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Sample records for magnetic biosensor based

  1. Francisella tularensis detection using magnetic labels and a magnetic biosensor based on frequency mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Martin H.F.; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Hartmann, Markus; Miethe, Peter; Oster, Juergen; Keusgen, Michael

    2007-01-01

    A biosensor that uses resonant coils with a special frequency-mixing technique and magnetic beads as detectable labels has been established for the detection of Francisella tularensis, the causative agent for tularemia. The detection principle is based on a sandwich immunoassay using an anti-Ft antibody for immunofiltration immobilized to ABICAP[reg] polyethylene filters, and biotinylated with streptavidin-coated magnetic beads as labels. The linear detection range of this biosensor was found to be 10 4 -10 6 cfu F. tularensis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) per ml. Tested sample matrices were physiological PBS buffer and rabbit serum

  2. Francisella tularensis detection using magnetic labels and a magnetic biosensor based on frequency mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Martin H.F. [Institute for Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Philipps-Universitaet Marburg (Germany); Krause, Hans-Joachim [Institute of Bio-and Nanosystems (IBN-2), Research Center Juelich (Germany); Hartmann, Markus [Institute for Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Philipps-Universitaet Marburg (Germany); Miethe, Peter [SENOVA GmbH, Jena (Germany); Oster, Juergen [chemagen GmbH, Baesweiler (Germany); Keusgen, Michael [Institute for Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Philipps-Universitaet Marburg (Germany)]. E-mail: Keusgen@staff.uni-marburg.de

    2007-04-15

    A biosensor that uses resonant coils with a special frequency-mixing technique and magnetic beads as detectable labels has been established for the detection of Francisella tularensis, the causative agent for tularemia. The detection principle is based on a sandwich immunoassay using an anti-Ft antibody for immunofiltration immobilized to ABICAP[reg] polyethylene filters, and biotinylated with streptavidin-coated magnetic beads as labels. The linear detection range of this biosensor was found to be 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} cfu F. tularensis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) per ml. Tested sample matrices were physiological PBS buffer and rabbit serum.

  3. Biosensor based on measurements of the clustering dynamics of magnetic particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a biosensor for optical detection of Brownian relaxation dynamics of magnetic particles measured by light transmission. The magnetic particles can be functionalized with biological ligands for the detection of target analytes in a sample.......Disclosed herein is a biosensor for optical detection of Brownian relaxation dynamics of magnetic particles measured by light transmission. The magnetic particles can be functionalized with biological ligands for the detection of target analytes in a sample....

  4. Cholinesterase-based biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štěpánková, Šárka; Vorčáková, Katarína

    2016-01-01

    Recently, cholinesterase-based biosensors are widely used for assaying anticholinergic compounds. Primarily biosensors based on enzyme inhibition are useful analytical tools for fast screening of inhibitors, such as organophosphates and carbamates. The present review is aimed at compilation of the most important facts about cholinesterase based biosensors, types of physico-chemical transduction, immobilization strategies and practical applications.

  5. Biosensor based on the measurements of clustering dynamics of magnetic particles using a double pass setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a biosensor for optical detection of Brownian relaxation dynamics of magnetic particles measured by light transmission. The magnetic particles can be functionalized with biological ligands for the detection of target analytes in a sample. The setup may be implemented in a disc...

  6. Magnetic particles–based biosensor for biogenic amines using an optical oxygen sensor as a transducer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospišková, K.; Šafařík, Ivo; Šebela, M.; Kuncová, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 180, 3-4 (2013), s. 311-318 ISSN 0026-3672 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX08240901 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : magnetic carriers * optical fibre biosensor * diamine oxidase * fluorescence quenching * ruthenium complex Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; CE - Biochemistry (UCHP-M) Impact factor: 3.719, year: 2013

  7. A Disposable Organophosphorus Pesticides Enzyme Biosensor Based on Magnetic Composite Nano-Particles Modified Screen Printed Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigang Wen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A disposable organophosphorus pesticides (OPs enzyme biosensor based on magnetic composite nanoparticle-modified screen printed carbon electrodes (SPCE has been developed. Firstly, an acetylcholinesterase (AChE-coated Fe3O4/Au (GMP magnetic nanoparticulate (GMP-AChE was synthesized. Then, GMP-AChE was absorbed on the surface of a SPCE modified by carbon nanotubes (CNTs/nano-ZrO2/prussian blue (PB/Nafion (Nf composite membrane by an external magnetic field. Thus, the biosensor (SPCE|CNTs/ZrO2/PB/Nf|GMP-AChE for OPs was fabricated. The surface of the biosensor was characterized by scanning electron micrography (SEM and X-ray fluorescence spectrometery (XRFS and its electrochemical properties were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV. The degree of inhibition (A% of the AChE by OPs was determined by measuring the reduction current of the PB generated by the AChE-catalyzed hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine (ATCh. In pH = 7.5 KNO3 solution, the A was related linearly to the concentration of dimethoate in the range from 1.0 × 10-3–10 ng•mL-1 with a detection limit of 5.6 × 10-4 ng•mL-1. The recovery rates in Chinese cabbage exhibited a range of 88%–105%. The results were consistent with the standard gas chromatography (GC method. Compared with other enzyme biosensors the proposed biosensor exhibited high sensitivity, good selectivity with disposable, low consumption of sample. In particular its surface can be easily renewed by removal of the magnet. The convenient, fast and sensitive voltammetric measurement opens new opportunities for OPs analysis.

  8. Magnetic particles-based biosensor for biogenic amines using an optical oxygen sensor as a transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospiskova, K.; Sebela, M.; Safarik, I.; Kuncova, G.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a fibre optic biosensor with incorporated magnetic microparticles for the determination of biogenic amines. The enzyme diamine oxidase from Pisum sativum was immobilized either on chitosan-coated magnetic microparticles or on commercial microbeads modified with a ferrofluid. Both the immobilized enzyme and the ruthenium complex were incorporated into a UV-cured inorganic-organic polymer composite and deposited on a lens that was connected, by optical fibres, to an electro-optical detector. The enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of amines under consumption of oxygen. The latter was determined by measuring the quenched fluorescence lifetime of the ruthenium complex. The limits of detection for the biogenic amines putrescine and cadaverine are 25-30 μmol L -1 , and responses are linear up to a concentration of 1 mmol L -1 . (author)

  9. Surface stress-based biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Shengbo; Zhao, Yuan; Zhang, Wendong; Li, Pengwei; Hu, Jie; Li, Gang

    2014-01-15

    Surface stress-based biosensors, as one kind of label-free biosensors, have attracted lots of attention in the process of information gathering and measurement for the biological, chemical and medical application with the development of technology and society. This kind of biosensors offers many advantages such as short response time (less than milliseconds) and a typical sensitivity at nanogram, picoliter, femtojoule and attomolar level. Furthermore, it simplifies sample preparation and testing procedures. In this work, progress made towards the use of surface stress-based biosensors for achieving better performance is critically reviewed, including our recent achievement, the optimally circular membrane-based biosensors and biosensor array. The further scientific and technological challenges in this field are also summarized. Critical remark and future steps towards the ultimate surface stress-based biosensors are addressed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Biosensors based on cantilevers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Mar; Carrascosa, Laura G; Zinoviev, Kiril; Plaza, Jose A; Lechuga, Laura M

    2009-01-01

    Microcantilevers based-biosensors are a new label-free technique that allows the direct detection of biomolecular interactions in a label-less way and with great accuracy by translating the biointeraction into a nanomechanical motion. Low cost and reliable standard silicon technologies are widely used for the fabrication of cantilevers with well-controlled mechanical properties. Over the last years, the number of applications of these sensors has shown a fast growth in diverse fields, such as genomic or proteomic, because of the biosensor flexibility, the low sample consumption, and the non-pretreated samples required. In this chapter, we report a dedicated design and a fabrication process of highly sensitive microcantilever silicon sensors. We will describe as well an application of the device in the environmental field showing the immunodetection of an organic toxic pesticide as an example. The cantilever biofunctionalization process and the subsequent pesticide determination are detected in real time by monitoring the nanometer-scale bending of the microcantilever due to a differential surface stress generated between both surfaces of the device.

  11. Micro- and nanogap based biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, Jules L.

    2017-01-01

    Biosensors are used for the detection of a range of analytes for applications in healthcare, food production, environmental monitoring and biodefence. However, many biosensing platforms are large, expensive, require skilled operators or necessitate the analyte to be labelled. Direct electrochemical detection methods present a particularly attractive platform due to the simplified instrumentation when compared to other techniques such as fluorescence-based biosensors. With modern integrated ci...

  12. Self-assembly of glucose oxidase on reduced graphene oxide-magnetic nanoparticles nanocomposite-based direct electrochemistry for reagentless glucose biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakapongpan, Saithip; Poo-Arporn, Rungtiva P

    2017-07-01

    A novel approach of the immobilization of a highly selective and stable glucose biosensor based on direct electrochemistry was fabricated by a self-assembly of glucose oxidase (GOD) on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) covalently conjugated to magnetic nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 NPs) modified on a magnetic screen-printed electrode (MSPE). The RGO-Fe 3 O 4 nanocomposite has remarkable enhancement in large surface areas, is favorable environment for enzyme immobilization, facilitates electron transfer between enzymes and electrode surfaces and possesses superparamagnetism property. The morphology and electrochemical properties of RGO-Fe 3 O 4 /GOD were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry. The modified electrode was a fast, direct electron transfer with an apparent electron transfer rate constant (k s ) of 13.78s -1 . The proposed biosensor showed fast amperometric response (3s) to glucose with a wide linear range from 0.05 to 1mM, a low detection limit of 0.1μM at a signal to noise ratio of 3 (S/N=3) and good sensitivity (5.9μA/mM). The resulting biosensor has high stability, good reproducibility, excellent selectivity and successfully applied detection potential at -0.45V. This mediatorless glucose sensing used the advantages of covalent bonding and self-assembly as a new approach for immobilizing enzymes without any binder. It would be worth noting that it opens a new avenue for fabricating excellent electrochemical biosensors. This is a new approach that reporting the immobilization of glucose oxidase on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) covalently conjugated to magnetic nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 NPs) by electrostatic interaction and modified screen printed electrode. We propose the reagentless with fabrication method without binder and adhesive agents for immobilized enzyme. Fe 3 O 4 NPs increasing surface area to enhance the immobilization and prevent

  13. Magnetically-refreshable receptor platform structures for reusable nano-biosensor chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Haneul; Cho, Dong-guk; Park, Juhun; Nam, Ki Wan; Cho, Young Tak; Chen, Xing; Hong, Seunghun; Lee, Dong Jun; Park, Jae Yeol

    2016-01-01

    We developed a magnetically-refreshable receptor platform structure which can be integrated with quite versatile nano-biosensor structures to build reusable nano-biosensor chips. This structure allows one to easily remove used receptor molecules from a biosensor surface and reuse the biosensor for repeated sensing operations. Using this structure, we demonstrated reusable immunofluorescence biosensors. Significantly, since our method allows one to place receptor molecules very close to a nano-biosensor surface, it can be utilized to build reusable carbon nanotube transistor-based biosensors which require receptor molecules within a Debye length from the sensor surface. Furthermore, we also show that a single sensor chip can be utilized to detect two different target molecules simply by replacing receptor molecules using our method. Since this method does not rely on any chemical reaction to refresh sensor chips, it can be utilized for versatile biosensor structures and virtually-general receptor molecular species. (paper)

  14. Recent Advances in Magnetic Microfluidic Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Giouroudi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of portable biosening devices for the detection of biological entities such as biomolecules, pathogens, and cells has become extremely significant over the past years. Scientific research, driven by the promise for miniaturization and integration of complex laboratory equipment on inexpensive, reliable, and accurate devices, has successfully shifted several analytical and diagnostic methods to the submillimeter scale. The miniaturization process was made possible with the birth of microfluidics, a technology that could confine, manipulate, and mix very small volumes of liquids on devices integrated on standard silicon technology chips. Such devices are then directly translating the presence of these entities into an electronic signal that can be read out with a portable instrumentation. For the aforementioned tasks, the use of magnetic markers (magnetic particles—MPs—functionalized with ligands in combination with the application of magnetic fields is being strongly investigated by research groups worldwide. The greatest merits of using magnetic fields are that they can be applied either externally or from integrated microconductors and they can be well-tuned by adjusting the applied current on the microconductors. Moreover, the magnetic markers can be manipulated inside microfluidic channels by high gradient magnetic fields that can in turn be detected by magnetic sensors. All the above make this technology an ideal candidate for the development of such microfluidic biosensors. In this review, focus is given only to very recent advances in biosensors that use microfluidics in combination with magnetic sensors and magnetic markers/nanoparticles.

  15. Magnetic biosensor system to detect biological targets

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan; Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2012-01-01

    magnetic concentration, magnetic as well as mechanical trapping and magnetic sensing. Target detection is based on the size difference between bare magnetic beads and magnetic beads with targets attached. This method remedies the need for a coating layer

  16. Biosensors based on nanomaterials and nanodevices

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Biosensors Based on Nanomaterials and Nanodevices links interdisciplinary research from leading experts to provide graduate students, academics, researchers, and industry professionals alike with a comprehensive source for key advancements and future trends in nanostructured biosensor development. It describes the concepts, principles, materials, device fabrications, functions, system integrations, and applications of various types of biosensors based on signal transduction mechanisms, including fluorescence, photonic crystal, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, electrochemistry, electro-lumine

  17. Graphene based biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gürel, Hikmet Hakan, E-mail: hhakan.gurel@kocaeli.edu.tr [Kocaeli University, Kocaeli (Turkey); Salmankurt, Bahadır [Sakarya University, Sakarya (Turkey)

    2016-03-25

    Nanometer-sized graphene as a 2D material has unique chemical and electronic properties. Because of its unique physical, chemical, and electronic properties, its interesting shape and size make it a promising nanomaterial in many biological applications. It is expected that biomaterials incorporating graphene will be developed for the graphene-based drug delivery systems and biomedical devices. The interactions of biomolecules and graphene are long-ranged and very weak. Development of new techniques is very desirable for design of bioelectronics sensors and devices. In this work, we present first-principles calculations within density functional theory to calculate effects of charging on nucleobases on graphene. It is shown that how modify structural and electronic properties of nucleobases on graphene by applied charging.

  18. A New Laccase Based Biosensor for Tartrazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Zulaikha Mazlan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Laccase enzyme, a commonly used enzyme for the construction of biosensors for phenolic compounds was used for the first time to develop a new biosensor for the determination of the azo-dye tartrazine. The electrochemical biosensor was based on the immobilization of laccase on functionalized methacrylate-acrylate microspheres. The biosensor membrane is a composite of the laccase conjugated microspheres and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs coated on a carbon-paste screen-printed electrode. The reaction involving tartrazine can be catalyzed by laccase enzyme, where the current change was measured by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV at 1.1 V. The anodic peak current was linear within the tartrazine concentration range of 0.2 to 14 μM (R2 = 0.979 and the detection limit was 0.04 μM. Common food ingredients or additives such as glucose, sucrose, ascorbic acid, phenol and sunset yellow did not interfere with the biosensor response. Furthermore, the biosensor response was stable up to 30 days of storage period at 4 °C. Foods and beverage were used as real samples for the biosensor validation. The biosensor response to tartrazine showed no significant difference with a standard HPLC method for tartrazine analysis.

  19. A New Laccase Based Biosensor for Tartrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Siti Zulaikha; Lee, Yook Heng; Hanifah, Sharina Abu

    2017-12-09

    Laccase enzyme, a commonly used enzyme for the construction of biosensors for phenolic compounds was used for the first time to develop a new biosensor for the determination of the azo-dye tartrazine. The electrochemical biosensor was based on the immobilization of laccase on functionalized methacrylate-acrylate microspheres. The biosensor membrane is a composite of the laccase conjugated microspheres and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) coated on a carbon-paste screen-printed electrode. The reaction involving tartrazine can be catalyzed by laccase enzyme, where the current change was measured by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) at 1.1 V. The anodic peak current was linear within the tartrazine concentration range of 0.2 to 14 μM ( R ² = 0.979) and the detection limit was 0.04 μM. Common food ingredients or additives such as glucose, sucrose, ascorbic acid, phenol and sunset yellow did not interfere with the biosensor response. Furthermore, the biosensor response was stable up to 30 days of storage period at 4 °C. Foods and beverage were used as real samples for the biosensor validation. The biosensor response to tartrazine showed no significant difference with a standard HPLC method for tartrazine analysis.

  20. Nanomaterials based biosensors for cancer biomarker detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, Bansi D; Kumar, Saurabh; Pandey, Chandra Mouli

    2016-01-01

    Biosensors have enormous potential to contribute to the evolution of new molecular diagnostic techniques for patients suffering with cancerous diseases. A major obstacle preventing faster development of biosensors pertains to the fact that cancer is a highly complex set of diseases. The oncologists currently rely on a few biomarkers and histological characterization of tumors. Some of the signatures include epigenetic and genetic markers, protein profiles, changes in gene expression, and post-translational modifications of proteins. These molecular signatures offer new opportunities for development of biosensors for cancer detection. In this context, conducting paper has recently been found to play an important role towards the fabrication of a biosensor for cancer biomarker detection. In this paper we will focus on results of some of the recent studies obtained in our laboratories relating to fabrication and application of nanomaterial modified paper based biosensors for cancer biomarker detection. (paper)

  1. Improved biosensor-based detection system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Described is a new biosensor-based detection system for effector compounds, useful for in vivo applications in e.g. screening and selecting of cells which produce a small molecule effector compound or which take up a small molecule effector compound from its environment. The detection system...... comprises a protein or RNA-based biosensor for the effector compound which indirectly regulates the expression of a reporter gene via two hybrid proteins, providing for fewer false signals or less 'noise', tuning of sensitivity or other advantages over conventional systems where the biosensor directly...

  2. Magnetic biosensor system to detect biological targets

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan

    2012-09-01

    Magneto-resistive sensors in combination with magnetic beads provide sensing platforms, which are small in size and highly sensitive. These platforms can be fully integrated with microchannels and electronics to enable devices capable of performing complex tasks. Commonly, a sandwich method is used that requires a specific coating of the sensor\\'s surface to immobilize magnetic beads and biological targets on top of the sensor. This paper concerns a micro device to detect biological targets using magnetic concentration, magnetic as well as mechanical trapping and magnetic sensing. Target detection is based on the size difference between bare magnetic beads and magnetic beads with targets attached. This method remedies the need for a coating layer and reduces the number of steps required to run an experiment. © 2012 IEEE.

  3. PRINCIPLES OF AFFINITY-BASED BIOSENSORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the amount of resources that have been invested by national and international academic, government, and commercial sectors to develop affinity-based biosensor products, little obvious success has been realized through commercialization of these devices for specific applic...

  4. Design Strategies for Aptamer-Based Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kun; Liang, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Nandi

    2010-01-01

    Aptamers have been widely used as recognition elements for biosensor construction, especially in the detection of proteins or small molecule targets, and regarded as promising alternatives for antibodies in bioassay areas. In this review, we present an overview of reported design strategies for the fabrication of biosensors and classify them into four basic modes: target-induced structure switching mode, sandwich or sandwich-like mode, target-induced dissociation/displacement mode and competitive replacement mode. In view of the unprecedented advantages brought about by aptamers and smart design strategies, aptamer-based biosensors are expected to be one of the most promising devices in bioassay related applications. PMID:22399891

  5. Biosensors based on gold nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Vidotti,Marcio; Carvalhal,Rafaela F.; Mendes,Renata K.; Ferreira,Danielle C. M.; Kubota,Lauro T.

    2011-01-01

    The present review discusses the latest advances in biosensor technology achieved by the assembly of biomolecules associated with gold nanoparticles in analytical devices. This review is divided in sections according to the biomolecule employed in the biosensor development: (i) immunocompounds; (ii) DNA/RNA and functional DNA/RNA; and (iii) enzymes and Heme proteins. In order to facilitate the comprehension each section was subdivided according to the transduction mode. Gold nanoparticles bas...

  6. Yeast-based biosensors: design and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniran, Adebola; Sherer, Michael; Tyo, Keith E J

    2015-02-01

    Yeast-based biosensing (YBB) is an exciting research area, as many studies have demonstrated the use of yeasts to accurately detect specific molecules. Biosensors incorporating various yeasts have been reported to detect an incredibly large range of molecules including but not limited to odorants, metals, intracellular metabolites, carcinogens, lactate, alcohols, and sugars. We review the detection strategies available for different types of analytes, as well as the wide range of output methods that have been incorporated with yeast biosensors. We group biosensors into two categories: those that are dependent upon transcription of a gene to report the detection of a desired molecule and those that are independent of this reporting mechanism. Transcription-dependent biosensors frequently depend on heterologous expression of sensing elements from non-yeast organisms, a strategy that has greatly expanded the range of molecules available for detection by YBBs. Transcription-independent biosensors circumvent the problem of sensing difficult-to-detect analytes by instead relying on yeast metabolism to generate easily detected molecules when the analyte is present. The use of yeast as the sensing element in biosensors has proven to be successful and continues to hold great promise for a variety of applications. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permission@oup.com.

  7. Fiber optic-based biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligler, Frances S.

    1991-01-01

    The NRL fiber optic biosensor is a device which measures the formation of a fluorescent complex at the surface of an optical fiber. Antibodies and DNA binding proteins provide the mechanism for recognizing an analyze and immobilizing a fluorescent complex on the fiber surface. The fiber optic biosensor is fast, sensitive, and permits analysis of hazardous materials remote from the instrumentation. The fiber optic biosensor is described in terms of the device configuration, chemistry for protein immobilization, and assay development. A lab version is being used for assay development and performance characterization while a portable device is under development. Antibodies coated on the fiber are stable for up to two years of storage prior to use. The fiber optic biosensor was used to measure concentration of toxins in the parts per billion (ng/ml) range in under a minute. Immunoassays for small molecules and whole bacteria are under development. Assays using DNA probes as the detection element can also be used with the fiber optic sensor, which is currently being developed to detect biological warfare agents, explosives, pathogens, and toxic materials which pollute the environment.

  8. Graphene-based field-effect transistor biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen; , Junhong; Mao, Shun; Lu, Ganhua

    2017-06-14

    The disclosure provides a field-effect transistor (FET)-based biosensor and uses thereof. In particular, to FET-based biosensors using thermally reduced graphene-based sheets as a conducting channel decorated with nanoparticle-biomolecule conjugates. The present disclosure also relates to FET-based biosensors using metal nitride/graphene hybrid sheets. The disclosure provides a method for detecting a target biomolecule in a sample using the FET-based biosensor described herein.

  9. Recent Progress in Lectin-Based Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baozhen Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews recent progress in the development of lectin-based biosensors used for the determination of glucose, pathogenic bacteria and toxins, cancer cells, and lectins. Lectin proteins have been widely used for the construction of optical and electrochemical biosensors by exploiting the specific binding affinity to carbohydrates. Among lectin proteins, concanavalin A (Con A is most frequently used for this purpose as glucose- and mannose-selective lectin. Con A is useful for immobilizing enzymes including glucose oxidase (GOx and horseradish peroxidase (HRP on the surface of a solid support to construct glucose and hydrogen peroxide sensors, because these enzymes are covered with intrinsic hydrocarbon chains. Con A-modified electrodes can be used as biosensors sensitive to glucose, cancer cells, and pathogenic bacteria covered with hydrocarbon chains. The target substrates are selectively adsorbed to the surface of Con A-modified electrodes through strong affinity of Con A to hydrocarbon chains. A recent topic in the development of lectin-based biosensors is a successful use of nanomaterials, such as metal nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes, for amplifying output signals of the sensors. In addition, lectin-based biosensors are useful for studying glycan expression on living cells.

  10. A magnetic biosensor system for detection of E. coli

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan

    2013-07-01

    This work describes a device for detecting E. coli bacteria by manipulating superparamagnetic beads to a sensing area and immobilizing them in a trapping well. The trapping well replaces the biochemical immobilization layer, which is commonly used in magnetic biosensor systems. A concept exploiting the volume difference between bare magnetic beads and magnetic bead-bioanalyte compounds is utilized to detect E. coli bacteria. Trapped beads are detected by the help of a tunnel magneto-resistive sensor. Frequency modulation is employed, in order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, enabling the detection of individual superparamagnetic beads of 2.8 μm in diameter. Replacing the biochemical immobilization layer by the trapping well greatly simplifies the detection process. After applying the mixture of E. coli and magnetic beads to the biosensor system, bacteria detection is achieved in a single step, within a few minutes. © 2013 IEEE.

  11. Single-Step Incubation Determination of miRNAs in Cancer Cells Using an Amperometric Biosensor Based on Competitive Hybridization onto Magnetic Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vargas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work reports an amperometric biosensor for the determination of miRNA-21, a relevant oncogene. The methodology involves a competitive DNA-target miRNA hybridization assay performed on the surface of magnetic microbeads (MBs and amperometric transduction at screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs. The target miRNA competes with a synthetic fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC-modified miRNA with an identical sequence for hybridization with a biotinylated and complementary DNA probe (b-Cp immobilized on the surface of streptavidin-modified MBs (b-Cp-MBs. Upon labeling, the FITC-modified miRNA attached to the MBs with horseradish peroxidase (HRP-conjugated anti-FITC Fab fragments and magnetic capturing of the MBs onto the working electrode surface of SPCEs. The cathodic current measured at −0.20 V (versus the Ag pseudo-reference electrode was demonstrated to be inversely proportional to the concentration of the target miRNA. This convenient biosensing method provided a linear range between 0.7 and 10.0 nM and a limit of detection (LOD of 0.2 nM (5 fmol in 25 μL of sample for the synthetic target miRNA without any amplification step. An acceptable selectivity towards single-base mismatched oligonucleotides, a high storage stability of the b-Cp-MBs, and usefulness for the accurate determination of miRNA-21 in raw total RNA (RNAt extracted from breast cancer cells (MCF-7 were demonstrated.

  12. S-Layer Protein-Based Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Schuster

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper highlights the application of bacterial surface (S- layer proteins as versatile components for the fabrication of biosensors. One technologically relevant feature of S-layer proteins is their ability to self-assemble on many surfaces and interfaces to form a crystalline two-dimensional (2D protein lattice. The S-layer lattice on the surface of a biosensor becomes part of the interface architecture linking the bioreceptor to the transducer interface, which may cause signal amplification. The S-layer lattice as ultrathin, highly porous structure with functional groups in a well-defined special distribution and orientation and an overall anti-fouling characteristics can significantly raise the limit in terms of variety and the ease of bioreceptor immobilization, compactness of bioreceptor molecule arrangement, sensitivity, specificity, and detection limit for many types of biosensors. The present paper discusses and summarizes examples for the successful implementation of S-layer lattices on biosensor surfaces in order to give a comprehensive overview on the application potential of these bioinspired S-layer protein-based biosensors.

  13. S-Layer Protein-Based Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Bernhard

    2018-04-11

    The present paper highlights the application of bacterial surface (S-) layer proteins as versatile components for the fabrication of biosensors. One technologically relevant feature of S-layer proteins is their ability to self-assemble on many surfaces and interfaces to form a crystalline two-dimensional (2D) protein lattice. The S-layer lattice on the surface of a biosensor becomes part of the interface architecture linking the bioreceptor to the transducer interface, which may cause signal amplification. The S-layer lattice as ultrathin, highly porous structure with functional groups in a well-defined special distribution and orientation and an overall anti-fouling characteristics can significantly raise the limit in terms of variety and the ease of bioreceptor immobilization, compactness of bioreceptor molecule arrangement, sensitivity, specificity, and detection limit for many types of biosensors. The present paper discusses and summarizes examples for the successful implementation of S-layer lattices on biosensor surfaces in order to give a comprehensive overview on the application potential of these bioinspired S-layer protein-based biosensors.

  14. Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechnitz, Garry A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes theory and principles behind biosensors that incorporate biological components as part of a sensor or probe. Projects major applications in medicine and veterinary medicine, biotechnology, food and agriculture, environmental studies, and the military. Surveys current use of biosensors. (ML)

  15. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-based glucose biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kros, A.; Hövell, W.F.M. van; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.; Nolte, R.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Amperometric biosensors for the recognition of glucose oxidase (GOx) based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) were fabricated for the first time. The resulting biosensor has potential applications for long-term glucose measurements.

  16. Spreeta-based biosensor for endocrine disruptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchesini, G.R.; Koopal, K.; Meulenberg, E.; Haasnoot, W.; Irth, H.

    2007-01-01

    The construction and performance of an automated low-cost Spreeta¿-based prototype biosensor system for the detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is described. The system consists primarily of a Spreeta miniature liquid sensor incorporated into an aluminum flow cell holder, dedicated to

  17. Fiber optic-based regenerable biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepaniak, Michael J.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1993-01-01

    A fiber optic-based regenerable biosensor. The biosensor is particularly suitable for use in microscale work in situ. In one embodiment, the biosensor comprises a reaction chamber disposed adjacent the distal end of a waveguide and adapted to receive therein a quantity of a sample containing an analyte. Leading into the chamber is a plurality of capillary conduits suitable for introducing into the chamber antibodies or other reagents suitable for selective interaction with a predetermined analyte. Following such interaction, the contents of the chamber may be subjected to an incident energy signal for developing fluorescence within the chamber that is detectable via the optical fiber and which is representative of the presence, i.e. concentration, of the selected analyte. Regeneration of the biosensor is accomplished by replacement of the reagents and/or the analyte, or a combination of these, at least in part via one or more of the capillary conduits. The capillary conduits extend from their respective terminal ends that are in fluid communication with the chamber, away from the chamber to respective location(s) remote from the chamber thereby permitting in situ location of the chamber and remote manipulation and/or analysis of the activity with the chamber.

  18. Biosensors and environmental health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Preedy, Victor R; Patel, Vinood B

    2012-01-01

    ..., bacterial biosensors, antibody-based biosensors, enzymatic, amperometric and electrochemical aspects, quorum sensing, DNA-biosensors, cantilever biosensors, bioluminescence and other methods and applications...

  19. Potentiometric urea biosensor utilizing nanobiocomposite of chitosan-iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A; Israr, M Q; Sadaf, J R; Nur, O; Willander, M; AlSalhi, M S; Atif, M; Ansari, Anees A; Ahmed, E

    2013-01-01

    The iron oxide (Fe 3 O 4 ) magnetic nanoparticles have been fabricated through a simple, cheap and reproducible approach. Scanning electron microscope, x-rays powder diffraction of the fabricated nanoparticles. Furthermore, the fabrication of potentiometric urea biosensor is carried out through drop casting the initially prepared isopropanol and chitosan solution, containing Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles, on the glass fiber filter with a diameter of 2 cm and a copper wire (of thickness −500 μm) has been utilized to extract the voltage signal from the functionalized nanoparticles. The functionalization of surface of the Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles is obtained by the electrostatically immobilization of urease onto the nanobiocomposite of the chitosan- Fe 3 O 4 in order to enhance the sensitivity, specificity, stability and reusability of urea biosensor. Electrochemical detection procedure has been adopted to measure the potentiometric response over the wide logarithmic concentration range of the 0.1 mM to 80 mM. The Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles based urea biosensor depicts good sensitivity with ∼42 mV per decade at room temperature. Durability of the biosensor could be considerably enhanced by applying a thin layer of the nafion. In addition, the reasonably stable output response of the biosensor has been found to be around 12 sec.

  20. Design of nanostructured-based glucose biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komirisetty, Archana; Williams, Frances; Pradhan, Aswini; Konda, Rajini B.; Dondapati, Hareesh; Samantaray, Diptirani

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the design of glucose sensors that will be integrated with advanced nano-materials, bio-coatings and electronics to create novel devices that are highly sensitive, inexpensive, accurate, and reliable. In the work presented, a glucose biosensor and its fabrication process flow have been designed. The device is based on electrochemical sensing using a working electrode with bio-functionalized zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-rods. Among all metal oxide nanostructures, ZnO nano-materials play a significant role as a sensing element in biosensors due to their properties such as high isoelectric point (IEP), fast electron transfer, non-toxicity, biocompatibility, and chemical stability which are very crucial parameters to achieve high sensitivity. Amperometric enzyme electrodes based on glucose oxidase (GOx) are used due to their stability and high selectivity to glucose. The device also consists of silicon dioxide and titanium layers as well as platinum working and counter electrodes and a silver/silver chloride reference electrode. Currently, the biosensors are being fabricated using the process flow developed. Once completed, the sensors will be bio-functionalized and tested to characterize their performance, including their sensitivity and stability.

  1. Electronic Biosensors Based on III-Nitride Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirste, Ronny; Rohrbaugh, Nathaniel; Bryan, Isaac; Bryan, Zachary; Collazo, Ramon; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2015-01-01

    We review recent advances of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT)-based electronic biosensors. We discuss properties and fabrication of III-nitride-based biosensors. Because of their superior biocompatibility and aqueous stability, GaN-based devices are ready to be implemented as next-generation biosensors. We review surface properties, cleaning, and passivation as well as different pathways toward functionalization, and critically analyze III-nitride-based biosensors demonstrated in the literature, including those detecting DNA, bacteria, cancer antibodies, and toxins. We also discuss the high potential of these biosensors for monitoring living cardiac, fibroblast, and nerve cells. Finally, we report on current developments of covalent chemical functionalization of III-nitride devices. Our review concludes with a short outlook on future challenges and projected implementation directions of GaN-based HEMT biosensors.

  2. Fundamental Design Principles for Transcription-Factor-Based Metabolite Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannan, Ahmad A; Liu, Di; Zhang, Fuzhong; Oyarzún, Diego A

    2017-10-20

    Metabolite biosensors are central to current efforts toward precision engineering of metabolism. Although most research has focused on building new biosensors, their tunability remains poorly understood and is fundamental for their broad applicability. Here we asked how genetic modifications shape the dose-response curve of biosensors based on metabolite-responsive transcription factors. Using the lac system in Escherichia coli as a model system, we built promoter libraries with variable operator sites that reveal interdependencies between biosensor dynamic range and response threshold. We developed a phenomenological theory to quantify such design constraints in biosensors with various architectures and tunable parameters. Our theory reveals a maximal achievable dynamic range and exposes tunable parameters for orthogonal control of dynamic range and response threshold. Our work sheds light on fundamental limits of synthetic biology designs and provides quantitative guidelines for biosensor design in applications such as dynamic pathway control, strain optimization, and real-time monitoring of metabolism.

  3. New advances in electrochemical biosensors for the detection of toxins: Nanomaterials, magnetic beads and microfluidics systems. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reverté, Laia [IRTA, Carretera Poble Nou km. 5.5, 43540 Sant Carles de la Ràpita, Tarragona (Spain); Prieto-Simón, Beatriz [ARC Centre of Excellence in Convergent Bio-Nano Science and Technology, Future Industries Institute, University of South Australia, SA 5095 (Australia); Campàs, Mònica, E-mail: monica.campas@irta.cat [IRTA, Carretera Poble Nou km. 5.5, 43540 Sant Carles de la Ràpita, Tarragona (Spain)

    2016-02-18

    The use of nanotechnology in bioanalytical devices has special advantages in the detection of toxins of interest in food safety and environmental applications. The low levels to be detected and the small size of toxins justify the increasing number of publications dealing with electrochemical biosensors, due to their high sensitivity and design versatility. The incorporation of nanomaterials in their development has been exploited to further increase their sensitivity, providing simple and fast devices, with multiplexed capabilities. This paper gives an overview of the electrochemical biosensors that have incorporated carbon and metal nanomaterials in their configurations for the detection of toxins. Biosensing systems based on magnetic beads or integrated into microfluidics systems have also been considered because of their contribution to the development of compact analytical devices. The roles of these materials, the methods used for their incorporation in the biosensor configurations as well as the advantages they provide to the analyses are summarised. - Highlights: • Nanomaterials improve the performance of electrochemical biosensors. • Carbon nanomaterials can act as electrocatalysts or label supports in biosensors. • Metal nanomaterials can act as nanostructured supports or labels in biosensors. • Magnetic beads are exploited as immobilisation supports and/or label carriers.

  4. New advances in electrochemical biosensors for the detection of toxins: Nanomaterials, magnetic beads and microfluidics systems. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reverté, Laia; Prieto-Simón, Beatriz; Campàs, Mònica

    2016-01-01

    The use of nanotechnology in bioanalytical devices has special advantages in the detection of toxins of interest in food safety and environmental applications. The low levels to be detected and the small size of toxins justify the increasing number of publications dealing with electrochemical biosensors, due to their high sensitivity and design versatility. The incorporation of nanomaterials in their development has been exploited to further increase their sensitivity, providing simple and fast devices, with multiplexed capabilities. This paper gives an overview of the electrochemical biosensors that have incorporated carbon and metal nanomaterials in their configurations for the detection of toxins. Biosensing systems based on magnetic beads or integrated into microfluidics systems have also been considered because of their contribution to the development of compact analytical devices. The roles of these materials, the methods used for their incorporation in the biosensor configurations as well as the advantages they provide to the analyses are summarised. - Highlights: • Nanomaterials improve the performance of electrochemical biosensors. • Carbon nanomaterials can act as electrocatalysts or label supports in biosensors. • Metal nanomaterials can act as nanostructured supports or labels in biosensors. • Magnetic beads are exploited as immobilisation supports and/or label carriers.

  5. Silicon-on-Insulator Nanowire Based Optical Waveguide Biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Mingyu; Liu, Yong; Chen, Yangqing; He, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Optical waveguide biosensors based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nanowire have been developed for label free molecular detection. This paper reviews our work on the design, fabrication and measurement of SOI nanowire based high-sensitivity biosensors employing Vernier effect. Biosensing experiments using cascaded double-ring sensor and Mach-Zehnder- ring sensor integrated with microfluidic channels are demonstrated (paper)

  6. Nanomaterials-based enzyme electrochemical biosensors operating through inhibition for biosensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbanoglu, Sevinc; Ozkan, Sibel A; Merkoçi, Arben

    2017-03-15

    In recent years great progress has been made in applying nanomaterials to design novel biosensors. Use of nanomaterials offers to biosensing platforms exceptional optical, electronic and magnetic properties. Nanomaterials can increase the surface of the transducing area of the sensors that in turn bring an increase in catalytic behaviors. They have large surface-to-volume ratio, controlled morphology and structure that also favor miniaturization, an interesting advantage when the sample volume is a critical issue. Biosensors have great potential for achieving detect-to-protect devices: devices that can be used in detections of pollutants and other treating compounds/analytes (drugs) protecting citizens' life. After a long term focused scientific and financial efforts/supports biosensors are expected now to fulfill their promise such as being able to perform sampling and analysis of complex samples with interest for clinical or environment fields. Among all types of biosensors, enzymatic biosensors, the most explored biosensing devices, have an interesting property, the inherent inhibition phenomena given the enzyme-substrate complex formation. The exploration of such phenomena is making remarkably important their application as research and applied tools in diagnostics. Different inhibition biosensor systems based on nanomaterials modification has been proposed and applied. The role of nanomaterials in inhibition-based biosensors for the analyses of different groups of drugs as well as contaminants such as pesticides, phenolic compounds and others, are discussed in this review. This deep analysis of inhibition-based biosensors that employ nanomaterials will serve researchers as a guideline for further improvements and approaching of these devices to real sample applications so as to reach society needs and such biosensor market demands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A novel electrochemical DNA biosensor based on a modified magnetic bar carbon paste electrode with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NPs-reduced graphene oxide/PANHS nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahanbani, Shahriar; Benvidi, Ali, E-mail: abenvidi@yazd.ac.ir

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we have designed a label free DNA biosensor based on a magnetic bar carbon paste electrode (MBCPE) modified with nanomaterial of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/reduced graphene oxide (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NP-RGO) as a composite and 1- pyrenebutyric acid-N- hydroxysuccinimide ester (PANHS) as a linker for detection of DNA sequences. Probe (BRCA1 5382 insC mutation detection) strands were immobilized on the MBCPE/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-RGO/PANHS electrode for the exact incubation time. The characterization of the modified electrode was studied using different techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry methods. Some experimental parameters such as immobilization time of probe DNA, time and temperature of hybridization process were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the immobilization of the probe and its hybridization with the target DNA (Complementary DNA) were tested. This DNA biosensor revealed a good linear relationship between ∆ R{sub ct} and logarithm of the complementary target DNA concentration ranging from 1.0 × 10{sup −18} mol L{sup −1} to 1.0 × 10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1} with a correlation coefficient of 0.9935 and a detection limit of 2.8 × 10{sup −19} mol L{sup −1}. In addition, the mentioned biosensor was satisfactorily applied for discriminating of complementary sequences from non-complementary sequences. The constructed biosensor (MBCPE/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-RGO/PANHS/ssDNA) with high sensitivity, selectivity, stability, reproducibility and low cost can be used for detection of BRCA1 5382 insC mutation. - Highlights: • We have designed a MBCPE/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-RGO/PANHS/ssDNA for determination of BRCA1 5382. • The magnetic bar was used for fabrication of CPE for completely adsorption of Fe3O4-RGO. • The proposed electrode showed a detection limit as low as 2.8 × 10{sup −19} M for target

  8. Biosensor method and system based on feature vector extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias [Knoxville, TN; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Qi, Hairong [Knoxville, TN; Wang, Xiaoling [San Jose, CA

    2012-04-17

    A method of biosensor-based detection of toxins comprises the steps of providing at least one time-dependent control signal generated by a biosensor in a gas or liquid medium, and obtaining a time-dependent biosensor signal from the biosensor in the gas or liquid medium to be monitored or analyzed for the presence of one or more toxins selected from chemical, biological or radiological agents. The time-dependent biosensor signal is processed to obtain a plurality of feature vectors using at least one of amplitude statistics and a time-frequency analysis. At least one parameter relating to toxicity of the gas or liquid medium is then determined from the feature vectors based on reference to the control signal.

  9. Aptamer Based Microsphere Biosensor for Thrombin Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Fan

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available We have developed an optical microsphere resonator biosensor using aptamer asreceptor for the measurement of the important biomolecule thrombin. The sphere surface ismodified with anti-thrombin aptamer, which has excellent binding affinity and selectivityfor thrombin. Binding of the thrombin at the sphere surface is monitored by the spectralposition of the microsphere’s whispering gallery mode resonances. A detection limit on theorder of 1 NIH Unit/mL is demonstrated. Control experiments with non-aptameroligonucleotide and BSA are also carried out to confirm the specific binding betweenaptamer and thrombin. We expect that this demonstration will lead to the development ofhighly sensitive biomarker sensors based on aptamer with lower cost and higher throughputthan current technology.

  10. Indicator Based and Indicator - Free Electrochemical DNA Biosensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kerman, Kagan

    2001-01-01

    The utility and advantages of an indicator free and MB based sequence specific DNA hybridization biosensor based on guanine and adenine oxidation signals and MB reduction signals have been demonstrated...

  11. Fabrication of Biosensors Based on Nanostructured Conducting Polyaniline (NSPANI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepshikha SAINI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, glucose and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 biosensors based on nanostructured conducting polyaniline (NSPANI (synthesized using sodiumdodecyl sulphate (SDS as structure directing agent were developed. Because of the large specific surface area, excellent conductivity of NSPANI, horseradish peroxidase (HRP and glucose oxidase (GOx could be easily immobilized with high loading and activity. In addition the small dimensions and the high surface-to-volume ratio of the NSCP allow the rapid transmission of electron and enhance current response. The linear dynamic range of optical glucose and H2O2 biosensors is 5–40 mM for glucose and 1–50 mM for H2O2, respectively where as the bulk PANI exhibits linearity between 5-20 mM/l. The miniature optical glucose biosensor also exhibits good reproducibility. The storage stability of optical glucose and H2O2 biosensors is two weeks for glucose and five days for H2O2. The high response value of NSPANI based biosensors as compared to bulk PANI based biosensor reflects higher enzymatic affinity of GOx/NSPANI and HRP/NSPANI with glucose and H2O2 due to biocompatibility, active surface area and high electron communication capability of nanobiopolymer film. In conclusion, the NSPANI based biosensors proposed herein have many advantages such as a low response time, high reproducibility, high sensitivity, stable and wide dynamic range.

  12. Polymer Based Biosensors for Medical Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherré, Solène; Rozlosnik, Noemi

    2015-01-01

    , environmental monitoring and food safety. The detected element varies from a single molecule (such as glucose), a biopolymer (such as DNA or a protein) to a whole organism (such as bacteria). Due to their easy use and possible miniaturization, biosensors have a high potential to come out of the lab...... and be available for use by everybody. To fulfil these purposes, polymers represent very appropriate materials. Many nano- and microfabrication methods for polymers are available, allowing a fast and cheap production of devices. This chapter will present the general concept of a biosensor in a first part......The objective of this chapter is to give an overview about the newest developments in biosensors made of polymers for medical applications. Biosensors are devices that can recognize and detect a target with high selectivity. They are widely used in many fields such as medical diagnostic...

  13. Enzymatic biosensors based on the use of metal oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xinhao; Gu, Wei; Li, Bingyu; Chen, Ningning; Zhao, Kai; Xian, Yuezhong

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, various techniques have been developed to obtain materials at a nanoscale level to design biosensors with high sensitivity, selectivity and efficiency. Metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs) are of particular interests and have received much attention because of their unique physical, chemical and catalytic properties. This review summarizes the progress made in enzymatic biosensors based on the use of MONPs. Synthetic methods, strategies for immobilization, and the functions of MONPs in enzymatic biosensing systems are reviewed and discussed. The article is subdivided into sections on enzymatic biosensors based on (a) zinc oxide nanoparticles, (b) titanium oxide nanoparticles, (c) iron oxide nanoparticles, and (d) other metal oxide nanoparticles. While substantial advances have been made in MONPs-based enzymatic biosensors, their applications to real samples still lie ahead because issues such as reproducibility and sensor stability have to be solved. (author)

  14. Gold nanoparticle-based electrochemical biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingarron, Jose M.; Yanez-Sedeno, Paloma; Gonzalez-Cortes, Araceli [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University Complutense of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-08-01

    The unique properties of gold nanoparticles to provide a suitable microenvironment for biomolecules immobilization retaining their biological activity, and to facilitate electron transfer between the immobilized proteins and electrode surfaces, have led to an intensive use of this nanomaterial for the construction of electrochemical biosensors with enhanced analytical performance with respect to other biosensor designs. Recent advances in this field are reviewed in this article. The advantageous operational characteristics of the biosensing devices designed making use of gold nanoparticles are highlighted with respect to non-nanostructured biosensors and some illustrative examples are commented. Electrochemical enzyme biosensors including those using hybrid materials with carbon nanotubes and polymers, sol-gel matrices, and layer-by-layer architectures are considered. Moreover, electrochemical immunosensors in which gold nanoparticles play a crucial role in the electrode transduction enhancement of the affinity reaction as well as in the efficiency of immunoreagents immobilization in a stable mode are reviewed. Similarly, recent advances in the development of DNA biosensors using gold nanoparticles to improve DNA immobilization on electrode surfaces and as suitable labels to improve detection of hybridization events are considered. Finally, other biosensors designed with gold nanoparticles oriented to electrically contact redox enzymes to electrodes by a reconstitution process and to the study of direct electron transfer between redox proteins and electrode surfaces have also been treated. (author)

  15. Gold nanoparticle-based electrochemical biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pingarron, Jose M.; Yanez-Sedeno, Paloma; Gonzalez-Cortes, Araceli

    2008-01-01

    The unique properties of gold nanoparticles to provide a suitable microenvironment for biomolecules immobilization retaining their biological activity, and to facilitate electron transfer between the immobilized proteins and electrode surfaces, have led to an intensive use of this nanomaterial for the construction of electrochemical biosensors with enhanced analytical performance with respect to other biosensor designs. Recent advances in this field are reviewed in this article. The advantageous operational characteristics of the biosensing devices designed making use of gold nanoparticles are highlighted with respect to non-nanostructured biosensors and some illustrative examples are commented. Electrochemical enzyme biosensors including those using hybrid materials with carbon nanotubes and polymers, sol-gel matrices, and layer-by-layer architectures are considered. Moreover, electrochemical immunosensors in which gold nanoparticles play a crucial role in the electrode transduction enhancement of the affinity reaction as well as in the efficiency of immunoreagents immobilization in a stable mode are reviewed. Similarly, recent advances in the development of DNA biosensors using gold nanoparticles to improve DNA immobilization on electrode surfaces and as suitable labels to improve detection of hybridization events are considered. Finally, other biosensors designed with gold nanoparticles oriented to electrically contact redox enzymes to electrodes by a reconstitution process and to the study of direct electron transfer between redox proteins and electrode surfaces have also been treated

  16. Nuclear track-based biosensors with the enzyme laccase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Garcia-Arellano, H.; Fink, Dietmar; Hernandez, G. M.; Vacík, Jiří; Hnatowicz, Vladimír; Alfonta, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 310, SI (2014), s. 66-76 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Biosensor * Laaccase * nuclear tracks * Phenolic compounds Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.711, year: 2014

  17. Last Advances in Silicon-Based Optical Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Gavela, Adrián; Grajales García, Daniel; Ramirez, Jhonattan C; Lechuga, Laura M

    2016-02-24

    We review the most important achievements published in the last five years in the field of silicon-based optical biosensors. We focus specially on label-free optical biosensors and their implementation into lab-on-a-chip platforms, with an emphasis on developments demonstrating the capability of the devices for real bioanalytical applications. We report on novel transducers and materials, improvements of existing transducers, new and improved biofunctionalization procedures as well as the prospects for near future commercialization of these technologies.

  18. A reusable magnetic graphene oxide-modified biosensor for vascular endothelial growth factor detection in cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Wen; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Liao, Shih-sheng; Huang, Chiung-Yin; Sun, Chia-Liang; Wu, Pei-Jung; Lu, Yu-Jen; Yang, Hung-Wei; Ma, Chen-Chi M

    2015-05-15

    Early cancer diagnosis is critical for the prevention of metastasis. However, simple and efficient methods are needed to improve the diagnosis and evaluation of cancer. Here, we propose a reusable biosensor based on a magnetic graphene oxide (MGO)-modified Au electrode to detect vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human plasma for cancer diagnosis. In this biosensor, Avastin is used as the specific biorecognition element, and MGO is used as the carrier for Avastin loading. The use of MGO enables rapid purification due to its magnetic properties, which prevents the loss of bioactivity. Moreover, the biosensor can be constructed quickly, without requiring a drying process, which is convenient for proceeding to detection. Our reusable biosensor provides the appropriate sensitivity for clinical diagnostics and has a wide range of linear detection, from 31.25-2000 pg mL(-1), compared to ELISA analysis. In addition, in experiments with 100% serum from clinical samples, readouts from the sensor and an ELISA for VEGF showed good correlation within the limits of the ELISA kit. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the change in current (ΔC) for reproducibility of the Au biosensor was 2.36% (n=50), indicating that it can be reused with high reproducibility. Furthermore, the advantages of the Avastin-MGO-modified biosensor for VEGF detection are that it provides an efficient detection strategy that not only improves the detection ability but also reduces the cost and decreases the response time by 10-fold, indicating its potential as a diagnosis product. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The detection of Salmonella typhimurium on shell eggs using a phage-based biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yating; Li, Suiqiong; Horikawa, Shin; Shen, Wen; Park, Mi-Kyung; Vodyanoy, Vitaly J.; Chin, Bryan A.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the direct detection of Salmonella typhimurium on shell eggs using a phage-based magnetoelastic (ME) biosensor. The ME biosensor consists of a ME resonator as the sensor platform and E2 phage as the biorecognition element that is genetically engineered to specifically bind with Salmonella typhimurium. The ME biosensor, which is a wireless sensor, vibrates with a characteristic resonant frequency under an externally applied magnetic field. Multiple sensors can easily be remotely monitored. Multiple measurement and control sensors were placed on the shell eggs contaminated by Salmonella typhimurium solutions with different known concentrations. The resonant frequency of sensors before and after the exposure to the spiked shell eggs was measured. The frequency shift of the measurement sensors was significantly different than the control sensors indicating Salmonella contamination. Scanning electron microscopy was used to confirm binding of Salmonella to the sensor surface and the resulting frequency shift results.

  20. Hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on titanium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Nur Hamidah Abdul; Heng, Lee Yook; Hashim, Uda

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a biosensor utilizing modified titania, TiO2 particles using aminopropyl-triethoxy-silane, (APTS) for developing hydrogen peroxide biosensor is presented. The surface of Ti-APTS particles is used as a support for hemoglobin immobilization via covalent bonding. The performance of the biosensor is determined by differential pulse voltammetry. The linear response was observed at the reduction current of redox mediator probe [FeCN6]3-/4- at potential between 0.22 V to 0.24 V. The preliminary result for electrochemistry study on this modified electrode is reported. The preliminary linear range is obtained from 1×10-2 M to 1×10-8 M.

  1. Novel amperometric glucose biosensor based on MXene nanocomposite

    KAUST Repository

    Rakhi, R. B.

    2016-11-10

    A biosensor platform based on Au/MXene nanocomposite for sensitive enzymatic glucose detection is reported. The biosensor leverages the unique electrocatalytic properties and synergistic effects between Au nanoparticles and MXene sheets. An amperometric glucose biosensor is fabricated by the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme on Nafion solubilized Au/ MXene nanocomposite over glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The biomediated Au nanoparticles play a significant role in facilitating the electron exchange between the electroactive center of GOx and the electrode. The GOx/Au/MXene/Nafion/GCE biosensor electrode displayed a linear amperometric response in the glucose concentration range from 0.1 to 18 mM with a relatively high sensitivity of 4.2 μAmM−1 cm−2 and a detection limit of 5.9 μM (S/N = 3). Furthermore, the biosensor exhibited excellent stability, reproducibility and repeatability. Therefore, the Au/MXene nanocomposite reported in this work is a potential candidate as an electrochemical transducer in electrochemical biosensors.

  2. Novel amperometric glucose biosensor based on MXene nanocomposite

    KAUST Repository

    Baby, Rakhi Raghavan; Nayuk, Pranati; Xia, Chuan; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2016-01-01

    A biosensor platform based on Au/MXene nanocomposite for sensitive enzymatic glucose detection is reported. The biosensor leverages the unique electrocatalytic properties and synergistic effects between Au nanoparticles and MXene sheets. An amperometric glucose biosensor is fabricated by the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme on Nafion solubilized Au/ MXene nanocomposite over glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The biomediated Au nanoparticles play a significant role in facilitating the electron exchange between the electroactive center of GOx and the electrode. The GOx/Au/MXene/Nafion/GCE biosensor electrode displayed a linear amperometric response in the glucose concentration range from 0.1 to 18 mM with a relatively high sensitivity of 4.2 μAmM−1 cm−2 and a detection limit of 5.9 μM (S/N = 3). Furthermore, the biosensor exhibited excellent stability, reproducibility and repeatability. Therefore, the Au/MXene nanocomposite reported in this work is a potential candidate as an electrochemical transducer in electrochemical biosensors.

  3. Roughness effect on the efficiency of dimer antenna based biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Barchiesi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication process of nanodevices is continually improved. However, most of the nanodevices, such as biosensors present rough surfaces with mean roughness of some nanometers even if the deposition rate of material is more controlled. The effect of roughness on performance of biosensors was fully addressed for plane biosensors and gratings, but rarely addressed for biosensors based on Local Plasmon Resonance. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate numerically the influence of nanometric roughness on the efficiency of a dimer nano-biosensor (two levels of roughness are considered. Therefore, we propose a general numerical method, that can be applied to any other nanometric shape, to take into account the roughness in a three dimensional model. The study focuses on both the far-field, which corresponds to the experimental detected data, and the near-field, responsible for exciting and then detecting biological molecules. The results suggest that the biosensor efficiency is highly sensitive to the surface roughness. The roughness can produce important shifts of the extinction efficiency peak and a decrease of its amplitude resulting from changes in the distribution of near-field and absorbed electric field intensities.

  4. A reduced graphene oxide based electrochemical biosensor for tyrosine detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junhua; Qiu, Jingjing; Li, Li; Ren, Liqiang; Zhang, Xianwen; Chaudhuri, Jharna; Wang, Shiren

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, a ‘green’ and safe hydrothermal method has been used to reduce graphene oxide and produce hemin modified graphene nanosheet (HGN) based electrochemical biosensors for the determination of l-tyrosine levels. The as-fabricated HGN biosensors were characterized by UV-visible absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The experimental results indicated that hemin was successfully immobilized on the reduced graphene oxide nanosheet (rGO) through π-π interaction. TEM images and EDX results further confirmed the attachment of hemin on the rGO nanosheet. Cyclic voltammetry tests were carried out for the bare glass carbon electrode (GCE), the rGO electrode (rGO/GCE), and the hemin-rGO electrode (HGN/GCE). The HGN/GCE based biosensor exhibits a tyrosine detection linear range from 5 × 10-7 M to 2 × 10-5 M with a detection limitation of 7.5 × 10-8 M at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The sensitivity of this biosensor is 133 times higher than that of the bare GCE. In comparison with other works, electroactive biosensors are easily fabricated, easily controlled and cost-effective. Moreover, the hemin-rGO based biosensors demonstrate higher stability, a broader detection linear range and better detection sensitivity. Study of the oxidation scheme reveals that the rGO enhances the electron transfer between the electrode and the hemin, and the existence of hemin groups effectively electrocatalyzes the oxidation of tyrosine. This study contributes to a widespread clinical application of nanomaterial based biosensor devices with a broader detection linear range, improved stability, enhanced sensitivity and reduced costs.

  5. Amperometric biosensors based on conducting nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kros, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes a multidisciplinary study towards the development of a glucose biosensor that in the future can be used for in vivo implantations. The research focuses on three major topics, viz. the construction of the glucose sensor, the development of a biocompatible coating and a study of

  6. An ultrasensitive lysozyme chemiluminescence biosensor based on surface molecular imprinting using ionic liquid modified magnetic graphene oxide/β-cyclodextrin as supporting material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Huimin; Wang, Xiaojiao; Wang, Yanhui; Sun, Yuanling; Li, Jianbo; Luo, Chuannan

    2016-04-28

    In this work, ionic liquid modified Fe3O4@dopamine/graphene oxide/β-cyclodextrin (ILs-Fe3O4@DA/GO/β-CD) was used as supporting material to synthesize surface molecularly imprinted polymer (SMIP) which then was introduced into chemiluminescence (CL) to achieve an ultrasensitive and selective biosensor for determination of lysozyme (Lys). ILs and β-CD was applied to provide multiple binding sites to prepare Lys SMIP and Fe3O4@DA was designed to make the product separate easily and prevent the aggregation of GO which could improve absorption capacity for its large specific surface area. The ILs-Fe3O4@DA/GO/β-CD-SMIP showed high adsorption capacity (Q = 101 mg/g) to Lys in the adsorption isotherm assays. The adsorption equilibrium was reached within 10 min for all the concentrations, attributing to the binding sites situated exclusively at the surface, and the adsorption model followed Langmuir isotherm. Under the suitable CL conditions, the proposed biosensor could response Lys linearly in the range of 1.0 × 10(-9)-8.0 × 10(-8) mg/mL with a detection limit of 3.0 × 10(-10) mg/mL. When used in practical samples in determination of Lys, the efficient biosensor exhibited excellent result with the recoveries ranging from 94% to 112%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Wireless implantable electronic platform for chronic fluorescent-based biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdastri, Pietro; Susilo, Ekawahyu; Förster, Thilo; Strohhöfer, Christof; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo

    2011-06-01

    The development of a long-term wireless implantable biosensor based on fluorescence intensity measurement poses a number of technical challenges, ranging from biocompatibility to sensor stability over time. One of these challenges is the design of a power efficient and miniaturized electronics, enabling the biosensor to move from bench testing to long term validation, up to its final application in human beings. In this spirit, we present a wireless programmable electronic platform for implantable chronic monitoring of fluorescent-based autonomous biosensors. This system is able to achieve extremely low power operation with bidirectional telemetry, based on the IEEE802.15.4-2003 protocol, thus enabling over three-year battery lifetime and wireless networking of multiple sensors. During the performance of single fluorescent-based sensor measurements, the circuit drives a laser diode, for sensor excitation, and acquires the amplified signals from four different photodetectors. In vitro functionality was preliminarily tested for both glucose and calcium monitoring, simply by changing the analyte-binding protein of the biosensor. Electronics performance was assessed in terms of timing, power consumption, tissue exposure to electromagnetic fields, and in vivo wireless connectivity. The final goal of the presented platform is to be integrated in a complete system for blood glucose level monitoring that may be implanted for at least one year under the skin of diabetic patients. Results reported in this paper may be applied to a wide variety of biosensors based on fluorescence intensity measurement.

  8. 'Clickable' hydrosoluble PEGylated cryptophane as a universal platform for 129Xe magnetic resonance imaging biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delacour, Lea; Kotera, Naoko; Traore, Tenin; Garcia-Argote, Sebastien; Puente, Celine; Gravel, Edmond; Rousseau, Bernard; Leteurtre, Francois; Boulard, Yves; Tassali, Nawal; Boutin, Celine; Leonce, Estelle; Berthault, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    We describe the synthesis of a highly water-soluble cryptophane 1 that can be seen as a universal platform for the construction of 129 Xe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based biosensors. Compound 1 is easily functionalized by Huisgen cycloaddition and exhibits excellent xenon-encapsulation properties. In addition, 1 is nontoxic at the concentrations typically used for hyper-polarized 129 Xe MRI. (authors)

  9. Flexible Molybdenum Electrodes towards Designing Affinity Based Protein Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamakoti, Vikramshankar; Panneer Selvam, Anjan; Radha Shanmugam, Nandhinee; Muthukumar, Sriram; Prasad, Shalini

    2016-07-18

    Molybdenum electrode based flexible biosensor on porous polyamide substrates has been fabricated and tested for its functionality as a protein affinity based biosensor. The biosensor performance was evaluated using a key cardiac biomarker; cardiac Troponin-I (cTnI). Molybdenum is a transition metal and demonstrates electrochemical behavior upon interaction with an electrolyte. We have leveraged this property of molybdenum for designing an affinity based biosensor using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. We have evaluated the feasibility of detection of cTnI in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and human serum (HS) by measuring impedance changes over a frequency window from 100 mHz to 1 MHz. Increasing changes to the measured impedance was correlated to the increased dose of cTnI molecules binding to the cTnI antibody functionalized molybdenum surface. We achieved cTnI detection limit of 10 pg/mL in PBS and 1 ng/mL in HS medium. The use of flexible substrates for designing the biosensor demonstrates promise for integration with a large-scale batch manufacturing process.

  10. Engineering nanomaterials-based biosensors for food safety detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Man; Liu, Yang; Geng, Jinhui; Kou, Xiaohong; Xin, Zhihong; Yang, Dayong

    2018-05-30

    Food safety always remains a grand global challenge to human health, especially in developing countries. To solve food safety pertained problems, numerous strategies have been developed to detect biological and chemical contaminants in food. Among these approaches, nanomaterials-based biosensors provide opportunity to realize rapid, sensitive, efficient and portable detection, overcoming the restrictions and limitations of traditional methods such as complicated sample pretreatment, long detection time, and relying on expensive instruments and well-trained personnel. In this review article, we provide a cross-disciplinary perspective to review the progress of nanomaterials-based biosensors for the detection of food contaminants. The review article is organized by the category of food contaminants including pathogens/toxins, heavy metals, pesticides, veterinary drugs and illegal additives. In each category of food contaminant, the biosensing strategies are summarized including optical, colorimetric, fluorescent, electrochemical, and immune- biosensors; the relevant analytes, nanomaterials and biosensors are analyzed comprehensively. Future perspectives and challenges are also discussed briefly. We envision that our review could bridge the gap between the fields of food science and nanotechnology, providing implications for the scientists or engineers in both areas to collaborate and promote the development of nanomaterials-based biosensors for food safety detection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Recent Advances on Luminescent Enhancement-Based Porous Silicon Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenie, S N Aisyiyah; Plush, Sally E; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2016-10-01

    Luminescence-based detection paradigms have key advantages over other optical platforms such as absorbance, reflectance or interferometric based detection. However, autofluorescence, low quantum yield and lack of photostability of the fluorophore or emitting molecule are still performance-limiting factors. Recent research has shown the need for enhanced luminescence-based detection to overcome these drawbacks while at the same time improving the sensitivity, selectivity and reducing the detection limits of optical sensors and biosensors. Nanostructures have been reported to significantly improve the spectral properties of the emitting molecules. These structures offer unique electrical, optic and magnetic properties which may be used to tailor the surrounding electrical field of the emitter. Here, the main principles behind luminescence and luminescence enhancement-based detections are reviewed, with an emphasis on europium complexes as the emitting molecule. An overview of the optical porous silicon microcavity (pSiMC) as a biosensing platform and recent proof-of-concept examples on enhanced luminescence-based detection using pSiMCs are provided and discussed.

  12. Transient Convection, Diffusion, and Adsorption in Surface-Based Biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rasmus; Bruus, Henrik; Callisen, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and computational investigation of convection, diffusion, and adsorption in surface-based biosensors. In particular, we study the transport dynamics in a model geometry of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor. The work, however, is equally relevant for other...... microfluidic surface-based biosensors, operating under flow conditions. A widely adopted approximate quasi-steady theory to capture convective and diffusive mass transport is reviewed, and an analytical solution is presented. An expression of the Damköhler number is derived in terms of the nondimensional...... concentration to the maximum surface capacity is critical for reliable use of the quasi-steady theory. Finally, our results provide users of surface-based biosensors with a tool for correcting experimentally obtained adsorption rate constants....

  13. Electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on less aggregated graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Xiangjie; Zhou, Ming; Guo, Liping

    2017-03-15

    As a novel single-atom-thick sheet of sp 2 hybridized carbon atoms, graphene (GR) has attracted extensive attention in recent years because of its unique and remarkable properties, such as excellent electrical conductivity, large theoretical specific surface area, and strong mechanical strength. However, due to the π-π interaction, GR sheets are inclined to stack together, which may seriously degrade the performance of GR with the unique single-atom layer. In recent years, an increasing number of GR-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors are reported, which may reflect that GR has been considered as a kind of hot and promising electrode material for electrochemical sensor and biosensor construction. However, the active sites on GR surface induced by the irreversible GR aggregations would be deeply secluded inside the stacked GR sheets and therefore are not available for the electrocatalysis. So the alleviation or the minimization of the aggregation level for GR sheets would facilitate the exposure of active sites on GR and effectively upgrade the performance of GR-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors. Less aggregated GR with low aggregation and high dispersed structure can be used in improving the electrochemical activity of GR-based electrochemical sensors or biosensors. In this review, we summarize recent advances and new progress for the development of electrochemical sensors based on less aggregated GR. To achieve such goal, many strategies (such as the intercalation of carbon materials, surface modification, and structural engineering) have been applied to alleviate the aggregation level of GR in order to enhance the performance of GR-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors. Finally, the challenges associated with less aggregated GR-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors as well as related future research directions are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofiber based Biosensor Platform for Glucose Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Mamun, Khandaker A.; Tulip, Fahmida S.; MacArthur, Kimberly; McFarlane, Nicole; Islam, Syed K.; Hensley, Dale

    2014-03-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) have recently become an important tool for biosensor design. Carbon nanofibers (CNF) have excellent conductive and structural properties with many irregularities and defect sites in addition to exposed carboxyl groups throughout their surfaces. These properties allow a better immobilization matrix compared to carbon nanotubes and offer better resolution when compared with the FET-based biosensors. VACNFs can be deterministically grown on silicon substrates allowing optimization of the structures for various biosensor applications. Two VACNF electrode architectures have been employed in this study and a comparison of their performances has been made in terms of sensitivity, sensing limitations, dynamic range, and response time. The usage of VACNF platform as a glucose sensor has been verified in this study by selecting an optimum architecture based on the VACNF forest density. Read More: http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0129156414500062

  15. Development of a Transcription Factor-Based Lactam Biosensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingwei; Barajas, Jesus F.; Burdu, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    Lactams are an important class of commodity chemicals used in the manufacture of nylons, with millions of tons produced every year. Biological production of lactams could be greatly improved by high-throughput sensors for lactam biosynthesis. To identify biosensors of lactams, we applied a chemoi......Lactams are an important class of commodity chemicals used in the manufacture of nylons, with millions of tons produced every year. Biological production of lactams could be greatly improved by high-throughput sensors for lactam biosynthesis. To identify biosensors of lactams, we applied...... a chemoinformatic approach inspired by small molecule drug discovery. We define this approach as analogue generation toward catabolizable chemicals or AGTC. We discovered a lactam biosensor based on the ChnR/Pb transcription factor-promoter pair. The microbial biosensor is capable of sensing ε-caprolactam, Î......´-valerolactam, and butyrolactam in a dose-dependent manner. The biosensor has sufficient specificity to discriminate against lactam biosynthetic intermediates and therefore could potentially be applied for high-throughput metabolic engineering for industrially important high titer lactam biosynthesis....

  16. Tin Oxide Nanorod Array-Based Electrochemical Hydrogen Peroxide Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jinping

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract SnO2 nanorod array grown directly on alloy substrate has been employed as the working electrode of H2O2 biosensor. Single-crystalline SnO2 nanorods provide not only low isoelectric point and enough void spaces for facile horseradish peroxidase (HRP immobilization but also numerous conductive channels for electron transport to and from current collector; thus, leading to direct electrochemistry of HRP. The nanorod array-based biosensor demonstrates high H2O2 sensing performance in terms of excellent sensitivity (379 μA mM−1 cm−2, low detection limit (0.2 μM and high selectivity with the apparent Michaelis–Menten constant estimated to be as small as 33.9 μM. Our work further demonstrates the advantages of ordered array architecture in electrochemical device application and sheds light on the construction of other high-performance enzymatic biosensors.

  17. Development of biosensor based on imaging ellipsometry and biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, G., E-mail: gajin@imech.ac.c [NML, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Bei-si-huan west Rd., Beijing 100190 (China); Meng, Y.H.; Liu, L.; Niu, Y.; Chen, S. [NML, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Bei-si-huan west Rd., Beijing 100190 (China); Cai, Q.; Jiang, T.J. [Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2011-02-28

    So far, combined with a microfluidic reactor array system, an engineering system of biosensor based on imaging ellipsometry is installed for biomedical applications, such as antibody screen, hepatitis B markers detection, cancer markers spectrum and virus recognition, etc. Furthermore, the biosensor in total internal reflection (TIR) mode has be improved by a spectroscopic light, optimization settings of polarization and low noise CCD which brings an obvious improvement of 10 time increase in the sensitivity and SNR, and 50 times lower concentration in the detection limit with a throughput of 48 independent channels and the time resolution of 0.04 S.

  18. Last Advances in Silicon-Based Optical Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Fernández Gavela

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We review the most important achievements published in the last five years in the field of silicon-based optical biosensors. We focus specially on label-free optical biosensors and their implementation into lab-on-a-chip platforms, with an emphasis on developments demonstrating the capability of the devices for real bioanalytical applications. We report on novel transducers and materials, improvements of existing transducers, new and improved biofunctionalization procedures as well as the prospects for near future commercialization of these technologies.

  19. Design and Performance of GMR Sensors for the Detection of Magnetic Microbeads in Biosensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rife, J. C; Miller, M. M; Sheehan, P. E; Tamanaha, C. R; Tondra, M; Whitman, L. J

    2003-01-01

    We are developing a biosensor system, the Bead ARray Counter (BARC), based on the capture and detection of micron-sized, paramagnetic beads on a chip containing an array of giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors...

  20. Cantilever-Based Microwave Biosensors: Analysis, Designs and Optimizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Chenhui; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Jónasson, Sævar Þór

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel microwave readout scheme for measuring deflection of cantilevers in nanometer range. The cantilever deflection can be sensed by the variation of transmission levels or resonant frequencies of microwave signals. The sensitivity of the cantilever biosensor based on LC...

  1. Amperometric urea biosensors based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das G

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gautam Das, Hyon Hee Yoon Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Gachon University, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea Abstract: An electrochemical biosensor based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite was developed for urea analysis. Oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of sulfonated graphene oxide was carried out by electrochemical methods in an aqueous environment. The structural properties of the nanocomposite were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The urease enzyme-immobilized sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite film showed impressive performance in the electroanalytical detection of urea with a detection limit of 0.050 mM and a sensitivity of 0.85 µA·cm-2·mM-1. The biosensor achieved a broad linear range of detection (0.12–12.3 mM with a notable response time of approximately 5 seconds. Moreover, the fabricated biosensor retained 81% of its initial activity (based on sensitivity after 15 days of storage at 4°C. The ease of fabrication coupled with the low cost and good electrochemical performance of this system holds potential for the development of solid-state biosensors for urea detection. Keywords: electrochemical deposition, sulfonated graphene oxide, urease

  2. Silica suspended waveguide splitter-based biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, M. C.; Hawk, R. M.; Armani, A. M.

    2012-03-01

    Recently, a novel integrated optical waveguide 50/50 splitter was developed. It is fabricated using standard lithographic methods, a pair of etching steps and a laser reflow step. However, unlike other integrated waveguide splitters, the waveguide is elevated off of the silicon substrate, improving its interaction with biomolecules in solution and in a flow field. Additionally, because it is fabricated from silica, it has very low optical loss, resulting in a high signal-to-noise ratio, making it ideal for biosensing. By functionalizing the device using an epoxy-silane method using small samples and confining the protein solutions to the device, we enable highly efficient detection of CREB with only 1 μL of solution. Therefore, the waveguide coupler sensor is representative of the next generation of ultra-sensitive optical biosensors, and, when combined with microfluidic capabilities, it will be an ideal candidate for a more fully-realized lab-on-a-chip device.

  3. Optical biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damborský, Pavel; Švitel, Juraj; Katrlík, Jaroslav

    2016-06-30

    Optical biosensors represent the most common type of biosensor. Here we provide a brief classification, a description of underlying principles of operation and their bioanalytical applications. The main focus is placed on the most widely used optical biosensors which are surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensors including SPR imaging and localized SPR. In addition, other optical biosensor systems are described, such as evanescent wave fluorescence and bioluminescent optical fibre biosensors, as well as interferometric, ellipsometric and reflectometric interference spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman scattering biosensors. The optical biosensors discussed here allow the sensitive and selective detection of a wide range of analytes including viruses, toxins, drugs, antibodies, tumour biomarkers and tumour cells. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  4. Thermoresponsive Magnetic Nano-Biosensors for Rapid Measurements of Inorganic Arsenic and Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isamu Maeda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Green fluorescent protein-tagged sensor proteins, ArsR-GFP and CadC-GFP, have been produced as biosensors for simple and low-cost quantification of As(III or Cd(II. In this study, the sensor protein-promoter DNA complexes were reconstructed on the surfaces of magnetic particles of different sizes. After the surface modification all the particles could be attracted by magnets, and released different amounts of GFP-tagged protein, according to the metal concentrations within 5 min, which caused significant increases in fluorescence. A detection limit of 1 µg/L for As(III and Cd(II in purified water was obtained only with the nanoparticles exhibiting enough magnetization after heat treatment for 1 min. Therefore, thermoresponsive magnetic nano-biosensors offer great advantages of rapidity and sensitivity for the measurement of the toxic metals in drinking water.

  5. Thermoresponsive magnetic nano-biosensors for rapid measurements of inorganic arsenic and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiki, Mohammad Shohel Rana; Shimoaoki, Shun; Ueda, Shunsaku; Maeda, Isamu

    2012-10-18

    Green fluorescent protein-tagged sensor proteins, ArsR-GFP and CadC-GFP, have been produced as biosensors for simple and low-cost quantification of As(III) or Cd(II). In this study, the sensor protein-promoter DNA complexes were reconstructed on the surfaces of magnetic particles of different sizes. After the surface modification all the particles could be attracted by magnets, and released different amounts of GFP-tagged protein, according to the metal concentrations within 5 min, which caused significant increases in fluorescence. A detection limit of 1 µg/L for As(III) and Cd(II) in purified water was obtained only with the nanoparticles exhibiting enough magnetization after heat treatment for 1 min. Therefore, thermoresponsive magnetic nano-biosensors offer great advantages of rapidity and sensitivity for the measurement of the toxic metals in drinking water.

  6. Analytical modeling of glucose biosensors based on carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourasl, Ali H; Ahmadi, Mohammad Taghi; Rahmani, Meisam; Chin, Huei Chaeng; Lim, Cheng Siong; Ismail, Razali; Tan, Michael Loong Peng

    2014-01-15

    In recent years, carbon nanotubes have received widespread attention as promising carbon-based nanoelectronic devices. Due to their exceptional physical, chemical, and electrical properties, namely a high surface-to-volume ratio, their enhanced electron transfer properties, and their high thermal conductivity, carbon nanotubes can be used effectively as electrochemical sensors. The integration of carbon nanotubes with a functional group provides a good and solid support for the immobilization of enzymes. The determination of glucose levels using biosensors, particularly in the medical diagnostics and food industries, is gaining mass appeal. Glucose biosensors detect the glucose molecule by catalyzing glucose to gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of oxygen. This action provides high accuracy and a quick detection rate. In this paper, a single-wall carbon nanotube field-effect transistor biosensor for glucose detection is analytically modeled. In the proposed model, the glucose concentration is presented as a function of gate voltage. Subsequently, the proposed model is compared with existing experimental data. A good consensus between the model and the experimental data is reported. The simulated data demonstrate that the analytical model can be employed with an electrochemical glucose sensor to predict the behavior of the sensing mechanism in biosensors.

  7. Fluorescence based fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benito-Peña, Elena; Valdés, Mayra Granda; Glahn-Martínez, Bettina; Moreno-Bondi, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    The application of optical biosensors, specifically those that use optical fibers and planar waveguides, has escalated throughout the years in many fields, including environmental analysis, food safety and clinical diagnosis. Fluorescence is, without doubt, the most popular transducer signal used in these devices because of its higher selectivity and sensitivity, but most of all due to its wide versatility. This paper focuses on the working principles and configurations of fluorescence-based fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors and will review biological recognition elements, sensing schemes, as well as some major and recent applications, published in the last ten years. The main goal is to provide the reader a general overview of a field that requires the joint collaboration of researchers of many different areas, including chemistry, physics, biology, engineering, and material science. - Highlights: • Principles, configurations and fluorescence techniques using fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors are discussed. • The biorecognition elements and sensing schemes used in fiber optic and planar waveguide platforms are reviewed. • Some major and recent applications of fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors are introduced.

  8. Photonic crystal-based optical biosensor: a brief investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divya, J.; Selvendran, S.; Sivanantha Raja, A.

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, a two-dimensional photonic crystal biosensor for medical applications based on two waveguides and a nanocavity was explored with different shoulder-coupled nanocavity structures. The most important biosensor parameters, like the sensitivity and quality factor, can be significantly improved. By injecting an analyte into a sensing hole, the refractive index of the hole was changed. This refractive index biosensor senses the changes and shifts its operating wavelength accordingly. The transmission characteristics of light in the biosensor under different refractive indices that correspond to the change in the analyte concentration are analyzed by the finite-difference time-domain method. The band gap for each structure is designed and observed by the plane wave expansion method. These proposed structures are designed to obtain an analyte refractive index variation of about 1–1.5 in an optical wavelength range of 1.250–1.640 µm. Accordingly, an improved sensitivity of 136.6 nm RIU‑1 and a quality factor as high as 3915 is achieved. An important feature of this structure is its very small dimensions. Such a combination of attributes makes the designed structure a promising element for label-free biosensing applications.

  9. Tyrosinase-Based Biosensors for Selective Dopamine Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Florescu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel tyrosinase-based biosensor was developed for the detection of dopamine (DA. For increased selectivity, gold electrodes were previously modified with cobalt (II-porphyrin (CoP film with electrocatalytic activity, to act both as an electrochemical mediator and an enzyme support, upon which the enzyme tyrosinase (Tyr was cross-linked. Differential pulse voltammetry was used for electrochemical detection and the reduction current of dopamine-quinone was measured as a function of dopamine concentration. Our experiments demonstrated that the presence of CoP improves the selectivity of the electrode towards dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA, with a linear trend of concentration dependence in the range of 2–30 µM. By optimizing the conditioning parameters, a separation of 130 mV between the peak potentials for ascorbic acid AA and DA was obtained, allowing the selective detection of DA. The biosensor had a sensitivity of 1.22 ± 0.02 µA·cm−2·µM−1 and a detection limit of 0.43 µM. Biosensor performances were tested in the presence of dopamine medication, with satisfactory results in terms of recovery (96%, and relative standard deviation values below 5%. These results confirmed the applicability of the biosensors in real samples such as human urine and blood serum.

  10. Fluorescence based fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benito-Peña, Elena [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense University, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Valdés, Mayra Granda [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of La Habana, 10400 La Habana (Cuba); Glahn-Martínez, Bettina [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense University, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Moreno-Bondi, Maria C., E-mail: mcmbondi@quim.ucm.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense University, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-11-02

    The application of optical biosensors, specifically those that use optical fibers and planar waveguides, has escalated throughout the years in many fields, including environmental analysis, food safety and clinical diagnosis. Fluorescence is, without doubt, the most popular transducer signal used in these devices because of its higher selectivity and sensitivity, but most of all due to its wide versatility. This paper focuses on the working principles and configurations of fluorescence-based fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors and will review biological recognition elements, sensing schemes, as well as some major and recent applications, published in the last ten years. The main goal is to provide the reader a general overview of a field that requires the joint collaboration of researchers of many different areas, including chemistry, physics, biology, engineering, and material science. - Highlights: • Principles, configurations and fluorescence techniques using fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors are discussed. • The biorecognition elements and sensing schemes used in fiber optic and planar waveguide platforms are reviewed. • Some major and recent applications of fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors are introduced.

  11. Fiber Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance-Based Biosensor Technique: Fabrication, Advancement, and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Gaoling; Luo, Zewei; Liu, Kunping; Wang, Yimin; Dai, Jianxiong; Duan, Yixiang

    2016-05-03

    Fiber optic-based biosensors with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology are advanced label-free optical biosensing methods. They have brought tremendous progress in the sensing of various chemical and biological species. This review summarizes four sensing configurations (prism, grating, waveguide, and fiber optic) with two ways, attenuated total reflection (ATR) and diffraction, to excite the surface plasmons. Meanwhile, the designs of different probes (U-bent, tapered, and other probes) are also described. Finally, four major types of biosensors, immunosensor, DNA biosensor, enzyme biosensor, and living cell biosensor, are discussed in detail for their sensing principles and applications. Future prospects of fiber optic-based SPR sensor technology are discussed.

  12. Fluorescent Biosensors Based on Single-Molecule Counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Li, Ying; Tang, Bo; Zhang, Chun-Yang

    2016-09-20

    Biosensors for highly sensitive, selective, and rapid quantification of specific biomolecules make great contributions to biomedical research, especially molecular diagnostics. However, conventional methods for biomolecular assays often suffer from insufficient sensitivity and poor specificity. In some case (e.g., early disease diagnostics), the concentration of target biomolecules is too low to be detected by these routine approaches, and cumbersome procedures are needed to improve the detection sensitivity. Therefore, there is an urgent need for rapid and ultrasensitive analytical tools. In this respect, single-molecule fluorescence approaches may well satisfy the requirement and hold promising potential for the development of ultrasensitive biosensors. Encouragingly, owing to the advances in single-molecule microscopy and spectroscopy over past decades, the detection of single fluorescent molecule comes true, greatly boosting the development of highly sensitive biosensors. By in vitro/in vivo labeling of target biomolecules with proper fluorescent tags, the quantification of certain biomolecule at the single-molecule level is achieved. In comparison with conventional ensemble measurements, single-molecule detection-based analytical methods possess the advantages of ultrahigh sensitivity, good selectivity, rapid analysis time, and low sample consumption. Consequently, single-molecule detection may be potentially employed as an ideal analytical approach to quantify low-abundant biomolecules with rapidity and simplicity. In this Account, we will summarize our efforts for developing a series of ultrasensitive biosensors based on single-molecule counting. Single-molecule counting is a member of single-molecule detection technologies and may be used as a very simple and ultrasensitive method to quantify target molecules by simply counting the individual fluorescent bursts. In the fluorescent sensors, the signals of target biomolecules may be translated to the

  13. Graphene-Based Materials for Biosensors: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phitsini Suvarnaphaet

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The advantages conferred by the physical, optical and electrochemical properties of graphene-based nanomaterials have contributed to the current variety of ultrasensitive and selective biosensor devices. In this review, we present the points of view on the intrinsic properties of graphene and its surface engineering concerned with the transduction mechanisms in biosensing applications. We explain practical synthesis techniques along with prospective properties of the graphene-based materials, which include the pristine graphene and functionalized graphene (i.e., graphene oxide (GO, reduced graphene oxide (RGO and graphene quantum dot (GQD. The biosensing mechanisms based on the utilization of the charge interactions with biomolecules and/or nanoparticle interactions and sensing platforms are also discussed, and the importance of surface functionalization in recent up-to-date biosensors for biological and medical applications.

  14. ZnO nanowire-based glucose biosensors with different coupling agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Juneui [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sangwoo, E-mail: swlim@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fabrication of ZnO nanowire-based glucose biosensors using different coupling agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highest sensitivity for (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane-treated biosensor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Larger amount of glucose oxidase and lower electron transfer resistance for (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane-treated biosensor. - Abstract: ZnO-nanowire-based glucose biosensors were fabricated by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOx) onto a linker attached to ZnO nanowires. Different coupling agents were used, namely (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTMS), (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES), and (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane (APS), to increase the affinity of GOx binding to ZnO nanowires. The amount of GOx immobilized on the ZnO nanowires, the performance, sensitivity, and Michaelis-Menten constant of each biosensor, and the electron transfer resistance through the biosensor were all measured in order to investigate the effect of the coupling agent on the ZnO nanowire-based biosensor. Among the different biosensors, the APS-treated biosensor had the highest sensitivity (17.72 {mu}A cm{sup -2} mM{sup -1}) and the lowest Michaelis-Menten constant (1.37 mM). Since APS-treated ZnO nanowires showed the largest number of C-N groups and the lowest electron transfer resistance through the biosensor, we concluded that these properties were the key factors in the performance of APS-treated glucose biosensors.

  15. ZnO nanowire-based glucose biosensors with different coupling agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Juneui; Lim, Sangwoo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fabrication of ZnO nanowire-based glucose biosensors using different coupling agents. ► Highest sensitivity for (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane-treated biosensor. ► Larger amount of glucose oxidase and lower electron transfer resistance for (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane-treated biosensor. - Abstract: ZnO-nanowire-based glucose biosensors were fabricated by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOx) onto a linker attached to ZnO nanowires. Different coupling agents were used, namely (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTMS), (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES), and (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane (APS), to increase the affinity of GOx binding to ZnO nanowires. The amount of GOx immobilized on the ZnO nanowires, the performance, sensitivity, and Michaelis–Menten constant of each biosensor, and the electron transfer resistance through the biosensor were all measured in order to investigate the effect of the coupling agent on the ZnO nanowire-based biosensor. Among the different biosensors, the APS-treated biosensor had the highest sensitivity (17.72 μA cm −2 mM −1 ) and the lowest Michaelis–Menten constant (1.37 mM). Since APS-treated ZnO nanowires showed the largest number of C-N groups and the lowest electron transfer resistance through the biosensor, we concluded that these properties were the key factors in the performance of APS-treated glucose biosensors.

  16. Smartphone based non-invasive salivary glucose biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Anuradha; Jha, Sandeep Kumar

    2017-12-15

    The present work deals with the development of a non-invasive optical glucose biosensor using saliva samples and a smartphone. The sensor was fabricated with a simple methodology by immobilization of Glucose oxidase enzyme along with a pH responsive dye on a filter paper based strip. The strip changes color upon reaction with glucose present in saliva and the color changes were detected using a smartphone camera through RGB profiling. This standalone biosensor showed good sensitivity and low interference while operating within 20 s response time. We used various means for improvements such as the use of slope method instead of differential response; use of a responsive pH indicator and made numerous tweaks in the smartphone app. Calibration with spiked saliva samples with slopes for (R + G + B) pixels revealed an exponentially increasing calibration curve with a linear detection range of 50-540 mg/dL, sensitivity of 0.0012 pixels sec -1 /mg dL -1 and LOD of 24.6 mg/dL. The biosensor was clinically validated on both healthy and diabetic subjects divided into several categories based on sex, age, diabetic status etc. and correlation between blood and salivary glucose has been established for better standardization of the sensor. Correlation of 0.44 was obtained between blood and salivary glucose in healthy individuals whereas it was 0.64 and 0.94 in case of prediabetic and diabetic patients respectively. The developed biosensor has the potential to be used for mass diagnosis of diabetes especially in such areas where people remain prohibited from routine analysis due to high healthcare cost. Apart from that, a smartphone would be the only device the user needs for this measurement, along with a disposable low cost test strip. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nanomaterials-based biosensors for detection of microorganisms and microbial toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutarlie, Laura; Ow, Sian Yang; Su, Xiaodi

    2017-04-01

    Detection of microorganisms and microbial toxins is important for health and safety. Due to their unique physical and chemical properties, nanomaterials have been extensively used to develop biosensors for rapid detection of microorganisms with microbial cells and toxins as target analytes. In this paper, the design principles of nanomaterials-based biosensors for four selected analyte categories (bacteria cells, toxins, mycotoxins, and protozoa cells), closely associated with the target analytes' properties is reviewed. Five signal transducing methods that are less equipment intensive (colorimetric, fluorimetric, surface enhanced Raman scattering, electrochemical, and magnetic relaxometry methods) is described and compared for their sensory performance (in term oflimit of detection, dynamic range, and response time) for all analyte categories. In the end, the suitability of these five sensing principles for on-site or field applications is discussed. With a comprehensive coverage of nanomaterials, design principles, sensing principles, and assessment on the sensory performance and suitability for on-site application, this review offers valuable insight and perspective for designing suitable nanomaterials-based microorganism biosensors for a given application. Copyright © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Giant Magnetoresistance-based Biosensor for Detection of Influenza A Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Venkatramana D; Wu, Kai; Perez, Andres M; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a simple and sensitive method for the detection of influenza A virus based on giant magnetoresistance (GMR) biosensor. This assay employs monoclonal antibodies to viral nucleoprotein (NP) in combination with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Presence of influenza virus allows the binding of MNPs to the GMR sensor and the binding is proportional to the concentration of virus. Binding of MNPs onto the GMR sensor causes change in the resistance of sensor, which is measured in a real time electrical readout. GMR biosensor detected as low as 1.5 × 10(2) TCID50/mL virus and the signal intensity increased with increasing concentration of virus up to 1.0 × 10(5) TCID50/mL. This study showed that the GMR biosensor assay is relevant for diagnostic application since the virus concentration in nasal samples of influenza virus infected swine was reported to be in the range of 10(3) to 10(5) TCID50/mL.

  19. Development of mercury (II) ion biosensors based on mercury-specific oligonucleotide probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lanying; Wen, Yanli; Xu, Li; Xu, Qin; Song, Shiping; Zuo, Xiaolei; Yan, Juan; Zhang, Weijia; Liu, Gang

    2016-01-15

    Mercury (II) ion (Hg(2+)) contamination can be accumulated along the food chain and cause serious threat to the public health. Plenty of research effort thus has been devoted to the development of fast, sensitive and selective biosensors for monitoring Hg(2+). Thymine was demonstrated to specifically combine with Hg(2+) and form a thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine (T-Hg(2+)-T) structure, with binding constant even higher than T-A Watson-Crick pair in DNA duplex. Recently, various novel Hg(2+) biosensors have been developed based on T-rich Mercury-Specific Oligonucleotide (MSO) probes, and exhibited advanced selectivity and excellent sensitivity for Hg(2+) detection. In this review, we explained recent development of MSO-based Hg(2+) biosensors mainly in 3 groups: fluorescent biosensors, colorimetric biosensors and electrochemical biosensors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A novel biosensor method for surfactant determination based on acetylcholinesterase inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucherenko, I S; Soldatkin, O O; Arkhypova, V M; Dzyadevych, S V; Soldatkin, A P

    2012-01-01

    A novel enzyme biosensor based on acetylcholinesterase inhibition for the determination of surfactants in aqueous solutions is described. Acetylcholinesterase-based bioselective element was deposited via glutaraldehyde on the surface of conductometric transducers. Different variants of inhibitory analysis of surfactants were tested, and finally surfactant's concentration was evaluated by measuring initial rate of acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Besides, we studied the effect of solution characteristics on working parameters of the biosensor for direct measurement of acetylcholine and for inhibitory determination of surfactants. The biosensor's sensitivity to anionic and cationic surfactants (0.35 mg l −1 ) was tested. The high operational stability of the biosensor during determination of acetylcholine (RSD 2%) and surfactants (RSD 11%) was shown. Finally, we discussed the selectivity of the biosensor toward surfactants and other AChE inhibitors. The proposed biosensor can be used as a component of the multibiosensor for ecological monitoring of toxicants. (paper)

  1. Single cell detection using a magnetic zigzag nanowire biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao-Ting; Ger, Tzong-Rong; Lin, Ya-Hui; Wei, Zung-Hang

    2013-08-07

    A magnetic zigzag nanowire device was designed for single cell biosensing. Nanowires with widths of 150, 300, 500, and 800 nm were fabricated on silicon trenches by electron beam lithography, electron beam evaporation, and lift-off processes. Magnetoresistance measurements were performed before and after the attachment of a single magnetic cell to the nanowires to characterize the magnetic signal change due to the influence of the magnetic cell. Magnetoresistance responses were measured in different magnetic field directions, and the results showed that this nanowire device can be used for multi-directional detection. It was observed that the highest switching field variation occurred in a 150 nm wide nanowire when the field was perpendicular to the substrate plane. On the other hand, the highest magnetoresistance ratio variation occurred in a 800 nm wide nanowire also when the field was perpendicular to the substrate plane. Besides, the trench-structured substrate proposed in this study can fix the magnetic cell to the sensor in a fluid environment, and the stray field generated by the corners of the magnetic zigzag nanowires has the function of actively attracting the magnetic cells for detection.

  2. Microbial fuel cell-based biosensor for toxic carbon monoxide monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Shaofeng; Huang, Shaobin; Li, Yi

    2018-01-01

    This study presents an innovative microbial fuel cell-based biosensor for carbon monoxide (CO) monitoring. The hypothesis for the function of the biosensor is that CO inhibits bacterial activity in the anode and thereby reduces electricity production. A mature electrochemically active biofilm...... increasing CO concentration over 70%. Besides, the response time of the biosensor was 1 h. The compact design and simple operation of the biosensor makes it easy to be integrated in existing CO-based industrial facilities either as a forewarning sensor for CO toxicity or even as an individual on...

  3. Recent Progress in Optical Biosensors Based on Smartphone Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Zhaoxin; Zhang, Xiong; Fan, Zhiyuan; Lv, Xiaoqing; Su, Yue; Chen, Hongda

    2017-01-01

    With a rapid improvement of smartphone hardware and software, especially complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) cameras, many optical biosensors based on smartphone platforms have been presented, which have pushed the development of the point-of-care testing (POCT). Imaging-based and spectrometry-based detection techniques have been widely explored via different approaches. Combined with the smartphone, imaging-based and spectrometry-based methods are currently used to investigate a wide range of molecular properties in chemical and biological science for biosensing and diagnostics. Imaging techniques based on smartphone-based microscopes are utilized to capture microscale analysts, while spectrometry-based techniques are used to probe reactions or changes of molecules. Here, we critically review the most recent progress in imaging-based and spectrometry-based smartphone-integrated platforms that have been developed for chemical experiments and biological diagnosis. We focus on the analytical performance and the complexity for implementation of the platforms. PMID:29068375

  4. Recent Progress in Optical Biosensors Based on Smartphone Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Zhaoxin; Zhang, Xiong; Fan, Zhiyuan; Lv, Xiaoqing; Su, Yue; Chen, Hongda

    2017-10-25

    With a rapid improvement of smartphone hardware and software, especially complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) cameras, many optical biosensors based on smartphone platforms have been presented, which have pushed the development of the point-of-care testing (POCT). Imaging-based and spectrometry-based detection techniques have been widely explored via different approaches. Combined with the smartphone, imaging-based and spectrometry-based methods are currently used to investigate a wide range of molecular properties in chemical and biological science for biosensing and diagnostics. Imaging techniques based on smartphone-based microscopes are utilized to capture microscale analysts, while spectrometry-based techniques are used to probe reactions or changes of molecules. Here, we critically review the most recent progress in imaging-based and spectrometry-based smartphone-integrated platforms that have been developed for chemical experiments and biological diagnosis. We focus on the analytical performance and the complexity for implementation of the platforms.

  5. Recent Progress in Optical Biosensors Based on Smartphone Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxin Geng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With a rapid improvement of smartphone hardware and software, especially complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS cameras, many optical biosensors based on smartphone platforms have been presented, which have pushed the development of the point-of-care testing (POCT. Imaging-based and spectrometry-based detection techniques have been widely explored via different approaches. Combined with the smartphone, imaging-based and spectrometry-based methods are currently used to investigate a wide range of molecular properties in chemical and biological science for biosensing and diagnostics. Imaging techniques based on smartphone-based microscopes are utilized to capture microscale analysts, while spectrometry-based techniques are used to probe reactions or changes of molecules. Here, we critically review the most recent progress in imaging-based and spectrometry-based smartphone-integrated platforms that have been developed for chemical experiments and biological diagnosis. We focus on the analytical performance and the complexity for implementation of the platforms.

  6. Denaturation strategies for detection of double stranded PCR products on GMR magnetic biosensor array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzi, Giovanni; Lee, Jung-Rok; Guldberg, Per

    2017-01-01

    Microarrays and other surface-based nucleic acid detection schemes rely on the hybridization of the target to surface-bound detection probes. We present the first comparison of two strategies to detect DNA using a giant magnetoresistive (GMR) biosensor platform starting from an initially double...

  7. Dendrimer-based biosensor for chemiluminescent detection of DNA hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, P.; Hun, X.; Qing, H.

    2011-01-01

    We report on a highly sensitive chemiluminescent (CL) biosensor for the sequence-specific detection of DNA using a novel bio barcode DNA probe modified with gold nanoparticles that were covered with a dendrimer. The modified probe is composed of gold nanoparticles, a dendrimer, the CL reagent, and the DNA. The capture probe DNA was immobilized on magnetic beads covered with gold. It first hybridizes with the target DNA and then with one terminal end of the signal DNA on the barcoded DNA probe. CL was generated by adding H 2 O 2 and Co(II) ions as the catalyst. The immobilization of dendrimer onto the gold nanoparticles can significantly enhance sensitivity and gives a detection limit of 6 fmol L -1 of target DNA. (author)

  8. Photonic Crystal Biosensor Based on Optical Surface Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Dietler

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A label-free biosensor device based on registration of photonic crystal surface waves is described. Angular interrogation of the optical surface wave resonance is used to detect changes in the thickness of an adsorbed layer, while an additional simultaneous detection of the critical angle of total internal reflection provides independent data of the liquid refractive index. The abilities of the device are demonstrated by measuring of biotin molecule binding to a streptavidin monolayer, and by measuring association and dissociation kinetics of immunoglobulin G proteins. Additionally, deposition of PSS / PAH polyelectrolytes is recorded in situ resulting calculation of PSS and PAH monolayer thicknesses separately.

  9. Nano-yarn carbon nanotube fiber based enzymatic glucose biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhigang; Burugapalli, Krishna; Moussy, Francis; Song, Wenhui; Li Yali; Zhong Xiaohua

    2010-01-01

    A novel brush-like electrode based on carbon nanotube (CNT) nano-yarn fiber has been designed for electrochemical biosensor applications and its efficacy as an enzymatic glucose biosensor demonstrated. The CNT nano-yarn fiber was spun directly from a chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD) gas flow reaction using a mixture of ethanol and acetone as the carbon source and an iron nano-catalyst. The fiber, 28 μm in diameter, was made of bundles of double walled CNTs (DWNTs) concentrically compacted into multiple layers forming a nano-porous network structure. Cyclic voltammetry study revealed a superior electrocatalytic activity for CNT fiber compared to the traditional Pt-Ir coil electrode. The electrode end tip of the CNT fiber was freeze-fractured to obtain a unique brush-like nano-structure resembling a scale-down electrical 'flex', where glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme was immobilized using glutaraldehyde crosslinking in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). An outer epoxy-polyurethane (EPU) layer was used as semi-permeable membrane. The sensor function was tested against a standard reference electrode. The sensitivities, linear detection range and linearity for detecting glucose for the miniature CNT fiber electrode were better than that reported for a Pt-Ir coil electrode. Thermal annealing of the CNT fiber at 250 deg. C for 30 min prior to fabrication of the sensor resulted in a 7.5 fold increase in glucose sensitivity. The as-spun CNT fiber based glucose biosensor was shown to be stable for up to 70 days. In addition, gold coating of the electrode connecting end of the CNT fiber resulted in extending the glucose detection limit to 25 μM. To conclude, superior efficiency of CNT fiber for glucose biosensing was demonstrated compared to a traditional Pt-Ir sensor.

  10. Nano-yarn carbon nanotube fiber based enzymatic glucose biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhigang; Song, Wenhui; Burugapalli, Krishna; Moussy, Francis; Li, Ya-Li; Zhong, Xiao-Hua

    2010-04-01

    A novel brush-like electrode based on carbon nanotube (CNT) nano-yarn fiber has been designed for electrochemical biosensor applications and its efficacy as an enzymatic glucose biosensor demonstrated. The CNT nano-yarn fiber was spun directly from a chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD) gas flow reaction using a mixture of ethanol and acetone as the carbon source and an iron nano-catalyst. The fiber, 28 µm in diameter, was made of bundles of double walled CNTs (DWNTs) concentrically compacted into multiple layers forming a nano-porous network structure. Cyclic voltammetry study revealed a superior electrocatalytic activity for CNT fiber compared to the traditional Pt-Ir coil electrode. The electrode end tip of the CNT fiber was freeze-fractured to obtain a unique brush-like nano-structure resembling a scale-down electrical 'flex', where glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme was immobilized using glutaraldehyde crosslinking in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). An outer epoxy-polyurethane (EPU) layer was used as semi-permeable membrane. The sensor function was tested against a standard reference electrode. The sensitivities, linear detection range and linearity for detecting glucose for the miniature CNT fiber electrode were better than that reported for a Pt-Ir coil electrode. Thermal annealing of the CNT fiber at 250 °C for 30 min prior to fabrication of the sensor resulted in a 7.5 fold increase in glucose sensitivity. The as-spun CNT fiber based glucose biosensor was shown to be stable for up to 70 days. In addition, gold coating of the electrode connecting end of the CNT fiber resulted in extending the glucose detection limit to 25 µM. To conclude, superior efficiency of CNT fiber for glucose biosensing was demonstrated compared to a traditional Pt-Ir sensor.

  11. Biosensors Based on Ultrathin Film Composite Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-25

    composite membranes should have a number C •’ of potential advantages including fast response time, simplicity of construction, and applicability to a number...The support membrane for the ultrathin film composite was an Anopore ( Alltech Associates) microporous alumina filter, these membranes are 55 Pm thick...constant 02 concentration in this solution. Finally, one of the most important potential advantage of a sensor based on an ultrathin film composite

  12. Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor Based on Smart Phone Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Liu, Qiang; Chen, Shimeng; Cheng, Fang; Wang, Hanqi; Peng, Wei

    2015-08-10

    We demonstrate a fiber optic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on smart phone platforms. The light-weight optical components and sensing element are connected by optical fibers on a phone case. This SPR adaptor can be conveniently installed or removed from smart phones. The measurement, control and reference channels are illuminated by the light entering the lead-in fibers from the phone's LED flash, while the light from the end faces of the lead-out fibers is detected by the phone's camera. The SPR-sensing element is fabricated by a light-guiding silica capillary that is stripped off its cladding and coated with 50-nm gold film. Utilizing a smart application to extract the light intensity information from the camera images, the light intensities of each channel are recorded every 0.5 s with refractive index (RI) changes. The performance of the smart phone-based SPR platform for accurate and repeatable measurements was evaluated by detecting different concentrations of antibody binding to a functionalized sensing element, and the experiment results were validated through contrast experiments with a commercial SPR instrument. This cost-effective and portable SPR biosensor based on smart phones has many applications, such as medicine, health and environmental monitoring.

  13. Dynamics of individual magnetic particles near a biosensor surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ommering, K.

    2010-01-01

    The use of magnetic particles in biosensing is advantageous for transport of target molecules in the device, for assay integration, and for labeled detection. The particles generally have a size between 100 nm and 3 ¿m and are of a superparamagnetic nature, being composed of thousands of iron oxide

  14. Optical Biosensors Based on Semiconductor Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl J. Martín-Palma

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing availability of semiconductor-based nanostructures with novel and unique properties has sparked widespread interest in their use in the field of biosensing. The precise control over the size, shape and composition of these nanostructures leads to the accurate control of their physico-chemical properties and overall behavior. Furthermore, modifications can be made to the nanostructures to better suit their integration with biological systems, leading to such interesting properties as enhanced aqueous solubility, biocompatibility or bio-recognition. In the present work, the most significant applications of semiconductor nanostructures in the field of optical biosensing will be reviewed. In particular, the use of quantum dots as fluorescent bioprobes, which is the most widely used application, will be discussed. In addition, the use of some other nanometric structures in the field of biosensing, including porous semiconductors and photonic crystals, will be presented.

  15. An Effective Amperometric Biosensor Based on Gold Nanoelectrode Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yingchun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A sensitive amperometric biosensor based on gold nanoelectrode array (NEA was investigated. The gold nanoelectrode array was fabricated by template-assisted electrodeposition on general electrodes, which shows an ordered well-defined 3D structure of nanowires. The sensitivity of the gold NEA to hydrogen peroxide is 37 times higher than that of the conventional electrode. The linear range of the platinum NEA toward H2O2is from 1 × 10−6to 1 × 10−2 M, covering four orders of magnitudes with detection limit of 1 × 10−7 M and a single noise ratio (S/N of four. The enzyme electrode exhibits an excellent response performance to glucose with linear range from 1 × 10−5to 1 × 10−2 M and a fast response time within 8 s. The Michaelis–Menten constantkm and the maximum current densityi maxof the enzyme electrode were 4.97 mM and 84.60 μA cm−2, respectively. This special nanoelectrode may find potential application in other biosensors based on amperometric signals.

  16. Angle-resolved diffraction grating biosensor based on porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Changwu; Li, Peng [School of Physical Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China); Jia, Zhenhong, E-mail: jzhh@xju.edu.cn; Liu, Yajun; Mo, Jiaqing; Lv, Xiaoyi [College of Information Science and Engineering, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China)

    2016-03-07

    In this study, an optical biosensor based on a porous silicon composite structure was fabricated using a simple method. This structure consists of a thin, porous silicon surface diffraction grating and a one-dimensional porous silicon photonic crystal. An angle-resolved diffraction efficiency spectrum was obtained by measuring the diffraction efficiency at a range of incident angles. The angle-resolved diffraction efficiency of the 2nd and 3rd orders was studied experimentally and theoretically. The device was sensitive to the change of refractive index in the presence of a biomolecule indicated by the shift of the diffraction efficiency spectrum. The sensitivity of this sensor was investigated through use of an 8 base pair antifreeze protein DNA hybridization. The shifts of the angle-resolved diffraction efficiency spectrum showed a relationship with the change of the refractive index, and the detection limit of the biosensor reached 41.7 nM. This optical device is highly sensitive, inexpensive, and simple to fabricate. Using shifts in diffraction efficiency spectrum to detect biological molecules has not yet been explored, so this study establishes a foundation for future work.

  17. Waveguide-Based Biosensors for Pathogen Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nile Hartman

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Optical phenomena such as fluorescence, phosphorescence, polarization, interference and non-linearity have been extensively used for biosensing applications. Optical waveguides (both planar and fiber-optic are comprised of a material with high permittivity/high refractive index surrounded on all sides by materials with lower refractive indices, such as a substrate and the media to be sensed. This arrangement allows coupled light to propagate through the high refractive index waveguide by total internal reflection and generates an electromagnetic wave—the evanescent field—whose amplitude decreases exponentially as the distance from the surface increases. Excitation of fluorophores within the evanescent wave allows for sensitive detection while minimizing background fluorescence from complex, “dirty” biological samples. In this review, we will describe the basic principles, advantages and disadvantages of planar optical waveguide-based biodetection technologies. This discussion will include already commercialized technologies (e.g., Corning’s EPIC® Ô, SRU Biosystems’ BIND™, Zeptosense®, etc. and new technologies that are under research and development. We will also review differing assay approaches for the detection of various biomolecules, as well as the thin-film coatings that are often required for waveguide functionalization and effective detection. Finally, we will discuss reverse-symmetry waveguides, resonant waveguide grating sensors and metal-clad leaky waveguides as alternative signal transducers in optical biosensing.

  18. Spiky gold shells on magnetic particles for DNA biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Erin E; Boujday, Souhir; Pradier, Claire-Marie; Gu, Frank X

    2018-05-15

    Combined separation and detection of biomolecules has the potential to speed up and improve the sensitivity of disease detection, environmental testing, and biomolecular analysis. In this work, we synthesized magnetic particles coated with spiky nanostructured gold shells and used them to magnetically separate out and detect oligonucleotides using SERS. The distance dependence of the SERS signal was then harnessed to detect DNA hybridization using a Raman label bound to a hairpin probe. The distance of the Raman label from the surface increased upon complementary DNA hybridization, leading to a decrease in signal intensity. This work demonstrates the use of the particles for combined separation and detection of oligonucleotides without the use of an extrinsic tag or secondary hybridization step. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Polymer slab waveguides for the optical detection of nanoparticles in evanescent field based biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teigell Beneitez, N.; Missinne, J.; Schleipen, J.J.H.B.; Orsel, J.G.; Prins, M.W.J.; Steenberge, Van G.; Cartwright, A.N.; Nicolau, D.V.

    2010-01-01

    We present a polymer optical waveguide integration technology for the detection of nanoparticles in an evanescent field based biosensor. In the proposed biosensor concept, super-paramagnetic nanoparticles are used as optical contrast labels. The nanoparticles capture target molecules from a sample

  20. Enhancement of affinity-based biosensors: effect of sensing chamber geometry on sensitivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lynn, Nicholas Scott; Šípová, Hana; Adam, Pavel; Homola, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 7 (2013), s. 1413-1421 ISSN 1473-0197 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP205/12/G118 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : SURFACE-BASED BIOSENSORS * DIFFUSION * PLASMON RESONANCE BIOSENSOR Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 5.748, year: 2013

  1. Electrochemical DNA biosensor based on the BDD nanograss array electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Huali; Wei, Min; Wang, Jinshui

    2013-04-10

    The development of DNA biosensor has attracted considerable attention due to their potential applications, including gene analysis, clinical diagnostics, forensic study and more medical applications. Using electroactive daunomycin as an indicator, the hybridization detection was measured by differential pulse voltammetry in this study. Electrochemical DNA biosensor was developed based on the BDD film electrode (fBDD) and BDD nanograss array electrode (nBDD). In comparison with fBDD and AuNPs/CA/fBDD electrode, the lower semicircle diameter of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy obtained on nBDD and AuNPs/CA/nBDD electrode indicated that the presence of nanograss array improved the reactive site, reduced the interfacial resistance, and made the electron transfer easier. Using electroactive daunomycin as an indicator, the hybridization detection was measured by differential pulse voltammetry. The experimental results demonstrated that the prepared AuNPs/CA/nBDD electrode was suitable for DNA hybridization with favorable performance of faster response, higher sensitivity, lower detection limit and satisfactory selectivity, reproducibility and stability.

  2. Recent advances in electrochemical biosensors based on graphene two-dimensional nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Luo, Yanan; Zhu, Chengzhou; Li, He; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-02-15

    Graphene as a star among two-dimensional nanomaterials has attracted tremendous research interest in the field of electrochemistry due to their intrinsic properties, including the electronic, optical, and mechanical properties associated with their planar structure. The marriage of graphene and electrochemical biosensors has created many ingenious biosensing strategies for applications in the areas of clinical diagnosis and food safety. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the recent advances in the development of graphene based electrochemical biosensors. Special attention is paid to graphene-based enzyme biosensors, immunosensors, and DNA biosensors. Future perspectives on high-performance graphene-based electrochemical biosensors are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A multifunctional molecularly imprinted polymer-based biosensor for direct detection of doxycycline in food samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashley, Jon; Feng, Xiaotong; Sun, Yi

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we developed a new type of multifunctional molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) composite as an all-in-one biosensor for the low-cost, rapid and sensitive detection of doxycycline in pig plasma. The MIP composite consisted of a magnetic core for ease of manipulation, and a shell...... of fluorescent MIPs for selective recognition of doxycycline. By simply incorporating a small amount of fluorescent monomer (fluorescein-Oacrylate), the fluorescent MIP layer was successfully grafted onto the magnetic core via a surface imprinting technique. The resultant MIP composites showed significant....... The multifunctional MIP composites were used to directly extract doxycycline from spiked pig plasma samples and quantify the antibiotics based on the quenched fluorescence signals. Recoveries of doxycycline were found in the range of 88–107%....

  4. A global benchmark study using affinity-based biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Rebecca L; Papalia, Giuseppe A; Flynn, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    To explore the variability in biosensor studies, 150 participants from 20 countries were given the same protein samples and asked to determine kinetic rate constants for the interaction. We chose a protein system that was amenable to analysis using different biosensor platforms as well as by users...... the remaining panel of participants was 620 pM with a standard deviation of 980 pM. These results demonstrate that when this biosensor assay was designed and executed appropriately, the reported rate constants were consistent, and independent of which protein was immobilized and which biosensor was used....

  5. Fabrication and testing of a CoNiCu/Cu CPP-GMR nanowire-based microfluidic biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamkonda, Ramya; John, Tom; Mathew, Bobby; DeCoster, Mark; Hegab, Hisham; Davis, Despina

    2010-01-01

    Giant magneto resistance (GMR)-based microfluidic biosensors are used in applications involving the detection, analysis, enumeration and characterization of magnetic nano-particles attached to biological mediums such as antibodies and DNA. Here we introduce a novel multilayered CoNiCu/Cu nanowire GMR-based microfluidic biosensor. The current perpendicular to the plane of multilayers (CPP)-nanowires GMR was used as the core sensing material in the biosensor which responds to magnetic fields depending on the concentration and the flow velocity of bio-nano-magnetic fluids. The device was tested with different control solutions such as DI-water, mineral oil, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), ferrofluid, polystyrene superparamagnetic beads (PSB) and Dynabeads sheep anti-rabbit IgG. The nanowire array resistance decreased with an increase in the ferrofluid concentration, and a maximum 15.8% relative GMR was observed for the undiluted ferrofluid. The sensor was also responding differently to various ferrofluid flow rates. The GMR device showed variation in the output signal when the PSB and Dynabeads of different dilutions were pumped through it. When the tests were performed with pulsing potentials (150 mV and 200 mV), an increased GMR response was identified at higher voltages for PSB and Dynabeads sheep anti-rabbit IgG.

  6. A novel conductometric biosensor based on hexokinase for determination of adenosine triphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherenko, I S; Kucherenko, D Yu; Soldatkin, O O; Lagarde, F; Dzyadevych, S V; Soldatkin, A P

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents a simple and inexpensive reusable biosensor for determination of the concentration of adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) in aqueous samples. The biosensor is based on a conductometric transducer which contains two pairs of gold interdigitated electrodes. An enzyme hexokinase was immobilized onto one pair of electrodes, and bovine serum albumin-onto another pair (thus, a differential mode of measurement was used). Conditions of hexokinase immobilization on the transducer by cross-linking via glutaraldehyde were optimized. Influence of experimental conditions (concentration of magnesium ions, ionic strength and concentration of the working buffer) on the biosensor work was studied. The reproducibility of biosensor responses and operational stability of the biosensor were checked during one week. Dry storage at -18 °C was shown to be the best conditions to store the biosensor. The biosensor was successfully applied for measurements of ATP concentration in pharmaceutical samples. The proposed biosensor may be used in future for determination of ATP and/or glucose in water samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A global benchmark study using affinity-based biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rich, Rebecca L.; Papalia, Giusseppe A.; Krishnamoorthy, G.; Beusink, J.B.; Pak, Brian J.; Myszka, David G.; more, more

    2009-01-01

    To explore the variability in biosensor studies, 150 participants from 20 countries were given the same protein samples and asked to determine kinetic rate constants for the interaction. We chose a protein system that was amenable to analysis using different biosensor platforms as well as by users

  8. Diagnosis of Dengue Infection Using Conventional and Biosensor Based Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkash, Om; Hanim Shueb, Rafidah

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is an arthropod-borne viral disease caused by four antigenically different serotypes of dengue virus. This disease is considered as a major public health concern around the world. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine or antiviral drug available for the prevention and treatment of dengue disease. Moreover, clinical features of dengue are indistinguishable from other infectious diseases such as malaria, chikungunya, rickettsia and leptospira. Therefore, prompt and accurate laboratory diagnostic test is urgently required for disease confirmation and patient triage. The traditional diagnostic techniques for the dengue virus are viral detection in cell culture, serological testing, and RNA amplification using reverse transcriptase PCR. This paper discusses the conventional laboratory methods used for the diagnosis of dengue during the acute and convalescent phase and highlights the advantages and limitations of these routine laboratory tests. Subsequently, the biosensor based assays developed using various transducers for the detection of dengue are also reviewed. PMID:26492265

  9. Function-based Biosensor for Hazardous Waste Toxin Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James J Hickman

    2008-07-09

    There is a need for new types of toxicity sensors in the DOE and other agencies that are based on biological function as the toxins encountered during decontamination or waste remediation may be previously unknown or their effects subtle. Many times the contents of the environmental waste, especially the minor components, have not been fully identified and characterized. New sensors of this type could target unknown toxins that cause death as well as intermediate levels of toxicity that impair function or cause long term impairment that may eventually lead to death. The primary question posed in this grant was to create an electronically coupled neuronal cellular circuit to be used as sensor elements for a hybrid non-biological/biological toxin sensor system. A sensor based on the electrical signals transmitted between two mammalian neurons would allow the marriage of advances in solid state electronics with a functioning biological system to develop a new type of biosensor. Sensors of this type would be a unique addition to the field of sensor technology but would also be complementary to existing sensor technology that depends on knowledge of what is to be detected beforehand. We integrated physics, electronics, surface chemistry, biotechnology, and fundamental neuroscience in the development of this biosensor. Methods were developed to create artificial surfaces that enabled the patterning of discrete cells, and networks of cells, in culture; the networks were then aligned with transducers. The transducers were designed to measure electromagnetic fields (EMF) at low field strength. We have achieved all of the primary goals of the project. We can now pattern neurons routinely in our labs as well as align them with transducers. We have also shown the signals between neurons can be modulated by different biochemicals. In addition, we have made another significant advance where we have repeated the patterning results with adult hippocampal cells. Finally, we

  10. Biosensors based on enzyme field-effect transistors for determination of some substrates and inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzyadevych, Sergei V; Soldatkin, Alexey P; Korpan, Yaroslav I; Arkhypova, Valentyna N; El'skaya, Anna V; Chovelon, Jean-Marc; Martelet, Claude; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2003-10-01

    This paper is a review of the authors' publications concerning the development of biosensors based on enzyme field-effect transistors (ENFETs) for direct substrates or inhibitors analysis. Such biosensors were designed by using immobilised enzymes and ion-selective field-effect transistors (ISFETs). Highly specific, sensitive, simple, fast and cheap determination of different substances renders them as promising tools in medicine, biotechnology, environmental control, agriculture and the food industry. The biosensors based on ENFETs and direct enzyme analysis for determination of concentrations of different substrates (glucose, urea, penicillin, formaldehyde, creatinine, etc.) have been developed and their laboratory prototypes were fabricated. Improvement of the analytical characteristics of such biosensors may be achieved by using a differential mode of measurement, working solutions with different buffer concentrations and specific agents, negatively or positively charged additional membranes, or genetically modified enzymes. These approaches allow one to decrease the effect of the buffer capacity influence on the sensor response in an aim to increase the sensitivity of the biosensors and to extend their dynamic ranges. Biosensors for the determination of concentrations of different toxic substances (organophosphorous pesticides, heavy metal ions, hypochlorite, glycoalkaloids, etc.) were designed on the basis of reversible and/or irreversible enzyme inhibition effect(s). The conception of an enzymatic multibiosensor for the determination of different toxic substances based on the enzyme inhibition effect is also described. We will discuss the respective advantages and disadvantages of biosensors based on the ENFETs developed and also demonstrate their practical application.

  11. Gold nanostar-enhanced surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on carboxyl-functionalized graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qiong; Sun, Ying; Ma, Pinyi; Zhang, Di; Li, Shuo; Wang, Xinghua; Song, Daqian

    2016-01-01

    A new high-sensitivity surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on biofunctional gold nanostars (AuNSs) and carboxyl-functionalized graphene oxide (cGO) sheets was described. Compared with spherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), the anisotropic structure of AuNSs, which concentrates the electric charge density on its sharp tips, could enhance the local electromagnetic field and the electronic coupling effect significantly. cGO was obtained by a diazonium reaction of graphene oxide (GO) with 4-aminobenzoic acid. Compared with GO, cGO could immobilize more antibodies due to the abundant carboxylic groups on its surface. Testing results show that there are fairly large improvements in the analytical performance of the SPR biosensor using cGO/AuNSs-antigen conjugate, and the detection limit of the proposed biosensor is 0.0375 μg mL"−"1, which is 32 times lower than that of graphene oxide-based biosensor. - Highlights: • A sensitive and versatile SPR biosensor was constructed for detection of pig IgG. • Biofunctional gold nanostars were used to amplify the response signals. • The strategy employed carboxyl-functionalized graphene oxide as biosensing substrate. • The detection limit of the proposed biosensor is 32 times lower than that of graphene oxide-based biosensor.

  12. Recent advances in transition-metal dichalcogenides based electrochemical biosensors: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Han; Huang, Ke-Jing; Wu, Xu

    2017-11-15

    Layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) comprise a category of two-dimensional (2D) materials that offer exciting properties, including large surface area, metallic and semi-conducting electrical capabilities, and intercalatable morphologies. Biosensors employ biological molecules to recognize the target and utilize output elements which can translate the biorecognition event into electrical, optical or mass-sensitive signals to determine the quantities of the target. TMDCs nanomaterials have been widely applied in various electrochemical biosensors with high sensitivity and selectivity. The marriage of TMDCs and electrochemical biosensors has created many productive sensing strategies for applications in the areas of clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and food safety. In recent years, an increasing number of TMDCs-based electrochemical biosensors are reported, suggesting TMDCs offers new possibilities of improving the performance of electrochemical biosensors. This review summarizes recent advances in electrochemical biosensors based on TMDCs for detection of various inorganic and organic analytes in the last five years, including glucose, proteins, DNA, heavy metal, etc. In addition, we also point out the challenges and future perspectives related to the material design and development of TMDCs-based electrochemical biosensors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Gold nanostar-enhanced surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on carboxyl-functionalized graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qiong; Sun, Ying; Ma, Pinyi; Zhang, Di; Li, Shuo; Wang, Xinghua; Song, Daqian, E-mail: songdq@jlu.edu.cn

    2016-03-24

    A new high-sensitivity surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on biofunctional gold nanostars (AuNSs) and carboxyl-functionalized graphene oxide (cGO) sheets was described. Compared with spherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), the anisotropic structure of AuNSs, which concentrates the electric charge density on its sharp tips, could enhance the local electromagnetic field and the electronic coupling effect significantly. cGO was obtained by a diazonium reaction of graphene oxide (GO) with 4-aminobenzoic acid. Compared with GO, cGO could immobilize more antibodies due to the abundant carboxylic groups on its surface. Testing results show that there are fairly large improvements in the analytical performance of the SPR biosensor using cGO/AuNSs-antigen conjugate, and the detection limit of the proposed biosensor is 0.0375 μg mL{sup −1}, which is 32 times lower than that of graphene oxide-based biosensor. - Highlights: • A sensitive and versatile SPR biosensor was constructed for detection of pig IgG. • Biofunctional gold nanostars were used to amplify the response signals. • The strategy employed carboxyl-functionalized graphene oxide as biosensing substrate. • The detection limit of the proposed biosensor is 32 times lower than that of graphene oxide-based biosensor.

  14. The sensitivity research of multiparameter biosensors based on HEMT by the mathematic modeling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, V. G.; Gudkov, A. G.; Agasieva, S. V.; Gorlacheva, E. N.; Shashurin, V. D.; Zybin, A. A.; Evseenkov, A. S.; Parnes, Y. M.

    2017-11-01

    The numerical impact modeling of some external effects on the CVC of biosensors based on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures (HEMT) was carried out. The mathematical model was created that allowed to predict the behavior of the drain current depending on condition changes on the heterostructure surface in the gate region and to start the process of directed construction optimization of the biosensors based on AlGaN/GaN HEMT with the aim of improving their performance. The calculation of the drain current of the biosensor construction was carried out to confirm the reliability of the developed mathematical model and obtained results.

  15. Fluorescent Biosensor for Phosphate Determination Based on Immobilized Polyfluorene-Liposomal Nanoparticles Coupled with Alkaline Phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahveci, Zehra; Martínez-Tomé, Maria José; Mallavia, Ricardo; Mateo, C Reyes

    2017-01-11

    This work describes the development of a novel fluorescent biosensor based on the inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The biosensor is composed of the enzyme ALP and the conjugated cationic polyfluorene HTMA-PFP. The working principle of the biosensor is based on the fluorescence quenching of this polyelectrolyte by p-nitrophenol (PNP), a product of the hydrolysis reaction of p-nitrophenyl phosphate (PNPP) catalyzed by ALP. Because HTMA-PFP forms unstable aggregates in buffer, with low fluorescence efficiency, previous stabilization of the polyelectrolyte was required before the development of the biosensor. HTMA-PFP was stabilized through its interaction with lipid vesicles to obtain stable blue-emitting nanoparticles (NPs). Fluorescent NPs were characterized, and the ability to be quenched by PNP was evaluated. These nanoparticles were coupled to ALP and entrapped in a sol-gel matrix to produce a biosensor that can serve as a screening platform to identify ALP inhibitors. The components of the biosensor were examined before and after sol-gel entrapment, and the biosensor was optimized to allow the determination of phosphate ion in aqueous medium.

  16. Hybrid Macro-Micro Fluidics System for a Chip-Based Biosensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tamanaha, C. R; Whitman, L. J; Colton, R.J

    2002-01-01

    We describe the engineering of a hybrid fluidics platform for a chip-based biosensor system that combines high-performance microfluidics components with powerful, yet compact, millimeter-scale pump and valve actuators...

  17. Paper-based Biosensor for Rapid Colorimetric Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The current project proposes to develop a real-time method for identification of targeted microorganisms using a paper-based biosensor system with ease-of-use,...

  18. Oligonucleotide-based biosensors for in vitro diagnostics and environmental hazard detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Il Young; Lee, Eun Hee; Suh, Ah Young; Lee, Seung Jin; Lee, Hyukjin

    2016-04-01

    Oligonucleotide-based biosensors have drawn much attention because of their broad applications in in vitro diagnostics and environmental hazard detection. They are particularly of interest to many researchers because of their high specificity as well as excellent sensitivity. Recently, oligonucleotide-based biosensors have been used to achieve not only genetic detection of targets but also the detection of small molecules, peptides, and proteins. This has further broadened the applications of these sensors in the medical and health care industry. In this review, we highlight various examples of oligonucleotide-based biosensors for the detection of diseases, drugs, and environmentally hazardous chemicals. Each example is provided with detailed schematics of the detection mechanism in addition to the supporting experimental results. Furthermore, future perspectives and new challenges in oligonucleotide-based biosensors are discussed.

  19. Electrochemical and optical biosensors based on nanomaterials and nanostructures: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Li, Rui; Li, Chang Ming; Wu, Nianqiang

    2011-06-01

    Nanomaterials and nanostructures exhibit unique size-tunable and shape-dependent physicochemical properties that are different from those of bulk materials. Advances of nanomaterials and nanostructures open a new door to develop various novel biosensors. The present work has reviewed the recent progress in electrochemical, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and fluorescent biosensors based on nanomaterials and nanostructures. An emphasis is put on the research that demonstrates how the performance of biosensors such as the limit of detection, sensitivity and selectivity is improved by the use of nanomaterials and nanostructures.

  20. Plasmon based biosensor for distinguishing different peptides mutation states

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Gobind; Chirumamilla, Manohar; Toma, Andrea; Gopalakrishnan, Anisha; Zaccaria, Remo Proietti; Alabastri, Alessandro; Leoncini, Marco; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2013-01-01

    of the cuboid nanostructures. The electric field distribution for the nanocuboids with varying matrix dimensions/inter-particle gap was also investigated. These SERS devices were employed as biosensors through the investigation of both myoglobin and wild

  1. The Simulation of the Recharging Method Based on Solar Radiation for an Implantable Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Song, Yong; Kong, Xianyue; Li, Maoyuan; Zhao, Yufei; Hao, Qun; Gao, Tianxin

    2016-09-10

    A method of recharging implantable biosensors based on solar radiation is proposed. Firstly, the models of the proposed method are developed. Secondly, the recharging processes based on solar radiation are simulated using Monte Carlo (MC) method and the energy distributions of sunlight within the different layers of human skin have been achieved and discussed. Finally, the simulation results are verified experimentally, which indicates that the proposed method will contribute to achieve a low-cost, convenient and safe method for recharging implantable biosensors.

  2. Electrochemical Biosensor Based on Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes with Modified Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yuan; Zhou, Yanli; Wu, Liangzhuan; Zhi, Jinfang

    2012-01-01

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) thin films, as one kind of electrode materials, are superior to conventional carbon-based materials including carbon paste, porous carbon, glassy carbon (GC), carbon nanotubes in terms of high stability, wide potential window, low background current, and good biocompatibility. Electrochemical biosensor based on BDD electrodes have attracted extensive interests due to the superior properties of BDD electrodes and the merits of biosensors, such as specificity, sensitiv...

  3. Nanomolar detection of methylparaben by a cost-effective hemoglobin-based biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajian, A., E-mail: ali.hajian@fmf.uni-freiburg.de [Freiburg Materials Research Center, FMF, University of Freiburg, Stefan-Meier-Str.21, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Laboratory for Sensors, Department of Microsystems Engineering, IMTEK, University of Freiburg, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Ghodsi, J.; Afraz, A. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, 65174, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yurchenko, O. [Freiburg Materials Research Center, FMF, University of Freiburg, Stefan-Meier-Str.21, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Urban, G. [Freiburg Materials Research Center, FMF, University of Freiburg, Stefan-Meier-Str.21, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Laboratory for Sensors, Department of Microsystems Engineering, IMTEK, University of Freiburg, 79110 Freiburg (Germany)

    2016-12-01

    This work describes the development of a new biosensor for methylparaben determination using electrocatalytic properties of hemoglobin in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The voltammetric oxidation of methylparaben by the proposed biosensor in phosphate buffer (pH = 7.0), a physiological pH, was studied and it was confirmed that methylparaben undergoes a one electron-one proton reaction in a diffusion-controlled process. The biosensor was fabricated by carbon paste electrode modified with hemoglobin and multiwalled carbon nanotube. Based on the excellent electrochemical properties of the modified electrode, a sensitive voltammetric method was used for determination of methylparaben within a linear range from 0.1 to 13 μmol L{sup −1} and detection limit of 25 nmol L{sup −1}. The developed biosensor possessed accurate and rapid response to methylparaben and showed good sensitivity, stability, and repeatability. Finally, the applicability of the proposed biosensor was verified by methylparaben evaluation in various real samples. - Highlights: • A new methylparaben biosensor was constructed by modification of carbon paste electrode with hemoglobin and MWCNTs. • The electrochemical properties of the modified electrode and electrochemical behavior of the methylparaben on the electrode surface were studied. • The response of modified GCE was analyzed by voltammetry technique (CV and DPV). • The electrode was used to the determination of methylparaben in real samples • The performance of the fabricated biosensor was satisfactorily compared to the previously reported electrochemical sensors for methylparaben determination.

  4. An acetylcholinesterase biosensor based on graphene-gold nanocomposite and calcined layered double hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Chen; Guo, Yemin; Sun, Xia; Zheng, Yuhe; Wang, Xiangyou

    2014-05-10

    In this study, a novel acetylcholinesterase-based biosensor was fabricated. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was immobilized onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with the aid of Cu-Mg-Al calcined layered double hydroxide (CLDH). CLDH can provide a bigger effective surface area for AChE loading, which could improve the precision and stability of AChE biosensor. However, the poor electroconductibility of CLDHs could lead to the low sensitivity of AChE biosensor. In order to effectively compensate the disadvantages of CLDHs, graphene-gold nanocomposites were used for improving the electron transfer rate. Thus, the graphene-gold nanocomposite (GN-AuNPs) was firstly modified onto the GCE, and then the prepared CLDH-AChE composite was immobilized onto the modified GCE to construct a sensitive AChE biosensor for pesticides detection. Relevant parameters were studied in detail and optimized, including the pH of the acetylthiocholine chloride (ATCl) solution, the amount of AChE immobilized on the biosensor and the inhibition time governing the analytical performance of the biosensor. The biosensor detected chlorpyrifos at concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 150μg/L. The detection limit for chlorpyrifos was 0.05μg/L. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhancement in sensitivity of graphene-based zinc oxide assisted bimetallic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Kushwaha, Angad S.; Srivastava, Monika; Mishra, H.; Srivastava, S. K.

    2018-03-01

    In the present communication, a highly sensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor with Kretschmann configuration having alternate layers, prism/zinc oxide/silver/gold/graphene/biomolecules (ss-DNA) is presented. The optimization of the proposed configuration has been accomplished by keeping the constant thickness of zinc oxide (32 nm), silver (32 nm), graphene (0.34 nm) layer and biomolecules (100 nm) for different values of gold layer thickness (1, 3 and 5 nm). The sensitivity of the proposed SPR biosensor has been demonstrated for a number of design parameters such as gold layer thickness, number of graphene layer, refractive index of biomolecules and the thickness of biomolecules layer. SPR biosensor with optimized geometry has greater sensitivity (66 deg/RIU) than the conventional (52 deg/RIU) as well as other graphene-based (53.2 deg/RIU) SPR biosensor. The effect of zinc oxide layer thickness on the sensitivity of SPR biosensor has also been analysed. From the analysis, it is found that the sensitivity increases significantly by increasing the thickness of zinc oxide layer. It means zinc oxide intermediate layer plays an important role to improve the sensitivity of the biosensor. The sensitivity of SPR biosensor also increases by increasing the number of graphene layer (upto nine layer).

  6. A sensitive acetylcholinesterase biosensor based on gold nanorods modified electrode for detection of organophosphate pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Qiaolin; Han, Lei; Hou, Chuantao; Wang, Fei; Liu, Aihua

    2016-08-15

    A sensitive amperometric acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensor, based on gold nanorods (AuNRs), was developed for the detection of organophosphate pesticide. Compared with Au@Ag heterogeneous NRs, AuNRs exhibited excellent electrocatalytic properties, which can electrocatalytically oxidize thiocholine, the hydrolysate of acetylthiocholine chloride (ATCl) by AChE at +0.55V (vs. SCE). The AChE/AuNRs/GCE biosensor was fabricated on basis of the inhibition of AChE activity by organophosphate pesticide. The biosensor could detect paraoxon in the linear range from 1nM to 5μM and dimethoate in the linear range from 5nM to 1μM, respectively. The detection limits of paraoxon and dimethoate were 0.7nM and 3.9nM, which were lower than the reported AChE biosensor. The proposed biosensor could restore to over 95% of its original current, which demonstrated the good reactivation. Moreover, the biosensor can be applicable to real water sample measurement. Thus, the biosensor exhibited low applied potential, high sensitivity and good stability, providing a promising tool for analysis of pesticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Nanomolar detection of methylparaben by a cost-effective hemoglobin-based biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajian, A.; Ghodsi, J.; Afraz, A.; Yurchenko, O.; Urban, G.

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the development of a new biosensor for methylparaben determination using electrocatalytic properties of hemoglobin in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The voltammetric oxidation of methylparaben by the proposed biosensor in phosphate buffer (pH = 7.0), a physiological pH, was studied and it was confirmed that methylparaben undergoes a one electron-one proton reaction in a diffusion-controlled process. The biosensor was fabricated by carbon paste electrode modified with hemoglobin and multiwalled carbon nanotube. Based on the excellent electrochemical properties of the modified electrode, a sensitive voltammetric method was used for determination of methylparaben within a linear range from 0.1 to 13 μmol L −1 and detection limit of 25 nmol L −1 . The developed biosensor possessed accurate and rapid response to methylparaben and showed good sensitivity, stability, and repeatability. Finally, the applicability of the proposed biosensor was verified by methylparaben evaluation in various real samples. - Highlights: • A new methylparaben biosensor was constructed by modification of carbon paste electrode with hemoglobin and MWCNTs. • The electrochemical properties of the modified electrode and electrochemical behavior of the methylparaben on the electrode surface were studied. • The response of modified GCE was analyzed by voltammetry technique (CV and DPV). • The electrode was used to the determination of methylparaben in real samples • The performance of the fabricated biosensor was satisfactorily compared to the previously reported electrochemical sensors for methylparaben determination.

  8. Enzyme-linked, aptamer-based, competitive biolayer interferometry biosensor for palytoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shunxiang; Zheng, Xin; Hu, Bo; Sun, Mingjuan; Wu, Jihong; Jiao, Binghua; Wang, Lianghua

    2017-03-15

    In this study, we coupled biolayer interferometry (BLI) with competitive binding assay through an enzyme-linked aptamer and developed a real-time, ultra-sensitive, rapid quantitative method for detection of the marine biotoxin palytoxin. Horseradish peroxidase-labeled aptamers were used as biorecognition receptors to competitively bind with palytoxin, which was immobilized on the biosensor surface. The palytoxin: horseradish peroxidase-aptamer complex was then submerged in a 3,3'-diaminobenzidine solution, which resulted in formation of a precipitated polymeric product directly on the biosensor surface and a large change in the optical thickness of the biosensor layer. This change could obviously shift the interference pattern and generate a response profile on the BLI biosensor. The biosensor showed a broad linear range for palytoxin (200-700pg/mL) with a low detection limit (0.04pg/mL). Moreover, the biosensor was applied to the detection of palytoxin in spiked extracts and showed a high degree of selectivity for palytoxin, good reproducibility, and stability. This enzyme-linked, aptamer-based, competitive BLI biosensor offers a promising method for rapid and sensitive detection of palytoxin and other analytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Surface plasmon resonance based biosensor: A new platform for rapid diagnosis of livestock diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravas Ranjan Sahoo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface plasmon resonance (SPR based biosensors are the most advanced and developed optical label-free biosensor technique used for powerful detection with vast applications in environmental protection, biotechnology, medical diagnostics, drug screening, food safety, and security as well in livestock sector. The livestock sector which contributes the largest economy of India, harbors many bacterial, viral, and fungal diseases impacting a great loss to the production and productive potential which is a major concern in both small and large ruminants. Hence, an accurate, sensitive, and rapid diagnosis is required for prevention of these above-mentioned diseases. SPR based biosensor assay may fulfill the above characteristics which lead to a greater platform for rapid diagnosis of different livestock diseases. Hence, this review may give a detail idea about the principle, recent development of SPR based biosensor techniques and its application in livestock sector.

  10. Microbial Fuels Cell-Based Biosensor for Toxicity Detection: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuoyu Zhou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available With the unprecedented deterioration of environmental quality, rapid recognition of toxic compounds is paramount for performing in situ real-time monitoring. Although several analytical techniques based on electrochemistry or biosensors have been developed for the detection of toxic compounds, most of them are time-consuming, inaccurate, or cumbersome for practical applications. More recently, microbial fuel cell (MFC-based biosensors have drawn increasing interest due to their sustainability and cost-effectiveness, with applications ranging from the monitoring of anaerobic digestion process parameters (VFA to water quality detection (e.g., COD, BOD. When a MFC runs under correct conditions, the voltage generated is correlated with the amount of a given substrate. Based on this linear relationship, several studies have demonstrated that MFC-based biosensors could detect heavy metals such as copper, chromium, or zinc, as well as organic compounds, including p-nitrophenol (PNP, formaldehyde and levofloxacin. Both bacterial consortia and single strains can be used to develop MFC-based biosensors. Biosensors with single strains show several advantages over systems integrating bacterial consortia, such as selectivity and stability. One of the limitations of such sensors is that the detection range usually exceeds the actual pollution level. Therefore, improving their sensitivity is the most important for widespread application. Nonetheless, MFC-based biosensors represent a promising approach towards single pollutant detection.

  11. Electrochemical DNA biosensor based on grafting-to mode of terminal deoxynucleoside transferase-mediated extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinyuan; Liu, Zhoujie; Peng, Huaping; Zheng, Yanjie; Lin, Zhen; Liu, Ailin; Chen, Wei; Lin, Xinhua

    2017-12-15

    Previously reported electrochemical DNA biosensors based on in-situ polymerization approach reveal that terminal deoxynucleoside transferase (TdTase) has good amplifying performance and promising application in the design of electrochemical DNA biosensor. However, this method, in which the background is significantly affected by the amount of TdTase, suffers from being easy to produce false positive result and poor stability. Herein, we firstly present a novel electrochemical DNA biosensor based on grafting-to mode of TdTase-mediated extension, in which DNA targets are polymerized in homogeneous solution and then hybridized with DNA probes on BSA-based DNA carrier platform. It is surprising to find that the background in the grafting-to mode of TdTase-based electrochemical DNA biosensor have little interference from the employed TdTase. Most importantly, the proposed electrochemical DNA biosensor shows greatly improved detection performance over the in-situ polymerization approach-based electrochemical DNA biosensor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 1-D grating based SPR biosensor for the detection of lung cancer biomarkers using Vroman effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teotia, Pradeep Kumar; Kaler, R. S.

    2018-01-01

    Grating based surface plasmon resonance waveguide biosensor have been reported for the detection of lung cancer biomarkers using Vroman effect. The proposed grating based multilayered biosensor is designed with high detection accuracy for Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and also analysed to show high detection accuracy with acceptable sensitivity for both cancer biomarkers. The introduction of periodic grating with multilayer metals generates a good resonance that make it possible for early detection of cancerous cells. Using finite difference time domain method, it is observed wavelength of biosensor get red-shifted on variations of the refractive index due to the presence of both the cancerous bio-markers. The reported detection accuracy and sensitivity of proposed biosensor is quite acceptable for both lung cancer biomarkers i.e. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) which further offer us label free early detection of lung cancer using these biomarkers.

  13. Monitoring of Glucose in Beer Brewing by a Carbon Nanotubes Based Nylon Nanofibrous Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mason

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the design, preparation, and characterization of a novel glucose electrochemical biosensor based on the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOX into a nylon nanofibrous membrane (NFM prepared by electrospinning and functionalized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT. A disc of such GOX/CNT/NFM membrane (40 μm in thickness was used for coating the surface of a glassy carbon electrode. The resulting biosensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, with ferrocene methanol as mediator. The binding of GOX around the CNT/NFM greatly enhances the electron transfer, which results in a biosensor with a current five times higher than without CNT. The potential usefulness of the proposed biosensor was demonstrated with the analysis of glucose in commercial beverages and along the monitoring of the brewing process for making beer, from the mashing to the fermentation steps.

  14. Novel biosensors based on flavonoid-responsive transcriptional regulators introduced into Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siedler, Solvej; Stahlhut, Steen Gustav; Malla, Sailesh

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the construction of two flavonoid biosensors, which can be applied for metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli strains. The biosensors are based on transcriptional regulators combined with autofluorescent proteins. The transcriptional activator FdeR from Herbaspirillum...... and externally added flavonoid concentration. The QdoR-biosensor was successfully applied for detection of kaempferol production in vivo at the single cell level by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Furthermore, the amount of kaempferol produced highly correlated with the specific fluorescence of E. coli...... cells containing a flavonol synthase from Arabidopsis thaliana (fls1). We expect the designed biosensors to be applied for isolation of genes involved in flavonoid biosynthetic pathways. © 2013 The Authors....

  15. Quantum dot-based microfluidic biosensor for cancer detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghrera, Aditya Sharma [Biomedical Instrumentation Section, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012 (India); School of Engineering and Technology, ITM University, Gurgaon-122017 (India); Pandey, Chandra Mouli; Ali, Md. Azahar [Biomedical Instrumentation Section, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012 (India); Malhotra, Bansi Dhar, E-mail: bansi.malhotra@gmail.com [Department of Biotechnology, Delhi Technological University, Delhi-110042 (India)

    2015-05-11

    We report results of the studies relating to fabrication of an impedimetric microfluidic–based nucleic acid sensor for quantification of DNA sequences specific to chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). The sensor chip is prepared by patterning an indium–tin–oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate via wet chemical etching method followed by sealing with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel for fluid control. The fabricated microfluidic chip comprising of a patterned ITO substrate is modified by depositing cadmium selenide quantum dots (QCdSe) via Langmuir–Blodgett technique. Further, the QCdSe surface has been functionalized with specific DNA probe for CML detection. The probe DNA functionalized QCdSe integrated miniaturized system has been used to monitor target complementary DNA concentration by measuring the interfacial charge transfer resistance via hybridization. The presence of complementary DNA in buffer solution significantly results in decreased electro-conductivity of the interface due to presence of a charge barrier for transport of the redox probe ions. The microfluidic DNA biosensor exhibits improved linearity in the concentration range of 10{sup −15} M to 10{sup −11} M.

  16. Quantum dot-based microfluidic biosensor for cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrera, Aditya Sharma; Pandey, Chandra Mouli; Ali, Md. Azahar; Malhotra, Bansi Dhar

    2015-05-01

    We report results of the studies relating to fabrication of an impedimetric microfluidic-based nucleic acid sensor for quantification of DNA sequences specific to chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). The sensor chip is prepared by patterning an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate via wet chemical etching method followed by sealing with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel for fluid control. The fabricated microfluidic chip comprising of a patterned ITO substrate is modified by depositing cadmium selenide quantum dots (QCdSe) via Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Further, the QCdSe surface has been functionalized with specific DNA probe for CML detection. The probe DNA functionalized QCdSe integrated miniaturized system has been used to monitor target complementary DNA concentration by measuring the interfacial charge transfer resistance via hybridization. The presence of complementary DNA in buffer solution significantly results in decreased electro-conductivity of the interface due to presence of a charge barrier for transport of the redox probe ions. The microfluidic DNA biosensor exhibits improved linearity in the concentration range of 10-15 M to 10-11 M.

  17. Quantum dot-based microfluidic biosensor for cancer detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghrera, Aditya Sharma; Pandey, Chandra Mouli; Ali, Md. Azahar; Malhotra, Bansi Dhar

    2015-01-01

    We report results of the studies relating to fabrication of an impedimetric microfluidic–based nucleic acid sensor for quantification of DNA sequences specific to chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). The sensor chip is prepared by patterning an indium–tin–oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate via wet chemical etching method followed by sealing with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel for fluid control. The fabricated microfluidic chip comprising of a patterned ITO substrate is modified by depositing cadmium selenide quantum dots (QCdSe) via Langmuir–Blodgett technique. Further, the QCdSe surface has been functionalized with specific DNA probe for CML detection. The probe DNA functionalized QCdSe integrated miniaturized system has been used to monitor target complementary DNA concentration by measuring the interfacial charge transfer resistance via hybridization. The presence of complementary DNA in buffer solution significantly results in decreased electro-conductivity of the interface due to presence of a charge barrier for transport of the redox probe ions. The microfluidic DNA biosensor exhibits improved linearity in the concentration range of 10 −15 M to 10 −11 M

  18. A Graphene-Based Biosensing Platform Based on Regulated Release of an Aptameric DNA Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yu; Chen, Yongli; Li, Song; Lin, Shuo; Jiang, Yuyang

    2015-11-09

    A novel biosensing platform was developed by integrating an aptamer-based DNA biosensor with graphene oxide (GO) for rapid and facile detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP, as a model target). The DNA biosensor, which is locked by GO, is designed to contain two sensing modules that include recognition site for ATP and self-replication track that yields the nicking domain for Nt.BbvCI. By taking advantage of the different binding affinity of single-stranded DNA, double-stranded DNA and aptamer-target complex toward GO, the DNA biosensor could be efficiently released from GO in the presence of target with the help of a complementary DNA strand (CPDNA) that partially hybridizes to the DNA biosensor. Then, the polymerization/nicking enzyme synergetic isothermal amplification could be triggered, leading to the synthesis of massive DNA amplicons, thus achieving an enhanced sensitivity with a wide linear dynamic response range of four orders of magnitude and good selectivity. This biosensing strategy expands the applications of GO-DNA nanobiointerfaces in biological sensing, showing great potential in fundamental research and biomedical diagnosis.

  19. Microbial biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Yu; Chen, Wilfred; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2006-01-01

    A microbial biosensor is an analytical device that couples microorganisms with a transducer to enable rapid, accurate and sensitive detection of target analytes in fields as diverse as medicine, environmental monitoring, defense, food processing and safety. The earlier microbial biosensors used the respiratory and metabolic functions of the microorganisms to detect a substance that is either a substrate or an inhibitor of these processes. Recently, genetically engineered microorganisms based on fusing of the lux, gfp or lacZ gene reporters to an inducible gene promoter have been widely applied to assay toxicity and bioavailability. This paper reviews the recent trends in the development and application of microbial biosensors. Current advances and prospective future direction in developing microbial biosensor have also been discussed

  20. Development of Galactose Biosensor Based on Functionalized ZnO Nanorods with Galactose Oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Khun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of galactose biosensor based on functionalised ZnO nanorods is described. The galactose biosensor was developed by immobilizing galactose oxidase on ZnO nanorods in conjunction with glutaraldehyde as a cross-linker molecule. The IRAS study provided evidence for the interaction of galactose oxidase with the surface of ZnO nanorods. The electromotive force (EMF response of the galactose biosensor was measured by potentiometric method. We observed that the proposed biosensor has a linear detection range over a concentration range from 10 mM to 200 mM with good sensitivity of 89.10±1.23 mV/decade. In addition, the proposed biosensor has shown fast time response of less than 10 s and a good selectivity towards galactose in the presence of common interferents such as ascorbic acid, uric acid, glucose, and magnesium ions. The galactose biosensor based on galactose oxidase immobilized ZnO nanorods has a shelf life more than four weeks.

  1. A low cost color-based bacterial biosensor for measuring arsenic in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Wei; Wei, Chia-Cheng; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2015-12-01

    Using arsenic (As) contaminated groundwater for drinking or irrigation has caused major health problems for humans around the world, raising a need to monitor As level efficiently and economically. This study developed a color-based bacterial biosensor which is easy-to-use and inexpensive for measuring As and could be complementary to current As detecting techniques. The arsR-lacZ recombinant gene cassette in nonpathogenic strain Escherichia coli DH5α was used in the color-based biosensor which could be observed by eyes or measured by spectrometer. The developed bacterial biosensor demonstrates a quantitative range from 10 to 500μgL(-1) of As in 3-h reaction time. Furthermore, the biosensor was able to successfully detect and estimate As concentration in groundwater sample by measuring optical density at 595nm (OD595). Among different storage methods used in this study, biosensor in liquid at 4°C showed the longest shelf life about 9d, and liquid storage at RT and cell pellet could also be stored for about 3-5d. In conclusion, this study showed that the As biosensor with reliable color signal and economical preservation methods is useful for rapid screening of As pollutant, providing the potential for large scale screening and better management strategies for environmental quality control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Homogeneous Biosensing Based on Magnetic Particle Labels

    KAUST Repository

    Schrittwieser, Stefan

    2016-06-06

    The growing availability of biomarker panels for molecular diagnostics is leading to an increasing need for fast and sensitive biosensing technologies that are applicable to point-of-care testing. In that regard, homogeneous measurement principles are especially relevant as they usually do not require extensive sample preparation procedures, thus reducing the total analysis time and maximizing ease-of-use. In this review, we focus on homogeneous biosensors for the in vitro detection of biomarkers. Within this broad range of biosensors, we concentrate on methods that apply magnetic particle labels. The advantage of such methods lies in the added possibility to manipulate the particle labels by applied magnetic fields, which can be exploited, for example, to decrease incubation times or to enhance the signal-to-noise-ratio of the measurement signal by applying frequency-selective detection. In our review, we discriminate the corresponding methods based on the nature of the acquired measurement signal, which can either be based on magnetic or optical detection. The underlying measurement principles of the different techniques are discussed, and biosensing examples for all techniques are reported, thereby demonstrating the broad applicability of homogeneous in vitro biosensing based on magnetic particle label actuation.

  3. Homogeneous Biosensing Based on Magnetic Particle Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrittwieser, Stefan; Pelaz, Beatriz; Parak, Wolfgang J.; Lentijo-Mozo, Sergio; Soulantica, Katerina; Dieckhoff, Jan; Ludwig, Frank; Guenther, Annegret; Tschöpe, Andreas; Schotter, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    The growing availability of biomarker panels for molecular diagnostics is leading to an increasing need for fast and sensitive biosensing technologies that are applicable to point-of-care testing. In that regard, homogeneous measurement principles are especially relevant as they usually do not require extensive sample preparation procedures, thus reducing the total analysis time and maximizing ease-of-use. In this review, we focus on homogeneous biosensors for the in vitro detection of biomarkers. Within this broad range of biosensors, we concentrate on methods that apply magnetic particle labels. The advantage of such methods lies in the added possibility to manipulate the particle labels by applied magnetic fields, which can be exploited, for example, to decrease incubation times or to enhance the signal-to-noise-ratio of the measurement signal by applying frequency-selective detection. In our review, we discriminate the corresponding methods based on the nature of the acquired measurement signal, which can either be based on magnetic or optical detection. The underlying measurement principles of the different techniques are discussed, and biosensing examples for all techniques are reported, thereby demonstrating the broad applicability of homogeneous in vitro biosensing based on magnetic particle label actuation. PMID:27275824

  4. Homogeneous Biosensing Based on Magnetic Particle Labels

    KAUST Repository

    Schrittwieser, Stefan; Pelaz, Beatriz; Parak, Wolfgang; Lentijo Mozo, Sergio; Soulantica, Katerina; Dieckhoff, Jan; Ludwig, Frank; Guenther, Annegret; Tschö pe, Andreas; Schotter, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    The growing availability of biomarker panels for molecular diagnostics is leading to an increasing need for fast and sensitive biosensing technologies that are applicable to point-of-care testing. In that regard, homogeneous measurement principles are especially relevant as they usually do not require extensive sample preparation procedures, thus reducing the total analysis time and maximizing ease-of-use. In this review, we focus on homogeneous biosensors for the in vitro detection of biomarkers. Within this broad range of biosensors, we concentrate on methods that apply magnetic particle labels. The advantage of such methods lies in the added possibility to manipulate the particle labels by applied magnetic fields, which can be exploited, for example, to decrease incubation times or to enhance the signal-to-noise-ratio of the measurement signal by applying frequency-selective detection. In our review, we discriminate the corresponding methods based on the nature of the acquired measurement signal, which can either be based on magnetic or optical detection. The underlying measurement principles of the different techniques are discussed, and biosensing examples for all techniques are reported, thereby demonstrating the broad applicability of homogeneous in vitro biosensing based on magnetic particle label actuation.

  5. Lactate Biosensor Based on Cellulose Acetate Membrane Bound Lactate Oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Lactate biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing lactate oxidase in cellulose acetate membrane and by mounting over the sensing part of Pt electrode (working and connected to Ag/AgCl electrode (reference along with auxillary electrode through potentiostat. The enzyme electrode was anodically polarized at +400 mV to generate electrons from H2O2, which was formed from oxidation of serum lactate by immobilized lactate oxidase. The minimum detection limit of the electrode was 0.1mmoles/L and sensitivity of the sensor was 0.008 mA/mM/L lactate. Assay coefficients of variation were < 2% .A good correlation (r=0.99 was found between lactate values obtained by colorimetric method and lactate biosensor. The self-life of the biosensor was 18 days at 4ºC and enzyme electrode can be re-used 150 times without any significant loss in enzyme activity.

  6. Fluorescence-based biosensors from concepts to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, May C

    2013-01-01

    One of the major challenges of modern biology and medicine consists in finding means to visualize biomolecules in their natural environment with the greatest level of accuracy, so as to gain insight into their properties and behaviour in a physiological and pathological setting. This has been achieved thanks to the design of novel imaging agents, in particular to fluorescent biosensors. Fluorescence Biosensors comprise a large set of tools which are useful for fundamental purposes as well as for applications in biomedicine, drug discovery and biotechnology. These tools have been designed a

  7. Direct evidence of advantage of using nanosized zeolite Beta for ISFET-based biosensor construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soy, Esin; Galioglu, Sezin; Soldatkin, Oleksandr O.; Dzyadevych, Sergei V.; Warzywoda, Juliusz; Sacco, Albert; Akata, Burcu

    2013-01-01

    Analytical characteristics of urease- and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE)- based ion sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) biosensors were investigated by the incorporation of zeolite Beta nanoparticles with varying Si/Al ratios. The results obtained by the zeolite-modified ISFET transducers suggested that the Si/Al ratio strongly influenced the biosensor performances due to the electrostatic interactions among enzyme, substrate, and zeolite surface as well as the nature of the enzymatic reaction. Using relatively small nanoparticles (62.7 ± 10, 76.2 ± 10, and 77.1 ± 10 nm) rather than larger particles, that are widely used in the literature, allow us to produce more homogenous products which will give more control over the quantity of materials used on the electrode surface and ability to change solely Si/Al ratio without changing other parameters such as particle size, pore volume, and surface area. This should enable the investigation of the individual effect of changing acidic and electronic nature of this material on the biosensor characteristics. According to our results, high biosensor sensitivity is evident on nanosize and submicron size particles, with the former resulting in higher performance. The sensitivity of biosensors modified by zeolite particles is higher than that to the protein for both types of biosensors. Most significantly, our results show that the performance of constructed ISFET-type biosensors strongly depends on Si/Al ratio of employed zeolite Beta nanoparticles as well as the type of enzymatic reaction employed. All fabricated biosensors demonstrated high signal reproducibility and stability for both BuChE and urease.

  8. Developing a high performance superoxide dismutase based electrochemical biosensor for radiation dosimetry of thallium 201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, Fatemeh; Tavakoli, Hassan; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Riazi, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    To develop a new biosensor for measurement of superoxide free radical generated in radiolysis reaction, three combinations of SOD-based biosensors including Au/Cys/SOD, Au/GNP/Cys/SOD and Au/GNP/Cys/SOD/Chit were fabricated. In these biosensors Au, GNP, Cys, SOD and Chit represent gold electrode, gold nano-particles, cysteine, superoxide dismutase and chitosan, respectively. For biosensors fabrication, SOD, GNP, Cys and Chit were immobilized at the surface of gold electrode. Cyclic voltametry and chronoamperometry were utilized for evaluation of biosensors performances. The results showed that Au/GNP/Cys/SOD/Chit has significantly better responses compared to Au/Cys/SOD and Au/GNP/Cys/SOD. As a result, this biosensor was selected for dosimetry of ionizing radiation. For this purpose, thallium 201 at different volumes was added to buffer phosphate solution in electrochemical cell. To obtain analytical parameters of Au/GNP/Cys/SOD/Chit, calibration curve was sketched. The results showed that this biosensor has a linear response in the range from 0.5 to 4 Gy, detection limit 0.03 μM. It also has a proper sensitivity (0.6038 nA/Gy), suitable long term stability and cost effective as well as high function for radiation dosimetry. - highlights: • Our biosensor is able to measure produced superoxide radical during water radiolysis. • It has suitable linearity range, good detection limit and long term stability. • It also has proper sensitivity and high performance for low LET ionizing radiation. • The electrochemical method is as good as traditional methods for radiation dosimetry

  9. Detection of Benzoic Acid by an Amperometric Inhibitor Biosensor Based on Mushroom Tissue Homogenate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kemal Sezgintürk

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An amperometric benzoic acid-sensing inhibitor biosensor was prepared by immobilizing mushroom (Agaricus bisporus tissue homogenate on a Clark-type oxygen electrode. The effects of the quantity of mushroom tissue homogenate, the quantity of gelatin and the effect of the crosslinking agent glutaraldehyde percent on the biosensor were studied. The optimum concentration of phenol used as substrate was 200 μM. The bioanalytical properties of the proposed biosensor, such as dependence of the biosensor response on the pH value and the temperature, were investigated. The biosensor responded linearly to benzoic acid in a concentration range of 25–100 μM. Standard deviation (s.d. was ±0.49 μM for 7 successive determinations at a concentration of 75 μM. The inhibitor biosensor based on mushroom tissue homogenate was applied for the determination of benzoic acid in fizzy lemonade, some fruits and groundwater samples. Results were compared to those obtained using AOAC method, showing a good agreement.

  10. Small Microbial Three-Electrode Cell Based Biosensor for Online Detection of Acute Water Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dengbin; Zhai, Junfeng; Liu, Changyu; Zhang, Xueping; Bai, Lu; Wang, Yizhe; Dong, Shaojun

    2017-11-22

    The monitoring of toxicity of water is very important to estimate the safety of drinking water and the level of water pollution. Herein, a small microbial three-electrode cell (M3C) biosensor filled with polystyrene particles was proposed for online monitoring of the acute water toxicity. The peak current of the biosensor related with the performance of the bioanode was regarded as the toxicity indicator, and thus the acute water toxicity could be determined in terms of inhibition ratio by comparing the peak current obtained with water sample to that obtained with nontoxic standard water. The incorporation of polystyrene particles in the electrochemical cell not only reduced the volume of the samples used, but also improved the sensitivity of the biosensor. Experimental conditions including washing time with PBS and the concentration of sodium acetate solution were optimized. The stability of the M3C biosensor under optimal conditions was also investigated. The M3C biosensor was further examined by formaldehyde at the concentration of 0.01%, 0.03%, and 0.05% (v/v), and the corresponding inhibition ratios were 14.6%, 21.6%, and 36.4%, respectively. This work provides a new insight into the development of an online toxicity detector based on M3C biosensor.

  11. Preparation of Oxygen Meter Based Biosensor for Determination of Triglyceride in Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BHAMBI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available A method is described for preparation of a dissolved oxygen meter (make Aqualytic, Germany based triglyceride biosensor employing a polyvinyl chloride (PVC membrane bound lipase, glycerol kinase (GK and glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase The biosensor measures dissolved O2 utilized in the oxidation of triglyceride (TG by membrane bound lipase, glycerol kinase (GK and glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase (GPO, which is directly proportional to (TG concentration. The biosensor showed optimum response within 10-15 sec at pH 7.5 and 39.5 ºC. A linear relationship was obtained between the (TG concentration from 5mM to 20mM and oxygen consumed (mg/L. The biosensor was employed for determination of triglyceride in serum. The within and between batch coefficient of variation (CV were < 2.18 % and < 1.7% respectively. The minimum detection limit of the biosensor was 0.35 mM. A study of interference revealed that ascorbic acid, cholesterol and bilirubin caused 13%, 15%, and 12% interference, respectively.The biosensor is portable and can be used outside the laboratory.

  12. Graphene Electronic Device Based Biosensors and Chemical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan

    Two-dimensional layered materials, such as graphene and MoS2, are emerging as an exciting material system for a new generation of atomically thin electronic devices. With their ultrahigh surface to volume ratio and excellent electrical properties, 2D-layered materials hold the promise for the construction of a generation of chemical and biological sensors with unprecedented sensitivity. In my PhD thesis, I mainly focus on graphene based electronic biosensors and chemical sensors. In the first part of my thesis, I demonstrated the fabrication of graphene nanomesh (GNM), which is a graphene thin film with a periodic array of holes punctuated in it. The periodic holes introduce long periphery active edges that provide a high density of functional groups (e.g. carboxylic groups) to allow for covalent grafting of specific receptor molecules for chemical and biosensor applications. After covalently functionalizing the GNM with glucose oxidase, I managed to make a novel electronic sensor which can detect glucose as well as pH change. In the following part of my thesis I demonstrate the fabrication of graphene-hemin conjugate for nitric oxide detection. The non-covalent functionalization through pi-pi stacking interaction allows reliable immobilization of hemin molecules on graphene without damaging the graphene lattice to ensure the highly sensitive and specific detection of nitric oxide. The graphene-hemin nitric oxide sensor is capable of real-time monitoring of nitric oxide concentrations, which is of central importance for probing the diverse roles of nitric oxide in neurotransmission, cardiovascular systems, and immune responses. Our studies demonstrate that the graphene-hemin sensors can respond rapidly to nitric oxide in physiological environments with sub-nanomolar sensitivity. Furthermore, in vitro studies show that the graphene-hemin sensors can be used for the detection of nitric oxide released from macrophage cells and endothelial cells, demonstrating their

  13. Challenges in wireless bio-sensor based health development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nkosi, MT

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available ]. The research carried out at Roviera i Virgili University on bio- sensor development has shown that biosensors can detect bacteria at levels as low as 1 cell per 5 ml of water, allowing water to be tested for typhoid fever bacteria in only a few seconds [25...

  14. Lignin and silicate based hydrogels for biosensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrs, S. L.; Jairam, S.; Vanegas, D. C.; Tong, Z.; McLamore, E. S.

    2013-05-01

    Advances in biocompatible materials and electrocatalytic nanomaterials have extended and enhanced the field of biosensors. Immobilization of biorecognition elements on nanomaterial platforms is an efficient technique for developing high fidelity biosensors. Single layer (i.e., Langmuir-Blodgett) protein films are efficient, but disadvantages of this approach include high cost, mass transfer limitations, and Vromer competition for surface binding sites. There is a need for simple, user friendly protein-nanomaterial sensing membranes that can be developed in laboratories or classrooms (i.e., outside of the clean room). In this research, we develop high fidelity nanomaterial platforms for developing electrochemical biosensors using sustainable biomaterials and user-friendly deposition techniques. Catalytic nanomaterial platforms are developed using a combination of self assembled monolayer chemistry and electrodeposition. High performance biomaterials (e.g., nanolignin) are recovered from paper pulp waste and combined with proteins and nanomaterials to form active sensor membranes. These methods are being used to develop electrochemical biosensors for studying physiological transport in biomedical, agricultural, and environmental applications.

  15. RNA Detection Based on Graphene Field-Effect Transistor Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Tian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene has attracted much attention in biosensing applications due to its unique properties. In this paper, the monolayer graphene was grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD method. Using the graphene as the electric channel, we have fabricated a graphene field-effect transistor (G-FET biosensor that can be used for label-free detection of RNA. Compared with conventional method, the G-FET RNA biosensor can be run in low cost, be time-saving, and be miniaturized for RNA measurement. The sensors show high performance and achieve the RNA detection sensitivity as low as 0.1 fM, which is two orders of magnitude lower than the previously reports. Moreover, the G-FET biosensor can readily distinguish target RNA from noncomplementary RNA, showing high selectivity for RNA detection. The developed G-FET RNA biosensor with high sensitivity, fast analysis speed, and simple operation may provide a new feasible direction for RNA research and biosensing.

  16. Nuclear track-based biosensors with the enzyme laccase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Arellano, H. [Departamento de Ciencias Ambientales, División de Ciencias Biológicas y de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Lerma, Av. de las Garzas No. 10, Col. El Panteón, Lerma de Villada, Municipio de Lerma, Estado de México, C.P. 52005 (Mexico); Fink, D., E-mail: fink@xanum.uam.mx [Division de Ciencias Naturales e Ingeneria, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Cuajimalpa, Artificios 40, Col. Hidalgo, Del. Álvaro Obregón C.P. 01120, México, D.F. (Mexico); Nuclear Physics Institute, 25068 Řež (Czech Republic); Muñoz Hernández, G. [Division de Ciencias Naturales e Ingeneria, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Cuajimalpa, Artificios 40, Col. Hidalgo, Del. Álvaro Obregón C.P. 01120, México, D.F. (Mexico); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, PO Box 55-534, 09340 México, D.F. (Mexico); Vacík, J.; Hnatowicz, V. [Nuclear Physics Institute, 25068 Řež (Czech Republic); Alfonta, L. [Avram and Stella Goldstein-Goren Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We construct a biosensor using polymer foils with laccase-clad etched nuclear tracks. • We use the biosensor for quantitation of phenolic compounds. • The biosensor can detect picomolar concentrations for some phenolic compounds. - Abstract: A new type of biosensors for detecting phenolic compounds is presented here. These sensors consist of thin polymer foils with laccase-clad etched nuclear tracks. The presence of suitable phenolic compounds in the sensors leads to the formation of enzymatic reaction products in the tracks, which differ in their electrical conductivities from their precursor materials. These differences correlate with the concentrations of the phenolic compounds. Corresponding calibration curves have been established for a number of compounds. The sensors thus produced are capable to cover between 5 and 9 orders of magnitude in concentration – in the best case down to some picomoles. The sensor's detection sensitivity strongly depends on the specific compound. It is highest for caffeic acid and acid blue 74, followed by ABTS and ferulic acid.

  17. The development and application of FET-based biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergveld, Piet

    1986-01-01

    After having considered the general definition of biosensors, the specifications of one type are discussed here in more detail, namely the pH-sensitive ISFET, which is at present being clinically investigated for intravascular blood pH recording. Results, advantages and possible improvements will be

  18. Engineering Rugged Field Assays to Detect Hazardous Chemicals Using Spore-Based Bacterial Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Daniel; Deo, Sapna; Daunert, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial whole cell-based biosensors have been genetically engineered to achieve selective and reliable detection of a wide range of hazardous chemicals. Although whole-cell biosensors demonstrate many advantages for field-based detection of target analytes, there are still some challenges that need to be addressed. Most notably, their often modest shelf life and need for special handling and storage make them challenging to use in situations where access to reagents, instrumentation, and expertise are limited. These problems can be circumvented by developing biosensors in Bacillus spores, which can be engineered to address all of these concerns. In its sporulated state, a whole cell-based biosensor has a remarkably long life span and is exceptionally resistant to environmental insult. When these spores are germinated for use in analytical techniques, they show no loss in performance, even after long periods of storage under harsh conditions. In this chapter, we will discuss the development and use of whole cell-based sensors, their adaptation to spore-based biosensors, their current applications, and future directions in the field. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Glucose Sensing Using Capacitive Biosensor Based on Polyvinylidene Fluoride Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambran Hartono

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF film-based capacitive biosensor was developed for glucose sensing. This device consists of a PVDF film sandwiched between two electrodes. A capacitive biosensor measures the dielectric properties of the dielectric layers at the interface between the electrolyte and the electrode. A glucose oxidase (GOx enzyme was immobilized onto the electrode to oxidize glucose. In practice, the biochemical reaction of glucose with the GOx enzyme generates free electron carriers. Consequently, the potential difference between the electrodes is increased, resulting in a measurable voltage output of the biosensor. The device was tested for various glucose concentrations in the range of 0.013 to 5.85 M, and various GOx enzyme concentrations between 4882.8 and 2.5 million units/L. We found that the sensor output increased with increasing glucose concentration up to 5.85 M. These results indicate that the PVDF film-based capacitive biosensors can be properly applied to glucose sensing and provide opportunities for the low-cost fabrication of glucose-based biosensors based on PVDF materials.

  20. Detection of triglyceride using an iridium nano-particle catalyst based amperometric biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei-Yin; Liu, Chung-Chiun; Chou, Tse-Chuan

    2008-12-01

    The detection and quantification of triglyceride (TG) using an iridium nano-particle modified carbon based biosensor was successfully carried out in this study. The detection procedures were based on the electrochemical detection of enzymatically produced NADH. TG was hydrolyzed by lipase and the glycerol produced was catalytically oxidized by NAD-dependent glycerol dehydrogenase producing NADH in a solution containing NAD(+). Glyceryl tributyrate, a short chain triglyceride, was chosen as the substrate for the evaluation of this TG biosensor in bovine serum and human serum. A linear response to glyceryl tributyrate in the concentration range of 0 to 10 mM and a sensitivity of 7.5 nA mM(-1) in bovine serum and 7.0 nA mM(-1) in human serum were observed experimentally. The potential interference of species such as uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA) was assessed. The incorporation of a selected surfactant and an increase in the incubation temperature appeared to enhance the performance of this biosensor. The conditions for the determination of TG levels in bovine serum using this biosensor were optimized, with sunflower seed oil being used as an analyte to simulate the detection of TG in blood. The experimental results demonstrated that this iridium nano-particle modified working electrode based biosensor provided a relatively simple means for the accurate determination of TG in serum.

  1. Microfabricated Electrochemical Cell-Based Biosensors for Analysis of Living Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cellular biochemical parameters can be used to reveal the physiological and functional information of various cells. Due to demonstrated high accuracy and non-invasiveness, electrochemical detection methods have been used for cell-based investigation. When combined with improved biosensor design and advanced measurement systems, the on-line biochemical analysis of living cells in vitro has been applied for biological mechanism study, drug screening and even environmental monitoring. In recent decades, new types of miniaturized electrochemical biosensor are emerging with the development of microfabrication technology. This review aims to give an overview of the microfabricated electrochemical cell-based biosensors, such as microelectrode arrays (MEA, the electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS technique, and the light addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS. The details in their working principles, measurement systems, and applications in cell monitoring are covered. Driven by the need for high throughput and multi-parameter detection proposed by biomedicine, the development trends of electrochemical cell-based biosensors are also introduced, including newly developed integrated biosensors, and the application of nanotechnology and microfluidic technology.

  2. Studies Regarding the Membranous Support of a Glucose Biosensor Based on Gox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia Bizerea-Spiridon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available To obtain glucose biosensors based on glucose oxidase (GOx, the enzyme can be immobilized on the sensitive surface of a glass electrode by different techniques: deposition on membranous support (cellophane or other macromolecular material or entrapment in a matrix. Deposition on membranous support also involves cross-linking with glutaraldehyde or entrapment in silica gel, following the sol-gel procedure. The aim of this preliminary work was to study the influence of cellophane replacement with a PVA based membranous support on the glucose biosensor performance. The data obtained at pH measurements of buffer solutions with cellophane and PVA membranous supports respectively, show that the PVA based membrane assures superior performances of the biosensor for low glucose concentrations determination (about 10-4 M. These results allow the transition to an improved immobilization technique, namely the enzyme entrapment in membranous material.

  3. Electro chemiluminescence Biosensor Based on Thioglycolic Acid-Capped Cd Se QDs for Sensing Glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, E. Y.; Ye, J. H.; Choi, S. H.; Jung, S. H.

    2016-01-01

    In order to detect low level glucose concentration, an electro chemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor based on TGA-capped Cd Se quantum dots (QDs) was fabricated by the immobilization of Cd Se QDs after modifying the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with 4-amino thiophenol diazonium salts by the electrochemical method. For the detection of glucose concentration, glucose oxidase (GOD) was immobilized onto the fabricated Cd Se QDs-modified electrode. The fabricated ECL biosensor based on TGA-capped Cd Se QDs was characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV-vis spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), a fluorescence spectrometer (PL), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The fabricated ECL biosensor based on TGA-capped Cd Se QDs is suitable for the detection of glucose concentrations in real human blood samples.

  4. Electrochemiluminescence Biosensor Based on Thioglycolic Acid-Capped CdSe QDs for Sensing Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Young Jung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect low level glucose concentration, an electrochemiluminescence (ECL biosensor based on TGA-capped CdSe quantum dots (QDs was fabricated by the immobilization of CdSe QDs after modifying the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE with 4-aminothiophenol diazonium salts by the electrochemical method. For the detection of glucose concentration, glucose oxidase (GOD was immobilized onto the fabricated CdSe QDs-modified electrode. The fabricated ECL biosensor based on TGA-capped CdSe QDs was characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM, UV-vis spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, a fluorescence spectrometer (PL, and cyclic voltammetry (CV. The fabricated ECL biosensor based on TGA-capped CdSe QDs is suitable for the detection of glucose concentrations in real human blood samples.

  5. Label-Free Electrical Detection Using Carbon Nanotube-Based Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenzo Maehashi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Label-free detections of biomolecules have attracted great attention in a lot of life science fields such as genomics, clinical diagnosis and practical pharmacy. In this article, we reviewed amperometric and potentiometric biosensors based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs. In amperometric detections, CNT-modified electrodes were used as working electrodes to significantly enhance electroactive surface area. In contrast, the potentiometric biosensors were based on aptamer-modified CNT field-effect transistors (CNTFETs. Since aptamers are artificial oligonucleotides and thus are smaller than the Debye length, proteins can be detected with high sensitivity. In this review, we discussed on the technology, characteristics and developments for commercialization in label-free CNT-based biosensors.

  6. A sensitive glucose biosensor based on Ag@C core–shell matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xuan; Dai, Xingxin; Li, Jianguo; Long, Yumei; Li, Weifeng; Tu, Yifeng

    2015-01-01

    Nano-Ag particles were coated with colloidal carbon (Ag@C) to improve its biocompatibility and chemical stability for the preparation of biosensor. The core–shell structure was evidenced by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR) spectra revealed that the carbon shell is rich of function groups such as − OH and − COOH. The as-prepared Ag@C core–shell structure can offer favorable microenvironment for immobilizing glucose oxidase and the direct electrochemistry process of glucose oxidase (GOD) at Ag@C modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was realized. The modified electrode exhibited good response to glucose. Under optimum experimental conditions the biosensor linearly responded to glucose concentration in the range of 0.05–2.5 mM, with a detection limit of 0.02 mM (S/N = 3). The apparent Michaelis–Menten constant (K M app ) of the biosensor is calculated to be 1.7 mM, suggesting high enzymatic activity and affinity toward glucose. In addition, the GOD-Ag@C/Nafion/GCE shows good reproducibility and long-term stability. These results suggested that core–shell structured Ag@C is an ideal matrix for the immobilization of the redox enzymes and further the construction of the sensitive enzyme biosensor. - Highlights: • Enhanced direct electrochemistry of GOD was achieved at Ag@C modified electrode. • A novel glucose biosensor based on Ag@C core–shell structure was developed. • The designed GOD-Ag@C/Nafion/GCE biosensor showed favorable analysis properties. • The biosensor is easy to prepare and can be applied for real sample assay

  7. A sensitive glucose biosensor based on Ag@C core–shell matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xuan; Dai, Xingxin; Li, Jianguo [College of Chemistry, Chemical engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Long, Yumei, E-mail: yumeilong@suda.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); The Key Lab of Health Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of Suzhou (China); Li, Weifeng, E-mail: liweifeng@suda.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Tu, Yifeng [College of Chemistry, Chemical engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); The Key Lab of Health Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of Suzhou (China)

    2015-04-01

    Nano-Ag particles were coated with colloidal carbon (Ag@C) to improve its biocompatibility and chemical stability for the preparation of biosensor. The core–shell structure was evidenced by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR) spectra revealed that the carbon shell is rich of function groups such as − OH and − COOH. The as-prepared Ag@C core–shell structure can offer favorable microenvironment for immobilizing glucose oxidase and the direct electrochemistry process of glucose oxidase (GOD) at Ag@C modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was realized. The modified electrode exhibited good response to glucose. Under optimum experimental conditions the biosensor linearly responded to glucose concentration in the range of 0.05–2.5 mM, with a detection limit of 0.02 mM (S/N = 3). The apparent Michaelis–Menten constant (K{sub M}{sup app}) of the biosensor is calculated to be 1.7 mM, suggesting high enzymatic activity and affinity toward glucose. In addition, the GOD-Ag@C/Nafion/GCE shows good reproducibility and long-term stability. These results suggested that core–shell structured Ag@C is an ideal matrix for the immobilization of the redox enzymes and further the construction of the sensitive enzyme biosensor. - Highlights: • Enhanced direct electrochemistry of GOD was achieved at Ag@C modified electrode. • A novel glucose biosensor based on Ag@C core–shell structure was developed. • The designed GOD-Ag@C/Nafion/GCE biosensor showed favorable analysis properties. • The biosensor is easy to prepare and can be applied for real sample assay.

  8. Electrochemical DNA biosensors based on platinum nanoparticles combined carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ningning; Chang Zhu; He Pingang; Fang Yuzhi

    2005-01-01

    Platinum nanoparticles were used in combination with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for fabricating sensitivity-enhanced electrochemical DNA biosensor. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes and platinum nanoparticles were dispersed in Nafion, which were used to fabricate the modification of the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface. Oligonucleotides with amino groups at the 5' end were covalently linked onto carboxylic groups of MWCNTs on the electrode. The hybridization events were monitored by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) measurement of the intercalated daunomycin. Due to the ability of carbon nanotubes to promote electron-transfer reactions, the high catalytic activities of platinum nanoparticles for chemical reactions, the sensitivity of presented electrochemical DNA biosensors was remarkably improved. The detection limit of the method for target DNA was 1.0 x 10 -11 mol l -1

  9. Development of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Based Biosensor for the Detection of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Kyung Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to develop a single-walled carbon nanotube- (SWCNT- based biosensor to detect Staphylococcus aureus. The specificity of 11 bacteria and polyclonal anti-Staphylococcus aureus antibodies (pAbs was determined using an indirect ELISA. The pAbs were immobilized onto sensor platform after the hybridization of 1-pyrenebutanoic acid succinimidyl ester (PBASE. The resistance difference (ΔR was calculated using a potentiostat. The bacteria detected by the biosensor were observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM. The optimum concentration of SWCNTs on the platform was determined to be 0.1 mg/mL. The binding of pAbs with S. aureus resulted in a significant increase in resistance value of the biosensor (P<0.05. The SEM images confirmed the specific binding of S. aureus on the biosensor. The SWCNT-based biosensor was able to detect S. aureus with a limit of detection (LOD of 4 log⁡CFU/mL.

  10. A Biosensor for Urea from Succinimide-Modified Acrylic Microspheres Based on Reflectance Transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Ahmad

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available New acrylic microspheres were synthesised by photopolymerisation where the succinimide functional group was incorporated during the microsphere preparation. An optical biosensor for urea based on reflectance transduction with a large linear response range to urea was successfully developed using this material. The biosensor utilized succinimide-modified acrylic microspheres immobilized with a Nile blue chromoionophore (ETH 5294 for optical detection and urease enzyme was immobilized on the surface of the microspheres via the succinimide groups. No leaching of the enzyme or chromoionophore was observed. Hydrolysis of the urea by urease changes the pH and leads to a color change of the immobilized chromoionophore. When the color change was monitored by reflectance spectrophotometry, the linear response range of the biosensor to urea was from 0.01 to 1,000 mM (R2 = 0.97 with a limit of detection of 9.97 mM. The biosensor response showed good reproducibility (relative standard deviation = 1.43%, n = 5 with no interference by major cations such as Na+, K+, NH4+ and Mg2+. The use of reflectance as a transduction method led to a large linear response range that is better than that of many urea biosensors based on other optical transduction methods.

  11. A novel tyrosinase biosensor based on hydroxyapatite-chitosan nanocomposite for the detection of phenolic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Limin; Zhang Li; Zhang Xiaobing; Huan Shuangyan; Shen Guoli; Yu Ruqin

    2010-01-01

    A novel tyrosinase biosensor based on hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nano-HA)-chitosan nanocomposite has been developed for the detection of phenolic compounds. The uniform and size controlled nano-HA was synthesized by hydrothermal method, and its morphological characterization was examined by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Tyrosinase was then immobilized on a nano-HA-chitosan nanocomposite-modified gold electrode. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry were used to characterize the sensing film. The prepared biosensor was applied to determine phenolic compounds by monitoring the reduction signal of the biocatalytically produced quinone species at -0.2 V (vs. saturated calomel electrode). The effects of the pH, temperature and applied potential on the biosensor performance were investigated, and experimental conditions were optimized. The biosensor exhibited a linear response to catechol over a wide concentration range from 10 nM to 7 μM, with a high sensitivity of 2.11 x 10 3 μA mM -1 cm -2 , and a limit of detection down to 5 nM (based on S/N = 3). The apparent Michaelis-Menten constants of the enzyme electrode were estimated to be 3.16, 1.31 and 3.52 μM for catechol, phenol and m-cresol, respectively. Moreover, the stability and reproducibility of this biosensor were evaluated with satisfactory results.

  12. Electrochemical Biosensor for Nitrite Based on Polyacrylic-Graphene Composite Film with Covalently Immobilized Hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Zaidatul Akhmar Raja Jamaluddin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A new biosensor for the analysis of nitrite in food was developed based on hemoglobin (Hb covalently immobilized on the succinimide functionalized poly(n-butyl acrylate-graphene [poly(nBA-rGO] composite film deposited on a carbon-paste screen-printed electrode (SPE. The immobilized Hb on the poly(nBA-rGO conducting matrix exhibited electrocatalytic ability for the reduction of nitrite with significant enhancement in the reduction peak at −0.6 V versus Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Thus, direct determination of nitrite can be achieved by monitoring the cathodic peak current signal of the proposed polyacrylic-graphene hybrid film-based voltammetric nitrite biosensor. The nitrite biosensor exhibited a reproducible dynamic linear response range from 0.05–5 mg L−1 nitrite and a detection limit of 0.03 mg L−1. No significant interference was observed by potential interfering ions such as Ca2+, Na+, K+, NH4+, Mg2+, and NO3− ions. Analysis of nitrite in both raw and processed edible bird’s nest (EBN samples demonstrated recovery of close to 100%. The covalent immobilization of Hb on poly(nBA-rGO composite film has improved the performance of the electrochemical nitrite biosensor in terms of broader detection range, lower detection limit, and prolonged biosensor stability.

  13. Detection of parathyroid hormone using an electrochemical impedance biosensor based on PAMAM dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Hakkı Mevlüt; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel hormone-based impedimetric biosensor to determine parathyroid hormone (PTH) level in serum for diagnosis and monitoring treatment of hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism and thyroid cancer. The interaction between PTH and the biosensor was investigated by an electrochemical method. The biosensor was based on the gold electrode modified by 12-mercapto dodecanoic (12MDDA). Antiparathyroid hormone (anti-PTH) was covalently immobilized on to poly amidoamine dendrimer (PAMAM) which was bound to a 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) couple, self-assembled monolayer structure from one of the other NH2 sites. The immobilization of anti-PTH was monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscope techniques. After the optimization studies of immobilization materials such as 12MDDA, EDC-NHS, PAMAM, and glutaraldehyde, the performance of the biosensor was investigated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, repeatability, and reproducibility. PTH was detected within a linear range of 10-60 fg/mL. Finally the described biosensor was used to monitor PTH levels in artificial serum samples. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  14. Strategies towards advanced ion track-based biosensors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alfonta, L.; Bukelman, O.; Chandra, A.; Fahrner, W. R.; Fink, D.; Fuks, D.; Golovanov, V.; Hnatowicz, Vladimír; Hoppe, K.; Kiv, A.; Klinkovich, I.; Landau, M.; Morante, J.R.; Tkachenko, N.V.; Vacík, Jiří; Valden, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 164, 7-8 (2009), s. 431-437 ISSN 1042-0150. [2nd International Meeting on Recent Developments in the Study of Radiation Effects in Matters. Fodele, 07.09.2008-11.09.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : biosensors * etched tracks * enzymes Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.550, year: 2009

  15. Development of conductometric biosensors based on alkaline phosphatases for the water quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhetskyy, A.

    2008-09-01

    Researches are focused on the elaboration of enzymatic microconductometric device for heavy metal ions detection in water solutions. The manuscript includes a general introduction, the first chapter contains bibliographic review, the second chapter described the fundamentals of conductometric transducers, the third chapter examining the possibility to create and to optimize conductometric biosensor based on bovine alkaline phosphatase for heavy metals ions detection, the fourth chapter devoted to creation and optimization of conductometric biosensor based on alkaline phosphatase active microalgae and sol gel technology, the last chapter described application of the proposed algal biosensor for measurements of heavy metal ions toxicity of waste water, general conclusions stating the progresses achieved in the field of environmental monitoring

  16. Electrochemical Biosensor Based on Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes with Modified Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron-doped diamond (BDD thin films, as one kind of electrode materials, are superior to conventional carbon-based materials including carbon paste, porous carbon, glassy carbon (GC, carbon nanotubes in terms of high stability, wide potential window, low background current, and good biocompatibility. Electrochemical biosensor based on BDD electrodes have attracted extensive interests due to the superior properties of BDD electrodes and the merits of biosensors, such as specificity, sensitivity, and fast response. Electrochemical reactions perform at the interface between electrolyte solutions and the electrodes surfaces, so the surface structures and properties of the BDD electrodes are important for electrochemical detection. In this paper, the recent advances of BDD electrodes with different surfaces including nanostructured surface and chemically modified surface, for the construction of various electrochemical biosensors, were described.

  17. Label-free DNA biosensor based on resistance change of platinum nanoparticles assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotadis, Evangelos; Voutyras, Konstantinos; Chatzipetrou, Marianneza; Tsekenis, Georgios; Patsiouras, Lampros; Madianos, Leonidas; Chatzandroulis, Stavros; Zergioti, Ioanna; Tsoukalas, Dimitris

    2016-07-15

    A novel nanoparticle based biosensor for the fast and simple detection of DNA hybridization events is presented. The sensor utilizes hybridized DNA's charge transport properties, combining them with metallic nanoparticle networks that act as nano-gapped electrodes. The DNA hybridization events can be detected by a significant reduction in the sensor's resistance due to the conductive bridging offered by hybridized DNA. By modifying the nanoparticle surface coverage, which can be controlled experimentally being a function of deposition time, and the structural properties of the electrodes, an optimized biosensor for the in situ detection of DNA hybridization events is ultimately fabricated. The fabricated biosensor exhibits a wide response range, covering four orders of magnitude, a limit of detection of 1nM and can detect a single base pair mismatch between probe and complementary DNA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Adsorption in Surface-based Biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rasmus

    The present Ph.D. dissertation concerns the application of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy, which is a surface-based biosensor technology, for studies of adsorption dynamics. The thesis contains both experimental and theoretical work. In the theoretical part we develop the theory...... cell of the surface-based biosensor, in addition to the sensor surface, is investigated. In the experimental part of the thesis we use a Biacore SPR sensor to study lipase adsorption on model substrate surfaces, as well as competitive adsorption of lipase and surfactants. A part of the experimental...

  19. Disposable bioluminescence-based biosensor for detection of bacterial count in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jinping; Liu, Xiaohong; Tian, Qing; Yue, Weiwei; Zeng, Jing; Chen, Guangquan; Cai, Xinxia

    2009-11-01

    A biosensor for rapid detection of bacterial count based on adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence has been developed. The biosensor is composed of a key sensitive element and a photomultiplier tube used as a detector element. The disposable sensitive element consists of a sampler, a cartridge where intracellular ATP is chemically extracted from bacteria, and a microtube where the extracted ATP reacts with the luciferin-luciferase reagent to produce bioluminescence. The bioluminescence signal is transformed into relevant electrical signal by the detector and further measured with a homemade luminometer. Parameters affecting the amount of the extracted ATP, including the types of ATP extractants, the concentrations of ATP extractant, and the relevant neutralizing reagent, were optimized. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the biosensor showed a linear response to standard bacteria in a concentration range from 10(3) to 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU) per milliliter with a correlation coefficient of 0.925 (n=22) within 5min. Moreover, the bacterial count of real food samples obtained by the biosensor correlated well with those by the conventional plate count method. The proposed biosensor, with characteristics of low cost, easy operation, and fast response, provides potential application to rapid evaluation of bacterial contamination in the food industry, environment monitoring, and other fields.

  20. Construction of Microbial-based Biosensor to Measure BOD of Industrial Wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Mahdavi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study a cell-based biosensor for measurement of BOD was designed and developed. Activated sludge collected from wastewater treatment plant of Shahinshahr was used as biological receptor and a Clark cell was used as transducer. According to the results obtained from the sensor calibration, a linear relationship between the current changes and glucose-glutamic acid (GAA standard concentrations up to 50 mg/L was observed. The BOD values of different industrial wastewaters, inlet and outlet of treatment plant of Ardineh Company (Isfahan, and also  inlet and outlet of domestic wastewater treatment plant of Shahinshahr, and outlet of treatment plant of Pegah Company (Isfahan were measured using this biosensor. Comparison of the results of this biosensor and the results of the standard BOD test (BOD5 showed that the mean percentage error measured by the sensor was +29.6%. The results concerning the stability of the designed biosensor showed a stability time of 3 days for the response of biosensor.

  1. Study on a hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on horseradish peroxidase/GNPs-thionine/chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Xiaobin; Pang Guangchang; Liang Xinyi; Wang Meng; Liu Jing; Zhu Weiming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Glutaraldehyde was used as the bridge linking agent to covalently bonded thionine in chitosan, which is more stable and could effectively prevalent leakage of the electronic mediator. ► The effect of GNPs adsorbed HRP was first accurately characterized by bio-layer interferometry using the ForteBio Octer system. ► The application of self-assembly technology increases the biosensor stability. - Abstract: A novel hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on horseradish peroxidase/GNPs-thionine/chitosan has been developed. Gold nanoparticles fixed with horseradish peroxidase were adsorbed on glassy carbon electrode by the chitosan which cross-linked with the electron mediator of horseradish peroxidase as the bridge linking agent. The assembly procedures were monitored by UV–visible spectral scanning, bio-layer interferometry, cyclic voltammetric and alternating current impedance. The chronoamperometry was used to measure hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide biosensor linear range of detection is 1 × 10 −7 –1 × 10 −4 mol/L, detection limit up to 5.0 × 10 −8 mol/L. Moreover the stability, reproducibility and selectivity of the biosensor were also studied and the results confirmed that the biosensor exhibit fast response to hydrogen peroxide and possess high sensitivity, good reproducibility and long-term stability.

  2. Fluorescent carbon nanoparticle-based lateral flow biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takalkar, Sunitha; Baryeh, Kwaku; Liu, Guodong

    2017-12-15

    We report a fluorescent carbon nanoparticle (FCN)-based lateral flow biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of DNA. Fluorescent carbon nanoparticle with a diameter of around 15nm was used as a tag to label a detection DNA probe, which was complementary with the part of target DNA. A capture DNA probe was immobilized on the test zone of the lateral flow biosensor. Sandwich-type hybridization reactions among the FCN-labeled DNA probe, target DNA and capture DNA probe were performed on the lateral flow biosensor. In the presence of target DNA, FCNs were captured on the test zone of the biosensor and the fluorescent intensity of the captured FCNs was measured with a portable fluorescent reader. After systematic optimizations of experimental parameters (the components of running buffers, the concentration of detection DNA probe used in the preparation of FCN-DNA conjugates, the amount of FCN-DNA dispensed on the conjugate pad and the dispensing cycles of the capture DNA probes on the test-zone), the biosensor could detect a minimum concentration of 0.4 fM DNA. This study provides a rapid and low-cost approach for DNA detection with high sensitivity, showing great promise for clinical application and biomedical diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Novel electrochemical xanthine biosensor based on chitosan–polypyrrole–gold nanoparticles hybrid bio-nanocomposite platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muamer Dervisevic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the electrochemical detection of the adenosine-3-phosphate degradation product, xanthine, using a new xanthine biosensor based on a hybrid bio-nanocomposite platform which has been successfully employed in the evaluation of meat freshness. In the design of the amperometric xanthine biosensor, chitosan–polypyrrole–gold nanoparticles fabricated by an in situ chemical synthesis method on a glassy carbon electrode surface was used to enhance electron transfer and to provide good enzyme affinity. Electrochemical studies were carried out by the modified electrode with immobilized xanthine oxidase on it, after which the biosensor was tested to ascertain the optimization parameters. The Biosensor exhibited a very good linear range of 1–200 μM, low detection limit of 0.25 μM, average response time of 8 seconds, and was not prone to significant interference from uric acid, ascorbic acid, glucose, and sodium benzoate. The resulting bio-nanocomposite xanthine biosensor was tested with fish, beef, and chicken real-sample measurements.

  4. Nanomolar detection of methylparaben by a cost-effective hemoglobin-based biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajian, A; Ghodsi, J; Afraz, A; Yurchenko, O; Urban, G

    2016-12-01

    This work describes the development of a new biosensor for methylparaben determination using electrocatalytic properties of hemoglobin in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The voltammetric oxidation of methylparaben by the proposed biosensor in phosphate buffer (pH=7.0), a physiological pH, was studied and it was confirmed that methylparaben undergoes a one electron-one proton reaction in a diffusion-controlled process. The biosensor was fabricated by carbon paste electrode modified with hemoglobin and multiwalled carbon nanotube. Based on the excellent electrochemical properties of the modified electrode, a sensitive voltammetric method was used for determination of methylparaben within a linear range from 0.1 to 13μmolL(-1) and detection limit of 25nmolL(-1). The developed biosensor possessed accurate and rapid response to methylparaben and showed good sensitivity, stability, and repeatability. Finally, the applicability of the proposed biosensor was verified by methylparaben evaluation in various real samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Plasmonic biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ryan T

    2015-01-01

    The unique optical properties of plasmon resonant nanostructures enable exploration of nanoscale environments using relatively simple optical characterization techniques. For this reason, the field of plasmonics continues to garner the attention of the biosensing community. Biosensors based on propagating surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) in films are the most well-recognized plasmonic biosensors, but there is great potential for the new, developing technologies to surpass the robustness and popularity of film-based SPR sensing. This review surveys the current plasmonic biosensor landscape with emphasis on the basic operating principles of each plasmonic sensing technique and the practical considerations when developing a sensing platform with the various techniques. The 'gold standard' film SPR technique is reviewed briefly, but special emphasis is devoted to the up-and-coming localized surface plasmon resonance and plasmonically coupled sensor technology. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The application of neoglycopeptides in the development of sensitive surface plasmon resonance-based biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, C.E.P.; de Souza, A.C.; Halkes, K.M.; Upton, P.J.; Reeman, S.M.; André, S.; Gabius, H.-J.; McDonnell, M.B.; Kamerling, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The development of a biosensor based on surface plasmon resonance is described for the detection of carbohydrate-binding proteins in solution on a Biacore 2000 instrument, using immobilized glycopeptides as ligands. Their selection was based on previous screenings of solid-phase glycopeptide

  7. A disposable biosensor based on immobilization of laccase with silica spheres on the MWCNTs-doped screen-printed electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuanting

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biosensors have attracted increasing attention as reliable analytical instruments in in situ monitoring of public health and environmental pollution. For enzyme-based biosensors, the stabilization of enzymatic activity on the biological recognition element is of great importance. It is generally acknowledged that an effective immobilization technique is a key step to achieve the construction quality of biosensors. Results A novel disposable biosensor was constructed by immobilizing laccase (Lac with silica spheres on the surface of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-doped screen-printed electrode (SPE. Then, it was characterized in morphology and electrochemical properties by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and cyclic voltammetry (CV. The characterization results indicated that a high loading of Lac and a good electrocatalytic activity could be obtained, attributing to the porous structure, large specific area and good biocompatibility of silica spheres and MWCNTs. Furthermore, the electrochemical sensing properties of the constructed biosensor were investigated by choosing dopamine (DA as the typical model of phenolic compounds. It was shown that the biosensor displays a good linearity in the range from 1.3 to 85.5 μM with a detection limit of 0.42 μM (S/N = 3, and the Michaelis-Menten constant (Kmapp was calculated to be 3.78 μM. Conclusion The immobilization of Lac was successfully achieved with silica spheres to construct a disposable biosensor on the MWCNTs-doped SPE (MWCNTs/SPE. This biosensor could determine DA based on a non-oxidative mechanism in a rapid, selective and sensitive way. Besides, the developed biosensor could retain high enzymatic activity and possess good stability without cross-linking reagents. The proposed immobilization approach and the constructed biosensor offer a great potential for the fabrication of the enzyme-based biosensors and the analysis of phenolic compounds.

  8. Development of miniaturized pH biosensors based on electrosynthesized polymer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segut, Olivier; Lakard, Boris; Herlem, Guillaume; Rauch, Jean-Yves; Jeannot, Jean-Claude; Robert, Laurent; Fahys, Bernard

    2007-08-06

    A new type of pH biosensor was developed for biological applications. This biosensor was fabricated using silicon microsystem technology and consists in two platinum microelectrodes. The first microelectrode was coated by an electrosynthesized polymer and acted as the pH sensitive electrode when the second one was coated by a silver layer and was used as the reference electrode. Then, this potentiometric pH miniaturized biosensor based on electrosynthesized polypyrrole or electrosynthesized linear polyethylenimine films was tested. The potentiometric responses appeared reversible and linear to pH changes in the range from pH 4 to 9. More, the responses were fast (less than 1 min for all sensors), they were stable in time since PPy/PEI films were stable during more than 30 days, and no interference was observed. The influence of the polymer thickness was also studied.

  9. Biosensor-based real-time monitoring of paracetamol photocatalytic degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calas-Blanchard, Carole; Istamboulié, Georges; Bontoux, Margot; Plantard, Gaël; Goetz, Vincent; Noguer, Thierry

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents for the first time the integration of a biosensor for the on-line, real-time monitoring of a photocatalytic degradation process. Paracetamol was used as a model molecule due to its wide use and occurrence in environmental waters. The biosensor was developed based on tyrosinase immobilization in a polyvinylalcohol photocrosslinkable polymer. It was inserted in a computer-controlled flow system installed besides a photocatalytic reactor including titanium dioxide (TiO2) as photocatalyst. It was shown that the biosensor was able to accurately monitor the paracetamol degradation with time. Compared with conventional HPLC analysis, the described device provides a real-time information on the reaction advancement, allowing a better control of the photodegradation process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A UREA BIOSENSOR BASED ON A POLYMERIC MEMBRANE INCLUDING ZEOLITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L HAMLAOUI

    2008-06-01

    + -sensitive membrane is based on a zeolite-incorporated polymeric membrane biosensor (clinoptilolite. The sensitivity of ammonium  detection is sub-nernstian (32mV/pNH4 + but the ISFET presents a high selectivity, which is interesting for measurements in biological media. The grafting of urease to the NH4 +-sensitive membrane was permorfed by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde .The sensitivity of the urea ENFET is 15V/purea and this remains stable over 15 days with a detection limit of 3x10-5 M. Finally, in order to test feasibility of the urea biosensor for environmental applications, the remaining activity of the urease was determined after exposure to enzyme inhibiting heavy metals ions such as Hg(II.Using these urea biosensors, a detection limit of less than 5 x 10-8 M was obtained for Hg(II.

  11. Electrochemical DNA biosensor based on avidin-biotin conjugation for influenza virus (type A) detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Da-Jung; Kim, Ki-Chul; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2011-09-01

    An electrochemical DNA biosensor (E-DNA biosensor) was fabricated by avidin-biotin conjugation of a biotinylated probe DNA, 5'-biotin-ATG AGT CTT CTA ACC GAG GTC GAA-3', and an avidin-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to detect the influenza virus (type A). An avidin-modified GCE was prepared by the reaction of avidin and a carboxylic acid-modified GCE, which was synthesized by the electrochemical reduction of 4-carboxyphenyl diazonium salt. The current value of the E-DNA biosensor was evaluated after hybridization of the probe DNA and target DNA using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The current value decreased after the hybridization of the probe DNA and target DNA. The DNA that was used follows: complementary target DNA, 5'-TTC GAC CTC GGT TAG AAG ACT CAT-3' and two-base mismatched DNA, 5'-TTC GAC AGC GGT TAT AAG ACT CAT-3'.

  12. A yeast co-culture-based biosensor for determination of waste water contamination levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudina, N Yu; Arlyapov, V A; Chepurnova, M A; Alferov, S V; Reshetilov, A N

    2015-10-01

    Artificial microbial co-cultures were formed to develop the receptor element of a biosensor for assessment of biological oxygen demand (BOD). The co-cultures possessed broad substrate specificities and enabled assays of water and fermentation products within a broad BOD range (2.4-80 mg/dm(3)) with a high correlation to the standard method (R = 0.9988). The use of the co-cultures of the yeasts Pichia angusta, Arxula adeninivorans and Debaryomyces hansenii immobilized in N-vinylpyrrolidone-modified poly(vinyl alcohol) enabled developing a BOD biosensor possessing the characteristics not inferior to those in the known biosensors. The results are indicative of a potential of using these co-cultures as the receptor element base in prototype models of instruments for broad application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Development and Electrochemical Investigations of an EIS- (Electrolyte-Insulator-Semiconductor based Biosensor for Cyanide Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Schöning

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A cyanide biosensor based on a pH-sensitive p-doped electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS structure with an immobilised enzyme (cyanidase is realised at thelaboratory scale. The immobilisation of the cyanidase is performed in two distinct steps:first, the covalent coupling of cyanidase to an N-hydroxysuccinimide- (NHS activatedSepharoseTM gel and then, the physical entrapment of NHS-activated SepharoseTM with theimmobilised cyanidase in a dialysis membrane onto the EIS structure. The immobilisationof the cyanidase to the NHS-activated SepharoseTM is studied by means of gelelectrophoresis measurements and investigations using an ammonia- (NH3 selectiveelectrode. For the electrochemical characterisation of the cyanide biosensor,capacitance/voltage and constant capacitance measurements, respectively, have beencarried out. A differential measurement procedure is presented to evaluate the cyanideconcentration-dependent biosensor signals.

  14. From electrochemical biosensors to biomimetic sensors based on molecularly imprinted polymers in environmental determination of heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malitesta, Cosimino; Di Masi, Sabrina; Mazzotta, Elisabetta

    2017-07-01

    Recent work relevant to heavy metal determination by inhibition-enzyme electrochemical biosensors and by selected biomimetic sensors based on molecularly imprinted polymers has been reviewed. General features and peculiar aspects have been evidenced. The replace of biological component by artificial receptors promises higher selectivity and stability, while biosensors keep their capability of producing an integrated response directly related to toxicity of the samples.

  15. A Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube-based Biosensor for Monitoring Microcystin-LR in Sources of Drinking Water Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multi-walled carbon nanotube-based electrochemical biosensor is developed for monitoring microcystin-LR (MC-LR), a toxic cyanobacterial toxin, in sources of drinking water supplies. The biosensor electrodes are fabricated using dense, mm-long multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) arrays gro...

  16. In vivo continuous and simultaneous monitoring of brain energy substrates with a multiplex amperometric enzyme-based biosensor device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lima Braga Lopes Cordeiro, Carlos; de Vries, M.G.; Ngabi, W; Oomen, P.E.; Cremers, T.I.F.H.; Westerink, B.H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme-based amperometric biosensors are widely used for monitoring key biomarkers. In experimental neuroscience there is a growing interest in in vivo continuous and simultaneous monitoring of metabolism-related biomarkers, like glucose, lactate and pyruvate. The use of multiplex biosensors will

  17. Carbon Nanotubes-Based Potentiometric Bio-Sensors for Determination of Urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jaworska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using disposable plastic-carbon potentiometric sensors as enzyme biosensors was examined. Urease enzyme was immobilized on poly(vinyl chloride based H+- or NH4+-selective membranes using cellulose acetate. This approach has resulted in a potentiometric response on changing the pH of the solution or NH4+ ion content due to an enzymatic reaction that occurs between urease and urea. Both types of potentiometric biosensors for urea were characterized by good analytical parameters as high sensitivity and fast response time.

  18. Nanostructured silicon-based biosensors for the selective identification of analytes of social interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Auria, Sabato; Champdore, Marcella de; Aurilia, Vincenzo; Parracino, Antonietta; Staiano, Maria; Vitale, Annalisa; Rossi, Mose; Rea, Ilaria; Rotiroti, Lucia; Rossi, Andrea M; Borini, Stefano; Rendina, Ivo; Stefano, Luca De

    2006-01-01

    Small analytes such as glucose, L-glutamine (Gln), and ammonium nitrate are detected by means of optical biosensors based on a very common nanostructured material, porous silicon (PSi). Specific recognition elements, such as protein receptors and enzymes, were immobilized on hydrogenated PSi wafers and used as probes in optical sensing systems. The binding events were optically transduced as wavelength shifts of the porous silicon reflectivity spectrum or were monitored via changes of the fluorescence emission. The biosensors described in this article suggest a general approach for the development of new sensing systems for a wide range of analytes of high social interest

  19. Amperometric nitrate biosensor based on Carbon nanotube/Polypyrrole/Nitrate reductase biofilm electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Can, Faruk; Korkut Ozoner, Seyda; Ergenekon, Pinar; Erhan, Elif, E-mail: e.erhan@gyte.edu.tr

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the construction and characterization of an amperometric nitrate biosensor based on the Polypyrrole (PPy)/Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) film. Nitrate reductase (NR) was both entrapped into the growing PPy film and chemically immobilized via the carboxyl groups of CNTs to the CNT/PPy film electrode. The optimum amperometric response for nitrate was obtained in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS), pH 7.5 including 0.1 M lithium chloride and 7 mM potassium ferricyanide with an applied potential of 0.13 V (vs. Ag/AgCl, 3 M NaCl). Sensitivity was found to be 300 nA/mM in a linear range of 0.44-1.45 mM with a regression coefficient of 0.97. The biosensor response showed a higher linear range in comparison to standard nitrate analysis methods which were tested in this study and NADH based nitrate biosensors. A minimum detectable concentration of 0.17 mM (S/N = 3) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 5.4% (n = 7) was obtained for the biosensor. Phenol and glucose inhibit the electrochemical reaction strictly at a concentration of 1 {mu}g/L and 20 mg/L, respectively. The biosensor response retained 70% of its initial response over 10 day usage period when used everyday. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer K{sub 3}Fe(CN){sub 6} has been used for the first time as mediator for nitrate reductase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Better performance was obtained in comparison to other nitrate biosensor studies operated with various mediators. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analytical parameters were better than standard nitrate analysis methods.

  20. Amperometric nitrate biosensor based on Carbon nanotube/Polypyrrole/Nitrate reductase biofilm electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Can, Faruk; Korkut Ozoner, Seyda; Ergenekon, Pinar; Erhan, Elif

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the construction and characterization of an amperometric nitrate biosensor based on the Polypyrrole (PPy)/Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) film. Nitrate reductase (NR) was both entrapped into the growing PPy film and chemically immobilized via the carboxyl groups of CNTs to the CNT/PPy film electrode. The optimum amperometric response for nitrate was obtained in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS), pH 7.5 including 0.1 M lithium chloride and 7 mM potassium ferricyanide with an applied potential of 0.13 V (vs. Ag/AgCl, 3 M NaCl). Sensitivity was found to be 300 nA/mM in a linear range of 0.44–1.45 mM with a regression coefficient of 0.97. The biosensor response showed a higher linear range in comparison to standard nitrate analysis methods which were tested in this study and NADH based nitrate biosensors. A minimum detectable concentration of 0.17 mM (S/N = 3) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 5.4% (n = 7) was obtained for the biosensor. Phenol and glucose inhibit the electrochemical reaction strictly at a concentration of 1 μg/L and 20 mg/L, respectively. The biosensor response retained 70% of its initial response over 10 day usage period when used everyday. - Highlights: ► K 3 Fe(CN) 6 has been used for the first time as mediator for nitrate reductase. ► Better performance was obtained in comparison to other nitrate biosensor studies operated with various mediators. ► Analytical parameters were better than standard nitrate analysis methods.

  1. Carbohydrate-based electrochemical biosensor for detection of a cancer biomarker in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillers, Marion; Ahmad, Lama; Korri-Youssoufi, Hafsa; Salmon, Laurent

    2017-10-15

    Autocrine motility factor (AMF) is a tumor-secreted cytokine that stimulates tumor cell motility in vitro and metastasis in vivo. AMF could be detected in serum or urine of cancer patients with worse prognosis. Reported as a cancer biomarker, AMF secretion into body fluids might be closely related to metastases formation. In this study, a sensitive and specific carbohydrate-based electrochemical biosensor was designed for the detection and quantification of a protein model of AMF, namely phosphoglucose isomerase from rabbit muscle (RmPGI). Indeed, RmPGI displays high homology with AMF and has been shown to have AMF activity. The biosensor was constructed by covalent binding of the enzyme substrate d-fructose 6-phosphate (F6P). Immobilization was achieved on a gold surface electrode following a bottom-up approach through an aminated surface obtained by electrochemical patterning of ethylene diamine and terminal amine polyethylene glycol chain to prevent non-specific interactions. Carbohydrate-protein interactions were quantified in a range of 10 fM to 100nM. Complex formation was analyzed through monitoring of the redox couple Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and square wave voltammetry. The F6P-biosensor demonstrates a detection limit of 6.6 fM and high selectivity when compared to other non-specific glycolytic proteins such as d-glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Detection of protein in spiked plasma was demonstrated and accuracy of 95% is obtained compared to result obtained in PBS (phosphate buffered saline). F6P-biosensor is a very promising proof of concept required for the design of a carbohydrate-based electrochemical biosensor using the enzyme substrate as bioreceptor. Such biosensor could be generalized to detect other protein biomarkers of interest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A new PANI biosensor based on catalase for cyanide determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Hakkı Mevlüt; Aydin, Tuba

    2016-01-01

    Cyanide is one of the most widespread of compounds measured in environmental analysis due to their toxic effects on environment and health. We report a highly sensitive, reliable, selective amperometric sensor for determination of cyanide, using a polyaniline conductive polymer. The enzyme catalase was immobilized by electropolymerization. The steps during the immobilization were controlled by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Optimum pH, temperature, aniline concentration, enzyme concentration, and the number of scans obtained during electropolymerization, were investigated. In addition, the cyanide present in artificial waste water samples was determined. In the characterization studies of the biosensor, some parameters such as reproducibility and storage stability, were analyzed.

  3. Development based on microcantilever biosensor for detection of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann Junior, Paulo Sergio de Paula; Margarido, Alexandre, E-mail: paulo.herrmann@embrapa.br [Embrapa Instrumentacao, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Moreira, Fernando M. Araujo [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil); Goncalves, Renato Vitalino [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2016-07-01

    Full text: A biosensor using a microcantilever from Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was developed to detected ethanol. The microcantilevers were initially cleaned and oxidised with Piranha solution and activated with (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) steam, followed by immersion in phosphate buffer pH 8.6 containing 2% glutaraldehyde. The Alcohol Dehydrogenase enzyme was dissolved in phosphate buffer solution pH8.6 and microcantilevers were immersed in this solution for 6 h at room temperature, and then washed with buffer to remove unbound enzymes. The activation process was characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques and the functional layer characterized by AFM techniques, in which topographical images were made of the functional layer with and without the presence of the target analytic steam. The biosensor was put to test at ambient conditions, and analysed its sensitivity, selectivity, useful life, repetitiveness and others. Through the trials in XPS, it was possible to prove the activation of the microcantilever, with oxidation in 39.45% of the surface and connection 27.65% of APTES. The thickness of the functional layer reached around 14.68 ±1,19nm, and would be expected around 10nm. The analyse the topography showed that the enzyme has altered its conformation around 30% in the presence of ethanol steam and the height of the functional layer had an additional 22%, the maximum surface tension was measured 458,21mJ/m{sup 2}. The biosensor was evaluated with several organic volatiles and even with a mixture of various volatile was only possible to detect ethanol. From the experimental results, was suggest that the conformational change of the enzyme when to bind to the substrate, may be indicative of strong change of surface tension. The sensitivity of the biosensor ranged from 100 to 240.000ppm, and was found adsorption to the concentration of 0.4mL/L, and after increased surface tension to 2.2mL/L, and shown to be stable for 22

  4. Fabrication of polyimide based microfluidic channels for biosensor devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zulfiqar, Azeem; Pfreundt, Andrea; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2015-01-01

    The ever-increasing complexity of the fabrication process of Point-of-care (POC) devices, due to high demand of functional versatility, compact size and ease-of-use, emphasizes the need of multifunctional materials that can be used to simplify this process. Polymers, currently in use for the fabr...... in uniformity of PI is also compared to the most commonly used SU8 polymer, which is a near UV sensitive epoxy resin. The potential applications of PI processing are POC and biosensor devices integrated with microelectronics....

  5. Zinc oxide nano-rods based glucose biosensor devices fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, H. A.; Salama, A. A.; El Saeid, A. A.; Willander, M.; Nur, O.; Battisha, I. K.

    2018-06-01

    ZnO is distinguished multifunctional material that has wide applications in biochemical sensor devices. For extracellular measurements, Zinc oxide nano-rods will be deposited on conducting plastic substrate with annealing temperature 150 °C (ZNRP150) and silver wire with annealing temperature 250 °C (ZNRW250), for the extracellular glucose concentration determination with functionalized ZNR-coated biosensors. It was performed in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) over the range from 1 μM to 10 mM and on human blood plasma. The prepared samples crystal structure and surface morphologies were characterized by XRD and field emission scanning electron microscope FESEM respectively.

  6. Electronically type-sorted carbon nanotube-based electrochemical biosensors with glucose oxidase and dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muguruma, Hitoshi; Hoshino, Tatsuya; Nowaki, Kohei

    2015-01-14

    An electrochemical enzyme biosensor with electronically type-sorted (metallic and semiconducting) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) for use in aqueous media is presented. This research investigates how the electronic types of SWNTs influence the amperometric response of enzyme biosensors. To conduct a clear evaluation, a simple layer-by-layer process based on a plasma-polymerized nano thin film (PPF) was adopted because a PPF is an inactive matrix that can form a well-defined nanostructure composed of SWNTs and enzyme. For a biosensor with the glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme in the presence of oxygen, the response of a metallic SWNT-GOx electrode was 2 times larger than that of a semiconducting SWNT-GOx electrode. In contrast, in the absence of oxygen, the response of the semiconducting SWNT-GOx electrode was retained, whereas that of the metallic SWNT-GOx electrode was significantly reduced. This indicates that direct electron transfer occurred with the semiconducting SWNT-GOx electrode, whereas the metallic SWNT-GOx electrode was dominated by a hydrogen peroxide pathway caused by an enzymatic reaction. For a biosensor with the glucose dehydrogenase (GDH; oxygen-independent catalysis) enzyme, the response of the semiconducting SWNT-GDH electrode was 4 times larger than that of the metallic SWNT-GDH electrode. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to show that the semiconducting SWNT network has less resistance for electron transfer than the metallic SWNT network. Therefore, it was concluded that semiconducting SWNTs are more suitable than metallic SWNTs for electrochemical enzyme biosensors in terms of direct electron transfer as a detection mechanism. This study makes a valuable contribution toward the development of electrochemical biosensors that employ sorted SWNTs and various enzymes.

  7. Impedimetric microbial biosensor based on single wall carbon nanotube modified microelectrodes for trichloroethylene detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hnaien, M.; Bourigua, S.; Bessueille, F.; Bausells, J.; Errachid, A.; Lagarde, F.; Jaffrezic-Renault, N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► We propose an impedimetric microbial biosensor for trichloroethylene detection. ► A new transducer modified with carbon nanotubes and Pseudomonas putida is evaluated. ► Functionalization steps are controlled by impedance spectroscopy and AFM. ► The biosensor offers good sensitivity, selectivity, linear range and stability. ► The biosensor is successfully applied to spiked natural water samples. - Abstract: Contamination of soils and groundwaters with persistent organic pollutants is a matter of increasing concern. The most common organic pollutants are chlorinated hydrocarbons such as perchloroethylene and trichloroethylene (TCE). In this study, we developed a bacterial impedimetric biosensor for TCE detection, based on the immobilization of Pseudomonas putida F1 strain on gold microelectrodes functionalized with single wall carbon nanotubes covalently linked to anti-Pseudomonas antibodies. The different steps of microelectrodes functionalization were characterized by electrochemical impedance and atomic force spectroscopies, and analytical performances of the developed microbial biosensor were determined. The impedimetric biosensor response was linear with TCE concentration up to 150 μg L −1 and a low limit of detection (20 μg L −1 ) was achieved. No significant loss of signal was observed after 4 weeks of storage at 4 °C in phosphate buffer saline pH 7 (three to four measurements a week). After 5 weeks, 90% of the initial value still remained. cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene and vinylchloride, the main TCE degradation products, did not significantly interfere with TCE. The microbial sensor was finally applied to the determination of TCE in natural water samples spiked at the 30, 50 and 75 μg L −1 levels. Recoveries were very good, ranging from 100 to 103%.

  8. Fluorescence-based biosensor for monitoring of environmental pollutants: From concept to field application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidmanova, Sarka; Kotlanova, Marketa; Rataj, Tomas; Damborsky, Jiri; Trtilek, Martin; Prokop, Zbynek

    2016-10-15

    An advanced optical biosensor was developed based on the enzymatic reaction with halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons that is accompanied by the fluorescence change of pH indicator. The device is applicable for the detection of halogenated contaminants in water samples with pH ranging from 4 to 10 and temperature ranging from 5 to 60°C. Main advantages of the developed biosensor are small size (60×30×190mm(3)) and portability, which together with short measurement time of 1min belong to crucial attributes of analytical technique useful for routine environmental monitoring. The biosensor was successfully applied for the detection of several important halogenated pollutants under laboratory conditions, e.g., 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2,3-trichloropropane and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, with the limits of detection of 2.7, 1.4 and 12.1mgL(-1), respectively. The continuous monitoring was demonstrated by repetitive injection of halogenated compound into measurement solution. Consequently, field trials under environmental settings were performed. The presence of 1,2-dichloroethane (10mgL(-1)) was proved unambiguously on one of three potentially contaminated sites in Czech Republic, and the same contaminant was monitored on contaminated locality in Serbia. Equipped by Global Positioning System, the biosensor was used for creation of a precise map of contamination. Concentrations determined by biosensor and by gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrometer exhibited the correlation coefficient of 0.92, providing a good confidence for the routine use of the biosensor system in both field screening and monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Biosensor for laboratory and lander-based analysis of benthicnitrate plus nitrite distribution in marine environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, N. P.; Glud, Ronnie Nøhr

    2009-01-01

    We present a psychotropic bacteria–based biosensor that can be used in low–temperature seawater for the analysis of nitrate + nitrite (NOx –). The sensor can be used to resolve concentrations below 1 µmol L–1 at low temperature (

  10. Performance Improvement by Layout Designs of Conductive Polymer Microelectrode Based Impedimetric Biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosati, Giulio; Daprà, Johannes; Cherré, Solène

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present a theoretical, computational, and experimental evaluation of the performance of an impedimetric biosensor based on interdigitated conductive polymer (PEDOT:TsO) microelectrodes in a microfluidic system. The influence of the geometry of the electrodes and microchannels on t...

  11. New directions in medical biosensors employing poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene) derivative-based electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozlosnik, Noemi

    2009-01-01

    production and they are suitable for biosensor applications. Conducting polymer-based electrochemical sensors have shown numerous advantages in a number of areas related to human health, such as the diagnosis of infectious diseases, genetic mutations, drug discovery, forensics and food technology, due...... developed methods associated with the application of PEDOT to diagnostic sensing....

  12. A Toolbox of Genetically Encoded FRET-Based Biosensors for Rapid l-Lysine Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Steffen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fast development of microbial production strains for basic and fine chemicals is increasingly carried out in small scale cultivation systems to allow for higher throughput. Such parallelized systems create a need for new rapid online detection systems to quantify the respective target compound. In this regard, biosensors, especially genetically encoded Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET-based biosensors, offer tremendous opportunities. As a proof-of-concept, we have created a toolbox of FRET-based biosensors for the ratiometric determination of l-lysine in fermentation broth. Methods: The sensor toolbox was constructed based on a sensor that consists of an optimized central lysine-/arginine-/ornithine-binding protein (LAO-BP flanked by two fluorescent proteins (enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP, Citrine. Further sensor variants with altered affinity and sensitivity were obtained by circular permutation of the binding protein as well as the introduction of flexible and rigid linkers between the fluorescent proteins and the LAO-BP, respectively. Results: The sensor prototype was applied to monitor the extracellular l-lysine concentration of the l-lysine producing Corynebacterium glutamicum (C. glutamicum strain DM1933 in a BioLector® microscale cultivation device. The results matched well with data obtained by HPLC analysis and the Ninhydrin assay, demonstrating the high potential of FRET-based biosensors for high-throughput microbial bioprocess optimization.

  13. Mechanical, Electrical and Magnetic Properties of Ferrogels with Embedded Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Obtained by Laser Target Evaporation: Focus on Multifunctional Biosensor Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyakhman, Felix A; Buznikov, Nikita A; Sklyar, Tatyana F; Safronov, Alexander P; Golubeva, Elizaveta V; Svalov, Andrey V; Sokolov, Sergey Yu; Melnikov, Grigory Yu; Orue, Iñaki; Kurlyandskaya, Galina V

    2018-03-15

    Hydrogels are biomimetic materials widely used in the area of biomedical engineering and biosensing. Ferrogels (FG) are magnetic composites capable of functioning as magnetic field sensitive transformers and field assisted drug deliverers. FG can be prepared by incorporating magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) into chemically crosslinked hydrogels. The properties of biomimetic ferrogels for multifunctional biosensor applications can be set up by synthesis. The properties of these biomimetic ferrogels can be thoroughly controlled in a physical experiment environment which is much less demanding than biotests. Two series of ferrogels (soft and dense) based on polyacrylamide (PAAm) with different chemical network densities were synthesized by free-radical polymerization in aqueous solution with N , N '-methylene-diacrylamide as a cross-linker and maghemite Fe₂O₃ MNPs fabricated by laser target evaporation as a filler. Their mechanical, electrical and magnetic properties were comparatively analyzed. We developed a giant magnetoimpedance (MI) sensor prototype with multilayered FeNi-based sensitive elements deposited onto glass or polymer substrates adapted for FG studies. The MI measurements in the initial state and in the presence of FG with different concentrations of MNPs at a frequency range of 1-300 MHz allowed a precise characterization of the stray fields of the MNPs present in the FG. We proposed an electrodynamic model to describe the MI in multilayered film with a FG layer based on the solution of linearized Maxwell equations for the electromagnetic fields coupled with the Landau-Lifshitz equation for the magnetization dynamics.

  14. Mechanical, Electrical and Magnetic Properties of Ferrogels with Embedded Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Obtained by Laser Target Evaporation: Focus on Multifunctional Biosensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix A. Blyakhman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels are biomimetic materials widely used in the area of biomedical engineering and biosensing. Ferrogels (FG are magnetic composites capable of functioning as magnetic field sensitive transformers and field assisted drug deliverers. FG can be prepared by incorporating magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs into chemically crosslinked hydrogels. The properties of biomimetic ferrogels for multifunctional biosensor applications can be set up by synthesis. The properties of these biomimetic ferrogels can be thoroughly controlled in a physical experiment environment which is much less demanding than biotests. Two series of ferrogels (soft and dense based on polyacrylamide (PAAm with different chemical network densities were synthesized by free-radical polymerization in aqueous solution with N,N’-methylene-diacrylamide as a cross-linker and maghemite Fe2O3 MNPs fabricated by laser target evaporation as a filler. Their mechanical, electrical and magnetic properties were comparatively analyzed. We developed a giant magnetoimpedance (MI sensor prototype with multilayered FeNi-based sensitive elements deposited onto glass or polymer substrates adapted for FG studies. The MI measurements in the initial state and in the presence of FG with different concentrations of MNPs at a frequency range of 1–300 MHz allowed a precise characterization of the stray fields of the MNPs present in the FG. We proposed an electrodynamic model to describe the MI in multilayered film with a FG layer based on the solution of linearized Maxwell equations for the electromagnetic fields coupled with the Landau-Lifshitz equation for the magnetization dynamics.

  15. Droplet-based microscale colorimetric biosensor for multiplexed DNA analysis via a graphene nanoprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Xia; Luo Ming; Shi Liyang; Ji Xinghu; He Zhike

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: With a microvalve manipulate technique combined with droplet platform, a microscale fluorescence-based colorimetric sensor for multiplexed DNA analysis is developed via a graphene nanoprobe. Highlights: ► A quantitative detection for multiplexed DNA is first realized on droplet platform. ► The DNA detection is relied on a simple fluorescence-based colorimetric method. ► GO is served as a quencher for two different DNA fluorescent probes. ► This present work provides a rapid, sensitive, visual and convenient detection tool for droplet biosensor. - Abstract: The development of simple and inexpensive DNA detection strategy is very significant for droplet-based microfluidic system. Here, a droplet-based biosensor for multiplexed DNA analysis is developed with a common imaging device by using fluorescence-based colorimetric method and a graphene nanoprobe. With the aid of droplet manipulation technique, droplet size adjustment, droplet fusion and droplet trap are realized accurately and precisely. Due to the high quenching efficiency of graphene oxide (GO), in the absence of target DNAs, the droplet containing two single-stranded DNA probes and GO shows dark color, in which the DNA probes are labeled carboxy fluorescein (FAM) and 6-carboxy-X-rhodamine (ROX), respectively. The droplet changes from dark to bright color when the DNA probes form double helix with the specific target DNAs leading to the dyes far away from GO. This colorimetric droplet biosensor exhibits a quantitative capability for simultaneous detection of two different target DNAs with the detection limits of 9.46 and 9.67 × 10 −8 M, respectively. It is also demonstrated that this biosensor platform can become a promising detection tool in high throughput applications with low consumption of reagents. Moreover, the incorporation of graphene nanoprobe and droplet technique can drive the biosensor field one more step to some extent.

  16. A paper-based nanomodified electrochemical biosensor for ethanol detection in beers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinti, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.cinti@uniroma2.it; Basso, Mattia; Moscone, Danila; Arduini, Fabiana, E-mail: fabiana.arduini@uniroma2.it

    2017-04-01

    Herein, we report the first example of a paper-based screen-printed biosensor for the detection of ethanol in beer samples. Common office paper was adopted to fabricate the analytical device. The properties of this paper-based screen-printed electrode (SPE) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, and they were compared with the well-established polyester-based SPEs as well. Paper demonstrated similar properties when compared with polyester, highlighting suitability towards its utilization in sensor development, with the advantages of low cost and simple disposal by incineration. A nanocomposite formed by Carbon Black (CB) and Prussian Blue nanoparticles (PBNPs), namely CB/PBNPs, was utilized as an electrocatalyst to detect the hydrogen peroxide generated by the enzymatic reaction between alcohol oxidase (AOx) and ethanol. After optimizing the analytical parameters, such as pH, enzyme, concentration, and working potential, the developed biosensor allowed a facile quantification of ethanol up to 10 mM (0.058 %{sub vol}), with a sensitivity of 9.13 μA/mM cm{sup 2} (1574 μA/%{sub vol} cm{sup 2}) and a detection limit equal to 0.52 mM (0.003%{sub vol}). These satisfactory performances rendered the realized paper-based biosensor reliable over the analysis of ethanol contained in four different types of beers, including Pilsner, Weiss, Lager, and alcohol-free. The proposed manufacturing approach offers an affordable and sustainable tool for food quality control and for the realization of different electrochemical sensors and biosensors as well. - Highlights: • Novel ethanol biosensor fabricated onto office paper. • Enhanced hydrogen peroxide detection using Carbon black/Prussian blue nanoparticles. • Only 100 μL required to perform measurements. • Paper-based electrochemical device coupled with a portable potentiostat. • Rapid quantification of ethanol in beer samples.

  17. A paper-based nanomodified electrochemical biosensor for ethanol detection in beers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinti, Stefano; Basso, Mattia; Moscone, Danila; Arduini, Fabiana

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we report the first example of a paper-based screen-printed biosensor for the detection of ethanol in beer samples. Common office paper was adopted to fabricate the analytical device. The properties of this paper-based screen-printed electrode (SPE) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, and they were compared with the well-established polyester-based SPEs as well. Paper demonstrated similar properties when compared with polyester, highlighting suitability towards its utilization in sensor development, with the advantages of low cost and simple disposal by incineration. A nanocomposite formed by Carbon Black (CB) and Prussian Blue nanoparticles (PBNPs), namely CB/PBNPs, was utilized as an electrocatalyst to detect the hydrogen peroxide generated by the enzymatic reaction between alcohol oxidase (AOx) and ethanol. After optimizing the analytical parameters, such as pH, enzyme, concentration, and working potential, the developed biosensor allowed a facile quantification of ethanol up to 10 mM (0.058 %_v_o_l), with a sensitivity of 9.13 μA/mM cm"2 (1574 μA/%_v_o_l cm"2) and a detection limit equal to 0.52 mM (0.003%_v_o_l). These satisfactory performances rendered the realized paper-based biosensor reliable over the analysis of ethanol contained in four different types of beers, including Pilsner, Weiss, Lager, and alcohol-free. The proposed manufacturing approach offers an affordable and sustainable tool for food quality control and for the realization of different electrochemical sensors and biosensors as well. - Highlights: • Novel ethanol biosensor fabricated onto office paper. • Enhanced hydrogen peroxide detection using Carbon black/Prussian blue nanoparticles. • Only 100 μL required to perform measurements. • Paper-based electrochemical device coupled with a portable potentiostat. • Rapid quantification of ethanol in beer samples.

  18. New CNT/poly(brilliant green) and CNT/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) based electrochemical enzyme biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsan, Madalina M; Pifferi, Valentina; Falciola, Luigi; Brett, Christopher M A

    2016-07-13

    A combination of the electroactive polymer poly(brilliant green) (PBG) or conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) with carbon nanotubes to obtain CNT/PBG and CNT/PEDOT modified carbon film electrodes (CFE) has been investigated as a new biosensor platform, incorporating the enzymes glucose oxidase (GOx) as test enzyme, alcohol oxidase (AlcOx) or alcohol dehydrogenase (AlcDH). The sensing parameters were optimized for all biosensors based on CNT/PBG/CFE, CNT/PEDOT/CFE platforms. Under optimized conditions, both GOx biosensors exhibited very similar sensitivities, while in the case of AlcOx and AlcDH biosensors, AlcOx/CNT/PBG/CFE was found to give a higher sensitivity and lower detection limit. The influence of dissolved O2 on oxidase-biosensor performance was investigated and was shown to be different for each enzyme. Comparisons were made with similar reported biosensors, showing the advantages of the new biosensors, and excellent selectivity against potential interferents was successfully demonstrated. Finally, alcohol biosensors were successfully used for the determination of ethanol in alcoholic beverages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A luminescent hybridoma-based biosensor for rapid detection of V. cholerae upon induction of calcium signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Parichehr; Sajedi, Reza H; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Zeinoddini, Mehdi; Bakhshi, Bita

    2016-05-15

    In this study, a hybridoma based biosensor was developed for rapid, sensitive and selective detection of Vibrio cholerae O1 which converts the antibody-antigen binding to bioluminescence light. After investigation on hybridoma performance, the biosensor was constructed by transfecting specific hybridoma cells with aequorin reporter gene and the bioluminescence activities of stable biosensor were measured. The sensitivity of biosensor was as few as 50 CFU/ml and it showed no responses to other entric bacteria. Moreover, the response time of biosensor was estimated in 7th second which means this method is considerably faster than many available detection assays. In addition, this biosensor was successfully applied to V. cholerae detection in environmental samples with no significant loss in sensitivity, demonstrating our proposed biosensor provides a sensitive and reliable method for detection of V. cholerae in natural samples. The application of whole hybridoma cell directly as a sensing element in biosensor construction which mentioned for the first time in present study suggests that hybridoma cells could provide a valuable tool for future studies in both basic and diagnostic sciences and could be considered as a fast and specific sensing element for detection of other pathogens in different applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigation of a Photoelectrochemical Passivated ZnO-Based Glucose Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Jung Lee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A vapor cooling condensation system was used to deposit high quality intrinsic ZnO thin films and intrinsic ZnO nanorods as the sensing membrane of extended-gate field-effect-transistor (EGFET glucose biosensors. The sensing sensitivity of the resulting glucose biosensors operated in the linear range was 13.4 μA mM−1 cm−2. To improve the sensing sensitivity of the ZnO-based glucose biosensors, the photoelectrochemical method was utilized to passivate the sidewall surfaces of the ZnO nanorods. The sensing sensitivity of the ZnO-based glucose biosensors with passivated ZnO nanorods was significantly improved to 20.33 μA mM−1 cm−2 under the same measurement conditions. The experimental results verified that the sensing sensitivity improvement was the result of the mitigation of the Fermi level pinning effect caused by the dangling bonds and the surface states induced on the sidewall surface of the ZnO nanorods.

  1. Detection of Salmonella Typhimurium on Spinach Using Phage-Based Magnetoelastic Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengen Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Phage-based magnetoelastic (ME biosensors have been studied as an in-situ, real-time, wireless, direct detection method of foodborne pathogens in recent years. This paper investigates an ME biosensor method for the detection of Salmonella Typhimurium on fresh spinach leaves. A procedure to obtain a concentrated suspension of Salmonella from contaminated spinach leaves is described that is based on methods outlined in the U.S. FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual for the detection of Salmonella on leafy green vegetables. The effects of an alternative pre-enrichment broth (LB broth vs. lactose broth, incubation time on the detection performance and negative control were investigated. In addition, different blocking agents (BSA, Casein, and Superblock were evaluated to minimize the effect of nonspecific binding. None of the blocking agents was found to be superior to the others, or even better than none. Unblocked ME biosensors were placed directly in a concentrated suspension and allowed to bind with Salmonella cells for 30 min before measuring the resonant frequency using a surface-scanning coil detector. It was found that 7 h incubation at 37 °C in LB broth was necessary to detect an initial spike of 100 cfu/25 g S. Typhimurium on spinach leaves with a confidence level of difference greater than 95% (p < 0.05. Thus, the ME biosensor method, on both partly and fully detection, was demonstrated to be a robust and competitive method for foodborne pathogens on fresh products.

  2. Highly sensitive nano-porous lattice biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance and interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Se-Hyuk; Kim, Ok-Geun; Kang, Byoung-Ho; Kim, Kyu-Jin; Yuan, Heng; Kwon, Dae-Hyuk; Kim, Hak-Rin; Kang, Shin-Won

    2011-11-07

    We propose a design for a highly sensitive biosensor based on nanostructured anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) substrates. A gold-deposited AAO substrate exhibits both optical interference and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). In our sensor, application of these disparate optical properties overcomes problems of limited sensitivity, selectivity, and dynamic range seen in similar biosensors. We fabricated uniform periodic nanopore lattice AAO templates by two-step anodizing and assessed their suitability for application in biosensors by characterizing the change in optical response on addition of biomolecules to the AAO template. To determine the suitability of such structures for biosensing applications, we immobilized a layer of C-reactive protein (CRP) antibody on a gold coating atop an AAO template. We then applied a CRP antigen (Ag) atop the immobilized antibody (Ab) layer. The shift in reflectance is interpreted as being caused by the change in refractive index with membrane thickness. Our results confirm that our proposed AAO-based biosensor is highly selective toward detection of CRP antigen, and can measure a change in CRP antigen concentration of 1 fg/ml. This method can provide a simple, fast, and sensitive analysis for protein detection in real-time.

  3. A Potentiometric Formaldehyde Biosensor Based on Immobilization of Alcohol Oxidase on Acryloxysuccinimide-modified Acrylic Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Yook Heng

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A new alcohol oxidase (AOX enzyme-based formaldehyde biosensor based on acrylic microspheres has been developed. Hydrophobic poly(n-butyl acrylate-N-acryloxy-succinimide [poly(nBA-NAS] microspheres, an enzyme immobilization matrix, was synthesized using photopolymerization in an emulsion form. AOX-poly(nBA-NAS microspheres were deposited on a pH transducer made from a layer of photocured and self-plasticized polyacrylate membrane with an entrapped pH ionophore coated on a Ag/AgCl screen printed electrode (SPE. Oxidation of formaldehyde by the immobilized AOX resulted in the production of protons, which can be determined via the pH transducer. Effects of buffer concentrations, pH and different amount of immobilization matrix towards the biosensor’s analytical performance were investigated. The formaldehyde biosensor exhibited a dynamic linear response range to formaldehyde from 0.3–316.2 mM and a sensitivity of 59.41 ± 0.66 mV/decade (R2 = 0.9776, n = 3. The lower detection limit of the biosensor was 0.3 mM, while reproducibility and repeatability were 3.16% RSD (relative standard deviation and 1.11% RSD, respectively (n = 3. The use of acrylic microspheres in the potentiometric formaldehyde biosensor improved the biosensor’s performance in terms of response time, linear response range and long term stability when compared with thick film immobilization methods.

  4. Plasmon based biosensor for distinguishing different peptides mutation states

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Gobind

    2013-05-08

    Periodic and reproducible gold nanocuboids with various matrix dimensions and with different inter-particle gaps were fabricated by means of top-down technique. Rhodamine 6G was used as a probe molecule to optimize the design and the fabrication of the cuboid nanostructures. The electric field distribution for the nanocuboids with varying matrix dimensions/inter-particle gap was also investigated. These SERS devices were employed as biosensors through the investigation of both myoglobin and wild/mutated peptides. The results demonstrate the probing and the screening of wild/mutated BRCA1 peptides, thus opening a path for the fabrication of simple and cheap SERS device capable of early detection of several diseases.

  5. Nanostructured ZnO-based biosensor: DNA immobilization and hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mishaal Mohammed

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An electrochemical DNA biosensor was successfully fabricated by using (3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES with zinc oxide (ZnO nanorods synthesized using microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition method on thermally oxidized SiO2 thin films. The structural quality and morphology of the ZnO nanorods were determined by employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD, which show a hexagonal wurtzite structure with a preferred orientation along the (101 direction. The surface of the SiO2 thin films was chemically modified with ZnO. Label-free detection DNA immobilization and hybridization were performed using potassium hexacyanoferrate with cyclic voltammetry (CV measurements. The capacitance, permittivity, and conductivity profiles of the fabricated sensor clearly indicate DNA immobilization and hybridization. Results show that the capacitance values of bare, ZnO- modified surface immobilization, and target DNA hybridization were 46×10−12F, 47×10−8F, 27μF, and 17μF, respectively, at 1Hz. The permittivity measurement increased from 3.94×103 to 251×103 and 165×103 at the frequency range of approximately 200 to 1Hz for bare and DNA immobilization and hybridization, respectively. The measured conductivity values for the bare, ZnO, immobilized, and hybridization device were 2.4×10−9, 10×10−8, 1.6×10−7, and 1.3×10−7Scm−1, respectively. Keywords: Zinc oxide, Biosensor, Capacitance, Permittivity, Conductivity

  6. Carbon coated magnesium oxide based amperometric glucose biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, L.L.; Mello, J.M.M.; Fiori, M.A.; Duarte, G.W. [Universidade Comunitaria Regional de Chapeco (UNICHAPECO), SC (Brazil); Fernandes, S.C. [Instituto Federal Catarinense (IFC), Blumenau, SC (Brazil); Riella, H.G. [Centro Universitario Barriga Verde (UNIBAVE), Orleans, SC (Brazil); Anzolin, C.; Figueiro, A.; Grando, M.C. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), SC (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Diabetes is a serious disease that is harmful to human health since it is related to cardiovascular and stroke events. Since the first glucose oxidase (GOx) sensor, different approaches have been explored. Carbon was used to cover nano-magnesium oxide (MgO-C) forming a core-shell which was used to improve its biocompatibility and chemical stability for the preparation of GOx biosensor. MgO nanostructures have been prepared by calcination of the gel formed by the reaction of magnesium acetate tetrahydrate dissolved in cetyltrimethylammonium with the addition of tartaric acid solution. MgO-C nanostructures were obtained by heating MgO nanoparticles previously prepared together with glucose and PEG dissolved in an aqueous suspension. Reaction conditions such as concentration of magnesium precursor, temperature and aging time show important roles in the size, morphology and growth process of the final products. The core-shell structure was evidenced by SEM/FEG and XRD and showed that the product appeared to have morphological forms of nanowires. GOx was spread onto the surface of a modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) doped with MgO-C and the effect on the biosensing properties investigated by comparing the electrochemical properties of the proposed biosensor with bare and modified CPEs by cyclic voltammetry. The amount of modifier in CPE (5-75 weight% with respect to graphite) influences the peak current and the influence of different experimental parameters (enzyme percentage, pH solution and amperometric methods) was also investigated. The results demonstrate that the GOx retains its biocatalytic activity and that the bioelectrode modified can be a possible use for other nanotechnological purposes including biomedical ones. (author)

  7. Carbon coated magnesium oxide based amperometric glucose biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, L.L.; Mello, J.M.M.; Fiori, M.A.; Duarte, G.W.; Fernandes, S.C.; Riella, H.G.; Anzolin, C.; Figueiro, A.; Grando, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Diabetes is a serious disease that is harmful to human health since it is related to cardiovascular and stroke events. Since the first glucose oxidase (GOx) sensor, different approaches have been explored. Carbon was used to cover nano-magnesium oxide (MgO-C) forming a core-shell which was used to improve its biocompatibility and chemical stability for the preparation of GOx biosensor. MgO nanostructures have been prepared by calcination of the gel formed by the reaction of magnesium acetate tetrahydrate dissolved in cetyltrimethylammonium with the addition of tartaric acid solution. MgO-C nanostructures were obtained by heating MgO nanoparticles previously prepared together with glucose and PEG dissolved in an aqueous suspension. Reaction conditions such as concentration of magnesium precursor, temperature and aging time show important roles in the size, morphology and growth process of the final products. The core-shell structure was evidenced by SEM/FEG and XRD and showed that the product appeared to have morphological forms of nanowires. GOx was spread onto the surface of a modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) doped with MgO-C and the effect on the biosensing properties investigated by comparing the electrochemical properties of the proposed biosensor with bare and modified CPEs by cyclic voltammetry. The amount of modifier in CPE (5-75 weight% with respect to graphite) influences the peak current and the influence of different experimental parameters (enzyme percentage, pH solution and amperometric methods) was also investigated. The results demonstrate that the GOx retains its biocatalytic activity and that the bioelectrode modified can be a possible use for other nanotechnological purposes including biomedical ones. (author)

  8. Speciation of chromium using chronoamperometric biosensors based on screen-printed electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo-Pérez, Ana, E-mail: anacp@ubu.es; Domínguez-Renedo, Olga, E-mail: olgado@ubu.es; Alonso-Lomillo, MAsunción, E-mail: malomillo@ubu.es; Arcos-Martínez, MJulia, E-mail: jarcos@ubu.es

    2014-06-23

    Highlights: • Chronoamperometric determination of Cr(III) on tyrosinase based biosensors using SPCEs. • Chronoamperometric determination of Cr(VI) on GOx based biosensors using SPCEs. • High degree of sensitivity and selectivity in the analysis of both chromium species. • Bipotentiostatic chronoamperometric determination of both chromium species in the same sample. - Abstract: Chronoamperometric assays based on tyrosinase and glucose oxidase (GOx) inactivation have been developed for the monitoring of Cr(III) and Cr(VI). Tyrosinase was immobilized by crosslinking on screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) containing tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as electron transfer mediator. The tyrosinase/SPC{sub TTF}E response to pyrocatechol is inhibited by Cr(III). This process, that is not affected by Cr(VI), allows the determination of Cr(III) with a capability of detection of 2.0 ± 0.2 μM and a reproducibility of 5.5%. GOx modified screen-printed carbon platinised electrodes (SPC{sub Pt}Es) were developed for the selective determination of Cr(VI) using ferricyanide as redox mediator. The biosensor was able to discriminate two different oxidation states of chromium being able to reject Cr(III) and to detect the toxic species Cr(VI). Chronoamperometric response of the biosensor towards glucose decreases with the presence of Cr(VI), with a capability of detection of 90.5 ± 7.6 nM and a reproducibility of 6.2%. A bipotentiostatic chronoamperometric biosensor was finally developed using a tyrosinase/SPC{sub TTF}E and a GOx/SPC{sub Pt}E connected in array mode for the simultaneous determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in spiked tap water and in waste water from a tannery factory samples.

  9. Speciation of chromium using chronoamperometric biosensors based on screen-printed electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo-Pérez, Ana; Domínguez-Renedo, Olga; Alonso-Lomillo, MAsunción; Arcos-Martínez, MJulia

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Chronoamperometric determination of Cr(III) on tyrosinase based biosensors using SPCEs. • Chronoamperometric determination of Cr(VI) on GOx based biosensors using SPCEs. • High degree of sensitivity and selectivity in the analysis of both chromium species. • Bipotentiostatic chronoamperometric determination of both chromium species in the same sample. - Abstract: Chronoamperometric assays based on tyrosinase and glucose oxidase (GOx) inactivation have been developed for the monitoring of Cr(III) and Cr(VI). Tyrosinase was immobilized by crosslinking on screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) containing tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as electron transfer mediator. The tyrosinase/SPC TTF E response to pyrocatechol is inhibited by Cr(III). This process, that is not affected by Cr(VI), allows the determination of Cr(III) with a capability of detection of 2.0 ± 0.2 μM and a reproducibility of 5.5%. GOx modified screen-printed carbon platinised electrodes (SPC Pt Es) were developed for the selective determination of Cr(VI) using ferricyanide as redox mediator. The biosensor was able to discriminate two different oxidation states of chromium being able to reject Cr(III) and to detect the toxic species Cr(VI). Chronoamperometric response of the biosensor towards glucose decreases with the presence of Cr(VI), with a capability of detection of 90.5 ± 7.6 nM and a reproducibility of 6.2%. A bipotentiostatic chronoamperometric biosensor was finally developed using a tyrosinase/SPC TTF E and a GOx/SPC Pt E connected in array mode for the simultaneous determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in spiked tap water and in waste water from a tannery factory samples

  10. Nanostructured enzymatic biosensor based on fullerene and gold nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and analytical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzellotto, C; Favero, G; Antonelli, M L; Tortolini, C; Cannistraro, S; Coppari, E; Mazzei, F

    2014-05-15

    In this work a novel electrochemical biosensing platform based on the coupling of two different nanostructured materials (gold nanoparticles and fullerenols) displaying interesting electrochemical features, has been developed and characterized. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) exhibit attractive electrocatalytic behavior stimulating in the last years, several sensing applications; on the other hand, fullerene and its derivatives are a very promising family of electroactive compounds although they have not yet been fully employed in biosensing. The methodology proposed in this work was finalized to the setup of a laccase biosensor based on a multilayer material consisting in AuNPs, fullerenols and Trametes versicolor Laccase (TvL) assembled layer by layer onto a gold (Au) electrode surface. The influence of different modification step procedures on the electroanalytical performance of biosensors has been evaluated. Cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) were used to characterize the modification of surface and to investigate the bioelectrocatalytic biosensor response. This biosensor showed fast amperometric response to gallic acid, which is usually considered a standard for polyphenols analysis of wines, with a linear range 0.03-0.30 mmol L(-1) (r(2)=0.9998), with a LOD of 0.006 mmol L(-1) or expressed as polyphenol index 5.0-50 mg L(-1) and LOD 1.1 mg L(-1). A tentative application of the developed nanostructured enzyme-based biosensor was performed evaluating the detection of polyphenols either in buffer solution or in real wine samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Glucose biosensor based on disposable electrochemical paper-based transducers fully fabricated by screen-printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas-Ardisana, P J; Martínez-Paredes, G; Añorga, L; Grande, H J

    2018-06-30

    This paper describes a new approach for the massive production of electrochemical paper-based analytical devices (ePADs). These devices are fully fabricated by screen-printing technology and consist of a lineal microfluidic channel delimited by hydrophobic walls (patterned with diluted ultraviolet screen-printing ink in chromatographic paper grade 4) and a three-electrode system (printed with carbon and/or Ag/AgCl conductive inks). The printing process was characterised and optimized for pattern each layer with only one squeeze sweep. These ePADs were used as transducers to develop a glucose biosensor. Ionic strength/pH buffering salts, electrochemical mediator (ferricyanide) and enzyme (glucose dehydrogenase FAD-dependent) were separately stored along the microfluidic channel in order to be successively dissolved and mixed after the sample dropping at the entrance. The analyses required only 10 µl and the biosensors showed good reproducibility (RSD = 6.2%, n = 10) and sensitivity (0.426 C/M cm 2 ), wide linear range (0.5-50 mM; r 2 = 0.999) and low limit of detection (0.33 mM). Furthermore, the new biosensor was applied for glucose determination in five commercial soft-drinks without any sample treatment before the analysis. These samples were also analysed with a commercial enzymatic-kit assay. The results indicated that both methods provide accurate results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Poly(neutral red) based hydrogen peroxide biosensor for chromium determination by inhibition measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, Aisha; Emilia Ghica, M; Amine, Aziz; Brett, Christopher M A

    2014-08-30

    Amperometric hydrogen peroxide enzyme inhibition biosensors based on horseradish peroxidase (HRP) immobilised on electropolymerised neutral red (NR) or directly on the surface of carbon film electrodes (CFE) have been successfully applied to the determination of toxic Cr(III) and Cr(VI). Parameters influencing the performance of the biosensor including the enzyme immobilisation method, the amount of hydrogen peroxide, applied potential and electrolyte pH were optimised. The inhibition of horseradish peroxidase by the chromium species was studied under the optimised conditions. Results from the quantitative analysis of chromium ions are discussed in terms of detection limit, linear range and sensitivity. The HRP kinetic interactions reveal mixed binding of Cr(III) with I50=3.8μM and inhibition binding constant Ki=11.3μM at HRP/PNR/CFE biosensors and uncompetitive binding of Cr(VI) with I50=3.9μM and Ki=0.78μM at HRP/CFE biosensors in the presence of H2O2 substrate. Interferences from other heavy metal ions were studied and the inhibition show very good selectivity towards Cr(III) and Cr(VI). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Facile and controllable preparation of glucose biosensor based on Prussian blue nanoparticles hybrid composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Sheng, Qinglin; Zheng, Jianbin; Zhang, Hongfang

    2008-11-01

    A glucose biosensor based on polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) protected Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs)-polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotubes hybrid composites was fabricated by electrochemical method. A novel route for PBNPs preparation was applied in the fabrication with the help of PVP, and from scanning electron microscope images, Prussian blue particles on the electrode were found nanoscaled. The biosensor exhibits fast current response (<6 s) and a linearity in the range from 6.7x10(-6) to 1.9x10(-3) M with a high sensitivity of 6.28 microA mM(-1) and a detection limit of 6x10(-7) M (S/N=3) for the detection of glucose. The apparent activation energy of enzyme-catalyzed reaction and the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant are 23.9 kJ mol(-1) and 1.9 mM respectively, which suggests a high affinity of the enzyme-substrate. This easy and controllable construction method of glucose biosensor combines the characteristics of the components of the hybrid composites, which favors the fast and sensitive detection of glucose with improved analytical capabilities. In addition, the biosensor was examined in human serum samples for glucose determination with a recovery between 95.0 and 104.5%.

  14. Stimuli-Responsive Nanodiamond-Based Biosensor for Enhanced Metastatic Tumor Site Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Gu, Mengjie; Toh, Tan Boon; Abdullah, Nurrul Lissa Binti; Chow, Edward Kai-Hua

    2018-02-01

    Metastasis is often critical to cancer progression and linked to poor survival and drug resistance. Early detection of metastasis, as well as identification of metastatic tumor sites, can improve cancer patient survival. Thus, developing technology to improve the detection of cancer metastasis biomarkers can improve both diagnosis and treatment. In this study, we investigated the use of nanodiamonds to develop a stimuli-responsive metastasis detection complex that utilizes matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) as a metastasis biomarker, as MMP9 increased expression has been shown to be indicative of metastasis. The nanodiamond-MMP9 biosensor complex consists of nanodiamonds functionalized with MMP9-specific fluorescent-labeled substrate peptides. Using this design, protease activity of MMP9 can be accurately measured and correlated to MMP9 expression. The nanodiamond-MMP9 biosensor also demonstrated an enhanced ability to protect the base sensor peptide from nonspecific serum protease cleavage. This enhanced peptide stability, combined with a quantitative stimuli-responsive output function, provides strong evidence for the further development of a nanodiamond-MMP9 biosensor for metastasis site detection. More importantly, this work provides the foundation for use of nanodiamonds as a platform for stimuli-responsive biosensors and theranostic complexes that can be implemented across a wide range of biomedical applications.

  15. Amperometric Enzyme-Based Biosensors for Application in Food and Beverage Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csöoregi, Elisabeth; Gáspñr, Szilveszter; Niculescu, Mihaela; Mattiasson, Bo; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    Continuous, sensitive, selective, and reliable monitoring of a large variety of different compounds in various food and beverage samples is of increasing importance to assure a high-quality and tracing of any possible source of contamination of food and beverages. Most of the presently used classical analytical methods are often requiring expensive instrumentation, long analysis times and well-trained staff. Amperometric enzyme-based biosensors on the other hand have emerged in the last decade from basic science to useful tools with very promising application possibilities in food and beverage industry. Amperometric biosensors are in general highly selective, sensitive, relatively cheap, and easy to integrate into continuous analysis systems. A successful application of such sensors for industrial purposes, however, requires a sensor design, which satisfies the specific needs of monitoring the targeted analyte in the particular application, Since each individual application needs different operational conditions and sensor characteristics, it is obvious that biosensors have to be tailored for the particular case. The characteristics of the biosensors are depending on the used biorecognition element (enzyme), nature of signal transducer (electrode material) and the communication between these two elements (electron-transfer pathway).

  16. A Novel Cell-Based Hybrid Acoustic Wave Biosensor with Impedimetric Sensing Capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Voiculescu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel multiparametric biosensor system based on living cells will be presented. The biosensor system includes two biosensing techniques on a single device: resonant frequency measurements and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS. The multiparametric sensor system is based on the innovative use of the upper electrode of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM resonator as working electrode for the ECIS technique. The QCM acoustic wave sensor consists of a thin AT-cut quartz substrate with two gold electrodes on opposite sides. For integration of the QCM with the ECIS technique a semicircular counter electrode was fabricated near the upper electrode on the same side of the quartz crystal. Bovine aortic endothelial live cells (BAECs were successfully cultured on this hybrid biosensor. Finite element modeling of the bulk acoustic wave resonator using COMSOL simulations was performed. Simultaneous gravimetric and impedimetric measurements performed over a period of time on the same cell culture were conducted to validate the device’s sensitivity. The time necessary for the BAEC cells to attach and form a compact monolayer on the biosensor was 35~45 minutes for 1.5 × 104 cells/cm2 BAECs; 60 minutes for 2.0 × 104 cells/cm2 BAECs; 70 minutes for 3.0 × 104 cells/cm2 BAECs; and 100 minutes for 5.0 × 104 cells/cm2 BAECs. It was demonstrated that this time is the same for both gravimetric and impedimetric measurements. This hybrid biosensor will be employed in the future for water toxicity detection.

  17. Naringenin-responsive riboswitch-based fluorescent biosensor module for Escherichia coli co-cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Yu; Jang, Sungho; Jones, J Andrew; Zill, Nicholas A; Linhardt, Robert J; Yuan, Qipeng; Jung, Gyoo Yeol; Koffas, Mattheos A G

    2017-10-01

    The ability to design and construct combinatorial synthetic metabolic pathways has far exceeded our capacity for efficient screening and selection of the resulting microbial strains. The need for high-throughput rapid screening techniques is of upmost importance for the future of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. Here we describe the development of an RNA riboswitch-based biosensor module with dual fluorescent reporters, and demonstrate a high-throughput flow cytometry-based screening method for identification of naringenin over producing Escherichia coli strains in co-culture. Our efforts helped identify a number of key operating parameters that affect biosensor performance, including the selection of promoter and linker elements within the sensor-actuator domain, and the effect of host strain, fermentation time, and growth medium on sensor dynamic range. The resulting biosensor demonstrates a high correlation between specific fluorescence of the biosensor strain and naringenin titer produced by the second member of the synthetic co-culture system. This technique represents a novel application for synthetic microbial co-cultures and can be expanded from naringenin to any metabolite if a suitable riboswitch is identified. The co-culture technique presented here can be applied to a variety of target metabolites in combination with the SELEX approach for aptamer design. Due to the compartmentalization of the two genetic constructs responsible for production and detection into separate cells and application as independent modules of a synthetic microbial co-culture we have subsequently reduced the need for re-optimization of the producer module when the biosensor is replaced or removed. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2235-2244. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A Novel Cell-Based Hybrid Acoustic Wave Biosensor with Impedimetric Sensing Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Li, Fang; Nordin, Anis Nurashikin; Voiculescu, Ioana

    2013-01-01

    A novel multiparametric biosensor system based on living cells will be presented. The biosensor system includes two biosensing techniques on a single device: resonant frequency measurements and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS). The multiparametric sensor system is based on the innovative use of the upper electrode of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) resonator as working electrode for the ECIS technique. The QCM acoustic wave sensor consists of a thin AT-cut quartz substrate with two gold electrodes on opposite sides. For integration of the QCM with the ECIS technique a semicircular counter electrode was fabricated near the upper electrode on the same side of the quartz crystal. Bovine aortic endothelial live cells (BAECs) were successfully cultured on this hybrid biosensor. Finite element modeling of the bulk acoustic wave resonator using COMSOL simulations was performed. Simultaneous gravimetric and impedimetric measurements performed over a period of time on the same cell culture were conducted to validate the device's sensitivity. The time necessary for the BAEC cells to attach and form a compact monolayer on the biosensor was 35∼45 minutes for 1.5 × 104 cells/cm2 BAECs; 60 minutes for 2.0 × 104 cells/cm2 BAECs; 70 minutes for 3.0 × 104 cells/cm2 BAECs; and 100 minutes for 5.0 × 104 cells/cm2 BAECs. It was demonstrated that this time is the same for both gravimetric and impedimetric measurements. This hybrid biosensor will be employed in the future for water toxicity detection. PMID:23459387

  19. Disposable L-lactate biosensor based on a screen-printed carbon electrode enhanced by graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Dandan; He, Yu; Rong, Yuanzhen; Wang, You; Li, Guang

    2016-04-01

    In this work, an amperometric L-lactate biosensor based on a graphene-modified screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was constructed. First, the electrocatalytic performance of the SPCE modified with graphene by a one-step electrodeposition process (OerGO/SPCE) was investigated. The cyclic voltammogram of OerGO/SPCE, which showed a well-defined redox peak, had a smaller peak potential separation than that of SPCE, revealing the improvement in electron transfer speed brought about by modifying with graphene. Next, lactate oxidase and potassium ferricyanide were dropped on the OerGO/SPCE to construct a graphene-modified L-lactate biosensor (LOD/K3[Fe(CN)6]/OerGO/SPCE). The proposed biosensor, with a detection limit of 60 μM, had a high sensitivity (42.42 μA mM-1 cm-2) when working at a low working potential (0.15 V). The linear range was 0.5 mM-15 mM, covering the detecting range of L-lactate in clinical applications. The L-lactate biosensor had a short response time (10 s) and required only 10 μl of the sample. This L-lactate sensor modified with electrodeposited graphene had a larger sensitivity than that based on the bare SPCE. Thus, our low-cost and disposable L-lactate biosensor enhanced by graphene can perform as an attractive electrochemical device that can be manufactured for point-of-care testing (POCT) devices and be employed in POCT applications.

  20. Disposable L-lactate biosensor based on a screen-printed carbon electrode enhanced by graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Dandan; He, Yu; Rong, Yuanzhen; Wang, You; Li, Guang

    2016-01-01

    In this work, an amperometric L-lactate biosensor based on a graphene-modified screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was constructed. First, the electrocatalytic performance of the SPCE modified with graphene by a one-step electrodeposition process (OerGO/SPCE) was investigated. The cyclic voltammogram of OerGO/SPCE, which showed a well-defined redox peak, had a smaller peak potential separation than that of SPCE, revealing the improvement in electron transfer speed brought about by modifying with graphene. Next, lactate oxidase and potassium ferricyanide were dropped on the OerGO/SPCE to construct a graphene-modified L-lactate biosensor (LOD/K 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ]/OerGO/SPCE). The proposed biosensor, with a detection limit of 60 μM, had a high sensitivity (42.42 μA mM −1 cm −2 ) when working at a low working potential (0.15 V). The linear range was 0.5 mM–15 mM, covering the detecting range of L-lactate in clinical applications. The L-lactate biosensor had a short response time (10 s) and required only 10 μl of the sample. This L-lactate sensor modified with electrodeposited graphene had a larger sensitivity than that based on the bare SPCE. Thus, our low-cost and disposable L-lactate biosensor enhanced by graphene can perform as an attractive electrochemical device that can be manufactured for point-of-care testing (POCT) devices and be employed in POCT applications. (paper)

  1. Single walled carbon nanotube-based electrical biosensor for the label-free detection of pathogenic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoo, S. M.; Baek, Y. K.; Shin, S.

    2016-01-01

    We herein describe the development of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-based electrical biosensor consisting of a two-terminal resistor, and report its use for the specific, label-free detection of pathogenic bacteria via changes in conductance. The ability of this biosensor to recognize...... different pathogenic bacteria was analyzed, and conditions were optimized with different probe concentrations. Using this system, the reference strains and clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were successfully detected; in both cases, the sensor showed a detection limit of 10 CFU....... This SWNT-based electrical biosensor will prove useful for the development of highly sensitive and specific handheld pathogen detectors....

  2. A sensitive biosensor using double-layer capillary based immunomagnetic separation and invertase-nanocluster based signal amplification for rapid detection of foodborne pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fengchun; Zhang, Huilin; Wang, Lei; Lai, Weihua; Lin, Jianhan

    2018-02-15

    Combining double-layer capillary based high gradient immunomagnetic separation, invertase-nanocluster based signal amplification and glucose meter based signal detection, a novel biosensor was developed for sensitive and rapid detection of E. coli O157:H7 in this study. The streptavidin modified magnetic nanobeads (MNBs) were conjugated with the biotinylated polyclonal antibodies against E. coli O157:H7 to form the immune MNBs, which were captured by the high gradient magnetic field in the double-layer capillary to specifically separate and efficiently concentrate the target bacteria. Calcium chloride was used with the monoclonal antibodies against E. coli O157:H7 and the invertase to form the immune invertase-nanoclusters (INCs), which were used to react with the target bacteria to form the MNB-bacteria-INC complexes in the capillary. The sucrose was then injected into the capillary and catalyzed by the invertase on the complexes into the glucose, which was detected using the glucose meter to obtain the concentration of the glucose for final determination of the E. coli O157:H7 cells in the sample. A linear relationship between the readout of the glucose meter and the concentration of the E. coli O157:H7 cells (from 10 2 to 10 7 CFU/mL) was found and the lower detection limit of this biosensor was 79 CFU/mL. This biosensor might be extended for the detection of other foodborne pathogens by changing the antibodies and has shown the potential for the detection of foodborne pathogens in a large volume of sample to further increase the sensitivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An improved amperometric creatinine biosensor based on nanoparticles of creatininase, creatinase and sarcosine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Parveen; Jaiwal, Ranjana; Pundir, C S

    2017-11-15

    An improved amperometric biosensor for detection of creatinine was developed based on immobilization of nanoparticles (NPs) of creatininase (CA), creatinase (CI), and sarcosine oxidase (SOx) onto glassy carbon (GC) electrode. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were employed for characterization of enzyme nanoparticles (ENPs). The GC electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) at different stages of its amendment. The biosensor showed optimum response within 2s at pH 6.0 in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer and 25 °C, when operated at 1.0 V against Ag/AgCl. Biosensor exhibited wider linear range from 0.01 μM to 12 μM with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.01 μM. The analytical recoveries of added creatinine in sera were 97.97 ± 0.1% for 0.1 mM and 98.76 ± 0.2% for 0.15 mM, within and between batch coefficients of variation (CV) were 2.06% and 3.09% respectively. A good correlation (R 2  = 0.99) was observed between sera creatinine values obtained by standard enzymic colorimetric method and the present biosensor. This biosensor measured creatinine level in sera of apparently healthy subjects and persons suffering from renal and muscular dysfunction. The ENPs electrode lost 10% of its initial activity within 240 days of its regular uses, when stored at 4 °C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of ammonium ion using a reagentless amperometric biosensor based on immobilized alanine dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ling Ling; Musa, Ahmad; Lee, Yook Heng

    2011-01-01

    The use of the enzyme alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH) for the determination of ammonium ion (NH(4)(+)) usually requires the addition of pyruvate substrate and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) simultaneously to effect the reaction. This addition of reagents is inconvenient when an enzyme biosensor based on AlaDH is used. To resolve the problem, a novel reagentless amperometric biosensor using a stacked methacrylic membrane system coated onto a screen-printed carbon paste electrode (SPE) for NH(4)(+) ion determination is described. A mixture of pyruvate and NADH was immobilized in low molecular weight poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) membrane, which was then deposited over a photocured pHEMA membrane (photoHEMA) containing alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH) enzyme. Due to the enzymatic reaction of AlaDH and the pyruvate substrate, NH(4)(+) was consumed in the process and thus the signal from the electrocatalytic oxidation of NADH at an applied potential of +0.55 V was proportional to the NH(4)(+) ion concentration under optimal conditions. The stacked methacrylate membranes responded rapidly and linearly to changes in NH(4)(+) ion concentrations between 10-100 mM, with a detection limit of 0.18 mM NH(4)(+) ion. The reproducibility of the amperometrical NH(4)(+) biosensor yielded low relative standard deviations between 1.4-4.9%. The stacked membrane biosensor has been successfully applied to the determination of NH(4)(+) ion in spiked river water samples without pretreatment. A good correlation was found between the analytical results for NH(4)(+) obtained from the biosensor and the Nessler spectrophotometric method.

  5. Biosensors Based on Urease Adsorbed on Nickel, Platinum, and Gold Conductometric Transducers Modified with Silicalite and Nanozeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherenko, Ivan S.; Soldatkin, Oleksandr O.; Kasap, Berna Ozansoy; Kurç, Burcu Akata; Melnyk, Volodymir G.; Semenycheva, Lyudmila M.; Dzyadevych, Sergei V.; Soldatkin, Alexei P.

    This work describes urease-based conductometric biosensors that were created using nontypical method of urease immobilization via adsorption on micro- and nanoporous particles: silicalite and nanocrystalline zeolites Beta (BEA) and L. Conductometric transducers with nickel, gold, and platinum interdigitated electrodes were used. Active regions of the nickel transducers were modified with microparticles using two procedures—spin coating and drop coating. Gold and platinum transducers were modified with silicalite using drop coating since it was more effective. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate effectiveness of these procedures. The procedure of spin coating produced more uniform layers of particles (and biosensors had good reproducibility of preparation), but it was more complicated, drop coating was easier and led to formation of a bulk of particles; thus, biosensors had bigger sensitivity but worse reproducibility of preparation. Urease was immobilized onto transducers modified with particles by physical adsorption. Analytical characteristics of the obtained biosensors for determination of urea (calibration curves, sensitivity, limit of detection, linear concentration range, noise of responses, reproducibility of signal during a day, and operational stability during 3 days) were compared. Biosensors with all three particles deposited by spin coating showed similar characteristics; however, silicalite was a bit more effective. Biosensors based on nickel transducers modified by drop coating had better characteristics in comparison with modification by spin coating (except reproducibility of preparation). Transducers with gold electrodes showed best characteristics while creating biosensors, platinum electrodes were slightly inferior to them, and nickel electrodes were the worst.

  6. Nano/biosensors based on large-area graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducos, Pedro Jose

    Two dimensional materials have properties that make them ideal for applications in chemical and biomolecular sensing. Their high surface/volume ratio implies that all atoms are exposed to the environment, in contrast to three dimensional materials with most atoms shielded from interactions inside the bulk. Graphene additionally has an extremely high carrier mobility, even at ambient temperature and pressure, which makes it ideal as a transduction device. The work presented in this thesis describes large-scale fabrication of Graphene Field Effect Transistors (GFETs), their physical and chemical characterization, and their application as biomolecular sensors. Initially, work was focused on developing an easily scalable fabrication process. A large-area graphene growth, transfer and photolithography process was developed that allowed the scaling of production of devices from a few devices per single transfer in a chip, to over a thousand devices per transfer in a full wafer of fabrication. Two approaches to biomolecules sensing were then investigated, through nanoparticles and through chemical linkers. Gold and platinum Nanoparticles were used as intermediary agents to immobilize a biomolecule. First, gold nanoparticles were monodispersed and functionalized with thiolated probe DNA to yield DNA biosensors with a detection limit of 1 nM and high specificity against noncomplementary DNA. Second, devices are modified with platinum nanoparticles and functionalized with thiolated genetically engineered scFv HER3 antibodies to realize a HER3 biosensor. Sensors retain the high affinity from the scFv fragment and show a detection limit of 300 pM. We then show covalent and non-covalent chemical linkers between graphene and antibodies. The chemical linker 1-pyrenebutanoic acid succinimidyl ester (pyrene) stacks to the graphene by Van der Waals interaction, being a completely non-covalent interaction. The linker 4-Azide-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzoic acid, succinimidyl ester (azide

  7. High-efficient and high-content cytotoxic recording via dynamic and continuous cell-based impedance biosensor technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ning; Fang, Jiaru; Zou, Ling; Wan, Hao; Pan, Yuxiang; Su, Kaiqi; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Ping

    2016-10-01

    Cell-based bioassays were effective method to assess the compound toxicity by cell viability, and the traditional label-based methods missed much information of cell growth due to endpoint detection, while the higher throughputs were demanded to obtain dynamic information. Cell-based biosensor methods can dynamically and continuously monitor with cell viability, however, the dynamic information was often ignored or seldom utilized in the toxin and drug assessment. Here, we reported a high-efficient and high-content cytotoxic recording method via dynamic and continuous cell-based impedance biosensor technology. The dynamic cell viability, inhibition ratio and growth rate were derived from the dynamic response curves from the cell-based impedance biosensor. The results showed that the biosensors has the dose-dependent manners to diarrhetic shellfish toxin, okadiac acid based on the analysis of the dynamic cell viability and cell growth status. Moreover, the throughputs of dynamic cytotoxicity were compared between cell-based biosensor methods and label-based endpoint methods. This cell-based impedance biosensor can provide a flexible, cost and label-efficient platform of cell viability assessment in the shellfish toxin screening fields.

  8. Hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on DNA-Hb modified gold electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafi, A.K.M.; Fan Yin; Shin, Hoon-Kyu; Kwon, Young-Soo

    2006-01-01

    A hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) biosensor based on DNA-hemoglobin (Hb) modified electrode is described in this paper. The sensor was designed by DNA and hemoglobin dropletting onto gold electrode surface layer by layer. The sensor based on the direct electron transfer of iron of hemoglobin showed a well electrocatalytic response to the reduction of the H 2 O 2 . This sensor offered an excellent electrochemical response for H 2 O 2 concentration below micromole level with high sensitivity and selectivity and short response time. Experimental conditions influencing the biosensor performance such as, pH, potential were optimized and assessed. The levels of the RSD's ( 2 O 2 was observed from 10 to 120 μM with the detection limit of 0.4 μM (based on the S/N = 3)

  9. Protein-Based Graphene Biosensors: Optimizing Artificial Chemoreception in Bilayer Lipid Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina G. Siontorou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Proteinaceous moieties are critical elements in most detection systems, including biosensing platforms. Their potential is undoubtedly vast, yet many issues regarding their full exploitation remain unsolved. On the other hand, the biosensor formats with the higher marketability probabilities are enzyme in nature and electrochemical in concept. To no surprise, alternative materials for hosting catalysis within an electrode casing have received much attention lately to demonstrate a catalysis-coated device. Graphene and ZnO are presented as ideal materials to modify electrodes and biosensor platforms, especially in protein-based detection. Our group developed electrochemical sensors based on these nanomaterials for the sensitive detection of cholesterol using cholesterol oxidase incorporated in stabilized lipid films. A comparison between the two platforms is provided and discussed. In a broader sense, the not-so-remote prospect of quickly assembling a protein-based flexible biosensing detector to fulfill site-specific requirements is appealing to both university researchers and industry developers.

  10. Construction of ferrocene modified conducting polymer based amperometric urea biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervisevic, Muamer; Dervisevic, Esma; Senel, Mehmet; Cevik, Emre; Yildiz, Huseyin Bekir; Camurlu, Pınar

    2017-07-01

    Herein, an electrochemical urea sensing bio-electrode is reported that has been constructed by firstly electropolymerizing 4-(2,5-Di(thiophen-2-yl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)aniline monomer (SNS-Aniline) on Pencil Graphite Electrode (PGE), then modifying the polymer coated electrode surface with di-amino-Ferrocene (DAFc) as the mediator, and lastly Urease enzyme through glutaraldehyde crosslinking. The effect of pH, temperature, polymer thickness, and applied potential on the electrode current response was investigated besides performing storage and operational stability experiments with the interference studies. The resulting urea biosensor's amperometric response was linear in the range of 0.1-8.5mM with the sensitivity of 0.54μA/mM, detection limit of 12μM, and short response time of 2s. The designed bio-electrode was tested with real human blood and urine samples where it showed excellent analytical performance with insignificant interference. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Urea Potentiometric Biosensor Based on a Thiophene Copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yuan (Kevin Lai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A potentiometric enzyme biosensor is a convenient detector for quantification of urea concentrations in industrial processes, or for monitoring patients with diabetes, kidney damage or liver malfunction. In this work, poly(3-hexylthiophene-co-3-thiopheneacetic acid (P(3HT-co-3TAA was chemically synthesized, characterized and spin-coated onto conductive indium tin oxide (ITO glass electrodes. Urease (Urs was covalently attached to the smooth surface of this copolymer via carbodiimide coupling. The electrochemical behavior and stability of the modified Urs/P(3HT-co-3TAA/ITO glass electrode were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, and the bound enzyme activity was confirmed by spectrophotometry. Potentiometric response studies indicated that this electrode could determine the concentration of urea in aqueous solutions, with a quasi-Nernstian response up to about 5 mM. No attempt was made to optimize the response speed; full equilibration occurred after 10 min, but the half-time for response was typically <1 min.

  12. Fabrication of polyimide based microfluidic channels for biosensor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfiqar, Azeem; Pfreundt, Andrea; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Dimaki, Maria

    2015-03-01

    The ever-increasing complexity of the fabrication process of Point-of-care (POC) devices, due to high demand of functional versatility, compact size and ease-of-use, emphasizes the need of multifunctional materials that can be used to simplify this process. Polymers, currently in use for the fabrication of the often needed microfluidic channels, have limitations in terms of their physicochemical properties. Therefore, the use of a multipurpose biocompatible material with better resistance to the chemical, thermal and electrical environment, along with capability of forming closed channel microfluidics is inevitable. This paper demonstrates a novel technique of fabricating microfluidic devices using polyimide (PI) which fulfills the aforementioned properties criteria. A fabrication process to pattern microfluidic channels, using partially cured PI, has been developed by using a dry etching method. The etching parameters are optimized and compared to those used for fully cured PI. Moreover, the formation of closed microfluidic channel on wafer level by bonding two partially cured PI layers or a partially cured PI to glass with high bond strength has been demonstrated. The reproducibility in uniformity of PI is also compared to the most commonly used SU8 polymer, which is a near UV sensitive epoxy resin. The potential applications of PI processing are POC and biosensor devices integrated with microelectronics.

  13. Biosensors and bioelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Karunakaran, Chandran; Benjamin, Robson

    2015-01-01

    Biosensors and Bioelectronics presents the rapidly evolving methodologies that are relevant to biosensors and bioelectronics fabrication and characterization. The book provides a comprehensive understanding of biosensor functionality, and is an interdisciplinary reference that includes a range of interwoven contributing subjects, including electrochemistry, nanoparticles, and conducting polymers. Authored by a team of bioinstrumentation experts, this book serves as a blueprint for performing advanced fabrication and characterization of sensor systems-arming readers with an application-based re

  14. A sensitive DNA biosensor based on a facile sulfamide coupling reaction for capture probe immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qingxiang; Ding, Yingtao; Gao, Feng; Jiang, Shulian; Zhang, Bin; Ni, Jiancong; Gao, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel DNA biosensor was fabricated through a facile sulfamide coupling reaction between probe DNA and the sulfonic dye of 1-amino-2-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid that electrodeposited on a glassy carbon electrode. -- Highlights: •A versatile sulfonic dye of ANS was electrodeposited on a GCE. •A DNA biosensor was fabricated based on a facile sulfamide coupling reaction. •High probe DNA density of 3.18 × 10 13 strands cm −2 was determined. •A wide linear range and a low detection limit were obtained. -- Abstract: A novel DNA biosensor was fabricated through a facile sulfamide coupling reaction. First, the versatile sulfonic dye molecule of 1-amino-2-naphthol-4-sulfonate (AN-SO 3 − ) was electrodeposited on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to form a steady and ordered AN-SO 3 − layer. Then the amino-terminated capture probe was covalently grafted to the surface of SO 3 − -AN deposited GCE through the sulfamide coupling reaction between the amino groups in the probe DNA and the sulfonic groups in the AN-SO 3 − . The step-by-step modification process was characterized by electrochemistry and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Using Ru(NH 3 ) 6 3+ as probe, the probe density and the hybridization efficiency of the biosensor were determined to be 3.18 × 10 13 strands cm −2 and 86.5%, respectively. The hybridization performance of the biosensor was examined by differential pulse voltammetry using Co(phen) 3 3+/2+ (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) as the indicator. The selectivity experiments showed that the biosensor presented distinguishable response after hybridization with the three-base mismatched, non-complementary and complementary sequences. Under the optimal conditions, the oxidation peak currents of Co(phen) 3 3+/2+ increased linearly with the logarithm values of the concentration of the complementary sequences in the range from 1.0 × 10 −13 M to 1.0 × 10 −8 M with

  15. Molecular Approaches to Optical Biosensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fierke, Carol

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this proposal was to develop methodologies for the optimization of field-deployable optical biosensors, in general, and, in particular, to optimize a carbonic anhydrase-based fiber optic zinc biosensor...

  16. Design of Microcantilever-Based Biosensor with Digital Feedback Control Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayu P. Kalambe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper present the design of cantilever-based biosensors with new readout, which hold promises as fast and cheap “point of care” device as well as interesting research tools. The fabrication process and related issues of the cantilever based bio-sensor are discussed. Coventorware simulation is carried out to analyze the device behavior. A fully integrated control circuit has been designed to solve manufacturing challenge which will take care of positioning of the cantilever instead of creating nanometer gap between the electrodes. The control circuit will solve the manufacturing challenge faced by the readout methods where it is essential to maintain precise gap between the electrodes. The circuit can take care of variation obtained due to fabrication process and maintain the precise gap between the electrodes by electrostatic actuation. The control circuit consist of analog and digital modules. The reliability issues of the sensor are also discussed.

  17. Highly sensitive voltammetric biosensor for nitric oxide based on its high affinity with hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Chunhai; Liu Xinjian; Pang Jiantao; Li Genxi; Scheer, Hugo

    2004-01-01

    Although heme protein-based, amperometric nitric oxide (NO) biosensors have been well documented in previous studies, most have been conducted in anaerobic conditions. Herein we report a novel hemoglobin-based NO biosensor that is not only very sensitive but also usable in air. The heme protein was entrapped in a sodium montmorillonite film, which was immobilized at a pyrolytic graphite electrode surface. Film-entrapped hemoglobin can directly exchange electrons with the electrode, and this process has proven to favor the catalytic reduction of oxygen. In addition, NO induced a cathodic potential shift of the catalytic reduction peak of oxygen. This potential shift was proportional to the logarithm of NO concentration ranging from 4.0 x 10 -11 to 5.0 x 10 -6 mol/L. The detection limit has been estimated to be 20 pM, approximately four orders lower than previously reported amperometric detectors

  18. Biosensor-based microRNA detection: techniques, design, performance, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Blake N; Mutharasan, Raj

    2014-04-07

    The current state of biosensor-based techniques for amplification-free microRNA (miRNA) detection is critically reviewed. Comparison with non-sensor and amplification-based molecular techniques (MTs), such as polymerase-based methods, is made in terms of transduction mechanism, associated protocol, and sensitivity. Challenges associated with miRNA hybridization thermodynamics which affect assay selectivity and amplification bias are briefly discussed. Electrochemical, electromechanical, and optical classes of miRNA biosensors are reviewed in terms of transduction mechanism, limit of detection (LOD), time-to-results (TTR), multiplexing potential, and measurement robustness. Current trends suggest that biosensor-based techniques (BTs) for miRNA assay will complement MTs due to the advantages of amplification-free detection, LOD being femtomolar (fM)-attomolar (aM), short TTR, multiplexing capability, and minimal sample preparation requirement. Areas of future importance in miRNA BT development are presented which include focus on achieving high measurement confidence and multiplexing capabilities.

  19. Creatinine and urea biosensors based on a novel ammonium ion-selective copper-polyaniline nano-composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhybak, M; Beni, V; Vagin, M Y; Dempsey, E; Turner, A P F; Korpan, Y

    2016-03-15

    The use of a novel ammonium ion-specific copper-polyaniline nano-composite as transducer for hydrolase-based biosensors is proposed. In this work, a combination of creatinine deaminase and urease has been chosen as a model system to demonstrate the construction of urea and creatinine biosensors to illustrate the principle. Immobilisation of enzymes was shown to be a crucial step in the development of the biosensors; the use of glycerol and lactitol as stabilisers resulted in a significant improvement, especially in the case of the creatinine, of the operational stability of the biosensors (from few hours to at least 3 days). The developed biosensors exhibited high selectivity towards creatinine and urea. The sensitivity was found to be 85 ± 3.4 mAM(-1)cm(-2) for the creatinine biosensor and 112 ± 3.36 mAM(-1)cm(-2) for the urea biosensor, with apparent Michaelis-Menten constants (KM,app), obtained from the creatinine and urea calibration curves, of 0.163 mM for creatinine deaminase and 0.139 mM for urease, respectively. The biosensors responded linearly over the concentration range 1-125 µM, with a limit of detection of 0.5 µM and a response time of 15s. The performance of the biosensors in a real sample matrix, serum, was evaluated and a good correlation with standard spectrophotometric clinical laboratory techniques was found. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimization of transport processes in etched track-based biosensors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fink, Dietmar; Vacík, Jiří; Alfonta, L.; Kiv, A.; Mandabi, Y.; Munoz, G. H.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 167, č. 8 (2012), s. 548-568 ISSN 1042-0150 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : diffusion * theory * polymers * biotechnology Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.502, year: 2012

  1. Highly sensitive dendrimer-based nanoplasmonic biosensor for drug allergy diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Maria; Mesa-Antunez, Pablo; Estevez, M-Carmen; Ruiz-Sanchez, Antonio Jesus; Otte, Marinus A; Sepulveda, Borja; Collado, Daniel; Mayorga, Cristobalina; Torres, Maria Jose; Perez-Inestrosa, Ezequiel; Lechuga, Laura M

    2015-04-15

    A label-free biosensing strategy for amoxicillin (AX) allergy diagnosis based on the combination of novel dendrimer-based conjugates and a recently developed nanoplasmonic sensor technology is reported. Gold nanodisks were functionalized with a custom-designed thiol-ending-polyamido-based dendron (d-BAPAD) peripherally decorated with amoxicilloyl (AXO) groups (d-BAPAD-AXO) in order to detect specific IgE generated in patient's serum against this antibiotic during an allergy outbreak. This innovative strategy, which follows a simple one-step immobilization procedure, shows exceptional results in terms of sensitivity and robustness, leading to a highly-reproducible and long-term stable surface which allows achieving extremely low limits of detection. Moreover, the viability of this biosensor approach to analyze human biological samples has been demonstrated by directly analyzing and quantifying specific anti-AX antibodies in patient's serum without any sample pretreatment. An excellent limit of detection (LoD) of 0.6ng/mL (i.e. 0.25kU/L) has been achieved in the evaluation of clinical samples evidencing the potential of our nanoplasmonic biosensor as an advanced diagnostic tool to quickly identify allergic patients. The results have been compared and validated with a conventional clinical immunofluorescence assay (ImmunoCAP test), confirming an excellent correlation between both techniques. The combination of a novel compact nanoplasmonic platform and a dendrimer-based strategy provides a highly sensitive label free biosensor approach with over two times better detectability than conventional SPR. Both the biosensor device and the carrier structure hold great potential in clinical diagnosis for biomarker analysis in whole serum samples and other human biological samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor based on wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi Jun; Mandelis, Andreas; Guo, Xinxin

    2015-11-01

    In this work, laser-based wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry (WM-DPTR) is applied to develop a non-invasive in-vehicle alcohol biosensor. WM-DPTR features unprecedented ethanol-specificity and sensitivity by suppressing baseline variations through a differential measurement near the peak and baseline of the mid-infrared ethanol absorption spectrum. Biosensor signal calibration curves are obtained from WM-DPTR theory and from measurements in human blood serum and ethanol solutions diffused from skin. The results demonstrate that the WM-DPTR-based calibrated alcohol biosensor can achieve high precision and accuracy for the ethanol concentration range of 0-100 mg/dl. The high-performance alcohol biosensor can be incorporated into ignition interlocks that could be fitted as a universal accessory in vehicles in an effort to reduce incidents of drinking and driving.

  3. A cell-based biosensor for nanomaterials cytotoxicity assessment in three dimensional cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubiak-Szepietowska, Monika; Karczmarczyk, Aleksandra; Winckler, Thomas; Feller, Karl-Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in consumer and medicinal products. The high prevalence of nanoparticles in the environment raises concerns regarding their effects on human health, but there is limited knowledge about how NPs interact with cells or tissues. Because the European Union has called for a substantial reduction of animal experiments for scientific purposes (Directive 2010/63), increased efforts are required to develop in vitro models to evaluate potentially hazardous agents. Here, we describe a new cell-based biosensor for the evaluation of NPs cytotoxicity. The new biosensor is based on transgenic human hepatoblastoma cells (HepG2) that express a secreted form of alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) as a reporter protein whose expression is induced upon activation of a stress response pathway controlled by the transcription regulator nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). The NF-κB-HepG2 sensor cells were cultured in a Matrigel-based three dimensional environment to simulate the in vivo situation. The new biosensor cells offer the advantage of generating fast and reproducible readout at lower concentrations and shorter incubation time than conventional viability assays, avoid possible interaction between nanomaterials and assay compounds, therefore, minimize generation of false positive or negative results and indicate mechanism of toxicity through NF-κB signaling.

  4. Recent Advances in Electrochemical Biosensors Based on Enzyme Inhibition for Clinical and Pharmaceutical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Harrad, Loubna; Bourais, Ilhame; Mohammadi, Hasna; Amine, Aziz

    2018-01-09

    A large number of enzyme inhibitors are used as drugs to treat several diseases such as gout, diabetes, AIDS, depression, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Electrochemical biosensors based on enzyme inhibition are useful devices for an easy, fast and environment friendly monitoring of inhibitors like drugs. In the last decades, electrochemical biosensors have shown great potentials in the detection of different drugs like neostigmine, ketoconazole, donepezil, allopurinol and many others. They attracted increasing attention due to the advantage of being high sensitive and accurate analytical tools, able to reach low detection limits and the possibility to be performed on real samples. This review will spotlight the research conducted in the past 10 years (2007-2017) on inhibition based enzymatic electrochemical biosensors for the analysis of different drugs. New assays based on novel bio-devices will be debated. Moreover, the exploration of the recent graphical approach in diagnosis of reversible and irreversible inhibition mechanism will be discussed. The accurate and the fast diagnosis of inhibition type will help researchers in further drug design improvements and the identification of new molecules that will serve as new enzyme targets.

  5. Recent Advances in Electrochemical Biosensors Based on Enzyme Inhibition for Clinical and Pharmaceutical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loubna El Harrad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of enzyme inhibitors are used as drugs to treat several diseases such as gout, diabetes, AIDS, depression, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. Electrochemical biosensors based on enzyme inhibition are useful devices for an easy, fast and environment friendly monitoring of inhibitors like drugs. In the last decades, electrochemical biosensors have shown great potentials in the detection of different drugs like neostigmine, ketoconazole, donepezil, allopurinol and many others. They attracted increasing attention due to the advantage of being high sensitive and accurate analytical tools, able to reach low detection limits and the possibility to be performed on real samples. This review will spotlight the research conducted in the past 10 years (2007–2017 on inhibition based enzymatic electrochemical biosensors for the analysis of different drugs. New assays based on novel bio-devices will be debated. Moreover, the exploration of the recent graphical approach in diagnosis of reversible and irreversible inhibition mechanism will be discussed. The accurate and the fast diagnosis of inhibition type will help researchers in further drug design improvements and the identification of new molecules that will serve as new enzyme targets.

  6. An electrochemiluminescence-based fibre optic biosensor for choline flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsafack, V C; Marquette, C A; Leca, B; Blum, L J

    2000-01-01

    A fibre optic biosensor based on luminol electrochemiluminescence (ECL) integrated in a flow injection analysis (FIA) system was developed for the detection of choline. The electrochemiluminescence of luminol was generated by a glassy carbon electrode polarised at +425 mV vs. a platinum pseudo-reference electrode. Choline oxidase (Chx) was immobilised either covalently on polyamide (ABC type) or on UltraBind preactivated membranes, or by physical entrapment in a photo-cross-linkable poly(vinyl alcohol) polymer (PVA-SbQ) alone or after absorption on a weak anion exchanger, DEAE (diethylaminoethyl) Sepharose. The optimisation of the reaction conditions and physicochemical parameters influencing the FIA biosensor response demonstrated that the choline biosensor exhibited the best performances in a 30 mM veronal buffer containing 30 mM KCl and 1.5 mM MgCl2, at pH 9. The use of a 0.5 ml min-1 flow rate enabled the measurement of choline by the membrane-based ECL biosensors in 8 or 5 min, with ABC or UltraBind membranes, respectively, whereas the measurement required only 3 min with the DEAE-PVA system. For comparison, the detection of choline was performed with Chx immobilised using the four different supports. The best performances were obtained with the DEAE-PVA-Chx sensing layer, which allowed a detection limit of 10 pmol, whereas with the ABC, the UltraBind and the PVA systems, the detection limits were 300 pmol, 75 pmol and 220 pmol, respectively. The DEAE-based system also exhibited a good operational stability since 160 repeated measurements of 3 nmol of choline could be performed with an RSD of 4.5% whereas the stability under the best conditions was 45 assays with the other supports.

  7. Ultraselective electrochemiluminescence biosensor based on locked nucleic acid modified toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction and junction-probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Dongzhi; Liu, Zhijing; Cai, Shuxian; Chen, Mei; Zhao, Yanping; Li, Chunyan; Yang, Huanghao; Chen, Jinghua

    2014-12-07

    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is applied in toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction (TMSDR) to develop a junction-probe electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor for single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection in the BRCA1 gene related to breast cancer. More than 65-fold signal difference can be observed with perfectly matched target sequence to single-base mismatched sequence under the same conditions, indicating good selectivity of the ECL biosensor.

  8. From Electrochemical Biosensors to Biomimetic Sensors Based on Molecularly Imprinted Polymers in Environmental Determination of Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimino Malitesta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent work relevant to heavy metal determination by inhibition-enzyme electrochemical biosensors and by selected biomimetic sensors based on molecularly imprinted polymers has been reviewed. General features and peculiar aspects have been evidenced. The replace of biological component by artificial receptors promises higher selectivity and stability, while biosensors keep their capability of producing an integrated response directly related to biological toxicity of the samples.

  9. Enzyme-based Colorimetric and Potentiometric Biosensor for Detecting Pb (II Ions in Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardeep Kaur

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to study a simple colorimetric and potentiometric biosensor based on urease inhibition by Pb (II ions for its estimation in milk samples. Urease immobilized on nylon membrane by hydrosol gel method was used as the biocomponent to demonstrate the metal effect on the enzyme activity using phenol red as the pH indicator. A lower limit detection of 38.6µm was achieved in the milk and the enzyme membranes were stable for more than two months at 4ºC. In potentiometric approach, response of an ion selective electrode (ISE to changing ammonium ion concentration as a consequence of urease inhibition by Pb (II ions was explored to achieve a detection limit of 9.66 µm. Lead specificity was attained by means of masking agents 1,10 - phenanthroline and sodium potassium tartarate. Validation of the developed biosensors was carried out with spiked milk samples.

  10. Biosensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with tyrosinase immobilized on multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, J.; Kang, T.F.; Xue, R.; Ge, C.N.; Cheng, S.Y.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a biosensor for phenolic compounds that is based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with tyrosinase immobilized on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). The MWNTs possess excellent inherent electrical conductivity which enhances the electron transfer rate and results in good electrochemical catalytic activity towards the reduction of benzoquinone produced by enzymatic reaction. The biosensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry, and the experimental conditions were optimized. The cathodic current is linearly related to the concentration of the phenols between 0.4 μM and 10 μM, and the detection limit is 0.2 μM. The method was applied to the determination of phenol in water samples (author)

  11. Gauging and visualizing c-di-GMP levels in pseudomonas aeruginosa using fluorescence-based biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rybtke, Morten; Chua, Song Lin; Yam, Joey Kuok Hoong

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the molecule c-di-GMP is an important second messenger regulating various functions in bacteria. In particular, the implication of c-di-GMP as a positive regulator of adhesion and biofilm formation has gained momentum as a highly relevant research topic, as detailed...... knowledge about the underlying regulatory mechanisms may enable the development of measures to control biofilms in both industrial and medical settings. Accordingly, it is in many cases of interest to measure the c-di-GMP level in bacteria under specific conditions or in specific mutant strains. We have...... developed a collection of fluorescence-based c-di-GMP biosensors capable of gauging the c-di-GMP level in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and closely related bacteria. Here, we describe protocols for the use of these biosensors in gauging and visualizing cellular c-di-GMP levels of P. aeruginosa both in in vitro...

  12. RNA aptamer-based electrochemical biosensor for selective and label-free analysis of dopamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farjami, Elahe; Campos, Rui; Nielsen, Jesper Sejrup

    2013-01-01

    , including dopamine precursors and metabolites and other neurotransmitters (NT). Here we report an electrochemical RNA aptamer-based biosensor for analysis of dopamine in the presence of other NT. The biosensor exploits a specific binding of dopamine by the RNA aptamer, immobilized at a cysteamine......, norepinephrine, 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (l-DOPA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), methyldopamine, and tyramine, which gave negligible signals under conditions of experiments (electroanalysis at 0.185 V vs Ag/AgCl). The interference from ascorbic and uric acids was eliminated by application...... as a general strategy not to restrict the conformational freedom and binding properties of surface-bound aptamers and, thus, be applicable for the development of other aptasensors...

  13. A sensitive lateral flow biosensor for Escherichia coli O157:H7 detection based on aptamer mediated strand displacement amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wei [College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China); Zhao, Shiming [Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, South China Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510530 (China); Mao, Yiping [Yueyang Institute for Food and Drug Control, Yueyang 430198 (China); Fang, Zhiyuan [Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510095 (China); Lu, Xuewen [Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, South China Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510530 (China); Zeng, Lingwen, E-mail: zeng6@yahoo.com [Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, South China Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510530 (China)

    2015-02-25

    Highlights: • Limit of detection as low as 10 CFU mL{sup −1}Escherichia coli O157:H7. • No need of antibodies and substituted with aptamers. • Isothermal strand displacement amplification for signal amplification. • Results observed by the naked eye. • Great potential application in the area of food control. - Abstract: Foodborne diseases caused by pathogens are one of the major problems in food safety. Convenient and sensitive point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests for food-borne pathogens have been a long-felt need of clinicians. Commonly used methods for pathogen detection rely on conventional culture-based tests, antibody-based assays and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. These methods are costly, laborious and time-consuming. Herein, we present a simple and sensitive aptamer based biosensor for rapid detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7). In this assay, two different aptamers specific for the outmembrane of E. coli O157:H7 were used. One of the aptamers was used for magnetic bead enrichment, and the other was used as a signal reporter for this pathogen, which was amplified by isothermal strand displacement amplification (SDA) and further detected by a lateral flow biosensor. Only the captured aptamers on cell membrane were amplified, limitations of conventional DNA amplification based method such as false-positive can be largely reduced. The generated signals (red bands on the test zone of a lateral flow strip) can be unambiguously read out by the naked eye. As low as 10 colony forming units (CFU) of E. coli O157:H7 were detected in this study. Without DNA extraction, the reduced handling and simpler equipment requirement render this assay a simple and rapid alternative to conventional methods.

  14. A sensitive lateral flow biosensor for Escherichia coli O157:H7 detection based on aptamer mediated strand displacement amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Wei; Zhao, Shiming; Mao, Yiping; Fang, Zhiyuan; Lu, Xuewen; Zeng, Lingwen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Limit of detection as low as 10 CFU mL −1 Escherichia coli O157:H7. • No need of antibodies and substituted with aptamers. • Isothermal strand displacement amplification for signal amplification. • Results observed by the naked eye. • Great potential application in the area of food control. - Abstract: Foodborne diseases caused by pathogens are one of the major problems in food safety. Convenient and sensitive point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests for food-borne pathogens have been a long-felt need of clinicians. Commonly used methods for pathogen detection rely on conventional culture-based tests, antibody-based assays and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. These methods are costly, laborious and time-consuming. Herein, we present a simple and sensitive aptamer based biosensor for rapid detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7). In this assay, two different aptamers specific for the outmembrane of E. coli O157:H7 were used. One of the aptamers was used for magnetic bead enrichment, and the other was used as a signal reporter for this pathogen, which was amplified by isothermal strand displacement amplification (SDA) and further detected by a lateral flow biosensor. Only the captured aptamers on cell membrane were amplified, limitations of conventional DNA amplification based method such as false-positive can be largely reduced. The generated signals (red bands on the test zone of a lateral flow strip) can be unambiguously read out by the naked eye. As low as 10 colony forming units (CFU) of E. coli O157:H7 were detected in this study. Without DNA extraction, the reduced handling and simpler equipment requirement render this assay a simple and rapid alternative to conventional methods

  15. [Properties of modified amperometric biosensors based on methanol dehydrogenase and Methylobacterium nodulans cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, T A; Beschastnyĭ, A P; Alferov, S V; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2013-01-01

    The properties of amperometric biosensors based on methanol dehydrogenase (MDH), Methylobacterium nodulans cells, and the ferrocene-modified carbon paste electrode were investigated. It was shown that the addition ofhydroxyapatite (HA) to a carbon paste increased the sensitivity and operating stability of MDH biosensors. The linear range of the electrode was 0.0135-0.5 and 0.032-1.5 mM for methanol and formaldehyde, respectively. The detection limit of methanol and formaldehyde was 4.5 and 11.0 microM, respectively. The loss of activity of the electrode within 10 days of storage in the presence of 2.0 mM KCN did not exceed 12%. Cyanide (10 mM) completely inhibited the sensor responses to formaldehyde (1.0 mM), which allowed for the selective determination of methanol in the presence of formaldehyde. The biosensor based on cells exhibited lower stability and sensitivity toward methanol and formaldehyde; the sensitivity coefficients were 980 and 21 nA/mM, respectively.

  16. Electrochemical Affinity Biosensors Based on Disposable Screen-Printed Electrodes for Detection of Food Allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilescu, Alina; Nunes, Gilvanda; Hayat, Akhtar; Latif, Usman; Marty, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Food allergens are proteins from nuts and tree nuts, fish, shellfish, wheat, soy, eggs or milk which trigger severe adverse reactions in the human body, involving IgE-type antibodies. Sensitive detection of allergens in a large variety of food matrices has become increasingly important considering the emergence of functional foods and new food manufacturing technologies. For example, proteins such as casein from milk or lysozyme and ovalbumin from eggs are sometimes used as fining agents in the wine industry. Nonetheless, allergen detection in processed foods is a challenging endeavor, as allergen proteins are degraded during food processing steps involving heating or fermentation. Detection of food allergens was primarily achieved via Enzyme-Linked Immuno Assay (ELISA) or by chromatographic methods. With the advent of biosensors, electrochemical affinity-based biosensors such as those incorporating antibodies and aptamers as biorecognition elements were also reported in the literature. In this review paper, we highlight the success achieved in the design of electrochemical affinity biosensors based on disposable screen-printed electrodes towards detection of protein allergens. We will discuss the analytical figures of merit for various disposable screen-printed affinity sensors in relation to methodologies employed for immobilization of bioreceptors on transducer surface. PMID:27827963

  17. Rapid detection of urinary polyomavirus BK by heterodyne-based surface plasmon resonance biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Li-Chen; Tian, Ya-Chung; Chang, Ying-Feng; Chou, Chien; Lai, Chao-Sung

    2014-01-01

    In renal transplant patients, immunosuppressive therapy may result in the reactivation of polyomavirus BK (BKV), leading to polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN), which inevitably causes allograft failure. Since the treatment outcomes of PVAN remain unsatisfactory, early identification and continuous monitoring of BKV reactivation and reduction of immunosuppressants are essential to prevent PVAN development. The present study demonstrated that the developed dual-channel heterodyne-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor is applicable for the rapid detection of urinary BKV. The use of a symmetrical reference channel integrated with the poly(ethylene glycol)-based low-fouling self-assembled monolayer to reduce the environmental variations and the nonspecific noise was proven to enhance the sensitivity in urinary BKV detection. Experimentally, the detection limit of the biosensor for BKV detection was estimated to be around 8500 copies/mL. In addition, urine samples from five renal transplant patients were tested to rapidly distinguish PVAN-positive and PVAN-negative renal transplant patients. By virtue of its simplicity, rapidity, and applicability, the SPR biosensor is a remarkable potential to be used for continuous clinical monitoring of BKV reactivation.

  18. Facile screening of potential xenoestrogens by an estrogen receptor-based reusable optical biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lanhua; Zhou, Xiaohong; Lu, Yun; Shan, Didi; Xu, Bi; He, Miao; Shi, Hanchang; Qian, Yi

    2017-11-15

    The apparent increase in hormone-induced cancers and disorders of the reproductive tract has led to a growing demand for new technologies capable of screening xenoestrogens. We reported an estrogen receptor (ER)-based reusable fiber biosensor for facile screening estrogenic compounds in environment. The bioassay is based on the competition of xenoestrogens with 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) for binding to the recombinant receptor of human estrogen receptor α (hERα) protein, leaving E 2 free to bind to fluorophore-labeled anti-E 2 monoclonal antibody. Unbound anti-E 2 antibody then binds to the immobilized E 2 -protein conjugate on the fiber surface, and is detected by fluorescence emission induced by evanescent field. As expected, the stronger estrogenic activity of xenoestrogen would result in the weaker fluorescent signal. Three estrogen-agonist compounds, diethylstilbestrol (DES), 4-n-nonylphenol (NP) and 4-n-octylphenol (OP), were chosen as a paradigm for validation of this assay. The rank order of estrogenic potency determined by this biosensor was DES>OP>NP, which were consistent with the published results in numerous studies. Moreover, the E 2 -protein conjugate modified optical fiber was robust enough for over 300 sensing cycles with the signal recoveries ranging from 90% to 100%. In conclusion, the biosensor is reusable, reliable, portable and amenable to on-line operation, providing a facile, efficient and economical alternative to screen potential xenoestrogens in environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Flexible electrochemical biosensors based on graphene nanowalls for the real-time measurement of lactate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qianwei; Sun, Tai; Song, Xuefen; Ran, Qincui; Yu, Chongsheng; Yang, Jun; Feng, Hua; Yu, Leyong; Wei, Dapeng

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate a flexible biosensor for lactate detection based on l-lactate oxidase immobilized by chitosan film cross-linked with glutaraldehyde on the surface of a graphene nanowall (GNW) electrode. The oxygen-plasma technique was developed to enhance the wettability of the GNWs, and the strength of the sensor’s oxidation response depended on the concentration of lactate. First, in order to eliminate interference from other substances, biosensors were primarily tested in deionized water and displayed good electrochemical reversibility at different scan rates (20-100 mV s-1), a large index range (1.0 μM to 10.0 mM) and a low detection limit (1.0 μM) for lactate. Next, these sensors were further examined in phosphate buffer solution (to mimick human body fluids), and still exhibited high sensitivity, stability and flexibility. These results show that the GNW-based lactate biosensors possess important potential for application in clinical analysis, sports medicine and the food industry.

  20. Impedimetric Dengue Biosensor based on Functionalized Graphene Oxide Wrapped Silica Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Seon-Ah; Poudyal, Shishir; Marinero, Ernesto E.; Kuhn, Richard J.; Stanciu, Lia A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • 3D graphene oxide based material design. • Fabrication of a label-free dengue DNA and RNA impedimetric biosensor. • Design of a surface-based dengue sensor with good selectivity and detection limit. - Abstract: A composite of 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) functionalized graphene oxide (APTES-GO) wrapped on SiO 2 particles (SiO 2 @APTES-GO) was prepared via self-assembly. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ATR-Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) confirmed wrapping of the SiO 2 particles by the APTES-GO sheets. An impedimetric biosensor was constructed and used to sensitively detect dengue DNA and dengue RNA via primer hybridization using different oligonucleotide sequences. The results demonstrated that the SiO 2 @APTES-GO electrode material led to enhanced dengue RNA detection sensitivity with selectivity and detection limit (1 femto-Molar), compared to both APTES-GO and APTES-SiO 2 . The three-dimensional structure, higher contact area, electrical properties and the ability for rapid hybridization offered by the SiO 2 @APTES-GO led to the successful design of a dengue biosensor with the lowest detection limit reported to date.

  1. Quantitative detection of glucose level based on radiofrequency patch biosensor combined with volume-fixed structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Tian; Wang, Cong; Kim, Nam-Young

    2017-12-15

    A concept for characterizing a radiofrequency (RF) patch biosensor combined with volume-fixed structures is presented for timely monitoring of an individual's glucose levels based on frequency variation. Two types of patch biosensors-separately integrated with a backside slot (0.53μL) and a front-side tank (0.70μL) structure-were developed to achieve precise and efficient detection while excluding the effects of interference due to the liquidity, shape, and thickness of the tested glucose sample. A glucose test analyte at different concentrations (50-600mg/dL) was dropped into the volume-fixed structures. It fully interacted with the RF patch electromagnetic field, effectively and sensitively changing the resonance frequency and magnitude of the reflection coefficient. Measurement results based on the resonance frequency showed high sensitivity up to 1.13MHz and 1.97MHz per mg/dL, and low detection limits of 26.54mg/dL and 15.22mg/dL, for the two types of patch biosensors, respectively, as well as a short response time of less than 1s. Excellent reusability of the proposed biosensors was verified through three sets of measurements for each individual glucose sample. Regression analysis revealed a good linear correlation between glucose concentrations and the resonance frequency shift. Moreover, to facilitate a multi-parameter-sensitive detection of glucose, the magnitude of the reflection coefficient was also tested, and it showed a good linear correlation with the glucose concentration. Thus, the proposed approach can be adopted for distinguishing glucose solution levels, and it is a potential candidate for early-stage detection of glucose levels in diabetes patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An ultrasensitive hollow-silica-based biosensor for pathogenic Escherichia coli DNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariffin, Eda Yuhana; Lee, Yook Heng; Futra, Dedi; Tan, Ling Ling; Karim, Nurul Huda Abd; Ibrahim, Nik Nuraznida Nik; Ahmad, Asmat

    2018-03-01

    A novel electrochemical DNA biosensor for ultrasensitive and selective quantitation of Escherichia coli DNA based on aminated hollow silica spheres (HSiSs) has been successfully developed. The HSiSs were synthesized with facile sonication and heating techniques. The HSiSs have an inner and an outer surface for DNA immobilization sites after they have been functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. From field emission scanning electron microscopy images, the presence of pores was confirmed in the functionalized HSiSs. Furthermore, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis indicated that the HSiSs have four times more surface area than silica spheres that have no pores. These aminated HSiSs were deposited onto a screen-printed carbon paste electrode containing a layer of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to form a AuNP/HSiS hybrid sensor membrane matrix. Aminated DNA probes were grafted onto the AuNP/HSiS-modified screen-printed electrode via imine covalent bonds with use of glutaraldehyde cross-linker. The DNA hybridization reaction was studied by differential pulse voltammetry using an anthraquinone redox intercalator as the electroactive DNA hybridization label. The DNA biosensor demonstrated a linear response over a wide target sequence concentration range of 1.0×10 -12 -1.0×10 -2 μM, with a low detection limit of 8.17×10 -14 μM (R 2 = 0.99). The improved performance of the DNA biosensor appeared to be due to the hollow structure and rough surface morphology of the hollow silica particles, which greatly increased the total binding surface area for high DNA loading capacity. The HSiSs also facilitated molecule diffusion through the silica hollow structure, and substantially improved the overall DNA hybridization assay. Graphical abstract Step-by-step DNA biosensor fabrication based on aminated hollow silica spheres.

  3. Electrochemical paper-based peptide nucleic acid biosensor for detecting human papillomavirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teengam, Prinjaporn [Program in Petrochemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok, 10330 (Thailand); Siangproh, Weena [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok, 10110 (Thailand); Tuantranont, Adisorn [Nanoelectronics and MEMS Laboratory, National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, Pathumthani, 12120 (Thailand); Henry, Charles S. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, 80523 (United States); Vilaivan, Tirayut [Organic Synthesis Research Unit, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok, 10330 (Thailand); Chailapakul, Orawon, E-mail: corawon@chula.ac.th [Electrochemistry and Optical Spectroscopy Research Unit, Department of Chemistry, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok, 10330 (Thailand); Nanotec-CU Center of Excellence on Food and Agriculture, Bangkok, 10330 (Thailand)

    2017-02-01

    A novel paper-based electrochemical biosensor was developed using an anthraquinone-labeled pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid (acpcPNA) probe (AQ-PNA) and graphene-polyaniline (G-PANI) modified electrode to detect human papillomavirus (HPV). An inkjet printing technique was employed to prepare the paper-based G-PANI-modified working electrode. The AQ-PNA probe baring a negatively charged amino acid at the N-terminus was immobilized onto the electrode surface through electrostatic attraction. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to verify the AQ-PNA immobilization. The paper-based electrochemical DNA biosensor was used to detect a synthetic 14-base oligonucleotide target with a sequence corresponding to human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 DNA by measuring the electrochemical signal response of the AQ label using square-wave voltammetry before and after hybridization. It was determined that the current signal significantly decreased after the addition of target DNA. This phenomenon is explained by the rigidity of PNA-DNA duplexes, which obstructs the accessibility of electron transfer from the AQ label to the electrode surface. Under optimal conditions, the detection limit of HPV type 16 DNA was found to be 2.3 nM with a linear range of 10–200 nM. The performance of this biosensor on real DNA samples was tested with the detection of PCR-amplified DNA samples from the SiHa cell line. The new method employs an inexpensive and disposable device, which easily incinerated after use and is promising for the screening and monitoring of the amount of HPV-DNA type 16 to identify the primary stages of cervical cancer. - Highlights: • A paper-based DNA biosensor using AQ-PNA probe and G-PANI modified electrode was first developed. • This developed DNA biosensor was highly specific over the non-complementary DNA. • This sensor was successfully applied to detect the HPV-DNA type 16 obtained from cancer cell lines. • This sensor is inexpensive and

  4. Fabrication of Ultrasensitive Field-Effect Transistor DNA Biosensors by a Directional Transfer Technique Based on CVD-Grown Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chao; Huang, Le; Zhang, Hong; Sun, Zhongyue; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2015-08-12

    Most graphene field-effect transistor (G-FET) biosensors are fabricated through a routine process, in which graphene is transferred onto a Si/SiO2 substrate and then devices are subsequently produced by micromanufacture processes. However, such a fabrication approach can introduce contamination onto the graphene surface during the lithographic process, resulting in interference for the subsequent biosensing. In this work, we have developed a novel directional transfer technique to fabricate G-FET biosensors based on chemical-vapor-deposition- (CVD-) grown single-layer graphene (SLG) and applied this biosensor for the sensitive detection of DNA. A FET device with six individual array sensors was first fabricated, and SLG obtained by the CVD-growth method was transferred onto the sensor surface in a directional manner. Afterward, peptide nucleic acid (PNA) was covalently immobilized on the graphene surface, and DNA detection was realized by applying specific target DNA to the PNA-functionalized G-FET biosensor. The developed G-FET biosensor was able to detect target DNA at concentrations as low as 10 fM, which is 1 order of magnitude lower than those reported in a previous work. In addition, the biosensor was capable of distinguishing the complementary DNA from one-base-mismatched DNA and noncomplementary DNA. The directional transfer technique for the fabrication of G-FET biosensors is simple, and the as-constructed G-FET DNA biosensor shows ultrasensitivity and high specificity, indicating its potential application in disease diagnostics as a point-of-care tool.

  5. SH2 Domain-Based FRET Biosensor for Measuring BCR-ABL Activity in Living CML Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Mari; Asano, Yumi; Nakada, Shigeyuki; Ohba, Yusuke

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescent proteins (FPs) displaying distinct spectra have shed their light on a wide range of biological functions. Moreover, sophisticated biosensors engineered to contain single or multiple FPs, including Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensors, spatiotemporally reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying a variety of pathophysiological processes. However, their usefulness for applied life sciences has yet to be fully explored. Recently, our research group has begun to expand the potential of FPs from basic biological research to the clinic. Here, we describe a method to evaluate the responsiveness of leukemia cells from patients to tyrosine kinase inhibitors using a biosensor based on FP technology and the principle of FRET. Upon phosphorylation of the tyrosine residue of the biosensor, binding of the SH2 domain to phosphotyrosine induces conformational change of the biosensor and brings the donor and acceptor FPs into close proximity. Therefore, kinase activity and response to kinase inhibitors can be monitored by an increase and a decrease in FRET efficiency, respectively. As in basic research, this biosensor resolves hitherto arduous tasks and may provide innovative technological advances in clinical laboratory examinations. State-of-the-art detection devices that enable such innovation are also introduced.

  6. Conducting polymer based DNA biosensor for the detection of the Bacillus cereus group species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velusamy, Vijayalakshmi; Arshak, Khalil; Korostynska, Olga; Oliwa, Kamila; Adley, Catherine

    2009-05-01

    Biosensor designs are emerging at a significant rate and play an increasingly important role in foodborne pathogen detection. Conducting polymers are excellent tools for the fabrication of biosensors and polypyrrole has been used in the detection of biomolecules due to its unique properties. The prime intention of this paper was to pioneer the design and fabrication of a single-strand (ss) DNA biosensor for the detection of the Bacillus cereus (B.cereus) group species. Growth of B. cereus, results in production of several highly active toxins. Therefore, consumption of food containing >106 bacteria/gm may results in emetic and diarrhoeal syndromes. The most common source of this bacterium is found in liquid food products, milk powder, mixed food products and is of particular concern in the baby formula industry. The electrochemical deposition technique, such as cyclic voltammetry, was used to develop and test a model DNA-based biosensor on a gold electrode electropolymerized with polypyrrole. The electrically conducting polymer, polypyrrole is used as a platform for immobilizing DNA (1μg) on the gold electrode surface, since it can be more easily deposited from neutral pH aqueous solutions of pyrrolemonomers. The average current peak during the electrodeposition event is 288μA. There is a clear change in the current after hybridization of the complementary oligonucleotide (6.35μA) and for the noncomplementary oligonucleotide (5.77μA). The drop in current after each event was clearly noticeable and it proved to be effective.

  7. Nano-Calorimetry based point of care biosensor for metabolic disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazura, Evan; Lubbers, Brad R; Dawson, Elliott; Phillips, John A; Baudenbacher, Franz

    2017-09-01

    Point of care (POC) diagnostics represents one of the fastest growing health care technology segments. Developments in microfabrication have led to the development of highly-sensitive nanocalorimeters ideal for directly measuring heat generated in POC biosensors. Here we present a novel nano-calorimeter-based biosensor design with differential sensing to eliminate common mode noise and capillary microfluidic channels for sample delivery to the thermoelectric sensor. The calorimeter has a resolution of 1.4 ± 0.2 nJ/(Hz) 1/2 utilizing a 27 junction bismuth/titanium thermopile, with a total Seebeck coefficient of 2160 μV/K. Sample is wicked to the calorimeter through a capillary channel making it suitable for monitoring blood obtained through a finger prick (performance in a model assay using catalase, achieving a threshold for hydrogen peroxide quantification of 50 μM. The potential for our device as a POC blood test for metabolic diseases is shown through the quantification of phenylalanine (Phe) in serum, an unmet necessary service in the management of Phenylketonuria (PKU). Pegylated phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PEG-PAL) was utilized to react with Phe, but reliable detection was limited to <5 mM due to low enzymatic activity. The POC biosensor concept can be multiplexed and adapted to a large number of metabolic diseases utilizing different immobilized enzymes.

  8. A heparin-functionalized carbon nanotube-based affinity biosensor for dengue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasik, Daniel; Mulchandani, Ashok; Yates, Marylynn V

    2017-05-15

    Dengue virus is an arthropod-borne virus transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitos and is major cause of disease in tropical and subtropical regions. Colloquially known as Dengue Fever, infection can cause hemorrhagic disorders and death in humans and non-human primates. We report a novel electronic biosensor based on a single-walled carbon nanotube network chemiresistive transducer that is functionalized with heparin for low-cost, label-free, ultra-sensitive, and rapid detection of whole dengue virus (DENV). Heparin, an analog of the heparan sulfate proteoglycans that are receptors for dengue virus during infection of Vero cells and hepatocytes, was used for the first time in a biosensor as a biorecognition element instead of traditional antibody. Detection of DENV in viral culture supernatant has similar sensitivity as the corresponding viral titer in phosphate buffer despite the presence of growth media and Vero cell lysate. The biosensor demonstrated sensitivity within the clinically relevant range for humans and infected Aedes aegypti. It has potential application in clinical diagnosis and can improve point-of-care diagnostics of dengue infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Development and surface characterization of a glucose biosensor based on a nanocolumnar ZnO film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, A., E-mail: adriana.rodrigues@partner.kit.edu [Instituto de Física − UFRGS, P.O. Box 15051, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Castegnaro, M.V. [Instituto de Física − UFRGS, P.O. Box 15051, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Arguello, J.; Alves, M.C.M. [Instituto de Química − UFRGS, P.O. Box 15003, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Morais, J., E-mail: jonder@if.ufrgs.br [Instituto de Física − UFRGS, P.O. Box 15051, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Glucose biosensor based on self-assembled nanocolumnar ZnO deposited on stainless steel. • XPS applied to investigate the GOx immobilization on the ZnO nanocolumns surface. • Observable chemical shifts on O1s and Zn2p corroborates enzime immobilization. - Abstract: Highly oriented nanostructured ZnO films were grown on the surface of stainless steel plates (ZnO/SS) by chemical bath deposition (CBD). The films consisted of vertically aligned ZnO nanocolumns, ∼1 μm long and ∼80 nm wide, as observed by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and FIB (focused ion beam). XRD (X-ray diffraction) confirmed the c-axis preferred orientation of the ZnO columns, which were functionalized with the glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme into a biosensor of glucose. The electrochemical response studied by CV (cyclic voltammetry) proved that the biosensor was capable of detecting glucose from 1.5 up to 16 mM concentration range. XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) analysis, excited with synchrotron radiation, probed the atom specific chemical environment at the electrode’s surface and shed some light on the nature of the ZnO-GOx interaction.

  10. Self-Assembled Films of Dendrimers and Metallophthalocyanines as FET-Based Glucose Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Figueiredo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Separative extended gate field effect transistor (SEGFET type devices have been used as an ion sensor or biosensor as an alternative to traditional ion sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs due to their robustness, ease of fabrication, low cost and possibility of FET isolation from the chemical environment. The layer-by-layer technique allows the combination of different materials with suitable properties for enzyme immobilization on simple platforms such as the extended gate of SEGFET devices enabling the fabrication of biosensors. Here, glucose biosensors based on dendrimers and metallophthalocyanines (MPcs in the form of layer-by-layer (LbL films, assembled on indium tin oxide (ITO as separative extended gate material, has been produced. NH3+ groups in the dendrimer allow electrostatic interactions or covalent bonds with the enzyme (glucose oxidase. Relevant parameters such as optimum pH, buffer concentration and presence of serum bovine albumin (BSA in the immobilization process were analyzed. The relationship between the output voltage and glucose concentration shows that upon detection of a specific analyte, the sub-products of the enzymatic reaction change the pH locally, affecting the output signal of the FET transducer. In addition, dendritic layers offer a nanoporous environment, which may be permeable to H+ ions, improving the sensibility as modified electrodes for glucose biosensing.

  11. Interdigitated microelectrode based impedance biosensor for detection of salmonella enteritidis in food samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, G; Morgan, M; Hahm, B K; Bhunia, A; Mun, J H; Om, A S

    2008-01-01

    Salmonella enteritidis outbreaks continue to occur, and S. enteritidis-related outbreaks from various food sources have increased public awareness of this pathogen. Conventional methods for pathogens detection and identification are labor-intensive and take days to complete. Some immunological rapid assays are developed, but these assays still require prolonged enrichment steps. Recently developed biosensors have shown great potential for the rapid detection of foodborne pathogens. To develop the biosensor, an interdigitated microelectrode (IME) was fabricated by using semiconductor fabrication process. Anti-Salmonella antibodies were immobilized based on avidin-biotin binding on the surface of the IME to form an active sensing layer. To increase the sensitivity of the sensor, three types of sensors that have different electrode gap sizes (2 μm, 5 μm, 10 μm) were fabricated and tested. The impedimetric biosensor could detect 10 3 CFU/mL of Salmonella in pork meat extract with an incubation time of 5 minutes. This method may provide a simple, rapid and sensitive method to detect foodborne pathogens

  12. Urea potentiometric enzymatic biosensor based on charged biopolymers and electrodeposited polyaniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakard, Boris; Magnin, Delphine; Deschaume, Olivier; Vanlancker, Guilhem; Glinel, Karine; Demoustier-Champagne, Sophie; Nysten, Bernard; Jonas, Alain M; Bertrand, Patrick; Yunus, Sami

    2011-06-15

    A potentiometric biosensor based on urease was developed for the quantitative determination of urea concentration in aqueous solutions for biomedical applications. The urease was either physisorbed onto an electrodeposited polyaniline film (PANI), or immobilized on a layer-by-layer film (LbL) assembled over the PANI film, that was obtained by the alternate deposition of charged polysaccharides (carboxymethylpullulan (CMP) and chitosan (CHI)). In the latter case, the urease (Urs) enzyme was either physically adsorbed or covalently grafted to the LbL film using carbodiimide coupling reaction. Potentiometric responses of the enzymatic biosensors were measured as a function of the urea concentration in aqueous solutions (from 10(-6) to 10(-1) mol L(-1) urea). Very high sensitivity and short response time were observed for the present biosensor. Moreover, a stability study showed a higher stability over time for the potentiometric response of the sensor with the enzyme-grafted LbL film, testifying for the protective nature of the polysaccharide coating and the interest of covalent grafting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. All Inkjet-Printed Amperometric Multiplexed Biosensors Based on Nanostructured Conductive Hydrogel Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lanlan; Pan, Lijia; Ma, Zhong; Yan, Ke; Cheng, Wen; Shi, Yi; Yu, Guihua

    2018-02-12

    Multiplexing, one of the main trends in biosensors, aims to detect several analytes simultaneously by integrating miniature sensors on a chip. However, precisely depositing electrode materials and selective enzymes on distinct microelectrode arrays remains an obstacle to massively produced multiplexed sensors. Here, we report on a "drop-on-demand" inkjet printing process to fabricate multiplexed biosensors based on nanostructured conductive hydrogels in which the electrode material and several kinds of enzymes were printed on the electrode arrays one by one by employing a multinozzle inkjet system. The whole inkjet printing process can be finished within three rounds of printing and only one round of alignment. For a page of sensor arrays containing 96 working electrodes, the printing process took merely ∼5 min. The multiplexed assays can detect glucose, lactate, and triglycerides in real time with good selectivity and high sensitivity, and the results in phosphate buffer solutions and calibration serum samples are comparable. The inkjet printing process exhibited advantages of high efficiency and accuracy, which opens substantial possibilities for massive fabrication of integrated multiplexed biosensors for human health monitoring.

  14. Laccase-based biosensor for the determination of polyphenol index in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fusco, Massimo; Tortolini, Cristina; Deriu, Daniela; Mazzei, Franco

    2010-04-15

    In this work we have developed and characterized the use of Laccases from Trametes versicolor (TvL) and Trametes hirsuta (ThL) as biocatalytic components of electrochemical biosensors for the determination of polyphenol index in wines. Polyazetidine prepolimer (PAP) was used as immobilizing agent, multi-walled and single-walled carbon nanotubes screen-printed electrodes as sensors (MWCNTs-SPE and SWCNTs-SPE) and gallic acid as standard substrate. The amperometric measurements were carried out by using a flow system at a fixed potential of -100 mV vs. silver/silver chloride electrode in Britton-Robinson buffer 0.1 mol L(-1), pH 5. The results were compared with those obtained with the Folin-Ciocalteau reference method. The results obtained in the analysis of twelve Italian wines put in evidence the better suitability of ThL-MWCNTs-based biosensor in the determination of the polyphenol index in wines. This biosensor shows fast and reliable amperometric responses to gallic acid with a linear range 0.1-18.0 mg L(-1) (r(2)=0.999). The influence of the interferences on both spectrophotometric and electrochemical measurements have been carefully evaluated. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A signal-on electrogenerated chemiluminescent biosensor for lead ion based on DNAzyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Fen; Sun Bo; Qi Honglan; Zhang Hongge; Gao Qiang; Zhang Chengxiao

    2011-01-01

    A highly reproducible and sensitive signal-on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor based on the DNAzyme for the determination of lead ion was developed. The ECL biosensor was fabricated by covalently coupling 5'-amino-DNAzyme-tagged with ruthenium bis (2,2'-bipyridine) (2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid)-ethylenediamine (Ru1-17E') onto the surface of graphite electrode modified with 4-aminobenzoic acid, and then a DNA substrate with a ribonucleotide adenosine hybridized with Ru1-17E' on the electrode. Upon binding of Pb 2+ to the Ru1-17E' to form a complex which catalyzed the cleavage of the DNA substrate, the double-stranded DNA was dissociated and thus led to a high ECL signal. The signal linearly increases with the concentration of Pb 2+ in the range from 5.0 to 80 pM with a detection limit of 1.4 pM and a relative standard derivation of 2.3%. This work demonstrates that using DNAzyme tagged with ruthenium complex as an ECL probe and covalently coupling method for the fabrication of the ECL biosensor with high sensitivity, good stability and significant regeneration ability is promising approach.

  16. Interdigitated microelectrode based impedance biosensor for detection of salmonella enteritidis in food samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G [National Institute of Agricultural Engineering, 249 Seodun-dong, Suwon, Republic of Korea, 441-100 (Korea, Republic of); Morgan, M; Hahm, B K; Bhunia, A [Department of Food Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Mun, J H; Om, A S [Department of Food and Nutrient, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: giyoungkim@rda.go.kr

    2008-03-15

    Salmonella enteritidis outbreaks continue to occur, and S. enteritidis-related outbreaks from various food sources have increased public awareness of this pathogen. Conventional methods for pathogens detection and identification are labor-intensive and take days to complete. Some immunological rapid assays are developed, but these assays still require prolonged enrichment steps. Recently developed biosensors have shown great potential for the rapid detection of foodborne pathogens. To develop the biosensor, an interdigitated microelectrode (IME) was fabricated by using semiconductor fabrication process. Anti-Salmonella antibodies were immobilized based on avidin-biotin binding on the surface of the IME to form an active sensing layer. To increase the sensitivity of the sensor, three types of sensors that have different electrode gap sizes (2 {mu}m, 5 {mu}m, 10 {mu}m) were fabricated and tested. The impedimetric biosensor could detect 10{sup 3} CFU/mL of Salmonella in pork meat extract with an incubation time of 5 minutes. This method may provide a simple, rapid and sensitive method to detect foodborne pathogens.

  17. A DNA biosensor based on the electrocatalytic oxidation of amine by a threading intercalator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhiqiang; Tansil, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    An electrochemical biosensor for the detection of DNA based a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) capture probe (CP) modified indium tin oxide electrode (ITO) is described in this report. After hybridization, a threading intercalator, N,N'-bis[(3-propyl)-imidazole]-1,4,5,8-naphthalene diimide (PIND) imidazole complexed with Ru(bpy) 2 Cl (PIND-Ru, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine), was introduced to the biosensor. PIND-Ru selectively intercalated to double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) and became immobilized on the biosensor surface. Voltammetric tests showed highly stable and reversible electrochemical oxidation/reduction processes and the peak currents can directly be utilized for DNA quantification. When the tests were conducted in an amine-containing medium, Tris-HCl buffer for example, a remarkable improvement in the voltammetric response and noticeable enhancements of voltammetric and amperometric sensitivities were observed due to the electrocatalytic activity of the [Ru(bpy) 2 Cl] redox moieties. Electrocatalytic current was observed when as little as 3.0 attomoles of DNA was present in the sample solution

  18. Highly sensitive and selective cholesterol biosensor based on direct electron transfer of hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changzhi; Wan, Li; Jiang, Li; Wang, Qin; Jiao, Kui

    2008-12-01

    A cholesterol biosensor based on direct electron transfer of a hemoglobin-encapsulated chitosan-modified glassy carbon electrode has been developed for highly sensitive and selective analysis of serum samples. Modified by films containing hemoglobin and cholesterol oxidase, the electrode was prepared by encapsulation of enzyme in chitosan matrix. The hydrogen peroxide produced by the catalytic oxidation of cholesterol by cholesterol oxidase was reduced electrocatalytically by immobilized hemoglobin and used to obtain a sensitive amperometric response to cholesterol. The linear response of cholesterol concentrations ranged from 1.00 x 10(-5) to 6.00 x 10(-4) mol/L, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9969 and estimated detection limit of cholesterol of 9.5 micromol/L at a signal/noise ratio of 3. The cholesterol biosensor can efficiently exclude interference by the commonly coexisting ascorbic acid, uric acid, dopamine, and epinephrine. The sensitivity to the change in the concentration of cholesterol as the slope of the calibration curve was 0.596 A/M. The relative standard deviation was under 4.0% (n=5) for the determination of real samples. The biosensor is satisfactory in the determination of human serum samples.

  19. A novel glucose biosensor based on phosphonic acid-functionalized silica nanoparticles for sensitive detection of glucose in real samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Wenbo; Fang, Yi; Zhu, Qinshu; Wang, Kuai; Liu, Min; Huang, Xiaohua; Shen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    An effective strategy for preparation amperometric biosensor by using the phosphonic acid-functionalized silica nanoparticles (PFSi NPs) as special modified materials is proposed. In such a strategy, glucose oxidase (GOD) was selected as model protein to fabricate glucose biosensor in the presence of phosphonic acid-functionalized silica nanoparticles (PFSi NPs). The PFSi NPs were first modified on the surface of glassy carbon (GC) electrode, then, GOD was adsorbed onto the PFSi NPs film by drop-coating. The PFSi NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The interaction of PFSi NPs with GOD was investigated by the circular dicroism spectroscopy (CD). The results showed PFSi NPs could essentially maintain the native conformation of GOD. The direct electron transfer of GOD on (PFSi NPs)/GCE electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of glucose. The proposed biosensor modified with PFSi NPs displayed a fast amperometric response (5 s) to glucose, a good linear current–time relation over a wide range of glucose concentrations from 5.00 × 10 −4 to 1.87 × 10 −1 M, and a low detection limit of 2.44 × 10 −5 M (S/N = 3). Moreover, the biosensor can be used for assessment of the concentration of glucose in many real samples (relative error < 3%). The GOD biosensor modified with PFSi NPs will have essential meaning and practical application in future that attributed to the simple method of fabrication and good performance

  20. Flow electrochemical biosensors based on enzymatic porous reactor and tubular detector of silver solid amalgam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josypčuk, Bohdan, E-mail: josypcuk@jh-inst.cas.cz [J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Department of Biophysical Chemistry, Dolejskova 3, Prague (Czech Republic); Barek, Jiří [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, University Center of Excellence UNCE “Supramolecular Chemistry”, Department of Analytical Chemistry, UNESCO Laboratory of Environmental Electrochemistry, Albertov 6, CZ-128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Josypčuk, Oksana [J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Department of Biophysical Chemistry, Dolejskova 3, Prague (Czech Republic); Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, University Center of Excellence UNCE “Supramolecular Chemistry”, Department of Analytical Chemistry, UNESCO Laboratory of Environmental Electrochemistry, Albertov 6, CZ-128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

    2013-05-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Flow amperometric enzymatic biosensor was constructed. •The biosensor is based on a reactor of a novel material – porous silver solid amalgam. •Tubular amalgam detector was used for determination of decrease of O{sub 2} concentration. •Covalent bonds amalgam−thiol−enzyme contributed to the sensor long-term stability. •LOD of glucose was 0.01 mmol L{sup −1} with RSD = 1.3% (n = 11). -- Abstract: A flow amperometric enzymatic biosensor for the determination of glucose was constructed. The biosensor consists of a flow reactor based on porous silver solid amalgam (AgSA) and a flow tubular detector based on compact AgSA. The preparation of the sensor and the determination of glucose occurred in three steps. First, a self-assembled monolayer of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) was formed at the porous surface of the reactor. Second, enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) was covalently immobilized at MUA-layer using N-ethyl-N′-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carboimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry. Finally, a decrease of oxygen concentration (directly proportional to the concentration of glucose) during enzymatic reaction was amperometrically measured on the tubular detector under flow injection conditions. The following parameters of glucose determination were optimized with respect to amperometric response: composition of the mobile phase, its concentration, the potential of detection and the flow rate. The calibration curve of glucose was linear in the concentration range of 0.02–0.80 mmol L{sup −1} with detection limit of 0.01 mmol L{sup −1}. The content of glucose in the sample of honey was determined as 35.5 ± 1.0 mass % (number of the repeated measurements n = 7; standard deviation SD = 1.2%; relative standard deviation RSD = 3.2%) which corresponds well with the declared values. The tested biosensor proved good long-term stability (77% of the current response of glucose was retained after 35 days)

  1. Determination of total creatine kinase activity in blood serum using an amperometric biosensor based on glucose oxidase and hexokinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherenko, I S; Soldatkin, O O; Lagarde, F; Jaffrezic-Renault, N; Dzyadevych, S V; Soldatkin, A P

    2015-11-01

    Creatine kinase (CK: adenosine-5-triphosphate-creatine phosphotransferase) is an important enzyme of muscle cells; the presence of a large amount of the enzyme in blood serum is a biomarker of muscular injuries, such as acute myocardial infarction. This work describes a bi-enzyme (glucose oxidase and hexokinase based) biosensor for rapid and convenient determination of CK activity by measuring the rate of ATP production by this enzyme. Simultaneously the biosensor determines glucose concentration in the sample. Platinum disk electrodes were used as amperometric transducers. Glucose oxidase and hexokinase were co-immobilized via cross-linking with BSA by glutaraldehyde and served as a biorecognition element of the biosensor. The biosensor work at different concentrations of CK substrates (ADP and creatine phosphate) was investigated; optimal concentration of ADP was 1mM, and creatine phosphate - 10 mM. The reproducibility of the biosensor responses to glucose, ATP and CK during a day was tested (relative standard deviation of 15 responses to glucose was 2%, to ATP - 6%, to CK - 7-18% depending on concentration of the CK). Total time of CK analysis was 10 min. The measurements of creatine kinase in blood serum samples were carried out (at 20-fold sample dilution). Twentyfold dilution of serum samples was chosen as optimal for CK determination. The biosensor could distinguish healthy and ill people and evaluate the level of CK increase. Thus, the biosensor can be used as a test-system for CK analysis in blood serum or serve as a component of multibiosensors for determination of important blood substances. Determination of activity of other kinases by the developed biosensor is also possible for research purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fabrication of fluorescence-based biosensors from functionalized CdSe and CdTe quantum dots for pesticide detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi Tran, Thi Kim; Vu, Duc Chinh; Thuy Ung, Thi Dieu; Nguyen, Hai Yen; Nguyen, Ngoc Hai; Dao, Tran Cao; Pham, Thu Nga; Nguyen, Quang Liem

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results on the fabrication of highly sensitive fluorescence biosensors for pesticide detection. The biosensors are actually constructed from the complex of quantum dots (QDs), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and acetylthiocholine (ATCh). The biosensor activity is based on the change of luminescence from CdSe and CdTe QDs with pH, while the pH is changed with the hydrolysis rate of ATCh catalyzed by the enzyme AChE, whose activity is specifically inhibited by pesticides. Two kinds of QDs were used to fabricate our biosensors: (i) CdSe QDs synthesized in high-boiling non-polar organic solvent and then functionalized by shelling with two monolayers (2-ML) of ZnSe and eight monolayers (8-ML) of ZnS and finally capped with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) to become water soluble; and (ii) CdTe QDs synthesized in aqueous phase then shelled with CdS. For normal checks the fabricated biosensors could detect parathion methyl (PM) pesticide at very low contents of ppm with the threshold as low as 0.05 ppm. The dynamic range from 0.05 ppm to 1 ppm for the pesticide detection could be expandable by increasing the AChE amount in the biosensor. (paper)

  3. Porous Silicon-Based Biosensors: Towards Real-Time Optical Detection of Target Bacteria in the Food Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad-Ivanir, Naama; Shtenberg, Giorgi; Raz, Nitzan; Gazenbeek, Christel; Budding, Dries; Bos, Martine P; Segal, Ester

    2016-11-30

    Rapid detection of target bacteria is crucial to provide a safe food supply and to prevent foodborne diseases. Herein, we present an optical biosensor for identification and quantification of Escherichia coli (E. coli, used as a model indicator bacteria species) in complex food industry process water. The biosensor is based on a nanostructured, oxidized porous silicon (PSi) thin film which is functionalized with specific antibodies against E. coli. The biosensors were exposed to water samples collected directly from process lines of fresh-cut produce and their reflectivity spectra were collected in real time. Process water were characterized by complex natural micro-flora (microbial load of >10 7  cell/mL), in addition to soil particles and plant cell debris. We show that process water spiked with culture-grown E. coli, induces robust and predictable changes in the thin-film optical interference spectrum of the biosensor. The latter is ascribed to highly specific capture of the target cells onto the biosensor surface, as confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The biosensors were capable of selectively identifying and quantifying the target cells, while the target cell concentration is orders of magnitude lower than that of other bacterial species, without any pre-enrichment or prior processing steps.

  4. Disposable urea biosensor based on nanoporous ZnO film fabricated from omissible polymeric substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmanian, Reza; Mozaffari, Sayed Ahmad; Abedi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a facile and simple fabrication method of a semiconductor based urea biosensor was reported via three steps: (i) producing a ZnO–PVA composite film by means of a polymer assisted electrodeposition of zinc oxide (ZnO) on the F-doped SnO 2 conducting glass (FTO) using water soluble polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), (ii) obtaining a nanoporous ZnO film by PVA omission via a subsequent post-treatment by annealing of the ZnO–PVA film, and (iii) preparation of a FTO/ZnO/Urs biosensor by exploiting a nanoporous ZnO film as an efficient and excellent platform area for electrostatic immobilization of urease enzyme (Urs) which was forced by the difference in their isoelectric point (IEP). The characterization techniques focused on the analysis of the ZnO–PVA film surfaces before and after annealing, which had a prominent effect on the porosity of the prepared ZnO film. The surface characterization of the nanostructured ZnO film by a field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE–SEM), exhibited a film surface area as an effective bio-sensing matrix for enzyme immobilization. The structural characterization and monitoring of the biosensor fabrication was performed using UV–Vis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Raman Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The impedimetric results of the FTO/ZnO/Urs biosensor showed a high sensitivity for urea detection within 8.0–110.0 mg dL −1 with the limit of detection as 5.0 mg dL −1 . - Highlights: • Novel disposable impedimetric urea biosensor fabrication based on ZnO–nanoporous transducer • Exploiting omissible PVA polymer as a simple strategy for ZnO–nanoporous film preparation • ZnO–nanoporous film as a good pore framework with large surface area/volume for enzyme immobilization • Application of impedimetric measurement for urea monitoring due to its rapidity, sensitivity, and repeatability

  5. Disposable urea biosensor based on nanoporous ZnO film fabricated from omissible polymeric substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmanian, Reza; Mozaffari, Sayed Ahmad, E-mail: mozaffari@irost.ir; Abedi, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, a facile and simple fabrication method of a semiconductor based urea biosensor was reported via three steps: (i) producing a ZnO–PVA composite film by means of a polymer assisted electrodeposition of zinc oxide (ZnO) on the F-doped SnO{sub 2} conducting glass (FTO) using water soluble polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), (ii) obtaining a nanoporous ZnO film by PVA omission via a subsequent post-treatment by annealing of the ZnO–PVA film, and (iii) preparation of a FTO/ZnO/Urs biosensor by exploiting a nanoporous ZnO film as an efficient and excellent platform area for electrostatic immobilization of urease enzyme (Urs) which was forced by the difference in their isoelectric point (IEP). The characterization techniques focused on the analysis of the ZnO–PVA film surfaces before and after annealing, which had a prominent effect on the porosity of the prepared ZnO film. The surface characterization of the nanostructured ZnO film by a field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE–SEM), exhibited a film surface area as an effective bio-sensing matrix for enzyme immobilization. The structural characterization and monitoring of the biosensor fabrication was performed using UV–Vis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Raman Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The impedimetric results of the FTO/ZnO/Urs biosensor showed a high sensitivity for urea detection within 8.0–110.0 mg dL{sup −1} with the limit of detection as 5.0 mg dL{sup −1}. - Highlights: • Novel disposable impedimetric urea biosensor fabrication based on ZnO–nanoporous transducer • Exploiting omissible PVA polymer as a simple strategy for ZnO–nanoporous film preparation • ZnO–nanoporous film as a good pore framework with large surface area/volume for enzyme immobilization • Application of impedimetric measurement for urea monitoring due to its rapidity, sensitivity, and

  6. An ultrasensitive electrochemical DNA biosensor based on a copper oxide nanowires/single-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Mei; Hou, Changjun; Huo, Danqun; Yang, Mei; Fa, Huanbao

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel and sensitive electrochemical biosensor based on hybrid nanocomposite consisting of copper oxide nanowires (CuO NWs) and carboxyl-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-COOH) was first developed for the detection of the specific-sequence target DNA. This schematic represents the fabrication procedure of our DNA biosensor. - Highlights: • An ultrasensitive DNA electrochemical biosensor was developed. • CuO NWs entangled with the SWCNTs formed a mesh structure with good conductivity. • It is the first time use of CuONWs-SWCNTs hybrid nanocomposite for DNA detection. • The biosensor is simple, selective, stable, and sensitive. • The biosensor has great potential for use in analysis of real samples. - Abstract: Here, we developed a novel and sensitive electrochemical biosensor to detect specific-sequence target DNA. The biosensor was based on a hybrid nanocomposite consisting of copper oxide nanowires (CuO NWs) and carboxyl-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-COOH). The resulting CuO NWs/SWCNTs layers exhibited a good differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) current response for the target DNA sequences, which we attributed to the properties of CuO NWs and SWCNTs. CuO NWs and SWCNTs hybrid composites with highly conductive and biocompatible nanostructure were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Immobilization of the probe DNA on the electrode surface was largely improved due to the unique synergetic effect of CuO NWs and SWCNTs. DPV was applied to monitor the DNA hybridization event, using adriamycin as an electrochemical indicator. Under optimal conditions, the peak currents of adriamycin were linear with the logarithm of target DNA concentrations (ranging from 1.0 × 10"−"1"4 to 1.0 × 10"−"8 M), with a detection limit of 3.5 × 10"−"1"5 M (signal/noise ratio of 3). The biosensor also showed high selectivity to

  7. An ultrasensitive electrochemical DNA biosensor based on a copper oxide nanowires/single-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Mei [Key Laboratory of Biorheology Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Hou, Changjun, E-mail: houcj@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Biorheology Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Key Laboratory of Fundamental Science of Micro/Nano-Device and System Technology, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Huo, Danqun [Key Laboratory of Biorheology Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Key Laboratory of Fundamental Science of Micro/Nano-Device and System Technology, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Yang, Mei [Key Laboratory of Biorheology Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Fa, Huanbao [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: A novel and sensitive electrochemical biosensor based on hybrid nanocomposite consisting of copper oxide nanowires (CuO NWs) and carboxyl-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-COOH) was first developed for the detection of the specific-sequence target DNA. This schematic represents the fabrication procedure of our DNA biosensor. - Highlights: • An ultrasensitive DNA electrochemical biosensor was developed. • CuO NWs entangled with the SWCNTs formed a mesh structure with good conductivity. • It is the first time use of CuONWs-SWCNTs hybrid nanocomposite for DNA detection. • The biosensor is simple, selective, stable, and sensitive. • The biosensor has great potential for use in analysis of real samples. - Abstract: Here, we developed a novel and sensitive electrochemical biosensor to detect specific-sequence target DNA. The biosensor was based on a hybrid nanocomposite consisting of copper oxide nanowires (CuO NWs) and carboxyl-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-COOH). The resulting CuO NWs/SWCNTs layers exhibited a good differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) current response for the target DNA sequences, which we attributed to the properties of CuO NWs and SWCNTs. CuO NWs and SWCNTs hybrid composites with highly conductive and biocompatible nanostructure were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Immobilization of the probe DNA on the electrode surface was largely improved due to the unique synergetic effect of CuO NWs and SWCNTs. DPV was applied to monitor the DNA hybridization event, using adriamycin as an electrochemical indicator. Under optimal conditions, the peak currents of adriamycin were linear with the logarithm of target DNA concentrations (ranging from 1.0 × 10{sup −14} to 1.0 × 10{sup −8} M), with a detection limit of 3.5 × 10{sup −15} M (signal/noise ratio of 3). The biosensor also showed high

  8. High sensitivity optical biosensor based on polymer materials and using the Vernier effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuelos, Paul; Girault, Pauline; Lorrain, Nathalie; Poffo, Luiz; Guendouz, Mohammed; Thual, Monique; Lemaître, Jonathan; Pirasteh, Parastesh; Hardy, Isabelle; Charrier, Joël

    2017-11-27

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a Vernier effect SU8/PMATRIFE polymer optical biosensor with high homogeneous sensitivity using a standard photolithography process. The sensor is based on one micro-resonator embedded on each arm of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Measurements are based on the refractive index variation of the optical waveguide superstrate with different concentrations of glucose solutions. The sensitivity of the sensor has been measured as 17558 nm/RIU and the limit of detection has been estimated to 1.1.10 -6 RIU.

  9. Kinetics of Antibody Binding to Membranes of Living Bacteria Measured by a Photonic Crystal-Based Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Rostova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Optical biosensors based on photonic crystal surface waves (PC SWs offer a possibility to study binding interactions with living cells, overcoming the limitation of rather small evanescent field penetration depth into a sample medium that is characteristic for typical optical biosensors. Besides this, simultaneous excitation of s- and p-polarized surface waves with different penetration depths is realized here, permitting unambiguous separation of surface and volume contributions to the measured signal. PC-based biosensors do not require a bulk signal correction, compared to widely used surface plasmon resonance-based devices. We developed a chitosan-based protocol of PC chip functionalization for bacterial attachment and performed experiments on antibody binding to living bacteria measured in real time by the PCSW-based biosensor. Data analysis reveals specific binding and gives the value of the dissociation constant for monoclonal antibodies (IgG2b against bacterial lipopolysaccharides equal to KD = 6.2 ± 3.4 nM. To our knowledge, this is a first demonstration of antibody-binding kinetics to living bacteria by a label-free optical biosensor.

  10. Magnetization of Paraffin-Based Magnetic Nanocolloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikanskii, Yu. I.; Ispiryan, A. G.; Kunikin, S. A.; Radionov, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    Using paraffin-based magnetic nanocolloids as an example, the reasons for maxima in the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility of magnetic colloids have been discussed. The behavior of these dependences in a wide temperature interval has been analyzed for colloids in solid and liquid states. It has been concluded that the maximum observed at the melting point of paraffin can be attributed to freezing Brownian degrees of freedom in magnetite coarse particles, the magnetic moment of which is intimately related to the solid matrix. The second main maximum, which arises in the solid state, is explained by the superparamagnetic-magnetically hard transition of most fine particles at lower temperatures. It has been noted that the flatness of this maximum results from the polydispersity of the magnetic nanoparticle ensemble.

  11. Assessment of heavy metal bioavailability in contaminated sediments and soils using green fluorescent protein-based bacterial biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, V.H.-C.; Chien, M.-T.; Tseng, Y.-Y.; Ou, K.-L.

    2006-01-01

    A green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based bacterial biosensor Escherichia coli DH5α (pVLCD1) was developed based on the expression of gfp under the control of the cad promoter and the cadC gene of Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258. DH5α (pVLCD1) mainly responded to Cd(II), Pb(II), and Sb(III), the lowest detectable concentrations being 0.1 nmol L -1 , 10 nmol L -1 , and 0.1 nmol L -1 , respectively, with 2 h exposure. The biosensor was field-tested to measure the relative bioavailability of the heavy metals in contaminated sediments and soil samples. The results showed that the majority of heavy metals remained adsorbed to soil particles: Cd(II)/Pb(II) was only partially available to the biosensor in soil-water extracts. Our results demonstrate that the GFP-based bacterial biosensor is useful and applicable in determining the bioavailability of heavy metals with high sensitivity in contaminated sediment and soil samples and suggests a potential for its inexpensive application in environmentally relevant sample tests. - Nonpathogenic GFP-based bacterial biosensor is applicable in determining the bioavailability of heavy metals in environmental samples

  12. Post hoc support vector machine learning for impedimetric biosensors based on weak protein-ligand interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Y; Padron, A V; Hagerty, K J; Nelson, N; Chi, S; Keyhani, N O; Katz, J; Datta, S P A; Gomes, C; McLamore, E S

    2018-04-30

    Impedimetric biosensors for measuring small molecules based on weak/transient interactions between bioreceptors and target analytes are a challenge for detection electronics, particularly in field studies or in the analysis of complex matrices. Protein-ligand binding sensors have enormous potential for biosensing, but achieving accuracy in complex solutions is a major challenge. There is a need for simple post hoc analytical tools that are not computationally expensive, yet provide near real time feedback on data derived from impedance spectra. Here, we show the use of a simple, open source support vector machine learning algorithm for analyzing impedimetric data in lieu of using equivalent circuit analysis. We demonstrate two different protein-based biosensors to show that the tool can be used for various applications. We conclude with a mobile phone-based demonstration focused on the measurement of acetone, an important biomarker related to the onset of diabetic ketoacidosis. In all conditions tested, the open source classifier was capable of performing as well as, or better, than the equivalent circuit analysis for characterizing weak/transient interactions between a model ligand (acetone) and a small chemosensory protein derived from the tsetse fly. In addition, the tool has a low computational requirement, facilitating use for mobile acquisition systems such as mobile phones. The protocol is deployed through Jupyter notebook (an open source computing environment available for mobile phone, tablet or computer use) and the code was written in Python. For each of the applications, we provide step-by-step instructions in English, Spanish, Mandarin and Portuguese to facilitate widespread use. All codes were based on scikit-learn, an open source software machine learning library in the Python language, and were processed in Jupyter notebook, an open-source web application for Python. The tool can easily be integrated with the mobile biosensor equipment for rapid

  13. Real-time determination of intracellular oxygen in bacteria using a genetically encoded FRET-based biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potzkei Janko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular oxygen (O2 is one of the key metabolites of all obligate and facultative aerobic pro- and eukaryotes. It plays a fundamental role in energy homeostasis whereas oxygen deprivation, in turn, broadly affects various physiological and pathophysiological processes. Therefore, real-time monitoring of cellular oxygen levels is basically a prerequisite for the analysis of hypoxia-induced processes in living cells and tissues. Results We developed a genetically encoded Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET-based biosensor allowing the observation of changing molecular oxygen concentrations inside living cells. This biosensor named FluBO (fluorescent protein-based biosensor for oxygen consists of the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP that is sensitive towards oxygen depletion and the hypoxia-tolerant flavin-binding fluorescent protein (FbFP. Since O2 is essential for the formation of the YFP chromophore, efficient FRET from the FbFP donor domain to the YFP acceptor domain only occurs in the presence but not in the absence of oxygen. The oxygen biosensor was used for continuous real-time monitoring of temporal changes of O2 levels in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli cells during batch cultivation. Conclusions FluBO represents a unique FRET-based oxygen biosensor which allows the non-invasive ratiometric readout of cellular oxygen. Thus, FluBO can serve as a novel and powerful probe for investigating the occurrence of hypoxia and its effects on a variety of (pathophysiological processes in living cells.

  14. Asymmetric Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Based Biosensors for Aflatoxin M1 Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalyan, Tatevik; Guider, Romain; Pasquardini, Laura; Zanetti, Manuela; Falke, Floris; Schreuder, Erik; Heideman, Rene G; Pederzolli, Cecilia; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-06

    In this work, we present a study of Aflatoxin M1 detection by photonic biosensors based on Si₃N₄ Asymmetric Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (aMZI) functionalized with antibodies fragments (Fab'). We measured a best volumetric sensitivity of 10⁴ rad/RIU, leading to a Limit of Detection below 5 × 10(-7) RIU. On sensors functionalized with Fab', we performed specific and non-specific sensing measurements at various toxin concentrations. Reproducibility of the measurements and re-usability of the sensor were also investigated.

  15. Fabrication and characterization of spiral interdigitated electrodes based biosensor for salivary glucose detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelyn, P. Y. P.; Hashim, U.; Arshad, M. K. Md; Voon, C. H.; Liu, Wei-Wen; Kahar, S. M.; Huda, A. R. N.; Lee, H. Cheun

    2017-03-01

    This work introduces the non-invasive glucose monitoring technique by using the Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technologically fabricated spiral Interdigitated Electrodes (IDE) based biosensor. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) image explores the morphology of spiral IDE while Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) determines the elements induced in spiral IDE. Oral saliva of two patients are collected and tested on the spiral IDE sensor with electrical characterization as glucose detection results. However, both patients exhibit their glucose level characteristics inconsistently. Therefore, this work could be extended and enhanced by adding Glutaraldehyde in between 3-Aminoproply)triethoxysilane (APTES) modified and glucose oxidase (GOD) enzyme immobilized layer with FTIR validation for bonding attachment.

  16. A microband lactate biosensor fabricated using a water-based screen-printed carbon ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, F J; Purcell, W M; Xu, J; Pemberton, R M; Fielden, P R; Biddle, N; Hart, J P

    2009-01-15

    The present study demonstrated for the first time that screen-printed carbon microband electrodes fabricated from water-based ink can readily detect H(2)O(2) and that the same ink, with the addition of lactate oxidase, can be used to construct microband biosensors to measure lactate. These microband devices were fabricated by a simple cutting procedure using conventional sized screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) containing the electrocatalyst cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC). These devices were characterised with H(2)O(2) using several electrochemical techniques. Cyclic voltammograms were found to be sigmoidal; a current density value of 4.2 mA cm(-2) was obtained. A scan rate study revealed that the mass transport mechanism was a mixture of radial and planar diffusion. However, a further amperometric study under quiescent and hydrodynamic conditions indicated that radial diffusion predominated. A chronoamperometric study indicated that steady-state currents were obtained with these devices for a variety of H(2)O(2) concentrations and that the currents were proportional to the analyte concentration. Lactate microband biosensors were then fabricated by incorporating lactate oxidase into the water-based formulation prior to printing and then cutting as described. Voltammograms demonstrated that lactate oxidase did not compromise the integrity of the electrode for H(2)O(2) detection. A potential of +400 mV was selected for a calibration study, which showed that lactate could be measured over a dynamic range of 1-10mM which was linear up to 6mM; a calculated lower limit of detection of 289 microM was ascertained. This study provides a platform for monitoring cell metabolism in-vitro by measuring lactate electrochemically via a microband biosensor.

  17. An electrospun nanofiber matrix based on organo-clay for biosensors: PVA/PAMAM-Montmorillonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Betul; Yalcinkaya, Esra Evrim; Demirkol, Dilek Odaci; Timur, Suna

    2018-06-01

    Diagnostic techniques based on biomolecules have huge a potential to be applied in the application in various areas such as food/beverage industries, diseases diagnostics, monitoring of bio-processes and environmental pollutants. Immobilization of biomolecules on a transducer is the key parameter to being able to prepare a highly stable diagnostic tests. Electrospun nanofibers are a good alternative to immobilize biomolecules. Here, electrospun nanofibers based on an organoclay were used to design the first generation amperometric enzyme biosensor. PAMAM G2 dendrimers were used to intercalate montmorillonite clay (Mt) and then the modification of Mt by PAMAM was characterized using FTIR, XRD, TGA and zeta potential measurements. After that nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning Mt and PAMAM-Mt using poly(vinyl) alcohol (PVA) as an auxiliary polymer and the formed PVA/PAMAM-Mt electrospun nanofibers were proved by SEM, TEM and AFM techniques. Finally, pyranose oxidases (PyOx) were immobilized on a glassy carbon electrode surface, which was modified using the PVA/PAMAM-Mt electrospun nanofibers. Amperometric measurements were carried out using buffer solution at -0.7 V under stirring conditions. The linear response for glucose was from 0.005 mM to 0.25 mM using PVA/Mt/PyOx and PVA/PAMAM-Mt/PyOx biosensors. The limit of detection was 0.7 μM glucose with PVA/PAMAM-Mt/PyOx biosensor. To detect glucose in real sample, measurements were carried out using soft drink cola as a substrate instead of glucose.

  18. Determination of ethanol in acetic acid-containing samples by a biosensor based on immobilized Gluconobacter cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTINA A. KRATASYUK

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Reshetilov AN, Kitova AE, Arkhipova AV, Kratasyuk VA, Rai MK. 2012. Determination of ethanol in acetic acid containing samples by a biosensor based on immobilized Gluconobacter cells. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 97-100. A biosensor based on Gluconobacter oxydans VKM B-1280 bacteria was used for detection of ethanol in the presence of acetic acid. It was assumed that this assay could be useful for controlling acetic acid production from ethanol and determining the final stage of the fermentation process. Measurements were made using a Clark electrode-based amperometric biosensor. The effect of pH of the medium on the sensor signal and the analytical parameters of the sensor (detection range, sensitivity were investigated. The residual content of ethanol in acetic acid samples was analyzed. The results of the study are important for monitoring the acetic acid production process, as they represent a method of tracking its stages

  19. A label-free and high sensitive aptamer biosensor based on hyperbranched polyester microspheres for thrombin detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Chong; Han, Qiaorong; Wang, Daoying; Xu, Weimin; Wang, Weijuan; Zhao, Wenbo; Zhou, Min

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A label-free thrombin aptamer biosensor applied in whole blood has been developed. • The aptamer biosensor showed a wide detection range and a low detection limit. • The antibiofouling idea utilized for biosensor is significant for diagnostics. - Abstract: In this paper, we have synthesized hyperbranched polyester microspheres with carboxylic acid functional groups (HBPE-CA) and developed a label-free electrochemical aptamer biosensor using thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA) as receptor for the measurement of thrombin in whole blood. The indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode surface modified with HBPE-CA microspheres was grafted with TBA, which has excellent binding affinity and selectivity for thrombin. Binding of the thrombin at the modified ITO electrode surface greatly restrained access of electrons for a redox probe of [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3−/4− . Moreover, the aptamer biosensor could be used for detection of thrombin in whole blood, a wide detection range (10 fM–100 nM) and a detection limit on the order of 0.90 fM were demonstrated. Control experiments were also carried out by using bull serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme in the absence of thrombin. The good stability and repeatability of this aptamer biosensor were also proved. We expect that this demonstration will lead to the development of highly sensitive label-free sensors based on aptamer with lower cost than current technology. The integration of the technologies, which include anticoagulant, sensor and nanoscience, will bring significant input to high-performance biosensors relevant to diagnostics and therapy of interest for human health

  20. A label-free and high sensitive aptamer biosensor based on hyperbranched polyester microspheres for thrombin detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Chong [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, Biomedical Functional Materials Collaborative Innovation Center, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Institute of Agricultural Products Processing, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014 (China); Han, Qiaorong [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, Biomedical Functional Materials Collaborative Innovation Center, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Wang, Daoying; Xu, Weimin [Institute of Agricultural Products Processing, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014 (China); Wang, Weijuan [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, Biomedical Functional Materials Collaborative Innovation Center, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhao, Wenbo, E-mail: zhaowenbo@njnu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, Biomedical Functional Materials Collaborative Innovation Center, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhou, Min, E-mail: zhouminnju@126.com [Department of Vascular Surgery, the Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2014-11-19

    Highlights: • A label-free thrombin aptamer biosensor applied in whole blood has been developed. • The aptamer biosensor showed a wide detection range and a low detection limit. • The antibiofouling idea utilized for biosensor is significant for diagnostics. - Abstract: In this paper, we have synthesized hyperbranched polyester microspheres with carboxylic acid functional groups (HBPE-CA) and developed a label-free electrochemical aptamer biosensor using thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA) as receptor for the measurement of thrombin in whole blood. The indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode surface modified with HBPE-CA microspheres was grafted with TBA, which has excellent binding affinity and selectivity for thrombin. Binding of the thrombin at the modified ITO electrode surface greatly restrained access of electrons for a redox probe of [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−/4−}. Moreover, the aptamer biosensor could be used for detection of thrombin in whole blood, a wide detection range (10 fM–100 nM) and a detection limit on the order of 0.90 fM were demonstrated. Control experiments were also carried out by using bull serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme in the absence of thrombin. The good stability and repeatability of this aptamer biosensor were also proved. We expect that this demonstration will lead to the development of highly sensitive label-free sensors based on aptamer with lower cost than current technology. The integration of the technologies, which include anticoagulant, sensor and nanoscience, will bring significant input to high-performance biosensors relevant to diagnostics and therapy of interest for human health.

  1. Nanomembrane-Based, Thermal-Transport Biosensor for Living Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Elafandy, Rami T.; AbuElela, Ayman; Mishra, Pawan; Janjua, Bilal; Oubei, Hassan M.; Buttner, Ulrich; Majid, Mohammed Abdul; Ng, Tien Khee; Merzaban, Jasmeen; Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of materials' thermal-transport properties, conductivity and diffusivity, is crucial for several applications within areas of biology, material science and engineering. Specifically, a microsized, flexible, biologically integrated thermal transport sensor is beneficial to a plethora of applications, ranging across plants physiological ecology and thermal imaging and treatment of cancerous cells, to thermal dissipation in flexible semiconductors and thermoelectrics. Living cells pose extra challenges, due to their small volumes and irregular curvilinear shapes. Here a novel approach of simultaneously measuring thermal conductivity and diffusivity of different materials and its applicability to single cells is demonstrated. This technique is based on increasing phonon-boundary-scattering rate in nanomembranes, having extremely low flexural rigidities, to induce a considerable spectral dependence of the bandgap-emission over excitation-laser intensity. It is demonstrated that once in contact with organic or inorganic materials, the nanomembranes' emission spectrally shift based on the material's thermal diffusivity and conductivity. This NM-based technique is further applied to differentiate between different types and subtypes of cancer cells, based on their thermal-transport properties. It is anticipated that this novel technique to enable an efficient single-cell thermal targeting, allow better modeling of cellular thermal distribution and enable novel diagnostic techniques based on variations of single-cell thermal-transport properties.

  2. Nanomembrane-Based, Thermal-Transport Biosensor for Living Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Elafandy, Rami T.

    2016-11-23

    Knowledge of materials\\' thermal-transport properties, conductivity and diffusivity, is crucial for several applications within areas of biology, material science and engineering. Specifically, a microsized, flexible, biologically integrated thermal transport sensor is beneficial to a plethora of applications, ranging across plants physiological ecology and thermal imaging and treatment of cancerous cells, to thermal dissipation in flexible semiconductors and thermoelectrics. Living cells pose extra challenges, due to their small volumes and irregular curvilinear shapes. Here a novel approach of simultaneously measuring thermal conductivity and diffusivity of different materials and its applicability to single cells is demonstrated. This technique is based on increasing phonon-boundary-scattering rate in nanomembranes, having extremely low flexural rigidities, to induce a considerable spectral dependence of the bandgap-emission over excitation-laser intensity. It is demonstrated that once in contact with organic or inorganic materials, the nanomembranes\\' emission spectrally shift based on the material\\'s thermal diffusivity and conductivity. This NM-based technique is further applied to differentiate between different types and subtypes of cancer cells, based on their thermal-transport properties. It is anticipated that this novel technique to enable an efficient single-cell thermal targeting, allow better modeling of cellular thermal distribution and enable novel diagnostic techniques based on variations of single-cell thermal-transport properties.

  3. Amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide based on Hemoglobin/DNA/Poly-2,6-pyridinediamine modified gold electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Zhongqiang; Yuan Ruo; Chai Yaqin; Chen Shihong; Xie Yi

    2007-01-01

    An amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) was fabricated based on immobilization of hemoglobin (Hb) on DNA/Poly-2,6-pyridinediamine (PPD) modified Au electrode. PPD thin films were firstly electro-deposited on Au electrode surface which provide a template to attach negatively charged DNA molecules by electrostatic attraction. The adsorbed DNA network provides a good microenvironment for the immobilization of biomolecules and promotes electron transfer between the immobilized Hb and the electrode surface. The fabrication process of the biosensor was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Experimental conditions influencing the biosensor performance such as pH, potential and temperature were assessed and optimized. The proposed biosensor displayed a good electrocatalytic response to the reduction of H 2 O 2 , its linear range is 1.7 μM to 3 mM with a detection limit of 1.0 μM based on the signal-to-noise ratio of 3 (S/N = 3) under the optimized conditions. The Michaelis-Menten constant K m app of Hb immobilized on the electrode surface was found to be 0.8 mM. The biosensor shows high sensitivity and stability. Importantly, this deposition methodology could be further developed for the immobilization of other proteins and biocompounds

  4. Quantifying signal changes in nano-wire based biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vico, Luca; Sørensen, Martin Hedegård; Iversen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we present a computational methodology for predicting the change in signal (conductance sensitivity) of a nano-BioFET sensor (a sensor based on a biomolecule binding another biomolecule attached to a nano-wire field effect transistor) upon binding its target molecule. The methodolog...

  5. Hybrid structures based on gold nanoparticles and semiconductor quantum dots for biosensor applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurochkina M

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Margarita Kurochkina,1 Elena Konshina,1 Aleksandr Oseev,2 Soeren Hirsch3 1Centre of Information Optical Technologies, ITMO University, Saint Petersburg, Russia; 2Institute of Micro and Sensor Systems, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany; 3Department of Engineering, University of Applied Sciences Brandenburg, Brandenburg an der Havel, Germany Background: The luminescence amplification of semiconductor quantum dots (QD in the presence of self-assembled gold nanoparticles (Au NPs is one of way for creating biosensors with highly efficient transduction. Aims: The objective of this study was to fabricate the hybrid structures based on semiconductor CdSe/ZnS QDs and Au NP arrays and to use them as biosensors of protein. Methods: In this paper, the hybrid structures based on CdSe/ZnS QDs and Au NP arrays were fabricated using spin coating processes. Au NP arrays deposited on a glass wafer were investigated by optical microscopy and absorption spectroscopy depending on numbers of spin coating layers and their baking temperature. Bovine serum albumin (BSA was used as the target protein analyte in a phosphate buffer. A confocal laser scanning microscope was used to study the luminescent properties of Au NP/QD hybrid structures and to test BSA. Results: The dimensions of Au NP aggregates increased and the space between them decreased with increasing processing temperature. At the same time, a blue shift of the plasmon resonance peak in the absorption spectra of Au NP arrays was observed. The deposition of CdSe/ZnS QDs with a core diameter of 5 nm on the surface of the Au NP arrays caused an increase in absorption and a red shift of the plasmon peak in the spectra. The exciton–plasmon enhancement of the QDs’ photoluminescence intensity has been obtained at room temperature for hybrid structures with Au NPs array pretreated at temperatures of 100°C and 150°C. It has been found that an increase in the weight content of BSA

  6. SWCNT-Based Biosensor Modelling for pH Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Kiani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different forms of CNT delivery have been discovered with several biomedical functions during past decades. The mechanisms of the cellular uptake of CNTs are mainly maintained due to the chemical nature, the cell type, and the features of the molecules, which are used to functionalize the nanotube exterior. Since single-wall carbon Nanotube (SWCNT has unique chemical and physical properties, it is a great applicant for pH sensing. In addition, ion sensitive FET (ISFET base on nanostructured SWCNT have covered a new method to help genetic investigators restructure metabolic pathways in cells, recognize the progression of disease, and expand diagnostics and therapeutics. Particularly, because PH sensing is very crucial for the constancy of enzymes, it is essential to extend the cost efficient types of this sensing. In this research, the conductance changes of the CNT-based ISFET device with different pH values can be modelled by ion concentration of the solution. In addition, the electrical current of channel is imagined as a function of pH levels, which can be controlled by a control factor (α. Thus, ISFET based nanostructured SWCNT is proposed focusing on the area of electrical detection of hydrogen ions of the electrolyte membrane. Besides, electrical detection of hydrogen ion applications is suggested to be used by modelling the delivery of SWCNT sheets. In the end, after comparing the proposed model and experimental data, it has been reported that there is a good compatibility between them.

  7. Electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on redox polymer/carbon nanotube modified electrodes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsan, Madalina M; Ghica, M Emilia; Brett, Christopher M A

    2015-06-30

    The aim of this review is to present the contributions to the development of electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on polyphenazine or polytriphenylmethane redox polymers together with carbon nanotubes (CNT) during recent years. Phenazine polymers have been widely used in analytical applications due to their inherent charge transport properties and electrocatalytic effects. At the same time, since the first report on a CNT-based sensor, their application in the electroanalytical chemistry field has demonstrated that the unique structure and properties of CNT are ideal for the design of electrochemical (bio)sensors. We describe here that the specific combination of phenazine/triphenylmethane polymers with CNT leads to an improved performance of the resulting sensing devices, because of their complementary electrical, electrochemical and mechanical properties, and also due to synergistic effects. The preparation of polymer/CNT modified electrodes will be presented together with their electrochemical and surface characterization, with emphasis on the contribution of each component on the overall properties of the modified electrodes. Their importance in analytical chemistry is demonstrated by the numerous applications based on polymer/CNT-driven electrocatalytic effects, and their analytical performance as (bio) sensors is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A portable bioluminescence engineered cell-based biosensor for on-site applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, Aldo; Cevenini, Luca; Michelini, Elisa; Branchini, Bruce R

    2011-04-15

    We have developed a portable biosensing device based on genetically engineered bioluminescent (BL) cells. Cells were immobilized on a 4 × 3 multiwell cartridge using a new biocompatible matrix that preserved their vitality. Using a fiber optic taper, the cartridge was placed in direct contact with a cooled CCD sensor to image and quantify the BL signals. Yeast and bacterial cells were engineered to express recognition elements, whose interaction with the analyte led to luciferase expression, via reporter gene technology. Three different biosensors were developed. The first detects androgenic compounds using yeast cells carrying a green-emitting P. pyralis luciferase regulated by the human androgen receptor and a red mutant of the same species as internal vitality control. The second biosensor detects two classes of compounds (androgens and estrogens) using yeast strains engineered to express green-or red-emitting mutant firefly luciferases in response to androgens or estrogens, respectively. The third biosensor detects lactose analogue isopropyl β-d-1-thiogalactopyranoside using two E. coli strains. One strain exploits the lac operon as recognition element for the expression of P. pyralis luciferase. The other strain serves as a vitality control expressing Gaussia princeps luciferase, which requires a different luciferin substrate. The immobilized cells were stable for up to 1 month. The analytes could be detected at nanomolar levels with good precision and accuracy when the specific signal was corrected using the internal vitality control. This portable device can be used for on-site multiplexed bioassays for different compound classes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Novel charge plasma based dielectric modulated impact ionization MOSFET as a biosensor for label-free detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Manash; Dey, Prithu; De, Swapnadip; Sarkar, Chandan Kumar

    2015-10-01

    In this paper a charge plasma based dielectric modulated impact ionization MOSFET (CP-DIMOSFET) has been proposed for the first time to ease the label free detection of biomolecules. The concept of CP-DIMOSFET is proposed and analyzed on basis of simulated data using SILVACO ATLAS. Low thermal budgeting and thin silicon layer without any dopant implantations make the proposed structure advantageous compared to the existing MOSFET based biosensors. The results show that the proposed device is capable to detect the presence of biomolecules. Simple fabrication schemes, miniaturization, high sensitivity, dominance of dielectric modulation make the proposed biosensor a promising one that could one day revolutionize the healthcare industry.

  10. Electrochemical biosensors for hormone analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadır, Elif Burcu; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-06-15

    Electrochemical biosensors have a unique place in determination of hormones due to simplicity, sensitivity, portability and ease of operation. Unlike chromatographic techniques, electrochemical techniques used do not require pre-treatment. Electrochemical biosensors are based on amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric, and conductometric principle. Amperometric technique is a commonly used one. Although electrochemical biosensors offer a great selectivity and sensitivity for early clinical analysis, the poor reproducible results, difficult regeneration steps remain primary challenges to the commercialization of these biosensors. This review summarizes electrochemical (amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric and conductometric) biosensors for hormone detection for the first time in the literature. After a brief description of the hormones, the immobilization steps and analytical performance of these biosensors are summarized. Linear ranges, LODs, reproducibilities, regenerations of developed biosensors are compared. Future outlooks in this area are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Thick-film textile-based amperometric sensors and biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang-Li; Chuang, Min-Chieh; Lou, Shyh-Liang; Wang, Joseph

    2010-06-01

    The incorporation of amperometric sensors into clothing through direct screen-printing onto the textile substrate is described. Particular attention is given to electrochemical sensors printed directly on the elastic waist of underwear that offers tight direct contact with the skin. The textile-based printed carbon electrodes have a well-defined appearance with relatively smooth conductor edges and no apparent defects or cracks. Convenient voltammetric and chronoamperometric measurements of 0-3 mM ferrocyanide, 0-25 mM hydrogen peroxide, and 0-100 muM NADH have been documented. The favorable electrochemical behavior is maintained under folding or stretching stress, relevant to the deformation of clothing. The electrochemical performance and tolerance to mechanical stress are influenced by the physical characteristics of the textile substrate. The results indicate the potential of textile-based screen-printed amperometric sensors for future healthcare, sport or military applications. Such future applications would benefit from tailoring the ink composition and printing conditions to meet the specific requirements of the textile substrate.

  12. Biosensors for EVA: Improved Instrumentation for Ground-based Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, B.; Ellerby, G.; Zou, F.; Scott, P.; Jin, C.; Lee, S. M. C.; Coates, J.

    2010-01-01

    During lunar excursions in the EVA suit, real-time measurement of metabolic rate is required to manage consumables and guide activities to ensure safe return to the base. Metabolic rate, or oxygen consumption (VO2), is normally measured from pulmonary parameters but cannot be determined with standard techniques in the oxygen-rich environment of a spacesuit. Our group has developed novel near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) methods to calculate muscle oxygen saturation (SmO 2), hematocrit, and pH, and we recently demonstrated that we can use our NIRS sensor to measure VO 2 on the leg during cycling. Our NSBRI project has 4 objectives: (1) increase the accuracy of the metabolic rate calculation through improved prediction of stroke volume; (2) investigate the relative contributions of calf and thigh oxygen consumption to metabolic rate calculation for walking and running; (3) demonstrate that the NIRS-based noninvasive metabolic rate methodology is sensitive enough to detect decrement in VO 2 in a space analog; and (4) improve instrumentation to allow testing within a spacesuit. Over the past year we have made progress on all four objectives, but the most significant progress was made in improving the instrumentation. The NIRS system currently in use at JSC is based on fiber optics technology. Optical fiber bundles are used to deliver light from a light source in the monitor to the patient, and light reflected back from the patient s muscle to the monitor for spectroscopic analysis. The fiber optic cables are large and fragile, and there is no way to get them in and out of the test spacesuit used for ground-based studies. With complimentary funding from the US Army, we undertook a complete redesign of the sensor and control electronics to build a novel system small enough to be used within the spacesuit and portable enough to be used by a combat medic. In the new system the filament lamp used in the fiber optic system was replaced with a novel broadband near infrared

  13. Tissue-based standoff biosensors for detecting chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias; Sanders, Charlene A.

    2003-11-18

    A tissue-based, deployable, standoff air quality sensor for detecting the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent, includes: a cell containing entrapped photosynthetic tissue, the cell adapted for analyzing photosynthetic activity of the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; means for introducing an air sample into the cell and contacting the air sample with the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; a fluorometer in operable relationship with the cell for measuring photosynthetic activity of the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; and transmitting means for transmitting analytical data generated by the fluorometer relating to the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent in the air sample, the sensor adapted for deployment into a selected area.

  14. ZnS nanoparticles electrodeposited onto ITO electrode as a platform for fabrication of enzyme-based biosensors of glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Jian; Yu, Xiuping; Wu, Ying; Di, Junwei

    2013-01-01

    The electrochemical and photoelectrochemical biosensors based on glucose oxidase (GOD) and ZnS nanoparticles modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode were investigated. The ZnS nanoparticles were electrodeposited directly on the surface of ITO electrode. The enzyme was immobilized on ZnS/ITO electrode surface by sol–gel method to fabricate glucose biosensor. GOD could electrocatalyze the reduction of dissolved oxygen, which resulted in a great increase of the reduction peak current. The reduction peak current decreased linearly with the addition of glucose, which could be used for glucose detection. Moreover, ZnS nanoparticles deposited on ITO electrode surface showed good photocurrent response under illumination. A photoelectrochemical biosensor for the detection of glucose was also developed by monitoring the decreases in the cathodic peak photocurrent. The results indicated that ZnS nanoparticles deposited on ITO substrate were a good candidate material for the immobilization of enzyme in glucose biosensor construction. - Highlights: ► ZnS nanoparticles were electrodeposited directly on ITO surface. ► The direct electron transfer of GOD immobilized on ZnS surface was obtained. ► The enzyme electrode was used to the determination of glucose in the presence of oxygen. ► The response of photoelectrochemical biosensor towards glucose was more sensitive

  15. ZnS nanoparticles electrodeposited onto ITO electrode as a platform for fabrication of enzyme-based biosensors of glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Jian; Yu, Xiuping; Wu, Ying; Di, Junwei, E-mail: djw@suda.edu.cn

    2013-05-01

    The electrochemical and photoelectrochemical biosensors based on glucose oxidase (GOD) and ZnS nanoparticles modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode were investigated. The ZnS nanoparticles were electrodeposited directly on the surface of ITO electrode. The enzyme was immobilized on ZnS/ITO electrode surface by sol–gel method to fabricate glucose biosensor. GOD could electrocatalyze the reduction of dissolved oxygen, which resulted in a great increase of the reduction peak current. The reduction peak current decreased linearly with the addition of glucose, which could be used for glucose detection. Moreover, ZnS nanoparticles deposited on ITO electrode surface showed good photocurrent response under illumination. A photoelectrochemical biosensor for the detection of glucose was also developed by monitoring the decreases in the cathodic peak photocurrent. The results indicated that ZnS nanoparticles deposited on ITO substrate were a good candidate material for the immobilization of enzyme in glucose biosensor construction. - Highlights: ► ZnS nanoparticles were electrodeposited directly on ITO surface. ► The direct electron transfer of GOD immobilized on ZnS surface was obtained. ► The enzyme electrode was used to the determination of glucose in the presence of oxygen. ► The response of photoelectrochemical biosensor towards glucose was more sensitive.

  16. Stable and sensitive flow-through monitoring of phenol using a carbon nanotube based screen printed biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alarcon, G; Guix, M; Ambrosi, A; Merkoci, A; Ramirez Silva, M T; Palomar Pardave, M E

    2010-01-01

    A stable and sensitive biosensor for phenol detection based on a screen printed electrode modified with tyrosinase, multiwall carbon nanotubes and glutaraldehyde is designed and applied in a flow injection analytical system. The proposed carbon nanotube matrix is easy to prepare and ensures a very good entrapment environment for the enzyme, being simpler and cheaper than other reported strategies. In addition, the proposed matrix allows for a very fast operation of the enzyme, that leads to a response time of 15 s. Several parameters such as the working potential, pH of the measuring solution, biosensor response time, detection limit, linear range of response and sensitivity are studied. The obtained detection limit for phenol was 0.14 x 10 -6 M. The biosensor keeps its activity during continuous FIA measurements at room temperature, showing a stable response (RSD 5%) within a two week working period at room temperature. The developed biosensor is being applied for phenol detection in seawater samples and seems to be a promising alternative for automatic control of seawater contamination. The developed detection system can be extended to other enzyme biosensors with interest for several other applications.

  17. Stable and sensitive flow-through monitoring of phenol using a carbon nanotube based screen printed biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, G; Guix, M; Ambrosi, A; Merkoci, A [Nanobioelectronics and Biosensors Group, Catalan Institute of Nanotechnology, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Ramirez Silva, M T [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, 09340 Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico); Palomar Pardave, M E, E-mail: arben.merkoci.icn@uab.es [Departamento de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Azcapotzalco, 02200 Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2010-06-18

    A stable and sensitive biosensor for phenol detection based on a screen printed electrode modified with tyrosinase, multiwall carbon nanotubes and glutaraldehyde is designed and applied in a flow injection analytical system. The proposed carbon nanotube matrix is easy to prepare and ensures a very good entrapment environment for the enzyme, being simpler and cheaper than other reported strategies. In addition, the proposed matrix allows for a very fast operation of the enzyme, that leads to a response time of 15 s. Several parameters such as the working potential, pH of the measuring solution, biosensor response time, detection limit, linear range of response and sensitivity are studied. The obtained detection limit for phenol was 0.14 x 10{sup -6} M. The biosensor keeps its activity during continuous FIA measurements at room temperature, showing a stable response (RSD 5%) within a two week working period at room temperature. The developed biosensor is being applied for phenol detection in seawater samples and seems to be a promising alternative for automatic control of seawater contamination. The developed detection system can be extended to other enzyme biosensors with interest for several other applications.

  18. Highly sensitive amperometric biosensor based on electrochemically-reduced graphene oxide-chitosan/hemoglobin nanocomposite for nitromethane determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yunping; Wen, Wei; Zhang, Xiuhua; Wang, Shengfu

    2016-05-15

    Nitromethane (CH3NO2) is an important organic chemical raw material with a wide variety of applications as well as one of the most common pollutants. Therefore it is pretty important to establish a simple and sensitive detection method for CH3NO2. In our study, a novel amperometric biosensor for nitromethane (CH3NO2) based on immobilization of electrochemically-reduced graphene oxide (rGO), chitosan (CS) and hemoglobin (Hb) on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was constructed. Scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and electrochemical methods were used to characterize the Hb-CS/rGO-CS composite film. The effects of scan rate and pH of phosphate buffer on the biosensor have been studied in detail and optimized. Due to the graphene and chitosan nanocomposite, the developed biosensor demonstrating direct electrochemistry with faster electron-transfer rate (6.48s(-1)) and excellent catalytic activity towards CH3NO2. Under optimal conditions, the proposed biosensor exhibited fast amperometric response (<5s) to CH3NO2 with a wide linear range of 5 μM~1.46 mM (R=0.999) and a low detection limit of 1.5 μM (S/N=3). In addition, the biosensor had high selectivity, reproducibility and stability, providing the possibility for monitoring CH3NO2 in complex real samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Influences of Mg Doping on the Electrochemical Performance of TiO2 Nanodots Based Biosensor Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. H. Al-Furjan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical biosensors are essential for health monitors to help in diagnosis and detection of diseases. Enzyme adsorptions on biosensor electrodes and direct electron transfer between them have been recognized as key factors to affect biosensor performance. TiO2 has a good protein adsorption ability and facilitates having more enzyme adsorption and better electron transfer. In this work, Mg ions are introduced into TiO2 nanodots in order to further improve electrode performance because Mg ions are considered to have good affinity with proteins or enzymes. Mg doped TiO2 nanodots on Ti substrates were prepared by spin-coating and calcining. The effects of Mg doping on the nanodots morphology and performance of the electrodes were investigated. The density and size of TiO2 nanodots were obviously changed with Mg doping. The sensitivity of 2% Mg doped TiO2 nanodots based biosensor electrode increased to 1377.64 from 897.8 µA mM−1 cm−2 and its KMapp decreases to 0.83 from 1.27 mM, implying that the enzyme achieves higher catalytic efficiency due to better affinity of the enzyme with the Mg doped TiO2. The present work could provide an alternative to improve biosensor performances.

  20. A New Genetically Encoded Single-Chain Biosensor for Cdc42 Based on FRET, Useful for Live-Cell Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Dianne; Hodgson, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Cdc42 is critical in a myriad of cellular morphogenic processes, requiring precisely regulated activation dynamics to affect specific cellular events. To facilitate direct observations of Cdc42 activation in live cells, we developed and validated a new biosensor of Cdc42 activation. The biosensor is genetically encoded, of single-chain design and capable of correctly localizing to membrane compartments as well as interacting with its upstream regulators including the guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor. We characterized this new biosensor in motile mouse embryonic fibroblasts and observed robust activation dynamics at leading edge protrusions, similar to those previously observed for endogenous Cdc42 using the organic dye-based biosensor system. We then extended our validations and observations of Cdc42 activity to macrophages, and show that this new biosensor is able to detect differential activation patterns during phagocytosis and cytokine stimulation. Furthermore, we observe for the first time, a highly transient and localized activation of Cdc42 during podosome formation in macrophages, which was previously hypothesized but never directly visualized. PMID:24798463

  1. Development of swine-specific DNA markers for biosensor-based halal authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M E; Hashim, U; Kashif, M; Mustafa, S; Che Man, Y B; Abd Hamid, S B

    2012-06-29

    The pig (Sus scrofa) mitochondrial genome was targeted to design short (15-30 nucleotides) DNA markers that would be suitable for biosensor-based hybridization detection of target DNA. Short DNA markers are reported to survive harsh conditions in which longer ones are degraded into smaller fragments. The whole swine mitochondrial-genome was in silico digested with AluI restriction enzyme. Among 66 AluI fragments, five were selected as potential markers because of their convenient lengths, high degree of interspecies polymorphism and intraspecies conservatism. These were confirmed by NCBI blast analysis and ClustalW alignment analysis with 11 different meat-providing animal and fish species. Finally, we integrated a tetramethyl rhodamine-labeled 18-nucleotide AluI fragment into a 3-nm diameter citrate-tannate coated gold nanoparticle to develop a swine-specific hybrid nanobioprobe for the determination of pork adulteration in 2.5-h autoclaved pork-beef binary mixtures. This hybrid probe detected as low as 1% pork in deliberately contaminated autoclaved pork-beef binary mixtures and no cross-species detection was recorded, demonstrating the feasibility of this type of probe for biosensor-based detection of pork adulteration of halal and kosher foods.

  2. Hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on microperoxidase-11 immobilized in a silica cavity array electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shu; Zhou, Qun; Gu, Zhuomin; Gu, Xuefang; Zhao, Lili; Li, Yan; Zheng, Junwei

    2013-03-30

    Hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on the silica cavity array modified indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) electrode was constructed. An array of silica microcavities was fabricated by electrodeposition using the assembled polystyrene particles as template. Due to the resistance gradient of the silica cavity structure, the silica cavity exhibits a confinement effect on the electrochemical reactions, making the electrode function as an array of "soft" microelectrodes. The covalently immobilized microperoxidase-11(MP-11) inside these SiO2 cavities can keep its physiological activities, the electron transfer between the MP-11 and electrode was investigated through electrochemical method. The cyclic voltammetric curve shows a quasi-reversible electrochemical redox behavior with a pair of well-defined redox peaks, the cathodic and anodic peaks are located at -0.26 and -0.15V. Furthermore, the modified electrode exhibits high electrocatalytic activity toward the reduction of hydrogen peroxide and also shows good analytical performance for the amperometric detection of H2O2 with a linear range from 2×10(-6) to 6×10(-4)M. The good reproducibility and long-term stability of this novel electrode not only offer an opportunity for the detection of H2O2 in low concentration, but also provide a platform to construct various biosensors based on many other enzymes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A high-throughput surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on differential interferometric imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Daqian; Ding, Lili; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Enyao; Yu, Xinglong; Luo, Zhaofeng; Ou, Huichao

    2012-01-01

    A new high-throughput surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on differential interferometric imaging is reported. The two SPR interferograms of the sensing surface are imaged on two CCD cameras. The phase difference between the two interferograms is 180°. The refractive index related factor (RIRF) of the sensing surface is calculated from the two simultaneously acquired interferograms. The simulation results indicate that the RIRF exhibits a linear relationship with the refractive index of the sensing surface and is unaffected by the noise, drift and intensity distribution of the light source. The affinity and kinetic information can be extracted in real time from continuously acquired RIRF distributions. The results of refractometry experiments show that the dynamic detection range of SPR differential interferometric imaging system can be over 0.015 refractive index unit (RIU). High refractive index resolution is down to 0.45 RU (1 RU = 1 × 10 −6 RIU). Imaging and protein microarray experiments demonstrate the ability of high-throughput detection. The aptamer experiments demonstrate that the SPR sensor based on differential interferometric imaging has a great capability to be implemented for high-throughput aptamer kinetic evaluation. These results suggest that this biosensor has the potential to be utilized in proteomics and drug discovery after further improvement. (paper)

  4. Graphene oxide based photoinduced charge transfer label-free near-infrared fluorescent biosensor for dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Long; Yan, Xiu-Ping; Meng, Kang; Wang, Shu-Feng

    2011-11-15

    While the super fluorescence quenching capacity of graphene and graphene oxide (GO) has been extensively employed to develop fluorescent sensors, their own unique fluorescence and its potential for chemo-/biosensing have seldom been explored. Here we report a GO-based photoinduced charge transfer (PCT) label-free near-infrared (near-IR) fluorescent biosensor for dopamine (DA). The multiple noncovalent interactions between GO and DA and the ultrafast decay at the picosecond range of the near-IR fluorescence of GO resulted in effective self-assembly of DA molecules on the surface of GO, and significant fluorescence quenching, allowing development of a PCT-based biosensor with direct readout of the near-IR fluorescence of GO for selective and sensitive detection of DA. The developed method gave a detection limit of 94 nM and a relative standard deviation of 2.0% for 11 replicate detections of 2.0 μM DA and was successfully applied to the determination of DA in biological fluids with quantitative recovery (98-115%).

  5. Self-cleaned electrochemical protein imprinting biosensor basing on a thermo-responsive memory hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yubo; Zeng, Qiang; Hu, Qiong; Wang, Min; Tao, Jia; Wang, Lishi

    2018-01-15

    Herein, the self-cleaned electrochemical protein imprinting biosensor basing on a thermo-responsive memory hydrogel was constructed on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with a free radical polymerization method. Combining the advantages of thermo-responsive molecular imprinted polymers and electrochemistry, the resulted biosensor presents a novel self-cleaned ability for bovine serum albumin (BSA) in aqueous media. As a temperature controlled gate, the hydrogel film undergoes the adsorption and desorption of BSA basing on a reversible structure change with the external temperature stimuli. In particular, these processes have been revealed by the response of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of electroactive [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3-/4- . The results have been supported by the evidences of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angles measurements. Under the optimal conditions, a wide detection range from 0.02μmolL -1 to 10μmolL -1 with a detection limit of 0.012 μmolL -1 (S/N = 3) was obtained for BSA. This proposed BSA sensor also possesses high selectivity, excellent stability, acceptable recovery and good reproducibility in its practical applications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. ZnO nano-array-based EGFET biosensor for glucose detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Junjie; Zhang, Huihui; Ji, Zhaoxia; Xu, Minxuan; Zhang, Yue

    2015-06-01

    Electrochemical biosensors are normally based on enzymatic catalysis of a reaction that produces or consumes electrons and the sensing membranes dominate the performance. In this work, ZnO nano-array-based EGFETs were fabricated for pH and glucose detection. The ZnO nano-arrays prepared via low-temperature hydrothermal method were well-aligned, with an average length of 2 μm and diameter of 100-150 nm, and have a typical hexagonal wurtzite structure. The sensor performed with a sensitivity of 45 mV/pH and response time of about 6-7 s from pH = 4-12. UV irradiation can improve the Vref response as a result of the formation of a depletion region at the surface of ZnO nanomaterials. Due to its high specific surface area, the ZnO nano-array EGFET sensor showed a sensitivity of -0.395 mV/μM to the glucose detection in a concentration range between 20 and 100 μM. These EGFET glucose biosensors demonstrate a low detectable concentration (20 μM) with good linearity, therefore may be used to detect glucose in saliva and tears at much lower concentrations than that in blood.

  7. In situ microbial fuel cell-based biosensor for organic carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jesus dos Santos Peixoto, Luciana; Min, Booki; Martins, Gilberto

    2011-01-01

    The biological oxygen demand (BOD) may be the most used test to assess the amount of pollutant organic matter in water; however, it is time and labor consuming, and is done ex-situ. A BOD biosensor based on the microbial fuel cell principle was tested for online and in situ monitoring of biodegra......The biological oxygen demand (BOD) may be the most used test to assess the amount of pollutant organic matter in water; however, it is time and labor consuming, and is done ex-situ. A BOD biosensor based on the microbial fuel cell principle was tested for online and in situ monitoring...... of biodegradable organic content of domestic wastewater. A stable current density of 282±23mA/m2 was obtained with domestic wastewater containing a BOD5 of 317±15mg O2/L at 22±2°C, 1.53±0.04mS/cm and pH 6.9±0.1. The current density showed a linear relationship with BOD5 concentration ranging from 17±0.5mg O2/L...

  8. Highly Sensitive and Selective Potassium Ion Detection Based on Graphene Hall Effect Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangqi Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Potassium (K+ ion is an important biological substance in the human body and plays a critical role in the maintenance of transmembrane potential and hormone secretion. Several detection techniques, including fluorescent, electrochemical, and electrical methods, have been extensively investigated to selectively recognize K+ ions. In this work, a highly sensitive and selective biosensor based on single-layer graphene has been developed for K+ ion detection under Van der Pauw measurement configuration. With pre-immobilization of guanine-rich DNA on the graphene surface, the graphene devices exhibit a very low limit of detection (≈1 nM with a dynamic range of 1 nM–10 μM and excellent K+ ion specificity against other alkali cations, such as Na+ ions. The origin of K+ ion selectivity can be attributed to the fact that the formation of guanine-quadruplexes from guanine-rich DNA has a strong affinity for capturing K+ ions. The graphene-based biosensors with improved sensing performance for K+ ion recognition can be applied to health monitoring and early disease diagnosis.

  9. Electrochemical DNA biosensor based on MNAzyme-mediated signal amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao, Wei; Tang, Min; Ding, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Ye; Yang, Jianru; Cheng, Wenbin; Mo, Fei; Wen, Bo; Xu, Lulu; Yan, Yurong

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe an electrochemical sensing strategy for highly sensitive and specific detection of target (analyte) DNA based on an amplification scheme mediated by a multicomponent nucleic acid enzyme (MNAzyme). MNAzymes were formed by multicomponent complexes which produce amplified “output” signals in response to specific “input” signal. In the presence of target nucleic acid, multiple partial enzymes (partzymes) oligonucleotides are assembled to form active MNAzymes. These can cleave H0 substrate into two pieces, thereby releasing the activated MNAzyme to undergo an additional cycle of amplification. Here, the two pieces contain a biotin-tagged sequence and a byproduct. The biotin-tagged sequences are specifically captured by the detection probes immobilized on the gold electrode. By employing streptavidinylated alkaline phosphatase as an enzyme label, an electrochemical signal is obtained. The electrode, if operated at a working potential of 0.25 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in solution of pH 7.5, covers the 100 pM to 0.25 μM DNA concentration range, with a 79 pM detection limit. In our perception, the strategy introduced here has a wider potential in that it may be applied to molecular diagnostics and pathogen detection. (author)

  10. Fluorogenic Cell-Based Biosensors for Monitoring Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Theresa; Salazar, Noe; Tabb, Joel; Chase, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Fluorogenic cell-based sensor systems for detecting microbes (especially pathogenic ones) and some toxins and allergens are undergoing development. These systems harness the natural signaltransduction and amplification cascades that occur in mast cells upon activation with antigens. These systems include (1) fluidic biochips for automated containment of samples, reagents, and wastes and (2) sensitive, compact fluorometers for monitoring the fluorescent responses of mast cells engineered to contain fluorescent dyes. It should be possible to observe responses within minutes of adding immune complexes. The systems have been shown to work when utilizing either immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies or traditionally generated rat antibodies - a promising result in that it indicates that the systems could be developed to detect many target microbes. Chimeric IgE antibodies and rat immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies could be genetically engineered for recognizing biological and chemical warfare agents and airborne and food-borne allergens. Genetic engineering efforts thus far have yielded (1) CD14 chimeric antibodies that recognize both Grampositive and Gram-negative bacteria and bind to the surfaces of mast cells, eliciting a degranulation response and (2) rat IgG2a antibodies that act similarly in response to low levels of canine parvovirus.

  11. Fluorescence biosensor based on CdTe quantum dots for specific detection of H5N1 avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa Nguyen, Thi; Dieu Thuy Ung, Thi; Hien Vu, Thi; Tran, Thi Kim Chi; Quyen Dong, Van; Khang Dinh, Duy; Liem Nguyen, Quang

    2012-09-01

    This report highlights the fabrication of fluorescence biosensors based on CdTe quantum dots (QDs) for specific detection of H5N1 avian influenza virus. The core biosensor was composed of (i) the highly luminescent CdTe/CdS QDs, (ii) chromatophores extracted from bacteria Rhodospirillum rubrum, and (iii) the antibody of β-subunit. This core part was linked to the peripheral part of the biosensor via a biotin-streptavidin-biotin bridge and finally connected to the H5N1 antibody to make it ready for detecting H5N1 avian influenza virus. Detailed studies of each constituent were performed showing the image of QDs-labeled chromatophores under optical microscope, proper photoluminescence (PL) spectra of CdTe/CdS QDs, chromatophores and the H5N1 avian influenza viruses.

  12. A Simple Metallothionein-Based Biosensor for Enhanced Detection of Arsenic and Mercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon W. Irvine

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Metallothioneins (MTs are a family of cysteine-rich proteins whose biological roles include the regulation of essential metal ions and protection against the harmful effects of toxic metals. Due to its high affinity for many toxic, soft metals, recombinant human MT isoform 1a was incorporated into an electrochemical-based biosensor for the detection of As3+ and Hg2+. A simple design was chosen to maximize its potential in environmental monitoring and MT was physically adsorbed onto paper discs placed on screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs. This system was tested with concentrations of arsenic and mercury typical of contaminated water sources ranging from 5 to 1000 ppb. The analytical performance of the MT-adsorbed paper discs on SPCEs demonstrated a greater than three-fold signal enhancement and a lower detection limit compared to blank SPCEs, 13 ppb for As3+ and 45 ppb for Hg2+. While not being as low as some of the recommended drinking water limits, the sensitivity of the simple MT-biosensor would be potentially useful in monitoring of areas of concern with a known contamination problem. This paper describes the ability of the metal binding protein metallothionein to enhance the effectiveness of a simple, low-cost electrochemical sensor.

  13. Selenium containing conducting polymer based pyranose oxidase biosensor for glucose detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokoglan, Tugba Ceren; Soylemez, Saniye; Kesik, Melis; Toksabay, Sinem; Toppare, Levent

    2015-04-01

    A novel amperometric pyranose oxidase (PyOx) biosensor based on a selenium containing conducting polymer has been developed for the glucose detection. For this purpose, a conducting polymer; poly(4,7-bis(thieno[3,2-b]thiophen-2-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5] selenadiazole) (poly(BSeTT)) was synthesized via electropolymerisation on gold electrode to examine its matrix property for glucose detection. For this purpose, PyOx was used as the model enzyme and immobilised via physical adsorption technique. Amperometric detection of consumed oxygen was monitored at -0.7 V vs Ag reference electrode in a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.0). K(M)(app), Imax, LOD and sensitivity were calculated as 0.229 mM, 42.37 nA, 3.3 × 10(-4)nM and 6.4 nA/mM cm(2), respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques were used to monitor changes in surface morphologies and to run electrochemical characterisations. Finally, the constructed biosensor was applied for the determination of glucose in beverages successfully. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Glucose biosensors based on a gold nanodendrite modified screen-printed electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hsi-Chien; Tsai, Chung-Che; Wang, Gou-Jen

    2013-01-01

    In this study, an enzymatic glucose biosensor based on a three-dimensional gold nanodendrite (GND) modified screen-printed electrode was developed. The GNDs were electrochemically synthesized on the working electrode component of a commercially available screen-printed electrode using a solution acquired by dissolving bulk gold in aqua regia as the precursor. The 3D GND electrode greatly enhanced the effective sensing area of the biosensor, which improved the sensitivity of glucose detection. Actual glucose detections demonstrated that the fabricated devices could perform at a sensitivity of 46.76 μA mM −1 cm −2 with a linear detection range from 28 μM–8.4 mM and detection limit of 7 μM. A fast response time (∼3 s) was also observed. Moreover, only a 20 μl glucose oxidase is required for detection owing to the incorporation of the commercially available screen-printed electrode. (paper)

  15. Detection of Myoglobin with an Open-Cavity-Based Label-Free Photonic Crystal Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bailin; Tamez-Vela, Juan Manuel; Solis, Steven; Bustamante, Gilbert; Peterson, Ralph; Rahman, Shafiqur; Morales, Andres; Tang, Liang; Ye, Jing Yong

    2013-01-01

    The label-free detection of one of the cardiac biomarkers, myoglobin, using a photonic-crystal-based biosensor in a total-internal-reflection configuration (PC-TIR) is presented in this paper. The PC-TIR sensor possesses a unique open optical microcavity that allows for several key advantages in biomolecular assays. In contrast to a conventional closed microcavity, the open configuration allows easy functionalization of the sensing surface for rapid biomolecular binding assays. Moreover, the properties of PC structures make it easy to be designed and engineered for operating at any optical wavelength. Through fine design of the photonic crystal structure, biochemical modification of the sensor surface, and integration with a microfluidic system, we have demonstrated that the detection sensitivity of the sensor for myoglobin has reached the clinically significant concentration range, enabling potential usage of this biosensor for diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. The real-time response of the sensor to the myoglobin binding may potentially provide point-of-care monitoring of patients and treatment effects.

  16. Optical resonance-enhanced absorption-based near-field immunochip biosensor for allergen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Irene; Morgan, Michael R A; Lindner, Wolfgang; Pittner, Fritz

    2008-04-15

    An optical immunochip biosensor has been developed as a rapid method for allergen detection in complex food matrixes, and its application evaluated for the detection of the egg white allergens, ovalbumin and ovomucoid. The optical near-field phenomenon underlying the basic principle of the sensor design is called resonance-enhanced absorption (REA), which utilizes gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) as signal transducers in a highly sensitive interferometric setup. Using this approach, a novel, simple, and rapid colorimetric solid-phase immunoassay on a planar chip substrate was realized in direct and sandwich assay formats, with a detection system that does not require any instrumentation for readout. Semiquantitative immunochemical responses are directly visible to the naked eye of the analyst. The biosensor shows concentration-dependent color development by capturing antibody-functionalized Au NPs on allergen-coated chips and has a detection limit of 1 ng/mL. To establish a rapid method, we took advantage of the physicochemical microenvironment of the Au NP-antibody bioconjugate to be bound directly over an interacting poly(styrene-methyl methacrylate) interlayer by an immobilized antigen. In the direct assay format, a coating time with allergen of only 5 min under "soft" nondenaturing conditions was sufficient for accurate reproducibility and sensitivity. In conclusion, the REA-based immunochip sensor is easy to fabricate, is reproducible and selective in its performance, has minimal technical requirements, and will enable high-throughput screening of affinity binding interactions in technological and medical applications.

  17. Amperometric Acetylcholinesterase Biosensor Based on Multilayer Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes-chitosan Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia SUN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple method for immobilization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE onto the glassy carbon electrode (GCE modified with five layers of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs-chitosan (CHIT composite was proposed, and thus a fast, sensitive and stable amperometric sensor for quantitative determination of pesticides was developed. Five layers of MWNTs-CHIT promoted electron transfer reactions at a lower potential and catalyzed the electro-oxidation of thiocholine, thus, it improved the detection sensitivity of biosensor. Based on the inhibition of pesticides to the enzymatic activity of AChE, using carbofuran as a model compound, under optimal conditions, the inhibition of carbofuran was proportional to its concentration in two ranges, from 5×10-4 to 7.5 μg/mL and 7.5 to 20 μg/mL with a detection limit of 1×10-4 μg/mL. The constructed biosensor showed prominent characteristics and performances such as good precision, acceptable stability, fast response and low detection limit, which provided a new promising tool for pesticide analysis.

  18. AFFINITY BIOSENSOR BASED ON SCREEN-PRINTED ELECTRODE MODIFIED WITH DNA FOR GENOTOXIC COMPOUNDS DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Kuswandi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An electrochemical method for the detection of the genotoxic compounds using a DNA-modified electrode was developed. This electrode was successfully used for the electrochemical detection of genotoxic compounds in water samples. The electrochemical results clearly demonstrated that, the development is related to the molecular interaction between the surface-linked DNA obtained from calf thymus and the target compounds, such as pollutants, in order to develop a simple device for rapid screening of genotoxic compounds in environmental samples. The detection of such compounds was measured by their effect on the oxidation signal of the guanine peak of the DNA immobilised on the surface of carbon based Screen-Printed Electrode (SPE in disposable mode, and monitored by square-wave voltametric analysis. The DNA biosensor is able to detect known intercalating and groove-binding genotoxic compounds such as Dioxin, Bisphenol A, PCBs, and Phtalates. Application to real water samples is discussed and reported.   Keywords: electrochemical, screen-printed electrode, DNA biosensor, genotoxic compounds

  19. An Acetylcholinesterase-Based Chronoamperometric Biosensor for Fast and Reliable Assay of Nerve Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE is an important part of cholinergic nervous system, where it stops neurotransmission by hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. It is sensitive to inhibition by organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, some Alzheimer disease drugs, secondary metabolites such as aflatoxins and nerve agents used in chemical warfare. When immobilized on a sensor (physico-chemical transducer, it can be used for assay of these inhibitors. In the experiments described herein, an AChE- based electrochemical biosensor using screen printed electrode systems was prepared. The biosensor was used for assay of nerve agents such as sarin, soman, tabun and VX. The limits of detection achieved in a measuring protocol lasting ten minutes were 7.41 × 10−12 mol/L for sarin, 6.31 × 10−12 mol /L for soman, 6.17 × 10−11 mol/L for tabun, and 2.19 × 10−11 mol/L for VX, respectively. The assay was reliable, with minor interferences caused by the organic solvents ethanol, methanol, isopropanol and acetonitrile. Isopropanol was chosen as suitable medium for processing lipophilic samples.

  20. Biosensor for label-free DNA quantification based on functionalized LPGs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Helena M R; Moreira, Luis; Pereira, Leonor; Jorge, Pedro; Gouveia, Carlos; Martins-Lopes, Paula; Fernandes, José R A

    2016-10-15

    A label-free fiber optic biosensor based on a long period grating (LPG) and a basic optical interrogation scheme using off the shelf components is used for the detection of in-situ DNA hybridization. A new methodology is proposed for the determination of the spectral position of the LPG mode resonance. The experimental limit of detection obtained for the DNA was 62±2nM and the limit of quantification was 209±7nM. The sample specificity was experimentally demonstrated using DNA targets with different base mismatches relatively to the probe and was found that the system has a single base mismatch selectivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection of Abrin by Electrochemiluminescence Biosensor Based on Screen Printed Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For the convenience of fast measurement in the outdoor environment, a portable electrochemiluminescence biosensor with the screen-printed electrode as the reaction center was developed, which possesses the characteristics of high sensitivity, small scale, simplified operation and so on, and has been used for in situ detection of abrin. First, combining with magnetic separation technique, the “biotin-avidin” method was used to immobilize the polyclonal antibody (pcAb on the magnetic microspheres surface as the capture probe. Secondly, the Ru(bpy32+-labeled monoclonal antibody (mcAb was used as the specific electrochemiluminescence signal probe. Then, the “mcAb-toxin-pcAb” sandwich model was built to actualize the quantitative detection of abrin on the surface of the screen-printed electrode. The linear detection range was 0.5–1000 ng/mL; the regression equation was Y = 89.251lgX + 104.978 (R = 0.9989, n = 7, p < 0.0001; and the limit of detection (LOD was 0.1 ng/mL. The sensing system showed high sensitivity, excellent specificity and good anti-interference ability, and could be used for the analysis of trace abrin in various environmental samples with good recovery and reproducibility. Compared with the traditional electrochemiluminescence sensing device, its miniaturization and portability gives it potential to satisfy the requirement of in situ detection.

  2. Immobilization techniques in the fabrication of nanomaterial-based electrochemical biosensors: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzbach, William; Ronkainen, Niina J

    2013-04-11

    The evolution of 1st to 3rd generation electrochemical biosensors reflects a simplification and enhancement of the transduction pathway. However, in recent years, modification of the transducer with nanomaterials has become increasingly studied and imparts many advantages. The sensitivity and overall performance of enzymatic biosensors has improved tremendously as a result of incorporating nanomaterials in their fabrication. Given the unique and favorable qualities of gold nanoparticles, graphene and carbon nanotubes as applied to electrochemical biosensors, a consolidated survey of the different methods of nanomaterial immobilization on transducer surfaces and enzyme immobilization on these species is beneficial and timely. This review encompasses modification of enzymatic biosensors with gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and graphene.

  3. Sensitive detection of maltose and glucose based on dual enzyme-displayed bacteria electrochemical biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aihua; Lang, Qiaolin; Liang, Bo; Shi, Jianguo

    2017-01-15

    Glucoamylase-displayed bacteria (GA-bacteria) and glucose dehydrogenase-displayed bacteria (GDH-bacteria) were co-immobilized on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to construct GA-bacteria/GDH-bacteria/MWNTs/GCE biosensor. The biosensor was developed by optimizing the loading amount and the ratio of GA-bacteria to GDH-bacteria. The as-prepared biosensor exhibited a wide dynamic range of 0.2-10mM and a low detection limit of 0.1mM maltose (S/N=3). The biosensor also had a linear response to glucose in the range of 0.1-2.0mM and a low detection limit of 0.04mM glucose (S/N=3). Interestingly, at the same concentration, glucose was 3.75-fold sensitive than that of maltose at the proposed biosensor. No interferences were observed for other possible mono- and disaccharides. The biosensor also demonstrated good long-term storage stability and repeatability. Further, using both GDH-bacteria/MWNTs/GCE biosensor and GA-bacteria/GDH-bacteria/MWNTs/GCE biosensor, glucose and maltose in real samples can be detected. Therefore, the proposed biosensor is capable of monitoring the food manufacturing and fermentation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Acetylcholinesterase biosensor based on SnO2 nanoparticles-carboxylic graphene-nafion modified electrode for detection of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Yang, Long; Wang, Guangcan; Yang, Yun

    2013-11-15

    A sensitive amperometric acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensor, based on SnO2 nanoparticles (SnO2 NPs), carboxylic graphene (CGR) and nafion (NF) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for the detection of methyl parathion and carbofuran has been developed. The nanocomposites of SnO2 NPs and CGR was synthesized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. Chitosan (CS) was used to immobilize AChE on SnO2 NPs-CGR-NF/GCE and to improve electronic transmission between AChE and SnO2 NPs-CGR-NF/GCE. NF was used as the protective membrane for the AChE biosensor. The SnO2 NPs-CGR-NF nanocomposites with excellent conductivity, catalysis and biocompatibility offered an extremely hydrophilic surface for AChE adhesion. The AChE biosensor showed favorable affinity to acetylthiocholine chloride (ATCl) and could catalyze the hydrolysis of ATCl with an apparent Michaelis-Menten constant value of 131 μM. The biosensor detected methyl parathion in the linear range from 10(-13) to 10(-10)M and from 10(-10) to 10(-8)M. The biosensor detected carbofuran in the linear range from 10(-12) to 10(-10)M and from 10(-10) to 10(-8)M. The detection limits of methyl parathion and carbofuran were 5 × 10(-14)M and 5 × 10(-13)M, respectively. The biosensor exhibited low applied potential, high sensitivity and acceptable stability, thus providing a promising tool for analysis of pesticides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultra-sensitive "turn-on" detection method for Hg(2+) based on mispairing biosensor and emulsion PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Pengyu; Tian, Wenying; Cheng, Nan; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo; Xu, Wentao

    2016-08-01

    Sensor-based detection methods have inspired the idea that chemical or physical signals could be converted to nucleic acid signals to be quantitatively detected using a combination of appropriate detection tools. To achieve ultra-sensitive and absolute quantitative detection of mercury ion (Hg(2+)), we have combined a mispairing biosensor for Hg(2+) and emulsion PCR. The parameters that might influence the biosensor step, such as the duration of isothermal amplification and the concentration of the sensor oligonucleotide, have been firstly optimized in our study to achieve the most efficient biosensor detection. The evaluation results of secondary structures between the biosensors with different number of T-Hg-T structures achieved by Circular Dichroism have indicated that the secondary hairpin structure would be varied according to the change of number of T-Hg-T structures, which could influence the quantitative detection results. Further optimization of number of T-Hg-T within the biosensor sequences showed that 5 T-Hg-T structures could generate the most efficient amplification. After the above optimizations, the emulsion PCR has been employed to achieve the absolute quantitation of nucleic acid signals. The final results have shown that the limit of quantitation (LOQ) in our study was as low as 40fmol, and the limit of detection (LOD) was 10fmol. The practical detection tests showed that the quantitative results were stable and accurate for all substrates. In conclusion, by combining a mispairing biosensor with emulsion PCR, we developed a flexible and stable quantitative "turn-on" detection method with ultra-sensitivity that can detect trace amounts Hg(2+) within different substrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. An amperometric hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on Co3O4 nanoparticles and multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaçar, Ceren; Dalkiran, Berna; Erden, Pınar Esra; Kiliç, Esma

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrogen peroxide biosensor was constructed by combining the advantageous properties of MWCNTs and Co 3 O 4 . • Incorporating Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles into MWCNTs/gelatin film increased the electron transfer. • Co 3 O 4 /MWCNTs/gelatin/HRP/Nafion/GCE showed strong anti-interference ability. • Hydrogen peroxide was successfully determined in disinfector with an average recovery of 100.78 ± 0.89. - Abstract: In this work a new type of hydrogen peroxide biosensor was fabricated based on the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) by cross-linking on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and gelatin. The introduction of MWCNTs and Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles not only enhanced the surface area of the modified electrode for enzyme immobilization but also facilitated the electron transfer rate, resulting in a high sensitivity of the biosensor. The fabrication process of the sensing surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide was investigated by holding the modified electrode at −0.30 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The biosensor showed optimum response within 5 s at pH 7.0. The optimized biosensor showed linear response range of 7.4 × 10 −7 –1.9 × 10 −5 M with a detection limit of 7.4 × 10 −7 . The applicability of the purposed biosensor was tested by detecting hydrogen peroxide in disinfector samples. The average recovery was calculated as 100.78 ± 0.89

  7. Mesoporous carbon nitride based biosensor for highly sensitive and selective analysis of phenol and catechol in compost bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yaoyu; Tang, Lin; Zeng, Guangming; Chen, Jun; Cai, Ye; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Guide; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Chen; Tang, Wangwang

    2014-11-15

    Herein, we reported here a promising biosensor by taking advantage of the unique ordered mesoporous carbon nitride material (MCN) to convert the recognition information into a detectable signal with enzyme firstly, which could realize the sensitive, especially, selective detection of catechol and phenol in compost bioremediation samples. The mechanism including the MCN based on electrochemical, biosensor assembly, enzyme immobilization, and enzyme kinetics (elucidating the lower detection limit, different linear range and sensitivity) was discussed in detail. Under optimal conditions, GCE/MCN/Tyr biosensor was evaluated by chronoamperometry measurements and the reduction current of phenol and catechol was proportional to their concentration in the range of 5.00 × 10(-8)-9.50 × 10(-6)M and 5.00 × 10(-8)-1.25 × 10(-5)M with a correlation coefficient of 0.9991 and 0.9881, respectively. The detection limits of catechol and phenol were 10.24 nM and 15.00 nM (S/N=3), respectively. Besides, the data obtained from interference experiments indicated that the biosensor had good specificity. All the results showed that this material is suitable for load enzyme and applied to the biosensor due to the proposed biosensor exhibited improved analytical performances in terms of the detection limit and specificity, provided a powerful tool for rapid, sensitive, especially, selective monitoring of catechol and phenol simultaneously. Moreover, the obtained results may open the way to other MCN-enzyme applications in the environmental field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A plastic total internal reflection-based photoluminescence device for enzymatic biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Ishan G.

    Growing concerns for quality of water, food and beverages in developing and developed countries drive sizeable markets for mass-producible, low cost devices that can measure the concentration of contaminant chemicals in water, food, and beverages rapidly and accurately. Several fiber-optic enzymatic biosensors have been reported for these applications, but they exhibit very strong presence of scattered excitation light in the signal for sensing, requiring expensive thin-film filters, and their non-planar structure makes them challenging to mass-produce. Several other planar optical waveguide-based biosensors prove to be relatively costly and more fragile due to constituent materials and the techniques involved in their fabrication. So, a plastic total internal reflection (TIR)-based low cost, low scatter, field-portable device for enzymatic biosensors is fabricated and demonstrated. The design concept of the TIR-based photoluminescent enzymatic biosensor device is explained. An analysis of economical materials with appropriate optical and chemical properties is presented. PMMA and PDMS are found to be appropriate due to their high chemical resistance, low cost, high optical transmittance and low auto-fluorescence. The techniques and procedures used for device fabrication are discussed. The device incorporated a PMMA-based optical waveguide core and PDMS-based fluid cell with simple multi-mode fiber-optics using cost-effective fabrication techniques like molding and surface modification. Several techniques of robustly depositing photoluminescent dyes on PMMA core surface are discussed. A pH-sensitive fluorescent dye, fluoresceinamine, and an O2-sensitive phosphorescent dye, Ru(dpp) both are successfully deposited using Si-adhesive gel-based as well as HydroThane-based deposition methods. Two different types of pH-sensors using two different techniques of depositing fluoresceinamine are demonstrated. Also, the effect of concentration of fluoresceinamine-dye molecules

  9. Stabilizing the baseline current of a microbial fuel cell-based biosensor through overpotential control under non-toxic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, N.E.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    A MFC-based biosensor can act as online toxicity sensor Electrical current is a direct linear measure for metabolic activity of electrochemically active microorganisms Microorganisms gain energy from anodic overpotential and current strongly depends on anodic overpotential Therefore control of

  10. The CP-based electrochemical biosensors with autocatalytic stage in their function and the mathematical description of their work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Valentynovych Tkach

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The electroanalytic process of the detection of biosubstances, realized by the biosensor, based in conducting polyheterocyclic compounds, the function of which contained autocatalytic stage, was mathematically described. The correspondent mathematical model was analyzed by linear stability theory and bifurcational analysis. The electrochemical instabilities, capable to succeed in this process, were explained in the terms of this model.

  11. Environmental Application of Reporter-Genes Based Biosensors for Chemical Contamination Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matejczyk Marzena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research concerning possibilities of applications of reporter-genes based microorganisms, including the selective presentation of defects and advantages of different new scientific achievements of methodical solutions in genetic system constructions of biosensing elements for environmental research. The most robust and popular genetic fusion and new trends in reporter genes technology – such as LacZ (β-galactosidase, xylE (catechol 2,3-dioxygenase, gfp (green fluorescent proteins and its mutated forms, lux (prokaryotic luciferase, luc (eukaryotic luciferase, phoA (alkaline phosphatase, gusA and gurA (β-glucuronidase, antibiotics and heavy metals resistance are described. Reporter-genes based biosensors with use of genetically modified bacteria and yeast successfully work for genotoxicity, bioavailability and oxidative stress assessment for detection and monitoring of toxic compounds in drinking water and different environmental samples, surface water, soil, sediments.

  12. Self assembled monolayer based liquid crystal biosensor for free cholesterol detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, Mukta; Agrawal, V. V. [Department of Science and Technology, Centre on Bimolecular Electronics, Biomedical Instrumentation Section, CSIR—National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110 012 (India); Chandran, Achu; Joshi, Tilak [Polymeric and Soft Materials Section, CSIR—National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110 012 (India); Prakash, Jai [Centre for Physical and Mathematical Sciences, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Central University of Punjab, City Campus, Mansa Road, Bathinda 151 001 (India); Biradar, A. M., E-mail: abiradar@mail.nplindia.ernet.in [Department of Science and Technology, Centre on Bimolecular Electronics, Biomedical Instrumentation Section, CSIR—National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110 012 (India); Polymeric and Soft Materials Section, CSIR—National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110 012 (India)

    2014-04-14

    A unique cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) liquid crystal (LC) biosensor, based on the disruption of orientation in LCs, is developed for cholesterol detection. A self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of Dimethyloctadecyl[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ammonium chloride (DMOAP) and (3-Aminopropyl)trimethoxy-silane (APTMS) is prepared on a glass plate by adsorption. The enzyme (ChOx) is immobilized on SAM surface for 12 h before utilizing the film for biosensing purpose. LC based biosensing study is conducted on SAM/ChOx/LC (5CB) cells for cholesterol concentrations ranging from 10 mg/dl to 250 mg/dl. The sensing mechanism has been verified through polarizing optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and spectrometric techniques.

  13. Self assembled monolayer based liquid crystal biosensor for free cholesterol detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Mukta; Agrawal, V. V.; Chandran, Achu; Joshi, Tilak; Prakash, Jai; Biradar, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    A unique cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) liquid crystal (LC) biosensor, based on the disruption of orientation in LCs, is developed for cholesterol detection. A self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of Dimethyloctadecyl[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ammonium chloride (DMOAP) and (3-Aminopropyl)trimethoxy-silane (APTMS) is prepared on a glass plate by adsorption. The enzyme (ChOx) is immobilized on SAM surface for 12 h before utilizing the film for biosensing purpose. LC based biosensing study is conducted on SAM/ChOx/LC (5CB) cells for cholesterol concentrations ranging from 10 mg/dl to 250 mg/dl. The sensing mechanism has been verified through polarizing optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and spectrometric techniques

  14. Smartphone-based enzymatic biosensor for oral fluid L-lactate detection in one minute using confined multilayer paper reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabria, Donato; Caliceti, Cristiana; Zangheri, Martina; Mirasoli, Mara; Simoni, Patrizia; Roda, Aldo

    2017-08-15

    The development of smartphone-based biosensors for point-of-care testing (POCT) applications allows realizing "all in one" instruments, with large potential distribution among the general population. With this respect, paper color-based detection performed by reflectance measurement is the most popular, simple, inexpensive and straightforward method. Despite the large number of scientific publications related to these biosensors, they still suffer from a poor detectability and reproducibility related to inhomogeneity of color development, which leads to low assay reproducibility. To overcome these problems, we propose a smartphone paper-based biosensor, in which all the reagents necessary to complete the analysis are co-entrapped on paper in a "wafer"-like bilayer film of polyelectrolytes (Poly (allyl amine hydrochloride/poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate)). Using a 3D printing low-cost technology we fabricated the smartphone-based device that consists in a cover accessory attached to the smartphone and incorporating a light diffuser over the flash to improve the image quality, a mini dark box and a disposable analytical cartridge containing all the reagents necessary for the complete analysis. The biosensor was developed exploiting coupled enzyme reactions for quantifying L-lactate in oral fluid, which is considered a biomarker of poor tissue perfusion, a key element in the management of severe sepsis, septic shock and in sports performance evaluation. The developed method is sensitive, rapid, and it allows detecting L-lactate in oral fluid in the relevant physiological range, with a limit of detection of 0.1mmolL -1 . The extreme simplicity of assay execution (no reagents need to be added) and flexibility of fabrication of the device, together with the high assay versatility (any oxidase can be coupled with HRP-based color change reaction) make our approach suitable for the realization of smartphone-based biosensors able to non-invasively detect a large variety of

  15. Nanoparticle-based optical biosensors for the direct detection of organophosphate chemical warfare agents and pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonian, A.L.; Good, T.A.; Wang, S.-S.; Wild, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    Neurotoxic organophosphates (OP) have found widespread use in the environment for insect control. In addition, there is the increasing threat of use of OP based chemical warfare agents in both ground based warfare and terrorist attacks. Together, these trends necessitate the development of simple and specific methods for discriminative detection of ultra low quantities of OP neurotoxins. In our previous investigations a new biosensor for the direct detection of organophosphorus neurotoxins was pioneered. In this system, the enzymatic hydrolysis of OP neurotoxins by organophosphate hydrolase (OPH) generated two protons in each hydrolytic turnover through reactions in which P-X bonds are cleaved. The sensitivity of this biosensor was limited due to the potentiometric method of detection. Recently, it was reported that a change in fluorescence properties of a fluorophore in the vicinity of gold nanoparticles might be used for detection of nanomolar concentrations of DNA oligonucleotides. The detection strategy was based on the fact that an enhancement or quenching of fluorescence intensity is a function of the distances between the gold nanoparticle and fluorophore. While these reports have demonstrated the use of nanoparticle-based sensors for the detection of target DNA, we observed that the specificity of enzyme-substrate interactions could be exploited in similar systems. To test the feasibility of this approach, OPH-gold nanoparticle conjugates were prepared, then incubated with a fluorescent enzyme inhibitor or decoy. The fluorescence intensity of the decoy was sensitive to the proximity of the gold nanoparticle, and thus could be used to indicate that the decoy was bound to the OPH. Then different paraoxon concentrations were introduced to the OPH-nanoparticle-conjugate-decoy mixtures, and normalized ratio of fluorescence intensities were measured. The greatest sensitivity to paraoxon was obtained when decoys and OPH-gold nanoparticle conjugates were present at

  16. A vertically aligned carbon nanotube-based impedance sensing biosensor for rapid and high sensitive detection of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolahad, Mohammad; Taghinejad, Mohammad; Taghinejad, Hossein; Janmaleki, Mohsen; Mohajerzadeh, Shams

    2012-03-21

    A novel vertically aligned carbon nanotube based electrical cell impedance sensing biosensor (CNT-ECIS) was demonstrated for the first time as a more rapid, sensitive and specific device for the detection of cancer cells. This biosensor is based on the fast entrapment of cancer cells on vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays and leads to mechanical and electrical interactions between CNT tips and entrapped cell membranes, changing the impedance of the biosensor. CNT-ECIS was fabricated through a photolithography process on Ni/SiO(2)/Si layers. Carbon nanotube arrays have been grown on 9 nm thick patterned Ni microelectrodes by DC-PECVD. SW48 colon cancer cells were passed over the surface of CNT covered electrodes to be specifically entrapped on elastic nanotube beams. CNT arrays act as both adhesive and conductive agents and impedance changes occurred as fast as 30 s (for whole entrapment and signaling processes). CNT-ECIS detected the cancer cells with the concentration as low as 4000 cells cm(-2) on its surface and a sensitivity of 1.7 × 10(-3)Ω cm(2). Time and cell efficiency factor (TEF and CEF) parameters were defined which describe the sensor's rapidness and resolution, respectively. TEF and CEF of CNT-ECIS were much higher than other cell based electrical biosensors which are compared in this paper.

  17. Detection of Waterborne and Airborne Formaldehyde: From Amperometric Chemosensing to a Visual Biosensor Based on Alcohol Oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasi Sigawi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory prototype of a microcomputer-based analyzer was developed for quantitative determination of formaldehyde in liquid samples, based on catalytic chemosensing elements. It was shown that selectivity for the target analyte could be increased by modulating the working electrode potential. Analytical parameters of three variants of the amperometric analyzer that differed in the chemical structure/configuration of the working electrode were studied. The constructed analyzer was tested on wastewater solutions that contained formaldehyde. A simple low-cost biosensor was developed for semi-quantitative detection of airborne formaldehyde in concentrations exceeding the threshold level. This biosensor is based on a change in the color of a solution that contains a mixture of alcohol oxidase from the yeast Hansenula polymorpha, horseradish peroxidase and a chromogen, following exposure to airborne formaldehyde. The solution is enclosed within a membrane device, which is permeable to formaldehyde vapors. The most efficient and sensitive biosensor for detecting formaldehyde was the one that contained alcohol oxidase with an activity of 1.2 U·mL−1. The biosensor requires no special instrumentation and enables rapid visual detection of airborne formaldehyde at concentrations, which are hazardous to human health.

  18. Protease biosensors based on peptide-nanocellulose conjugates: from molecular design to dressing interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of point of care diagnostic protease sensors applied to wound healing has received increased interest for chronic wound treatment and as an interface with chronic wound dressings. Biosensor technology has grown exponentially in recent years. Here we focus on nanocelluosic biosensor t...

  19. Biosensors based on β-galactosidase enzyme: Recent advances and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shiv K; Leblanc, Roger M

    2017-10-15

    Many industries are striving for the development of more reliable and robust β-galactosidase biosensors that exhibit high response rate, increased detection limit and enriched useful lifetime. In a newfangled technological atmosphere, a trivial advantage or disadvantage of the developed biosensor may escort to the survival and extinction of the industry. Several alternative strategies to immobilize β-galactosidase enzyme for their utilization in biosensors have been developed in recent years in the quest of maximum utility by controlling the defects seen in the previous biosensors. The overwhelming call for on-line measurement of different sample constituents has directed science and industry to search for best practical solutions and biosensors are witnessed as the best prospect. The main objective of this paper is to serve as a narrow footbridge by comparing the literary works on the β-galactosidase biosensors, critically analyze their use in the construction of best biosensor by showing the pros and cons of the predicted methods for the practical use of biosensors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Stable Glutamate Biosensor Based on MnO2 Bulk-modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An amperometric glutamate biosensor was developed using screen-printed carbon electrodes bulk-modified with MnO2 (5%, m:m) onto which glutamate oxidase was immobilized via Nafion(R) film entrapment. The analytical performance of the biosensor was assessed in a flow injection mode and peak heights of the ...

  1. Nanochannels Photoelectrochemical Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Ruan, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Li-Bin; Zhao, Wei-Wei; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2018-02-06

    Nanochannels have brought new opportunities for biosensor development. Herein, we present the novel concept of a nanochannels photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensor based on the integration of a unique Cu x O-nanopyramid-islands (NPIs) photocathode, an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) catalytic chemistry. The Cu x O-NPIs photocathode possesses good performance, and further assembly with AAO yields a designed architecture composed of vertically aligned, highly ordered nanoarrays on top of the Cu x O-NPIs film. After biocatalytic precipitation (BCP) was stimulated within the channels, the biosensor was used for the successful detection of ALP activity. This study has not only provided a novel paradigm for an unconventional nanochannels PEC biosensor, which can be used for general bioanalytical purposes, but also indicated that the new concept of nanochannel-semiconductor heterostructures is a step toward innovative biomedical applications.

  2. Bienzymatic Acetylcholinesterase and Choline Oxidase Immobilized Biosensor Based on a Phenyl Carboxylic Acid-Grafted Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Ra Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bienzymatic acetylcholinesterase (AChE and choline oxidase (ChOx immobilized biosensor based on a phenyl carboxylic acid-grafted multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT modified glass carbon electrode (GCE and carbon-screen printed electrode (SPE was fabricated for acetylcholine detection in human blood samples. Phenyl carboxylic acid-modified MWNT supports were prepared by electrochemical polymerization of 4-carboxyphenyl diazonium salts, which were synthesized by an amine group and sodium nitrite, on the surface of the MWNT-modified GCE and SPE in 0.1 M PBS. The successful fabrication of the AChE-ChOx-immobilized biosensor was confirmed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, and cyclic voltammetry (CV. The sensing range of the biosensor based on a GCE and SPE was 1.0~10 μM and 10~100 μM, respectively. The interfering effect of 0.1 M L-ascorbic acid, 0.1 M L-cysteine, and 0.1 M uric acid to 0.1 M acetylcholine was 3.00%, 9.00%, and 3.00%, respectively. Acetylcholine in a human blood sample was detected by the AChE-ChOx-immobilized biosensor.

  3. Ultra-sensitive bio-sensor based on GMR in self-suspended-membrane-type germanium grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jianyong; Zhang, Dawei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an ultra-sensitive bio-sensor based on the GMR effect in self-suspended-membrane-type gratings (SSGs) is proposed using multilayer plane waveguide theory. It is demonstrated from our calculations that the sensitivity of our bio-sensor is near the theoretical limit compared with a conventional GMR sensor. Based on the normalized eigenfunction of a single-layer homogeneous grating, the resonance curves with respect to different refractive indices of surrounding media are calculated, which confirm the estimated sensitivity. In addition, we design a highly sensitive bio-sensor in the near- and mid-IR wavelength region for liquid and gas detection respectively, the sensor can deliver a resolution over 1 × 10 −5 in the near-IR region in a large refractive index (1.3–1.7) range and provide better than 1 × 10 −6 in the mid-IR region, which is enough for various bio-material detections. Therefore, the bio-sensor we proposed is one or two orders more sensitive than conventional GMR sensors. (paper)

  4. Chip-Based Measurements of Brownian Relaxation of Magnetic Beads Using a Planar Hall Effect Magnetic Field Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Snakenborg, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    using only the self-field arising from the bias current applied to the sensors as excitation field. We present measurements on a suspension of magnetic beads with a nominal diameter of 250 nm vs. temperature and find that the observations are consistent with the Cole-Cole model for Brownian relaxation...... with a constant hydrodynamic bead diameter when the temperature dependence of the viscosity of water is taken into account. These measurements demonstrate the feasibility of performing measurements of the Brownian relaxation response in a lab-on-a-chip system and constitute the first step towards an integrated...... biosensor based on the detection of the dynamic response of magnetic beads....

  5. Impedance-Based Miniaturized Biosensor for Ultrasensitive and Fast Prostate-Specific Antigen Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganna Chornokur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the successful fabrication of an impedance-based miniaturized biosensor and its application for ultrasensitive Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA detection in standard and real human plasma solution, spiked with different PSA concentrations. The sensor was fabricated using photolithographic techniques, while monoclonal antibodies specific to human PSA were used as primary capture antibodies. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS was employed as a detection technique. The sensor exhibited a detection limit of 1 pg/ml for PSA with minimal nonspecific binding (NSB. This detection limit is an order of magnitude lower than commercial PSA ELISA assays available on the market. The sensor can be easily modified into an array for the detection of other biomolecules of interest, enabling accurate, ultrasensitive, and inexpensive point-of-care sensing technologies.

  6. Electrochemical Glucose Biosensor Based on Glucose Oxidase Displayed on Yeast Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongwei; Lang, Qiaolin; Liang, Bo; Liu, Aihua

    2015-01-01

    The conventional enzyme-based biosensor requires chemical or physical immobilization of purified enzymes on electrode surface, which often results in loss of enzyme activity and/or fractions immobilized over time. It is also costly. A major advantage of yeast surface display is that it enables the direct utilization of whole cell catalysts with eukaryote-produced proteins being displayed on the cell surface, providing an economic alternative to traditional production of purified enzymes. Herein, we describe the details of the display of glucose oxidase (GOx) on yeast cell surface and its application in the development of electrochemical glucose sensor. In order to achieve a direct electrochemistry of GOx, the entire cell catalyst (yeast-GOx) was immobilized together with multiwalled carbon nanotubes on the electrode, which allowed sensitive and selective glucose detection.

  7. A biosensor for hydrogen peroxide detection based on electronic properties of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Roya

    2013-01-01

    Density functional theory has been used to study the effect of hydrogen peroxide on the electronic properties of single walled carbon nanotubes. The metallic and semiconducting carbon nanotubes have been considered in the presence of different number of hydrogen peroxide. The results indicate that hydrogen peroxide has no significant effect on the metallic nanotube and these nanotubes remain to be metallic. In contrast, the electronic properties of the semiconducting nanotubes are so sensitive to hydrogen peroxide. The energy band gap of these nanotubes is decreased by increasing the number of hydrogen peroxide. The electronic sensivity of the carbon nanotubes to hydrogen peroxide opens new insights into developing biosensors based on the single walled carbon nanotubes.

  8. Improved electrochemical nucleic acid biosensor based on polyaniline-polyvinyl sulphonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakar, Nirmal [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016 (India); Sumana, G.; Arora, Kavita [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Singh, Harpal [Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016 (India); Malhotra, B.D. [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India)], E-mail: bansi.malhotra@gmail.com

    2008-05-01

    DNA biosensor based on polyaniline (PANI)-polyvinyl sulphonate (PVS) has been fabricated using electrochemical entrapment technique for detection of organophosphorus pesticides (chlorpyrifos and malathion). These double stranded calf thymus DNA (dsCT-DNA) entrapped PANI-PVS/indium-tin-oxide (ITO) bioelectrodes have been characterized using square wave voltammetry (SWV), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical impedance techniques, respectively. These dsCT-DNA entrapped PANI-PVS/ITO bioelectrodes have been found to have response time of 30 s, stability of about 6 months and detection limit for chlorpyrifos and malathion as 0.5 ppb and 0.01 ppm, respectively.

  9. Improved electrochemical nucleic acid biosensor based on polyaniline-polyvinyl sulphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, Nirmal; Sumana, G.; Arora, Kavita; Singh, Harpal; Malhotra, B.D.

    2008-01-01

    DNA biosensor based on polyaniline (PANI)-polyvinyl sulphonate (PVS) has been fabricated using electrochemical entrapment technique for detection of organophosphorus pesticides (chlorpyrifos and malathion). These double stranded calf thymus DNA (dsCT-DNA) entrapped PANI-PVS/indium-tin-oxide (ITO) bioelectrodes have been characterized using square wave voltammetry (SWV), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical impedance techniques, respectively. These dsCT-DNA entrapped PANI-PVS/ITO bioelectrodes have been found to have response time of 30 s, stability of about 6 months and detection limit for chlorpyrifos and malathion as 0.5 ppb and 0.01 ppm, respectively

  10. SPR based hybrid electro-optic biosensor for β-lactam antibiotics determination in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatus, Ramona; Feier, Bogdan; Cristea, Cecilia; Cennamo, Nunzio; Zeni, Luigi

    2017-09-01

    The present work aims to provide a hybrid platform capable of complementary and sensitive detection of β-lactam antibiotics, ampicillin in particular. The use of an aptamer specific to ampicillin assures good selectivity and sensitivity for the detection of ampicillin from different matrice. This new approach is dedicated for a portable, remote sensing platform based on low-cost, small size and low-power consumption solution. The simple experimental hybrid platform integrates the results from the D-shape surface plasmon resonance plastic optical fiber (SPR-POF) and from the electrochemical (bio)sensor, for the analysis of ampicillin, delivering sensitive and reliable results. The SPR-POF already used in many previous applications is embedded in a new experimental setup with fluorescent fibers emitters, for broadband wavelength analysis, low-power consumption and low-heating capabilities of the sensing platform.

  11. On the feasibility of a CENTA-based biosensor to measure antibiotics concentration in milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Luca; Rovati, Luigi; Costi, Maria Paola; Venturelli, Alberto; Luciani, Rosaria; Cattini, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    In veterinary practice antibiotics are used and abused all over the world both to treat diseases and prevent infections and, to increase feed efficiency thus promoting growth in food producing animals. With more than 30 years history, β-lactam antibiotics are nowadays one of the most important group of antibiotics in veterinary medicine. In this paper we investigate the possibility to realize a measurement method suitable for field testing and we propose a competitive biosensor based on a relatively low-cost chromogenic cephalosporin (CENTA) for the quantitative analysis of β-lactams concentration in milk. In particular, the reported preliminary study has been focused on cloxacillin and the reported results indicates that the method is potentially able to detect cloxacillin at a concentration of about one order of magnitude lower than the maximal residue limits (MRL) set by the European Commission.

  12. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition-based biosensor for aluminum(III) chronoamperometric determination in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquero-Quirós, Miriam; Domínguez-Renedo, Olga; Alonso-Lomillo, Maria Asunción; Arcos-Martínez, María Julia

    2014-05-07

    A novel amperometric biosensor for the determination of Al(III) based on the inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase has been developed. The immobilization of the enzyme was performed on screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles. The oxidation signal of acetylthiocholine iodide enzyme substrate was affected by the presence of Al(III) ions leading to a decrease in the amperometric current. The developed system has a detection limit of 2.1 ± 0.1 μM for Al(III). The reproducibility of the method is 8.1% (n = 4). Main interferences include Mo(VI), W(VI) and Hg(II) ions. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of Al(III) in spiked tap water . The analysis of a certified standard reference material was also carried out. Both results agree with the certified values considering the respective associated uncertainties.

  13. Optimization and Application of Reflective LSPR Optical Fiber Biosensors Based on Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangping Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a reflective localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR optical fiber sensor, based on silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs. To enhance the sensitivity of the LSPR optical sensor, two key parameters were optimized, the length of the sensing area and the coating time of the Ag NPs. A sensing length of 1.5 cm and a 1-h coating time proved to be suitable conditions to produce highly sensitive sensors for biosensing. The optimized sensor has a high refractive index sensitivity of 387 nm/RIU, which is much higher than that of other reported individual silver nanoparticles in solutions. Moreover, the sensor was further modified with antigen to act as a biosensor. Distinctive wavelength shifts were found after each surface modification step. In addition, the reflective LSPR optical fiber sensor has high reproducibility and stability.

  14. Towards the Development of Electrical Biosensors Based on Nanostructured Porous Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio-Sánchez, Gonzalo; Torres-Costa, Vicente; Manso, Miguel; Gallach, Darío; López-García, Juan; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.

    2010-01-01

    The typical large specific surface area and high reactivity of nanostructured porous silicon (nanoPS) make this material very suitable for the development of sensors. Moreover, its biocompatibility and biodegradability opens the way to the development of biosensors. As such, in this work the use of nanoPS in the field of electrical biosensing is explored. More specifically, nanoPS-based devices with Al/nanoPS/Al and Au-NiCr/nanoPS/Au-NiCr structures were fabricated for the electrical detection of glucose and Escherichia Coli bacteria at different concentrations. The experimental results show that the current-voltage characteristics of these symmetric metal/nanoPS/metal structures strongly depend on the presence/absence and concentration of species immobilized on the surface.

  15. Towards the Development of Electrical Biosensors Based on Nanostructured Porous Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl J. Martín-Palma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The typical large specific surface area and high reactivity of nanostructured porous silicon (nanoPS make this material very suitable for the development of sensors. Moreover, its biocompatibility and biodegradability opens the way to the development of biosensors. As such, in this work the use of nanoPS in the field of electrical biosensing is explored. More specifically, nanoPS-based devices with Al/nanoPS/Al and Au-NiCr/nanoPS/Au-NiCr structures were fabricated for the electrical detection of glucose and Escherichia Coli bacteria at different concentrations. The experimental results show that the current-voltage characteristics of these symmetric metal/nanoPS/metal structures strongly depend on the presence/absence and concentration of species immobilized on the surface.

  16. Lighting up yeast cell factories by transcription factor-based biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'ambrosio, Vasil; Jensen, Michael Krogh

    2017-01-01

    Our ability to rewire cellular metabolism for the sustainable production of chemicals, fuels and therapeutics based on microbial cell factories has advanced rapidly during the last two decades. Especially the speed and precision by which microbial genomes can be engineered now allow for more...... process. For this purpose, there is a need to develop new techniques for screening and selection of best-performing cell factory designs in multiplex. Here we review the current status of the sourcing, design and engineering of biosensors derived from allosterically regulated transcription factors applied...... advanced designs to be implemented and tested. However, compared to the methods developed for engineering cell factories, the methods developed for testing the performance of newly engineered cell factories in high throughput are lagging far behind, which consequently impacts the overall biomanufacturing...

  17. Fabrication of glucose biosensor for whole blood based on Au/hyperbranched polyester nanoparticles multilayers by antibiofouling and self-assembly technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Chong [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Key Laboratory for Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Chen, Xiaohan; Han, Qiaorong [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhou, Min [Department of Vascular Surgery, the Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing 210008 (China); Mao, Chun, E-mail: maochun127@yahoo.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhu, Qinshu [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Shen, Jian, E-mail: jshen@njnu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2013-05-07

    Highlight: •A novel method for detection of glucose in whole blood has been developed. •The method based on antibiofouling and self-assembly technology was investigated. •The antibiofouling technique utilized for sensor is significant for diagnostics. -- Abstract: Acknowledging the benefits of hyperbranched polymers and their nanoparticles, herein we report the design and synthesis of sulfonic acid group functionalized hydroxyl-terminated hyperbranched polyester (H30-SO{sub 3}H) nanoparticles and their biomedical application. The H30-SO{sub 3}H nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H NMR). The good hemocompatibility of H30-SO{sub 3}H nanoparticles was also investigated by coagulation tests, complement activation and platelet activation. The novel glucose biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing the positively charged Au nanoparticles, H30-SO{sub 3}H nanoparticles and glucose oxidase (GOx) onto the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE). It can be applied in whole blood directly, which was based on the good hemocompatibility and antibiofouling property of H30-SO{sub 3}H nanoparticles. The biosensor had good electrocatalytic activity toward glucose with a wide linear range (0.2–20 mM), a low detection limit 1.2 × 10{sup −5} M in whole blood and good anti-interference property. The development of materials science will offer a novel platform for application to substance detection in whole blood.

  18. Fabrication of glucose biosensor for whole blood based on Au/hyperbranched polyester nanoparticles multilayers by antibiofouling and self-assembly technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Chong; Chen, Xiaohan; Han, Qiaorong; Zhou, Min; Mao, Chun; Zhu, Qinshu; Shen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Highlight: •A novel method for detection of glucose in whole blood has been developed. •The method based on antibiofouling and self-assembly technology was investigated. •The antibiofouling technique utilized for sensor is significant for diagnostics. -- Abstract: Acknowledging the benefits of hyperbranched polymers and their nanoparticles, herein we report the design and synthesis of sulfonic acid group functionalized hydroxyl-terminated hyperbranched polyester (H30-SO 3 H) nanoparticles and their biomedical application. The H30-SO 3 H nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H NMR). The good hemocompatibility of H30-SO 3 H nanoparticles was also investigated by coagulation tests, complement activation and platelet activation. The novel glucose biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing the positively charged Au nanoparticles, H30-SO 3 H nanoparticles and glucose oxidase (GOx) onto the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE). It can be applied in whole blood directly, which was based on the good hemocompatibility and antibiofouling property of H30-SO 3 H nanoparticles. The biosensor had good electrocatalytic activity toward glucose with a wide linear range (0.2–20 mM), a low detection limit 1.2 × 10 −5 M in whole blood and good anti-interference property. The development of materials science will offer a novel platform for application to substance detection in whole blood

  19. Validation of cold plasma treatment for protein inactivation: a surface plasmon resonance-based biosensor study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, C; Leduc, A; Barbeau, J; Saoudi, B; Yahia, L'H; Crescenzo, G De

    2006-01-01

    Gas plasma is being proposed as an interesting and promising tool to achieve sterilization. The efficacy of gas plasma to destroy bacterial spores (the most resistant living microorganisms) has been demonstrated and documented over the last ten years. In addition to causing damage to deoxyribonucleic acid by UV radiation emitted by excited species originating from the plasma, gas plasma has been shown to promote erosion of the microorganism in addition to possible oxidation reactions within the microorganism. In this work, we used lysozyme as a protein model to assess the effect of gas plasma on protein inactivation. Lysozyme samples have been subjected to the flowing afterglow of a gas discharge achieved in a nitrogen-oxygen mixture. The efficiency of this plasma treatment on lysozyme has been tested by two different assays. These are an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensor assay. The two methods showed that exposure to gas plasma can abrogate lysozyme interactions with lysozyme-specific antibodies, more likely by destroying the epitopes responsible for the interaction. More specifically, two SPR-based assays were developed since our ELISA approach did not allow us to discriminate between background and low, but still intact, quantities of lysozyme epitope after plasma treatment. Our SPR results clearly demonstrated that significant protein destruction or desorption was achieved when amounts of lysozyme less than 12.5 ng had been deposited in polystyrene 96-well ELISA plates. At higher lysozyme amounts, traces of available lysozyme epitopes were detected by SPR through indirect measurements. Finally, we demonstrated that a direct SPR approach in which biosensor-immobilized lysozyme activity is directly measured prior and after plasma treatment is more sensitive, and thus, more appropriate to define plasma treatment efficacy with more certainty

  20. Validation of cold plasma treatment for protein inactivation: a surface plasmon resonance-based biosensor study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, C.; Leduc, A.; Barbeau, J.; Saoudi, B.; Yahia, L'H.; DeCrescenzo, G.

    2006-08-01

    Gas plasma is being proposed as an interesting and promising tool to achieve sterilization. The efficacy of gas plasma to destroy bacterial spores (the most resistant living microorganisms) has been demonstrated and documented over the last ten years. In addition to causing damage to deoxyribonucleic acid by UV radiation emitted by excited species originating from the plasma, gas plasma has been shown to promote erosion of the microorganism in addition to possible oxidation reactions within the microorganism. In this work, we used lysozyme as a protein model to assess the effect of gas plasma on protein inactivation. Lysozyme samples have been subjected to the flowing afterglow of a gas discharge achieved in a nitrogen-oxygen mixture. The efficiency of this plasma treatment on lysozyme has been tested by two different assays. These are an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensor assay. The two methods showed that exposure to gas plasma can abrogate lysozyme interactions with lysozyme-specific antibodies, more likely by destroying the epitopes responsible for the interaction. More specifically, two SPR-based assays were developed since our ELISA approach did not allow us to discriminate between background and low, but still intact, quantities of lysozyme epitope after plasma treatment. Our SPR results clearly demonstrated that significant protein destruction or desorption was achieved when amounts of lysozyme less than 12.5 ng had been deposited in polystyrene 96-well ELISA plates. At higher lysozyme amounts, traces of available lysozyme epitopes were detected by SPR through indirect measurements. Finally, we demonstrated that a direct SPR approach in which biosensor-immobilized lysozyme activity is directly measured prior and after plasma treatment is more sensitive, and thus, more appropriate to define plasma treatment efficacy with more certainty.

  1. Performance of a Cyanobacteria Whole Cell-Based Fluorescence Biosensor for Heavy Metal and Pesticide Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmijah Surif

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Whole cell biosensors always face the challenge of low stability of biological components and short storage life. This paper reports the effects of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (pHEMA immobilization on a whole cell fluorescence biosensor for the detection of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, and pesticides (dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, and chlorpyrifos. The biosensor was produced by entrapping the cyanobacterium Anabaena torulosa on a cellulose membrane, followed by applying a layer of pHEMA, and attaching it to a well. The well was then fixed to an optical probe which was connected to a fluorescence spectrophotometer and an electronic reader. The optimization of the biosensor using several factors such as amount of HEMA and drying temperature were undertaken. The detection limits of biosensor without pHEMA for Cu, Cd, Pb, 2,4-D and chlorpyrifos were 1.195, 0.027, 0.0100, 0.025 and 0.025 µg/L respectively. The presence of pHEMA increased the limits of detection to 1.410, 0.250, 0.500, 0.235 and 0.117 µg/L respectively. pHEMA is known to enhance the reproducibility of the biosensor with average relative standard deviation (RSD of ±1.76% for all the pollutants tested, 48% better than the biosensor without pHEMA (RSD = ±3.73%. In storability test with Cu 5 µg/L, the biosensor with pHEMA performed 11.5% better than the test without pHEMA on day-10 and 5.2% better on day-25. pHEMA is therefore a good candidate to be used in whole cell biosensors as it increases reproducibility and enhances biosensor storability.

  2. BIOSENSORS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING: A REGULATORY PERSPECTIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biosensors show the potential to complement laboratory-based analytical methods for environmental applications. Although biosensors for potential environmental-monitoring applications have been reported for a wide range of environmental pollutants, from a regulatory perspective, ...

  3. An integrated paper-based sample-to-answer biosensor for nucleic acid testing at the point of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jane Ru; Hu, Jie; Tang, Ruihua; Gong, Yan; Feng, Shangsheng; Ren, Hui; Wen, Ting; Li, XiuJun; Wan Abas, Wan Abu Bakar; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Xu, Feng

    2016-02-07

    With advances in point-of-care testing (POCT), lateral flow assays (LFAs) have been explored for nucleic acid detection. However, biological samples generally contain complex compositions and low amounts of target nucleic acids, and currently require laborious off-chip nucleic acid extraction and amplification processes (e.g., tube-based extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)) prior to detection. To the best of our knowledge, even though the integration of DNA extraction and amplification into a paper-based biosensor has been reported, a combination of LFA with the aforementioned steps for simple colorimetric readout has not yet been demonstrated. Here, we demonstrate for the first time an integrated paper-based biosensor incorporating nucleic acid extraction, amplification and visual detection or quantification using a smartphone. A handheld battery-powered heating device was specially developed for nucleic acid amplification in POC settings, which is coupled with this simple assay for rapid target detection. The biosensor can successfully detect Escherichia coli (as a model analyte) in spiked drinking water, milk, blood, and spinach with a detection limit of as low as 10-1000 CFU mL(-1), and Streptococcus pneumonia in clinical blood samples, highlighting its potential use in medical diagnostics, food safety analysis and environmental monitoring. As compared to the lengthy conventional assay, which requires more than 5 hours for the entire sample-to-answer process, it takes about 1 hour for our integrated biosensor. The integrated biosensor holds great potential for detection of various target analytes for wide applications in the near future.

  4. Flow-injection amperometric determination of glucose using a biosensor based on immobilization of glucose oxidase onto Au seeds decorated on core Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samphao, Anchalee; Butmee, Preeyanut; Jitcharoen, Juthamas; Švorc, Ľubomír; Raber, Georg; Kalcher, Kurt

    2015-09-01

    An amperometric biosensor based on chemisorption of glucose oxidase (GOx) on Au seeds decorated on magnetic core Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4@Au) and their immobilization on screen-printed carbon electrode bulk-modified with manganese oxide (SPCE{MnO2}) was designed for the determination of glucose. The Fe3O4@Au/GOx modified SPCE{MnO2} was used in a flow-injection analysis (FIA) arrangement. The experimental conditions were investigated in amperometric mode with the following optimized parameters: flow rate 1.7 mL min(-1), applied potential +0.38 V, phosphate buffer solution (PBS; 0.1 mol L(-1), pH 7.0) as carrier and 3.89 unit mm(-2) enzyme glucose oxidase loading on the active surface of the SPCE. The designed biosensor in FIA arrangement yielded a linear dynamic range for glucose from 0.2 to 9.0 mmol L(-1) with a sensitivity of 2.52 µA mM(-1) cm(-2), a detection limit of 0.1 mmol L(-1) and a quantification limit of 0.3 mmol L(-1). Moreover, a good repeatability of 2.8% (number of measurements n=10) and a sufficient reproducibility of 4.0% (number of sensors n=3) were achieved. It was found that the studied system Fe3O4@Au facilitated not only a simpler enzyme immobilization but also provided wider linear range. The practical application of the proposed biosensor for FIA quantification of glucose was tested in glucose sirup samples, honeys and energy drinks with the results in good accordance with those obtained by an optical glucose meter and with the contents declared by the producers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Glucose biosensor based on a platinum electrode modified with rhodium nanoparticles and with glucose oxidase immobilized on gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xishan; Jian, Jinming; Liang, Bo; Ye, Xuesong; Zhang, Yelei

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an enzymatic glucose biosensor that is based on a flat platinum electrode which was covered with electrophoretically deposited rhodium (Rh) nanoparticles and then sintered to form a large surface area. The biosensor was obtained by depositing glucose oxidase (GOx), Nafion, and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the Rh electrode. The electrical potential and the fractions of Nafion and GOx were optimized. The resulting biosensor has a very high sensitivity (68.1 μA mM −1 cm −2 ) and good linearity in the range from 0.05 to 15 mM (r = 0.989). The limit of detection is as low as 0.03 mM (at an SNR of 3). The glucose biosensor also is quite selective and is not interfered by electroactive substances including ascorbic acid, uric acid and acetaminophen. The lifespan is up to 90 days. It was applied to the determination of glucose in blood serum, and the results compare very well with those obtained with a clinical analyzer. (author)

  6. Bi-enzyme L-arginine-selective amperometric biosensor based on ammonium-sensing polyaniline-modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasyuk, Nataliya; Smutok, Oleh; Gayda, Galina; Vus, Bohdan; Koval'chuk, Yevgen; Gonchar, Mykhailo

    2012-01-01

    A novel L-arginine-selective amperometric bi-enzyme biosensor based on recombinant human arginase I isolated from the gene-engineered strain of methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha and commercial urease is described. The biosensing layer was placed onto a polyaniline-Nafion composite platinum electrode and covered with a calcium alginate gel. The developed sensor revealed a good selectivity to L-arginine. The sensitivity of the biosensor was 110 ± 1.3 nA/(mM mm(2)) with the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (K(M)(app)) derived from an L-arginine (L-Arg) calibration curve of 1.27 ± 0.29 mM. A linear concentration range was observed from 0.07 to 0.6mM, a limit of detection being 0.038 mM and a response time - 10s. The developed biosensor demonstrated good storage stability. A laboratory prototype of the proposed amperometric biosensor was applied to the samples of three commercial pharmaceuticals ("Tivortin", "Cytrarginine", "Aminoplazmal 10% E") for L-Arg testing. The obtained L-Arg-content values correlated well with those declared by producers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A novel, disposable, screen-printed amperometric biosensor for glucose in serum fabricated using a water-based carbon ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Eric; Cowell, David C; Hoskins, Stephen; Pittson, Robin W; Hart, John P

    2005-11-15

    Screen-printed amperometric glucose biosensors have been fabricated using a water-based carbon ink. The enzyme glucose oxidase (GOD) and the electro-catalyst cobalt phthalocyanine were mixed with the carbon ink prior to the screen-printing process; therefore, biosensors are prepared in a one-step fabrication procedure. Optimisation of the biosensor performance was achieved by studying the effects of pH, buffer strength, and applied potential on the analytical response. Calibration studies were performed under optimum conditions, using amperometry in stirred solution, with an operating potential of +500 mV versus SCE. The sensitivity was found to be 1170 nA mM(-1), with a linear range of 0.025-2 mM; the former represents the detection limit. The disposable amperometric biosensor was evaluated by carrying out replicate determinations on a sample of bovine serum. This was achieved by the method of multiple standard additions and included a correction for background currents arising from oxidizable serum components. The mean serum concentration was calculated to be 8.63 mM and compared well with the supplier's value of 8.3 mM; the coefficient of variation was calculated to be 3.3% (n=6).

  8. A Label-Free Microfluidic Biosensor for Activity Detection of Single Microalgae Cells Based on Chlorophyll Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsheng Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Detection of living microalgae cells is very important for ballast water treatment and analysis. Chlorophyll fluorescence is an indicator of photosynthetic activity and hence the living status of plant cells. In this paper, we developed a novel microfluidic biosensor system that can quickly and accurately detect the viability of single microalgae cells based on chlorophyll fluorescence. The system is composed of a laser diode as an excitation light source, a photodiode detector, a signal analysis circuit, and a microfluidic chip as a microalgae cell transportation platform. To demonstrate the utility of this system, six different living and dead algae samples (Karenia mikimotoi Hansen, Chlorella vulgaris, Nitzschia closterium, Platymonas subcordiformis, Pyramidomonas delicatula and Dunaliella salina were tested. The developed biosensor can distinguish clearly between the living microalgae cells and the dead microalgae cells. The smallest microalgae cells that can be detected by using this biosensor are 3 μm ones. Even smaller microalgae cells could be detected by increasing the excitation light power. The developed microfluidic biosensor has great potential for in situ ballast water analysis.

  9. An Amperometric Biosensor Based on Alanine Dehydrogenase for the Determination of Low Level of Ammonium Ion in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Ling Ling

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An amperometric electrochemical biosensor has been developed for ammonium (NH4+ ion detection by immobilising alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH enzyme in a photocurable methacrylic membrane made up of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (pHEMA on a screen-printed carbon paste electrode (SPE. The current detected was based on the electrocatalytic oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced (NADH that is proportional to the consumption of NH4+ ion whilst enzymatic amination of AlaDH and pyruvate is taking place. The biosensor was operated amperometrically at a potential of +0.6 V and optimum pH 7. The NH4+ biosensor demonstrated linear response to NH4+ ion concentration in the range of 0.03–1.02 mg/L with a limit of detection (LOD of 8.52 μg/L. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of NH4+ ion in river water samples without any pretreatment. The levels of possible interferents in the waters were negligible to cause any interference on the proposed method. The analytical performance of the biosensor was comparable to the colorimetric method using Nesslerisation but with much lower detection limit and linear response range at ppb level.

  10. Biosensor Based on Tyrosinase Immobilized on Graphene-Decorated Gold Nanoparticle/Chitosan for Phenolic Detection in Aqueous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuzi Mohamed Fartas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, electrochemical biosensor was fabricated based on immobilization of tyrosinase onto graphene-decorated gold nanoparticle/chitosan (Gr-Au-Chit/Tyr nanocomposite-modified screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE for the detection of phenolic compounds. The nanocomposite film was constructed via solution casting method. The electrocatalytic activity of the proposed biosensor for phenol detection was studied using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV and cyclic voltammetry (CV. Experimental parameters such as pH buffer, enzyme concentration, ratio of Gr-Au-Chit, accumulation time and potential were optimized. The biosensor shows linearity towards phenol in the concentration range from 0.05 to 15 μM with sensitivity of 0.624 μA/μM and the limit of detection (LOD of 0.016 μM (S/N = 3. The proposed sensor also depicts good reproducibility, selectivity and stability for at least one month. The biosensor was compared with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method for the detection of phenol spiked in real water samples and the result is in good agreement and comparable.

  11. A Label-Free Microfluidic Biosensor for Activity Detection of Single Microalgae Cells Based on Chlorophyll Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junsheng; Sun, Jinyang; Song, Yongxin; Xu, Yongyi; Pan, Xinxiang; Sun, Yeqing; Li, Dongqing

    2013-01-01

    Detection of living microalgae cells is very important for ballast water treatment and analysis. Chlorophyll fluorescence is an indicator of photosynthetic activity and hence the living status of plant cells. In this paper, we developed a novel microfluidic biosensor system that can quickly and accurately detect the viability of single microalgae cells based on chlorophyll fluorescence. The system is composed of a laser diode as an excitation light source, a photodiode detector, a signal analysis circuit, and a microfluidic chip as a microalgae cell transportation platform. To demonstrate the utility of this system, six different living and dead algae samples (Karenia mikimotoi Hansen, Chlorella vulgaris, Nitzschia closterium, Platymonas subcordiformis, Pyramidomonas delicatula and Dunaliella salina) were tested. The developed biosensor can distinguish clearly between the living microalgae cells and the dead microalgae cells. The smallest microalgae cells that can be detected by using this biosensor are 3 μm ones. Even smaller microalgae cells could be detected by increasing the excitation light power. The developed microfluidic biosensor has great potential for in situ ballast water analysis. PMID:24287532

  12. A comparative study of in-flow and micro-patterning biofunctionalization protocols for nanophotonic silicon-based biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Guerrero, Ana Belén; Alvarez, Mar; García Castaño, Andrés; Domínguez, Carlos; Lechuga, Laura M

    2013-03-01

    Reliable immobilization of bioreceptors over any sensor surface is the most crucial step for achieving high performance, selective and sensitive biosensor devices able to analyze human samples without the need of previous processing. With this aim, we have implemented an optimized scheme to covalently biofunctionalize the sensor area of a novel nanophotonic interferometric biosensor. The proposed method is based on the ex-situ silanization of the silicon nitride transducer surface by the use of a carboxyl water soluble silane, the carboxyethylsilanetriol sodium salt (CTES). The use of an organosilane stable in water entails advantages in comparison with usual trialkoxysilanes such as avoiding the generation of organic waste and leading to the assembly of compact monolayers due to the high dielectric constant of water. Additionally, cross-linking is prevented when the conditions (e.g. immersion time, concentration of silane) are optimized. This covalent strategy is followed by the bioreceptor linkage on the sensor area surface using two different approaches: an in-flow patterning and a microcontact printing using a biodeposition system. The performance of the different bioreceptor layers assembled is compared by the real-time and label-free immunosensing of the proteins BSA/mAb BSA, employed as a model molecular pair. Although the results demonstrated that both strategies provide the biosensor with a stable biological interface, the performance of the bioreceptor layer assembled by microcontact printing slightly improves the biosensing capabilities of the photonic biosensor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Amperometric catechol biosensor based on laccase immobilized on nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (N-OMC)/PVA matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Meiqing; Wang, Hefeng; Huang, Di; Han, Zhijun; Wang, Xiaojun; Li, Qiang; Chen, Jing

    2014-01-01

    A functionalized nitrogen-containing ordered mesoporous carbon (N-OMC), which shows good electrical properties, was synthesized by the carbonization of polyaniline inside a SBA-15 mesoporous silica template. Based on this, through entrapping laccase onto the N-OMC/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film a facilely fabricated amperometric biosensor was developed. Laccase from Trametes versicolor was assembled on a composite film of a N-OMC/PVA modified Au electrode and the electrochemical behavior was investigated. The results indicated that the N-OMC modified electrode exhibits electrical properties towards catechol. The optimum experimental conditions of a biosensor for the detection of catechol were studied in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the sensitivity of the biosensor was 0.29 A*M −1 with a detection limit of 0.31 μM and a linear detection range from 0.39 μM to 8.98 μM for catechol. The calibration curve followed the Michaelis–Menten kinetics and the apparent Michaelis–Menten (K M app ) was 6.28 μM. This work demonstrated that the N-OMC/PVA composite provides a suitable support for laccase immobilization and the construction of a biosensor. (papers)

  14. Amperometric cholesterol biosensor based on in situ reconstituted cholesterol oxidase on an immobilized monolayer of flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Juan-C; Espuelas, Javier; Castillo, Juan-R

    2004-10-01

    A new amperometric biosensor for determining cholesterol based on deflavination of the enzyme cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) and subsequent reconstitution of the apo-protein with a complexed flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) monolayer is described. The charge transfer mediator pyrroquinoline quinone (PQQ) was covalently bound to a cystamine self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on an Au electrode. Boronic acid (BA) was then bound to PQQ using the carbodiimide procedure, and the BA ligand was complexed to the FAD molecules on which the apo-ChOx was subsequently reconstituted. The effective release of the FAD from the enzyme and the successful reconstitution were verified using molecular fluorescence and cyclic voltammetry. The optimal orientation of FAD toward the PQQ mediator and the distances between FAD and PQQ and between PQQ and electrode enhance the charge transfer, very high sensitivity (about 2,500 nAmM(-1)cm(-2)) being obtained for cholesterol determination. The biosensor is selective toward electroactive interferents (ascorbic acid and uric acid) and was tested in reference serum samples, demonstrating excellent accuracy (relative errors below 3% in all cases). The biosensor activity can be successfully regenerated in a simple process by successive reconstitution with batches of recently prepared apo-ChOx on the same immobilized Au/SAM-PQQ-BA-FAD monolayer (it was tested five times); the lifetime of the biosensor is about 45-60 days.

  15. Gold-based optical biosensor for single-mismatched DNA detection using salt-induced hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhan, Zongrui; Ma, Xingyi; Cao, Cuong

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a gold nanoparticle (Au-NP)-based detection method for sensitive and specific DNA-based diagnostic applications is described. A sandwich format consisting of Au-NPs/DNA/PMP (Streptavidin-coated MagnetSphere Para-Magnetic Particles) was fabricated. PMPs captured and separated target...

  16. Nanoporous gold-based microbial biosensor for direct determination of sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuang; Ma, Hanyue; Sun, Huihui; Gao, Rui; Liu, Honglei; Wang, Xia; Xu, Ping; Xun, Luying

    2017-12-15

    Environmental pollution caused by sulfide compounds has become a major problem for public health. Hence, there is an urgent need to explore a sensitive, selective, and simple sulfide detection method for environmental monitoring and protection. Here, a novel microbial biosensor was developed using recombinant Escherichia coli BL21 (E. coli BL21) expressing sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) for sulfide detection. As an important enzyme involved in the initial step of sulfide metabolism, SQR oxidizes sulfides to polysulfides and transfers electrons to the electron transport chain. Nanoporous gold (NPG) with its unique properties was selected for recombinant E. coli BL21 cells immobilization, and then glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified by the resulting E. coli/NPG biocomposites to construct an E. coli/NPG/GCE bioelectrode. Due to the catalytic oxidation properties of NPG for sulfide, the electrochemical reaction of the E. coli/NPG/GCE bioelectrode is attributed to the co-catalysis of SQR and NPG. For sulfide detection, the E. coli/NPG/GCE bioelectrode showed a good linear response ranging from 50μM to 5mM, with a high sensitivity of 18.35μAmM -1 cm -2 and a low detection limit of 2.55μM. The anti-interference ability of the E. coli/NPG/GCE bioelectrode is better than that of enzyme-based inhibitive biosensors. Further, the E. coli/NPG/GCE bioelectrode was successfully applied to the detection of sulfide in wastewater. These unique properties potentially make the E. coli/NPG/GCE bioelectrode an excellent choice for reliable sulfide detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Magnetic spring based on two permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsivilitsin, V.Yu.; Mil'man, Yu.V.; Goncharuk, V.A.; Bondar, I.B.

    2011-01-01

    A new type of the magnetic spring construction 'two permanent magnets' has been considered. A mathematical expression for the estimation of a pulling-in force has been offered. This expression is verified experimentally on the produced operating magnetic spring. The theoretical and experimental data are in good accordance. A number of advantages of the magnetic spring over the construction 'permanent magnet - magnetic circuit' such as an insignificant friction force between two magnets and a higher pulling force are discussed.

  18. Magnetoresistive biosensors for quantitative proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiahan; Huang, Chih-Cheng; Hall, Drew A.

    2017-08-01

    Quantitative proteomics, as a developing method for study of proteins and identification of diseases, reveals more comprehensive and accurate information of an organism than traditional genomics. A variety of platforms, such as mass spectrometry, optical sensors, electrochemical sensors, magnetic sensors, etc., have been developed for detecting proteins quantitatively. The sandwich immunoassay is widely used as a labeled detection method due to its high specificity and flexibility allowing multiple different types of labels. While optical sensors use enzyme and fluorophore labels to detect proteins with high sensitivity, they often suffer from high background signal and challenges in miniaturization. Magnetic biosensors, including nuclear magnetic resonance sensors, oscillator-based sensors, Hall-effect sensors, and magnetoresistive sensors, use the specific binding events between magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and target proteins to measure the analyte concentration. Compared with other biosensing techniques, magnetic sensors take advantage of the intrinsic lack of magnetic signatures in biological samples to achieve high sensitivity and high specificity, and are compatible with semiconductor-based fabrication process to have low-cost and small-size for point-of-care (POC) applications. Although still in the development stage, magnetic biosensing is a promising technique for in-home testing and portable disease monitoring.

  19. Potentiometric urea biosensor based on an immobilised fullerene-urease bio-conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedfar, Kasra; Heng, Lee Yook; Ling, Tan Ling; Rezayi, Majid

    2013-12-06

    A novel method for the rapid modification of fullerene for subsequent enzyme attachment to create a potentiometric biosensor is presented. Urease was immobilized onto the modified fullerene nanomaterial. The modified fullerene-immobilized urease (C60-urease) bioconjugate has been confirmed to catalyze the hydrolysis of urea in solution. The biomaterial was then deposited on a screen-printed electrode containing a non-plasticized poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PnBA) membrane entrapped with a hydrogen ionophore. This pH-selective membrane is intended to function as a potentiometric urea biosensor with the deposition of C60-urease on the PnBA membrane. Various parameters for fullerene modification and urease immobilization were investigated. The optimal pH and concentration of the phosphate buffer for the urea biosensor were 7.0 and 0.5 mM, respectively. The linear response range of the biosensor was from 2.31 × 10-3 M to 8.28 × 10-5 M. The biosensor's sensitivity was 59.67 ± 0.91 mV/decade, which is close to the theoretical value. Common cations such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+ showed no obvious interference with the urea biosensor's response. The use of a fullerene-urease bio-conjugate and an acrylic membrane with good adhesion prevented the leaching of urease enzyme and thus increased the stability of the urea biosensor for up to 140 days.

  20. Enzyme-guided plasmonic biosensor based on dual-functional nanohybrid for sensitive detection of thrombin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing; Wang, Lida; Tang, Longhua; Lin, Lei; Liu, Yang; Li, Jinghong

    2015-08-15

    Rapid and sensitive methodologies for the detection of protein are in urgent requirement for clinic diagnostics. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of metal nanostructures has the potential to circumvent this problem due to its sensitive optical properties and strong electromagnetic near-field enhancements. In this work, an enzyme mediated plasmonic biosensor on the basis of a dual-functional nanohybrid was developed for the detection of thrombin. By utilizing LSPR-responsive nanohybrid and anaptamer-enzyme conjugated reporting probe, the sensing platform brings enhanced signal, stability as well as simplicity. Enzymatic reaction catalyzed the reduction of Au(3+) to Au° in situ, further leading to the rapid crystal growth of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The LSPR absorbance band and color changed company with the nanoparticle generation, which can be real-time monitoring by UV-visible spectrophotometer and naked eye. Nanohybrid constructed by gold and magnetic nanoparticles acts as a dual functional plasmonic unit, which not only plays the role of signal production, but also endows the sensor with the function of magnetic separation. Simultaneously, the introduction of enzyme effectively regulates the programming crystal growth of AuNPs. In addition, enzyme also serves as signal amplifier owing to its high catalysis efficiency. The response of the plasmonic sensor varies linearly with the logarithmic thrombin concentration up to 10nM with a limit of detection of 200 pM. The as-proposed strategy shows good analytical performance for thrombin determination. This simple, disposable method is promising in developing universal platforms for protein monitoring, drug discovery and point-of-care diagnostics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Hyperfine structure analysis in magnetic resonance spectroscopy: from astrophysical measurements towards endogenous biosensors in human tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, L.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA

    2007-01-01

    The hyperfine interaction of two spins is a well studied effect in atomic systems. Magnetic resonance experiments demonstrate that the detectable dipole transitions are determined by the magnetic moments of the constituents and the external magnetic field. Transferring the corresponding quantum mechanics to molecular bound nuclear spins allows for precise prediction of NMR spectra obtained from metabolites in human tissue. This molecular hyperfine structure has been neglected so far in in vivo NMR spectroscopy but contains useful information, especially when studying molecular dynamics. This contribution represents a review of the concept of applying the Breit-Rabi formalism to coupled nuclear spins and discusses the immobilization of different metabolites in anisotropic tissue revealed by 1H NMR spectra of carnosine, phosphocreatine and taurine. Comparison of atomic and molecular spin systems allows for statements on the biological constraints for direct spin-spin interactions. Moreover, the relevance of hyperfine effects on the line shapes of multiplets of indirectly-coupled spin systems with more than two constituents can be predicted by analyzing quantum mechanical parameters. As an example, the superposition of eigenstates of the AMX system of adenosine 5'-triphosphate and its application for better quantification of 31P-NMR spectra will be discussed. (orig.)

  2. [Hyperfine structure analysis in magnetic resonance spectroscopy: from astrophysical measurements towards endogenous biosensors in human tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Leif

    2007-01-01

    The hyperfine interaction of two spins is a well studied effect in atomic systems. Magnetic resonance experiments demonstrate that the detectable dipole transitions are determined by the magnetic moments of the constituents and the external magnetic field. Transferring the corresponding quantum mechanics to molecular bound nuclear spins allows for precise prediction of NMR spectra obtained from metabolites in human tissue. This molecular hyperfine structure has been neglected so far in in vivo NMR spectroscopy but contains useful information, especially when studying molecular dynamics. This contribution represents a review of the concept of applying the Breit-Rabi formalism to coupled nuclear spins and discusses the immobilization of different metabolites in anisotropic tissue revealed by 1H NMR spectra of carnosine, phosphocreatine and taurine. Comparison of atomic and molecular spin systems allows for statements on the biological constraints for direct spin-spin interactions. Moreover, the relevance of hyperfine effects on the line shapes of multiplets of indirectly-coupled spin systems with more than two constituents can be predicted by analyzing quantum mechanical parameters. As an example, the superposition of eigenstates of the A MX system of adenosine 5'-triphosphate and its application for better quantification of 31P-NMR spectra will be discussed.

  3. A highly stable acetylcholinesterase biosensor based on chitosan-TiO2-graphene nanocomposites for detection of organophosphate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hui-Fang; Wu, Wen-Wen; Li, Meng-Meng; Song, Xiaojie; Lv, Yuanxu; Zhang, Ting-Ting

    2018-01-15

    A highly stable electrochemical acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensor for detection of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was developed simply by adsorption of AChE on chitosan (CS), TiO 2 sol-gel, and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) based multi-layered immobilization matrix (denoted as CS @ TiO 2 -CS/rGO). The biosensor fabrication conditions were optimized, and the fabrication process was probed and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical techniques. The matrix has a mesoporous nanostructure. Incorporation of CS and electrodeposition of a CS layer into/on the TiO 2 sol-gel makes the gel become mechanically strong. The catalytic activity of the AChE immobilized CS @ TiO 2 -CS/rGO/glassy carbon electrode to acetylthiocholine is significantly higher than those missing any one of the component in the matrix. The detection linear range of the biosensor to dichlorvos, a model OP compound, is from 0.036μM (7.9 ppb) to 22.6μM, with a limit of detection of 29nM (6.4 ppb) and a total detection time of about 25min. The biosensor is very reproducibly and stable both in detection and in storage, and can accurately detect the dichlorvos levels in cabbage juice samples, providing an efficient platform for immobilization of AChE, and a promisingly applicable OPs biosensor with high reliability, simplicity, and rapidness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Biosensor-based analyser. Measurement of glucose, sucrose, lactose, L-lactate and alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, F.T. Jr. (YSI, Inc., Yellow Springs, OH (United States))

    1992-05-01

    This paper describes an instrument, the YSI 2700, for the measurement of glucose, sucrose, lactose, L-lactate, and alcohol by means of biosensors. Each biosensor consists of an amperometric, hydrogen peroxide sensitive electrode combined with an immobilized oxidase enzyme trapped between two membranes. Each biosensor differs from the others only in its enzyme layer. The instrument can be used to measure these analytes in complex sample matrices; often directly, e.g. in whole blood and fermentations, after dilution with water, e.g. in molasses and corn syrup, or after extraction into water, e.g. in cheese and cereal products. (orig.).

  5. Nanolubricant: magnetic nanoparticle based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Kinjal; Parekh, Kinnari; Upadhyay, Ramesh V.

    2017-11-01

    In the present study magnetic nanoparticles of Fe3O4 having average particle diameter, 11.7 nm were synthesized using chemical coprecipitation technique and dispersed in alpha olefin hydrocarbon synthetic lubricating oil. The solid weight fraction of magnetic nanoparticles in the lubricating oil was varied from 0 wt% to 10 wt%. The tribological properties were studied using four-ball tester. The results demonstrate that the coefficient of friction and wear scar diameter reduces by 45% and 30%, respectively at an optimal value, i.e. 4 wt% of magnetic nanoparticles concentration. The surface characterization of worn surface was carried out using a scanning electron microscope, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. These results implied that rolling mechanism is responsible to reduce coefficient of friction while magnetic nanoparticles act as the spacer between the asperities and reduces the wear scar diameter. The surface roughness of the worn surface studied using an atomic force microscope shows a reduction in surface roughness by a factor of four when magnetic nanoparticles are used as an additive. The positive response of magnetic nanoparticles in a lubricating oil, shows the potential replacement of conventional lubricating oil.

  6. Graphene oxide-based optical biosensor functionalized with peptides for explosive detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Diming; Lu, Yanli; Yao, Yao; Li, Shuang; Liu, Qingjun

    2015-06-15

    A label-free optical biosensor was constructed with biofunctionalized graphene oxide (GO) for specific detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). By chemically binding TNT-specific peptides with GO, the biosensor gained unique optoelectronic properties and high biological sensitivity, with transducing bimolecular bonding into optical signals. Through UV absorption detection, increasing absorbance responses could be observed in presence of TNT at different concentrations, as low as 4.40×10(-9) mM, and showed dose-dependence and stable behavior. Specific responses of the biosensor were verified with the corporation of 2,6-dinitrotoluene (DNT), which had similar molecular structure to TNT. Thus, with high sensitivity and selectivity, the biosensor provided a convenient approach for detection of explosives as miniaturizing and integrating devices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthetic Receptor-Based Biosensor for Safety and Security Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a sensitive and specific biosensor worthy of field deployment for autonomous operations. The underlying technology will enable in situ...

  8. Recent Advances in Electrochemical Biosensors Based on Fullerene-C60 Nano-Structured Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilehvar, Sanaz; De Wael, Karolien

    2015-11-23

    Nanotechnology is becoming increasingly important in the field of (bio)sensors. The performance and sensitivity of biosensors is greatly improved with the integration of nanomaterials into their construction. Since its first discovery, fullerene-C60 has been the object of extensive research. Its unique and favorable characteristics of easy chemical modification, conductivity, and electrochemical properties has led to its tremendous use in (bio)sensor applications. This paper provides a concise review of advances in fullerene-C60 research and its use as a nanomaterial for the development of biosensors. We examine the research work reported in the literature on the synthesis, functionalization, approaches to nanostructuring electrodes with fullerene, and outline some of the exciting applications in the field of (bio)sensing.

  9. Biosensor-based diagnostics of contaminated groundwater: assessment and remediation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Jessica; Read, David; Amos, Sean; Dooley, Stephen; Killham, Kenneth; Paton, Graeme I.

    2005-01-01

    Shallow groundwater beneath a former airfield site in southern England has been heavily contaminated with a wide range of chlorinated solvents. The feasibility of using bacterial biosensors to complement chemical analysis and enable cost-effective, and focussed sampling has been assessed as part of a site evaluation programme. Five different biosensors, three metabolic (Vibrio fischeri, Pseudomonas fluorescens 10568 and Escherichia coli HB101) and two catabolic (Pseudomonas putida TVA8 and E. coli DH5α), were employed to identify areas where the availability and toxicity of pollutants is of most immediate environmental concern. The biosensors used showed different sensitivities to each other and to the groundwater samples tested. There was generally a good agreement with chemical analyses. The potential efficacy of remediation strategies was explored by coupling sample manipulation to biosensor tests. Manipulation involved sparging and charcoal treatment procedures to simulate remediative engineering solutions. Sparging was sufficient at most locations. - Luminescent bacteria complement chemical analysis and support remediation technology

  10. A pyranose dehydrogenase-based biosensor for kinetic analysis of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by cellulases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Badino, Silke Flindt; Tokin, Radina Naytchova

    2014-01-01

    A novel electrochemical enzyme biosensor was developed for real-time detection of cellulase activity when acting on their natural insoluble substrate, cellulose. The enzyme biosensor was constructed with pyranose dehydrongease (PDH) from Agaricus meleagris that was immobilized on the surface......-biosensor was shown to be anomer unspecific and it can therefore be used in kinetic studies over broad time-scales of both retaining- and inverting cellulases (in addition to enzyme cocktails). The biosensor was used for real-time measurements of the activity of the inverting cellobiohydrolase Cel6A from Hypocrea...... equation for processive cellulases, and it was found that the turnover for HjCel6A at saturating substrate concentration (i.e. maximal apparent specific activity) was similar (0.39–0.40 s−1) for the two substrates. Conversely, the substrate load at half-saturation was much lower for BMCC compared to Avicel...

  11. Immobilization Techniques in the Fabrication of Nanomaterial-Based Electrochemical Biosensors: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niina J. Ronkainen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of 1st to 3rd generation electrochemical biosensors reflects a simplification and enhancement of the transduction pathway. However, in recent years, modification of the transducer with nanomaterials has become increasingly studied and imparts many advantages. The sensitivity and overall performance of enzymatic biosensors has improved tremendously as a result of incorporating nanomaterials in their fabrication. Given the unique and favorable qualities of gold nanoparticles, graphene and carbon nanotubes as applied to electrochemical biosensors, a consolidated survey of the different methods of nanomaterial immobilization on transducer surfaces and enzyme immobilization on these species is beneficial and timely. This review encompasses modification of enzymatic biosensors with gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and graphene.

  12. Fabrication of Flexible Arrayed Lactate Biosensor Based on Immobilizing LDH-NAD+ on NiO Film Modified by GO and MBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Siao-Jie; Liao, Yi-Hung; Lai, Chih-Hsien; Wu, You-Xiang; Wu, Cian-Yi; Chen, Hsiang-Yi; Huang, Hong-Yu; Wu, Tong-Yu

    2017-01-01

    We proposed the flexible arrayed lactate biosensor based on immobilizing l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) on nickel oxide (NiO) film, and which the average sensitivity could be enhanced by using graphene oxide (GO) and magnetic beads (MBs). By using GO and MBs, it exhibits excellent sensitivity (45.397 mV/mM) with a linearity of 0.992 in a range of 0.2 mM to 3 mM. According to the results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), the electron transfer resistance of LDH-NAD+-MBs/GPTS/GO/NiO film was smaller than those of LDH-NAD+/GPTS/GO/NiO film and LDH-NAD+/GPTS/NiO film, and it presented the outstanding electron transfer ability. After that, the limit of detection, anti-interference effect and bending test were also investigated. PMID:28704960

  13. Fabrication of Flexible Arrayed Lactate Biosensor Based on Immobilizing LDH-NAD+ on NiO Film Modified by GO and MBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Chuan Chou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We proposed the flexible arrayed lactate biosensor based on immobilizing l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ( NAD + on nickel oxide (NiO film, and which the average sensitivity could be enhanced by using graphene oxide (GO and magnetic beads (MBs. By using GO and MBs, it exhibits excellent sensitivity (45.397 mV/mM with a linearity of 0.992 in a range of 0.2 mM to 3 mM. According to the results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, the electron transfer resistance of LDH- NAD + -MBs/GPTS/GO/NiO film was smaller than those of LDH-NAD+/GPTS/GO/NiO film and LDH- NAD + /GPTS/NiO film, and it presented the outstanding electron transfer ability. After that, the limit of detection, anti-interference effect and bending test were also investigated.

  14. The field effect transistor DNA biosensor based on ITO nanowires in label-free hepatitis B virus detecting compatible with CMOS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Mohsen

    2018-05-15

    In this paper the field-effect transistor DNA biosensor for detecting hepatitis B virus (HBV) based on indium tin oxide nanowires (ITO NWs) in label free approach has been fabricated. Because of ITO nanowires intensive conductance and functional modified surface, the probe immobilization and target hybridization were increased strongly. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) measurement showed that ITO nanowires were crystalline and less than 50nm in diameter. The single-stranded hepatitis B virus DNA (SS-DNA) was immobilized as probe on the Au-modified nanowires. The DNA targets were measured in a linear concentration range from 1fM to 10µM. The detection limit of the DNA biosensor was about 1fM. The time of the hybridization process for defined single strand was 90min. The switching ratio of the biosensor between "on" and "off" state was ~ 1.1 × 10 5 . For sensing the specificity of the biosensor, non-complementary, mismatch and complementary DNA oligonucleotide sequences were clearly discriminated. The HBV biosensor confirmed the highly satisfied specificity for differentiating complementary sequences from non-complementary and the mismatch oligonucleotides. The response time of the DNA sensor was 37s with a high reproducibility. The stability and repeatability of the DNA biosensor showed that the peak current of the biosensor retained 98% and 96% of its initial response for measurements after three and five weeks, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A new amperometric method for rapid detection of Escherichia coli density using a self-assembled monolayer-based bienzyme biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Hui; Zhang Wen; Geng Ping; Wang Qingjiang; Jin Litong; Wu Zirong; Lou Min

    2006-01-01

    A new amperometric method was developed for rapid detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) density using a bienzyme biosensor. The bienzyme biosensor was fabricated based on the covalent immobilization of laccase and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) at indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode by (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) monolayer. The bienzyme biosensor showed a high sensitivity in determination of the polyphenolic compounds, which was microbially generated from the salicylic acid (SA) added into the culture medium during the course of E. coli metabolism. Since the amount of polyphenolic compounds depends on E. coli density, the bienzyme biosensor was applied for the rapid and high sensitive detection of E. coli density after the E. coli solution was incubated in culture medium with salicylic acid for 2.5 h at 37 deg. C. By chronoamperometry, the amplified response current was obtained at the bienzyme biosensor, due to the substrate recycling of the polyphenolic compounds driven by bienzyme-catalyzed oxidation and electrochemical reduction. The amplified response current at the biosensor was linear with the E. coli density ranging from 1.6 x 10 3 to 1.0 x 10 7 cells/mL. The bienzyme biosensor could detect the E. coli density with a detection limit of 9.7 x 10 2 cells/mL within 3 h

  16. Approaching near real-time biosensing: microfluidic microsphere based biosensor for real-time analyte detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Noa; Sabhachandani, Pooja; Golberg, Alexander; Konry, Tania

    2015-04-15

    In this study we describe a simple lab-on-a-chip (LOC) biosensor approach utilizing well mixed microfluidic device and a microsphere-based assay capable of performing near real-time diagnostics of clinically relevant analytes such cytokines and antibodies. We were able to overcome the adsorption kinetics reaction rate-limiting mechanism, which is diffusion-controlled in standard immunoassays, by introducing the microsphere-based assay into well-mixed yet simple microfluidic device with turbulent flow profiles in the reaction regions. The integrated microsphere-based LOC device performs dynamic detection of the analyte in minimal amount of biological specimen by continuously sampling micro-liter volumes of sample per minute to detect dynamic changes in target analyte concentration. Furthermore we developed a mathematical model for the well-mixed reaction to describe the near real time detection mechanism observed in the developed LOC method. To demonstrate the specificity and sensitivity of the developed real time monitoring LOC approach, we applied the device for clinically relevant analytes: Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α cytokine and its clinically used inhibitor, anti-TNF-α antibody. Based on the reported results herein, the developed LOC device provides continuous sensitive and specific near real-time monitoring method for analytes such as cytokines and antibodies, reduces reagent volumes by nearly three orders of magnitude as well as eliminates the washing steps required by standard immunoassays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Rich information format surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on array of diffraction gratings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostálek, Jakub; Homola, Jiří; Miler, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 1 (2005), s. 154-161 ISSN 0925-4005. [European Conference on Optical Chemical Sensors and Biosensors EUROPT(R)ODE /7./. Madrid, 04.04.2004-07.04.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/03/0633 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : biosensors * surface plasmon resonance * surface plasmons Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.646, year: 2005

  18. An ultrasensitive hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on electrocatalytic synergy of graphene-gold nanocomposite, CdTe-CdS core-shell quantum dots and gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Zhiguo; Yang Shuping; Li Zaijun; Sun Xiulan; Wang Guangli; Fang Yinjun; Liu Junkang

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: We first reported an ultrasensitive hydrogen peroxide biosensor in this work, which was fabricated by coating graphene-gold nanocomposite, CdTe-CdS core-shell quantum dots, gold nanoparticles and horseradish peroxidase in sequence on the surface of gold electrode. Since a promising their electrocatalytic synergy towards hydrogen peroxide was achieved, the biosensor displayed very high sensitivity, low detection limit (S/N = 3) (3.2 x 10 -11 M) and good long-term stability (20 weeks). Highlights: · We for the first time integrated novel hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on G-AuNP, CdTe-CdS and AuNPs. · Three nanomaterials show remarkable synergistic electrocatalysis towards hydrogen peroxide. · The biosensor provides the best sensitivity in all biosensors based on graphene for detection of glucose up to now. - Abstract: We first reported an ultrasensitive hydrogen peroxide biosensor in this work. The biosensor was fabricated by coating graphene-gold nanocomposite (G-AuNP), CdTe-CdS core-shell quantum dots (CdTe-CdS), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in sequence on the surface of gold electrode (GE). Cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry were used to investigate electrochemical performances of the biosensor. Since promising electrocatalytic synergy of G-AuNP, CdTe-CdS and AuNPs towards hydrogen peroxide was achieved, the biosensor displayed a high sensitivity, low detection limit (S/N = 3) (3.2 x 10 -11 M), wide calibration range (from 1 x 10 -10 M to 1.2 x 10 -8 M) and good long-term stability (20 weeks). Moreover, the effects of omitting G-AuNP, CdTe-CdS and AuNP were also examined. It was found that sensitivity of the biosensor is more 11-fold better if G-AuNP, CdTe-CdS and AuNPs are used. This could be ascribed to improvement of the conductivity between graphene nanosheets in the G-AuNP due to introduction of the AuNPs, ultrafast charge transfer from CdTe-CdS to the graphene sheets and AuNP due to

  19. A highly performing electrochemiluminescent biosensor for glucose based on a polyelectrolyte-chitosan modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Hong; Wu Xiaoping; Xu Huifeng; Wang Youmei; Chi Yuwu; Chen Guonan

    2009-01-01

    A highly performing ECL glucose biosensor was developed by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOD) onto a membrane modified glassy carbon electrode, which was prepared by using poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) doped with chitosan. In order to obtain the optimal performance of the ECL biosensor, the composition of modified membranes and a series of measurement conditions were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, this ECL biosensor was able to detect glucose in the range of 0.5-4.0 x 10 4 nM with a detection limit of 0.1 nM (defined as the concentration that could be detected at the signal-to-noise ratio of 3). The relative standard deviation was 0.99% for 5 x 10 -8 mol/L glucose in repetitive measurements in the primary 12 potential cycles. This ECL biosensor offered the effectively improved stability of the electron transfer mediator and exhibited excellent properties for the ultrasensitive and selective determination of glucose with good reproducibility and stability. The present biosensor has also been used to determine the glucose concentrations in real serum samples. The recovery value for the assay of glucose ranged from 96.2 to 107% in the serum samples. The present biosensor displayed both specificity for glucose and retention of signal response even in a complex environment. Therefore, it provided an approach to the sensitive determination of glucose.

  20. Novel glucose biosensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with hollow gold nanoparticles and glucose oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.; Ying, S.; Zhang, Z.; Huang, S.

    2011-01-01

    A novel glucose biosensor is presented as that based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with hollow gold nanoparticles (HGNs) and glucose oxidase. The sensor exhibits a better differential pulse voltammetric response towards glucose than the one based on conventional gold nanoparticles of the same size. This is attributed to the good biological conductivity and biocompatibility of HGNs. Under the optimal conditions, the sensor displays a linear range from 2.0 x 10 -6 to 4.6 x 10 -5 M of glucose, with a detection limit of 1.6 x 10 -6 M (S/N = 3). Good reproducibility, stability and no interference make this biosensor applicable to the determination of glucose in samples such as sports drinks. (author)

  1. Diffusion kinetics of the glucose/glucose oxidase system in swift heavy ion track-based biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Dietmar; Vacik, Jiri; Hnatowicz, V.; Muñoz Hernandez, G.; Garcia Arrelano, H.; Alfonta, Lital; Kiv, Arik

    2017-05-01

    For understanding of the diffusion kinetics and their optimization in swift heavy ion track-based biosensors, recently a diffusion simulation was performed. This simulation aimed at yielding the degree of enrichment of the enzymatic reaction products in the highly confined space of the etched ion tracks. A bunch of curves was obtained for the description of such sensors that depend only on the ratio of the diffusion coefficient of the products to that of the analyte within the tracks. As hitherto none of these two diffusion coefficients is accurately known, the present work was undertaken. The results of this paper allow one to quantify the previous simulation and hence yield realistic predictions of glucose-based biosensors. At this occasion, also the influence of the etched track radius on the diffusion coefficients was measured and compared with earlier prediction.

  2. Impedimetric DNA Biosensor Based on a Nanoporous Alumina Membrane for the Detection of the Specific Oligonucleotide Sequence of Dengue Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee-Seng Toh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel and integrated membrane sensing platform for DNA detection is developed based on an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO membrane. Platinum electrodes (~50–100 nm thick are coated directly on both sides of the alumina membrane to eliminate the solution resistance outside the nanopores. The electrochemical impedance technique is employed to monitor the impedance changes within the nanopores upon DNA binding. Pore resistance (Rp linearly increases in response towards the increasing concentration of the target DNA in the range of 1 × 10−12 to 1 × 10−6 M. Moreover, the biosensor selectively differentiates the complementary sequence from single base mismatched (MM-1 strands and non-complementary strands. This study reveals a simple, selective and sensitive method to fabricate a label-free DNA biosensor.

  3. Impedimetric DNA biosensor based on a nanoporous alumina membrane for the detection of the specific oligonucleotide sequence of dengue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jiajia; Toh, Chee-Seng

    2013-06-17

    A novel and integrated membrane sensing platform for DNA detection is developed based on an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane. Platinum electrodes (~50-100 nm thick) are coated directly on both sides of the alumina membrane to eliminate the solution resistance outside the nanopores. The electrochemical impedance technique is employed to monitor the impedance changes within the nanopores upon DNA binding. Pore resistance (Rp) linearly increases in response towards the increasing concentration of the target DNA in the range of 1 × 10⁻¹² to 1 × 10⁻⁶ M. Moreover, the biosensor selectively differentiates the complementary sequence from single base mismatched (MM-1) strands and non-complementary strands. This study reveals a simple, selective and sensitive method to fabricate a label-free DNA biosensor.

  4. Towards a Uniform Metrological Assessment of Grating-Based Optical Fiber Sensors: From Refractometers to Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavaioli, Francesco; Gouveia, Carlos A J; Jorge, Pedro A S; Baldini, Francesco

    2017-06-21

    A metrological assessment of grating-based optical fiber sensors is proposed with the aim of providing an objective evaluation of the performance of this sensor category. Attention was focused on the most common parameters, used to describe the performance of both optical refractometers and biosensors, which encompassed sensitivity, with a distinction between volume or bulk sensitivity and surface sensitivity, resolution, response time, limit of detection, specificity (or selectivity), reusability (or regenerability) and some other parameters of generic interest, such as measurement uncertainty, accuracy, precision, stability, drift, repeatability and reproducibility. Clearly, the concepts discussed here can also be applied to any resonance-based sensor, thus providing the basis for an easier and direct performance comparison of a great number of sensors published in the literature up to now. In addition, common mistakes present in the literature made for the evaluation of sensor performance are highlighted, and lastly a uniform performance assessment is discussed and provided. Finally, some design strategies will be proposed to develop a grating-based optical fiber sensing scheme with improved performance.

  5. An aptamer-based fluorescence bio-sensor for chiral recognition of arginine enantiomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haiyan; Huang, Yunmei; Yang, Jidong; Guo, Yuan; Zeng, Xiaoqing; Zhou, Shang; Cheng, Jiawei; Zhang, Yuhui

    2018-07-05

    In this study, a novel aptamer - based fluorescence bio-sensor (aptamer-AuNps) was developed for chiral recognition of arginine (Arg) enantiomers based on aptamer and gold nanoparticles (AuNps). Carboxyfluorescein (FAM) labeled aptamers (Apt) were absorbed on AuNps and their fluorescence intensity could be significantly quenched by AuNps based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Once d-Arg or l-Arg were added into the above solution, the aptamer specifically bind to Arg enantiomers and released from AuNps, so the fluorescence intensity of d-Arg system and l-Arg system were all enhanced. The affinity of Apt to l-Arg is tighter to d-Arg, so the enhanced fluorescence signals of l-Arg system was stronger than d-Arg system. What's more, the enhanced fluorescence were directly proportional to the concentration of d-Arg and l-Arg ranging from 0-300 nM and 0-400 nM with related coefficients of 0.9939 and 0.9952, respectively. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied to detection l-Arg in human urine samples with satisfactory results. Eventually, a simple "OR" logic gate with d-Arg &l-Arg as inputs and AuNps aggregation state as outputs was fabricated, which can help us understand the chiral recognition process deeply. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Carbon Nanomaterials Based Electrochemical Sensors/Biosensors for the Sensitive Detection of Pharmaceutical and Biological Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal-Ram Adhikari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical sensors and biosensors have attracted considerable attention for the sensitive detection of a variety of biological and pharmaceutical compounds. Since the discovery of carbon-based nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes, C60 and graphene, they have garnered tremendous interest for their potential in the design of high-performance electrochemical sensor platforms due to their exceptional thermal, mechanical, electronic, and catalytic properties. Carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors have been employed for the detection of various analytes with rapid electron transfer kinetics. This feature article focuses on the recent design and use of carbon nanomaterials, primarily single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs, reduced graphene oxide (rGO, SWCNTs-rGO, Au nanoparticle-rGO nanocomposites, and buckypaper as sensing materials for the electrochemical detection of some representative biological and pharmaceutical compounds such as methylglyoxal, acetaminophen, valacyclovir, β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate (NADH, and glucose. Furthermore, the electrochemical performance of SWCNTs, rGO, and SWCNT-rGO for the detection of acetaminophen and valacyclovir was comparatively studied, revealing that SWCNT-rGO nanocomposites possess excellent electrocatalytic activity in comparison to individual SWCNT and rGO platforms. The sensitive, reliable and rapid analysis of critical disease biomarkers and globally emerging pharmaceutical compounds at carbon nanomaterials based electrochemical sensor platforms may enable an extensive range of applications in preemptive medical diagnostics.

  7. Narrowband interrogation of plasmonic optical fiber biosensors based on spectral combs

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vila, Álvaro; Kinet, Damien; Mégret, Patrice; Caucheteur, Christophe

    2017-11-01

    Gold-coated tilted fiber Bragg gratings can probe surface Plasmon polaritons with high resolution and sensitivity. In this work, we report two configurations to interrogate such plasmonic biosensors, with the aim of providing more efficient alternatives to the widespread spectrometer-based techniques. To this aim, the interrogation is based on measuring the optical power evolution of the cladding modes with respect to surrounding refractive index changes instead of computing their wavelength shift. Both setups are composed of a broadband source and a photodiode and enable a narrowband interrogation around the cladding mode that excites the surface Plasmon resonance. The first configuration makes use of a uniform fiber Bragg grating to filter the broadband response of the source in a way that the final interrogation is based on an intensity modulation measured in transmission. The second setup uses a uniform fiber grating too, but located beyond the sensor and acting as a selective optical mirror, so the interrogation is carried out in reflection. Both configurations are compared, showing interesting differential features. The first one exhibits a very high sensitivity while the second one has an almost temperature-insensitive behavior. Hence, the choice of the most appropriate method will be driven by the requirements of the target application.

  8. Molecule-based magnets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Employing self-assembly methods, it is possible to engineer a bulk molecular material ... synthesis of molecular magnets in 1986, a large variety of them have been synthesized, which can be catego- ... maintained stably per organic molecule, stabilization of a ..... rotating freely under an applied field because it is a magne-.

  9. Permanent magnet based dipole magnets for next generation light sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Watanabe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We have developed permanent magnet based dipole magnets for the next generation light sources. Permanent magnets are advantageous over electromagnets in that they consume less power, are physically more compact, and there is a less risk of power supply failure. However, experience with electromagnets and permanent magnets in the field of accelerators shows that there are still challenges to replacing main magnets of accelerators for light sources with permanent magnets. These include the adjustability of the magnetic field, the temperature dependence of permanent magnets, and the issue of demagnetization. In this paper, we present a design for magnets for future light sources, supported by experimental and numerical results.

  10. Commercialisation of CMOS Integrated Circuit Technology in Multi-Electrode Arrays for Neuroscience and Cell-Based Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris R. Bowen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation of standard integrated circuit (IC technology as a transducer in cell-based biosensors in drug discovery pharmacology, neural interface systems and electrophysiology requires electrodes that are electrochemically stable, biocompatible and affordable. Unfortunately, the ubiquitous Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS IC technology does not meet the first of these requirements. For devices intended only for research, modification of CMOS by post-processing using cleanroom facilities has been achieved. However, to enable adoption of CMOS as a basis for commercial biosensors, the economies of scale of CMOS fabrication must be maintained by using only low-cost post-processing techniques. This review highlights the methodologies employed in cell-based biosensor design where CMOS-based integrated circuits (ICs form an integral part of the transducer system. Particular emphasis will be placed on the application of multi-electrode arrays for in vitro neuroscience applications. Identifying suitable IC packaging methods presents further significant challenges when considering specific applications. The various challenges and difficulties are reviewed and some potential solutions are presented.

  11. Functional Polymers in Protein Detection Platforms: Optical, Electrochemical, Electrical, Mass-Sensitive, and Magnetic Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-in Hahm

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing field of proteomics and related applied sectors in the life sciences demands convenient methodologies for detecting and measuring the levels of specific proteins as well as for screening and analyzing for interacting protein systems. Materials utilized for such protein detection and measurement platforms should meet particular specifications which include ease-of-mass manufacture, biological stability, chemical functionality, cost effectiveness, and portability. Polymers can satisfy many of these requirements and are often considered as choice materials in various biological detection platforms. Therefore, tremendous research efforts have been made for developing new polymers both in macroscopic and nanoscopic length scales as well as applying existing polymeric materials for protein measurements. In this review article, both conventional and alternative techniques for protein detection are overviewed while focusing on the use of various polymeric materials in different protein sensing technologies. Among many available detection mechanisms, most common approaches such as optical, electrochemical, electrical, mass-sensitive, and magnetic methods are comprehensively discussed in this article. Desired properties of polymers exploited for each type of protein detection approach are summarized. Current challenges associated with the application of polymeric materials are examined in each protein detection category. Difficulties facing both quantitative and qualitative protein measurements are also identified. The latest efforts on the development and evaluation of nanoscale polymeric systems for improved protein detection are also discussed from the standpoint of quantitative and qualitative measurements. Finally, future research directions towards further advancements in the field are considered.

  12. FRET-based biosensors for the detection and quantification of AI-2 class of quorum sensing compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamani, Sathish; Sayre, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Intercellular small molecular weight signaling molecules modulate a variety of biological functions in bacteria. One of the more complex behaviors mediated by intercellular signaling molecules is the suite of activities regulated by quorum sensing molecules. These molecules mediate a variety of population-dependent responses, including the expression of genes that regulate bioluminescence, type III secretion, siderophore production, colony morphology, biofilm formation, and metalloprotease production. Given their central role in regulating these responses, the detection and quantification of QS molecules has important practical implications. Until recently, the detection of QS molecules from Gram-negative bacteria has relied primarily on bacterial reporter systems. These bioassays though immensely useful are subject to interference by compounds that affect bacterial growth and metabolism. In addition, the reporter response is highly dependent on culture age and cell population density. To overcome such limitations, we developed an in vitro protein-based assay system for the rapid detection and quantification of the furanosyl borate diester (BAI-2) subclass of autoinducer-2 (AI-2) QS molecules. The biosensor is based on the interaction of BAI-2 with the Vibrio harveyi QS receptor LuxP. Conformation changes associated with BAI-2 binding to the LuxP receptor change the orientation of cyan and yellow variants of GFP (CFP and YFP) fused the N- and C-termini, respectively, of the LuxP receptor. LuxP-BAI2 binding induces changes in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between CFP and YFP, whose magnitude of change is ligand concentration dependent. A set of ligand-insensitive LuxP-mutant FRET protein sensor was also developed for use as control biosensors. The FRET-based BAI-2 biosensor responds selectively to both synthetic and biologically derived BAI-2compounds. This report describes the use of the LuxP-FRET biosensor for the detection and quantification of

  13. Label-Free Biosensors Based on Bimodal Waveguide (BiMW) Interferometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, Sonia; Gavela, Adrián Fernández; Lechuga, Laura M

    2017-01-01

    The bimodal waveguide (BiMW) sensor is a novel common path interferometric transducer based on the evanescent field detection principle, which in combination with a bio-recognition element allows the direct detection of biomolecular interactions in a label-free scheme. Due to its inherent high sensitivity it has great potential to become a powerful analytical tool for monitoring substances of interest in areas such as environmental control, medical diagnostics and food safety, among others. The BiMW sensor is fabricated using standard silicon-based technology allowing cost-effective production, and meeting the requirements of portability and disposability necessary for implementation in a point-of-care (POC) setting.In this chapter we describe the design and fabrication of the BiMW transducer, as well as its application for bio-sensing purposes. We show as an example the biosensor capabilities two different applications: (1) the immunodetection of Irgarol 1051 biocide useful in the environmental field, and (2) the detection of human growth hormone as used in clinical diagnostics. The detection is performed in real time by monitoring changes in the intensity pattern of light exiting the BiMW transducer resulting from antigen-antibody interactions on the surface of the sensor.

  14. Hybrid macro-micro fluidics system for a chip-based biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamanaha, C. R.; Whitman, L. J.; Colton, R. J.

    2002-03-01

    We describe the engineering of a hybrid fluidics platform for a chip-based biosensor system that combines high-performance microfluidics components with powerful, yet compact, millimeter-scale pump and valve actuators. The microfluidics system includes channels, valveless diffuser-based pumps, and pinch-valves that are cast into a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membrane and packaged along with the sensor chip into a palm-sized plastic cartridge. The microfluidics are driven by pump and valve actuators contained in an external unit (with a volume ~30 cm3) that interfaces kinematically with the PDMS microelements on the cartridge. The pump actuator is a simple-lever, flexure-hinge displacement amplifier that increases the motion of a piezoelectric stack. The valve actuators are an array of cantilevers operated by shape memory alloy wires. All components can be fabricated without the need for complex lithography or micromachining, and can be used with fluids containing micron-sized particulates. Prototypes have been modeled and tested to ensure the delivery of microliter volumes of fluid and the even dispersion of reagents over the chip sensing elements. With this hybrid approach to the fluidics system, the biochemical assay benefits from the many advantages of microfluidics yet we avoid the complexity and unknown reliability of immature microactuator technologies.

  15. Optical power-based interrogation of plasmonic tilted fiber Bragg grating biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vila, Á.; Lopez-Aldaba, A.; Kinet, D.; Mégret, P.; Lopez-Amo, M.; Caucheteur, C.

    2017-04-01

    Two interrogation techniques for plasmonic tilted fiber Bragg grating sensors are reported and experimentally tested. Typical interrogation methods are usually based on tracking the wavelength shift of the most sensitive cladding mode, but for biosensing applications, spectrometer-based methods can be replaced by more efficient solutions. The proposed techniques thus rely on the measurement of the induced changes in optical power. The first one consists of a properly polarized tunable laser source set to emit at the wavelength of the sensor most sensitive mode and an optical power meter to measure the transmitted response. For the second method, a uniform fiber Bragg grating is photo-inscribed beyond the sensor in such a way that its central wavelength matches the sensor most sensitive mode, acting as an optical filter. Using a LED source, light reflected backwards by this grating is partially attenuated when passing through the sensor due to plasmon wave excitation and the power changes are quantified once again with an optical power meter. A performance analysis of the techniques is carried out and they both result competitive interrogation solutions. The work thus focuses on the development of cost-effective alternatives for monitoring this kind of biosensors in practical situations.

  16. Increasing cell-device adherence using cultured insect cells for receptor-based biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terutsuki, Daigo; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Sakurai, Takeshi; Okamoto, Yuki; Tixier-Mita, Agnès; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi; Mita, Yoshio; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2018-03-01

    Field-effect transistor (FET)-based biosensors have a wide range of applications, and a bio-FET odorant sensor, based on insect (Sf21) cells expressing insect odorant receptors (ORs) with sensitivity and selectivity, has emerged. To fully realize the practical application of bio-FET odorant sensors, knowledge of the cell-device interface for efficient signal transfer, and a reliable and low-cost measurement system using the commercial complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) foundry process, will be indispensable. However, the interfaces between Sf21 cells and sensor devices are largely unknown, and electrode materials used in the commercial CMOS foundry process are generally limited to aluminium, which is reportedly toxic to cells. In this study, we investigated Sf21 cell-device interfaces by developing cross-sectional specimens. Calcium imaging of Sf21 cells expressing insect ORs was used to verify the functions of Sf21 cells as odorant sensor elements on the electrode materials. We found that the cell-device interface was approximately 10 nm wide on average, suggesting that the adhesion mechanism of Sf21 cells may differ from that of other cells. These results will help to construct accurate signal detection from expressed insect ORs using FETs.

  17. Determination of Patulin Using Amperometric Tyrosinase Biosensors Based on Electrodes Modified with Carbon Nanotubes and Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Varlamova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available New amperometric biosensors based on platinum screen printed electrodes modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes, gold nanoparticles, and immobilized enzyme – tyrosinase have been developed for determination of patulin in the concentrations of 1·10–6 – 8·10–12 mol/L with an error of no more than 0.063. The best conditions for obtaining gold nanoparticles have been chosen. The conditions for immobilization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and gold nanoparticles on the surface of the planar electrode have been revealed. The conditions for functioning of the proposed biosensors have been identified. The results have been used to control the content of patulin in food products within and lower than the maximum allowable levels.

  18. A H2O2 Biosensor Based on Immobilization of HorseradishPeroxidase in a Gelatine Network Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Jie Zhu

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple and promising H2O2 biosensor has been developed by successfulentrapment of horseradish peroxidase (HRP in a gelatine matrix which was cross-linkedwith formaldehyde. The large microscopic surface area and porous morphology of thegelatine matrix lead to high enzyme loading and the enzyme entrapped in this matrix canretain its bioactivity. This biosensor exhibited a fast amperometric response to hydrogenperoxide (H2O2. The linear range for H2O2 determination was from 2.5×10-5 to2.5×10-3 M, with a detection limit of 2.0×10-6 M based on S / N = 3. This biosensorpossessed very good reproducibility.

  19. Fabrication of an Amperometric Flow-Injection Microfluidic Biosensor Based on Laccase for In Situ Determination of Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Gonzalez-Rivera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to develop an in situ microfluidic biosensor based on laccase from Trametes pubescens with flow-injection and amperometry as the transducer method. The enzyme was directly immobilized by potential step chronoamperometry, and the immobilization was studied using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrode response by amperometry was probed using ABTS and syringaldazine. A shift of interfacial electron transfer resistance and the electron transfer rate constant from 18.1 kΩ to 3.9 MΩ and 4.6 × 10−2 cm s−1 to 2.1 × 10−4 cm s−1, respectively, evidenced that laccase was immobilized on the electrode by the proposed method. We established the optimum operating conditions of temperature (55°C, pH (4.5, injection flow rate (200 µL min−1, and applied potential (0.4 V. Finally, the microfluidic biosensor showed better lower limit of detection (0.149 µM and sensitivity (0.2341 nA µM−1 for ABTS than previous laccase-based biosensors and the in situ operation capacity.

  20. A novel fluorescence biosensor for sensitivity detection of tyrosinase and acid phosphatase based on nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhengyi; Na, Weidan; Liu, Xiaotong; Liu, Hua; Su, Xingguang

    2018-01-02

    In this paper, we developed a sensitive fluorescence biosensor for tyrosinase (TYR) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activity detection based on nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs). Tyrosine could be catalyzed by TYR to generate dopaquinone, which could efficiently quench the fluorescence of N-GQDs, and the degree of fluorescence quenching of N-GQDs was proportional to the concentration of TYR. In the presence of ACP, l-Ascorbic acid-2-phosphate (AAP) was hydrolyzed to generate ascorbic acid (AA), and dopaquinone was reduced to l-dopa, resulting in the fluorescence recovery of the quenched fluorescence by dopaquinone. Thus, a novel fluorescence biosensor for the detection of TYR and ACP activity based on N-GQDs was constructed. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the fluorescence intensity was linearly correlated with the concentration of TYR and ACP in the range of 0.43-3.85 U mL -1 and 0.04-0.7 mU mL -1 with a detection limit of 0.15 U mL -1 and 0.014 mU mL -1 , respectively. The feasibility of the proposed biosensor in real samples assay was also studied and satisfactory results were obtained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An RNA-Based Fluorescent Biosensor for High-Throughput Analysis of the cGAS-cGAMP-STING Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Debojit; Su, Yichi; Marcus, Assaf; Raulet, David H; Hammond, Ming C

    2016-12-22

    In mammalian cells, the second messenger (2'-5',3'-5') cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (2',3'-cGAMP), is produced by the cytosolic DNA sensor cGAMP synthase (cGAS), and subsequently bound by the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) to trigger interferon response. Thus, the cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway plays a critical role in pathogen detection, as well as pathophysiological conditions including cancer and autoimmune disorders. However, studying and targeting this immune signaling pathway has been challenging due to the absence of tools for high-throughput analysis. We have engineered an RNA-based fluorescent biosensor that responds to 2',3'-cGAMP. The resulting "mix-and-go" cGAS activity assay shows excellent statistical reliability as a high-throughput screening (HTS) assay and distinguishes between direct and indirect cGAS inhibitors. Furthermore, the biosensor enables quantitation of 2',3'-cGAMP in mammalian cell lysates. We envision this biosensor-based assay as a resource to study the cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway in the context of infectious diseases, cancer immunotherapy, and autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Diffusion kinetics of the glucose/glucose oxidase system in swift heavy ion track-based biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Dietmar, E-mail: fink@xanum.uam.mx [Nuclear Physics Institute, 25068 Řež (Czech Republic); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, PO Box 55-534, 09340 México, DF (Mexico); Vacik, Jiri; Hnatowicz, V. [Nuclear Physics Institute, 25068 Řež (Czech Republic); Muñoz Hernandez, G. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, PO Box 55-534, 09340 México, DF (Mexico); Garcia Arrelano, H. [Departamento de Ciencias Ambientales, División de Ciencias Biológicas y de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Lerma, Av. de las Garzas No. 10, Col. El Panteón, Lerma de Villada, Municipio de Lerma, Estado de México CP 52005 (Mexico); Alfonta, Lital [Avram and Stella Goldstein-Goren Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Kiv, Arik [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Application of swift heavy ion tracks in biosensing. • Obtaining yet unknown diffusion coefficients of organic matter across etched ion tracks. • Obtaining diffusion coefficients of organics in etched ion tracks of biosensors. • Comparison with Renkin’s equation to predict the effective etched track diameter in the given experiments. - Abstract: For understanding of the diffusion kinetics and their optimization in swift heavy ion track-based biosensors, recently a diffusion simulation was performed. This simulation aimed at yielding the degree of enrichment of the enzymatic reaction products in the highly confined space of the etched ion tracks. A bunch of curves was obtained for the description of such sensors that depend only on the ratio of the diffusion coefficient of the products to that of the analyte within the tracks. As hitherto none of these two diffusion coefficients is accurately known, the present work was undertaken. The results of this paper allow one to quantify the previous simulation and hence yield realistic predictions of glucose-based biosensors. At this occasion, also the influence of the etched track radius on the diffusion coefficients was measured and compared with earlier prediction.

  3. Highly Sensitive Detection of Organophosphate Insecticides Using Biosensors Based on Genetically Engineered Acetylcholinesterase and Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Sikora

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT conducting ink is presented as a new electroactive material to be incorporated in acetylcholinesterase-(AChE- based screen printed biosensors, acting not only as a conducting template but also as an electrochemical mediator for thiocholine oxidation. Two different strategies have been studied for the chemical synthesis of PEDOT: (a a classical oxidative polymerisation and (b a more innovative enzymatic polymerisation, giving a water-soluble PEDOT. The use of this water-soluble conducting polymer as mediator in screen-printed biosensors enables its deposition by printing like the rest of the layers. Highly sensitive acetylcholinesterase-(AChE- based screen-printed biosensors have been constructed using both classical and enzymatic PEDOT, in combination with genetically modified AChE. These electrodes allow the measurement of thiocholine oxidation at potentials of 100 mV versus Ag/AgCl reference electrode through the mediation of PEDOT. Inhibition of thiocholine production in presence of CPO allow for detection of this pesticide in concentrations as low as 1·10−10 M.

  4. Use of one- and two-mediator systems for developing a BOD biosensor based on the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitseva, A S; Arlyapov, V A; Yudina, N Yu; Alferov, S V; Reshetilov, A N

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the use of one- and two-mediator systems in amperometric BOD biosensors (BOD, biochemical oxygen demand) based on the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii. Screening of nine mediators potentially capable of electron transfer - ferrocene, 1,1'-dimethylferrocene, ferrocenecarboxaldehyde, ferroceneacetonitrile, neutral red, 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol, thionine, methylene blue and potassium ferricyanide - showed only ferrocene and neutral red to be efficient electron carriers for the eukaryotes studied. Two-mediator systems based on combinations of the investigated compounds were used to increase the efficiency of electron transfer. The developed two-mediator biosensors exceeded their one-mediator analogs by their characteristics. The most preferable two-mediator system for developing a BOD biosensor was a ferrocene-methylene blue combination that ensured a satisfactory long-time stability (43 days), selectivity, sensitivity (the lower limit of the determined BOD 5 concentrations, 2.5mg О 2 /dm 3 ) and speed (assay time for one sample, not greater than 10min) of BOD determination. Analysis of water samples showed that the use of a ferrocene-methylene blue two-mediator system and the yeast D. hansenii enabled registration of data that highly correlated with the results of the standard method (R=0.9913). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A miniaturized electrochemical toxicity biosensor based on graphene oxide quantum dots/carboxylated carbon nanotubes for assessment of priority pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaolin; Wu, Guanlan; Lu, Nan; Yuan, Xing; Li, Baikun

    2017-02-15

    The study presented a sensitive and miniaturized cell-based electrochemical biosensor to assess the toxicity of priority pollutants in the aquatic environment. Human hepatoma (HepG2) cells were used as the biological recognition agent to measure the changes of electrochemical signals and reflect the cell viability. The graphene oxide quantum dots/carboxylated carbon nanotubes hybrid was developed in a facile and green way. Based on the hybrid composite modified pencil graphite electrode, the cell culture and detection vessel was miniaturized to a 96-well plate instead of the traditional culture dish. In addition, three sensitive electrochemical signals attributed to guanine/xanthine, adenine, and hypoxanthine were detected simultaneously. The biosensor was used to evaluate the toxicity of six priority pollutants, including Cd, Hg, Pb, 2,4-dinitrophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol. The 24h IC 50 values obtained by the electrochemical biosensor were lower than those of conventional MTT assay, suggesting the enhanced sensitivity of the electrochemical assay towards heavy metals and phenols. This platform enables the label-free and sensitive detection of cell physiological status with multi-parameters and constitutes a promising approach for toxicity detection of pollutants. It makes possible for automatical and high-throughput analysis on nucleotide catabolism, which may be critical for life science and toxicology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A miniaturized electrochemical toxicity biosensor based on graphene oxide quantum dots/carboxylated carbon nanotubes for assessment of priority pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaolin; Wu, Guanlan; Lu, Nan [School of Environment, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130117 (China); Yuan, Xing, E-mail: yuanx@nenu.edu.cn [School of Environment, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130117 (China); Li, Baikun, E-mail: baikun@engr.uconn.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide quantum dots/carboxylated carbon nanotubes hybrid was developed. • The cytotoxicity detection vessel was miniaturized to the 96-well plate. • The electrochemical behavior of HepG2 cell was investigated for the first time. • The mixture signal of adenine and hypoxanthine was separated successfully. • The biosensor was used to assess the toxicity of heavy metals and phenols. - Abstract: The study presented a sensitive and miniaturized cell-based electrochemical biosensor to assess the toxicity of priority pollutants in the aquatic environment. Human hepatoma (HepG2) cells were used as the biological recognition agent to measure the changes of electrochemical signals and reflect the cell viability. The graphene oxide quantum dots/carboxylated carbon nanotubes hybrid was developed in a facile and green way. Based on the hybrid composite modified pencil graphite electrode, the cell culture and detection vessel was miniaturized to a 96-well plate instead of the traditional culture dish. In addition, three sensitive electrochemical signals attributed to guanine/xanthine, adenine, and hypoxanthine were detected simultaneously. The biosensor was used to evaluate the toxicity of six priority pollutants, including Cd, Hg, Pb, 2,4-dinitrophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol. The 24 h IC{sub 50} values obtained by the electrochemical biosensor were lower than those of conventional MTT assay, suggesting the enhanced sensitivity of the electrochemical assay towards heavy metals and phenols. This platform enables the label-free and sensitive detection of cell physiological status with multi-parameters and constitutes a promising approach for toxicity detection of pollutants. It makes possible for automatical and high-throughput analysis on nucleotide catabolism, which may be critical for life science and toxicology.

  7. The Effect of Multilayer Gold Nanoparticles on the Electrochemical Response of Ammonium Ion Biosensor Based on Alanine Dehydrogenase Enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Ling Ling

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of multilayer of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs attached on gold electrode surface via thiol chemistry to fabricate an ammonium (NH4+ ion biosensor based on alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH was investigated. The approach of the study was based on construction of biosensor by direct deposition of AuNPs and 1,8-octanedithiol (C8-DT onto the gold electrode surface. For the immobilisation of enzyme, 2-mercaptoethanol (2BME was first covalently attached to AlaDH via esther bonding and then followed by chemically attached the 2BME-modified AlaDH (2BME-AlaDH moiety onto the AuNPs electrode via the exposed thiol group of 2BME. The resulting biosensor response was examined by means of amperometry for the quantification of NH4+ ion. In the absence of enzyme attachment, the use of three layers of AuNPs was found to improve the electrochemistry of the gold electrode when compared with no AuNPs was coated. However, when more than three layers of AuNPs were coated, the electrode response deteriorated due to excessive deposition of C8-DT. When AlaDH was incoporated into the AuNPs modified electrode, a linear response to NH4+ ion over the concentration range of 0.1–0.5 mM with a detection limit of 0.01 mM was obtained. In the absence of AuNPs, the NH4+ ion biosensor did not exhibit any good linear response range although the current response was observed to be higher. This work demonstrated that the incorporation of AuNPs could lead to the detection of higher NH4+ ion concentration without the need of dilution for high NH4+ ion concentration samples with a rapid response time of <1 min.

  8. Degradation and movement in soil of the herbicide isoproturon analyzed by a Photosystem II-based biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malý, J; Klem, K; Lukavská, A; Masojídek, J

    2005-01-01

    We have examined the persistence and movement of a urea-type herbicide, isoproturon [IPU; 3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1,1'-dimethylurea], in soil using a novel herbicide-detection device, the prototype of a portable electrochemical biosensor based on Photosystem II particles immobilized on printed electrodes, and evaluated its results against two other methods: (i) chlorophyll-fluorescence bioassay based on polyphasic induction curves, and (ii) standard analysis represented by liquid chromatography. The data of the herbicide's content determined in soil extracts from field experiments correlated in all three methods. The biosensor assay was effective in determining the herbicide's concentration to as low as 10(-7) M. The results of our experiments also showed the kinetics of movement, degradation, and persistence of isoproturon in various depths of soil. After 6 to 9 wk, almost half of the isoproturon was still actively present in the upper soil layers (0-10 and 10-20 cm) and only 5 to 10% of biological activity was inhibited in the deeper soil layer tested (20-30 cm). Thus, inhibition within the limit of detection of both bioassays could be observed up to 9 wk after application in all profiles (0-30 cm), whereas inhibition persisted for up to 11 wk in the upper soil profile (0-10 cm). The use of the biosensor demonstrated its possibility for making rapid and cheap phytotoxicity tests. Our biosensor can give preliminary information about the biological activity of isoproturon in hours--much faster than growth biotests that may take several days or more.

  9. ZnO Nanorods Based Enzymatic Biosensor for Selective Determination of Penicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Willander

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have successfully demonstrated the fabrication of a biosensor based on well aligned single-crystal zinc oxide (ZnO nanorods which were grown on gold coated glass substrate using a low temperature aqueous chemical growth (ACG method. The ZnO nanorods were immobilized with penicillinase enzyme using the physical adsorption approach in combination with N-5-azido-2-nitrobenzoyloxysuccinimide (ANB-NOS as cross linking molecules. The potentiometric response of the sensor configuration revealed good linearity over a large logarithmic concentration range from 100 µM to 100 mM. During the investigations, the proposed sensor showed a good stability with high sensitivity of ~121 mV/decade for sensing of penicillin. A quick electrochemical response of less than 5 s with a good selectivity, repeatability, reproducibility and a negligible response to common interferents such as Na1+, K1+, d-glucose, l-glucose, ascorbic acid, uric acid, urea, sucrose, lactose, glycine, penicilloic acid and cephalosporins, was observed.

  10. ZnO Nanorods Based Enzymatic Biosensor for Selective Determination of Penicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Ali, Syed Muhammad Usman; Khun, Kimleang; Chey, Chan Oeurn; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2011-10-27

    In this study, we have successfully demonstrated the fabrication of a biosensor based on well aligned single-crystal zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods which were grown on gold coated glass substrate using a low temperature aqueous chemical growth (ACG) method. The ZnO nanorods were immobilized with penicillinase enzyme using the physical adsorption approach in combination with N-5-azido-2-nitrobenzoyloxysuccinimide (ANB-NOS) as cross linking molecules. The potentiometric response of the sensor configuration revealed good linearity over a large logarithmic concentration range from 100 µM to 100 mM. During the investigations, the proposed sensor showed a good stability with high sensitivity of ~121 mV/decade for sensing of penicillin. A quick electrochemical response of less than 5 s with a good selectivity, repeatability, reproducibility and a negligible response to common interferents such as Na1+, K1+, d-glucose, l-glucose, ascorbic acid, uric acid, urea, sucrose, lactose, glycine, penicilloic acid and cephalosporins, was observed.

  11. Parsing glucose entry into the brain: novel findings obtained with enzyme-based glucose biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Wakabayashi, Ken T

    2015-01-21

    Extracellular levels of glucose in brain tissue reflect dynamic balance between its gradient-dependent entry from arterial blood and its use for cellular metabolism. In this work, we present several sets of previously published and unpublished data obtained by using enzyme-based glucose biosensors coupled with constant-potential high-speed amperometry in freely moving rats. First, we consider basic methodological issues related to the reliability of electrochemical measurements of extracellular glucose levels in rats under physiologically relevant conditions. Second, we present data on glucose responses induced in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) by salient environmental stimuli and discuss the relationships between local neuronal activation and rapid glucose entry into brain tissue. Third, by presenting data on changes in NAc glucose induced by intravenous and intragastric glucose delivery, we discuss other mechanisms of glucose entry into the extracellular domain following changes in glucose blood concentrations. Lastly, by showing the pattern of NAc glucose fluctuations during glucose-drinking behavior, we discuss the relationships between "active" and "passive" glucose entry to the brain, its connection to behavior-related metabolic activation, and the possible functional significance of these changes in behavioral regulation. These data provide solid experimental support for the "neuronal" hypothesis of neurovascular coupling, which postulates the critical role of neuronal activity in rapid regulation of vascular tone, local blood flow, and entry of glucose and oxygen to brain tissue to maintain active cellular metabolism.

  12. Detection of lipopolysaccharides in serum using a waveguide-based optical biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohamed, Aneesa; Stromberg, Loreen R.; Anderson, Aaron S.; Karim, Zachary; Dighe, Priya; Kempaiah, Prakasha; Ong'echa, John M.; Perkins, Douglas J.; Doggett, Norman; McMahon, Benjamin; Mukundan, Harshini

    2017-02-01

    Direct ultra-sensitive detection of pathogen biomarkers in blood could provide a universal strategy for diagnosis of bacterial infections, which remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in many areas of the world. Many factors complicate diagnosis, including the presence of multiple co-infections in a given patient, and lack of infrastructure in rural settings. In some pediatric patients, such as those in areas with poor resources, an additional challenge exists with low sample volumes due to age and other health factors such as anemia and dehydration. Our team is working on developing novel diagnostic assays, with a waveguide-based biosensor platform, to rapidly and specifically identify pathogen biomarkers from small samples of serum or plasma, allowing for the timely and sensitive diagnosis of infection at the point of care. In addition to the platform, we have developed novel membrane insertion and lipoprotein capture assay methods, to capture lipidated pathogen biomarkers in aqueous blood, by virtue of their interactions with host lipoprotein carriers. Herein, we demonstrate our efforts to adapt the lipoprotein capture assay for the detection of small concentrations of pathogen-secreted lipopolysaccharides in aqueous blood, with the ultimate aim of diagnosing Gram-negative infections effectively.

  13. Affinity-based biosensors in sport medicine and doping control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzei, Franco; Antiochia, Riccarda; Botrè, Francesco; Favero, Gabriele; Tortolini, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Affinity-based biosensors (ABBs) have started to be considered in sport medicine and doping control analysis because they are cheap, easy to use and sufficiently selective analytical devices, characterized by a reversible interaction with the analyte under investigation allowing the use of the same sensor for multiple analyses. In this review we describe the main categories of substances reported in the World Anti-Doping Agency Prohibited List and how ABBs may contribute to their detection. Although several ABBs proposed in the last few years display limit of detections that are in principle matching the World Anti-Doping Agency requirements, their application in the framework of 'traditional' antidoping tests seems quite unlikely, mainly because of the still insufficient selectivity especially in the case of 'pseudo-endogenous' compounds, and on the lack of complete information regarding potential matrix effects in real samples and following their routine use. At the same time, ABBs could contribute to fill a significant information gap concerning complementary evidence that can be obtained from their use 'on the spot', as well as to preselect a risk population of individuals to be targeted for a full antidoping test; while in sport medicine they could contribute to obtaining analytical information of physiological relevance from the measurement of specific parameters or markers before, during and after physical exercise.

  14. Enhanced Plasmonic Biosensors of Hybrid Gold Nanoparticle-Graphene Oxide-Based Label-Free Immunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Nan-Fu; Chen, Chi-Chu; Yang, Cheng-Du; Kao, Yu-Sheng; Wu, Wei-Ren

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we propose a modified gold nanoparticle-graphene oxide sheet (AuNP-GO) nanocomposite to detect two different interactions between proteins and hybrid nanocomposites for use in biomedical applications. GO sheets have high bioaffinity, which facilitates the attachment of biomolecules to carboxyl groups and has led to its use in the development of sensing mechanisms. When GO sheets are decorated with AuNPs, they introduce localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the resonance energy transfer of spectral changes. Our results suggest a promising future for AuNP-GO-based label-free immunoassays to detect disease biomarkers and rapidly diagnose infectious diseases. The results showed the detection of antiBSA in 10 ng/ml of hCG non-specific interfering protein with dynamic responses ranging from 1.45 nM to 145 fM, and a LOD of 145 fM. Considering the wide range of potential applications of GO sheets as a host material for a variety of nanoparticles, the approach developed here may be beneficial for the future integration of nanoparticles with GO nanosheets for blood sensing. The excellent anti-interference characteristics allow for the use of the biosensor in clinical analysis and point-of-care testing (POCT) diagnostics of rapid immunoassay products, and it may also be a potential tool for the measurement of biomarkers in human serum.

  15. Diffraction-based BioCD biosensor for point-of-care diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H.; Chang, C.; Savran, C.; Nolte, D.

    2018-02-01

    The BioCD platform technology uses spinning-disk interferometry to detect molecular binding to target molecular probes in biological samples. Interferometric configurations have included differential phase contrast and in-line quadrature detection. For the detection of extremely low analyte concentrations, nano- or microparticles can enhance the signal through background-free diffraction detection. Diffraction signal measurements on BioCD biosensors are achieved by forming gratings on a disc surface. The grating pattern was printed with biotinylated bovine serum albumin (BSA) and streptavidin coated beads were deployed. The diameter of the beads was 1 micron and strong protein bonding occurs between BSA and streptavidin-coated beads at the printed location. The wavelength for the protein binding detection was 635 nm. The periodic pattern on the disc amplified scattered light into the first-order diffraction position. The diffracted signal contains Mie scattering and a randomly-distributed-bead noise contributions. Variation of the grating pattern periodicity modulates the diffraction efficiency. To test multiple spatial frequencies within a single scan, we designed a fan-shaped grating to perform frequency filter multiplexing on a diffraction-based BioCD.

  16. Luminol-based electrochemiluminescent biosensors for highly sensitive medical diagnosis and rapid antioxidant detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiya, Eiichi; Inoue, Yuki; Saito, Masato

    2018-03-01

    We present a review of luminol-based electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensors that perform enzymatic reactions and bioanalysis using antioxidant molecules by controlling the spatiotemporal production of a luminescent substrate, catalase activity, and glycated albumin (GA). The ECL intensity depends on the antioxidant capacity because radicals are neutralized by the antioxidants, which suppresses the luminescence. The antioxidant capacities of 22 types beverages were evaluated by comparison with a standard curve of Trolox. The time necessary for the ECL measurement of the antioxidant capacity is only 2 min with screen-printed electrodes and a portable ECL