroux, Katie Jeanne

    Polynuclear manganese clusters exhibiting interesting magnetic and quantum properties have been an area of intense research since the discovery of the first single-molecule magnet (SMM) in 1993. These molecules, below their blocking temperature, function as single-domain magnetic particles which exhibit classical macroscale magnetic properties as well as quantum mechanical phenomena such as quantum tunnelling of magnetization (QTM) and quantum phase interference. The union of classical and quantum behavior in these nanomaterials makes SMMs ideal candidates for high-density information storage and quantum computing. However, environmental coupling factors (nuclear spins, phonons, neighboring molecules) must be minimized if such applications are ever to be fully realized. The focus of this work is making small structural changes in well-known manganese SMMs in order to drastically enhance the overall magnetic and quantum properties of the system. Well-isolated molecules of high crystalline quality should lead to well-defined energetic and spectral properties as well. An advantage of SMMs over bulk magnetic materials is that they can be chemically altered from a "bottom-up" approach providing a synthetic tool for tuning magnetic properties. This systematic approach is utilized in the work presented herein by incorporating bulky ligands and/or counterions to "isolate" the magnetic core of [Mn4] dicubane SMMs. Reducing intermolecular interactions in the crystal lattice (neighboring molecules, solvate molecules, dipolar interactions) is an important step toward developing viable quantum computing devices. Detailed bulk magnetic studies as well as single crystal magnetization hysteresis and high-frequency EPR studies on these sterically-isolated complexes show enhanced, and sometimes even unexpected, quantum dynamics. The importance of intra- and intermolecular interactions remains a common theme throughout this work, extending to other SMMs of various topology including

  4. Interaction between Electron Holes in a Strongly Magnetized Plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans

    1980-01-01

    The interaction between electron holes in a strongly magnetized, plasma-filled waveguide is investigated by means of computer simulation. Two holes may or may not coalesce, depending on their amplitudes and velocities. The interaction between holes and Trivelpiece-Gould solitons is demonstrated...

  5. Analytical calculation of magnet interactions in 3D

    OpenAIRE

    Yonnet , Jean-Paul; Allag , Hicham

    2009-01-01

    International audience; A synthesis of all the analytical expressions of the interaction energy, force components and torque components is presented. It allows the analytical calculation of all the interactions when the magnetizations are in any direction. The 3D analytical expressions are difficult to obtain, but the torque and force expressions are very simple to use.

  6. Ion Motion in a Plasma Interacting with Strong Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weingarten, A.; Grabowski, C.; Chakrabarti, N.; Maron, Y.; Fruchtmant, A.

    1999-01-01

    The interaction of a plasma with strong magnetic fields takes place in many laboratory experiments and astrophysical plasmas. Applying a strong magnetic field to the plasma may result in plasma displacement, magnetization, or the formation of instabilities. Important phenomena in plasma, such as the energy transport and the momentum balance, take a different form in each case. We study this interaction in a plasma that carries a short-duration (80-ns) current pulse, generating a magnetic field of up to 17 kG. The evolution of the magnetic field, plasma density, ion velocities, and electric fields are determined before and during the current pulse. The dependence of the plasma limiting current on the plasma density and composition are studied and compared to theoretical models based on the different phenomena. When the plasma collisionality is low, three typical velocities should be taken into consideration: the proton and heavier-ion Alfven velocities (v A p and v A h , respectively) and the EMHD magnetic-field penetration velocity into the plasma (v EMHD ). If both Alfven velocities are larger than v EMHD the plasma is pushed ahead of the magnetic piston and the magnetic field energy is dissipated into ion kinetic energy. If v EMHD is the largest of three velocities, the plasma become magnetized and the ions acquire a small axial momentum only. Different ion species may drift in different directions along the current lines. In this case, the magnetic field energy is probably dissipated into electron thermal energy. When vs > V EMHD > vi, as in the case of one of our experiments, ion mass separation occurs. The protons are pushed ahead of the piston while the heavier-ions become magnetized. Since the plasma electrons are unmagnetized they cannot cross the piston, and the heavy ions are probably charge-neutralized by electrons originating from the cathode that are 'born' magnetized

  7. Magnetic interactions in anisotropic Nd-Dy-Fe-Co-B/α-Fe multilayer magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Z. M.; Liu, W.; Zhao, X. T.; Han, Z.; Kim, D.; Choi, C. J.; Zhang, Z. D.

    2016-10-01

    The magnetic properties and the possible interaction mechanisms of anisotropic soft- and hard-magnetic multilayers have been investigated by altering the thickness of different kinds of spacer layers. The metal Ta and the insulating oxides MgO, Cr2O3 have been chosen as spacer layers to investigate the characteristics of the interactions between soft- and hard-magnetic layers in the anisotropic Nd-Dy-Fe-Co-B/α-Fe multilayer system. The dipolar and exchange interaction between hard and soft phases are evaluated with the help of the first order reversal curve method. The onset of the nucleation field and the magnetization reversal by domain wall movement are also evident from the first-order-reversal-curve measurements. Reversible/irreversible distributions reveal the natures of the soft- and hard-magnetic components. Incoherent switching fields are observed and the calculations show the semiquantitative contributions of hard and soft components to the system. An antiferromagnetic spacer layer will weaken the interaction between ferromagnetic layers and the effective interaction length decreases. As a consequence, the dipolar magnetostatic interaction may play an important role in the long-range interaction in anisotropic multilayer magnets.

  8. Non-equilibrium magnetic interactions in strongly correlated systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secchi, A., E-mail: a.secchi@science.ru.nl [Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Brener, S.; Lichtenstein, A.I. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universitat Hamburg, Jungiusstraße 9, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Katsnelson, M.I. [Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    We formulate a low-energy theory for the magnetic interactions between electrons in the multi-band Hubbard model under non-equilibrium conditions determined by an external time-dependent electric field which simulates laser-induced spin dynamics. We derive expressions for dynamical exchange parameters in terms of non-equilibrium electronic Green functions and self-energies, which can be computed, e.g., with the methods of time-dependent dynamical mean-field theory. Moreover, we find that a correct description of the system requires, in addition to exchange, a new kind of magnetic interaction, that we name twist exchange, which formally resembles Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya coupling, but is not due to spin–orbit, and is actually due to an effective three-spin interaction. Our theory allows the evaluation of the related time-dependent parameters as well. -- Highlights: •We develop a theory for magnetism of strongly correlated systems out of equilibrium. •Our theory is suitable for laser-induced ultrafast magnetization dynamics. •We write time-dependent exchange parameters in terms of electronic Green functions. •We find a new magnetic interaction, a “twist exchange”. •We give general expressions for magnetic noise in itinerant-electron systems.

  9. Semicalssical quantization of interacting anyons in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levit, S.; Sivan, N.

    1992-01-01

    We represent a semiclassical theory of charged interacting anyons in strong magnetic fields. We apply this theory to a number of few anyons systems including two interacting anyons in the presence of an impurity and three interacting anyons. We discuss the dependence of their energy levels on the statistical parameter and find regions in which this dependence follows very different patterns. The semiclassical arguments allow to correlate these patterns with the change in the character of the classical motion of the system. (author)

  10. Visualization of magnetic dipolar interaction based on scanning transmission X-ray microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtori, Hiroyuki; Iwano, Kaoru; Takeichi, Yasuo; Ono, Kanta; Mitsumata, Chiharu; Yano, Masao; Kato, Akira; Miyamoto, Noritaka; Shoji, Tetsuya; Manabe, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), in this report we visualized the magnetic dipolar interactions in nanocrystalline Nd-Fe-B magnets and imaged their magnetization distributions at various applied fields. We calculated the magnetic dipolar interaction by analyzing the interaction between the magnetization at each point and those at the other points on the STXM image.

  11. Role of magnetic interactions in neutron stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhya Souvik Priyam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a calculation of the non-Fermi liquid correction to the specific heat of magnetized degenerate quark matter present at the core of the neutron star. The role of non-Fermi liquid corrections to the neutrino emissivity has been calculated beyond leading order. We extend our result to the evaluation of the pulsar kick velocity and cooling of the star due to such anomalous corrections and present a comparison with the simple Fermi liquid case.

  12. Interaction of Individual Skyrmions in a Nanostructured Cubic Chiral Magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Haifeng; Zhao, Xuebing; Rybakov, Filipp N.; Borisov, Aleksandr B.; Wang, Shasha; Tang, Jin; Jin, Chiming; Wang, Chao; Wei, Wensheng; Kiselev, Nikolai S.; Zhang, Yuheng; Che, Renchao; Blügel, Stefan; Tian, Mingliang

    2018-05-01

    We report direct evidence of the field-dependent character of the interaction between individual magnetic skyrmions as well as between skyrmions and edges in B 20 -type FeGe nanostripes observed by means of high-resolution Lorentz transmission electron microscopy. It is shown that above certain critical values of an external magnetic field the character of such long-range skyrmion interactions changes from attraction to repulsion. Experimentally measured equilibrium inter-skyrmion and skyrmion-edge distances as a function of the applied magnetic field shows quantitative agreement with the results of micromagnetic simulations. The important role of demagnetizing fields and the internal symmetry of three-dimensional magnetic skyrmions are discussed in detail.

  13. Interactive Real-time Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Lau

    seeks to implement and assess existing reconstruction algorithms using multi-processors of modern graphics cards and many-core computer processors and to cover some of the potential clinical applications which might benefit from using an interactive real-time MRI system. First an off...

  14. Stellar magnetic activity – Star-Planet Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poppenhaeger, K.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stellar magnetic activity is an important factor in the formation and evolution of exoplanets. Magnetic phenomena like stellar flares, coronal mass ejections, and high-energy emission affect the exoplanetary atmosphere and its mass loss over time. One major question is whether the magnetic evolution of exoplanet host stars is the same as for stars without planets; tidal and magnetic interactions of a star and its close-in planets may play a role in this. Stellar magnetic activity also shapes our ability to detect exoplanets with different methods in the first place, and therefore we need to understand it properly to derive an accurate estimate of the existing exoplanet population. I will review recent theoretical and observational results, as well as outline some avenues for future progress.

  15. Inter-particle and interfacial interaction of magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Che Jin; Hwang, Yosun; Park, Jongnam; An, Kwangjin; Lee, Youjin; Lee, Jinwoo; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Park, J.-G.

    2007-01-01

    In order to understand inter-particle as well as interfacial interaction of magnetic nanoparticles, we have prepared several Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles in the ranges from 3 to 50 nm. These nanoparticles are particularly well characterized in terms of size distribution with a standard deviation (σ) in size less than 0.4 nm. We investigated the inter-particle interaction by measuring the magnetic properties of the nanoparticles while controlling inter-particle distances by diluting the samples with solvents. According to this study, blocking temperatures dropped by 8-17 K with increasing the inter-particle distances from a few nm to 140 nm while the overall shape and qualitative behavior of the magnetization remain unchanged. It implies that most features observed in the magnetic properties of the nanoparticles are due to the intrinsic properties of the nanoparticles, not due to the inter-particle interaction. We then examined possible interfacial magnetic interaction in the core-shell structure of our Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles

  16. Probing Nanoscale Electronic and Magnetic Interaction with Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Jakob

    tunneling microscope (STM). Especially at low temperatures the Kondo resonance is used to probe magnetic interaction with ferromagnetic islands and between two atoms. The latter showing a crossover between Kondo screened atoms and antiferromagnetically coupled atoms close to the quantum critical point....... This is related to research in correlated electron materials such as studies of phase transitions in heavy fermion compounds and magnetic interaction in spintronic research. The capping of cobalt islands on Cu(111) with silver is investigated with STM and photoemission spectroscopy. It is shown that at low...

  17. Magnetic interactions, bonding, and motion of positive muons in magnetite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boekema, C.; Lichti, R.L.; Brabers, V.A.M.; Denison, A.B.; Cooke, D.W.; Heffner, R.H.; Hutson, R.L.; Leon, M.; Schillaci, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Positive-muon behavior in magnetite is investigated by the muon-spin-rotation technique. The observed muon relaxation rate in zero applied field, in conjunction with the measured local field, allows us to separate muon-motion effects from phase transitions associated with magnetite. The local magnetic field is observed to be 4.02 kOe directed along the axis, the easy axis of magnetization. Possible origins of this field are discussed in terms which include local muon diffusion and a supertransfer hyperfine interaction resulting from muon-oxygen bonding. An anomaly in the muon hyperfine interactions is observed at 247 K

  18. Competing magnetic interactions and low temperature magnetic phase transitions in composite multiferroics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkar, Hitesh; Singh, V N; Kumar, Ashok; Choudhary, R J; Tomar, M; Gupta, Vinay

    2015-01-01

    Novel magnetic properties and magnetic interactions in composite multiferroic oxides Pb[(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 ) 0.60 (Fe 0.67 W 0.33 ) .40 ]O 3 ] 0.80 –[CoFe 2 O 4 ] 0.20 (PZTFW–CFO) have been studied from 50 to 1000 Oe field cooled (FC) and zero field cooled (ZFC) probing conditions, and over a wide range of temperatures (4–350 K). Crystal structure analysis, surface morphology, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy images revealed the presence of two distinct phases, where micro- and nano-size spinel CFO were embedded in tetragonal PZTFW matrix and applied a significant built-in compressive strain (∼0.4–0.8%). Three distinct magnetic phase transitions were observed with the subtle effect of CFO magnetic phase on PZTFW magnetic phase transitions below the blocking temperature (T B ). Temperature dependence magnetic property m(T) shows a clear evidence of spin freezing in magnetic order with lowering in thermal vibration. Chemical inhomogeneity and confinement of nanoscale ferrimagnetic phase in paramagnetic/antiferromagnetic matrix restrict the long range interaction of spin which in turn develop a giant spin frustration. A large divergence in the FC and ZFC data and broad hump in ZFC data near 200 (±10) K were observed which suggests that large magnetic anisotropy and short range order magnetic dipoles lead to the development of superparamagnetic states in composite. (paper)

  19. Magnetic monopoles and dyons interacting with matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracci, L.

    1985-01-01

    After a brief, critical review of the Drell et al. method, we propose an alternative approach suitable for the study of dyon and dyon-negative-electron (Dy-e) system interactions with hydrogen and helium. This method, called the impact parameter method (IPM), has been used already in atomic collisions and allows the calculation of energy losses in H and He. We report these quantities and comment on their behaviour versus the relative velocities between Dy or Dy-e and atoms; we compare them to the monopole results. Conclusions in relation to planned experiments are outlined. (orig.)

  20. Interaction of the geomagnetic field with northward interplanetary magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Shree Krishna

    The interaction of the solar wind with Earth's magnetic field causes the transfer of momentum and energy from the solar wind to geospace. The study of this interaction is gaining significance as our society is becoming more and more space based, due to which, predicting space weather has become more important. The solar wind interacts with the geomagnetic field primarily via two processes: viscous interaction and the magnetic reconnection. Both of these interactions result in the generation of an electric field in Earth's ionosphere. The overall topology and dynamics of the magnetosphere, as well as the electric field imposed on the ionosphere, vary with speed, density, and magnetic field orientation of the solar wind as well as the conductivity of the ionosphere. In this dissertation, I will examine the role of northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and discuss the global topology of the magnetosphere and the interaction with the ionosphere using results obtained from the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) simulation. The electric potentials imposed on the ionosphere due to viscous interaction and magnetic reconnection are called the viscous and the reconnection potentials, respectively. A proxy to measure the overall effect of these potentials is to measure the cross polar potential (CPP). The CPP is defined as the difference between the maximum and the minimum of the potential in a given polar ionosphere. I will show results from the LFM simulation showing saturation of the CPP during periods with purely northward IMF of sufficiently large magnitude. I will further show that the viscous potential, which was assumed to be independent of IMF orientation until this work, is reduced during periods of northward IMF. Furthermore, I will also discuss the implications of these results for a simulation of an entire solar rotation.

  1. Critical dynamics of an interacting magnetic nanoparticle system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Jonsson, P.E.; Nordblad, P.

    2002-01-01

    Effects of dipole-dipole interactions on the magnetic relaxation have been investigated for three Fe-C nanoparticle samples with volume concentrations of 0.06, 5 and 17 vol%. While both the 5 and 17 vol% samples exhibit collective behaviour due to dipolar interactions, only the 17 vol% sample dis...... displays critical behaviour close to its transition temperature. The behaviour of the 5 vol% sample can be attributed to a mixture of collective and single-particle dynamics....

  2. Magnetic interactions in strongly correlated systems: Spin and orbital contributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secchi, A., E-mail: a.secchi@science.ru.nl [Radboud University, Institute for Molecules and Materials, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lichtenstein, A.I. [Universitat Hamburg, Institut für Theoretische Physik, Jungiusstraße 9, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Katsnelson, M.I. [Radboud University, Institute for Molecules and Materials, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2015-09-15

    We present a technique to map an electronic model with local interactions (a generalized multi-orbital Hubbard model) onto an effective model of interacting classical spins, by requiring that the thermodynamic potentials associated to spin rotations in the two systems are equivalent up to second order in the rotation angles, when the electronic system is in a symmetry-broken phase. This allows to determine the parameters of relativistic and non-relativistic magnetic interactions in the effective spin model in terms of equilibrium Green’s functions of the electronic model. The Hamiltonian of the electronic system includes, in addition to the non-relativistic part, relativistic single-particle terms such as the Zeeman coupling to an external magnetic field, spin–orbit coupling, and arbitrary magnetic anisotropies; the orbital degrees of freedom of the electrons are explicitly taken into account. We determine the complete relativistic exchange tensors, accounting for anisotropic exchange, Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interactions, as well as additional non-diagonal symmetric terms (which may include dipole–dipole interaction). The expressions of all these magnetic interactions are determined in a unified framework, including previously disregarded features such as the vertices of two-particle Green’s functions and non-local self-energies. We do not assume any smallness in spin–orbit coupling, so our treatment is in this sense exact. Finally, we show how to distinguish and address separately the spin, orbital and spin–orbital contributions to magnetism, providing expressions that can be computed within a tight-binding Dynamical Mean Field Theory.

  3. Magnetization reversal in magnetic dot arrays: Nearest-neighbor interactions and global configurational anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Wiele, Ben [Department of Electrical Energy, Systems and Automation, Ghent University, Technologiepark 913, B-9052 Ghent-Zwijnaarde (Belgium); Fin, Samuele [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Pancaldi, Matteo [CIC nanoGUNE, E-20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Vavassori, Paolo [CIC nanoGUNE, E-20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain); Sarella, Anandakumar [Physics Department, Mount Holyoke College, 211 Kendade, 50 College St., South Hadley, Massachusetts 01075 (United States); Bisero, Diego [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); CNISM, Unità di Ferrara, 44122 Ferrara (Italy)

    2016-05-28

    Various proposals for future magnetic memories, data processing devices, and sensors rely on a precise control of the magnetization ground state and magnetization reversal process in periodically patterned media. In finite dot arrays, such control is hampered by the magnetostatic interactions between the nanomagnets, leading to the non-uniform magnetization state distributions throughout the sample while reversing. In this paper, we evidence how during reversal typical geometric arrangements of dots in an identical magnetization state appear that originate in the dominance of either Global Configurational Anisotropy or Nearest-Neighbor Magnetostatic interactions, which depends on the fields at which the magnetization reversal sets in. Based on our findings, we propose design rules to obtain the uniform magnetization state distributions throughout the array, and also suggest future research directions to achieve non-uniform state distributions of interest, e.g., when aiming at guiding spin wave edge-modes through dot arrays. Our insights are based on the Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect and Magnetic Force Microscopy measurements as well as the extensive micromagnetic simulations.

  4. Anisotropic exchange interaction for magnetic ion pairs in insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passeggi, M.C.G.

    1975-12-01

    The sources of possible contributions to the magnetic anisotropy for a pair of orbitally non degenerate magnetic ions are investigated. The problem being formulated with the help of the operator form of perturbation theory and irreducible tensor operators. Apart from the usual dipole-dipole effective interaction, mainly induced by the electronic spin-spin dipole coupling corrected by covalency, other mechanisms mediated by the spin-orbit coupling appear. These are a consequence of an appropriate description of the spin-orbit operators for a system which allows for delocalization of the magnetic electrons. A process similar to that known as pseudodipolar appears from contributions in which spin orbit combined with the Coulomb repulsion and with one-electron interactions (acting analogously as for the ''kinetic exchange'') produce compensating effects in third and fourth order, respectively. However, this effect does not appear to be describable in terms of the phenomenological exchange, as is usually assumed. (Passeggi, M.C.G.)

  5. RKKY interaction between extended magnetic defect lines in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorman, P. D.; Duffy, J. M.; Power, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    referred to as the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction. Recent theoretical studies on the RKKY in graphene have been motivated by possible spintronic applications of magnetically doped graphene systems. In this paper a combination of analytic and numerical techniques are used to examine...

  6. Interaction of magnetic nanoparticles with lysozyme amyloid fibrils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdovinová, Veronika [Institute of Experimental Physics SAS, Watsonova 47, 040 01 Košice (Slovakia); Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Tomašovičová, Natália, E-mail: nhudak@saske.sk [Institute of Experimental Physics SAS, Watsonova 47, 040 01 Košice (Slovakia); Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Batko, Ivan; Batková, Marianna; Balejčíková, Lucia [Institute of Experimental Physics SAS, Watsonova 47, 040 01 Košice (Slovakia); Garamus, Vasyl M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht: Zentrum fr Material, und Kstenforschung GmbH, Max-Plank-Strae 1, Geesthacht 216502 (Germany); Petrenko, Viktor I. [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Physics Department, Taras Shevchenko Kyiv National University, Volodymyrska Street 64, 01601 Kyiv (Ukraine); Avdeev, Mikhail V. [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Kopčanský, Peter [Institute of Experimental Physics SAS, Watsonova 47, 040 01 Košice (Slovakia)

    2017-06-01

    This work is devoted to the structural study of complex solutions of magnetic nanoparticles with lysozyme amyloid fibrils due to possible ordering of such system by applying the external magnetic field. The interaction of magnetic nanoparticles with amyloid fibrils has been followed by atomic force microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. It has been observed that magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) adsorb to lysozyme amyloid fibrils. It was found that MNPs alter amyloids structures, namely the diameter of lysozyme amyloid fibrils is increased whereas the length of fibrils is decreased. In the same time MNPs do not change the helical pitch significantly. - Highlights: • Solution of MNPs with lysozyme amyloid fibrils was characterized by AFM and SAXS. • MNPs adsorb to lysozyme amyloid fibrils. • Diameter and size of lysozyme amyloid fibrils change due to doping with MNPs.

  7. Distinguishing magnetic and electrostatic interactions by a Kelvin probe force microscopy–magnetic force microscopy combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Jaafar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The most outstanding feature of scanning force microscopy (SFM is its capability to detect various different short and long range interactions. In particular, magnetic force microscopy (MFM is used to characterize the domain configuration in ferromagnetic materials such as thin films grown by physical techniques or ferromagnetic nanostructures. It is a usual procedure to separate the topography and the magnetic signal by scanning at a lift distance of 25–50 nm such that the long range tip–sample interactions dominate. Nowadays, MFM is becoming a valuable technique to detect weak magnetic fields arising from low dimensional complex systems such as organic nanomagnets, superparamagnetic nanoparticles, carbon-based materials, etc. In all these cases, the magnetic nanocomponents and the substrate supporting them present quite different electronic behavior, i.e., they exhibit large surface potential differences causing heterogeneous electrostatic interaction between the tip and the sample that could be interpreted as a magnetic interaction. To distinguish clearly the origin of the tip–sample forces we propose to use a combination of Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM and MFM. The KPFM technique allows us to compensate in real time the electrostatic forces between the tip and the sample by minimizing the electrostatic contribution to the frequency shift signal. This is a great challenge in samples with low magnetic moment. In this work we studied an array of Co nanostructures that exhibit high electrostatic interaction with the MFM tip. Thanks to the use of the KPFM/MFM system we were able to separate the electric and magnetic interactions between the tip and the sample.

  8. Magnetic properties of high temperature superconductors and their interaction with high energy permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwala, A.K.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic properties of sintered samples of YBCO ceramic superconductors at various temperatures were measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Also, measurements of forces experienced by a well characterized rare earth-transition metal (RE-TM) permanent magnet (PM) interacting with the superconducting YBCO sample cooled in liquid nitrogen, were performed. Based upon the observed hysteretic magnetization properties of these high temperature superconductors (HTS), the HTS-PM interaction force at liquid nitrogen temperature was calculated from first principle, and finally correlated to the force measurement results. With this analysis, magnetic forces between the same HTS and PM system including the levitation as well as suspension effects at liquid-helium temperature are predicted

  9. Study of atomic states in the vicinity of a massive surface - Application to the FORCA-G experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelisson, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents the theoretical modeling of the experiment FORCA-G (FORce de CAsimir et Gravitation a courte distance) currently in progress at Paris Observatory. The purpose of this experiment is to measure short-range interactions between an atom and a massive surface. This interaction are of two kind: quantum electrodynamical (Casimir-Polder effect) and gravitational. The work presented here was to calculate the atomic states in the context of the experiment such that we can predict results and performances of the experiment. This has allowed to optimize the experimental scheme both for the high-precision measurement of the Casimir-Polder effect and for the search of deviation from the Newton's law of gravity predicted by unification theories. (author)

  10. Fluctuation-induced forces on an atom near a photonic topological material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveirinha, Mário G.; Gangaraj, S. Ali Hassani; Hanson, George W.; Antezza, Mauro

    2018-02-01

    We theoretically study the Casimir-Polder force on an atom in an arbitrary initial state in a rather general electromagnetic environment wherein the materials may have a nonreciprocal bianisotropic dispersive response. It is shown that under the Markov approximation the force has resonant and nonresonant contributions. We obtain explicit expressions for the optical force both in terms of the system Green function and of the electromagnetic modes. We apply the theory to the particular case wherein a two-level system interacts with a topological gyrotropic material, showing that the nonreciprocity enables exotic light-matter interactions and the opportunity to sculpt and tune the Casimir-Polder forces on the nanoscale. With a quasistatic approximation, we obtain a simple analytical expression for the optical force and unveil the crucial role of surface plasmons in fluctuation-induced forces. Finally, we derive the Green function for a gyrotropic material half-space in terms of a Sommerfeld integral.

  11. Magnetic dipolar interaction in two-dimensional complex plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, J D; Kalman, G J; Rosenberg, M

    2006-01-01

    Various interactions can play a role between the mesoscopic dust grains of a complex plasma. We study a system composed of dust grains that have both an electric charge and a permanent magnetic dipole moment. It is assumed that the grains occupy lattice sites, as dictated by their Coulomb interaction. In addition, they possess a spin degree of freedom (orientation of magnetic dipole moment) that is not constrained by the Coulomb interaction, thus allowing for the possibility of equilibrium orientational ordering and 'wobbling' about the equilibrium orientations. As a result, collective modes develop. We identify in-plane and out-of-plane wobbling modes and discuss their dispersion characteristics both in the ferromagnetic and in the anti-ferromagnetic ground state

  12. Effects of adiabatic, relativistic, and quantum electrodynamics interactions on the pair potential and thermophysical properties of helium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cencek, Wojciech; Przybytek, Michał; Komasa, Jacek; Mehl, James B; Jeziorski, Bogumił; Szalewicz, Krzysztof

    2012-06-14

    The adiabatic, relativistic, and quantum electrodynamics (QED) contributions to the pair potential of helium were computed, fitted separately, and applied, together with the nonrelativistic Born-Oppenheimer (BO) potential, in calculations of thermophysical properties of helium and of the properties of the helium dimer. An analysis of the convergence patterns of the calculations with increasing basis set sizes allowed us to estimate the uncertainties of the total interaction energy to be below 50 ppm for interatomic separations R smaller than 4 bohrs and for the distance R = 5.6 bohrs. For other separations, the relative uncertainties are up to an order of magnitude larger (and obviously still larger near R = 4.8 bohrs where the potential crosses zero) and are dominated by the uncertainties of the nonrelativistic BO component. These estimates also include the contributions from the neglected relativistic and QED terms proportional to the fourth and higher powers of the fine-structure constant α. To obtain such high accuracy, it was necessary to employ explicitly correlated Gaussian expansions containing up to 2400 terms for smaller R (all R in the case of a QED component) and optimized orbital bases up to the cardinal number X = 7 for larger R. Near-exact asymptotic constants were used to describe the large-R behavior of all components. The fitted potential, exhibiting the minimum of -10.996 ± 0.004 K at R = 5.608 0 ± 0.000 1 bohr, was used to determine properties of the very weakly bound (4)He(2) dimer and thermophysical properties of gaseous helium. It is shown that the Casimir-Polder retardation effect, increasing the dimer size by about 2 Å relative to the nonrelativistic BO value, is almost completely accounted for by the inclusion of the Breit-interaction and the Araki-Sucher contributions to the potential, of the order α(2) and α(3), respectively. The remaining retardation effect, of the order of α(4) and higher, is practically negligible for the bound

  13. Numerical evaluation of energy barriers and magnetic relaxation in interacting nanostructured magnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubykalo-Fesenko, Oksana A.; Chantrell, Roy W.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss a model to quantify long-time thermally induced magnetization reversal in magnetic systems with distributed properties. Two algorithms, based on kinetic and Metropolis Monte Carlo are introduced. While the former requires the constant recalculation of all energy barriers and is useful when the interactions are weak, the latter uses the Metropolis Monte Carlo to estimate the magnetization trajectory and, consequently, only the most probable transition rates are evaluated. The ridge optimization method is used to evaluate the energy barriers in a multidimensional energy landscape. The algorithms are applied to a granular system modeled by means of Voronoi polyhedra and having random in-plane anisotropy

  14. Watermelon-like iron nanoparticles: Cr doping effect on magnetism and magnetization interaction reversal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Maninder; Dai, Qilin; Bowden, Mark E.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wu, Yaqiao; Tang, Jinke; Qiang, You

    2013-06-26

    Chromium (Cr) forms a solid solution with iron (Fe) lattice when doped in core-shell iron -iron oxide nanocluster (NC) and shows a mixed phase of sigma (σ) FeCr and bcc Fe. The Cr dopant affects heavily the magnetization and magnetic reversal process, and causes the hysteresis loop to shrink near the zero field axis. Dramatic transformation happens from dipolar interaction (0 at. % Cr) to strong exchange interaction (8 at. % of Cr) is confirmed from the Henkel plot and delta M plot, and is explained by a water-melon model of core-shell NC system.

  15. Dynamic interaction between localized magnetic moments in carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A T; Muniz, R B; Ferreira, M S

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic moments dilutely dispersed in a metallic host tend to be coupled through the conduction electrons of the metal. This indirect exchange coupling (IEC), known to occur for a variety of magnetic materials embedded in several different metallic structures, is of rather long range, especially for low-dimensional structures like carbon nanotubes. Motivated by recent claims that the indirect coupling between magnetic moments in precessional motion has a much longer range than its static counterpart, we consider here how magnetic atoms adsorbed to the walls of a metallic nanotube respond to a time-dependent perturbation that induces their magnetic moments to precess. By calculating the frequency-dependent spin susceptibility, we are able to identify resonant peaks whose respective widths provide information about the dynamic aspect of the IEC. We show that by departing from a purely static representation to another in which the moments are allowed to precess, we change from what is already considered a long-range interaction to another whose range is far superior. In other words, localized magnetic moments embedded in a metallic structure can feel each other's presence more easily when they are set in precessional motion. We argue that such an effect can have useful applications leading to large-scale spintronics devices

  16. Interaction of plasma with magnetic fields in coaxial discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soliman, H.M.; Masoud, M.M. (National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt))

    1991-01-01

    Previous experiments have shown that, in normal mode of focus operation (67 KJ-20 KV) i.e. without external magnetic fields, the focus exhibits instability growths as revealed by the time integrated X-ray pinhole photographs. A magnetic field which is trapped ahead of the current sheath will reduce the high ejection rate of plasma which occurs during the (r,z) collapse stage. This reduction should lead to a more uniform plasma of larger dimension. If an externally excited axial magnetic field of (10[sup 2]-10[sup 3] G) is introduced at the end of the central electrode of coaxial discharge with 45 [mu]f capacitor bank, U[sub ch]=13-17 KV, peak current [approx]0.5 MA, the decay rate of the current sheath is slowed down and the minimum radius of the column remains large enough. Experiment investigation of the X-ray emission in axial direction from a (12 KJ/20 KV, 480 KA), Mather type focus, showed that the X-ray intensity changes drastically, by superimposing an axial magnetic field of 55 G on the focus. By introducing an external axial magnetic field of intensity 2.4 KG along the coaxial electrodes, this magnetic field has a radial component at distances approach to muzzle of coaxial discharge with charging voltage 10 KV and peak discharge current 100 KA. Presence of these magnetic fields, will cause an increase in intensity of soft X-ray emission. The main purpose of this work is to study the interactions of axial and transverse magnetic fields with plasma sheath during the axial interelectrode propagation, and its effects on the X-ray emission from plasma focus. (author) 4 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Interaction of plasma with magnetic fields in coaxial discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.; Masoud, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    Previous experiments have shown that, in normal mode of focus operation (67 KJ-20 KV) i.e. without external magnetic fields, the focus exhibits instability growths as revealed by the time integrated X-ray pinhole photographs. A magnetic field which is trapped ahead of the current sheath will reduce the high ejection rate of plasma which occurs during the (r,z) collapse stage. This reduction should lead to a more uniform plasma of larger dimension. If an externally excited axial magnetic field of (10 2 -10 3 G) is introduced at the end of the central electrode of coaxial discharge with 45 μf capacitor bank, U ch =13-17 KV, peak current ∼0.5 MA, the decay rate of the current sheath is slowed down and the minimum radius of the column remains large enough. Experiment investigation of the X-ray emission in axial direction from a (12 KJ/20 KV, 480 KA), Mather type focus, showed that the X-ray intensity changes drastically, by superimposing an axial magnetic field of 55 G on the focus. By introducing an external axial magnetic field of intensity 2.4 KG along the coaxial electrodes, this magnetic field has a radial component at distances approach to muzzle of coaxial discharge with charging voltage 10 KV and peak discharge current 100 KA. Presence of these magnetic fields, will cause an increase in intensity of soft X-ray emission. The main purpose of this work is to study the interactions of axial and transverse magnetic fields with plasma sheath during the axial interelectrode propagation, and its effects on the X-ray emission from plasma focus. (author) 4 refs., 7 figs

  18. Energy released by the interaction of coronal magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheeley, N.R. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Comparisons between coronal spectroheliograms and photospheric magnetograms are presented to support the idea that as coronal magnetic fields interact, a process of field line reconnection usually takes place as a natural way of preventing magnetic stresses from building up in the lower corona. This suggests that the energy which would have been stored in stressed fields in continuously released as kinetic energy of material being driven aside to make way for the reconnecting fields. However, this kinetic energy is negligible compared to the thermal energy of the coronal plasma. Therefore, it appears that these slow adjustments of coronal magnetic fields cannot account for even the normal heating of the corona, much less the energetic events associated with solar flares. (Auth.)

  19. The interaction of vacuum arcs with magnetic fields and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, J.G.; Kimblin, C.W.; Slade, P.G.; Voshall, R.E.; Wien, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Vacuum arc/magnetic field interactions are reviewed and extended. An axial magnetic field (parallel to current flow) produces a stable and diffuse vacuum arc. These properties have been used to build a reliable dc switch for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor at Princeton. The switching duty for this Ohmic Heating Interrupter involves repetitive interruption of 24kA dc against a 27kV recovery voltage. A transverse magnetic field (perpendicular to current flow) produces an unstable arc with an ensuing high arc voltage. This property has been used to complete a metallic return transfer breaker for the Pacific HVDC Intertie, here the switching duty involves interruption of currents up to 2200A dc against an 80kV recovery voltage

  20. A theory for the anisotropic interaction between two substitutional magnetic impurities and the magnetic anisotropic effect in dilute magnetic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satter, M.A.

    1990-08-01

    In this paper, a formalism for studying the anisotropic interaction between two substitutional magnetic impurities and the magnetic anisotropic effect in a dilute noble metal- transition metal magnetic alloy has been developed from relativistic scattering theory. The theoretical development and the computational techniques of this formalism are based on relativistic spin-polarized scattering theory and relativistic band structure frameworks. For studying the magnetic anisotropic effect a convenient ''working'' frame of reference with its axes oriented along the fcc crystal axes is set up. This formalism is applied to study the situation for two Fe impurities in paramagnetic Au hosts. For AuFe dilute alloy, the two impurity site interaction as a function of separation is not oscillatory and the anisotropic effect is found to be less than the two site interaction itself only by an order of magnitude. Apart from the anisotropic coupling of the two impurity spins to the separation vector, for the first time, another weak anisotropic coupling to the crystal axes is also contained in the two site interaction. These anisotropic effects are the results of the relativistic spin-orbit interaction which are incorporated into the formalism. (author). 22 refs, 5 figs

  1. Spin interactions in Graphene-Single Molecule Magnets Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervetti, Christian; Rettori, Angelo; Pini, Maria Gloria; Cornia, Andrea; Repollés, Aña; Luis, Fernando; Rauschenbach, Stephan; Dressel, Martin; Kern, Klaus; Burghard, Marko; Bogani, Lapo

    2014-03-01

    Graphene is a potential component of novel spintronics devices owing to its long spin diffusion length. Besides its use as spin-transport channel, graphene can be employed for the detection and manipulation of molecular spins. This requires an appropriate coupling between the sheets and the single molecular magnets (SMM). Here, we present a comprehensive characterization of graphene-Fe4 SMM hybrids. The Fe4 clusters are anchored non-covalently to the graphene following a diffusion-limited assembly and can reorganize into random networks when subjected to slightly elevated temperature. Molecules anchored on graphene sheets show unaltered static magnetic properties, whilst the quantum dynamics is profoundly modulated. Interaction with Dirac fermions becomes the dominant spin-relaxation channel, with observable effects produced by graphene phonons and reduced dipolar interactions. Coupling to graphene drives the spins over Villain's threshold, allowing the first observation of strongly-perturbative tunneling processes. Preliminary spin-transport experiments at low-temperature are further presented.

  2. Multi-scale interaction between magnetic islands and microturbulence in magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraglia, M.

    2009-10-01

    In a tokamak, it exists many kinds of instability at the origin of a damage of the confinement and worst of a lost of a confinement. This work presents a study of the dynamics of a magnetic island in presence of turbulence in magnetized plasmas. More precisely, the goal is to understand the multi-scales interaction between turbulence, generated by a pressure gradient and the magnetic field curvature, and a magnetic island formed thanks to a tearing mode. Thanks to the derivation of a 2-dimensional slab model taking into account both tearing and interchange instabilities, theoretical and numerical linear studies show the pressure effect on the magnetic island linear formation and show interchange modes are stabilized in presence of a strong magnetic field. Then, a numerical nonlinear study is presented in order to understand how the interchange mechanism affects the nonlinear dynamics of a magnetic island. It is shown that the pressure gradient and the magnetic field curvature affect strongly the nonlinear evolution of a magnetic island through dynamics bifurcations. The nature of these bifurcations should be characterized in function of the linear situation. Finally, the last part of this work is devoted to the study of the origin of the nonlinear poloidal rotation of the magnetic island. A model giving the different contributions to the rotation is derived. It is shown, thanks to the model and to the numerical studies, that the nonlinear rotation of the island is mainly governed by the ExB poloidal flow and/or by the nonlinear diamagnetic drift. (author)

  3. Interactive web site and app for early magnetic resonance education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Lars G.

    2016-01-01

    Teaching and understanding basic Magnetic Resonance (MR) is a challenge. This is clear from the educational literature that often repeats misinterpretations of quantum mechanics reminiscent of its earliest formulations (see www.drcmr.dk/MR that also links to the developed software). Modern quantu...... formulations of MR are much closer to classical descriptions than to typical quantum inspired myths frequent in literature. This opens for intuitive educational computer simulation using modern web technologies offering excellent interactive possibilities for experimentation....

  4. Intergrain exchange interaction estimation from the remanence magnetization analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolyachkin, Anton S.; Volegov, Aleksey S.; Kudrevatykh, Nikolay V.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of δm(H)=[M d (H)−M r (∞)+2M r (H)]/M r (∞) curves constructed from dc demagnetization and isothermal remanent magnetization (M d (H) and M r (H) respectively) is important for characterization of the interactions in ferromagnets. Up to now, it has been mainly used for qualitative deductions about them. In this work, the novel functional relation between the maximum of the δm(H) plot and the microscopic parameters of the weakly coupled Stoner–Wohlfarth ensemble with the isotropic distribution of easy magnetization axes was established using computer modeling. It allows quantitative analysis in the frame of the model to be performed. Finally, a new method of estimating the intergrain exchange interaction constant for nanostructured high anisotropy magnets could be formulated taking into account the results of the modeling. - Highlights: • Computer modelling of the weakly coupled Stoner–Wohlfarth like ensemble was performed. • The novel functional relation for maxima of the Kelly plots is established. • Method of the estimation of intergrain exchange interaction constant is formulated

  5. Anomalous transport of magnetized electrons interacting with EC waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsironis, C; Vlahos, L [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2005-01-01

    We consider the nonlinear interaction of magnetized electrons with an oblique narrow-band electromagnetic wave-packet. The interaction is analysed over and near the local threshold to chaos. The statistical character of the forcing that controls the trajectories of the particles is also studied. We focus our analysis on issues related to energy and spatial diffusion across the magnetic field by following the evolution of the ensemble mean squares (({gamma} - {gamma}{sub 0}){sup 2}) and ((r{sub perpendicular}-r{sub perpendicular0}){sup 2}) for various values of the wave amplitude and angle of wave propagation. We study, in particular, the interaction of magnetized electrons with waves having strong and moderate amplitudes, near the transition to chaos, where the dynamics is complex and a mixture of periodic and stochastic orbits coexist. The electron diffusions in real and energy spaces are found to obey simple power laws in time, and the scaling exponents are indicative of sub-diffusion. This is a direct consequence of the effect of the resonant phase-space islands in the particle motion.

  6. Magnetic interactions in martensitic Ni-Mn based Heusler systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksoy, Seda

    2010-04-22

    In this work, magnetic, magnetocaloric and structural properties are investigated in Ni-Mn-based martensitic Heusler alloys with the aim to tailor these properties as well as to understand in detail the magnetic interactions in the various crystallographic states of these alloys. We choose Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 34}In{sub 16} as a prototype which undergoes a martensitic transformation and exhibits field-induced strain and the inverse magnetocaloric effect. Using the structural phase diagram of martensitic Ni-Mn-based Heusler alloys, we substitute gallium and tin for indium to carry these effects systematically closer to room temperature by shifting the martensitic transformation. A magneto-calorimeter is designed and built to measure adiabatically the magnetocaloric effect in these alloys. The temperature dependence of strain under an external magnetic field is studied in Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 50-x}Z{sub x} (Z: Ga, Sn, In and Sb) and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 34}In{sub 16-x}Z{sub x} (Z: Ga and Sn). An argument based on the effect of the applied magnetic field on martensite nucleation is adopted to extract information on the direction of the magnetization easy axis in the martensitic unit cell in Heusler alloys. Parallel to these studies, the structure in the presence of an external field is also studied by powder neutron diffraction. It is demonstrated that martensite nucleation is influenced by cooling the sample under a magnetic field such that the austenite phase is arrested within the martensitic state. The magnetic interactions in Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 37}Sn{sub 13} and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 40}Sb{sub 10} are characterized by using neutron polarization analysis. Below the martensitic transformation temperature, M{sub s}, an antiferromagnetically correlated state is found. Ferromagnetic resonance experiments are carried out on Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 37}Sn{sub 13} and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 34}In{sub 16} to gain more detailed information on the nature of the magnetic interactions. The experimental

  7. Alignment of SWNTs by protein-ligand interaction of functionalized magnetic particles under low magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae Jung; Park, Jong Pil; Lee, Seok Jae; Jung, Dae-Hwan; Ko, Young Koan; Jung, Hee-Tae; Lee, Sang Yup

    2011-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted considerable attention for applications using their superior mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. A simple method to controllably align single-walled CNTs (SWNTs) by using magnetic particles embedded with superparamagnetic iron oxide as an accelerator under the magnetic field was developed. The functionalization of SWNTs using biotin, interacted with streptavidin-coupled magnetic particles (micro-to-nano in diameter), and layer-by-layer assembly were performed for the alignment of a particular direction onto the clean silicon and the gold substrate at very low magnetic forces (0.02-0.89 T) at room temperature. The successful alignment of the SWNTs with multi-layer film was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). By changing the orientation and location of the substrates, crossed-networks of SWNTs-magnetic particle complex could easily be fabricated. We suggest that this approach, which consists of a combination of biological interaction among streptavidin-biotin and magnetite particles, should be useful for lateral orientation of individual SWNTs with controllable direction.

  8. Magnetic interactions and electronic structure of Ni–Mn–In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Souza, Sunil Wilfred [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001, Madhya Pradesh (India); Chakrabarti, Aparna [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013, Madhya Pradesh (India); Barman, Sudipta Roy, E-mail: barmansr@gmail.com [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001, Madhya Pradesh (India)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • The ground state of Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1.4}In{sub 0.6} is ferromagnetic. • The magnetic moments of Ni–Mn–In are in good agreement with the magnetization measurements. • Exchange coupling parameters exhibit a strong competition between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic configurations. • Jahn–Teller splitting of the Ni 3d e{sub g} states drives the martensite transformation. - Abstract: The electronic structure and magnetic properties of a magnetic shape memory alloy Ni–Mn–In have been studied using spin polarized fully relativistic Korringa–Kohn–Rostoker (SPRKKR) method. The total energy calculations with different starting magnetic spin configurations show that the ground state of Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1.4}In{sub 0.6} is ferromagnetic. The spin and orbital magnetic moments of Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1.4}In{sub 0.6} and Ni{sub 2}MnIn are in good agreement with the magnetization measurements. The exchange coupling parameters of the different sublattice interactions exhibit a strong competition between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic configurations, due to the substitution of excess Mn atoms at the In site in Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1.4}In{sub 0.6}. The Curie temperature of Ni{sub 2}MnIn, calculated under a mean field approximation, is found to be in relatively good agreement with the experimental values. While Ni{sub 2}MnIn does not undergo martensite transition, it is shown that a Jahn–Teller splitting of the Ni 3d e{sub g} states plays an important role in driving the martensite transformation in Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1.4}In{sub 0.6}. We find that both the calculated ultra-violet photoemission spectra and the inverse photoemission spectra are in good agreement with the existing experimental data.

  9. The FCC-ee Interaction Region Magnet Design

    CERN Document Server

    Koratzinos, Michael; Blondel, Alain; Bogomyagkov, Anton; Holzer, Bernhard; Oide, Katsunobu; Sinyatkin, Sergey; Zimmermann, Frank; van Nugteren, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    The design of the region close to the interaction point of the FCC-ee experiments is especially challenging. The beams collide at an angle (+-15 mrad) in the high-field region of the detector solenoid. Moreover, the very low vertical beta_y* of the machine necessitates that the final focusing quadrupoles have a distance from the IP (L*) of around 2 m and therefore are inside the main detector solenoid. The beams should be screened from the effect of the detector magnetic field, and the emittance blow-up due to vertical dispersion in the interaction region should be minimized, while leaving enough space for detector components. Crosstalk between the two final focus quadrupoles, only about 6 cm apart at the tip, should also be minimized.

  10. Magnetic monopole interactions: shell structure of meson and baryon states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.

    1986-01-01

    It is suggested that a low-mass magnetic monopole of Dirac charge g = (137/2)e may be interacting with a c-quark's magnetic dipole moment to produce Zeeman splitting of meson states. The mass M 0 = 2397 MeV of the monopole is in contrast to the 10 16 -GeV monopoles of grand unification theories (GUT). It is shown that shell structure of energy E/sub n/ = M 0 + 1/4nM 0 ... exists for meson states. The presence of symmetric meson states leads to the identification of the shell structure. The possible existence of the 2397-MeV magnetic monopole is shown to quantize quark masses in agreement with calculations of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). From the shell structure of meson states, the existence of two new mesons is predicted: eta(1814 +/- 50 MeV) with I/sup G/(J/sup PC/) = 0 + (0 -+ ) and eta/sub c/ (3907 +/- 100 MeV) with J/sup PC/ = 0 -+ . The presence of shell structure for baryon states is shown

  11. Effects of Dzyaloshinsky–Moriya interaction on magnetism in nanodisks from a self-consistent approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhaosen, E-mail: liuzhsnj@yahoo.com [Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics (China); Ian, Hou, E-mail: houian@umac.mo [University of Macau, Institute of Applied Physics and Materials Engineering, FST (China)

    2016-01-15

    We give a theoretical study on the magnetic properties of monolayer nanodisks with both Heisenberg exchange and Dzyaloshinsky–Moriya (DM) interactions. In particular, we survey the magnetic effects caused by anisotropy, external magnetic field, and disk size when DM interaction is present by means of a new quantum simulation method facilitated by a self-consistent algorithm based on mean field theory. This computational approach finds that uniaxial anisotropy and transversal magnetic field enhance the net magnetization as well as increase the transition temperature of the vortical phase while preserving the chiralities of the swirly magnetic structures, whereas when the strength of DM interaction is sufficiently strong for a given disk size, magnetic domains appear within the circularly bounded region, which vanish and give in to a single vortex when a transversal magnetic field is applied. The latter confirms the magnetic skyrmions induced by the magnetic field as observed in the experiments.

  12. TmCd quadrupolar ordering and magnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleonard, R.; Morin, P.

    1979-01-01

    The paramagnetic compound TmCd crystallizes with the CsCl-type structure. Its Jahn-Teller behavior was first observed by Luethi and coworkers. We analyze here various physical properties with a pure-harmonic-elasticity model. The structural transition between cubic and tetragonal phases is now fully described (first-order character and temperature of occurrence) as well as the magnetic susceptibility, magnetization process, specific-heat, elastic-constant, and strain data. The relevant Hamiltonian takes into account the second-order magnetoelastic coupling and the quadrupolar exchange in addition to the cubic crystal field and the Heisenberg bilinear interactions. TmCd appears to be closely related to isomorphous TmZn and completes the illustration of the competition between bilinear and quadrupolar interactions occurring in some rare-earth intermetallics. In these two compounds, the quadrupolar exchange is many times stronger than the magnetoelastic coupling and the quadrupolar ordering then drives the structural transition. This situation is opposite to that occurring in (actual) Jahn-Teller compounds

  13. Effect of Dipolar Interactions on the Magnetization of Single-Molecule Magnets in a cubic lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara Ortigoza, Marisol

    2005-03-01

    Since the one-body tunnel picture of single-molecule magnets (SMM) is not always sufficient to explain the fine structure of experimental hysteresis loops, the effect of intermolecular dipolar interactions has been investigated on an ensemble of 100 3D-systems of 5X5X4 particles, each with spin S = 5, arranged in a cubic lattice. We have solved the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation for several values of the damping constant, the field sweep rate and the lattice constant. We find that the smaller the damping constant is, the stronger the maximum field needs to be to produce hysteresis. Furthermore, the shape of the hysteresis loops also depends on the damping constant. We also find that the system magnetizes and demagnetizes faster with decreasing sweep rates, resulting in smaller hysteresis loops. Variations of the lattice constant within realistic values (1.5nm and 2.5nm) show that the dipolar interaction plays an important role in magnetic hysteresis by controlling the relaxation process. Examination of temperature dependencies (0.1K and 0.7K) of the above will be presented and compared with recent experimental data on SMM.

  14. G-mode magnetic force microscopy: Separating magnetic and electrostatic interactions using big data analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Liam; Belianinov, Alex; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Institute for Functional Imaging of Materials, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Proksch, Roger [Asylum Research, An Oxford Instruments Company, Santa Barbara, California 93117 (United States); Zuo, Tingting [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Deptarment of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-2200 (United States); Zhang, Yong [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Liaw, Peter K. [Deptarment of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-2200 (United States)

    2016-05-09

    In this work, we develop a full information capture approach for Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM), referred to as generalized mode (G-Mode) MFM. G-Mode MFM acquires and stores the full data stream from the photodetector, captured at sampling rates approaching the intrinsic photodiode limit. The data can be subsequently compressed, denoised, and analyzed, without information loss. Here, G-Mode MFM is implemented and compared to the traditional heterodyne-based MFM on model systems, including domain structures in ferromagnetic Yttrium Iron Garnet and the electronically and magnetically inhomogeneous high entropy alloy, CoFeMnNiSn. We investigate the use of information theory to mine the G-Mode MFM data and demonstrate its usefulness for extracting information which may be hidden in traditional MFM modes, including signatures of nonlinearities and mode-coupling phenomena. Finally, we demonstrate detection and separation of magnetic and electrostatic tip-sample interactions from a single G-Mode image, by analyzing the entire frequency response of the cantilever. G-Mode MFM is immediately implementable on any atomic force microscopy platform and as such is expected to be a useful technique for probing spatiotemporal cantilever dynamics and mapping material properties, as well as their mutual interactions.

  15. Magnetostatic interactions and forces between cylindrical permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vokoun, David; Beleggia, Marco; Heller, Ludek; Sittner, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Permanent magnets of various shapes are often utilized in magnetic actuators, sensors or releasable magnetic fasteners. Knowledge of the magnetic force is required to control devices reliably. Here, we introduce an analytical expression for calculating the attraction force between two cylindrical permanent magnets on the assumption of uniform magnetization. Although the assumption is not fulfilled exactly in cylindrical magnets, we obtain a very good agreement between the calculated and measured forces between two identical cylindrical magnets and within an array of NdFeB cylindrical magnets.

  16. Suppression of Magnetic Quantum Tunneling in a Chiral Single-Molecule Magnet by Ferromagnetic Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Kai-Alexander; Mukherjee, Chandan; Broschinski, Jan-Philipp; Lippert, Yvonne; Walleck, Stephan; Stammler, Anja; Bögge, Hartmut; Schnack, Jürgen; Glaser, Thorsten

    2017-12-18

    Single-molecule magnets (SMMs) retain a magnetization without applied magnetic field for a decent time due to an energy barrier U for spin-reversal. Despite the success to increase U, the difficult to control magnetic quantum tunneling often leads to a decreased effective barrier U eff and a fast relaxation. Here, we demonstrate the influence of the exchange coupling on the tunneling probability in two heptanuclear SMMs hosting the same spin-system with the same high spin ground state S t = 21/2. A chirality-induced symmetry reduction leads to a switch of the Mn III -Mn III exchange from antiferromagnetic in the achiral SMM [Mn III 6 Cr III ] 3+ to ferromagnetic in the new chiral SMM RR [Mn III 6 Cr III ] 3+ . Multispin Hamiltonian analysis by full-matrix diagonalization demonstrates that the ferromagnetic interactions in RR [Mn III 6 Cr III ] 3+ enforce a well-defined S t = 21/2 ground state with substantially less mixing of M S substates in contrast to [Mn III 6 Cr III ] 3+ and no tunneling pathways below the top of the energy barrier. This is experimentally verified as U eff is smaller than the calculated energy barrier U in [Mn III 6 Cr III ] 3+ due to tunneling pathways, whereas U eff equals U in RR [Mn III 6 Cr III ] 3+ demonstrating the absence of quantum tunneling.

  17. Magnetic field of a dipole and the dipole-dipole interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2007-01-01

    With a data-acquisition system and sensors commercially available, it is easy to determine magnetic fields produced by permanent magnets and to study the dipole-dipole interaction for different separations and angular positions of the magnets. For sufficiently large distances, the results confirm the 1/R 3 law for the magnetic field and the 1/R 4 law for the interaction force between two dipoles, as well as their angular dependences

  18. Interactions of Cells with Magnetic Nanowires and Micro Needles

    KAUST Repository

    Perez, Jose E.

    2017-12-01

    The use of nanowires, nano and micro needles in biomedical applications has markedly increased in the past years, mainly due to attractive properties such as biocompatibility and simple fabrication. Specifically, these structures have shown promise in applications including cell separation, tumor cell capture, intracellular delivery, cell therapy, cancer treatment and as cell growth scaffolds. The work proposed here aims to study two platforms for different applications: a vertical magnetic nanowire array for mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and a micro needle platform for intracellular delivery. First, a thorough evaluation of the cytotoxicity of nanowires was done in order to understand how a biological system interacts with high aspect ratio structures. Nanowires were fabricated through pulsed electrodeposition and characterized by electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Studies of biocompatibility, cell death, cell membrane integrity, nanowire internalization and intracellular dissolution were all performed in order to characterize the cell response. Results showed a variable biocompatibility depending on nanowire concentration and incubation time, with cell death resulting from an apoptotic pathway arising after internalization. A vertical array of nanowires was then used as a scaffold for the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Using fluorescence and electron microscopy, the interactions between the dense array of nanowires and the cells were analyzed, as well as the biocompatibility of the array and its effects on cell differentiation. A magnetic field was additionally applied on the substrate to observe a possible differentiation. Stem cells grown on this scaffold showed a cytoskeleton and focal adhesion reorganization, and later expressed the osteogenic marker osteopontin. The application of a magnetic field counteracted this outcome. Lastly, a micro needle platform was fabricated

  19. Magnetic properties in kagomé lattice with RKKY interaction: A Monte Carlo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masrour, R., E-mail: rachidmasrour@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Materials, Processes, Environment and Quality, Cady Ayyed University, National School of Applied Sciences, 63, 46000 Safi (Morocco); Laboratoire de Magnétisme et Physique des Hautes Energies L.M.P.H.E.URAC 12, Université Mohammed V, Faculté des Sciences, B.P. 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Jabar, A. [Laboratoire de Magnétisme et Physique des Hautes Energies L.M.P.H.E.URAC 12, Université Mohammed V, Faculté des Sciences, B.P. 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Benyoussef, A. [Laboratoire de Magnétisme et Physique des Hautes Energies L.M.P.H.E.URAC 12, Université Mohammed V, Faculté des Sciences, B.P. 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology, Rabat (Morocco); Hamedoun, M. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco)

    2016-03-01

    The magnetic properties of the kagomé lattice have been studied with Ruderman–Kittel–Kasuya–Yosida (RKKY) exchange interactions in a spin-7/2 Ising model using Monte Carlo simulations. The RKKY interaction between the two magnetic layers is considered for different distances. The magnetizations and magnetic susceptibilities of this lattice are given for different triquadratic interactions around each triangular face. The critical temperature is obtained for a fixed size. The magnetic hysteresis cycle of kagomé lattice with RKKY interactions is obtained for different temperatures and for different crystal field with a fixed size of nonmagnetic layer. - Highlights: • We study the RKKY interaction in kagomé lattice using the Monte Carlo simulations. • The transition temperature is obtained for kagomé lattice with RKKY interaction. • The coercive field is obtained for kagomé lattice with RKKY interaction.

  20. Many particle magnetic dipole-dipole and hydrodynamic interactions in magnetizable stent assisted magnetic drug targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cregg, P.J.; Murphy, Kieran; Mardinoglu, Adil; Prina-Mello, Adriele

    2010-01-01

    The implant assisted magnetic targeted drug delivery system of Aviles, Ebner and Ritter is considered both experimentally (in vitro) and theoretically. The results of a 2D mathematical model are compared with 3D experimental results for a magnetizable wire stent. In this experiment a ferromagnetic, coiled wire stent is implanted to aid collection of particles which consist of single domain magnetic nanoparticles (radius ∼10nm). In order to model the agglomeration of particles known to occur in this system, the magnetic dipole-dipole and hydrodynamic interactions for multiple particles are included. Simulations based on this mathematical model were performed using open source C++ code. Different initial positions are considered and the system performance is assessed in terms of collection efficiency. The results of this model show closer agreement with the measured in vitro experimental results and with the literature. The implications in nanotechnology and nanomedicine are based on the prediction of the particle efficiency, in conjunction with the magnetizable stent, for targeted drug delivery.

  1. A study of interaction effect theoretical with combination size grain on magnetics in of permanent magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarihoran, Doansi; Manaf, Azwar

    2002-01-01

    Stoner-Wohlfarth theory, SW shows a deviation around 30-40% to the measurement result of a permanent magnetic material with nanometer-sized grains. This is caused by this theory neglecting the interacting grain factor. This research modifies SW theory by calculating the grain interacting effect. The modification is made by assuming the interacting energy of a mono-domain grain has ellipsoidal shaped focused at the edge of the grain. SW grain in this calculation model is a box-shaped in a grain with edges of the box placed in the skin's grain. The result shows that interacting effect make remanent polarization increasing drastically and coercive field value decreasing when grain's size reaches 20% of size of the first mono-domain grain. For material with ND 2 Fe 14 B phase, the optimum coercive field value and remanent polarization that producing maximum product energy, (BH) m ax obtained in a material with 5 nanometer-size grains. Qualitatively there is as appropriate result between the calculation and measurement

  2. Interaction between laser-produced plasma and guiding magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Jun; Takahashi, Kazumasa; Ikeda, Shunsuke; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Transportation properties of laser-produced plasma through a guiding magnetic field were examined. A drifting dense plasma produced by a KrF laser was injected into an axisymmetric magnetic field induced by permanent ring magnets. The plasma ion flux in the guiding magnetic field was measured by a Faraday cup at various distances from the laser target. Numerical analyses based on a collective focusing model were performed to simulate plasma particle trajectories and then compared with the experimental results. (author)

  3. Watermelon-like iron nanoparticles: Cr doping effect on magnetism and magnetization interaction reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Maninder; Dai, Qilin; Bowden, Mark; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wu, Yaqiao; Tang, Jinke; Qiang, You

    2013-08-01

    Cr-doped core-shell iron/iron-oxide nanoparticles (NPs) containing 0, 2, 5, and 8 at.% of Cr dopant were synthesized via a nanocluster deposition system and their structural and magnetic properties were investigated. We observed the formation of a σ-FeCr phase in 2 at.% of Cr doping in core-shell NPs. This is unique since it was reported in the past that the σ-phase forms above 20 at.% of Cr. The large coercive field and exchange bias are ascribed to the antiferromagnetic Cr2O3 layer formed with the Fe-oxide shell, which also acts as a passivation layer to decrease the Fe-oxide shell thickness. The additional σ-phase in the core and/or Cr2O3 in the shell cause the hysteresis loop to appear tight waisted near the zero-field axis. The exchange interaction competes with the dipolar interaction with the increase of σ-FeCr grains in the Fe-core. The interaction reversal has been observed in 8 at.% of Cr. The observed reversal mechanism is confirmed from the Henkel plot and delta M value, and is supported by a theoretical watermelon model based on the core-shell nanostructure system.

  4. Magnetization processes in quantum spin chains with regularly alternating intersite interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derzhko, O.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the dependence of magnetization on field at zero temperature for spin-1/2 chains in which intersite interactions regularly vary from site to site with period p. In the limiting case, where the smallest value of the intersite interactions tends to zero, the chain splits into noninteracting identical fragments of p sites and the dependence of magnetization on field can be examined rigorously. We comment on the influence of an anisotropy in the inter spin interaction on the magnetization profiles. Finally, we show how the case of a nonzero smallest value of the intersite interactions can be considered

  5. Controlling interactions between highly magnetic atoms with Feshbach resonances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotochigova, Svetlana

    2014-09-01

    This paper reviews current experimental and theoretical progress in the study of dipolar quantum gases of ground and meta-stable atoms with a large magnetic moment. We emphasize the anisotropic nature of Feshbach resonances due to coupling to fast-rotating resonant molecular states in ultracold s-wave collisions between magnetic atoms in external magnetic fields. The dramatic differences in the distribution of resonances of magnetic (7)S3 chromium and magnetic lanthanide atoms with a submerged 4f shell and non-zero electron angular momentum is analyzed. We focus on dysprosium and erbium as important experimental advances have been recently made to cool and create quantum-degenerate gases for these atoms. Finally, we describe progress in locating resonances in collisions of meta-stable magnetic atoms in electronic P-states with ground-state atoms, where an interplay between collisional anisotropies and spin-orbit coupling exists.

  6. Graphene as a flexible template for controlling magnetic interactions between metal atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungwoo; Kim, Dongwook; Robertson, Alex W; Yoon, Euijoon; Hong, Suklyun; Ihm, Jisoon; Yu, Jaejun; Warner, Jamie H; Lee, Gun-Do

    2017-03-01

    Metal-doped graphene produces magnetic moments that have potential application in spintronics. Here we use density function theory computational methods to show how the magnetic interaction between metal atoms doped in graphene can be controlled by the degree of flexure in a graphene membrane. Bending graphene by flexing causes the distance between two substitutional Fe atoms covalently bonded in graphene to gradually increase and these results in the magnetic moment disappearing at a critical strain value. At the critical strain, a carbon atom can enter between the two Fe atoms and blocks the interaction between relevant orbitals of Fe atoms to quench the magnetic moment. The control of interactions between doped atoms by exploiting the mechanical flexibility of graphene is a unique approach to manipulating the magnetic properties and opens up new opportunities for mechanical-magnetic 2D device systems.

  7. Relativistic stability of interacting Fermi gas in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lilin; Tian Jincheng; Men Fudian; Zhang Yipeng

    2013-01-01

    By means of the single particle energy spectrum of weak interaction between fermions and Poisson formula, the thermodynamic potential function of relativistic Fermi gas in a strong magnetic field is derived. Based on this, we obtained the criterion of stability for the system. The results show that the mechanics stability of a Fermi gas with weak interacting is influenced by the interacting. While the magnetic field is able to regulate the influence and the relativistic effect has almost no effect on it. (authors)

  8. Effect of magnetic field on nonlinear interactions of electromagnetic and surface waves in a plasma layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Sh.M.; El-Sherif, N.; El-Siragy, N.M.; Tanta Univ.; El-Naggar, I.A.; Alexandria Univ.

    1985-01-01

    Investigation is made for nonlinear interaction between incident radiation and a surface wave in a magnetized plasma layer. Both interacting waves are of P polarization. The generated currents and fields at combination frequencies are obtained analytically. Unlike the S-polarized interacting waves, the magnetic field affects the fundamental waves and leads to an amplification of generated waves when their frequencies approach the cyclotron frequency. (author)

  9. Comparison between simulation and experimentally observed interactions between two magnetic beads in a fluidic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oduwole, Olayinka, E-mail: olayinka.oduwole@eng.ox.ac.uk; Grob, David Tim, E-mail: tim.grob@eng.ox.ac.uk; Sheard, Steve, E-mail: steve.sheard@eng.ox.ac.uk

    2016-06-01

    Continuous flow separation of magnetic particles within a microfluidic device could lead to improved performance of magnetic bead-based assays but the undesirable formation of bead clusters reduces its efficiency; this efficiency refers to the ability to separate bound magnetic beads from a mixture of particles. Such agglomerates are formed due to magnetic binding forces while hydrodynamic interactions strongly influence the particles' movement. This paper presents a model for interactions between a pair of equal sized super-paramagnetic beads suspended in water within a uniform magnetic field. To the best of our knowledge, we present for the first time a comparison between simulated trajectories and the beads' movement captured on video; the beads were suspended in a stationary fluid placed within a uniform magnetic field. In conclusion, the model is a good approximation for beads interacting with their nearest neighbours and is able to predict the trajectory pattern of these particles in a magnetic bead-based assay. Predicting the magnetically induced interaction of nearby beads will help in determining the density of beads in an assay and in avoiding agglomeration over a fixed time duration. - Highlights: • We modelled the interactions between a pair of super-paramagnetic beads suspended in water within a uniform magnetic field. • We tracked the movement of the bead pair and captured it on video. • We compared the numerical results with the video data and achieved a good agreement. • We predicted the agglomeration time as a function of the separation distance.

  10. Determination of the saturation magnetization, anisotropy field, mean field interaction, and switching field distribution for nanocrystalline hard magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallum, R. William

    2005-01-01

    For a uniaxial nanocrystalline magnetic material, the determination of the saturation magnetization, M s , requires measurements of the magnetization at fields which exceed the anisotropy field. For a typical RE-Tm compound, where RE=rare earth and Tm=transition metal, this may require fields above 7 T if the approach to saturation law is used. However for an isotropic material composed of a random distribution of non-interacting uniaxial grains, both M s and the anisotropy filed, H a , may be determined by fitting the Stoner-Wohlfarth (SW) model (Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. 240 (1948) 599) to the reversible part of the demagnetization curve in the first quadrant. Furthermore, using the mean field interaction model of Callen, Liu and Cullen [2], a quantitative measure of the interaction strength for interacting particles may be determined. In conjunction with an analytical fit to the first quadrant demagnetization curve of the SW model, this allows M s , H a and the mean field interaction constant of a nanocrystalline magnet to be determined from measurements below 5 T. Furthermore, comparison of the model solution for the reversible magnetization with experimental data in the 2nd and 3rd quadrants allows the accurate determination of the switching field distribution. In many cases the hysteresis loop may be accurately described by a normal distribution of switching fields

  11. Equilibrium magnetization and microstructure of the system of superparamagnetic interacting particles: numerical simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Pshenichnikov, A F

    2000-01-01

    The Monte Carlo method is used to study the equilibrium magnetization of a 3D system of superparamagnetic particles taking into account the steric and dipole-dipole interparticle interactions. Two types of systems are considered: magnetic fluids and solidified ferrocolloids containing randomly spatially distributed particles with negligible energy of magnetic anisotropy. The results of numerical simulations confirm the universality of Langevin susceptibility as a main dimensionless parameter determining the influence of interparticle interactions on the magnetization of the system for moderate values of the aggregation parameter. The obtained results are in good agreement with theoretical and experimental data. At large values of the aggregation parameter, the clustering of particles in magnetic fluids is observed resulting in a reduction of their magnetization as compared to solidified systems. It is shown that the magnetization of solidified systems can be well described by the modified effective field appr...

  12. Equilibrium magnetization and microstructure of the system of superparamagnetic interacting particles: numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pshenichnikov, A.F.; Mekhonoshin, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    The Monte Carlo method is used to study the equilibrium magnetization of a 3D system of superparamagnetic particles taking into account the steric and dipole-dipole interparticle interactions. Two types of systems are considered: magnetic fluids and solidified ferrocolloids containing randomly spatially distributed particles with negligible energy of magnetic anisotropy. The results of numerical simulations confirm the universality of Langevin susceptibility as a main dimensionless parameter determining the influence of interparticle interactions on the magnetization of the system for moderate values of the aggregation parameter. The obtained results are in good agreement with theoretical and experimental data. At large values of the aggregation parameter, the clustering of particles in magnetic fluids is observed resulting in a reduction of their magnetization as compared to solidified systems. It is shown that the magnetization of solidified systems can be well described by the modified effective field approximation within the whole investigated range of parameters

  13. The Use of Magnetic Orientation as a Pinning Modality for Investigation of Photon-Magnon Interactions in Magnetic Nanoparticle Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuong, Giap Van; Su, Luong Van; Tue, Nguyen Anh; Khanh, Hoang Quoc; Tuan, Nguyen Anh

    2018-06-01

    In this work, an experimental setup to study the dependence of a visible-light transmission through a magnetic granular film on the magnetic field direction was presented. The results measured the transmission (T) of the visible light, with the wavelengths λ were in the range from 560 to 695 nm, by the magnetic nanogranular films Cox-(Al2O3)100-x system, with Co compositions are x = 10 ÷ 45 at.%, as a function of the magnetic field direction were reported. These investigations were carried out under an external magnetic field of H = 400 Oe, which directs to the normal of the sample surface by an angle varied in the range of φ = 0° ÷ 45°, to magnetize the magnetization direction of all the Co particles following this direction. Consequently, the angle φ between the magnetization direction with the incident-light direction, which sets as the optical axis of the system and always keeps fixedly to the normal of the sample surface, is established. The experimental results showed the different dependencies of T on the angle φ, the magnetic field H, the Co composition x, and the wavelength λ. These dependencies attributed to a behavior that relates to so-called photon-magnon interaction.

  14. Interaction between current imbalance and magnetization in LHC cables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkamp, M.; Kuijper, A.; Kuijper, A.; den Ouden, A.; ten Haken, Bernard; Bottura, L.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.

    2001-01-01

    The quality of the magnetic field in superconducting accelerator magnets is associated with the properties of the superconducting cable. Current imbalances due to coupling currents ¿I, as large as 100 A, are induced by spatial variations of the field sweep rate and contact resistances. During

  15. First national meeting of magnetic resonance and hyperfine interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    Works performed at CNEA's: Magnetic Resonance Division; Moessbauer Spectroscopy; Solid State Physics Division; Nuclear magnetic Resonance Laboratory and Theoretical Physics Group; Mossbauer Spectroscopy Group; Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance; Physics and Materials Group; Perturbed Angular Correlation and Moessbauer Spectroscopy and Physics Department. (M.E.L.) [es

  16. Dimensional dependence of exchange interactions at high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehnder, U.; Kuhn-Heinrich, B.; Ossau, W.; Waag, A.; Landwehr, G.; Cheng, H.H.; Nicholas, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    We studied the contribution of the breaking of the antiferromagnetically coupled spin clusters to the total magnetization in thin (CdMn)Te layers as a function of the layer thickness by reflectivity spectroscopy in magnetic fields up to 45 T. The experimental results show that the contribution of the breaking of antiferromagnetically coupled spin clusters is reduced by decreasing layer thickness. (author)

  17. Magnetostatic interactions and forces between cylindrical permanent magnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vokoun, David; Beleggia, M.; Heller, Luděk; Šittner, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 321, č. 22 (2009), s. 3758-3763 ISSN 0304-8853 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 46559 - CERINKA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : cylinder * force measurement * magnetostatic * permanent magnet Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.204, year: 2009

  18. Giant Magnetoresistance: Basic Concepts, Microstructure, Magnetic Interactions and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennen, Inga; Kappe, Daniel; Rempel, Thomas; Glenske, Claudia; Hütten, Andreas

    2016-06-17

    The giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect is a very basic phenomenon that occurs in magnetic materials ranging from nanoparticles over multilayered thin films to permanent magnets. In this contribution, we first focus on the links between effect characteristic and underlying microstructure. Thereafter, we discuss design criteria for GMR-sensor applications covering automotive, biosensors as well as nanoparticular sensors.

  19. Casimir potential of a compact object enclosed by a spherical cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaheer, Saad; Rahi, Sahand Jamal; Emig, Thorsten; Jaffe, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    We study the electromagnetic Casimir interaction of a compact object contained inside a closed cavity of another compact object. We express the interaction energy in terms of the objects' scattering matrices and translation matrices that relate the coordinate systems appropriate to each object. When the enclosing object is an otherwise empty metallic spherical shell, much larger than the internal object, and the two are sufficiently separated, the Casimir force can be expressed in terms of the static electric and magnetic multipole polarizabilities of the internal object, which is analogous to the Casimir-Polder result. Although it is not a simple power law, the dependence of the force on the separation of the object from the containing sphere is a universal function of its displacement from the center of the sphere, independent of other details of the object's electromagnetic response. Furthermore, we compute the exact Casimir force between two metallic spheres contained one inside the other at arbitrary separations. Finally, we combine our results with earlier work on the Casimir force between two spheres to obtain data on the leading-order correction to the proximity force approximation for two metallic spheres both outside and within one another.

  20. Disruptive effect of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction on the magnetic memory cell performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampaio, J.; Cubukcu, M.; Cros, V.; Reyren, N., E-mail: nicolas.reyren@thalesgroup.com [Unité Mixte de Physique, CNRS, Thales, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91767, Palaiseau (France); Khvalkovskiy, A. V. [Samsung Electronics, Semiconductor R& D Center (Grandis), San Jose, California 95134 (United States); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, State University, Moscow 141700 (Russian Federation); Kuteifan, M.; Lomakin, V. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0407 (United States); Apalkov, D. [Samsung Electronics, Semiconductor R& D Center (Grandis), San Jose, California 95134 (United States)

    2016-03-14

    In order to increase the thermal stability of a magnetic random access memory cell, materials with high spin-orbit interaction are often introduced in the storage layer. As a side effect, a strong Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) may arise in such systems. Here, we investigate the impact of DMI on the magnetic cell performance, using micromagnetic simulations. We find that DMI strongly promotes non-uniform magnetization states and non-uniform switching modes of the magnetic layer. It appears to be detrimental for both the thermal stability of the cell and its switching current, leading to considerable deterioration of the cell performance even for a moderate DMI amplitude.

  1. Interaction of a supersonic plasma jet with a coaxial dipole magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landes, K.

    1975-01-01

    A low pressure plasma jet of considerable conductivity can be influenced by a magnetic field. On the other hand the influencing magnetic field is changed by currents induced in the plasma jet. New astrophysical examples of suchlike interaction have been found in the investigation of the moon, where the partially not currentfree solar wind is influenced by locally confined magnetic fields. In the experiment reported, the interaction of a supersonic plasma jet with a coaxial, dipole-shaped magnetic field is investigated. A current is superimposed to the plasma jet. (Auth.)

  2. Color interaction of quarks and magnetic moments of baryons in the bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivoruchenko, M.I.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to saccount for the quark interaction in the bag model by calculating corrections to the baryon magnetic moments related to the colour interaction of quarks. The quark-in-bag wave function to that holds the confinement linear boundary condition has been found in the first order for the external magnetic field. Corrections to the baryon magnetic moments are calculated. They are related to energy variations of colour electric and colour magnetic fields. Numerical data are presented and the structure of corrections in the SU-3 group approximation is discussed. The results are compared with the potential model and the experiment

  3. The Interaction of Magnetizations with an External Electromagnetic Field and a Time-Dependent Magnetic Aharonov-Bohm Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, G.N.; Stepanovskij, Yu.P.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate how the choice of the magnetization distribution inside the sample affects its interaction with the external electromagnetic field. The strong selectivity to the time dependence of the external electromagnetic field arises for the particular magnetizations. This can be used for the storage and ciphering of information. We propose a time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm-like experiment in which the phase of the wave function is changed by the time-dependent vector magnetic potential. The arising time-dependent interference picture may be viewed as a new channel for the information transfer. 15 refs., 4 figs

  4. Controllable magnetic thermal rectification in a SMM dimmer with the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ai-Hua; Liu, Juan; Luo, Bo

    2016-10-01

    Using the quantum master equation, we studied the thermally driven magnonic spin current in a single-molecule magnet (SMM) dimer with the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). Due to the asymmetric DMI, one can observe the thermal rectifying effect in the case of the spatial symmetry coupling with the thermal reservoirs. The properties of the thermal rectification can be controlled by tuning the angle and intensity of the magnetic field. Specially, when the DM vector and magnetic field point at the specific angles, the thermal rectifying effect disappears. And this phenomenon does not depend on the intensities of DMI and magnetic field, the temperature bias and the magnetic anisotropies of the SMM.

  5. Envelope detection using temporal magnetization dynamics of resonantly interacting spin-torque oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Y.; Nishikawa, M.; Osawa, H.; Okamoto, Y.; Kanao, T.; Sato, R.

    2018-05-01

    In this article, we propose the detection method of the recorded data pattern by the envelope of the temporal magnetization dynamics of resonantly interacting spin-torque oscillator on the microwave assisted magnetic recording for three-dimensional magnetic recording. We simulate the envelope of the waveform from recorded dots with the staggered magnetization configuration, which are calculated by using a micromagnetic simulation. We study the data detection methods for the envelope and propose a soft-output Viterbi algorithm (SOVA) for partial response (PR) system as a signal processing system for three dimensional magnetic recording.

  6. Magnetic field manipulation of spin current in a single-molecule magnet tunnel junction with two-electron Coulomb interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Yao, Hui; Nie, Yi-Hang; Liang, Jiu-Qing; Niu, Peng-Bin

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we study the generation of spin-current in a single-molecule magnet (SMM) tunnel junction with Coulomb interaction of transport electrons and external magnetic field. In the absence of field the spin-up and -down currents are symmetric with respect to the initial polarizations of molecule. The existence of magnetic field breaks the time-reversal symmetry, which leads to unsymmetrical spin currents of parallel and antiparallel polarizations. Both the amplitude and polarization direction of spin current can be controlled by the applied magnetic field. Particularly when the magnetic field increases to a certain value the spin-current with antiparallel polarization is reversed along with the magnetization reversal of the SMM. The two-electron occupation indeed enhances the transport current compared with the single-electron process. However the increase of Coulomb interaction results in the suppression of spin-current amplitude at the electron-hole symmetry point. We propose a scheme to compensate the suppression with the magnetic field.

  7. Finite element modeling of nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvesters with magnetic interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadrashta, Deepesh; Yang, Yaowen

    2015-01-01

    Piezoelectric energy harvesting from ambient vibrations is a potential technology for powering wireless sensors and low power electronic devices. The conventional linear harvesters suffer from narrow operational bandwidth. Many attempts have been made especially using the magnetic interaction to broaden the bandwidth of harvesters. The finite element (FE) modeling has been used only for analyzing the linear harvesters in the literature. The main difficulties in extending the FE modeling to analyze the nonlinear harvesters involving magnetic interaction are developing the mesh needed for magnetic interaction in dynamic problems and the high demand on computational resource needed for solving the coupled electrical–mechanical–magnetic problem. In this paper, an innovative method is proposed to model the magnetic interaction without inclusion of the magnetic module. The magnetic force is modeled using the nonlinear spring element available in ANSYS finite element analysis (FEA) package, thus simplifying the simulation of nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvesters as an electromechanically coupled problem. Firstly, an FE model of a monostable nonlinear harvester with cantilever configuration is developed and the results are validated with predictions from the theoretical model. Later, the proposed technique of FE modeling is extended to a complex 2-degree of freedom nonlinear energy harvester for which an accurate analytical model is difficult to derive. The performance predictions from FEA are compared with the experimental results. It is concluded that the proposed modeling technique is able to accurately analyze the behavior of nonlinear harvesters with magnetic interaction. (paper)

  8. Measurement of the magnetic interaction between two bound electrons of two separate ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Navon, Nir; Glickman, Yinnon; Ozeri, Roee

    2014-06-19

    Electrons have an intrinsic, indivisible, magnetic dipole aligned with their internal angular momentum (spin). The magnetic interaction between two electronic spins can therefore impose a change in their orientation. Similar dipolar magnetic interactions exist between other spin systems and have been studied experimentally. Examples include the interaction between an electron and its nucleus and the interaction between several multi-electron spin complexes. The challenge in observing such interactions for two electrons is twofold. First, at the atomic scale, where the coupling is relatively large, it is often dominated by the much larger Coulomb exchange counterpart. Second, on scales that are substantially larger than the atomic, the magnetic coupling is very weak and can be well below the ambient magnetic noise. Here we report the measurement of the magnetic interaction between the two ground-state spin-1/2 valence electrons of two (88)Sr(+) ions, co-trapped in an electric Paul trap. We varied the ion separation, d, between 2.18 and 2.76 micrometres and measured the electrons' weak, millihertz-scale, magnetic interaction as a function of distance, in the presence of magnetic noise that was six orders of magnitude larger than the magnetic fields the electrons apply on each other. The cooperative spin dynamics was kept coherent for 15 seconds, during which spin entanglement was generated, as verified by a negative measured value of -0.16 for the swap entanglement witness. The sensitivity necessary for this measurement was provided by restricting the spin evolution to a decoherence-free subspace that is immune to collective magnetic field noise. Our measurements show a d(-3.0(4)) distance dependence for the coupling, consistent with the inverse-cube law.

  9. Winds of Massive Magnetic Stars: Interacting Fields and Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley-Yates, S.; Stevens, I. R.

    2018-01-01

    We present results of 3D numerical simulations of magnetically confined, radiatively driven stellar winds of massive stars, conducted using the astrophysical MHD code Pluto, with a focus on understanding the rotational variability of radio and sub-mm emission. Radiative driving is implemented according to the Castor, Abbott and Klein theory of radiatively driven winds. Many magnetic massive stars posses a magnetic axis which is inclined with respect to the rotational axis. This misalignment leads to a complex wind structure as magnetic confinement, centrifugal acceleration and radiative driving act to channel the circumstellar plasma into a warped disk whose observable properties should be apparent in multiple wavelengths. This structure is analysed to calculate free-free thermal radio emission and determine the characteristic intensity maps and radio light curves.

  10. Reversible control of magnetic interactions by electric field in a single-phase material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, P J; Kim, J-W; Birol, T; Thompson, P; Lee, J-H; Ke, X; Normile, P S; Karapetrova, E; Schiffer, P; Brown, S D; Fennie, C J; Schlom, D G

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsic magnetoelectric coupling describes the interaction between magnetic and electric polarization through an inherent microscopic mechanism in a single-phase material. This phenomenon has the potential to control the magnetic state of a material with an electric field, an enticing prospect for device engineering. Here, we demonstrate 'giant' magnetoelectric cross-field control in a tetravalent titanate film. In bulk form, EuTiO(3), is antiferromagnetic. However, both anti and ferromagnetic interactions coexist between different nearest europium neighbours. In thin epitaxial films, strain was used to alter the relative strength of the magnetic exchange constants. We not only show that moderate biaxial compression precipitates local magnetic competition, but also demonstrate that the application of an electric field at this strain condition switches the magnetic ground state. Using first-principles density functional theory, we resolve the underlying microscopic mechanism resulting in G-type magnetic order and illustrate how it is responsible for the 'giant' magnetoelectric effect.

  11. Dimensional dependence of exchange interactions at high magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, U.; Kuhn-Heinrich, B.; Ossau, W.; Waag, A.; Landwehr, G. [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Cheng, H.H.; Nicholas, R.J. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    We studied the contribution of the breaking of the antiferromagnetically coupled spin clusters to the total magnetization in thin (CdMn)Te layers as a function of the layer thickness by reflectivity spectroscopy in magnetic fields up to 45 T. The experimental results show that the contribution of the breaking of antiferromagnetically coupled spin clusters is reduced by decreasing layer thickness. (author) 6 refs, 2 refs

  12. Soliton–antisoliton interaction in a parametrically driven easy-plane magnetic wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urzagasti, D., E-mail: deterlino@yahoo.com [Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas, UMSA, P.O. Box 8635, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Aramayo, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas, UMSA, P.O. Box 8635, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Laroze, D. [Instituto de Alta Investigación, Universidad de Tarapacá, Casilla 7D, Arica (Chile); Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, 55021 Mainz (Germany)

    2014-07-11

    In the present work we study the soliton–antisoliton interaction in an anisotropic easy-plane magnetic wire forced by a transverse uniform and oscillatory magnetic field. This system is described in the continuous framework by the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation. We find numerically that the spatio-temporal magnetization field exhibits both annihilative and repulsive soliton–antisoliton interactions. We also describe this system with the aim of the associated Parametrically Driven and Damped Nonlinear Schrödinger amplitude equation and give an approximate analytical solution that roughly describes the repulsive interaction. - Highlights: • We study the interactions of solitons with opposite polarity with the LLG equation. • We found that there exists both annihilative and repulsive interactions. • Similar results we found for the Parametrically Driven and Damped NLS equation. • We obtain an approximate analytical solution for the repulsive interaction.

  13. Generation of ten kilotesla longitudinal magnetic fields in ultraintense laser-solenoid target interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, K. D.; Zhou, C. T.; Zhang, H.; Huang, T. W.; Li, R.; Qiao, B.; Cao, J. M.; Cai, T. X.; Ruan, S. C.; He, X. T.

    2018-01-01

    Production of the huge longitudinal magnetic fields by using an ultraintense laser pulse irradiating a solenoid target is considered. Through three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, it is shown that the longitudinal magnetic field up to ten kilotesla can be observed in the ultraintense laser-solenoid target interactions. The finding is associated with both fast and return electron currents in the solenoid target. The huge longitudinal magnetic field is of interest for a number of impo...

  14. Interaction of counter-streaming plasma flows in dipole magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikhislamov, I F; Posukh, V G; Melekhov, A V; Prokopov, P A; Boyarintsev, E L; Zakharov, Yu P; Ponomarenko, A G

    2017-01-01

    Transient interaction of counter-streaming super-sonic plasma flows in dipole magnetic dipole is studied in laboratory experiment. First quasi-stationary flow is produced by teta-pinch and forms a magnetosphere around the magnetic dipole while laser beams focused at the surface of the dipole cover launch second explosive plasma expanding from inner dipole region outward. Laser plasma is energetic enough to disrupt magnetic field and to sweep through the background plasma for large distances. ...

  15. Logic of quench protection assembly for BEPC II interaction region superconducting magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Fusan; Cheng Jian

    2006-01-01

    Two superconducting magnet complexes are used in BEPC II interaction region. The corresponding quench protection system divides all related faults into two classes and takes different protection actions according to the urgency degree. Since BEPC II has two operating modes and the superconducting magnets use different power supplies in different operating modes, the quench protection system must take the mode switching into consideration. (authors)

  16. On the resonant state of magnetization in array of interacting nanodots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, P. D.; Orlov, V. A.; Rudenko, R. Yu.; Prokopenko, V. S.; Orlova, I. N.; Kobyakov, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    Development of the interpretation of the phenomenon of the lift of the magnetic resonance frequencies degeneracy caused by the magnetostatic interaction in assemblies of nanodisks has been done. The difference of the resonance behavior of magnetic vortexes in a round and rectangular nanodots has been studied experimentally and explained.

  17. Spin-glass-like ordering of the magnetic moments of interacting nanosized maghemite particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Bødker, Franz; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    1995-01-01

    Samples of interacting nanosized maghemite particles have been studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetization measurements. The apparent blocking temperatures obtained from Mössbauer spectroscopy and zero-field-cooled magnetization curves are nearly identical, but the values obtained from...

  18. Static magnetic fields: A summary of biological interactions, potential health effects, and exposure guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1992-05-01

    Interest in the mechanisms of interaction and the biological effects of static magnetic fields has increased significantly during the past two decades as a result of the growing number of applications of these fields in research, industry and medicine. A major stimulus for research on the bioeffects of static magnetic fields has been the effort to develop new technologies for energy production and storage that utilize intense magnetic fields (e.g., thermonuclear fusion reactors and superconducting magnet energy storage devices). Interest in the possible biological interactions and health effects of static magnetic fields has also been increased as a result of recent developments in magnetic levitation as a mode of public transportation. In addition, the rapid emergence of magnetic resonance imaging as a new clinical diagnostic procedure has, in recent years, provided a strong rationale for defining the possible biological effects of magnetic fields with high flux densities. In this review, the principal interaction mechanisms of static magnetic fields will be described, and a summary will be given of the present state of knowledge of the biological, environmental, and human health effects of these fields.

  19. Effects of second neighbor interactions on skyrmion lattices in chiral magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, E A S; Silva, R L; Silva, R C; Pereira, A R

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the influences of the second neighbor interactions on a skyrmion lattice in two-dimensional chiral magnets. Such a system contains the exchange and the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya for the spin interactions and therefore, we analyse three situations: firstly, the second neighbor interaction is present only in the exchange coupling; secondly, it is present only in the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya coupling. Finally, the second neighbor interactions are present in both exchange and Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya couplings. We show that such effects cause important modifications to the helical and skyrmion phases when an external magnetic field is applied. (paper)

  20. Magnetic behavior of Van Vleck ions and an electron gas interacting by exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palermo, L.; Silva, X.A. da.

    1980-01-01

    The magnetic behavior of a model in which Van Vleck ions, under the action of a crystal field, interacting by exchange with an electron gas is investigated. The condition of onset of ferromagnetism and the behavior of the critical temperature, band and ionic magnetizations (and susceptibilities) versus temperature, as a function of the band width, exchange interaction and the crystal field splitting energy parameters are obtained within an approximation equivalent to a molecular field formulation. (Author) [pt

  1. Effect of pb on the magnetic interactions of the M-type hexaferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, A.L., E-mail: azdlobo@gmail.com [Instituto de Física de la Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Álvaro Obregón No. 64, Col. Centro, San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. 78000, México (Mexico); Mirabal-García, M. [Instituto de Física de la Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Álvaro Obregón No. 64, Col. Centro, San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. 78000, México (Mexico); Palomares-Sánchez, S.A.; Martínez, J.R. [Facultad de Ciencias de la Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Álvaro Obregón No. 64, Col. Centro, San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. 78000, México (Mexico)

    2016-02-01

    This work reports the magnetic interactions of M-type lead hexaferrites. The samples were prepared using the solid state reaction method varying the lead concentration and compensating its lost by thermal treatment in order to obtain pure phases. The structural characterization was made through X-ray diffraction and the Rietveld refinement method. The morphology and grain-growth analysis were carried out using scanning electron microscopy. The magnetic interactions were studied through isothermal remanence (IRM) and DC demagnetization (DCD) remanence curves and through the construction of Henkel plots. By analyzing deviations from the Stoner–Wohlfarth model for non-interacting particles, it was determined the way in which lead modifies the interaction state in the hexaferrites. The experimental results show that the demagnetizing interactions prevail in systems with high lead content, and as lead concentration diminishes the intensity of magnetic interactions also decreases giving rise to magnetizing interactions - Highlights: • Construction of Henkel Plots of substituted hexaferrites. • Evaluation of magnetostatic and exchange interactions. • Effect of lead substitution on magnetic properties of the hexaferrites.

  2. Interaction of gravitational waves with magnetic and electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrabes, C.; Hogan, P. A.

    2010-01-01

    The existence of large-scale magnetic fields in the universe has led to the observation that if gravitational waves propagating in a cosmological environment encounter even a small magnetic field then electromagnetic radiation is produced. To study this phenomenon in more detail we take it out of the cosmological context and at the same time simplify the gravitational radiation to impulsive waves. Specifically, to illustrate our findings, we describe the following three physical situations: (1) a cylindrical impulsive gravitational wave propagating into a universe with a magnetic field, (2) an axially symmetric impulsive gravitational wave propagating into a universe with an electric field and (3) a 'spherical' impulsive gravitational wave propagating into a universe with a small magnetic field. In cases (1) and (3) electromagnetic radiation is produced behind the gravitational wave. In case (2) no electromagnetic radiation appears after the wave unless a current is established behind the wave breaking the Maxwell vacuum. In all three cases the presence of the magnetic or electric fields results in a modification of the amplitude of the incoming gravitational wave which is explicitly calculated using the Einstein-Maxwell vacuum field equations.

  3. Influence of magnetostatic interactions on the magnetization reversal of patterned magnetic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Xioalu; Liou, S. H.; Adeyeye, A. O.; Jain, S.; Han Baoshan

    2011-01-01

    The magnetization reversal in patterned thin-film arrays of elliptical submicron permalloy elements has been investigated by magnetic-force microscopy and micro-magneto-optic Kerr effect. Three different spatial arrangements of chains are considered, namely chains aligned parallel to the long axis of the ellipse, chains aligned parallel to the short axis of the ellipse, and arrays with roughly equal element-to-element spacings in both directions. Comparison of the hysteresis loops in an in-plane field perpendicular to the ellipses' long axes shows that the magnetization reversibility is highest for chains along the long axis. This is due to the nearly coherent magnetization rotation in the applied magnetic field and to the formation of a head-to-tail domain arrangement. Other arrangements, such as chains of ellipses aligned parallel to short axis, yield flux-closure domains as the applied magnetic field is changed.

  4. Magnetic properties of magnetic liquids with iron-oxide particles - the influence of anisotropy and interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, C.; Hanson, M.; Pedersen, Michael Stanley

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic liquids containing iron-oxide particles were investigated by magnetization and Mossbauer measurements. The particles were shown to be maghemite with a spontanious saturation magentization Ms = 320 kA m-1 at 200 K and a normalized high-field susceptibility x/M0 = 5.1x10-6 mkA-1, practically...... independent of temperature. Ms increases with decreasing temperature according to an effective Bloch law with an exponent larger than 1.5, as expected for fine magnetic particles. The model of magnetic particles with uniaxial anisotropy and the actual size distribution gives a consistent description...... of independent measurements of the temperature dependence of the hyperfine field and the isothermal magnetization versus field. From this an effective anisotropy constant of about 4.5x10 4 J m-3 is estimated for a particle with diameter 7.5 nm. The magnetic relaxation, as observed in zero...

  5. Creation and Annihilation of Skyrmions in the Frustrated Magnets with Competing Exchange Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yong; Chi, Xiaodan; Li, Xuesi; Liu, Yan; Du, An

    2017-11-22

    In triangular-lattice magnets, the coexistence of third-neighbor antiferromagnetic and nearest-neighbor ferromagnetic exchange interactions can induce rich magnetic phases including noncoplanar skyrmion crystals. Based on Monte Carlo simulation, we studied the dependence of magnetic phase transition on exchange interaction strength. Under the consideration of uniaxial anisotropy and magnetic field both perpendicular to the film plane, a large antiferromagnetic exchange interaction induces a high frustration. When the value of antiferromagnetic exchange interaction is one and a half times larger than the ferromagnetic one, a magnetic phase composed of canting spin stripes, never observed in the chiral magnets, forms. Interestingly, different canting spin stripes along three 120 degree propagation directions may coexist randomly in a magnetic phase, attesting that the canting spin stripes are three-fold degenerate states akin to helices and the multiple state of canting spin stripes is a circular configuration with zero skyrmion charge number. Moreover, skyrmions and antiskyrmions can be observed simultaneously in the configuration at the low temperature nearly close to 0 K, and their configuration and diameter properties are discussed. Finally, the mechanisms of skyrmion creation and annihilation are properly interpreted by comparing exchange and Zeeman energy terms.

  6. Crystal field symmetry and magnetic interactions in rare earth-silver amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappa, Catherine.

    1979-01-01

    A study has been made of the following rare earth based amorphous alloys: Ndsub(x)Agsub(100-x), Prsub(x)Agsub(100-x), Gdsub(x)Agsub(100-x), Tlsub(x)Agsub(100-x). In rare earth based amorphous alloys, the symmetrical distribution of the crystal field is very wide and hence not very sensitive to the content of the alloys. The existence of preponderant negative magnetic interactions leads to an upset magnetic order, the magnetization of a small volume not being nil. The magnetic behaviour of alloys with a small concentration of rare earths is governed by the existence of clusters of statistical origin, within which a rare earth ion has at least one other rare earth ion in the position of first neighbour. The presence of a high anisotropy at low temperatures make the magnetic interactions between clusters inoperative [fr

  7. Interactions between charged particles in a magnetic field a theoretical approach to lon stopping in magnetized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Nersisyan, Hrachya; Zwicknagel, Günter

    2007-01-01

    This monograph focusses on the influence of a strong magnetic field on the interactions between charged particles in a many-body system. Two complementary approaches, the binary collision model and the dielectric theory are investigated in both analytical and numerical frameworks. In the binary collision model, the Coulomb interaction between the test and the target particles is screened because of the polarization of the target. In the continuum dielectric theory one considers the interactions between the test particle and its polarization cloud. In the presence of a strong magnetic field, there exists no suitable parameter of smallness. Linearized and perturbative treatments are not more valid and must be replaced by numerical grid or particle methods. Applications include the electron cooling of ion beams in storage rings and the final deceleration of antiprotons and heavy ion beams in traps.

  8. Magnetic-superexchange interactions of uranium(IV) chloride-addition complexes with amides, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Chie; Hinatsu, Yukio; Imoto, Shosuke

    1983-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibilities of five cyclic amide (lactam)-addition complexes of uranium(IV) chloride were measured between room temperature and 2 K. Magnetic-exchange interaction was found only for N-methyl-substituted amide complexes, and a dimer structure was assumed for them on the basis of their chemical properties. Treating interdimer interaction with a molecular-field approximation, the magnetic susceptibilities were calculated to be in good agreement with the experimental results in the temperature region of the maxima in chi sub(A). The transmission of antiparallel spin coupling via the π orbitals of the bridging amide ligands is proposed to explain the strong intradimer superexchange interaction for the uranium(IV) chloride-amide complexes with the magnetic-susceptibility maximum. (author)

  9. Particle-In-Cell Simulations of the Solar Wind Interaction with Lunar Crustal Magnetic Anomalies: Magnetic Cusp Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, A. R.; Halekas, J. S.; Delory, G. T.; Farrell, W. M.

    2012-01-01

    As the solar wind is incident upon the lunar surface, it will occasionally encounter lunar crustal remanent magnetic fields. These magnetic fields are small-scale, highly non-dipolar, have strengths up to hundreds of nanotesla, and typically interact with the solar wind in a kinetic fashion. Simulations, theoretical analyses, and spacecraft observations have shown that crustal fields can reflect solar wind protons via a combination of magnetic and electrostatic reflection; however, analyses of surface properties have suggested that protons may still access the lunar surface in the cusp regions of crustal magnetic fields. In this first report from a planned series of studies, we use a 1 1/2-dimensional, electrostatic particle-in-cell code to model the self-consistent interaction between the solar wind, the cusp regions of lunar crustal remanent magnetic fields, and the lunar surface. We describe the self-consistent electrostatic environment within crustal cusp regions and discuss the implications of this work for the role that crustal fields may play regulating space weathering of the lunar surface via proton bombardment.

  10. Interaction between adrenaline and dibenzo-18-crown-6: Electrochemical, nuclear magnetic resonance, and theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhang-Yu; Liu, Tao; Wang, Xue-Liang

    2014-12-01

    The interaction between adrenaline (Ad) and dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6) was studied by cyclic voltammetry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and the theoretical calculations, respectively. The results show that DB18C6 will affect the electron transfer properties of Ad. DB18C6 can form stable supramolecular complexes with Ad through ion-dipole and hydrogen bond interactions.

  11. Searching for resonances in the helicity conversion of neutrinos interacting with rotating magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellandi, Jose; Guzzo, Marcelo M.; Hollanda, Pedro C. de

    1997-01-01

    Assuming that neutrino magnetic moment is not null, we study the evolution of neutrinos submitted to rotating magnetic fields, and the way the evolution can convert 'left' helicity neutrinos (actives) into 'right' neutrinos (sterile). We use the fact that the 'right' neutrinos do not interact with the detectors to obtain information on the neutrino magnetic field magnitude. For solving the neutrino evolution equation, the expansion method was combined with steady phase approximation used for the expansion integrals solution. The possibility of 'left' conversion into 'right' neutrinos has been calculated as function of the evolution matrix parameters (neutrino magnetic moment, electron density of the medium, the magnetic field magnitude and phase, etc). We made an attempt to obtain fitting of the parameter conditions in order to occur resonances in the neutrino transition probability, and therefore to obtain information on the limits for neutrino magnetic moments from the controlled beam helicity

  12. Anisotropic Exchange Interaction in the Conical Magnetic Phase of Erbium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.

    1974-01-01

    From a general two ion spin Hamiltonian, an expression is deduced for the energies of spin waves propagating in a hexagonal solid in which the magnetic moments are ordered in a conical or helical structure. The spin wave dispersion relation in the c direction of Er in its conical magnetic phase...... at 4.5K, which has been studied by Nicklow et al (1971) is reanalysed. In this analysis an alternative kind of anisotropic coupling between the total angular moments (Ji and Jj) on the sites i and j is introduced which is proportional to the following combination of Racah operators: O2, -2(Ji), O2, -2......(Jj), expressed with respect to a coordinate system with the z axis along the c direction. The resulting anisotropy (both the constant and the q dependent part) is reduced by an order of magnitude in comparison with that deduced by Nicklow et al (1971). The constant anisotropy is found to be equal...

  13. Ab initio theory of magnetic interactions at surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, C; Graaf, C de; Lopez, N; Harrison, N M; Illas, F

    2004-01-01

    The low to high spin energy transition of Ni adsorbed on regular and defective sites of MgO(100) and the relative strengths of bulk and surface magnetic coupling constants of first row transition metal oxides (MnO, FeO, CoO, NiO and CuO) are taken as examples to illustrate some deficiencies of density functional theory (DFT). For these ionic systems a cluster/periodic comparison within the same computational method (either DFT or Hartree-Fock) is used to establish that embedded cluster models provide an adequate representation. The cluster model approach is then used to obtain accurate values for the magnetic properties of interest by using explicitly correlated wavefunction methods which handle the electronic open shell rigorously as spin eigenfunctions

  14. Ab initio theory of magnetic interactions at surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, C [Departament de Quimica Fisica i Centre de Recerca en Quimica Teorica, Universitat de Barcelona i Parc Cientific de Barcelona, C/ MartI i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Graaf, C de [Departament de Quimica Fisica i Inorganica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, P. Imperial Tarraco 1, E-43005 Tarragona (Spain); Lopez, N [Departament de Quimica Fisica i Centre de Recerca en Quimica Teorica, Universitat de Barcelona i Parc Cientific de Barcelona, C/ Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Harrison, N M [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London SW7 2AY (United Kingdom); Illas, F [Departament de Quimica Fisica i Centre de Recerca en Quimica Teorica, Universitat de Barcelona i Parc Cientific de Barcelona, C/ Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2004-07-07

    The low to high spin energy transition of Ni adsorbed on regular and defective sites of MgO(100) and the relative strengths of bulk and surface magnetic coupling constants of first row transition metal oxides (MnO, FeO, CoO, NiO and CuO) are taken as examples to illustrate some deficiencies of density functional theory (DFT). For these ionic systems a cluster/periodic comparison within the same computational method (either DFT or Hartree-Fock) is used to establish that embedded cluster models provide an adequate representation. The cluster model approach is then used to obtain accurate values for the magnetic properties of interest by using explicitly correlated wavefunction methods which handle the electronic open shell rigorously as spin eigenfunctions.

  15. Dipolar interaction in arrays of magnetic nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velázquez-Galván, Y; Martínez-Huerta, J M; Encinas, A; De La Torre Medina, J; Danlée, Y; Piraux, L

    2014-01-01

    The dipolar interaction field in arrays of nickel nanotubes has been investigated on the basis of expressions derived from the effective demagnetizing field of the assembly as well as magnetometry measurements. The model incorporates explicitly the wall thickness and aspect ratio, as well as the spatial order of the nanotubes. The model and experiment show that the interaction field in nanotubes is smaller than that in solid nanowires due to the packing fraction reduction in tubes related to their inner cavity. Finally, good agreement between the model and experiment is found for the variation of the interaction field as a function of the tube wall thickness. (paper)

  16. Magnetic field effect on the Coulomb interaction of acceptors in semimagnetic quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalpana, P.; Merwyn, A.; Nithiananthi, P.; Jayakumar, K., E-mail: kjkumar-gri@rediffmail.com [Nanostructure Lab, Department of Physics, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram-624302 (India); Reuben, Jasper D. [Department of Physics, School of Engineering, Saveetha University, Thandalam, Chennai- 600104 (India)

    2015-06-24

    The Coulomb interaction of holes in a Semimagnetic Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te / CdTe Spherical and Cubical Quantum Dot (SMQD) in a magnetic field is studied using variational approach in the effective mass approximation. Since these holes in QD show a pronounced collective behavior, while distinct single particle phenomena is suppressed, their interaction in confined potential becomes very significant. It has been observed that acceptor-acceptor interaction is more in cubical QD than in spherical QD which can be controlled by the magnetic field. The results are presented and discussed.

  17. Magnetic field effect on the Coulomb interaction of acceptors in semimagnetic quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpana, P.; Merwyn, A.; Reuben, Jasper D.; Nithiananthi, P.; Jayakumar, K.

    2015-06-01

    The Coulomb interaction of holes in a Semimagnetic Cd1-xMnxTe / CdTe Spherical and Cubical Quantum Dot (SMQD) in a magnetic field is studied using variational approach in the effective mass approximation. Since these holes in QD show a pronounced collective behavior, while distinct single particle phenomena is suppressed, their interaction in confined potential becomes very significant. It has been observed that acceptor-acceptor interaction is more in cubical QD than in spherical QD which can be controlled by the magnetic field. The results are presented and discussed.

  18. Evolution of magnetic properties and exchange interactions in Ru doped YbCrO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalal, Biswajit; Sarkar, Babusona; De, S K; Dev Ashok, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic properties of YbCr 1−x Ru x O 3 as a function of temperature and magnetic field have been investigated to explore the intriguing magnetic phenomena in rare-earth orthochromites. A quantitative analysis of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the mixed valence state (Yb 3+  and Yb 2+ ) of Yb ions for the highest doped sample. Field-cooled magnetization reveals a broad peak around 75 K and then becomes zero at about 20–24 K, due to the antiparallel coupling between Cr 3+ and Yb 3+ moments. An increase of the Ru 4+ ion concentration leads to a slight increase of compensation temperature T comp from 20 to 24 K, but the Néel temperature remains constant. A larger value of the magnetic moment of Yb ions gives rise to negative magnetization at low temperature. An external magnetic field significantly modifies the temperature dependent magnetization. Simulation of temperature dependent magnetization data, below T N , based on the three (two) magnetic sub-lattice model predicts stronger intra-sublattice exchange interaction than that of inter-sublattice. Thermal hysteresis and Arrot plots suggest first order magnetic phase transition. Random substitution of Ru 4+ ion reduces the magnetic relaxation time. Weak ferromagnetic component in canted antiferromagnetic system and negative internal magnetic field cause zero-field-cooled exchange bias effect. Large magnetocrystalline anisotropy associated with Ru creates high coercivity in the Ru doped sample. A maximum value of magnetocaloric effect is found around the antiferromagnetic ordering of Yb 3+ ions. Antiferromagnetic transition at about 120 K and temperature induced magnetization reversal lead to normal and inverse magnetocaloric effects in the same material. (paper)

  19. Role of particle masses in the magnetic field generation driven by the parity violating interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvornikov, Maxim, E-mail: maxdvo@izmiran.ru [Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radiowave Propagation (IZMIRAN), 142190 Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Physics Faculty, National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Avenue, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); II. Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Hamburg, 149 Luruper Chaussee, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-09-10

    Recently the new model for the generation of strong large scale magnetic fields in neutron stars, driven by the parity violating interaction, was proposed. In this model, the magnetic field instability results from the modification of the chiral magnetic effect in presence of the electroweak interaction between ultrarelativistic electrons and nucleons. In the present work we study how a nonzero mass of charged particles, which are degenerate relativistic electrons and nonrelativistic protons, influences the generation of the magnetic field in frames of this approach. For this purpose we calculate the induced electric current of these charged particles, electroweakly interacting with background neutrons and an external magnetic field, exactly accounting for the particle mass. This current is calculated by two methods: using the exact solution of the Dirac equation for a charged particle in external fields and computing the polarization operator of a photon in matter composed of background neutrons. We show that the induced current is vanishing in both approaches leading to the zero contribution of massive particles to the generated magnetic field. We discuss the implication of our results for the problem of the magnetic field generation in compact stars.

  20. Nonlinear localized excitations in magnets with a weak exchange interaction as a soliton problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gvozdikova, M.V.; Kovalev, A.S.

    1998-01-01

    The spin dynamics of soliton-like localized excitations in a discrete ferromagnet chain with an easy axis anisotropy and a weak exchange interaction is studied. The connection of these excitations with longwave magnetic solitons is discussed. The localized excitation frequency dependence on exchange interaction is found for a fixed number of spin deviation. It is shown that this dependence modifies essentially when the exchange interaction becomes comparable with an anisotropy value

  1. Electrochemical analysis of gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles for detecting immunological interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Thao Thi-Hien; Sim, Sang Jun

    2010-01-01

    An electrochemical impedance immunosensor was developed for detecting the immunological interaction between human immunoglobulin (IgG) and protein A from Staphylococcus aureus based on the immobilization of human IgG on the surface of modified gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles. The nanoparticles with an Au shell and Fe oxide cores were functionalized by a self-assembled monolayer of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid. The electrochemical analysis was conducted on the modified magnetic carbon paste electrodes with the nanoparticles. The magnetic nanoparticles were attached to the surface of the magnetic carbon paste electrodes via magnetic force. The cyclic voltammetry technique and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements of the magnetic carbon paste electrodes coated with magnetic nanoparticles-human IgG complex showed changes in its alternating current (AC) response both after the modification of the surface of the electrode and the addition of protein A. The immunological interaction between human IgG on the surface of the modified magnetic carbon paste electrodes and protein A in the solution could be successfully monitored.

  2. Effect of CDW and magnetic interactions on the eg electrons of the manganite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, G.C.; Panda, S.; Behera, S.N.

    2009-01-01

    We address a model study which includes the co-existence of the charge density wave (CDW) and ferromagnetic interactions in order to explain the colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) in manganites. The Hamiltonian consists of the ferromagnetic Hund's rule exchange interaction between e g and t 2g spins, Heisenberg core spin interactions and the CDW interaction present in the e g band electrons. The core electron magnetization, induced e g electron magnetization and the CDW gap are calculated using Zubarev's Green's function technique and determined self-consistently. The effect of core electron magnetization and the CDW interaction on the induced magnetization as well as on the occupation number in the different spin states of the e g band electrons are investigated by varying the model parameters of the system like the CDW coupling, the exchange coupling, the Heisenberg coupling and the external field. It is observed that the induced magnetization exhibits re-entrant behaviour and exists within a narrow temperature range just below the Curie temperature. This unusual behaviour of the e g band electrons will throw some new insights on the physical properties of the manganite systems.

  3. Magnetic impurity in a system of interacting electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh Thanh Duc; Nguyen Toan Thang

    1999-04-01

    The Kondo effect of the Anderson impurity in a correlated conduction electron system is studied within the slave boson mean-field theory. The interacting conduction electrons are described by a Hubbard model with an interaction of strength U. It is shown that the Kondo temperature T K decreases with an increase of U. In the intermediate regime at half-filling the exponential scale of the Kondo temperature T K is lost already at the saddle-point level of slave boson formulation. (author)

  4. A facile way to realize exchange coupling interaction in hard/soft magnetic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dongyun, E-mail: lidongyun@cjlu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wang, Fan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Xia, Ailin, E-mail: alxia@126.com [Anhui Key Laboratory of Metal Materials and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243032 (China); Zhang, Lijiao [School of Science, Hebei University of Science and Technology, Shijiazhuang 050018 (China); Li, Tingting; Jin, Chuangui; Liu, Xianguo [Anhui Key Laboratory of Metal Materials and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243032 (China)

    2016-11-01

    SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}/Fe–B hard/soft magnetic composites were obtained by using powders synthesized via a hydrothermal and a molten salt method, respectively. The exchange coupling interaction was found to exist in the composites after a facile grinding according to the results of magnetic hysteresis loops and irreversible sloping recoil loops. It can be found that different grinding time affects their magnetic properties slightly. Our study proves that the conditions of realizing exchange coupling interaction may not be so stringent. - Highlights: • SrM/CFO and SrM/Fe–B with exchange coupling were obtained via a grinding way. • Different grinding time affects their magnetic properties slightly. • The conditions of realizing exchange coupling may not be so stringent.

  5. Magnetic fields in the solar system planets, moons and solar wind interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Wicht, Johannes; Gilder, Stuart; Holschneider, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    This book addresses and reviews many of the still little understood questions related to the processes underlying planetary magnetic fields and their interaction with the solar wind. With focus on research carried out within the German Priority Program ”PlanetMag”, it also provides an overview of the most recent research in the field. Magnetic fields play an important role in making a planet habitable by protecting the environment from the solar wind. Without the geomagnetic field, for example, life on Earth as we know it would not be possible. And results from recent space missions to Mars and Venus strongly indicate that planetary magnetic fields play a vital role in preventing atmospheric erosion by the solar wind. However, very little is known about the underlying interaction between the solar wind and a planet’s magnetic field. The book takes a synergistic interdisciplinary approach that combines newly developed tools for data acquisition and analysis, computer simulations of planetary interiors an...

  6. Magnetism of singlet - singlet ions interacting with an electron gas: application to PrAl2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palermo, L.

    1986-01-01

    Various magnetic quantities are investigated for a system consisting of singlet-singlet ions interacting with an electron gas. In obtaining the magnetic state equations, the molecular field approximation is used. At T=0, an onset magnetic order condition in function of crystal field and exchange parameters and eletronic density of states at Fermi level is derived. A parametric study of the model is performed numerically. Main results are shown on diagrams. From the experimental data existent in the literature for magnetisation, susceptibility and magnetic specific heat of the PrAl 2 , a fitting with the model predictions is obtained using the following parameters: exchange interaction: 611meV; crystal field parameters: 2,5 meV; band with: 10 eV (of a rectangular density of states with 0,8 el/atom). (author) [pt

  7. Quantum levitation of nanoparticles seen with ultracold neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesvizhevsky, V. V., E-mail: nesvizhevsky@ill.eu [Institut Laue-Langevin (France); Voronin, A. Yu. [Lebedev Institute (Russian Federation); Lambrecht, A.; Reynaud, S. [Laboratoire Kastler-Brossel, CNRS, ENS, UPMC (France); Lychagin, E. V.; Muzychka, A. Yu.; Strelkov, A. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-15

    Analyzing new experiments with ultracold neutrons (UCNs) we show that physical adsorption of nanoparticles/nanodroplets, levitating in high-excited states in a deep and broad potential well formed by van der Waals/Casimir-Polder (vdW/CP) forces results in new effects on a cross-road of the fields of fundamental interactions, neutron, surface and nanoparticle physics. Accounting for the interaction of UCNs with nanoparticles explains a recently discovered intriguing so-called 'small heating' of UCNs in traps. It might be relevant to the striking conflict of the neutron lifetime experiments with smallest reported uncertainties by adding false effects there.

  8. Quantum levitation of nanoparticles seen with ultracold neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesvizhevsky, V. V.; Voronin, A. Yu.; Lambrecht, A.; Reynaud, S.; Lychagin, E. V.; Muzychka, A. Yu.; Strelkov, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing new experiments with ultracold neutrons (UCNs) we show that physical adsorption of nanoparticles/nanodroplets, levitating in high-excited states in a deep and broad potential well formed by van der Waals/Casimir-Polder (vdW/CP) forces results in new effects on a cross-road of the fields of fundamental interactions, neutron, surface and nanoparticle physics. Accounting for the interaction of UCNs with nanoparticles explains a recently discovered intriguing so-called “small heating” of UCNs in traps. It might be relevant to the striking conflict of the neutron lifetime experiments with smallest reported uncertainties by adding false effects there

  9. Effects of external magnetic field on harmonics generated in laser interaction with underdense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi-Nik, M.; Ghorbanalilu, M.; Shokri, B.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Generation of harmonic radiation is an important subject of laser plasma interaction and attracts great attention due to a wide range of applications. It has been seen that intense electromagnetic and quasi-static transverse magnetic fields are generated in laser plasma interaction. An extremely intense magnetic field (up to hundreds of MG) has been observed by experimental measurements in interaction of short laser pulses with plasma. These self-generated or applied magnetic fields affect the propagation of the laser pulses. In most laser interactions with homogeneous plasma, odd harmonics of laser frequency are generated. In this paper, we point out the possibility of even harmonics generation when a linearly polarized laser beam propagates in homogeneous plasma in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. It is shown that applying external field induces a transverse current density oscillating twice of the laser field which leds to generation of second harmonic radiation. This current density is derived using the perturbation method, and the steady state amplitude of the second harmonic obtained by solution of the wave equation. By the same procedure the current density and then the steady state amplitude of higher order harmonics are calculated. The efficiency of harmonic generation (the ratio of harmonic power to incident power) is a drastically function of the strength of external magnetic field. It is found that the efficiency of even harmonics is zero in the absence of magnetic field and increases as the magnetic field is increased. For odd harmonics, applying the external magnetic field enhances the generated harmonics as well. The conversion efficiency also increases with increase in plasma density and intensity of the laser beam.

  10. Magnetic Exchange Interactions and Estimation of TN in CsNiF3 from first principles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Legut, Dominik; Rusz, Ján

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 1 (2008), s. 503-506 ISSN 0587-4246. [CSMAG'07. Košice, 09.07.2007-12.07.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/07/1078 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : exchange interactions * magnetism * Heisenberg model * 1D ferromagnet * Neel temperature Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.321, year: 2008

  11. Tidal and magnetic interactions in close binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, C.G.

    1983-03-01

    The thesis investigates the nature of non-synchronous motions in members of close binary stars under the influence of gravitational and magnetic fields existing in these systems, and the evolution of such motions in different classes of binaries. Largely convective stars are considered and a solution is found for the fluid flow associated with the non-synchronous rotation of such a secondary in a close binary system, taking tidal and rotational forces into account. The tidal velocity field is calculated for a low mass white dwarf secondary star in a twin - degenerate binary. It is found that the synchronisation times can be comparable to the lifetime of the binary so that some asynchronism may remain present. (U.K.)

  12. Interaction of the electromagnetic waves and non-magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Aiping; Qiu Xiaoming; Dong Yuying; Li Liqiong

    2002-01-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic waves with 0.5 - 10 GHz in a non-magnetized collisional plasma slab is studied numerically. The change in the absorbed power, reflected power and transmitted power of the electromagnetic wave with collisional frequency of electrons and neutral atoms in plasma from 0.1 - 10 GHz, is calculated, in the condition of the uniform plasma with density of 10 10 or 10 11 cm -3 and depth of 10 cm, and the non-uniform plasma with density distribution of n = n 0 exp[2(z/d-1)] and depth of 10 cm, respectively. The results show that the absorbed power in either uniform or non-uniform plasma is large when the plasma density is large and collision frequency is high, and the peak value is 90%

  13. Neutron scattering study of magnetic and crystalline electirc field interactions in RCrO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamir, N.

    1978-05-01

    Magnetic and crystalline electric field interactions in the compounds RCrO 3 (R-rare earth) , were studied by neutron scattering. Elastic neutron scattering was utilized in the study of the temperature dependence of the Cr 3+ and Ho 3+ magnetic reflections in Lu CrO 3 and HoCrO 3 , respectively. Analysis of this temperature dependence yielde constant canting angles for the Cr 3+ and Ho 3+ magnetic moments. Molecular magnetic field constants and crystalline electric field splitting were also calculated from the temperature dependence of the Ho 3+ magnetic reflection. These parameters were obtained directly by inelastic neutron scattering measurement. Inelastic neutron scattering measurements of crystlline electric field transitions of R 3+ (R=Pr, Nd, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb) in RCrO 3 , formed the basis for the calculation of the common crystalline electirc field parameters of the heavy R 3+ ions. (author)

  14. AC susceptibility as a tool to probe the dipolar interaction in magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landi, Gabriel T., E-mail: gtlandi@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do ABC, 09210-580 Santo André (Brazil); Arantes, Fabiana R. [Universidade Federal do ABC, 09210-580 Santo André (Brazil); Cornejo, Daniel R. [Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-090 (Brazil); Bakuzis, Andris F. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, 74690-900 Goiânia-GO (Brazil); Andreu, Irene; Natividad, Eva [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza 50018 (Spain)

    2017-01-01

    The dipolar interaction is known to substantially affect the properties of magnetic nanoparticles. This is particularly important when the particles are kept in a fluid suspension or packed within nano-carriers. In addition to its usual long-range nature, in these cases the dipolar interaction may also induce the formation of clusters of particles, thereby strongly modifying their magnetic anisotropies. In this paper we show how AC susceptibility may be used to obtain information regarding the influence of the dipolar interaction in a sample. We develop a model which includes both aspects of the dipolar interaction and may be fitted directly to the susceptibility data. The usual long-range nature of the interaction is implemented using a mean-field approximation, whereas the particle-particle aggregation is modeled using a distribution of anisotropy constants. The model is then applied to two samples studied at different concentrations. One consists of spherical magnetite nanoparticles dispersed in oil and the other of cubic magnetite nanoparticles embedded on polymeric nanospheres. We also introduce a simple technique to address the presence of the dipolar interaction in a given sample, based on the height of the AC susceptibility peaks for different driving frequencies. - Highlights: We discuss the importance of the dipolar interaction in magnetic nanoparticle samples. It is shown that AC susceptibility may be used to estimate the extent of this interaction. We develop a model that accounts for particle aggregation. The theoretical model is then fitted to distinct magnetite samples.

  15. Aspects of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction in Two Dimensional Magnetic Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Anirban

    Research on topologically protected chiral magnetic structures such as magnetic domain walls (DWs) and skyrmions, have gained extensive interest because of their possible applications in magnetic data storage industries. The recently observed chiral DW structures in ultrathin ferromagnetic lms with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy has been attributed to the presence of a strong Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). In this thesis, the DMI mediated by the conduction electrons in two dimensional magnetic systems such as magnetic thin lms or at the interfaces between two magnetic materials has been studied. I calculate the Ruderman-Kittel- Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) type indirect exchange coupling between two magnetic moments at nite temperature using the free electron band. At high temperature, the coupling strength decays with distance faster than the coupling at zero temperature but the period of oscillation remains same. However, the free electron band alone could not produce DMI. In the next step, I show addition of Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) with the spin-polarized conduction electron band produces the DMI between two magnetic ions. The essential feature of this DMI is: the coupling strength increases with the strength of RSOC, but decreases signi cantly with the Heisenberg exchange coupling. The DMI calculated with this model well explains the possibility of preferred Neel or Bloch DW structures with specifc chirality. In addition: I study switching of magnetization with ultrafast laser pulse by inverse Faraday e ect (IFE) where an optically induced non-equilibrium orbital momentum generates an e ective magnetic eld via spin-orbit coupling for magnetization switching. I calculate the magnitude of induced orbital moment for the generic itinerant band and show that magnitude is not large enough to make the switching by a single pulse, however, switching could be possible if multiple pulses are applied to the material.

  16. Interaction between propulsion and levitation system in the HTSC-permanent magnet conveyance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, S.; Nishio, R.; Hashikawa, T.

    2010-01-01

    The magnetically levitated conveyance system has been developed. Pinning force of high temperature bulk superconductors (HTSC) are used for the levitation and the guidance of the carrier. The magnetic rail is set on the ground, and flux from the magnetic rail is pinned by HTSCs on the carrier body. To increase the load weight, the repulsive force of the permanent magnet is introduced. The hybrid levitation system is composed. The repulsive force by the permanent magnet between the load stage on the carrier and the magnetic rail on the ground is used to support the load weight. As the load stage is connected to the carrier body by the linear sliders, the mass of the load weight does not act on the carrier body. The interaction between the electromagnet and the permanent magnet under the load stage generates the propulsion force. The electromagnet is constructed by the air core coils, and excited only when the load stage passes. The interaction between the propulsion and the levitation system is investigated. Disturbance of the propulsion system on the levitation and the guidance force is measured. The results show the influence of the propulsion electromagnet on the pinning force is little, and this propulsion system works effectively.

  17. Interaction between propulsion and levitation system in the HTSC-permanent magnet conveyance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, S., E-mail: ohashi@ipcku.kanasi-u.ac.j [Kansai University 3-3-35, Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Nishio, R.; Hashikawa, T. [Kansai University 3-3-35, Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    The magnetically levitated conveyance system has been developed. Pinning force of high temperature bulk superconductors (HTSC) are used for the levitation and the guidance of the carrier. The magnetic rail is set on the ground, and flux from the magnetic rail is pinned by HTSCs on the carrier body. To increase the load weight, the repulsive force of the permanent magnet is introduced. The hybrid levitation system is composed. The repulsive force by the permanent magnet between the load stage on the carrier and the magnetic rail on the ground is used to support the load weight. As the load stage is connected to the carrier body by the linear sliders, the mass of the load weight does not act on the carrier body. The interaction between the electromagnet and the permanent magnet under the load stage generates the propulsion force. The electromagnet is constructed by the air core coils, and excited only when the load stage passes. The interaction between the propulsion and the levitation system is investigated. Disturbance of the propulsion system on the levitation and the guidance force is measured. The results show the influence of the propulsion electromagnet on the pinning force is little, and this propulsion system works effectively.

  18. Probing the mechanical properties, conformational changes, and interactions of nucleic acids with magnetic tweezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegel, Franziska; Ermann, Niklas; Lipfert, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Nucleic acids are central to the storage and transmission of genetic information. Mechanical properties, along with their sequence, both enable and fundamentally constrain the biological functions of DNA and RNA. For small deformations from the equilibrium conformations, nucleic acids are well described by an isotropic elastic rod model. However, external forces and torsional strains can induce conformational changes, giving rise to a complex force-torque phase diagram. This review focuses on magnetic tweezers as a powerful tool to precisely determine both the elastic parameters and conformational transitions of nucleic acids under external forces and torques at the single-molecule level. We review several variations of magnetic tweezers, in particular conventional magnetic tweezers, freely orbiting magnetic tweezers and magnetic torque tweezers, and discuss their characteristic capabilities. We then describe the elastic rod model for DNA and RNA and discuss conformational changes induced by mechanical stress. The focus lies on the responses to torque and twist, which are crucial in the mechanics and interactions of nucleic acids and can directly be measured using magnetic tweezers. We conclude by highlighting several recent studies of nucleic acid-protein and nucleic acid-small-molecule interactions as further applications of magnetic tweezers and give an outlook of some exciting developments to come. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Field driven magnetic racetrack memory accompanied with the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, June-Seo; Lee, Hyeon-Jun; Hong, Jung-Il; You, Chun-Yeol

    2018-06-01

    The in-plane magnetic field pulse driven domain wall motion on a perpendicularly magnetized nanowire is numerically investigated by performing micromagnetic simulations and magnetic domain wall dynamics are evaluated analytically with one-dimensional collective coordinate models including the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. With the action of the precession torque, the chirality and the magnetic field direction dependent displacements of the magnetic domain walls are clearly observed. In order to move Bloch type and Neel type domain walls, a longitudinal and a transverse in-plane magnetic field pulse are required, respectively. The domain wall type (Bloch or Neel) can easily be determined by the dynamic motion of the domain walls under the applied pulse fields. By applying a temporally asymmetric in-plane field pulse and successive notches in the perpendicularly magnetized nanowire strip line with a proper interval, the concept of racetrack memory based on the synchronous displacements of the chirality dependent multiple domain walls is verified to be feasible. Requirement of multiple domain walls with homogeneous chirality is achieved with the help of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction.

  20. Role of Magnetic Exchange Interactions in the Magnetization Relaxation of {3d-4f} Single-Molecule Magnets: A Theoretical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Saurabh Kumar; Beg, Mohammad Faizan; Rajaraman, Gopalan

    2016-01-11

    Combined density functional and ab initio calculations are performed on two isomorphous tetranuclear {Ni3 (III) Ln(III) } star-type complexes [Ln=Gd (1), Dy (2)] to shed light on the mechanism of magnetic exchange in 1 and the origin of the slow magnetization relaxation in complex 2. DFT calculations correctly reproduce the sign and magnitude of the J values compared to the experiments for complex 1. Acute ∢Ni-O-Gd bond angles present in 1 instigate a significant interaction between the 4fxyz orbital of the Gd(III) ion and 3d${{_{x{^{2}}- y{^{2}}}}}$ orbital of the Ni(II) ions, leading to rare and strong antiferromagnetic Ni⋅⋅⋅Gd interactions. Calculations reveal the presence of a strong next-nearest-neighbour Ni⋅⋅⋅Ni antiferromagnetic interaction in complex 1 leading to spin frustration behavior. CASSCF+RASSI-SO calculations performed on complex 2 suggest that the octahedral environment around the Dy(III) ion is neither strong enough to stabilize the mJ |±15/2〉 as the ground state nor able to achieve a large ground-state-first-excited-state gap. The ground-state Kramers doublet for the Dy(III) ion is found to be the mJ |±13/2〉 state with a significant transverse anisotropy, leading to very strong quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM). Using the POLY_ANISO program, we have extracted the JNiDy interaction as -1.45 cm(-1) . The strong Ni⋅⋅⋅Dy and next-nearest-neighbour Ni⋅⋅⋅Ni interactions are found to quench the QTM to a certain extent, resulting in zero-field SMM behavior for complex 2. The absence of any ac signals at zero field for the structurally similar [Dy(AlMe4 )3 ] highlights the importance of both the Ni⋅⋅⋅Dy and the Ni⋅⋅⋅Ni interactions in the magnetization relaxation of complex 2. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the roles of both the Ni⋅⋅⋅Dy and Ni⋅⋅⋅Ni interactions in magnetization relaxation of a {3d-4f} molecular magnet have been established. © 2016

  1. Electron-electron interactions in graphene field-induced quantum dots in a high magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlof, A.; Shylau, Artsem; Zozoulenko, I. V.

    2015-01-01

    We study the effect of electron-electron interaction in graphene quantum dots defined by an external electrostatic potential and a high magnetic field. To account for the electron-electron interaction, we use the Thomas-Fermi approximation and find that electron screening causes the formation...... of compressible strips in the potential profile and the electron density. We numerically solve the Dirac equations describing the electron dynamics in quantum dots, and we demonstrate that compressible strips lead to the appearance of plateaus in the electron energies as a function of the magnetic field. Finally...

  2. Interaction between granulation and small-scale magnetic flux observed by Hinode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jun; Yang Shuhong; Jin Chunlan

    2009-01-01

    With the polarimetric observations obtained by the Spectro-Polarimeter on board Hinode, we study the relationship between granular development and magnetic field evolution in the quiet Sun. Six typical cases are displayed to exhibit interaction between granules and magnetic elements, and we have obtained the following results. (1) A granule develops centrosymmetrically when no magnetic flux emerges within the granular cell. (2) A granule develops and splits noncentrosymmetrically while flux emerges at an outer part of the granular cell. (3) Magnetic flux emergence in a cluster of mixed polarities is detected at the position of a granule as soon as the granule breaks up. (4) A dipole emerges accompanied by the development of a granule, and the two elements of the dipole are rooted in the adjacent intergranular lanes and face each other across the granule. Advected by the horizontal granular motion, the positive element of the dipole then cancels with the pre-existing negative flux. (5) Flux cancellation also takes place between a positive element, which is advected by granular flow, and its surrounding negative flux. (6) While magnetic flux cancellation takes place in a granular cell, the granule shrinks and then disappears. (7) Horizontal magnetic fields are enhanced at the places where dipoles emerge and where opposite polarities cancel each other, but only the horizontal fields between the dipolar elements point in an orderly way from the positive elements to the negative ones. Our results reveal that granules and small-scale magnetic fluxes influence each other. Granular flow advects magnetic flux, and magnetic flux evolution suppresses granular development. There exist extremely large Doppler blue-shifts at the site of one canceling magnetic element. This phenomenon may be caused by the upward flow produced by magnetic reconnection below the photosphere. (research papers)

  3. Laboratory experiments on the magnetic field and neutral density limits on CIV interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axnaes, I.; Brenning, N.

    1990-03-01

    Laboratory experiments are reported which determine the magnetic field and neutral density limit for Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) interaction in the impact configuration. A combination of microwave interferometry and spectroscopy has been used to measure how the electron energy distribution varies with the neutral density and the magnetic field strength. The efficiency of the CIV process is evaluated in terms of the efficiency factor η of energy transfer to the electron. This efficiency is studied as function of the ratio V A /V 0 between the Alfven velocity and the plasma stream velocity and the ratio ν i /ω gi between the ionization frequency and the ion gyro frequency. With other parameters kept constant, V A /V 0 is proportional to the square root of the magnetic field, while ν i /ω gi is proportional to the neutral density. We have found that these two dimensionless parameters are coupled in such a fashion that a stronger magnetic field can compensate for a lower neutral density. For our strongest magnetic field, corresponding to V A /V 0 = 4, CIV interaction is found to occur for a comparatively low value ν i /ω gi ∼ 0.1. For V A /V 0 = 1, we found a clear absence of CIV interaction even for ν i /ω gi approaching unity. (authors)

  4. Dependence of magnetization on crystal fields and exchange interactions in magnetite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouaissa, Mohamed, E-mail: m.ouaissa@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Génie Physique et Environnement, Faculté des Sciences, Université Ibn Tofail, Campus Universitaire BP 133, Kénitra 14000 (Morocco); Benyoussef, Abdelilah [Laboratory of Magnetism and Physics of High Energy, Faculty of Science, Mohammed V-Agdal University, Rabat (Morocco); Abo, Gavin S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and MINT Center, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Ouaissa, Samia; Hafid, Mustapha [Laboratoire de Génie Physique et Environnement, Faculté des Sciences, Université Ibn Tofail, Campus Universitaire BP 133, Kénitra 14000 (Morocco); Belaiche, Mohammed [Laboratoire de Magnétisme, Matériaux Magnétiques, Microonde et Céramique, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Université Mohammed V-Agdal, B.P. 9235, Océan, Rabat (Morocco)

    2015-11-15

    In this work, we study the magnetization of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) with different exchange interactions and crystal fields using variational method based on the Bogoliubov inequality for the Gibbs free energy within the mean field theory. The magnetic behavior was investigated in the absence and presence of crystal fields. The investigations also revealed that the transition temperature depends on the crystal fields of the octahedral and tetrahedral sites. Magnetite exhibits ferrimagnetic phase with second order transition to paramagnetic phase at 850 K. This result is confirmed using the mean field theory within the Heisenberg model. Important factors that can affect the magnetic behavior of the system are exchange interactions and crystal field. Indeed, a new magnetic behavior was observed depending on these parameters. A first order phase transition from ferrimagnetic to ferromagnetic was found at low temperature, and a second order transition from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic was observed at high temperature. - Highlights: • Magnetization of magnetite versus temperature was studied by mean field theory. • The critical temperature of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) was approximately obtained. • Effect of sublattice crystal fields on the magnetization of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was investigated.

  5. Plasma behavior and plasma-wall interaction in magnetic fusion divices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuka, Hideo

    1984-10-01

    To study the fundamental behavior of plasma in magnetic field is the main subject in the early stage of the magnetic fusion research. At the next stage, it is necessary to overcome some actual problems in order to attain reactor grade plasmas. One of them is to control impurities in the plasma. In these points of view, we carried out several experiments or theoretical analyses. Firstly, anomalous loss mechanisms in magnetic field were investigated in a toroidal multipole device JFT-1 and the role of motions of charged particles in the magnetic field was exhibited. Various measurements of plasma in the scrape-off layer were made in a divertor tokamak JFT-2a and in an ordinary tokamak JFT-2. The former study demonstrated the first successful divertor operation of the tokamak device and the latter one clarified the mechanism of arcing on the tokamak first wall. As to arcing, a new theory which describes the retrograde motion, the well known strange motion of arcs in a magnetic field, was proposed. Good agreement with the experimental results was shown. Finally, by considering a zero-dimensional sputtering model a self-consistent relation between light and metal impurities in tokamak plasmas was obtained. It was shown that the relation well describes some fundamental aspects of the plasma-wall interaction. As a conclusion, the importance of simple behavior of charged particles in magnetic fields was pointed out not only for the plasma confinement but also for the plasma-wall interaction. (author)

  6. Nature of magnetization and lateral spin–orbit interaction in gated semiconductor nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, H.; Yakimenko, I. I.; Berggren, K.-F.

    2018-05-01

    Semiconductor nanowires are interesting candidates for realization of spintronics devices. In this paper we study electronic states and effects of lateral spin–orbit coupling (LSOC) in a one-dimensional asymmetrically biased nanowire using the Hartree–Fock method with Dirac interaction. We have shown that spin polarization can be triggered by LSOC at finite source-drain bias,as a result of numerical noise representing a random magnetic field due to wiring or a random background magnetic field by Earth magnetic field, for instance. The electrons spontaneously arrange into spin rows in the wire due to electron interactions leading to a finite spin polarization. The direction of polarization is, however, random at zero source-drain bias. We have found that LSOC has an effect on orientation of spin rows only in the case when source-drain bias is applied.

  7. Magnetization reversal through soliton flip in biquadratic ferromagnet with varying exchange interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Daniel, M

    2002-01-01

    We study the phenomenon of magnetization reversal in the form of a soliton flip in a biquadratic ferromagnetic spin chain induced by varying bilinear and biquadratic exchange interactions. This is carried out by analysing the evolution of the velocity and amplitude of the soliton using a perturbation analysis.

  8. Nonlinear interaction of s-polarized surface waves at the boundary of a semibounded magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amein, W.H.; El-Siragy, N.M.; Nagy, O.Z.; Sayed, Y.A.

    1981-01-01

    Nonlinear interaction of S-Polarized surface waves at the boundary of a semibounded magnetized plasma is investigated. The expressions of the amplitudes of the generated waves are found. It is shown that, the generated waves with combined frequencies are equally radiated from the transient layer into plasma and vacuum

  9. Lie symmetries for the electric charge-magnetic monopole interaction problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, I.C.; Ritter, O.M.; Santos, F.C.

    1985-01-01

    The symmetries of the equation of motion for an electric charge interacting with a magnetic monopole are analyzed. Two methods, starting from the knowledge of the Lie symmetries, are discussed and employed in this case. This procedure is also compared with the hamiltonians methods. (ltonians methods. (Author) [pt

  10. The electro-magnetic transition properties in the microscopic SDG interacting boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Guangze; Liu Yong; Sang Jianping

    1996-01-01

    A bosonic method and the corresponding fermionic one for studying the electro-magnetic transition properties of nucleus are presented in the microscopic sdg interacting boson model. The methods are applied to the nucleus 60 Ni. Detailed discussions are made with the calculated results

  11. Magnetic Interactions and the Method of Images: A Wealth of Educational Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, A.; Camarca, M.; Sapia, P.

    2011-01-01

    Under some conditions, the method of images (well known in electrostatics) may be implemented in magnetostatic problems too, giving an excellent example of the usefulness of formal analogies in the description of physical systems. In this paper, we develop a quantitative model for the magnetic interactions underlying the so-called Geomag[TM]…

  12. Interaction of transcranial magnetic stimulation and electrical transmastoid stimulation in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Janet L; Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Butler, Jane E

    2002-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation activates corticospinal neurones directly and transsynaptically and hence, activates motoneurones and results in a response in the muscle. Transmastoid stimulation results in a similar muscle response through activation of axons in the spinal cord. This study...... was designed to determine whether the two stimuli activate the same descending axons. Responses to transcranial magnetic stimuli paired with electrical transmastoid stimuli were examined in biceps brachii in human subjects. Twelve interstimulus intervals (ISIs) from -6 ms (magnet before transmastoid) to 5 ms......-wave, facilitation still occurred at ISIs of -6 and -5 ms and depression of the paired response at ISIs of 0, 1, 4 and 5 ms. The interaction of the response to transmastoid stimulation with the multiple descending volleys elicited by magnetic stimulation of the cortex is complex. However, depression of the response...

  13. The exchange interaction effects on magnetic properties of the nanostructured CoPt particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komogortsev, S. V.; Iskhakov, R. S.; Zimin, A. A.; Filatov, E. Yu.; Korenev, S. V.; Shubin, Yu. V.; Chizhik, N. A.; Yurkin, G. Yu.; Eremin, E. V.

    2016-03-01

    Various manifestations of the exchange interaction effects in magnetization curves of the CoPt nanostructured particles are demonstrated and discussed. The inter-grain exchange constant A in the sponge-like agglomerates of crystallites is estimated as A=(7±1) pJ/m from the approach magnetization to saturation curves that is in good agreement with A=(6.6±0.5) pJ/m obtained from Bloch T 3/2 law. The fractal dimensionality of the exchange coupled crystallite system in the porous media of the disordered CoPt alloy d=(2.60±0.18) was estimated from the approach magnetization to saturation curve. Coercive force decreases with temperature as Hc T 3/2 which is assumed to be a consequence of the magnetic anisotropy energy reduction due to the thermal spin wave excitations in the investigated CoPt particles.

  14. Chiral magnetic effect in the presence of electroweak interactions as a quasiclassical phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvornikov, Maxim; Semikoz, Victor B.

    2018-03-01

    We elaborate the quasiclassical approach to obtain the modified chiral magnetic effect (CME) in the case when the massless charged fermions interact with electromagnetic fields and the background matter by the electroweak forces. The derivation of the anomalous current along the external magnetic field involves the study of the energy density evolution of chiral particles in parallel electric and magnetic fields. We consider both the particle acceleration by the external electric field and the contribution of the Adler anomaly. The condition of the validity of this method for the derivation of the CME is formulated. We obtain the expression for the electric current along the external magnetic field, which appears to coincide with our previous results based on the purely quantum approach. Our results are compared with the findings of other authors.

  15. Applications, dosimetry and biological interactions of static and time-varying magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1988-08-01

    The primary topics of this presentation include: (1) the applications of magnetic fields in research, industry, and medical technologies; (2) mechanisms of interaction of static and time-varying magnetic fields with living systems; (3) human health effects of exposure to static and time-varying magnetic fields in occupational, medical, and residential settings; and (4) recent advances in the dosimetry of extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields. The discussion of these topics is centered about two issues of considerable contemporary interest: (1) potential health effects of the fields used in magnetic resonance imaging and in vivo spectroscopy, and (2) the controversial issue of whether exposure to extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields in the home and workplace leads to an elevated risk of cancer. 11 refs

  16. Magnetic Field Interactions of Copper-Containing Intrauterine Devices in 3.0-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging: In Vivo Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger-Kulemann, Vanessa; Einspieler, Henrik [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna 1090 (Austria); Hachemian, Nilouparak [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna 1090 (Austria); Prayer, Daniela; Trattnig, Siegfried; Weber, Michael; Ba-Ssalamah, Ahmed [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna 1090 (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    An ex vivo study found a copper-containing intrauterine device (IUD) to be safe for women undergoing an MRI examination at a 3.0-T field. No significant artifacts caused by the metallic implant were detected. However, there are still no in vivo data about these concerns. The aim of this study was to evaluate 3.0-T magnetic field interactions of copper-containing IUDs in vivo. Magnetic field interactions and potential adverse events were evaluated in 33 women using a questionnaire-based telephone survey. Two experienced radiologists performed artifact evaluation on MR images of the pelvis. Eighteen patients were eligible for the survey. One patient reported a dislocation of the IUD after the MR examination. All other patients had no signs of field interactions. No IUD-related artifacts were found. MRI at 3.0-T is possible for women with copper-containing IUDs. However, consulting a gynecologist to check the correct position of the IUD and exclude complications after an MR examination is highly recommended. High-quality clinical imaging of the female pelvis can be performed without a loss in image quality.

  17. Magnetic Field Interactions of Copper-Containing Intrauterine Devices in 3.0-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging: In Vivo Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger-Kulemann, Vanessa; Einspieler, Henrik; Hachemian, Nilouparak; Prayer, Daniela; Trattnig, Siegfried; Weber, Michael; Ba-Ssalamah, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    An ex vivo study found a copper-containing intrauterine device (IUD) to be safe for women undergoing an MRI examination at a 3.0-T field. No significant artifacts caused by the metallic implant were detected. However, there are still no in vivo data about these concerns. The aim of this study was to evaluate 3.0-T magnetic field interactions of copper-containing IUDs in vivo. Magnetic field interactions and potential adverse events were evaluated in 33 women using a questionnaire-based telephone survey. Two experienced radiologists performed artifact evaluation on MR images of the pelvis. Eighteen patients were eligible for the survey. One patient reported a dislocation of the IUD after the MR examination. All other patients had no signs of field interactions. No IUD-related artifacts were found. MRI at 3.0-T is possible for women with copper-containing IUDs. However, consulting a gynecologist to check the correct position of the IUD and exclude complications after an MR examination is highly recommended. High-quality clinical imaging of the female pelvis can be performed without a loss in image quality

  18. Fake Magnets, Real Physics: Using touch tables with fiducials to create interactive experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold, J. B.; Dusenbery, P.

    2011-12-01

    The National Center for Interactive Learning at the Space Science Institute has been producing space weather related activities for both museums and online for over a decade (see, for instance, www.spaceweathercenter.org). Recently we have begun exploring the possibilities of augmented reality as a mechanism for letting visitors explore magnetic fields, charged particle motion, and related space weather topics. Using a Microsoft Surface touch table, NCIL@SSI has developed several activities that incorporate magnet "fiducials"... objects shaped like recognizable magnets (bar, horseshoe, etc.) that when placed on the table are recognized by the computer. In this way visitors can place a magnet, then see the associated magnetic field drawn out on the table. And given a magnet (which could be the Earth) and a field, they can touch the screen to launch charged particles in to the field. We believe that this combination of physical objects and simulated physics provides a compelling new opportunity for topics such as space weather, where the necessary prior knowledge (e.g., the behavior of magnetic fields and charged particles) are not well understood, or even easily accessible, for the average visitor. We will be reporting both on the software and educational strategies reflected in it, as well as testing which is being performed at the NCAR visitor center in Boulder Colorado and the Hatfield Visitor Center in Oregon by NCIL's Director of Learning Research and Evaluation. This work is funded by the National Science Foundation.

  19. Oxygen-enabled control of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction in ultra-thin magnetic films

    KAUST Repository

    Belabbes, Abderrezak

    2016-04-22

    The search for chiral magnetic textures in systems lacking spatial inversion symmetry has attracted a massive amount of interest in the recent years with the real space observation of novel exotic magnetic phases such as skyrmions lattices, but also domain walls and spin spirals with a defined chirality. The electrical control of these textures offers thrilling perspectives in terms of fast and robust ultrahigh density data manipulation. A powerful ingredient commonly used to stabilize chiral magnetic states is the so-called Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) arising from spin-orbit coupling in inversion asymmetric magnets. Such a large antisymmetric exchange has been obtained at interfaces between heavy metals and transition metal ferromagnets, resulting in spin spirals and nanoskyrmion lattices. Here, using relativistic first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that the magnitude and sign of DMI can be entirely controlled by tuning the oxygen coverage of the magnetic film, therefore enabling the smart design of chiral magnetism in ultra-thin films. We anticipate that these results extend to other electronegative ions and suggest the possibility of electrical tuning of exotic magnetic phases.

  20. Fundamental hydrogen interactions with beryllium : a magnetic fusion perspective.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wampler, William R. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Felter, Thomas E.; Whaley, Josh A.; Kolasinski, Robert D.; Bartelt, Norman Charles

    2012-03-01

    Increasingly, basic models such as density functional theory and molecular dynamics are being used to simulate different aspects of hydrogen recycling from plasma facing materials. These models provide valuable insight into hydrogen diffusion, trapping, and recombination from surfaces, but their validation relies on knowledge of the detailed behavior of hydrogen at an atomic scale. Despite being the first wall material for ITER, basic single crystal beryllium surfaces have been studied only sparsely from an experimental standpoint. In prior cases researchers used electron spectroscopy to examine surface reconstruction or adsorption kinetics during exposure to a hydrogen atmosphere. While valuable, these approaches lack the ability to directly detect the positioning of hydrogen on the surface. Ion beam techniques, such as low energy ion scattering (LEIS) and direct recoil spectroscopy (DRS), are two of the only experimental approaches capable of providing this information. In this study, we applied both LEIS and DRS to examine how hydrogen binds to the Be(0001) surface. Our measurements were performed using an angle-resolved ion energy spectrometer (ARIES) to probe the surface with low energy ions (500 eV - 3 keV He{sup +} and Ne{sup +}). We were able to obtain a 'scattering maps' of the crystal surface, providing insight on how low energy ions are focused along open surface channels. Once we completed a characterization of the clean surface, we dosed the sample with atomic hydrogen using a heated tungsten capillary. A distinct signal associated with adsorbed hydrogen emerged that was consistent with hydrogen residing between atom rows. To aid in the interpretation of the experimental results, we developed a computational model to simulate ion scattering at grazing incidence. For this purpose, we incorporated a simplified surface model into the Kalypso molecular dynamics code. This approach allowed us to understand how the incident ions interacted with the

  1. Dynamic effects of dipolar interactions on the magnetic behavior of magnetite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allia, Paolo; Tiberto, Paola

    2011-12-01

    Isothermal magnetization and initial dc susceptibility of spheroidal, nearly monodisperse magnetite nanoparticles (typical diameter: 8 nm) prepared by a standard thermo-chemical route have been measured between 10 and 300 K. The samples contained magnetite nanoparticles in the form of either a dried powder (each nanoparticle being surrounded by a stable oleic acid shell as a result of the preparation procedure) or a solid dispersion in PEGDA-600 polymer; different nanoparticle (NP) concentrations in the polymer were studied. In all samples the NPs were not tightly agglomerated nor their ferromagnetic cores were directly touching. The high-temperature inverse magnetic susceptibility is always found to follow a linear law as a function of T, crossing the horizontal axis at negative temperatures ranging from 175 to about 1,000 K. The deviation from the standard superparamagnetic behavior is related to dipolar interaction among NPs; however, a careful analysis makes it hard to conclude that such a behavior originates from a dominant antiferromagnetic character of the interaction. The results are well explained considering that the studied samples are in the interacting superparamagnetic (ISP) regime. The ISP model is basically a mean field theory which allows one to straightforwardly account for the role of magnetic dipolar interaction in a NP system. The model predicts the existence of specific scaling laws for the reduced magnetization which have been confirmed in all studied samples. The interaction of each magnetic dipole moment with the local, random dipolar field produced by the other dipoles results in the presence of a large fluctuating energy term whose magnitude is comparable to the static barrier for magnetization reversal/rotation related to magnetic anisotropy. On the basis of the existing theories on thermal crossing of a barrier whose height randomly fluctuates in time it is predicted that the rate of barrier crossing is substantially driven by the rate

  2. Electron spin interactions in chemistry and biology fundamentals, methods, reactions mechanisms, magnetic phenomena, structure investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the versatile and pivotal role of electron spin interactions in nature. It provides the background, methodologies and tools for basic areas related to spin interactions, such as spin chemistry and biology, electron transfer, light energy conversion, photochemistry, radical reactions, magneto-chemistry and magneto-biology. The book also includes an overview of designing advanced magnetic materials, optical and spintronic devices and photo catalysts. This monograph appeals to scientists and graduate students working in the areas related to spin interactions physics, biophysics, chemistry and chemical engineering.

  3. Magnetic interaction reversal in watermelon nanostructured Cr-doped Fe nanoclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Maninder; Qiang, You; Dai, Qilin; Tang, Jinke; Bowden, Mark; Engelhard, Mark; Wu, Yaqiao

    2013-01-01

    Cr-doped core-shell Fe/Fe-oxide nanoclusters (NCs) were synthesized at varied atomic percentages of Cr from 0 at. % to 8 at. %. The low concentrations of Cr ( 2 O 3 and the Fe core to FeCr alloy. The magnetic interaction in Fe/Fe-oxide NCs (∼25 nm) can be controlled by antiferromagnetic Cr-dopant. We report the origin of σ-FeCr phase at very low Cr concentration (2 at. %) unlike in previous studies, and the interaction reversal from dipolar to exchange interaction in watermelon-like Cr-doped core-shell NCs

  4. Magnetization of a parabolic quantum dot in the presence of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, D. Sanjeev, E-mail: sanjeevchs@gmail.com; Chatterjee, Ashok [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Mukhopadhyay, Soma [Department of Physics, DVR College of Engineering and Technology, Kashipur, Sangareddy Mandal, Hyderabad 502 285 (India)

    2015-05-15

    The magnetization of a parabolic quantum dot has been studied as a function of temperature and external magnetic field in the presence of Rashba, Dresselhaus Spin Orbit Interactions (SOI) and the electron-electron interactions. By the introduction of a simple and physically reasonable model potential, the problem has been solved exactly up to second order in both the SOI terms. Both the SOI found to be showing considerable effects on the magnetization of the quantum dot. The effect of electron-electron interaction on the magnetization also has been studied.

  5. Magnetization of a parabolic quantum dot in the presence of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, D. Sanjeev; Chatterjee, Ashok; Mukhopadhyay, Soma

    2015-01-01

    The magnetization of a parabolic quantum dot has been studied as a function of temperature and external magnetic field in the presence of Rashba, Dresselhaus Spin Orbit Interactions (SOI) and the electron-electron interactions. By the introduction of a simple and physically reasonable model potential, the problem has been solved exactly up to second order in both the SOI terms. Both the SOI found to be showing considerable effects on the magnetization of the quantum dot. The effect of electron-electron interaction on the magnetization also has been studied

  6. Emergence and frustration of magnetism with variable-range interactions in a quantum simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, R; Senko, C; Campbell, W C; Korenblit, S; Smith, J; Lee, A; Edwards, E E; Wang, C-C J; Freericks, J K; Monroe, C

    2013-05-03

    Frustration, or the competition between interacting components of a network, is often responsible for the emergent complexity of many-body systems. For instance, frustrated magnetism is a hallmark of poorly understood systems such as quantum spin liquids, spin glasses, and spin ices, whose ground states can be massively degenerate and carry high degrees of quantum entanglement. Here, we engineer frustrated antiferromagnetic interactions between spins stored in a crystal of up to 16 trapped (171)Yb(+) atoms. We control the amount of frustration by continuously tuning the range of interaction and directly measure spin correlation functions and their coherent dynamics. This prototypical quantum simulation points the way toward a new probe of frustrated quantum magnetism and perhaps the design of new quantum materials.

  7. Quantum theory for magnons and phonons interactions under time-varying magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreiro, S.C.

    1971-01-01

    The magnon-fonon interaction in a ferromagnetic material submited to a time-varying magnetic field is studied by quantum methods. This problem has already been solved by semi-classical methods, and one of its results is that under certain conditions a state of lattice vibrations may be completely converted into spin oscillations. The main proporties of magnetoelastic waves in static magnetic fields and extend the quantum treatment for the time varying magnetic field case is revised. Field operators whose equations of motion are analogous to the classical ones are introduced. Their equations, which appear as a linear system of first order coupled equations, are converted into equations for complex functions by an expansion of the field operators in a time t as linear combinations of the same operators in a time t 0 prior to the variation of the magnetic field. The quantity g vector obtained from the classical solution is quantized and shown to be the linear momentum density of the magnetoelastic system, the quantum field spin density operator is deduced for the two interacting fields, and finally the results are used to study the magnetization and lattice displacement vector fields in the case of a system described by a coherent state of one of its normal modes

  8. Instabilities of bellows: Dependence on internal pressure, end supports, and interactions in accelerator magnet systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shutt, R.P.; Rehak, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    For superconducting magnets, one needs many bellows for connection of various helium cooling transfer lines in addition to beam tube bellows. There could be approximately 10,000 magnet interconnection bellows in the SSC exposed to an internal pressure. When axially compressed or internally pressurized, bellows can become unstable, leading to gross distortion or complete failure. If several bellows are contained in an assembly, failure modes might interact. If designed properly, large bellows can be a very feasible possibility for connecting the large tubular shells that support the magnet iron yokes and superconducting coils and contain supercritical helium for magnet cooling. We present here (1) a spring-supported bellows model, in order to develop necessary design features for bellows and end supports so that instabilities will not occur in the bellows pressure operating region, including some margin, (2) a model of three superconducting accelerator magnets connected by two large bellows, in order to ascertain that support requirements are satisfied and in order to study interaction effects between the two bellows. Reliability of bellows for our application will be stressed. 3 refs., 4 figs

  9. Superconducting magnets, cryostats, and cryogenics for the interaction region of the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, R.J.; Abramovich, S.; Zhmad, A.

    1993-10-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) has two counterrotating 20-TeV proton beams that will be made to collide at specific interaction points to carry out high energy physics experiments. The Collider ring has two sites, West and East, for such Interaction Regions (IRs), and the conceptual design of the East Interaction Region is underway. The East IR, in the present stage of design, has two interaction points, the requirements for which have been specified in terms of distance L* to the nearest magnet and the beam luminosity. Based on these requirements, the optics for transition from arc regions or utility regions to the IR and for focusing the beams have been obtained. The optical arrangement consists of a tuning section of quadrupoles, the strength of which is adjusted to obtain the required beta squeeze; a pair of bending dipoles to reduce the beam separation from the nominal 900 mm to 450 mm; an achromat section of quadrupoles, which consist of two cold masses in one cryostnother pair of dipoles to bring the beams together at the required crossing angle; and a set of final focus quads facing the interaction point. The optics is symmetric about the interaction point, and the two interaction points are separated by a hinge region consisting of superconducting dipoles and quadrupoles similar to the arc region. In the regions where the beams are vertically bent and straightened out by dipoles, the beam traverses warm regions provided for placing beam collimators. The superconducting magnets, including the final focus quadrupoles, operate with supercritical He at 4 atm and a nominal temperature of 4.15 K. In this paper, descriptions of the magnets, the cryostats, and cryo bypasses around the warm region and interaction points are provided. Also discussed are the cooling requirements and design for the final focus quadrupole, which receives significant heat load from beam radiation

  10. Tuning dipolar magnetic interactions by controlling individual silica coating of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas Rojas, P. C.; Tancredi, P.; Moscoso Londoño, O.; Knobel, M.; Socolovsky, L. M.

    2018-04-01

    Single and fixed size core, core-shell nanoparticles of iron oxides coated with a silica layer of tunable thickness were prepared by chemical routes, aiming to generate a frame of study of magnetic nanoparticles with controlled dipolar interactions. The batch of iron oxides nanoparticles of 4.5 nm radii, were employed as cores for all the coated samples. The latter was obtained via thermal decomposition of organic precursors, resulting on nanoparticles covered with an organic layer that was subsequently used to promote the ligand exchange in the inverse microemulsion process, employed to coat each nanoparticle with silica. The amount of precursor and times of reaction was varied to obtain different silica shell thicknesses, ranging from 0.5 nm to 19 nm. The formation of the desired structures was corroborated by TEM and SAXS measurements, the core single-phase spinel structure was confirmed by XRD, and superparamagnetic features with gradual change related to dipolar interaction effects were obtained by the study of the applied field and temperature dependence of the magnetization. To illustrate that dipolar interactions are consistently controlled, the main magnetic properties are presented and analyzed as a function of center to center minimum distance between the magnetic cores.

  11. Electron gas interacting in a metal, submitted to a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, Francisco Castilho

    1977-01-01

    Using the propagator's technique in the grand ensemble developed by Montroll and Ward we investigate the magnetic properties of an interacting electron gas in a strong magnetic field. The free propagator properly constructed shows that the spin paramagnetism does not have a term with strong temperature dependence, contrary to the result of Isihara. Considering the electron density to be constant, the dHVA oscillations in the magnetic susceptibility and sound velocity, considering the effects of first exchange interactions, show only one phase in agreement with experimental result, while Ichimura and Isihara obtained two phases differing by π/2. The effects of first order exchange interactions in the dHVA oscillations of the magnetic susceptibility and sound velocity give rise to an exponential factor in the amplitudes of oscillator (Dingle factor), being the Dingle temperature linearly dependent of the Fermi velocity. The calculations of the ring diagram contribution to the grand partition function, show that the approximation used by Isihara for this calculations is not good and the dHVA oscillations of the contributions from the ring diagrams for the grand partition function have a phase differing by π/2 from that obtained by Isihara. (author)

  12. Quantum magnetism in strongly interacting one-dimensional spinor Bose systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salami Dehkharghani, Amin; Volosniev, A. G.; Lindgren, E. J.

    2015-01-01

    -range inter-species interactions much larger than their intra-species interactions and show that they have novel energetic and magnetic properties. In the strongly interacting regime, these systems have energies that are fractions of the basic harmonic oscillator trap quantum and have spatially separated......Strongly interacting one-dimensional quantum systems often behave in a manner that is distinctly different from their higher-dimensional counterparts. When a particle attempts to move in a one-dimensional environment it will unavoidably have to interact and 'push' other particles in order...... ground states with manifestly ferromagnetic wave functions. Furthermore, we predict excited states that have perfect antiferromagnetic ordering. This holds for both balanced and imbalanced systems, and we show that it is a generic feature as one crosses from few- to many-body systems....

  13. Rescaled Local Interaction Simulation Approach for Shear Wave Propagation Modelling in Magnetic Resonance Elastography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Hashemiyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Properties of soft biological tissues are increasingly used in medical diagnosis to detect various abnormalities, for example, in liver fibrosis or breast tumors. It is well known that mechanical stiffness of human organs can be obtained from organ responses to shear stress waves through Magnetic Resonance Elastography. The Local Interaction Simulation Approach is proposed for effective modelling of shear wave propagation in soft tissues. The results are validated using experimental data from Magnetic Resonance Elastography. These results show the potential of the method for shear wave propagation modelling in soft tissues. The major advantage of the proposed approach is a significant reduction of computational effort.

  14. Magnetic moments in calcium isotopes via a surface-interaction experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niv, Y.; Hass, M.; Zemel, A.; Goldring, G.

    1979-01-01

    A rotation of the angular correlation of de-excitation γ-rays from 40 Ca and 44 Ca was observed in a tilted foil geometry. The signs and magnitudes of the magnetic moments of the 2 1 + of 44 Ca and of the 3 1 - level of 40 Ca were determined to be g = -0.28+-0.11 and g = +0.52+-0.18, respectively. This experiment provides further information regarding the polarization of deeply bound electronic configurations produced by a surface-interaction mechanism and demonstrates the feasibility of the present technique for measuring signs and magnitudes of magnetic moments of picosecond nuclear levels. (author)

  15. Rescaled Local Interaction Simulation Approach for Shear Wave Propagation Modelling in Magnetic Resonance Elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packo, P.; Staszewski, W. J.; Uhl, T.

    2016-01-01

    Properties of soft biological tissues are increasingly used in medical diagnosis to detect various abnormalities, for example, in liver fibrosis or breast tumors. It is well known that mechanical stiffness of human organs can be obtained from organ responses to shear stress waves through Magnetic Resonance Elastography. The Local Interaction Simulation Approach is proposed for effective modelling of shear wave propagation in soft tissues. The results are validated using experimental data from Magnetic Resonance Elastography. These results show the potential of the method for shear wave propagation modelling in soft tissues. The major advantage of the proposed approach is a significant reduction of computational effort. PMID:26884808

  16. Magnetic interaction reversal in watermelon nanostructured Cr-doped Fe nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Maninder; Dai, Qilin; Bowden, Mark; Engelhard, Mark; Wu, Yaqiao; Tang, Jinke; Qiang, You

    2013-01-01

    Cr-doped core-shell Fe/Fe-oxide nanoclusters (NCs) were synthesized at varied atomic percentages of Cr from 0 at. % to 8 at. %. The low concentrations of Cr (<10 at. %) were selected in order to inhibit the complete conversion of the Fe-oxide shell to Cr2O3 and the Fe core to FeCr alloy. The magnetic interaction in Fe/Fe-oxide NCs (rv25 nm) can be controlled by antiferromagnetic Cr-dopant. We report the origin of r-FeCr phase at very low Cr concentration (2 at. %) unlike in previous studies, and the interaction reversal from dipolar to exchange interaction in watermelon-like Cr-doped core-shell NCs. The giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect,1,2 where an antiferromagnetic (AFM) exchange coupling exists between two ferromagnetic (FM) layers separated by a certain type of magnetic or non-magnetic spacer,3 has significant potential for application in the magnetic recording industry. Soon after the discovery of the GMR, the magnetic properties of multilayer systems (FeCr) became a subject of intensive study. The application of bulk iron-chromium (Fe-Cr) alloys has been of great interest, as these alloys exhibit favorable prop- erties including corrosion resistance, high strength, hardness, low oxidation rate, and strength retention at elevated temper- ature. However, the structural and magnetic properties of Cr-doped Fe nanoclusters (NCs) have not been investigated in-depth. Of all NCs, Fe-based clusters have unique magnetic properties as well as favorable catalytic characteristics in reactivity, selectivity, and durability.4 The incorporation of dopant of varied type and concentration in Fe can modify its chemical ordering, thereby optimizing its electrical, optical, and magnetic properties and opening up many new applications. The substitution of an Fe atom (1.24 A°) by a Cr atom (1.25 A° ) can easily modify the magnetic properties, since (i) the curie temperature (Tc ) of Fe is 1043 K, while Cr is an itinerant AFM with a bulk Neel temperature TN =311 K, and (ii) Fe

  17. Covalent magnetism, exchange interactions and anisotropy of the high temperature layered antiferromagnet MnB₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khmelevskyi, S; Mohn, P

    2012-01-11

    The investigation of the electronic structure and magnetism for the compound MnB(2) with crystal structure type AlB(2) has been revisited to resolve contradictions between various experimental and theoretical results present in the literature. We find that MnB(2) exhibits an interesting example of a Kübler's covalent magnetism (Williams et al 1981 J. Appl. Phys. 52 2069). The covalent magnetism also appears to be the source of some disagreement between the calculated values of the magnetic moments and those given by neutron diffraction experiments. We show that this shortcoming is due to the atomic sphere approximation applied in earlier calculations. The application of the disordered local moment approach and the calculation of the inter-atomic exchange interactions within the Liechtenstein formalism reveal strong local moment antiferromagnetism with a high Néel temperature predicted from Monte Carlo simulations. A fully relativistic band structure calculation and then the application of the torque method yields a strong in-plane anisotropy of the Mn magnetic moments. The agreement of these results with neutron diffraction studies rules out any possible weak itinerant electron magnetism scenarios as proposed earlier for MnB(2).

  18. Layered vanadyl (IV) nitroprusside: Magnetic interaction through a network of hydrogen bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, D.M. [Instituto de Química Física, Facultad de Bioquímica, Química y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, San Lorenzo 456, T4000CAN San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); Osiry, H. [Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Unidad Legaria, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México (Mexico); Pomiro, F.; Varetti, E.L. [CEQUINOR (CONICET-UNLP), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 47 and 115, 1900, La Plata (Argentina); Carbonio, R.E. [INFIQC – CONICET, Departamento de Físico Química, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Haya de la Torre esq, Medina Allende, Ciudad Universitaria, X5000HUA Córdoba (Argentina); Alejandro, R.R. [Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Unidad Legaria, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México (Mexico); Ben Altabef, A. [INQUINOA-UNT-CONICET, Instituto de Química Física, Facultad de Bioquímica, Química y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, San Lorenzo 456, T4000CAN San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); and others

    2016-07-15

    The hydrogen bond and π-π stacking are two non-covalent interactions able to support cooperative magnetic ordering between paramagnetic centers. This contribution reports the crystal structure and related magnetic properties for VO[Fe(CN){sub 5}NO]·2H{sub 2}O, which has a layered structure. This solid crystallizes with an orthorhombic unit cell, in the Pna2{sub 1} space group, with cell parameters a=14.1804(2), b=10.4935(1), c=7.1722(8) Å and four molecules per unit cell (Z=4). Its crystal structure was solved and refined from powder X-ray diffraction data. Neighboring layers remain linked through a network of hydrogen bonds involving a water molecule coordinated to the axial position for the V atom and the unbridged axial NO and CN ligands. An uncoordinated water molecule is found forming a triple bridge between these last two ligands and the coordinated water molecule. The magnetic measurements, recorded down to 2 K, shows a ferromagnetic interaction between V atoms located at neighboring layers, with a Curie-Weiss constant of 3.14 K. Such ferromagnetic behavior was interpreted as resulting from a superexchange interaction through the network of strong OH····O{sub H2O}, OH····N{sub CN}, and OH····O{sub NO} hydrogen bonds that connects neighboring layers. The interaction within the layer must be of antiferromagnetic nature and it was detected close to 2 K. - Graphical abstract: Coordination environment for the metals in vanadyl (II) nitroprusside dihydrate. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Crystal structure of vanadyl nitroprusside dehydrate. • Network of hydrogen bonds. • Magnetic interactions through a network of hydrogen bonds. • Layered transition metal nitroprussides.

  19. Dilution effects on combined magnetic and electric dipole interactions: A study of ferromagnetic cobalt nanoparticles with tuneable interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hod, M.; Dobroserdova, A.; Samin, S.; Dobbrow, C.; Schmidt, A. M.; Gottlieb, M.; Kantorovich, S.

    2017-08-01

    Improved understanding of complex interactions between nanoparticles will facilitate the control over the ensuing self-assembled structures. In this work, we consider the dynamic changes occurring upon dilution in the self-assembly of a system of ferromagnetic cobalt nanoparticles that combine magnetic, electric, and steric interactions. The systems examined here vary in the strength of the magnetic dipole interactions and the amount of point charges per particle. Scattering techniques are employed for the characterization of the self-assembly aggregates, and zeta-potential measurements are employed for the estimation of surface charges. Our experiments show that for particles with relatively small initial number of surface electric dipoles, an increase in particle concentration results in an increase in diffusion coefficients; whereas for particles with relatively high number of surface dipoles, no effect is observed upon concentration changes. We attribute these changes to a shift in the adsorption/desorption equilibrium of the tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) molecules on the particle surface. We put forward an explanation, based on the combination of two theoretical models. One predicts that the growing concentration of electric dipoles, stemming from the addition of tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) as co-surfactant during particle synthesis, on the surface of the particles results in the overall repulsive interaction. Secondly, using density functional theory, we explain that the observed behaviour of the diffusion coefficient can be treated as a result of the concentration dependent nanoparticle self-assembly: additional repulsion leads to the reduction in self-assembled aggregate size despite the shorter average interparticle distances, and as such provides the growth of the diffusion coefficient.

  20. Beam interaction of a pulsed, nonlinear in-vacuum injection magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rast, Helge

    2013-01-01

    Theme of this thesis is the study of the interaction of the injection magnet designed for BESSY II with the electron beam. The main topic of this thesis lies in the numerical and measurement-technical study of the loss factor, the wake potential, and the wake impedance of the nonlinear kicker magnet with the aim of an optimization of the magnet design, so that a stable operation of the kicker in the BESSY II storage ring is made possible. A further main topic of this thesis is a study on the matching of the injection scheme with a single kicker to the conditions of the DELTA storage ring, which is operated by the TU Dortmund.

  1. Magnetic ordering in TCNQ-based metal–organic frameworks with host–guest interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xuan; Saber, Mohamed R.; Prosvirin, Andrey P.; Reibenspies, Joseph H.; Sun, Lei; Ballesteros-Rivas, Maria; Zhao, Hanhua; Dunbar, Kim R. (MIT); (TAM)

    2015-09-03

    Host–guest interactions between the aromatic molecules benzene, toluene, aniline and nitrobenzene and the redox-active TCNQ-based metal–organic framework (MOF), Fe(TCNQ)(4,4'-bpy) (1) (TCNQ = 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane), have been found to modulate spontaneous magnetization behaviours at low temperatures. An analogous MOF, Mn(TCNQ)(4,4'-bpy) (2) with isotropic Mn(II) ions as well as the two-dimensional compound Fe(TCNQ)(DMF)2·2DMF (3·2DMF), were also prepared as models for studying the effects of single-ion magnetic anisotropy and structural distortion on spin canting. The results indicate guest-dependent long range magnetic ordering occurs at low temperatures, which correlates with the electrostatic and steric effects of the incorporated aromatic guests.

  2. Kinetic Simulations of Plasma Energization and Particle Acceleration in Interacting Magnetic Flux Ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, S.; Guo, F.; Zank, G. P.; Li, X.; Stanier, A.

    2017-12-01

    The interaction between magnetic flux ropes has been suggested as a process that leads to efficient plasma energization and particle acceleration (e.g., Drake et al. 2013; Zank et al. 2014). However, the underlying plasma dynamics and acceleration mechanisms are subject to examination of numerical simulations. As a first step of this effort, we carry out 2D fully kinetic simulations using the VPIC code to study the plasma energization and particle acceleration during coalescence of two magnetic flux ropes. Our analysis shows that the reconnection electric field and compression effect are important in plasma energization. The results may help understand the energization process associated with magnetic flux ropes frequently observed in the solar wind near the heliospheric current sheet.

  3. Splitter target for controlling magnetic reconnection in relativistic laser plasma interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y. J.; Bulanov, S. S.; Korn, G.; Bulanov, S. V.

    2018-04-01

    The utilization of a conical target irradiated by a high power laser is proposed to study fast magnetic reconnection in relativistic plasma interactions. Such target, placed in front of the near critical density gas jet, splits the laser pulse, forming two parallel laser pulses in the 2D case and a donut shaped pulse in the 3D case. The magnetic annihilation and reconnection occur in the density downramp region of the subsequent gas jet. The magnetic field energy is converted into the particle kinetic energy. As a result, a backward accelerated electron beam is obtained as a signature of reconnection. The above mechanisms are demonstrated using particle-in-cell simulations in both 2D and 3D cases. Facilitating the synchronization of two laser beams, the proposed approach can be used in designing the corresponding experiments on studying fundamental problems of relativistic plasma physics.

  4. Self-generated magnetic fields and energy transport by ultra-intense laser-plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abudurexiti, A.; Tuniyazi, P.; Wang Qian

    2011-01-01

    The electromagnetic instability (Weibel instability) and its mechanism in ultra-intense laser-plasma interactions are studied by using three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The transport of energy in electron thermal conduction is analyzed by the Spitzer-Harm theory, and the election's vertical pyrogenation phenomenon that resulted from anisotropic heating of laser is observed. The results indicate that the strong magnetic field excited by Weibel instability makes the electron beam deposit its energy within a very short distance, and it restrains the electron thermal flux formed when the laser ponderomotive force bursts through the electron. With the increase of the self-generated magnetic field, the electron will be seized by the wave of magnetic field, and the transport of heat will be restricted. (authors)

  5. The interaction of a very large interplanetary magnetic cloud with the magnetosphere and with cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepping, R.P.; Burlaga, L.F.; Ogilvie, K.W.; Tsurutani, B.T.; Lazarus, A.J.; Evans, D.S.; Klein, L.W.

    1991-01-01

    A large interplanetary magnetic cloud has been observed in the mid-December 1982 data from ISEE 3. It is estimated to have a heliocentric radial extent of approx-gt 0.4 AU, making it one of the largest magnetic clouds yet observed at 1 AU. The magnetic field measured throughout the main portion of the cloud was fairly tightly confined to a plane as it changed direction by 174 degree while varying only moderately in magnitude. Throughout nearly the entire duration of the cloud's passage, IMP 8 was located in the Earth's dawn magnetosheath providing observations of this cloud's interaction with the bow shock and magnetopause; the cloud is shown to maintain its solar wind characteristics during the interaction. Near the end of the cloud passage, at 0806 UT on December 17, ISEE 3 (and IMP 8 at nearly the same time) observed an oblique fast forward interplanetary shock closely coincident in time with a geomagnetic storm sudden commencement. The shock, moving much faster than the cloud (radial speeds of 700 and 390 km/s, respectively, on the average), was in the process of overtaking the cloud. The index Dst decreased monotonically by ∼ 130 nT during the 2-day cloud passage by the Earth and was well correlated with the B z component of the interplanetary magnetic field. There was no significant decrease in the cosmic ray intensity recorded by ground-based neutron monitors at this time of rather strong, smoothly changing fields. However, a Forbush decrease did occur immediately after the interplanetary shock, during a period of significant field turbulence. Thus a large, smooth, interplanetary helical magnetic field configuration engulfing the Earth does not necessarily deflect cosmic rays sufficiently to cause a Forbush decrease, but there is a suggestion that such a decrease may be caused by particle scattering by turbulent magnetic fields

  6. {pi}-{pi} Interactions and magnetic properties in a series of hybrid inorganic-organic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, M.; Lemus-Santana, A.A. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Unidad Legaria, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Rodriguez-Hernandez, J. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Unidad Legaria, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales, Universidad de La Habana (Cuba); Knobel, M. [Instituto de Fisica ' Gleb Wataghin' , Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Reguera, E., E-mail: edilso.reguera@gmail.com [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Unidad Legaria, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-01-15

    The series of hybrid inorganic-organic solids T(Im){sub 2}[Ni(CN){sub 4}] with T=Fe, Co, Ni and Im=imidazole were prepared by soft chemical routes from aqueous solutions of the involved building units: imidazole, T{sup 2+} metal and the [Ni(CN){sub 4}]{sup 2-} anionic block. The obtained samples were characterized from infrared and UV-vis spectroscopies, and thermogravimetric, X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements. Anhydrous solids which crystallize with a monoclinic unit cell, in the I2/a space group with four formula units per cell (Z=4) were obtained. Their crystal structure was solved ab initio from the recorded X-ray powder patterns and then refined by the Rietveld method. The metal T is found with octahedral coordination to four N ends of CN groups and two imidazole molecules while the inner Ni atom preserves its planar coordination. The system of layers remains stacked in an ordered 3D structure through dipole-dipole and {pi}-{pi} interactions between imidazole rings from neighboring layers. In this way, a pillared structure is achieved without requiring the coordination of both nitrogen atoms from imidazole ring. The recorded magnetic data indicate the occurrence of a predominant ferromagnetic interaction at low temperature for Co and Ni but not for Fe. Such magnetic ordering is more favorable for Ni with transition temperature of 14.67 K, which was ascribed to the relatively high polarizing power for this metal. Within the considered T metals, to nickel the highest electron-withdrawing ability corresponds and this leads to an increase for the metal-ligand electron clouds overlapping and to a stronger {pi}-{pi} attractive interaction, two factors that result into a higher magnetic ordering temperature. - Graphical Abstract: Magnetic ordering through the {pi}-{pi} interaction between the imidazole rings. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hybrid inorganic-organic solids. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hybrid inorganic-organic molecular based

  7. Chiral-model of weak-interaction form factors and magnetic moments of octet baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubodera, K.; Kohyama, Y.; Tsushima, K.; Yamaguchi, T.

    1989-01-01

    For baryon spectroscopy, magnetic moments and weak interaction form factors provide valuable information, and the impressive amount of available experimental data on these quantities for the octet baryons invites detailed investigations. The authors of this paper have made extensive studies of the weak-interaction form factors and magnetic moments of the octet baryons within the framework of the volume-type cloudy-bag model (v-type CBM). The clouds of all octet mesons have been included. Furthermore, we have taken into account in a unified framework various effects that were so far only individually discussed in the literature. Thus, the gluonic effects, center-of-mass (CM0 corrections, and recoil corrections have been included). In this talk, after giving a brief summary of some salient features of the results, we discuss a very interesting application of our model to the problem of the spin content of nucleons

  8. ON MAGNETIC ACTIVITY BAND OVERLAP, INTERACTION, AND THE FORMATION OF COMPLEX SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntosh, Scott W. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States); Leamon, Robert J., E-mail: mscott@hao.ucar.edu [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Recent work has revealed a phenomenological picture of the how the ∼11 yr sunspot cycle of the Sun arises. The production and destruction of sunspots is a consequence of the latitudinal-temporal overlap and interaction of the toroidal magnetic flux systems that belong to the 22 yr magnetic activity cycle and are rooted deep in the Sun's convective interior. We present a conceptually simple extension of this work, presenting a hypothesis on how complex active regions can form as a direct consequence of the intra- and extra-hemispheric interaction taking place in the solar interior. Furthermore, during specific portions of the sunspot cycle, we anticipate that those complex active regions may be particularly susceptible to profoundly catastrophic breakdown, producing flares and coronal mass ejections of the most severe magnitude.

  9. Estimation of πd-Interactions in Organic Conductors Including Magnetic Anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takehiko; Katsuhara, Mao

    2002-03-01

    Magnetic interactions in organic conductors including magnetic anions, such as λ-(BETS)2FeCl4 and κ-(BETS)2FeX4 [X = Cl and Br], are estimated from intermolecular overlap integrals; the overlaps between anions afford Jdd, and those between anions and donors give Jπ d. From this, the most stable spin alignments are decided, and such quantities as the Néel and Weiss temperatures, as well as the magnitude of spin polarization on the π-molecules are evaluated on the basis of the mean-field theory of πd-systems. The calculation is extended to several other πd-conductors, which are classified depending on the relative magnitudes of the direct dd- and indirect πd-interactions.

  10. Magnetic history dependence of metastable states in thin films with dipolar interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias, Oscar; Labarta, Amilcar

    2000-01-01

    We present the results of a Monte Carlo simulation of the ground state and magnetic relaxation of a model of a thin film consisting of a two-dimensional square lattice of Heisenberg spins with perpendicular anisotropy K, exchange J and long-range dipolar interactions g. We have studied the ground state configurations of this system for a wide range of the interaction parameters J/g, K/g by means of the simulated annealing procedure, showing that the model is able to reproduce the different magnetic configurations found in real samples. We have found the existence of a certain range of K/g, J/g values for which in-plane and out-of-plane configurations are quasi-degenerated in energy. We show that when a system in this region of parameters is perturbed by an external force that is subsequently removed, different kinds of ordering may be induced depending on the followed procedure. In particular, simulations of relaxations from saturation under an AC demagnetizing field or in zero field are in qualitative agreement with recent experiments on epitaxial and granular alloy thin films, which show a wide variety of magnetic patterns depending on their magnetic history

  11. Semiclassical quantization of integrable systems of few interacting anyons in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivan, N.; Levit, S.

    1992-01-01

    We present a semiclassical theory of charged interacting anyons in a strong magnetic field. We derive the appropriate generalization of the WKB quantization conditions and determine the corresponding wave functions for non separable integrable anyonic systems. This theory is applies to a system of two interacting anyons, two interacting anyons in the presence of an impurity and three interacting anyons. We calculate the dependence of the semiclassical energy levels on the statistical parameter and find regions in which dependence follows very different patterns. The semiclassical treatment allows to find the correlation between these patterns and the change in the character of the classical motion of the system. We also test the accuracy of the mean field approximation for low and high energy states of the three anyons. (author)

  12. Magnetic interactions and the method of images: a wealth of educational suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonanno, A; Camarca, M; Sapia, P

    2011-01-01

    Under some conditions, the method of images (well known in electrostatics) may be implemented in magnetostatic problems too, giving an excellent example of the usefulness of formal analogies in the description of physical systems. In this paper, we develop a quantitative model for the magnetic interactions underlying the so-called Geomag(TM) paradox and describe a quantitative experimental investigation to validate the model. The validity ranges of some approximations involved in this problem are quantitatively discussed and the advantages of a dimensionless formulation of the interaction are pointed out. This work offers many educational suggestions suitable for university students.

  13. Influence of dilution and nature of the interaction on surface and interface magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsallis, C.

    1986-01-01

    The recent theoretical effort of the Rio de Janeiro/CBPF group on surface magnetism is tutorially reviewed. Within a real space renormalization group framework, we analyse the influence of factors such as the number of states per spin (q-state Potts model), the signs of the coupling constants (mixed ferro and antiferromagnetic interactions), the presence of a second semi-infinite bulk (interface case), the symmetry of the interaction (anisotropic Heisenberg model), and surface and/or bulk dilution (bond quenched model). A variety of interesting physical effects emerges. (Autor) [pt

  14. IEFIT - An Interactive Approach to High Temperature Fusion Plasma Magnetic Equilibrium Fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Q.; Schachter, J.; Schissel, D.P.; Lao, L.L.

    1999-01-01

    An interactive IDL based wrapper, IEFIT, has been created for the magnetic equilibrium reconstruction code EFIT written in FORTRAN. It allows high temperature fusion physicists to rapidly optimize a plasma equilibrium reconstruction by eliminating the unnecessarily repeated initialization in the conventional approach along with the immediate display of the fitting results of each input variation. It uses a new IDL based graphics package, GaPlotObj, developed in cooperation with Fanning Software Consulting, that provides a unified interface with great flexibility in presenting and analyzing scientific data. The overall interactivity reduces the process to minutes from the usual hours

  15. Features of electron-phonon interactions in nanotubes with chiral symmetry in magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Kibis, O V

    2001-01-01

    Interaction of the electrons with acoustic phonons in the nanotube with chiral symmetry by availability of the magnetic field, parallel to the nanotube axis, is considered. It is shown that the electron energy spectrum is asymmetric relative to the electron wave vector inversion and for that reason the electron-phonon interaction appears to be different for similar phonons with mutually contrary directions of the wave vector. This phenomenon leads to origination of the electromotive force by the spatially uniform electron gas heating and to appearance of the quadrupole component in the nanotube volt-ampere characteristics

  16. [Study of high energy nucleus-nucleus interactions with a Magnetic-Interferometric-Emulsion-Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki.

    1990-01-01

    The Nuclear Physics group at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) has been analyzing 200 GeV/n S + Pb collision events with a Magnetic-Interactive-Emulsion-Chamber (MAGIC). The objectives of the research are to learn the nature of nuclear matter at high density of particles and to develop an all-particle tracking system for very high particle densities. To advance the study further, the detector capability has been improved so as to allow the best utilization of all-particle measurements. A design study for Pb + Pb interactions at 160 GeV/n was made for planned experiments in 1993

  17. Relativistic two-fermion equations with form factors and anomalous magnetic moment interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.

    1977-04-01

    Relativistic equations for two-fermion systems are derived from quantum field theory taking into account the form factors of the particles. When the q 2 dependence of the form factors is disregarded, in the static approximation, the two-fermion equations with Coulomb and anomalous magnetic moment interactions are obtained. Separating the angular variables, a sixteen-component relativistic radial equation are finally given

  18. Electron paramagnetic resonance response and magnetic interactions in ordered solid solutions of lithium nickel oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azzoni, C.B. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia, Dipartimento di Fisica ' Alessandro Volta' , Universita di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Paleari, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano, Milan (Italy); Massarotti, V.; Capsoni, D. [Dipartimento di Chimica-Fisica, Universita di Pavia, Pavia (Italy)

    1996-09-23

    EPR data of ordered solid solutions of lithium nickel oxides are reported as a function of the lithium content. The features of the signal and the EPR centre density are analysed by a model of dynamical trapping of holes in [(Ni{sup 2+}-O-Ni{sup 2+})-h{sup +}] complexes. The possible origin of the interactions responsible for the magnetic ordering and some features of the transport properties are also discussed. (author)

  19. Studies of the interaction between a magnet and a High Tc Superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Z.

    1991-01-01

    This dissertation consists of two parts. The last part is eight research papers which involve topics related to High T c superconductor (HTSC) studies. The main topic describes the interaction between a permanent magnet and a HTSC studied by a mechanical pendulum. The first part of the dissertation has two purposes. One is to give a brief introduction and background to the research papers, and the other is to outline the scientific findings from the HTSC studies. 94 refs., 2 figs

  20. Segmentation of tumors in magnetic resonance brain images using an interactive multiscale watershed algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Letteboer, Marloes M J; Olsen, Ole F; Dam, Erik B

    2004-01-01

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: This article presents the evaluation of an interactive multiscale watershed segmentation algorithm for segmenting tumors in magnetic resonance brain images of patients scheduled for neuronavigational procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The watershed method is compared...... delineation shows that the two methods are interchangeable according to the Bland and Altman criterion, and thus equally accurate. The repeatability of the watershed method and the manual method are compared by looking at the similarity of the segmented volumes. The similarity for intraobserver...

  1. Interaction domains in die-upset NdFeB magnets in dependence on the degree of deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlopkov, K.; Gutfleisch, O.; Schaefer, R.; Hinz, D.; Mueller, K.-H.; Schultz, L.

    2004-01-01

    The magnetic domain structure of NdFeB magnets has been studied using high resolution, digitally enhanced Kerr-microscopy. Melt-spun NdFeB powder (MQU-F TM ) was hot pressed into fully dense samples and then hot deformed to axially textured magnets. Various degrees of deformation (height reduction) up to 76% have been realized. Pronounced interaction domains have been observed only in magnets, which were deformed to a degree of deformation of at least 52%. With increasing alignment of the grains the interaction domains become more and more visible and their size increases

  2. Magnetic properties of point defect interaction with impurity atoms in Fe-Cr alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Manh, D.; Lavrentiev, M. Yu.; Dudarev, S. L.

    2009-04-01

    An integrated ab initio and statistical Monte Carlo investigation has been recently carried out to model the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of Fe-Cr alloys. We found that the conventional Fe-Cr phase diagram is not adequate at low temperature region where the magnetic contribution to the free energy plays an important role in the prediction of an ordered Fe 15Cr phase and its negative enthalpy of formation. The origin of the anomalous thermodynamic and magnetic properties of Fe-Cr alloys can be understood using a tight-binding Stoner model combined with the charge neutrality condition. We investigate the environmental dependence of magnetic moment distributions for various self-interstitial atom dumbbells configurations using spin density maps found using density functional theory calculations. The mixed dumbbell Fe-Cr and Fe-Mn binding energies are found to be positive due to magnetic interactions. Finally, we discuss the relationship between the migration energy of vacancy in Fe-Cr alloys and magnetism at the saddle point configuration.

  3. The exchange interaction effects on magnetic properties of the nanostructured CoPt particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komogortsev, S.V., E-mail: komogor@iph.krasn.ru [Kirensky Institute of Physics, SB RAS, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Iskhakov, R.S. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, SB RAS, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Zimin, A.A. [Siberian Federal University, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Filatov, E.Yu.; Korenev, S.V.; Shubin, Yu.V. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Chizhik, N.A. [Siberian Federal University, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Yurkin, G.Yu.; Eremin, E.V. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, SB RAS, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-01

    Various manifestations of the exchange interaction effects in magnetization curves of the CoPt nanostructured particles are demonstrated and discussed. The inter-grain exchange constant A in the sponge-like agglomerates of crystallites is estimated as A=(7±1) pJ/m from the approach magnetization to saturation curves that is in good agreement with A=(6.6±0.5) pJ/m obtained from Bloch T {sup 3/2} law. The fractal dimensionality of the exchange coupled crystallite system in the porous media of the disordered CoPt alloy d=(2.60±0.18) was estimated from the approach magnetization to saturation curve. Coercive force decreases with temperature as H{sub c}~T {sup 3/2} which is assumed to be a consequence of the magnetic anisotropy energy reduction due to the thermal spin wave excitations in the investigated CoPt particles. - Highlights: • Nanostructured CoPt particles were synthesized and then annealed in He atmosphere. • The structure of the material and magnetization curves were studied. • The maximum on reduced coercivity vs grain size dependence was observed. • The dimensionality d of exchange coupled crystallite system was estimated. • Exchange stiffness constant A was estimated.

  4. Effect of the magnetic dipole interaction on a spin-1 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fangqi; Jia, Wei; Zhao, Qing

    2018-05-01

    We consider a hybrid system composed of a spin-1 triplet coupled to a nuclear spin. We study the effect of the axisymmetric and the quadrupole term of the magnetic dipole interaction between the two electrons forming the triplet on the energy spectrum in a static magnetic field. The energy spectrum obtained by directly diagonalizing the Hamiltonian of the system shows that these two terms not only remove the special crossings that appear in the absence of the magnetic dipole interaction, but also produce new (avoided) crossings by lifting the relevant levels. Specially, the gaps between the avoided crossing levels increase with the strength of the quadrupole term. In order to accurately illustrate these effects, we present the results for the discriminant and von Neumann entropy of one electron interacting with the rest of the whole system. Finally, by numerically solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equations of the system, we discover that the polarization oscillation of electron and nuclear spin is in-phase and the total average longitudinal spin is not conserved at location of avoided crossing, but the two results are opposite beyond that.

  5. Magnetization and susceptibility of a parabolic InAs quantum dot with electron–electron and spin–orbit interactions in the presence of a magnetic field at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, D. Sanjeev, E-mail: sanjeevchs@gmail.com [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Mukhopadhyay, Soma [Department of Physics, CMR College of Engineering and Technology, Hyderabad (India); Chatterjee, Ashok [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India)

    2016-11-15

    The magnetization and susceptibility of a two-electron parabolic quantum dot are studied in the presence of electron–electron and spin–orbit interactions as a function of magnetic field and temperature. The spin–orbit interactions are treated by a unitary transformation and an exactly soluble parabolic interaction model is considered to mimic the electron–electron interaction. The theory is finally applied to an InAs quantum dot. Magnetization and susceptibility are calculated using canonical ensemble approach. Our results show that Temperature has no effect on magnetization and susceptibility in the diamagnetic regime whereas electron–electron interaction reduces them. The temperature however reduces the height of the paramagnetic peak. The Rashba spin–orbit interaction is shown to shift the paramagnetic peak towards higher magnetic fields whereas the Dresselhaus spin–orbit interaction shifts it to the lower magnetic field side. Spin–orbit interaction has no effect on magnetization and susceptibility at larger temperatures. - Highlights: • Temperature has no effect on magnetization and susceptibility in the diamagnetic regime but reduces the height of the paramagnetic peak. • Electron-electron interaction reduces magnetization and susceptibility in the diamagnetic region. • Rashba spin–orbit interaction shifts the paramagnetic peak towards higher magnetic fields. • Dresselhaus spin–orbit interaction shifts the paramagnetic peak towards lower magnetic fields. • Spin–orbit interaction has no effect on magnetization and susceptibility at larger temperatures.

  6. Influence of intramolecular f-f interactions on nuclear spin driven quantum tunneling of magnetizations in quadruple-decker phthalocyanine complexes containing two terbium or dysprosium magnetic centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Takamitsu; Matsumura, Kazuya; Ishikawa, Naoto

    2013-10-10

    Nuclear spin driven quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) phenomena, which arise from admixture of more than two orthogonal electronic spin wave functions through the couplings with those of the nuclear spins, are one of the important magnetic relaxation processes in lanthanide single molecule magnets (SMMs) in the low temperature range. Although recent experimental studies have indicated that the presence of the intramolecular f-f interactions affects their magnetic relaxation processes, little attention has been given to their mechanisms and, to the best of our knowledge, no rational theoretical models have been proposed for the interpretations of how the nuclear spin driven QTMs are influenced by the f-f interactions. Since quadruple-decker phthalocyanine complexes with two terbium or dysprosium ions as the magnetic centers show moderate f-f interactions, these are appropriate to investigate the influence of the f-f interactions on the dynamic magnetic relaxation processes. In the present paper, a theoretical model including ligand field (LF) potentials, hyperfine, nuclear quadrupole, magnetic dipolar, and the Zeeman interactions has been constructed to understand the roles of the nuclear spins for the QTM processes, and the resultant Zeeman plots are obtained. The ac susceptibility measurements of the magnetically diluted quadruple-decker monoterbium and diterbium phthalocyanine complexes, [Tb-Y] and [Tb-Tb], have indicated that the presence of the f-f interactions suppresses the QTMs in the absence of the external magnetic field (H(dc)) being consistent with previous reports. On the contrary, the faster magnetic relaxation processes are observed for [Tb-Tb] than [Tb-Y] at H(dc) = 1000 Oe, clearly demonstrating that the QTMs are rather enhanced in the presence of the external magnetic field. Based on the calculated Zeeman diagrams, these observations can be attributed to the enhanced nuclear spin driven QTMs for [Tb-Tb]. At the H(dc) higher than 2000 Oe, the

  7. Interacting Electrons and Holes in Quasi-2D Quantum Dots in Strong Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawrylak, P.; Sheng, W.; Cheng, S.-J.

    2004-09-01

    Theory of optical properties of interacting electrons and holes in quasi-2D quantum dots in strong magnetic fields is discussed. In two dimensions and the lowest Landau level, hidden symmetries control the interaction of the interacting system with light. By confining electrons and holes into quantum dots hidden symmetries can be removed and the excitation spectrum of electrons and excitons can be observed. We discuss a theory electronic and of excitonic quantum Hall droplets at a filling factorν=2. For an excitonic quantum Hall droplet the characteristic emission spectra are predicted to be related to the total spin of electron and hole configurations. For the electronic droplet the excitation spectrum of the droplet can be mapped out by measuring the emission for increasing number of electrons.

  8. Interacting electrons and holes in quasi-2D quantum dots in strong magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawrylak, P.; Sheng, W.; Cheng, S.-J.

    2004-01-01

    Theory of optical properties of interacting electrons and holes in quasi-2D quantum dots in strong magnetic fields is discussed. In two dimensions and the lowest Landau level, hidden symmetries control the interaction of the interacting system with light. By confining electrons and holes into quantum dots hidden symmetries can be removed and the excitation spectrum of electrons and excitons can be observed. We discuss a theory electronic and excitonic quantum Hall droplets at a filling factor υ = 2. For an excitonic quantum Hall droplet the characteristic emission spectra are predicted to be related to the total spin of electron and hole configurations. For the electronic droplet the excitation spectrum of the droplet can be mapped out by measuring the emission for increasing number of electrons. (author)

  9. Spin manipulation and spin-lattice interaction in magnetic colloidal quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Fabrizio; Turyanska, Lyudmila; Granwehr, Josef; Patanè, Amalia

    2014-11-01

    We report on the spin-lattice interaction and coherent manipulation of electron spins in Mn-doped colloidal PbS quantum dots (QDs) by electron spin resonance. We show that the phase memory time,TM , is limited by Mn-Mn dipolar interactions, hyperfine interactions of the protons (1H) on the QD capping ligands with Mn ions in their proximity (limit and at low temperature, we achieve a long phase memory time constant TM˜0.9 μ s , thus enabling the observation of Rabi oscillations. Our findings suggest routes to the rational design of magnetic colloidal QDs with phase memory times exceeding the current limits of relevance for the implementation of QDs as qubits in quantum information processing.

  10. Magnetic interaction reversal in watermelon nanostructured Cr-doped Fe nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Maninder; Qiang, You, E-mail: youqiang@uidaho.edu [Department of Physics, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844 (United States); Dai, Qilin; Tang, Jinke [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming 82071 (United States); Bowden, Mark; Engelhard, Mark [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Wu, Yaqiao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Boise State University, Boise, Idaho 83725 (United States); Center for Advanced Energy Studies, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83401 (United States)

    2013-11-11

    Cr-doped core-shell Fe/Fe-oxide nanoclusters (NCs) were synthesized at varied atomic percentages of Cr from 0 at. % to 8 at. %. The low concentrations of Cr (<10 at. %) were selected in order to inhibit the complete conversion of the Fe-oxide shell to Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and the Fe core to FeCr alloy. The magnetic interaction in Fe/Fe-oxide NCs (∼25 nm) can be controlled by antiferromagnetic Cr-dopant. We report the origin of σ-FeCr phase at very low Cr concentration (2 at. %) unlike in previous studies, and the interaction reversal from dipolar to exchange interaction in watermelon-like Cr-doped core-shell NCs.

  11. Electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations of the solar wind interaction with lunar magnetic anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deca, J; Divin, A; Lapenta, G; Lembège, B; Markidis, S; Horányi, M

    2014-04-18

    We present the first three-dimensional fully kinetic and electromagnetic simulations of the solar wind interaction with lunar crustal magnetic anomalies (LMAs). Using the implicit particle-in-cell code iPic3D, we confirm that LMAs may indeed be strong enough to stand off the solar wind from directly impacting the lunar surface forming a mini-magnetosphere, as suggested by spacecraft observations and theory. In contrast to earlier magnetohydrodynamics and hybrid simulations, the fully kinetic nature of iPic3D allows us to investigate the space charge effects and in particular the electron dynamics dominating the near-surface lunar plasma environment. We describe for the first time the interaction of a dipole model centered just below the lunar surface under plasma conditions such that only the electron population is magnetized. The fully kinetic treatment identifies electromagnetic modes that alter the magnetic field at scales determined by the electron physics. Driven by strong pressure anisotropies, the mini-magnetosphere is unstable over time, leading to only temporal shielding of the surface underneath. Future human exploration as well as lunar science in general therefore hinges on a better understanding of LMAs.

  12. Impacts of Coulomb Interactions on the Magnetic Responses of Excitonic Complexes in Single Semiconductor Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Ying-Jhe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on the diamagnetic responses of different exciton complexes in single InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots (QDs and quantum rings (QRs. For QDs, the imbalanced magnetic responses of inter-particle Coulomb interactions play a crucial role in the diamagnetic shifts of excitons (X, biexcitons (XX, and positive trions (X−. For negative trions (X− in QDs, anomalous magnetic responses are observed, which cannot be described by the conventional quadratic energy shift with the magnetic field. The anomalous behavior is attributed to the apparent change in the electron wave function extent after photon emission due to the strong Coulomb attraction by the hole in its initial state. In QRs, the diamagnetic responses of X and XX also show different behaviors. Unlike QDs, the diamagnetic shift of XX in QRs is considerably larger than that of X. The inherent structural asymmetry combined with the inter-particle Coulomb interactions makes the wave function distribution of XX very different from that of X in QRs. Our results suggest that the phase coherence of XX in QRs may survive from the wave function localization due to the structural asymmetry or imperfections.

  13. Hyperfine interaction mechanism of magnetic field effects in sequential fluorophore and exciplex fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodin, Dmitry V; Ivanov, Anatoly I; Burshtein, Anatoly I

    2013-03-28

    The magnetic field effect on the fluorescence of the photoexcited electron acceptor, (1)A∗, and the exciplex, (1)[D(+δ)A(-δ)] formed at contact of (1)A∗ with an electron donor (1)D, is theoretically explored in the framework of Integral Encounter Theory. It is assumed that the excited fluorophore is equilibrated with the exciplex that reversibly dissociates into the radical-ion pair. The magnetic field sensitive stage is the spin conversion in the resulting geminate radical-ion pair, (1, 3)[D(+)...A(-)] that proceeds due to hyperfine interaction. We confirm our earlier conclusion (obtained with a rate description of spin conversion) that in the model with a single nucleus spin 1/2 the magnitude of the Magnetic Field Effect (MFE) also vanishes in the opposite limits of low and high dielectric permittivity of the solvent. Moreover, it is shown that MFE being positive at small hyperfine interaction A, first increases with A but approaching the maximum starts to decrease and even changes the sign.

  14. Magnetism of one-dimensional strongly repulsive spin-1 bosons with antiferromagnetic spin-exchange interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. Y.; Guan, X. W.; Batchelor, M. T.; Lee, C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate magnetism and quantum phase transitions in a one-dimensional system of integrable spin-1 bosons with strongly repulsive density-density interaction and antiferromagnetic spin-exchange interaction via the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz method. At zero temperature, the system exhibits three quantum phases: (i) a singlet phase of boson pairs when the external magnetic field H is less than the lower critical field H c1 ; (ii) a ferromagnetic phase of atoms in the hyperfine state |F=1, m F =1> when the external magnetic field exceeds the upper critical field H c2 ; and (iii) a mixed phase of singlet pairs and unpaired atoms in the intermediate region H c1 c2 . At finite temperatures, the spin fluctuations affect the thermodynamics of the model through coupling the spin bound states to the dressed energy for the unpaired m F =1 bosons. However, such spin dynamics is suppressed by a sufficiently strong external field at low temperatures. Thus the singlet pairs and unpaired bosons may form a two-component Luttinger liquid in the strong coupling regime.

  15. Low-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of systems frustrated by competing exchange interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Beas

    This doctoral thesis emphasizes on the study of frustrated systems which form a very interesting class of compounds in physics. The technique used for the investigation of the magnetic properties of the frustrated materials is Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). NMR is a very novel tool for the microscopic study of the spin systems. NMR enables us to investigate the local magnetic properties of any system exclusively. The NMR experiments on the different systems yield us knowledge of the static as well as the dynamic behavior of the electronic spins. Frustrated systems bear great possibilities of revelation of new physics through the new ground states they exhibit. The vandates AA'VO(PO4)2 [AA' ≡ Zn2 and BaCd] are great prototypes of the J1-J2 model which consists of magnetic ions sitting on the corners of a square lattice. Frustration is caused by the competing nearest-neighbor (NN) and next-nearest neighbor (NNN) exchange interactions. The NMR investigation concludes a columnar antiferromagnetic (AFM) state for both the compounds from the sharp peak of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate (1/T1) and a sudden broadening of the 31P-NMR spectrum. The important conclusion from our study is the establishment of the first H-P-T phase diagram of BaCdVO(PO4)2. Application of high pressure reduces the saturation field (HS) in BaCdVO(PO4)2 and decreases the ratio J2/J1, pushing the system more towards a questionable boundary (a disordered ground state) between the columnar AFM and a ferromagnetic ground state. A pressure up to 2.4 GPa will completely suppress HS. The Fe ions in the `122' iron-arsenide superconductors also sit on a square lattice thus closely resembling the J1-J2 model. The 75As-NMR and Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) experiments are conducted in the compound CaFe2As2 prepared by two different heat treatment methods (`as-grown' and `annealed'). Interestingly the two samples show two different ground states. While the ground state of the `as

  16. Electronic and magnetic interactions in high temperature superconducting and high coercivity materials. Final performance report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    The issue addressed in the research was how to understand what controls the competition between two types of phase transition (ordering) which may be present in a hybridizing correlated-electron system containing two transition-shell atomic species; and how the variation of behavior observed can be used to understand the mechanisms giving the observed ordered state. This is significant for understanding mechanisms of high-temperature superconductivity and other states of highly correlated electron systems. Thus the research pertains to magnetic effects as related to interactions giving high temperature superconductivity; where the working hypothesis is that the essential feature governing the magnetic and superconducting behavior of copper-oxide-type systems is a cooperative valence fluctuation mechanism involving the copper ions, as mediated through hybridization effects dominated by the oxygen p electrons. (Substitution of praseodymium at the rare earth sites in the 1·2·3 material provides an interesting illustration of this mechanism since experimentally such substitution strongly suppresses and destroys the superconductivity; and, at 100% Pr, gives Pr f-electron magnetic ordering at a temperature above 16K). The research was theoretical and computational and involved use of techniques aimed at correlated-electron systems that can be described within the confines of model hamiltonians such as the Anderson lattice hamiltonian. Specific techniques used included slave boson methodology used to treat modification of electronic structure and the Mori projection operator (memory function) method used to treat magnetic response (dynamic susceptibility)

  17. Interaction of the solar wind with the planet Mars: Phobos 2 magnetic field observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedler, W.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Lichtenegger, H.

    1991-01-01

    The magnetometers on board the Phobos 2 spacecraft provided the opportunity to study the magnetic environment around Mars, including regions which have never been explored before, such as at low altitudes (down to 850 km above the surface of Mars) and in the tail. The data revealed a bow shock, characterized by a distinct jump in the magnetic field strength and a boundary denoted ''planetopause'', where the level of turbulence of the magnetic field changes. Inside the planetopause the field remains quiet. Some of the main characteristics of the bow shock and the magnetosheath can be reproduced by computer simulations within the framework of a gas-dynamic model using the observed planetopause as an obstacle for the incoming solar wind. In many spacecraft orbits around Mars, reversals of the B x -component were found which are typical for tail crossings. A first analysis of the tail data from the circular orbits at a distance of 2.8 Mars radii showed several cases where the reversal of the tail lobes was controlled by the IMF. This supports the idea of an induced character of the solar wind interaction with Mars outside a distance of about 2.8 Mars radii. However, there are certain features in the magnetic field data which could be interpreted as traces of a weak Martian intrinsic field. (author)

  18. Hyperfine interactions in ferromagnetic materials and magnetic properties of 1fsub(7/2) nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozek, E.

    1976-01-01

    Hyperfine interactions of light nuclei recoil-implanted into iron, nickel and cobalt were studied using the perturbed integral angular distribution IMPAD. Isomeric states of lifetimes within the nanosecond range were excited in the following reactions: 28 Si 14 N, xn, yp 37 Ar, 39 K, 40 K; 27 Al 16 O, xn, yp 41 K, 41 Ca. In all cases except implantation of potassium isotopes into nickel observed shifts of angular distribution were found much smaller than the ones calculated using the known values of g factors, livetimes and strengths of the hyperfine fields. This effect can be explained under the assumption that only a fraction of nuclei feel the full magnetic field. Different fractions obtained for 40 K and 41 K suggest a migration process on a ns time scale. The magnetic moments of isomeric nuclear states excited in reaction 27 Al 14 N, p 36 Cl, 24 Mg 19 F, 2pn 40 K and 48 Ca, 2n 50 Ti were measured using the perturbed integral angular distribution technique - IPAD in an external magnetic field. The g factors for the investigated states were interpreted on the base of the shell model, assuming the effective magnetic moments associated with shell model orbitals dsub(3/2) and fsub(7/2). (author)

  19. Toward Molecular Magnets of Organic Origin via Anion-π Interaction Involving m-Aminyl Diradical: A Theoretical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattacharya, Debojit; Shil, Suranjan; Misra, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    Here we study a set of novel magnetic organic molecular species with different halide ions (fluoride, chloride, bromide) absorbed ∼2 Å above or below the center of an aromatic π-ring in an m-aminyl diradical. Focus is on the nature of anion-π interaction and its impact on magnetic properties, spe...

  20. Effect of magnetostatic interactions on twin boundary motion in Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape memory alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heczko, Oleg; Vokoun, David; Kopecký, Vít; Beleggia, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, Jul (2015), s. 1000204 ISSN 1949-307X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-00262S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetism in solids * demagnetization factors * magnetostatic interactions * shape memory alloys Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.978, year: 2015

  1. Static and quasi-elastic small angle neutron scattering on biocompatible ionic ferrofluids: magnetic and hydrodynamic interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Gazeau, F; Dubois, E; Perzynski, R

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the structure and dynamics of ionic magnetic fluids (MFs), based on ferrite nanoparticles, dispersed at pH approx 7 either in H sub 2 O or in D sub 2 O. Polarized and non-polarized static small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments in zero magnetic field allow us to study both the magnetic and the nuclear contributions to the neutron scattering. The magnetic interparticle attraction is probed separately from the global thermodynamic repulsion and compares well to direct magnetic susceptibility measurements. The magnetic interparticle correlation is in these fluid samples independent of the probed spatial scale. In contrast, a spatial dependence of the interparticle correlation is evidenced at large PHI by the nuclear structure factor. A model of magnetic interaction quantitatively explains the under-field anisotropy of the SANS nuclear contribution. In a quasi-elastic neutron spin-echo experiment, we probe the Brownian dynamics of translation of the nanoparticles in the range 1.3 sup<=...

  2. The interaction between the permanent magnet and ceramic superconductor with organic filler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woźny, L; Kisiel, A; Garbera, A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the phenomenon of magnetic levitation for YBaCuO superconducting samples in pure form and with epoxy resin content of 40%. Samples of superconductors were prepared by the standard reaction in the solid state. The forces of interaction between the superconductor and neodymium permanent magnet were measured. Samples with epoxy resin fillers had significantly smaller levitation force than the sample of the sintered superconductors. This is due to a much lower content of pure superconducting material in the sample volume (about 60% of the YBaCuO). However, the obvious advantage of such samples is the possibility of preparation superconductors with complicated shapes, eg. for use in a superconducting bearings or other devices. (paper)

  3. Electron Raman scattering in semiconductor quantum wire in external magnetic field: Froehlich interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancourt-Riera, Ri.; Nieto Jalil, J.M.; Betancourt-Riera, Re.; Riera, R.

    2009-01-01

    The differential cross-section for an electron Raman scattering process in a semiconductor quantum wire in the presence of an external magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of confinement regarding phonon-assisted transitions, is calculated. We assume single parabolic conduction band and present a description of the phonon modes of cylindrical structures embedded in another material using the Froehlich phonon interaction. To illustrate the theory we use a GaAs/Al 0.35 Ga 0.75 As system. The emission spectra are discussed for different scattering configurations and the selection rules for the processes are also studied. The magnetic field distribution is considered constant with value B 0 inside of the wire, and zero outside.

  4. Numerical solutions to the critical state in a magnet-high temperature superconductor interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Alonso, D; Coombs, T A; Campbell, A M [Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents an algorithm to simulate the electromagnetic behaviour of devices containing high temperature superconductors in axially symmetric problems. The numerical method is built within the finite element method. The electromagnetic properties of HTSCs are described through the critical-state model. Measurements of the axial force between a permanent magnet and a melt-textured YBCO puck are obtained in order to validate the method. This simple system is modelled so that the proposed method obtains the current distribution and electromagnetic fields in the HTSC. The forces in the interaction between the magnet and the HTSC puck can then be calculated. A comparison between experimental and simulation results shows good matching. The simplification of using the critical-state model and ignoring flux creep in this type of configuration is also explored.

  5. Influence of mechanical vibrations on the field quality measurements of LHC interaction region quadrupole magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Di Marco, J; Schlabach, P; Sylvester, C D; Tompkins, J C; Krzywinski, J

    2000-01-01

    The high gradient quadrupole magnets being developed by the US-LHC Accelerator Project for the LHC Interaction Regions have stringent field quality requirements. The field quality of these magnets will be measured using a rotating coil system presently under development. Mechanical vibrations of the coil during field quality measurements are of concern because such vibrations can introduce systematic errors in measurement results. This paper presents calculations of the expected influence of vibrations on field quality measurements and a technique to measure vibrations present in data acquired with standard "tangential-style" probes. Measured vibrations are reported and compared to simulations. Limits on systematic errors in multipole measurements are discussed along with implications for probe and measurement system design. (3 refs).

  6. Emergent spin electromagnetism induced by magnetization textures in the presence of spin-orbit interaction (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatara, Gen, E-mail: gen.tatara@riken.jp [RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 Japan (Japan); Nakabayashi, Noriyuki [RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 Japan (Japan); Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 Japan (Japan)

    2014-05-07

    Emergent electromagnetic field which couples to electron's spin in ferromagnetic metals is theoretically studied. Rashba spin-orbit interaction induces spin electromagnetic field which is in the linear order in gradient of magnetization texture. The Rashba-induced effective electric and magnetic fields satisfy in the absence of spin relaxation the Maxwell's equations as in the charge-based electromagnetism. When spin relaxation is taken into account besides spin dynamics, a monopole current emerges generating spin motive force via the Faraday's induction law. The monopole is expected to play an important role in spin-charge conversion and in the integration of spintronics into electronics.

  7. Effect of a spectrometer magnet on the beam-beam interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornacchia, M; Parzen, G

    1981-01-01

    The presence of experimental apparatus in the interaction regions of an intersecting beam accelerator changes the configuration of the crossing beams. This changes the space-charge forces with respect to the standard, magnet-free crossing. The question is: what is the maximum allowable perturbation caused by the spectrometer magnet that can be tolerated from the point of view of the beam dynamics. This paper is limited to the perturbations that the curved trajectories cause the beam-beam space charge nonlinearities. The question has arisen of how one defines the strength of the perturbation. The only solution is to compute the strength of the most important nonlinear resources. In what follows, the computational method used in calculating these resonances is described, and compared with those induced by random orbit errors.

  8. Effect of a spectrometer magnet on the beam-beam interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornacchia, M.; Parzen, G.

    1981-01-01

    The presence of experimental apparatus in the interaction regions of an intersecting beam accelerator changes the configuration of the crossing beams. This changes the space-charge forces with respect to the standard, magnet-free crossing. The question is: what is the maximum allowable perturbation caused by the spectrometer magnet that can be tolerated from the point of view of the beam dynamics. This paper is limited to the perturbations that the curved trajectories cause the beam-beam space charge nonlinearities. The question has arisen of how one defines the strength of the perturbation. The only solution is to compute the strength of the most important nonlinear resources. In what follows, the computational method used in calculating these resonances is described, and compared with those induced by random orbit errors

  9. Influence of the geometry on magnetic interactions in a retina fixator based on a magnetoactive elastomer seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadzharyan, T. A.; Makarova, L. A.; Kazimirova, E. G.; Perov, N. S.; Kramarenko, E. Yu

    2018-03-01

    We study the effects the geometric configuration has on magnetic interactions between a magnetoactive elastomer (MAE) sample and various systems of permanent magnets for problems with both flat and curved geometry. MAEs consist of a silicone polymer matrix and iron filler microparticles embedded in it. Permanent magnets are cylindrical neodymium magnets arranged in a line on a flat or curved solid surfaces. We use computer simulations, namely the finite element method, in order to study the interaction force and magnetic pressure in a system with an MAE sample and permanent magnets. The model is based on classical Maxwell magnetostatics and two factors taking into account field dependence of MAE’s magnetic properties and inhomogeneities caused by local demagnetization. We calculate magnetic pressure dependences on various geometric parameters of the system, namely, the diameter and the height of permanent magnets, the distance between the magnets and dimensions of MAE samples. This research aims to create a set of guidelines for choosing the geometric configuration of a retina fixator based on MAE seals to be used in eye surgery for retinal detachment treatment.

  10. Magnetized Langmuir wave packets excited by a strong beam-plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, G.; Sol, H.; Asseo, E.

    1988-01-01

    The physics of beam-plasma interaction, which has been investigated for a long time mostly in relation with solar bursts, is now more widely invoked in various astrophysical contexts such as pulsars, active galactic nuclei, close binaries, cataclysmic variables, γ bursters, and so on. In these situations the interaction is more likely in the spirit of strong Langmuir turbulence rather than in the spirit of quasilinear theory. Many investigations have been done for two opposite extremes, namely, in very weak and in very strong magnetic fields. Very few properties of the strong Langmuir turbulence are known in the most usual astrophysical situation where the magnetic field plays a significant role but is not strong enough to force the electrons into one-dimensional motion. For this case, we analyze the dynamics of Langmuir wave packets and provide new results about the stability of the solitons against transverse perturbations. It turns out that both the averaged Lagrangian method and the adiabatic perturbation method derived from the inverse scattering transform give exactly the same results (which is not obvious in soliton perturbation theory). In particular, they predict the stability of the solitons as long as the electron gyrofrequency is greater than the plasma frequency (strong magnetic field) and their instability against transverse self-modulation in the opposite case (weak magnetic field); moreover, they allow one to deduce the self-similar collapsing oblate cavitons in the latter case. The laws governing the collapse of the wave packets determine the relaxation of the beam in the surrounding medium and we derive a useful formula giving the power loss of the beam. We outline the astrophysical consequences of this investigation

  11. Oblique Interaction of Dust-ion Acoustic Solitons with Superthermal Electrons in a Magnetized Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Shahida; Mahmood, Shahzad; Adnan, Muhammad; Qamar, Anisa

    2018-01-01

    The oblique interaction between two dust-ion acoustic (DIA) solitons travelling in the opposite direction, in a collisionless magnetized plasma composed of dynamic ions, static dust (positive/negative) charged particles and interialess kappa distributed electrons is investigated. By employing extended Poincaré-Lighthill-Kuo (PLK) method, Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equations are derived for the right and left moving low amplitude DIA solitons. Their trajectories and corresponding phase shifts before and after their interaction are also obtained. It is found that in negatively charged dusty plasma above the critical dust charged to ion density ratio the positive polarity pulse is formed, while below the critical dust charged density ratio the negative polarity pulse of DIA soliton exist. However it is found that only positive polarity pulse of DIA solitons exist for the positively charged dust particles case in a magnetized nonthermal plasma. The nonlinearity coefficient in the KdV equation vanishes for the negatively charged dusty plasma case for a particular set of parameters. Therefore, at critical plasma density composition for negatively charged dust particles case, the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equations having cubic nonlinearity coefficient of the DIA solitons, and their corresponding phase shifts are derived for the left and right moving solitons. The effects of the system parameters including the obliqueness of solitons propagation with respect to magnetic field direction, superthermality of electrons and concentration of positively/negatively static dust charged particles on the phase shifts of the colliding solitons are also discussed and presented numerically. The results are applicable to space magnetized dusty plasma regimes.

  12. Structural analysis of magnetic fusion energy systems in a combined interactive/batch computer environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, N.E.; Singhal, M.K.; Walls, J.C.; Gray, W.H.

    1979-01-01

    A system of computer programs has been developed to aid in the preparation of input data for and the evaluation of output data from finite element structural analyses of magnetic fusion energy devices. The system utilizes the NASTRAN structural analysis computer program and a special set of interactive pre- and post-processor computer programs, and has been designed for use in an environment wherein a time-share computer system is linked to a batch computer system. In such an environment, the analyst must only enter, review and/or manipulate data through interactive terminals linked to the time-share computer system. The primary pre-processor programs include NASDAT, NASERR and TORMAC. NASDAT and TORMAC are used to generate NASTRAN input data. NASERR performs routine error checks on this data. The NASTRAN program is run on a batch computer system using data generated by NASDAT and TORMAC. The primary post-processing programs include NASCMP and NASPOP. NASCMP is used to compress the data initially stored on magnetic tape by NASTRAN so as to facilitate interactive use of the data. NASPOP reads the data stored by NASCMP and reproduces NASTRAN output for selected grid points, elements and/or data types

  13. Spin-interaction effects for ultralong-range Rydberg molecules in a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Frederic; Fey, Christian; Schmelcher, Peter

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the fine and spin structure of ultralong-range Rydberg molecules exposed to a homogeneous magnetic field. Each molecule consists of a 87Rb Rydberg atom the outer electron of which interacts via spin-dependent s - and p -wave scattering with a polarizable 87Rb ground-state atom. Our model includes also the hyperfine structure of the ground-state atom as well as spin-orbit couplings of the Rydberg and ground-state atom. We focus on d -Rydberg states and principal quantum numbers n in the vicinity of 40. The electronic structure and vibrational states are determined in the framework of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation for varying field strengths ranging from a few up to hundred Gauss. The results show that the interplay between the scattering interactions and the spin couplings gives rise to a large variety of molecular states in different spin configurations as well as in different spatial arrangements that can be tuned by the magnetic field. This includes relatively regularly shaped energy surfaces in a regime where the Zeeman splitting is large compared to the scattering interaction but small compared to the Rydberg fine structure, as well as more complex structures for both weaker and stronger fields. We quantify the impact of spin couplings by comparing the extended theory to a spin-independent model.

  14. Prediction of d^0 magnetism in self-interaction corrected density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Pemmaraju, Chaitanya

    2010-03-01

    Over the past couple of years, the phenomenon of ``d^0 magnetism'' has greatly intrigued the magnetism community [1]. Unlike conventional magnetic materials, ``d^0 magnets'' lack any magnetic ions with open d or f shells but surprisingly, exhibit signatures of ferromagnetism often with a Curie temperature exceeding 300 K. Current research in the field is geared towards trying to understand the mechanism underlying this observed ferromagnetism which is difficult to explain within the conventional m-J paradigm [1]. The most widely studied class of d^0 materials are un-doped and light element doped wide gap Oxides such as HfO2, MgO, ZnO, TiO2 all of which have been put forward as possible d0 ferromagnets. General experimental trends suggest that the magnetism is a feature of highly defective samples leading to the expectation that the phenomenon must be defect related. In particular, based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations acceptor defects formed from the O-2p states in these Oxides have been proposed as being responsible for the ferromagnetism [2,3]. However. predicting magnetism originating from 2p orbitals is a delicate problem, which depends on the subtle interplay between covalency and Hund's coupling. DFT calculations based on semi-local functionals such as the local spin-density approximation (LSDA) can lead to qualitative failures on several fronts. On one hand the excessive delocalization of spin-polarized holes leads to half-metallic ground states and the expectation of room-temperature ferromagnetism. On the other hand, in some cases a magnetic ground state may not be predicted at all as the Hund's coupling might be under estimated. Furthermore, polaronic distortions which are often a feature of acceptor defects in Oxides are not predicted [4,5]. In this presentation, we argue that the self interaction error (SIE) inherent to semi-local functionals is responsible for the failures of LSDA and demonstrate through various examples that beyond

  15. Spin texturing in quantum wires with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit interactions and in-plane magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisi, B; Sakiroglu, S; Sokmen, İ

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the effects of interplay of spin–orbit interaction and in-plane magnetic fields on the electronic structure and spin texturing of parabolically confined quantum wire. Numerical results reveal that the competing effects between Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit interactions and the external magnetic field lead to a complicated energy spectrum. We find that the spin texturing owing to the coupling between subbands can be modified by the strength of spin–orbit couplings as well as the magnitude and the orientation angle of the external magnetic field. (paper)

  16. New aspects of π–d interactions in magnetic molecular conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Toyonari; Fujiwara, Hideki; Noguchi, Satoru; Murata, Keizo

    2009-01-01

    The 2 : 1 cation radical salts of bent donor molecules of ethylenedithio-tetrathiafulvalenoquinone-1,3-dithiolemethide (EDT-TTFVO), ethylenedithio-diselenadithiafulvalenoquinone-1,3-dithiolemethide (EDT-DSDTFVO), ethylenedithio-diselenadithiafulvalenothioquinone-1,3-diselenolemethide (EDT-DSDTFVSDS), ethylenedioxy-tetrathiafulvalenoquinone-1,3-dithiolemethide (EDO-TTFVO) and ethylenedioxy-tetrathiafulvalenoquinone-1,3-diselenolemethide (EDO-TTFVODS) with FeX4− (X = Cl, Br) ions are prepared by electrocrystallization. The crystal structures of these salts are composed of alternately stacked donor molecule and magnetic anion layers. The band structures of the donor molecule layers are calculated using the overlap integrals between neighboring donor molecules and are compared with the observed electronic transport properties. The magnetic ordering of the Fe(III) d spins of FeX4− ions is determined from magnetization and heat capacity measurements. The magnetic ordering temperatures are estimated by considering a combination of a direct d–d interaction between the d spins and an indirect π–d interaction between the conduction π electron and the d spins, whose magnitudes are separately calculated from the crystal structures with an extended Hückel molecular orbital method. The occurrence of a π–d interaction is proved by the negative magnetoresistance, and the magnitude of magnetoresistance reflects the strength of the π–d interaction. The effect of pressure on the magnetoresistance is studied, and the result indicates that the magnitude of magnetoresistance increases, namely, the π–d interaction is enhanced with increasing pressure. From these experimental results it is shown that (EDT-TTFVO)2•FeBr4 is a ferromagnetic semiconductor, (EDT-DSDTFVO)2•FeX4 (X = Cl, Br) and (EDT-DSDTFVSDS)2•FeBr4 are metals exhibiting antiferromagnetic ordering of the d spins, and (EDO-TTFVO)2•FeCl4 and (EDO-TTFVODS)2•FeBr4•(DCE)0.5 (DCE =-dichloroethane) are

  17. TOPICAL REVIEW: New aspects of π-d interactions in magnetic molecular conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Toyonari; Fujiwara, Hideki; Noguchi, Satoru; Murata, Keizo

    2009-04-01

    The 2 : 1 cation radical salts of bent donor molecules of ethylenedithio-tetrathiafulvalenoquinone-1,3-dithiolemethide (EDT-TTFVO), ethylenedithio-diselenadithiafulvalenoquinone-1,3-dithiolemethide (EDT-DSDTFVO), ethylenedithio-diselenadithiafulvalenothioquinone-1,3-diselenolemethide (EDT-DSDTFVSDS), ethylenedioxy-tetrathiafulvalenoquinone-1,3-dithiolemethide (EDO-TTFVO) and ethylenedioxy-tetrathiafulvalenoquinone-1,3-diselenolemethide (EDO-TTFVODS) with FeX4- (X = Cl, Br) ions are prepared by electrocrystallization. The crystal structures of these salts are composed of alternately stacked donor molecule and magnetic anion layers. The band structures of the donor molecule layers are calculated using the overlap integrals between neighboring donor molecules and are compared with the observed electronic transport properties. The magnetic ordering of the Fe(III) d spins of FeX4- ions is determined from magnetization and heat capacity measurements. The magnetic ordering temperatures are estimated by considering a combination of a direct d-d interaction between the d spins and an indirect π-d interaction between the conduction π electron and the d spins, whose magnitudes are separately calculated from the crystal structures with an extended Hückel molecular orbital method. The occurrence of a π-d interaction is proved by the negative magnetoresistance, and the magnitude of magnetoresistance reflects the strength of the π-d interaction. The effect of pressure on the magnetoresistance is studied, and the result indicates that the magnitude of magnetoresistance increases, namely, the π-d interaction is enhanced with increasing pressure. From these experimental results it is shown that (EDT-TTFVO)2•FeBr4 is a ferromagnetic semiconductor, (EDT-DSDTFVO)2•FeX4 (X = Cl, Br) and (EDT-DSDTFVSDS)2•FeBr4 are metals exhibiting antiferromagnetic ordering of the d spins, and (EDO-TTFVO)2•FeCl4 and (EDO-TTFVODS)2•FeBr4•(DCE)0.5 (DCE =-dichloroethane) are genuine

  18. Interaction domains in permanent-magnetic rare-earth transition-metal compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thielsch, Juliane

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of this dissertation the phenomenon of the interaction domains was studied both experimentally and by means of micromagnetic simulation. Object of the study were one-phase NdFeB magnets, which were fabricated from commercial MQU-F powders of the Magnequench Inc. company by hot pressing and subsequent warm deformation in the IWF Dresden. Additionally via the same fabrication way also composite samples of NdFeB and Fe with different original particle sizes ere obtained and studied. Supported wer the experimental works by simulations with the FEMME software package, which is based on a hybrid finite-element method/boundary-element method.

  19. Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with magnetically functionalized CNT nanocomposite in the subterahertz frequency range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atdaev, A.; Danilyuk, A. L.; Labunov, V. A.; Prischepa, S. L., E-mail: prischepa@bsuir.by [Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics (Belarus); Pavlov, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Microelectronics Nanotechnologies (Russian Federation); Basaev, A. S.; Shaman, Yu. P. [SMC Technological Center (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The interaction of electromagnetic radiation with a magnetically functionalized nanocomposite based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is considered using the model of random distribution of ferromagnetic nanoparticles in the carbon matrix characterized by the presence of resistive–inductive–capacitive coupling (contours). The model is based on the representation of the nanocomposite as a system consisting of the CNT matrix, ferromagnetic nanoparticles, and the interfaces between CNTs and nanoparticles. The wide range of possible resonant phenomena caused both by the presence of contours and the properties of the CNT nanocomposite is shown.

  20. Surface-wave endash particle interactions in a cylindrical plasma submitted to a static magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dengra, A.

    1997-01-01

    A new theoretical model for the study of the surface-wave endash particle interactions in a plasma column in the presence of a constant external magnetic field has been developed. The model is based on the linear resolution of the Vlasov equation by the method of characteristics, with the specular reflection hypothesis at the wall. The expression obtained for the rate of increase of kinetic energy per electron permits the analysis of the influence of the critical parameters in this transference process. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  1. Coulomb interactions in dense two-dimensional electron systems in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Szucheng.

    1988-01-01

    The simplest model of a two-dimensional system ignores the Coulomb interactions between the electrons. In this approximation, the electrons occupy the Landau levels, broadened by impurities and irregularities in the lattice. This independent electron approximation has usually been used to discuss observations for electron densities ρ and magnetic fields B where bar ν > 1 (bar ν triple-bond the number of Landau levels occupied). The most famous example is the theory of the integral Quantum Hall effect. However, when bar ν 1, electron-electron interactions should become important through the mixing of Landau levels. This thesis describes calculations for bar ν > 1 on phenomena which should be sensitive to electron-electron interactions: Wigner crystallization, the stability of the Landau levels under electron-electron interactions, the existence of quasiparticles and quasiholes, and the densities of states. The main results obtained concern: (1) The values of ρ and B where crystallization should occur when bar ν > 1. (2) The effect of electron-electron interactions in broadening the individual Landau levels, and in distributing the amplitudes for the excitation of independent electrons over many Landau levels. (3) The existence of quasiparticles and quasiholes whose lifetime is infinite near the Fermi level

  2. Role of electron-electron interactions in the RKKY theory of magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, J.F.

    1978-10-01

    The theory of magnetism in heavy rare earth metals is based on the RKKY theory. In this formalism the indirect exchange interaction between the local 4f spins is mediated by the conduction electrons. When carried to second order in the 4f-conduction electron interaction, traditional perturbation theory leads to a Heisenberg-like interaction between the local spins which depends on the electronic energy bands and 4f-conduction electron exchange matrix elements. This derivation neglects the detailed behavior of electron-electron interaction within the conduction band, which is known to be important in metallic systems. By using an equation of motion method, an expression for the inelastic neutron scattering cross-section has been derived which includes, in an approximate way, this electron-electron interaction. The results of this calculation indicate that spin-wave peaks can be broadened and shifted if the spin-wave band lies near the conduction electron Stoner continuum. The origin of this effect is similar to that found in itinerant electron systems where the spin-wave band actually intersects the Stoner continuum, resulting in the disappearance of the spin-wave mode

  3. Role of electron-electron interactions in the RKKY theory of magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    The theory of magnetism in heavy rare earth metals is based on the RKKY theory. In this formalism the indirect exchange interaction between the local 4f spins is mediated by the conduction electrons. When carried to second order in the 4f-conduction electron interaction, traditional pertubation theory leads to a Heisenberg-like interaction between the local spins which depends on the electronic energy bands and 4f-conduction electron exchange matrix elements. This derivation neglects the detailed behavior of electron-electron interaction within the conduction band, which is known to be important in metallic systems. By using an equation of motion method, an expression for the inelastic neutron scattering cross-section has been derived which includes, in an approximate way, this electron-electron interaction. The results of this calculation indicate that spin-wave peaks can be broadened and shifted if the spin-wave band lies near the conduction electron Stoner continuum. The origin of this effect is similar to that found in itinerant electron systems where the spin-wave band actually intersects the Stoner continuum, resulting in the disappearance of the spin-wave mode

  4. Evidence of magnetic dipolar interaction in micrometric powders of the Fe50Mn10Al40 system: Melted alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez Alcázar, G.A.; Zamora, L.E.; Tabares, J.A.; Piamba, J.F.; González, J.M.; Greneche, J.M.; Martinez, A.; Romero, J.J.; Marco, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Powders of melted disordered Fe 50 Mn 10 Al 40 alloy were separated at different mean particle sizes as well as magnetically and structurally characterized. All the samples are BCC and show the same nanostructure. Particles larger than 250 μm showed a lamellar shape compared to smaller particles, which exhibited a more regular form. All the samples are ferromagnetic at room temperature and showed reentrant spin-glass (RSG) and superparamagnetic (SP)-like behaviors between 30 and 60 K and 265 and > 280 K, respectively, as a function of frequency and particle size. The freezing temperature increases with increasing particle size while the blocking one decreases with particle size. The origin of these magnetic phenomena relies in the internal disordered character of samples and the competitive interaction of Fe and Mn atoms. The increase of their critical freezing temperature with increasing mean particle size is due to the increase of the magnetic dipolar interaction between the magnetic moment of each particle with the field produced by the other magnetic moments of their surrounding particles. - Highlights: ► The effect of particle size in microsized powders of Fe 50 Mn 10 Al 40 melted disordered alloy is studied. ► Dipolar magnetic interaction between particles exists and this changes with the particle size. ► For all the particle sizes the reentrant spin- glass and the superparamagnetic-like phases exist. ► RSG and SP critical temperatures increase with increasing the dipolar magnetic interaction (the mean particle size).

  5. Interaction between the magnetic moments of the 3d and the 4f electrons in manganite, probed by Ga substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Langsheng; Zhang Lei; Tong Wei; Qu Zhe; Pi Li; Zhang Yuheng

    2012-01-01

    The substitution of Ga for Mn in manganite Nd 0.6 Dy 0.1 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 with a ferromagnetic (FM) ground state has been performed to study the influence of the Mn-sublattice magnetic ordering on the magnetic rare-earth sublattice. It is found that the substitution of Mn 3+ with Ga 3+ ions results in a sharp decrease of T C , reflecting the reduction of the double-exchange interactions strength J Mn–Mn . At the same time, a depinning effect of the rare-earth magnetic moment has been observed. This behavior unambiguously proves that the exchange interaction between Mn and rare-earth ions J Mn–R strongly influences the rare-earth magnetic ordering at temperatures below T C and stabilizes the rare-earth magnetic ground state.

  6. On the influence of the hydrodynamic interactions on the aggregation rate of magnetic spheres in a dilute suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, F.R.; Couto, H.L.G.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetostatic attraction may lead to formation of aggregates in stable colloidal magnetic suspensions and magneto-rheological suspensions. The aggregation problem of magnetic composites under differential sedimentation is a key problem in the control of the instability of non-Brownian suspensions. Against these attractive forces are the electrostatic repulsion and the hydrodynamic interactions acting as stabilizing effects to the suspension. This work concerns an investigation of the pairwise interaction of magnetic particles in a dilute sedimenting suspension. We focus attention on suspensions where the Peclet number is large (negligible Brownian motion) and where the Reynolds number (negligible inertia) is small. The suspension is composed of magnetic micro-spheres of different radius and density immersed in a Newtonian fluid moving under the action of gravity. The theoretical calculations are based on direct computations of the hydrodynamic and the magnetic interactions among the rigid spheres in the regime of low particle Reynolds number. From the limiting trajectory in which aggregation occurs, we calculate the collision efficiency, representing the dimensionless rate at which aggregates are formed. The numerical results show clear evidence that the hydrodynamic interactions are of fundamental relevance in the process of magnetic particle aggregation. We compare the stabilizing effects between electrostatic repulsion and hydrodynamic interactions.

  7. On the influence of the hydrodynamic interactions on the aggregation rate of magnetic spheres in a dilute suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, F.R., E-mail: frcunha@unb.b [Universidade de Brasilia, Faculdade de Tecnologia, Depto. de Engenharia Mecanica, Grupo de Mecanica dos Fluidos de Escoamentos Complexos - VORTEX, Campus Universitario Darcy Ribeiro, 70910-900, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Couto, H.L.G. [Universidade de Brasilia, Faculdade de Tecnologia, Depto. de Engenharia Mecanica, Grupo de Mecanica dos Fluidos de Escoamentos Complexos - VORTEX, Campus Universitario Darcy Ribeiro, 70910-900, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Magnetostatic attraction may lead to formation of aggregates in stable colloidal magnetic suspensions and magneto-rheological suspensions. The aggregation problem of magnetic composites under differential sedimentation is a key problem in the control of the instability of non-Brownian suspensions. Against these attractive forces are the electrostatic repulsion and the hydrodynamic interactions acting as stabilizing effects to the suspension. This work concerns an investigation of the pairwise interaction of magnetic particles in a dilute sedimenting suspension. We focus attention on suspensions where the Peclet number is large (negligible Brownian motion) and where the Reynolds number (negligible inertia) is small. The suspension is composed of magnetic micro-spheres of different radius and density immersed in a Newtonian fluid moving under the action of gravity. The theoretical calculations are based on direct computations of the hydrodynamic and the magnetic interactions among the rigid spheres in the regime of low particle Reynolds number. From the limiting trajectory in which aggregation occurs, we calculate the collision efficiency, representing the dimensionless rate at which aggregates are formed. The numerical results show clear evidence that the hydrodynamic interactions are of fundamental relevance in the process of magnetic particle aggregation. We compare the stabilizing effects between electrostatic repulsion and hydrodynamic interactions.

  8. Study of ln s Physics in $\\bar{p}p$ Interactions at the Split Field Magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment uses the Split Field Magnet detector to investigate the low p^t, ``ln~s'', type of interactions that dominate the @*p cross-section. Systematic comparisons will be made to pp interactions. \\\\ \\\\ Specific areas to be studied include elastic scattering in the regions 0.05 $<$ !t! $<$ 0.8 GeV|2 and 0.8 $<$ !t! $<$ 4.0 GeV|2, and the use of a minimum bias trigger to study topological cross-sections, inclusive spectra, and two-body correlations. Some specialized triggers, run simultaneously with the high t elastic scattering trigger, are being studied. Examples are a trigger requiring Cerenkov identification in a limited region of phase space, and a trigger to select diffractively produced events.

  9. Collisional effects on interaction potential in complex plasma in presence of magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezbaruah, Pratikshya, E-mail: pratphd@tezu.ernet.in; Das, Nilakshi [Department of Physics, Tezpur University, Tezpur, Assam 784028 (India)

    2016-04-15

    Interaction potential in complex plasma with streaming ions is derived analytically in presence of ion-neutral collision and magnetic field. The linear dielectric response function obtained describes the behavior of charged micron sized dust particles in strong collisional limit. A new type of repulsive potential is found to be operative among the dust grains apart from the normal Debye–Hückel potential. The amplitude and shielding length involved in the potential are substantially affected by the parameters describing ion cyclotron frequency, collision frequency among ions and neutrals, and ion streaming. It is also observed that the usual mechanism of ion focusing surrounding the grain is inhibited due to collision. As a result, the attractive wake potential structure is destroyed in the ion flow direction. The horizontal interaction involves only Debye–Hückel potential.

  10. Collisional effects on interaction potential in complex plasma in presence of magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezbaruah, Pratikshya; Das, Nilakshi

    2016-01-01

    Interaction potential in complex plasma with streaming ions is derived analytically in presence of ion-neutral collision and magnetic field. The linear dielectric response function obtained describes the behavior of charged micron sized dust particles in strong collisional limit. A new type of repulsive potential is found to be operative among the dust grains apart from the normal Debye–Hückel potential. The amplitude and shielding length involved in the potential are substantially affected by the parameters describing ion cyclotron frequency, collision frequency among ions and neutrals, and ion streaming. It is also observed that the usual mechanism of ion focusing surrounding the grain is inhibited due to collision. As a result, the attractive wake potential structure is destroyed in the ion flow direction. The horizontal interaction involves only Debye–Hückel potential.

  11. Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging to update interactive navigation in neurosurgery: method and preliminary experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, C R; Bonsanto, M M; Knauth, M; Tronnier, V M; Albert, F K; Staubert, A; Kunze, S

    1997-01-01

    We report on the first successful intraoperative update of interactive image guidance based on an intraoperatively acquired magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) date set. To date, intraoperative imaging methods such as ultrasound, computerized tomography (CT), or MRI have not been successfully used to update interactive navigation. We developed a method of imaging patients intraoperatively with the surgical field exposed in an MRI scanner (Magnetom Open; Siemens Corp., Erlangen, Germany). In 12 patients, intraoperatively acquired 3D data sets were used for successful recalibration of neuronavigation, accounting for any anatomical changes caused by surgical manipulations. The MKM Microscope (Zeiss Corp., Oberkochen, Germany) was used as navigational system. With implantable fiducial markers, an accuracy of 0.84 +/- 0.4 mm for intraoperative reregistration was achieved. Residual tumor detected on MRI was consequently resected using navigation with the intraoperative data. No adverse effects were observed from intraoperative imaging or the use of navigation with intraoperative images, demonstrating the feasibility of recalibrating navigation with intraoperative MRI.

  12. Challenges in design of Kitaev materials: Magnetic interactions from competing energy scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Stephen M.; Li, Ying; Jeschke, Harald O.; Valentí, Roser

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we reanalyze the magnetic interactions in the Kitaev spin-liquid candidate materials Na2IrO3,α -RuCl3 , and α -Li2IrO3 using nonperturbative exact diagonalization methods. These methods are more appropriate given the relatively itinerant nature of the systems suggested in previous works. We treat all interactions up to third neighbors on equal footing. The computed terms reveal significant long-range coupling, bond anisotropy, and/or off-diagonal couplings which we argue naturally explain the observed ordered phases in these systems. Given these observations, the potential for realizing the spin-liquid state in real materials is analyzed, and synthetic challenges are defined and explained.

  13. Dimensionality and magnetic interactions in CaFe2As2: An ab initio study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tompsett, D.A.; Lonzarich, G.G.

    2010-01-01

    We present detailed electronic structure calculations for CaFe 2 As 2 . We investigate in particular the 'collapsed' tetragonal and orthorhombic regions of the temperature-pressure phase diagram and find properties that distinguish CaFe 2 As 2 from other Fe-pnictide compounds. In contrast to the tetragonal phase of other Fe-pnictides the electronic structure in the 'collapsed' tetragonal phase of CaFe 2 As 2 is found to be strongly 3D. By an analysis of the non-interacting susceptibility, χ 0 (q), of CaFe 2 As 2 and LaFePO we discuss the role of magnetic interactions in iron-pnictides. From this we propose an intuitive explanation for the outstanding question relating to why the predicted antiferromagnetic moment depends strongly on coordinate relaxation and the choice of correlation functional.

  14. Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, I.R.

    1984-01-01

    A magnet pole piece for an NMR imaging magnet is made of a plurality of magnetic wires with one end of each wire held in a non-magnetic spacer, the other ends of the wires being brought to a pinch, and connected to a magnetic core. The wires may be embedded in a synthetic resin and the magnetisation and uniformity thereof can be varied by adjusting the density of the wires at the spacer which forms the pole piece. (author)

  15. Probe manipulators for Wendelstein 7-X and their interaction with the magnetic topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, RACK; D, HÖSCHEN; D, REITER; B, UNTERBERG; J, W. COENEN; S, BREZINSEK; O, NEUBAUER; S, BOZHENKOV; G, CZYMEK; Y, LIANG; M, HUBENY; Ch, LINSMEIER; the Wendelstein 7-X Team

    2018-05-01

    Probe manipulators are a versatile addition to typical plasma edge diagnostics. Equipped with material samples they allow for detailed investigation of plasma–wall interaction processes, such as material erosion, deposition or impurity transport pathways. When combined with electrical probes, a study of scrape-off layer and plasma edge density, temperature and flow profiles as well as magnetic topologies is possible. A mid-plane manipulator is already in operation on Wendelstein 7-X. A system in the divertor region is currently under development. In the present paper we discuss the critical issue of heat and power loads, power redistribution and experimental access to the complex magnetic topology of Wendelstein 7-X. All the aforementioned aspects are of relevance for the design and operation of a probe manipulator in a device like Wendelstein 7-X. A focus is put on the topological region that is accessible for the different coil current configurations at Wendelstein 7-X and the power load on the manipulator with respect to the resulting different magnetic configurations. Qualitative analysis of power loads on plasma-facing components is performed using a numerical tracer particle diffusion tool provided via the Wendelstein 7-X Webservices.

  16. Plasma and neutral gas jet interactions in the exhaust of a magnetic confinement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, W.A.

    1990-06-01

    A general purpose 2-1/2 dimensional, multifluid, time dependent computer code has been developed. This flexible tool models the dynamic behavior of plasma/neutral gas interactions in the presence of a magnetic field. The simulation has been used to examine the formation of smoke ring structure in the plasma rocket exhaust by injection of an axial jet of neutral gas. Specifically, the code was applied to the special case of attempting to couple the neutral gas momentum to the plasma in such a manner that plasma smoke rings would form, disconnecting the plasma from the magnetic field. For this scenario several cases where run scanning a wide range of neutral gas input parameters. In all the cases it was found that after an initial transient phase, the plasma eroded the neutral gas and after that followed the original magnetic field. From these findings it is concluded that smoke rings do not form with axial injection of neutral gas. Several suggestions for alternative injection schemes are presented

  17. Magnetic and electric order in the spin-1/2 XX model with three-spin interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Pradeep; Durganandini, P. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune - 411007 (India)

    2016-05-23

    We study the spin-1/2 XX model in the presence of three-spin interactions of the XZX+YZY and XZY-YZX types. We solve the problem exactly and show that there is both finite magnetization and electric polarization for low non-zero strengths of the three-spin interactions.

  18. Magnetic Interaction through Non-Conjugated Framework Observed in Back-to-Back Connected Triazinyl-Nitroxyl Biradical Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yusuke; Matsuhashi, Ryo; Miura, Youhei; Yoshioka, Naoki

    2018-03-24

    Three hetero-biradical derivatives having a structure of a back-to-back connected benzotriazinyl and tetramethyl or tetraethylisoindoline N-oxyl sharing a common benzo ring, 1-tBu, 1-Ph, and 2-tBu were synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray analyses, variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility studies, and DFT calculations. Temperature dependences of the magnetic susceptibility of 1-tBu, 1-Ph, and 2-tBu exhibit broad maxima at 70, 71, and 43 K, respectively. Though these radical derivatives form a columnar or chained assembly in the solid state, magnetic measurement of the polymer diluted sample and computational results imply that the magnetic property of the polycrystalline sample can be explained by two-spin system with an intramolecular antiferromagnetic interaction. The magnetic behavior can be reproduced using the Bleaney-Bowers model with 2J = -80.0 cm-1 for 1-tBu and 2J = -77.1 cm-1 for 1-Ph, and 2J = -48.9 cm-1 for 2-tBu. The moderately strong intramolecular antiferromagnetic interaction can be interpreted by a through-bond interaction via the non-conjugated framework and/or through-space interaction based on the MO theory. The strong distance dependency between the N-O spin site and vinylic carbons indicates that the orbital interaction plays an important role in the intramolecular magnetic interaction. The reduced magnetic interaction in 2-tBu compared to that of 1-tBu and 1-Ph can be attributed to the restricted rotation of the tetraethyl group. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Spin-orbit interaction driven dimerization in one dimensional frustrated magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shang-Shun; Batista, Cristian D.

    Spin nematic ordering has been proposed to emerge near the saturation of field of a class of frustrated magnets. The experimental observation of this novel phase is challenging for the traditional experimental probes. Nematic spin ordering is expected to induce a local quadrupolar electric moment via the spin-orbit coupling. However, a finite spin-orbit interaction explicitly breaks the U(1) symmetry of global spin rotations down to Z2, which renders the traditional nematic order no longer well-defined. In this work we investigate the relevant effect of spin-orbit interaction on the 1D frustrated J1 -J2 model. The real and the imaginary parts of the nematic order parameter belong to different representations of the discrete symmetry group of the new Hamiltonian. We demonstrate that spin-orbit coupling stabilizes the real component and simultaneously induces bond dimerization in most of the phase diagram. Such a bond dimerization can be observed with X-rays or nuclear magnetic resonance. In addition, an incommensurate bond-density wave (ICBDW) appears for smaller values of J2 / |J1 | . The experimental fingerprint of the ICBDW is a double-horn shape of the the NMR line. These conclusions can shed light on the experimental search of this novel phase.

  20. Magnetic interactions as a stabilizing factor of semiquinone species of lawsone by metal complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valle-Bourrouet, Grettel; Ugalde-Saldivar, Victor M.; Gomez, Martin; Ortiz-Frade, Luis A.; Gonzalez, Ignacio; Frontana, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Changes in electrochemical reactivity for lawsone anions (lawsone, 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, HLw) being coordinated to a series of metallic ions in dimethylsulfoxide solution were evaluated. Upon performing cyclic voltammetry experiments for metal complexes of this quinone with pyridine (Py) - structural formula M(II)(Lw - ) 2 (Py) 2 ; M: Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) - it was found that the reduction of coordinated Lw - units occurs during the first and second electron uptake in the analyzed compounds. The stability of the electrogenerated intermediates for each complex depends on the d electron configuration in each metal center and is determined by magnetic interactions with the available spins considering an octahedral conformation for all the compounds. This was evidenced by in situ spectroelectrochemical-ESR measurements in the Zn(II) complex in which due to the lack of magnetic interaction owing to its electron configuration, the structure of the coordinated anion radical species was determined. Successive reduction of the associated Lw - units leads to partial dissociation of the complex, determined by the identification of free radical dianion structures in solution. These results show some insights on how metal-lawsone complexation can modify the solution reactivity and stability of the electrogenerated radical species.

  1. Magnetic interactions as a stabilizing factor of semiquinone species of lawsone by metal complexation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle-Bourrouet, Grettel [Universidad de Costa Rica, Escuela de Quimica, San Jose (Costa Rica); Ugalde-Saldivar, Victor M. [Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Gomez, Martin [Departamento de Sistemas Biologicos, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco, C.P. 04960, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ortiz-Frade, Luis A. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, Parque Tecnologico Queretaro, Sanfandila, 76703, Pedro Escobedo, Queretaro (Mexico); Gonzalez, Ignacio [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Iztapalapa, Departamento de Quimica, Area de Electroquimica, Apartado postal 55-534, 09340, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Frontana, Carlos, E-mail: ultrabuho@yahoo.com.m [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional No. 2508 Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, C.P. 07360, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-12-01

    Changes in electrochemical reactivity for lawsone anions (lawsone, 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, HLw) being coordinated to a series of metallic ions in dimethylsulfoxide solution were evaluated. Upon performing cyclic voltammetry experiments for metal complexes of this quinone with pyridine (Py) - structural formula M(II)(Lw{sup -}){sub 2}(Py){sub 2}; M: Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) - it was found that the reduction of coordinated Lw{sup -} units occurs during the first and second electron uptake in the analyzed compounds. The stability of the electrogenerated intermediates for each complex depends on the d electron configuration in each metal center and is determined by magnetic interactions with the available spins considering an octahedral conformation for all the compounds. This was evidenced by in situ spectroelectrochemical-ESR measurements in the Zn(II) complex in which due to the lack of magnetic interaction owing to its electron configuration, the structure of the coordinated anion radical species was determined. Successive reduction of the associated Lw{sup -} units leads to partial dissociation of the complex, determined by the identification of free radical dianion structures in solution. These results show some insights on how metal-lawsone complexation can modify the solution reactivity and stability of the electrogenerated radical species.

  2. Remote Numerical Simulations of the Interaction of High Velocity Clouds with Random Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillan, Alfredo; Hernandez--Cervantes, Liliana; Gonzalez--Ponce, Alejandro; Kim, Jongsoo

    The numerical simulations associated with the interaction of High Velocity Clouds (HVC) with the Magnetized Galactic Interstellar Medium (ISM) are a powerful tool to describe the evolution of the interaction of these objects in our Galaxy. In this work we present a new project referred to as Theoretical Virtual i Observatories. It is oriented toward to perform numerical simulations in real time through a Web page. This is a powerful astrophysical computational tool that consists of an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and a database produced by numerical calculations. In this Website the user can make use of the existing numerical simulations from the database or run a new simulation introducing initial conditions such as temperatures, densities, velocities, and magnetic field intensities for both the ISM and HVC. The prototype is programmed using Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP (LAMP), based on the open source philosophy. All simulations were performed with the MHD code ZEUS-3D, which solves the ideal MHD equations by finite differences on a fixed Eulerian mesh. Finally, we present typical results that can be obtained with this tool.

  3. Study of beam-plasma interactions in the presence of a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etievant, C.

    1963-12-01

    The instabilities developing in a 'beam-plasma' system and in a 'double-beam' system in the presence of a magnetic field are discussed theoretically starting from the conductivity tensor expression for a multi-beam system. Oblique propagation is taken into account and this leads to the introduction of certain instability mechanisms which would not appear in the case of a propagation which is purely parallel or perpendicular to the magnetic field. Two experiments are described: a) Study of the collision of two counterstreaming electron beams: An instability has been observed experimentally which leads to the generation of a stationary cyclotron wave having a frequency of ω ce /2. A description is given of the measurement of the interaction frequency, of the wavelength and of the build-up time of the wave. b) Study of a 'beam-plasma' system: A description is given of the measurement of the spectra of excited waves and of the perturbation of the beam velocity distribution at the plasma-exit. This perturbation is very pronounced when 'plasma-plasma' interaction appears in the system. A study into cyclotron oscillations produced in the plasma by excitation due to the passage of the beam is also described in this report. (author) [fr

  4. Analysis of plasma behavior and electro-magnetic interaction between plasma and device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Tomofumi

    1980-01-01

    A simulation program for the analysis of plasma behavior and the electromagnetic interaction between plasma and device has been developed. The program consists of a part for the analysis of plasma behavior (plasma system) and a part for the analysis of the electro-magnetic interaction between plasma and devices (circuit system). The parameters which connect the plasma system and the circuit system are the electric resistance of plasma, the internal inductance, and the plasma current. For the plasma system, the simultaneous equations which describe the density distribution of plasma particles, the temperature distribution of electrons and ions, and the space-time variation of current density distribution were derived. The one-dimensional plasma column in γ-direction was considered. The electric resistance and the internal inductance can be deduced. The circuit components are a current transformer, a vertical field coil, a quadrupole field coil, a vacuum chamber and others. An equation which describes plasma position and the shape of cross section is introduced. The plasma position can be known by solving the Mukhavatov's formula of equilibrium. By using this program, the build-up process of plasma current in JT-60 was analysed. It was found that the expansion of plasma sub radius and the control of current distribution by gas injection are the effective methods to obtain high temperature and high density plasma. The eddy current induced in a vacuum vessel shields 40 percent of magnetic field made in the plasma region by a vertical field coil. (Kato, T.)

  5. Properties of transit-time interactions in magnetized plasmas: Analytic and numerical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melatos, A.; Robinson, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    The recently developed perturbation theory of transit-time interactions between particles and coherent wave packets in magnetized plasmas is applied to particular field structures. Limits of validity are determined by comparison with test-particle simulations, showing that the theory is accurate everywhere except near certain well-determined resonances, for wave fields exceeding a characteristic threshold, and for particles below a particular velocity. The properties of transit-time interactions in magnetized plasmas are investigated in detail to determine their dependence on the fields and parameters of the particle motion. Resonant particle scattering is found to occur at low particle velocities when the frequency of the coherent wave packet is an integer multiple of the gyrofrequency. Two different types of resonant transit-time dissipation are also observed: one arises from transient cyclotron acceleration in the localized wave packet, the other from beating between the gyration of the particles and the oscillation of the wave packet field. Both effects involve an interplay between the field geometry and resonant oscillations

  6. Low-frequency magnetic field fluctuations in Venus' solar wind interaction region: Venus Express observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Guicking

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigate wave properties of low-frequency magnetic field fluctuations in Venus' solar wind interaction region based on the measurements made on board the Venus Express spacecraft. The orbit geometry is very suitable to investigate the fluctuations in Venus' low-altitude magnetosheath and mid-magnetotail and provides an opportunity for a comparative study of low-frequency waves at Venus and Mars. The spatial distributions of the wave properties, in particular in the dayside and nightside magnetosheath as well as in the tail and mantle region, are similar to observations at Mars. As both planets do not have a global magnetic field, the interaction process of the solar wind with both planets is similar and leads to similar instabilities and wave structures. We focus on the spatial distribution of the wave intensity of the fluctuating magnetic field and detect an enhancement of the intensity in the dayside magnetosheath and a strong decrease towards the terminator. For a detailed investigation of the intensity distribution we adopt an analytical streamline model to describe the plasma flow around Venus. This allows displaying the evolution of the intensity along different streamlines. It is assumed that the waves are generated in the vicinity of the bow shock and are convected downstream with the turbulent magnetosheath flow. However, neither the different Mach numbers upstream and downstream of the bow shock, nor the variation of the cross sectional area and the flow velocity along the streamlines play probably an important role in order to explain the observed concentration of wave intensity in the dayside magnetosheath and the decay towards the nightside magnetosheath. But, the concept of freely evolving or decaying turbulence is in good qualitative agreement with the observations, as we observe a power law decay of the intensity along the streamlines. The observations support the assumption of wave convection through the magnetosheath, but

  7. Role of Interaction between Magnetic Rossby Waves and Tachocline Differential Rotation in Producing Solar Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikpati, Mausumi; McIntosh, Scott W.; Bothun, Gregory; Cally, Paul S.; Ghosh, Siddhartha S.; Gilman, Peter A.; Umurhan, Orkan M.

    2018-02-01

    We present a nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic shallow-water model for the solar tachocline (MHD-SWT) that generates quasi-periodic tachocline nonlinear oscillations (TNOs) that can be identified with the recently discovered solar “seasons.” We discuss the properties of the hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic Rossby waves that interact with the differential rotation and toroidal fields to sustain these oscillations, which occur due to back-and-forth energy exchanges among potential, kinetic, and magnetic energies. We perform model simulations for a few years, for selected example cases, in both hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic regimes and show that the TNOs are robust features of the MHD-SWT model, occurring with periods of 2–20 months. We find that in certain cases multiple unstable shallow-water modes govern the dynamics, and TNO periods vary with time. In hydrodynamically governed TNOs, the energy exchange mechanism is simple, occurring between the Rossby waves and differential rotation. But in MHD cases, energy exchange becomes much more complex, involving energy flow among six energy reservoirs by means of eight different energy conversion processes. For toroidal magnetic bands of 5 and 35 kG peak amplitudes, both placed at 45° latitude and oppositely directed in north and south hemispheres, we show that the energy transfers responsible for TNO, as well as westward phase propagation, are evident in synoptic maps of the flow, magnetic field, and tachocline top-surface deformations. Nonlinear mode–mode interaction is particularly dramatic in the strong-field case. We also find that the TNO period increases with a decrease in rotation rate, implying that the younger Sun had more frequent seasons.

  8. Eyes in the sky. Interactions between asymptotic giant branch star winds and the interstellar magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Marle, A. J.; Cox, N. L. J.; Decin, L.

    2014-10-01

    Context. The extended circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of evolved low-mass stars display a large variety of morphologies. Understanding the various mechanisms that give rise to these extended structures is important to trace their mass-loss history. Aims: Here, we aim to examine the role of the interstellar magnetic field in shaping the extended morphologies of slow dusty winds of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in an effort to pin-point the origin of so-called eye shaped CSEs of three carbon-rich AGB stars. In addition, we seek to understand if this pre-planetary nebula (PN) shaping can be responsible for asymmetries observed in PNe. Methods: Hydrodynamical simulations are used to study the effect of typical interstellar magnetic fields on the free-expanding spherical stellar winds as they sweep up the local interstellar medium (ISM). Results: The simulations show that typical Galactic interstellar magnetic fields of 5 to 10 μG are sufficient to alter the spherical expanding shells of AGB stars to appear as the characteristic eye shape revealed by far-infrared observations. The typical sizes of the simulated eyes are in accordance with the observed physical sizes. However, the eye shapes are transient in nature. Depending on the stellar and interstellar conditions, they develop after 20 000 to 200 000 yrs and last for about 50 000 to 500 000 yrs, assuming that the star is at rest relative to the local interstellar medium. Once formed, the eye shape develops lateral outflows parallel to the magnetic field. The explosion of a PN in the centre of the eye-shaped dust shell gives rise to an asymmetrical nebula with prominent inward pointing Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Conclusions: Interstellar magnetic fields can clearly affect the shaping of wind-ISM interaction shells. The occurrence of the eyes is most strongly influenced by stellar space motion and ISM density. Observability of this transient phase is favoured for lines-of-sight perpendicular to the

  9. Interaction of supra-thermal ions with turbulence in a magnetized toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plyushchev, G.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis addresses the interaction of a supra-thermal ion beam with turbulence in the simple magnetized toroidal plasma of TORPEX. The first part of the Thesis deals with the ohmic assisted discharges on TORPEX. The aim of these discharges is the investigation of the open to closed magnetic field line transition. The relevant magnetic diagnostics were developed. Ohmic assisted discharges with a maximum plasma current up to 1 kA are routinely obtained. The equilibrium conditions on the vacuum magnetic field configuration were investigated. In the second part of the Thesis, the design of the fast ion source and detector are discussed. The accelerating electric field needed for the fast ion source was optimized. The fast ion source was constructed and commissioned. To detect the fast ions a specially designed gridded energy analyzer was used. The electron energy distribution function was obtained to demonstrate the efficiency of the detector. The experiments with the fast ion beam were conducted in different plasma regions of TORPEX. In the third part of the Thesis, numerical simulations are used to interpret the measured fast ion beam behavior. It is shown that a simple single particle equation of motion explains the beam behavior in the experiments in the absence of plasma. To explain the fast ion beam experiments with the plasma a turbulent electric field must be used. The model that takes into account this turbulent electrical field qualitatively explains the shape of the fast ion current density profile in the different plasma regions of TORPEX. The vertically elongated fast ion current density profiles are explained by a spread in the fast ion velocity distribution. The theoretically predicted radial fast ion beam spreading due to the turbulent electric field was observed in the experiment. (author)

  10. Role of dipolar interactions on morphologies and tunnel magnetoresistance in assemblies of magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Manish; Carrey, Julian; Banerjee, Varsha

    2018-05-01

    We undertake comprehensive simulations of 2d arrays (Lx ×Ly) of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with dipole-dipole interactions by solving LLG equations. Our primary interest is to understand the correspondence between equilibrium spin (ES) morphologies and tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) as a function of Θ - the ratio of the dipolar to the anisotropy strength, sample size Lx , aspect ratio Ar =Ly /Lx and the direction of the applied field H → = HêH . The parameter Θ is varied by choosing three distinct particles: (i) α -Fe2O3 (Θ ≃ 0) , (ii) Co (Θ ≃ 0.37) and (iii) Fe3O4 (Θ ≃ 1.28) . Our main observations are as follows: (a) For weakly interacting spins (Θ ≃ 0) , the morphology has randomly oriented magnetic moments for all sample sizes and aspect ratios. The TMR exhibits a peak value of 50% at the coercive field Hc . It is robust with respect to Lx and Ar , and isotropic with respect to êH . (b) For strong interactions (Θ > 1) , the moments order in the plane of the sample. The ES morphology comprises of magnetically aligned regions interspersed with flux closure loops. For fields along x or y, the maximum TMR amplitude decrease to ∼30%. For êH = z ̂ , it drops to ∼3%. The TMR is robust with respect to Lx and Ar and isotropic in the x and y directions only. (c) In strongly interacting samples (Θ > 1) with Lx comparable to the size of a flux closure loop, increasing Ar creates ferromagnetic chains in the sample oriented along y or - y . Consequently, for êH = y ̂ , the TMR magnitude for Ar = 1 is ∼33% while that for Ar = 32 drops to ∼16%. For êH = x ̂ on the other hand, it is ∼30% and independent of Ar . The TMR of long ribbons of MNPs has a strong dependence on Ar and is anisotropic in all three directions.

  11. Influence of magnetic dipole and magnetoelastic interactions on the phase states of 2D non-Heisenberg ferromagnetic with complex exchange interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridman, Yu.A.; Matunin, D.A.; Klevets, Ph.N.; Kosmachev, O.A.

    2009-01-01

    The phase states of the 2D non-Heisenberg ferromagnetic with anisotropic bilinear and biquadratic exchange interactions are investigated. The limiting cases of the system under consideration are the two-dimensional XY-model with biquadratic exchange interaction and the isotropic Heisenberg ferromagnetic. The account of the magnetic dipole interaction leads to the realization of spatially inhomogeneous quadrupolar phase. The stability regions of various phase transitions for different values of the material parameters are studied. The phase diagram is built. Besides, the temperature phase transitions are investigated. The influence of the magnetoelastic interaction on the formation of the long-range quadrupolar order is determined.

  12. Orthodontic springs and auxiliary appliances: assessment of magnetic field interactions associated with 1.5 T and 3 T magnetic resonance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemper, J.; Priest, A.N.; Adam, G.; Schulze, D.; Kahl-Nieke, B.; Klocke, A.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate magnetic field interactions at 1.5 and 3 T for 20 orthodontic devices used for fixed orthodontic therapy. Twenty springs and auxiliary parts made from varying ferromagnetic alloys were tested for magnetic field interactions in the static magnetic field at 1.5 and 3 T. Magnetic translational force F z (in millinewtons) was evaluated by determining the deflection angle β [American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM standard test method)]. Magnetic-field-induced rotational force F rot was qualitatively determined using a five-point scale. β was found to be >45 in 13(15) devices at 1.5(3) T and translational force F z exceeded gravitational force F g on the particular object [F z 10.17-261.4 mN (10.72-566.4 mN) at 1.5(3) T]. F z was found to be up to 24.1(47.5)-fold higher than F g at 1.5(3) T. Corresponding to this, F rot on the objects was shown to be high at both field strengths (≥ +3). Three objects (at 1.5 T) and one object (at 3 T) showed deflection angles rot was found to be ≥ +3 at both field strengths. For the remaining objects, β was below 45 and torque measurements ranged from 0 to +2. Of 20 objects investigated for magnetic field interactions at 1.5(3) T, 13(15) were unsafe in magnetic resonance (MR), based on the ASTM criteria of F z . The implications of these results for orthodontic patients undergoing MRI are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Orthodontic springs and auxiliary appliances: assessment of magnetic field interactions associated with 1.5 T and 3 T magnetic resonance systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper, J.; Priest, A.N.; Adam, G. [University Medical Center of Hamburg-Eppendorf, Clinic of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Schulze, D. [University Hospital of Freiburg, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Freiburg (Germany); Kahl-Nieke, B.; Klocke, A. [University Medical Center of Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Orthodontics, Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate magnetic field interactions at 1.5 and 3 T for 20 orthodontic devices used for fixed orthodontic therapy. Twenty springs and auxiliary parts made from varying ferromagnetic alloys were tested for magnetic field interactions in the static magnetic field at 1.5 and 3 T. Magnetic translational force F{sub z} (in millinewtons) was evaluated by determining the deflection angle {beta} [American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM standard test method)]. Magnetic-field-induced rotational force F{sub rot} was qualitatively determined using a five-point scale. {beta} was found to be >45 in 13(15) devices at 1.5(3) T and translational force F{sub z} exceeded gravitational force F{sub g} on the particular object [F{sub z} 10.17-261.4 mN (10.72-566.4 mN) at 1.5(3) T]. F{sub z} was found to be up to 24.1(47.5)-fold higher than F{sub g} at 1.5(3) T. Corresponding to this, F{sub rot} on the objects was shown to be high at both field strengths ({>=} +3). Three objects (at 1.5 T) and one object (at 3 T) showed deflection angles <45 , but F{sub rot} was found to be {>=} +3 at both field strengths. For the remaining objects, {beta} was below 45 and torque measurements ranged from 0 to +2. Of 20 objects investigated for magnetic field interactions at 1.5(3) T, 13(15) were unsafe in magnetic resonance (MR), based on the ASTM criteria of F{sub z}. The implications of these results for orthodontic patients undergoing MRI are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Reversal mechanisms and interactions in magnetic systems: coercivity versus switching field and thermally assisted demagnetization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cebollada, F.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a comparative analysis of the magnetic interactions and reversal mechanisms of two different systems: NdFeB-type alloys with grain sizes in the single domain range and Fe-SiO2 nanocomposites with Fe concentrations above and below the percolation threshold. We evidence that the use of the coercivity as the main parameter to analyse them might be misleading due to the convolution of both reversible and irreversible magnetization variations. We show that the switching field and thermally assisted demagnetization allow a better understanding of these mechanisms since they involve just irreversible magnetization changes. Specifically, the experimental analysis of the coercivity adquisition process for the NdFeB-type system suggests that the magnetization reversal is nucleated at the spin misalignments present due to intergranular exchange interactions. On the other hand, the study of the magnetic viscosity and of the isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM and direct field demagnetization (DCD remanence curves indicates that the dipolar interactions are responsible for the propagation of the switching started at individual particles.

    En este artículo presentamos un análisis comparativo de la influencia de la microestructura a través de las interacciones magnéticas en los mecanismos de inversión de la magnetización en dos sistemas diferentes: aleaciones tipo NdFeB con tamaños de grano en el rango de monodominio y nanocompuestos de Fe-SiO2 con concentraciones de Fe tanto por encima como por debajo del umbral de percolación. Ponemos de manifiesto que el uso del campo coercitivo como parámetro de análisis puede llevar a equívocos debido a la coexistencia de variaciones reversibles e irreversibles de la magnetización. También mostramos que el campo de conmutación y la desimanación térmicamente asistida permiten una mejor comprensión de dichos mecanismos ya que reflejan exclusivamente cambios irreversibles de

  15. Effect of CDW and magnetic interactions on the e{sub g} electrons of the manganite systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rout, G.C., E-mail: gcr@iopb.res.i [Condensed Matter Physics Group, P. G. Department of Applied Physics and Ballistics, F. M. University, Balasore 756 019 (India); Panda, S. [Trident Academy of Technology, F2/A, Chandaka Industrial Estate, Bhubaneswar 751 024 (India); Behera, S.N. [Institute of Materials Science, Planetarium Building, Bhubaneswar 751 013 (India)

    2009-11-15

    We address a model study which includes the co-existence of the charge density wave (CDW) and ferromagnetic interactions in order to explain the colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) in manganites. The Hamiltonian consists of the ferromagnetic Hund's rule exchange interaction between e{sub g} and t{sub 2g} spins, Heisenberg core spin interactions and the CDW interaction present in the e{sub g} band electrons. The core electron magnetization, induced e{sub g} electron magnetization and the CDW gap are calculated using Zubarev's Green's function technique and determined self-consistently. The effect of core electron magnetization and the CDW interaction on the induced magnetization as well as on the occupation number in the different spin states of the e{sub g} band electrons are investigated by varying the model parameters of the system like the CDW coupling, the exchange coupling, the Heisenberg coupling and the external field. It is observed that the induced magnetization exhibits re-entrant behaviour and exists within a narrow temperature range just below the Curie temperature. This unusual behaviour of the e{sub g} band electrons will throw some new insights on the physical properties of the manganite systems.

  16. Ultrafast Magnetism of Multi-component Ferromagnets and Ferrimagnets on the Time Scale of the Exchange Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Ilie

    2012-02-01

    Revealing the ultimate speed limit at which magnetic order can be controlled, is a fundamental challenge of modern magnetism having far reaching implications for the magnetic recording industry [1]. Exchange interaction is the strongest force in magnetism, being ultimately responsible for ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic spin order. How do spins react after being optically excited on a timescale of or even faster than the exchange interaction? Here, we demonstrate that femtosecond (fs) measurements of ferrimagnetic and ferromagnetic alloys using X-ray magnetic circular dichroism provide revolutionary new insights into the problem of ultrafast magnetism on timescales pertinent to the exchange interaction. In particular, we show that upon fs optical excitation the ultrafast spin reversal of GdFeCo - a material with antiferromagnetic coupling of spins - occurs via a transient ferromagnetic state [2]. The latter emerges due to different dynamics of the Gd and Fe magnetic moments: Gd switches within 1.5 ps while it takes only 300 fs for Fe. Thus, by using a single fs laser pulse one can force the spin system to evolve via an energetically unfavorable way and temporarily switch from an antiferromagnetic to a ferromagnetic type of ordering. In order to understand whether the observation of this temporarily decoupled and element-specific dynamics is a general phenomenon or just something strictly related to the case of ferrimagnetic GdFeCo, we have investigated the demagnetization of the archetypal ferromagnetic NiFe alloys. Essentially, we observe the same distinct magnetization dynamics of the constituent magnetic moments: Ni demagnetizes within ˜300 fs being much faster than the demagnetization of Fe of ˜800 fs. This distinct demagnetization behavior leads to an apparent decoupling of the Fe and Ni magnetic moments on a few hundreds of fs time scale, despite the strong exchange interaction of 260meV (˜16 fs) that couples them. These observations supported by

  17. Interaction of biological systems with static and ELF electric and magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L.E.; Kelman, B.J.; Weigel, R.J. (eds.)

    1987-01-01

    Although background levels of atmospheric electric and geomagnetic field levels are extremely low, over the past several decades, human beings and other life forms on this planet have been subjected to a dramatically changing electromagnetic milieu. An exponential increase in exposure to electromagnetic fields has occurred, largely because of such technological advances as the growth of electrical power generation and transmission systems, the increased use of wireless communications, and the use of radar. In addition, electromagnetic field generating devices have proliferated in industrial plants, office buildings, homes, public transportation systems, and elsewhere. Although significant increases have occurred in electromagnetic field strenghths spanning all frequency ranges, this symposium addresses only the impact of these fields at static and extremely low frequencies (ELF), primarily 50 and 60 Hz. This volume contains the proceedings of the symposium entitled /open quotes/Interaction of biological systems with static and ELF electric and magnetic fields/close quotes/. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for discussions of all aspects of research on the interaction of static and ELF electromagnetic fields with biological systems. These systems include simple biophysical models, cell and organ preparations, whole animals, and man. Dosimetry, exposure system design, and artifacts in ELF bioeffects research were also addressed, along with current investigations that examine fundamental mechanisms of interactions between the fields and biological processes. Papers are indexed separately.

  18. Grain size dependent potential for self generation of magnetic anomalies on Mars via thermoremanent magnetic acquisition and magnetic interaction of hematite and magnetite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kletetschka, Günther; Ness, F. N.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Acuna, M. H.; Wasilewski, P. J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 148, 2-4 (2005), s. 149-156 ISSN 0031-9201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : magnetic mineralogy * self-magnetization * blocking temperature * Martian crust Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.420, year: 2005

  19. Fe magnetic moment formation and exchange interaction in Fe{sub 2}P: A first-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.B., E-mail: liuxubo@uta.edu [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Ping Liu, J.; Zhang, Qiming [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Altounian, Z. [Center for the Physics of Materials and Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2013-03-15

    Electronic structure and magnetic properties of Fe{sub 2}P have been studied by a first-principles density functional theory calculation. The ground state is ferromagnetic and the calculated magnetic moments for Fe{sub 1} (3f) and Fe{sub 2} (3g) are 0.83 and 2.30μ{sub B}, respectively. The nearest neighbor inter-site magnetic exchange coupling parameter at the Fe{sub 1} layer (0.02 mRy) is much smaller than that at the Fe{sub 2} layer (1.29 mRy). The Fe moment at the 3f site is metastable and sensitive to the inter-site exchange interaction with its magnetic neighbors, which is responsible for the first order magnetic transition and large magneto-caloric effect around T{sub C}.

  20. A uranium-based UO_2"+-Mn"2"+ single-chain magnet assembled trough cation-cation interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mougel, Victor; Chatelain, Lucile; Hermle, Johannes; Pecaut, Jacques; Mazzanti, Marinella; Caciuffo, Roberto; Colineau, Eric; Tuna, Floriana; Magnani, Nicola; Geyer, Arnaud de

    2014-01-01

    Single-chain magnets (SCMs) are materials composed of magnetically isolated one-dimensional (1D) units exhibiting slow relaxation of magnetization. The occurrence of SCM behavior requires the fulfillment of stringent conditions for exchange and anisotropy interactions. Herein, we report the synthesis, the structure, and the magnetic characterization of the first actinide-containing SCM. The 5f-3d heterometallic 1D chains [{[UO_2(salen)(py)][M(py)_4](NO_3)}]_n, (M=Cd (1) and M=Mn (2); py=pyridine) are assembled trough cation-cation interaction from the reaction of the uranyl(V) complex [UO_2(salen)py][Cp"*_2Co] (Cp"*=pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) with Cd(NO_3)_2 or Mn(NO_3)_2 in pyridine. The infinite UMn chain displays a high relaxation barrier of 134±0.8 K (93±0.5 cm"-"1), probably as a result of strong intra-chain magnetic interactions combined with the high Ising anisotropy of the uranyl(V) dioxo group. It also exhibits an open magnetic hysteresis loop at T<6 K, with an impressive coercive field of 3.4 T at 2 K.

  1. A uranium-based UO_2"+-Mn"2"+ single-chain magnet assembled trough cation-cation interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mougel, Victor; Chatelain, Lucile; Hermle, Johannes; Pecaut, Jacques; Mazzanti, Marinella; Caciuffo, Roberto; Colineau, Eric; Tuna, Floriana; Magnani, Nicola; Geyer, Arnaud de

    2014-01-01

    Single-chain magnets (SCMs) are materials composed of magnetically isolated one-dimensional (1D) units exhibiting slow relaxation of magnetization. The occurrence of SCM behavior requires the fulfillment of stringent conditions for exchange and anisotropy interactions. Herein, we report the synthesis, the structure, and the magnetic characterization of the first actinide-containing SCM. The 5f-3d heterometallic 1D chains [{[UO_2(salen)(py)][M(py)_4](NO_3)}]_n, (M=Cd (1) and M=Mn (2); py=pyridine) are assembled trough cation-cation interaction from the reaction of the uranyl(V) complex [UO_2(salen)py][Cp*_2Co] (Cp*=pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) with Cd(NO_3)_2 or Mn(NO_3)_2 in pyridine. The infinite UMn chain displays a high relaxation barrier of 134 ±0.8 K (93 ±0.5 cm"-"1), probably as a result of strong intra-chain magnetic interactions combined with the high Ising anisotropy of the uranyl(V) dioxo group. It also exhibits an open magnetic hysteresis loop at T <6 K, with an impressive coercive field of 3.4 T at 2 K. (Copyright copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Electronic Structure and Magnetic Interactions in the Radical Salt [BEDT-TTF]2[CuCl4].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzado, Carmen J; Rodríguez-García, Bárbara; Galán Mascarós, José Ramón; Hernández, Norge Cruz

    2018-06-07

    The magnetic behavior and electric properties of the hybrid radical salt [BEDT-TTF] 2 [CuCl 4 ] have been revisited through extended experimental analyses and DDCI and periodic DFT plane waves calculations. Single crystal X-ray diffraction data have been collected at different temperatures, discovering a phase transition occurring in the 250-300 K range. The calculations indicate the presence of intradimer, interdimer, and organic-inorganic π-d interactions in the crystal, a magnetic pattern much more complex than the Bleaney-Bowers model initially assigned to this material. Although this simple model was good enough to reproduce the magnetic susceptibility data, our calculations demonstrate that the actual magnetic structure is significantly more intricate, with alternating antiferromagnetic 1D chains of the organic BEDT-TTF + radical, connected through weak antiferromagnetic interactions with the CuCl 4 2- ions. Combination of experiment and theory allowed us to unambiguously determine and quantify the leading magnetic interactions in the system. The density-of-states curves confirm the semiconductor nature of the system and the dominant organic contribution of the valence and conduction band edges. This general and combined approach appears to be fundamental in order to properly understand the magnetic structure of these complex materials, where experimental data can actually be fitted from a variety of models and parameters.

  3. Excange interactions and induced Eu3+ magnetic order in RMnO3 investigated using resonant X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaugen, Arvid

    2015-03-01

    The so-called multiferroics, materials that concomitantly exhibit more than one ferroic order, have in recent years attracted much attention owing to their possible applications in high density data storage, high sensitivity ac magnetic field sensors and novel spintronic devices. In particular, multiferroics with strong magnetoelectric coupling are more attractive. Among such multiferroics, an interesting special class is the orthorhombic manganites with perovskite structure. In these compounds, frustration serves to destabilize ordinary ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic ordering, giving rise to rich phase diagrams due to several competing magnetic interactions. Interactions between strong rare earth magnetic moments and weaker transition metal moments add another level of complexity, as well as interest. The current dissertation presents results obtained investigating the magnetic structure responsible for ferroelectricity in a few selected multiferroic compounds, using x-ray resonant magnetic scattering (XRMS). In particular, single crystals of Eu 1-x Y x MnO 3 have been studied at low temperatures and in high magnetic fields. This series of compounds is similar in structure to the heavily studied RMnO 3 (R=Tb,Gd,Dy), only without rare earth magnetism. The novel technique of full polarization analysis has been used to determine the complicated cycloidal Mn magnetic ordering, and additional components due to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions have been identified. In the compound Eu 0.8 Y 0.2 MnO 3 , two coexisting multiferroic phases were observed, and a magnetoelectric coupling between the two was established. Moreover, magnetic order of the formally non-magnetic rare earth ion Eu 3+ was observed in the same compound. It has been concluded to result from a Van Vleck type excitation of the J = 0 ground state due to the symmetry-breaking internal exchange field from the Mn magnetic moments. In addition, this dissertation reports on high field investigations

  4. Finite-size, chemical-potential and magnetic effects on the phase transition in a four-fermion interacting model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, E.B.S. [Universidade Federal do Sul e Sudeste do Para, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Maraba (Brazil); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas-CBPF/MCTI, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Linhares, C.A. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Malbouisson, A.P.C. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas-CBPF/MCTI, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Malbouisson, J.M.C. [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Instituto de Fisica, Salvador (Brazil); Santana, A.E. [Universidade de Brasilia, Instituto de Fisica, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2017-04-15

    We study effects coming from finite size, chemical potential and from a magnetic background on a massive version of a four-fermion interacting model. This is performed in four dimensions as an application of recent developments for dealing with field theories defined on toroidal spaces. We study effects of the magnetic field and chemical potential on the size-dependent phase structure of the model, in particular, how the applied magnetic field affects the size-dependent critical temperature. A connection with some aspects of the hadronic phase transition is established. (orig.)

  5. Magnetic Interactions in Tb and Tb-10% Ho from Inelastic Neutron Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum Møller, Hans; Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden; Mackintosh, A.R.

    1968-01-01

    The magnon dispersion relations and lifetimes have been measured in Tb and a Tb‐10% Ho alloy by inelastic neutron scattering, in regions of both ferromagnetic and spiral ordering. In the ferromagnetic phase, the magnon energy is generally finite at zero wavevector and rises quadratically at low q....... The magnon energies scale approximately with the magnetization. In the spiral phase the magnon energy rises linearly from zero at low q. The Fourier‐transformed exchange parameter J(q) has pronounced peaks in the c direction, which are ascribed to transitions between states close to the Fermi surface....... These peaks are less pronounced in the ferromagnetic phase. The primary mechanism limiting the magnon lifetimes appears to be interaction with the conduction electrons. In the alloy, the lifetime for magnons propagating in the c direction in the ferromagnetic phase falls abruptly at about q  =  0.35 Å−1...

  6. Relativistic effects in the intermolecular interaction-induced nuclear magnetic resonance parameters of xenon dimer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanni, Matti; Lantto, Perttu; Ilias, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Relativistic effects on the 129Xe nuclear magnetic resonance shielding and 131Xe nuclear quadrupole coupling (NQC) tensors are examined in the weakly bound Xe2 system at different levels of theory including the relativistic four-component Dirac-Hartree-Fock (DHF) method. The intermolecular...... interaction-induced binary chemical shift d, the anisotropy of the shielding tensor ?s, and the NQC constant along the internuclear axis ?ll are calculated as a function of the internuclear distance. DHF shielding calculations are carried out using gauge-including atomic orbitals. For comparison, the full...... is obtained for d and ?s in Xe2. For these properties, the currently most complete theoretical description is obtained by a piecewise approximation where the uncorrelated relativistic DHF results obtained close to the basis-set limit are corrected, on the one hand, for NR correlation effects and, on the other...

  7. Decoupling of the hyperfine interactions in /sup 12/B ions by the external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, K; Tanihata, I; Kogo, S; Tanaka, M [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1976-11-01

    It is known that product nuclei /sup 12/B (Isup(..pi..) = 1/sup +/, Tsub(1/2) = 20 ms) by the /sup 11/B(d,p)/sup 12/B reaction are sizably oriented if one selects recoil nuclei at the incident deuteron energy and the recoil angle thetasub(R). The hyperfine interactions in recoil ions in flight in free space affect the nuclear orientation. In this experiment, the nuclear orientation in the recoil ions implanted into a stopper were measured as a function of strength of a static magnetic field applied in normal to the reaction plane. A thin single crystal of magnesium was used as the recoil stopper, of which the hexagonal c-axis was set in parallel to the external field.

  8. Feasibility of interactive magnetic resonance imaging of moving anatomy for clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Lau; Sørensen, Thomas S; Berber, Yasmina

    2014-01-01

    of electrodes during neurosurgery, the diagnostic value of this method is relatively unexplored. Purpose: To test an interactive slice-positioning system with respect to real-time MRI reconstruction for imaging of moving anatomical structures on two different scanner brands by using inexpensive computer......Background: Real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) imaging with real-time reconstruction has been available for some time. The technique acquires and presents the MRI images to the operator the instant they are acquired. However, besides guiding purposes, like catheter tracking and placement...... hardware. Materials and methods: The MRI data were sampled using two acquisition schemes: a Cartesian sampling scheme and a radial sampling scheme based on the golden ratio. Four anatomical targets, which exhibit non-periodic movement, were identified and imaged: movement of the gastric ventricle emptying...

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of conformations and molecular interactions in lyotropic mesophases - Applications to solubilization problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caniparoli, Jean-Philippe

    1988-01-01

    After having determined the structural properties of smectic liquid crystals made from double chain surfactants/water binary systems, residual anisotropic interactions and relaxation times measurements were used to investigate the molecular ordering. Phosphorus, deuterium and nitrogen NMR of the surfactant molecules evidenced their high degree of order and the strong anisotropy of their motions. Quantitative results depended on the surfactant polar head -phosphate or ammonium-, while they displayed little variations with the hydrocarbon tail size. The marked dependence of the order and dynamics of small solutes in a lamellar phase on their hydrophilic or hydrophobic behaviour was shown using the same methods. By means of para-magnetically induced relaxation, it was proved that the non-polar solute benzene is located in the organic domain of the liquid crystalline matrix. (author) [fr

  10. Relativistic magnetic reconnection driven by a moderately intense laser interacting with a micro-plasma-slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Longqing; Shen, Baifei; Pukhov, Alexander; Fülöp, Tünde

    2017-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection (MR) in the relativistic regime is generally thought to be responsible for powering rapid bursts of non-thermal radiation in astrophysical events. It is therefore of significant importance to study how the field energy is transferred to the plasma to power the observed emission. However, due to the difficulty in making direct measurements in astrophysical systems or achieving relativistic MR in laboratory environments, the particle acceleration is usually studied using fully kinetic PIC simulations. Here we present a numerical study of a readily available (TW-mJ-class) laser interacting with a micro-scale plasma slab. The simulations show when the electron beams excited on both sides of the slab approach the end of the plasma structure, ultrafast relativistic MR occurs. As the field topology changes, the explosive release of magnetic energy results in emission of relativistic electron jets with cut-off energy 12 MeV. The proposed novel scenario can be straightforwardly implemented in experiments, and might significantly improve the understanding of fundamental questions such as field dissipation and particle acceleration in relativistic MR. This work is supported by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation and the European Research Council (ERC-2014-CoG Grant 64712).

  11. Curvature-Induced Bunch Self-Interaction for an Energy-Chirped Bunch in Magnetic Bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rui Li

    2008-01-01

    Within the realm of classical electrodynamics, the curvature-induced bunch collective interaction in magnetic bends can be studied using effective forces in the canonical formulation of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effect. As an application of this canonical formulation, in this paper, for an electron distribution moving ultrarelativistically in a bending system, the dynamics of the particles in the distribution is derived from the Hamiltonian of the particles in terms of the bunch internal coordinates. The consequent Vlasov equation manifests explicitly how the phase-space distribution is perturbed by the effective CSR forces. In particular, we study the impact of an initial linear energy chirp of the bunch on the behavior of the effective longitudinal CSR force, which arises due to the modification of the retardation relation as a result of the energy-chirping-induced longitudinal-horizontal correlation of the bunch distribution (bunch tilt) in dispersive regions. Our study demonstrates clearly the time delay (or retardation) of the behavior of the effective longitudinal CSR force on a bunch in responding to the change of the bunch length in a magnetic bend. Our result also shows that the effective longitudinal CSR force for a bunch under full compression can have sensitive dependence on the transverse position of the test particle in the bunch for certain parameter regimes

  12. Plasma turbulence resulting from the interaction between the solar wind and the earth's magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, A.

    1989-01-01

    The interaction between the supersonic and super-Alfvenic solar wind plasma and the Earth's magnetic field leads to the formation of critical layers, such as the bow shock, the magnetopause, the polar cusp, and the inner and outer edge of the plasmasheet. The mean free path between binary colisions being much larger than the transverse scale of these layers, plasma turbulence must ensure the thermalization, the magnetic diffusion, the dissipation within these critical layers. We suggest the existence of small scale, presumably 2D structures, developing within these thin layers. The unambiguous characterization of these small-scale structures is, however, beyond the capabilities of existing spacecraft, which cannot spatially resolve them, nor disentangle spatial/temporal variations. We present a new mission concept: a cluster of four relatively simple spacecraft, which will make it possible (i) to disentangle spatial from temporal variations, (ii) to evaluate, by finite differences between spacecraft measurements, the gradients, divergences, curls of MHD parameters, and )iii) to characterize small-scale structures, via inter-spacecraft correlations. (author). 10 refs.; 10 figs

  13. Cosmic-Ray Transport in Heliospheric Magnetic Structures. II. Modeling Particle Transport through Corotating Interaction Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Andreas [Université Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Physique Statistique et des Plasmas, CP 231, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Wiengarten, Tobias; Fichtner, Horst [Institut für Theoretische Physik IV, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Effenberger, Frederic [Department of Physics and KIPAC, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kühl, Patrick; Heber, Bernd [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrecht-Universität zu Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Raath, Jan-Louis; Potgieter, Marius S. [Centre for Space Research, North-West University, 2520 Potchefstroom (South Africa)

    2017-03-01

    The transport of cosmic rays (CRs) in the heliosphere is determined by the properties of the solar wind plasma. The heliospheric plasma environment has been probed by spacecraft for decades and provides a unique opportunity for testing transport theories. Of particular interest for the three-dimensional (3D) heliospheric CR transport are structures such as corotating interaction regions (CIRs), which, due to the enhancement of the magnetic field strength and magnetic fluctuations within and due to the associated shocks as well as stream interfaces, do influence the CR diffusion and drift. In a three-fold series of papers, we investigate these effects by modeling inner-heliospheric solar wind conditions with the numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) framework Cronos (Wiengarten et al., referred as Paper I), and the results serve as input to a transport code employing a stochastic differential equation approach (this paper). While, in Paper I, we presented results from 3D simulations with Cronos, the MHD output is now taken as an input to the CR transport modeling. We discuss the diffusion and drift behavior of Galactic cosmic rays using the example of different theories, and study the effects of CIRs on these transport processes. In particular, we point out the wide range of possible particle fluxes at a given point in space resulting from these different theories. The restriction of this variety by fitting the numerical results to spacecraft data will be the subject of the third paper of this series.

  14. Interaction of magnetized electrons with a boundary sheath: investigation of a specular reflection model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Dennis; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter

    2017-11-01

    This publication reports analytical and numerical results concerning the interaction of gyrating electrons with a plasma boundary sheath, with focus on partially magnetized technological plasmas. It is assumed that the electron Debye length {λ }{{D}} is much smaller than the electron gyroradius {r}{{L}}, and {r}{{L}} in turn much smaller than the mean free path λ and the gradient length L of the fields. Focusing on the scale of the gyroradius, the sheath is assumed as infinitesimally thin ({λ }{{D}}\\to 0), collisions are neglected (λ \\to ∞ ), the magnetic field is taken as homogeneous, and electric fields (=potential gradients) in the bulk are neglected (L\\to ∞ ). The interaction of an electron with the electric field of the plasma boundary sheath is represented by a specular reflection {v}\\to {v}-2{v}\\cdot {{e}}z {{e}}z of the velocity {v} at the plane z = 0 of a naturally oriented Cartesian coordinate system (x,y,z). The electron trajectory is then given as sequences of helical sections, with the kinetic energy ɛ and the canonical momenta p x and p y conserved, but not the position of the axis (base point {{R}}0), the slope (pitch angle χ), and the phase (gyrophase φ). A ‘virtual interaction’ which directly maps the incoming electrons to the outgoing ones is introduced and studied in dependence of the angle γ between the field and the sheath normal {{e}}z. The corresponding scattering operator is constructed, mathematically characterized, and given as an infinite matrix. An equivalent boundary condition for a transformed kinetic model is derived.

  15. Pairwise additivity in the nuclear magnetic resonance interactions of atomic xenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanni, Matti; Lantto, Perttu; Vaara, Juha

    2009-04-14

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of atomic (129/131)Xe is used as a versatile probe of the structure and dynamics of various host materials, due to the sensitivity of the Xe NMR parameters to intermolecular interactions. The principles governing this sensitivity can be investigated using the prototypic system of interacting Xe atoms. In the pairwise additive approximation (PAA), the binary NMR chemical shift, nuclear quadrupole coupling (NQC), and spin-rotation (SR) curves for the xenon dimer are utilized for fast and efficient evaluation of the corresponding NMR tensors in small xenon clusters Xe(n) (n = 2-12). If accurate, the preparametrized PAA enables the analysis of the NMR properties of xenon clusters, condensed xenon phases, and xenon gas without having to resort to electronic structure calculations of instantaneous configurations for n > 2. The binary parameters for Xe(2) at different internuclear distances were obtained at the nonrelativistic Hartree-Fock level of theory. Quantum-chemical (QC) calculations at the corresponding level were used to obtain the NMR parameters of the Xe(n) (n = 2-12) clusters at the equilibrium geometries. Comparison of PAA and QC data indicates that the direct use of the binary property curves of Xe(2) can be expected to be well-suited for the analysis of Xe NMR in the gaseous phase dominated by binary collisions. For use in condensed phases where many-body effects should be considered, effective binary property functions were fitted using the principal components of QC tensors from Xe(n) clusters. Particularly, the chemical shift in Xe(n) is strikingly well-described by the effective PAA. The coordination number Z of the Xe site is found to be the most important factor determining the chemical shift, with the largest shifts being found for high-symmetry sites with the largest Z. This is rationalized in terms of the density of virtual electronic states available for response to magnetic perturbations.

  16. The effects of Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit interactions on the electron tunneling in a non-magnetic heterostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jianduo; Li Jianwen

    2010-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the electron transport properties in a non-magnetic heterostructure with both Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit interactions. The detailed-numerical results show that (1) the large spin polarization can be achieved due to Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit couplings induced splitting of the resonant level, although the magnetic field is zero in such a structure, (2) the Rashba spin-orbit coupling plays a greater role on the spin polarization than the Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction does, and (3) the transmission probability and the spin polarization both periodically change with the increase of the well width.

  17. Mixed hyperfine interaction in amorphous Fe-Zr sputtered films in external magnetic field - a 57Fe Moessbauer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, S.M.; Crummenauer, J.; Wagner, H.-G.; Gonser, U.; Chien, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    Conventional 57 Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy provides only information about the magnitude of the splitting QS in the case of electric quadrupole hyperfine interaction, but not on the sign of the main component of the electric field gradient (EFG) or the asymmetry parameter which are sensitive to the local environment of the 57 Fe nuclei. This kind of information is obtained by measurements in external magnetic fields. In the case of amorphous Fe-Zr sputtered films mixed hyperfine interaction leads to a clear change in the behaviour of the Zr-rich and the Fe-rich alloys, indicating the existence of magnetic clusters in the Fe-rich samples. (Auth.)

  18. Magnetic exchange interactions in Mn doped ZnSnAs{sub 2} chalcopyrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhani-Benziane, H.; Sahnoun, O. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique de la Matière et Modélisation Mathématique (LPQ3M), University of Mascara (Algeria); Sahnoun, M., E-mail: sahnoun_cum@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique de la Matière et Modélisation Mathématique (LPQ3M), University of Mascara (Algeria); Department of Chemistry, University of Fribourg (Switzerland); Driz, M. [Laboratoire de Sciences des Matériaux (LSM), University of Sidi Bel Abbes (Algeria); Daul, C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Fribourg (Switzerland)

    2015-12-15

    Accurate ab initio full-potential augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) electronic calculations within generalized gradient approximation have been performed for Mn doped ZnSnAs{sub 2} chalcopyrites, focusing on their electronic and magnetic properties as a function of the geometry related to low Mn-impurity concentration and the spin magnetic alignment (i.e., ferromagnetic vs antiferromagnetic). As expected, Mn is found to be a source of holes and localized magnetic moments of about 4 µ{sub B} per Mn atom are calculated which are sufficiently large. The defect calculations are firstly performed by replacing a single cation (namely Zn and Sn) with a single Mn atom in the pure chalcopyrite ZnSnAs{sub 2} supercell, and their corresponding formation energies show that the substitution of a Sn atom (rather than Zn) by Mn is strongly favored. Thereafter, a comparison of total energy differences between ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) are given. Surprisingly, the exchange interaction between a Mn pairs is found to oscillate with the distance between them. Consequently, the AFM alignment is energetically favored in Mn-doped ZnSnAs{sub 2} compounds, except for low impurity concentration associated with lower distances between neighboring Mn impurities, in this case the stabilization of FM increases. Moreover, the ferromagnetic alignment in the Mn-doped ZnSnAs{sub 2} systems behaves half-metallic; the valence band for majority spin orientation is partially filled while there is a gap in the density of states for the minority spin orientation. This semiconducting gap of ~1 eV opened up in the minority channel and is due to the large bonding–antibonding splitting from the p–d hybridization. Our findings suggest that the Mn-doped ZnSnAs{sub 2} chalcopyrites could be a different class of ferromagnetic semiconductors. - Highlights: • ab initio calculations were performed on Mn doped ZnSnAs{sub 2} chalcopyrite. • Substitution of a Sn atom (rather than Zn) by Mn

  19. Influence of magnetoelastic coupling on the phase transitions in two-dimensional non-Heisenberg magnetics with biquadratic interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridman, Yu.A.; Klevets, Ph.N.; Kozhemyako, O.V.

    2003-01-01

    Influence of magnetoelastic (ME) interaction on the phase transitions in two-dimensional non-Heisenberg ferromagnets is investigated. It is shown that if the constant of Heisenberg exchange interaction is large, the ferromagnetic phase is implemented in a system. When the value of biquadratic exchange interaction increases there is a phase transition to the quadrupolar phase characterized by the tensor order parameters. Thus, ME interaction plays an essential role, not only stabilizing the long-range magnetic order in the system, but also determining the order of the phase transition

  20. Fundamental properties of molecules on surfaces. Molecular switching and interaction of magnetic molecules with superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatter, Nino

    2016-12-14

    In this thesis, we investigate individual molecular switches and metal-organic complexes on surfaces with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) at low temperatures. One focus addresses the switching ability and mechanism of diarylethene on Ag(111). The other focus lies on resolving and tuning magnetic interactions of individual molecules with superconductors. 4,4'-(4,4'-(perfluorocyclopent-1-ene-1,2-diyl)bis (5-methylthiophene-4,2-diyl)dip yridine (PDTE) is a prototypical photochromic switch. We can induce a structural change of individual PDTE molecules on Ag(111) with the STM tip. This change is accompanied by a reduction of the energy gap between the occupied and unoccupied molecular orbitals. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that the induced switching corresponds to a ring-closing reaction from an open isomer in a flat adsorption configuration to a ring-closed isomer with its methyl groups in a cis configuration. The final product is thermodynamically stabilized by strong dispersion interactions with the surface. A linear dependence of the switching threshold with the tip-sample distance with a minimal threshold of 1.4 V is found, which we assign to a combination of an electric-field induced process and a tunneling-electron contribution. DFT calculations suggest a large activation barrier for a ring-closing reaction from the open flat configuration into the closed cis configuration. The interaction of magnetic molecules with superconductors is studied on manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc) adsorbed on Pb(111). We find triplets of Shiba states inside the superconducting gap. Different adsorption sites of MnPc provide a large variety of exchange coupling strengths, which lead to a collective energy shift of the Shiba triplets. We can assign the splitting of the Shiba states to be an effect of magnetic anisotropy in the system. A quantum phase transition from a ''Kondo screened'' to a &apos

  1. Multi-scale interaction between magnetic islands and microturbulence in magnetized plasmas; Modelisation et simulation de l'interaction multi-echelle entre ilots magnetiques et la microturbulence dans les plasmas de fusion magnetises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraglia, M.

    2009-10-15

    In a tokamak, it exists many kinds of instability at the origin of a damage of the confinement and worst of a lost of a confinement. This work presents a study of the dynamics of a magnetic island in presence of turbulence in magnetized plasmas. More precisely, the goal is to understand the multi-scales interaction between turbulence, generated by a pressure gradient and the magnetic field curvature, and a magnetic island formed thanks to a tearing mode. Thanks to the derivation of a 2-dimensional slab model taking into account both tearing and interchange instabilities, theoretical and numerical linear studies show the pressure effect on the magnetic island linear formation and show interchange modes are stabilized in presence of a strong magnetic field. Then, a numerical nonlinear study is presented in order to understand how the interchange mechanism affects the nonlinear dynamics of a magnetic island. It is shown that the pressure gradient and the magnetic field curvature affect strongly the nonlinear evolution of a magnetic island through dynamics bifurcations. The nature of these bifurcations should be characterized in function of the linear situation. Finally, the last part of this work is devoted to the study of the origin of the nonlinear poloidal rotation of the magnetic island. A model giving the different contributions to the rotation is derived. It is shown, thanks to the model and to the numerical studies, that the nonlinear rotation of the island is mainly governed by the ExB poloidal flow and/or by the nonlinear diamagnetic drift. (author)

  2. Lifshitz transition with interactions in high magnetic fields: Application to CeIn3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlottmann, Pedro

    2012-02-01

    The N'eel ordered state of CeIn3 is suppressed by a magnetic field of 61 T at ambient pressure. There is a second transition at ˜45 T, which has been associated with a Lifshitz transition [1,2]. Skin depth measurements [2] indicate that the transition is discontinuous as T ->0. Motivated by this transition we study the effects of Landau quantization and interaction among carriers on a Lifshitz transition. The Landau quantization leads to quasi-one-dimensional behavior for the direction parallel to the field. Repulsive Coulomb interactions give rise to a gas of strongly coupled carriers [3]. The density correlation function is calculated for a special long-ranged potential [4]. It is concluded that in CeIn3 a pocket is being emptied as a function of field in a discontinuous fashion in the ground state. This discontinuity is gradually smeared by the temperature [4] in agreement with the skin depth experiments [2]. 0.05in [1] S.E. Sebastian et al, PNAS 106, 7741 (2009). [2] K.M. Purcell et al, Phys. Rev. B 79, 214428 (2009). [3] P. Schlottmann and R. Gerhardts, Z. Phys. B 34, 363 (1979). [4] P. Schlottmann, Phys. Rev. B 83, 115133 (2011); J. Appl. Phys., in print.

  3. Interactive neonatal gastrointestinal magnetic resonance imaging using fruit juice as an oral contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthurs, Owen J; Graves, Martin J; Edwards, Andrea D; Joubert, Ilse; Set, Pat AK; Lomas, David J

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the use of fruit juice with an interactive inversion recovery (IR) MR pulse sequence to visualise the gastrointestinal tract. We investigated the relaxation properties of 12 different natural fruit juices in vitro, to identify which could be used as oral contrast. We then describe our initial experience using an interactive MR pulse sequence to allow optimal visualisation after administering pineapple juice orally, and suppressing pre-existing bowel fluid contents, with variable TI in three adult and one child volunteer. Pineapple juice (PJ) had both the shortest T 1 (243 ms) and shortest T 2 (48 ms) of the fruit juices tested. Optimal signal differentiation between pre-existing bowel contents and oral PJ administration was obtained with TIs of between 900 and 1100 ms. The use of an inversion recovery preparation allowed long T 1 pre-existing bowel contents to be suppressed whilst the short T 1 of fruit juice acts as a positive contrast medium. Pineapple juice could be used as oral contrast agent for neonatal gastrointestinal magnetic resonance imaging

  4. Interactive thresholded volumetry of abdominal fat using breath-hold T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittsack, H.J.; Cohnen, M.; Jung, G.; Moedder, U.; Poll, L.; Kapitza, C.; Heinemann, L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: development of a feasible and reliable method for determining abdominal fat using breath-hold T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and methods: the high image contrast of T1-weighted gradient echo MR sequences makes it possible to differentiate between abdominal fat and non-fat tissue. To obtain a high signal-to-noise ratio, the measurements are usually performed using phased array surface coils. Inhomogeneity of the coil sensitivity leads to inhomogeneity of the image intensities. Therefore, to examine the volume of abdominal fat, an automatic algorithm for intensity correction must be implemented. The analysis of the image histogram results in a threshold to separate fat from other tissue. Automatic segmentation using this threshold results directly in the fat volumes. The separation of intraabdominal and subcutaneous fat is performed by interactive selection in a last step. Results: the described correction of inhomogeneity allows for the segmentation of the images using a global threshold. The use of semiautomatic interactive volumetry makes the analysis more subjective. The variance of volumetry between observers was 4.6%. The mean time for image analysis of a T1-weighted investigation lasted less than 6 minutes. Conclusion: the described method facilitates reliable determination of abdominal fat within a reasonable period of time. Using breath-hold MR sequences, the time of examination is less than 5 minutes per patient. (orig.)

  5. An interacting instanton and anti-instanton system under external color magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakano, M.

    1980-01-01

    The equilibrium configurations for the instanton and anti-instanton system of the SU(2) gauge field under constant external color magnetic fields are studied by applying the statistical mechanics method. The vacuum has a stabel equilibrium state in the case where the interaction between pseudoparticles is partly considered through the local gauge field in determining the mean dipole moment of instantons. It is shown, however, that there exists no equilibrium state, either stable or unstable, when the dipolar interaction with a particular instanton-size-dependent cutoff is taken into account directly by the second virial coefficient. To analyze this discrepancy a more general cutoff is introduced and the density of instantons is determined for equilibrium states with vanishing external fields, when the cutoff parameter is varied. Above a certain cutoff length there exist two branches of equilibrium configurations with high or low instanton densities, while below it no equilibrium state is obtained. It is shown that we have a critical cutoff length near but slightly larger than the above value and that the equilibrium states on the lower density branch corresponding to cutoff lengths larger than this critical value are stable, while all remaining equilibrium states are unstable. (orig.)

  6. Interaction between lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline) and various irrigants: A nuclear magnetic resonance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidhya, Nirmal; Karthikeyan, Balasubramanian Saravana; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy; Abarajithan, Mohan; Nithyanandan, Sivasankaran

    2014-05-01

    Interaction between local anesthetic solution, lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline), and root canal irrigants such as sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), and chlorhexidine (CHX) has not been studied earlier. Hence, the purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the chemical interaction between 2% lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline) and commonly used root canal irrigants, NaOCl, EDTA, and CHX. SAMPLES WERE DIVIDED INTO EIGHT EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS: Group I-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/3% NaOCl, Group II-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/17% EDTA, Group III- Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/2% CHX, Group IV-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/3% NaOCl, Group V-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/17% EDTA, Group VI-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/2% CHX, and two control groups: Group VII-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/deionized water and Group VIII-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/deionized water. The respective solutions of various groups were mixed in equal proportions (1 ml each) and observed for precipitate formation. Chemical composition of the formed precipitate was then analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and confirmed with diazotation test. In groups I and IV, a white precipitate was observed in all the samples on mixing the respective solutions, which showed a color change to reddish brown after 15 minutes. This precipitate was then analysed by NMR spectroscopy and was observed to be 2,6-xylidine, a reported toxic compound. The experimental groups II, III, V, and VI and control groups VII and VIII showed no precipitate formation in any of the respective samples, until 2 hours. Interaction between lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline) and NaOCl showed precipitate formation containing 2,6-xylidine, a toxic compound.

  7. Optical pulling and pushing forces exerted on silicon nanospheres with strong coherent interaction between electric and magnetic resonances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongfeng; Panmai, Mingcheng; Peng, Yuanyuan; Lan, Sheng

    2017-05-29

    We investigated theoretically and numerically the optical pulling and pushing forces acting on silicon (Si) nanospheres (NSs) with strong coherent interaction between electric and magnetic resonances. We examined the optical pulling and pushing forces exerted on Si NSs by two interfering waves and revealed the underlying physical mechanism from the viewpoint of electric- and magnetic-dipole manipulation. As compared with a polystyrene (PS) NS, it was found that the optical pulling force for a Si NS with the same size is enlarged by nearly two orders of magnitude. In addition to the optical pulling force appearing at the long-wavelength side of the magnetic dipole resonance, very large optical pushing force is observed at the magnetic quadrupole resonance. The correlation between the optical pulling/pushing force and the directional scattering characterized by the ratio of the forward to backward scattering was revealed. More interestingly, it was found that the high-order electric and magnetic resonances in large Si NSs play an important role in producing optical pulling force which can be generated by not only s-polarized wave but also p-polarized one. Our finding indicates that the strong coherent interaction between the electric and magnetic resonances existing in nanoparticles with large refractive indices can be exploited to manipulate the optical force acting on them and the correlation between the optical force and the directional scattering can be used as guidance. The engineering and manipulation of optical forces will find potential applications in the trapping, transport and sorting of nanoparticles.

  8. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    by B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The magnet operation was very satisfactory till the technical stop at the end of the year 2010. The field was ramped down on 5th December 2010, following the successful regeneration test of the turbine filters at full field on 3rd December 2010. This will limit in the future the quantity of magnet cycles, as it is no longer necessary to ramp down the magnet for this type of intervention. This is made possible by the use of the spare liquid Helium volume to cool the magnet while turbines 1 and 2 are stopped, leaving only the third turbine in operation. This obviously requires full availability of the operators to supervise the operation, as it is not automated. The cryogenics was stopped on 6th December 2010 and the magnet was left without cooling until 18th January 2011, when the cryoplant operation resumed. The magnet temperature reached 93 K. The maintenance of the vacuum pumping was done immediately after the magnet stop, when the magnet was still at very low temperature. Only the vacuum pumping of the ma...

  9. Minute splitting of magnetic excitations in CsFeCl{sub 3} due to dipolar interaction observed by polarised neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorner, B [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France); Baehr, M [HMI, Berlin (Germany); Petitgrand, D [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (LLB) - Centre d` Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1997-04-01

    Using inelastic neutron scattering with polarisation analysis it was possible, for the first time, to observe simultaneously the two magnetic modes split due to dipolar interaction. This would not have been possible with energy resolution only. An analysis of eigenvectors was also performed. (author). 4 refs.

  10. Particle-in-cell analysis of beam-wave interaction in gyrotron cavity with tapered magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A., E-mail: anil.gyrotron@gmail.com [Gyrotron Lab., Microwave Tube Area, Central Electronics Engineering Research Inst. (CEERI, CSIR), Pilani, Rajasthan (India); Banasthali Univ., Dept. of Physics, Banasthali, Rajasthan (India); Khatun, H.; Kumar, N.; Singh, U.; Sinha, A.K. [Gyrotron Lab., Microwave Tube Area, Central Electronics Engineering Research Inst. (CEERI, CSIR), Pilani, Rajasthan (India); Vyas, V. [Banasthali Univ., Dept. of Physics, Banasthali, Rajasthan (India)

    2010-11-15

    A commercially available electromagnetic simulator -- MAGIC, a particle-in-cell (PIC) code -- has been used to carry out a comparative study of the beam-wave interaction under uniform and tapered magnetic field profiles of a 42 GHz, 200kW gyrotron. The magnetic field profile across the resonant cavity varies by ±6.5% with a peak value of 1.615 T. The MAGIC simulation shows the desire performance of the gyrotron under both magnetic field conditions with an operating mode TE{sub 03} and a pitch factor of 1.26. The analysis of the simulated results show that stability in the power growth was reached more quickly and achieved higher output power in the case of a tapered magnetic field. (author)

  11. Experimental platform for investigations of high-intensity laser plasma interactions in the magnetic field of a pulsed power generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V. V.; Maximov, A. V.; Swanson, K. J.; Wong, N. L.; Sarkisov, G. S.; Wiewior, P. P.; Astanovitskiy, A. L.; Covington, A. M.

    2018-03-01

    An experimental platform for the studying of high-intensity laser plasma interactions in strong magnetic fields has been developed based on the 1 MA Zebra pulsed power generator coupled with the 50-TW Leopard laser. The Zebra generator produces 100-300 T longitudinal and transverse magnetic fields with different types of loads. The Leopard laser creates plasma at an intensity of 1019 W/cm2 in the magnetic field of coil loads. Focusing and targeting systems are integrated in the vacuum chamber of the pulsed power generator and protected from the plasma debris and strong mechanical shock. The first experiments with plasma at laser intensity >2 × 1018 W/cm2 demonstrated collimation of the laser produced plasma in the axial magnetic field strength >100 T.

  12. Spin canting in a Dy-based single-chain magnet with dominant next-nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernot, K.; Luzon, J.; Caneschi, A.; Gatteschi, D.; Sessoli, R.; Bogani, L.; Vindigni, A.; Rettori, A.; Pini, M. G.

    2009-04-01

    We investigate theoretically and experimentally the static magnetic properties of single crystals of the molecular-based single-chain magnet of formula [Dy(hfac)3NIT(C6H4OPh)]∞ comprising alternating Dy3+ and organic radicals. The magnetic molar susceptibility χM displays a strong angular variation for sample rotations around two directions perpendicular to the chain axis. A peculiar inversion between maxima and minima in the angular dependence of χM occurs on increasing temperature. Using information regarding the monomeric building block as well as an ab initio estimation of the magnetic anisotropy of the Dy3+ ion, this “anisotropy-inversion” phenomenon can be assigned to weak one-dimensional ferromagnetism along the chain axis. This indicates that antiferromagnetic next-nearest-neighbor interactions between Dy3+ ions dominate, despite the large Dy-Dy separation, over the nearest-neighbor interactions between the radicals and the Dy3+ ions. Measurements of the field dependence of the magnetization, both along and perpendicularly to the chain, and of the angular dependence of χM in a strong magnetic field confirm such an interpretation. Transfer-matrix simulations of the experimental measurements are performed using a classical one-dimensional spin model with antiferromagnetic Heisenberg exchange interaction and noncollinear uniaxial single-ion anisotropies favoring a canted antiferromagnetic spin arrangement, with a net magnetic moment along the chain axis. The fine agreement obtained with experimental data provides estimates of the Hamiltonian parameters, essential for further study of the dynamics of rare-earth-based molecular chains.

  13. Interacting large-scale magnetic fields and ionized gas in the W50/SS433 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnes, J. S.; Gaensler, B. M.; Purcell, C.; Sun, X. H.; Haverkorn, M.; Lenc, E.; O'Sullivan, S. P.; Akahori, T.

    2017-06-01

    The W50/SS433 system is an unusual Galactic outflow-driven object of debatable origin. We have used the Australia Telescope Compact Array to observe a new 198 pointing mosaic, covering 3° × 2°, and present the highest-sensitivity full-Stokes data of W50 to date using wide-field, wide-band imaging over a 2 GHz bandwidth centred at 2.1 GHz. We also present a complementary Hα mosaic created using the Isaac Newton Telescope Photometric Hα Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane. The magnetic structure of W50 is consistent with the prevailing hypothesis that the nebula is a reanimated shell-like supernova remnant (SNR), which has been re-energized by the jets from SS433. We observe strong depolarization effects that correlate with diffuse Hα emission, likely due to spatially varying Faraday rotation measure (RM) fluctuations of ≥48-61 rad m-2 on scales ≤4.5-6 pc. We also report the discovery of numerous, faint, Hα filaments that are unambiguously associated with the central region of W50. These thin filaments are suggestive of an SNR's shock emission, and almost all have a radio counterpart. Furthermore, an RM-gradient is detected across the central region of W50, which we interpret as a loop magnetic field with a symmetry axis offset by ≈90° to the east-west jet-alignment axis, and implying that the evolutionary processes of both the jets and the SNR must be coupled. A separate RM-gradient is associated with the termination shock in the eastern ear, which we interpret as a ring-like field located where the shock of the jet interacts with the circumstellar medium. Future optical observations will be able to use the new Hα filaments to probe the kinematics of the shell of W50, potentially allowing for a definitive experiment on W50's formation history.

  14. 3d-4f magnetic interaction with density functional theory plus u approach: local Coulomb correlation and exchange pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yachao; Yang, Yang; Jiang, Hong

    2013-12-12

    The 3d-4f exchange interaction plays an important role in many lanthanide based molecular magnetic materials such as single-molecule magnets and magnetic refrigerants. In this work, we study the 3d-4f magnetic exchange interactions in a series of Cu(II)-Gd(III) (3d(9)-4f(7)) dinuclear complexes based on the numerical atomic basis-norm-conserving pseudopotential method and density functional theory plus the Hubbard U correction approach (DFT+U). We obtain improved description of the 4f electrons by including the semicore 5s5p states in the valence part of the Gd-pseudopotential. The Hubbard U correction is employed to treat the strongly correlated Cu-3d and Gd-4f electrons, which significantly improve the agreement of the predicted exchange constants, J, with experiment, indicating the importance of accurate description of the local Coulomb correlation. The high efficiency of the DFT+U approach enables us to perform calculations with molecular crystals, which in general improve the agreement between theory and experiment, achieving a mean absolute error smaller than 2 cm(-1). In addition, through analyzing the physical effects of U, we identify two magnetic exchange pathways. One is ferromagnetic and involves an interaction between the Cu-3d, O-2p (bridge ligand), and the majority-spin Gd-5d orbitals. The other one is antiferromagnetic and involves Cu-3d, O-2p, and the empty minority-spin Gd-4f orbitals, which is suppressed by the planar Cu-O-O-Gd structure. This study demonstrates the accuracy of the DFT+U method for evaluating the 3d-4f exchange interactions, provides a better understanding of the exchange mechanism in the Cu(II)-Gd(III) complexes, and paves the way for exploiting the magnetic properties of the 3d-4f compounds containing lanthanides other than Gd.

  15. Exact diagonalization of the interacting propagator for the 2D-electron gas in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, A.; Cabo, A.

    1990-07-01

    The spatial dependence of the exact one electron propagator for an interacting 2D-electron gas in a magnetic field is shown to be the same as for a non-interacting gas. This happens whenever the translational symmetry is unbroken in the ground state. The result may be extended to a more general class of systems. The translational symmetry also implies that the density of states has the same kind of discrete character as in the non-interacting case. This is shown explicitly in the Hartree-Fock approximation by solving the Dyson equation. (author). 10 refs

  16. Hyperfine interaction studies and magnetic properties of FeCoAlN nanocomposite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancok, A.; Zaveta, K.; Kanuch, T.; Miglierini, M.; Lancok, J.; Postava, K.; Kohout, J.; Zivotsky, O.; Fendrych, F.

    2008-01-01

    Nanogranular magnetic films were produced by specially designed UHV plasma-jet system with DC hollow-cathode discharge. We investigated the properties of these ferromagnetic FeCoAlN-based films. The analyses of the samples were additionally complemented by the study of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Moessbauer spectroscopy, magnetic measurements, and X-ray diffraction.

  17. Effect of Magnetostatic Interactions on Twin Boundary Motion in NiMnGa Magnetic Shape Memory Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heczko, Oleg; Vokoun, David; Kopecky, Vit

    2015-01-01

    on the initial position of the twin boundary, the magnetic field providing the critical stress varied in the range 832 kA/m. By taking into account the variants sizes and their mutual interactions, we explained the observed dependence of the switching field on the location of the boundary. The resulting match......We investigated the effect of magnetostatic interactions on the field-induced reorientation of martensite variants in Ni50.0Mn27.5Ga22.5. The reorientation, achieved by sweeping a single Type-II twin boundary along the sample, was triggered by a twinning stress of about 0.1 MPa. However, depending...... between model predictions and measurements illustrates the fundamental role played by demagnetization effects and magnetostatic interactions in magnetic shape memory effect....

  18. Development and manufacturing of a Nb$_{3}$Sn quadrupole magnet Model at CEA/Saclay for TESLA Interaction Region

    CERN Document Server

    Durante, Maria; Fratini, M; Leboeuf, D; Segreti, M; Védrine, Pierre; 10.1109/TASC.2004.829129

    2004-01-01

    One possible application of Nb/sub 3/Sn, whose superconducting properties far exceed those of NbTi, is the fabrication of short and powerful quadrupole magnets for the interaction regions of large particle accelerators. In some projects, as in the future linear collider TESLA, the quadrupole magnets are inside the detector solenoid and must operate in its background field. This situation gives singular Lorentz force distribution in the ends of the magnet. To learn about Nb/sub 3/Sn technology, evaluate fabrication techniques and test the interaction with a solenoidal field, DAPNIA /SACM at CEA/Saclay has started the manufacturing of a 1-m-long, 56- mm-single-aperture quadrupole magnet model. The model relies on the same coil geometry as the LHC arc quadrupole magnets, but has no iron yoke. It will produce a nominal field gradient of 211 T/m at 11,870 A. The coils are wound from Rutherford-type cables insulated with glass fiber tape, before being heat-treated and vacuum-impregnated with epoxy resin. Laminated,...

  19. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    Operation of the magnet has gone quite smoothly during the first half of this year. The magnet has been at 4.5K for the full period since January. There was an unplanned short stop due to the CERN-wide power outage on May 28th, which caused a slow dump of the magnet. Since this occurred just before a planned technical stop of the LHC, during which access in the experimental cavern was authorized, it was decided to leave the magnet OFF until 2nd June, when magnet was ramped up again to 3.8T. The magnet system experienced a fault also resulting in a slow dump on April 14th. This was triggered by a thermostat on a filter choke in the 20kA DC power converter. The threshold of this thermostat is 65°C. However, no variation in the water-cooling flow rate or temperature was observed. Vibration may have been the root cause of the fault. All the thermostats have been checked, together with the cables, connectors and the read out card. The tightening of the inductance fixations has also been checked. More tem...

  20. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      The magnet was energised at the beginning of March 2012 at a low current to check all the MSS safety chains. Then the magnet was ramped up to 3.8 T on 6 March 2012. Unfortunately two days later an unintentional switch OFF of the power converter caused a slow dump. This was due to a misunderstanding of the CCC (CERN Control Centre) concerning the procedure to apply for the CMS converter control according to the beam-mode status at that time. Following this event, the third one since 2009, a discussion was initiated to define possible improvement, not only on software and procedures in the CCC, but also to evaluate the possibility to upgrade the CMS hardware to prevent such discharge from occurring because of incorrect procedure implementations. The magnet operation itself was smooth, and no power cuts took place. As a result, the number of magnetic cycles was reduced to the minimum, with only two full magnetic cycles from 0 T to 3.8 T. Nevertheless the magnet suffered four stops of the cryogeni...

  1. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      Following the unexpected magnet stops last August due to sequences of unfortunate events on the services and cryogenics [see CMS internal report], a few more events and initiatives again disrupted the magnet operation. All the magnet parameters stayed at their nominal values during this period without any fault or alarm on the magnet control and safety systems. The magnet was stopped for the September technical stop to allow interventions in the experimental cavern on the detector services. On 1 October, to prepare the transfer of the liquid nitrogen tank on its new location, several control cables had to be removed. One cable was cut mistakenly, causing a digital input card to switch off, resulting in a cold-box (CB) stop. This tank is used for the pre-cooling of the magnet from room temperature down to 80 K, and for this reason it is controlled through the cryogenics control system. Since the connection of the CB was only allowed for a field below 2 T to avoid the risk of triggering a fast d...

  2. Characterization of elastic interactions in GaAs/Si composites by optically pumped nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Ryan M.; Tokarski, John T.; McCarthy, Lauren A.; Bowers, Clifford R., E-mail: bowers@chem.ufl.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Stanton, Christopher J. [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2016-08-28

    Elastic interactions in GaAs/Si bilayer composite structures were studied by optically pumped nuclear magnetic resonance (OPNMR). The composites were fabricated by epoxy bonding of a single crystal of GaAs to a single crystal of Si at 373 K followed by selective chemical etching of the GaAs at room temperature to obtain a series of samples with GaAs thickness varying from 37 μm to 635 μm, while the Si support thickness remained fixed at 650 μm. Upon cooling to below 10 K, a biaxial tensile stress developed in the GaAs film due to differential thermal contraction. The strain perpendicular to the plane of the bilayer and localized near the surface of the GaAs was deduced from the quadrupolar splitting of the Gallium-71 OPNMR resonance. Strain relaxation by bowing of the composite was observed to an extent that depended on the relative thickness of the GaAs and Si layers. The variation of the strain with GaAs layer thickness was found to be in good agreement with a general analytical model for the elastic relationships in composite media.

  3. Study of $\\overline{p}$-Nucleus Interaction with a High Resolution Magnetic Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment uses the high resolution, large solid angle and large momentum acceptance magnetic spectrometer SPES~II to study the interaction between @* and complex nuclei in the following experiments: \\\\ \\\\ \\item 1)~~~~A(@*, @*)A. Angular distribution of @* elastically scattered from |1|2C, |4|0Ca and |2|0|8Pb. \\item 2)~~~~A(@*, @*')A*. Excitation energy spectra and some angular distributions of @* inelastically scattered from |1|2C, |4|0Ca and |2|0|8Pb up to an excitation energy of &prop.~100~MeV. \\item 3)~~~~A(@*, p)A^z^-^1 (@*). Excitation energy spectra for knock out reaction on |6Li, |1|2C, |6|3Cu and |2|0|9Bi at several angles. \\end{enumerate}\\\\ \\\\ Any beam momentum between 300 MeV/c and 800 MeV/c will be suitable for this experiment. In order to vary the effect of strong absorption of @* by nuclei, elastic and inelastic scattering will be performed at two or three different @* momenta (depending on the way LEAR will be operated) down to 300~MeV/c.

  4. Single NdPc{sub 2} molecules on surfaces. Adsorption, interaction, and molecular magnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahrendorf, Sarah

    2013-01-24

    They have huge potential for application in molecular-spin-transistors, molecular-spinvalves, and molecular quantum computing. SMMs are characterized by high spin ground states with zero-field splitting leading to high relaxation barriers and long relaxation times. A relevant class of molecules are the lanthanide double-decker phthalocyanines (LaPc{sub 2}) with only one metal atom sandwiched between two organic phthalocyanine (Pc) ligands. For envisaged spintronic applications it is important to understand the interaction between the molecules and the substrate and its influence on the electronic and magnetic properties. The subject of this thesis is the investigation of the adsorbed neodymium double-decker phthalocyanine (NdPc{sub 2}) by means of low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM and STS). The molecules are deposited by sublimation onto different substrates. It is observed that a large fraction of the double-decker molecules decomposes during deposition. The decomposition probability strongly depends on the chosen substrate. Therefore it is concluded that the substrate modifies the electronic structure of the molecule leading to a stabilization or destabilization of the molecular entity. Charge transfer from the surface to the molecule is identified as a potential stabilizing mechanism. The electronic and magnetic properties are investigated in detail for adsorbed NdPc{sub 2} molecules on Cu(100). The results of the experimental study are compared to state-of-the-art density functional theory calculations performed by our colleagues from the Peter Gruenberg Institute (PGI-1) at the Forschungszentrum Juelich. Interestingly, the lower Pc ring of the molecule hybridizes intensely with the substrate leading to strong chemisorption of the molecule, while the upper Pc ring keeps its molecular type electronic states, which can be energetically shifted by an external electric field. Importantly, it is possible to get direct access to the

  5. Single NdPc2 molecules on surfaces. Adsorption, interaction, and molecular magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahrendorf, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    They have huge potential for application in molecular-spin-transistors, molecular-spinvalves, and molecular quantum computing. SMMs are characterized by high spin ground states with zero-field splitting leading to high relaxation barriers and long relaxation times. A relevant class of molecules are the lanthanide double-decker phthalocyanines (LaPc 2 ) with only one metal atom sandwiched between two organic phthalocyanine (Pc) ligands. For envisaged spintronic applications it is important to understand the interaction between the molecules and the substrate and its influence on the electronic and magnetic properties. The subject of this thesis is the investigation of the adsorbed neodymium double-decker phthalocyanine (NdPc 2 ) by means of low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM and STS). The molecules are deposited by sublimation onto different substrates. It is observed that a large fraction of the double-decker molecules decomposes during deposition. The decomposition probability strongly depends on the chosen substrate. Therefore it is concluded that the substrate modifies the electronic structure of the molecule leading to a stabilization or destabilization of the molecular entity. Charge transfer from the surface to the molecule is identified as a potential stabilizing mechanism. The electronic and magnetic properties are investigated in detail for adsorbed NdPc 2 molecules on Cu(100). The results of the experimental study are compared to state-of-the-art density functional theory calculations performed by our colleagues from the Peter Gruenberg Institute (PGI-1) at the Forschungszentrum Juelich. Interestingly, the lower Pc ring of the molecule hybridizes intensely with the substrate leading to strong chemisorption of the molecule, while the upper Pc ring keeps its molecular type electronic states, which can be energetically shifted by an external electric field. Importantly, it is possible to get direct access to the spin

  6. Distribution and solar wind control of compressional solar wind-magnetic anomaly interactions observed at the Moon by ARTEMIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halekas, J. S.; Poppe, A. R.; Lue, C.; Farrell, W. M.; McFadden, J. P.

    2017-06-01

    A statistical investigation of 5 years of observations from the two-probe Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) mission reveals that strong compressional interactions occur infrequently at high altitudes near the ecliptic but can form in a wide range of solar wind conditions and can occur up to two lunar radii downstream from the lunar limb. The compressional events, some of which may represent small-scale collisionless shocks ("limb shocks"), occur in both steady and variable interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions, with those forming in steady IMF well organized by the location of lunar remanent crustal magnetization. The events observed by ARTEMIS have similarities to ion foreshock phenomena, and those observed in variable IMF conditions may result from either local lunar interactions or distant terrestrial foreshock interactions. Observed velocity deflections associated with compressional events are always outward from the lunar wake, regardless of location and solar wind conditions. However, events for which the observed velocity deflection is parallel to the upstream motional electric field form in distinctly different solar wind conditions and locations than events with antiparallel deflections. Consideration of the momentum transfer between incoming and reflected solar wind populations helps explain the observed characteristics of the different groups of events.Plain Language SummaryWe survey the environment around the Moon to determine when and where strong amplifications in the charged particle density and magnetic field strength occur. These structures may be some of the smallest shock waves in the solar system, and learning about their formation informs us about the interaction of charged particles with small-scale magnetic fields throughout the solar system and beyond. We find that these compressions occur in an extended region downstream from the lunar dawn and dusk regions and

  7. Interaction of z component of magnetic field between two samples of GO material in the round rotational single sheet tester (RRSST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorican, Viktor; Hamler, Anton; Jesenik, Marko; Stumberger, Bojan; Trlep, Mladen

    2006-01-01

    The magnetic properties of two grain-oriented (GO) samples of the same grade were measured under alternating and rotational magnetic flux conditions. Two samples were measured separately and then together in different arrangement to each other. The interaction of magnetic field between two samples were measured by using a coil, which was placed in between. The results show that the H z component influence measured magnetic properties in the x-y plane

  8. Magnetic properties, domain-wall creep motion, and the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in Pt/Co/Ir thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepley, Philippa M.; Tunnicliffe, Harry; Shahbazi, Kowsar; Burnell, Gavin; Moore, Thomas A.

    2018-04-01

    We study the magnetic properties of perpendicularly magnetized Pt/Co/Ir thin films and investigate the domain-wall creep method of determining the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction in ultrathin films. Measurements of the Co layer thickness dependence of saturation magnetization, perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, and symmetric and antisymmetric (i.e., DM) exchange energies in Pt/Co/Ir thin films have been made to determine the relationship between these properties. We discuss the measurement of the DM interaction by the expansion of a reverse domain in the domain-wall creep regime. We show how the creep parameters behave as a function of in-plane bias field and discuss the effects of domain-wall roughness on the measurement of the DM interaction by domain expansion. Whereas modifications to the creep law with DM field and in-plane bias fields have taken into account changes in the energy barrier scaling parameter α , we find that both α and the velocity scaling parameter v0 change as a function of in-plane bias field.

  9. An Overview on Magnetic Field and Electric Field Interactions with Ice Crystallisation; Application in the Case of Frozen Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush Kumar Jha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ice nucleation is a stochastic process and it is very difficult to be controlled. Freezing technologies and more specifically crystallisation assisted by magnetic, electric and electromagnetic fields have the capability to interact with nucleation. Static magnetic field (SMF may affect matter crystallisation; however, this is still under debate in the literature. Static electric field (SEF has a significant effect on crystallisation; this has been evidenced experimentally and confirmed by the theory. Oscillating magnetic field induces an oscillating electric field and is also expected to interact with water crystallisation. Oscillating electromagnetic fields interact with water, perturb and even disrupt hydrogen bonds, which in turn are thought to increase the degree of supercooling and to generate numerous fine ice crystals. Based on the literature, it seems that the frequency has an influence on the above-mentioned phenomena. This review article summarizes the fundamentals of freezing under magnetic, electric and electromagnetic fields, as well as their applicability and potentials within the food industry.

  10. The Isolation of DNA by Polycharged Magnetic Particles: An Analysis of the Interaction by Zeta Potential and Particle Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Yazan; Xhaxhiu, Kledi; Kopel, Pavel; Hynek, David; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech

    2016-04-20

    Magnetic isolation of biological targets is in major demand in the biotechnology industry today. This study considers the interaction of four surface-modified magnetic micro- and nanoparticles with selected DNA fragments. Different surface modifications of nanomaghemite precursors were investigated: MAN37 (silica-coated), MAN127 (polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated), MAN158 (phosphate-coated), and MAN164 (tripolyphosphate-coated). All particles were positive polycharged agglomerated monodispersed systems. Mean particle sizes were 0.48, 2.97, 2.93, and 3.67 μm for MAN37, MAN127, MAN164, and MAN158, respectively. DNA fragments exhibited negative zeta potential of -0.22 mV under binding conditions (high ionic strength, low pH, and dehydration). A decrease in zeta potential of particles upon exposure to DNA was observed with exception of MAN158 particles. The measured particle size of MAN164 particles increased by nearly twofold upon exposure to DNA. Quantitative PCR isolation of DNA with a high retrieval rate was observed by magnetic particles MAN127 and MAN164. Interaction between polycharged magnetic particles and DNA is mediated by various binding mechanisms such as hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Future development of DNA isolation technology requires an understanding of the physical and biochemical conditions of this process.

  11. Orthodontic brackets in high field MR imaging: experimental evaluation of magnetic field interactions at 3.0 tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemper, J.; Adam, G.; Klocke, A.; Kahl-Nieke, B.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate static magnetic field interactions for 32 commonly used orthodontic brackets in a 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. Materials and methods: 32 orthodontic brackets consisting of a steel alloy (n=27), a cobalt-chromium alloy (n=2), ceramic (n=1), ceramic with a steel slot (n=1), and titanium (n=1) from 13 different manufacturers were tested for magnetic field interactions in a static magnetic field at 3.0 T (Gyroscan Intera 3.0 T, Philips Medical Systems, Best, Netherlands). The magnetic deflection force F Z [mN] was evaluated by determining the deflection angle β[ ] using the established deflection angle test according to the ASTM guidelines. The magnetic-field-induced rotational force F rot or torque was qualitatively determined using a 5-point grading scale (0: no torque; +4: very strong torque). Results: In 18 of the 32 brackets, the deflection angle β was found to be > 45 and the translational force exceeded the gravitational force F G on the particular bracket (F Z : 1.2-45.7 mN). The translational force F Z was found to be up to 68.5 times greater than the gravitational force F G (F Z /F G : 1.4-68.5). The rotational force F rot was correspondingly high (+3/+4) for those brackets. For the remaining 14 objects, the deflection angles were < 45 and the torque measurements ranged from 0 to +2. The static magnetic field did not affect the titanium bracket and the ceramic bracket. No measurable translational and rotational forces were found. (orig.)

  12. Critical behavior of magnetization in URhAl: Quasi-two-dimensional Ising system with long-range interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateiwa, Naoyuki; Pospíšil, Jiří; Haga, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Etsuji

    2018-02-01

    The critical behavior of dc magnetization in the uranium ferromagnet URhAl with the hexagonal ZrNiAl-type crystal structure has been studied around the ferromagnetic transition temperature TC. The critical exponent β for the temperature dependence of the spontaneous magnetization below TC,γ for the magnetic susceptibility, and δ for the magnetic isotherm at TC, have been obtained with a modified Arrott plot, a Kouvel-Fisher plot, the critical isotherm analysis, and the scaling analysis. We have determined the critical exponents as β =0.287 ±0.005 , γ =1.47 ±0.02 , and δ =6.08 ±0.04 by the scaling analysis and the critical isotherm analysis. These critical exponents satisfy the Widom scaling law δ =1 +γ /β . URhAl has strong uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, similar to its isostructural UCoAl that has been regarded as a three-dimensional (3D) Ising system in previous studies. However, the universality class of the critical phenomenon in URhAl does not belong to the 3D Ising model (β =0.325 , γ =1.241 , and δ =4.82 ) with short-range exchange interactions between magnetic moments. The determined exponents can be explained with the results of the renormalization group approach for a two-dimensional (2D) Ising system coupled with long-range interactions decaying as J (r ) ˜r-(d +σ ) with σ =1.44 . We suggest that the strong hybridization between the uranium 5 f and rhodium 4 d electrons in the U-RhI layer in the hexagonal crystal structure is a source of the low-dimensional magnetic property. The present result is contrary to current understandings of the physical properties in a series of isostructural UTX uranium ferromagnets (T: transition metals, X: p -block elements) based on the 3D Ising model.

  13. Observations of electron vortex magnetic holes and related wave-particle interactions in the turbulent magnetosheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S.; Sahraoui, F.; Yuan, Z.; He, J.; Zhao, J.; Du, J.; Le Contel, O.; Wang, X.; Deng, X.; Fu, H.; Zhou, M.; Shi, Q.; Breuillard, H.; Pang, Y.; Yu, X.; Wang, D.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic hole is characterized by a magnetic depression, a density peak, a total electron temperature increase (with a parallel temperature decrease but a perpendicular temperature increase), and strong currents carried by the electrons. The current has a dip in the core region of the magnetic hole and a peak in the outer region of the magnetic hole. There is an enhancement in the perpendicular electron fluxes at 90° pitch angles inside the magnetic hole, implying that the electrons are trapped within it. The variations of the electron velocity components Vem and Ven suggest that an electron vortex is formed by trapping electrons inside the magnetic hole in the circular cross-section. These observations demonstrate the existence of a new type of coherent structures behaving as an electron vortex magnetic hole in turbulent space plasmas as predicted by recent kinetic simulations. We perform a statistically study using high time solution data from the MMS mission. The magnetic holes with short duration (i.e., < 0.5 s) have their cross section smaller than the ion gyro-radius. Superposed epoch analysis of all events reveals that an increase in the electron density and total temperature, significantly increase (resp. decrease) the electron perpendicular (resp. parallel) temperature, and an electron vortex inside the holes. Electron fluxes at 90° pitch angles with selective energies increase in the KSMHs, are trapped inside KSMHs and form the electron vortex due to their collective motion. All these features are consistent with the electron vortex magnetic holes obtained in 2D and 3D particle-in-cell simulations, indicating that the observed the magnetic holes seem to be best explained as electron vortex magnetic holes. It is furthermore shown that the magnetic holes are likely to heat and accelerate the electrons. We also investigate the coupling between whistler waves and electron vortex magnetic holes. These whistler waves can be locally generated inside electron

  14. On parasupersymmetries and relativistic descriptions for spin one particles. Pt. 2. The interacting context with (electro)magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckers, J.; Debergh, N.; Nikitin, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    This second part belongs to a series of two papers devoted to a constructive review of the relativistic wave equations for vector mesons due to the recent impact of spin one developments in connection with parasupersymmetric quantum mechanics. Here, the mesons are interacting with external (electro)magnetic fields but the simplest context of homogeneous constant magnetic fields directed along the z-axis is particularly studied. Discussions on reality of energy eigenvalues, on causal propagation and on gyromagnetic ratios are especially presented. Supersymmetries and parasupersymmetries are analysed with respect to new pseudosupersymmetries suggested by these developments in one particular context. (orig.)

  15. Alternative method for the quantitative determination of Rashba- and Dresselhaus spin–orbit interaction using the magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, M A; Grundler, D

    2013-01-01

    The quantum oscillatory magnetization M of a two-dimensional electron system in a magnetic field B is found to provide quantitative information on both the Rashba- and Dresselhaus spin–orbit interaction (SOI). This is shown by first numerically solving the model Hamiltonian including the linear Rashba- and Dresselhaus SOI and the Zeeman term in particular in a doubly tilted magnetic field and second evaluating the intrinsically anisotropic magnetization for different directions of the in-plane magnetic field component. The amplitude of specific magnetic quantum oscillations in M(B) is found to be a direct measure of the SOI strength at fields B where SOI-induced Landau level anticrossings occur. The anisotropic M allows one to quantify the magnitude of both contributions as well as their relative sign. The influence of cubic Dresselhaus SOI on the results is discussed. We use realistic sample parameters and show that recently reported experimental techniques provide a sensitivity which allows for the detection of the predicted phenomena. (paper)

  16. Magnetic interactions and magnetic anisotropy in exchange coupled 4f-3d systems: a case study of a heterodinuclear Ce3+-Fe3+ cyanide-bridged complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorace, Lorenzo; Sangregorio, Claudio; Figuerola, Albert; Benelli, Cristiano; Gatteschi, Dante

    2009-01-01

    We report here a detailed single-crystal EPR and magnetic study of a homologous series of complexes of the type Ln-M (Ln = La(III), Ce(III); M = Fe(III), Co(III)). We were able to obtain a detailed picture of the low-lying levels of Ce(III) and Fe(III) centres through the combined use of single-crystal EPR and magnetic susceptibility data. We show that classical ligand field theory can be of great help in rationalising the energies of the low-lying levels of both the transition-metal and rare-earth ions. The combined analysis of single-crystal EPR and magnetic data of the coupled system Ce-Fe confirmed the great complexity of the interactions involving rare-earth elements. With little uncertainty, it turned out clearly that the description of the interaction involving the lowest lying spin levels requires the introduction of the isotropic, anisotropic and antisymmetric terms.

  17. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      The magnet and its sub-systems were stopped at the beginning of the winter shutdown on 8th December 2011. The magnet was left without cooling during the cryogenics maintenance until 17th January 2012, when the cryoplant operation resumed. The magnet temperature reached 93 K. The vacuum pumping was maintained during this period. During this shutdown, the yearly maintenance was performed on the cryogenics, the vacuum pumps, the magnet control and safety systems, and the power converter and discharge lines. Several preventive actions led to the replacement of the electrovalve command coils, and the 20A DC power supplies of the magnet control system. The filters were cleaned on the demineralised water circuits. The oil of the diffusion pumps was changed. On the cryogenics, warm nitrogen at 343 K was circulated in the cold box to regenerate the filters and the heat exchangers. The coalescing filters have been replaced at the inlet of both the turbines and the lubricant trapping unit. The active cha...

  18. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2013-01-01

      The magnet was operated without any problem until the end of the LHC run in February 2013, apart from a CERN-wide power glitch on 10 January 2013 that affected the CMS refrigerator, causing a ramp down to 2 T in order to reconnect the coldbox. Another CERN-wide power glitch on 15 January 2013 didn’t affect the magnet subsystems, the cryoplant or the power converter. At the end of the magnet run, the reconnection of the coldbox at 2.5 T was tested. The process will be updated, in particular the parameters of some PID valve controllers. The helium flow of the current leads was reduced but only for a few seconds. The exercise will be repeated with the revised parameters to validate the automatic reconnection process of the coldbox. During LS1, the water-cooling services will be reduced and many interventions are planned on the electrical services. Therefore, the magnet cryogenics and subsystems will be stopped for several months, and the magnet cannot be kept cold. In order to avoid unc...

  19. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    The magnet was successfully operated at the end of the year 2009 despite some technical problems on the cryogenics. The magnet was ramped up to 3.8 T at the end of November until December 16th when the shutdown started. The magnet operation met a few unexpected stops. The field was reduced to 3.5 T for about 5 hours on December 3rd due to a faulty pressure sensor on the helium compressor. The following day the CERN CCC stopped unintentionally the power converters of the LHC and the experiments, triggering a ramp down that was stopped at 2.7 T. The magnet was back at 3.8 T about 6 hours after CCC sent the CERN-wide command. Three days later, a slow dump was triggered due to a stop of the pump feeding the power converter water-cooling circuit, during an intervention on the water-cooling plant done after several disturbances on the electrical distribution network. The magnet was back at 3.8 T in the evening the same day. On December 10th a break occurred in one turbine of the cold box producing the liquid ...

  20. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The CMS magnet has been running steadily and smoothly since the summer, with no detected flaw. The magnet instrumentation is entirely operational and all the parameters are at their nominal values. Three power cuts on the electrical network affected the magnet run in the past five months, with no impact on the data-taking as the accelerator was also affected at the same time. On 22nd June, a thunderstorm caused a power glitch on the service electrical network. The primary water cooling at Point 5 was stopped. Despite a quick restart of the water cooling, the inlet temperature of the demineralised water on the busbar cooling circuit increased by 5 °C, up to 23.3 °C. It was kept below the threshold of 27 °C by switching off other cooling circuits to avoid the trigger of a slow dump of the magnet. The cold box of the cryogenics also stopped. Part of the spare liquid helium volume was used to maintain the cooling of the magnet at 4.5 K. The operators of the cryogenics quickly restarted ...

  1. Theoretical study of the magnetic exchange interaction in catena-μ-Tris[oxalato(2-)-O1,O2;O3,O4]-dicopper complex with interlocked helical chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negodaev, Igor; Queralt, Nuria; Caballol, Rosa; Graaf, Coen de

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: From electronic structure calculations on fragments to the magnetic susceptibility after resolving the magnetic topology. Research highlights: → Estimates of magnetic couplings in an extended structure with Cu bridged by oxalato. → Determination of the magnetic structure based on the calculated magnetic couplings. → Calculation of the magnetic susceptibility curve from the local magnetic couplings. - Abstract: The coupling of the spin moments has been studied in an oxalato-based 3D extended structure with Cu(II) ions as magnetic sites. The ab initio calculations reveal that two of the three different magnetic interaction paths are characterized by a strong coupling, while the third one presents weaker interaction. Based on these calculated values, the magnetic topology of the material is determined as an alternating chain with weak interchain coupling. A theoretical estimate of the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility is derived from the diagonalization of the Heisenberg Hamiltonian for a multi-center magnetic model with boundary conditions. The theoretical procedure can serve as guide in an experimental determination of the magnetic coupling parameters in 3D extended structure with oxalato-bridges as found in the hexagonal layers of the bifunctional materials.

  2. Self-Assembly of Microscale Parts through Magnetic and Capillary Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Dubey

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembly is a promising technique to overcome fundamental limitations with integrating, packaging, and general handling of individual electronic-related components with characteristic lengths significantly smaller than 1 mm. Here we describe the use of magnetic and capillary forces to self-assemble 280 µm sized silicon building blocks into interconnected structures which approach a three-dimensional crystalline configuration. Integrated permanent magnet microstructures provided magnetic forces, while a low-melting-point solder alloy provided capillary forces. A finite element model of forces between the magnetic features demonstrated the utility of magnetic forces at this size scale. Despite a slight departure from designed dimensions in the actual fabricated parts, the combination of magnetic and capillary forces improved the assembly yield to 8%, over approximately 0.1% achieved previously with capillary forces alone.

  3. Enhancement of exchange coupling interaction of NdFeB/MnBi hybrid magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong Xuan; Nguyen, Khanh Van; Nguyen, Vuong Van

    2018-03-01

    MnBi ribbons were fabricated by melt - spinning with subsequent annealing. The MnBi ribbons were ground and mixed with NdFeB commercial Magnequench powders (MQA). The hybrid powder mixtures were subjected thrice to the annealing and ball-milling route. The hybrid magnets (100 - x)NdFeB/xMnBi, x=0, 30, 40, 50 and 100 wt% were in-mold aligned in an 18 kOe magnetic field and warm compacted at 290 °C by 2000 psi uniaxial pressure for 10 min. An enhancement of the exchange coupling of NdFeB/MnBi hybrid magnets was obtained by optimizing the magnets' microstructures via annealing and ball-milling processes. The magnetic properties of prepared NdFeB/MnBi hybrid magnets were studied and discussed in details.

  4. Effects of 3d-4f magnetic exchange interactions on the dynamics of the magnetization of Dy(III)-M(II)-Dy(III) trinuclear clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointillart, Fabrice; Bernot, Kevin; Sessoli, Roberta; Gatteschi, Dante

    2007-01-01

    [{Dy(hfac)(3)}(2){Fe(bpca)(2)}] x CHCl(3) ([Dy(2)Fe]) and [{Dy(hfac)(3)}(2){Ni(bpca)(2)}]CHCl(3) ([Dy(2)Ni]) (in which hfac(-)=1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoroacetylacetonate and bpca(-)=bis(2-pyridylcarbonyl)amine anion) were synthesized and characterized. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction shows that [Dy(2)Fe] and [Dy(2)Ni] are linear trinuclear complexes. Static magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal a weak ferromagnetic exchange interaction between Ni(II) and Dy(III) ions in [Dy(2)Ni], whereas the use of the diamagnetic Fe(II) ion leads to the absence of magnetic exchange interaction in [Dy(2)Fe]. Dynamic susceptibility measurements show a thermally activated behavior with the energy barrier of 9.7 and 4.9 K for the [Dy(2)Fe] and [Dy(2)Ni] complexes, respectively. A surprising negative effect of the ferromagnetic exchange interaction has been found and has been attributed to the structural conformation of these trinuclear complexes.

  5. Local moments, exchange interactions, and magnetic order in Mn-doped LaFe2Si2 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turek, I.; Divis, M.; Niznansky, D.; Vejpravova, J.

    2007-01-01

    Formation of local magnetic moments in the intermetallic compound LaFe 2 Si 2 due to doping by a few at% of Mn has been investigated by theoretical and experimental tools. While a number of low-temperature experiments prove appearance of non-zero magnetic moments due to the Mn doping, the measured 57 Fe Moessbauer spectra rule out sizable local moments of Fe atoms. This conclusion is in agreement with results of first-principles electronic structure calculations that yield non-vanishing moments only on Mn atoms. The calculated Mn-Mn exchange interactions are of both signs which indicate a magnetically frustrated ground state, probably with a spin-glass-like arrangement of the Mn moments

  6. Hyperfine-Interaction-Driven Suppression of Quantum Tunneling at Zero Field in a Holmium(III) Single-Ion Magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Cong; Liu, Jun-Liang; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Liu, Dan; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Tong, Ming-Liang

    2017-04-24

    An extremely rare non-Kramers holmium(III) single-ion magnet (SIM) is reported to be stabilized in the pentagonal-bipyramidal geometry by a phosphine oxide with a high energy barrier of 237(4) cm -1 . The suppression of the quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) at zero field and the hyperfine structures originating from field-induced QTMs can be observed even from the field-dependent alternating-current magnetic susceptibility in addition to single-crystal hysteresis loops. These dramatic dynamics were attributed to the combination of the favorable crystal-field environment and the hyperfine interactions arising from 165 Ho (I=7/2) with a natural abundance of 100 %. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Field measurement of a Fermilab-built full scale prototype quadrupole magnet for the LHC interaction regions

    CERN Document Server

    Bossert, R; Di Marco, J; Fehér, S; Glass, H; Kerby, J S; Lamm, M J; Nobrega, A; Nicol, T H; Ogitsu, T; Orris, D; Page, T; Rabehl, Roger Jon; Sabbi, G L; Schlabach, P; Strait, J B; Sylvester, C D; Tartaglia, M; Tompkins, J C; Velev, G V; Zlobin, A V

    2002-01-01

    Superconducting low-beta quadrupole magnets for the interaction regions of the Large Hadron Collider have been developed by the US- LHC Accelerator Project. These 70 mm bore 5.5 m long quadrupoles are intended to operate in superfluid helium at 1.9 K with a nominal field gradient of 215 T/m. Following a series of 2 m long models, a full scale cryostated cold mass has been fabricated and cold tested at Fermilab. Magnetic field measurements of the prototype, including determination of the field axis using a single stretched wire, have been performed. These measurements and comparisons with results from the model magnets as well as field quality and alignment requirements are reported in this paper. (8 refs).

  8. Hyperfine-interaction-driven suppression of quantum tunneling at zero field in a holmium(III) single-ion magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yan-Cong; Liu, Jun-Liang; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Tong, Ming-Liang [Key Lab. of Bioinorganic and Synthetic Chemistry of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Guangzhou (China); Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang [Institut Neel, CNRS and Universite Joseph Fournier, Grenoble (France); Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Liu, Dan; Chibotaru, Liviu F. [Theory of Nanomaterials Group and INPAC-Institute of Nanoscale Physics and Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium)

    2017-04-24

    An extremely rare non-Kramers holmium(III) single-ion magnet (SIM) is reported to be stabilized in the pentagonal-bipyramidal geometry by a phosphine oxide with a high energy barrier of 237(4) cm{sup -1}. The suppression of the quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) at zero field and the hyperfine structures originating from field-induced QTMs can be observed even from the field-dependent alternating-current magnetic susceptibility in addition to single-crystal hysteresis loops. These dramatic dynamics were attributed to the combination of the favorable crystal-field environment and the hyperfine interactions arising from {sup 165}Ho (I=7/2) with a natural abundance of 100 %. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Selection of Amino Acid Chirality via Neutrino Interactions with 14N in Crossed Electric and Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Richard N.; Kajino, Toshitaka; Onaka, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Previous work has suggested that the chirality of the amino acids could be established in the magnetic field of a nascent neutron star from a core-collapse supernova or massive collapsar. The magnetic field would orient the 14N nuclei, and the alignment of its nuclear spin with respect to those of the electron antineutrinos emitted from the collapsing star would determine the probability of destruction of the 14N nuclei by interactions with the antineutrinos. Subsequent work estimated the bulk polarization of the 14N nuclei in large rotating meteoroids in such an environment. The present work adds a crucial piece of this model by describing the details by which the selective 14N nuclear destruction would produce molecular chiral selectivity. The effects of the neutrino-induced interactions on the 14N nuclei bound in amino acids polarized in strong magnetic fields are studied. It is shown that electric fields in the reference frame of the nuclei modify the magnetic field at the nucleus, creating nuclear magnetizations that are asymmetric in chirality. The antineutrino cross sections depend on this magnetization, creating a selective destructive effect. The environmental conditions and sites in which such a selection mechanism could occur are discussed. Selective destruction of D-enantiomers results in enantiomeric excesses which may be sufficient to drive subsequent autocatalysis necessary to produce the few-percent enantiomeric excesses found in meteorites and subsequent homochirality. Molecular quantum chemical calculations were performed for alanine, and the chirality-dependent effects studied were included. A preference for left-handed molecules was found, and enantiomeric excesses as high as 0.02% were estimated for molecules in the electromagnetic conditions expected from a core-collapse supernova. Key Words: Amino acids—Supernovae—Antineutrinos—Enantiomeric excess—Chirality. Astrobiology 18, 190–206. PMID:29160728

  10. Performance analysis of algorithms for retrieval of magnetic resonance images for interactive teleradiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, M. Stella; Hwang, Robert; Tang, Simon

    2001-05-01

    We have implemented a prototype system consisting of a Java- based image viewer and a web server extension component for transmitting Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) to an image viewer, to test the performance of different image retrieval techniques. We used full-resolution images, and images compressed/decompressed using the Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT) image compression algorithm. We examined the SPIHT decompression algorithm using both non- progressive and progressive transmission, focusing on the running times of the algorithm, client memory usage and garbage collection. We also compared the Java implementation with a native C++ implementation of the non- progressive SPIHT decompression variant. Our performance measurements showed that for uncompressed image retrieval using a 10Mbps Ethernet, a film of 16 MR images can be retrieved and displayed almost within interactive times. The native C++ code implementation of the client-side decoder is twice as fast as the Java decoder. If the network bandwidth is low, the high communication time for retrieving uncompressed images may be reduced by use of SPIHT-compressed images, although the image quality is then degraded. To provide diagnostic quality images, we also investigated the retrieval of up to 3 images on a MR film at full-resolution, using progressive SPIHT decompression. The Java-based implementation of progressive decompression performed badly, mainly due to the memory requirements for maintaining the image states, and the high cost of execution of the Java garbage collector. Hence, in systems where the bandwidth is high, such as found in a hospital intranet, SPIHT image compression does not provide advantages for image retrieval performance.

  11. Magnetic relaxation phenomena and inter-particle interactions in nanosized gamma-Fe sub 2 O sub 3 systems

    CERN Document Server

    Predoi, D; Tronc, E; Nogues, M; Russo, U; Principi, G; Filoti, G

    2003-01-01

    Samples of gamma-Fe sub 2 O sub 3 nano-particles with a mean size of 4.0(3) nm and with different hydration and surfactant degrees were prepared by sol-gel methods. Morphology and structural data were obtained by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction, whereas the surface effects and hyperfine interactions were analysed mainly by Moessbauer spectroscopy. The relative number of surface iron positions was found to be proportional to the amount of OH sup - and SO sub 4 sup 2 sup - groups on the particle surface, which in turn is strictly dependent on the preparation conditions. Strong relaxation processes versus temperature were evidenced in the analysed systems. New criteria for the evaluation of the blocking temperature via Moessbauer measurements are proposed. The results are in good agreement with blocking temperatures obtained by magnetic measurements. Moreover, it was shown that the inter-particle magnetic interactions decrease with the number of iron surface states.

  12. Using X-ray spectroheliograph technique for investigations of laser-produced plasma under interaction with strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faenov, A.; Dyakin, V.; Magunov, A.; Pikuz, T.; Skobelev, I.; Pikuz, S.; Pisarczyk, T.; Wolowski, J.; Zielinska, E.

    1996-01-01

    A dense jet of a plasma consisting of multiply charged ions was generated in the interaction of a laser plasma with a strong external axial magnetic field. It is shown that using the high-luminosity X-ray spectroheliograph technique allows to measure plasma emission spectra with 2-dimensional spatial resolution even in the cases when these spectra have small intensities. The X-ray spectroscopy and interferometry methods are used to measure plasma parameter distributions. The dependencies of N e (z) and T e (z) measured in this paper can be used to calculate the evolution of plasma ionization state during plasma expansion. The quasihomogeneous laser jet, which appears when a laser plasma interacts with an external magnetic field can be used not only to form an active medium of a short wavelength laser, but probably also to tackle the urgent problem of transport in a laser ion injector. (orig.)

  13. Using X-ray spectroheliograph technique for investigations of laser-produced plasma under interaction with strong magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faenov, A. [MISDC of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Dyakin, V. [MISDC of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Magunov, A. [MISDC of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Pikuz, T. [MISDC of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Skobelev, I. [MISDC of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Pikuz, S. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Moscow (Russian Federation). Fizicheskij Inst.; Kasperczyk, A. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Pisarczyk, T. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Wolowski, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Zielinska, E. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland)

    1996-08-01

    A dense jet of a plasma consisting of multiply charged ions was generated in the interaction of a laser plasma with a strong external axial magnetic field. It is shown that using the high-luminosity X-ray spectroheliograph technique allows to measure plasma emission spectra with 2-dimensional spatial resolution even in the cases when these spectra have small intensities. The X-ray spectroscopy and interferometry methods are used to measure plasma parameter distributions. The dependencies of N{sub e}(z) and T{sub e}(z) measured in this paper can be used to calculate the evolution of plasma ionization state during plasma expansion. The quasihomogeneous laser jet, which appears when a laser plasma interacts with an external magnetic field can be used not only to form an active medium of a short wavelength laser, but probably also to tackle the urgent problem of transport in a laser ion injector. (orig.).

  14. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The magnet ran smoothly in the last few months until a fast dump occurred on 9th May 2011. Fortunately, this occurred in the afternoon of the first day of the technical stop. The fast dump was due to a valve position controller that caused the sudden closure of a valve. This valve is used to regulate the helium flow on one of the two current leads, which electrically connects the coil at 4.5 K to the busbars at room temperature. With no helium flow on the lead, the voltage drop and the temperatures across the leads increase up to the defined thresholds, triggering a fast dump through the Magnet Safety System (MSS). The automatic reaction triggered by the MSS worked properly. The helium release was limited as the pressure rise was just at the limit of the safety valve opening pressure. The average temperature of the magnet reached 72 K. It took four days to recover the temperature and refill the helium volumes. The faulty valve controller was replaced by a spare one before the magnet ramp-up resumed....

  15. On the Pressure of a Neutron Gas Interacting with the Non-Uniform Magnetic Field of a Neutron Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skobelev, V. V.

    2018-04-01

    On the basis of simple arguments, practically not going beyond the scope of an undergraduate course in general physics, we estimate the additional pressure (at zero temperature) of degenerate neutron matter due to its interaction with the non-uniform magnetic field of a neutron star. This work has methodological and possibly scientific value as an intuitive application of the content of such a course to a solution of topical problems of astrophysics.

  16. Magnetic anisotropy energy and effective exchange interactions in Co intercalated graphene on Ir(111)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shick, Alexander; Hong, S.C.; Máca, František; Lichtenstein, A.I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 47 (2014), "476003-1"-"476003-6" ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/10/0330; GA ČR GB14-37427G Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetic anisotropy * Co monolayer * graphene Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.346, year: 2014

  17. Magnetic susceptibility of Dirac fermions, Bi-Sb alloys, interacting Bloch fermions, dilute nonmagnetic alloys, and Kondo alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buot, Felix A., E-mail: fbuot@gmu.edu [Computational Materials Science Center, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); TCSE Center, Spintronics Group, Physics Department, University of San Carlos, Talamban, Cebu 6000 (Philippines); C& LB Research Institute, Carmen, Cebu 6005 (Philippines); Otadoy, Roland E.S.; Rivero, Karla B. [TCSE Center, Spintronics Group, Physics Department, University of San Carlos, Talamban, Cebu 6000 (Philippines)

    2017-03-01

    Wide ranging interest in Dirac Hamiltonian is due to the emergence of novel materials, namely, graphene, topological insulators and superconductors, the newly-discovered Weyl semimetals, and still actively-sought after Majorana fermions in real materials. We give a brief review of the relativistic Dirac quantum mechanics and its impact in the developments of modern physics. The quantum band dynamics of Dirac Hamiltonian is crucial in resolving the giant diamagnetism of bismuth and Bi-Sb alloys. Quantitative agreement of the theory with the experiments on Bi-Sb alloys has been achieved, and physically meaningful contributions to the diamagnetism has been identified. We also treat relativistic Dirac fermion as an interband dynamics in uniform magnetic fields. For the interacting Bloch electrons, the role of translation symmetry for calculating the magnetic susceptibility avoids any approximation to second order in the field. The expressions for magnetic susceptibility of dilute nonmagnetic alloys give a firm theoretical foundation of the empirical formulas used in fitting experimental results. The unified treatment of all the above calculations is based on the lattice Weyl-Wigner formulation of discrete phase-space quantum mechanics. For completeness, the magnetic susceptibility of Kondo alloys is also given since Dirac fermions in conduction band and magnetic impurities exhibit Kondo effect.

  18. Spontaneous nucleation and topological stabilization of skyrmions in magnetic nanodisks with the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, A. G.; Samardak, A. S.; Stebliy, M. E.; Ognev, A. V.; Chebotkevich, L. A.; Sadovnikov, A. V.; Nikitov, S. A.; Kim, Yong Jin; Cha, In Ho; Kim, Young Keun

    2017-05-01

    One of the major societal challenges is reducing the power consumption of information technology (IT) devices and numerous data centers. Distinct from the current approaches based on switching of magnetic single-domain nanostructures or on movement of domain walls under high currents, an original magnetic skyrmion technology offers ultra-low power, fast, high-density, and scalable spintronic devices, including non-volatile random access memory. Using data-driven micromagnetic simulations, we demonstrate the possibility of spontaneous nucleation and stabilization of different skyrmionic states, such as skyrmions, merons, and meron-like configurations, in heavy metal/ferromagnetic nanodisks with the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (iDMI) as a result of quasi-static magnetization reversal only. Since iDMI is not easily modulated in real systems, we show that skyrmion stabilization is easily achievable by manipulating magnetic anisotropy, saturation magnetization, and the diameters of nanodisks. The state diagrams, presented in terms of the topological charge, allow to explicitly distinguish the intermediate states between skyrmions and merons and can be used for developing a skyrmionic medium, which has been recently proposed to be a building block for future spin-orbitronic devices.

  19. Spontaneous nucleation and topological stabilization of skyrmions in magnetic nanodisks with the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolesnikov, A.G. [Laboratory of Thin Film Technologies, School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok 690950 (Russian Federation); Samardak, A.S., E-mail: samardak.as@dvfu.ru [Laboratory of Thin Film Technologies, School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok 690950 (Russian Federation); Stebliy, M.E.; Ognev, A.V.; Chebotkevich, L.A. [Laboratory of Thin Film Technologies, School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok 690950 (Russian Federation); Sadovnikov, A.V.; Nikitov, S.A. [Laboratory “Metamaterials,” Saratov State University, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation); Kotel' nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation); Kim, Yong Jin; Cha, In Ho [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02841 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Keun, E-mail: ykim97@korea.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02841 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-01

    One of the major societal challenges is reducing the power consumption of information technology (IT) devices and numerous data centers. Distinct from the current approaches based on switching of magnetic single-domain nanostructures or on movement of domain walls under high currents, an original magnetic skyrmion technology offers ultra-low power, fast, high-density, and scalable spintronic devices, including non-volatile random access memory. Using data-driven micromagnetic simulations, we demonstrate the possibility of spontaneous nucleation and stabilization of different skyrmionic states, such as skyrmions, merons, and meron-like configurations, in heavy metal/ferromagnetic nanodisks with the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction (iDMI) as a result of quasi-static magnetization reversal only. Since iDMI is not easily modulated in real systems, we show that skyrmion stabilization is easily achievable by manipulating magnetic anisotropy, saturation magnetization, and the diameters of nanodisks. The state diagrams, presented in terms of the topological charge, allow to explicitly distinguish the intermediate states between skyrmions and merons and can be used for developing a skyrmionic medium, which has been recently proposed to be a building block for future spin-orbitronic devices.

  20. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    The magnet worked very well at 3.8 T as expected, despite a technical issue that manifested twice in the cryogenics since June. All the other magnet sub-systems worked without flaw. The issue in the cryogenics was with the cold box: it could be observed that the cold box was getting progressively blocked, due to some residual humidity and air accumulating in the first thermal exchanger and in the adsorber at 65 K. This was later confirmed by the analysis during the regeneration phases. An increase in the temperature difference between the helium inlet and outlet across the heat exchanger and a pressure drop increase on the filter of the adsorber were observed. The consequence was a reduction of the helium flow, first compensated by the automatic opening of the regulation valves. But once they were fully opened, the flow and refrigeration power reduced as a consequence. In such a situation, the liquid helium level in the helium Dewar decreased, eventually causing a ramp down of the magnet current and a field...

  1. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    MAGNET During the winter shutdown, the magnet subsystems went through a full maintenance. The magnet was successfully warmed up to room temperature beginning of December 2008. The vacuum was broken later on by injecting nitrogen at a pressure just above one atmosphere inside the vacuum tank. This was necessary both to prevent any accidental humidity ingress, and to allow for a modification of the vacuum gauges on the vacuum tank and maintenance of the diffusion pumps. The vacuum gauges had to be changed, because of erratic variations on the measurements, causing spurious alarms. The new type of vacuum gauges has been used in similar conditions on the other LHC experiments and without problems. They are shielded against the stray field. The lubricants of the primary and diffusion pumps have been changed. Several minor modifications were also carried out on the equipment in the service cavern, with the aim to ease the maintenance and to allow possible intervention during operation. Spare sensors have been bough...

  2. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé.

    The magnet operation restarted end of June this year. Quick routine checks of the magnet sub-systems were performed at low current before starting the ramps up to higher field. It appeared clearly that the end of the field ramp down to zero was too long to be compatible with the detector commissioning and operations plans. It was decided to perform an upgrade to keep the ramp down from 3.8T to zero within 4 hours. On July 10th, when a field of 1.5T was reached, small movements were observed in the forward region support table and it was decided to fix this problem before going to higher field. At the end of July the ramps could be resumed. On July 28th, the field was at 3.8T and the summer CRAFT exercise could start. This run in August went smoothly until a general CERN wide power cut took place on August 3rd, due to an insulation fault on the high voltage network outside point 5. It affected the magnet powering electrical circuit, as it caused the opening of the main circuit breakers, resulting in a fast du...

  3. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2013-01-01

    The magnet is fully stopped and at room temperature. The maintenance works and consolidation activities on the magnet sub-systems are progressing. To consolidate the cryogenic installation, two redundant helium compressors will be installed as ‘hot spares’, to avoid the risk of a magnet downtime in case of a major failure of a compressor unit during operation. The screw compressors, their motors, the mechanical couplings and the concrete blocks are already available and stored at P5. The metallic structure used to access the existing compressors in SH5 will be modified to allow the installation of the two redundant ones. The plan is to finish the installation and commissioning of the hot spare compressors before the summer 2014. In the meantime, a bypass on the high-pressure helium piping will be installed for the connection of a helium drier unit later during the Long Shutdown 1, keeping this installation out of the schedule critical path. A proposal is now being prepared for the con...

  4. Exchange interaction of strongly anisotropic tripodal erbium single-ion magnets with metallic surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreiser, Jan; Wäckerlin, Christian; Ali, Md. Ehesan

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of Er(trensal) single-ion magnets deposited in ultrahigh vacuum onto metallic surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the molecular structure is preserved after sublimation, and that the molecules are physisorbed on Au(111) while they are chemisorbed...... on a Ni thin film on Cu(100) single-crystalline surfaces. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements performed on Au(111) samples covered with molecular monolayers held at temperatures down to 4 K suggest that the easy axes of the strongly anisotropic molecules are randomly oriented...... pathways toward optical addressing of surface-deposited single-ion magnets....

  5. Electromagnetic interactions between the U-25 superconducting magnet and the U-25 B MHD flow train

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.P.; Niemann, R.C.; Kraimer, M.R.; Zinneman, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    Fluctuating voltage signals on the potential taps of the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) 5.0 Tesla MHD Superconducting Dipole Magnet have been observed during MHD power generation at the U-25 B Facility at the High Temperature Institute (IVAN), Moscow, U.S.S.R. The voltage fluctuations are analyzed with special emphasis on magnet stability. Various other thermodynamic and electrical parameters of the U-25 B flow train have been recorded and statistical correlations between these signals and the signals observed at the magnet terminals are described

  6. IRIS Observations of Magnetic Interactions in the Solar Atmosphere between Preexisting and Emerging Magnetic Fields. I. Overall Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmino, Salvo L.; Zuccarello, Francesca; Young, Peter R.; Murabito, Mariarita; Romano, Paolo

    2018-04-01

    We report multiwavelength ultraviolet observations taken with the IRIS satellite, concerning the emergence phase in the upper chromosphere and transition region of an emerging flux region (EFR) embedded in the preexisting field of active region NOAA 12529 in the Sun. IRIS data are complemented by full-disk observations of the Solar Dynamics Observatory satellite, relevant to the photosphere and the corona. The photospheric configuration of the EFR is also analyzed by measurements taken with the spectropolarimeter on board the Hinode satellite, when the EFR was fully developed. Recurrent intense brightenings that resemble UV bursts, with counterparts in all coronal passbands, are identified at the edges of the EFR. Jet activity is also observed at chromospheric and coronal levels, near the observed brightenings. The analysis of the IRIS line profiles reveals the heating of dense plasma in the low solar atmosphere and the driving of bidirectional high-velocity flows with speed up to 100 km s‑1 at the same locations. Compared with previous observations and numerical models, these signatures suggest evidence of several long-lasting, small-scale magnetic reconnection episodes between the emerging bipole and the ambient field. This process leads to the cancellation of a preexisting photospheric flux concentration and appears to occur higher in the atmosphere than usually found in UV bursts, explaining the observed coronal counterparts.

  7. Relativistic effects in the intermolecular interaction-induced nuclear magnetic resonance parameters of xenon dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanni, Matti; Lantto, Perttu; Ilias, Miroslav; Jensen, Hans Jorgen Aagaard; Vaara, Juha

    2007-10-28

    Relativistic effects on the (129)Xe nuclear magnetic resonance shielding and (131)Xe nuclear quadrupole coupling (NQC) tensors are examined in the weakly bound Xe(2) system at different levels of theory including the relativistic four-component Dirac-Hartree-Fock (DHF) method. The intermolecular interaction-induced binary chemical shift delta, the anisotropy of the shielding tensor Deltasigma, and the NQC constant along the internuclear axis chi( parallel) are calculated as a function of the internuclear distance. DHF shielding calculations are carried out using gauge-including atomic orbitals. For comparison, the full leading-order one-electron Breit-Pauli perturbation theory (BPPT) is applied using a common gauge origin. Electron correlation effects are studied at the nonrelativistic (NR) coupled-cluster singles and doubles with perturbational triples [CCSD(T)] level of theory. The fully relativistic second-order Moller-Plesset many-body perturbation (DMP2) theory is used to examine the cross coupling between correlation and relativity on NQC. The same is investigated for delta and Deltasigma by BPPT with a density functional theory model. A semiquantitative agreement between the BPPT and DHF binary property curves is obtained for delta and Deltasigma in Xe(2). For these properties, the currently most complete theoretical description is obtained by a piecewise approximation where the uncorrelated relativistic DHF results obtained close to the basis-set limit are corrected, on the one hand, for NR correlation effects and, on the other hand, for the BPPT-based cross coupling of relativity and correlation. For chi( parallel), the fully relativistic DMP2 results obtain a correction for NR correlation effects beyond MP2. The computed temperature dependence of the second virial coefficient of the (129)Xe nuclear shielding is compared to experiment in Xe gas. Our best results, obtained with the piecewise approximation for the binary chemical shift combined with the

  8. Interaction quench dynamics in the Kondo model in the presence of a local magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyl, M; Kehrein, S

    2010-09-01

    In this work we investigate the quench dynamics in the Kondo model on the Toulouse line in the presence of a local magnetic field. It is shown that this setup can be realized by either applying the local magnetic field directly or by preparing the system in a macroscopically spin-polarized initial state. In the latter case, the magnetic field results from a subtlety in applying the bosonization technique where terms that are usually referred to as finite-size corrections become important in the present non-equilibrium setting. The transient dynamics are studied by analyzing exact analytical results for the local spin dynamics. The timescale for the relaxation of the local dynamical quantities turns out to be exclusively determined by the Kondo scale. In the transient regime, one observes damped oscillations in the local correlation functions with a frequency set by the magnetic field.

  9. Oxygen-enabled control of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction in ultra-thin magnetic films

    KAUST Repository

    Belabbes, Abderrezak; Bihlmayer, Gustav; Blü gel, Stefan; Manchon, Aurelien

    2016-01-01

    ferromagnets, resulting in spin spirals and nanoskyrmion lattices. Here, using relativistic first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that the magnitude and sign of DMI can be entirely controlled by tuning the oxygen coverage of the magnetic film, therefore

  10. Interaction of tricyclic drugs with copper phthalocyanine dye immobilized on magnetic carriers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafaříková, Miroslava; Šafařík, Ivo

    3(Suppl.2), - (2002), s. 188-191 ISSN 1473-2262. [International Conference on the Scientific and Clinical Applications of Magnetic Carriers /4./. Tallahassee, 09.05.2002-11.05.2002] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 523.80; GA AV ČR IBS6087204 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : magnetic * tricyclic drugs * phthalocyanine Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  11. Exchange interactions and magnetic properties of hexagonal rare-earth-cobalt compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burzo, E.

    2018-03-01

    The magnetic properties of some GdxY1-xCo4A compounds with A = Co, Si or B are analysed including the pressure effects. Isomorphous structure transitions, parallelly with changes of cobalt moments from high spin states to low spin states, were shown as pressure increases. The magnetic data, obtained from band structures, were compared with those predicted by the mean field model.

  12. Numerical analysis of plasma-wall interaction for an oblique magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chodura, R.

    1982-01-01

    A numerical code is used to calculate energy and incidence angle of plasma ions and electrons impinging on an absorbing wall. Plasma particles coming from a plasma of given density and temperature traverse a transition layer with an electric space charge field perpendicular to the wall and a given magnetic field of arbitrary angle before being adsorbed in the wall. The 1d electrostatic particle code determines the electric field and the change of particle velocity distributions in the transition layer. When the incidence angle psi of the magnetic field is varied from 0 0 (normal) to 90 0 (tangential), the impact energies W of ions and electrons at the wall stay nearly unchanged. Electrons reach the wall according to an isotropic Maxwellian distribution except for large angles psi where only electrons travelling along the magnetic field have a chance to escape the plasma. Ions hit the wall at increasing angles theta for increasing psi. The incidence angle of cold ions (Tsub(i0) = 0) is always steeper than that of the magnetic field. For nearly grazing incidence angle of the magnetic field psi →90 0 the ion incidence angle theta becomes grazing as well. After the distribution function is determined the sputtering yield of wall incident ions is calculated for different magnetic field angles psi showing maximum yield for psi near to 90 0 . (orig.)

  13. Defect mediated magnetic interaction and high Tc ferromagnetism in Co doped ZnO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Bappaditya; Giri, P K

    2011-10-01

    Structural, optical and magnetic studies have been carried out for the Co-doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). ZnO NPs are doped with 3% and 5% Co using ball milling and ferromagnetism (FM) is studied at room temperature and above. A high Curie temperature (Tc) has been observed from the Co doped ZnO NPs. X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis confirm the absence of metallic Co clusters or any other phase different from würtzite-type ZnO. UV-visible absorption and photoluminescence studies on the doped samples show change in band structure and oxygen vacancy defects, respectively. Micro-Raman studies of doped samples shows defect related additional strong bands at 547 and 574 cm(-1) confirming the presence of oxygen vacancy defects in ZnO lattice. The field dependence of magnetization (M-H curve) measured at room temperature exhibits the clear M-H loop with saturation magnetization and coercive field of the order of 4-6 emu/g and 260 G, respectively. Temperature dependence of magnetization measurement shows sharp ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition with a high Tc = 791 K for 3% Co doped ZnO NPs. Ferromagnetic ordering is interpreted in terms of overlapping of polarons mediated through oxygen vacancy defects based on the bound magnetic polaron (BMP) model. We show that the observed FM data fits well with the BMP model involving localised carriers and magnetic cations.

  14. Magnetic chirality induced from Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction at an interface of a ferromagnet/heavy metal heterostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Taira; Matsuura, Hiroyasu; Ogata, Masao

    2016-01-01

    We study a microscopic derivation and the properties of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) between local magnetic moments in ferromagnet/heavy metal heterostructures. First, we derive DMI by Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction through electrons in a heavy metal with Rashba spin orbit interaction (SOI). Next, we study the dependences of the DMI on the Rashba SOI, lattice constant, and chemical potential. We find that the DMI amplitude increases linearly when the Rashba SOI is small, has a maximum when the Rashba SOI is comparable to the hopping integral, and decreases when the Rashba SOI is large. The sign of the DMI not only changes depending on the sign of the Rashba SOI but also the lattice constants and the chemical potential of the heavy metal. The implications of the obtained results for experiments are discussed. (author)

  15. Zero-Magnetic-Field Spin Splitting of Polaron's Ground State Energy Induced by Rashba Spin-Orbit Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jia; Xiao Jingling

    2006-01-01

    We study theoretically the ground state energy of a polaron near the interface of a polar-polar semiconductor by considering the Rashba spin-orbit (SO) coupling with the Lee-Low-Pines intermediate coupling method. Our numerical results show that the Rashba SO interaction originating from the inversion asymmetry in the heterostructure splits the ground state energy of the polaron. The electron areal density and vector dependence of the ratio of the SO interaction to the total ground state energy or other energy composition are obvious. One can see that even without any external magnetic field, the ground state energy can be split by the Rashba SO interaction, and this split is not a single but a complex one. Since the presents of the phonons, whose energy gives negative contribution to the polaron's, the spin-splitting states of the polaron are more stable than electron's.

  16. Mechanism for the generation of 109 G magnetic fields in the interaction of ultraintense short laser pulse with an overdense plasma target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudan, R.N.

    1993-01-01

    The physical mechanism for the generation of very high ''dc'' magnetic fields in the interaction of ultraintense short laser pulse with an overdense plasma target originates in the spatial gradients and nonstationary character of the ponderomotive force. A set of model equations to determine the evolution of the ''dc'' fields is derived and it is shown that the ''dc'' magnetic field is of the same order of magnitude as the high frequency laser magnetic field

  17. Spin manipulation and spin-lattice interaction in magnetic colloidal quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Moro, F.; Turyanska, L.; Granwehr, J.; Patane, A.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the spin-lattice interaction and coherent manipulation of electron spins in Mn-doped colloidal PbS quantum dots (QDs) by electron spin resonance. We show that the phase memory time,TM, is limited by Mn-Mn dipolar interactions, hyperfine interactions of the protons (H1) on the QD capping ligands with Mn ions in their proximity (

  18. Density functional theory study on the interactions of l-cysteine with graphene: adsorption stability and magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Huijuan; Li, Hejun; Fu, Qiangang; Chu, Yanhui; Cao, Xiaoyu; Sun, Can; Yuan, Xiaoyan; Liu, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the interactions between graphene and biomolecules is of fundamental relevance to the area of nanobiotechnology. Herein, we take l-cysteine as the probe biomolecule and investigate its adsorption on pristine graphene and B-, N-, Al-, Ni-, Ga-, Pd-doped graphene using density functional theory calculations. Three kinds of upright adsorption configurations, via unprotonated functional groups (–SH, –NH 2 , –COOH), are considered. The calculations reveal pristine graphene physically adsorbs l-cysteine. N-doped graphene shows physisorption towards the S-end and N-end l-cysteine, and chemisorption towards the O-end radical. Strong chemisorption, with site-specific preference, occurs on Al-, Ni-, Ga- and Pd-doped graphene, accompanied by severe structural changes. Spin polarization with an unusual mirror symmetry on Ni- and Pd-doped graphene is induced by chemisorption of unprotonated l-cysteine, except for O-end adsorption on Pd-doped graphene. The magnetization arises mainly from spin polarization of the C 2p z orbital, with a minor magnetism located on Ni or Pd. The influence of van der Waals forces is also evaluated. A thorough analysis of the adsorption stability and magnetism of these systems would be beneficial to facilitate applications in graphene-based biosensing, biomolecule immobilization, magnetic bio-separation and other fields in bionanotechnology. (paper)

  19. Development of diclofenac sodium loaded magnetic nanocarriers of pectin interacted with chitosan for targeted and sustained drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Raj Kumar; Sahu, Saurabh

    2012-09-01

    A novel spherical magnetic nanocarrier of 100-150 nm dimensions made of pectin interacted with chitosan (MPCh-DS0.05) resulted in 99.5% encapsulation efficiency of diclofenac sodium (DS) as a model drug. Similarly, magnetic nanocarrier made of only pectin crosslinked with Ca(2+) (MPDS-0.05) resulted in only 60.6% encapsulation efficiency of DS. The increase in drug encapsulation efficiency (%) in MPCh-DS0.05 batch was due to synergistic drug encapsulation properties of pectin and chitosan. The structural and morphological features of these magnetic nanocarriers were studied by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared-spectrometry (FT-IR), thermogravimetry, electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. The magnetic properties were measured by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and superconducting quantum unit interference device measurements (SQUID). The in vitro drug release was pH sensitive and exhibited sustained release sequentially in simulated gastric fluid (negligible release in 0-2h), simulated intestinal fluid (~69% release in 2-5h), simulated colonic fluid (5-60 h) and also in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 (0-48 h). The drug release profile in phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.4 was in good agreement with swelling controlled mechanism on the basis of Korsemeyer-Peppas model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Remote monitoring system for the cryogenic system of superconducting magnets in the SuperKEKB interaction region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, K.; Ohuchi, N.; Zong, Z.; Arimoto, Y.; Wang, X.; Yamaoka, H.; Kawai, M.; Kondou, Y.; Makida, Y.; Hirose, M.; Endou, T.; Iwasaki, M.; Nakamura, T.

    2017-12-01

    A remote monitoring system was developed based on the software infrastructure of the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) for the cryogenic system of superconducting magnets in the interaction region of the SuperKEKB accelerator. The SuperKEKB has been constructed to conduct high-energy physics experiments at KEK. These superconducting magnets consist of three apparatuses, the Belle II detector solenoid, and QCSL and QCSR accelerator magnets. They are each contained in three cryostats cooled by dedicated helium cryogenic systems. The monitoring system was developed to read data of the EX-8000, which is an integrated instrumentation system to control all cryogenic components. The monitoring system uses the I/O control tools of EPICS software for TCP/IP, archiving techniques using a relational database, and easy human-computer interface. Using this monitoring system, it is possible to remotely monitor all real-time data of the superconducting magnets and cryogenic systems. It is also convenient to share data among multiple groups.

  1. Effects of laser-polarization and wiggler magnetic fields on electron acceleration in laser-cluster interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Ghotra, Harjit; Kant, Niti

    2018-06-01

    We examine the electron dynamics during laser-cluster interaction. In addition to the electrostatic field of an individual cluster and laser field, we consider an external transverse wiggler magnetic field, which plays a pivotal role in enhancing the electron acceleration. Single-particle simulation has been presented with a short pulse linearly polarized as well as circularly polarized laser pulses for electron acceleration in a cluster. The persisting Coulomb field allows the electron to absorb energy from the laser field. The stochastically heated electron finds a weak electric field at the edge of the cluster from where it is ejected. The wiggler magnetic field connects the regions of the stochastically heated, ejected electron from the cluster and high energy gain by the electron from the laser field outside the cluster. This increases the field strength and hence supports the electron to meet the phase of the laser field for enhanced acceleration. A long duration resonance appears with an optimized magnetic wiggler field of about 3.4 kG. Hence, the relativistic energy gain by the electron is enhanced up to a few 100 MeV with an intense short pulse laser with an intensity of about 1019 W cm‑2 in the presence of a wiggler magnetic field.

  2. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    The magnet subsystems resumed operation early this spring. The vacuum pumping was restarted mid March, and the cryogenic power plant was restarted on March 30th. Three and a half weeks later, the magnet was at 4.5 K. The vacuum pumping system is performing well. One of the newly installed vacuum gauges had to be replaced at the end of the cool-down phase, as the values indicated were not coherent with the other pressure measurements. The correction had to be implemented quickly to be sure no helium leak could be at the origin of this anomaly. The pressure measurements have been stable and coherent since the change. The cryogenics worked well, and the cool-down went quite smoothly, without any particular difficulty. The automated start of the turbines had to be fine-tuned to get a smooth transition, as it was observed that the cooling power delivered by the turbines was slightly higher than needed, causing the cold box to stop automatically. This had no consequence as the cold box safety system acts to keep ...

  3. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    During the winter shutdown, the magnet subsystems went through a full maintenance. The magnet was successfully warmed up to room temperature beginning of December 2008. The vacuum was broken later on by injecting nitrogen at a pressure just above one atmosphere inside the vacuum tank. This was necessary both to prevent any accidental humidity ingress, and to allow for a modification of the vacuum gauges on the vacuum tank and maintenance of the diffusion pumps. The vacuum gauges had to be changed, because of erratic variations on the measurements, causing spurious alarms. The new type of vacuum gauges has been used in similar conditions on the other LHC experiments and without problems. They are shielded against the stray field. The lubricants of the primary and diffusion pumps have been changed. Several minor modifications were also carried out on the equipment in the service cavern, with the aim to ease the maintenance and to allow possible intervention during operation. Spare sensors have been bought. Th...

  4. Interactions controlled evolution of complex magnetoresistance in as-deposited Ag100−xCox nanogranular films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, Dinesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Evolution of a complex magnetoresistance and dc-magnetization behavior of as-deposited co-sputtered Ag 100−x Co x films with the variation of cobalt concentration ‘x’ from 25.2 to 45.1 at% is presented. At 20 K, a transition from normal to complex magnetoresistance behavior, in conjunction with magnetic force microscopy evidence of the existence of a magnetic microstructure resulting in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) is observed for x=32.6 cobalt concentration film. The dc-magnetization studies provide additional support to the presence of PMA in film that gets reduced with the increase of cobalt concentration. The complex magnetoresistance (MR) behavior also decreases with the increase of ‘x’. The room temperature MR, coercivity behavior and remanence to saturation magnetization ratio indicate the presence of direct ferromagnetic interactions due to the presence of ferromagnetic particles for x≥32.6 films. The observed complex MR behavior and presence of PMA are interpreted in terms of manifestation of the transition of interparticle magnetic interaction nature from dipolar to direct ferromagnetic. - Highlights: • Complex MR with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) is observed. • MFM evidenced the presence of PMA. • Complex MR and PMA decreases with the increase of cobalt concentration. • Observed results are correlated with the nature of magnetic interactions

  5. Quasi-linear landau kinetic equations for magnetized plasmas: compact propagator formalism, rotation matrices and interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misguich, J.H.

    2004-04-01

    As a first step toward a nonlinear renormalized description of turbulence phenomena in magnetized plasmas, the lowest order quasi-linear description is presented here from a unified point of view for collisionless as well as for collisional plasmas in a constant magnetic field. The quasi-linear approximation is applied to a general kinetic equation obtained previously from the Klimontovich exact equation, by means of a generalised Dupree-Weinstock method. The so-obtained quasi-linear description of electromagnetic turbulence in a magnetoplasma is applied to three separate physical cases: -) weak electrostatic turbulence, -) purely magnetic field fluctuations (the classical quasi-linear results are obtained for cosmic ray diffusion in the 'slab model' of magnetostatic turbulence in the solar wind), and -) collisional kinetic equations of magnetized plasmas. This mathematical technique has allowed us to derive basic kinetic equations for turbulent plasmas and collisional plasmas, respectively in the quasi-linear and Landau approximation. In presence of a magnetic field we have shown that the systematic use of rotation matrices describing the helical particle motion allows for a much more compact derivation than usually performed. Moreover, from the formal analogy between turbulent and collisional plasmas, the results derived here in detail for the turbulent plasmas, can be immediately translated to obtain explicit results for the Landau kinetic equation

  6. Quasi-linear landau kinetic equations for magnetized plasmas: compact propagator formalism, rotation matrices and interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misguich, J.H

    2004-04-01

    As a first step toward a nonlinear renormalized description of turbulence phenomena in magnetized plasmas, the lowest order quasi-linear description is presented here from a unified point of view for collisionless as well as for collisional plasmas in a constant magnetic field. The quasi-linear approximation is applied to a general kinetic equation obtained previously from the Klimontovich exact equation, by means of a generalised Dupree-Weinstock method. The so-obtained quasi-linear description of electromagnetic turbulence in a magnetoplasma is applied to three separate physical cases: -) weak electrostatic turbulence, -) purely magnetic field fluctuations (the classical quasi-linear results are obtained for cosmic ray diffusion in the 'slab model' of magnetostatic turbulence in the solar wind), and -) collisional kinetic equations of magnetized plasmas. This mathematical technique has allowed us to derive basic kinetic equations for turbulent plasmas and collisional plasmas, respectively in the quasi-linear and Landau approximation. In presence of a magnetic field we have shown that the systematic use of rotation matrices describing the helical particle motion allows for a much more compact derivation than usually performed. Moreover, from the formal analogy between turbulent and collisional plasmas, the results derived here in detail for the turbulent plasmas, can be immediately translated to obtain explicit results for the Landau kinetic equation.

  7. Model of a source-driven plasma interacting with a wall in an oblique magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahedo, E.; Carralero, D.

    2009-01-01

    A fluid model of a magnetized source-driven plasma is discussed for regimes with (Debye length)<<(ion Larmor radius)<<(plasma size and collisional mean-free path). Plasma collection by the wall is determined in terms of angle of incidence, magnetic strength, and plasma collisionality. For nonparallel incidence, a three-scale asymptotic analysis reveals a three-region matched structure consisting of a magnetically aligned bulk region, the Chodura layer, and the Debye sheath. Sonic Chodura and Bohm conditions define the singular region transitions. For near-parallel incidence, a separate analysis demonstrates the presence of a diffusive-collisional bulk region followed by a thin collisionless layer, which differs partially from the Chodura layer. A parametric analysis unveils the presence of four regimes depending on plasma collisionality: (1) a collisionless regime, with the magnetically channeled bulk region governed by plasma production; (2) a resistive semicollisional regime, where collisions retard the plasma transport in the bulk region; (3) a diffusive semicollisional regime, where the ExB drift dominates the ion flux in the bulk region; and (4) a collisional regime, where collisions cancel out magnetic effects. At grazing incidence, plasma collection is found to vary nonmonotonically with plasma collisionality. Nonzero Debye-length effects are discussed briefly.

  8. Magnetic excitations and exchange interactions in the spin-gap system TlCuCl sub 3

    CERN Document Server

    Oosawa, A; Kato, T; Kakurai, K; Müller, M; Mikeska, H J

    2002-01-01

    The magnetic excitations from the gapped ground state in TlCuCl sub 3 have been investigated by means of inelastic neutron scattering experiments. The excitation data were collected along four different directions in the a sup * -c sup * plane. A well-defined single magnetic excitation mode was observed. The lowest excitation occurs at Q=(h,0,l) with integer h and odd l, as observed in KCuCl sub 3. The dispersion relations were analyzed by the cluster-series expansion up to the sixth order, so that the individual exchange interactions were evaluated. It was demonstrated that TlCuCl sub 3 is a strongly coupled spin-dimer system. (orig.)

  9. On the interaction between the external magnetic field and nanofluid inside a vertical square duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Ali

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we numerically study how the external magnetic field influences the flow and thermal characteristics of nanofluid inside a vertical square duct. The flow is considered to be laminar and hydrodynamically as well as thermally developed, whereas the thermal boundary condition of constant heat flux per unit axial length with constant peripheral temperature at any cross section, is assumed. The governing equations are solved using the spectral method and the finite difference method. Excellent comparison is noted in the numerical results given by the two methods but the spectral method is found to be superior in terms of both efficiency and accuracy. We have noted that the flow reversal due to high Raleigh number may be controlled by applying an external magnetic field of suitable strength. Moreover, the Nusselt number is found to be almost a linear function of the nanoparticle volume fraction parameter, for different values of the Raleigh number and the magnetic parameter.

  10. Images of gravitational and magnetic phenomena derived from two-dimensional back-projection Doppler tomography of interacting binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, Mercedes T.; Cocking, Alexander S.; Fisher, John G.; Conover, Marshall J.

    2014-01-01

    We have used two-dimensional back-projection Doppler tomography as a tool to examine the influence of gravitational and magnetic phenomena in interacting binaries that undergo mass transfer from a magnetically active star onto a non-magnetic main-sequence star. This multitiered study of over 1300 time-resolved spectra of 13 Algol binaries involved calculations of the predicted dynamical behavior of the gravitational flow and the dynamics at the impact site, analysis of the velocity images constructed from tomography, and the influence on the tomograms of orbital inclination, systemic velocity, orbital coverage, and shadowing. The Hα tomograms revealed eight sources: chromospheric emission, a gas stream along the gravitational trajectory, a star-stream impact region, a bulge of absorption or emission around the mass-gaining star, a Keplerian accretion disk, an absorption zone associated with hotter gas, a disk-stream impact region, and a hot spot where the stream strikes the edge of a disk. We described several methods used to extract the physical properties of the emission sources directly from the velocity images, including S-wave analysis, the creation of simulated velocity tomograms from hydrodynamic simulations, and the use of synthetic spectra with tomography to sequentially extract the separate sources of emission from the velocity image. In summary, the tomography images have revealed results that cannot be explained solely by gravitational effects: chromospheric emission moving with the mass-losing star, a gas stream deflected from the gravitational trajectory, and alternating behavior between stream state and disk state. Our results demonstrate that magnetic effects cannot be ignored in these interacting binaries.

  11. Study of plasma convection and wall interactions in magnetic-confinement systems. Progress report, October 1, 1980-September 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    York, T.M.; Klevans, E.H.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental and analytical studies of plasma interactions with magnetic fields and end walls have been carried out. The final effort for studying flow on open-ended theta pinches has resulted in: (1) new understanding of collisional flow processes; and (2) has presented unique measurements of density and temperature near the end wall. An orignal effort to use Nd-glass lasers for Thomson scattering diagnostics is reported. Laser system conversion and efficiencies of frequency doubling are reported. The development of a compact toroid discharged is reported; this will be used as a plasma source to study transport, convection and wass interactions at plasma conditions appropriate for large scale fusion experiments. Computer codes predict compact toroid plasma scaling and magnetic field distribution resulting from guiding coils added at the ends of the theta pinch coil. The development of a multi-pass Fabry-Perot interferometer using visible light from a He-Ne laser is reported here. Theoretical study has been completed on an extension of a collisionless plasma flow model to include collision effects. Initial studies directed to analysis of plasma wall interactions are reported

  12. Interaction of spin and vibrations in transport through single-molecule magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falk May

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We study electron transport through a single-molecule magnet (SMM and the interplay of its anisotropic spin with quantized vibrational distortions of the molecule. Based on numerical renormalization group calculations we show that, despite the longitudinal anisotropy barrier and small transverse anisotropy, vibrational fluctuations can induce quantum spin-tunneling (QST and a QST-Kondo effect. The interplay of spin scattering, QST and molecular vibrations can strongly enhance the Kondo effect and induce an anomalous magnetic field dependence of vibrational Kondo side-bands.

  13. Interaction of spin and vibrations in transport through single-molecule magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Falk; Wegewijs, Maarten R; Hofstetter, Walter

    2011-01-01

    We study electron transport through a single-molecule magnet (SMM) and the interplay of its anisotropic spin with quantized vibrational distortions of the molecule. Based on numerical renormalization group calculations we show that, despite the longitudinal anisotropy barrier and small transverse anisotropy, vibrational fluctuations can induce quantum spin-tunneling (QST) and a QST-Kondo effect. The interplay of spin scattering, QST and molecular vibrations can strongly enhance the Kondo effect and induce an anomalous magnetic field dependence of vibrational Kondo side-bands.

  14. Insight into the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction through first-principles study of chiral magnetic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandratskii, L. M.

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of the paper is to gain deeper insight into microscopic formation of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). The paper aims at the development of the physical picture able to address apparently contradicting conclusions of recent studies concerning the location of the DMI energy in the real and reciprocal spaces as well as the relation between values of the atomic moments and the DMI strength. The main tools of our study are the first-principles calculations of the energies of the spiral magnetic states with opposite chiralities. We suggest a method of the calculation of the spiral structures with account for the spin-orbit coupling (SOC). It is based on the application of the generalized Bloch theorem and generalized Bloch functions and allows to reduce the consideration of arbitrary incommensurate spiral to small chemical unit cell. The method neglects the anisotropy in the plane orthogonal to the rotation axis of the spirals that does not influence importantly the DMI energy. For comparison, the supercell calculation with full account for the SOC is performed. The concrete calculations are performed for the Co/Pt bilayer. We consider the distribution of the DMI energy in both real and reciprocal spaces and the dependence of the DMI on the number of electrons. The results of the calculations reveal a number of energy compensations in the formation of the DMI. Thus, the partial atomic contributions as functions of the spiral wave vector q are nonmonotonic and have strongly varying slopes. However, in the total DMI energy these atom-related features compensate each other, resulting in a smooth q dependence. The reason for the peculiar form of the partial DMI contributions is a q -dependent difference in the charge distribution between q and -q spirals. The strongly q -dependent relation between atomic contributions shows that the real-space distribution of the DMI energy obtained for a selected q value cannot be considered as a general

  15. Magnetic susceptibility and electron–phonon (e–p) interaction in some U and Ce based heavy fermion (HF) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, J.; Shadangi, N.; Nayak, P.

    2015-01-01

    Here an attempt is made to explore the variation of magnetic susceptibility with temperature for different values of the position of f-level (d) and electron–phonon interaction (EPI) strength (r) in some U and Ce based heavy Fermion (HF) systems within Periodic Anderson Model (PAM) in the presence of a static magnetic field B and interaction of phonons with electrons of hybridization band. Since magnetic susceptibility χ is related to the f-electron occupation n ±σ f , the expression for the latter is analytically derived through f–f correlation function following the Green function technique of Zubarev. The numerical analysis of χ as a function of temperature ‘T’ is done for different values of d and r. The results show a good agreement with the experiments for some U and Ce based HFs. An explanation for the existence of a critical value of d w.r.t. E F for switching of nature of χ∼T from U to Ce based HF systems is provided. Our calculated value of the temperature T χmax corresponding to the peak position of χ for small values of hybridization constant γ=0.002 and 0.0036 coincides with the experimental value of 19 K for UPt 3 and 35 K for UPd 2 Al 3 reported by Frings et al. and Geibel et al. respectively. - Highlights: • Variation of magnetic susceptibility χ with temperature T is studied for some HF systems. • Periodic Anderson Model in presence of magnetic field and electron–phonon interaction is used for numerical evaluation. • The existence of a critical value of the position of f-level(d) is proposed for distinction between χ∼T behavior of U and Ce based HF systems. • Results obtained are in good agreement with the experimental observations for some Ce and U based HF systems. • Theoretically evaluated temperature corresponding to the peak value of χ matches with the experimental results of UPt 3 and UPd 2 Al 3

  16. An in situ accelerator-based diagnostic for plasma-material interactions science on magnetic fusion devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Zachary S; Barnard, Harold S; Lanza, Richard C; Sorbom, Brandon N; Stahle, Peter W; Whyte, Dennis G

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a novel particle accelerator-based diagnostic that nondestructively measures the evolution of material surface compositions inside magnetic fusion devices. The diagnostic's purpose is to contribute to an integrated understanding of plasma-material interactions in magnetic fusion, which is severely hindered by a dearth of in situ material surface diagnosis. The diagnostic aims to remotely generate isotopic concentration maps on a plasma shot-to-shot timescale that cover a large fraction of the plasma-facing surface inside of a magnetic fusion device without the need for vacuum breaks or physical access to the material surfaces. Our instrument uses a compact (~1 m), high-current (~1 milliamp) radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator to inject 0.9 MeV deuterons into the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at MIT. We control the tokamak magnetic fields--in between plasma shots--to steer the deuterons to material surfaces where the deuterons cause high-Q nuclear reactions with low-Z isotopes ~5 μm into the material. The induced neutrons and gamma rays are measured with scintillation detectors; energy spectra analysis provides quantitative reconstruction of surface compositions. An overview of the diagnostic technique, known as accelerator-based in situ materials surveillance (AIMS), and the first AIMS diagnostic on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak is given. Experimental validation is shown to demonstrate that an optimized deuteron beam is injected into the tokamak, that low-Z isotopes such as deuterium and boron can be quantified on the material surfaces, and that magnetic steering provides access to different measurement locations. The first AIMS analysis, which measures the relative change in deuterium at a single surface location at the end of the Alcator C-Mod FY2012 plasma campaign, is also presented.

  17. Molecular magnetism of a linear Fe(III)-Mn(II)-Fe(III) complex. Influence of long-range exchange interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengen, M.; Chaudhuri, P.

    1994-01-01

    The magnetic properties of [L-Fe(III)-dmg 3 Mn(II)-Fe(III)-L] (ClO 4 ) 2 have been characterized by magnetic susceptibility, EPR, and Moessbauer studies. L represents 1,4,7-trimethyl-,1,4,7-triazacyclononane and dmg represents dimethylglyoxime. X-ray diffraction measurements yield that the arrangement of the three metal centers is strictly linear with atomic distances d Fe-Mn 0.35 nm and d Fe-Fe = 0.7 nm. Magnetic susceptibility measurements (3-295 K) were analyzed in the framework of the spin-Hamiltonian formalism considering Heisenberg exchange and Zeeman interaction: H = J Fe-Mn (S Fe1 + S Fe2 )S Mn + J Fe-Fe S Fe1 S Fe2 + gμ B S total B. The spins S Fe1 = S Fe2 = S Mn = 5/2 of the complex are antiferromagnetically coupled, yielding a total spin of S total = 5/2 with exchange coupling constants F Fe-Mn = 13.4 cm -1 and J Fe-Fe = 4.5 cm -1 . Magnetically split Moessbauer spectra were recorded at 1.5 K under various applied fields (20 mT, 170 mT, 4 T). The spin-Hamiltonian analysis of these spectra yields isotropic magnetic hyperfine coupling with A total /(g N μ N ) = -18.5 T. The corresponding local component A Fe is related to A total via spin-projection: A total = (6/7)A Fe . The resulting A Fe /(g N μ N ) -21.6 T is in agreement with standard values of ferric high-spin complexes. Spin-Hamiltonian parameters as obtained from Moessbauer studies and exchange coupling constants as derived from susceptibility measurements are corroborated by temperature-dependent EPR studies. (orig.)

  18. Interaction domains in permanent-magnetic rare-earth transition-metal compounds; Wechselwirkungsdomaenen in permanentmagnetischen Seltenerd-Uebergangsmetall-Verbindungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thielsch, Juliane

    2015-02-05

    In the framework of this dissertation the phenomenon of the interaction domains was studied both experimentally and by means of micromagnetic simulation. Object of the study were one-phase NdFeB magnets, which were fabricated from commercial MQU-F powders of the Magnequench Inc. company by hot pressing and subsequent warm deformation in the IWF Dresden. Additionally via the same fabrication way also composite samples of NdFeB and Fe with different original particle sizes ere obtained and studied. Supported wer the experimental works by simulations with the FEMME software package, which is based on a hybrid finite-element method/boundary-element method.

  19. Interaction of magnetic field in flow of Maxwell nanofluid with convective effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Muhammad, Taseer, E-mail: taseer_qau@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Shehzad, S.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Chen, G.Q. [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Laboratory of Systems Ecology, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Abbas, Ibrahim A. [Mathematics Department (Khulais), Faculty of Science and Arts, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-09-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three-dimensional flow of Maxwell nanofluid subject to the convective boundary condition is investigated. The flow is generated by a bidirectional stretching surface. Thermophoresis and Brownian motion effects are present. Fluid is electrically conducted in the presence of a constant applied magnetic field. Unlike the previous cases even in the absence of nanoparticles, the correct formulation for the flow of Maxwell fluid in the presence of a magnetic field is established. Newly proposed boundary condition with the zero nanoparticles mass flux at the boundary is employed. The governing nonlinear boundary layer equations through appropriate transformations are reduced in the nonlinear ordinary differential system. The resulting nonlinear system has been solved for the velocities, temperature and nanoparticles concentration distributions. Convergence of the constructed solutions is verified. Effects of emerging parameters on the temperature and nanoparticles concentration are plotted and discussed. Numerical values of local Nusselt number are computed and analyzed. It is observed that the effects of magnetic parameter and the Biot number on the temperature and nanoparticles concentration are quite similar. Both the temperature and nanoparticles concentration are enhanced for the increasing value of magnetic parameter and Biot number. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional flow of Maxwell fluid. • Consideration of nanoparticles effect. • Formulation through convective condition. • Analysis in magnetohydrodynamic regime. • Utilization of new condition associated with mass flux.

  20. Onset of magnetic interface exchange interactions in epitaxially grown Mn-Co(001)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohlhepp, J.T.; Wieldraaijer, H.; Jonge, de W.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) grows in a metastable expanded (c/a > 1) face-centered-tetragonal (fct) phase on thin fct-Co(001) template films. A layer-by-layer growth mode is obsd. for small Mn thicknesses. Antiferromagnetism (AFM) of fct-Mn is evidenced by the observation of shifted magnetization loops

  1. Interaction of particles with fluid-fluid interfaces quantified using magnetic tweezers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappelli, S.; Jong, de A.M.; Prins, M.W.J.

    2014-01-01

    A key challenge in point-of-care diagnostics is the miniaturization and integration of assay processes in lab-on-chip devices. Assay processes based on magnetic particles are particularly suited for miniaturization and integration, because the particles can be actively controlled using external

  2. Study of aerosol sample interaction with dc plasma in the presence of oscillating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiljkovic, M.M.; Pavlovic, M.S.; Savovic, J.; Kuzmanovic, M.; Marinkovic, M.

    2005-01-01

    Oscillating magnetic field was used to study the efficiency of the aerosol sample introduction into the dc plasma. At atmospheric plasmas, the effect of magnetic field is reduced to Lorentz forces on the current carrying plasma, which produces motion of the plasma. The motion velocity of dc plasma caused by oscillating magnetic field was correlated to spectral emission enhancement of analytes introduced as aerosols. Emission enhancement is the consequence of the reduced barrier to introduction of analyte species and aerosol particles into the hot plasma region. Two hypotheses described in the literature for the origin of the barrier are considered: (i) barrier induced by temperature field is based upon the thermophoretic forces on the aerosol particles when their radius is comparable to the molecular free path in the surrounding gas and (ii) barrier induced by radial electric field, recently described, that originates from gradients of charged particles in radial direction. Correlation between ionization energy of the analyte atoms with experimental emission enhancement obtained by the use of oscillating magnetic field indicates that mechanism (ii) based upon the radial electric field is predominant. The ultimate emission enhancement and possible analytical advantage is discussed

  3. Trajectory of Charged Particle in Combined Electric and Magnetic Fields Using Interactive Spreadsheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambade, Popat S.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this article is to graphically illustrate to the students the physical phenomenon of motion of charged particle under the action of simultaneous electric and magnetic fields by simulating particle motion on a computer. Differential equations of motions are solved analytically and path of particle in three-dimensional space are…

  4. Calculation of the Ruderman-Kittel interaction and magnetic ordering in copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker; Wang, X.-W.; Harmon, B. N.

    1986-01-01

    Using first principles energy bands and wave functions the authors find the Rudermann-Kittel interaction having a more predominant nearest neighbour coupling than expected for free electrons. Using the correlation theory and including dipolar interactions they find the most probable structure to ...

  5. Magnetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboud, Essam; El-Masry, Nabil; Qaddah, Atef; Alqahtani, Faisal; Moufti, Mohammed R. H.

    2015-06-01

    The Rahat volcanic field represents one of the widely distributed Cenozoic volcanic fields across the western regions of the Arabian Peninsula. Its human significance stems from the fact that its northern fringes, where the historical eruption of 1256 A.D. took place, are very close to the holy city of Al-Madinah Al-Monawarah. In the present work, we analyzed aeromagnetic data from the northern part of Rahat volcanic field as well as carried out a ground gravity survey. A joint interpretation and inversion of gravity and magnetic data were used to estimate the thickness of the lava flows, delineate the subsurface structures of the study area, and estimate the depth to basement using various geophysical methods, such as Tilt Derivative, Euler Deconvolution and 2D modeling inversion. Results indicated that the thickness of the lava flows in the study area ranges between 100 m (above Sea Level) at the eastern and western boundaries of Rahat Volcanic field and getting deeper at the middle as 300-500 m. It also showed that, major structural trend is in the NW direction (Red Sea trend) with some minor trends in EW direction.

  6. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    The cooling down to the nominal temperature of 4.5 K was achieved at the beginning of August, in conjunction with the completion of the installation work of the connection between the power lines and the coil current leads. The temperature gradient on the first exchanger of the cold box is now kept within the nominal range. A leak of lubricant on a gasket of the helium compressor station installed at the surface was observed and several corrective actions were necessary to bring the situation back to normal. The compressor had to be refilled with lubricant and a regeneration of the filters and adsorbers was necessary. The coil cool down was resumed successfully, and the cryogenics is running since then with all parameters being nominal. Preliminary tests of the 20kA coil power supply were done earlier at full current through the discharge lines into the dump resistors, and with the powering busbars from USC5 to UXC5 without the magnet connected. On Monday evening August 25th, at 8pm, the final commissionin...

  7. MAGNET

    CERN Document Server

    B. Curé

    The first phase of the commissioning ended in August by a triggered fast dump at 3T. All parameters were nominal, and the temperature recovery down to 4.5K was carried out in two days by the cryogenics. In September, series of ramps were achieved up to 3 and finally 3.8T, while checking thoroughly the detectors in the forward region, measuring any movement of and around the HF. After the incident of the LHC accelerator on September 19th, corrective actions could be undertaken in the forward region. When all these displacements were fully characterized and repetitive, with no sign of increments in displacement at each field ramp, it was possible to start the CRAFT, Cosmic Run at Four Tesla (which was in fact at 3.8T). The magnet was ramped up to 18.16kA and the 3 week run went smoothly, with only 4 interruptions: due to the VIP visits on 21st October during the LHC inauguration day; a water leak on the cooling demineralized water circuit, about 1 l/min, that triggered a stop of the cooling pumps, and resulte...

  8. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance work and consolidation activities on the magnet cryogenics and its power distribution are progressing according to the schedules. The manufacturing of the two new helium compressor frame units has started. The frame units support the valves, all the sensors and the compressors with their motors. This activity is subcontracted. The final installation and the commissioning at CERN are scheduled for March–April 2014. The overhauls of existing cryogenics equipment (compressors, motors) are in progress. The reassembly of the components shall start in early 2014. The helium drier, to be installed on the high-pressure helium piping, has been ordered and will be delivered in the first trimester of 2014. The power distribution for the helium compressors in SH5 on the 3.3kV network is progressing. The 3.3kV switches, between each compressor and its hot spare compressor, are being installed, together with the power cables for the new compressors. The 3.3kV electrical switchboards in SE5 will ...

  9. Measurements of VLF-particle interactions at the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly on board a Brazilian geophysical satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, W.D.; Pinto Junior, O.; Dutra, S.L.G.; Takahashi, H.

    1988-01-01

    A summary of the proposal for measurements of VLF wave-particle interactions, expected to occur at the South Atlantic magnetic anomaly, to be carried out on board a Brazilian geophysical satellite, will be presented. The expected domain of such interactions refers to electromagnetic VLF waves and to energetic-relativistic inner belt electrons, pitch angle diffusing into the atmosphere via cyclotron resonances. The detectors involve a tri-axial search coil magnetometer and a surface barrier silicon telescope. A modified and preliminary version of this proposed experiment will be carried out on board long duration balloon flights, well before the beginning of the intended satellite measurements. For the ballon flights the particle detector will be replaced by an x-ray detector, which can also monitor parameters related to the electron precipitation. (author) [pt

  10. Phase diagram of the Ising model on a Cayley tree in the presence of competing interactions and magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariz, A.M.; Tsallis, C.; Albuquerque, E.L. de.

    1984-01-01

    The phae diagram for the Ising Model on a Cayley tree with competing nearest-neighbour interactions J 1 and next-nearest-neighbour interactions J 2 and J 3 in the presence of an external magnetic field is studied. To perform this study, an iterative scheme similar to that appearing in real space renormalization group frameworks is established; it recovers, as particular cases, previous works by Vannimenus and by Inawashiro et al. At vanishing temperature, the phase diagram is fully determined, for all values and signs of J 2 /J 1 and J 3 /J 2 ; in particular, it is verified that values of J 3 /J 2 high enough favour the paramagnetic phase. At finite temperatures, several interesting features (evolution of re-entrances, separation of the modulated region in two disconnected pieces, etc.) are exhibited for typical values of J 2 /J 1 and J 3 /J 2 . (Author) [pt

  11. Note: Resonance magnetoelectric interactions in laminate of FeCuNbSiB and multilayer piezoelectric stack for magnetic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianqiang; Lu, Caijiang; Xu, Changbao; Zhong, Ming

    2015-09-01

    This paper develops a simple miniature magnetoelectric (ME) laminate FeCuNbSiB/PZT-stack made up of magnetostrictive Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 (FeCuNbSiB) foils and piezoelectric Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) multilayer stack vibrator. Resonant ME interactions of FeCuNbSiB/PZT-stack with different layers of FeCuNbSiB foil (L) are investigated in detail. The experimental results show that the ME voltage coefficient reaches maximum value of 141.5 (V/cm Oe) for FeCuNbSiB/PZT-stack with L = 6. The AC-magnetic sensitivities can reach 524.29 mV/Oe and 1.8 mV/Oe under resonance 91.6 kHz and off-resonance 1 kHz, respectively. The FeCuNbSiB/PZT-stack can distinguish small dc-magnetic field of ˜9 nT. The results indicate that the proposed ME composites are very promising for the cheap room-temperature magnetic field sensing technology.

  12. XMCD for monitoring exchange interactions. The role of the Gd 4f and 5d orbitals in metal-nitronyl nitroxide magnetic chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Guillaume; Lalioti, Nikolia; Tangoulis, Vassilis; Arrio, Marie-Anne; Sainctavit, Philippe; Villain, Françoise; Caneschi, Andrea; Gatteschi, Dante; Giorgetti, Christine; Baudelet, François; Verdaguer, Michel; Cartier dit Moulin, Christophe

    2003-07-09

    We report here the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) study at the Gd M(4,5)- and L(2,3)-edges of two linear magnetic chains involving Gd(III) cations bridged by nitronyl nitroxide radicals. This spectroscopy directly probes the magnetic moments of the 4f and 5d orbitals of the gadolinium ions. We compare macroscopic magnetic measurements and local XMCD signals. The M(4,5)-edges results are in agreement with the J values extracted from the fits of the SQUID magnetic measurements. The L(2,3)-edges signals show that the electronic density in the Gd 5d orbitals depends on the neighbors of the gadolinium cations. Nevertheless, the 5d orbitals do not seem to play any role in the superexchange pathway between radicals through the metal ion proposed to explain the particular magnetic exchange interactions between the radicals in these chains.

  13. Quenching points of dimeric single-molecule magnets: Exchange interaction effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florez, J.M.; Nunez, Alvaro S.; Vargas, P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the quenched energy-splitting (Δ E ) of a single-molecule magnet (SMM) conformed by two exchange coupled giant-spins. An assessment of two nontrivial characteristics of this quenching is presented: (i) The quenching-points of a strongly exchange-coupled dimer differ from the ones of their respective giant-spin modeled SMM and such a difference can be well described by using the Solari-Kochetov extra phase; (ii) the dependence on the exchange coupling of the magnetic field values at the quenching-points when Δ E passes from monomeric to dimeric behavior. The physics behind these exchange-modified points, their relation with the Δ E -oscillations experimentally obtained by the Landau-Zener method and with the diabolical-plane of a SMM, is discussed.

  14. Quenching points of dimeric single-molecule magnets: Exchange interaction effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florez, J.M., E-mail: juanmanuel.florez@alumnos.usm.c [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, P.O. Box 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Nunez, Alvaro S., E-mail: alnunez@dfi.uchile.c [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 487-3, Santiago (Chile); Vargas, P., E-mail: patricio.vargas@usm.c [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, P.O. Box 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2010-11-15

    We study the quenched energy-splitting ({Delta}{sub E}) of a single-molecule magnet (SMM) conformed by two exchange coupled giant-spins. An assessment of two nontrivial characteristics of this quenching is presented: (i) The quenching-points of a strongly exchange-coupled dimer differ from the ones of their respective giant-spin modeled SMM and such a difference can be well described by using the Solari-Kochetov extra phase; (ii) the dependence on the exchange coupling of the magnetic field values at the quenching-points when {Delta}{sub E} passes from monomeric to dimeric behavior. The physics behind these exchange-modified points, their relation with the {Delta}{sub E}-oscillations experimentally obtained by the Landau-Zener method and with the diabolical-plane of a SMM, is discussed.

  15. Investigation of shock compressed plasma parameters by interaction with magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudin, S. V.; Fortov, V. E.; Gryaznov, V. K.; Mintsev, V. B.; Shilkin, N. S.; Ushnurtsev, A. E.

    1998-01-01

    The Hall effect parameters in shock compressed air, helium and xenon have been estimated and results of experiments with air and helium plasma are presented. Explosively driven shock tubes were used for the generation of strong shock waves. To obtain magnetic field a solenoid was winded over the shock tube. Calculations of dense shock compressed plasma parameters were carried out to plan the experiments. In the experiments with the magnetic field of ∼5 T it was found, that air plasma slug was significantly heated by the whirlwind electrical field. The reflected shock waves technique was used in the experiments with helium. Results on measurements of electrical conductivity and electron concentration of helium are presented

  16. Interaction of Ambipolar Plasma Flow with Magnetic Islands in a Quasi-axisymmetric Stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, A.; Zarnstorff, M.; Mikkelsen, D.; Owen, L.; Mynick, H.; Hudson, S.; Monticello, D.

    2004-01-01

    A reference equilibrium for the U.S. National Compact Stellarator Experiment is predicted to be sufficiently close to quasi-symmetry to allow the plasma to flow in the toroidal direction with little viscous damping, yet to have sufficiently large deviations from quasi-symmetry that nonambipolarity significantly affects the physics of the shielding of resonant magnetic perturbations by plasma flow. The unperturbed velocity profile is modified by the presence of an ambipolar potential, which broadens the profile and improves the shielding near the plasma edge. In the presence of a resonant magnetic field perturbation, nonambipolar transport produces a radial current, and the resulting jxB force resists departures from the ambipolar velocity and enhances the shielding

  17. Interaction of ambipolar plasma flow with magnetic islands in a quasi-axisymmetric stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, A.; Zarnstorff, M.; Mikkelsen, D.; Mynick, H.; Hudson, S.; Monticello, D.; Owen, L.

    2005-01-01

    A reference equilibrium for the US National Compact Stellarator Experiment is predicted to be sufficiently close to quasi-symmetry to allow the plasma to flow in the toroidal direction with little viscous damping, yet to have sufficiently large deviations from quasi-symmetry that nonambipolarity significantly affects the physics of the shielding of resonant magnetic perturbations by plasma flow. The unperturbed velocity profile is modified by the presence of an ambipolar potential, which broadens the profile and improves the shielding near the plasma edge. In the presence of a resonant magnetic field perturbation, nonambipolar transport produces a radial current, and the resulting jxB force resists departures from the ambipolar velocity and enhances the shielding. (author)

  18. Modifications to the pulsar kick velocity due to magnetic interactions in dense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhya, S P; Roy, P K; Dutt-Mazumder, A K

    2014-01-01

    In this work we calculate the pulsar kick velocity of a magnetized neutron star (NS) composed of a degenerate quark matter core with non-Fermi liquid (NFL) correction. Both the leading order (LO) and next to LO (NLO) corrections to the kick velocity have been incorporated. In addition, the NFL corrections to the specific heat of magnetized quark matter have been presented. This has been taken into account to calculate the kick velocity of the NS. The results show a significant departure from the normal Fermi liquid estimates. The relation between radius and temperature has been shown with a kick velocity of 100 km s −1 with and without NFL corrections. (paper)

  19. Effect of hydrostatic and chemical pressure on the exchange interaction in magnetic borocarbide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michor, H.; El-Hagary, M.; Naber, L.; Bauer, E.; Hilscher, G.

    2000-03-01

    The investigation of pair-breaking effects in magnetic rare-earth nickel borocarbide superconductors reveals a considerable increase of the magnetic exchange integral Jsf by hydrostatic as well as chemical pressure. In both, Jsf is governed by the R-C distance (or lattice constant a) and is described quantitatively by a simple phenomenological model. Thereby, just two parameters Jsf0=31 meV and ΔJsf/Δa=165 meV/Å explain well the influence of chemical pressure upon the initial depression rates of Tc in solid solutions R'1-xRxNi2B2C with R=Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho and R'=Y and Lu.

  20. Spin Entanglement Witness for Quantum Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sougato; Mazumdar, Anupam; Morley, Gavin W; Ulbricht, Hendrik; Toroš, Marko; Paternostro, Mauro; Geraci, Andrew A; Barker, Peter F; Kim, M S; Milburn, Gerard

    2017-12-15

    Understanding gravity in the framework of quantum mechanics is one of the great challenges in modern physics. However, the lack of empirical evidence has lead to a debate on whether gravity is a quantum entity. Despite varied proposed probes for quantum gravity, it is fair to say that there are no feasible ideas yet to test its quantum coherent behavior directly in a laboratory experiment. Here, we introduce an idea for such a test based on the principle that two objects cannot be entangled without a quantum mediator. We show that despite the weakness of gravity, the phase evolution induced by the gravitational interaction of two micron size test masses in adjacent matter-wave interferometers can detectably entangle them even when they are placed far apart enough to keep Casimir-Polder forces at bay. We provide a prescription for witnessing this entanglement, which certifies gravity as a quantum coherent mediator, through simple spin correlation measurements.

  1. Magnetic fusion energy plasma interactive and high heat flux components. Volume I. Technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas in the plasma materials interaction field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; Gauster, W.B.; Heifetz, D.; Marmar, E.; Wilson, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    A technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas in the field of plasma materials interactions (PMI) in magnetic fusion devices shows these problems to be central for near-term experiments, for intermediate-range reactor devices including D-T burning physics experiments, and for long-term reactor machines. Critical technical issues are ones central to understanding and successful operation of existing and near-term experiments/reactors or devices of great importance for the long run, i.e., ones which will require an extensive, long-term development effort and thus should receive attention now. Four subgroups were formed to assess the critical PMI issues along four major lines: (1) PMI and plasma confinement physics experiments; (2) plasma-edge modelling and theory; (3) surface physics; and (4) materials technology for in-vessel components and the first wall. The report which follows is divided into four major sections, one for each of these topics

  2. Interaction between sheared flows and turbulent transport in magnetized fusion-grade plasmas; Interaction entre ecoulements cisailles et transport turbulent dans les plasmas de fusion magnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leconte, M.

    2008-11-15

    The H confinement regime is set when the heating power reaches a threshold value P{sub c} and is linked to the formation of a transport barrier in the edge region of the plasma. Such a barrier is characterized by a high pressure gradient and is submitted to ELM (edge localized mode) instabilities. ELM instabilities trigger violent quasi-periodical ejections of matter and heat that induce quasi-periodical relaxations of the transport barrier called relaxation oscillations. In this work we studied the interaction between sheared flows and turbulence in fusion plasmas. In particular, we studied the complex dynamics of a transport barrier and we show through a simulation that resonant magnetic perturbations could control relaxation oscillations without a significant loss of confinement

  3. Magnetic interaction of positronium atoms measured by perturbed angular distribution in 3 gamma annihilation decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.; Vata, I.; Plostinaru, D.; Catana, D.; Dudu, D.; Constantinescu, O.

    2003-01-01

    The Time Differential Perturbed Angular Distribution (TDPAD) method in connection with long-lived Positron Life-Time Spectroscopy (PLTS) have been used to observe 'quantum beat' spin oscillations of positronium atom in an external magnetic field. Our results offer an encouraging hint toward a new method of condensed matter investigation by PLTS. Similarities with Muonium Spin Rotation (μSR) method are suggested. (authors)

  4. Direct chill casting of aluminium alloys under electromagnetic interaction by permanent magnet assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojarevičs, Andris; Kaldre, Imants; Milgrāvis, Mikus; Beinerts, Toms

    2018-05-01

    Direct chill casting is one of the methods used in industry to obtain good microstructure and properties of aluminium alloys. Nevertheless, for some alloys grain structure is not optimal. In this study, we offer the use of electromagnetic interaction to modify melt convection near the solidification interface. Solidification under various electromagnetic interactions has been widely studied, but usually at low solidification velocity and high thermal gradient. This type of interaction may succeed fragmentation of dendrite arms and transport of solidification nuclei thus leading to improved material structure and properties. Realization of experimental small-scale crystallizer and electromagnetic system has been described in this article.

  5. Dynamic magnetic behavior of the mixed spin (2, 5/2) Ising system with antiferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic interactions on a bilayer square lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertaş Mehmet; Keskin Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Using the mean-field theory and Glauber-type stochastic dynamics, we study the dynamic magnetic properties of the mixed spin (2, 5/2) Ising system for the antiferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic (AFM/AFM) interactions on the bilayer square lattice under a time varying (sinusoidal) magnetic field. The time dependence of average magnetizations and the thermal variation of the dynamic magnetizations are examined to calculate the dynamic phase diagrams. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in the reduced temperature and magnetic field amplitude plane and the effects of interlayer coupling interaction on the critical behavior of the system are investigated. We also investigate the influence of the frequency and find that the system displays richer dynamic critical behavior for higher values of frequency than that of the lower values of it. We perform a comparison with the ferromagnetic/ferromagnetic (FM/FM) and AFM/FM interactions in order to see the effects of AFM/AFM interaction and observe that the system displays richer and more interesting dynamic critical behaviors for the AFM/AFM interaction than those for the FM/FM and AFM/FM interactions. (general)

  6. Study of the magnetic turbulence in a corotating interaction region in the interplanetary medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Valdés-Galicia

    Full Text Available We study the geometry of magnetic fluctuations in a CIR observed by Pioneer 10 at 5 AU between days 292 and 295 in 1973. We apply the methodology proposed by Bieber et al. to make a comparison of the relative importance of two geometric arrays of vector propagation of the magnetic field fluctuations: slab and two-dimensional (2D. We found that inside the studied CIR this model is not applicable due to the restrictions imposed on it. Our results are consistent with Alfvenic fluctuations propagating close to the radial direction, confirming Mavromichalaki et al.'s findings. A mixture of isotropic and magnetoacoustic waves in the region before the front shock would be consistent with our results, and a mixture of slab/2D and magnetoacoustic waves in a region after the reverse shock. We base the latter conclusions on the theoretical analysis made by Kunstmann. We discuss the reasons why the composite model can not be applied in the CIR studied although the fluctuations inside it are two dimensional.

    Key words. Solar physics · astrophysics and astronomy (magnetic fields · Space plasma physics (turbulence; waves and instabilities

  7. Study of the magnetic turbulence in a corotating interaction region in the interplanetary medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Valdés-Galicia

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available We study the geometry of magnetic fluctuations in a CIR observed by Pioneer 10 at 5 AU between days 292 and 295 in 1973. We apply the methodology proposed by Bieber et al. to make a comparison of the relative importance of two geometric arrays of vector propagation of the magnetic field fluctuations: slab and two-dimensional (2D. We found that inside the studied CIR this model is not applicable due to the restrictions imposed on it. Our results are consistent with Alfvenic fluctuations propagating close to the radial direction, confirming Mavromichalaki et al.'s findings. A mixture of isotropic and magnetoacoustic waves in the region before the front shock would be consistent with our results, and a mixture of slab/2D and magnetoacoustic waves in a region after the reverse shock. We base the latter conclusions on the theoretical analysis made by Kunstmann. We discuss the reasons why the composite model can not be applied in the CIR studied although the fluctuations inside it are two dimensional.Key words. Solar physics · astrophysics and astronomy (magnetic fields · Space plasma physics (turbulence; waves and instabilities

  8. Time evolution of a pair of distinguishable interacting spins subjected to controllable and noisy magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaudo, R.; Belousov, Yu.; Nakazato, H.; Messina, A.

    2018-05-01

    The quantum dynamics of a Jˆ2 = (jˆ1 +jˆ2)2-conserving Hamiltonian model describing two coupled spins jˆ1 and jˆ2 under controllable and fluctuating time-dependent magnetic fields is investigated. Each eigenspace of Jˆ2 is dynamically invariant and the Hamiltonian of the total system restricted to any one of such (j1 +j2) - |j1 -j2 | + 1 eigenspaces, possesses the SU(2) structure of the Hamiltonian of a single fictitious spin acted upon by the total magnetic field. We show that such a reducibility holds regardless of the time dependence of the externally applied field as well as of the statistical properties of the noise, here represented as a classical fluctuating magnetic field. The time evolution of the joint transition probabilities of the two spins jˆ1 and jˆ2 between two prefixed factorized states is examined, bringing to light peculiar dynamical properties of the system under scrutiny. When the noise-induced non-unitary dynamics of the two coupled spins is properly taken into account, analytical expressions for the joint Landau-Zener transition probabilities are reported. The possibility of extending the applicability of our results to other time-dependent spin models is pointed out.

  9. Interaction of ultra soft magnetic materials with the high-T{sub c} superconductor YBCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, Claudia; Treiber, Sebastian; Schuetz, Gisela [Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Heisenbergstrasse 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Walker, Patrick [Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Heisenbergstrasse 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Aalen University, Beethovenstrasse 1, 73430 Aalen (Germany); Albrecht, Joachim [Aalen University, Beethovenstrasse 1, 73430 Aalen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    We have grown bilayers of optimally doped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-δ} (YBCO) and ferromagnetic CoFeB on single-crystalline substrates by pulsed laser deposition and sputtering. These heterostructures are typically composed of about 100 nm YBCO and several 10 nm of CoFeB. Regarding the superconductor, the properties of the YBCO film change as a consequence of the vicinity of the ferromagnet. In detail we investigated the critical current density as a function of temperature, applied field and time as well as the transition temperature by SQUID magnetization measurements and quantitative magneto-optical measurements. The amorphous material CoFeB exhibits an in plane anisotropy and a very low coercivity. From magneto-optical images we find that the flux line lattice of the superconductor is mapped into the magnet and still visible as significant magnetic out-of-plane contrast at room temperature. We discuss this phenomenon as a new route to high-resolution mapping of the flux line distribution on a nanometer scale.

  10. Magnetic sublattice interactions in UFe4Al8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paixao, J.A.; Lebech, B.; Goncalves, A.P.

    1997-01-01

    in a magnetic field with polarized neutrons establish that the ferromagnetic U moment is 0.47(2)mu(B) per U atom. In a magnetic field applied in the [010] direction (basal plane) the Fe sublattice antiferromagnetism is aligned perpendicular to the field in the basal plane, i.e., in the direction [100......; for example at 4.6 T this canting is 25 degrees. Polarized-neutron experiments in the paramagnetic state show that the Fe susceptibility is almost isotropic; however, the response of the U 5f electrons is much smaller along the c axis, so that it is the hybridization between the Fe 3d and U 5f electrons......Previous neutron experiments on polycrystalline samples of UFe4Al8 have led to a series of conflicting proposals, including a spin-glass state, for the magnetic structure below the ordering temperature of similar to 150 K. Our experiments on a stoichiometric single crystal show that the principal...

  11. Magnetic interactions in praseodymium ruthenate Pr{sub 3}RuO{sub 7} with fluorite-related structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inabayashi, Masaki; Doi, Yoshihiro; Wakeshima, Makoto; Hinatsu, Yukio, E-mail: hinatsu@sci.hokudai.ac.jp

    2017-06-15

    Solid solutions Pr{sub 3}(Ru{sub 1-x}Ta{sub x})O{sub 7} (0≤x≤1.0) and (Pr{sub 1-x}Y{sub x}){sub 3}RuO{sub 7} (0≤x≤0.7) were obtained as a single phase compound. They crystallize in an orthorhombic superstructure derived from that of the cubic fluorite with space group Cmcm. The results of the Rietveld analysis for X-ray diffraction profiles of Pr{sub 3}(Ru{sub 1-x}Ta{sub x})O{sub 7} showed that Ru and Ta atoms are randomly situated at the six-coordinate 4b site. For (Pr{sub 1-x}Y{sub x}){sub 3}RuO{sub 7}, with increasing the concentration of Y ions (x value), the smaller Y ions occupy selectively the seven-coordinate 8g site rather than the eight-coordinate 4a site. Through magnetic susceptibility measurements for Pr{sub 3}(Ru{sub 1-x}Ta{sub x})O{sub 7}, the antiferromagnetic transition temperatures decrease linearly with increasing x value, and at x=0.75 no magnetic ordering was found down to 1.8 K, indicating the magnetic interaction is not one-dimensional, but three-dimensional. On the other hand, the antiferromagnetic transition temperature for (Pr{sub 1-x}Y{sub x}){sub 3}RuO{sub 7} decreases with increasing x value, but above x≥0.50 it becomes constant (~12 K). This result indicates that Pr{sup 3+} ions at the seven-coordinate site greatly contribute to the antiferromagnetic interactions observed in (Pr{sub 1-x}Y{sub x}){sub 3}RuO{sub 7}. Density functional calculations of Pr{sub 3}RuO{sub 7} demonstrate that the electronic structure gives insulating character and that oxygen 2p orbitals hybridize strongly with Ru 4d orbitals in the valence band (VB). Near the top of VB, the Pr 4 f orbitals at the seven-coordinated site also show a weak hybridization with the O(1) 2p orbitals. The Ru-O(1)-Pr superexchange pathway take part in three-dimensional magnetic interaction and play an important role in an enhancement of long-range magnetic ordering. - Graphical abstract: The spin densities and the spin polarization of Pr{sub 3}RuO{sub 7} are shown

  12. Cubic Dresselhaus interaction parameter from quantum corrections to the conductivity in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinescu, D. C.

    2017-09-01

    We evaluate the quantum corrections to the conductivity of a two-dimensional electron system with competing Rashba (R) and linear and cubic Dresselhaus (D) spin-orbit interactions in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field B . Within a perturbative approximation, we investigate the interplay between the spin-orbit coupling and the magnetic field in determining the transport regime in two different limiting scenarios: when only one of the linear terms, either Rashba or Dresselhaus, dominates, and at equal linear couplings, when the cubic Dresselhaus breaks the spin symmetry. In each instance, we find that for B higher than a critical value, the antilocalization correction is suppressed and the effective dephasing time saturates to a constant value determined only by the spin-orbit interaction. At equal R-D linear couplings, this value is directly proportional with the cubic Dresselhaus contribution. In the same regime, the magnetoconductivity is expressed as a simple logarithmic function dependent only on the cubic Dresselhaus constant.

  13. Fisher information of a single qubit interacts with a spin-qubit in the presence of a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwally, N.

    2018-06-01

    In this contribution, quantum Fisher information is utilized to estimate the parameters of a central qubit interacting with a single-spin qubit. The effect of the longitudinal, transverse and the rotating strengths of the magnetic field on the estimation degree is discussed. It is shown that, in the resonance case, the number of peaks and consequently the size of the estimation regions increase as the rotating magnetic field strength increases. The precision estimation of the central qubit parameters depends on the initial state settings of the central and the spin-qubit, either encode classical or quantum information. It is displayed that, the upper bounds of the estimation degree are large if the two qubits encode classical information. In the non-resonance case, the estimation degree depends on which of the longitudinal/transverse strength is larger. The coupling constant between the central qubit and the spin-qubit has a different effect on the estimation degree of the weight and the phase parameters, where the possibility of estimating the weight parameter decreases as the coupling constant increases, while it increases for the phase parameter. For large number of spin-particles, namely, we have a spin-bath particles, the upper bounds of the Fisher information with respect to the weight parameter of the central qubit decreases as the number of the spin particle increases. As the interaction time increases, the upper bounds appear at different initial values of the weight parameter.

  14. Study of beam-plasma interactions in the presence of a magnetic field; Etude d'interactions faisceau-plasma en la presence d'un champ magnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etievant, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-12-15

    The instabilities developing in a 'beam-plasma' system and in a 'double-beam' system in the presence of a magnetic field are discussed theoretically starting from the conductivity tensor expression for a multi-beam system. Oblique propagation is taken into account and this leads to the introduction of certain instability mechanisms which would not appear in the case of a propagation which is purely parallel or perpendicular to the magnetic field. Two experiments are described: a) Study of the collision of two counterstreaming electron beams: An instability has been observed experimentally which leads to the generation of a stationary cyclotron wave having a frequency of {omega}{sub ce}/2. A description is given of the measurement of the interaction frequency, of the wavelength and of the build-up time of the wave. b) Study of a 'beam-plasma' system: A description is given of the measurement of the spectra of excited waves and of the perturbation of the beam velocity distribution at the plasma-exit. This perturbation is very pronounced when 'plasma-plasma' interaction appears in the system. A study into cyclotron oscillations produced in the plasma by excitation due to the passage of the beam is also described in this report. (author) [French] Les instabilites se developpant dans un systeme 'faisceau-plasma' et dans un systeme 'faisceau-faisceau' en la presence d'un champ magnetique sont discutees theoriquement a partir de l'expression du tenseur de conductivite d'un systeme multi-faisceaux. La propagation oblique est prise en consideration, ce qui introduit certains mecanismes d'instabilite qui n'apparaitraient pas pour une propagation purement parallele ou perpendiculaire au champ magnetique. Deux experiences sont decrites: a) Etude de la collision de deux faisceaux d'electrons: Une instabilite conduisant a la generation d'une onde cyclotronique stationnaire a la frequence {omega}{sub ce}/2 a ete observee experimentalement. Les mesures de la frequence d'interaction

  15. Influence of the Coulomb interaction on the exchange coupling in granular magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udalov, O G; Beloborodov, I S

    2017-04-20

    We develop a theory of the exchange interaction between ferromagnetic (FM) metallic grains embedded into insulating matrix by taking into account the Coulomb blockade effects. For bulk ferromagnets separated by the insulating layer the exchange interaction strongly depends on the height and thickness of the tunneling barrier created by the insulator. We show that for FM grains embedded into insulating matrix the exchange coupling additionally depends on the dielectric properties of this matrix due to the Coulomb blockade effects. In particular, the FM coupling decreases with decreasing the dielectric permittivity of insulating matrix. We find that the change in the exchange interaction due to the Coulomb blockade effects can be a few tens of percent. Also, we study dependence of the intergrain exchange interaction on the grain size and other parameters of the system.

  16. Air-electron stream interactions during magnetic resonance IGRT. Skin irradiation outside the treatment field during accelerated partial breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Min; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Wu, Hong-Gyun; Kim, Jung-in; Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Jin Ho; Jeon, Seung Hyuck; Choi, Noorie

    2018-01-01

    To investigate and to prevent irradiation outside the treatment field caused by an electron stream in the air generated by the magnetic field during magnetic resonance image-guided accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). In all, 20 patients who received APBI with a magnetic resonance image-guided radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) system were prospectively studied. The prescription dose was 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions of 3.85 Gy and delivered with a tri-cobalt system (the ViewRay system). For each patient, primary plans were delivered for the first five fractions and modified plans with different gantry angles from those of the primary plan (in-treatment plans) were delivered for the remaining five fractions to reduce the skin dose. A 1 cm thick bolus was placed in front of the patient's jaw, ipsilateral shoulder, and arm to shield them from the electron stream. Radiochromic EBT3 films were attached to the front (towards the breast) and back (towards the head) of the bolus during treatment. Correlations between the measured values and the tumor locations, treatment times, and tumor sizes were investigated. For a single fraction delivery, the average areas of the measured isodoses of 14% (0.54 Gy), 12% (0.46 Gy), and 10% (0.39 Gy) at the front of the boluses were as large as 3, 10.4, and 21.4 cm 2 , respectively, whereas no significant dose could be measured at the back of the boluses. Statistically significant but weak correlations were observed between the measured values and the treatment times. During radiotherapy for breast cancer with an MR-IGRT system, the patient must be shielded from electron streams in the air generated by the interaction of the magnetic field with the beams of the three-cobalt treatment unit to avoid unwanted irradiation of the skin outside the treatment field. (orig.) [de

  17. The superexchange interactions and magnetic ordering in low-dimentional ludwigite Ni_5GeB_2O_1_0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofronova, S.N.; Bezmaternykh, L.N.; Eremin, E.V.; Nazarenko, I.I.; Volkov, N.V.; Kartashev, A.V.; Moshkina, E.M.

    2016-01-01

    The ludwigite Ni_5Ge(BO_5)_2 belongs to a family of oxyborates which have low-dimensional subunits in the form of three-leg ladders unit structure. This material was studied by magnetic and thermodynamic measurements. Ni_5Ge(BO_5)_2 does not show full long-range magnetic order, but one goes into a partial ordering or spin-glass state at 87 K. The superexchange interactions were calculated in the framework of a simple indirect coupling model. Different models of magnetic structure of Ni_5Ge(BO_5)_2 and its unique magnetic behaviour was discussed. - Highlights: • The single crystals of Ni_5Ge(BO_5)_2 with a ludwigite structure were grown. • Magnetic and the specific heat measurements were performed. • The calculation of the exchange interactions shows a competition between interactions. • The magnetic behaviour corresponds to ions moments part freezing or spin-glass state. • We propose two models of magnetic ordering in Ni_5Ge(BO_5)_2.

  18. Noncollinear magnetic ordering in the Shastry-Sutherland Kondo lattice model: Insulating regime and the role of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Munir; Sengupta, Pinaki

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the necessary conditions for the emergence of complex, noncoplanar magnetic configurations in a Kondo lattice model with classical local moments on the geometrically frustrated Shastry-Sutherland lattice and their evolution in an external magnetic field. We demonstrate that topologically nontrivial spin textures, including a new canted flux state, with nonzero scalar chirality arise dynamically from realistic short-range interactions. Our results establish that a finite Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction is necessary for the emergence of these novel magnetic states when the system is at half filling, for which the ground state is insulating. We identify the minimal set of DM vectors that are necessary for the stabilization of chiral magnetic phases. The noncoplanarity of such structures can be tuned continually by applying an external magnetic field. This is the first part in a series of two papers; in the following paper the effects of frustration, thermal fluctuations, and magnetic field on the emergence of novel noncollinear states at metallic filling of itinerant electrons are discussed. Our results are crucial in understanding the magnetic and electronic properties of the rare-earth tetraboride family of frustrated magnets with separate spin and charge degrees of freedom.

  19. Moessbauer effect studies of magnetic interactions in iron and dilute iron alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woude, F. van der; Schurer, P.J.; Sawatzky, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    A temperature-dependent Moessbauer study was conducted in FeX alloys, where X = Al, Si, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, and Ni, aimed at solving the problem of 'what is localized and what is itinerant in iron ferromagnetism'. The experimental results are interpreted using a phenomenological model based on a modified Zener-Vonsovskij theory. Absorption spectra of FeX alloys were measured as a function of temperature. It was found that the 3d magnetic moments in iron were mainly localized while exchange coupling was provided by partly itinerant 3d electrons. (L.D.)

  20. Static magnetic susceptibility, crystal field and exchange interactions in rare earth titanate pyrochlores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkin, B Z; Lummen, T T A; van Loosdrecht, P H M; Dhalenne, G; Zakirov, A R

    2010-07-14

    The experimental temperature dependence (T = 2-300 K) of single crystal bulk and site susceptibilities of rare earth titanate pyrochlores R(2)Ti(2)O(7) (R = Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb) is analyzed in the framework of crystal field theory and a mean field approximation. Analytical expressions for the site and bulk susceptibilities of the pyrochlore lattice are derived taking into account long range dipole-dipole interactions and anisotropic exchange interactions between the nearest neighbor rare earth ions. The sets of crystal field parameters and anisotropic exchange coupling constants have been determined and their variations along the lanthanide series are discussed.