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Sample records for magnesium hydroxide derived

  1. Magnesium Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnesium hydroxide is used on a short-term basis to treat constipation.This medication is sometimes prescribed ... Magnesium hydroxide come as a tablet and liquid to take by mouth. It usually is taken as ...

  2. Aluminum Hydroxide and Magnesium Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are antacids used together to relieve heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach. They ... They combine with stomach acid and neutralize it. Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are available without a prescription. ...

  3. Application of magnesium hydroxide and barium hydroxide for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of magnesium hydroxide and barium hydroxide for the removal of metals and sulphate from mine water. ... equivalent to the Ba(OH)2 dosage. During CO2-dosing, CaCO3 is precipitated to the saturation level of CaCO3. Keywords: Magnesium hydroxide; barium hydroxide; sulphate removal; water treatment ...

  4. Anticorrosive magnesium hydroxide coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy by hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yanying; Wu Guangming; Xing Guangjian; Li Donglin; Zhao Qing; Zhang Yunhong

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are potential biodegradable biomaterials in orthopedic surgery. However, the rapid degradation rate has limited their application in biomedical field. A great deal of studies have been done to improve the resistance of magnesium alloys. In this article, An anticorrosive magnesium hydroxide coating with a thickness of approximately 100μm was formed on an AZ31 magnesium alloy by hydrothermal method. The morphology of the coatings were observed by an optical microscope and SEM. And the samples were soaked in hank's solution (37 deg. C) to investigate the corrosion resistance. Magnesium alloy AZ31 with magnesium hydroxide coatings present superior corrosion resistance than untreated samples.

  5. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF CMP PULP USING MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Zeinaly

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional bleaching of hardwood CMP pulp with magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH2 show significant benefits over bleaching with sodium hydroxide (NaOH under various conditions. Magnesium hydroxide bleaching generate higher optical properties, higher pulp yield and lower effluent COD at the same chemical charge, but the physical properties were found to be similar for both processes. The initial freeness of the bleached pulps and refining value to reach a target freeness (about 350 ml. CSF were more for the Mg(OH2-based process. The residual peroxide of filtrate from the Mg(OH2-based process was very high as compared to conventional bleaching.

  6. Hydrothermal synthesis of hexagonal magnesium hydroxide nanoflakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qiang; Li, Chunhong; Guo, Ming; Sun, Lingna; Hu, Changwen

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Hexagonal Mg(OH) 2 nanoflakes were synthesized via hydrothermal method in the presence of PEG-20,000. Results show that PEG-20,000 plays an important role in the formation of this kind of nanostructure. The SAED patterns taken from the different positions on a single hexagonal Mg(OH) 2 nanoflake yielded different crystalline structures. The structure of the nanoflakes are polycrystalline and the probable formation mechanism of Mg(OH) 2 nanoflakes is discussed. - Highlights: • Hexagonal Mg(OH) 2 nanoflakes were synthesized via hydrothermal method. • PEG-20,000 plays an important role in the formation of hexagonal nanostructure. • Mg(OH) 2 nanoflakes show different crystalline structures at different positions. • The probable formation mechanism of hexagonal Mg(OH) 2 nanoflakes was reported. - Abstract: Hexagonal magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH) 2 ) nanoflakes were successfully synthesized via hydrothermal method in the presence of the surfactant polyethylene glycol 20,000 (PEG-20,000). Results show that PEG-20,000 plays an important role in the formation of this kind of nanostructure. The composition, morphologies and structure of the Mg(OH) 2 nanoflakes were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The SAED patterns taken from the different positions on a single hexagonal Mg(OH) 2 nanoflake show different crystalline structures. The structure of the nanoflakes are polycrystalline and the probable formation mechanism of Mg(OH) 2 nanoflakes is discussed. Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis were performed to investigate the porous structure and surface area of the as-obtained nanoflakes

  7. REGIOSELECTIVE REACTIONS OF 3-ALKYL-1-PHENYL-2-PYRAZOLIN-5-ONES WITH ACYL HALIDES IN THE PRECENCE OF NONOSIZED MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE AS A HIGHLY EFFECTIVE HETEROGENOUS BASE CATALYST Regioselektive Reaktionen von 3-Alkyl-1-PHENYL-2-pyrazolin-5-ONES Mit Acylhalogeniden IN DER PRECENCE DER NONOSIZED MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE als hochwirksame heterogene BASE CATALYST

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Sheibani and Bahman Massomi Nejad

    2012-01-01

    4-Acyl-3-alkyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one derivatives were prepared by the regioselective acylation of 3-alkyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-ones in the presence of base catalysts such as calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2], magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] and nanosized magnesium hydroxide. In the presence of nanosized magnesium hydroxide, excellent yields of products were obtained and reaction times were significantly reduced.

  8. Selective Aerobic Oxidation of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural in Water Over Solid Ruthenium Hydroxide Catalysts with Magnesium-Based Supports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbanev, Yury; Kegnæs, Søren; Riisager, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Solid catalyst systems comprised of ruthenium hydroxide supported on magnesium-based carrier materials (spinel, magnesium oxide and hydrotalcite) were investigated for the selective, aqueous aerobic oxidation of the biomass-derived chemical 5-hydroxymethylfurfural into 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid...

  9. Magnesium stearine production via direct reaction of palm stearine and magnesium hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, M.; Ylitervo, P.; Pettersson, A.; Prakoso, T.; Soerawidjaja, T. H.

    2017-06-01

    The fossil oil production could not compensate with the increase of its consumption, because of this reason the renewable alternative energy source is needed to meet this requirement of this fuel. One of the methods to produce hydrocarbon is by decarboxylation of fatty acids. Vegetable oil and fats are the greatest source of fatty acids, so these can be used as raw material for biohydrocarbon production. From other researchers on their past researchs, by heating base soap from divalent metal, those metal salts will decarboxylate and produce hydrocarbon. This study investigate the process and characterization of magnesium soaps from palm stearine by Blachford method. The metal soaps are synthesized by direct reaction of palm stearine and magnesium hydroxide to produce magnesium stearine and magnesium stearine base soaps at 140-180°C and 6-10 bar for 3-6 hours. The operation process which succeed to gain metal soaps is 180°C, 10 bar, for 3-6 hours. These metal soaps are then compared with commercial magnesium stearate. Based on Thermogravimetry Analysis (TGA) results, the decomposition temperature of all the metal soaps were 250°C. Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) analysis have shown the traces of sodium sulphate for magnesium stearate commercial and magnesium hydroxide for both type of magnesium stearine soaps. The analysis results from Microwave Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (MP-AES) have shown that the magnesium content of magnesium stearine approximate with magnesium stearate commercial and lower compare with magnesium stearine base soaps. These experiments suggest that the presented saponification process method could produced metal soaps comparable with the commercial metal soaps.

  10. Spider silk as a template for obtaining magnesium oxide and magnesium hydroxide fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrović Svetlana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Spider silk fibers, collected from Pholcus Phalangioides spider were used as a template for obtaining magnesium oxide (MgO, periclase as well as magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH2, brucite fibers. Magnesium oxide fibers were obtained in a simple manner by heat induced decomposition of magnesium salt (MgCl2 in the presence of the spider silk fibers, while magnesium hydroxide fibers were synthesized by hydration of MgO fibers at 50, 70 and 90 C, for 48 and 96 h. According to Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, dimensions of spider silk fibers determined the dimension of synthesized MgO fibers, while for Mg(OH2 fibers, the average diameter was increased with prolonging the hydration period. The surface of Mg(OH2 fibers was noticed to be covered with brucite in a form of plates. X-Ray diffraction (XRD analysis showed that MgO fibers were single-phased (the pure magnesium oxide fibers were obtained, while Mg(OH2 fibers were two- or single-phased brucite depending on incubation period, and/or incubation temperature. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 45012

  11. Preparation of plate-shape nano-magnesium hydroxide from asbestos tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Gaoxiang; Zheng Shuilin

    2009-01-01

    To prepare magnesium hydroxide is one of the effective methods to the comprehensive utilization of asbestos tailings. Nano-scale magnesium hydroxide was prepared and mechanisms of in-situ surface modification were characterized in the paper. Process conditions of preparation of magnesium hydroxide from purified hydrochloric acid leachate of asbestos tailings were optimized and in-situ surface modification of the product was carried out. Results showed that optimum process conditions for preparing nano-scale magnesium hydroxide were as follows: initial concentration of Mg 2+ in the leachate was 22.75g/L, precipitant was NaOH solution (mass concentration 20%), reaction temperature was 50 deg. C, and reaction time was 5min. The diameter and thickness of the plate nano-scale magnesium hydroxide powder prepared under optimal conditions were about 100 nm and 10 nm, respectively. However, particle agglomeration was obvious, the particle size increased to micron-grade. Dispersity of the magnesium hydroxide powder could be elevated by in-situ modification by silane FR-693, titanate YB-502 and polyethylene glycol and optimum dosages were 1.5%, 1.5% and 0.75% of the mass of magnesium hydroxide, respectively. All of the modifiers adsorbed chemically on surfaces of magnesium hydroxide particles, among which Si-O-Mg bonds formed among silane FR-693 and the particle surfaces and Ti-O-Mg among titanate YB-502 and the surfaces.

  12. Surface modification and characterization of magnesium hydroxide sulfate hydrate nanowhiskers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Chuanhui [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Li Xianguo, E-mail: chuanhuigao@foxmail.com [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Feng Lijuan; Lu Shaoyan; Liu Jinyan [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China)

    2010-03-01

    In order to enhance the compatibility with plastic polymers, magnesium hydroxide sulfate hydrate (MHSH) nanowhiskers were modified through grafting methyl methacrylate (MMA) on the surface of the nanowhiskers by emulsion polymerization. The influences of the reaction time, MMA monomer content, adding speed of monomer and the reaction temperature on the grafting ratio were investigated. Thermogravimetry (TG), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and surface contact angle measurement were used to characterize the effect of surface modification. The results showed that the MHSH nanowhiskers were uniformly coated by polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), and a well-defined core-shell hybrid structure of MHSH/PMMA was obtained. The surface contact angle of the hybrid whiskers increased to 87.32 deg. from 12.71 deg. and the whiskers surface was changed from hydrophilic to lipophilic.

  13. Honeywell Modular Automation System Computer Software Documentation for the Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STUBBS, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this Computer Software Document (CSWD) is to provide configuration control of the Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS) in use at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for the Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process in Rm 230C/234-5Z. The magnesium hydroxide process control software Rev 0 is being updated to include control programming for a second hot plate. The process control programming was performed by the system administrator. Software testing for the additional hot plate was performed per PFP Job Control Work Package 2Z-00-1703. The software testing was verified by Quality Control to comply with OSD-Z-184-00044, Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process

  14. The Effects of Aluminium Hydroxide and Magnesium Hydroxide on the Mechanical Properties of Thermoplastic Polyurethane Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkin Akdoğan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermoplastic polyurethane materials are widely used in automotive, clothing, electrical and electronics, medical, construction, machine industry due to excellent physical and chemical properties. Thermoplastic polyurethane materials combustion and resistance to high temperature characteristics are poor. Additives and fillers are added into the polyurethane matrix to improve those properties. Particularly adding these agents as a flame retardant are affect mechanical properties of polyurethane materials. Therefore, it is important to determinate the mechanical properties of these materials. In this study, 5% by weight of the thermoplastic polyurethane material, aluminium tri hydroxide (ATH, (Al2O3 3H2O and magnesium hydroxide (MgOH, (Mg(OH2 were added. Ammonium polyphosphate (APP as an intumescent flame retardant with inorganic flame retardants were added to increase the flame resistance of produced composite structure. Tensile test, tear test, hardness and Izod impact tests were made and compared of those produced composites. As a result of experiments the addition of ATH has lowered the tensile strength and tear strength contrast to this the addition of MgOH has improved those properties. Hardness and Izod impact test results were showed that both of the additives have no negative effect.

  15. Study of Structural, Morphological and Optical Properties of Magnesium Hydroxide Nanoplates Synthesized by Precipitation Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. yousefi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, high purity magnesium hydroxide nanoplates were successfully synthesized by using brine rich in magnesium ions as precursor and NaOH as precipitating agent without using dispersant agent in the room temoerature. The study and characterization of various properties of obtained nanopowder was carried out by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (EDX, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR and Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis. The FESEM and XRD analysis results showed that magnesium hydroxide powder had nanoplates with the average crystallite size 17.1nm and no impurity; that was in agreement with the result of EDX and FTIR perfectly. Furthermore, optical characteristics of magnesium hydroxide nanoplates by UV-Vis spectroscopy showed an optical band gap of 5.5 eV. This wide band gap can be a useful innovation in optoelectronic sub-micron devices.

  16. Magnesium hydroxide extracted from a magnesium-rich mineral for CO2 sequestration in a gas-solid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pao-Chung; Huang, Cheng-Wei; Hsiao, Ching-Ta; Teng, Hsisheng

    2008-04-15

    Magnesium hydroxide extracted from magnesium-bearing minerals is considered a promising agent for binding CO2 as a carbonate mineral in a gas-solid reaction. An efficient extraction route consisting of hydrothermal treatment on serpentine in HCl followed by NaOH titration for Mg(OH)2 precipitation was demonstrated. The extracted Mg(OH)2 powder had a mean crystal domain size as small as 12 nm and an apparent surface area of 54 m2/g. Under one atmosphere of 10 vol% CO2/N2, carbonation of the serpentine-derived Mg(OH)2 to 26% of the stoichiometric limit was achieved at 325 degrees C in 2 h; while carbonation of a commercially available Mg(OH)2, with a mean crystal domain size of 33 nm and an apparent surface area of 3.5 m2/g, reached only 9% of the stoichiometric limit. The amount of CO2 fixation was found to be inversely proportional to the crystal domain size of the Mg(OH)2 specimens. The experimental data strongly suggested that only a monolayer of carbonates was formed on the crystal domain boundary in the gas-solid reaction, with little penetration of the carbonates into the crystal domain.

  17. Investigation of boron extraction process with aid magnesium hydroxide from mother liquor of boron production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balapanova, B.S.; Zhajmina, R.E.; Serazetdinov, D.Z.

    1988-01-01

    Conditions of boron - magnesium concentrate preparation from mother liquor by coprecipitation of borate - ions by magnesium hydroxide are investigated. It is shown that boron - magnesium concentrate and products of its heat treatment at 100 - 500 deg C in water are dissolved partially, and in ammonium citrate - practically completely. Suppositions are made on the composition of the product prepared, on the the structure of its crystal lattice and the processes taking place in it during heat treatment. The conclusion is made on the perspectiveness of processing of mother liquor of boron industry for boron - magnesium concentrate

  18. Removal of Indigo Carmine Dye from Aqueous Solution Using Magnesium Hydroxide as an Adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thimmasandra Narayan Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium hydroxide is used as an adsorbent for the removal of indigo carmine dye from aqueous solution. We have investigated the effectiveness of removal of indigo carmine dye from aqueous solutions at pH 6-7 and 12-13 using magnesium hydroxide thereby varying the dose of the adsorbent, concentration of the dye, duration, and temperature. Structural transformations of adsorbent during the adsorption process at different pH values are monitored using powder X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. Different types of adsorption isotherm models were evaluated and it was found that Langmuir isotherm fits well at both pH values (6-7 and 12-13. Adsorption of indigo carmine onto magnesium hydroxide at pH 6-7/pH 12-13 follows pseudo-second order rate kinetics.

  19. Polystyrene/magnesium hydroxide nanocomposite particles prepared by surface-initiated in-situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hui; Yi Jianhong

    2009-01-01

    In order to avoid their agglomeration and incompatibility with hydrophobic polystyrene substrate, magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles were encapsulated by surface-initiated in-situ polymerization of styrene. The process contained two steps: electrostatic adsorption of initiator and polymerization of monomer on the surface of magnesium hydroxide. It was found that high adsorption ratio in the electrostatic adsorption of initiator could be attained only in acidic region, and the adsorption belonged to typical physical process. Compared to traditional in-situ polymerization, higher grafting ratio was obtained in surface-initiated in-situ polymerization, which can be attributed to weaker steric hindrance. Both Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that polystyrene/magnesium hydroxide nanocomposite particles had been successfully prepared by surface-initiated in-situ polymerization. The resulting samples were also analyzed and characterized by means of contact angle testing, dispersibility evaluation and thermogravimetric analysis

  20. Coordination Structure of Aluminum in Magnesium Aluminum Hydroxide Studied by 27Al NMR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The coordination structure of aluminum in magnesium aluminum hydroxide was studiedby 27Al NMR. The result showed that tetrahedral aluminum (AlⅣ) existed in magnesiumaluminum hydroxide, and the contents of AlⅣ increased with the increase of the ratio of Al/Mg andwith the peptizing temperature. AlⅣ originated from the so-called Al13 polymer with the structureof one Al tetrahedron surrounded by twelve Al octahedrons.

  1. Preparation of magnesium hydroxide nanoflowers from boron mud via anti-drop precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xi [School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Blue Sky Technology Corporation, Beijing 100083 (China); Ma, Hongwen, E-mail: mahw@cugb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Jiang, Xiaoqian [School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Jiang, Zhouqing [School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Blue Sky Technology Corporation, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We use the anti-drop precipitation method for synthesis of magnesium hydroxide. • Boron mud which is solid waste from a borax factory is used as the magnesium source. • The magnesium hydroxide nanoflowers are prepared in a short time. • The as-prepared magnesium hydroxide can be used as an effective flame retardant. - Abstract: Using boron mud as the starting material, the flower-like magnesium hydroxide (MH) has been successfully prepared via anti-drop precipitation method. The effect of NH{sub 3}·H{sub 2}O concentration, aging time, and surfactant on the morphology of MH was investigated. The optimum precipitation conditions are dropping MgSO{sub 4} solution in 5% NH{sub 3}·H{sub 2}O solution, with 3% polyethylene glycol as surfactant, aging for 30 min. XRD, SEM, FI-IR, and TG/DTA have been employed to characterize the as-prepared samples. XRD reveals that MH with high purity has the brucite structure. SEM images show that the flower-like MH exists in the form of mono-disperse well uniform spherical aggregation with diameter of 3–5 μm. TG/DTA shows a total percentage of weight loss 33.6% with a well-defined endothermic peak near 381.3 °C corresponding to the decomposition of MH. Furthermore, it reports that the extremely fast primary nucleation is of significance for crystal growth of MH.

  2. Improving Corrosion Resistance and Biocompatibility of Magnesium Alloy by Sodium Hydroxide and Hydrofluoric Acid Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Jiang Pan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Owing to excellent mechanical property and biodegradation, magnesium-based alloys have been widely investigated for temporary implants such as cardiovascular stent and bone graft; however, the fast biodegradation in physiological environment and the limited surface biocompatibility hinder their clinical applications. In the present study, magnesium alloy was treated by sodium hydroxide (NaOH and hydrogen fluoride (HF solutions, respectively, to produce the chemical conversion layers with the aim of improving the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. The results of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS indicated that the chemical conversion layers of magnesium hydroxide or magnesium fluoride were obtained successfully. Sodium hydroxide treatment can significantly enhance the surface hydrophilicity while hydrogen fluoride treatment improved the surface hydrophobicity. Both the chemical conversion layers can obviously improve the corrosion resistance of the pristine magnesium alloy. Due to the hydrophobicity of magnesium fluoride, HF-treated magnesium alloy showed the relative better corrosion resistance than that of NaOH-treated substrate. According to the results of hemolysis assay and platelet adhesion, the chemical surface modified samples exhibited improved blood compatibility as compared to the pristine magnesium alloy. Furthermore, the chemical surface modified samples improved cytocompatibility to endothelial cells, the cells had better cell adhesion and proliferative profiles on the modified surfaces. Due to the excellent hydrophilicity, the NaOH-treated substrate displayed better blood compatibility and cytocompatibility to endothelial cells than that of HF-treated sample. It was considered that the method of the present study can be used for the surface modification of the magnesium alloy to enhance the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility.

  3. ADSORPTION OF PITCH AND STICKIES ON MAGNESIUM ALUMINUM HYDROXIDES TREATED AT DIFFERENT TEMPERAURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Li

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium aluminum hydroxides (MAH of nitrate and carbonate forms were prepared by co-precipitation, dried at different temperatures, and employed as an adsorbent for pitch and stickies in papermaking. Results indicated that MAH that had been heat-treated had higher adsorption capacity to model pitch and stickies at neutral pH. Low-temperature-dried magnesium aluminum hydroxides of nitrate form (MAH-NO3 had higher adsorption capacity to model pitch and model stickies than those of the carbonate form (MAH-CO3. Increasing the drying temperature of MAH reduced the difference of adsorption capacity between MAH-NO3 and MAH-CO3. Higher-temperature-dried magnesium aluminum hydroxides also showed higher adsorption capacity to model pitch and stickies when the drying temperature was lower than 550 oC. MAH displayed higher adsorption capacity while a lower initial adsorption rate of model stickies than of model pitch. The model pitch and stickies were adsorbed on MAH significantly by charge neutralization and distributed mainly on the surface of the platelets of magnesium aluminum hydroxides. The experimental isothermal adsorption data of model pitch and stickies on MAH dried at 500 oC fit well to the Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm equations.

  4. Magnesium hydroxide as the neutralizing agent for radioactive hydrochloric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, M.J.; Fife, K.W.

    1995-10-01

    The current technology at Los Alamos for removing actinides from acidic chloride waste streams is precipitation with approximately 10 M potassium hydroxide. Although successful, there are many inherent drawbacks to this precipitation technique which will be detailed in this paper. Magnesium hydroxide (K sp = 1.3 x 10 -11 ) has limited solubility in water and as a result of the common ion effect, cannot generate a filtrate with a pH greater than 9. At a pH of 9, calcium (K sp = 5.5 x 10 -6 ) will not coprecipitate as the hydroxide. This is an important factor since many acidic chloride feeds to hydroxide precipitation contain significant amounts of calcium. In addition, neutralization with Mg(OH) 2 produces a more filterable precipitate because neutralization occurs as the Mg(OH) 2 is dissolved by the acid rather than as a result of the much faster liquid/liquid reaction of KOH with the waste acid. This slower solid/liquid reaction allows time for crystal growth to occur and produces more easily filterable precipitates. On the other hand, neutralization of spent acid with strong KOH that yields numerous hydroxide ions in solution almost instantaneously forming a much larger volume of small crystallites that result in gelatinous, slow-filtering precipitates. Magnesium hydroxide also offers a safety advantage. Although mildly irritating, it is a weak base and safe and easy to handle. From a waste minimization perspective, Mg(OH) 2 offers many advantages. First, the magnesium hydroxide is added as a solid. This step eliminates the diluent water used in KOH neutralizations. Secondly, because the particle size of the precipitate is larger, more actinides are caught on the filter paper resulting in a smaller amount of actinide being transferred to the TA-50 Liquid Waste Treatment Facility. Third, the amount of solids that must be reprocessed is significantly smaller resulting in less waste generation from the downstream processes

  5. A comparison of corrosion inhibition of magnesium aluminum and zinc aluminum vanadate intercalated layered double hydroxides on magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lian; Zhang, Fen; Lu, Jun-Cai; Zeng, Rong-Chang; Li, Shuo-Qi; Song, Liang; Zeng, Jian-Min

    2018-04-01

    The magnesium aluminum and zinc aluminum layered double hydroxides intercalated with NO3 -(MgAl-NO3-LDH and ZnAl-NO3-LDH) were prepared by the coprecipitation method, and the magnesium aluminum and the zinc aluminum layered double hydroxides intercalated with VO x -(MgAl-VO x -LDH and ZnAl-VO x -LDH) were prepared by the anion-exchange method. Morphologies, microstructures and chemical compositions of LDHs were investigated by SEM, EDS, XRD, FTIR, Raman and TG analyses. The immersion tests were carried to determine the corrosion inhibition properties of MgAl-VO x -LDH and ZnAl-VO x -LDH on AZ31 Mg alloys. The results showed that ZnAl-VO x -LDH possesses the best anion-exchange and inhibition abilities. The influence of treatment parameters on microstructures of LDHs were discussed. Additionally, an inhibition mechanism for ZnAl-VO x -LDH on the AZ31 magnesium alloy was proposed and discussed.

  6. Utilization of Magnesium Hydroxide Produced by Magnesia Hydration as Fire Retardant for Nylon 6-6,6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Sônia D.F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the use of magnesium hydroxide, produced by magnesia hydration, as a fire retardant in polymers. The hydration was carried out in an autoclave, at temperature of 130°C for 1 hour, and the product was further submitted to cominution in a jet mill. The solids were characterized with regard to their chemical composition, particle size distribution, surface area and morphology. The performance evaluation of the hydroxide as a flame retardant for a copolymer of nylon 6-6,6 was carried out according to the UL94 specifications for vertical burning tests. V-0 flammability rating at 1.6 mm (60% magnesium hydroxide-filled nylon composite and at 3.2 mm (40% magnesium hydroxide filled nylon composite were achieved. Mechanical properties were maintained at the desired values. These results indicate that the hydroxide obtained from magnesia hydration can be successfully employed as a fire retardant for nylon 6-6,6.

  7. Mechanistic Study of Magnesium Carbonate Semibatch Reactive Crystallization with Magnesium Hydroxide and CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, B.; Qu, H. Y.; Niemi, H.

    2014-01-01

    This work investigates semibatch precipitation of magnesium carbonate at ambient temperature and pressure using Mg(OH)(2) and CO2 as starting materials. A thermal analysis method was developed that reflects the dissolution rate of Mg(OH)(2) and the formation of magnesium carbonate. The method...... the liquid and solid phases. A stirring rate of 650 rpm was found to be the optimum speed as the flow rate of CO2 was 1 L/min. Precipitation rate increased with gas flow rate, which indicates that mass transfer of CO2 plays a critical role in this precipitation case. Magnesium carbonate trihydrate...

  8. Regeneration of Waste Edible Oil by the Use of Virgin and Calcined Magnesium Hydroxide as Adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we prepared virgin (S, L) and calcined (S-380, S-1000, L-380, L-1000) magnesium hydroxide for regeneration of waste edible oil. Deterioration of soybean oil, rapeseed oil, and olive oil was achieved by heat and aeration treatment. The properties of the different adsorbents were investigated using specific surface area measurements, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis, and surface pH measurement. Moreover, the relationship between the changes in acid value (AV) and carbonyl value (CV) and the adsorbent properties were evaluated. The specific surface areas of S-380 and L-380 were greater than that of other adsorbents. In addition, the XRD results show that S-380 and L-380 contain both magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide structures. The decreases in AV and CV using S-380 and L-380 were greater than achieved using other adsorbents. The correlation coefficients between the decrease in AV and CV and specific surface area were 0.947 for soybean oil, 0.649 for rapeseed oil, and 0.773 for olive oil, respectively. The results obtained in this study suggest that a physical property of the adsorbent, namely specific surface area, was primarily responsible for the observed decreases in AV and CV. Overall, the results suggest that S-380 and L-380 are useful for the regeneration of waste edible oil.

  9. Evaluation of the Magnesium Hydroxide Treatment Process for Stabilizing PFP Plutonium/Nitric Acid Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Baker, Aaron B.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2000-09-28

    This document summarizes an evaluation of the magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] process to be used at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for stabilizing plutonium/nitric acid solutions to meet the goal of stabilizing the plutonium in an oxide form suitable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99. During the treatment process, nitric acid solutions bearing plutonium nitrate are neutralized with Mg(OH)2 in an air sparge reactor. The resulting slurry, containing plutonium hydroxide, is filtered and calcined. The process evaluation included a literature review and extensive laboratory- and bench-scale testing. The testing was conducted using cerium as a surrogate for plutonium to identify and quantify the effects of key processing variables on processing time (primarily neutralization and filtration time) and calcined product properties.

  10. Removal of aluminum turbidity from heavy water reactors by precipitation ion exchange using magnesium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswarlu, K.S.; Shanker, R.; Velmurugan, S.; Venkateswaran, G.; Rao, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    A special magnesium hydroxide MG(OH)/sub 2/ sorber, loaded onto an ion-exchange matrix has been developed to remove hydrated alumina turbidity in heavy water. This sorber was applied to the coolant/moderator system in the research reactor Dhruva. The sorber not only removed turbidity but also suspended uranium at parts per billion levels and associated β, γ activity. The sorption is based on the attraction between the positively charged Mg(OH)/sub 2/ surface and the negatively charged hydrated alumina particles

  11. Thermal Analysis On The Kinetics Of Magnesium-Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxides In Different Heating Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Y.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The thermal decomposition of magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxides (LDHs was investigated by thermogravimetry analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC methods in argon environment. The influence of heating rates (including 2.5, 5, 10, 15 and 20K/min on the thermal behavior of LDHs was revealed. By the methods of Kissinger and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, the thermal kinetic parameters of activation energy and pre-exponential factor for the exothermic processes under non-isothermal conditions were calculated using the analysis of corresponding DSC curves.

  12. Magnesium alloys and graphite wastes encapsulated in cementitious materials: Reduction of galvanic corrosion using alkali hydroxide activated blast furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chartier, D., E-mail: david.chartier@cea.fr [Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA, DEN, DTCD, SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Muzeau, B. [DEN-Service d’Etude du Comportement des Radionucléides (SECR), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Stefan, L. [AREVA NC/D& S - France/Technical Department, 1 place Jean Millier 92084 Paris La Défense (France); Sanchez-Canet, J. [Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA, DEN, DTCD, SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Monguillon, C. [DEN-Service d’Etude du Comportement des Radionucléides (SECR), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Embedded in cement, magnesium is corroded by residual water present in porosity of the matrix. • Corrosion is enhanced by galvanic phenomenon when magnesium is in contact with graphite. • Galvanic corrosion of magnesium in contact with graphite debris is shown to be severe with ordinary Portland cement. • Galvanic corrosion is significantly lowered in high alkali medium such as sodium hydroxide. • Sodium hydroxide activated blast furnace slag is a convenient binder to embed magnesium. - Abstract: Magnesium alloys and graphite from spent nuclear fuel have been stored together in La Hague plant. The packaging of these wastes is under consideration. These wastes could be mixed in a grout composed of industrially available cement (Portland, calcium aluminate…). Within the alkaline pore solution of these matrixes, magnesium alloys are imperfectly protected by a layer of Brucite resulting in a slow corrosion releasing hydrogen. As the production of this gas must be considered for the storage safety, and the quality of wasteform, it is important to select a cement matrix capable of lowering the corrosion kinetics. Many types of calcium based cements have been tested and most of them have caused strong hydrogen production when magnesium alloys and graphite are conditioned together because of galvanic corrosion. Exceptions are binders based on alkali hydroxide activated ground granulated blast furnace slag (BFS) which are presented in this article.

  13. Magnesium alloys and graphite wastes encapsulated in cementitious materials: Reduction of galvanic corrosion using alkali hydroxide activated blast furnace slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, D.; Muzeau, B.; Stefan, L.; Sanchez-Canet, J.; Monguillon, C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Embedded in cement, magnesium is corroded by residual water present in porosity of the matrix. • Corrosion is enhanced by galvanic phenomenon when magnesium is in contact with graphite. • Galvanic corrosion of magnesium in contact with graphite debris is shown to be severe with ordinary Portland cement. • Galvanic corrosion is significantly lowered in high alkali medium such as sodium hydroxide. • Sodium hydroxide activated blast furnace slag is a convenient binder to embed magnesium. - Abstract: Magnesium alloys and graphite from spent nuclear fuel have been stored together in La Hague plant. The packaging of these wastes is under consideration. These wastes could be mixed in a grout composed of industrially available cement (Portland, calcium aluminate…). Within the alkaline pore solution of these matrixes, magnesium alloys are imperfectly protected by a layer of Brucite resulting in a slow corrosion releasing hydrogen. As the production of this gas must be considered for the storage safety, and the quality of wasteform, it is important to select a cement matrix capable of lowering the corrosion kinetics. Many types of calcium based cements have been tested and most of them have caused strong hydrogen production when magnesium alloys and graphite are conditioned together because of galvanic corrosion. Exceptions are binders based on alkali hydroxide activated ground granulated blast furnace slag (BFS) which are presented in this article.

  14. The effect of magnesium hydroxide, hydromagnesite and layered double hydroxide on the heat stability and fire performance of plasticized poly(vinyl chloride)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Molefe, DM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available . The other samples contained, in addition, minor amounts of iron, manganese nickel and calcium as impurities. Table 2. XRF composition analysis data of samples roasted at 1000 C Concentration, wt.% SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 MnO MgO CaO NiO MgAl-LDH 1.59 36.85 0... additives aluminium trihydrate, magnesium hydroxide (MH), hydromagnesite (HM) and layered double hydroxide (LDH) have utility as endothermic flame retardants and smoke suppressants for PVC as well as other polymers (10-14). Their flame retardant action...

  15. The influence of zeta potential and yield stress on the filtration characteristics of a magnesium hydroxide simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, Simon; Nabi, Rafiq; Poole, Colin; Patel, Ashok

    2007-01-01

    In the UK, irradiated fuels from Magnox reactors are often stored in water-filled ponds under alkaline conditions, so as to minimise corrosion of fuel cladding. This is important to prevent or reduce leakage of soluble fission products and actinides to the pond water. A variety of intermediate level wastes derived from Magnox materials are stored at power stations. Under these alkaline conditions, various species of magnesium are formed, of which magnesium hydroxide is the dominant material. The particle-fluid interactions are significant for the design and operation of facilities for hydraulic retrieval, filtration, dewatering and ion exchange treatment of fuel storage pond water and stored wet Magnox wastes. Here we describe a study of particulate properties and filtration characteristics of oxide particle simulants under laboratory conditions. Cake and medium resistance data were correlated across a range of pH conditions with electro-acoustic zeta potential and shear yield stress measurements, as a function of particle volume fractions. The influence of zeta potential on filtration properties arises directly from the interaction of particles within the sediment cake. (authors)

  16. Preparation and characterization of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) grafted from magnesium hydroxide particles via SI-ATRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianhui; Feng Na; Chang Suqin; Kang Hongliang

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the compatibility of magnesium hydroxide particles [Mg(OH) 2 ] and polymer matrix, poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) grafted from magnesium hydroxide particles were synthesized via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). In this work, two approaches for the immobilization of ATRP initiator on the magnesium hydroxide particles surface were compared and selected. The density of initiator was significantly increased by the method of introducing more hydroxyl groups via ATRP of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) on the surface. The percentage of bromine atom for the initiator-functionalized magnesium hydroxide particles [Mg(OH) 2 -g-PHEMA-Br] reached to 1.75%, compared to 0.48% for Mg(OH) 2 -Br determined by XPS analysis. The surface-initiated ATRP of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) can be conducted in a controlled manner, as revealed by the linear kinetic plot, linear increase of number average molecular weight (M n ) with monomer conversions, and the relatively narrow molecular weight distributions (M w /M n ∼ 1.4) of PGMA chains. The percentage of grafting PG (%) and the thickness of the grafted polymer layer increased with the increasing of polymerization time and reached to 116.6% and 197.6 nm after 300 min respectively. As for the polymerization with different initial monomer concentration, the number average molecular weights (M n ) and weight average molecular weights (M w ) of PGMA increased with the increasing of initial monomer concentration. TGA indicated that the initial decomposition temperature of Mg(OH) 2 -g-PHEMA-PGMA composite particles (253 °C) was much lower than that of unmodified magnesium hydroxide particles (337 °C).

  17. Preparation and characterization of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) grafted from magnesium hydroxide particles via SI-ATRP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Jianhui [School of Textile and Materials Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Feng Na, E-mail: fengna12@163.com [School of Textile and Materials Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Chang Suqin [China Leather and Footwear Industry Research Institute, Beijing 100015 (China); Kang Hongliang [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Joint Laboratory of Polymer Science and Material, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2012-06-01

    In order to improve the compatibility of magnesium hydroxide particles [Mg(OH){sub 2}] and polymer matrix, poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) grafted from magnesium hydroxide particles were synthesized via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). In this work, two approaches for the immobilization of ATRP initiator on the magnesium hydroxide particles surface were compared and selected. The density of initiator was significantly increased by the method of introducing more hydroxyl groups via ATRP of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) on the surface. The percentage of bromine atom for the initiator-functionalized magnesium hydroxide particles [Mg(OH){sub 2}-g-PHEMA-Br] reached to 1.75%, compared to 0.48% for Mg(OH){sub 2}-Br determined by XPS analysis. The surface-initiated ATRP of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) can be conducted in a controlled manner, as revealed by the linear kinetic plot, linear increase of number average molecular weight (M{sub n}) with monomer conversions, and the relatively narrow molecular weight distributions (M{sub w}/M{sub n} {approx} 1.4) of PGMA chains. The percentage of grafting PG (%) and the thickness of the grafted polymer layer increased with the increasing of polymerization time and reached to 116.6% and 197.6 nm after 300 min respectively. As for the polymerization with different initial monomer concentration, the number average molecular weights (M{sub n}) and weight average molecular weights (M{sub w}) of PGMA increased with the increasing of initial monomer concentration. TGA indicated that the initial decomposition temperature of Mg(OH){sub 2}-g-PHEMA-PGMA composite particles (253 Degree-Sign C) was much lower than that of unmodified magnesium hydroxide particles (337 Degree-Sign C).

  18. Environment-friendly, flame retardant thermoplastic elastomer-magnesium hydroxide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Chen, Kunfeng; Li, Xiaonan; Ao, Man; Guo, Xinwen; Xue, Dongfeng

    Halogen-free and environment-friendly magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) was synthesized to enhance the flame retardant properties of thermoplastic elastomer (TPE). When the Mg(OH)2 content was optimized to 35wt.%, the TPE-Mg(OH)2 composites exhibited the best flame retardant properties. The results showed that there was a delay of ignition time of the samples containing Mg(OH)2; compared with the samples without Mg(OH)2, the heat release rate and total heat release decrease by 31.4% and 35.6%, while total smoke production and mass loss rate reduce by 56% and 34.2%, respectively. This work opens a door to manufacture fire-resistant polymer-based composites with environmental-friendly flame retardant additives by controllable crystallization and chemical strategies.

  19. Operando formation of an ultra-low friction boundary film from synthetic magnesium silicon hydroxide additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Qiuying; Rudenko, Pavlo; Miller, Dean J.; Wen, Jianguo; Berman, Diana; Zhang, Yuepeng; Arey, Bruce; Zhu, Zihua; Erdemir, Ali

    2017-06-01

    The paper reports the operando and self-healing formation of DLC films at sliding contact surfaces by the addition of synthetic magnesium silicon hydroxide (MSH) nanoparticles to base oil. The formation of such films leads to a reduction of the coefficient of friction by nearly an order of magnitude and substantially reduces wear losses. The ultralow friction layer characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), and Raman spectroscopy consists of amorphous DLC containing SiOx that forms in a continuous and self-repairing manner during operation. This environmentally benign and simple approach offers promise for significant advances in lubrication and reduced energy losses in engines and other mechanical systems.

  20. Synthesis Magnesium Hydroxide Nanoparticles and Cellulose Acetate- Mg(OH2-MWCNT Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghorbanali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mg(OH2 nanoparticles were synthesized by a rapid microwave reaction. The effect of sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS as anionic surfactant and cetyl tri-methyl ammonium bromide (CTAB as cationic surfactant on the morphology of magnesium hydroxide nanostructures was investigated. Multi wall carbon nano tubes was organo-modified for better dispersion in cellulose acetate matrix. The influence of Mg(OH2 nanoparticles and modified multi wall carbon nano tubes (MWCNT on the thermal stability of the cellulose acetate (CA matrix was studied using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA. Nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy. Thermal decomposition of the nanocomposites shift towards higher temperature in the presence of Mg(OH2 nanostructures. The enhancement of thermal stability of nanocomposites is due to the endothermic decomposition of Mg(OH2 and release of water which dilutes combustible gases.

  1. CSER 00-003: Criticality Safety Evaluation report for PFP Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process for Plutonium Stabilization Glovebox 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LAN, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    This Criticality Safety Evaluation Report analyzes the stabilization of plutonium/uranium solutions in Glovebox 3 using the magnesium hydroxide precipitation process at PFP. The process covered are the receipt of diluted plutonium solutions into three precipitation tanks, the precipitation of plutonium from the solution, the filtering of the plutonium precipitate from the solution, the scraping of the precipitate from the filter into boats, and the initial drying of the precipitated slurry on a hot plate. A batch (up to 2.5 kg) is brought into the glovebox as plutonium nitrate, processed, and is then removed in boats for further processing. This CSER establishes limits for the magnesium hydroxide precipitation process in Glovebox 3 to maintain criticality safety while handling fissionable material

  2. Coating magnesium hydroxide on surface of carbon microspheres and interface binding with poly (ethylene terephthalate) matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Baoxia [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Research Center on Advanced Materials Science and Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); College of Textile Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Yuci 030600 (China); Niu, Mei, E-mail: niumei@tyut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China); College of Textile Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Yuci 030600 (China); Yang, Yongzhen, E-mail: yyztyut@126.com [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Research Center on Advanced Materials Science and Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Bai, Jie; Song, Yinghao; Peng, Yun [College of Textile Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Yuci 030600 (China); Liu, Xuguang [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Magnesium hydroxide (MH) as a capsule wall was firstly coated on the surface of carbon microspheres (CMSs) to obtain MH@CMSs by liquid phase deposition method. • An organic layer of 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) was then introduced on the surface of MH@CMSs. • The formed two layers provided the FMH@CMSs/PET with good mechanical and flame-retardant properties. - Abstract: In this account, magnesium hydroxide (MH) employed as a capsule wall was firstly coated on the surface of carbon microspheres (CMSs) to obtain MH@CMSs using liquid phase deposition, then was modified by 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) to form FMH@CMSs. To investigate the interface binding forces, a series of PET composites was prepared by melt compounding with MH@CMSs or FMH@CMSs. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform Infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the morphology, chemical structure, and effect of functionalization of CMSs. The coating degree and thermal stability were investigated by thermogravimetry analysis. The results showed that CMSs were coated by an inorganic shell layer of MH as a capsule wall. On the other hand, MH@CMSs were coated with an organic layer of APTS. When compared to MH@CMSs, the interface binding forces between FMH@CMSs and PET matrix were significantly improved, and the tensile strength of FMH@CMSs/PET was higher than that of MH@CMSs/PET. At 1 wt% mass fraction of FMH@CMSs, the limiting oxygen index (LOI) value of PET composites increased from 21% to 27.6% following a V-0 rating. The tensile strength of FMH@CMSs/PET increased by 66.2% to reach 47.20 MPa, a value nearly similar to that of PET. Overall, the formed two layers provided the FMH@CMSs/PET with good mechanical and flame-retardant properties, which would broaden their scope of application.

  3. Mg-Fe-mixed oxides derived from layered double hydroxides: A study of the surface properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković-Nedučin Radmila P.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of surface properties on the selectivity of the synthesized catalysts was studied, considering that their selectivity towards particular hydrocarbons is crucial for their overall activity in the chosen Fischer- -Tropsch reaction. Magnesium- and iron-containing layered double hydroxides (LDH, with the general formula: [Mg1-xFex(OH2](CO3x/2?mH2O, x = = n(Fe/(n(Mg+n(Fe, synthesized with different Mg/Fe ratio and their thermally derived mixed oxides were investigated. Magnesium was chosen because of its basic properties, whereas iron was selected due to its well-known high Fischer-Tropsch activity, redox properties and the ability to form specific active sites in the layered LDH structure required for catalytic application. The thermally less stable multiphase system (synthesized outside the optimal single LDH phase range with additional Fe-phase, having a lower content of surface acid and base active sites, a lower surface area and smaller fraction of smaller mesopores, showed higher selectivity in the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The results of this study imply that the metastability of derived multiphase oxides structure has a greater influence on the formation of specific catalyst surface sites than other investigated surface properties.

  4. Ionic elastomers based on carboxylated nitrile rubber (XNBR and magnesium aluminum layered double hydroxide (hydrotalcite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Laskowska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of carboxyl groups in carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber (XNBR allows it to be cured with different agents. This study considers the effect of crosslinking of XNBR by magnesium aluminum layered double hydroxide (MgAl-LDH, known also as hydrotalcite (HT, on rheometric, mechano-dynamical and barrier properties. Results of XNBR/HT composites containing various HT loadings without conventional curatives are compared with XNBR compound crosslinked with commonly used zinc oxide. Hydrotalcite acts as an effective crosslinking agent for XNBR, as is particularly evident from rheometric and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR studies. The existence of ionic crosslinks was also detected by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA of the resulting composites. DMA studies revealed that the XNBR/HT composites exhibited two transitions – one occurring at low temperature is associated to the Tg of elastomer and the second at high temperature corresponds to the ionic transition temperature Ti. Simultaneous application of HT as a curing agent and a filler may deliver not only environmentally friendly, zinc oxide-free rubber product but also ionic elastomer composite with excellent mechanical, barrier and transparent properties.

  5. Electrochemical deposition and characterization of Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) films on magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Fengxia; Liang, Jun, E-mail: jliang@licp.cas.cn; Peng, Zhenjun; Liu, Baixing

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Zn-Al LDHs film was prepared on AZ91D Mg alloy by electrochemical deposition. • The Zn-Al LDHs film was uniform and dense with some small flaws and cracks. • The Zn-Al LDHs film had high adhesion and good corrosion protection to Mg alloy. - Abstract: A zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (Zn-Al LDHs) film was prepared on AZ91D magnesium (Mg) alloy substrate by electrochemical deposition method. The characteristics of the film were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). It was found that the electrodeposited film was composed of crystalline Zn-Al LDHs with nitrate intercalation. The Zn-Al LDHs film was uniform and dense though there also presented some small flaws and cracks. The cross cut tape test showed that the film adhered well to the substrate. Polarization and EIS measurements revealed that the LDHs coated Mg alloy had better corrosion resistance compared to that of the uncoated one in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution, indicating that the Zn-Al LDHs film could effectively protect Mg alloy from corrosion.

  6. Electrochemical deposition and characterization of Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) films on magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Fengxia; Liang, Jun; Peng, Zhenjun; Liu, Baixing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Zn-Al LDHs film was prepared on AZ91D Mg alloy by electrochemical deposition. • The Zn-Al LDHs film was uniform and dense with some small flaws and cracks. • The Zn-Al LDHs film had high adhesion and good corrosion protection to Mg alloy. - Abstract: A zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (Zn-Al LDHs) film was prepared on AZ91D magnesium (Mg) alloy substrate by electrochemical deposition method. The characteristics of the film were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). It was found that the electrodeposited film was composed of crystalline Zn-Al LDHs with nitrate intercalation. The Zn-Al LDHs film was uniform and dense though there also presented some small flaws and cracks. The cross cut tape test showed that the film adhered well to the substrate. Polarization and EIS measurements revealed that the LDHs coated Mg alloy had better corrosion resistance compared to that of the uncoated one in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution, indicating that the Zn-Al LDHs film could effectively protect Mg alloy from corrosion

  7. Transparent ‘solution’ of ultrathin magnesium hydroxide nanocrystals for flexible and transparent nanocomposite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jie-Xin; Sun, Qian; Chen, Bo; Zeng, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Cong; Chen, Jian-Feng; Wu, Xi; Zou, Hai-Kui

    2015-01-01

    Transparent solutions of nanocrystals exhibit many unique properties, and are thus attractive materials for numerous applications. However, the synthesis of transparent nanocrystal solutions of magnesium hydroxide (MH) with wide applications is yet to be realized. Here, we report a facile two-step process, which includes a direct reactive precipitation in alcohol phase instead of aqueous phase combined with a successive surface modification, to prepare transparent alcohol solutions containing lamellar MH nanocrystals with an average size of 52 nm and an ultrathin thickness of 1–2 nm, which is the thinnest MH nanoplatelet reported in the literatures. Further, highly flexible and transparent nanocomposite films are fabricated with a solution mixing method by adding the transparent MH nanocrystal solutions into PVB solution. Considering the simplicity of the fabrication process, high transparency and good flexibility, this MH/polymer nanocomposite film is promising for flame-resistant applications in plastic electronics and optical devices with high transparency, such as flexible displays, optical filters, and flexible solar cells. (paper)

  8. A mechanochemical approach to get stunningly uniform particles of magnesium-aluminum-layered double hydroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Qi, Fenglin; Li, Shuping; Wei, Shaohua; Zhou, Jiahong

    2012-10-01

    A mechanochemical approach is developed in preparing a series of magnesium-aluminum-layered double hydroxides (Mg-Al-LDHs). This approach includes a mechanochemical process which involved manual grinding of solid salts in an agate mortar and afterwards peptization process. In order to verify the LDHs structure synthesized in the grinding process, X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) photos and thermogravimetry/differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) property of the product without peptization were characterized and the results show that amorphous particles with low crystallinity and poor thermal stability are obtained, and the effect of peptization is to improve the properties, more accurately, regular particles with high crystallinity and good thermal stability can be gained after peptization. Furthermore, the fundamental experimental parameters including grinding time, the molar ratio of Mg to Al element (defined as R value) and the water content were systematically examined in order to control the size and morphologies of LDHs particles, regular hexagonal particles or the spherical nanostructures can be efficiently obtained and the particle sizes were controlled in the range of 52-130 nm by carefully adjusting these parameters. At last, stunningly uniform Mg-Al-LDHs particles can be synthesized under proper R values, suitable grinding time and high degree of supersaturation.

  9. Continuous synthesis of magnesium-hydroxide, zinc-oxide, and silver nanoparticles by microwave plasma in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Yoshiaki; Mukasa, Shinobu; Toyota, Hiromichi; Inoue, Toru; Nomura, Shinfuku

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticles are continuously synthesized from submerged magnesium, zinc, and silver rods 1–2 mm in diameter by microwave plasma in pure water at 20 kPa. Magnesium-hydroxide nanoplates shaped as triangles, truncated triangles or hexagons with 25–125 nm in size are synthesized with a production rate of 60 g h −1 . Zinc-oxide nanoparticles formed as sharp sticks with diameters of 50 nm and lengths of 150–200 nm are synthesized with a production rate of 14 g h −1 . Silver nanoparticles with a diameter of approximately 6 nm are synthesized with a production rate of 0.8 g h −1 . The excitation temperature is estimated by applying the Boltzmann plot method in assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium. The excitation temperatures obtained from hydrogen, magnesium, and zinc lines are 3300 ± 100 K, 4000 ± 500 K, and 3200 ± 500 K, respectively.

  10. Surface modification of magnesium hydroxide sulfate hydrate whiskers using a silane coupling agent by dry process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Donghai; Nai, Xueying; Lan, Shengjie; Bian, Shaoju; Liu, Xin; Li, Wu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dry process was adopted to modify the surface of MHSH whiskers using silane. • Si−O−Mg bonds were formed directly by the reaction between Si−OC 2 H 5 and −OH of MHSH. • Dispersibility and compatibility of modified whiskers greatly improved in organic phase. • Thermal stability of whiskers was enhanced after modified. - Abstract: In order to improve the compatibility of magnesium hydroxide sulfate hydrate (MHSH) whiskers with polymers, the surface of MHSH whiskers was modified using vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES) by dry process. The possible mechanism of the surface modification and the interfacial interactions between MHSH whiskers and VTES, as well as the effect of surface modification, were studied. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses showed that the agglomerations were effectively separated and a thin layer was formed on the surface of the whiskers after modification. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses showed that the VTES molecules were bound to the surface of MHSH whiskers after modification. Chemical bonds (Si−O−Mg) were formed by the reaction between Si−OC 2 H 5 or Si−OH and the hydroxyl group of MHSH whiskers. The effect of surface modification was evaluated by sedimentation tests, contact angle measurements and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that the surface of MHSH whiskers was transformed from hydrophilic to hydrophobic, and the dispersibility and the compatibility of MHSH whiskers were significantly improved in the organic phase. Additionally, the thermal stability of the VTES-modified MHSH whiskers was improved significantly.

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on linear low density polyethylene/magnesium hydroxide/sepiolite composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiq, Muhammad; Yasin, Tariq

    2012-01-01

    Radiation crosslinking is generally used to improve the thermo-mechanical properties of the composites. A study has been carried out to investigate the effect of gamma radiation on the thermo-mechanical properties of linear low density polyethylene containing magnesium hydroxide (MH) and sepiolite (SP) as non-halogenated flame retardant additives. The developed composites are irradiated at different doses upto maximum of 150 kGy. Infrared spectra of the irradiated composites reveal the reduction in the intensity of O-H band with increase in the absorbed doses, thus indicates a distinct structural change in MH at higher doses. The thermogravimetric analysis results of unirradiated and composites irradiated at low doses (≤75 kGy) show two steps weight loss, which is changed to single step at higher doses with lower thermal stability. The melting temperature (T m ) and crystallization temperature (T c ) of irradiated composites are lowered with irradiation whereas Vicat softening temperature (VST) is increased. The increasing trend in gel content with increase in the absorbed dose confirms the presence of crosslinked network. The mechanical properties, results show significant improvement in the modulus of irradiated composites. The results also confirm that MH gradually loses its OH functionality with irradiation. - Highlights: → We have studied the effect of γ radiation on LLDPE containing Mg(OH) 2 and sepiolite. → IR spectra of the irradiated composites show reduction in the intensity of O-H band. → Reduction in OH band show a distinct structural change in Mg(OH) 2 at higher doses. → TGA results show two steps weight loss at low doses and one step at higher doses. → These results confirm that MH gradually loses its OH functionality with irradiation.

  12. Coagulation of highly turbid suspensions using magnesium hydroxide: effects of slow mixing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, George M; BinAhmed, Sara W; Al-Hindi, Mahmoud; Azizi, Fouad

    2014-09-01

    Laboratory experiments were carried out to study the effects of slow mixing conditions on magnesium hydroxide floc size and strength and to determine the turbidity and total suspended solid (TSS) removal efficiencies during coagulation of highly turbid suspensions. A highly turbid kaolin clay suspension (1,213 ± 36 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU)) was alkalized to pH 10.5 using a 5 M NaOH solution; liquid bittern (LB) equivalent to 536 mg/L of Mg(2+) was added as a coagulant, and the suspension was then subjected to previously optimized fast mixing conditions of 100 rpm and 60 s. Slow mixing speed (20, 30, 40, and 50 rpm) and time (10, 20, and 30 min) were then varied, while the temperature was maintained at 20.7 ± 1 °C. The standard practice for coagulation-flocculation jar test ASTM D2035-13 (2013) was followed in all experiments. Relative floc size was monitored using an optical measuring device, photometric dispersion analyzer (PDA 2000). Larger and more shear resistant flocs were obtained at 20 rpm for both 20- and 30-min slow mixing times; however, given the shorter duration for the former, the 20-min slow mixing time was considered to be more energy efficient. For slow mixing camp number (Gt) values in the range of 8,400-90,000, it was found that the mixing speed affected floc size and strength more than the time. Higher-turbidity removal efficiencies were achieved at 20 and 30 rpm, while TSS removal efficiency was higher for the 50-rpm slow mixing speed. Extended slow mixing time of 30 min yielded better turbidity and TSS removal efficiencies at the slower speeds.

  13. Synthesis Of Magnesium-Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxides By Mechanochemical Method And Its Solid State Reaction Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Y.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A mechanochemical method is developed in preparing magnesium-aluminum-layered double hydroxides (MgAl-LDHs. This approach includes activation process and diffusion process. In order to verify the LDHs structure and study the reaction kinetics, X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns, inductively coupled plasma(ICP and physical adsorption instrument were characterized. The results show that activation time can change the surface of particles and affect the reaction grade. During the diffusion process, reaction time is the most important factor. The reaction energy (ΔQ was calculated that is 6kJ/mol.

  14. Insitu grown superhydrophobic Zn-Al layered double hydroxides films on magnesium alloy to improve corrosion properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meng; Pang, Xiaolu; Wei, Liang; Gao, Kewei

    2015-05-01

    A hierarchical superhydrophobic zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (Zn-Al LDHs) film has been fabricated on a magnesium alloy substrate via a facile hydrothermal crystallization method following chemical modification. The characteristics of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). XRD patterns and SEM images showed that the micro/nanoscale hierarchical LDHs film surfaces composed of ZnO nanorods and Zn-Al LDHs nanowalls structures. The static contact angle (CA) for the prepared surfaces was observed at around 165.6°. The corrosion resistance of the superhydrophobic films was estimated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiondynamic polarization measurement. EIS and polarization measurements revealed that the superhydrophobic Zn-Al LDHs coated magnesium alloy had better corrosion resistance in neutral 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution.

  15. Dissolution kinetics of magnesium hydroxide for CO{sub 2} separation from coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharadwaj, Hari Krishna [Chemical Engineering Program, School of Energy, Environmental, Biological, and Medical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); Lee, Joo-Youp, E-mail: joo.lee@uc.edu [Chemical Engineering Program, School of Energy, Environmental, Biological, and Medical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); Li, Xin; Liu, Zhouyang [Chemical Engineering Program, School of Energy, Environmental, Biological, and Medical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); Keener, Tim C. [Environmental Engineering Program, School of Energy, Environmental, Biological, and Medical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Magnesium hydroxide dissolution was found to be controlled by chemical reaction. ► The intrinsic kinetics has a fractional order between 0.20 and 0.31. ► The true activation energy value was found to have 76 ± 11 kJ/gmol. ► A shrinking-core model predicted experimental data with good accuracy. -- Abstract: The dissolution of magnesium hydroxide in water for the release of magnesium and hydroxyl ions into the solution to maintain suitable alkalinity is a crucial step in the Mg(OH){sub 2}-based CO{sub 2} absorption process. In this study, the rate of dissolution of Mg(OH){sub 2} was investigated under different operating conditions using a pH stat apparatus. The dissolution process was modeled using a shrinking core model and the overall Mg(OH){sub 2} dissolution process was found to be controlled by the surface chemical reaction of Mg(OH){sub 2} with H{sup +} ions. Under the chemical reaction control regime, the dissolution of Mg(OH){sub 2} in alkaline conditions was found not to follow a first-order reaction, and the fractional order of reaction was estimated to lie between 0.20 and 0.31. This suggests that the dissolution reaction is a non-elementary reaction, consisting of a sequence of elementary reactions, via most likely forming a surface magnesium complex. The true activation energy value of 76 ± 11 kJ/gmol was found to be almost twice as much as the observed activation energy value of 42 ± 6 kJ/gmol determined at pH 8.6, and was comparable with the previously reported values. The particle sizes predicted from the intrinsic kinetics determined from the model were in good agreement with the experimentally measured particle sizes during the dissolution process.

  16. Novel synthesis of magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles modified with organic phosphate and their effect on the flammability of acrylonitrile-butadiene styrene nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attia, Nour F., E-mail: drnour2005@yahoo.com [Fire Protection Laboratory, Chemistry Division, National Institute of Standards, 136, Giza 12211 (Egypt); Goda, Emad S.; Nour, M.A. [Fire Protection Laboratory, Chemistry Division, National Institute of Standards, 136, Giza 12211 (Egypt); Sabaa, M.W. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, NahdetMisr Street, Giza 12613 (Egypt); Hassan, M.A., E-mail: Mohamed_a_hassan@hotmail.com [Fire Protection Laboratory, Chemistry Division, National Institute of Standards, 136, Giza 12211 (Egypt)

    2015-11-15

    New and facile method for the synthesis and modification of magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles has been developed. The organic phosphate was used to facilitate the synthesis and wrapping of magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles with organic phosphate shell. The size of the nanoparticles wrapped with phosphate has an average diameter range from 46 to 125 nm. The preparation method has governed the nanoparticles diameter based on reaction time. Thermal stability and morphological properties of the new nanoparticles coated phosphates were investigated. The developed magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles-organic phosphate achieved a very good compatibility when dispersed in acrylonitrile-butadiene styrene polymer (ABS) produced dispersed nanocomposites. The flammability and thermal properties of the new polymer nanocomposites were studied. The rate of burning of the nanocomposites was reduced to 9.8 mm/min compared to 15, 21.9 and 42.5 mm/min for polymer-conventional magnesium hydroxide composite, polymer-conventional magnesium hydroxide-organic phosphate composite and virgin polymer, respectively. The peak heat release rate (PHRR) and total heat release (THR) of the new nanocomposites were recorded as 243.4 kW/m{sup 2} and 19.2 MJ/m{sup 2}, respectively, achieved 71% reduction for PHRR and 55% for THR. The synergism between magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles and organic phosphates shell was also studied. The developed nanoparticles suppressed the emission of toxic gases. The different materials were characterized using thermal gravimetric analysis, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy. The flammability properties were evaluated using UL94 horizontal method and cone calorimeter. The dispersion of magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles-organic phosphate in ABS was studied using scanning electron microscope. - Highlights: • Novel and facile nanoparticles synthesis and modification have developed. • Magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles size has

  17. Surface modification of magnesium aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles with poly(methyl methacrylate) via one-pot in situ polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Xiaojun, E-mail: guoxj6906@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, 967 Anning East Road, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Zhao Leihua; Zhang Li; Li Jing [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, 967 Anning East Road, Lanzhou 730070 (China)

    2012-01-15

    Hydrophobic magnesium aluminum hydroxide composite particles (PMMA-MAH) were obtained by means of grafting poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) onto the surface of magnesium aluminum hydroxide(MAH) nanoparticles after a novel type of phosphate coupling agent (DN-27) modification. The introduction of functional double bonds was firstly conducted on the surface of nanoparticles by DN-27 modification, followed by one-pot in situ polymerization on the particles surface using methyl methacrylate (MMA) as monomer, azoisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as stabilizer to graft PMMA on the surface of DN-27-modified MAH particles. The obtained composite particles were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The results show that the organic macromolecule PMMA could be successfully grafted on the surface of DN-27-modified MAH nanoparticles and the thermal stability of the PMMA-MAH composite particles had been improved. Compared with unmodified blank MAH sample, the product obtained with this method possesses better hydrophobic properties such as a higher water contact angle of 108 Degree-Sign and a well dispersion.

  18. Kinetics of intercalation of fluorescent probes in magnesium-aluminium layered double hydroxide within a multiscale reaction-diffusion framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Daniel; Al-Ghoul, Mazen

    2016-11-01

    We report the synthesis of magnesium-aluminium layered double hydroxide (LDH) using a reaction-diffusion framework (RDF) that exploits the multiscale coupling of molecular diffusion with chemical reactions, nucleation and growth of crystals. In an RDF, the hydroxide anions are allowed to diffuse into an organic gel matrix containing the salt mixture needed for the precipitation of the LDH. The chemical structure and composition of the synthesized magnesium-aluminium LDHs are determined using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermo-gravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR), Fourier transform infrared and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. This novel technique also allows the investigation of the mechanism of intercalation of some fluorescent probes, such as the neutral three-dimensional rhodamine B (RhB) and the negatively charged two-dimensional 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid (HPTS), using in situ steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy. The incorporation of these organic dyes inside the interlayer region of the LDH is confirmed via fluorescence microscopy, solid-state lifetime, SSNMR and PXRD. The activation energies of intercalation of the corresponding molecules (RhB and HPTS) are computed and exhibit dependence on the geometry of the involved probe (two or three dimensions), the charge of the fluorescent molecule (anionic, cationic or neutral) and the cationic ratio of the corresponding LDH. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'.

  19. Insitu grown superhydrophobic Zn–Al layered double hydroxides films on magnesium alloy to improve corrosion properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Meng; Pang, Xiaolu; Wei, Liang; Gao, Kewei, E-mail: kwgao@yahoo.com

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Hierarchical superhydrophobic Zn–Al LDHs film has been fabricated on a magnesium alloy substrate. • The superhydrophobic surface has good long-term stability under atmospheric environment. • The superhydrophobic surface can provide a stable corrosion protection for the Mg alloys. - Abstract: A hierarchical superhydrophobic zinc–aluminum layered double hydroxides (Zn–Al LDHs) film has been fabricated on a magnesium alloy substrate via a facile hydrothermal crystallization method following chemical modification. The characteristics of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). XRD patterns and SEM images showed that the micro/nanoscale hierarchical LDHs film surfaces composed of ZnO nanorods and Zn–Al LDHs nanowalls structures. The static contact angle (CA) for the prepared surfaces was observed at around 165.6°. The corrosion resistance of the superhydrophobic films was estimated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiondynamic polarization measurement. EIS and polarization measurements revealed that the superhydrophobic Zn–Al LDHs coated magnesium alloy had better corrosion resistance in neutral 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution.

  20. Insitu grown superhydrophobic Zn–Al layered double hydroxides films on magnesium alloy to improve corrosion properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Meng; Pang, Xiaolu; Wei, Liang; Gao, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hierarchical superhydrophobic Zn–Al LDHs film has been fabricated on a magnesium alloy substrate. • The superhydrophobic surface has good long-term stability under atmospheric environment. • The superhydrophobic surface can provide a stable corrosion protection for the Mg alloys. - Abstract: A hierarchical superhydrophobic zinc–aluminum layered double hydroxides (Zn–Al LDHs) film has been fabricated on a magnesium alloy substrate via a facile hydrothermal crystallization method following chemical modification. The characteristics of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). XRD patterns and SEM images showed that the micro/nanoscale hierarchical LDHs film surfaces composed of ZnO nanorods and Zn–Al LDHs nanowalls structures. The static contact angle (CA) for the prepared surfaces was observed at around 165.6°. The corrosion resistance of the superhydrophobic films was estimated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiondynamic polarization measurement. EIS and polarization measurements revealed that the superhydrophobic Zn–Al LDHs coated magnesium alloy had better corrosion resistance in neutral 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution

  1. Precursor preparation for Ca-Al layered double hydroxide to remove hexavalent chromium coexisting with calcium and magnesium chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Lihua; He, Xiaoman; Qu, Jun; Li, Xuewei; Lei, Zhiwu; Zhang, Qiwu; Liu, Xinzhong

    2017-01-01

    Al(OH) 3 and Ca(OH) 2 powders are co-ground to prepare a precursor which hydrates into a layered double hydroxide (LDH) phase by agitation in aqueous solution with target hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) at room temperature, to achieve an obvious improvement in removal efficiency of Cr(VI) through an easy incorporation into the structure. Although the prepared precursor transforms into LDH phases also when agitated in the solutions of calcium and magnesium chlorides, it incorporates Cr(VI) preferentially to the chloride salts when they coexist. The adsorption isotherm and kinetic studies show that the phenomena occurring on the Al-Ca precursor fit a pseudo-second-order kinetics with a Langmuir adsorption capacity of 59.45 mg/g. Besides, characterizations of the prepared precursor and the samples after adsorption are also performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) to understand the reason of the preferential incorporation of Cr(VI) to the coexisting chloride salts during the LDH phase formation. - Graphical abstract: Activated Ca-Al hydroxides (C 3 A) transformed into Ca-Al-OH compound when agitated in water. Ca-Al precursor (C 3 A) was agitated in a hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) solution to form Al-Ca-CrO 4 LDH product. Ca-Al-CrO 4 LDH phase occurred preferentially to Ca-Al-MCl 2 LDH phases in the solutions of calcium and magnesium chlorides, it incorporates Cr(VI) preferentially to the chloride salts when they coexist. - Highlights: • Activated Ca-Al hydroxides transformed into LDH when agitated in water with some inorganic substances. • Hexavalent Cr was incorporated in the LDH structure at high adsorption capacity. • Ca-Al-Cr LDH phase occurred preferentially to Ca-Al-MCl 2 LDH phases with coexistence. • The prepared Ca-Al hydroxides had high performance as adsorbent even with high salinity of the solution.

  2. Precursor preparation for Ca-Al layered double hydroxide to remove hexavalent chromium coexisting with calcium and magnesium chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Lihua; He, Xiaoman; Qu, Jun; Li, Xuewei; Lei, Zhiwu; Zhang, Qiwu [School of Resources and Environment Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Liu, Xinzhong [College of Ecological Environment and Urban Construction, Fujian University of Technology, Fuzhou 350118 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Al(OH){sub 3} and Ca(OH){sub 2} powders are co-ground to prepare a precursor which hydrates into a layered double hydroxide (LDH) phase by agitation in aqueous solution with target hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) at room temperature, to achieve an obvious improvement in removal efficiency of Cr(VI) through an easy incorporation into the structure. Although the prepared precursor transforms into LDH phases also when agitated in the solutions of calcium and magnesium chlorides, it incorporates Cr(VI) preferentially to the chloride salts when they coexist. The adsorption isotherm and kinetic studies show that the phenomena occurring on the Al-Ca precursor fit a pseudo-second-order kinetics with a Langmuir adsorption capacity of 59.45 mg/g. Besides, characterizations of the prepared precursor and the samples after adsorption are also performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) to understand the reason of the preferential incorporation of Cr(VI) to the coexisting chloride salts during the LDH phase formation. - Graphical abstract: Activated Ca-Al hydroxides (C{sub 3}A) transformed into Ca-Al-OH compound when agitated in water. Ca-Al precursor (C{sub 3}A) was agitated in a hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) solution to form Al-Ca-CrO{sub 4} LDH product. Ca-Al-CrO{sub 4} LDH phase occurred preferentially to Ca-Al-MCl{sub 2} LDH phases in the solutions of calcium and magnesium chlorides, it incorporates Cr(VI) preferentially to the chloride salts when they coexist. - Highlights: • Activated Ca-Al hydroxides transformed into LDH when agitated in water with some inorganic substances. • Hexavalent Cr was incorporated in the LDH structure at high adsorption capacity. • Ca-Al-Cr LDH phase occurred preferentially to Ca-Al-MCl{sub 2} LDH phases with coexistence. • The prepared Ca-Al hydroxides had high performance as adsorbent even with high salinity of the solution.

  3. Corrosion resistance of multilayered magnesium phosphate/magnesium hydroxide film formed on magnesium alloy using steam-curing assisted chemical conversion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Takahiro; Kudo, Ruriko; Omi, Takeshi; Teshima, Katsuya; Sonoda, Tsutomu; Shigematsu, Ichinori; Sakamoto, Michiru

    2012-01-01

    Anticorrosive multilayered films were successfully prepared on magnesium alloy AZ31 by chemical conversion treatment, followed by steam curing treatment. The crystal structures, chemical composition, surface morphologies, chemical bonding states of the film was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) measurements. All the films had thicknesses of ranging from 24 to 32 μm. The film had two layers that were composed of crystalline NH 4 MgPO 4 ·H 2 O, Mg 2 PO 4 OH·3H 2 O, Mg(OH) 2 and amorphous MgO. The outer layers include magnesium, oxygen, and phosphorous, and the inner layers include magnesium and oxygen. The corrosion resistant performances of the multilayered films in 5 wt% NaCl aqueous solution were investigated by electrochemical and gravimetric measurements. The potentiodynamic polarization curves revealed that the corrosion current density (j corr ) of all the film coated magnesium alloys decreased by more than four orders of magnitude as compared to that of the bare magnesium alloy, indicating that all the films had an inhibiting effect of corrosion reaction. Gravimetric measurements showed that the average corrosion rates obtained from the weight loss rates were estimated to be in the ranges of ca. 0.085–0.129 mm/y. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard D 3359-02 cross cut tape test revealed that the adhesion of our anticorrosive multilayered film to the magnesium alloy surface was very good.

  4. Doping magnesium hydroxide with sodium nitrate: a new approach to tune the dehydration reactivity of heat-storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkatulov, Alexandr; Krieger, Tamara; Zaikovskii, Vladimir; Chesalov, Yurii; Aristov, Yuri

    2014-11-26

    Thermochemical energy storage (TES) provides a challenging approach for improving the efficiency of various energy systems. Magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH)2, is known as a suitable material for TES at temperature T>300 °C. In this work, the thermal decomposition of Mg(OH)2 in the absence and presence of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) is investigated to adapt this material for TES at T300 °C in vapor atmosphere) than a pure Mg(OH)2; (3) the morphology of the dehydration product (MgO) dramatically changes. Differential scanning calorimetry, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and vibrational spectroscopy (IR and Raman) are used to study the observed effects and to elucidate possible ways the NaNO3 influences the Mg(OH)2 dehydration and morphology of the dehydration product. The mechanism involving a chemical interaction between the salt and the hydroxide accompanied by nitrate embedding into brucite layers is discussed.

  5. Precursor preparation for Ca-Al layered double hydroxide to remove hexavalent chromium coexisting with calcium and magnesium chlorides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lihua; He, Xiaoman; Qu, Jun; Li, Xuewei; Lei, Zhiwu; Zhang, Qiwu; Liu, Xinzhong

    2017-01-01

    Al(OH)3 and Ca(OH)2 powders are co-ground to prepare a precursor which hydrates into a layered double hydroxide (LDH) phase by agitation in aqueous solution with target hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) at room temperature, to achieve an obvious improvement in removal efficiency of Cr(VI) through an easy incorporation into the structure. Although the prepared precursor transforms into LDH phases also when agitated in the solutions of calcium and magnesium chlorides, it incorporates Cr(VI) preferentially to the chloride salts when they coexist. The adsorption isotherm and kinetic studies show that the phenomena occurring on the Al-Ca precursor fit a pseudo-second-order kinetics with a Langmuir adsorption capacity of 59.45 mg/g. Besides, characterizations of the prepared precursor and the samples after adsorption are also performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) to understand the reason of the preferential incorporation of Cr(VI) to the coexisting chloride salts during the LDH phase formation. Ca-Al precursor (C3A) was agitated in a hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) solution to form Al-Ca-CrO4 LDH product. Ca-Al-CrO4 LDH phase occurred preferentially to Ca-Al-MCl2 LDH phases in the solutions of calcium and magnesium chlorides, it incorporates Cr(VI) preferentially to the chloride salts when they coexist.

  6. Production of magnesium metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blencoe, James G [Harriman, TN; Anovitz, Lawrence M [Knoxville, TN; Palmer, Donald A [Oliver Springs, TN; Beard, James S [Martinsville, VA

    2010-02-23

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention further relates to a process for production of magnesium metal or a magnesium compound where an external source of carbon dioxide is not used in any of the reactions of the process. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  7. Discovery of the mineral brucite (magnesium hydroxide) in the tropical calcifying alga Polystrata dura (Peyssonneliales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Merinda C; Russell, Bayden D; Dixon, Kyatt R; Liu, Minglu; Xu, Huifang

    2015-06-01

    Red algae of the family Peyssonneliaceae typically form thin crusts impregnated with aragonite. Here, we report the first discovery of brucite in a thick red algal crust (~1 cm) formed by the peyssonnelioid species Polystrata dura from Papua New Guinea. Cells of P. dura were found to be infilled by the magnesium-rich mineral brucite [Mg(OH)2 ]; minor amounts of magnesite and calcite were also detected. We propose that cell infill may be associated with the development of thick (> ~5 mm) calcified red algal crusts, integral components of tropical biotic reefs. If brucite infill within the P. dura crust enhances resistance to dissolution similarly to crustose coralline algae that infill with dolomite, then these crusts would be more resilient to future ocean acidification than crusts without infill. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  8. Chromium and yttrium-doped magnesium aluminum oxides prepared from layered double hydroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, J. M.; Pérez-Bernal, M. E.; Ruano-Casero, R. J.; Rives, V.

    2007-12-01

    Layered double hydroxides with the hydrotalcite-like structures, containing Mg 2+ and Al 3+, doped with Cr 3+ and Y 3+, have been prepared by precipitation at constant pH. The weight percentages of Cr 3+ and Y 3+ were 1, 2, or 3%, and 0.5 or 1%, respectively. Single phases were obtained in all cases, whose crystallinity decreased as the content in Cr and Y was increased. The solids have been characterised by element chemical analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses (differential, thermogravimetric and programmed reduction), FT-IR and UV-vis spectroscopies; the specific surface areas have been determined from nitrogen adsorption isotherms at -196 °C. Upon calcination at 1200 °C for 5 h in air all solids display a mixed structure (spinel and rock salt for MgO); these solids have also been characterised by these techniques and their chromatic coordinates (CIE - L∗a∗b∗) have been determined. Their pink colour makes these solids suitable for being used as ceramic pigments.

  9. Kinetic-limited etching of magnesium doping nitrogen polar GaN in potassium hydroxide solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Junyan; Zhang, Yuantao; Chi, Chen; Yang, Fan; Li, Pengchong; Zhao, Degang; Zhang, Baolin; Du, Guotong

    2016-01-01

    KOH based wet etchings were performed on both undoped and Mg-doped N-polar GaN films grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. It is found that the etching rate for Mg-doped N-polar GaN gets slow obviously compared with undoped N-polar GaN. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis proved that Mg oxide formed on N-polar GaN surface is insoluble in KOH solution so that kinetic-limited etching occurs as the etching process goes on. The etching process model of Mg-doped N-polar GaN in KOH solution is tentatively purposed using a simplified ideal atomic configuration. Raman spectroscopy analysis reveals that Mg doping can induce tensile strain in N-polar GaN films. Meanwhile, p-type N-polar GaN film with a hole concentration of 2.4 ÿ 1017 cm⿿3 was obtained by optimizing bis-cyclopentadienyl magnesium flow rates.

  10. Kinetic-limited etching of magnesium doping nitrogen polar GaN in potassium hydroxide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Junyan; Zhang, Yuantao; Chi, Chen; Yang, Fan; Li, Pengchong; Zhao, Degang; Zhang, Baolin; Du, Guotong

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Effects of Mg doping on wet etching of N-polar GaN are illustrated and analysed. • Etching process model of Mg-doped N-polar GaN in KOH solution is purposed. • It is found that Mg doping can induce tensile strain in N-polar GaN film. • N-polar p-GaN film with a hole concentration of 2.4 × 10"1"7 cm"−"3 is obtained. - Abstract: KOH based wet etchings were performed on both undoped and Mg-doped N-polar GaN films grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. It is found that the etching rate for Mg-doped N-polar GaN gets slow obviously compared with undoped N-polar GaN. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis proved that Mg oxide formed on N-polar GaN surface is insoluble in KOH solution so that kinetic-limited etching occurs as the etching process goes on. The etching process model of Mg-doped N-polar GaN in KOH solution is tentatively purposed using a simplified ideal atomic configuration. Raman spectroscopy analysis reveals that Mg doping can induce tensile strain in N-polar GaN films. Meanwhile, p-type N-polar GaN film with a hole concentration of 2.4 × 10"1"7 cm"−"3 was obtained by optimizing bis-cyclopentadienyl magnesium flow rates.

  11. Kinetic-limited etching of magnesium doping nitrogen polar GaN in potassium hydroxide solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Junyan; Zhang, Yuantao; Chi, Chen; Yang, Fan; Li, Pengchong [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Qianjin Street 2699, Changchun 130012 (China); Zhao, Degang [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Science, PO Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Baolin; Du, Guotong [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Qianjin Street 2699, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Effects of Mg doping on wet etching of N-polar GaN are illustrated and analysed. • Etching process model of Mg-doped N-polar GaN in KOH solution is purposed. • It is found that Mg doping can induce tensile strain in N-polar GaN film. • N-polar p-GaN film with a hole concentration of 2.4 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} is obtained. - Abstract: KOH based wet etchings were performed on both undoped and Mg-doped N-polar GaN films grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. It is found that the etching rate for Mg-doped N-polar GaN gets slow obviously compared with undoped N-polar GaN. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis proved that Mg oxide formed on N-polar GaN surface is insoluble in KOH solution so that kinetic-limited etching occurs as the etching process goes on. The etching process model of Mg-doped N-polar GaN in KOH solution is tentatively purposed using a simplified ideal atomic configuration. Raman spectroscopy analysis reveals that Mg doping can induce tensile strain in N-polar GaN films. Meanwhile, p-type N-polar GaN film with a hole concentration of 2.4 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} was obtained by optimizing bis-cyclopentadienyl magnesium flow rates.

  12. Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction for the Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JANSKY, M.T.

    1999-01-01

    The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions and Defense Waste (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration, and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of information listed in Appendix A.'' Appendix A (WAC 246-247-1 10) lists the requirements that must be addressed. Additionally, the following description, attachments and references are provided to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants.'' The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide greater than 0.1 millirem per year total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI), and commencement is needed within a short time. Therefore, this application also is intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application also will constitute EPA acceptance of this initial startup notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2) will be provided at a later date. This NOC covers the activities associated with the Construction and operation activities involving the magnesium hydroxide precipitation process of plutonium solutions within the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

  13. Local environment and composition of magnesium gallium layered double hydroxides determined from solid-state 1H and 71Ga NMR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen Staal, Line; Lipton, Andrew S.; Zorin, Vadim

    2014-01-01

    Ordering of gallium(III) in a series of magnesium gallium (MgGa) layered double hydroxides (LDHs), [Mg1−xGax(OH)2(NO3)x·yH2O] was investigated using solid-state 1H and 71Ga NMR spectroscopy as well as powder X-ray diffraction. Three different proton environments from Mg3single bondOH, Mg2Gasingle...... analysis show that the synthesized MgGa LDH׳s had a lower Mg:Ga ratio than that of the starting reactant solution. The origin of this is the formation of soluble [Ga(OH)4]− complexes formed during synthesis, and not due to formation of insoluble gallium (oxy)hydroxides. No sign of Gasingle bondOsingle bond...

  14. Design and fabrication of enhanced corrosion resistance Zn-Al layered double hydroxides films based anion-exchange mechanism on magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Meng; Yan, Luchun; Ling, Hao; Diao, Yupeng; Pang, Xiaolu; Wang, Yanlin; Gao, Kewei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Zn-Al LDHs film loaded nitrate anions has been fabricated on a magnesium alloy substrate via a facile hydrothermal crystallization method. • The Zn-Al-Cl LDHs and Zn-Al-VO_x LDHs film were obtained based on anion-exchange mechanism. • The Zn-Al-Cl LDHs and Zn-Al-VO_x LDHs film could effectively protect magnesium alloy. - Abstract: Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with brucite-like layer structure and the facile exchangeability of intercalated anions had attracted tremendous interest in many fields because of their great importance for both fundamental studies and practical applications. Herein zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (Zn-Al LDHs) films intercalated with nitrate anions on the magnesium alloy substrate were designed and fabricated via a facile hydrothermal crystallization method. In order to obtain better corrosion resistance, chloride and vanadate anions were intercalated into the LDHs interlayers via the anion-exchange reaction. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) were used to examine structure, composition and morphology of the Zn-Al-NO_3 LDHs, Zn-Al-Cl LDHs and Zn-Al-VO_x LDHs films. The corrosion resistance of the Zn-Al LDHs with different anion films was estimated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization measurement. EIS and polarization curves measurements revealed that the magnesium alloy could be effectively protected by the Zn-Al-Cl LDHs and Zn-Al-VO_x LDHs films due to the blocking effect of chloride anions and the control-release ability of vanadate anions.

  15. Design and fabrication of enhanced corrosion resistance Zn-Al layered double hydroxides films based anion-exchange mechanism on magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Meng; Yan, Luchun; Ling, Hao; Diao, Yupeng; Pang, Xiaolu; Wang, Yanlin; Gao, Kewei, E-mail: kwgao@yahoo.com

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Zn-Al LDHs film loaded nitrate anions has been fabricated on a magnesium alloy substrate via a facile hydrothermal crystallization method. • The Zn-Al-Cl LDHs and Zn-Al-VO{sub x} LDHs film were obtained based on anion-exchange mechanism. • The Zn-Al-Cl LDHs and Zn-Al-VO{sub x} LDHs film could effectively protect magnesium alloy. - Abstract: Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with brucite-like layer structure and the facile exchangeability of intercalated anions had attracted tremendous interest in many fields because of their great importance for both fundamental studies and practical applications. Herein zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (Zn-Al LDHs) films intercalated with nitrate anions on the magnesium alloy substrate were designed and fabricated via a facile hydrothermal crystallization method. In order to obtain better corrosion resistance, chloride and vanadate anions were intercalated into the LDHs interlayers via the anion-exchange reaction. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) were used to examine structure, composition and morphology of the Zn-Al-NO{sub 3} LDHs, Zn-Al-Cl LDHs and Zn-Al-VO{sub x} LDHs films. The corrosion resistance of the Zn-Al LDHs with different anion films was estimated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization measurement. EIS and polarization curves measurements revealed that the magnesium alloy could be effectively protected by the Zn-Al-Cl LDHs and Zn-Al-VO{sub x} LDHs films due to the blocking effect of chloride anions and the control-release ability of vanadate anions.

  16. Design and fabrication of enhanced corrosion resistance Zn-Al layered double hydroxides films based anion-exchange mechanism on magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meng; Yan, Luchun; Ling, Hao; Diao, Yupeng; Pang, Xiaolu; Wang, Yanlin; Gao, Kewei

    2017-05-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with brucite-like layer structure and the facile exchangeability of intercalated anions had attracted tremendous interest in many fields because of their great importance for both fundamental studies and practical applications. Herein zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (Zn-Al LDHs) films intercalated with nitrate anions on the magnesium alloy substrate were designed and fabricated via a facile hydrothermal crystallization method. In order to obtain better corrosion resistance, chloride and vanadate anions were intercalated into the LDHs interlayers via the anion-exchange reaction. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) were used to examine structure, composition and morphology of the Zn-Al-NO3 LDHs, Zn-Al-Cl LDHs and Zn-Al-VOx LDHs films. The corrosion resistance of the Zn-Al LDHs with different anion films was estimated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization measurement. EIS and polarization curves measurements revealed that the magnesium alloy could be effectively protected by the Zn-Al-Cl LDHs and Zn-Al-VOx LDHs films due to the blocking effect of chloride anions and the control-release ability of vanadate anions.

  17. Evaluation of preservative effectiveness of gallic acid derivatives in aluminum hydroxide gel-USP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Khatkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preservatives are added to most of the pharmaceutical preparations to prevent them from deterioration throughout their shelf life. Literature reveals that the common synthetic preservatives have many limitations, such as development of microbial resistance (in due course of time and several serious side-effects. Aim: The aim of this study is to find out new preservatives synthesized from natural sources, which may have better efficiency than the existing synthetic preservatives. The derivatives of naturally occurring gallic acid were subjected for their preservative efficacy study. Their preservative efficiency was evaluated and compared with the standard parabens. Materials and Methods: The selected amide, anilide and ester derivatives of gallic acid were subjected to preservative efficacy testing in an official antacid preparation, {aluminum hydroxide gel-USP (United States Pharmacopoeia} against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger as representative challenging microorganisms as per USP 2004 guidelines. Results: The selected derivatives were found to be effective against all selected strains and showed preservative efficacy comparable to that of standard and even better in case E. coli, C. albicans and A. niger. The 8-hydroxy quinoline ester derivative showed better preservative efficacy than standard as well as other derivatives. Conclusion: The newly synthesized gallic acid preservatives were found to be effective in the proposed pharmaceutical preparation (Aluminium Hydroxide Gel - USP. Also, the synthesized preservatives have shown comparative and even better efficacy than the existing parabens and hence they have potential for use in pharmaceutical preparations.

  18. Solidification of aqueous radioactive waste using insoluble compounds of magnesium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    A process is described for the treatment of radioactive waste which comprises: (a) first adding, under continuous agitation, a sufficient amount of a powdered magnesium oxide or magnesium hydroxide to an aqueous radioactive waste solution containing boric acid, the temperature of the water solution being 55-95 degrees C. to produce a magnesium borate derivative; (b) adding cement, under continuous agitation, to the magnesium borate derivative; and (c) then adding, under continuous agitation, after the cement has been dispersed, a sufficient amount of a compound selected from the group consisting of calcium oxide and calcium hydroxide to (b) to produce a gel matrix structure

  19. Corrosion Resistance of the Superhydrophobic Mg(OH2/Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxide Coatings on Magnesium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Coatings of the Mg(OH2/Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH composite were formed by a combined co-precipitation method and hydrothermal process on the AZ31 alloy substrate in alkaline condition. Subsequently, a superhydrophobic surface was successfully constructed to modify the composite coatings on the AZ31 alloy substrate using stearic acid. The characteristics of the composite coatings were investigated by means of X-ray diffractometer (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, scanning electronic microscope (SEM and contact angle (CA. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was assessed by potentiodynamic polarization, the electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS, the test of hydrogen evolution and the immersion test. The results showed that the superhydrophobic coatings considerably improved the corrosion resistant performance of the LDH coatings on the AZ31 alloy substrate.

  20. Investigation into interaction of copper, magnesium, zinc, cadmium and nickel acetates with sodium hydroxide in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyunner, Eh.A.; Mel'nichenko, L.M.; Yakhkind, N.D.; Bobryshev, V.G.; Katseva, G.N.

    1978-01-01

    The composition of poorly soluble reaction products in five systems MA 2 -NaOH-H 2 O (A - -CH 3 COO - ; M 2+ -Cu 2+ , Mg 2+ , Zn 2+ , Cd 2+ , and Ni 2+ ) was determined by measuring the residual concentrations of M 2+ and OH - and the refraction index of the mother liquor (isomolal series). It was established that in systems with CuA 2 , ZnA 2 , and NiA 2 the formation of hydroxides is preceded by precipitation of hydroxoacetates Cu 2 (OH 3 )A, Zn 3 (OH) 5 A, and Ni 5 (OH) 9 A, MgA 2 and CdA 2 react with NaOH, forming only Mg(OH) 2 or Cd(OH) 2

  1. Corrosion resistance of Zn-Al layered double hydroxide/poly(lactic acid) composite coating on magnesium alloy AZ31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Rong-Chang; Li, Xiao-Ting; Liu, Zhen-Guo; Zhang, Fen; Li, Shuo-Qi; Cui, Hong-Zhi

    2015-12-01

    A Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (ZnAl-LDH) coating consisted of uniform hexagonal nano-plates was firstly synthesized by co-precipitation and hydrothermal treatment on the AZ31 alloy, and then a poly(lactic acid) (PLA) coating was sealed on the top layer of the ZnAl-LDH coating using vacuum freeze-drying. The characteristics of the ZnAl-LDH/PLA composite coatings were investigated by means of XRD, SEM, FTIR and EDS. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was assessed by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that the ZnAl-LDH coating contained a compact inner layer and a porous outer layer, and the PLA coating with a strong adhesion to the porous outer layer can prolong the service life of the ZnAl-LDH coating. The excellent corrosion resistance of this composite coating can be attributable to its barrier function, ion-exchange and self-healing ability.

  2. Removal of phosphate from eutrophic lakes through adsorption by in situ formation of magnesium hydroxide from diatomite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fazhi; Wu, Fengchang; Liu, Guijian; Mu, Yunsong; Feng, Chenglian; Wang, Huanhua; Giesy, John P

    2014-01-01

    Since in situ formation of Mg(OH)2 can efficiently sorb phosphate (PO4) from low concentrations in the environment, a novel dispersed magnesium oxide nanoflake-modified diatomite adsorbent (MOD) was developed for use in restoration of eutrophic lakes by removal of excess PO4. Various adsorption conditions, such as pH, temperature and contact time were investigated. Overall, sorption capacities increased with increasing temperature and contact time, and decreased with increasing pH. Adsorption of PO4 was well described by both the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo second-order models. Theoretical maximum sorption capacity of MOD for PO4 was 44.44-52.08 mg/g at experimental conditions. Characterization of PO4 adsorbed to MOD by use of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and solid state (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance revealed that electrostatic attraction, surface complexation and chemical conversion in situ were the major forces in adsorption of PO4. Mg(OH)2 formed in situ had a net positive charge on the surface of the MOD that could adsorb PO4(3-) and HPO4(2-) anion to form surface complex and gradually convert to Mg3(PO4)2 and MgHPO4. Efficiency of removal of PO4 was 90% when 300 mg MOD/L was added to eutrophic lake water. Results presented here demonstrated the potential use of the MOD for restoration of eutrophic lakes by removal of excess PO4.

  3. A facile synthesis of phenazine and quinoxaline derivatives using magnesium sulfate heptahydrate as a catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAHADOR KARAMI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Convenient and simple procedures for the synthesis of phenazine and quinoxaline derivatives were developed via a reaction of o-phenylenediamines and 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds. In addition, the synthesis of two new 1,4-benzodiazine derivatives and the catalytic activity of magnesium sulfate heptahydrate (MgSO4·7H2O in the room temperature condensation of o-phenylenediamines and 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds in ethanol as solvent are reported. This method has many appealing attributes, such as excellent yields, short reaction times, and simple work-up procedures.

  4. The Effect of Nano Loading and Ultrasonic Compounding of EVA/LDPE/Nano-magnesium Hydroxide on Mechanical Properties and Distribution of Nano Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, I. A.; Salleh, R. M.; Alauddin, S. M.; Shueb, M. I.

    2018-05-01

    Blends of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) and Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE) are promising composite which have good mechanical properties to environmental stress cracking. However, they lack fire resistant properties, which limits it usage in wire and cable industry. In order to improve flame retardancy ability, a range of nano-magnesium hydroxide (nano-MH) loading which is from 0 phr to maximum of 20 phr with ultrasonic extrusion 0-100 kHz frequencies have been introduced. Ultrasonic extrusion was used to improve the distribution of nano-MH. It was found that, 10 phr of nano loading with 100 kHz ultrasonic assisted has greater tensile strength compared to the nanocomposite without ultrasonication. Further increase of nano MH loading, will decrease the tensile properties. Better elongation at break was observed at10 phr nano-MH with the frequency of 50 kHz. The sample of 20 phr of nanoMH assisted with 50 kHz ultrasonic exhibits good flexural properties while 10 phr of nano-MH without the ultrasonic assisted demonstrates good in izod impact properties. From the evaluation of mechanical properties studied, it was found that 10 phr of nano-MH has shown the best performance among all the samples tested for EVA/LDPE/nano-MH composites. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has been conducted on 10 phr sample with different frequencies in order to observe the distribution of nano-MH particles. The sample with 100 kHz frequency shows more uniform dispersion of nano-MH in EVA/LDPE composites. This investigation indicates that the ultrasonic technology can enhance the mechanical properties studied as well as the dispersion of nano particles in the composite.

  5. Anion-exchange membranes derived from quaternized polysulfone and exfoliated layered double hydroxide for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wan; Liang, Na; Peng, Pai; Qu, Rong; Chen, Dongzhi; Zhang, Hongwei, E-mail: hanqiujiang@163.com

    2017-02-15

    Layered double hydroxides (LDH) are prepared by controlling urea assisted homogeneous precipitation conditions. Morphology and crystallinity of LDHs are confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. After LDHs are incorporated into quaternized polysulfone membranes, transmission electron microscope is used to observe the exfoliated morphology of LDH sheets in the membranes. The properties of the nanocomposite membranes, including water uptake, swelling ratio, mechanical property and ionic conductivity are investigated. The nanocomposite membrane containing 5% LDH sheets shows more balanced performances, exhibiting an ionic conductivity of 2.36×10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1} at 60 °C. - Graphical abstract: Anion-exchange membrane based on quaternized polysulfone and exfoliated layered double hydroxide is optically transparent and has good ionic properties.

  6. The effect of magnesium ion implantation into alumina upon the adhesion of human bone derived cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howlett, C.R.; Zreiqat, H.; O'Dell, R.; Noorman, J.; Evans, P.; Dalton, B.A.; McFarland, C.; Steele, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    Our group is investigating the potential of modifying the surface atomic layers of biomaterials by ion beam implantation in order to stimulate adhesion of bone cells to these treated biomaterials. In this study alumina that had been implanted with magnesium ions (Mg)-(Al 2 O 3 ), was compared to unmodified alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) for the adhesion of cells cultured from explanted human bone. The attachment and spreading of cultured human bone derived cells onto (Mg)-(Al 2 O 3 ) was significantly enhanced as compared to Al 2 O 3 . The role of adsorption of serum adhesive glycoproteins firbronectin (Fn) and vitronectin (Vn) in the adhesion of human bone derived cells to (Mg)-(Al 2 O 3 ) was determined. (Author)

  7. Magnesium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  8. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to crystallization...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium oxide. 184.1431 Section 184.1431 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Magnesium oxide (MgO, CAS Reg. No. 1309-48-4... powder (light) or a relatively dense white powder (heavy) by heating magnesium hydroxide or carbonate...

  10. Hierarchical Co-based Porous Layered Double Hydroxide Arrays Derived via Alkali Etching for High-performance Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abushrenta, Nasser; Wu, Xiaochao; Wang, Junnan; Liu, Junfeng; Sun, Xiaoming

    2015-08-01

    Hierarchical nanoarchitecture and porous structure can both provide advantages for improving the electrochemical performance in energy storage electrodes. Here we report a novel strategy to synthesize new electrode materials, hierarchical Co-based porous layered double hydroxide (PLDH) arrays derived via alkali etching from Co(OH)2@CoAl LDH nanoarrays. This structure not only has the benefits of hierarchical nanoarrays including short ion diffusion path and good charge transport, but also possesses a large contact surface area owing to its porous structure which lead to a high specific capacitance (23.75 F cm-2 or 1734 F g-1 at 5 mA cm-2) and excellent cycling performance (over 85% after 5000 cycles). The enhanced electrode material is a promising candidate for supercapacitors in future application.

  11. Mesoporous mixed metal oxides derived from P123-templated Mg-Al layered double hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Zhou Jideng; Li Zhanshuang; He Yang; Lin Shuangshuang; Liu Qi; Zhang Milin; Jiang Zhaohua

    2010-01-01

    We report the preparation of mesoporous mixed metal oxides (MMOs) through a soft template method. Different amounts of P123 were used as structure directing agent to synthesize P123-templated Mg-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs). After calcination of as-synthesized LDHs at 500 o C, the ordered mesopores were obtained by removal of P123. The mesoporous Mg-Al MMOs fabricated by using 2 wt% P123 exhibited a high specific surface area of 108.1 m 2 /g, and wide distribution of pore size (2-18 nm). An investigation of the 'memory effect' of the mesoporous MMOs revealed that they were successfully reconstructed to ibuprofen intercalated LDHs having different gallery heights, which indicated different intercalation capacities. Due to their mesoporosity these unique MMOs have particular potential as drug or catalyst carriers. - Graphical abstract: Ordered mesoporous Mg-Al MMOs can be obtained through the calcination of P123-templated Mg-Al-CO 3 LDHs. The pore diameter is 2.2 nm. At the presence of ibuprofen, the Mg-Al MMOs can recover to Mg-Al-IBU LDHs, based on its 'remember effect'. Display Omitted

  12. Thermodynamic Properties of Magnesium Chloride Hydroxide Hydrate (Mg3Cl(OH)5:4H2O, Phase 5), and Its importance to Nuclear Waste Isolation in Geological Repositories in Salt Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Y.; Deng, H.; Nemer, M. B.; Johnsen, S.

    2009-12-01

    MgO (bulk, pure MgO corresponding to the mineral periclase) is the only engineered barrier certified by the Environmental Protection Agency for emplacement in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the US, and an Mg(OH)2-based engineered barrier (bulk, pure Mg(OH)2 corresponding to brucite) is to be employed in the Asse repository in Germany. Both the WIPP and the Asse are located in salt formations. The WIPP is a U.S. Department of Energy geological repository being used for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic waste (TRU waste). The repository is 655 m below the surface, and is situated in the Salado Formation, a Permian salt bed mainly composed of halite, and of lesser amounts of polyhalite, anhydrite, gypsum, magnesite, clays and quartz. The WIPP Generic Weep Brine (GWB), a Na-Mg-Cl dominated brine, is associated with the Salado Formation. The previous vendor for MgO for the WIPP was Premier Chemicals and the current vendor is Martin Marietta Materials. Experimental studies of both Premier MgO and Martin Marietta MgO with the GWB at SNL indicate the formation of magnesium chloride hydroxide hydrate, Mg3Cl(OH)5:4H2O, termed as phase 5. However, this important phase is lacking in the existing thermodynamic database. In this study, the solubility constant of phase 5 is determined from a series of solubility experiments in MgCl2-NaCl solutions. The solubility constant at 25 oC for the following reaction, Mg3Cl(OH)5:4H2O + 5H+ = 3Mg2+ + 9H2O(l) + Cl- is recommended as 43.21±0.33 (2σ) based on the Specific Interaction Theory (SIT) model for extrapolation to infinite dilution. The log K obtained via the Pitzer equations is identical to the above value within the quoted uncertainty. The Gibbs free energy and enthalpy of formation for phase 5 at 25 oC are derived as -3384±2 (2σ) kJ mol-1 and -3896±6 (2σ) kJ mol-1, respectively. The standard entropy and heat capacity of phase 5 at 25 oC are estimated as 393±20 J mol-1 K-1 and 374±19 J mol-1 K

  13. Photo-induced fluorescence of magnesium derivatives of tetracycline antibiotics in wastewater samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, A.; Albert-Garcia, J.R.; Silva, L.J.G.; Lino, C.M.; Calatayud, J. Martinez

    2010-01-01

    An analytical strategy, for the determination of tetracyclines (TCs), based on a HPLC system coupled with a photo-reactor followed by post-column derivatization was developed. Higher fluorescence emission after coupling the resulting photo-fragments with magnesium ions was observed for the determination of minocycline (MC), epitetracycline (ETC), tetracycline (TC) and doxycycline (DC). The manifold included a HPLC system with a photo-reactor (PTFE tubing helically coiled around a low-pressure mercury lamp), a mixing T-piece and a fluorescence detector. The derivatization reagent was delivered at 0.5 mL min -1 by a pump. After HPLC separation using a gradient system with a mobile phase containing oxalic acid 0.02 M and acetonitrile, TCs were irradiated for 60 s, and the resulting photo-fragments were mixed with the post-column derivatization reagent, and the magnesium derivatives of TCs were detected by fluorimetry (λ exc 386 nm, λ em 500 nm). The results obtained showed a significant increase of sensitivity due to photodegration of TCs, 45.4%, 37.6% and 25.3% for MC, TC and ETC respectively. For DC an increase of only 1.5% was observed. The developed method was successfully applied to TCs determination in hospital and municipal wastewater samples using solid phase extraction with Oasis HLB cartridges. The LOQs were 0.25, 0.15, 01 and 0.25 μg L -1 for TC, ETC, MC and DC, respectively. The recovery values oscillated between 107.1% and 92.4% for fortification of 2.5 μg L -1 of each antibiotic.

  14. Photo-induced fluorescence of magnesium derivatives of tetracycline antibiotics in wastewater samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A., E-mail: apena@ff.uc.pt [Group of Health Surveillance, Center of Pharmaceutical Studies, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra (Portugal); Albert-Garcia, J.R. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Valencia (Portugal); Silva, L.J.G.; Lino, C.M. [Group of Health Surveillance, Center of Pharmaceutical Studies, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra (Portugal); Calatayud, J. Martinez [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Valencia (Portugal)

    2010-07-15

    An analytical strategy, for the determination of tetracyclines (TCs), based on a HPLC system coupled with a photo-reactor followed by post-column derivatization was developed. Higher fluorescence emission after coupling the resulting photo-fragments with magnesium ions was observed for the determination of minocycline (MC), epitetracycline (ETC), tetracycline (TC) and doxycycline (DC). The manifold included a HPLC system with a photo-reactor (PTFE tubing helically coiled around a low-pressure mercury lamp), a mixing T-piece and a fluorescence detector. The derivatization reagent was delivered at 0.5 mL min{sup -1} by a pump. After HPLC separation using a gradient system with a mobile phase containing oxalic acid 0.02 M and acetonitrile, TCs were irradiated for 60 s, and the resulting photo-fragments were mixed with the post-column derivatization reagent, and the magnesium derivatives of TCs were detected by fluorimetry ({lambda}{sub exc} 386 nm, {lambda}{sub em} 500 nm). The results obtained showed a significant increase of sensitivity due to photodegration of TCs, 45.4%, 37.6% and 25.3% for MC, TC and ETC respectively. For DC an increase of only 1.5% was observed. The developed method was successfully applied to TCs determination in hospital and municipal wastewater samples using solid phase extraction with Oasis HLB cartridges. The LOQs were 0.25, 0.15, 01 and 0.25 {mu}g L{sup -1} for TC, ETC, MC and DC, respectively. The recovery values oscillated between 107.1% and 92.4% for fortification of 2.5 {mu}g L{sup -1} of each antibiotic.

  15. Aluminum Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum hydroxide is used for the relief of heartburn, sour stomach, and peptic ulcer pain and to ... Aluminum hydroxide comes as a capsule, a tablet, and an oral liquid and suspension. The dose and ...

  16. Magnesium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.

  17. Statistic derivation of Taylor factors for polycrystalline metals with application to pure magnesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, J.H.; Li, Y.L.; Wei, Q.

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the Taylor factors of textured as well as texture-free polycrystalline aggregates. We begin with examining the Schmid factors of single crystals. A statistical model is then introduced to describe the distribution of grain orientations as well as the Schmid factor of individual grains of the polycrystalline system. The grains are classified into “soft” and “hard” ones. Based on this, a model is proposed for the derivation of the Taylor factors of textured as well as texture-free polycrystalline metals, and as a case study it is applied to polycrystalline magnesium. The model predictions are in very good agreement with the available experimental results. No free parameters have been involved in the development of this model, and the physical processes are clearly defined. Based on the fundamental assumption that grains can be classified into “soft” and “hard” in metals, this model should also be applicable to other hexagonal close packed metals such as α-titanium, beryllium and zirconium, as well as metals of other lattice structures such as face-centered cubic and body-centered cubic. It will also be interesting to see if this model can be incorporated into existing crystal plasticity models for the prediction of texture evolution under mechanical loading

  18. Polymer-Derived In- Situ Metal Matrix Composites Created by Direct Injection of a Liquid Polymer into Molten Magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarshan; Terauds, Kalvis; Anilchandra, A. R.; Raj, Rishi

    2014-02-01

    We show that a liquid organic precursor can be injected directly into molten magnesium to produce nanoscale ceramic dispersions within the melt. The castings made in this way possess good resistance to tensile deformation at 673 K (400 °C), confirming the non-coarsening nature of these dispersions. Direct liquid injection into molten metals is a significant step toward inserting different chemistries of liquid precursors to generate a variety of polymer-derived metal matrix composites.

  19. Organic–inorganic hybrid nanocomposites based on chitosan derivatives and layered double hydroxides with intercalated phacolysin as ocular delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Zhiguo; Zhang, Jie; Chi, Huibo; Cao, Feng, E-mail: cpufengc@163.com [China Pharmaceutical University, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy (China)

    2015-12-15

    This study was mainly aimed to evaluate the potential use of a novel ocular drug delivery system, organic–inorganic hybrid nanocomposites based on chitosan derivatives and layered double hydroxides (LDH). Organic polymers of chitosan–glutathione (CG) and pre-activated chitosan–glutathione (CG-2MNA) were successfully synthesized and characterized. LDH with intercalated phacolysin (PCL), including larger hexagonal LDH–PCL (Lh-LDH–PCL), larger spherical LDH–PCL (Ls-LDH–PCL), smaller hexagonal LDH–PCL (Sh-LDH–PCL), CG hybrid LDH–PCL (LDH–PCL-CG), and CG-2MNA hybrid LDH–PCL (LDH–PCL-CG-2MNA), were prepared. The nanocomposites with particle size of 107.2–274.9 nm were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, transmission electron micrographs, etc. In vivo precorneal retention studies showed that the detectable time of all nanocomposites was prolonged from 2 to 6 h in comparison to PCL saline. Accordingly, the AUC{sub 0–6h} values of Lh-LDH–PCL, Ls-LDH–PCL, Sh-LDH–PCL, LDH–PCL-CG, and LDH–PCL-CG-2MNA nanocomposites were increased by 2.27-, 2.08-, 3.08-, 4.67-, and 3.36-fold, respectively. The Draize test and hematoxylin and eosin staining demonstrated that modified LDH had no eye irritation after single and repeated administration. These results indicated that chitosan derivatives-LDH hybrid nanocomposite dispersion could be a promising ocular drug delivery system to improve precorneal retention time of drugs.Graphical AbstractThiolated chitosan-LDH hybrid nanocomposite dispersion could be a promising ocular drug delivery system to improve precorneal retention time of drugs and may facilitate penetration of drugs into tissues of the eyes.

  20. Organic–inorganic hybrid nanocomposites based on chitosan derivatives and layered double hydroxides with intercalated phacolysin as ocular delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Zhiguo; Zhang, Jie; Chi, Huibo; Cao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    This study was mainly aimed to evaluate the potential use of a novel ocular drug delivery system, organic–inorganic hybrid nanocomposites based on chitosan derivatives and layered double hydroxides (LDH). Organic polymers of chitosan–glutathione (CG) and pre-activated chitosan–glutathione (CG-2MNA) were successfully synthesized and characterized. LDH with intercalated phacolysin (PCL), including larger hexagonal LDH–PCL (Lh-LDH–PCL), larger spherical LDH–PCL (Ls-LDH–PCL), smaller hexagonal LDH–PCL (Sh-LDH–PCL), CG hybrid LDH–PCL (LDH–PCL-CG), and CG-2MNA hybrid LDH–PCL (LDH–PCL-CG-2MNA), were prepared. The nanocomposites with particle size of 107.2–274.9 nm were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, transmission electron micrographs, etc. In vivo precorneal retention studies showed that the detectable time of all nanocomposites was prolonged from 2 to 6 h in comparison to PCL saline. Accordingly, the AUC 0–6h values of Lh-LDH–PCL, Ls-LDH–PCL, Sh-LDH–PCL, LDH–PCL-CG, and LDH–PCL-CG-2MNA nanocomposites were increased by 2.27-, 2.08-, 3.08-, 4.67-, and 3.36-fold, respectively. The Draize test and hematoxylin and eosin staining demonstrated that modified LDH had no eye irritation after single and repeated administration. These results indicated that chitosan derivatives-LDH hybrid nanocomposite dispersion could be a promising ocular drug delivery system to improve precorneal retention time of drugs.Graphical AbstractThiolated chitosan-LDH hybrid nanocomposite dispersion could be a promising ocular drug delivery system to improve precorneal retention time of drugs and may facilitate penetration of drugs into tissues of the eyes

  1. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 6, Field study conducted in fulfillment of Phase 3 titled. Use of FGD by-product gypsum enriched with magnesium hydroxide as a soil amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigham, J. M. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center; Soto, U. I. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center; Stehouwer, R. C. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center; Yibirin, H. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center

    1999-04-30

    A variety of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies have been developed to meet environmental restrictions imposed by the federal Clean Air Act and its amendments. These technologies include wet scrubber systems that dramatically reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. Although such systems are effective, they also produce large volumes of sludge that must be dewatered, stabilized, and disposed of in landfills. Disposal is an expensive and environmentally questionable process for which suitable alternatives are needed. Wet scrubbing of flue gases with magnesium (Mg)-enhanced lime has the potential to become a leading FGD technology. When combined with aforced oxidation system, the wet sludges resulting from this process can be modified and refined to produce gypsum (CaS04∙2H2O) and magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] of sufficient purity for beneficial re-use in the construction (wallboard) and pharmaceutical industries. The pilot plant at the CINERGY Zimmer Station near Cincinnati can also produce gypsum by-products formulated to contain varying amounts of Mg(OH)2- Such materials may have value to the agriculture, forestry, and lawn-care industries as soil "conditioners", liming agents, and nutritional supplements capable of supplying calcium (Ca), Mg, and sulfur (S) for plant growth. This report describes three field studies designed to evaluate by-product gypsum and Mg-gypsum from the Zimmer Station power plant as amendments for improving the quality of mine spoils and agricultural soils that were unproductive because of phytotoxic levels of dissolved aluminum (Al) and low pH. The technical literature suggests that gypsum may be more effective than agricultural limestone for ameliorating Al toxicity below the immediate zone of application. Such considerations are important for deep-rooted plant species that attempt to utilize water and nutrients occurring at depth in the spoil/soil.

  2. Electrochemical sensor based on EDTA intercalated into layered double hydroxides of magnesium and aluminum for ultra trace level detection of lead (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Junping; Fang, Qinghua; He, Haibo; Xu, Jiaqiang; Zhang, Yuan; Sun, Youbao

    2015-01-01

    The chelator ethylene diaminetetraacetate (EDTA) has been intercalated into layered double hydroxides by the anion exchange method. The resulting composites were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry. They were applied to modify a carbon paste electrode for the stripping voltammetric determination of lead (II) ions at ng L −1 levels. Stripping currents are linearly related to the logarithm of Pb (II) concentrations from 2 ng L −1 to 33 μg L −1 . The detection limit (3σ) is as low as 0.95 ng L −1 . The method was successfully applied to the determination of Pb (II) in spiked tap water without any pretreatment.(author)

  3. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 2, Product development of magnesium hydroxide, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kevin [Dravo Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Beeghly, Joel H. [Dravo Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2000-11-30

    In the way of background information about 30 electric utility units with a combined total of 15,000 MW utilize magnesium enhanced lime flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The first generation process begun in 1973, called the Thiosorbic® Process, was a technical breakthrough that offered significantly improved operating and performance characteristics compared with competing FGD technologies. The process is described as Flow Diagram "A" in figure 1. A disadvantage of this and other inhibited or natural oxidation wet FGD systems is the capital and operating cost associated with landfill disposal of the calcium sulfite based solids. Fixation to stabilize the sludge solids for compaction in a landfill also consumes fly ash that otherwise may be marketable.

  4. Mechanisms of mineral membrane fouling growth modulated by pulsed modes of current during electrodialysis: evidences of water splitting implications in the appearance of the amorphous phases of magnesium hydroxide and calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-Araya, Nicolás; Astudillo-Castro, Carolina; Bazinet, Laurent

    2014-07-15

    Experiments revealed the fouling nature evolutions along different electrodialysis (ED) trials, and how it disappears when current pulsation acts repetitively on the interfaces of ion-exchange membranes (IEMs). Fouling was totally controlled on the diluate side of cation-exchange membrane (CEM) by the repetitive pulsation frequency of the higher on-duty ratios applied. They created steady water splitting proton-barriers that neutralized OH(-) leakage through the membrane, decreasing the interfacial pH, and fouling of the concentrate side. The anion-exchange membrane (AEM) on the diluate side was similarly protected, but it was fouled once water splitting OH(-) generation became either intense enough or excessively weak. Interestingly, amorphous magnesium hydroxide (AMH) stemmed on the CEM-diluate side from brucite under intense water splitting OH(-) generation, and/or strong OH(-) leakage electromigration through the membrane. Water dissociation and overlimiting current regimes triggered drastic water molecule removal from crystal lattices through an accelerated cascade water splitting reaction. Also, amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) appeared on CEM under intense water splitting reaction, and disappeared once intense OH(-) leakage was allowed by the water splitting proton-barrier dissipation. Our findings have implications for membrane fouling control, as well as for the understanding of the growth behavior of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 species on electromembrane interfaces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. High-temperature CO2 capture cycles of hydrated limestone prepared with aluminum (hydr)oxides derived from kaolin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ke; Zhao, Pengfei; Guo, Xin; Han, Dongtai; Chao, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrated limestone exhibited a higher reactivity and stability. • Microstructure of hydrated limestone was significantly improved. • Hydrated limestone still suffered less loss-incapacity. • Hydrated limestone sorbents with kaolin-based binders were prepared and characterized. • Sorbents prepared from hydrated limestone and Al(OH) 3 binder are a promising sorbent. - Abstract: A simple and convenient process was used to improve the utilization of natural limestone and kaolin for calcium looping technology and environmental applications. The calcined natural limestone modified with the distilled water (denoted as Limestone-W), was systematically studied and compared with the other CaO sorbents (calcium acetate, calcium D-gluconate and calcined natural limestone). These CaO-based sorbents were tested for their CO 2 capture behavior through 20 carbonation/calcination cycles in a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA). Their morphology, pore structure and phase composition before and after carbonation/calcination cycles were determined by scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, and X-ray diffraction. The first-cycle and multicycle sorption results revealed that the Limestone-W sorbent exhibited a relatively faster reaction rate and higher cyclic CO 2 capture. The characterization data indicated that the Limestone-W was composed of a special calcium oxide structure with lower crystalline and higher porosity nanoparticles, which appeared to be the main reasons for its higher CO 2 capture capability. However, the Limestone-W still suffered loss of reactivity, even though it was less pronounced than the other CaO sorbent. To avoid this unfavorable effect, a thermally stable inert material (aluminum hydroxide derived from kaolin) was incorporated into the Limestone-W structure. This new sorbent revealed higher stability because the formation of a stable framework of Ca 12 Al 14 O 33 particles hindered densification and sintering of the CaO phase

  6. [Removal of PO4(3-) from solution, wastewater and seawater by modification and granulation magnesium and aluminium layered double hydroxide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Kun; Wang, Hai-Zeng

    2013-04-01

    Powder layered double hydroxide of Mg-Al LDH were prepared by hydrothermal technology with 500 kg x batch(-1), modified and granulated (MG Mg-Al CLDH) by deposition method. After the modification and granulation, the fixed bed can not be accumulated and clogged by the adsorbents. The PO4(3-) is removed from aqueous solution, wastewater and seawater by MG Mg-Al CLDH with column experiments. It shows that MG Mg-Al CLDH is an effective adsorbent. After removal, the water quality can satisfy with the first degree of integrated wastewater discharge or seawater standards. The mechanism of removal PO4(3-) is ion exchange and 'memory effect'. The breakthrough adsorption capacity of PO4(3-) from solution is 13.49 mg x g(-1), more than 6 times higher than that by Mg-Al LDH without modification. The exhausted MG Mg-Al CLDH can be desorbed with 0.1 mol x L(-1) NaOH and 3 mol x L(-1) NaCl and regenerated with 25% MgCl2. The regeneration rate is 126.24%. The breakthrough curves are influenced by bed depth, flow rate, initial concentration and initial pH. The adsorption processes are controlled by film diffusion. When the initial concentration is as low as 0.38 micromol x L(-1), PO4(3-) can be removed from seawater to satisfy with the first degree of seawater quality. So this work is very useful for the practical application of Mg-Al LDH and the removal of phosphorus.

  7. Interfacial engineering of renewable metal organic framework derived honeycomb-like nanoporous aluminum hydroxide with tunable porosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ye-Tang; Zhang, Lu; Zhao, Xiaomin; Wang, De-Yi

    2017-05-01

    Novel honeycomb-like mesoporous aluminum hydroxide (pATH) was synthesized via a facile one-step reaction by employing ZIF-8 as a template. This self-decomposing template was removed automatically under acidic conditions without the need for any tedious or hazardous procedures. Meanwhile, the pore size of pATH was easily modulated by tuning the dimensions of the ZIF-8 polyhedrons. Of paramount importance was the fact that the dissolved ZIF-8 in solution was regenerated upon deprotonation of the ligand under mild alkali conditions, and was reused in the preparation of pATH, thus forming a delicate synthesis cycle. The renewable template conferred cost-effective and sustainable features to the as-synthesized product. As a proof-of-concept application, the fascinating nanoporous structure enabled pATH to load more phosphorous-containing flame retardant and endowed better interaction with epoxy resin over that of commercial aluminum hydroxide. The limiting oxygen index, UL-94 vertical burning test and cone calorimeter test showed that the results of epoxy with the modified pATH rivalled those of epoxy with two times the loading amount of the commercial counterpart, while the former presented better mechanical properties. The proposed "amorphous replica method" used in this work will advance the potential for launching a vast area of research and technology development for the preparation of porous metal hydroxides for use in practical applications.

  8. Magnesium Gluconate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnesium gluconate is used to treat low blood magnesium. Low blood magnesium is caused by gastrointestinal disorders, prolonged vomiting or ... disease, or certain other conditions. Certain drugs lower magnesium levels as well.This medication is sometimes prescribed ...

  9. The influence of the UV irradiation intensity on photocatalytic activity of ZnAl layered double hydroxides and derived mixed oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadnađev-Kostić Milica S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Layered double hydroxides (LDHs have been studied to a great extent as environmental-friendly complex materials that can be used as photocatalysts or photocatalyst supports. ZnAl layered double hydroxides and their derived mixed oxides were chosen for the investigation of photocatalytic performances in correlation with the UV intensities measured in the South Pannonia region. Low supersaturation coprecipitation method was used for the ZnAl LDH synthesis. For the characterization of LDH and thermal treated samples powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, nitrogen adsorption-desorption were used. The decomposition of azodye, methylene blue was chosen as photocatalytic test reaction. The study showed that the ZnAl mixed oxide obtained by thermal decomposition of ZnAl LDH has stable activity in the broader UV light irradiation range characterizing the selected region. Photocatalytic activity could be mainly attributed to the ZnO phase, detected both in LDH and thermally treated samples. The study showed that the ZnAl mixed oxide obtained by the calcination of ZnAl LDH has a stable activity within the measured UV light irradiation range; whereas the parent ZnAl LDH catalyst did not perform satisfactory when low UV irradiation intensity is implied.

  10. Osteogenic potential of human adipose-derived stromal cells on 3-dimensional mesoporous TiO{sub 2} coating with magnesium impregnation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecchinato, Francesca, E-mail: francesca.cecchinato@mah.se [Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö (Sweden); Karlsson, Johan [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Applied Surface Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Ferroni, Letizia; Gardin, Chiara [Department of Histology, Microbiology, and Medical Biotechnologies, University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Galli, Silvia; Wennerberg, Ann [Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö (Sweden); Zavan, Barbara [Department of Histology, Microbiology, and Medical Biotechnologies, University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Andersson, Martin [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Applied Surface Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Jimbo, Ryo [Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö (Sweden); Department of Applied Prosthodontics, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki (Japan)

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteogenic response of human adipose-derived stromal cells (ADScs) to mesoporous titania (TiO{sub 2}) coatings produced with evaporation-induced self-assembly method (EISA) and loaded with magnesium. Our emphasis with the magnesium release functionality was to modulate progenitor cell osteogenic differentiation under standard culture conditions. Osteogenic properties of the coatings were assessed for stromal cells by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging, colorimetric mitochondrial viability assay (MTT), colorimetric alkaline phosphates activity (ALP) assay and real time RT-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Using atomic force microscopy (AFM) it was shown that the surface expansion area (S{sub dr}) was strongly enhanced by the presence of magnesium. From MTT results it was shown that ADSc viability was significantly increased on mesoporous surfaces compared to the non-porous one at a longer cell culture time. However, no differences were observed between the magnesium impregnated and non-impregnated surfaces. The alkaline phosphatase activity confirmed that ADSc started to differentiate into the osteogenic phenotype after 2 weeks of culturing. The gene expression profile at 2 weeks of cell growth showed that such coatings were capable to incorporate specific osteogenic markers inside their interconnected nano-pores and, at 3 weeks, ADSc differentiated into osteoblasts. Interestingly, magnesium significantly promoted the osteopontin gene expression, which is an essential gene for the early biomaterial–cell osteogenic interaction. - Highlights: • The magnesium loading presents a transitory effect on mesoporous TiO{sub 2} surface topography • The mesoporous structure promotes cellular attachment and spreading • The mesoporous structure activates osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells in absence of osteogenic promoters • The physical adsorbed magnesium is suggested to be involved in the expression of

  11. Osteogenic potential of human adipose-derived stromal cells on 3-dimensional mesoporous TiO2 coating with magnesium impregnation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecchinato, Francesca; Karlsson, Johan; Ferroni, Letizia; Gardin, Chiara; Galli, Silvia; Wennerberg, Ann; Zavan, Barbara; Andersson, Martin; Jimbo, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteogenic response of human adipose-derived stromal cells (ADScs) to mesoporous titania (TiO 2 ) coatings produced with evaporation-induced self-assembly method (EISA) and loaded with magnesium. Our emphasis with the magnesium release functionality was to modulate progenitor cell osteogenic differentiation under standard culture conditions. Osteogenic properties of the coatings were assessed for stromal cells by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging, colorimetric mitochondrial viability assay (MTT), colorimetric alkaline phosphates activity (ALP) assay and real time RT-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Using atomic force microscopy (AFM) it was shown that the surface expansion area (S dr ) was strongly enhanced by the presence of magnesium. From MTT results it was shown that ADSc viability was significantly increased on mesoporous surfaces compared to the non-porous one at a longer cell culture time. However, no differences were observed between the magnesium impregnated and non-impregnated surfaces. The alkaline phosphatase activity confirmed that ADSc started to differentiate into the osteogenic phenotype after 2 weeks of culturing. The gene expression profile at 2 weeks of cell growth showed that such coatings were capable to incorporate specific osteogenic markers inside their interconnected nano-pores and, at 3 weeks, ADSc differentiated into osteoblasts. Interestingly, magnesium significantly promoted the osteopontin gene expression, which is an essential gene for the early biomaterial–cell osteogenic interaction. - Highlights: • The magnesium loading presents a transitory effect on mesoporous TiO 2 surface topography • The mesoporous structure promotes cellular attachment and spreading • The mesoporous structure activates osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells in absence of osteogenic promoters • The physical adsorbed magnesium is suggested to be involved in the expression of osteopontin

  12. Thermodynamic anomaly in magnesium hydroxide decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, T.A.

    1983-08-01

    The Origin of the discrepancy in the equilibrium water vapor pressure measurements for the reaction Mg(OH) 2 (s) = MgO(s) + H 2 O(g) when determined by Knudsen effusion and static manometry at the same temperature was investigated. For this reaction undergoing continuous thermal decomposition in Knudsen cells, Kay and Gregory observed that by extrapolating the steady-state apparent equilibrium vapor pressure measurements to zero-orifice, the vapor pressure was approx. 10 -4 of that previously established by Giauque and Archibald as the true thermodynamic equilibrium vapor pressure using statistical mechanical entropy calculations for the entropy of water vapor. This large difference in vapor pressures suggests the possibility of the formation in a Knudsen cell of a higher energy MgO that is thermodynamically metastable by about 48 kJ / mole. It has been shown here that experimental results are qualitatively independent of the type of Mg(OH) 2 used as a starting material, which confirms the inferences of Kay and Gregory. Thus, most forms of Mg(OH) 2 are considered to be the stable thermodynamic equilibrium form. X-ray diffraction results show that during the course of the reaction only the equilibrium NaCl-type MgO is formed, and no different phases result from samples prepared in Knudsen cells. Surface area data indicate that the MgO molar surface area remains constant throughout the course of the reaction at low decomposition temperatures, and no significant annealing occurs at less than 400 0 C. Scanning electron microscope photographs show no change in particle size or particle surface morphology. Solution calorimetric measurements indicate no inherent hgher energy content in the MgO from the solid produced in Knudsen cells. The Knudsen cell vapor pressure discrepancy may reflect the formation of a transient metastable MgO or Mg(OH) 2 -MgO solid solution during continuous thermal decomposition in Knudsen cells

  13. Two-Dimensional Layered Double Hydroxide Derived from Vermiculite Waste Water Supported Highly Dispersed Ni Nanoparticles for CO Methanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Expanded multilayered vermiculite (VMT was successfully used as catalyst support and Ni/VMT synthesized by microwave irradiation assisted synthesis (MIAS exhibited excellent performance in our previous work. We also developed a two-dimensional porous SiO2 nanomesh (2D VMT-SiO2 by mixed-acid etching of VMT. Compared with three-dimensional (3D MCM-41, 2D VMT-SiO2 as a catalyst support provided a superior position for implantation of NiO species and the as-obtained catalyst exhibited excellent performance. In this paper, we successfully synthesized a layered double hydroxide (LDH using the spent liquor after mixed-acid etching of VMT, which mainly contained Mg2+ and Al3+. The as-calcined layered double oxide (LDO was used as a catalyst support for CO methanation. Compared with Ni/MgAl-LDO, Ni/VMT-LDO had smaller active component particles; therefore, in this study, it exhibited excellent catalytic performance over the whole temperature range of 250–500 °C. Ni/VMT-LDO achieved the best activity with 87.88% CO conversion, 89.97% CH4 selectivity, and 12.47 × 10−2·s−1 turn over frequency (TOF at 400 °C under a gas hourly space velocity of 20,000 mL/g/h. This study demonstrated that VMT-LDO as a catalyst support provided an efficient way to develop high-performance catalysts for synthetic natural gas (SNG from syngas.

  14. Magnesium, magnesium alloys, and magnesium composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, M; Sharon, Nai Mui Ling

    2011-01-01

    "Properties of Magnesium Composites for Material Scientists, Engineers and Selectors is the first book-length reference to provide an insight into current and future magnesium-based materials in terms...

  15. Concentration-dependent behaviors of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells and infectious bacteria toward magnesium oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetteland, Cheyann Lee; Nguyen, Nhu-Y Thi; Liu, Huinan

    2016-04-15

    This article reports the quantitative relationship between the concentration of magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles and its distinct biological activities towards mammalian cells and infectious bacteria for the first time. The effects of MgO nanoparticles on the viability of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and infectious bacteria (both gram-negative Escherichia coli and gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis) showed a concentration-dependent behavior in vitro. The critical concentrations of MgO nanoparticles identified in this study provided valuable guidelines for biomaterial design toward potential clinical translation. BMSCs density increased significantly when cultured in 200μg/mL of MgO in comparison to the Cells Only control without MgO. The density of BMSCs decreased significantly after culture in the media with 500μg/mL or more of MgO. Concentrations at or above 1000μg/mL of MgO resulted in complete BMSCs death. Quantification of colony forming units (CFU) revealed that the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of MgO for E. coli and S. epidermidis was 1200μg/mL. The addition of MgO nanoparticles into the cultures increased the pH and Mg(2+) ion concentration in the respective culture media, which might have played a role in the observed cell responses but not the main factors. E. coli and S. epidermidis still proliferated significantly at alkaline pH up to 10 or with supplemental Mg(2+) dosages up to 50mM, indicating bactericidal properties of MgO are beyond the effects of increased media pH and Mg(2+) ion concentrations. MgO nanoparticles at a concentration of 200μg/mL provided dual benefits of promoting BMSC proliferation while reducing bacterial adhesion, which should be further studied for potential medical implant applications. The use of free MgO nanoparticles yielded detrimental effects to BMSCs in concentrations above 300μg/mL. We recommend further study into MgO nanoparticle as a coating material or as a part of a

  16. Controlling the degradation rate of AZ91 magnesium alloy via sol–gel derived nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojaee, Ramin, E-mail: raminrojaee@aim.com [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fathi, Mohammadhossein [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dental Materials Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Raeissi, Keyvan [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys have been introduced as new generation of biodegradable orthopedic materials in recent years since it has been proved that Mg is one of the main minerals required for osseous tissue revival. The main goal of the present study was to establish a desired harmony between the necessities of orthopedic patient body to Mg{sup 2+} ions and degradation rate of the Mg based implants as a new class of biodegradable/bioresorbable materials. This prospect was followed by providing a sol–gel derived nanostructured hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) coating on AZ91 alloy using dip coating technique. Phase structural analysis, morphology study, microstructure characterization, and functional group identification were performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The prepared samples were immersed in simulated body fluid in order to study the formation of apatite-like precipitations, barricade properties of the n-HAp coating, and to estimate the dosage of released Mg{sup 2+} ions within a specified and limited time of implantation. Electrochemical polarization tests were carried out to evaluate and compare the corrosion behavior of the n-HAp coated and uncoated samples. The changes of the in vitro pH values were also evaluated. Results posed the noticeable capability of n-HAp coating on stabilizing alkalization behavior and improving the corrosion resistance of AZ91 alloy. It was concluded that n-HAp coated AZ91 alloy could be a good candidate as a type of biodegradable implant material for biomedical applications. - Highlights: • Nanostructured hydroxyapatite coatings were applied on Mg based alloy. • The whole corrosion process of Mg based alloy was controlled in body fluid. • This coating was able to act as a barrier against further release of Mg{sup 2+} ions. • The coating improved the stabilization of Mg alkalization behavior.

  17. Controlling the degradation rate of AZ91 magnesium alloy via sol–gel derived nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojaee, Ramin; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Raeissi, Keyvan

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys have been introduced as new generation of biodegradable orthopedic materials in recent years since it has been proved that Mg is one of the main minerals required for osseous tissue revival. The main goal of the present study was to establish a desired harmony between the necessities of orthopedic patient body to Mg 2+ ions and degradation rate of the Mg based implants as a new class of biodegradable/bioresorbable materials. This prospect was followed by providing a sol–gel derived nanostructured hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) coating on AZ91 alloy using dip coating technique. Phase structural analysis, morphology study, microstructure characterization, and functional group identification were performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The prepared samples were immersed in simulated body fluid in order to study the formation of apatite-like precipitations, barricade properties of the n-HAp coating, and to estimate the dosage of released Mg 2+ ions within a specified and limited time of implantation. Electrochemical polarization tests were carried out to evaluate and compare the corrosion behavior of the n-HAp coated and uncoated samples. The changes of the in vitro pH values were also evaluated. Results posed the noticeable capability of n-HAp coating on stabilizing alkalization behavior and improving the corrosion resistance of AZ91 alloy. It was concluded that n-HAp coated AZ91 alloy could be a good candidate as a type of biodegradable implant material for biomedical applications. - Highlights: • Nanostructured hydroxyapatite coatings were applied on Mg based alloy. • The whole corrosion process of Mg based alloy was controlled in body fluid. • This coating was able to act as a barrier against further release of Mg 2+ ions. • The coating improved the stabilization of Mg alkalization behavior

  18. Radiation induced topotactic [2 + 2] dimerisation of acrylate derivatives among the layers of a CaFe layered double hydroxide followed by IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srankó, D. F.; Canton, S.; Enghdahl, A.; Muráth, Sz.; Kukovecz, Á.; Kónya, Z.; Sipiczki, M.; Sipos, P.; Pálinkó, I.

    2013-07-01

    Various acrylates [E-phenylpropenoate, E-3(4‧-nitrophenyl)propenoate, E-3(2‧,5‧-difluorphenyl)propenoate, E-3(2‧-thienyl)propenoate, E-3(4‧-imidazolyl)propenoate or E-2,3-dimethylpropenoate] were successfully intercalated into Ca(II)Fe(III) layered double hydroxide (CaFe-LDH) verified by a range of instrumental methods. The possible arrangements for the organic anions were suggested on the basis of basal spacing data, layer thickness and the dimensions of the quantum chemically optimised structures of the acrylate ions. Using the acrylate-CaFe-LDHs as reactant-filled nanoreactors, photoinitiated topotactic [2 + 2] cyclisation reactions followed by IR spectroscopy could be performed with many representatives [E-phenylpropenoate-, E-3(4‧-nitrophenyl)propenoate-, E-3(2‧,5‧-difluorphenyl)propenoate- or E-3(2‧-thienyl)propenoate-CaFe-LDHs] resulting in cyclobutane derivatives within the layers of the host material indicating that there were domains where the intercalated anions were in close proximity to each other and in proper arrangement for the reaction to occur.

  19. Magnesium Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnesium is an element your body needs to function normally. Magnesium oxide may be used for different reasons. Some people use it as ... one to four times daily depending on which brand is used and what condition you have. Follow ...

  20. Magnesium-phosphate-glass cements with ceramic-type properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1982-09-23

    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate, exhibits rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono- and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  1. Magnesium phosphate glass cements with ceramic-type properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi; Kukacka, Lawrence E.

    1984-03-13

    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate exhibiting rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono- and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of mixed oxides derived from ZnAlTi ternary layered double hydroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, R. K.; Mohanta, B. S.; Das, N. N.

    2013-09-01

    A new series of Ti4+ containing ZnAl-LDHs with varying Zn:Al:Ti (~3:1:0-3:0.5:0.5) ratio were prepared by coprecipitation of homogeneous solution metal salts and characterized by various physicochemical methods. Powder XRD revealed the formation of well crystallized LDH even at the highest Ti4+ content. On thermal treatment at 450 °C, the well crystallized LDH precursors yielded mixed oxides with BET surface area in the range 92-118 m2/g. UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS) showed a marginal decrease of band gap energy for calcined ZnAlTi-LDHs in comparison to either ZnO or TiO2-P25. The TEM analyses of a representative sample (as-synthesized and calcined) indicated more or less uniform distribution of titanium species. The derived mixed oxides from titanium containing LDH precursors demonstrated better activity toward photodegradation of methylene blue and rhodamine B than those of a physical mixture of ZnO and TiO2. Moreover, the present work not only provided a first hand understanding about semiconductor properties of ZnAlTi-LDHs but also demonstrated their potential as photocatalysts for degradation of organic pollutants.

  3. Application of l-ascorbic acid and its derivatives (sodium ascorbyl phosphate and magnesium ascorbyl phosphate) in topical cosmetic formulations: stability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smaoui, S.; Hilima, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to formulate and subsequently evaluate a topical skin-care cream (o/w emulsion) from l-ascorbic acid and its derivatives (sodium ascorbyl phosphate and magnesium ascorbyl phosphate) at 2% versus its vehicle (Control). Formulations were developed by entrapping it in the oily phase of o/w emulsion and were stored at 8 degree C, 25 degree C and 40 degree C (in incubator) for a period of four weeks to investigate their stability. In the physical analysis, the evaluation parameters consisted of color, smell, phase separation, centrifugation, and liquefaction. Chemical stability of both derivatives was established by HPLC analysis. In the chemical analysis, the formulation with sodium ascorbyl phosphate was more stable than those with magnesium ascorbyl phosphate and l-ascorbic acid. The microbiological stability of the formulations was also evaluated. The findings indicated that the formulations with l-ascorbic acid and its derivatives were efficient against the proliferation of various spoilage microorganisms, including aerobic plate counts as well as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and yeast and mold counts. The results presented in this work showed good stability throughout the experimental period. Newly formulated emulsion proved to exhibit a number of promising properties and attributes that might open new opportunities for the construction of more efficient, safe, and cost-effective skin-care, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical products. (author)

  4. EFFECTS OF MAGNESIUM PEMOLINE UPON HUMAN LEARNING, MEMORY, AND PERFORMANCE TESTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SMITH, RONALD G.

    THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED DURING 1966 TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTS OF MAGNESIUM PEMOLINE (A COMBINATION OF 2-IMINO-5-PHENYL-4-OXAZOLIDINONE AND MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE) ON A VARIETY OF HUMAN LEARNING, MEMORY, AND PERFORMANCE TASKS. MAGNESIUM PEMOLINE (25 OR 37.5 MG) OR A PLACEBO WAS ADMINISTERED ORALLY ON A DOUBLE-BLIND BASIS TO INTELLIGENCE-MATCHED GROUPS…

  5. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  6. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  7. Investigation of magnesium oxychloride cement at the initial hardening stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Averina Galina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the process of variation of magnesium oxychloride cement deformations at the initial hardening stage depending on the activity of magnesium oxide powder which is determined by the parameters of the source material burning. Investigation is focused on magnesium cements obtained from pure magnesium hydroxide. Source materials were burnt at various temperatures with the purpose to obtain magnesium oxide powder with different activity. Regular content of hydrated phases was determined in hardened magnesium cement prepared on the basis of binders with different activity. The study reveals the influence of magnesium oxide powder activity on the process of deformation occurrence in hardened magnesium cement and its tendency to crack formation.

  8. Magnesium, magnesium alloys, and magnesium composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, M; Sharon, Nai Mui Ling

    2011-01-01

    .... With the popularity of magnesium-based materials in the automotive, aerospace, electronics, and sports equipment industries, and its unique role as a lightweight, energy-saving and high-performance...

  9. Magnesium, magnesium alloys, and magnesium composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, M; Sharon, Nai Mui Ling

    2011-01-01

    ... of science, characteristics, and applications. It emphasizes the properties of magnesium-based composites and the effects of different types of reinforcements, from micron length to nanometer scale, on the properties of the resulting composites...

  10. Determination of calcium and magnesium in nuclear grade alumina by ion chromatography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hespanhol, E.C.B.; Pires, M.A.F.; Atalla, L.T.

    1987-07-01

    A simple method for solubilization of alumina and separation of magnesium and calcium from alumina matrix was developed by initial coprecipitation of those elements with iron(III) hydroxide. Calcium and magnesium were later separated from iron chloride anionic complex in a Dowex 1-X 10 anionic exchange resin. The ion chromatography tecnnique was employed for the analysis of calcium and magnesium. One hundred percent recovery for calcium and magnesium was obtained in their separation from alumina. A precision of 6% and 10% for magnesium and calcium, respectively, was obtained in alumina samples analysis which contain less than 0,02% of magnesium and less than 0,08% of calcium. (Author) [pt

  11. Impurity characterization of magnesium diuranate using simultaneous TG–DTA–FTIR measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raje, Naina, E-mail: nraje@barc.gov.in [Analytical Chemistry Division, B.A.R.C., Mumbai 400 085 (India); Ghonge, Darshana K. [Analytical Chemistry Division, B.A.R.C., Mumbai 400 085 (India); Hemantha Rao, G.V.S. [NFC, ECIL Post, Hyderabad (India); Reddy, A.V.R. [Analytical Chemistry Division, B.A.R.C., Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2013-05-15

    Current studies describe the application of simultaneous thermogravimetry–differential thermal analysis – evolved gas analysis techniques for the compositional characterization of magnesium diuranate (MDU) with respect to the impurities present in the matrix. The stoichiometric composition of MDU was identified as MgU{sub 2}O{sub 7}⋅3H{sub 2}O. Presence of carbonate and sulphate as impurities in the matrix was confirmed through the evolved gas analysis using Fourier Transformation Infrared Spectrometry detection. Carbon and magnesium hydroxide content present as impurities in magnesium diuranate have been determined quantitatively using TG and FTIR techniques and the results are in good agreement. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis of magnesium diuranate suggests the presence of magnesium hydroxide as impurity in the matrix. Also these studies confirm the formation of magnesium uranate, uranium sesquioxide and uranium dioxide above 1000 °C, due to the decomposition of magnesium diuranate.

  12. Thermal formation of corundum from aluminium hydroxides ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aluminium hydroxides have been precipitated from various aluminium salts and the differences in their thermal behaviour have been investigated. Pseudoboehmite derived from the nitrate, sulfate and chloride all form -Al2O3 at ∼ 400°C but the formation of -Al2O3 at 1200°C occurs more readily in the material derived ...

  13. Structural and surface properties of highly ordered mesoporous magnesium-aluminium composite oxides derived from facile synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Dahai, E-mail: pandahai@foxmail.com; Dong, Zhaoyang; He, Min; Chen, Wei; Chen, Shuwei; Yu, Feng; Fan, Binbin; Cui, Xingyu; Li, Ruifeng, E-mail: rfli@tyut.edu.cn

    2017-01-15

    Highly ordered mesoporous magnesium-aluminium composite oxides (denoted as OMMA-x) with a variety of n{sub Al}/n{sub Mg} ratios have been successfully synthesized via a facile strategy, and a salt effect was proposed to explain the formation mechanism. The incorporation of Mg can significantly improve the structural and surface properties of ordered mesoporous alumina (OMA) material. The resultant OMMA-x exhibited a much more ordered 2-D hexagonal mesostructure, a narrower pore size distribution, a higher specific surface area and pore volume, and a stronger basicity than those of OMA. More importantly, the highly homogeneous incorporation of Mg at the atomic level and the formation of framework Mg−O−Al bonds could effectively suppress the formation of crystalline alumina during the calcination process. As a result, OMMA-x demonstrated a superior thermal stability. For example, the ordered mesostructure of OMMA-8 could be well maintained with a high surface area of 182 m{sup 2}/g even after thermal treatment at 1000 °C. - Graphical abstract: A schematic procedure to illustrate the preparation of highly ordered mesoporous Mg-Al composite oxides (OMMA-x) with highly homogeneously dispersed Mg species and enhanced structural stability. - Highlights: • Mesoporous Mg-Al composite oxides with excellent structural and surface properties. • A highly homogeneous incorporation of Mg into the mesoporous framework of alumina. • A superior structural stability up to 1000 °C coupled with a large surface area. • A salt effect from the addition of Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O to explain the formation mechanism.

  14. CO2 fixation using magnesium silicate minerals part 1: Process description and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagerlund, Johan; Nduagu, Experience; Romão, Inês; Zevenhoven, Ron

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a staged carbonation process for magnesium silicate mineral carbonation. This carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) alternative involves the production of magnesium hydroxide, followed by its carbonation in a pressurised fluidised bed (PFB) reactor. The goal is to utilise the heat of the carbonation reaction to drive the Mg(OH) 2 production step. The results show that Mg(OH) 2 can be produced successfully (up to 78% Mg extraction extent achieved so far) and efficiently from different serpentinite minerals from locations worldwide (Finland, Lithuania, Australia, Portugal…). From the extraction step, ammonium sulphate is recovered while iron oxides (from the mineral) are obtained as by-products. The carbonation step, while still being developed, resulted in >50%-wt conversion in 10 min (500 °C, 20 bar) for > 300 μm serpentinite-derived Mg(OH) 2 particles. Thus the reaction rate achieved so far is much faster than what is currently being considered fast in the field of mineral carbonation. -- Highlights: ► Magnesium silicate-based rock can sequester CO 2 as stable magnesium carbonate. ► Abundance of rock material offers a larger capacity than other CCS methods. ► Mg(OH) 2 production is followed by its carbonation in a pressurised fluidised bed. ► Carbonation reaches >50% in around 10 min for >0.3 mm particles. ► Mg(OH) 2 produced from different rock material show the same performance.

  15. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 5, A laboratory greenhouse study conducted in fulfillment of Phase 2, Objective 2 titled. Use of FGD by-product gypsum enriched with magnesium hydroxide as a soil amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yibirin, H. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States); Stehouwer, R. C. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States); Bigham, J. M. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States); Soto, U. I. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States)

    1997-01-31

    The Clean Air Act, as revised in 1992, has spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies that have resulted in large volumes of wet scrubber sludges. In general, these sludges must be dewatered, chemically treated, and disposed of in landfills. Disposal is an expensive and environmentally questionable process for which suitable alternatives must be found. Wet scrubbing with magnesium (Mg)-enhanced lime has emerged as an efficient, cost effective technology for SO2 removal. When combined with an appropriate oxidation system, the wet scrubber sludge can be used to produce gypsum (CaSO4-2H2O) and magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] of sufficient purity for beneficial re-use. Product value generally increases with purity of the by-product(s). The pilot plant at the CINERGY Zimmer Station near Cincinnati produces gypsum by products that can be formulated to contain varying amounts of Mg(OH)2. Such materials may have agricultural value as soil conditioners, liming agents and sources of plant nutrients (Ca, Mg, S). This report describes a greenhouse study designed to evaluate by-product gypsum and Mg gypsum from the Zimmer Station pilot plant as amendments for improving the quality of agricultural soils and mine spoils that are currently unproductive because of phytotoxic conditions related to acidity and high levels of toxic dissolved aluminum (Al). In particular, the technical literature contains evidence to suggest that gypsum may be more effective than agricultural limestone in modifying soil chemical conditions below the immediate zone of application. Representative samples of by-product gypsum and Mg(OH)2 from the Zimmer Station were initially characterized. The gypsum was of high chemical purity and consisted of well crystalline, lath-shaped particles of low specific surface area. By contrast, the by-product Mg(OH)2 was a high surface area material (50 m2 g

  16. Sodium Hydroxide and Calcium Hydroxide Hybrid Oxygen Bleaching with System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doelle, K.; Bajrami, B.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the replacement of sodium hydroxide in the oxygen bleaching stage using a hybrid system consisting of sodium hydroxide calcium hydroxide. Commercial Kraft pulping was studied using yellow pine Kraft pulp obtained from a company in the US. The impact of sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide hybrid system in regard to concentration, reaction time and temperature for Kraft pulp was evaluated. The sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide dosage was varied between 0% and 15% based on oven dry fiber content. The bleaching reaction time was varied between 0 and 180 minutes whereas the bleaching temperature ranged between 70 °C and 110 °C. The ability to bleach pulp was measured by determining the Kappa number. Optimum bleaching results for the hybrid system were achieved with 4% sodium hydroxide and 2% calcium hydroxide content. Beyond this, the ability to bleach pulp decreased.

  17. The effect of magnesium on partial sulphate removal from mine water as gypsum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Emma-Tuulia; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2015-08-15

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of magnesium on the removal efficiency of sulphate as gypsum from mine water. The precipitation conditions were simulated with MINEQL + software and the simulation results were compared with the results from laboratory jar test experiments. Both the simulation and the laboratory results showed that magnesium in the mine water was maintaining sulphate in a soluble form as magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) at pH 9.6. Thus magnesium was preventing the removal of sulphate as gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O). However, change in the lime precipitation pH from 9.6 to 12.5 resulted in magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) precipitation and improved sulphate removal. Additionally, magnesium hydroxide could act as seed crystals for gypsum precipitation or co-precipitate sulphate further enhancing the removal of sulphate from mine water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of β-saturated pyrrolic rings on the electronic structures and aromaticity of magnesium porphyrin derivatives: a density functional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Liang; Qi, Dongdong; Zhang, Yuexing

    2011-09-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculation on the molecular structures, molecular orbitals, electronic absorption spectra, and magnetic properties of magnesium porphyrin (MgPor) and a series of five hydrogenated magnesium porphyrin complexes with different number of β-saturated pyrrolic rings, namely MgPor-β-1Hy, MgPor-β-opp-2Hy, MgPor-β-adj-2Hy, MgPor-β-3Hy, and MgPor-β-4Hy, clarifies the red-shift of the lowest energy absorption band from chlorophyll a to bacteriochlorophyll and reveals the strong chemical stability for both of them. The energy levels of highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMO) and HOMO-1 for MgPor are reversed upon hydrogenation at β-positions (2 and 3, 7 and 8, 12 and 13, and 17 and 18) of porphyrin ring. Along with the increase of β-saturated pyrrolic rings from 1, 2, 3, to 4, the HOMO energy increases from -4.78 eV to -3.10 eV in a regular manner. In contrast, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMO) energy levels of MgPor, MgPor-β-1Hy, and MgPor-β-opp-2Hy are very similar with each other. As a result, the lowest energy absorption band involving main transition from HOMO to LUMO is red-shifted from MgPor-β-1Hy to MgPor-β-opp-2Hy which is representative of chlorophyll a and bacteriochlorophyll, respectively. Natural hydroporphyrins represented by MgPor, MgPor-β-1Hy, and MgPor-β-opp-2Hy have turned out to be aromatic and stable enough, in good accordance with the ubiquity of their derivatives in the nature. In contrast, MgPor-β-adj-2Hy, MgPor-β-3Hy, and MgPor-β-4Hy with relatively weak aromaticity seem to be unstable and therefore were not found in nature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Multifunctional organic–inorganic hybrid nanoparticles and nanosheets based on chitosan derivative and layered double hydroxide: cellular uptake mechanism and application for topical ocular drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Huibo; Gu, Yan; Xu, Tingting; Cao, Feng

    2017-01-01

    To study the cellular uptake mechanism of multifunctional organic–inorganic hybrid nanoparticles and nanosheets, new chitosan–glutathione–valine–valine-layered double hydroxide (CG-VV-LDH) nanosheets with active targeting to peptide transporter-1 (PepT-1) were prepared, characterized and further compared with CG-VV-LDH nanoparticles. Both organic–inorganic hybrid nanoparticles and nanosheets showed a sustained release in vitro and prolonged precorneal retention time in vivo, but CG-VV-LDH nanoparticles showed superior permeability in the isolated cornea of rabbits than CG-VV-LDH nanosheets. Furthermore, results of cellular uptake on human corneal epithelial primary cells (HCEpiC) and retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells indicated that both clathrin-mediated endocytosis and active transport of PepT-1 are involved in the internalization of CG-VV-LDH nanoparticles and CG-VV-LDH nanosheets. In summary, the CG-VV-LDH nanoparticle may be a promising carrier as a topical ocular drug delivery system for the treatment of ocular diseases of mid-posterior segments, while the CG-VV-LDH nanosheet may be suitable for the treatment of ocular surface diseases. PMID:28280329

  20. Ni/Fe and Mg/Fe layered double hydroxides and their calcined derivatives: preparation, characterization and application on textile dyes removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Elmoubarki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Mg/Fe and Ni/Fe layered double hydroxides (LDHs with molar ratio (M2+/Fe3+ of 3 and intercalated with carbonate ions were synthesized by co-precipitation method. The as-synthesized materials and their calcined products (CLDHs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TGA–DTA, transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDX, inductively coupled plasma (ICP and elemental chemical analysis CHNSO. The materials were used as adsorbents for the removal availability of textile dyes from aqueous solution. Methylene blue (MB and malachite green (MG, representative of cationic dyes, and methyl orange (MO representative of anionic dyes were used as model molecules. Adsorption experiments were carried out under different parameters such as contact time, temperature, initial dyes concentration and solution pH. Experimental results indicate that CLDHs had much higher adsorption capacities compared to LDHs. Adsorption kinetic data fitted well the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The process was spontaneous, endothermic for cationic dyes and exothermic for the anionic dye. Equilibrium sorption data fitted the Langmuir model instead of Freundlich model.

  1. Thermal formation of corundum from aluminium hydroxides ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Aluminium hydroxides have been precipitated from various aluminium salts and the differences in their thermal behaviour have been investigated. Pseudoboehmite derived from the nitrate, sulfate and chloride all form γ-Al2O3 at ~ 400°C but the formation of α-Al2O3 at 1200°C occurs more readily in the material ...

  2. Interaction of natural borates with potassium hydroxide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarova, L.A.; Vinogradov, E.E.; Kudinov, I.B.; Panasyuk, G.P.; Danilov, V.P.

    2000-01-01

    Interaction of natural borates - inyoite, ulexite and hydroboracite MgCa[B 3 O 4 (OH) 3 ] 2 ·3H 2 O with KOH solution is studied at 50 Deg C by the methods of chemical, x- ray phase, differential thermal analyses and IR spectroscopy. IR spectra points out on island character of forming borates and confirms the data of x-ray phase and chemical analyses about presence of asharite and calcium hydrous borate in resulting products. Hydroboracite (chain structure) under the action of potassium hydroxide passes into borates of magnesium and calcium with island structure and in this case boron transforms partially into liquid phase. When potassium hydroxide interacts with inyoite and ulexite calcium hydroxide and roentgenoamorphous boron-containing product precipitate [ru

  3. Towards deriving Ni-rich cathode and oxide-based anode materials from hydroxides by sharing a facile co-precipitation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Haifa; Du, Tengfei; Wu, Junfeng; Wang, Yonglong; Liu, Jian; Ye, Shihai; Liu, Sheng

    2018-05-22

    Although intensive studies have been conducted on layered transition metal oxide(TMO)-based cathode materials and metal oxide-based anode materials for Li-ion batteries, their precursors generally follow different or even complex synthesis routes. To share one route for preparing precursors of the cathode and anode materials, herein, we demonstrate a facile co-precipitation method to fabricate Ni-rich hydroxide precursors of Ni0.8Co0.1Mn0.1(OH)2. Ni-rich layered oxide of LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 is obtained by lithiation of the precursor in air. An NiO-based anode material is prepared by calcining the precursor or multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) incorporated precursors. The pre-addition of ammonia solution can simplify the co-precipitation procedures and the use of an air atmosphere can also make the heat treatment facile. LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 as the cathode material delivers a reversible capacity of 194 mA h g-1 at 40 mA g-1 and a notable cycling retention of 88.8% after 100 cycles at 200 mA g-1. This noticeable performance of the cathode arises from a decent particle morphology and high crystallinity of the layered oxides. As the anode material, the MWCNTs-incorporated oxides deliver a much higher reversible capacity of 811.1 mA h g-1 after 200 cycles compared to the pristine oxides without MWCNTs. The improvement on electrochemical performance can be attributed to synergistic effects from MWCNTs incorporation, including reinforced electronic conductivity, rich meso-pores and an alleviated volume effect. This facile and sharing method may offer an integrated and economical approach for commercial production of Ni-rich electrode materials for Li-ion batteries.

  4. Multifunctional organic–inorganic hybrid nanoparticles and nanosheets based on chitosan derivative and layered double hydroxide: cellular uptake mechanism and application for topical ocular drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi H

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Huibo Chi,1,2,* Yan Gu,1,* Tingting Xu,1 Feng Cao1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 2State Key Laboratory of Drug Delivery Technology and Pharmacokinetics, Tianjin Institute of Pharmaceutical Research Co., Ltd., Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: To study the cellular uptake mechanism of multifunctional organic–inorganic hybrid nanoparticles and nanosheets, new chitosan–glutathione–valine–valine-layered double hydroxide (CG-VV-LDH nanosheets with active targeting to peptide transporter-1 (PepT-1 were prepared, characterized and further compared with CG-VV-LDH nanoparticles. Both organic–inorganic hybrid nanoparticles and nanosheets showed a sustained release in vitro and prolonged precorneal retention time in vivo, but CG-VV-LDH nanoparticles showed superior permeability in the isolated cornea of rabbits than CG-VV-LDH nanosheets. Furthermore, results of cellular uptake on human corneal epithelial primary cells (HCEpiC and retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19 cells indicated that both clathrin-mediated endocytosis and active transport of PepT-1 are involved in the internalization of CG-VV-LDH nanoparticles and CG-VV-LDH nanosheets. In summary, the CG-VV-LDH nanoparticle may be a promising carrier as a topical ocular drug delivery system for the treatment of ocular diseases of mid-posterior segments, while the CG-VV-LDH nanosheet may be suitable for the treatment of ocular surface diseases. Keywords: LDH nanoparticles, LDH nanosheets, ocular drug delivery, human corneal epithelial primary cell, retinal pigment cell, ARPE-19, active targeting

  5. Low magnesium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low magnesium level is a condition in which the amount of magnesium in the blood is lower than normal. The medical ... that convert or use energy ( metabolism ). When the level of magnesium in the body drops below normal, ...

  6. Luminescent materials based on Tb, Eu-containing layered double hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravleva, N.G.; Eliseev, A.A.; Lukashin, A.V.; Kinast, U.; Tret'yakov, Yu.D.

    2004-01-01

    Luminescent materials on the basis of magnesium-aluminium layered double hydroxides with intercalated anionic complexes of terbium and europium picolinates were synthesized. Relying on data of spectroscopy, elementary and X-ray phase analyses, the change in the rare earth complex structure and metal/ligand ratio, depending on the hydroxide layer charge, determined by Mg/Al ratio in the double hydroxide, were ascertained. The values of quantum yields of luminescence for terbium-containing samples amounted to 30-50% [ru

  7. Imparting passivity to vapor deposited magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Ryan C.

    electron microscope. The corrosion rate of the nonequilibrium sputtered alloys, as determined by polarization resistance, is significantly reduced compared to the most corrosion resistant commercial magnesium alloys. The open circuit potentials of the sputter deposited alloys are significantly more noble compared to commercial, equilibrium phase magnesium alloys. Galvanic corrosion susceptibility has also been considerably reduced. Nonequilibrium magnesium-yttrium-titanium alloys have been shown to achieve passivity autonomously by alteration of the composition chemistry of the surface oxide/hydroxide layer. Self-healing properties are also evident, as corrosion propagation can be arrested after initial pitting of the material. A clear relationship exists between the corrosion resistance of sputter vapor deposited magnesium alloys and the amount of ion bombardment incurred by the alloy during deposition. Argon pressure, the distance between the source and the substrate, and alloy morphology play important roles in determining the ability of the alloy to develop a passive film. Thermal effects, both during and after alloy deposition, alter the stress state of the alloys, precipitation of second phases, and the mechanical stability of the passive film. An optimal thermal treatment has been developed in order to maximize the corrosion resistance of the magnesium-yttrium-titanium alloys. The significance of the results includes the acquisition of electrochemical data for these novel materials, as well as expanding the utilization of magnesium alloys by the improvement in their corrosion resistance. The magnesium alloys developed in this work are more corrosion resistant than any commercial magnesium alloy. Structural components comprised of these alloys would therefore exhibit unprecedented corrosion performance. Coatings of these alloys on magnesium components would provide a corrosion resistant yet galvanically-compatible coating. The broad impact of these contributions is

  8. On reactions of polymerization of p-element hydroxides in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikavyj, V.F.; Lesnikovich, A.I.

    1978-01-01

    The tendency of p-element hydroxides towards polymerization in aqueous solutions has been considered with respect to their location in the Periodic Table. Stable hydroxides of d-elements are practically all polymerized; among s-elements only berillium and magnesium hydroxides polymerize as the least dissociated ones. Hydroxides of the elements located to the right of the 4 Group and above the 5-th Period do not polymerize in aqueous solutions. The structure and tendency towards polymerization of In, Te, and I compounds have been studied. The tendency to polymerization of all hydroxides of p-elements located below the 4-th Period is explained from the standpoint of electron structure and the simplest thermodynamic analysis (entropy, enthalpy)

  9. Layered double hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López Rayo, Sandra; Imran, Ahmad; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2017-01-01

    A novel zinc (Zn) fertilizer concept based on Zn doped layered double hydroxides (Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs) has been investigated. Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs were synthetized, their chemical composition was analyzed and their nutrient release was studied in buffered solutions with different pH values. Uptake...

  10. Magnesium for Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Allan Schrøder; Kjøller, John; Larsen, B.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the hydrogenation characteristics of fine magnesium powder during repeated cycling has been performed using a high-pressure microbalance facility. No effect was found from the cycling regarding kinetics and storage capacity. The reaction rate of the absorption process was fast...... at temperatures around 600 K and above, but the reversed reaction showed somewhat slower kinetics around 600 K. At higher temperatures the opposite was found. The enthalpy and entropy change by the hydrogenation, derived from pressure-concentration isotherms, agree fairly well with those reported earlier....

  11. Porous layered double hydroxides synthesized using oxygen generated by decomposition of hydrogen peroxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez Rodriguez, P.; de Ruiter, M.P.; Wijnands, Tom; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2017-01-01

    Porous magnesium-aluminium layered double hydroxides (LDH) were prepared through intercalation and decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This process generates oxygen gas nano-bubbles that pierce holes in the layered structure of the material by local pressure build-up. The decomposition of the

  12. Nickel hydroxide electrode. 3: Thermogravimetric investigations of nickel (II) hydroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennstedt, W.; Loeser, W.

    1982-01-01

    Water contained in Ni hydroxide influences its electrochemical reactivity. The water content of alpha and beta Ni hydroxides is different with respect to the amount and bond strength. Thermogravimetric experiments show that the water of the beta Ni hydroxides exceeding the stoichiometric composition is completely removed at 160 deg. The water contained in the interlayers of the beta hydroxide, however, is removed only at higher temperatures, together with the water originating from the decomposition of the hydroxide. These differences are attributed to the formation of II bonds within the interlayers and between interlayers and adjacent main layers. An attempt is made to explain the relations between water content and the oxidizability of the Ni hydroxides.

  13. Oxide films on magnesium and magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, T.-S.; Liu, J.-B.; Wei, P.-S.

    2007-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are very active and readily ignite during heating and melting. In this study, we discuss the combustion of magnesium and magnesium alloys and propose prospective anti-ignition mechanisms for magnesium alloys during the heating process. When magnesium and magnesium alloys were heated in air, the sample surfaces produced layers of thermally formed oxides. These thermally formed oxides played an important role in affecting the combustion of the magnesium and magnesium alloys. When magnesium was heated in air, brucite that formed in the early stage was then transformed into periclase by dehydroxylation. By extending the heating time, more periclase formed and increased in thickness which was associated with microcracks formation. When magnesium was heated in a protective atmosphere (SF 6 ), a film of MgF 2 formed at the interface between the oxide layer and the Mg substrate. This film generated an anti-ignition behavior which protected the substrate from oxidation. When solution-treated AZ80 alloy was heated, spinel developed at the interface between the thermally formed oxide layer and the Mg substrate, improving the anti-ignition properties of the substrate. In addition, we also explain the effects of beryllium in an AZB91 alloy on the ignition-proofing behavior

  14. Layered double hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López Rayo, Sandra; Imran, Ahmad; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2017-01-01

    A novel zinc (Zn) fertilizer concept based on Zn doped layered double hydroxides (Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs) has been investigated. Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs were synthetized, their chemical composition was analyzed and their nutrient release was studied in buffered solutions with different pH values. Uptake...... equation showing maximum release at pH 5.2, reaching approximately 45% of the total Zn content. The Zn concentrations in the plants receiving the LDHs were between 2- and 9.5-fold higher than those in plants without Zn addition. A positive effect of the LDHs was also found in soil. This work documents...

  15. Magnesium oxychloride cement concrete

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    exposure to water and salt attack by replacing 10% magnesium chloride solution by magnesium sulphate solution ... Having tremendous load bearing capacity, it can withstand .... retention coefficients for similar concrete compositions.

  16. Calcium and magnesium determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    The roles of calcium and magnesium in human health and disease have been extensively studied. Calcium and magnesium have been determined in biological specimens by atomic absorption spectroscopy using stiochiometric nitrous oxide-acetylene flame

  17. Choline Magnesium Trisalicylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choline magnesium trisalicylate is used to relieve the pain, tenderness, inflammation (swelling), and stiffness caused by arthritis and painful ... used to relieve pain and lower fever. Choline magnesium trisalicylate is in a class of nonsteroidal anti- ...

  18. Standard test method for laboratory evaluation of magnesium sacrificial anode test specimens for underground applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a laboratory procedure that measures the two fundamental performance properties of magnesium sacrificial anode test specimens operating in a saturated calcium sulfate, saturated magnesium hydroxide environment. The two fundamental properties are electrode (oxidation potential) and ampere hours (Ah) obtained per unit mass of specimen consumed. Magnesium anodes installed underground are usually surrounded by a backfill material that typically consists of 75 % gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O), 20 % bentonite clay, and 5 % sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). The calcium sulfate, magnesium hydroxide test electrolyte simulates the long term environment around an anode installed in the gypsum-bentonite-sodium sulfate backfill. 1.2 This test method is intended to be used for quality assurance by anode manufacturers or anode users. However, long term field performance properties may not be identical to property measurements obtained using this laboratory test. Note 1—Refer to Terminology G 15 for terms used ...

  19. Magnesium and Space Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M. Smith

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD before, during, and after 4–6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female, 35 ± 7 years old. We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4–6-month space missions.

  20. Magnesium and Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4–6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4–6-month space missions. PMID:26670248

  1. Determination of Magnesium in Needle Biopsy Samples of Muscle Tissue by Means of Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D; Sjoeberg, H E

    1964-07-15

    Magnesium has been determined by means of neutron-activation analysis in needle biopsy samples of the order of magnitude 1 mg dry weight. The procedure applied was to extract the Mg-27 activity from irradiated muscle tissue with concentrated hydrochloric acid followed by a fast hydroxide precipitation and gamma-spectrometric measurements. The Mg activity was recovered in the muscle tissue samples to (97 {+-} 2) per cent. The sensitivity for the magnesium determination is estimated as 0.3 {mu}g.

  2. The effectiveness of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) on the impurities removal of saturated salt solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujiastuti, C.; Ngatilah, Y.; Sumada, K.; Muljani, S.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing the quality of salt can be done through various methods such as washing (hydro-extraction), re-crystallization, ion exchange methods and others. In the process of salt quality improvement by re-crystallization method where salt product diluted with water to form saturated solution and re-crystallized through heating process. The quality of the salt produced is influenced by the quality of the dissolved salt and the crystallization mechanism applied. In this research is proposed a concept that before the saturated salt solution is recrystallized added a chemical for removal of the impurities such as magnesium ion (Mg), calcium (Ca), potassium (K) and sulfate (SO4) is contained in a saturated salt solution. The chemical reagents that used are sodium hydroxide (NaOH) 2 N and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) 2 N. This research aims to study effectiveness of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate on the impurities removal of magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), potassium (K) and sulfate (SO4). The results showed that the addition of sodium hydroxide solution can be decreased the impurity ions of magnesium (Mg) 95.2%, calcium ion (Ca) 45%, while the addition of sodium carbonate solution can decreased magnesium ion (Mg) 66.67% and calcium ion (Ca) 77.5%, but both types of materials are not degradable sulfate ions (SO4). The sodium hydroxide solution more effective to decrease magnesium ion than sodium carbonate solution, and the sodium carbonate solution more effective to decrease calcium ion than sodium hydroxide solution.

  3. Influence of heat treatment on bond strength and corrosion resistance of sol-gel derived bioglass-ceramic coatings on magnesium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sibo; Cai, Shu; Xu, Guohua; Zhao, Huan; Niu, Shuxin; Zhang, Ruiyue

    2015-05-01

    In this study, bioglass-ceramic coatings were prepared on magnesium alloy substrates through sol-gel dip-coating route followed by heat treatment at the temperature range of 350-500°C. Structure evolution, bond strength and corrosion resistance of samples were studied. It was shown that increasing heat treatment temperature resulted in denser coating structure as well as increased interfacial residual stress. A failure mode transition from cohesive to adhesive combined with a maximum on the measured bond strength together suggested that heat treatment enhanced the cohesion strength of coating on the one hand, while deteriorated the adhesion strength of coating/substrate on the other, thus leading to the highest bond strength of 27.0MPa for the sample heat-treated at 450°C. This sample also exhibited the best corrosion resistance. Electrochemical tests revealed that relative dense coating matrix and good interfacial adhesion can effectively retard the penetration of simulated body fluid through the coating, thus providing excellent protection for the underlying magnesium alloy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Calcium hydroxide silylation reaction with trimethylchlorosilane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novoselnov Anatoliy A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The silylation reaction of a calcium hydroxide with a trimethylchlorosilane is studied as a silylation model by the gas-liquid chromatography. The silylation process is divided into three stages. A material balance of these stages is calculated. The schemes of the reactions at each stage of the process are proposed. The modified calcium hydroxide obtained at three repetitive stages of the silylation reaction has been investigated by the x-ray phase analysis, IR spectroscopy, thermal analysis, electron microscopy in a combination with the elemental analysis. It has been determined that at the first stage of the interaction the processes of the trimethylchlorosilane hydrolysis and of the hydrolysis products condensation dominate, and at the same time an adsorption process of the trimethylchlorosilane and its derivatives starts. Further, the hydrolysis of the trimethylchlorosilane by the «new» portions of a water formed in the reaction of a calcium hydroxide with a hydrogen chloride takes place, simultaneously the secondary reactions of the Si-O-Ca – ties’ formation and cleavage occur including as a silylation-desilylation dynamic equilibrium process.

  5. A systemic study on key parameters affecting nanocomposite coatings on magnesium substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ian; Wang, Sebo Michelle; Silken, Christine; Liu, Huinan

    2016-05-01

    Nanocomposite coatings offer multiple functions simultaneously to improve the interfacial properties of magnesium (Mg) alloys for skeletal implant applications, e.g., controlling the degradation rate of Mg substrates, improving bone cell functions, and providing drug delivery capability. However, the effective service time of nanocomposite coatings may be limited due to their early delamination from the Mg-based substrates. Therefore, the objective of this study was to address the delamination issue of nanocomposite coatings, improve the coating properties for reducing the degradation of Mg-based substrates, and thus improve their cytocompatibility with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The surface conditions of the substrates, polymer component type of the nanocomposite coatings, and post-deposition processing are the key parameters that contribute to the efficacy of the nanocomposite coatings in regulating substrate degradation and bone cell responses. Specifically, the effects of metallic surface versus alkaline heat-treated hydroxide surface of the substrates on coating quality were investigated. For the nanocomposite coatings, nanophase hydroxyapatite (nHA) was dispersed in three types of biodegradable polymers, i.e., poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA), or poly(caprolactone) (PCL) to determine which polymer component could provide integrated properties for slowest Mg degradation. The nanocomposite coatings with or without post-deposition processing, i.e., melting, annealing, were compared to determine which processing route improved the properties of the nanocomposite coatings most significantly. The results showed that optimizing the coating processes addressed the delamination issue. The melted then annealed nHA/PCL coating on the metallic Mg substrates showed the slowest degradation and the best coating adhesion, among all the combinations of conditions studied; and, it improved the adhesion density of BMSCs

  6. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide (KOH, CAS Reg... pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from the...

  7. Magnesium and Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferda Özdemir

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis (OP is a condition of bone fragility resulting from micro-architectural deterioration and decreased bone mass. OP depends on the interaction of genetic, hormonal, environmental and nutritional factors. Chronic low intakes of vitamin D and possibly magnesium, zinc, fluoride and vitamins K, B12, B6 and folic acid may predispose to osteoporosis. Magnesium is a mineral needed by every cell of your body. It helps maintain normal muscle and nerve function, keeps heart rhythm steady, and bones strong. Mg serves as co-factors for enzymes that help build bone matrix. Magnesium deficiency occurs due to excessive loss of magnesium in urine, gastrointestinal system disorders that cause a loss of magnesium or limit magnesium absorption, or a chronic low intake of magnesium. Signs of magnesium deficiency include confusion, disorientation, loss of appetite, depression, muscle contractions and cramps, tingling, numbness, abnormal heart rhythms, coronary spasm, and seizures. Magnesium deficiency alters calcium metabolism and the hormones that regulates calcium. Several studies have suggested that magnesium supplementation may improve bone mineral density and prevent fractures.

  8. Hydroxide catalysts for lignin depolymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckham, Gregg T.; Biddy, Mary J.; Chmely, Stephen C.; Sturgeon, Matthew

    2017-04-25

    Solid base catalysts and their use for the base-catalyzed depolymerization (BCD) of lignin to compounds such as aromatics are presented herein. Exemplary catalysts include layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as recyclable, heterogeneous catalysts for BCD of lignin.

  9. Hydroxide catalysts for lignin depolymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckham, Gregg T; Biddy, Mary J.; Kruger, Jacob S.; Chmely, Stephen C.; Sturgeon, Matthew

    2017-10-17

    Solid base catalysts and their use for the base-catalyzed depolymerization (BCD) of lignin to compounds such as aromatics are presented herein. Exemplary catalysts include layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as recyclable, heterogeneous catalysts for BCD of lignin.

  10. Magnesium motorcycle applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jianyong Cao; Zonghe Zhang; Dongxia Xiang; Jun Wang

    2005-01-01

    Magnesium, the lightest engineering structural metal, has been comprehensively used in castings of aviation and aerospace, communication and transportation, and IT components. This paper introduced the history, advantages and difficulties of magnesium castings for motorcycle application as well as its application state in China. It also indicated the production situation of magnesium motorcycle components in CQMST and difficulties need to overcome for further development. (orig.)

  11. Magnesium in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Lynne M; Ní Fhloinn, Deirdre M; Gaydadzhieva, Gergana T; Mazurkiewicz, Ola M; Leeson, Heather; Wright, Ciara P

    2016-09-01

    Magnesium deficiency is prevalent in women of childbearing age in both developing and developed countries. The need for magnesium increases during pregnancy, and the majority of pregnant women likely do not meet this increased need. Magnesium deficiency or insufficiency during pregnancy may pose a health risk for both the mother and the newborn, with implications that may extend into adulthood of the offspring. The measurement of serum magnesium is the most widely used method for determining magnesium levels, but it has significant limitations that have both hindered the assessment of deficiency and affected the reliability of studies in pregnant women. Thus far, limited studies have suggested links between magnesium inadequacy and certain conditions in pregnancy associated with high mortality and morbidity, such as gestational diabetes, preterm labor, preeclampsia, and small for gestational age or intrauterine growth restriction. This review provides recommendations for further study and improved testing using measurement of red cell magnesium. Pregnant women should be counseled to increase their intake of magnesium-rich foods such as nuts, seeds, beans, and leafy greens and/or to supplement with magnesium at a safe level. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Constraints on Weathering from Riverine Magnesium Isotope Ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiechert, Uwe; Ullmann, Clemens Vinzenz; Meixner, Anette

    and industrialized regions, the d26Mg values mirror the lithologies of the catchment areas: the Danubian catchment is dominated by carbonatic lithologies and in the Danube dissolved magnesium exhibits the most negative d26Mg values between -1.85 and -1.70 ‰. The mainly siliceous catchment of the river Elbe causes....... Simple mass balance calculations on the basis of the magnesium isotopes obtained for the investigated rivers imply 26 to 59 % magnesium derived from carbonatic lithologies and 41 to 74 % magnesium from siliceous lithologies. This is in contrast to estimates using conventional methods for the tribute...

  13. Studies on the extraction of nuclear pure magnesium from sea bittern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaack, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    This investigation is devoted to the extraction of nuclear grade magnesium from sea bittern. It comprises three main parts: The first is pertaining to examine the effect of bittern evaporation on both its physical and chemical properties. It a second part , a brief comparative study on magnesium extraction from bittern by use of lime, dolime, solvent extraction and precipitation with ammonia solution and gas as also with ammonia carbon dioxide gas mixture, has been attempted. The precipitation approach by ammonia-carbon dioxide mixture was the mean adopted. A careful systematic examination of various parameters affecting precipitation was undertaken on economic basis. Recovery and purity of magnesium hydroxide, have been taken into account by the study of magnesium concentration in the bittern, its temperature, flow rate of precipitant, ... etc. Since the produced magnesium compound contained 100 ppm of boron, it has to be minimized to less than 1 ppm to agree with the nuclear specifications

  14. Magnesium Technology : Preface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillekens, W.H.; Agnew, S.R.; Neelameggham, N.R.; Mathaudhu, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    The Magnesium Technology Symposium, which takes place every year at the TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition, is one of the largest yearly gatherings of magnesium specialists in the world. Papers are presented in all aspects of the field, ranging from primary production to applications to recycling.

  15. Nutrition and magnesium absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of various nutrients present in dairy products and soybean-based products on absorption of magnesium has been investigated. The studies demonstrate that soybean protein versus casein lowers apparent magnesium absorption in rats through its phytate component. However, true

  16. Aluminum hydroxide issue closure package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, T.B.

    1998-01-01

    Aluminum hydroxide coatings on fuel elements stored in aluminum canisters in K West Basin were measured in July and August 1998. Good quality data was produced that enabled statistical analysis to determine a bounding value for aluminum hydroxide at a 99% confidence level. The updated bounding value is 10.6 kg per Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO), compared to the previously estimated bounding value of 8 kg/MCO. Thermal analysis using the updated bounding value, shows that the MCO generates oxygen concentrate that are below the lower flammability limits during the 40-year interim storage period and are, therefore, acceptable

  17. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. Structure of bayerite-based lithium-aluminum layered double hydroxides (LDHs): observation of monoclinic symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Sylvia; Kamath, P Vishnu

    2009-12-21

    The double hydroxides of Li with Al, obtained by the imbibition of Li salts into bayerite and gibbsite-Al(OH)(3), are not different polytypes of the same symmetry but actually crystallize in two different symmetries. The bayerite-derived double hydroxides crystallize with monoclinic symmetry, while the gibbsite-derived hydroxides crystallize with hexagonal symmetry. Successive metal hydroxide layers in the bayerite-derived LDHs are translated by the vector ( approximately -1/3, 0, 1) with respect to each other. The exigency of hydrogen bonding drives the intercalated Cl(-) ion to a site with 2-fold coordination, whereas the intercalated water occupies a site with 6-fold coordination having a pseudotrigonal prismatic symmetry. The nonideal nature of the interlayer sites has implications for the observed selectivity of Li-Al LDHs toward anions of different symmetries.

  19. Magnesium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sources of magnesium: Fruits or vegetables (such as bananas, dried apricots, and avocados) Nuts (such as almonds ... deficiency: Low blood calcium level (hypocalcemia) Low blood potassium level (hypokalemia) Recommendations These are the recommended daily ...

  20. Analysis of barium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide slurry carbonation reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patch, K.D.; Hart, R.P.; Schumacher, W.A.

    1980-05-01

    The removal of CO 2 from air was investigated by using a continuous-agitated-slurry carbonation reactor containing either barium hydroxide [Ba(OH) 2 ] or calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH) 2 ]. Such a process would be applied to scrub 14 CO 2 from stack gases at nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants. Decontamination factors were characterized for reactor conditions which could alter hydrodynamic behavior. An attempt was made to characterize reactor performance with models assuming both plug flow and various degrees of backmixing in the gas phase. The Ba(OH) 2 slurry enabled increased conversion, but apparently the process was controlled under some conditions by phenomena differing from those observed for carbonation by Ca(OH) 2 . Overall reaction mechanisms are postulated

  1. Thermodynamic properties of beryllium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, A.; Lecocq, A.

    1964-01-01

    The study of the hydro-thermal decomposition of beryllium hydroxide has made it possible to determine the free energy of formation and the entropy. The results obtained are in good agreement with the theoretical values calculated from the solubility product of this substance. They give furthermore the possibility of acquiring a better understanding of the BeO-H 2 O-Be (OH) 2 system between 20 and 1500 C. (authors) [fr

  2. Continuous-Flow O-Alkylation of Biobased Derivatives with Dialkyl Carbonates in the Presence of Magnesium-Aluminium Hydrotalcites as Catalyst Precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattelan, Lisa; Perosa, Alvise; Riello, Piero; Maschmeyer, Thomas; Selva, Maurizio

    2017-04-10

    The base-catalysed reactions of OH-bearing biobased derivatives (BBDs) including glycerol formal, solketal, glycerol carbonate, furfuryl alcohol and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol with non-toxic dialkyl carbonates (dimethyl and diethyl carbonate) were explored under continuous-flow (CF) conditions in the presence of three Na-exchanged Y- and X-faujasites (FAUs) and four Mg-Al hydrotalcites (HTs). Compared to previous etherification protocols mediated by dialkyl carbonates, the reported procedure offers substantial improvements not only in terms of (chemo)selectivity but also for the recyclability of the catalysts, workup, ease of product purification and, importantly, process intensification. Characterisation studies proved that both HT30 and KW2000 hydrotalcites acted as catalyst precursors: during the thermal activation pre-treatments, the typical lamellar structure of the hydrotalcite was broken down gradually into a MgO-like phase (periclase) or rather a magnesia-alumina solid solution, which was the genuine catalytic phase. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Development of a composite based on hydroxyapatite and magnesium and zinc‐containing sol–gel-derived bioactive glass for bone substitute applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashuri, Maziar; Moztarzadeh, Fathollah; Nezafati, Nader; Ansari Hamedani, Ali; Tahriri, Mohammadreza

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, a bioceramic-based composite was prepared by sintering compacts made up of mixtures of hydroxyapatite (HA) and sol–gel-derived bioactive glass (64SiO 2 -26CaO-5MgO-5ZnO) (based on mol%) powders. HA powder was mixed with different concentrations of the glass powders up to 30 wt.%. The effect of adding bioactive glass powder to HA matrix, on the mechanical properties of the composite was assessed by compression test. The specimen with the highest compressive strength was chosen to be immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) to study apatite forming ability and dissolution behavior. It was found that compressive strength of the specimen was decreased 65% after maintaining in the SBF for 14 days. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed prevalence of HA and β-TCP related peaks. Also, the surface morphology of the composite was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The study of degradation behavior revealed Si release capability of this composite. Biological evaluations in vitro confirmed the composite studied could induce osteoblast-like cells' activities. - Highlights: ► A novel composite based on HA/bioactive glass for bone substitutes was developed. ► Evaluations in vitro confirmed the composites induce bone-like cells' activities. ► A successful compromise of bioactivity and cytocompatibility was observed.

  4. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for magnesium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    , an AI for magnesium is set at 300 mg/day for boys and 250 mg/day for girls. For infants aged 7–11 months, an AI for magnesium of 80 mg/day is derived by extrapolating upwards from the estimated magnesium intake in exclusively breast-fed infants aged 0–6 months and by considering observed average intakes...

  5. Magnesium Borohydride: From Hydrogen Storage to Magnesium Battery**

    OpenAIRE

    Mohtadi, Rana; Matsui, Masaki; Arthur, Timothy S; Hwang, Son-Jong

    2012-01-01

    Beyond hydrogen storage: The first example of reversible magnesium deposition/stripping onto/from an inorganic salt was seen for a magnesium borohydride electrolyte. High coulombic efficiency of up to 94 % was achieved in dimethoxyethane solvent. This Mg(BH_4)_2 electrolyte was utilized in a rechargeable magnesium battery.

  6. Chemical conversion coating for protecting magnesium alloys from corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Gaurang; Allen, Fred M.; Skandan, Ganesh; Hornish, Peter; Jain, Mohit

    2016-01-05

    A chromate-free, self-healing conversion coating solution for magnesium alloy substrates, composed of 10-20 wt. % Mg(NO.sub.3).sub.2.6H.sub.2O, 1-5 wt. % Al(NO.sub.3).sub.3.9H.sub.2O, and less than 1 wt. % of [V.sub.10O.sub.28].sup.6- or VO.sub.3.sup.- dissolved in water. The corrosion resistance offered by the resulting coating is in several hundreds of hours in salt-spray testing. This prolonged corrosion protection is attributed to the creation of a unique structure and morphology of the conversion coating that serves as a barrier coating with self-healing properties. Hydroxoaluminates form the backbone of the barrier protection offered while the magnesium hydroxide domains facilitate the "slow release" of vanadium compounds as self-healing moieties to defect sites, thus providing active corrosion protection.

  7. INVESTIGATION OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS MACHINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berat Barıs BULDUM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium is the lightest structural metal. Magnesium alloys have a hexagonal lattice structure, which affects the fundamental properties of these alloys. Plastic deformation of the hexagonal lattice is more complicated than in cubic latticed metals like aluminum, copper and steel. Magnesium alloy developments have traditionally been driven by industry requirements for lightweight materials to operate under increasingly demanding conditions. Magnesium alloys have always been attractive to designers due to their low density, only two thirds that of aluminium and its alloys [1]. The element and its alloys take a big part of modern industry needs. Especially nowadays magnesium alloys are used in automotive and mechanical (trains and wagons manufacture, because of its lightness and other features. Magnesium and magnesium alloys are the easiest of all metals to machine, allowing machining operations at extremely high speed. All standard machining operations such as turning, drilling, milling, are commonly performed on magnesium parts.

  8. Magnesium Tube Hydroforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liewald, M.; Pop, R.; Wagner, S.

    2007-01-01

    Magnesium alloys can be considered as alternative materials towards achieving light weight structures with high material stiffness. The formability of two magnesium alloys, viz. AZ31 and ZM21 has been experimentally tested using the IHP forming process. A new die set up for hot IHP forming has been designed and the process experimentally investigated for temperatures up to 400 deg. C. Both alloys exhibit an increase in formability with increasing forming temperature. The effect of annealing time on materials forming properties shows a fine grained structure for sufficient annealing times as well as deterioration with a large increase at the same time. The IHP process has also been used to demonstrate practicability and feasibility for real parts from manufacture a technology demonstrator part using the magnesium alloy ZM21

  9. Corrosion resistance of zinc-magnesium coated steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosking, N.C.; Stroem, M.A.; Shipway, P.H.; Rudd, C.D.

    2007-01-01

    A significant body of work exists in the literature concerning the corrosion behaviour of zinc-magnesium coated steel (ZMG), describing its enhanced corrosion resistance when compared to conventional zinc-coated steel. This paper begins with a review of the literature and identifies key themes in the reported mechanisms for the attractive properties of this material. This is followed by an experimental programme where ZMG was subjected to an automotive laboratory corrosion test using acidified NaCl solution. A 3-fold increase in time to red rust compared to conventional zinc coatings was measured. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the corrosion products formed. The corrosion products detected on ZMG included simonkolleite (Zn 5 Cl 2 (OH) 8 . H 2 O), possibly modified by magnesium uptake, magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH) 2 ) and a hydroxy carbonate species. It is proposed that the oxygen reduction activity at the (zinc) cathodes is reduced by precipitation of alkali-resistant Mg(OH) 2 , which is gradually converted to more soluble hydroxy carbonates by uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide. This lowers the surface pH sufficiently to allow thermodynamically for general precipitation of insoluble simonkolleite over the corroding surface thereby retarding the overall corrosion reactions, leaving only small traces of magnesium corrosion products behind. Such a mechanism is consistent with the experimental findings reported in the literature

  10. Mass Transfer and Kinetics Study of Heterogeneous Semi-Batch Precipitation of Magnesium Carbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, B.; Qu, H. Y.; Niemi, H.

    2014-01-01

    Precipitation kinetics and mass transfer of magnesium carbonate (MgCO3) hydrates from a reaction of magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)(2)) and CO2 were analyzed. The effect of CO2 flow rate and mixing intensity on precipitation was investigated under ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. Raman...... on the dissolution of Mg(OH)(2). In the researched system, the main driver of the precipitation kinetics was the mass transfer of CO2. Nesquehonite (MgCO3 center dot 3H(2)O), as needle-like crystals, was precipitated as the main product. Raman spectroscopy can serve as a potential tool to monitor the carbonation...

  11. Convenient method of simultaneously analyzing aluminum and magnesium in pharmaceutical dosage forms using californium-252 thermal neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landolt, R.R.; Hem, S.L.

    1983-01-01

    A commercial antacid suspension containing aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide products was used as a model sample to study the use of a californium-252 thermal neutron activation as a method for quantifying aluminum content as well as for the simultaneous assay of aluminum and magnesium. A 3.5-micrograms californium-252 source was used for the activation, and the induced aluminum-28 and magnesium-27 activity was simultaneously measured by sodium iodide crystal gamma-ray spectrometry using dual single-channel analyzers and scalers. The antacid suspension was contained in a chamber designed with the unique capability of serving as the container for counting the induced radioactivity in addition to being the irradiation chamber itself. This pilot study demonstrated that use of more intense californium-252 sources, which are commonly available, would provide a method that is competitive with the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid titration method in precision and in other aspects as well

  12. Magnesium for Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigeholm, B.; Kjøller, John; Larsen, Bent

    1980-01-01

    The reaction of hydrogen with commercially pure magnesium powder (above 99.7%) was investigated in the temperature range 250–400 °C. Hydrogen is readily sorbed above the dissociation pressure. During the initial exposure the magnesium powder sorbs hydrogen slowly below 400 °C but during the second...... that the particles do not disintegrate is explained by a sintering process at the working temperatures. Exposure to air does not impair the sorption ability; on the contrary, it appears that surface oxidation plays an important role in the reaction. Some handling problems, e.g. the reaction of the hydride with water...

  13. Corrosion and hydrogen permeation of A216 Grade WCA steel in hydrothermal magnesium-containing brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberman, J.H.; Frydrych, D.J.; Westerman, R.E.

    1988-03-01

    Corrosion rates determined at 1 month in 150/degree/C brine increased with magnesium concentration. The structure of the corrosion product, as determined by x-ray diffraction, depended upon the magnesium concentration. In brines with less than 10,000 ppM magnesium, the primary corrosion product had a spinel structure characteristic of magnetite or magnesioferrite. In brines containing magnesium concentrations greater than 20,000 ppM, the primary corrosion product had the amakinite structure characteristic of a complex iron-magnesium hydroxide. The high corrosion rates observed in brines containing high magnesium concentrations suggest that the corrosion products having the amakinite structure is less protective than corrosion products having the spinel structure. Corrosion rates in high-magnesium (inclusion) brine determined over a 6-month test duration were essentially constant. Hydrogen permeation rates observed in exposing mild steel to high-Mg/sup 2/plus// brine at 150/degree/C could be potentially damaging to a mild steel waste package container. The rate of hydrogen permeation was proportional to the brine flow rate in the autoclave. Thiourea additions to the brine increased the hydrogen permeation rate; sulfate and bromide ion additions did not. The maximum gaseous hydrogen pressure attainable is not known (based on 3Fe /plus/ 4H 2 O /plus/ Fe(sub 3)O /plus/ 4H 2 , would be /approximately/900 atmospheres), and the dependence of permeation rate on temperature is not known. 8 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Synthesis of Zn–Fe layered double hydroxides via an oxidation process and structural analysis of products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Kazuya, E-mail: kazuya.morimoto@aist.go.jp [Institute for Geo-Resources and Environment, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8567 (Japan); Tamura, Kenji [Environmental Remediation Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Anraku, Sohtaro [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Sato, Tsutomu [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Suzuki, Masaya [Institute for Geo-Resources and Environment, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8567 (Japan); Yamada, Hirohisa [Environmental Remediation Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    The synthesis of Zn–Fe(III) layered double hydroxides was attempted, employing different pathways using either Fe(II) or Fe(III) species together with Zn as the initial reagents. The product derived from the synthesis employing Fe(II) was found to transition to a Zn–Fe(III) layered double hydroxides phase following oxidation process. In contrast, the product obtained with Fe(III) did not contain a layered double hydroxides phase, but rather consisted of simonkolleite and hydrous ferric oxide. It was determined that the valency of the Fe reagent used in the initial synthesis affected the generation of the layered double hydroxides phase. Fe(II) species have ionic radii and electronegativities similar to those of Zn, and therefore are more likely to form trioctahedral hydroxide layers with Zn species. - Graphical abstract: The synthesis of Zn–Fe(III) layered double hydroxides was attempted, employing different pathways using either Fe(II) or Fe(III) species together with Zn as the initial reagents. - Highlights: • Iron valency affected the generation of Zn–Fe layered double hydroxides. • Zn–Fe layered double hydroxides were successfully synthesized using Fe(II). • Fe(II) species were likely to form trioctahedral hydroxide layers with Zn species.

  15. The corrosion behaviour of rare-earth containing magnesium alloys in borate buffer solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, R. [ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon (Portugal); Ferreira, M.G.S. [ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon (Portugal); CICECO, Universidade de Aveiro (Portugal); Carmezim, M.J. [ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon (Portugal); Instituto Politecnico de Setubal, ESTSetubal, DEM (Portugal); Montemor, M.F., E-mail: mfmontemor@ist.utl.p [ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the corrosion behaviour of magnesium alloys ZK31, EZ33 and WE54 was studied in sodium borate buffer solution at pH 9.2. The electrochemical processes were studied by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The composition and morphology of the alloys and corrosion products formed were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The experimental findings highlighted the differences in the corrosion mechanisms of the different alloys tested. The results showed that the presence of rare-earth elements (RE) only increases the corrosion resistance when present in solid solution, as is the case of the WE54 alloy. At pH 9.2, an amorphous yttrium oxide/hydroxide thick film was formed, which possesses greater stability when compared to magnesium oxide/hydroxide. The role of RE in the corrosion mechanism was discussed.

  16. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag formed in the production of metallic uranium by the reduction of depleted uranium tetrafluoride with metallic magnesium in a retort wherein the slag contains the free metals magnesium and uranium and also oxides and fluorides of the metals. The slag having a radioactivity level of at least about 7,000 rhoCi/gm. The method comprises the steps of: grinding the slag to a median particle size of about 200 microns; contacting the ground slag in a reaction zone with an acid having a strength of from about 0.5 to 1.5 N for a time of from about 4 to about 20 hours in the presence of a catalytic amount of iron; removing the liquid product; treating the particulate solid product; repeating the last two steps at least one more time to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 rhoCi/gm

  17. FOCUS ON MAGNESIUM BASED DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Esenova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium deficiency in the organism is one of the most common human deficiency states. The prevalence of magnesium deficiency is about 15%, and suboptimal magnesium level is observed more than in 30% of people in the general population. Clinical signs of hypomagnesaemia are observed in 40% of patients in general care hospitals, in 70% of patients - in intensive care units, and magnesium deficiency occurs in 90% of patients with acute coronary syndrome. Magnesium metabolic disorders in the organism accelerate significantly development of complications of coronary heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, asthma and a number of neurological and psychiatric diseases. The value of this macro in the body is well studied, and its daily need is identified depending on age and sex. It is known that magnesium intake with the food does not cover an organism need. It is a rationale for preventive and therapeutic use of magnesium based drugs in various diseases. Organic salts of magnesium are recommended for these purposes. Magnesium metabolic disorders, approaches to pharmacotherapeutic correction of magnesium deficiency, advantages of magnesium salts of orotic acid are reviewed.

  18. Organically pillared layered zinc hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kongshaug, K.O.; Fjellvaag, Helmer

    2004-01-01

    The two organically pillared layered zinc hydroxides [Zn 2 (OH) 2 (ndc)], CPO-6, and [Zn 3 (OH) 4 (bpdc)], CPO-7, were obtained in hydrothermal reactions between 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid (ndc) and zinc nitrate (CPO-6) and 4,4'biphenyldicarboxylate (bpdc) and zinc nitrate (CPO-7), respectively. In CPO-6, the tetrahedral zinc atoms are connected by two μ 2 -OH groups and two carboxylate oxygen atoms, forming infinite layers extending parallel to the bc-plane. These layers are pillared by ndc to form a three-dimensional structure. In CPO-7, the zinc hydroxide layers are containing four-, five- and six coordinated zinc atoms, and the layers are built like stairways running along the [001] direction. Each step is composed of three infinite chains running in the [010] direction. Both crystal structures were solved from conventional single crystal data. Crystal data for CPO-6: Monoclinic space group P2 1 /c (No. 14), a=11.9703(7), b=7.8154(5), c=6.2428(4) A, β=90.816(2) deg., V=583.97(6) A 3 and Z=4. Crystal data for CPO-7: Monoclinic space group C2/c (No. 15), a=35.220(4), b=6.2658(8), c=14.8888(17) A, β=112.580(4) deg., V=3033.8(6) A 3 and Z=8. The compounds were further characterized by thermogravimetric- and chemical analysis

  19. Ultrasound-assisted activation of zero-valent magnesium for nitrate denitrification: identification of reaction by-products and pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ileri, Burcu; Ayyildiz, Onder; Apaydin, Omer

    2015-07-15

    Zero-valent magnesium (Mg(0)) was activated by ultrasound (US) in an aim to promote its potential use in water treatment without pH control. In this context, nitrate reduction was studied at batch conditions using various doses of magnesium powder and ultrasound power. While neither ultrasound nor zero-valent magnesium alone was effective for reducing nitrate in water, their combination removed up to 90% of 50 mg/L NO3-N within 60 min. The rate of nitrate reduction by US/Mg(0) enhanced with increasing ultrasonic power and magnesium dose. Nitrogen gas (N2) and nitrite (NO2(-)) were detected as the major reduction by-products, while magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH)2 and hydroxide ions (OH(-)) were identified as the main oxidation products. The results from SEM-EDS measurements revealed that the surface oxide level decreased significantly when the samples of Mg(0) particles were exposed to ultrasonic treatment. The surface passivation of magnesium particles was successfully minimized by mechanical forces of ultrasound, which in turn paved the way to sustain the catalyst activity toward nitrate reduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Structure and thermal decomposition of sulfated β-cyclodextrin intercalated in a layered double hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ji; Wei Min; Rao Guoying; Evans, D.G.; Duan Xue

    2004-01-01

    The sodium salt of hexasulfated β-cyclodextrin has been synthesized and intercalated into a magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide by ion exchange. The structure, composition and thermal decomposition behavior of the intercalated material have been studied by variable temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP), and thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and a model for the structure has been proposed. The thermal stability of the intercalated sulfated β-cyclodextrin is significantly enhanced compared with the pure form before intercalation

  1. Structure and thermal decomposition of sulfated β-cyclodextrin intercalated in a layered double hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Wei, Min; Rao, Guoying; Evans, David G.; Duan, Xue

    2004-01-01

    The sodium salt of hexasulfated β-cyclodextrin has been synthesized and intercalated into a magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide by ion exchange. The structure, composition and thermal decomposition behavior of the intercalated material have been studied by variable temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP), and thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and a model for the structure has been proposed. The thermal stability of the intercalated sulfated β-cyclodextrin is significantly enhanced compared with the pure form before intercalation.

  2. Calculated solubility isotherm of a system of alkaline earth sulfates and hydroxides in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MOshinskii, A.S.; TIkomirova, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    Tis paper examines the calculation of the isothermal solubility diagram of a system of alkaline earth sulfates and hydroxides in water which makes it possible to substantiate, to a considerable extent, the natural physicochemical mineralization of natural waters, in particular water from geochemical sources. The present paper investigates the solubility of the equilibrium solid phases of a system of alkaline earth sulfates and hydroxides in water. A projection is shown of the composition prism of the quinary reciprocal system with demarcation of the crystallization areas of each sulfate and hydroxide of the component subsystems. The computational formulas for calculating solubility were derived from the solubility product principle, with allowance for ion activity coefficients in saturated hydroxide solutions

  3. Precipitation of iron (III) using magnesium oxide in fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban-Bocardo, P. A.; Ferreira-Rocha, S. D.

    2006-01-01

    A process for iron (III) removal by hydroxide precipitation from and acid synthetic inorganic effluent using magnesium oxide as an alternative precipitant agent in a fluidized bed was developed. An acid synthetic inorganic effluent containing 100 and 200 mg/l of ferric ions (pH=1.0) was continuously fed up to the acrylic column (30 cm high and 2 cm diameter) during 180 minutes. Magnesium oxide pulp (3% v/v) was injected at the beginning of the experiment in order to allow the iron hydroxides precipitation. The concentration and pH profiles agreed in their curves, while the pH profile rose,the concentration profile decreased and a high percentage of iron removal /higher to 99%) was reached. Extremely low iron concentrations have been reached, thus permitting to attend to the environmental standard of 10.0 mg/l for discharge of effluent containing ferric ions established by the law DN 10/86 of COPAM (Conselho de Politica Ambiental do Estado de Minas Gerais-Brazil). (Author)

  4. Magnesium borohydride: from hydrogen storage to magnesium battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Rana; Matsui, Masaki; Arthur, Timothy S; Hwang, Son-Jong

    2012-09-24

    Beyond hydrogen storage: The first example of reversible magnesium deposition/stripping onto/from an inorganic salt was seen for a magnesium borohydride electrolyte. High coulombic efficiency of up to 94 % was achieved in dimethoxyethane solvent. This Mg(BH(4))(2) electrolyte was utilized in a rechargeable magnesium battery. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Magnesium borate radiothermoluminescent detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazanskaya, V.A.; Kuzmin, V.V.; Minaeva, E.E.; Sokolov, A.D.

    1974-01-01

    In the report the technology of obtaining polycrystalline magnesium borate activated by dysprosium is described briefly and the method of preparing the tabletted detectors from it is presented. The dependence of the light sum of the samples on the proportion of the components and on the sintering regime has shown that the most sensitive material is obtained at the proportion of boric anhydride and magnesium oxide 2.2-2.4 and at the dysprosium concentration about 1 milligram-atom per gram molecule of the base. The glow curve of such a material has a simple form with one peak the maximum of which is located at 190-200 0 C. The measurement of the main dosimetric characteristics of the magnesium borate tabletted detectors and the comparison with similar parmaeters of the lithium fluoride tabletted detectors have shown that at practically identical effective number the former detectors have the following substantial advantages: the sensitivity is ten-twenty times as large, they are substantially more technological on synthesis of the radiothermoluminophor and during the production of the tabletted detectors, they have a simple glow curve, they do not require the utilization of the thermocycling during the use. (author)

  6. A multidisciplinary study on magnesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radić-Perić Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During plasma electrolytic oxidation of a magnesium alloy (96% Mg, 3% Al, 1% Zn we obtained a luminescence spectrum in the wave number range between 19 950 and 20 400 cm-1. The broad peak with clearly pronounced structure was assigned to the v’-v” = 0 sequence of the B 1Σ+ → X 1Σ+ electronic transition of MgO. Quantum-mechanical perturbative approach was applied to extract the form of the potential energy curves for the electronic states involved in the observed spectrum, from the positions of spectral bands. These potential curves, combined with the results of quantum-chemical calculations of the electric transition moment, were employed in subsequent variational calculations to obtain the Franck-Condon factors and transition moments for the vibrational transitions observed. Comparing the results of these calculations with the measured intensity distribution within the spectrum we derived relative population of the upper electronic state vibration levels. This enabled us to estimate the plasma temperature. Additionally, the temperature was determined by analysis of the recorded A 2Σ+ (v’ = 0 - X 2П (v” = 0 emission spectrum of OH. The composition of plasma containing magnesium, oxygen, and hydrogen under assumption of local thermal equilibrium was calculated in the temperature range up to 12 000 K and for pressures of 105, 106, 107, and 108 Pa, in order to explain the appearance of the observed spectral features and to contribute to elucidation of processes taking place during the electrolytic oxidation of Mg. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172040

  7. Studies on the ageing of a magnesium-strontium nitrate pyrotechnic composition using isothermal microcalorimetry and thermal analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuukkanen, I.; Brown, S.D.; Charsley, E.L.; Goodall, S.J.; Rooney, J.J.; Griffiths, T.T.; Lemmetyinen, H.

    2004-01-01

    The ageing behaviour of a pyrotechnic composition containing equal parts by mass of magnesium and strontium nitrate has been followed by isothermal microcalorimetry. The measurements were carried out on the samples at 50 deg. C and 65% relative humidity in air using closed ampoules. The results have been compared to those obtained for magnesium powder under the same conditions. Following an initial induction period, the pyrotechnic compositions reacted at a much faster rate than magnesium powder alone. The main reaction products were found to be magnesium hydroxide and strontium nitrite; the amounts formed have been correlated with the cumulative heats of ageing. In addition, the influence of the ageing process on the pyrotechnic reaction has been studied by high temperature differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and by modulated temperature DSC

  8. Formation of a Spinel Coating on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Maximilian; Simchen, Frank; Scharf, Ingolf; Lampke, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is a common means for the surface modification of light metals. However, PEO of magnesium substrates in dilute electrolytes generally leads to the formation of coatings consisting of unfavorable MgO magnesium oxide. By incorporation of electrolyte components, the phase constitution of the oxide coatings can be modified. Coatings consisting exclusively of MgAl2O4 magnesium-aluminum spinel are produced by PEO in an electrolyte containing hydroxide, aluminate, and phosphate anions. The hardness of the coatings is 3.5 GPa on Martens scale on average. Compared to the bare substrate, the coatings reduce the corrosion current density in dilute sodium chloride solution by approx. one order of magnitude and slightly shift the corrosion potential toward more noble values.

  9. On the capacity to the complexing of alkaline earth metal and magnesium chromates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orekhov, O.L.

    1978-01-01

    Considered is the capacity to the complexing of magnesium chromates and alkaline earth metal chromates with ammonium chromates in aqueous solutions. It has been established that the complexing of alkaline earth metal and magnesium chromates is effected by a nature of initial salts as well as their solubilities and the presence of crystallization water. Capacity of magnesium ions and alkaline rare earth metals to the complexing decreases in a series of Mg-Ca-Sr-Ba. Ca complexes exceed magnesium derivatives in respect of stability

  10. Function of magnesium aluminate hydrate and magnesium nitrate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MgO was added both as spinel (MgAl2O4) forming precursor i.e. magnesium aluminate hydrate, and magnesium nitrate. Sintering investigations were conducted in the temperature range 1500–1600°C with 2 h soaking. Structural study of sintered pellets was carried out by extensive XRD analysis. Scanning electron mode ...

  11. COMBINED ALUMINIUM SULFATE/HYDROXIDE PROCESS FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulfate, and used for fluoride removal from water by combining with Nalgonda Technique. ... effects on human health and could result in fluorosis. ... [23], nanoscale aluminium oxide hydroxide (AlOOH) [24] and natural zeolite [25], were among.

  12. Single sheet metal oxides and hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lizhi

    The synthesis of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) provides a relatively easy and traditional way to build versatile chemical compounds with a rough control of the bulk structure. The delamination of LDHs to form their single host layers (2D nanosheets) and the capability to reassemble them offer......) Delamination of the LDHs structure (oxGRC12) with the formation of single sheet iron (hydr)oxide (SSI). (3) Assembly of the new 2D nanosheets layer by layer to achieve desired functionalities....

  13. Magnesium Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, James J.

    2015-01-01

    This Phase II project is developing a magnesium (Mg) Hall effect thruster system that would open the door for in situ resource utilization (ISRU)-based solar system exploration. Magnesium is light and easy to ionize. For a Mars- Earth transfer, the propellant mass savings with respect to a xenon Hall effect thruster (HET) system are enormous. Magnesium also can be combusted in a rocket with carbon dioxide (CO2) or water (H2O), enabling a multimode propulsion system with propellant sharing and ISRU. In the near term, CO2 and H2O would be collected in situ on Mars or the moon. In the far term, Mg itself would be collected from Martian and lunar regolith. In Phase I, an integrated, medium-power (1- to 3-kW) Mg HET system was developed and tested. Controlled, steady operation at constant voltage and power was demonstrated. Preliminary measurements indicate a specific impulse (Isp) greater than 4,000 s was achieved at a discharge potential of 400 V. The feasibility of delivering fluidized Mg powder to a medium- or high-power thruster also was demonstrated. Phase II of the project evaluated the performance of an integrated, highpower Mg Hall thruster system in a relevant space environment. Researchers improved the medium power thruster system and characterized it in detail. Researchers also designed and built a high-power (8- to 20-kW) Mg HET. A fluidized powder feed system supporting the high-power thruster was built and delivered to Busek Company, Inc.

  14. Electrolytes for magnesium electrochemical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Sa, Niya; Proffit, Danielle Lee; Lipson, Albert; Liao, Chen; Vaughey, John T.; Ingram, Brian J.

    2017-07-04

    An electrochemical cell includes a high voltage cathode configured to operate at 1.5 volts or greater; an anode including Mg.sup.0; and an electrolyte including an ether solvent and a magnesium salt; wherein: a concentration of the magnesium salt in the ether is 1 M or greater.

  15. Hydrostatic extrusion of magnesium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillekens, W.H.; Bohlen, J.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter deals with the capabilities and limitations of the hydrostatic extrusion process for the manufacturing of magnesium alloy sections. Firstly, the process basics for the hydrostatic extrusion of materials in general and of magnesium in particular are introduced. Next, some recent research

  16. Innovative Vacuum Distillation for Magnesium Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tianbai; Li, Naiyi; Mei, Xiaoming; Yu, Alfred; Shang, Shixiang

    Magnesium recycling now becomes a very important subject as magnesium consumption increases fast around the world. All commonly used magnesium die-casting alloys can be recycled and recovered to the primary metal quality. The recycled materials may be comprised of biscuits, sprues, runners, flash, overflows, dross, sludge, scrap parts, and old parts that are returned from service, An innovative magnesium recycle method, vacuum distillation, is developed and proved out to be able to recycle magnesium scraps, especially machining chips, oily magnesium, smelting sludge, dross or the mixture. With this process at a specific temperature and environment condition, magnesium in scraps can be gasified and then solidified to become crystal magnesium crown. This `recycled' magnesium crown is collected and used as the raw material of magnesium alloys. The experimental results show the vacuum distillation is a feasible and plausible method to recycle magnesium. Further, the cost analysis will be addressed in this paper.

  17. Magnesium in Prevention and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröber, Uwe; Schmidt, Joachim; Kisters, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body. It has been recognized as a cofactor for more than 300 enzymatic reactions, where it is crucial for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) metabolism. Magnesium is required for DNA and RNA synthesis, reproduction, and protein synthesis. Moreover, magnesium is essential for the regulation of muscular contraction, blood pressure, insulin metabolism, cardiac excitability, vasomotor tone, nerve transmission and neuromuscular conduction. Imbalances in magnesium status—primarily hypomagnesemia as it is seen more common than hypermagnesemia—might result in unwanted neuromuscular, cardiac or nervous disorders. Based on magnesium’s many functions within the human body, it plays an important role in prevention and treatment of many diseases. Low levels of magnesium have been associated with a number of chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease (e.g., stroke), migraine headaches, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). PMID:26404370

  18. Combustion and extinction of magnesium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.; Duverger de Cuy, G.

    1988-01-01

    The studies made in France on magnesium combustion and extinguishing means are associated at the nuclear fuel of the graphite-gas reactor. Safety studies are made for ameliorate our knowledge on: - magnesium combustion - magnesium fire propagation - magnesium fire extinguishing [fr

  19. Mineral resource of the month: magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium is the eighthmost abundant element in Earth’s crust, and the second-most abundant metal ion in seawater. Although magnesium is found in more than 60 minerals, only brucite, dolomite, magnesite and carnallite are commercially important for their magnesium content. Magnesium and its compounds also are recovered from seawater, brines found in lakes and wells, and bitterns (salts).

  20. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... hydrochloric acid solution and crystallizing out magnesium chloride hexahydrate. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  1. Magnesium deficiency: What is our status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low magnesium intake has been implicated in a broad range of cardiometabolic conditions, including diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Dietary magnesium and total body magnesium status have a widely-used but imperfect biomarker in serum magnesium. Despite serum magnesium’s limitation...

  2. Synthesis and characterization of magnesium gluconate contained poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Shekh M. [Department of Chemical, Biological and Bioengineering, North Carolina A& T State University, 1601 East Market Street, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); NSF Engineering Research Center for Revolutionizing Metallic Biomaterials, North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); Mahoney, Christopher [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, 4200 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15250 (United States); Sankar, Jagannathan [NSF Engineering Research Center for Revolutionizing Metallic Biomaterials, North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, North Carolina A& T State University, 1601 East Market Street, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); Marra, Kacey G. [NSF Engineering Research Center for Revolutionizing Metallic Biomaterials, North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, 4200 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15250 (United States); Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, 200 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15250 (United States); McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, 450 Technology Drive, Pittsburgh, PA 15250 (United States); Bhattarai, Narayan, E-mail: nbhattar@ncat.edu [Department of Chemical, Biological and Bioengineering, North Carolina A& T State University, 1601 East Market Street, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); NSF Engineering Research Center for Revolutionizing Metallic Biomaterials, North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Magnesium gluconate contained PLGA/chitosan microspheres were fabricated. • In vitro release of magnesium ions was performed using Xylidyl Blue assay. • Chitosan coated PLGA can significantly control the release of magnesium ions. • Cellular compatibility was tested using adipose-derived stem cells and PC12 cells. • The cells encounter acceptably low levels of damage in contact with microspheres. - Abstract: The goal of this study was to fabricate and investigate the chitosan coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres for the development of controlled release magnesium delivery system. PLGA based microspheres are ideal vehicles for many controlled release drug delivery applications. Chitosan is a naturally occurring biodegradable and biocompatible polysaccharide, which can coat the surface of PLGA to alter the release of drugs. Magnesium gluconate (MgG) was encapsulated in the PLGA and PLGA/chitosan microspheres by utilizing the double emulsion solvent evaporation technique for controlled release study. The microspheres were tested with respect to several physicochemical and biological properties, including morphology, chemical structure, chitosan adsorption efficiency, magnesium encapsulation efficiency, in vitro release of magnesium ions, and cellular compatibility using both human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and PC12 cells. Chitosan coated PLGA microspheres can significantly control the release of magnesium ions compared to uncoated PLGA microspheres. Both coated and uncoated microspheres showed good cellular compatibility.

  3. Research on the removal of radium from uranium effluent by air-aeration hydrated manganese hydroxide adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianguo; Chen Shaoqing; Qi Jing

    2002-01-01

    In the acidic leaching uranium process, pyrolusite or manganese oxide (MnO 2 ) powder is often used as an oxidizer. In the processed effluent, manganese ion present as a contaminant in addition to U, Ra, Th, As, Zn, Cu, F, SO 4 2- , etc. Manganese ion content is about 100∼200 mg/1 in effluent. In this case, a new process technique can be developed to treat the effluent using the Mn 2+ present in the effluent. The approach is as follows: The effluent is neutralized by lime milk to pH about 11. As a result, most contaminants are precipitated to meet the uranium effluent discharge standards (U, Th, Mn, SO 4 2- etc.), but radium is still present in the effluent. In this process, manganese ion forms manganese hydroxide Mn(OH) 2 . The manganese hydroxide is easily to oxide to form MnO(OH) 2 by air aeration. This hydrated manganese hydroxide complex can then be used to adsorb radium in effluent. The experiments show: (1) Effluent pH, manganese concentration in effluent, and aeration strength and time etc. influence the radium removal efficiency. Under the test conditions, when manganese in effluent is between 100∼300 mg/l, and pH is over 10.5, radium can be reduced to lower 1.11 Bq/1 in the processed effluent. Higher contents of impurity elements such as aluminum, silicon and magnesium in the effluent affect the removal efficiency; (2) Under the experimental conditions, the lime precipitation air-aeration formed hydrated manganese hydroxide complex sludge is stable. There is no obvious release of radium from the adsorbed hydrated manganese hydroxide complex sludge; (3) The current experiments show that hydrated manganese hydroxide complex sludge has a very good re-adsorption ability for removal of radium from uranium effluent. Some experimental parameters have been measured. (author)

  4. Dissolution mechanism of aluminum hydroxides in acid media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainer, Yu. A.; Gorichev, I. G.; Tuzhilin, A. S.; Gololobova, E. G.

    2008-08-01

    The effects of the concentration, temperature, and potential at the hydroxide/electrolyte interface on the aluminum hydroxide dissolution in sulfuric, hydrochloric, and perchloric acids are studied. The limiting stage of the aluminum hydroxide dissolution in the acids is found to be the transition of the complexes that form on the aluminum hydroxide surface from the solid phase into the solution. The results of the calculation of the acid-base equilibrium constants at the oxide (hydroxide)/solution interface using the experimental data on the potentiometric titration of Al2O3 and AlOOH suspensions are analyzed. A mechanism is proposed for the dissolution of aluminum hydroxides in acid media.

  5. Aluminium hydroxide-induced granulomas in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valtulini, S; Macchi, C; Ballanti, P

    2005-01-01

    The effect of intramuscular injection of 40 mg/2 ml aluminium hydroxide in the neck of pigs was examined in a number of ways. The investigation followed repeated slaughterhouse reports, according to which 64.8% of pigs from one particular farm were found at slaughter to have one or more nodules...... in the muscles of the neck (group slaughtered). The pigs had been injected with a vaccine containing 40 mg/2 ml dose of aluminium hydroxide as adjuvant. Research consisted of two phases: first, an epidemiological study was carried out, aimed at determining the risk factors for the granulomas. The results...... and adjuvant) to pigs inoculated twice with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group water) and to pigs inoculated once with the adjuvant and once with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group adjuvant/water). Both studies agreed in their conclusions, which indicate that the high amount of aluminium hydroxide...

  6. Iodine Sequestration Using Delafossites and Layered Hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.D. Pless; J.B. Chwirka; J.L. Krumhansl

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this document is to report on early success for sequestering 129 I. Sorption coefficients (K d ) for I - and IO 3 - onto delafossites, spinels and layered metal hydroxides were measured in order to compare their applicability for sequestering 129 I. The studies were performed using a dilute fluid composition representative of groundwater indigenous to the Yucca mountain area. Delafossites generally exhibited relatively poor sorption coefficients ( 1.7 mL/g). In contrast, the composition of the layered hydroxides significantly affects their ability to sorb I. Cu/Al and Cu/Cr layered hydroxide samples exhibit K d 's greater than 10 3 mL/g for both I - and IO 3 -

  7. Magnesium Repair by Cold Spray

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Champagne, V. K; Leyman, P.F; Helfritch, D. J

    2008-01-01

    .... Army Research Laboratory has developed a cold spray process to reclaim magnesium components that shows significant improvement over existing methods and is in the process of qualification for use on rotorcraft...

  8. Magnesium - distribution and basic metabolism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    losses of water, sodium, chloride and potassium are concerned. However, it has ... (calcium and magnesium carbonate), although only 10% of the element in soil is ... DNA transcription, RNA aggregation, protein synthesis and various cell ...

  9. Effect of magnesium deficiency on renal magnesium and calcium transport in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Carney, S L; Wong, N L; Quamme, G A; Dirks, J H

    1980-01-01

    Recollection of micropuncture experiments were performed on acutely thyroparathyroidectomized rats rendered magnesium deficient by dietary deprivation. Urinary magnesium excretion fell from a control of 15 to 3% of the filtered load after magnesium restriction. The loop of Henle, presumably the thick ascending limb, was the major modulator for renal magnesium homeostasis. The transport capacity for magnesium, however, was less in deficient rats than control animals. Absolute magnesium reabsor...

  10. X-ray spectral analysis of niobium hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khabeev, I.A.; Belkina, V.A.; Makarova, R.V.; Mel' nikova, R.A.; Smagunova, A.N.

    1986-02-01

    The authors have derived an x-ray method of determining Ta/sub 2/O/sub 5/, TiO/sub 2/, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Nb/sub 2/O/sub 5/, C1 and SiO2 with a KRF-18 quantometer. The method should provide accuracy in determining these elements characterized by relative derivations. The main components of niobium hydroxide were ground for improved determination. The method allows one to analyze a sample in 30 min. In a six hour working day, an assistant can analyze up to 25 samples. The time required for one sample in the chemical method is about 30 hours.

  11. Timeline (Bioavailability) of Magnesium Compounds in Hours: Which Magnesium Compound Works Best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Nazan; Kizildag, Servet; Yuce, Zeynep; Guvendi, Guven; Kandis, Sevim; Koc, Basar; Karakilic, Aslı; Camsari, Ulas M; Ates, Mehmet

    2018-04-21

    Magnesium is an element of great importance functioning because of its association with many cellular physiological functions. The magnesium content of foods is gradually decreasing due to food processing, and magnesium supplementation for healthy living has become increasingly popular. However, data is very limited on the bioavailability of various magnesium preparations. The aim of this study is to investigate the bioavailability of five different magnesium compounds (magnesium sulfate, magnesium oxide, magnesium acetyl taurate, magnesium citrate, and magnesium malate) in different tissues. Following a single dose 400 mg/70 kg magnesium administration to Sprague Dawley rats, bioavailability was evaluated by examining time-dependent absorption, tissue penetration, and the effects on the behavior of the animals. Pharmacokinetically, the area under the curve calculation is highest in the magnesium malate. The magnesium acetyl taurate was found to have the second highest area under the curve calculation. Magnesium acetyl taurate was rapidly absorbed, able to pass through to the brain easily, had the highest tissue concentration level in the brain, and was found to be associated with decreased anxiety indicators. Magnesium malate levels remained high for an extended period of time in the serum. The commonly prescribed dietary supplements magnesium oxide and magnesium citrate had the lowest bioavailability when compared to our control group. More research is needed to investigate the bioavailability of magnesium malate and acetyl taurate compounds and their effects in specific tissues and on behavior.

  12. Precipitation of plutonium from acidic solutions using magnesium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    Plutonium (IV) is only marginally soluble in alkaline solution. Precipitation of plutonium using sodium or potassium hydroxide to neutralize acidic solutions produces a gelatinous solid that is difficult to filter and an endpoint that is difficult to control. If the pH of the solution is too high, additional species precipitate producing an increased volume of solids separated. The use of magnesium oxide as a reagent has advantages. It is added as a solid (volume of liquid waste produced is minimized), the pH is self-limiting (pH does not exceed about 8.5), and the solids precipitated are more granular (larger particle size) than those produced using KOH or NaOH. Following precipitation, the raffinate is expected to meet criteria for disposal to tank farms. The solid will be heated in a furnace to dry it and convert any hydroxide salts to the oxide form. The material will be cooled in a desiccator. The material is expected to meet vault storage criteria

  13. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocker, Robert W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Muller, Rolf H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 - 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  14. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocker, R.W.; Muller, R.H.

    1992-05-01

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 {endash} 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  15. The effect of magnesium hydroxide-containing dentifrice using an extrinsic and intrinsic erosion cycling model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Vanara Florêncio; Rodrigues, Lidiany Karla Azevedo; Santiago, Sérgio Lima

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate, in vitro, the effect of Mg(OH) 2 dentifrice, and the influence of the number of experimental days, on the extrinsic (citric acid -CA) and intrinsic (hydrochloric acid -HCl) enamel erosion models. Human enamel slabs were selected according to surface hardness and randomly assigned to 3 groups (n=9) as follows: non-fluoridated (negative control), NaF (1450ppm F- positive control) and Mg(OH) 2 (2%) dentifrices. The slabs were daily submitted to a 2-h period of pellicle formation and, over a period of 5days, submitted to cycles (3×/day) of erosive challenge (CA 0.05M, pH=3.75 or HCl 0.01M, pH=2 for 30s), treatment (1min -1:3w/w of dentifrice/distilled water) and remineralization (artificial saliva/120min). Enamel changes were determined by surface hardness loss (SHL) for each day and mechanical profilometry analysis. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test to % SHL and one-way ANOVA to profilometry (pextrinsic acid erosion as determined by % SHL (pintrinsic model (p=0.295). With regards to surface wear, no statistically significant differences were found among the groups for CA (p=0.225) and HCl (p=0.526). The findings suggest that Mg(OH) 2 dentifrices might protect enamel against slight erosion, but protection was not effective for stronger acid erosion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Formation of a hydrophobic and corrosion resistant coating on magnesium alloy via a one-step hydrothermal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tianxu; Hu, Yaobo; Zhang, Yuxin; Pan, Fusheng

    2017-11-01

    A hydrophobic coating was fabricated on the surface of magnesium alloy using a simple one-step hydrothermal method with the use of environmentally friendly agent. Scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle test were used to characterize the surfaces. Corrosion behavior in a 3.5wt.% NaCl solution was evaluated using OCP time curves test, potentiodynamic polarization test and EIS analysis. The findings show that the substrate is covered by the coating of magnesium hydroxide and magnesium stearate, reaching a contact angle of around 146°. Corrosion behavior show huge improvement, the progress with increase of treatment time could be related to the increased growth rate of coating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermal analysis of iron hydroxide microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcanu, C.N.; Cornescu, M.

    1979-03-01

    The thermal treatment is an important step in the preparative technology of the iron oxids microspheres with well established mechanical, physical and chemical characteristics. The first indications on the heating procedure have been obtained from the thermal analysis on iron hydroxide microspheres prepared by the support precipitation and internal gelification methods. (author)

  18. Formation of mixed hydroxides in the thorium chloride-iron chloride-sodium hydroxide system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivokhatskij, A.S.; Prokudina, A.F.; Sapozhnikova, T.V.

    1976-01-01

    The process of formation of mixed hydroxides in the system thorium chloride-iron chloride-NaOH was studied at commensurate concentrations of Th and Fe in solution (1:1 and 1:10 mole fractions, respectively) with ionic strength 0.3, 2.1, and 4.1, created with the electrolyte NaCl, at room temperature 22+-1degC. By the methods of chemical, potentiometric, thermographic, and IR-spectrometric analyses, it was shown that all the synthesized precipitates are mechanical mixtures of two phases - thorium hydroxide and iron hydroxide - and not a new hydrated compound. The formal solubility of the precipitates of mixed hydroxides was determined. It was shown that the numerical value of the formal solubility depends on the conditions of formation and age of the precipitates

  19. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. 872.3250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3250 Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. (a) Identification. A calcium hydroxide cavity liner is a device material intended to be applied to the interior of a...

  20. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.1326 Section 73.1326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide (Cr2O3·XH2O...

  1. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.2326 Section 73.2326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive chromium hydroxide green shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  2. Polysulfide intercalated layered double hydroxides for metal capture applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Ma, Shulan

    2017-04-04

    Polysulfide intercalated layered double hydroxides and methods for their use in vapor and liquid-phase metal capture applications are provided. The layered double hydroxides comprise a plurality of positively charged host layers of mixed metal hydroxides separated by interlayer spaces. Polysulfide anions are intercalated in the interlayer spaces.

  3. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010... GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white, odorless...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1495 - Magnesium test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... magnesium levels in serum and plasma. Magnesium measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of hypomagnesemia (abnormally low plasma levels of magnesium) and hypermagnesemia (abnormally high plasma levels of magnesium). (b) Classification. Class I. ...

  5. Myth or Reality-Transdermal Magnesium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröber, Uwe; Werner, Tanja; Vormann, Jürgen; Kisters, Klaus

    2017-07-28

    In the following review, we evaluated the current literature and evidence-based data on transdermal magnesium application and show that the propagation of transdermal magnesium is scientifically unsupported. The importance of magnesium and the positive effects of magnesium supplementation are extensively documented in magnesium deficiency, e.g., cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. The effectiveness of oral magnesium supplementation for the treatment of magnesium deficiency has been studied in detail. However, the proven and well-documented oral magnesium supplementation has become questioned in the recent years through intensive marketing for its transdermal application (e.g., magnesium-containing sprays, magnesium flakes, and magnesium salt baths). In both, specialist and lay press as well as on the internet, there are increasing numbers of articles claiming the effectiveness and superiority of transdermal magnesium over an oral application. It is claimed that the transdermal absorption of magnesium in comparison to oral application is more effective due to better absorption and fewer side effects as it bypasses the gastrointestinal tract.

  6. Effect of oxygen on the hydrogenation properties of magnesium films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostenfeld, Christopher Worsøe; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2006-01-01

    The effect of magnesium oxide on the magnesium and hydrogen desorption properties of magnesium films have been investigated. We find that by capping metallic magnesium films with oxide overlayers the apparent desorption energy of magnesium is increased from 146 kJ/mol to 314 kJ/mol. The results...... are discussed in light of previous investigations of ball-milled magnesium powders....

  7. Arsenic adsorption in pre-treatment natural zeolite with magnesium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia Z, F.; Valenzuela G, J. L.; Aguayo S, S.; Meza F, D.

    2009-01-01

    A methodology was developed to modify a natural zeolite (chabazite) with magnesium oxide in order to remove arsenic (As +5 ) from water for human consumption. It is proposed a magnesium oxide while regarded as an efficient adsorbent for removing metals in water. X-ray diffraction analyses show significant changes in the chabazite due to the presence of oxides and amorphous hydroxides incorporated during the pre-treatment. Experimental design results show an efficiency greater than 90% of As +5 adsorbed in five minutes. The results indicate that the most significant variables affecting the adsorption of As +5 are the initial concentration of As and the solid/liquid ratio. Experimental data fitted better to Freundlich isotherm with a 20.17 mg/g adsorption capability. (Author)

  8. Corrosion resistance of biomimetic calcium phosphate coatings on magnesium due to varying pretreatment time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterman, J., E-mail: jay.waterman@pg.canterbury.ac.nz [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand); Pietak, A. [Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Birbilis, N. [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University (Australia); Woodfield, T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Otago, Christchurch (New Zealand); Dias, G. [Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Staiger, M.P., E-mail: mark.staiger@canterbury.ac.nz [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2011-12-15

    Calcium phosphate coatings were prepared on magnesium substrates via a biomimetic coating process. The effects of a magnesium hydroxide pretreatment on the formation and the ultimate corrosion protection of the coatings were studied. The pretreatment layer was found to affect the amount of defects present in the coatings. Corrosion resistance of the coatings was studied in vitro using two simulated body fluids, 0.8% NaCl and Hanks solution. In NaCl, the resistance to corrosion of all samples decreases with time as corrosion proceeded through cracks and other defects in the coatings. Samples with no pretreatment displayed the highest corrosion resistance as these samples had the fewest defects in the coating. However, in Hanks solution, corrosion resistance increased with time due to additional nucleation of calcium phosphate from the fluid on to the substrate. In this solution, additional pretreatment time was beneficial to the overall corrosion resistance.

  9. In vitro toxicity test of nano-sized magnesium oxide synthesized via solid-phase transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Zhou, Wei

    2018-04-01

    Nano-sized magnesium oxide (MgO) has been a promising potential material for biomedical pharmaceuticals. In the present investigation, MgO nanoparticles synthesized through in-situ solid-phase transformation based on the previous work (nano-Mg(OH)2 prepared by precipitation technique) using magnesium nitrate and sodium hydroxide. The phase structure and morphology of the MgO nanoparticles are characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), selected area electronic diffraction (SAED) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) respectively. In vitro hemolysis tests are adopted to evaluate the toxicity of the synthesized nano-MgO. The results evident that nano-MgO with lower concentration is slightly hemolytic, and with concentration increasing nano-MgO exhibit dose-responsive hemolysis.

  10. Synthesis of Binary Magnesium-Transition Metal Oxides via Inverse Coprecipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Shunsuke; Ichikawa, Yuya; Yamada, Ikuya; Doi, Takayuki; Ichitsubo, Tetsu; Matsubara, Eiichiro

    2013-02-01

    Synthesis of binary magnesium-transition metal oxides, MgM2O4 (M: Cr, Mn, Fe, Co) and MgNiO2, was performed by calcination at relatively low temperatures of 500 and 750 °C for 24 h through inverse coprecipitation of carbonate hydroxide precursors. The important roles of the precipitation agent, sodium carbonate, were clarified by considering equilibria in an aqueous solution. The structure parameters of the obtained binary magnesium-transition metal oxide powders, specifically the occupancy of atomic sites, were evaluated from synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) profiles by Rietveld refinement in addition to the magnetic properties at room temperature. The present work provides general guidelines for low-cost and high-volume synthesis of complex oxides, which are easily decomposed at high temperatures.

  11. Alkoxide-based magnesium electrolyte compositions for magnesium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sheng; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liao, Chen; Guo, Bingkun

    2018-01-30

    Alkoxide magnesium halide compounds having the formula: RO--Mg--X (1) wherein R is a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbon group that is unsubstituted, or alternatively, substituted with one or more heteroatom linkers and/or one or more heteroatom-containing groups comprising at least one heteroatom selected from fluorine, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and silicon; and X is a halide atom. Also described are electrolyte compositions containing a compound of Formula (1) in a suitable polar aprotic or ionic solvent, as well as magnesium batteries in which such electrolytes are incorporated.

  12. System and process for production of magnesium metal and magnesium hydride from magnesium-containing salts and brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrail, Peter B.; Nune, Satish K.; Motkuri, Radha K.; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra; Koech, Phillip K.; Adint, Tyler T.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Liu, Jian

    2016-11-22

    A system and process are disclosed for production of consolidated magnesium metal products and alloys with selected densities from magnesium-containing salts and feedstocks. The system and process employ a dialkyl magnesium compound that decomposes to produce the Mg metal product. Energy requirements and production costs are lower than for conventional processing.

  13. Preparation and properties of UV curable organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites based on layered double hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shichang Lv; Wenfang Shi

    2007-01-01

    The organo-modified layered double hydroxides (LDHs), M-LDH and N-LDH, were obtained by the ionic exchange reaction of a magnesium-aluminium nitrate LDH with modifiers. The LDHs/acrylate organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites were prepared from organo-modified LDHs, and aliphatic polyurethane acrylate oligomer and an acrylate monomer, through a bulk photopolymerization process at the presence of a photoinitiator. The effects of LDHs content in the resin on the dispersion, and the properties of UV cured nanocomposites film were investigated by using X-ray diffraction, FTIR, thermal analysis, pendulum/pencil hardness measurement. With the good solubility in acrylate resins, the organo-modified LDHs are hopefully to be used in adhesives, coating, inks as toughness modifiers, fire-retardant additives. (Author)

  14. Reduction of biselenites into polyselenides in interlayer space of layered double hydroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myeong Shin; Lee, Yongju; Park, Yong-Min; Cha, Ji-Hyun; Jung, Duk-Young

    2018-06-01

    A selenous acid (H2SeO3) precursor was intercalated as biselenite (HSeO3-) ions into the interlayer gallery of carbonated magnesium aluminum layered double hydroxide (MgAl-LDH) in aqueous solution. Reduction reaction of selenous ions by aqueous hydrazine solution produced polyselenide intercalated LDHs which were consecutively exchanged with iodide through redox reaction under iodine vapor. The polyselenide containing LDHs adsorbed iodine vapor spontaneously and triiodide was incorporated in the interlayer space followed by formation of selenium polycrystalline phase. Two dimensional framework of MgAl-LDH is strong enough to resist against the reducing power of hydrazine as well as oxidation condition of iodine. The SEM data demonstrated that the shapes of LDH polycrystalline have little changed after the above redox reactions. The polyselenide and iodide LDH products were analyzed by XRD, Infrared and Raman spectra which strongly suggested the horizontal arrangement of polyselenide and triiodide in gallery space of LDHs.

  15. Magnesium sulphate for fetal neuroprotection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bickford, Celeste D; Magee, Laura A; Mitton, Craig

    2013-01-01

    of cerebral palsy (CP) averted and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). RESULTS: From a health system and a societal perspective, respectively, a savings of $2,242 and $112,602 is obtained for each QALY gained and a savings of $30,942 and $1,554,198 is obtained for each case of CP averted when magnesium......BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of administering magnesium sulphate to patients in whom preterm birth at ... sensitivity analyses were used to compare the administration of magnesium sulphate with the alternative of no treatment. Two separate cost perspectives were utilized in this series of analyses: a health system and a societal perspective. In addition, two separate measures of effectiveness were utilized: cases...

  16. Telomere Homeostasis: Interplay with Magnesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donogh Maguire

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomere biology, a key component of the hallmarks of ageing, offers insight into dysregulation of normative ageing processes that accompany age-related diseases such as cancer. Telomere homeostasis is tightly linked to cellular metabolism, and in particular with mitochondrial physiology, which is also diminished during cellular senescence and normative physiological ageing. Inherent in the biochemistry of these processes is the role of magnesium, one of the main cellular ions and an essential cofactor in all reactions that use ATP. Magnesium plays an important role in many of the processes involved in regulating telomere structure, integrity and function. This review explores the mechanisms that maintain telomere structure and function, their influence on circadian rhythms and their impact on health and age-related disease. The pervasive role of magnesium in telomere homeostasis is also highlighted.

  17. Magnesium and related low alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.; Caillat, R.; Darras, R.

    1959-01-01

    In the first part the authors examine the comparative corrosion of commercial magnesium, of a magnesium-zirconium alloy (0,4 per cent ≤ Zr ≤ 0,7 per cent) of a ternary magnesium-zinc-zirconium alloy (0,8 per cent ≤ Zn ≤ 1,2 per cent) and of english 'Magnox type' alloys, in dry carbon dioxide-free air, in damp carbon dioxide-free air, and in dry and damp carbon dioxide, at temperatures from 300 to 600 deg. C. In the second part the structural stability of these materials is studied after annealings, of 10 to 1000 hours at 300 to 450 deg. C. Variations in grain after these heat treatments and mechanical stretching properties at room temperature are presented. Finally various creep rate and life time diagrams are given for these materials, for temperatures ranging from 300 to 450 deg. C. (author) [fr

  18. Novel low temperature synthesis of spinel nano-magnesium chromites from secondary resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sheikh, S.M., E-mail: selsheikh2001@gmail.com [Nanostructured Materials Laboratory, Advanced Material Department, Central Metallurgical R and D Institute (CMRDI), P.O. Box 78, Helwan, 11421 Cairo (Egypt); Rabbah, M., E-mail: mahmoud.rabah@ymail.com [Electrochemical and Chemical Treatment Laboratory, Minerals Department, Central Metallurgical R and D Institute (CMRDI), P.O. Box 78, Helwan, 11421 Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-09-20

    Graphical abstract: FE-SEM micrograph and TEM image of magnesium chromite sample heated at 500 °C. - Highlights: • No study has been reported to prepare spinel magnesium chromite form waste resources. • Novel low synthesis temperature of magnesium chromite. • Selective removal of Ca ions from industrial waste tannery solution is rarely reported. • The method applied is simple and safe. - Abstract: A novel low temperature method for synthesis of nano-crystalline magnesium chromites from the tannery waste solution was investigated. Magnesium and chromium hydroxides gel was co-precipitated at pH 8.5 using ammonia solution. MgCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} was obtained by heating the gel formed at different temperatures 300–500 °C for to 8 h. FT-IR, TG-DTG-DTA, FE-SEM and TEM were used to investigate the produced materials. XRD patterns of the primary oxides revealed the formation of amorphous oxide phase by heating at 300 °C. Heating at 400 °C produces nano-crystallite magnesium chromites partly having the structure MgCrO{sub 4} and mainly MgCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} and traces of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup +} 500 °C MgCrO{sub 4} mostly decomposed into MgCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} structure{sub .} After 8 h of heating at 500 °C, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} completely disappeared. A high surface area about 42.6 m{sup 2}/g and mesoporous structure was obtained for the produced sample at 500 °C for 8 h. A thermodynamic model has been suggested to explain the findings.

  19. The analysis of magnesium oxide hydration in three-phase reaction system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Xiaojia; Guo, Lin; Chen, Chen; Liu, Quan; Li, Tie; Zhu, Yimin, E-mail: ntp@dlmu.edu.cn

    2014-05-01

    In order to investigate the magnesium oxide hydration process in gas–liquid–solid (three-phase) reaction system, magnesium hydroxide was prepared by magnesium oxide hydration in liquid–solid (two-phase) and three-phase reaction systems. A semi-empirical model and the classical shrinking core model were used to fit the experimental data. The fitting result shows that both models describe well the hydration process of three-phase system, while only the semi-empirical model right for the hydration process of two-phase system. The characterization of the hydration product using X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) was performed. The XRD and SEM show hydration process in the two-phase system follows common dissolution/precipitation mechanism. While in the three-phase system, the hydration process undergo MgO dissolution, Mg(OH){sub 2} precipitation, Mg(OH){sub 2} peeling off from MgO particle and leaving behind fresh MgO surface. - Graphical abstract: There was existence of a peeling-off process in the gas–liquid–solid (three-phase) MgO hydration system. - Highlights: • Magnesium oxide hydration in gas–liquid–solid system was investigated. • The experimental data in three-phase system could be fitted well by two models. • The morphology analysis suggested that there was existence of a peel-off process.

  20. Magnesium and related low alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, J; Caillat, R; Darras, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    In the first part the authors examine the comparative corrosion of commercial magnesium, of a magnesium-zirconium alloy (0,4 per cent {<=} Zr {<=} 0,7 per cent) of a ternary magnesium-zinc-zirconium alloy (0,8 per cent {<=} Zn {<=} 1,2 per cent) and of english 'Magnox type' alloys, in dry carbon dioxide-free air, in damp carbon dioxide-free air, and in dry and damp carbon dioxide, at temperatures from 300 to 600 deg. C. In the second part the structural stability of these materials is studied after annealings, of 10 to 1000 hours at 300 to 450 deg. C. Variations in grain after these heat treatments and mechanical stretching properties at room temperature are presented. Finally various creep rate and life time diagrams are given for these materials, for temperatures ranging from 300 to 450 deg. C. (author) [French] Dans une premiere partie les auteurs etudient la corrosion comparee du magnesium commercial, d'un alliage magnesium-zirconium (0,4 pour cent {<=} Zr {<=} 0,7 pour cent), d'un alliage ternaire magnesium-zinc-zirconium (0,8 pour cent {<=} Zn {<=} 1,2 pour cent), et d'alliages anglais 'type Magnox', dans l'air sec decarbonate, l'air humide decarbonate, le gaz carbonique sec et humide a des temperatures de 300 a 600 deg. C. Dans une seconde partie, est etudiee la stabilite structurale de ces materiaux apres des recuits de 300 a 450 deg. C, et de 10 a 1000 heures. Sont presentees les variations, apres ces traitements thermiques, de la grosseur du grain, et des caracteristiques mecaniques de traction a la temperature ambiante. Enfin, quelques diagrammes de vitesse de fluage et de durees de vie sont presentes sur ces materiaux pour des temperatures variant entre 300 et 450 deg. C. (auteur)

  1. 21 CFR 582.5431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.5431 Section 582.5431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.1431 Section 582.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM SULFATE (A LAXATIVE) ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use with little success . Magnesium sulfate also known as Epsom salt or bitter salt is a hydrate salt with a chemical name of magnesium sulfate heptahydrate . Chemical formula is MgSO. 7HO and trade name is. Andrews liver salt. Dried magnesium sulfate is an osmotic laxative or a saline laxative that acts by increasing the.

  4. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  5. Research Progress in Plasma arc welding of Magnesium Alloys and Magnesium Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Li; Yang, Zou; Yongbo, Li; Lei, Jiao; Ruijun, Hou

    2017-11-01

    Magnesium alloys and magnesium matrix composites by means of its excellent performance have wide application prospect in electronics, automotive, biotechnology, aerospace field, and welding technology has become a key of restricting its application. This paper describes the welding characteristics of magnesium, the obvious advantages in the application and the domestic and foreign research advance technology of plasma arc welding of magnesium, and summarizes the existing problems and development trends of plasma arc welding technology of magnesium.

  6. Magnesium Diboride Current Leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, John

    2010-01-01

    A recently discovered superconductor, magnesium diboride (MgB2), can be used to fabricate conducting leads used in cryogenic applications. Dis covered to be superconducting in 2001, MgB2 has the advantage of remaining superconducting at higher temperatures than the previously used material, NbTi. The purpose of these leads is to provide 2 A of electricity to motors located in a 1.3 K environment. The providing environment is a relatively warm 17 K. Requirements for these leads are to survive temperature fluctuations in the 5 K and 11 K heat sinks, and not conduct excessive heat into the 1.3 K environment. Test data showed that each lead in the assembly could conduct 5 A at 4 K, which, when scaled to 17 K, still provided more than the required 2 A. The lead assembly consists of 12 steelclad MgB2 wires, a tensioned Kevlar support, a thermal heat sink interface at 4 K, and base plates. The wires are soldered to heavy copper leads at the 17 K end, and to thin copper-clad NbTi leads at the 1.3 K end. The leads were designed, fabricated, and tested at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe - Institut foer Technische Physik before inclusion in Goddard's XRS (X-Ray Spectrometer) instrument onboard the Astro-E2 spacecraft. A key factor is that MgB2 remains superconducting up to 30 K, which means that it does not introduce joule heating as a resistive wire would. Because the required temperature ranges are 1.3-17 K, this provides a large margin of safety. Previous designs lost superconductivity at around 8 K. The disadvantage to MgB2 is that it is a brittle ceramic, and making thin wires from it is challenging. The solution was to encase the leads in thin steel tubes for strength. Previous designs were so brittle as to risk instrument survival. MgB2 leads can be used in any cryogenic application where small currents need to be conducted at below 30 K. Because previous designs would superconduct only at up to 8 K, this new design would be ideal for the 8-30 K range.

  7. Interactions between iron(III)-hydroxide polymaltose complex and commonly used medications / laboratory studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Felix; Canclini, Camillo; Geisser, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Simple iron salts, such as iron sulphate, often interact with food and other medications reducing bioavailability and tolerability. Iron(III)-hydroxide polymaltose complex (IPC, Maltofer) provides a soluble form of non-ionic iron, making it an ideal form of oral iron supplementation. The physicochemical properties of IPC predict a low potential for interactions. The effects of co-administration with aluminium hydroxide (CAS 21645-51-2), acetylsalicylic acid (CAS 50-78-2), bromazepam (CAS 1812-30-2), calcium acetate (CAS 62-54-4), calcium carbonate (CAS 471-34-1), auranofin (CAS 34031-32-8), magnesium-L-aspartate hydrochloride (CAS 28184-71-6), methyldopa sesquihydrate (CAS 41372-08-1), paracetamol (CAS 103-90-2), penicillamine (CAS 52-67-5), sulfasalazine (CAS 599-79-1), tetracycline hydrochloride (CAS 64-75-5), calcium phosphate (CAS 7757-93-9) in combination with vitamin D3 (CAS 67-97-0), and a multi-vitamin preparation were tested in rats fed an iron-deficient diet. Uptake of iron from radiolabelled IPC with and without concomitant medications was compared. None of the medicines tested had a significant effect on iron uptake. Iron-59 retrieval from blood and major storage organs was 64-76% for IPC alone compared with 59-85% following co-administration with other medications. It is concluded that, under normal clinical conditions, IPC does not interact with these medications.

  8. Nickel hydroxide modified electrodes for urea determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Dall´Antonia

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Nickel hydroxide films were prepared by electrodeposition from a solution Ni(NO32 0,05 mol L ?¹ on ITO electrodes (Tin oxide doped with Indium on PET-like plastic film, applying a current of - 0,1 A cm ?² during different time intervals between 1800 and 7200 s. The electrochemical behavior of the nickel hydroxide electrode was investigated through a cyclic voltammogram, in NaOH 1,0 mol L ?¹, where it was observed two peaks in the profile in 0,410 and 0,280 V, corresponding to redox couple Ni(II/Ni(III. A sensor for urea presenting a satisfactory answer can be obtained when, after the deposit of the film of Ni(OH2 on the electrode of nickel, it is immersed in a solution of NaOH 1,0 mol L ?¹ and applying a potential of + 0,435 V, where the maximum of the anodic current occurs in the cyclic voltammogram. Analyzing the results it can be observed that, for a range of analite concentration between 5 to 50 m mol L ?¹, the behavior is linear and the sensibility found was of 20,3 mA cm?² (mol L?¹?¹, presenting reproducibility confirming the nickel hydroxide electrodes utilization for the determination of urea.

  9. Nickel-cobalt hydroxide nanosheets: Synthesis, morphology and electrochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderová, Barbora; Demel, Jan; Zhigunov, Alexander; Bohuslav, Jan; Tarábková, Hana; Janda, Pavel; Lang, Kamil

    2017-08-01

    This paper reports the synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical performance of nickel-cobalt hydroxide nanosheets. The hydroxide nanosheets of approximately 0.7nm thickness were prepared by delamination of layered nickel-cobalt hydroxide lactate in water and formed transparent colloids that were stable for months. The nanosheets were deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite by spin coating, and their electrochemical behavior was investigated by cyclic voltammetry in potassium hydroxide electrolyte. Our method of electrode preparation allows for studying the electrochemistry of nanosheets where the majority of the active centers can participate in the charge transfer reaction. The observed electrochemical response was ascribed to mutual compensation of the cobalt and nickel response via electron sharing between these metals in the hydroxide nanosheets, a process that differentiates the behavior of nickel-cobalt hydroxide nanosheets from single nickel hydroxide or cobalt hydroxide nanosheets or their physical mixture. The presence of cobalt in the nickel-cobalt hydroxide nanosheets apparently decreases the time of electrochemical activation of the nanosheet layer, which for the nickel hydroxide nanosheets alone requires more potential sweeps. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An alternative magnesium-based root canal disinfectant: Preliminary study of its efficacy against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Organisms invading root canal systems result in serious pulpal and periapical disease. To eliminate microorganisms and restrain secondary infections, dental materials with antibacterial properties are urgently needed in endodontics. Magnesium is considered as a promising biodegradable and biocompatible implant material. However, there are barely researches about its application in endodontic therapy. This work investigated the in vitro efficacy of magnesium powder against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans compared with a common disinfectant, calcium hydroxide. With Calcium hydroxide served as a comparison it demonstrated the qualified antibacterial and anti-fungus properties of Mg as root canal disinfectant due to its high alkalinity of degradation, and the antimicrobial efficacy enhanced with the decreasing powder size.

  11. On the effect of interaction of molybdenum trioxide and magnesium oxide in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunin, V.M.; Karelin, A.I.; Solov'eva, L.N.

    1992-01-01

    Interaction of molybdenum trioxide and magnesium oxide in water was studied. It is shown that molybdenum trioxide forms consecutively magnesium molybdate, dimolybdate and magnesium polymolybdates with magnesium oxide

  12. A SEARCH FOR MAGNESIUM IN EUROPA'S ATMOSPHERE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hörst, S. M.; Brown, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    Europa's tenuous atmosphere results from sputtering of the surface. The trace element composition of its atmosphere is therefore related to the composition of Europa's surface. Magnesium salts are often invoked to explain Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer spectra of Europa's surface, thus magnesium may be present in Europa's atmosphere. We have searched for magnesium emission in the Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph archival spectra of Europa's atmosphere. Magnesium was not detected and we calculate an upper limit on the magnesium column abundance. This upper limit indicates that either Europa's surface is depleted in magnesium relative to sodium and potassium, or magnesium is not sputtered as efficiently resulting in a relative depletion in its atmosphere.

  13. Nucleation and growth kinetics of zirconium hydroxide by precipitation with ammonium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carleson, T.E.; Chipman, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a study of the nucleation and growth kinetics of the precipitation of zirconium hydroxide from the reaction of hexafluorozirconate solution with ammonium hydroxide are reported. The McCabe linear growth rate model was used to correlate the results. The growth rate decreased with residence time and supersaturation for studies with 7 residence times (3.5 - 90 minutes and two supersaturation ratios (0.03 - 0.04, and 0.4). The nucleation rate increased with residence time and supersaturation. A negative kinetic order of nucleation was observed that may be due to the inhibition of particle growth by adsorption of reacting species on the crystal surfaces

  14. Antimicrobial Activity of Calcium Hydroxide in Endodontics: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalavi, S; Yazdizadeh, M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of endodontic therapy is to preserve the patient's natural teeth without compromising the patient's local or systemic health. Calcium hydroxide has been included in several materials and antimicrobial formulations that are used in several treatment modalities in endodontics, such as inter-appointment intracanal medicaments. The purpose of this article was to review the antimicrobial properties of calcium hydroxide in endodontics. Calcium hydroxide has a high pH (approximately 12.5-12.8) and is classified chemically as a strong base. The lethal effects of calcium hydroxide on bacterial cells are probably due to protein denaturation and damage to DNA and cytoplasmic membranes. Calcium hydroxide has a wide range of antimicrobial activity against common endodontic pathogens but is less effective against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Calcium hydroxide is also a valuable anti-endotoxin agent. However, its effect on microbial biofilms is controversial. PMID:23323217

  15. Coupling biofiltration process and electrocoagulation using magnesium-based anode for the treatment of landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oumar, Dia; Patrick, Drogui; Gerardo, Buelna; Rino, Dubé; Ihsen, Ben Salah

    2016-10-01

    In this research paper, a combination of biofiltration (BF) and electrocoagulation (EC) processes was used for the treatment of sanitary landfill leachate. Landfill leachate is often characterized by the presence of refractory organic compounds (BOD/COD < 0.13). BF process was used as secondary treatment to remove effectively ammonia nitrogen (N-NH4 removal of 94%), BOD (94% removed), turbidity (95% removed) and phosphorus (more than 98% removed). Subsequently, EC process using magnesium-based anode was used as tertiary treatment. The best performances of COD and color removal from landfill leachate were obtained by applying a current density of 10 mA/cm(2) through 30 min of treatment. The COD removal reached 53%, whereas 85% of color removal was recorded. It has been proved that the alkalinity had a negative effect on COD removal during EC treatment. COD removal efficiencies of 52%, 41% and 27% were recorded in the presence of 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 g/L of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), respectively. Hydroxide ions produced at the cathode electrode reacted with the bicarbonate ions to form carbonates. The presence of bicarbonates in solution hampered the increase in pH, so that the precipitation of magnesium hydroxides could not take place to effectively remove organic pollutants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis of polymer nanocomposites using layered hydroxide salts (LHS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Paula F. de M.P.B.; Lona, Liliane M.F.; Marangoni, Rafael; Wypych, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    In this work latexes of poly (methyl methacrylate) were synthesized via emulsion polymerization using layered hydroxide salts (LHS) as reinforcements: zinc hydroxide nitrate (Zn 5 (OH) 8 (NO 3 ) 2 ·2H 2 O) and copper hydroxide acetate (Cu 2 (OH) 3 CH 3 COO.H 2 O). The LHSs were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Mastersizer analysis indicated the particle diameter of the latexes. Molecular weights and conversion data were also obtained. (author)

  17. Nickel-cobalt hydroxide nanosheets: Synthesis, morphology and electrochemical properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schneiderová, Barbora; Demel, Jan; Zhigunov, Alexander; Bohuslav, Jan; Tarábková, Hana; Janda, Pavel; Lang, Kamil

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 499, AUG (2017), s. 138-144 ISSN 0021-9797 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:61389013 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : Hydroxide nanosheets * Delamination * Exfoliation * Layered nickel hydroxide * Layered cobalt hydroxide * Electrode material Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W); CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry; Physical chemistry (UFCH-W); Polymer science (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 4.233, year: 2016

  18. Two-dimensional metal oxide and metal hydroxide nanosheets: synthesis, controlled assembly and applications in energy conversion and storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Elshof, Johan E.; Yuan, H.; Gonzalez Rodriguez, P.

    2016-01-01

    The developments and state of the art in the research on two-dimensional nanosheets derived from layered metal oxides and layered metal hydroxides are reviewed in this paper, with emphasis on their promising applications in various new energy technologies, i.e., as supercapacitor electrodes, lithium

  19. Absorption of magnesium, labelled with magnesium-28, from the stomach of the young steer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.H.; Horn, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    Steers with cannulae in the rumen and duodenum were given dried grass twice daily. Concentrations of magnesium in strained rumen contents varied from 3-6 mM of which about 84% was ultrafilterable at the pH values obtaining (6.4-7.0). Adjustment of pH in vitro showed that a marked decrease in ultrafilterability occurred only above pH 7.0. Samples of strained rumen contents, taken 1-8 h after 28 Mg as the chloride was added to the rumen, contained 80-90% of the 28 Mg in a soluble and probably ultrafilterable, form. The 28 Mg was added about 1 h after the morning feed together with a non-absorbable marker (PEG). PEG was shown to be a valid marker by comparing its overall recovery with that of 144 Ce. In some experiments sufficient 0.3 M H 2 SO 4 was infused into the rumen to reduce the pH of the contents by about 0.6 units; in control experiments 0.3 M Na 2 SO 4 was similarly infused. Ratios of 28 Mg/PEG in samples from the rumen were about 18% lower than in the dose irrespective of treatment or time after infusion up to 8 h, but it appeared that this was due to uneven distribution within the rumen rather than magnesium absorption. Relative recoveries of 28 Mg and PEG in duodenal samples were estimated at intervals up to 54 h after their addition to the rumen. Mean derived values (+-S.E.M., 2 steers) for absorption of 28 Mg up to this site were 12+-6% for the control condition and 22+-5% when acid was infused. This small increase may have been related to an observed small increase in magnesium solubility. (author)

  20. Effective Production of Sorbitol and Mannitol from Sugars Catalyzed by Ni Nanoparticles Supported on Aluminium Hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodiansono Rodiansono

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Effective production of hexitols (sorbitol and mannitol was achieved from sugars by means of nickel nanoparticles supported on aluminium hydroxide (NiNPs/AlOH catalyst. NiNPs/AlOH catalyst was prepared by a simple and benign environmentally procedure using less amount of sodium hydroxide. ICP-AES and XRD analyses confirmed that the NiNPs/AlOH catalysts comprised a large amount of remained aluminium hydroxide (i.e. bayerite and gibbsite. The presence of aluminium hydroxide caused a high dispersion Ni metal species. The average Ni crystallite sizes that derived from the Scherrer`s equation for former R-Ni and NiNPs/AlOH were 8.6 nm and 4.1 nm, respectively. The catalyst exhibited high activity and selectivity both hydrogenolysis of disaccharides (sucrose and cellobiose and monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, and xylose at 403 K for 24 h. The NiNPs/AlOH catalyst was found to be reusable for at least five consecutive runs without any significant loss of activity and selectivity. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 21st December 2012; Revised: 7th February 2013; Accepted: 10th February 2013[How to Cite: Rodiansono, R., Shimazu, S. (2013. Effective Production of Sorbitol and Mannitol from Sug-ars Catalyzed by Ni Nanoparticles Supported on Aluminium Hydroxide. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 40-46. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4290.40-46][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4290.40-46] | View in  |

  1. Sound velocity in potassium hydroxide aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapuryan, Kh.D.; Aleksandrov, A.A.; Kochetkov, A.I.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of ultrasonic velocities in potassium hydroxide aqueous solutions are carried out within the frames of studies on improvement of water chemistry in NPP cooling systems. Method of echo pulses superposition with acoustic path length of 41.447 mm is used for measurements. The measurements are performed at 2.6 MHz frequency. Complex temperature dependence of ultrasonic velocity is determined. Ultrasonic velocity dependence on pressure is close to linear one. The formula for calculation of thermodynamic properties of the studied solutions on the basis of experimental data obtained is proposed

  2. Dehydration-rehydration behaviour of zirconium hydroxide and aluminium hydroxide coprecipitated hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, N.K.; Guha, P.; Basumajumdar, A.

    1989-01-01

    Equilibrium dehydration loss experiments on zirconium and aluminium hydroxide coprecipitated hyrogels were carried out up to 600deg and the above heat treated samples were subjected to rehydration at various humidities in order to study the structural flexibilties of the above hydrogel with respect to orientation of water molecules. (author). 6 refs., 3 tabs

  3. Magnesium-based implants: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthringer, Bérengère J C; Feyerabend, Frank; Willumeit-Römer, Regine

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this review is to bring to the attention of the readership of Magnesium Research another facet of the importance of magnesium, i.e. magnesium-based biomaterials. A concise history of biomaterials and magnesium are thus presented. In addition, historical and current, clinical magnesium-based applications are presented.

  4. Development of polymer nanocomposites based on layered double hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sipusic, J.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric nanocomposites are commonly considered as systems composed of a polymeric matrix and - usually inorganic - filler. The types of nanofillers are indicated in Fig. 1. Beside wellknown layered silicate fillers, recent attention is attracted to layered double hydroxide fillers (LDH, mainly of synthetic origin. The structure of LDH is based on brucite, or magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH2 and is illustrated in Fig. 2. The modification of LDHs is commonly done by organic anions, to increase the original interlayer distance and to improve the organophilicity of the filler, keeping in mind their final application as fillers for, usually hydrophobic, polymer matrices. We have used the modified rehydration procedure for preparing organically modified LDH. The stoichiometric quantities of Ca33Al2O6, CaO and benzoic (B (or undecenoic (U acid were mixed with water and some acetone. After long and vigorous shaking, the precipitated fillers were washed, dried and characterized. X-ray diffraction method (XRD has shown the increase of the original interlayer distance for unmodified LDH (OH–-saturated of 0.76 nm to the 1.6 nm in LDH-B or LDH-U fillers (Fig. 3. Infrared spectroscopy method (FTIR has confirmed the incorporation of benzoic anion within the filler layers (Fig. 4. For the preparation of LDH-B and LDH-U composites with polystyrene (PS, poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA and copolymer (SMMA matrices, a two-step in situ bulk radical polymerization was selected (Table 1 for recipes, azobisisobutyronitrile as initiator, using conventional stirred tank reactor in the first step, and heated mold with the movable wall (Fig. 6 in the second step of polymerization. All the prepared composites with LDH-U fillers were macroscopically phase-separated, as was the PMMA/LDH-B composite.PS/LDH-B and SMMA/LDH-B samples were found to be transparent and were further examined for deduction of their structure (Fig. 5 and thermal properties. FTIR measurements showed that

  5. Calcium and magnesium silicate hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lothenbach, B.; L'Hopital, E.; Nied, D.; Achiedo, G.; Dauzeres, A.

    2015-01-01

    Deep geological disposals are planed to discard long-lived intermediate-level and high-level radioactive wastes. Clay-based geological barriers are expected to limit the ingress of groundwater and to reduce the mobility of radioelements. In the interaction zone between the cement and the clay based material alteration can occur. Magnesium silicate hydrates (M-S-H) have been observed due to the reaction of magnesium sulfate containing groundwater with cements or in the interaction zone between low-pH type cement and clays. M-S-H samples synthesized in the laboratory showed that M-S-H has a variable composition within 0.7 ≤ Mg/Si ≤ 1.5. TEM/EDS analyses show an homogeneous gel with no defined structure. IR and 29 Si NMR data reveal a higher polymerization degree of the silica network in M-S-H compared to calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H). The presence of mainly Q 3 silicate tetrahedrons in M-S-H indicates a sheet like or a triple-chain silica structure while C-S-H is characterised by single chain-structure. The clear difference in the silica structure and the larger ionic radius of Ca 2+ (1.1 Angstrom) compared to Mg 2+ (0.8 Angstrom) make the formation of an extended solid solution between M-S-H and C-S-H gel improbable. In fact, the analyses of synthetic samples containing both magnesium and calcium in various ratios indicate the formation of separate M-S-H and C-S-H gels with no or very little uptake of magnesium in CS-H or calcium in M-S-H

  6. Individual and combined effects of chloride, sulfate, and magnesium ions on hydrated Portland-cement paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poole, T.S.; Wakeley, L.D.; Young, C.L.

    1994-03-01

    Ground water with a high concentration of magnesium ion is known to cause deterioration to portland cement concretes. A proposed mechanism for this deterioration process published previously involves an approximate 1:1 replacement of Ca ions by Mg ions in the crystalline phases of hydrated cement. The current study was undertaken to determine which ions, among magnesium, chloride, and sulfate, cause deterioration; whether their deleterious action is individual or interdependent; and to relate this mechanism of deterioration to the outlook for a 100-yr service life of concretes used in mass placements at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Loss of Ca ion by cement pastes was found to be strongly related to the concentration of Mg ion in simulated ground-water solutions in which the paste samples were aged. This was true of both salt- containing and conventional cement pastes. No other ion in the solutions exerted a strong effect on Ca loss. Ca ion left first from calcium hydroxide in the pastes, depleting all calcium hydroxide by 60 days. Some calcium silicate hydrate remained even after 90 days in the solutions with the highest concentration of Mg ion, while the paste samples deteriorated noticeably. The results indicated a mechanism that involves dissolution of Ca phases and transport of Ca ions to the surface of the sample, followed by formation of Mg-bearing phases at this reaction surface rather than directly by substitution within the microstructure of hydrated cement. Given that calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate hydrate are the principal strength-giving phases of hydrated cement, this mechanism indicates the likelihood of significant loss of integrity of a concrete exposed to Mg-bearing ground water at the WIPP. The rate of deterioration ultimately will depend on Mg-ion concentration, the microstructure materials of the concrete exposed to that groundwater, and the availability of brine

  7. Synthesising methods of layered double hydroxides and its use in the fabrication of dye Sensitised solar cell (DSSC): A short review

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Giphin; Saravanakumar, M. P.

    2017-11-01

    The layered double hydroxides (LDH) which are anionic clay substances comprising of stacked cationic layers and interlayer anions. The cationic sheets contain octahedral structure consisting the divalent and trivalent ions in the center and hydroxyl bunches in the corners, gathered by three bonding with the neighbouring octahedra on every side of the layer. The ratio between the quantity of cations and OH- ions is 2:1, so a positive charge shows up on the layer because of the presence of trivalent cations. The interlayer space gives the compensation anions and water molecules, assuring a balanced out layered structure. The LDH materials were successfully synthesised from magnesium, aluminium, zinc and chromium chloride salts utilizing the co-precipitation technique. A Zn-Al LDH was researched as a potential sorbent material. This article reviews the recent advances in the preparation and intercalation of layered double hydroxides and its application in the fabrication of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC).

  8. Lightweight Heat Pipes Made from Magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, John N.; Zarembo, Sergei N.; Eastman, G. Yale

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium has shown promise as a lighter-weight alternative to the aluminum alloys now used to make the main structural components of axially grooved heat pipes that contain ammonia as the working fluid. Magnesium heat-pipe structures can be fabricated by conventional processes that include extrusion, machining, welding, and bending. The thermal performances of magnesium heat pipes are the same as those of equal-sized aluminum heat pipes. However, by virtue of the lower mass density of magnesium, the magnesium heat pipes weigh 35 percent less. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, magnesium heat pipes could also be attractive as heat-transfer devices in terrestrial applications in which minimization of weight is sought: examples include radio-communication equipment and laptop computers.

  9. Rare earth and zinc layered hydroxide salts intercalated with the 2-aminobenzoate anion as organic luminescent sensitizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cursino, Ana Cristina Trindade, E-mail: anacursino@ufpr.br [CEPESQ – Research Centre of Applied Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Universidade Federal do Paraná – P.O. Box 19081, 81531-980 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rives, Vicente, E-mail: vrives@usal.es [GIR-QUESCAT – Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced S/N, 37998 Salamanca (Spain); Arizaga, Gregorio Guadalupe Carbajal, E-mail: gregoriocarbajal@yahoo.com.mx [Universidad de Guadalajara, Department of Chemistry, Boulevard Marcelino García Barragán 1421, C.P. 44430 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Trujillano, Raquel, E-mail: rakel@usal.es [GIR-QUESCAT – Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced S/N, 37998 Salamanca (Spain); Wypych, Fernando, E-mail: wypych@ufpr.br [CEPESQ – Research Centre of Applied Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Universidade Federal do Paraná – P.O. Box 19081, 81531-980 Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Rare earth (RE = Eu, Y and Tb) and zinc layered hydroxide salts intercalated with nitrate anions were synthesized, followed by exchange with 2-aminobenzoate. The UV absorption ability was improved after intercalation/grafting in relation to that shown by the parent material. - Highlights: • Rare earth (RE = Eu, Y and Tb) and zinc layered hydroxide were synthesized. • Intercalated nitrate anions were exchanged by 2-aminobenzoate. • In all the 2-aminobenzoate containing compounds, the grafting reaction was detected. • The UV absorption ability was improved after the exchange reactions. • Rare earth hydroxide salts are potential matrixes to produce luminescent materials. - Abstract: Rare earth (RE = Eu, Y and Tb) and zinc layered hydroxide salts intercalated with nitrate anions were synthesized, followed by exchange with 2-aminobenzoate. The obtained compounds were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet visible (UV–vis) spectroscopies, fluorescence measurements and thermal analysis (TGA/DTA). The results from FTIR spectroscopy suggest a direct coordination of 2-aminobenzoate to the metal cations of the inorganic layered structure. The organic derivative products from the intercalation reactions absorb a broader range of UV-light in relation to that shown by the parent material; the photoluminescence measurements present a strong violet, blue and green luminescence under UV-light excitation for layered compounds with, Zn, Y and Tb, respectively. Rare earth hydroxide salts (RE-LHS) are potential alternative matrices for the immobilization of organic species to produce luminescent materials.

  10. Rare earth and zinc layered hydroxide salts intercalated with the 2-aminobenzoate anion as organic luminescent sensitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cursino, Ana Cristina Trindade; Rives, Vicente; Arizaga, Gregorio Guadalupe Carbajal; Trujillano, Raquel; Wypych, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth (RE = Eu, Y and Tb) and zinc layered hydroxide salts intercalated with nitrate anions were synthesized, followed by exchange with 2-aminobenzoate. The UV absorption ability was improved after intercalation/grafting in relation to that shown by the parent material. - Highlights: • Rare earth (RE = Eu, Y and Tb) and zinc layered hydroxide were synthesized. • Intercalated nitrate anions were exchanged by 2-aminobenzoate. • In all the 2-aminobenzoate containing compounds, the grafting reaction was detected. • The UV absorption ability was improved after the exchange reactions. • Rare earth hydroxide salts are potential matrixes to produce luminescent materials. - Abstract: Rare earth (RE = Eu, Y and Tb) and zinc layered hydroxide salts intercalated with nitrate anions were synthesized, followed by exchange with 2-aminobenzoate. The obtained compounds were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet visible (UV–vis) spectroscopies, fluorescence measurements and thermal analysis (TGA/DTA). The results from FTIR spectroscopy suggest a direct coordination of 2-aminobenzoate to the metal cations of the inorganic layered structure. The organic derivative products from the intercalation reactions absorb a broader range of UV-light in relation to that shown by the parent material; the photoluminescence measurements present a strong violet, blue and green luminescence under UV-light excitation for layered compounds with, Zn, Y and Tb, respectively. Rare earth hydroxide salts (RE-LHS) are potential alternative matrices for the immobilization of organic species to produce luminescent materials

  11. Vacuum FTIR study on the hygroscopicity of magnesium acetate aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Cai, Chen; He, Xiang; Pang, Shu-Feng; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2018-03-01

    Hygroscopicity and volatility of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are two important properties, which determine the composition, concentration, size, phase state of SOA and thus chemical and optical properties for SOA. In this work, magnesium acetate (Mg(Ac)2) aerosol was used as a simple SOA model in order to reveal relationship between hygroscopicity and volatility. A novel approach was set up based on a combination of a vacuum FTIR spectrometer and a home-made relative humidity (RH) controlling system. The striking advantage of this approach was that the RH and the compositions of aerosols could be obtained from a same IR spectrum, which guaranteed the synchronism between RH and spectral features on a sub-second scale. At the constant RH of 90% and 80% for 3000 s, the water content within Mg(Ac)2 aerosol particles decreased about 19.0% and 9.4% while there were 13.4% and 6.0% of acetate loss. This was attributed to a cooperation between volatile of acetic acid and Mg2 + hydrolysis in Mg(Ac)2 aerosols, which greatly suppressed the hygroscopicity of Mg(Ac)2 aerosols. When the RH changed with pulsed mode between 70% and 90%, hygroscopicity relaxation was observed for Mg(Ac)2 aerosols. Diffuse coefficient of water in the relaxation process was estimated to be 5 × 10- 12 m2·s- 1 for the Mg(Ac)2 aerosols. Combining the IR spectra analysis, the decrease in the diffuse coefficient of water was due to the formation of magnesium hydroxide accompanying acetic acid evaporation in the aerosols.

  12. Low Temperature Synthesis of Magnesium Aluminate Spinel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedovskaya, E.G.; Gabelkov, S.V.; Litvinenko, L.M.; Logvinkov, D.S.; Mironova, A.G.; Odejchuk, M.A.; Poltavtsev, N.S.; Tarasov, R.V.

    2006-01-01

    The low-temperature synthesis of magnesium-aluminum spinel is carried out by a method of thermal decomposition in combined precipitated hydrates. The fine material of magnesium-aluminium spinel with average size of coherent dispersion's area 4...5 nanometers is obtained. Magnesium-aluminum spinel and initial hydrates were investigated by methods of the differential thermal analysis, the x-ray phase analysis and measurements of weight loss during the dehydration and thermal decomposition. It is established that synthesis of magnesium-aluminum spinel occurs at temperature 300 degree C by method of the x-ray phase analysis

  13. Exoelectron emission from magnesium borate glass ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Takamichi; Yanagisawa, Hideo; Nakamichi, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Riichi; Kawanishi, Masaharu.

    1986-01-01

    Thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) of a magnesium borate glass ceramics was investigated for its application to dosemetric use. It has been found that the TSEE glow patterns of the magnesium borate glass ceramics as well as a Li 2 B 4 O 7 glass ceramics depend on the kind of the radiation used and that the heat resistance of the magnesium borate glass ceramics is higher than that of the Li 2 B 4 O 7 glass ceramics. Therefore, the TSEE glow patterns of the magnesium borate glass ceramics indicate a possibility to be used as the dose measurement for each kind of radiation in the mixed radiation field. (author)

  14. Wide Strip Casting Technology of Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, W.-J.; Kim, J. J.; Kim, I. J.; Choo, D.

    Extensive investigations relating to the production of high performance and low cost magnesium sheet by strip casting have been performed for the application to automotive parts and electronic devices. Research on magnesium sheet production technology started in 2004 by Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology (RIST) with support of Pohang Iron and Steel Company (POSCO). POSCO has completed the world's first plant to manufacture magnesium coil. Another big project in order to develop wide strip casting technology for the automotive applications of magnesium sheets was started in succession.

  15. Synthesis of Nano-Light Magnesium Hydride for Hydrogen Storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Nano-light magnesium hydride that has the capability for hydrogen storage was synthesized from treatment of magnesium ribbon with hydrogen peroxide. The optimum time for complete hydrogenation of the magnesium hydride was 5 hours.

  16. Thermochemical properties of the alkali hydroxides: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konings, R.J.M.; Cordfunke, E.H.P.

    1989-01-01

    The formation of volatile alkali hydroxides as a result of high-temperature steam corrosion plays an important role in nuclear technology. For the modeling of the volatilization processes, reliable thermodynamic data are required. In the present paper recent physico-chemical experiments by the authors will be discussed and the thermochemical properties of the alkali hydroxide series will be evaluated. (orig.)

  17. Acid mine water neutralisation with ammonium hydroxide and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study showed that NH4OH can be used for treatment of acid mine drainage rich in sulphates and NH4OH can be recycled in the process. Hydrated lime treatment resulted in removal of the remaining ammonia using a rotary evaporator. Keywords: acid mine water, ammonium hydroxide, barium hydroxide, sulphate ...

  18. Discharge Characteristics of the Nickel Hydroxide Electrode in 30% KOH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Jin

    1989-01-01

    The discharge behavior of the nickel hydroxide electrode has been investigated in 30% KOH at 25 .deg. C. Two voltage plateaus are displayed on the discharge curve of C/20. It is shown that the impedance of the nickel hydroxide electrode increases with decrease of the discharge potential. The discharge behavior of the nickel hydroxide electrode has been investigated in 30% KOH indicating the reduction of the β-NiOOH to the β-Ni(OH) 2 by proton diffusion process and hence the electronic conductivity change of the nickel hydroxide electrode. Furthermore, the γ-NiOOH, produced by prolonged oxidation of the β-NiOOH in 30% KOH, discharges at a slightly lower potential than the β-Ni(OH) 2 that could result in the life-limiting factor of several alkaline electrolyte storage batteries using the nickel hydroxide electrode as the positive plate

  19. Intercalation studies of zinc hydroxide chloride: Ammonia and amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arízaga, Gregorio Guadalupe Carbajal

    2012-01-01

    Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) is a layered hydroxide salt with formula Zn5(OH)8Cl2·2H2O. It was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time and results were compared with intercalation products of the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate and a Zn/Al layered double hydroxide. Ammonia was intercalated into ZHC, while no significant intercalation occurred in ZHN. Aspartic acid intercalation was only achieved by co-precipitation at pH=10 with ZHC and pH=8 with zinc hydroxide nitrate. Higher pH resistance in ZHC favored total deprotonation of both carboxylic groups of the Asp molecule. ZHC conferred more thermal protection against Asp combustion presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 °C while the exothermic event in ZHN was 366 °C and in the LDH at 276 °C.

  20. Intercalation studies of zinc hydroxide chloride: Ammonia and amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arízaga, Gregorio Guadalupe Carbajal

    2012-01-01

    Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) is a layered hydroxide salt with formula Zn 5 (OH) 8 Cl 2 ·2H 2 O. It was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time and results were compared with intercalation products of the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate and a Zn/Al layered double hydroxide. Ammonia was intercalated into ZHC, while no significant intercalation occurred in ZHN. Aspartic acid intercalation was only achieved by co-precipitation at pH=10 with ZHC and pH=8 with zinc hydroxide nitrate. Higher pH resistance in ZHC favored total deprotonation of both carboxylic groups of the Asp molecule. ZHC conferred more thermal protection against Asp combustion presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 °C while the exothermic event in ZHN was 366 °C and in the LDH at 276 °C. - Graphical abstract: The zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) with formula Zn 5 (OH) 8 Cl 2 ·2H 2 O was tested as intercalation matrix. In comparison with the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZHN) and layered double hydroxides (LDH), ZHC was the best matrix for thermal protection of Asp combustion, presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 °C, while the highest exothermic event in ZHN was at 366 °C, and in the LDH it was at 276 °C. Highlights: ► Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time. ► ZHC has higher chemical and thermal stability than zinc hydroxide nitrate and LDH. ► NH 3 molecules can be intercalated into ZHC. ► The amino group of amino acids limits the intercalation by ion-exchange.

  1. Magnesium alloy and graphite wastes encapsulated in cementitious materials - Experimental approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, D.; Sanchez-Canet, J.; Muzeau, B.; Monguillon, C.; Stefan, L.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium alloys (Mg-0.8%Zr and Mg-1.2%Mn) and graphite from spent nuclear fuel, that have been used in the former French gas cooled reactors, have been stored together in AREVA La Hague plant. The recovery and packaging of these wastes is currently studied and several solutions are under consideration. One of the developed solutions would be to mix these wastes in a grout composed of industrially available cement, e.g. OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement), OPC blended with blast furnace slag or aluminous cement. Within the alkaline pore solution of these matrixes, magnesium alloys are imperfectly protected by a layer of magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH) 2 , Brucite) resulting in a slow process of corrosion releasing hydrogen. As the production of this gas must be considered for the storage safety, it is important to select a cement matrix capable of lowering the corrosion kinetics of magnesium alloys. This is especially true when magnesium alloys are conditioned together with graphite wastes. Indeed, galvanic coupling phenomena may increase early age corrosion of the mixed waste, as magnesium and graphite will be found in electrical contact in the same electrolyte. Many types of common cements have been tested. All of them have shown strong hydrogen production when magnesium alloys and graphite are conditioned together into such cement pastes. Corrosion patterns, observed and analyzed by SEM/EDS, at the metal-binder interfaces, reveal important corrosion products layers as well as bubbles and cracks in the binder. Attempts to reduce corrosion by lowering water to cement ratio have been performed. W/C ratios as low as 0.2 have been tested but galvanic corrosion is not significantly reduced at early age when compared to a common ratio of 0.4. Best results were obtained by the use of laboratory synthesized tricalcium silicate (C 3 S) with an ordinary W/C ratio of 0.4 and also with white Portland clinker ground without additives such as gypsum and grinding agent. (authors)

  2. Influence of Maillard products from bread crust on magnesium bioavailability in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncero-Ramos, Irene; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Morales, Francisco J; Navarro, María Pilar

    2013-06-01

    Consumption of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) present in food has been related to deterioration of protein digestibility and changes in mineral bioavailability. We aimed to investigate the effects of MRP intake from bread crust on magnesium balance and tissue distribution, seeking causative factors among its different components. During the final stage of the trial, magnesium digestibility improved by around 15% in rats fed diets containing bread crust or its derivatives compared with the control diet. Despite certain enhancements in magnesium bioavailability in this stage, for the experimental period as a whole, this parameter remained unchanged. However, specific changes in the content and/or concentration in some organs were observed, particularly in the femur, where magnesium levels were higher due to the smaller size of the bones. Consumption of MRPs from bread crust or its different components did not modify the magnesium balance. Nevertheless, the bread crust fractions led to some changes in magnesium tissue distribution which did not match the effects induced by complete bread crust intake, suggesting the importance of designing studies with real-food systems, in order to reinforce the validity of the findings obtained. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Thermodynamic Properties of Alkali Metal Hydroxides. Part II. Potassium, Rubidium, and Cesium Hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurvich, L.V.; Bergman, G.A.; Gorokhov, L.N.; Iorish, V.S.; Leonidov, V.Y.; Yungman, V.S.

    1997-01-01

    The data on thermodynamic and molecular properties of the potassium, rubidium and cesium hydroxides have been collected, critically reviewed, analyzed, and evaluated. Tables of the thermodynamic properties [C p circ , Φ=-(G -H(0)/T, S, H -H(0), Δ f H, Δ f G)] of these hydroxides in the condensed and gaseous states have been calculated using the results of the analysis and some estimated values. The recommendations are compared with earlier evaluations given in the JANAF Thermochemical Tables and Thermodynamic Properties of Individual Substances. The properties considered are: the temperature and enthalpy of phase transitions and fusion, heat capacities, spectroscopic data, structures, bond energies, and enthalpies of formation at 298.15 K. The thermodynamic functions in solid, liquid, and gaseous states are calculated from T=0 to 2000 K for substances in condensed phase and up to 6000 K for gases. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics and American Chemical Society

  4. In vitro studies on magnesium uptake by rumen epithelium using magnesium-28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, H.; Harmeyer, J.; Breves, G.

    1976-01-01

    Magnesium-28 transfer across the rumen epithelium has been studied using surviving epithelia in an in vitro system. Net absorption of magnesium in the direction from lumen to blood could be observed as the result of two opposite unidirectional fluxes of different magnitude. Net uptake of magnesium occurred against an electrical potential difference, and was associated with the presence of an unaltered transmural potential difference in the mucosal tissue. Both the net transfer of magnesium and the transmural potential difference decreased during two hours of incubation. Unidirectional fluxes of magnesium and net efflux from the lumen were markedly reduced although not completely inhibited by the addition of ouabain (10 -4 mol/l). The findings suggest that the mechanism of magnesium absorption by the rumen epithelium can be considered as an active transport process, and that the rumen is the main area of magnesium absorption in the living animal. (author)

  5. Magnesium stannide as a high-capacity anode for magnesium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dan-Thien; Song, Seung-Wan

    2017-11-01

    Driven by the limited global resources of lithium, magnesium metal batteries are considered as potential energy storage systems. The battery chemistry of magnesium metal anode, however, limits the selection of electrolytes, cathode materials and working temperature, making the realization of magnesium metal batteries complicated. Herein, we report the development of a new magnesium-insertion anode, magnesium stannide (Mg2Sn), and demonstrate reversible electrochemical Mg2+-extraction and insertion of Mg2Sn anode at 0.2 V versus Mg, delivering discharge capacity of 270 mAhg-1 in a half-cell with the electrolyte of PhMgCl/THF and enabling of room temperature magnesium-ion batteries with Mg2Sn anode combined with Mg-free oxide cathode and conventional-type electrolyte of Mg(TFSI)2/diglyme. The combination of Mg2Sn anode with various cathodes and electrolytes holds great promise for enabling room temperature magnesium-ion batteries.

  6. Magnesium growth in magnesium deuteride thin films during deuterium desorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Checchetto, R., E-mail: riccardo.checchetto@unitn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica and CNISM, Università di Trento, Via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Miotello, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica and CNISM, Università di Trento, Via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Mengucci, P.; Barucca, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Ingegneria dei Materiali e del Territorio, Università Politecnica delle Marche, I-60131 Ancona (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: ► Highly oriented Pd-capped magnesium deuteride thin films. ► The MgD{sub 2} dissociation was studied at temperatures not exceeding 100 °C. ► The structure of the film samples was analyzed by XRD and TEM. ► The transformation is controlled by the re-growth velocity of the Mg layers. ► The transformation is thermally activated, activation energy value of 1.3 ± 0.1 eV. -- Abstract: Pd- capped nanocrystalline magnesium thin films having columnar structure were deposited on Si substrate by e-gun deposition and submitted to thermal annealing in D{sub 2} atmosphere to promote the metal to deuteride phase transformation. The kinetics of the reverse deuteride to metal transformation was studied by Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy (TDS) while the structure of the as deposited and transformed samples was analyzed by X-rays diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). In Pd- capped MgD{sub 2} thin films the deuteride to metal transformation begins at the interface between un-reacted Mg and transformed MgD{sub 2} layers. The D{sub 2} desorption kinetics is controlled by MgD{sub 2}/Mg interface effects, specifically the re-growth velocity of the Mg layers. The Mg re-growth has thermally activated character and shows an activation energy value of 1.3 ± 0.1 eV.

  7. Magnesium Hydride for Load Levelling Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigeholm, B.

    Some of the magnesium properties essential to the applicability of the reaction Mg+H2⇆MgH2 as a hydrogen storage system have been investigated. Three magnesium powders with particle size smaller than 50 μm average diameter were cycled, over 31, 71 and 151 cycles respectively, at 675K (400°C...

  8. Nanostructured magnesium increases bone cell density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Lucy; Webster, Thomas J

    2012-12-07

    Magnesium has attracted some attention in orthopedics due to its biodegradability and mechanical properties. Since magnesium is an essential natural mineral for bone growth, it can be expected that as a biomaterial, it would support bone formation. However, upon degradation in the body, magnesium releases OH(-) which results in an alkaline pH that can be detrimental to cell density (for example, osteoblasts or bone forming cells). For this reason, modification of magnesium may be necessary to compensate for such detrimental effects to cells. This study created biologically inspired nanoscale surface features on magnesium by soaking magnesium in various concentrations of NaOH (from 1 to 10 N) and for various periods of time (from 10 to 30 min). The results provided the first evidence of increased roughness, surface energy, and consequently greater osteoblast adhesion, after 4 h as well as density up to 7 days on magnesium treated with any concentration of NaOH for any length of time compared to untreated controls. For these reasons, this study suggests that soaking magnesium in NaOH could be an inexpensive, simple and effective manner to promote osteoblast functions for numerous orthopedic applications and, thus, should be further studied.

  9. Nanostructured magnesium increases bone cell density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Lucy; Webster, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium has attracted some attention in orthopedics due to its biodegradability and mechanical properties. Since magnesium is an essential natural mineral for bone growth, it can be expected that as a biomaterial, it would support bone formation. However, upon degradation in the body, magnesium releases OH − which results in an alkaline pH that can be detrimental to cell density (for example, osteoblasts or bone forming cells). For this reason, modification of magnesium may be necessary to compensate for such detrimental effects to cells. This study created biologically inspired nanoscale surface features on magnesium by soaking magnesium in various concentrations of NaOH (from 1 to 10 N) and for various periods of time (from 10 to 30 min). The results provided the first evidence of increased roughness, surface energy, and consequently greater osteoblast adhesion, after 4 h as well as density up to 7 days on magnesium treated with any concentration of NaOH for any length of time compared to untreated controls. For these reasons, this study suggests that soaking magnesium in NaOH could be an inexpensive, simple and effective manner to promote osteoblast functions for numerous orthopedic applications and, thus, should be further studied. (paper)

  10. Comparison of Serum Calcium and Magnesium Between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Evidence suggests the involvement of calcium and magnesium metabolism in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. However, findings from studies are heterogenous and inconsistent. Aim: The study aimed to compare the total serum calcium and magnesium levels in preeclamptic women with that of ...

  11. The Role of Magnesium in Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Kirkland

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium is well known for its diverse actions within the human body. From a neurological standpoint, magnesium plays an essential role in nerve transmission and neuromuscular conduction. It also functions in a protective role against excessive excitation that can lead to neuronal cell death (excitotoxicity, and has been implicated in multiple neurological disorders. Due to these important functions within the nervous system, magnesium is a mineral of intense interest for the potential prevention and treatment of neurological disorders. Current literature is reviewed for migraine, chronic pain, epilepsy, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and stroke, as well as the commonly comorbid conditions of anxiety and depression. Previous reviews and meta-analyses are used to set the scene for magnesium research across neurological conditions, while current research is reviewed in greater detail to update the literature and demonstrate the progress (or lack thereof in the field. There is strong data to suggest a role for magnesium in migraine and depression, and emerging data to suggest a protective effect of magnesium for chronic pain, anxiety, and stroke. More research is needed on magnesium as an adjunct treatment in epilepsy, and to further clarify its role in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Overall, the mechanistic attributes of magnesium in neurological diseases connote the macromineral as a potential target for neurological disease prevention and treatment.

  12. Magnesium - distribution and basic metabolism | Olhaberry | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Magnesium is extensively distributed in soil, water and plants. It is essential for ehzymatic reactions requiring adenosine triphosphate, and the recommended dietary allowance in man is 5 - 10 mg/kg/d. About 50% of magnesium in man is stored in bone, where it is regulated by parathyroid hormone'and 1,25(OH)2-D3.

  13. A Shortened versus Standard Matched Postpartum Magnesium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Magnesium sulphate is currently the most ideal drug for the treatment of eclampsia but its use in Nigeria is still limited due its cost and clinicians inexperience with the drug. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a shortened postpartum course of magnesium sulphate is as effective as the standard Pritchard ...

  14. Magnesium analysis. Spectrophotometric determination of chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Chromium determination in magnesium used in uranium fabrication by magnesiothermics, applicable for chromium content between 2 to 10 ppm. Magnesium is dissolved in sulfuric acid, oxidized by potassium permanganate, the excess of permanganate is eliminated by sodium nitride. Spectrophotometry at 540 nm of the chromium (VI)-diphenylcarbazide complex [fr

  15. Magnesium removal in the electrolytic zinc industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booster, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    Electrolytic zinc plants need to take measures to control the magnesium content in their process liquors, because the natural magnesium bleed does not balance the input from concentrates. Presently used methods are environmentally unfriendly (due to the production of large amounts of waste gypsum)

  16. Magnesium supplementation in children with attention deficit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with associated mineral deficiency. Aim: To assess magnesium level in ADHD children and compare it to the normal levels in children. Then, to detect the effect of magnesium supplementation as an add on therapy, ...

  17. Durability of concrete materials in high-magnesium brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakeley, L.D.; Poole, T.S.; Burkes, J.P.

    1994-03-01

    Cement pastes and mortars representing 11 combinations of candidate concrete materials were cast in the laboratory and monitored for susceptibility to chemical deterioration in high-magnesium brine. Mixtures were selected to include materials included in the current leading candidate concrete for seals at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Some materials were included in the experimental matrix to answer questions that had arisen during study of the concrete used for construction of the liner of the WIPP waste-handling shaft. Mixture combinations compared Class C and Class F fly ashes, presence or absence of an expansive component, and presence or absence of salt as a mixture component. Experimental conditions exposed the pastes and mortars to extreme conditions, those being very high levels of Mg ion and an effectively unlimited supply of brine. All pastes and mortars showed deterioration with brine exposure. In general, mortars deteriorated more extensively than the corresponding pastes. Two-inch cube specimens of mortar were not uniformly deteriorated, but showed obvious zoning even after a year in the brine, with a relatively unreacted zone remaining at the center of each cube. Loss of calcium from the calcium hydroxide of paste/aggregate interfaces caused measurable strength loss in the reacted zone comprising the outer portion of every mortar specimen. The current candidate mass concrete for WIPP seals includes salt as an initial component, and has a relatively closed initial microstructure. Both of these features contribute to its suitability for use in large placements within the Salado Formation

  18. Improved cytotoxicity testing of magnesium materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Janine [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Materials Research, Department for Structural Research on Macromolecules, Max-Planck Str. 1, D - 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Proefrock, Daniel [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute for Coastal Research, Department for Marine Bioanalytical Chemistry, Max-Planck Str. 1, D - 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Hort, Norbert [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Materials Research, Department for Magnesium Processing, Max-Planck Str. 1, D - 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Willumeit, Regine; Feyerabend, Frank [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Materials Research, Department for Structural Research on Macromolecules, Max-Planck Str. 1, D - 21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2011-06-25

    Metallic magnesium (Mg) and its alloys are highly suitable for medical applications as biocompatible and biodegradable implant materials. Magnesium has mechanical properties similar to bone, stimulates bone regeneration, is an essential non-toxic element for the human body and degrades completely within the body environment. In consequence, magnesium is a promising candidate as implant material for orthopaedic applications. Protocols using the guideline of current ISO standards should be carefully evaluated when applying them for the characterization of the cytotoxic potential of degradable magnesium materials. For as-cast material we recommend using 10 times more extraction medium than recommended by the ISO standards to obtain reasonable results for reliable cytotoxicity rankings of degradable materials in vitro. In addition primary isolated human osteoblasts or mesenchymal stem cells should be used to test magnesium materials.

  19. Improved cytotoxicity testing of magnesium materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Janine; Proefrock, Daniel; Hort, Norbert; Willumeit, Regine; Feyerabend, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Metallic magnesium (Mg) and its alloys are highly suitable for medical applications as biocompatible and biodegradable implant materials. Magnesium has mechanical properties similar to bone, stimulates bone regeneration, is an essential non-toxic element for the human body and degrades completely within the body environment. In consequence, magnesium is a promising candidate as implant material for orthopaedic applications. Protocols using the guideline of current ISO standards should be carefully evaluated when applying them for the characterization of the cytotoxic potential of degradable magnesium materials. For as-cast material we recommend using 10 times more extraction medium than recommended by the ISO standards to obtain reasonable results for reliable cytotoxicity rankings of degradable materials in vitro. In addition primary isolated human osteoblasts or mesenchymal stem cells should be used to test magnesium materials.

  20. Irradiation effects in magnesium and aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturcken, E.F.

    1979-01-01

    Effects of neutron irradiation on microstructure, mechanical properties and swelling of several magnesium and aluminium alloys were studied. The neutron fluences of 2-3 X 10 22 n/cm 2 , >0.2 MeV produced displacement doses of 20 to 45 displacements per atom (dpa). Ductility of the magnesium alloys was severely reduced by irradiation induced recrystallization and precipitation of various forms. Precipitation of transmuted silicon occurred in the aluminium alloys. However, the effect on ductility was much less than for the magnesium alloys. The magnesium and aluminium alloys had excellent resistance to swelling: The best magnesium alloy was Mg/3.0 wt% Al/0.19 wt% Ca; its density decreased by only 0.13%. The best aluminium alloy was 6063, with a density decrease of 0.22%. (Auth.)

  1. Recrystallization of magnesium deformed at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromageau, R.; Pastol, J.L.; Revel, G.

    1978-01-01

    The recrystallization of magnesium was studied after rolling at temperatures ranging between 248 and 373 K. For zone refined magnesium the annealing behaviour as observed by electrical resistivity measurements showed two stages at about 250 K and 400 K due respectively to recrystallization and grain growth. The activation energy associated with the recrystallization stage was 0.75 +- 0.01 eV. In less pure magnesium, with nominal purity 99.99 and 99.9%, the recrystallization stage was decomposed into two substages. Activation energies were determined in relation with deformation temperature and purity. The magnesium of intermediate purity (99.99%) behaved similarly to the lowest purity metal when it was deformed at high temperature and to the purest magnesium when the deformation was made at low temperature. This behaviour was discussed in connection with the theories of Luecke and Cahn. (Auth.)

  2. Porous bioresorbable magnesium as bone substitute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, C.E.; Yamada, Y.; Shimojima, K.; Chino, Y.; Hosokawa, H.; Mabuchi, M. [Inst. for Structural and Engineering Materials, National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Nagoya (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Recently magnesium has been recognized as a very promising biomaterial for bone substitutes because of its excellent properties of biocompatibility, biodegradability and bioresorbability. In the present study, magnesium foams were fabricated by using a powder metallurgical process. Scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and compressive tester were used to characterize the porous magnesium. Results show that the Young's modulus and the peak stress of the porous magnesium increase with decreasing porosity and pore size. This study suggests that the mechanical properties of the porous magnesium with the low porosity of 35% and/or with the small pore size of about 70 {mu}m are close to those of human cancellous bones. (orig.)

  3. On the ionization of interstellar magnesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurzadyan, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    It has been shown that two concentric ionization zones of interstellar magnesium must exist around each star: internal, with a radius coinciding with that of the zone of hydrogen ionization Ssub(H); and external, with a radius greater than Ssub(H), by one order. Unlike interstellar hydrogen, interstellar magnesium is ionized throughout the Galaxy. It also transpires that the ionizing radiation of ordinary hot stars cannot provide for the observed high degree of ionization of interstellar magnesium. The discrepance can be eliminated by assuming the existence of circumstellar clouds or additional ionization sources of interstellar magnesium (X-ray background radiation, high-energy particles, etc.). Stars of the B5 and BO class play the main role in the formation of ionization zones of interstellar magnesium; the contribution of O class stars is negligible (<1%). (Auth.)

  4. Benefits of magnesium wheels for consumer cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frishfelds, Vilnis; Timuhins, Andrejs; Bethers, Uldis

    2018-05-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of magnesium wheels are considered based on a mechanical model of a car. Magnesium wheels are usually applied to racing cars as they provide slightly better strength/weight ratio than aluminum alloys. Do they provide notable benefits also for the everyday user when the car speeds do not exceed allowed speed limit? Distinct properties of magnesium rims are discussed. Apart from lighter weight of magnesium alloys, they are also good in dissipating the energy of vibrations. The role of energy dissipation in the rim of a wheel is estimated by a quarter car model. Improvements to safety by using the magnesium wheels are considered. Braking distance and responsiveness of the car is studied both with and without using an Anti Blocking System (ABS). Influence of rim weight on various handling parameters of the car is quantitatively tested.

  5. Interdiffusion of the aluminum magnesium system. Quantitative analysis and numerical model; Interdiffusion des Aluminium-Magnesium-Systems. Quantitative Analyse und numerische Modellierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seperant, Florian

    2012-03-21

    Aluminum coatings are a promising approach to protect magnesium alloys against corrosion and thereby making them accessible to a variety of technical applications. Thermal treatment enhances the adhesion of the aluminium coating on magnesium by interdiffusion. For a deeper understanding of the diffusion process at the interface, a quantitative description of the Al-Mg system is necessary. On the basis of diffusion experiments with infinite reservoirs of aluminum and magnesium, the interdiffusion coefficients of the intermetallic phases of the Al-Mg-system are calculated with the Sauer-Freise method for the first time. To solve contradictions in the literature concerning the intrinsic diffusion coefficients, the possibility of a bifurcation of the Kirkendall plane is considered. Furthermore, a physico-chemical description of interdiffusion is provided to interpret the observed phase transitions. The developed numerical model is based on a temporally varied discretization of the space coordinate. It exhibits excellent quantitative agreement with the experimentally measured concentration profile. This confirms the validity of the obtained diffusion coefficients. Moreover, the Kirkendall shift in the Al-Mg system is simulated for the first time. Systems with thin aluminum coatings on magnesium also exhibit a good correlation between simulated and experimental concentration profiles. Thus, the diffusion coefficients are also valid for Al-coated systems. Hence, it is possible to derive parameters for a thermal treatment by simulation, resulting in an optimized modification of the magnesium surface for technical applications.

  6. The in vitro sustained release profile and antitumor effect of etoposide-layered double hydroxide nanohybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin LL

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lili Qin,1 Mei Wang,2 Rongrong Zhu,3 Songhui You,1 Ping Zhou,1 Shilong Wang31Department of Physical Education, Tongji University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 3School of Life Science and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxides intercalated with antitumor drug etoposide (VP16 were prepared for the first time using a two-step procedure. The X-ray powder diffraction data suggested the intercalation of VP16 into layers with the increased basal spacing from 0.84–1.18 nm was successful. Then, it was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The prepared nanoparticles, VP16-LDH, showed an average diameter of 62.5 nm with a zeta potential of 20.5 mV. Evaluation of the buffering effect of VP16-LDH indicated that the nanohybrids were ideal for administration of the drugs that treat human stomach irritation. The loading amount of intercalated VP16 was 21.94% and possessed a profile of sustained release. The mechanism of VP16-LDH release in the phosphate buffered saline solution at pH 7.4 is likely controlled by the diffusion of VP16 anions from inside to the surface of LDH particles. The in vitro cytotoxicity and antitumor assays indicated that VP16-LDH hybrids were less toxic to GES-1 cells while exhibiting better antitumor efficacy on MKN45 and SGC-7901 cells. These results imply that VP16-LDH is a potential antitumor drug for a broad range of gastric cancer therapeutic applications.Keywords: layered double hydroxides, etoposide, drug delivery, antitumor effect, sustained release

  7. Layered double hydroxide materials coated carbon electrode: New challenge to future electrochemical power devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djebbi, Mohamed Amine; Braiek, Mohamed; Namour, Philippe; Ben Haj Amara, Abdesslem; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were chemically synthesized and deposited over carbon electrode materials. • Catalytic performance of both LDHs was investigated for Fe(II) reduction reaction. • Satisfactory results have been achieved with the MgAl LDH material. • MgAl and ZnAl LDH modified carbon felt were applied in MFC as an efficient anode catalyst. • The LDH-modified anode significantly increased power performance of MFC. - Abstract: Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been widely used in the past years due to their unique physicochemical properties and promising applications in electroanalytical chemistry. The present paper is going to focus exclusively on magnesium-aluminum and zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (MgAl & ZnAl LDHs) in order to investigate the property and structure of active cation sites located within the layer structure. The MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were prepared by the constant pH co-precipitation method and uniformly supported on carbon-based electrode materials to fabricate an LDH electrode. Characterization by powder x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed the LDH form and well-crystallized materials. Wetting surface properties (hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity) of both prepared LDHs were recorded by contact angle measurement show hydrophilic character and basic property. The electrochemical performance of these hybrid materials was investigated by mainly cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronoamperometry techniques to identify the oxidation/reduction processes at the electrode/electrolyte interface and the effect of the divalent metal cations in total reactivity. The hierarchy of the modified electrode proves that the electronic conductivity of the bulk material is considerably dependent on the divalent cation and affects the limiting parameter of the overall redox process. However

  8. Layered double hydroxide materials coated carbon electrode: New challenge to future electrochemical power devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djebbi, Mohamed Amine, E-mail: mohamed.djebbi@etu.univ-lyon1.fr [Institut des Sciences Analytiques UMR CNRS 5280, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux Lamellaires et Nano-Matériaux Hybrides, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Université de Carthage, 7021 Bizerte (Tunisia); Braiek, Mohamed [Institut des Sciences Analytiques UMR CNRS 5280, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Namour, Philippe [Institut des Sciences Analytiques UMR CNRS 5280, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Irstea, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Ben Haj Amara, Abdesslem [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux Lamellaires et Nano-Matériaux Hybrides, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Université de Carthage, 7021 Bizerte (Tunisia); Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole [Institut des Sciences Analytiques UMR CNRS 5280, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were chemically synthesized and deposited over carbon electrode materials. • Catalytic performance of both LDHs was investigated for Fe(II) reduction reaction. • Satisfactory results have been achieved with the MgAl LDH material. • MgAl and ZnAl LDH modified carbon felt were applied in MFC as an efficient anode catalyst. • The LDH-modified anode significantly increased power performance of MFC. - Abstract: Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been widely used in the past years due to their unique physicochemical properties and promising applications in electroanalytical chemistry. The present paper is going to focus exclusively on magnesium-aluminum and zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (MgAl & ZnAl LDHs) in order to investigate the property and structure of active cation sites located within the layer structure. The MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were prepared by the constant pH co-precipitation method and uniformly supported on carbon-based electrode materials to fabricate an LDH electrode. Characterization by powder x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed the LDH form and well-crystallized materials. Wetting surface properties (hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity) of both prepared LDHs were recorded by contact angle measurement show hydrophilic character and basic property. The electrochemical performance of these hybrid materials was investigated by mainly cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronoamperometry techniques to identify the oxidation/reduction processes at the electrode/electrolyte interface and the effect of the divalent metal cations in total reactivity. The hierarchy of the modified electrode proves that the electronic conductivity of the bulk material is considerably dependent on the divalent cation and affects the limiting parameter of the overall redox process. However

  9. Role of sodium hydroxide in the production of hydrogen gas from the hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onwudili, Jude A.; Williams, Paul T. [Energy and Resources Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    The role of sodium hydroxide as a promoter of hydrogen gas production during the hydrothermal gasification of glucose and other biomass samples has been investigated. Experiments were carried out in a batch reactor with glucose and also in the presence of the alkali from 200 C, 2 MPa to 450 C, 34 MPa at constant water loading. Without sodium hydroxide, glucose decomposed to produce mainly carbon dioxide, water, char and tar. Furfural, its derivatives and reaction products dominated the ethyl acetate extract of the water (organic fraction) at lower reaction conditions. This indicated that the dehydration of glucose to yield these products was unfavourable to hydrogen gas production. In the presence of sodium hydroxide however, glucose initially decomposed to form mostly alkylated and hydroxylated carbonyl compounds, whose further decomposition yielded hydrogen gas. It was observed that at 350 C, 21.5 MPa, half of the optimum hydrogen gas yield had formed and at 450 C, 34 MPa, more than 80 volume percent of the gaseous effluent was hydrogen gas, while the balance was hydrocarbon gases, mostly methane ({>=}10 volume percent). Other biomass samples were also comparably reacted at the optimum conditions observed for glucose. The rate of hydrogen production for the biomass samples was in the following order; glucose > cellulose, starch, rice straw > potato > rice husk. (author)

  10. Toxicity of copper hydroxide, dithianon, fluazinam, tebuconazole and pyraclostrobin to Didymella applanata isolates from Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirković, Biljana; Tanović, Brankica; Hrustić, Jovana; Mihajlović, Milica; Stević, Milan; Delibašić, Goran; Vukša, Petar

    2015-01-01

    A study of the in vitro sensitivity of 10 isolates of Didymella applanata to copper hydroxide, dithianon, fluazinam, tebuconazole and pyraclostrobin, was conducted. The isolates were derived from diseased raspberry canes sampled during 2013 at five localities in western part of Serbia, known as the main raspberry growing region of the country. Prior to sensitivity testing experimental conditions for radial growth assay were optimized. The results showed that the temperature of 22 °C, oatmeal agar medium and 12/12 hrs light/ darkness light regimen provided the best conditions for sensitivity tests. Most of D. applanata isolates were sensitive to the tested fungicides. The narrowest range of EC50 values was recorded for tebuconazole (1.42-2.66 mg L(-1)). The widest range of EC50 values was obtained for pyraclostrobin, ranging from 0.17 mg L(-1) to 55.33 mg L(-1). The EC50 values for the studied isolates were 39.48-51.19 mg L(-1) for copper hydroxide, 12.12-18.73 mg L(-1) for dithianon and 5.72-42.56 mg L(-1) for fluazinam. According to resistance factor values, all D. applanata isolates were sensitive to copper hydroxide, dithianon and tebuconazole. Among tested isolates, six were highly resistant to pyraclostrobin (RFs in the range of 207.1-325.5) and two moderately resistant to fluazinam (RFs were 3 and 7.4), respectively.

  11. Catalytic Combustion of Low Concentration Methane over Catalysts Prepared from Co/Mg-Mn Layered Double Hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfeng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of Co/Mg-Mn mixed oxides were synthesized through thermal decomposition of layered double hydroxides (LDHs precursors. The resulted catalysts were then subjected for catalytic combustion of methane. Experimental results revealed that the Co4.5Mg1.5Mn2LDO catalyst possessed the best performance with the T90=485°C. After being analyzed via XRD, BET-BJH, SEM, H2-TPR, and XPS techniques, it was observed that the addition of cobalt had significantly improved the redox ability of the catalysts whilst certain amount of magnesium was essential to guarantee the catalytic activity. The presence of Mg was helpful to enhance the oxygen mobility and, meanwhile, improved the dispersion of Co and Mn oxides, preventing the surface area loss after calcination.

  12. Distinction between magnesium diboride and tetraboride by kelvin probe force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Du-Na; Caron, Arnaud; Park, Hai Woong

    2016-01-01

    We analyze mixtures of magnesium diboride and tetraboride synthesized with magnesium powders of different shapes. To distinguish between magnesium diboride and tetraboride we use the contrast of kelvin probe force microscopy. The microstructural morphology strongly depends on the shape of the magnesium powders used in the reaction between magnesium and magnesium tetraboride to form magnesium diboride. With spherical magnesium powder an equiaxed microstructure of magnesium diboride is formed with residual magnesium tetraboride at the grain boundaries. With plate-like magnesium powders elongated magnesium diboride grains are formed. In this case, residual magnesium tetraboride is found to agglomerate.

  13. Magnesium deficiency and increased inflammation: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen FH

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Forrest H Nielsen Research Nutritionist Consultant, Grand Forks, ND, USA Abstract: Animal studies have shown that magnesium deficiency induces an inflammatory response that results in leukocyte and macrophage activation, release of inflammatory cytokines and acute-phase proteins, and excessive production of free radicals. Animal and in vitro studies indicate that the primary mechanism through which magnesium deficiency has this effect is through increasing cellular Ca2+, which is the signal that results in the priming of cells to give the inflammatory response. Primary pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL-1; the messenger cytokine IL-6; cytokine responders E-selectin, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1; and acute-phase reactants C-reactive protein and fibrinogen have been determined to associate magnesium deficiency with chronic low-grade inflammation (inflammatory stress. When magnesium dietary intake, supplementation, and/or serum concentration suggest/s the presence of magnesium deficiency, it often is associated with low-grade inflammation and/or with pathological conditions for which inflammatory stress is considered a risk factor. When magnesium intake, supplementation, and/or serum concentration suggest/s an adequate status, magnesium generally has not been found to significantly affect markers of chronic low-grade inflammation or chronic disease. The consistency of these findings can be modified by other nutritional and metabolic factors that affect inflammatory and oxidative stress. In spite of this, findings to date provide convincing evidence that magnesium deficiency is a significant contributor to chronic low-grade inflammation that is a risk factor for a variety of pathological conditions such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes. Because magnesium deficiency commonly occurs in countries where foods rich in magnesium are not consumed in

  14. Magnesium sulfate reduces formalin-induced orofacial pain in rats with normal magnesium serum levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srebro, Dragana P; Vučković, Sonja M; Dožić, Ivan S; Dožić, Branko S; Savić Vujović, Katarina R; Milovanović, Aleksandar P; Karadžić, Branislav V; Prostran, Milica Š

    2018-02-01

    In humans, orofacial pain has a high prevalence and is often difficult to treat. Magnesium is an essential element in biological a system which controls the activity of many ion channels, neurotransmitters and enzymes. Magnesium produces an antinociceptive effect in neuropathic pain, while in inflammatory pain results are not consistent. We examined the effects of magnesium sulfate using the rat orofacial formalin test, a model of trigeminal pain. Male Wistar rats were injected with 1.5% formalin into the perinasal area, and the total time spent in pain-related behavior (face rubbing) was quantified. We also spectrophotometrically determined the concentration of magnesium and creatine kinase activity in blood serum. Magnesium sulfate administered subcutaneously (0.005-45mg/kg) produced significant antinociception in the second phase of the orofacial formalin test in rats at physiological serum concentration of magnesium. The effect was not dose-dependent. The maximum antinociceptive effect of magnesium sulfate was about 50% and was achieved at doses of 15 and 45mg/kg. Magnesium did not affect increase the levels of serum creatine kinase activity. Preemptive systemic administration of magnesium sulfate as the only drug can be used to prevent inflammatory pain in the orofacial region. Its analgesic effect is not associated with magnesium deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deficiency can cause numbness, tingling, muscle cramps, seizures , personality changes, and an abnormal heart rhythm . The following ... Office of Dietary Supplements Frequently Asked Questions: Which brand(s) of dietary supplements should I purchase? For information ...

  16. Magnesium bicarbonate as an in situ uranium lixiviant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibert, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    In the subsurface solution mining of mineral values, especially uranium, in situ, magnesium bicarbonate leaching solution is used instead of sodium, potassium and ammonium carbonate and bicarbonates. The magnesium bicarbonate solution is formed by combining carbon dioxide with magnesium oxide and water. The magnesium bicarbonate lixivant has four major advantages over prior art sodium, potassium and ammonium bicarbonates

  17. Urinary and plasma magnesium and risk of ischemic heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, Michel M.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; van der Harst, Pim; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Feskens, Edith J. M.; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    Background: Previous studies on dietary magnesium and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) have yielded inconsistent results, in part because of a lack of direct measures of actual magnesium uptake. Urinary excretion of magnesium, an indicator of dietary magnesium uptake, might provide more

  18. Relative biological activity of amorphous calcium and calcium-magnesium phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silina, E.N.; Kunitsa, T.N.; Shuslikova, E.S.; Griggs, J.; Levchenko, L.V.; Karjaubaeva, R.A.; Sinyayev, V.A.

    2005-01-01

    Three amorphous calcium and calcium-magnesium phosphates that are close on composition to mineral basis of the bone tissues are compared on bioactivity in the given article. Properties of the hydrated substances produced from water solutions and their derivations, which are formed due to thermal treatment, are discussed here. As a detector of bioactivity was used microbial culture E-Coli. [author

  19. Radioactive {sup 210}Po in magnesium supplements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struminska-Parulska, Dagmara Ida [Gdansk Univ. (Poland). Environmental Chemistry and Radiochemistry Chair

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this pioneer study was to determine polonium {sup 210}Po in the most popular magnesium supplements in Poland and estimate the possible related dose assessment to the consumers. The analyzed magnesium pharmaceutics contained organic or inorganic magnesium compounds; some from natural sources. The objectives of this research were to investigate the naturally occurring {sup 210}Po activity concentrations in magnesium supplements, find the correlations between {sup 210}Po concentration in medicament and magnesium chemical form, and calculate the effective radiation dose connected to analyzed magnesium supplement consumption. The highest {sup 210}Po activity concentrations were determined in mineral tablets made from sedimentary rocks, namely dolomite - 3.84 ± 0.15 mBq g{sup -1} (sample Mg17). The highest annual radiation dose from {sup 210}Po taken with 1 tablet of magnesium supplement per day or with 400 mg of pure Mg daily would come from sample Mg17 (dolomite) - 1.35 ± 0.5 and 8.44 ± 0.33 μSv year{sup -1} respectively.

  20. Computational micromechanics of bioabsorbable magnesium stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, J A; Leen, S B; McHugh, P E

    2014-06-01

    Magnesium alloys are a promising candidate material for an emerging generation of absorbable metal stents. Due to its hexagonal-close-packed lattice structure and tendency to undergo twinning, the deformation behaviour of magnesium is quite different to that of conventional stent materials, such as stainless steel 316L and cobalt chromium L605. In particular, magnesium exhibits asymmetric plastic behaviour (i.e. different yield behaviours in tension and compression) and has lower ductility than these conventional alloys. In the on-going development of absorbable metal stents it is important to assess how the unique behaviour of magnesium affects device performance. The mechanical behaviour of magnesium stent struts is investigated in this study using computational micromechanics, based on finite element analysis and crystal plasticity theory. The plastic deformation in tension and bending of textured and non-textured magnesium stent struts with different numbers of grains through the strut dimension is investigated. It is predicted that, unlike 316L and L605, the failure risk and load bearing capacity of magnesium stent struts during expansion is not strongly affected by the number of grains across the strut dimensions; however texturing, which may be introduced and controlled in the manufacturing process, is predicted to have a significant influence on these measures of strut performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Radioactive 210Po in magnesium supplements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struminska-Parulska, Dagmara Ida

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this pioneer study was to determine polonium 210 Po in the most popular magnesium supplements in Poland and estimate the possible related dose assessment to the consumers. The analyzed magnesium pharmaceutics contained organic or inorganic magnesium compounds; some from natural sources. The objectives of this research were to investigate the naturally occurring 210 Po activity concentrations in magnesium supplements, find the correlations between 210 Po concentration in medicament and magnesium chemical form, and calculate the effective radiation dose connected to analyzed magnesium supplement consumption. The highest 210 Po activity concentrations were determined in mineral tablets made from sedimentary rocks, namely dolomite - 3.84 ± 0.15 mBq g -1 (sample Mg17). The highest annual radiation dose from 210 Po taken with 1 tablet of magnesium supplement per day or with 400 mg of pure Mg daily would come from sample Mg17 (dolomite) - 1.35 ± 0.5 and 8.44 ± 0.33 μSv year -1 respectively.

  2. Corrosion of Magnesium in Multimaterial System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Vineet V.; Agnew, Sean

    2017-08-16

    The TMS Magnesium Committee has been actively involved in presenting cutting-edge research and development and the latest trends related to magnesium and its alloys to industry and academia. Topics including magnesium alloy development, applications, mechanism of deformation and corrosion, thermomechanical processing, modelling, etc. have been captured year after year through the Magnesium Technology symposium and conference proceedings at TMS and through special topics in JOM. Every year, based on the unanimous endorsement from the industry and academia, a topic is selected to address the latest developments within this subject in JOM. In continuation with last year’s coverage of Advances and Achievements in In-Situ Analysis of Corrosions and Structure–Property Relationship in Mg Alloys,[1] this year’s topic focuses on the Corrosion of Magnesium in Multimaterial Systems. Magnesium, the lightest of all the structural materials, has garnered much interest in the transportation, electronics packaging, defense equipments and industries alike and are more commonly being incorporated in multimaterial design concepts.[2-4] However, the application of the same is limited due to its highly corrosive nature, and understanding and mitigating the corrosion of magnesium has been a major research challenge.

  3. Magnesium supplement in pregnancy-induced hypertension. A clinicopathological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudnicki, M; Junge, Jette; Frølich, A

    1990-01-01

    as a double-blind randomized controlled study in which 11 women were allocated to magnesium and 7 to placebo treatment. The treatment comprised a 48-hour intravenous magnesium/placebo infusion followed by daily oral magnesium/placebo intake until one day after delivery. Magnesium supplement increased birth....... There was no significant difference when the magnesium group, the placebo group and the control group were compared separately. The present study suggests that magnesium supplement has a beneficial effect on fetal growth in pregnancy-induced hypertension. With regard to the light and electron microscopic changes we were...... unable to demonstrate any significant difference between the magnesium, placebo and control groups....

  4. Behavior of hydroxide at the water/vapor interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Bernd; Faubel, Manfred; Vácha, Robert; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2009-06-01

    Hydroxide and hydronium, which represent the ionic products of water autolysis, exhibit a peculiar surface behavior. While consensus has been established that the concentration of hydronium cations is enhanced at the surface with respect to the bulk, the affinity of hydroxide anions for the water/vapor interface has been a subject of an ongoing controversy. On the one hand, electrophoretic and titration measurements of air bubbles or oil droplets in water have been interpreted in terms of a dramatic interfacial accumulation of OH -. On the other hand, surface-selective non-linear spectroscopies, surface tension measurements, and molecular simulations show no or at most a weak surface affinity of hydroxide ions. Here, we summarize the current situation and provide new evidence for the lack of appreciable surface enhancement of OH -, based on photoelectron spectroscopy from a liquid jet and on molecular dynamics simulations with polarizable potentials at varying hydroxide concentrations.

  5. Synthesis of beta alumina from aluminum hydroxide and oxyhydroxide precursors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, A

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Two aluminium oxyhydroxides, boehmite and pseudoboehmite, and two aluminium hydroxides, bayerite and gibbsite, have been investigated as precursors for the synthesis of the solid electrolyte, beta alumina. Reaction pathways and products have been...

  6. Electronic spectra of anions intercalated in layered double hydroxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    groups of the layers and interlayer water through the termi- nal atom symmetry ... results in a reaction with the metal hydroxide layers lead- ing to the ..... List of band positions observed for potassium salts of anion and LDH samples. Salts.

  7. Ammonia induced precipitation of cobalt hydroxide: observation of turbostratic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, T. N.; Rajamathi, Michael; Kamath, P. Vishnu

    2003-05-01

    Cobalt hydroxide freshly precipitated from aqueous solutions of Co salts using ammonia, is a layered phase having a 9.17 Å interlayer spacing. DIFFaX simulations of the PXRD pattern reveal that it is turbostratically disordered.

  8. NO and SCN -intercalated layered double hydroxides: structure and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-02-05

    Feb 5, 2018 ... Keywords. Nitrite ion; thiocyanate ion; layered double hydroxide; structure refinement. 1. Introduction .... applications of LDHs is sorption/uptake of toxic anions ... by ion chromatography using a Metrohm Model 861 Advanced.

  9. Antimony removal from aqueous solutions using Zirconium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrescu, D.; Velciu, L.; Bucur, C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper it is presented an experimental test for non-radioactive antimony removal from aqueous solutions using zirconium hydroxide powder. Also, it was studied how the temperature and pH influences antimony adsorption onto zirconium hydroxide surface. After the adsorption, solutions were filtered on Cellulose Mixed Ester Membrane with 0.2 μm pore size to remove the zirconium powder and then the aqueous solutions were sent to Inductively Coupled Plasma Optic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) for quantitative analysis of Sb. Zirconium hydroxide powders were examined by optical microscopy. For the solutions that were tested at pH 4.5 and 10.2 the antimony concentration dropped below the detection limit of ICP-OES device, proof of antimony adsorption on zirconium hydroxide. Also, for the other tested solutions which had pH=12 the antimony concentration reduced with 77% and 80%. The temperature had no influence upon adsorption mechanism. (authors)

  10. Aluminium hydroxide-the carrier for catalysts coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normatov, I.Sh.; Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2003-01-01

    At present time several methods of receiving aluminium hydroxide are exist. But all they differ by much staging of process connected with preliminary receiving of intermediate compounds, with application of expensive metallic aluminium

  11. Corrosion and protection of magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghali, E. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Mining and Metallurgy

    2000-07-01

    The oxide film on magnesium offers considerable surface protection in rural and some industrial environments and the corrosion rate lies between that of aluminum and low carbon steels. Galvanic coupling of magnesium alloys, high impurity content such as Ni, Fe, Cu and surface contamination are detrimental for corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys. Alloying elements can form secondary particles which are noble to the Mg matrix, thereby facilitating corrosion, or enrich the corrosion product thereby possibly inhibiting the corrosion rate. Bimetallic corrosion resistance can be increased by fluxless melt protection, choice of compatible alloys, insulating materials, and new high-purity alloys. Magnesium is relatively insensible to oxygen concentration. Pitting, corrosion in the crevices, filiform corrosion are observed. Granular corrosion of magnesium alloys is possible due to the cathodic grain-boundary constituent. More homogeneous microstructures tend to improve corrosion resistance. Under fatigue loading conditions, microcrack initiation in Mg alloys is related to slip in preferentially oriented grains. Coating that exclude the corrosive environments can provide the primary defense against corrosion fatigue. Magnesium alloys that contain neither aluminum nor zinc are the most SCC resistant. Compressive surface residual stresses as that created by short peening increase SCC resistance. Cathodic polarization or cladding with a SCC resistant sheet alloy are good alternatives. Effective corrosion prevention for magnesium alloy components and assemblies should start at the design stage. Selective surface preparation, chemical treatment and coatings are recommended. Oil application, wax coating, anodizing, electroplating, and painting are possible alternatives. Recently, it is found that a magnesium hydride layer, created on the magnesium surface by cathodic charging in aqueous solution is a good base for painting. (orig.)

  12. Comparative evaluation of different forms of calcium hydroxide in apexification

    OpenAIRE

    Subhankar Ghosh; Dibyendu Mazumdar; Pradip Kumar Ray; Bhaswar Bhattacharya

    2014-01-01

    Background: One out of every two children sustains a dental injury most often between 8 and 10 years of age. Majority of these teeth subsequently become non-vital and most often with immature apex. Management of these teeth is an enormous challenge for lack of apical stop. Calcium hydroxide in various formulations has maximum literature support in favor of "successful apexification or induced apical closure." Aim: The aim of the following study is to determine the efficacy of calcium hydroxid...

  13. Deactivation of nickel hydroxide-gold modified electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Caram, Bruno; Tucceri, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study how the charge-transport process of a nickel hydroxide film electrochemically synthesized on a gold substrate is modified when the electrode is stored for a long time. It was found that nickel hydroxide films are deactivated under storage, that is, films became less conductive than films immediately prepared (nondeactivated). This study was carried out in the context of the rotating disc electrode voltammetry when the modified electrode contacts an ele...

  14. EFFECT OF SODIUM SILICATE TO SODIUM HYDROXIDE RATIOS ON DURABILITY OF GEOPOLYMER MORTARS CONTAINING NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL POZZOLANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nurhayat Degirmenci

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide the experimental data on the sulphate and acid performance of geopolymer mortar containing pozzolanic materials such as fly ash (FA, ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS and natural zeolite (NZ. The alkaline solution was the combination of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solution with the ratio (Na ₂SiO₃/NaOH of 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0. The molarity of sodium hydroxide was fixed as 10. The performances of geopolymer mortar were measured in terms of sodium and magnesium sulphate resistance and sulphuric and hydrochlorich acid resistance with 5% and 10 % concentration after 24 weeks. The evaluations were measured as visual observation, measurement of weight change and residual compressive strength. It has been observed that Na ₂SiO₃/NaOH ratio is effective on residual compressive strength of geopolymer mortar in both sulphate and acid exposure. The higher ratio of Na ₂SiO₃/NaOH results in a higher residual compressive strength. The GGBS based geopolymer mortar has a very good resistance in acid media in terms of weight loss and residual compressive strength. The inclusion of FA in the GGBS based geopolymer mixture was found to be a suitable base of geopolymer mortar under ambient curing conditions.

  15. A Case of a Magnesium Oxide Bezoar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamuro, Masaya; Saito, Shunsuke; Yoshioka, Masao; Urata, Haruo; Ueda, Kumiko; Yamamoto, Kazuhide; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2018-06-06

    A 75-year-old Japanese woman presented with nausea and appetite loss. Computed tomography showed a radiopaque substance in the stomach. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed bezoars in the stomach, which were endoscopically retrieved. The bezoars were mainly composed of magnesium and oxide. Although bezoar formation associated with magnesium oxide consumption is infrequently encountered, the present case indicates that pharmacobezoar should be considered among the differential diagnoses in patients who demonstrate a radiopaque mass in the digestive tract and have a history of magnesium oxide use.

  16. Magnesium doping of boron nitride nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, Robert; Jordan, Kevin

    2015-06-16

    A method to fabricate boron nitride nanotubes incorporating magnesium diboride in their structure. In a first embodiment, magnesium wire is introduced into a reaction feed bundle during a BNNT fabrication process. In a second embodiment, magnesium in powder form is mixed into a nitrogen gas flow during the BNNT fabrication process. MgB.sub.2 yarn may be used for superconducting applications and, in that capacity, has considerably less susceptibility to stress and has considerably better thermal conductivity than these conventional materials when compared to both conventional low and high temperature superconducting materials.

  17. The importance of proper crystal-chemical and geometrical reasoning demonstrated using layered single and double hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    The importance and utility of proper crystal-chemical and geometrical reasoning in structural studies is demonstrated through the consideration of layered single and double hydroxides. New yet fundamental information is provided and it is evident that the crystal chemistry of the double hydroxide phases is much more straightforward than is apparent from the literature. Atomistic modelling techniques and Rietveld refinement of X-ray powder diffraction data are widely used but often result in crystal structures that are not realistic, presumably because the authors neglect to check the crystal-chemical plausibility of their structure. The purpose of this paper is to reinforce the importance and utility of proper crystal-chemical and geometrical reasoning in structural studies. It is achieved by using such reasoning to generate new yet fundamental information about layered double hydroxides (LDH), a large, much-studied family of compounds. LDH phases are derived from layered single hydroxides by the substitution of a fraction (x) of the divalent cations by trivalent. Equations are derived that enable calculation of x from the a parameter of the unit cell and vice versa, which can be expected to be of widespread utility as a sanity test for extant and future structure determinations and computer simulation studies. The phase at x = 0 is shown to be an α form of divalent metal hydroxide rather than the β polymorph. Crystal-chemically sensible model structures are provided for β-Zn(OH) 2 and Ni- and Mg-based carbonate LDH phases that have any trivalent cation and any value of x, including x = 0 [i.e. for α-M(OH) 2 ·mH 2 O phases

  18. The reference range of serum, plasma and erythrocyte magnesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanna Immanuel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the clinical importance of serum magnesium level has just recently begun with the analysis and findings of abnormal magnesium level in cardiovascular, metabolic and neuromuscular disorder. Although the serum level does not reflect the body magnesium level, but currently, only serum magnesium determination is widely used. Erythrocyte magnesium is considered more sensitive than serum magnesium as it reflects intracellular magnesium status. According to NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards every laboratory is recommended to have its own reference range for the tests it performs, including magnesium determination. The reference range obtained is appropriate for the population and affected by the method and technique. This study aimed to find the reference range of serum and plasma magnesium and also intracellular magnesium i.e. erythrocyte magnesium by direct method, and compare the results of serum and plasma magnesium. Blood was taken from 114-blood donor from Unit Transfusi Darah Daerah (UTDD Budhyarto Palang Merah Indonesia (PMI DKI Jakarta, consisted of 57 male and 57 female, aged 17 – 65 years, clinically healthy according to PMI donor criteria. Blood was taken from blood set, collected into 4 ml vacuum tube without anticoagulant for serum magnesium determination and 3 ml vacuum tube with lithium heparin for determination of erythrocyte and plasma magnesium Determination of magnesium level was performed with clinical chemistry auto analyzer Hitachi 912 by Xylidil Blue method colorimetrically. This study showed no significant difference between serum and heparinized plasma extra cellular magnesium. The reference range for serum or plasma magnesium was 1.30 – 2.00 mEq/L and for erythrocyte magnesium was 4.46 - 7.10 mEq/L. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:229-35Keywords: Reference range, extracellular magnesium, intracellular magnesium

  19. Calcium hydroxide suppresses Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharide-induced bone destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J; Yang, D; Okamura, H; Teramachi, J; Ochiai, K; Qiu, L; Haneji, T

    2014-05-01

    Porphyromonas endodontalis and its main virulence factor, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), are associated with the development of periapical diseases and alveolar bone loss. Calcium hydroxide is commonly used for endodontic therapy. However, the effects of calcium hydroxide on the virulence of P. endodontalis LPS and the mechanism of P. endodontalis LPS-induced bone destruction are not clear. Calcium hydroxide rescued the P. endodontalis LPS-suppressed viability of MC3T3-E1 cells and activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in these cells, resulting in the reduced expression of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. In addition, calcium hydroxide inhibited P. endodontalis LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis by decreasing the activities of NF-κB, p38, and ERK1/2 and the expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cell cytoplasmic 1 in RAW264.7 cells. Calcium hydroxide also rescued the P. endodontalis LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction in mouse calvaria. Taken together, our present results indicate that calcium hydroxide suppressed bone destruction by attenuating the virulence of P. endodontalis LPS on bone cells.

  20. Investigation of gel formation and volatilization of acetate acid in magnesium acetate droplets by the optical tweezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xi-Juan; Wang, Yang; Cai, Chen; Pang, Shu-Feng; Ma, Jia-Bi; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2018-07-05

    Hygroscopicity and volatility of single magnesium acetate (MgAc 2 ) aerosol particles at various relative humidities (RHs) are studied by a single-beam optical tweezers, and refractive indices (RIs) and morphology are characterized by cavity enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Gel formation and volatilization of acetate acid (HAc) in MgAc 2 droplets are observed. Due to the formation of amorphous gel structure, water transposition in droplets at RH magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH) 2 ) inclusions are formed in MgAc 2 droplets due to the volatilization of HAc, and whispering gallery modes (WGMs) of MgAc 2 droplets in the Raman spectrum quench after 50,000 s. In sharp contrast, after 86,000 s at RH ≈ 70%, NaAc droplets are in well-mixed liquid states, containing soluble sodium hydroxide (NaOH). At this state, the RI of NaAc droplet is increased, and the quenching of WGMs is not observable. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Layered zinc hydroxide salts: Delamination, preferred orientation of hydroxide lamellae, and formation of ZnO nanodiscs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Demel, Jan; Pleštil, Josef; Bezdička, Petr; Janda, Pavel; Klementová, Mariana; Lang, Kamil

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 360, č. 2 (2011), s. 532-539 ISSN 0021-9797 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME09058; GA ČR GAP207/10/1447 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : layered zinc hydroxide * delamination * exfoliation * hydroxide layer * ZnO Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.070, year: 2011

  2. Synthesis, characterisation and anion exchange properties of copper, magnesium, zinc and nickel hydroxy nitrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswick, Timothy; Jones, William; Pacuła, Aleksandra; Serwicka, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    Anion exchange reactions of four structurally related hydroxy salts, Cu 2(OH) 3NO 3, Mg 2(OH) 3NO 3, Ni 2(OH) 3NO 3 and Zn 3(OH) 4(NO 3) 2 are compared and trends rationalised in terms of the strength of the covalent bond between the nitrate group and the matrix cation. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and elemental analysis are used to characterise the materials. Replacement of the nitrate anions in the zinc and copper salts with benzoate anions is possible although exchange of the zinc salt is accompanied by modification of the layer structure from one where zinc is exclusively six-fold coordinated to a structure where there is both six- and four-fold zinc coordination. Magnesium and nickel hydroxy nitrates, on the other hand, hydrolyse to their respective metal hydroxides.

  3. Laboratory evaluation of PAH oxidation by magnesium peroxides and iron oxides mixtures as reactive material for groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valderrama, C.; Gamisans, X.; Cortina, J.L.; Farran, A.; Marti, V.

    2005-01-01

    contaminant(s) of concern; 2) the total oxidant requirements, pH dependence and relative reaction rate, and 3) the reaction by-products formed. The main goal of this work the evaluation of mixtures of magnesium peroxide and iron oxides as reactive materials for Poly-aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) degradation reagents in permeable reactive barriers or zones. One goal of this study is to examine and determine the release rate of hydrogen peroxide from magnesium peroxide by means of laboratory experiments. The magnesium peroxide from two different sources (i.e. Regenesis and Solvay) will be compared. Another objective is to study how a catalyst such as iron speeds up the degradation of PAHs. Not only the release rate will be studied, but also the dissolution process of magnesium peroxide. The experiments mentioned above will be carried out in both batch and continuous reactors. The results of this study showed that the magnesium peroxide from Solvay can release more hydrogen peroxide than the magnesium peroxide from Regenesis. The oxidation factors for the two preparations are quite similar, even though the release of hydrogen peroxide differs greatly. Another point, which ought to be considered, is the minor effect of iron oxides in the degradation of PAHs. The dissolution process of magnesium peroxide is a complex process with magnesium hydroxide as the main reaction by product. So, magnesium peroxides can be used as a hydrogen peroxide releasing compound. Further studies on the removal mechanisms should be performed to identify the oxidation products as well as the sorption properties of magnesium hydroxide. The heterogeneous oxidation of a family of poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (anthracene, pyrene, fluorene and naphthalene) proceeds with a highly efficiency ratio and following a first order kinetic

  4. Intercalation and structural aspects of macroRAFT agents into MgAl layered double hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessislava Kostadinova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention has been devoted to the design of layered double hydroxide (LDH-based hybrid materials. In this work, we demonstrate the intercalation by anion exchange process of poly(acrylic acid (PAA and three different hydrophilic random copolymers of acrylic acid (AA and n-butyl acrylate (BA with molar masses ranging from 2000 to 4200 g mol−1 synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT polymerization, into LDH containing magnesium(II and aluminium(III intralayer cations and nitrates as counterions (MgAl-NO3 LDH. At basic pH, the copolymer chains (macroRAFT agents carry negative charges which allowed the establishment of electrostatic interactions with the LDH interlayer and their intercalation. The resulting hybrid macroRAFT/LDH materials displayed an expanded interlamellar domain compared to pristine MgAl-NO3 LDH from 1.36 nm to 2.33 nm. Depending on the nature of the units involved into the macroRAFT copolymer (only AA or AA and BA, the intercalation led to monolayer or bilayer arrangements within the interlayer space. The macroRAFT intercalation and the molecular structure of the hybrid phases were further characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and solid-state 13C, 1H and 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopies to get a better description of the local structure.

  5. Preparation and Characterization of Polycaprolactone / Layered Double Hydroxide Nanocomposite for Hard Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Baradaran

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the use of nanomaterials in bone tissue engineering scaffold has been considered due to its imitating the structure of natural bone tissue which contains a nanocomposite structure mixed with a three-dimensional matrix. In the meantime, Polycaprol actone has been used as a bio-polymer in bone tissue engineering applications as a scaffold. The aim of this study is to develop porous scaffolds made of polycaprol actone/layered double hydroxide biocomposite, with appropriate mechanical, bioactive and biological properties, for bone tissue engineering application. The nanocomposite scaffolds were fabricated by the particulate leaching method and freeze-drying method. In this study, MG63 cells (osteosarcoma was investigated for cellular study. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis confirmed uniform distribution of ceramic phase in polycaprol actone matrix. The results of mechanical tests showed the increase in young’s modulus after addition of ceramic phase. The microscopic investigations demonstrated that the pores generated after addition of ceramic phase and the average size of pores was as large as 100-600μm. Also by the addition of LDH, the hydrophilicity of PCL increased but the rate of hydroxyapatite formation was delayed due to presence of magnesium ions. The cell culture experiments confirmed the attachment and proliferation of cells on the scaffolds. The results showed that the fabricated scaffolds have the potential to be used in cancellous bone tissue engineering.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of a layered double hydroxide containing an intercalated nickel(II) citrate complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lianying; Wu Guoqing; Evans, David G.

    2007-01-01

    The nickel(II) citrate complex anion ([Ni(C 6 H 4 O 7 )] 2- ) may be intercalated into the interlayer galleries of a layered double hydroxide (LDH) host by a process involving ion-exchange with an Mg 2 Al-NO 3 LDH precursor. The powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern confirms that the layered structure is maintained. The thermal decomposition process of the complex anion-intercalated material has been characterized by in situ high temperature powder XRD, thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and coupled with mass spectrometry (MS). The thermal stability of the nickel(II) citrate complex anion intercalated in LDHs in air is lower than that in the sodium salt. Calcination generates a high degree of nickel(II) oxide dispersion in a matrix of magnesium and aluminium oxide phases which should be an advantage if the materials are used as catalyst precursors. Based on the observed data, a structural model for the [Ni(C 6 H 4 O 7 )] 2- anion intercalated in the galleries of the LDH is proposed

  7. Palladium nanoparticles supported on layered hydroxide salts and their use in carbon-carbon coupling organic reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez,Maby; Ocampo,Rogelio; Rios,Luz Amalia; Ramírez,Alfonso; Giraldo,Oscar

    2011-01-01

    Palladium nanoparticles supported on zinc hydroxide salts were prepared by intercalation of [PdCl6]2- and its further reduction with ethanol under reflux. All the materials were completely characterized by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric/derivative thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) analyses, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Visible spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM analysis confirmed that the palladium nanoparticles we...

  8. Study of Serum Magnesium in Surgical Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip D. Lambe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: A deficiency of magnesium is of clinical importance in hospitalized patients. The prevalence of hypomagnesaemia is high in critically ill patients. Knowing the important role of magnesium in surgical cases, it is necessary to anticipate and diagnose magnesium deficiency prior to surgery and in the immediate postoperative period to correct it. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyse serum magnesium levels in patients undergoing emergency surgical procedures, planned surgical procedures and normal healthy matched controls and to compare the serum magnesium levels in all the three groups. Materials and Methods: The study participants were divided into three groups: i Group I: patients undergoing emergency major surgery ii Group II: patients undergoing planned major surgery iii Group III: normal healthy controls. Serum Magnesium investigation was done by Xylidyl Blue Method using UV-1800/Shimadzu UV-Spectrophotometer. Results: The mean serum Magnesium in control group was found to be 2.16 ± 0.30 mg/dl. In patients undergoing planned surgery, pre-operative serum magnesium was normal (2.16 ± 0.22 mg/dl but decreased significantly on postoperative day 3 (1.63 ± 0.27 mg/dl and day 6 (1.97 ± 0.12 mg/dl and returned to normal level by post-operative day 9 (2.14 ± 0.14 mg/dl compared to controls. In patients undergoing emergency surgery, serum magnesium was decreased pre-operatively (1.90 ± 0.48 mg/dl.Further significant reduction was found at post-operative day 3 (1.38 ± 0.28 mg/dl, day 6 (1.59 ± 0.30 mg/dl and day 9 (1.88 ± 0.46 mg/dl compared to controls. Mean serum Magnesium overall in emergency surgery patients was reduced significantly compared to planned surgery patients. Conclusion: A transient fall in the serum Magnesium as compared to its pre-operative level was seen in every patient undergoing surgical procedure due to surgical stress. In patients undergoing emergency surgical procedure, the decrease was

  9. Nuclear reactor shield including magnesium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouse, C.A.; Simnad, M.T.

    1981-01-01

    An improvement is described for nuclear reactor shielding of a type used in reactor applications involving significant amounts of fast neutron flux. The reactor shielding includes means providing structural support, neutron moderator material, neutron absorber material and other components, wherein at least a portion of the neutron moderator material is magnesium in the form of magnesium oxide either alone or in combination with other moderator materials such as graphite and iron

  10. Distribution of magnesium in groundwater of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Milosavljević Jovana; Andrijašević Jakov; Todorović Maja

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium is chemical element commonly found in the environment and the main constituent of many types of minerals and rocks. This element is also essential to man. Owing to its abundance in nature, magnesium is present in all water resources and generally occur as the dominant cation, with calcium, in those that feature low TDS levels, whose origin is associated with large formations of sedimentary rocks (limestones, dolomites), and to a lesser extent with...

  11. Immunological Response to Biodegradable Magnesium Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Karin; Fischerauer, Stefan; Ferlic, Peter; Martinelli, Elisabeth; Brezinsek, Hans-Peter; Uggowitzer, Peter J.; Löffler, Jörg F.; Weinberg, Annelie-Martina

    2014-04-01

    The use of biodegradable magnesium implants in pediatric trauma surgery would render surgical interventions for implant removal after tissue healing unnecessary, thereby preventing stress to the children and reducing therapy costs. In this study, we report on the immunological response to biodegradable magnesium implants—as an important aspect in evaluating biocompatibility—tested in a growing rat model. The focus of this study was to investigate the response of the innate immune system to either fast or slow degrading magnesium pins, which were implanted into the femoral bones of 5-week-old rats. The main alloying element of the fast-degrading alloy (ZX50) was Zn, while it was Y in the slow-degrading implant (WZ21). Our results demonstrate that degrading magnesium implants beneficially influence the immune system, especially in the first postoperative weeks but also during tissue healing and early bone remodeling. However, rodents with WZ21 pins showed a slightly decreased phagocytic ability during bone remodeling when the degradation rate reached its maximum. This may be due to the high release rate of the rare earth-element yttrium, which is potentially toxic. From our results we conclude that magnesium implants have a beneficial effect on the innate immune system but that there are some concerns regarding the use of yttrium-alloyed magnesium implants, especially in pediatric patients.

  12. The role of magnesium in the electrochemical behaviour of 5XXX aluminium-magnesium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores Ramirez, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    An investigation concerning the effects of magnesium on the intergranular corrosion susceptibility of AA5XXX aluminium alloys was carried out. In the present work, magnesium is found to be highly mobile in the bulk metal as well as in the aluminium oxide. This mobility is also found to be dependent

  13. EFFICACY OF DIFFERENT ENDODONTIC IRRIGATION PROTOCOLS IN CALCIUM HYDROXIDE REMOVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elka N. Radeva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calcium hydroxide is widely used in the field of endodontics as a temporary root canal filling. This medicament significantly increases pH and optimizes the treatment outcome. Its total removal before final obturation is very important. Otherwise it could affect the hermetic filling and respectively the endodontic success. Aim: To evaluate the most effective irrigation protocol of calcium hydroxide removal from root canals. Materials and methods: In this study 36 single root canal teeth were observed. They were randomly divided into three groups (n=10 each group according to the technique applied for calcium hydroxide removal - manual irrigation, irrigation and Revo-S rotary instrumentation; and passive ultrasonic irrigation, and a control group (n=6 – irrigation with distilled water only. After calcium hydroxide removals following the procedures above, teeth were separated longitudinally in a buccal-lingual direction and remnants of medicaments were observed in the apical, middle and coronal part of each tooth. Then all of the specimens were observed using scanning electron microscopy and evaluated by a specified scale. The results have undergone statistical analysis. Results: In the case of calcium hydroxide in the apex and in the middle with highest average is Revo-S, followed by Ultrasonic and irrigation. In the coronal part the highest average belongs to Revo-S, irrigation and Ultrasonic. In all groups the highest average is represented by control group. Conclusion: There is not a universal technique for removal of intracanal medicaments and applying more than one protocol is required.

  14. The citotoxicity of calcium hydroxide intracanal dressing by MTT assay

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    Nanik Zubaidah

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Calcium hydroxide had been used as the intracanal dressing in endodontic treatment due to its high alkaline and high antimicrobial capacity. It also be able to dissolve the necrotic tissue, prevent the root resorbtion and regenerate a new hard tissue. The aim of this study is to identify the concentration of calcium hydroxide that has the lowest citotoxicity. There are 5 groups, each group had 8 samples with different concentration of calcium hydroxide. Group I: 50%, Group II: 55%, Group III: 60%, Group IV: 65% and Group V: 70%. The citotoxicity test by using enzymatic assay of MTT [3-(4.5- dimethylthiazol-2yl ]-2.5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, against fibroblast cell (BHK-21. The result of susceptibility test was showed by the citotoxicity detection of the survive cell of fibroblast that was measured spectrophotometrically using 595 nm beam. The data was analyzed using One-Way ANOVA test with significant difference α = 0.05 and subsequently LSD test. The result showed that in concentration 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, and 70% calcium hydroxide had low toxicity, but calcium hydroxide 60%, had the lowest toxicity.

  15. The Effect of Sodium Hydroxide on Drag Reduction using a Biopolymer.

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    Singh Harvin Kaur A/P Gurchran

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drag reduction is observed as reduced frictional pressure losses under turbulent flow conditions and hence, substantially increases the flowrate of the fluid. Practical application includes water flooding system, pipeline transport and drainage system. Drag reduction agent, such as polymers, can be introduced to increase the flowrate of water flowing, reducing the water accumulation in the system and subsequently lesser possibility of heavy flooding. Currently used polymer as drag reduction agents is carboxymethylcellulose, to name one. This is a synthetic polymer which will seep into the ground and further harm our environment in excessive use of accumulation. A more environmentally-friendly drag reduction agent, such as the polymer derived from natural sources or biopolymer, is then required for such purpose. As opposed to the synthetic polymers, the potential of biopolymers as drag reduction agents, especially those derived from a local plant source, are not extensively explored. The drag reduction of a polymer produced from a local plant source within the turbulent regime will be explored and assessed in this study using a rheometer where a reduced a torque produced can be perceived as a reduction of drag. The cellulose powder was converted to carboxymethylcellulose (CMC by etherification process using sodium monochloroacetate and sodium hydroxide. The carboxymethylation reaction then was optimized against concentration of NaOH. The research is structured to focus on producing the biopolymer and also assess the drag reduction ability of the biopolymer produced against concentration of sodium hydroxide.

  16. A study of thermally activated Mg–Fe layered double hydroxides as potential environmental catalysts

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    MILICA S. HADNAĐEV-KOSTIĆ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Layered double hydroxides (LDHs and mixed oxides derived after thermal decomposition of LDHs with different Mg–Fe contents were investigated. These materials were chosen because of the possibility to tailor their various properties, such as ion-exchange capability, redox and acid–base and surface area. Layered double hydroxides, [Mg1-xFex(OH2](CO3x/2×mH2O (where x presents the content of trivalent ions, x = M(III/(M(II + M(III were synthesized using the low supersaturation precipitation method. The influence of different Mg/Fe ratios on the structure and surface properties of the LDH and derived mixed oxides was investigated in correlation to their catalytic properties in the chosen test reaction (Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. It was determined that the presence of active sites in the mixed oxides is influenced by the structural properties of the initial LDH and by the presence of additional Fe phases. Furthermore, a synthesis outside the optimal range for the synthesis of single phase LDHs leads to the formation of metastable, multiphase systems with specific characteristics and active sites.

  17. Blood compatibility of magnesium and its alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyerabend, Frank; Wendel, Hans-Peter; Mihailova, Boriana; Heidrich, Stefanie; Agha, Nezha Ahmad; Bismayer, Ulrich; Willumeit-Römer, Regine

    2015-10-01

    Blood compatibility analysis in the field of biomaterials is a highly controversial topic. Especially for degradable materials like magnesium and its alloys no established test methods are available. The purpose of this study was to apply advanced test methodology for the analysis of degrading materials to get a mechanistic insight into the corrosion process in contact with human blood and plasma. Pure magnesium and two magnesium alloys were analysed in a modified Chandler-Loop setup. Standard clinical parameters were determined, and a thorough analysis of the resulting implant surface chemistry was performed. The contact of the materials to blood evoked an accelerated inflammatory and cell-induced osteoconductive reaction. Corrosion products formed indicate a more realistic, in vivo like situation. The active regulation of corrosion mechanisms of magnesium alloys by different cell types should be more in the focus of research to bridge the gap between in vitro and in vivo observations and to understand the mechanism of action. This in turn could lead to a better acceptance of these materials for implant applications. The presented study deals with the first mechanistic insights during whole human blood contact and its influence on a degrading magnesium-based biomaterial. The combination of clinical parameters and corrosion layer analysis has been performed for the first time. It could be of interest due to the intended use of magnesium-based stents and for orthopaedic applications for clinical applications. An interest for the readers of Acta Biomaterialia may be given, as one of the first clinically approved magnesium-based devices is a wound-closure device, which is in direct contact with blood. Moreover, for orthopaedic applications also blood contact is of high interest. Although this is not the focus of the manuscript, it could help to rise awareness for potential future applications. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  18. Ion Implantation of Calcium and Zinc in Magnesium for Biodegradable Implant Applications

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    Sahadev Somasundaram

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, magnesium was implanted with calcium-ion and zinc-ion at fluences of 1015, 1016, and 1017 ion·cm−2, and its in vitro degradation behaviour was evaluated using electrochemical techniques in simulated body fluid (SBF. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS revealed that the implanted ions formed layers within the passive magnesium-oxide/hydroxide layers. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS results demonstrated that calcium-ion implantation at a fluence of 1015 ions·cm−2 increased the polarisation resistance by 24%, but higher fluences showed no appreciable improvement. In the case of zinc-ion implantation, increase in the fluence decreased the polarisation resistance. A fluence of 1017 ion·cm−2 decreased the polarisation resistance by 65%, and fluences of 1015 and 1016 showed only marginal effect. Similarly, potentiodynamic polarisation results also suggested that low fluence of calcium-ion decreased the degradation rate by 38% and high fluence of zinc-ion increased the degradation rate by 61%. All the post-polarized ion-implanted samples and the bare metal revealed phosphate and carbonate formation. However, the improved degradative behaviour in calcium-ion implanted samples can be due to a relatively better passivation, whereas the reduction in degradation resistance in zinc-ion implanted samples can be attributed to the micro-galvanic effect.

  19. Incorporation of layered double nanomaterials in thin film nanocomposite nanofiltration membrane for magnesium sulphate removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajuddin Muhammad Hanis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin film nanocomposite (TFN membrane with copper-aluminium layered double hydroxides (LDH incorporated into polyamide (PA selective layer has been prepared for magnesium sulphate salt removal. 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 wt% of LDH were dispersed in the trimesoyl chloride (TMC in n-hexane as organic solution and embedded into PA layer during interfacial polymerization with piperazine. The fabricated membranes were further characterized to evaluate its morphological structure and membrane surface hydrophilicity. The TFN membranes performance were evaluated with divalent salt magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 removal and compared with thin film composite (TFC. The morphological structures of TFN membranes were altered and the surface hydrophilicity were enhanced with addition of LDH. Incorporation of LDH has improved the permeate water flux by 82.5% compared to that of TFC membrane with satisfactory rejection of MgSO4. This study has experimentally validated the potential of LDH to improve the divalent salt separation performance for TFN membranes.

  20. Incorporation of layered double nanomaterials in thin film nanocomposite nanofiltration membrane for magnesium sulphate removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanis Tajuddin, Muhammad; Yusof, Norhaniza; Salleh, Wan Norharyati Wan; Fauzi Ismail, Ahmad; Hanis Hayati Hairom, Nur; Misdan, Nurasyikin

    2018-03-01

    Thin film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane with copper-aluminium layered double hydroxides (LDH) incorporated into polyamide (PA) selective layer has been prepared for magnesium sulphate salt removal. 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 wt% of LDH were dispersed in the trimesoyl chloride (TMC) in n-hexane as organic solution and embedded into PA layer during interfacial polymerization with piperazine. The fabricated membranes were further characterized to evaluate its morphological structure and membrane surface hydrophilicity. The TFN membranes performance were evaluated with divalent salt magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) removal and compared with thin film composite (TFC). The morphological structures of TFN membranes were altered and the surface hydrophilicity were enhanced with addition of LDH. Incorporation of LDH has improved the permeate water flux by 82.5% compared to that of TFC membrane with satisfactory rejection of MgSO4. This study has experimentally validated the potential of LDH to improve the divalent salt separation performance for TFN membranes.

  1. Color removal from dye-containing wastewater by magnesium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bao-Yu; Yue, Qin-Yan; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Wei-Zhi

    2007-01-01

    Color removal by MgCl(2) when treating synthetic waste containing pure dyes was studied. The color removal efficiency of MgCl(2)/Ca(OH)(2) was compared with that of Al(2)(SO(4))(3), polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and FeSO(4)/Ca(OH)(2). The mechanism of color removal by MgCl(2) was also investigated. The experimental results show that the color removal efficiency of MgCl(2) is related to the type of dye and depends on the pH of the waste and the dosage of the coagulants used. Treatment of waste containing reactive dye or dispersed dye with MgCl(2) yielded an optimum color removal ratio when the pH of the solution was equal to or above 12.0. For both the reactive and dispersed dye waste, MgCl(2)/Ca(OH)(2) was shown to be superior to MgCl(2)/NaOH, Al(2)(SO(4))(3), PAC and FeSO(4)/Ca(OH)(2) for color removal. A magnesium hydroxide precipitate formed at pH values greater than 12.0, which provided a large adsorptive surface area and a positive electrostatic surface charge, enabling it to remove the dyes through charge neutralization and an adsorptive coagulating mechanism. So, the MgCl(2)/Ca(OH)(2) system is a viable alternative to some of the more conventional forms of chemical treatment, especially for treating actual textile waste with high natural pH.

  2. Aracyl triflates for preparing fluorescent and UV absorbing derivatives of unreactive carboxylates, amines and other metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storer, Malina K. [Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, P.O. Box 151, Christchurch (New Zealand); Department of Pathology, Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Otago, Christchurch (New Zealand); Lever, Michael [Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, P.O. Box 151, Christchurch (New Zealand) and Department of Pathology, Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Otago, Christchurch (New Zealand)]. E-mail: michael.lever@chmeds.ac.nz

    2006-02-03

    Aracyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (triflate) reagents alkylate the unreactive carboxyl groups of betaines. The reagents also derivatise tertiary amines, amine oxides, phosphates and thioethers. A general derivatisation procedure is to dilute the sample with a polar aprotic organic solvent containing a trace of water, followed by adding an appropriate base and the aracyl triflate reagent. Limits of detection were 40 nM for glycine betaine (GB) and carnitine, 0.14 {mu}M for N,N-dimethylglycine, 70 nM for trimethylamine (TMA), and 5.9 {mu}M trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Limits of detection were improved when derivatisation yield was optimised for different analytes by changing solvent, base and water content of the reaction mixture. Solvents used include acetonitrile, acetone, butanone, dimethoxyethane and dimethoxyethyl ether, with the presence of some water or alcohol tolerated. Suitable bases include the inorganic bases magnesium hydroxide, silver oxide and lithium phosphate. These bases are sparingly soluble in the reaction solvent so sustain weakly basic conditions during derivatisation and can be removed by centrifugation to stop the reaction. This is particularly important for betaine assays since the derivatives are base-sensitive. The information presented here can be used to develop assays for many metabolites using these versatile reagents.

  3. Aracyl triflates for preparing fluorescent and UV absorbing derivatives of unreactive carboxylates, amines and other metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storer, Malina K.; Lever, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Aracyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (triflate) reagents alkylate the unreactive carboxyl groups of betaines. The reagents also derivatise tertiary amines, amine oxides, phosphates and thioethers. A general derivatisation procedure is to dilute the sample with a polar aprotic organic solvent containing a trace of water, followed by adding an appropriate base and the aracyl triflate reagent. Limits of detection were 40 nM for glycine betaine (GB) and carnitine, 0.14 μM for N,N-dimethylglycine, 70 nM for trimethylamine (TMA), and 5.9 μM trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Limits of detection were improved when derivatisation yield was optimised for different analytes by changing solvent, base and water content of the reaction mixture. Solvents used include acetonitrile, acetone, butanone, dimethoxyethane and dimethoxyethyl ether, with the presence of some water or alcohol tolerated. Suitable bases include the inorganic bases magnesium hydroxide, silver oxide and lithium phosphate. These bases are sparingly soluble in the reaction solvent so sustain weakly basic conditions during derivatisation and can be removed by centrifugation to stop the reaction. This is particularly important for betaine assays since the derivatives are base-sensitive. The information presented here can be used to develop assays for many metabolites using these versatile reagents

  4. Effect of Nitrogen, Potassium, Magnesium and Zinc Sulfates on Yield and Some Characteristics of Biodiesel Produced from Safflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ranjbar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of different amounts of nitrogen fertilizer, potassium sulfate, magnesium sulfate and zinc sulfate on biodiesel produced from safflower, a field experiment was carried out as completely randomized blocks design with three replications, at Research Farm of Shahrekord University in 2010. Treatments included nitrogen fertilizer at three levels (150, 200 and 300 kg/ha, potassium, magnesium and zinc sulfates at 150, 100 and 50 kg/ha, respectively, and control (no fertilizer application. By nourishing the safflower plants, the seed yield and biodiesel traits such as density, iodine value and saponification value were measured. The results showed that the seed yield under treatment of 300 kg/ha nitrogen (913 kg/ha was greater than other treatments. Magnesium sulfate and potassium sulfate produced the highest oil percentage (32.84 and 32.5, respectively. The biodiesel production under utilization of potassium sulfate had greater density, iodine value and saponification value (867.25 kg/m3, 139.7 mg iodine per 100 g oil, and 190.6 mg sodium hydroxide per g oil, respectively compared to other treatments. In general, it was concluded that application of micronutrient fertilizers (especially potassium sulfate improves seed-oil and biodiesel characteristics of safflower.

  5. Behavior of bone cells in contact with magnesium implant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmester, Anna; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Feyerabend, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium-based implants exhibit several advantages, such as biodegradability and possible osteoinductive properties. Whether the degradation may induce cell type-specific changes in metabolism still remains unclear. To examine the osteoinductivity mechanisms, the reaction of bone-derived cells (MG63, U2OS, SaoS2, and primary human osteoblasts (OB)) to magnesium (Mg) was determined. Mg-based extracts were used to mimic more realistic Mg degradation conditions. Moreover, the influence of cells having direct contact with the degrading Mg metal was investigated. In exposure to extracts and in direct contact, the cells decreased pH and osmolality due to metabolic activity. Proliferating cells showed no significant reaction to extracts, whereas differentiating cells were negatively influenced. In contrast to extract exposure, where cell size increased, in direct contact to magnesium, cell size was stable or even decreased. The amount of focal adhesions decreased over time on all materials. Genes involved in bone formation were significantly upregulated, especially for primary human osteoblasts. Some osteoinductive indicators were observed for OB: (i) an increased cell count after extract addition indicated a higher proliferation potential; (ii) increased cell sizes after extract supplementation in combination with augmented adhesion behavior of these cells suggest an early switch to differentiation; and (iii) bone-inducing gene expression patterns were determined for all analyzed conditions. The results from the cell lines were inhomogeneous and showed no specific stimulus of Mg. The comparison of the different cell types showed that primary cells of the investigated tissue should be used as an in vitro model if Mg is analyzed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 165-179, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Comparing of 5-Nonylsalicylaldoxime and Salicylaldehyde Characterization Using Magnesium Salt Formylation Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouramini, Zeinab; Moradi, Ali

    2012-01-01

    5-Nonylsalicylaldoxime and salicylaldehyde are two derivatives of phenolic compounds which are very applicable materials in industries. Formerly the formylation of phenolic derivatives were carried out by Rimer-Tiemann method. In this work both of these two materials were synthesized by magnesium meditated formylation technique and their structural characterizations were compared by instrumental analysis technique. In order to achieve a selectively orthoformylated product, the hydroxyl group of nonylphenol (or phenol) was first modified by magnesium methoxide. The nonylphenol magnesium salt was then formylated by paraformaldehyde. The oximation reaction was finally applied to the prepared non-ylsalicylaldehyde magnesium salt by liquid extracting via water and acid washing and other extractions. The solvent was finally removed by evaporation under reduced pressure. Some instrumental analysis such as 1 H-NMR, GC/MS and FT-IR spectra were taken on the product in order to interpret the reaction characterization quantitatively and qualitatively. The formaldehyde and oxime functional groups of two compounds were investigated through 1 H-NMR and FT-IR spectra and were compared. The yield of methoxilation was very good and the yields of formylation and oximation reactions were about 90% and 85% respectively. The orthoselectivity of formylation reaction were evaluated by comparing of the relevant spectra. The GC/MS spectra also confirmed the obtained results

  7. Transformation of zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate to crystalline zinc oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moezzi, Amir; Cortie, Michael; McDonagh, Andrew

    2016-04-25

    Thermal decomposition of layered zinc hydroxide double salts provides an interesting alternative synthesis for particles of zinc oxide. Here, we examine the sequence of changes occurring as zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate (Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O) is converted to crystalline ZnO by thermal decomposition. The specific surface area of the resultant ZnO measured by BET was 1.3 m(2) g(-1). A complicating and important factor in this process is that the thermal decomposition of zinc hydroxide chloride is also accompanied by the formation of volatile zinc-containing species under certain conditions. We show that this volatile compound is anhydrous ZnCl2 and its formation is moisture dependent. Therefore, control of atmospheric moisture is an important consideration that affects the overall efficiency of ZnO production by this process.

  8. Functionalization of lanthanum hydroxide nanowires by atom transfer radical polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Mi; Yuan Jinying; Yuan Weizhong; Yin Yingwu; Hong Xiaoyin

    2007-01-01

    Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) has been used to prepare a core-shell hybrid nanostructure successfully: a hard core of single-crystalline lanthanum hydroxide nanowires and a soft shell of polystyrene (PS) brushes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images indicated that the resulting products presented special structures and different thicknesses of polymer layers. The chemical components and grafted PS quantities of the samples were measured by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The polymers showed narrow polydispersity, which proved that the lanthanum hydroxide nanowires initiated the 'living'/controlled polymerization of styrene. With the modifiability of lanthanum hydroxide nanowires, the solubility increased, which affords a new way to functionalize nanowires

  9. Comparative evaluation of different forms of calcium hydroxide in apexification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhankar Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One out of every two children sustains a dental injury most often between 8 and 10 years of age. Majority of these teeth subsequently become non-vital and most often with immature apex. Management of these teeth is an enormous challenge for lack of apical stop. Calcium hydroxide in various formulations has maximum literature support in favor of "successful apexification or induced apical closure." Aim: The aim of the following study is to determine the efficacy of calcium hydroxide in a different formulation to induce apexification. Materials and Methods: The present study was undertaken on 51 children of 8-10 years of age (both sexes at Dr. R Ahmed Dental College and Hospital from April 2006 to March 2007. All children had one or two maxillary permanent central incisor (s, non-vital and apices open. In all the cases, apexification was attempted with either calcium hydroxide mixed with sterile distilled water, or calcium hydroxide plus iodoform in methyl cellulose base, or calcium hydroxide plus iodoform in polysilicone oil base. The success of apexification was determined on the basis of clinical and radiographic criteria. Results: In the pre-operative asymptomatic cases (72.55%, failure occurred in only 5.45% cases and pre-operative symptomatic cases failure rate was as high as 35.71%. Success rate was 94.6% in cases with narrow open apices, whereas 64.28% in wide open apices. In cases with pre-existing apical radiolucencies, successful apexification occurred in 63.63% and success rate was 92.5% in the cases without pre-existing apical radiolucencies. Average time consumed for apexification was minimum with calcium hydroxide plus iodoform in polysilicone oil base. Conclusion: The overall success rate observed to be 86.27%, which is in close proximity to the findings of most of the previous studies across the globe.

  10. Comparative evaluation of different forms of calcium hydroxide in apexification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subhankar; Mazumdar, Dibyendu; Ray, Pradip Kumar; Bhattacharya, Bhaswar

    2014-01-01

    One out of every two children sustains a dental injury most often between 8 and 10 years of age. Majority of these teeth subsequently become non-vital and most often with immature apex. Management of these teeth is an enormous challenge for lack of apical stop. Calcium hydroxide in various formulations has maximum literature support in favor of successful apexification or induced apical closure. The aim of the following study is to determine the efficacy of calcium hydroxide in a different formulation to induce apexification. The present study was undertaken on 51 children of 8-10 years of age (both sexes) at Dr. R Ahmed Dental College and Hospital from April 2006 to March 2007. All children had one or two maxillary permanent central incisor (s), non-vital and apices open. In all the cases, apexification was attempted with either calcium hydroxide mixed with sterile distilled water, or calcium hydroxide plus iodoform in methyl cellulose base, or calcium hydroxide plus iodoform in polysilicone oil base. The success of apexification was determined on the basis of clinical and radiographic criteria. In the pre-operative asymptomatic cases (72.55%), failure occurred in only 5.45% cases and pre-operative symptomatic cases failure rate was as high as 35.71%. Success rate was 94.6% in cases with narrow open apices, whereas 64.28% in wide open apices. In cases with pre-existing apical radiolucencies, successful apexification occurred in 63.63% and success rate was 92.5% in the cases without pre-existing apical radiolucencies. Average time consumed for apexification was minimum with calcium hydroxide plus iodoform in polysilicone oil base. The overall success rate observed to be 86.27%, which is in close proximity to the findings of most of the previous studies across the globe.

  11. Post traumatic tetanus and role magnesium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikendr, R.I.; Samad, B.U.; Memon, M.I.

    2009-01-01

    Tetanus is a life threatening disease. Reported mortality for tetanus is 15-39%. Conventional treatment includes heavy sedation and artificial ventilation. Complications resulting from long term heavy sedation and artificial ventilation contribute to 60% of the total mortality caused by tetanus. In this study magnesium sulphate was used to reduce the need for sedation and artificial ventilation. Objectives of this prospective study were to determine the role of magnesium sulphate in post traumatic tetanus. The study was carried out in surgical Intensive Care at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad from Jan 2004 to Dec 2007. Forty-four patients presented during this period and 33 patients were included in the study. All patients had tracheostomy done within 48 hours. Every patient was started Magnesium Sulphate therapy for control of spasms after sending baseline investigations. Patients were given ventilatory support when needed. All data was entered in well structured proforma. SPSS-10 was used to analyse data. Thirty-three patients were included in the study and all patients were given magnesium sulphate. Out of these, 45.5% cases were grade 4 tetanus, 73.6% and 63.3% cases did not require artificial ventilation and additional sedation respectively, 51.1% patients remained free of complications of tetanus. Overall mortality was 30.3%. Use of Magnesium Sulphate is safe and reduces the need for sedation and artificial ventilation in high grade tetanus thus contributing to survival benefit in adult post-traumatic tetanus cases. (author)

  12. Magnesium and manganese content of halophilic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Medicis, E.; Paquette, J.; Gauthier, J.J.; Shapcott, D.

    1986-01-01

    Magnesium and manganese contents were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in bacteria of several halophilic levels, in Vibrio costicola, a moderately halophilic eubacterium growing in 1 M NaCl, Halobacterium volcanii, a halophilic archaebacterium growing in 2.5 NaCl, Halobacterium cutirubrum, an extremely halophilic archaebacterium growing in 4 M NaCl, and Escherichia coli, a nonhalophilic eubacterium growing in 0.17 M NaCl. Magnesium and manganese contents varied with the growth phase, being maximal at the early log phase. Magnesium and manganese molalities in cell water were shown to increase with the halophilic character of the logarithmically growing bacteria, from 30 mmol of Mg per kg of cell water and 0.37 mmol of Mn per kg of cell water for E. coli to 102 mmol of Mg per kg of cell water and 1.6 mmol of Mn per kg of cell water for H cutirubrum. The intracellular concentrations of manganese were determined independently by a radioactive tracer technique in V. costicola and H. volcanii. The values obtained by 54 Mn loading represented about 70% of the values obtained by atomic absorption. The increase of magnesium and manganese contents associated with the halophilic character of the bacteria suggests that manganese and magnesium play a role in haloadaptation

  13. The importance of proper crystal-chemical and geometrical reasoning demonstrated using layered single and double hydroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    Atomistic modelling techniques and Rietveld refinement of X-ray powder diffraction data are widely used but often result in crystal structures that are not realistic, presumably because the authors neglect to check the crystal-chemical plausibility of their structure. The purpose of this paper is to reinforce the importance and utility of proper crystal-chemical and geometrical reasoning in structural studies. It is achieved by using such reasoning to generate new yet fundamental information about layered double hydroxides (LDH), a large, much-studied family of compounds. LDH phases are derived from layered single hydroxides by the substitution of a fraction (x) of the divalent cations by trivalent. Equations are derived that enable calculation of x from the a parameter of the unit cell and vice versa, which can be expected to be of widespread utility as a sanity test for extant and future structure determinations and computer simulation studies. The phase at x = 0 is shown to be an α form of divalent metal hydroxide rather than the β polymorph. Crystal-chemically sensible model structures are provided for β-Zn(OH)2 and Ni- and Mg-based carbonate LDH phases that have any trivalent cation and any value of x, including x = 0 [i.e. for α-M(OH)2·mH2O phases]. PMID:23719702

  14. The effect of magnesium supplementation on vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease-a randomised clinical trial (MAGiCAL-CKD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bressendorff, Iain; Hansen, Ditte; Schou, Morten

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality, which is thought to be caused by increased propensity towards vascular calcification (VC). Magnesium (Mg) inhibits phosphate-induced VC in vitro and in animal models and serum Mg...... the progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in subjects with predialysis CKD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will randomise 250 subjects with estimated glomerular filtration rate of 15 to 45 mL/min/1.73 m2 to 12 months treatment with either slow-release Mg hydroxide 30 mmol/day or matching placebo in a 1...

  15. Characteristics of Cement Solidification of Metal Hydroxide Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Seo Koo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To perform the permanent disposal of metal hydroxide waste from electro-kinetic decontamination, it is necessary to secure the technology for its solidification. The integrity tests on the fabricated solidification should also meet the criteria of the Korea Radioactive Waste Agency. We carried out the solidification of metal hydroxide waste using cement solidification. The integrity tests such as the compressive strength, immersion, leach, and irradiation tests on the fabricated cement solidifications were performed. It was also confirmed that these requirements of the criteria of Korea Radioactive Waste Agency on these cement solidifications were met. The microstructures of all the cement solidifications were analyzed and discussed.

  16. Characteristics of cement solidification of metal hydroxide waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Dae Seo; Sung, Hyun Hee; Kim, Seung Soo; Kim, Gye Nam; Choi, Jong Won [Dept. of Decontemination Decommission Technology Development, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    To perform the permanent disposal of metal hydroxide waste from electro-kinetic decontamination, it is necessary to secure the technology for its solidification. The integrity tests on the fabricated solidification should also meet the criteria of the Korea Radioactive Waste Agency. We carried out the solidification of metal hydroxide waste using cement solidification. The integrity tests such as the compressive strength, immersion, leach, and irradiation tests on the fabricated cement solidifications were performed. It was also confirmed that these requirements of the criteria of Korea Radioactive Waste Agency on these cement solidifications were met. The microstructures of all the cement solidifications were analyzed and discussed.

  17. Effect of calcium hydroxide on slip casting behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Şakar‐Deliormanlı, Aylin; Yayla, Zeliha

    2004-01-01

    The effect of calcium hydroxide addition on the casting performance of ceramic slips for sanitary ware was studied. Powder composed of feldspar (24 wt.%), quartz (24 wt.%), kaolin (35 wt.%) and ball clay (17 wt.%) was mixed with water to contain 65 wt.% of solids (specific density 1800 g/l). Either Ca(OH)2 or Na2CO3 was added at concentrations ranging between 0.060 and 0.085 wt.% and the slurries were dispersed by the optimum addition of sodium silicate. Calcium hydroxide in presence of sodiu...

  18. Arsenic adsorption in pre-treatment natural zeolite with magnesium oxides; Adsorcion de arsenico en zeolita natural pretratada con oxidos de magnesio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia Z, F. [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Instituto de Ingenieria, Blvd. Benito Juarez s/n, 21900 Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico); Valenzuela G, J. L.; Aguayo S, S.; Meza F, D., E-mail: fleridam@iq.uson.m [Universidad de Sonora, Departamentos de Geologia e Ingenieria Quimica y Metalurgia, Blvd. Luis Encinas y Rosales s/n, Col. Centro, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    A methodology was developed to modify a natural zeolite (chabazite) with magnesium oxide in order to remove arsenic (As{sup +5}) from water for human consumption. It is proposed a magnesium oxide while regarded as an efficient adsorbent for removing metals in water. X-ray diffraction analyses show significant changes in the chabazite due to the presence of oxides and amorphous hydroxides incorporated during the pre-treatment. Experimental design results show an efficiency greater than 90% of As{sup +5} adsorbed in five minutes. The results indicate that the most significant variables affecting the adsorption of As{sup +5} are the initial concentration of As and the solid/liquid ratio. Experimental data fitted better to Freundlich isotherm with a 20.17 mg/g adsorption capability. (Author)

  19. The initial oxidation of magnesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurth, M.

    2004-07-01

    Pure Magnesium samples have been oxidised in an UHV chamber under controlled conditions. Pressure range was 10{sup -10} Torr to 10{sup -7} Torr, temperature range was 273 K to 435 K. The samples have then been investigated with XPS, Ellipsometry and HERDA. Additionally, furnace oxidations at 750 Torr and 673 K have been carried out and investigated with XPS. From the XPS measurements data concerning layer thickness, composition, oxidation state and binding state have been gained. The ellipsometrie measurements yielded additional data concerning layer thickness as well as the size of the band gap of the developing oxide. With the HERDA measurements, the oxygen content within the oxide layer has been determined yielding additional information about composition and layer thickness. The layer thickness as a function of time have then been modelled with a kinetic growth model of Fromhold and Cook. For the refinement of the XPS data concerning layer thickness and composition, the pronounced plasmon excitations that occur in magnesium have been determined with two different procedures which have been developed in the methodical part of this work. The layer thickness and composition values have thus been corrected. Results: Two oxidation stages could be identified: a strong increase for the first few Langmuirs (1L = 1s x 10{sup -6} Torr), followed by a saturation'' region which was about 1.2 nm to 1.5 nm in magnitude. XPS and ellipsometry results have thereby been in very good agreement. The composition of the developing oxide showed a clear deviation from stoichiometric MgO, mainly caused by an oxygen deficiency; this deficiency has also been confirmed with the HERDA measurements. The Mg/O ratio as a function of layer thickness showed a continous decay starting from very high values for the thinnest layers (>{proportional_to}2.5) down to a saturation value of about 1.4, even for larger layer thicknesses gained with the furnace oxidations. The determination of

  20. Magnesium diboride: one year on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canfield, Paul; Bud'ko, Sergey L.

    2002-01-01

    Last January physicists discovered that an innocuous compound that had been sitting on the shelf for decades was, in fact, a record-breaking intermetallic superconductor. At the end of 2000 superconductivity in metal alloys and compounds appeared to remain trapped by a glass ceiling. Over the previous 10 years the temperature at which certain oxide-based compounds - such as bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide and mercury barium calcium copper oxide - lost their resistance to electric current had soared to well over 100 K. Meanwhile, the transition temperature, Tc, for carbon-based materials, including alkali-doped carbon-60 compounds, had risen close to the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77 K). During the same period, however, the superconducting transition temperature of intermetallic compounds (materials made solely of metals and metal-like elements) remained close to 20 K - as it had been since the mid-1960s. By February 2001 everything had totally changed. It was as if a firecracker had gone off in the tidy little ant hill of superconductivity research. For the first few months of 2001, groups all over the world raced to understand the properties of a new intermetallic superconductor. The substance that everyone was scrambling to buy or make, the substance that was causing this grand commotion, was magnesium diboride (Mg B 2 ). This seemingly innocuous binary compound, which had been present in many labs for over half a century, had been discovered to superconduct just below 40 K. Even though we already know an amazing amount about Mg B 2 , our knowledge of superconductivity in this compound is only one year old. There is therefore the very real potential to improve its critical properties. In a similar vein, it is almost certain that our understanding of this extreme example of intermetallic superconductivity will greatly improve over the next few years and may even reveal other extreme superconductors. (U.K.)

  1. Small for Gestational Age and Magnesium: Intrauterine magnesium deficiency may induce metabolic syndrome in later life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Takaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium deficiency during pregnancy as a result of insufficient or low intake of magnesium is common in developing and developed countries. Previous reports have shown that intracellular magnesium of cord blood platelets is lower among small for gestational age (SGA groups than that of appropriate for gestational age (AGA groups, suggesting that intrauterine magnesium deficiency may result in SGA. Additionally, the risk of adult-onset diseases such as insulin resistance syndrome is greater among children whose mothers were malnourished during pregnancy, and who consequently had a low birth weight. In a number of animal models, poor nutrition during pregnancy leads to offspring that exhibit pathophysiological changes similar to human diseases. The offspring of pregnant rats fed a magensium restricted diet have developed hypermethylation in the hepatic 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 promoter. These findings indicate that maternal magnesium deficiencies during pregnancy influence regulation of non-imprinted genes by altering the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, thereby inducing different metabolic phenotypes. Magnesium deficiency during pregnancy may be responsible for not only maternal and fetal nutritional problems, but also lifelong consequences that affect the offspring throughout their life. Epidemiological, clinical, and basic research on the effects of magnesium deficiency now indicates underlying mechanisms, especially epigenetic processes.

  2. Friction welding of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujino, R.; Ochi, H. [Osaka Inst. of Tech., Osaka (Japan); Kawai, G. [Osaka Sangyo Univ., Osaka (Japan); Yamaguchi, H.; Ogawa, K. [Osaka Prefecture Univ., Osaka (Japan); Suga, Y. [Keio Univ., Kanagawa (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    In this paper, for an acceleration of utilization of magnesium alloy which is being interested in recent years, friction welding of AZ31 magnesium alloy was carried out, and the joint performance was discussed in relation to the deformation heat input in the upset stage and upset loss as a evaluation factor. Where, the deformation heat input in the upset stage is mechanical work represented by the product of upset speed and axial pressure. As a result, it was made clear that the friction welding of AZ31 magnesium alloy was easy in the atmosphere, and good welded joints without a non- adhesion area at the weld interface could de obtained. Moreover, the evaluation factors discussed were possible to evaluate to joint performance. (orig.)

  3. Magnesium sacrificial anode behavior at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Mohsen Othman

    2006-01-01

    Magnesium sacrificial anode coupled to mild steel was tasted in sodium chloride and tap water environments at elevated temperatures. The anode failed to protect the mild steel specimens in tap water environment at all temperatures specified. This was partly due to low conductivity of this medium. The temperature factor did not help to activate the anode in this medium. In sodium chloride environment the anode demonstrated good protection for steel cathodes. The weight loss was high for magnesium in sodium chloride environment particularly beyond 60 degree centigrade. In tap water environment the weight loss was negligible for the anode. It also suffered localized shallow pitting corrosion. Magnesium anode cannot be utilized where high temperature is involved particularly in high conductivity mediums. Protection of structures containing high resistivity waters is not feasible using sacrificial anode system. (author)

  4. New ternary intermetallics, based magnesium, for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roquefere, J.G.

    2009-05-01

    The use of fossil fuels (non-renewable energy) is responsible for increasing the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Among the considered alternatives, hydrogen is seen as the most attractive energy vector. The storage in intermetallics makes it possible to obtain mass and volume capacities (e.g. 140 g/L) higher than those obtained by liquid form or under pressure (respectively 71 and 40 g/L). We have synthesised Mg and Rare Earth based compounds (RE = Y, Ce and Gd), derived from the cubic Laves phases AB2. Their physical and chemical properties have been studied (hydrogenation, electrochemistry, magnetism,...). The conditions of sorption (P and T) are particularly favorable (i.e. absorption at room temperature and atmospheric pressure). Besides, to improve the sorption kinetics of metallic magnesium, the compounds developed previously were used as catalysts. Thus, GdMgNi4 was milled with magnesium and the speeds of absorption and desorption of the mixture are found higher than those obtained for the composites Mg+Ni or Mg+V, which are reference systems. A theoretical approach (DFT) was used to model the electronic structure of the ternary compounds (i.e. REMgNi4) and thus to predict or confirm the experimental results. (authors)

  5. The potential for ionic liquid electrolytes to stabilise the magnesium interface for magnesium/air batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoo, Timothy; Howlett, Patrick C.; Tsagouria, Maureen; MacFarlane, Douglas R.; Forsyth, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Magnesium/air batteries are a possible high-energy density power source that, to date, have not received strong commercial interest due to issues with the corrosion of the magnesium and evaporation of the electrolyte. In this work we report on the use of ionic liquid based electrolytes to stabilise the metal/electrolyte interface and their impact on the electrochemical performance. Galvanostatic measurements indicate that the water content of the ionic liquid electrolyte plays an important role in the cell discharge characteristics. Surface characterisation using EIS, ATR-FTIR and powder diffraction examined the unique properties of the surface film formed on the magnesium anode.

  6. Nanostructured magnesium has fewer detrimental effects on osteoblast function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng L

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lucy Weng, Thomas J Webster School of Engineering and Department of Orthopedics, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA Abstract: Efforts have been made recently to implement nanoscale surface features on magnesium, a biodegradable metal, to increase bone formation. Compared with normal magnesium, nanostructured magnesium has unique characteristics, including increased grain boundary properties, surface to volume ratio, surface roughness, and surface energy, which may influence the initial adsorption of proteins known to promote the function of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells. Previous studies have shown that one way to increase nanosurface roughness on magnesium is to soak the metal in NaOH. However, it has not been determined if degradation of magnesium is altered by creating nanoscale features on its surface to influence osteoblast density. The aim of the present in vitro study was to determine the influence of degradation of nanostructured magnesium, created by soaking in NaOH, on osteoblast density. Our results showed a less detrimental effect of magnesium degradation on osteoblast density when magnesium was treated with NaOH to create nanoscale surface features. The detrimental degradation products of magnesium are of significant concern when considering use of magnesium as an orthopedic implant material, and this study identified a surface treatment, ie, soaking in NaOH to create nanoscale features for magnesium that can improve its use in numerous orthopedic applications. Keywords: nanostructured magnesium, degradation, detrimental effects, osteoblasts

  7. Fatigue Analysis of Magnesium Alloys Components for Car Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsavina, Liviu; Rusu, Lucian; Șerban, Dan Andrei; Negru, Radu Marcel; Cernescu, Anghel

    2017-12-01

    The use of magnesium alloys in the automotive industry increased in the last decade because of their low weight and relative good mechanical properties. However, the variable loading conditions require a good fatigue behavior. This paper summaries the fatigue properties of magnesium alloys and presents new fatigue curve results for die cast AM50 magnesium alloy.

  8. Serum Magnesium Levels in Non-Pregnant, Pregnant And Pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to compare the serum magnesium levels in normal pregnancy and pregnancy complicated by pre-eclampsia since magnesium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular dysfunction. We measured serum magnesium levels in patients with pre-eclampsia (n=36), patients with normal ...

  9. Is serum magnesium estimate necessary in patients with Eclampsia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The therapeutic index of magnesium is said to be low, hence, there are fears of toxicity when used as anticonvulsant in eclamptic patients. The objective of this study was to determine the serum levels of magnesium in eclamptic patients treated with magnesium sulphate and relate the levels with clinical indicators. It was a ...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  11. Higher dietary magnesium intake and higher magnesium status are associated with lower prevalence of coronary heart disease in patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gant, C.M.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Binnenmars, S.H.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Navis, G.; Laverman, G.D.

    2018-01-01

    In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), the handling of magnesium is disturbed. Magnesium deficiency may be associated with a higher risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). We investigated the associations between (1) dietary magnesium intake; (2) 24 h urinary magnesium excretion; and (3) plasma magnesium

  12. Biocompatibility and bioactivity of porous polymer-derived Ca-Mg silicate ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocco, L; Li, S; Stevens, M M; Bernardo, E; Jones, J R

    2017-03-01

    Magnesium is a trace element in the human body, known to have important effects on cell differentiation and the mineralisation of calcified tissues. This study aimed to synthesise highly porous Ca-Mg silicate foamed scaffolds from preceramic polymers, with analysis of their biological response. Akermanite (Ak) and wollastonite-diopside (WD) ceramic foams were obtained from the pyrolysis of a liquid silicone mixed with reactive fillers. The porous structure was obtained by controlled water release from selected fillers (magnesium hydroxide and borax) at 350°C. The homogeneous distribution of open pores, with interconnects of modal diameters of 160-180μm was obtained and maintained after firing at 1100°C. Foams, with porosity exceeding 80%, exhibited compressive strength values of 1-2MPa. In vitro studies were conducted by immersion in SBF for 21days, showing suitable dissolution rates, pH and ionic concentrations. Cytotoxicity analysis performed in accordance with ISO10993-5 and ISO10993-12 standards confirmed excellent biocompatibility of both Ak and WD foams. In addition, MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the Mg-containing scaffolds demonstrated enhanced osteogenic differentiation and the expression of osteogenic markers including Collagen Type I, Osteopontin and Osteocalcin, in comparison to Mg-free counterparts. The results suggest that the addition of magnesium can further enhance the bioactivity and the potential for bone regeneration applications of Ca-silicate materials. Here, we show that the incorporation of Mg in Ca-silicates plays a significant role in the enhancement of the osteogenic differentiation and matrix formation of MC3T3-E1 cells, cultured on polymer-derived highly porous scaffolds. Reduced degradation rates and improved mechanical properties are also observed, compared to Mg-free counterparts, suggesting the great potential of Ca-Mg silicates as bone tissue engineering materials. Excellent biocompatibility of the new materials, in accordance to

  13. On the hydrogenation mechanism in magnesium I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A.S.; Kjøller, John; Larsen, Bent

    1985-01-01

    The first time hydriding of spherical magnesium particles covered by a thin oxide layer and sieve-fractionated into narrow size distributions within the range 40–90 μm was followed by microgravimetry. The size distributions of the fractions were determined by semiautomatic image analysis....... The hydridings were run at 402°C and 3 MPa hydrogen pressure after heating in helium. A dependence of the rate of hydriding on the heat treatment prior to reaction was observed and it is proposed that the heat treatment causes oxygen atoms to diffuse into the bulk metal and thereby break up the protective oxide...... generalizing results from the hydriding of magnesium powders....

  14. Interaction of pristine hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1783–1790. c Indian Academy of Sciences. ... adversely impacts the ability of the metal hydroxide layer to interact with CO2 in the gas ... CO2 is a greenhouse gas and the bulk of anthropogenic CO2 ... decomposes by the release of gaseous CO2 and water in ... systems such as [Co–Al] LDH the decomposition tempera-.

  15. Beryllium. Evaluation of beryllium hydroxide industrial processes. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lires, O.A.; Delfino, C.A.; Botbol, J.

    1991-01-01

    This work continues the 'Beryllium' series. It is a historical review of different industrial processes of beryllium hydroxide obtention from beryllium ores. Flowsheats and operative parameters of five plants are provided. These plants (Degussa, Brush Beryllium Co., Beryllium Corp., Murex Ltd., SAPPI) were selected as representative samples of diverse commercial processes in different countries. (Author) [es

  16. Synthesis of glycoluril catalyzed by potassium hydroxide under ultrasound irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji-Tai; Liu, Xiao-Ru; Sun, Ming-Xuan

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis of the glycolurils catalyzed by potassium hydroxide was carried out in 17-75% yield at 40 degrees C in EtOH under ultrasound irradiation. Compared to the method using stirring, the main advantage of the present procedure is milder conditions and shorter reaction time.

  17. Interaction of pristine hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metal oxides in general have surface acidic sites, but for exceptional circumstances, are not expected to mineralize CO2. Given their intrinsic basicity and an expandable interlayer gallery, the hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are expected to be superior candidate materials for CO2 mineralization.

  18. Sorptive stabilization of organic matter by amorphous Al hydroxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, M.P.W.; Scheel, T.; Mikutta, R.; van Hees, P.; Kaiser, K.; Kalbitz, K.

    2010-01-01

    Amorphous Al hydroxides (am-Al(OH)(3)) strongly sorb and by this means likely protect dissolved organic matter (OM) against microbial decay in soils. We carried out batch sorption experiments (pH 4.5; 40 mg organic C L-1) with OM extracted from organic horizons under a Norway spruce and a European

  19. 75 FR 28608 - Calcium Hydroxide; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption, Solicitation of Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0411; FRL-8826-7] Calcium Hydroxide; Receipt of... Department of Agriculture to use the pesticide calcium hydroxide (CAS No. 1305-62-0) to treat up to 1,000... Agriculture has requested the Administrator to issue a quarantine exemption for the use of calcium hydroxide...

  20. Potassium hydroxide: an alternative reagent to perform the modified apt test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicaiza, Henry; Hellstrand, Karl; Lerer, Trudy; Smith, Sharon; Sylvester, Francisco

    2014-09-01

    We tested the performance of potassium hydroxide (KOH) in the modified Apt test under different experimental conditions using sodium hydroxide as a positive control. Like sodium hydroxide, KOH differentiated fresh fetal and adult blood stains on a cloth but not dried blood. KOH may be used to perform the Apt test at the bedside. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. DOUBLE-SHELL TANK (DST) HYDROXIDE DEPLETION MODEL FOR CARBON DIOXIDE ABSORPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OGDEN DM; KIRCH NW

    2007-01-01

    This document generates a supernatant hydroxide ion depletion model based on mechanistic principles. The carbon dioxide absorption mechanistic model is developed in this report. The report also benchmarks the model against historical tank supernatant hydroxide data and vapor space carbon dioxide data. A comparison of the newly generated mechanistic model with previously applied empirical hydroxide depletion equations is also performed

  2. Distinction between magnesium diboride and tetraboride by kelvin probe force microscopy; Unterscheidung von Magnesiumdiborid und Magnesiumtetraborid durch Kelvinsondenkraftmikroskopie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Du-Na; Caron, Arnaud; Park, Hai Woong [KoreaTech - Korea Univ. of Technology and Education, Chungnam (Korea, Republic of). School of Energy, Materials and Chemical Engineering

    2016-08-15

    We analyze mixtures of magnesium diboride and tetraboride synthesized with magnesium powders of different shapes. To distinguish between magnesium diboride and tetraboride we use the contrast of kelvin probe force microscopy. The microstructural morphology strongly depends on the shape of the magnesium powders used in the reaction between magnesium and magnesium tetraboride to form magnesium diboride. With spherical magnesium powder an equiaxed microstructure of magnesium diboride is formed with residual magnesium tetraboride at the grain boundaries. With plate-like magnesium powders elongated magnesium diboride grains are formed. In this case, residual magnesium tetraboride is found to agglomerate.

  3. Organo-layered double hydroxides composite thin films deposited by laser techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birjega, R. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., 77125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Vlad, A., E-mail: angela.vlad@gmail.com [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., 77125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Matei, A.; Dumitru, M.; Stokker-Cheregi, F.; Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., 77125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Zavoianu, R. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Chemical Technology and Catalysis, 4-12 Regina Elisabeta Bd., Bucharest 030018 (Romania); Raditoiu, V.; Corobea, M.C. [National R.& D. Institute for Chemistry and Petrochemistry, ICECHIM, 202 Splaiul Independentei Str., CP-35-274, 060021 Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • PLD and MAPLE was successfully used to produce organo-layered double hydroxides. • The organic anions (dodecyl sulfate-DS) were intercalated in co-precipitation step. • Zn2.5Al-LDH (Zn/Al = 2.5) and Zn2.5Al-DS thin films obtained in this work could be suitable for further applications as hydrophobic surfaces. - Abstract: We used laser techniques to create hydrophobic thin films of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and organo-modified LDHs. A LDH based on Zn-Al with Zn{sup 2+}/Al{sup 3+} ratio of 2.5 was used as host material, while dodecyl sulfate (DS), which is an organic surfactant, acted as guest material. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) were employed for the growth of the films. The organic anions were intercalated in co-precipitation step. The powders were subsequently used either as materials for MAPLE, or they were pressed and used as targets for PLD. The surface topography of the thin films was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), the crystallographic structure of the powders and films was checked by X-ray diffraction. FTIR spectroscopy was used to evidence DS interlayer intercalation, both for powders and the derived films. Contact angle measurements were performed in order to establish the wettability properties of the as-prepared thin films, in view of functionalization applications as hydrophobic surfaces, owing to the effect of DS intercalation.

  4. Ionized magnesium in plasma and erythrocytes for the assessment of low magnesium status in alcohol dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordak, Michal; Maj-Zurawska, Magdalena; Matsumoto, Halina; Bujalska-Zadrozny, Magdalena; Kieres-Salomonski, Ilona; Nasierowski, Tadeusz; Muszynska, Elzbieta; Wojnar, Marcin

    2017-09-01

    Studies on the homeostasis of magnesium in alcohol-dependent patients have often been characterized by low hypomagnesemia detection rates. This may be due to the fact that the content of magnesium in blood serum constitutes only 1% of the average magnesium level within the human body. However, the concentration of ionized magnesium is more physiologically important and makes up 67% of the total magnesium within a human organism. There are no data concerning the determination of the ionized fraction of magnesium in patients addicted to alcohol and its influence on mental health status. This study included 100 alcohol-dependent patients and 50 healthy subjects. The free magnesium fraction was determined using the potentiometric method by means of using ion-selective electrodes. The total magnesium level was determined by using a biochemical Indiko Plus analyzer. In this study, different psychometric scales were applied. Our results confirm the usefulness of ionized magnesium concentrations in erythrocytes and plasma as a diagnostic parameter of low magnesium status in alcohol-dependent patients. The lower the concentration of ionized magnesium, the worse the quality of life an alcohol-dependent person might experience. In the case of total magnesium, no such correlation was determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Growth of uranyl hydroxide nanowires and nanotubes with electrodeposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lin; Yuan Liyong; Chai Zhifang; Shi Weiqun

    2013-01-01

    Actinides nanomaterials have great potential applications in fabrication of novel nuclear fuel and spent fuel reprocessing in advanced nuclear energy system. However, the relative research so far still lacks systematic investigation on the synthetic methods for actinides nanomaterials. In this work, we use track-etched membranes as hard templates to synthesize uranium based nanomaterials with novel structures by electrodeposition method. Through electrochemical behavior investigations and subsequent product characterizations such as energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the chemical composition of deposition products have been confirmed as the uranyl hydroxide. More importantly, accurate control of morphology and structures (nanowires and nanotubes) could be achieved by carefully adjusting the growth parameters such as deposition time and deposition current density. It was found that the preferred morphology of electrodeposition products is nanowire when a low current density was applied, whereas nanotubes could be formed only under conditions of high current density and the short deposition time. The mechanism for the formation of nanowires in track-etched membranes is based on the precipitation of uranyl hydroxide from uranyl nitrate solution, according to the previous researches about obtaining nanostructures of hydroxides from nitrate salt solutions. And we have concluded that the formation of nanotubes is attributed to the hydrogen bubbles generated by water electrolysis under the condition of over-potential electro-reduction. The conveying of hydrogen bubbles plays the role of dynamic template which can prevent the complete filling of uranyl hydroxide in the channels. Additionally, we transform the chemical composition of deposition products from uranyl hydroxide to triuranium octoxide by calcining them at 500 and 800 degree centigrade, respectively, and SEM results show the morphologies of nanowires and

  6. Structure and Properties Investigation of MCMgAl12Zn1 Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrzański L.A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an influence of cooling rate on crystallization process, structure and mechanical properties of MCMgAl12Zn1 cast magnesium alloy. The experiments were performed using the novel Universal Metallurgical Simulator and Analyzer Platform. The apparatus enabled recording the temperature during refrigerate magnesium alloy with three different cooling rates, i.e. 0.6, 1.2 and 2.4°C/s and calculate a first derivative. Based on first derivative results, nucleation temperature, beginning of nucleation of eutectic and solidus temperature were described. It was fund that the formation temperatures of various thermal parameters, mechanical properties (hardness and ultimate compressive strength and grain size are shifting with an increasing cooling rate.

  7. Magnesium substitution in the structure of orthopedic nanoparticles: A comparison between amorphous magnesium phosphates, calcium magnesium phosphates, and hydroxyapatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabiyouni, Maryam; Ren, Yufu; Bhaduri, Sarit B.

    2015-01-01

    As biocompatible materials, magnesium phosphates have received a lot of attention for orthopedic applications. During the last decade multiple studies have shown advantages for magnesium phosphate such as lack of cytotoxicity, biocompatibility, strong mechanical properties, and high biodegradability. The present study investigates the role of Mg +2 and Ca +2 ions in the structure of magnesium phosphate and calcium phosphate nanoparticles. To directly compare the effect of Mg +2 and Ca +2 ions on structure of nanoparticles and their biological behavior, three groups of nanoparticles including amorphous magnesium phosphates (AMPs) which release Mg +2 , calcium magnesium phosphates (CMPs) which release Mg +2 and Ca +2 , and hydroxyapatites (HAs) which release Ca +2 were studied. SEM, TEM, XRD, and FTIR were used to evaluate the morphology, crystallinity, and chemical properties of the particles. AMP particles were homogeneous nanospheres, whereas CMPs were combinations of heterogeneous nanorods and nanospheres, and HAs which contained heterogeneous nanosphere particles. Cell compatibility was monitored in all groups to determine the cytotoxicity effect of particles on studied MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts. AMPs showed significantly higher attachment rate than the HAs after 1 day and both AMPs and CMPs showed significantly higher proliferation rate when compared to HAs after 7 days. Gene expression level of osteoblastic markers ALP, COL I, OCN, OPN, RUNX2 were monitored and they were normalized to GAPDH housekeeping gene. Beta actin expression level was monitored as the second housekeeping gene to confirm the accuracy of results. In general, AMPs and CMPs showed higher expression level of osteoblastic genes after 7 days which can further confirm the stimulating role of Mg + 2 and Ca +2 ions in increasing the proliferation rate, differentiation, and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts. - Highlights: • Role of Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ ions in proliferation, and differentiation

  8. Investigation of samarium solubility in the magnesium based solid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokhlin, L.L.; Padezhnova, E.M.; Guzej, L.S.

    1976-01-01

    Electric resistance measurements and microscopic analysis were used to investigate the solubility of samarium in a magnesium-based solid solution. The constitutional diagram Mg-Sm on the magnesium side is of an eutectic type with the temperature of the eutectic transformation of 542 deg C. Samarium is partly soluble in solid magnesium, the less so, the lower is the temperature. The maximum solubility of samarium in magnesium (at the eutectic transformation point) is 5.8 % by mass (0.99 at. %). At 200 deg C, the solubility of samarium in magnesium is 0.4 % by mass (0.063 at. %)

  9. A review on hot tearing of magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Song

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hot tearing is often a major casting defect in magnesium alloys and has a significant impact on the quality of their casting products. Hot tearing of magnesium alloys is a complex solidification phenomenon which is still not fully understood, it is of great importance to investigate the hot tearing behaviour of magnesium alloys. This review attempts to summarize the investigations on hot tearing of magnesium alloys over the past decades. The hot tearing criteria including recently developed Kou's criterion are summarized and compared. The numeric simulation and assessing methods of hot tearing, factors influencing hot tearing, and hot tearing susceptibility (HTS of magnesium alloys are discussed.

  10. Photoluminescence of magnesium-associated color centers in LiF crystals implanted with magnesium ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebogin, S. A.; Ivanov, N. A.; Bryukvina, L. I.; V. Shipitsin, N.; E. Rzhechitskii, A.; Papernyi, V. L.

    2018-05-01

    In the present paper, the effect of magnesium nanoparticles implanted in a LiF crystal on the optical properties of color centers is studied. The transmittance spectra and AFM images demonstrate effective formation of the color centers and magnesium nanoparticles in an implanted layer of ∼ 60-100 nm in thickness. Under thermal annealing, a periodical structure is formed on the surface of the crystal and in the implanted layer due to self-organization of the magnesium nanoparticles. Upon excitation by argon laser with a wavelength of 488 nm at 5 K, in a LiF crystal, implanted with magnesium ions as well as in heavily γ-irradiated LiF: Mg crystals, luminescence of the color centers at λmax = 640 nm with a zero-phonon line at 601.5 nm is observed. The interaction of magnesium nanoparticles and luminescing color centers in a layer implanted with magnesium ions has been revealed. It is shown that the luminescence intensity of the implanted layer at a wavelength of 640 nm is by more than two thousand times higher than that of a heavily γ-irradiated LiF: Mg crystal. The broadening of the zero-phonon line at 601.5 nm in the spectrum of the implanted layer indicates the interaction of the emitting quantum system with local field of the surface plasmons of magnesium nanoparticles. The focus of this work is to further optimize the processing parameters in a way to result in luminescence great enhancement of color centers by magnesium nanoparticles in LiF.

  11. Magnesium isotope systematics in Martian meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magna, Tomáš; Hu, Yan; Teng, Fang-Zhen; Mezger, Klaus

    2017-09-01

    Magnesium isotope compositions are reported for a suite of Martian meteorites that span the range of petrological and geochemical types recognized to date for Mars, including crustal breccia Northwest Africa (NWA) 7034. The δ26Mg values (per mil units relative to DSM-3 reference material) range from -0.32 to -0.11‰; basaltic shergottites and nakhlites lie to the heavier end of the Mg isotope range whereas olivine-phyric, olivine-orthopyroxene-phyric and lherzolitic shergottites, and chassignites have slightly lighter Mg isotope compositions, attesting to modest correlation of Mg isotopes and petrology of the samples. Slightly heavier Mg isotope compositions found for surface-related materials (NWA 7034, black glass fraction of the Tissint shergottite fall; δ26Mg > -0.17‰) indicate measurable Mg isotope difference between the Martian mantle and crust but the true extent of Mg isotope fractionation for Martian surface materials remains unconstrained. The range of δ26Mg values from -0.19 to -0.11‰ in nakhlites is most likely due to accumulation of clinopyroxene during petrogenesis rather than garnet fractionation in the source or assimilation of surface material modified at low temperatures. The rather restricted range in Mg isotope compositions between spatially and temporally distinct mantle-derived samples supports the idea of inefficient/absent major tectonic cycles on Mars, which would include plate tectonics and large-scale recycling of isotopically fractionated surface materials back into the Martian mantle. The cumulative δ26Mg value of Martian samples, which are not influenced by late-stage alteration processes and/or crust-mantle interactions, is - 0.271 ± 0.040 ‰ (2SD) and is considered to reflect δ26Mg value of the Bulk Silicate Mars. This value is robust taking into account the range of lithologies involved in this estimate. It also attests to the lack of the Mg isotope variability reported for the inner Solar System bodies at current

  12. Thiamine and magnesium deficiencies: keys to disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, D

    2015-02-01

    Thiamine deficiency (TD) is accepted as the cause of beriberi because of its action in the metabolism of simple carbohydrates, mainly as the rate limiting cofactor for the dehydrogenases of pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate, both being critical to the action of the citric acid cycle. Transketolase, dependent on thiamine and magnesium, occurs twice in the oxidative pentose pathway, important in production of reducing equivalents. Thiamine is also a cofactor in the dehydrogenase complex in the degradation of the branched chain amino acids, leucine, isoleucine and valine. In spite of these well accepted facts, the overall clinical effects of TD are still poorly understood. Because of the discovery of 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA lyase (HACL1) as the first peroxisomal enzyme in mammals found to be dependent on thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) and the ability of thiamine to bind with prion protein, these factors should improve our clinical approach to TD. HACL1 has two important roles in alpha oxidation, the degradation of phytanic acid and shortening of 2-hydroxy long-chain fatty acids so that they can be degraded further by beta oxidation. The downstream effects of a lack of efficiency in this enzyme would be expected to be critical in normal brain metabolism. Although TD has been shown experimentally to produce reversible damage to mitochondria and there are many other causes of mitochondrial dysfunction, finding TD as the potential biochemical lesion would help in differential diagnosis. Stresses imposed by infection, head injury or inoculation can initiate intermittent cerebellar ataxia in thiamine deficiency/dependency. Medication or vaccine reactions appear to be more easily initiated in the more intelligent individuals when asymptomatic marginal malnutrition exists. Erythrocyte transketolase testing has shown that thiamine deficiency is widespread. It is hypothesized that the massive consumption of empty calories, particularly those derived from carbohydrate and fat, results in

  13. Friction phenomena in hydrostatic extrusion of magnesium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moodij, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    When magnesium is hydrostatically extruded an inconsistent and sometimes bad surface quality is encountered. In hydrostatic extrusion the billet is surrounded by a lubricant, usually castor oil. The required pressure to deform the material is applied onto this lubricant and not directly to the

  14. High grade magnesium from waste bittern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Yamani, I.S.; Farah, M.Y.; Isaac, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    The production of high grade magnesia for nuclear purposes from sea water by use of both aqueous and gaseous ammonia has been described. The effect of precipitating conditions on the settling rate and magnesium recovery, was thoroughly examined. Ammonia gas approach was recommended and justified

  15. 76 FR 69284 - Pure Magnesium From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the United... China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the...), entitled Pure Magnesium from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-696 (Third Review). Issued: November 2, 2011...

  16. Cathodoluminescence study of vickers indentations in magnesium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vickers diamond pyramid indentations made in single crystal of magnesium oxide (MgO) were examined in an environmental scanning electron microscope interfaced with an AVS-2000 spectrophotometer for luminescence. Three distinct zones around the indentations were identified to exhibit cathodoluminescence, which ...

  17. Magnesium hydrides and their phase transitions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paidar, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 23 (2016), s. 9769-9773 ISSN 0360-3199 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13069 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : hydrogen * magnesium and transition metal hydrides * crystal structure stability * displacive phase transformations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.582, year: 2016

  18. Precipitation and Hardening in Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jian-Feng

    2012-11-01

    Magnesium alloys have received an increasing interest in the past 12 years for potential applications in the automotive, aircraft, aerospace, and electronic industries. Many of these alloys are strong because of solid-state precipitates that are produced by an age-hardening process. Although some strength improvements of existing magnesium alloys have been made and some novel alloys with improved strength have been developed, the strength level that has been achieved so far is still substantially lower than that obtained in counterpart aluminum alloys. Further improvements in the alloy strength require a better understanding of the structure, morphology, orientation of precipitates, effects of precipitate morphology, and orientation on the strengthening and microstructural factors that are important in controlling the nucleation and growth of these precipitates. In this review, precipitation in most precipitation-hardenable magnesium alloys is reviewed, and its relationship with strengthening is examined. It is demonstrated that the precipitation phenomena in these alloys, especially in the very early stage of the precipitation process, are still far from being well understood, and many fundamental issues remain unsolved even after some extensive and concerted efforts made in the past 12 years. The challenges associated with precipitation hardening and age hardening are identified and discussed, and guidelines are outlined for the rational design and development of higher strength, and ultimately ultrahigh strength, magnesium alloys via precipitation hardening.

  19. Short Communication - Blood Magnesium levels in migraineurs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Some probable mechanisms have been described to the relationship between magnesium (Mg) level and migraine headache attacks. In the study reported here, we sought to determine the total Mg serum status of patients with migraine within and between the headache attacks and compare it with ...

  20. Magnesium supplementation in children with attention deficit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farida El Baza

    2015-07-07

    Jul 7, 2015 ... compared to normal children, in both serum and hair. Then, the effects of .... regards attention, memory loss, fear, restlessness, insomnia, tics, cramps and ..... the effectiveness and safety of magnesium and vitamin B6. Trials ... 143–8. [17] Mousain-Bosc M, Roche M, Polge A, Pradal-Prat D, Rapin J, · Bali JP.

  1. Design Considerations for Developing Biodegradable Magnesium Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, Harpreet S.; Keselowsky, Benjamin G.; Sarntinoranont, Malisa; Manuel, Michele V.

    The integration of biodegradable and bioabsorbable magnesium implants into the human body is a complex undertaking that faces major challenges. The complexity arises from the fact that biomaterials must meet both engineering and physiological requirements to ensure the desired properties. Historically, efforts have been focused on the behavior of commercial magnesium alloys in biological environments and their resultant effect on cell-mediated processes. Developing causal relationships between alloy chemistry and micro structure, and its effect on cellular behavior can be a difficult and time intensive process. A systems design approach driven by thermodynamics has the power to provide significant contributions in developing the next generation of magnesium alloy implants with controlled degradability, biocompatibility, and optimized mechanical properties, at reduced time and cost. This approach couples experimental research with theory and mechanistic modeling for the accelerated development of materials. The aim of this article is to enumerate this strategy, design considerations and hurdles for developing new magnesium alloys for use as biodegradable implant materials [1].

  2. Ion beam investigation of hydrogen implanted in magnesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chami, A.-C.

    1977-01-01

    The diffusion mechanism for hydrogen implanted in magnesium was investigated by nuclear reaction analysis or channeling. The hydrogen introduced is then in the presence of radiation defects created by implantation. The H( 11 B,α) reaction used allowed the profiles of implanted hydrogen to be drawn. The Winterbon calculations derived from LSS theory (Lindhard, Scharff, Schiott) were used. LSS profiles folding and the excitation curve unfolding give very same results. An analysis of the profile of the defects and the evaluation of the total number of Frenkel pairs produced show that the defects are isolated when low energy light elements are implanted, and hydrogen interactions are effected through point defects. A channeling analysis shows that hydrogen occupies tetrahedral sites as far as the temperature remains lower that the migration temperature (about 100K). Beyonds this temperature, the hydrogen migrates and is trapped on motionless defects [fr

  3. Nanostructured calcium phosphate coatings on magnesium alloys: characterization and cytocompatibility with mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Iskandar, Maria Emil; Aslani, Arash; Tian, Qiaomu; Liu, Huinan

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the deposition and characterization of nanostructured calcium phosphate (nCaP) on magnesium–yttrium alloy substrates and their cytocompatibility with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The nCaP coatings were deposited on magnesium and magnesium–yttrium alloy substrates using proprietary transonic particle acceleration process for the dual purposes of modulating substrate degradation and BMSC adhesion. Surface morphology and feature size were analyzed usin...

  4. Assessment of Mechanical Properties and Damage of High Performance Concrete Subjected to Magnesium Sulfate Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Cang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfate attack is one of the most important problems affecting concrete structures, especially magnesium sulfate attack. This paper presents an investigation on the mechanical properties and damage evolution of high performance concrete (HPC with different contents of fly ash exposure to magnesium sulfate environment. The microstructure, porosity, mass loss, dimensional variation, compressive strength, and splitting tensile strength of HPC were investigated at various erosion times up to 392 days. The ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV propagation in HPC at different erosion time was determined by using ultrasonic testing technique. A relationship between damage and UPV of HPC was derived according to damage mechanics, and a correlation between the damage of HPC and erosion time was obtained eventually. The results indicated that (1 the average increasing amplitude of porosity for HPCs was 34.01% before and after exposure to magnesium sulfate solution; (2 the damage evolution of HPCs under sulfate attack could be described by an exponential fitting; (3 HPC containing 20% fly ash had the strongest resistance to magnesium sulfate attack.

  5. Superior light metals by texture engineering: Optimized aluminum and magnesium alloys for automotive applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, J.; Al-Samman, T.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum and magnesium are two highly important lightweight metals used in automotive applications to reduce vehicle weight. Crystallographic texture engineering through a combination of intelligent processing and alloying is a powerful and effective tool to obtain superior aluminum and magnesium alloys with optimized strength and ductility for automotive applications. In the present article the basic mechanisms of texture formation of aluminum and magnesium alloys during wrought processing are described and the major aspects and differences in deformation and recrystallization mechanisms are discussed. In addition to the crystal structure, the resulting properties can vary significantly, depending on the alloy composition and processing conditions, which can cause drastic texture and microstructure changes. The elementary mechanisms of plastic deformation and recrystallization comprising nucleation and growth and their orientation dependence, either within the homogeneously formed microstructure or due to inhomogeneous deformation, are described along with their impact on texture formation, and the resulting forming behavior. The typical face-centered cubic and hexagonal close-packed rolling and recrystallization textures, and related mechanical anisotropy and forming conditions are analyzed and compared for standard aluminum and magnesium alloys. New aspects for their modification and advanced strategies of alloy design and microstructure to improve material properties are derived

  6. Nanostructured magnesium has fewer detrimental effects on osteoblast function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Lucy; Webster, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Efforts have been made recently to implement nanoscale surface features on magnesium, a biodegradable metal, to increase bone formation. Compared with normal magnesium, nanostructured magnesium has unique characteristics, including increased grain boundary properties, surface to volume ratio, surface roughness, and surface energy, which may influence the initial adsorption of proteins known to promote the function of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells). Previous studies have shown that one way to increase nanosurface roughness on magnesium is to soak the metal in NaOH. However, it has not been determined if degradation of magnesium is altered by creating nanoscale features on its surface to influence osteoblast density. The aim of the present in vitro study was to determine the influence of degradation of nanostructured magnesium, created by soaking in NaOH, on osteoblast density. Our results showed a less detrimental effect of magnesium degradation on osteoblast density when magnesium was treated with NaOH to create nanoscale surface features. The detrimental degradation products of magnesium are of significant concern when considering use of magnesium as an orthopedic implant material, and this study identified a surface treatment, ie, soaking in NaOH to create nanoscale features for magnesium that can improve its use in numerous orthopedic applications.

  7. Nanostructured magnesium has fewer detrimental effects on osteoblast function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Lucy; Webster, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Efforts have been made recently to implement nanoscale surface features on magnesium, a biodegradable metal, to increase bone formation. Compared with normal magnesium, nanostructured magnesium has unique characteristics, including increased grain boundary properties, surface to volume ratio, surface roughness, and surface energy, which may influence the initial adsorption of proteins known to promote the function of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells). Previous studies have shown that one way to increase nanosurface roughness on magnesium is to soak the metal in NaOH. However, it has not been determined if degradation of magnesium is altered by creating nanoscale features on its surface to influence osteoblast density. The aim of the present in vitro study was to determine the influence of degradation of nanostructured magnesium, created by soaking in NaOH, on osteoblast density. Our results showed a less detrimental effect of magnesium degradation on osteoblast density when magnesium was treated with NaOH to create nanoscale surface features. The detrimental degradation products of magnesium are of significant concern when considering use of magnesium as an orthopedic implant material, and this study identified a surface treatment, ie, soaking in NaOH to create nanoscale features for magnesium that can improve its use in numerous orthopedic applications. PMID:23674891

  8. Features of solid solutions composition in magnesium with yttrium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drits, M.E.; Rokhlin, L.L.; Tarytina, I.E.

    1983-01-01

    Additional data on features of yttrium solid solutions composition in magnesium in the course of their decomposition investigation in the case of aging are obtianed. The investigation has been carried out on the base of a binary magnesium-yttrium alloy the composition of which has been close to maximum solubility (at eutectic temperature) and magnesium-yttrium alloys additionally doped with zinc. It is shown that higher yttrium solubility in solid magnesium than it has been expected, issueing from the difference in atomic radii of these metals indicates electron yttrium-magnesium atoms interaction. In oversaturated magnesium-yttrium solid solutions at earlier decomposition stages Mg 3 Cd type ordering is observed. At aging temperatures up to 250 deg C and long exposures corresponding to highest strengthening in oversaturated magnesium yttrium solid solutions a rhombic crystal lattice phase with three symmetric orientations is formed

  9. The effect of polymers onto the size of zinc layered hydroxide salt and its calcined product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Mohd Zobir bin; Ghotbi, Mohammad Yeganeh; Yahaya, Asmah Hj; Abd Rahman, Mohd Zaki

    2009-02-01

    Zinc hydroxide nitrate, a brucite-like layered material was synthesized using pH control method. Poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(ethylene glycol) were used at various percentages as size decreasing agents during the synthesis of zinc hydroxide nitrate. SEM and PXRD showed the decrease of size and thickness of the resultant zinc hydroxide nitrates. TG and surface area data confirmed the decrease of the particle sizes, too. When zinc hydroxide nitrates were heat treated at 500 °C, the physical properties of nano zinc oxides obtained depended on the parent material, zinc hydroxide nitrate.

  10. A study of the electro-catalytic oxidation of methanol on a cobalt hydroxide modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarian, M.; Mahjani, M.G.; Heli, H.; Gobal, F.; Khajehsharifi, H.; Hamedi, M.H.

    2003-01-01

    Cobalt hydroxide modified glassy carbon electrodes (CHM/GC) prepared by the anodic deposition in presence of tartrate ions have been used for the electro-catalytic oxidation of methanol in alkaline solutions where the methods of cyclic voltammetery (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and impedance spectroscopy (IS) have been employed. In CV studies, in the presence of methanol the peak current of the oxidation of cobalt hydroxide increase is followed by a decrease in the corresponding cathodic current. This suggests that the oxidation of methanol is being catalysed through the mediated electron transfer across the cobalt hydroxide layer comprising of cobalt ions of various valence states. A mechanism based on the electro-chemical generation of Co(IV) active sites and their subsequent consumptions by methanol have been discussed and the corresponding rate law under the control of charge transfer has been developed and kinetic parameters have been derived. In this context the charge transfer resistance accessible both theoretically and through the IS studies have been used as a criteria. Under the CA regimes the reaction followed a Cottrellian behaviour

  11. Concentration determination of methyl magnesium chloride and other Grignard reagents by potentiometric titration with in-line characterization of reaction species by FTIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yadan; Wang, Tao; Helmy, Roy; Zhou, George X; LoBrutto, Rosario

    2002-07-01

    A potentiometric titration method for methyl magnesium chloride and other Grignard reagents based on the reaction with 2-butanol in THF has been developed and validated. The method employs a commercially available platinum electrode, using an electrolyte compatible with non-aqueous solvents. Well-defined titration curves were obtained, along with excellent method precision. The endpoint was precisely determined based on the first derivative of the titration curve. Different solvents such as THF, diethyl ether and methylene chloride provided similar results with regard to sharpness of the endpoint and method precision. The method was applied to a wide array of Grignard reagents including methyl magnesium bromide, ethyl magnesium chloride, propyl magnesium chloride, vinyl magnesium chloride, phenyl magnesium chloride, and benzyl magnesium chloride with similar precision and accuracy. Application of in-line FTIR was demonstrated for in situ monitoring of the titration reaction, allowing characterization of the reaction species. An authentic spectrum of the MeMgCl-THF complex was obtained using spectral subtraction and the vibrational absorbance bands were identified. FTIR also provided an alternative for detecting the titration endpoint, and the titration results so obtained, provided a cross-validation of the accuracy of the potentiometric titration.

  12. Magnesium-DNA interactions and the possible relation of magnesium to carcinogenesis. Irradiation and free radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastassopoulou, J; Theophanides, T

    2002-04-01

    Magnesium deficiency causes renal complications. The appearance of several diseases is related to its depletion in the human body. In radiotherapy, as well as in chemotherapy, especially in treatment of cancers with cis-platinum, hypomagnesaemia is observed. The site effects of chemotherapy that are due to hypomagnesaemia are decreased using Mg supplements. The role of magnesium in DNA stabilization is concentration dependent. At high concentrations there is an accumulation of Mg binding, which induces conformational changes leading to Z-DNA, while at low concentration there is deficiency and destabilization of DNA. The biological and clinical consequences of abnormal concentrations are DNA cleavage leading to diseases and cancer. Carcinogenesis and cell growth are also magnesium-ion concentration dependent. Several reports point out that the interaction of magnesium in the presence of other metal ions showed that there is synergism with Li and Mn, but there is magnesium antagonism in DNA binding with the essential metal ions in the order: Zn>Mg>Ca. In the case of toxic metals such as Cd, Ga and Ni there is also antagonism for DNA binding. It was found from radiolysis of deaerated aqueous solutions of the nucleoside 5'-guanosine monophosphate (5'-GMP) in the presence as well as in the absence of magnesium ions that, although the addition of hydroxyl radicals (*OH) has been increased by 2-fold, the opening of the imidazole ring of the guanine base was prevented. This effect was due to the binding of Mg2+ ions to N7 site of the molecule by stabilizing the five-member ring imitating cis-platinum. It was also observed using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and Fast Atom Bombardment mass spectrometry that *OH radicals subtract H atoms from the C1', C4' and C5' sites of the nucleotide. Irradiation of 5'-GMP in the presence of oxygen (2.5 x 10(-4) M) shows that magnesium is released from the complex. There is spectroscopic evidence that

  13. Separation of magnesium from magnesium chloride and zirconium and/or hafnium subchlorides in the production of zirconium and/or hafnium sponge metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abodishish, H.A.M.; Adams, R.J.; Kearl, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes the producing of a refractory metal wherein a sponge refractory metal is produced as an intermediate product by the use of magnesium with the incidental production of magnesium chloride, and wherein residual magnesium is separated from the magnesium chloride and from refractory metal to a vacuum distillation step which fractionally distills the magnesium, the magnesium chloride, and the metal sub-chlorides; the steps of: recovering fractionally distilled vapors of magnesium chloride and metal sub-chlorides from a sponge refractory metal; separately condensing the vapors as separately recovered; and recycling the separately recovered magnesium at a purity of at least about 96%

  14. Cationic two-dimensional inorganic networks of antimony oxide hydroxide for Lewis acid catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jinlin; Fei, Honghan

    2018-03-28

    We have successfully synthesized a rare example of inorganic layered materials possessing a positive charge, which is well outside the isostructural set of layered double hydroxides. This layered architecture consists of two-dimensional corrugated [Sb 2 O 2 (OH)] + layers with linear α,ω-alkanedisulfonate anions residing in the interlamellar space. This cationic material displays a chemical robustness under highly acidic aqueous conditions (pH = 1). Combining the robust nature and the high density of Sb III sites on the exposed crystal facets, our cationic layered material is an efficient, recyclable catalyst for cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde derivatives with trimethylsilyl cyanide. In addition, the Lewis acidity of the Sb III sites also catalyzes the ketalization of carbonyl groups under "green" solvent-free conditions.

  15. Acrylate intercalation and in situ polymerization in iron-, cobalt-, or manganese-substituted nickel hydroxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaysse, C; Guerlou-Demourgues, L; Duguet, E; Delmas, C

    2003-07-28

    A chimie douce route based on successive redox and exchange reactions has allowed us to prepare new hybrid organic-inorganic materials, composed of polyacrylate macromolecules intercalated into layered double hydroxides (LDHs), deriving from Ni(OH)(2). Monomer intercalation and in situ polymerization mechanisms have appeared to be strongly dependent upon the nature of the substituting cation in the slabs. In the case of iron-based LDHs, a phase containing acrylate monomeric intercalates has been isolated and identified by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. Second, interslab free-radical polymerization of acrylate anions has been successfully initiated using potassium persulfate. In cobalt- or manganese-based LDHs, one-step polymerization has been observed, leading directly to a material containing polyacrylate intercalate.

  16. Precipitation of iron (III) using magnesium oxide in fluidized bed; Precipitacion de hierro (III) utilizando oxido de magnesio en lecho fluidizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban-Bocardo, P. A.; Ferreira-Rocha, S. D.

    2006-07-01

    A process for iron (III) removal by hydroxide precipitation from and acid synthetic inorganic effluent using magnesium oxide as an alternative precipitant agent in a fluidized bed was developed. An acid synthetic inorganic effluent containing 100 and 200 mg/l of ferric ions (pH=1.0) was continuously fed up to the acrylic column (30 cm high and 2 cm diameter) during 180 minutes. Magnesium oxide pulp (3% v/v) was injected at the beginning of the experiment in order to allow the iron hydroxides precipitation. The concentration and pH profiles agreed in their curves, while the pH profile rose,the concentration profile decreased and a high percentage of iron removal (higher to 99%) was reached. Extremely low iron concentrations have been reached, thus permitting to attend to the environmental standard of 10.0 mg/l for discharge of effluent containing ferric ions established by the law DN 10/86 of COPAM (Conselho de Politica Ambiental do Estado de Minas Gerais-Brazil). (Author)

  17. CALCIUM HYDROXIDE IN ENDODONTIC TREATMENT OF PERIAPICALLY INFECTED TEETH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Alma Farah Adang

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available An inadequate endodontic treatment may affect the root canal system and spread beyond its apical foramina that elicit periodontal tissue developing into abscess, granuloma and radicular cyst. Periodical lesions can be treated with non surgical endodontic treatment using calcium hydroxide dressing. This case study is reporting teeth 11 with periodical lesions and infection. Evidence of a clinical healing and radiographic assessments were followed by a non surgical endodontic therapy. Successful treatment outcome is related to the elimination of infection agents from the root canal. This can activate a stimulation zone to promote regeneration. Calcium hydroxide used as a root canal dressing may promote alkalinity at the adjacent tissue , create favourable environmental condition in which hard tissue formation can occur, interfere the bactericidal activity, increase mineralization, and induce healing.

  18. Nickel hydroxide positive electrode for alkaline rechargeable battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kwo; Wang, Lixin; Mays, William; Reichman, Benjamin; Chao-Ian, Hu; Wong, Diana; Nei, Jean

    2018-02-20

    Certain nickel hydroxide active cathode materials for use in alkaline rechargeable batteries are capable of transferring >1.3 electrons per Ni atom under reversible electrochemical conditions. The specific capacity of the nickel hydroxide active materials is for example .gtoreq.325 mAh/g. The cathode active materials exhibit an additional discharge plateau near 0.8 V vs. a metal hydride (MH) anode. Ni in an oxidation state of less than 2, such as Ni.sup.1+, is able to participate in electrochemical reactions when using the present cathode active materials. It is possible that up to 2.3 electrons, up to 2.5 electrons or more may be transferred per Ni atom under electrochemical conditions.

  19. Evaluation of barium hydroxide treatment efficacy on a dolomitic marble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toniolo, L; Colombo, C; Realini, M; Peraio, A; Positano, M

    2001-01-01

    The Arch of Peace, by Luigi Cagnola, is one of the most famous neoclassical monuments in Milan. It has been subjected to conservative intervention in 1998. In the present paper the efficacy of the consolidation by means of barium hydroxide has been evaluated. The stone material showed severe degradation phenomena as: erosion, pulverisation, exfoliation. The analytical data acquired through X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX), allowed to compare the conditions of stone before and after the treatment with barium hydroxide. The presence of barium has been put in evidence mainly on the surface as barium sulphate, whereas barium is only sporadically present within the thickness of the decayed material. The treatment was judged not satisfying and its inefficacy is, most probably, due to a not suitable cleaning procedure carried out before the consolidation.

  20. Potassium hydroxide 5% for the treatment of molluscum contagiosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Molluscum contagiosum is a common reason for consultation in primary care. The condition is normally benign and self-limiting1 and the standard advice is to wait for the lesions to resolve spontaneously.2 Recently, potassium hydroxide 5% (MolluDab-Alliance Pharmaceuticals Limited) has been marketed in the UK for the treatment of the condition.3 It is sold as a medical device rather than a licensed medicinal product. Here we consider the evidence for potassium hydroxide 5% in the management of molluscum contagiosum. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Nickel hydroxide positive electrode for alkaline rechargeable battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kwo; Wang, Lixin; Mays, William; Reichman, Benjamin; Chao-Ian, Hu; Wong, Diana; Nei, Jean

    2018-04-03

    Certain nickel hydroxide active cathode materials for use in alkaline rechargeable batteries are capable of transferring >1.3 electrons per Ni atom under reversible electrochemical conditions. The specific capacity of the nickel hydroxide active materials is for example .gtoreq.325 mAh/g. The cathode active materials exhibit an additional discharge plateau near 0.8 V vs. a metal hydride (MH) anode. Ni in an oxidation state of less than 2, such as Ni.sup.1+, is able to participate in electrochemical reactions when using the present cathode active materials. It is possible that up to 2.3 electrons, up to 2.5 electrons or more may be transferred per Ni atom under electrochemical conditions.

  2. Strong blue emission from zinc hydroxide carbonate nanosheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Jing; Chen, Xuemin; Ling, Tao; Du, Xiwen

    2016-01-01

    Zinc hydroxide carbonate (ZHC) is a typical layered salt composed of zinc hydroxide layers separated with carbonate ions and water molecules. Studies of morphology control and the constitution of functional ZHC material with intercalated ions has been widely developed. Also, ZnO can be easily obtained by anneal treatment of ZHC, and the porous structure as synthesized had great potential in gas sensors, photocatalysts and dye-sensitized solar cells. However, the optical of ZHC have rarely been investigated. In our research, a strong blue emission of ZHC is reported. The effect of growth time, annealing treatment and modification of surfactants on blue emission have been systematically studied. Combined with information of interior effect of OH groups, crystal structure and electronegativity of surfactants, a possible emission mechanism of ZHC has been proposed.

  3. Production of calcium hydroxide from the waste of Cariri stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, T.M.E.; Santos, A.M.M.; Brasileiro, M.I.; Pinheiro, S.F.L.; Prado, A.C.A.

    2016-01-01

    The extraction of Cariri stone in the northeast is a frequent activity because of its ornamental application as well as for the construction sector. However, by this extraction, untapped waste formation grows and becomes a problem for the environment. The objective of this work is to produce calcium hydroxide, from this limestone residue, with controlled porosity, solubility and particle size. The waste was characterized with X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and thermal analysis (TGA). The limestone was calcined at 850°C and 950°C for 45 minutes and three hours, being characterized by XRD, XRF and TGA. Once calcined, it was hydrated with 17,5g and 22g oxide to 100mL water and manually mixed for 15 and 25 minutes. The calcium hydroxides have been submitted for tests in vivo in rats and will be characterized by XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Infrared. (author)

  4. The corrosion of steels in molten sodium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.N.; Smith, C.A.; Smith, R.J.

    1976-09-01

    The role of sodium hydroxide corrosion is discussed in relation to the wastage of materials observed in fast reactor boilers under fault conditions in the vicinity of a water leak into sodium. An experimental technique to study the corrosion under varying conditions is described. The results presented are for 2 1/4Cr 1Mo obtained in static sodium hydroxide in a closed volume over the temperature range 1033K to 1273K. It is found that the corrosion rate can be followed by monitoring the hydrogen produced by the reaction, which can be written as: Fe + 2NaOH = NaFeO 2 + NaH + 1/2H 2 . After an initial acceleration period the rate law is parabolic. The effect on the corrosion rate of melt and cover gas composition has been in part investigated, and the relevance of mass flow of reactants is discussed. (author)

  5. Transport of Magnesium by a Bacterial Nramp-Related Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Freedman, Benjamin G.; Senger, Ryan S.; Winkler, Wade C.

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential divalent metal that serves many cellular functions. While most divalent cations are maintained at relatively low intracellular concentrations, magnesium is maintained at a higher level (∼0.5–2.0 mM). Three families of transport proteins were previously identified for magnesium import: CorA, MgtE, and MgtA/MgtB P-type ATPases. In the current study, we find that expression of a bacterial protein unrelated to these transporters can fully restore growth to a bacterial mutant that lacks known magnesium transporters, suggesting it is a new importer for magnesium. We demonstrate that this transport activity is likely to be specific rather than resulting from substrate promiscuity because the proteins are incapable of manganese import. This magnesium transport protein is distantly related to the Nramp family of proteins, which have been shown to transport divalent cations but have never been shown to recognize magnesium. We also find gene expression of the new magnesium transporter to be controlled by a magnesium-sensing riboswitch. Importantly, we find additional examples of riboswitch-regulated homologues, suggesting that they are a frequent occurrence in bacteria. Therefore, our aggregate data discover a new and perhaps broadly important path for magnesium import and highlight how identification of riboswitch RNAs can help shed light on new, and sometimes unexpected, functions of their downstream genes. PMID:24968120

  6. Fracture healing using degradable magnesium fixation plates and screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaya, Amy; Yoshizawa, Sayuri; Verdelis, Kostas; Noorani, Sabrina; Costello, Bernard J; Sfeir, Charles

    2015-02-01

    Internal bone fixation devices made with permanent metals are associated with numerous long-term complications and may require removal. We hypothesized that fixation devices made with degradable magnesium alloys could provide an ideal combination of strength and degradation, facilitating fracture fixation and healing while eliminating the need for implant removal surgery. Fixation plates and screws were machined from 99.9% pure magnesium and compared with titanium devices in a rabbit ulnar fracture model. Magnesium device degradation and the effect on fracture healing and bone formation were assessed after 4 weeks. Fracture healing with magnesium device fixation was compared with that of titanium devices using qualitative histologic analysis and quantitative histomorphometry. Micro-computed tomography showed device degradation after 4 weeks in vivo. In addition, 2-dimensional micro-computed tomography slices and histologic staining showed that magnesium degradation did not inhibit fracture healing or bone formation. Histomorphology showed no difference in bone-bridging fractures fixed with magnesium and titanium devices. Interestingly, abundant new bone was formed around magnesium devices, suggesting a connection between magnesium degradation and bone formation. Our results show potential for magnesium fixation devices in a loaded fracture environment. Furthermore, these results suggest that magnesium fixation devices may enhance fracture healing by encouraging localized new bone formation. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Exploring Alkaline Stable Organic Cations for Polymer Hydroxide Exchange Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-29

    1   1.1.2   Proton exchange membrane fuel cells ( PEMFCs ) ......................... 3   1.1.3   Alkaline fuel cells (AFCs...160   xi LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.1:   Schematic diagram of a PEMFC ...according to the type of electrolyte they use. Nowadays, there are six major types of fuel cells: proton-exchange membrane fuel cells ( PEMFCs ), hydroxide

  8. Successive potassium hydroxide testing for improved diagnosis of tinea pedis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Bilge F; Topal, Suhan G; Aksungur, Varol L; Ünal, İlker; İlkit, Macit

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of successive potassium hydroxide (KOH) tests for the diagnosis of tinea pedis with different clinical presentations. The study included 135 patients with 200 lesions that were clinically suspicious for tinea pedis. Three samples of skin scrapings were taken from each lesion in the same session and were examined using a KOH test. This study offers an inexpensive, rapid, and useful technique for the daily practice of clinicians and mycologists managing patients with clinically suspected tinea pedis.

  9. The Corrosion of Magnesium and of the Magnesium Aluminum Alloys Containing Manganese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, J A

    1927-01-01

    The extensive use of magnesium and its alloys in aircraft has been seriously handicapped by the uncertainties surrounding their resistance to corrosion. This problem has been given intense study by the American Magnesium Corporation and at the request of the Subcommittee on Materials for Aircraft of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics this report was prepared on the corrosion of magnesium. The tentative conclusions drawn from the experimental facts of this investigation are as follows: the overvoltage of pure magnesium is quite high. On immersion in salt water the metal corrodes with the liberation of hydrogen until the film of corrosion product lowers the potential to a critical value. When the potential reaches this value it no longer exceeds the theoretical hydrogen potential plus the overvoltage of the metal. Rapid corrosion consequently ceases. When aluminum is added, especially when in large amounts, the overvoltage is decreased and hydrogen plates out at a much lower potential than with pure magnesium. The addition of small amount of manganese raises the overvoltage back to practically that of pure metal, and the film is again negative.

  10. Lithium-aluminum-magnesium electrode composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendres, Carlos A.; Siegel, Stanley

    1978-01-01

    A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary, high-temperature electrochemical cell. The cell also includes a molten salt electrolyte of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides and a positive electrode including a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent and a magnesium-aluminum alloy as a structural matrix. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, magnesium, and aluminum are formed but the electrode composition in both its charged and discharged state remains substantially free of the alpha lithium-aluminum phase and exhibits good structural integrity.

  11. SYNTHESIS OF STYRENE-BUTADIENE STATISTIC COPOLYMERS CONTAINING MAGNESIUM INITIATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Firsova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the use of organomagnesium initiators in the synthesis of styrene-butadiene random copolymer (SBR obtained solution polymerization and their influence on the properties of rubber. Selected organic magnesium dialkyl initiator is combined with a modifier, which is a mixed alkoxide of an alkali and alkaline earth metals, which allows to control the micr ostructure of the diene polymer and its molecular weight characteristics. Alcohol derivatives selected high-boiling alcohols tetra (hydroxypropyl ethylenediamine (lapromol 294 and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (TGFS. Selection of high-boiling alcohols due to the fact that the destruction of alkoxide with aqueous polymer degassing they do not fall into the return solvent and almost fall into the exact water. The metal components of alkoxides are lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium. The resulting solutions are stable when stored modifier t hroughout the year even at -40 °C. The scheme of obtaining the new catalyst systems based organomagnesium and alcoxide of alkali and alkaline earth metals, which yields as functionalized SBR with a statistical and a distribution block of butadiene and styrene was developed. The process of copolymerization with styrene to butadiene organomagnesium initiators as using an organolithium compound (n-butyllithium was carried out, and without it. Found that the addition of n-butyllithium in the reaction mixture leads to a sharp increase in the rate of reaction. The results of studies of the effect of composition of the initiator system on the structure of diene polymers. It was revealed that a mixed initiator system affords a high conversion of monomers (to 90 % in 1 hour 1,2-polybutadiene content increased to 60 %. The process of polymerization of only a mixture of organomagnesium initiators and alcoxide of alkali and alkaline earth metals are not actively proceeds, conversion of the monomers reaches to 90 % in 4 hours, the microstructure

  12. MAGNESIUM, DRINKING WATER HARDNESS AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Nikic

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many different countries suggest and justify an integrated laboratory and epidemiological research program with an aim to reject or accept the magnesium – CVD (cardiovascular disease hypothesis. The studies shown in this paper that have investigated the relationship between water hardness, especially magnesium and CVD indicate that, even though there has been an ongoing research for nearly half a century (1957-2004, it has not been completed yet. Different study designs (obductional, clinical, ecological, case-control and cohort restrict an adequate comparison of their results as well as the deduction of results applicable on each territorial level.The majority of researchers around the world, using populational and individual studies, have found an inverse (protective association between mortality and morbidity from CVD and the increase in water hardness, especially the increase in the concentration of magnesium. The most frequent benefit of the water with an optimal mineral composition is the reduction of mortality from ischemic heart disease.It was suggested that Mg from water is a supplementary source of Mg of high biological value, because magnesium from water is absorbed around 30% better than Mg in a diet. The vast majority of studies consider lower concentrations of Mg in the water, in the range of 10% of the total daily intake of Mg.Future research efforts must give better answers to low Mg concentrations in the drinking water, before any concrete recommendations are given to the public. Moreover, the researchers must also determine which chemical form of Mg is most easily absorbed and has the greatest impact.Additional research is necessary in order to further investigate the interrelation between different water and food components as well as individual risk factors in the pathogenesis of CVD.

  13. Magnesium degradation under physiological conditions - Best practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jorge; Hou, Rui Qing; Nidadavolu, Eshwara P S; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Feyerabend, Frank

    2018-06-01

    This review focusses on the application of physiological conditions for the mechanistic understanding of magnesium degradation. Despite the undisputed relevance of simplified laboratory setups for alloy screening purposes, realistic and predictive in vitro setups are needed. Due to the complexity of these systems, the review gives an overview about technical measures, defines some caveats and can be used as a guideline for the establishment of harmonized laboratory approaches.

  14. Amalgam-chromatographic separation of magnesium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinskij, G.D.; Levkin, A.V.; Ivanov, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Separation of magnesium isotopes within Mg(Hg)-MgI 2 system (in dimethylformamide) is conducted under amalgam-chromatographic conditions. Separation maximal degree, that is (1.09), for 24 Mg and 26 Mg and separation coefficient (α = 1.0089±0.006) are determined. Light isotopes are found to concentrate in the amalgam. Technique of thermal conversion of flows within amalgam-dimethylformamide system is suggested on the basis of reversible reaction of Ca-Mg element exchange

  15. Oxidation of Dodecanoate Intercalated Iron(II)–Iron(III) Layered Double Hydroxide to Form 2D Iron(III) (Hydr)oxide Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Li‐Zhi; Ayala‐Luis, Karina B.; Fang, Liping

    2013-01-01

    hydroxide planar layer were preserved during the oxidation, as shown by FTIR spectroscopy. The high positive charge in the hydroxide layer produced by the oxidation of iron(II) to iron(III) is partially compensated by the deprotonation of hydroxy groups, as shown by X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy...... between the alkyl chains of the intercalated dodecanoate anions play a crucial role in stabilizing the structure and hindering the collapse of the iron(II)–iron(III) (hydr)oxide structure during oxidation. This is the first report describing the formation of a stable planar layered octahedral iron......(III) (hydr)oxide. oxGRC12 shows promise as a sorbent and host for hydrophobic reagents, and as a possible source of single planar layers of iron(III) (hydr)oxide....

  16. STUDY OF CHEMICAL INTERACTION OF MAGNESIA CEMENT WITH HIGH CONCENTRATION MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEREVIANKO V. N.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. In activating MgO by electrolyte salts, as a result of formation of non water-resist magnesium silicate hydrate are obtained the durable cement stone having the low water-resist. I. P. Vyrodov considers [9; 5], that magnesia cement curing in mixing with sufficiently concentrated (C > 20 % solutions MgCl2 is caused with the crystallization of oxyhydrochloride composition: 3MgO∙MgCl2∙11Н2О, 5MgO∙MgCl2∙13Н2О and 7MgO∙MgCl2∙15Н2О. In the lower concentration parts of MgCl2 solution is formed a transitional compound of Mg[(OHnCl2-n] with isomorphous Mg(OH2 structure. At very low Cl concentration only Mg(OH2 is practically formed. Purpose. The Formation of water-resist magnesium silicate hydrates for obtaining of fast curing and solid structure of the magnesia stone. Conclusion. The dependence of the formation of the magnesia stone from the ratio (MgO/MgCl2 of the magnesia cement (MgO and the magnesium chloride solution (MgCl2 of different density has been identified in order to obtain the best content for oxyhydrochloride 3MgO•MgCl2•11Н2О, 5MgO•MgCl2•13Н2О and magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH2. In putting into the system MgO∙–∙H2О of the silicic acid or fine ground quartz grains with size of less than 20 – 30 microns, over 1 month for the magnesium silicate hydrates formation is needed, where from 2 to 5 % of the total number of newgrowths are created. The study is proved by the expert opinion, that magnesium silicate hydrates do not have binding properties, unlike calcium silicate hydrates, and the main role in the system curing is played with the Mg(OH2 gel recrystallization, which provides the acceptable stone strength (R ≈ 30MPa in a few years. It has been also established, that in mixing of cement with low concentration MgO solutions of less than 1,5 mol/l (or 13% 1,1g/sm3, the final product in the stone structure is Mg(OH2. With increasing the sealer (MgCl2 solution there is formed by turn in

  17. Blood triggered corrosion of magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geis-Gerstorfer, J., E-mail: juergen.geis-gerstorfer@uni-tuebingen.de [Section Medical Materials and Technology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Schille, Ch.; Schweizer, E.; Rupp, F.; Scheideler, L. [Section Medical Materials and Technology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Reichel, H.-P. [Weisensee Company, Eichenzell (Germany); Hort, N. [GKSS Research Center, Institute of Materials Research, Geesthacht (Germany); Nolte, A.; Wendel, H.-P. [Div. Congenital and Paediatric Cardiac Surgery, University Children' s Hospital, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Intravascular stents manufactured out of bioabsorbable magnesium (Mg) or Mg-alloys are considered as auspicious candidates for the next stent generation. However, before clinical application numerous physical and biological tests, especially to predict the clinically highly important degradation kinetics in vivo, have to be performed. In a Chandler-Loop model, the initial degradation of eight different magnesium alloys during 6 h in contact with human whole blood was investigated. The magnesium release varied between 0.91 {+-} 0.33 mg/cm{sup 2} (MgAl9Zn1) and 2.57 {+-} 0.38 mg/cm{sup 2} (MgZn1). No correlation could be found with Mg release data obtained after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). This pilot study showed that Mg corrosion is highly influenced by the biological test environment (SBF or blood, etc.) and that a modified Chandler-Loop model with human whole blood may be superior to predict corrosion of Mg alloys under clinical conditions than the SBF models presently used.

  18. Properties isotropy of magnesium alloy strip workpieces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Р. Кавалла

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the issue of obtaining high quality cast workpieces of magnesium alloys produced by strip roll-casting. Producing strips of magnesium alloys by combining the processes of casting and rolling when liquid melt is fed continuously to fast rolls is quite promising and economic. In the process of sheet stamping considerable losses of metal occur on festoons formed due to anisotropy of properties of foil workpiece, as defined by the macro- and microstructure and modes of rolling and annealing. The principal causes of anisotropic mechanical properties of metal strips produced by the combined casting and rolling technique are the character of distribution of intermetallic compounds in the strip, orientation of phases of metal defects and the residual tensions. One of the tasks in increasing the output of fit products during stamping operations consists in minimizing the amount of defects. To lower the level of anisotropy in mechanical properties various ways of treating the melt during casting are suggested. Designing the technology of producing strips of magnesium alloys opens a possibility of using them in automobile industry to manufacture light-weight body elements instead of those made of steel.

  19. Multi-functional magnesium alloys containing interstitial oxygen atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H; Choi, H J; Kang, S W; Shin, S E; Choi, G S; Bae, D H

    2016-03-15

    A new class of magnesium alloys has been developed by dissolving large amounts of oxygen atoms into a magnesium lattice (Mg-O alloys). The oxygen atoms are supplied by decomposing titanium dioxide nanoparticles in a magnesium melt at 720 °C; the titanium is then completely separated out from the magnesium melt after solidification. The dissolved oxygen atoms are located at the octahedral sites of magnesium, which expand the magnesium lattice. These alloys possess ionic and metallic bonding characteristics, providing outstanding mechanical and functional properties. A Mg-O-Al casting alloy made in this fashion shows superior mechanical performance, chemical resistance to corrosion, and thermal conductivity. Furthermore, a similar Mg-O-Zn wrought alloy shows high elongation to failure (>50%) at room temperature, because the alloy plastically deforms with only multiple slips in the sub-micrometer grains (alloys are expected to open a new paradigm in commercial alloy design.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of magnesium oxide nanocrystallites and probing the vacancy-type defects through positron annihilation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anjan; Mandal, Atis Chandra; Roy, Soma; Prashanth, Pendem; Ahamed, Sk Izaz; Kar, Subhrasmita; Prasad, Mithun S.; Nambissan, P. M. G.

    2016-09-01

    Magnesium oxide nanocrystallites exhibit certain abnormal characteristics when compared to those of other wide band gap oxide semiconductors in the sense they are most prone to water absorption and formation of a hydroxide layer on the surface. The problem can be rectified by heating and pure nanocrystallites can be synthesized with controllable sizes. Inevitably the defect properties are distinctly divided between two stages, the one with the hydroxide layer (region I) and the other after the removal of the layer by annealing (region II). The lattice parameters, the optical band gap and even the positron annihilation characteristics are conspicuous by their distinct behavior in the two stages of the surface configurations of nanoparticles. While region I was specific with the formation of positronium-hydrogen complexes that drastically altered the defect-specific positron lifetimes, pick-off annihilation of orthopositronium atoms marked region II. The vacancy clusters within the nanocrystallites also trapped positrons. They agglomerated due to the effect of the higher temperatures and resulted in the growth of the nanocrystallites. The coincidence Doppler broadening spectroscopic measurements supported these findings and all the more indicated the trapping of positrons additionally into the neutral divacancies and negatively charged trivacancies. This is apart from the Mg2+ monovacancies which acted as the dominant trapping centers for positrons.

  1. Magnesium supplement in pregnancy-induced hypertension: effects on maternal and neonatal magnesium and calcium homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudnicki, M; Frølich, A; Fischer-Rasmussen, W

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of low dose magnesium supplement upon maternal and fetal serum levels of mineral status in pregnancies complicated with hypertension (PIH). Twenty-five patients with PIH agreed to participate and were randomly allocated, in a double-blind man......The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of low dose magnesium supplement upon maternal and fetal serum levels of mineral status in pregnancies complicated with hypertension (PIH). Twenty-five patients with PIH agreed to participate and were randomly allocated, in a double...... period despite a significant increased loss of calcium during the first 24 h of inclusion. Low dose maternal magnesium treatment did not cause neonatal hypocalcemia....

  2. Behaviour of magnesium and two magnesium alloys heated in a carbon dioxide flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussion, M.-L.; Darras, R.; Leclercq, D.

    1959-01-01

    Magnesium is a particularly attractive material for sheathing uranium fuel elements in nuclear reactors in order to avoid uranium hot temperature oxidation by the cooling fluid. As this cooling fluid will be carbon dioxide at the (future) Marcoule plants, a thorough study of magnesium and magnesium alloys behaviour when heated by carbon dioxide at a 400 C temperature, have been completed. Tests on three materials (Mg, Mg-Zr and Mg-Zr-Zn) have been performed with CO 2 up to a temperature of 550 C, at atmospheric pressure in the presence of a certain amount of oxygen and nitrogen (in order to study the influence of these impurities), and at a pressure of 15 kg / cm 2 . Oxidation results are detailed. Reprint of a paper published in 'Revue de Metallurgie', LVI, n. 1, 1959, p. 61-67

  3. Factors Influencing Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation(PEO) Coatings on Magnesium Alloys: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Gunchoo [KISTI ReSEAT Program, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Magnesium alloys, which possess excellent specific strength and castability, are highly susceptible to corrosion. Although anodizing is widely used to resolve this problem, it requires toxic electrolytes and produces relatively thin and weak surface coatings. Recently, plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) has emerged as an alternative to anodizing. Although it is derived from conventional anodizing, it uses eco-friendly electrolytes and forms thicker, denser, and harder coatings on the surface of magnesium alloys. However, PEO is a complex process involving physical, chemical, and electrochemical reactions, and it is influenced by various factors such as the alloy substrate composition, electrolyte/additive composition, and the electrical variables including the mode of power supply, applied voltage/current density, frequency, and duty cycle. In this article, the detailed effects of these parameters on the microstructure and properties of the PEO coatings are reviewed, and methods of improving the coatings are proposed.

  4. Mechanistic origin and prediction of enhanced ductility in magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhaoxuan; Ahmad, Rasool; Yin, Binglun; Sandlöbes, Stefanie; Curtin, W. A.

    2018-01-01

    Development of ductile magnesium alloys is key to their use in reducing the weight of vehicles and other applications. Wu et al. tackle this issue by determining the underlying mechanisms in unprocessed magnesium alloys. Dilute amounts of solutes enhanced certain ductility-improving mechanisms over ones that cause brittle fracture. From this, the authors developed a theory that may be helpful for screening the large number of potential magnesium alloy compositions.

  5. Alloying principles for magnesium base heat resisting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drits, M.E.; Rokhlin, L.L.; Oreshkina, A.A.; Nikitina, N.I.

    1982-01-01

    Some binary systems of magnesium-base alloys in which solid solutions are formed, are considered for prospecting heat resistant alloys. It is shown that elements having essential solubility in solid magnesium strongly decreasing with temperature should be used for alloying maqnesium base alloys with high strength properties at increased temperatures. The strengthening phases in these alloys should comprise essential quantity of magnesium and be rather refractory

  6. ROLE OF MAGNESIUM IN HEADACHE PATHOGENESIS IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Akarachkova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Article is dedicated to the problem of headache in children. This pathology is being found more frequently in pediatric and children’s neurologic practice. The authors examine headache pathogenesis from the position of magnesium deficiency. Analysis of results of the modern studies on magnesium deficiency and its correction in patients with headache indicates that magnesium metabolism may play an important role both in pathogenesis of different headache types and in its treatment and prevention.

  7. Direct-reading spectrochemical analysis of magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca Adell, M.

    1964-01-01

    A Quantometer has been applied to the determination of aluminum, berylium, calcium, iron, silicon and zinc in magnesium alloys Magnox, after the conversion of the samples to the oxide. For the aluminum, whose concentration is relatively high, the conducting briquets technique with an interrupted discharge is employed, using the magnesium as the internal standard. For the other elements a total burning method with direct current arc is employed, using also the magnesium as the internal standard. (Author) 7 refs

  8. Biodegradable magnesium-alloy stent:current situation in research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hua; Zhao Xianxian

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, permanent metal stents are employed in the majority of interventional therapies; nevertheless, such kind of stents carries the problems of thrombosis and restenosis. Therefore, the biodegradable magnesium alloy stent has become the focus of attention. Theoretically, it has overcome the problems caused by permanent metal stents, so it is the development direction to use the biodegradable magnesium alloy in future. The authors believe that biodegradable magnesium alloy stents will be widely used in interventional procedures for many diseases. (authors)

  9. Lithium/magnesium oxide catalyst and method of making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunsford, J.H.; Hinson, P.G.

    1991-07-16

    This patent describes a method for preparing a catalyst which is effective for converting methane to ethane and ethylene. It comprises mixing a solution of a magnesium alkoxide in an alcohol with a solution containing a source of lithium in an alcohol, to obtain a ratio of magnesium metal to lithium metal; hydrolyzing the magnesium alkoxide in the solution to form a gel; and calcining the gel to form a catalyst which is effective for converting methane to ethane and ethylene.

  10. Role of magnesium on the biomimetic deposition of calcium phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Bimal K.; Sarma, Bikash

    2016-10-01

    Biomimetic depositions of calcium phosphate (CaP) are carried out using simulated body fluid (SBF), calcifying solution and newly developed magnesium containing calcifying solution. Calcium phosphate has a rich phase diagram and is well known for its excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity. The most common phase is hydroxyapatite (HAp), an integral component of human bone and tooth, widely used in orthopedic and dental applications. In addition, calcium phosphate nanoparticles show promise for the targeted drug delivery. The doping of calcium phosphate by magnesium, zinc, strontium etc. can change the protein uptake by CaP nanocrystals. This work describes the role of magnesium on the nucleation and growth of CaP on Ti and its oxide substrates. X-ray diffraction studies confirm formation of HAp nanocrystals which closely resemble the structure of bone apatite when grown using SBF and calcifying solution. It has been observed that magnesium plays crucial role in the nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate. A low magnesium level enhances the crystallinity of HAp while higher magnesium content leads to the formation of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) phase. Interestingly, the deposition of ACP phase is rapid when magnesium ion concentration in the solution is 40% of calcium plus magnesium ions concentration. Moreover, high magnesium content alters the morphology of CaP films.

  11. Improved biological performance of magnesium by micro-arc oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.H. Ma

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium and its alloys have recently been used in the development of lightweight, biodegradable implant materials. However, the corrosion properties of magnesium limit its clinical application. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the degradation behavior and biomechanical properties of magnesium materials treated with micro-arc oxidation (MAO, which is a new promising surface treatment for developing corrosion resistance in magnesium, and to provide a theoretical basis for its further optimization and clinical application. The degradation behavior of MAO-treated magnesium was studied systematically by immersion and electrochemical tests, and its biomechanical performance when exposed to simulated body fluids was evaluated by tensile tests. In addition, the cell toxicity of MAO-treated magnesium samples during the corrosion process was evaluated, and its biocompatibility was investigated under in vivo conditions. The results of this study showed that the oxide coating layers could elevate the corrosion potential of magnesium and reduce its degradation rate. In addition, the MAO-coated sample showed no cytotoxicity and more new bone was formed around it during in vivo degradation. MAO treatment could effectively enhance the corrosion resistance of the magnesium specimen and help to keep its original mechanical properties. The MAO-coated magnesium material had good cytocompatibility and biocompatibility. This technique has an advantage for developing novel implant materials and may potentially be used for future clinical applications.

  12. Magnesium balances and 28Mg studies in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, H.; Schwartz, R.; Osis, D.

    1988-01-01

    The intestinal absorption of magnesium was determined under strictly controlled dietary conditions in patients with normal renal function and also in patients with chronic renal failure. The average net absorption of magnesium of patients with normal renal function, expressed as percent of the magnesium intake, was 48.5%, while that of patients with chronic renal failure was significantly lower, 17%. Increasing the calcium intake from a low calcium intake of 200 mg/day to different higher intake levels up to 2000 mg/day did not change the magnesium balance nor the net absorption of magnesium of both types of patients. The lack of effect of the higher calcium intake on the absorption of magnesium was confirmed in 28 Mg studies in which an oral dose of 28 Mg, as the chloride, was given. The excretion of the absorbed magnesium into the intestine, the endogenous fecal magnesium, was low. Also, increasing the phosphorus intake up to 2000 mg/day in subjects with normal renal function did not affect the magnesium balance, regardless of the calcium intake

  13. Magnesium isotope fractionation in cation-exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, T.; Yanase, S.; Kakihana, H.

    1987-01-01

    Band displacement chromatography of magnesium has been carried out successfully for the purpose of magnesium isotope separation by using a strongly acidic cation-exchange resin and the strontium ion as the replacement ion. A small but definite accumulation of the heavier isotopes ( 25 Mg, 26 Mg) has been observed at the front parts of the magnesium chromatograms. The heavier isotopes have been fractionated preferentially into the solution phase. The single-stage separation factors have been calculated for the 25 Mg/ 24 Mg and 26 Mg/ 24 isotopic pairs at 25 0 C. The reduced partition function ratios of magnesium species involved in the present study have been estimated

  14. A review on magnesium alloys as biodegradable materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xue-Nan; Zheng, Yu-Feng

    2010-06-01

    Magnesium alloys attracted great attention as a new kind of degradable biomaterials. One research direction of biomedical magnesium alloys is based on the industrial magnesium alloys system, and another is the self-designed biomedical magnesium alloys from the viewpoint of biomaterials. The mechanical, biocorrosion properties and biocompatibilities of currently reported Mg alloys were summarized in the present paper, with the mechanical properties of bone tissue, the healing period postsurgery, the pathophysiology and toxicology of the alloying elements being discussed. The strategy in the future development of biomedical Mg alloys was proposed.

  15. Unphysiologically high magnesium concentrations support chondrocyte proliferation and redifferentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyerabend, Frank; Witte, Frank; Kammal, Michael; Willumeit, Regine

    2006-12-01

    The effect of unphysiologically high extracellular magnesium concentrations on chondrocytes, induced by the supplementation of magnesium sulfate, was studied using a 3-phase tissue engineering model. The experiments showed that chondrocyte proliferation and redifferentiation, on the gene and protein expression level, are enhanced. A negative influence was found during chondrogenesis where an inhibition of extracellular matrix formation was observed. In addition, a direct impact on chondrocyte metabolism, elevated magnesium concentrations also affected growth factor effectiveness by consecutive influences during chondrogenesis. All observations were dosage dependent. The results of this study indicate that magnesium may be a useful tool for cartilage tissue engineering.

  16. Achieved serum magnesium concentrations and occurrence of delayed cerebral ischaemia and poor outcome in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorhout Mees, Sanne M.; van den Bergh, Walter M.; Algra, Ale; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Magnesium therapy probably reduces the frequency of delayed cerebral ischaemia (DCI) in subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) but uncertainty remains about the optimal serum magnesium concentration. We assessed the relationship between serum magnesium concentrations achieved with magnesium

  17. Magnesium intake and colorectal tumor risk: a case-control study and meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wark, P.A.; Lau, R.; Norat, T.; Kampman, E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dietary magnesium might be related to colorectal tumor risk through the pivotal roles of magnesium in cellular metabolism, insulin resistance, and systemic inflammation. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the hypothesis of whether higher dietary magnesium intake is associated with reduced

  18. Magnesium intake and colorectal tumor risk : a case-control study and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wark, P.A.; Lau, R.; Norat, T.; Kampman, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dietary magnesium might be related to colorectal tumor risk through the pivotal roles of magnesium in cellular metabolism, insulin resistance, and systemic inflammation. Objective: We evaluated the hypothesis of whether higher dietary magnesium intake is associated with reduced

  19. Magnesium prevents vascular calcification in vitro by inhibition of hydroxyapatite crystal formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braake, A.D. ter; Tinnemans, P.T.; Shanahan, C.M.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Baaij, J.H.F. de

    2018-01-01

    Magnesium has been shown to effectively prevent vascular calcification associated with chronic kidney disease. Magnesium has been hypothesized to prevent the upregulation of osteoblastic genes that potentially drives calcification. However, extracellular effects of magnesium on hydroxyapatite

  20. Polyanthraquinone-Based Organic Cathode for High-Performance Rechargeable Magnesium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Baofei [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Huang, Jinhua [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Feng, Zhenxing [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Zeng, Li [Applied Physics Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston IL 60208 USA; He, Meinan [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Zhang, Lu [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Vaughey, John T. [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Bedzyk, Michael J. [Applied Physics Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston IL 60208 USA; Fenter, Paul [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Zhang, Zhengcheng [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Burrell, Anthony K. [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Liao, Chen [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA

    2016-05-09

    Two anthraquinone-based polymers aiming at improving the capacity and voltage of magnesium ion batteries, were synthesized and characterized. The excellent battery cycling performance was demonstrated with the electrolyte consisting of magnesium bis(hexamethyldisilazide) and magnesium chloride.