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Sample records for magna rna expression

  1. Regulation and dysregulation of vitellogenin mRNA accumulation in daphnids (Daphnia magna)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannas, Bethany R.; Wang, Ying H.; Thomson, Susanne; Kwon, Gwijun; Hong, Li [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7633 (United States); LeBlanc, Gerald A., E-mail: Gerald_LeBlanc@ncsu.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7633 (United States)

    2011-01-25

    The induction of vitellogenin in oviparous vertebrates has become the gold standard biomarker of exposure to estrogenic chemicals in the environment. This biomarker of estrogen exposure also has been used in arthropods, however, little is known of the factors that regulate the expression of vitellogenin in these organisms. We investigated changes in accumulation of mRNA products of the vitellogenin gene Vtg2 in daphnids (Daphnia magna) exposed to a diverse array of chemicals. We further evaluated the involvement of hormonal factors in the regulation of vitellogenin expression that may be targets of xenobiotic chemicals. Expression of the Vtg2 gene was highly responsive to exposure to various chemicals with an expression range spanning approximately four orders of magnitude. Chemicals causing the greatest induction were piperonyl butoxide, chlordane, 4-nonylphenol, cadmium, and chloroform. Among these, only 4-nonylphenol is recognized to be estrogenic. Exposure to several chemicals also suppressed Vtg2 mRNA levels, as much as 100-fold. Suppressive chemicals included cyproterone acetate, acetone, triclosan, and atrazine. Exposure to the estrogens diethylstilbestrol and bisphenol A had little effect on vitellogenin mRNA levels further substantiating that these genes are not induced by estrogen exposure. Exposure to the potent ecdysteroids 20-hydroxyecdysone and ponasterone A revealed that Vtg2 was subject to strong suppressive control by these hormones. Vtg2 mRNA levels were not significantly affected from exposure to several juvenoid hormones. Results indicate that ecdysteroids are suppressors of vitellogenin gene expression and that vitellogenin mRNA levels can be elevated or suppressed in daphnids by xenobiotics that elicit antiecdysteroidal or ecdysteroidal activity, respectively. Importantly, daphnid Vtg2 is not elevated in response to estrogenic activity.

  2. Regulation and dysregulation of vitellogenin mRNA accumulation in daphnids (Daphnia magna)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannas, Bethany R.; Wang, Ying H.; Thomson, Susanne; Kwon, Gwijun; Li Hong; LeBlanc, Gerald A.

    2011-01-01

    The induction of vitellogenin in oviparous vertebrates has become the gold standard biomarker of exposure to estrogenic chemicals in the environment. This biomarker of estrogen exposure also has been used in arthropods, however, little is known of the factors that regulate the expression of vitellogenin in these organisms. We investigated changes in accumulation of mRNA products of the vitellogenin gene Vtg2 in daphnids (Daphnia magna) exposed to a diverse array of chemicals. We further evaluated the involvement of hormonal factors in the regulation of vitellogenin expression that may be targets of xenobiotic chemicals. Expression of the Vtg2 gene was highly responsive to exposure to various chemicals with an expression range spanning approximately four orders of magnitude. Chemicals causing the greatest induction were piperonyl butoxide, chlordane, 4-nonylphenol, cadmium, and chloroform. Among these, only 4-nonylphenol is recognized to be estrogenic. Exposure to several chemicals also suppressed Vtg2 mRNA levels, as much as 100-fold. Suppressive chemicals included cyproterone acetate, acetone, triclosan, and atrazine. Exposure to the estrogens diethylstilbestrol and bisphenol A had little effect on vitellogenin mRNA levels further substantiating that these genes are not induced by estrogen exposure. Exposure to the potent ecdysteroids 20-hydroxyecdysone and ponasterone A revealed that Vtg2 was subject to strong suppressive control by these hormones. Vtg2 mRNA levels were not significantly affected from exposure to several juvenoid hormones. Results indicate that ecdysteroids are suppressors of vitellogenin gene expression and that vitellogenin mRNA levels can be elevated or suppressed in daphnids by xenobiotics that elicit antiecdysteroidal or ecdysteroidal activity, respectively. Importantly, daphnid Vtg2 is not elevated in response to estrogenic activity.

  3. Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery from expressed sequence tags in the waterflea Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souche Erika L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Daphnia (Crustacea: Cladocera plays a central role in standing aquatic ecosystems, has a well known ecology and is widely used in population studies and environmental risk assessments. Daphnia magna is, especially in Europe, intensively used to study stress responses of natural populations to pollutants, climate change, and antagonistic interactions with predators and parasites, which have all been demonstrated to induce micro-evolutionary and adaptive responses. Although its ecology and evolutionary biology is intensively studied, little is known on the functional genomics underpinning of phenotypic responses to environmental stressors. The aim of the present study was to find genes expressed in presence of environmental stressors, and target such genes for single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP marker development. Results We developed three expressed sequence tag (EST libraries using clonal lineages of D. magna exposed to ecological stressors, namely fish predation, parasite infection and pesticide exposure. We used these newly developed ESTs and other Daphnia ESTs retrieved from NCBI GeneBank to mine for SNP markers targeting synonymous as well as non synonymous genetic variation. We validate the developed SNPs in six natural populations of D. magna distributed at regional scale. Conclusions A large proportion (47% of the produced ESTs are Daphnia lineage specific genes, which are potentially involved in responses to environmental stress rather than to general cellular functions and metabolic activities, or reflect the arthropod's aquatic lifestyle. The characterization of genes expressed under stress and the validation of their SNPs for population genetic study is important for identifying ecologically responsive genes in D. magna.

  4. A 5' UTR-Overlapping LncRNA Activates the Male-Determining Gene doublesex1 in the Crustacean Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yasuhiko; Perez, Christelle Alexa G; Mohamad Ishak, Nur Syafiqah; Nong, Quang D; Sudo, Yuumi; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Wada, Tadashi; Watanabe, Hajime

    2018-06-04

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are pervasively transcribed in the eukaryotic genome [1] and are important for the control of master regulatory genes that are involved in cell differentiation and development [2, 3]. Here, we show that a 5' UTR-overlapping lncRNA regulates the male-specific expression of the DM-domain gene doublesex1 (dsx1) in the crustacean Daphnia magna, which produces males in response to environmental stimuli. This lncRNA, named doublesex1 alpha promoter-associated long RNA (DAPALR), is transcribed upstream the transcription start site (TSS) in a sense orientation and subjected to 5' end capping and 3' end processing at a stem-loop structure before the dsx1 coding exon. Similar to dsx1, its expression is only activated in males by the juvenile hormone (JH) and basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor Vrille (Vri) and is maintained during embryogenesis. Knockdown of DAPALR in males silenced dsx1 and led to feminization, including egg production, whereas ectopic expression of DAPALR in dsx1-silenced females resulted in the de-repression of dsx1. We further demonstrate that the DAPALR transcript overlaps the dsx1 5'-UTR, and this overlapping region is required for dsx1 activation. Our results suggest that DAPALR can transactivate and possibly maintain dsx1 expression. This might be important for converting transient environmental signals into stable male development, controlled by the continuous expression of dsx1. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular cloning of manganese superoxide dismutase gene in the cladoceran Daphnia magna: Effects of microcystin, nitrite, and cadmium on gene expression profiles

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    Lyu, Kai; Zhu, Xuexia; Chen, Rui [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, School of Biological Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, 1 Wenyuan Road, Nanjing 210023 (China); Chen, Yafen [State Key Laboratory for Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yang, Zhou, E-mail: yangzhou@njnu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, School of Biological Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, 1 Wenyuan Road, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Daphnia magna MnSOD (Dm-MnSOD) was identified and revealed MnSOD-family features. • The expression of Dm-MnSOD decreased with increased developmental stages. • Dm-MnSOD transcript was kinetically up-regulated by microcystin, nitrite and Cd. • Response of SOD to ubiquitous waterborne pollutants in D. magna was elucidated. • Dm-MnSOD gene is a potential biomarker indicating pollutants in the environment. - Abstract: Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are metalloenzymes that represent one important line of defense against oxidative stress produced by reactive oxygen species in aerobic organisms. Generally, waterborne pollutants caused by irregular anthropogenic activities often result in oxidative damage in aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to molecularly characterize the manganese superoxide dismutase gene (Dm-MnSOD) in the waterflea, Daphnia magna, and evaluate the mRNA expression patterns quantified by real-time PCR after exposure to three common waterborne pollutants (microcystin-LR, nitrite, and cadmium). The results showed that the full-length Dm-MnSOD sequence consists of 954 bp nucleotides, encoding 215 amino acids, showing well-conserved domains that are required for metal binding and several common characteristics, such as two MnSOD domains. The deduced amino acid sequence of Dm-MnSOD shared over 70% similarity with homologues from Bythograea thermydron, Dromia personata, Cancer pagurus, and Scylla paramamosain. Dm-MnSOD gene expression was up-regulated in response to exposure to the three chemicals tested. The overall results indicated that Dm-MnSOD gene is an inducible gene and potential biomarker indicating these pollutants in the environment.

  6. Gene expression profiling of three different stressors in the water flea Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Mieke; Vergauwen, Lucia; Vandenbrouck, Tine; Knapen, Dries; Dom, Nathalie; Spanier, Katina I; Cielen, Anke; De Meester, Luc

    2013-07-01

    Microarrays are an ideal tool to screen for differences in gene expression of thousands of genes simultaneously. However, often commercial arrays are not available. In this study, we performed microarray analyses to evaluate patterns of gene transcription following exposure to two natural and one anthropogenic stressor. cDNA microarrays compiled of three life stage specific and three stressor-specific EST libraries, yielding 1734 different EST sequences, were used. We exposed juveniles of the water flea Daphnia magna for 48, 96 and 144 h to three stressors known to exert strong selection in natural populations of this species i.e. a sublethal concentration of the pesticide carbaryl, infective spores of the endoparasite Pasteuria ramosa, and fish predation risk mimicked by exposure to fish kairomones. A total of 148 gene fragments were differentially expressed compared to the control. Based on a PCA, the exposure treatments were separated into two main groups based on the extent of the transcriptional response: a low and a high (144 h of fish or carbaryl exposure and 96 h of parasite exposure) stress group. Firstly, we observed a general stress-related transcriptional expression profile independent of the treatment characterized by repression of transcripts involved in transcription, translation, signal transduction and energy metabolism. Secondly, we observed treatment-specific responses including signs of migration to deeper water layers in response to fish predation, structural challenge of the cuticle in response to carbaryl exposure, and disturbance of the ATP production in parasite exposure. A third important conclusion is that transcription expression patterns exhibit stress-specific changes over time. Parasite exposure shows the most differentially expressed gene fragments after 96 h. The peak of differentially expressed transcripts came only after 144 h of fish exposure, while carbaryl exposure induced a more stable number of differently expressed gene

  7. Sequence Conservation and Sexually Dimorphic Expression of the Ftz-F1 Gene in the Crustacean Daphnia magna.

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    Nur Syafiqah Mohamad Ishak

    Full Text Available Identifying the genes required for environmental sex determination is important for understanding the evolution of diverse sex determination mechanisms in animals. Orthologs of Drosophila orphan receptor Fushi tarazu factor-1 (Ftz-F1 are known to function in genetic sex determination. In contrast, their roles in environmental sex determination remain unknown. In this study, we have cloned and characterized the Ftz-F1 ortholog in the branchiopod crustacean Daphnia magna, which produces males in response to environmental stimuli. Similar to that observed in Drosophila, D. magna Ftz-F1 (DapmaFtz-F1 produces two splicing variants, αFtz-F1 and βFtz-F1, which encode 699 and 777 amino acids, respectively. Both isoforms share a DNA-binding domain, a ligand-binding domain, and an AF-2 activation domain and differ only at the A/B domain. The phylogenetic position and genomic structure of DapmaFtz-F1 suggested that this gene has diverged from an ancestral gene common to branchiopod crustacean and insect Ftz-F1 genes. qRT-PCR showed that at the one cell and gastrulation stages, both DapmaFtz-F1 isoforms are two-fold more abundant in males than in females. In addition, in later stages, their sexual dimorphic expressions were maintained in spite of reduced expression. Time-lapse imaging of DapmaFtz-F1 RNAi embryos was performed in H2B-GFP expressing transgenic Daphnia, demonstrating that development of the RNAi embryos slowed down after the gastrulation stage and stopped at 30-48 h after ovulation. DapmaFtz-F1 shows high homology to insect Ftz-F1 orthologs based on its amino acid sequence and exon-intron organization. The sexually dimorphic expression of DapmaFtz-F1 suggests that it plays a role in environmental sex determination of D. magna.

  8. Mapping the expression of the sex determining factor Doublesex1 in Daphnia magna using a knock-in reporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Quang Dang; Mohamad Ishak, Nur Syafiqah; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Kato, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Hajime

    2017-11-02

    Sexually dimorphic traits are common and widespread among animals. The expression of the Doublesex-/Mab-3-domain (DM-domain) gene family has been widely studied in model organisms and has been proven to be essential for the development and maintenance of sex-specific traits. However, little is known about the detailed expression patterns in non-model organisms. In the present study, we demonstrated the spatiotemporal expression of the DM-domain gene, doublesex1 (dsx1), in the crustacean Daphnia magna, which parthenogenetically produces males in response to environmental cues. We developed a dsx1 reporter strain to track dsx1 activity in vivo by inserting the mCherry gene into the dsx1 locus using the TALEN-mediated knock-in approach. After confirming dsx1 expression in male-specific traits in juveniles and adults, we performed time-lapse imaging of embryogenesis. Shortly after gastrulation stage, a presumptive primary organiser, named cumulus, first showed male-specific dsx1 expression. This cell mass moved to the posterior growth zone that distributes dsx1-expressing progenitor cells across the body during axial elongation, before embryos start male-specific dsx1 expression in sexually dimorphic structures. The present study demonstrated the sex-specific dsx1 expression in cell populations involved in basal body formation.

  9. Molecular responses during cadmium-induced stress in Daphnia magna: Integration of differential gene expression with higher-level effects

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    Soetaert, Anneleen [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: anneleen.soetaert@ua.ac.be; Vandenbrouck, Tine [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Ven, Karlijn van der [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Maras, Marleen [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Remortel, Piet van [Department of Mathematics and Informatics, Intelligent Systems Laboratory, University of Antwerp, Middelheimlaan 1, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Blust, Ronny [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Coen, Wim M. de [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2007-07-20

    DNA microarrays offer great potential in revealing insight into mechanistic toxicity of contaminants. The aim of the present study was (i) to gain insight in concentration- and time-dependent cadmium-induced molecular responses by using a customized Daphnia magna microarray, and (ii) to compare the gene expression profiles with effects at higher levels of biological organization (e.g. total energy budget and growth). Daphnids were exposed to three cadmium concentrations (nominal value of 10, 50, 100 {mu}g/l) for two time intervals (48 and 96 h). In general, dynamic expression patterns were obtained with a clear increase of gene expression changes at higher concentrations and longer exposure duration. Microarray analysis revealed cadmium affected molecular pathways associated with processes such as digestion, oxygen transport, cuticula metabolism and embryo development. These effects were compared with higher-level effects (energy budgets and growth). For instance, next to reduced energy budgets due to a decline in lipid, carbohydrate and protein content, we found an up-regulated expression of genes related to digestive processes (e.g. {alpha}-esterase, cellulase, {alpha}-amylase). Furthermore, cadmium affected the expression of genes coding for proteins involved in molecular pathways associated with immune response, stress response, cell adhesion, visual perception and signal transduction in the present study.

  10. Supplementary data: Materials and methods RNA expression ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ritt8

    Supplementary data: Materials and methods. RNA expression analysis. Freshly collected tissue was taken in TRIzol reagent for total RNA isolation according to the manufacturer's protocol. The cDNA synthesis was carried out in 1 μg total RNA using Random hexamer (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, USA) and Superscript III ...

  11. Genetically modified rice Bt-Shanyou63 expressing Cry1Ab/c protein does not harm Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Guo, Ruqing; Fang, Zhixiang; Liu, Biao

    2016-10-01

    The genetically modified (GM) rice Bt-ShanYou63 (Bt-SY63) received an official biosafety certificate while its safety remained in dispute. In a lifelong study, Daphnia magna were experimentally fed a basal diet of rice flours from Bt-SY63 or its parental rice ShanYou63 (SY63) at concentrations of 0.2mg, 0.3mg, or 0.4mgC (per individual per day). Overall the survival, body size, and reproduction of the animals were comparable between Bt-SY63 and ShanYou63.. The results showed that no significant differences were observed in growth and reproduction parameters between D. magna fed GM and non-GM flour and no dose-related changes occurred in all the values. Based on the different parameters assessed, the GM rice Bt-SY63 is a safe food source for D. magna that does not differ in quality from non-GM rice. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Arginine kinase in the cladoceran Daphnia magna: cDNA sequencing and expression is associated with resistance to toxic Microcystis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Kai; Zhang, Lu; Zhu, Xuexia; Cui, Guilian; Wilson, Alan E; Yang, Zhou

    2015-03-01

    Nutrient loading derived from anthropogenic activities into lakes have increased the frequency, severity and duration of toxic cyanobacterial blooms around the world. Although herbivorous zooplankton are generally considered to be unable to control toxic cyanobacteria, populations of some zooplankton, including Daphnia, have been shown to locally adapt to toxic cyanobacteria and suppress cyanobacterial bloom formation. However, little is known about the physiology of zooplankton behind this phenomenon. One possible explanation is that some zooplankton may induce more tolerance by elevating energy production, thereby adding more energy allocation to detoxification expenditure. It is assumed that arginine kinase (AK) serves as a core in temporal and spatial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) buffering in cells with high fluctuating energy requirements. To test this hypothesis, we studied the energetic response of a single Daphnia magna clone exposed to a toxic strain of Microcystis aeruginosa, PCC7806. Arginine kinase of D. magna (Dm-AK) was successfully cloned. An ATP-gua PtransN domain which was described as a guanidine substrate specificity domain and an ATP-gua Ptrans domain which was responsible for binding ATP were both identified in the Dm-AK. Phylogenetic analysis of AKs in a range of arthropod taxa suggested that Dm-AK was as dissimilar to other crustaceans as it was to insects. Dm-AK transcript level and ATP content in the presence of M. aeruginosa were significantly lower than those in the control diet containing only the nutritious chlorophyte, Scenedesmus obliquus, whereas the two parameters in the neonates whose mothers had been previously exposed to M. aeruginosa were significantly higher than those of mothers fed with pure S. obliquus. These findings suggest that Dm-AK might play an essential role in the coupling of energy production and utilization and the tolerance of D. magna to toxic cyanobacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. RNA polymerase II mediated transcription from the polymerase III promoters in short hairpin RNA expression vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumi, Mohammad; Ishihara, Shunji; Aziz, Monowar; Kazumori, Hideaki; Ishimura, Norihisa; Yuki, Takafumi; Kadota, Chikara; Kadowaki, Yasunori; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2006-01-01

    RNA polymerase III promoters of human ribonuclease P RNA component H1, human U6, and mouse U6 small nuclear RNA genes are commonly used in short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vectors due their precise initiation and termination sites. During transient transfection of shRNA vectors, we observed that H1 or U6 promoters also express longer transcripts enough to express several reporter genes including firefly luciferase, green fluorescent protein EGFP, and red fluorescent protein JRed. Expression of such longer transcripts was augmented by upstream RNA polymerase II enhancers and completely inhibited by downstream polyA signal sequences. Moreover, the transcription of firefly luciferase from human H1 promoter was sensitive to RNA polymerase II inhibitor α-amanitin. Our findings suggest that commonly used polymerase III promoters in shRNA vectors are also prone to RNA polymerase II mediated transcription, which may have negative impacts on their targeted use

  14. The specificity of long noncoding RNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloss, Brian S; Dinger, Marcel E

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as a fundamental molecular class whose members play pivotal roles in the regulation of the genome. The observation of pervasive transcription of mammalian genomes in the early 2000s sparked a revolution in the understanding of information flow in eukaryotic cells and the incredible flexibility and dynamic nature of the transcriptome. As a molecular class, distinct loci yielding lncRNAs are set to outnumber those yielding mRNAs. However, like many important discoveries, the road leading to uncovering this diverse class of molecules that act through a remarkable repertoire of mechanisms, was not a straight one. The same characteristic that most distinguishes lncRNAs from mRNAs, i.e. their developmental-stage, tissue-, and cell-specific expression, was one of the major impediments to their discovery and recognition as potentially functional regulatory molecules. With growing numbers of lncRNAs being assigned to biological functions, the specificity of lncRNA expression is now increasingly recognized as a characteristic that imbues lncRNAs with great potential as biomarkers and for the development of highly targeted therapeutics. Here we review the history of lncRNA research and how technological advances and insight into biological complexity have gone hand-in-hand in shaping this revolution. We anticipate that as increasing numbers of these molecules, often described as the dark matter of the genome, are characterized and the structure-function relationship of lncRNAs becomes better understood, it may ultimately be feasible to decipher what these non-(protein)-coding genes encode. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Clues to long noncoding RNA taxonomy1, edited by Dr. Tetsuro Hirose and Dr. Shinichi Nakagawa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. (AAV)-mediated expression of small interfering RNA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective inhibition of specific gene by adenoassociated virus (AAV)-mediated expression of small interfering RNA. ... To perform functional tests on siRNA, which was expressed by the viral vector, recombinant AAVs, coding for siRNA against exogenous gene, EGFP, and endogenous gene, p53, were established and ...

  16. Effects of charge and surface ligand properties of nanoparticles on oxidative stress and gene expression within the gut of Daphnia magna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, Gustavo A.; Lohse, Samuel E.; Torelli, Marco; Murphy, Catherine; Hamers, Robert J.; Orr, Galya; Klaper, Rebecca D.

    2015-05-01

    Concern has been raised regarding the current and future release of engineered nanomaterials into aquatic environments from industry and other sources. However, not all nanomaterials may cause an environ-mental impact and identifying which nanomaterials may be of greatest concern has been difficult. It is thought that the surface groups of a functionalized nanoparticles (NPs) may play a significant role in determining their interactions with aquatic organisms, but the way in which surface properties of NPs impact their toxicity in whole organisms has been minimally explored. A major point of interaction of NPs with aquatic organisms is in the gastrointestinal tract as they ingest particulates from the water column or from the sediment. The main goal of this study was to use model gold NP (AuNPs) to evaluate the potential effects of the different surfaces groups on NPs on the gut of an aquatic model organism, Daphnia magna. In this study, we exposed daphnids to a range of AuNPs concentrations and assessed the impact of AuNP exposure in the daphnid gut by measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and expression of genes associated with oxidative stress and general cellular stress: glutathione S-transferase(gst), catalase (cat), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and metallothionein1 (mt1). We found ROS formation and gene expression were impacted by both charge and the specific surface ligand used. We detected some degree of ROS production in all NP exposures, but positively charged AuNPs induced a greater ROS response. Similarly, we observed that, compared to controls, both positively charged AuNPs and only one negatively AuNP impacted expression of genes associated with cellular stress. Finally, ligand-AuNP exposures showed a different toxicity and gene expression profile than the ligand alone, indicating a NP specific effect.

  17. microRNA expression during trophectoderm specification.

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    Srinivas R Viswanathan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Segregation of the trophectoderm from the inner cell mass of the embryo represents the first cell-fate decision of mammalian development. Transcription factors essential for specifying trophectoderm have been identified, but the role of microRNAs (miRNAs in modulating this fate-choice has been largely unexplored. We have compared miRNA expression in embryonic stem cell (ESC-derived trophectoderm and in staged murine embryos to identify a set of candidate miRNAs likely to be involved in trophectoderm specification.We profiled embryonic stem cells (ESCs as they were induced to differentiate into trophectodermal cells by ectopic expression of HRas/Q61L. We also profiled murine embryos at progressive stages of preimplantation development (zygote, 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, morula, and blastocyst, which includes the time window in which the trophectoderm is specified in vivo Q61L/H.We describe miRNA expression changes that occur during trophectoderm specification and validate that our in vitro system faithfully recapitulates trophectoderm specification in vivo. By comparing our in vitro and in vivo datasets, we have identified a minimal set of candidate miRNAs likely to play a role in trophectoderm specification. These miRNAs are predicted to regulate a host of development-associated target genes, and many of these miRNAs have previously reported roles in development and differentiation. Additionally, we highlight a number of miRNAs whose tight developmental regulation may reflect a functional role in other stages of embryogenesis. Our embryo profiling data may be useful to investigators studying trophectoderm specification and other stages of preimplantation development.

  18. Ramon Llull's Ars Magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thessa

    2017-01-01

    might be a viable and valuable approach to understand some of the challenges and possibilities found in computer science and ethics. Vita Llull was born in 1232 in Palma de Mallorca, a melting pot for different cul-tures and religions at the time. Being educated at the king’s court, Llull learned...... of belief, life, and God as such. Computer Science? Llull was an inspiration for later scientists, most notably Giordano Bruno, Athanasius Kirchner, Agrippa of Nettesheim and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, whose dissertation De Arte Combinatoria begins with a discussion of Llull’s Ars Magna. Umberto Eco also......-ple of Mallorca have since tried to have Llull canonised as a saint. Ars Magna A few years before his death Llull began to write the most thorough and final version of his Ars Magna, the Ars Generalis Ultima [3]. The books explain the different figures of the Ars, its principles, questions, descriptions...

  19. Identification of Subtype Specific miRNA-mRNA Functional Regulatory Modules in Matched miRNA-mRNA Expression Data: Multiple Myeloma as a Case

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yunpeng; Liu, Wei; Xu, Yanjun; Li, Chunquan; Wang, Yingying; Yang, Haixiu; Zhang, Chunlong; Su, Fei; Li, Yixue; Li, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Identification of miRNA-mRNA modules is an important step to elucidate their combinatorial effect on the pathogenesis and mechanisms underlying complex diseases. Current identification methods primarily are based upon miRNA-target information and matched miRNA and mRNA expression profiles. However, for heterogeneous diseases, the miRNA-mRNA regulatory mechanisms may differ between subtypes, leading to differences in clinical behavior. In order to explore the pathogenesis of each subtype, it i...

  20. Ramon Llull's Ars Magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thessa

    2018-01-01

    The Ars Magna of Ramon Llull must be seen as one of the first attempts to formalise language, thought processes, and creating a basis for rational discussions. It consists of so-called principles, concepts, which are defined and combined through the use of four main figures. Llull's contribution...

  1. Pseudogenes regulate parental gene expression via ceRNA network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yang; Furber, Kendra L; Ji, Shaoping

    2017-01-01

    The concept of competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) was first proposed by Salmena and colleagues. Evidence suggests that pseudogene RNAs can act as a 'sponge' through competitive binding of common miRNA, releasing or attenuating repression through sequestering miRNAs away from parental mRNA. In theory, ceRNAs refer to all transcripts such as mRNA, tRNA, rRNA, long non-coding RNA, pseudogene RNA and circular RNA, because all of them may become the targets of miRNA depending on spatiotemporal situation. As binding of miRNA to the target RNA is not 100% complementary, it is possible that one miRNA can bind to multiple target RNAs and vice versa. All RNAs crosstalk through competitively binding to miRNAvia miRNA response elements (MREs) contained within the RNA sequences, thus forming a complex regulatory network. The ratio of a subset of miRNAs to the corresponding number of MREs determines repression strength on a given mRNA translation or stability. An increase in pseudogene RNA level can sequester miRNA and release repression on the parental gene, leading to an increase in parental gene expression. A massive number of transcripts constitute a complicated network that regulates each other through this proposed mechanism, though some regulatory significance may be mild or even undetectable. It is possible that the regulation of gene and pseudogene expression occurring in this manor involves all RNAs bearing common MREs. In this review, we will primarily discuss how pseudogene transcripts regulate expression of parental genes via ceRNA network and biological significance of regulation. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  2. Drosha regulates gene expression independently of RNA cleavage function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromak, Natalia; Dienstbier, Martin; Macias, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Drosha is the main RNase III-like enzyme involved in the process of microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis in the nucleus. Using whole-genome ChIP-on-chip analysis, we demonstrate that, in addition to miRNA sequences, Drosha specifically binds promoter-proximal regions of many human genes in a transcription......-dependent manner. This binding is not associated with miRNA production or RNA cleavage. Drosha knockdown in HeLa cells downregulated nascent gene transcription, resulting in a reduction of polyadenylated mRNA produced from these gene regions. Furthermore, we show that this function of Drosha is dependent on its N......-terminal protein-interaction domain, which associates with the RNA-binding protein CBP80 and RNA Polymerase II. Consequently, we uncover a previously unsuspected RNA cleavage-independent function of Drosha in the regulation of human gene expression....

  3. Dysregulation of RNA Mediated Gene Expression in Motor Neuron Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Inês do Carmo G; Rehorst, Wiebke A; Kye, Min Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings indicate an important role for RNA-mediated gene expression in motor neuron diseases, including ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) and SMA (spinal muscular atrophy). ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, is an adult-onset progressive neurodegenerative disorder, whereby SMA or "children's Lou Gehrig's disease" is considered a pediatric neurodevelopmental disorder. Despite the difference in genetic causes, both ALS and SMA share common phenotypes; dysfunction/loss of motor neurons that eventually leads to muscle weakness and atrophy. With advanced techniques in molecular genetics and cell biology, current data suggest that these two distinct motor neuron diseases share more than phenotypes; ALS and SMA have similar cellular pathological mechanisms including mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and dysregulation in RNA-mediated gene expression. Here, we will discuss the current findings on these two diseases with specific focus on RNA-mediated gene regulation including miRNA expression, pre-mRNA processing and RNA binding proteins.

  4. Thiol-linked alkylation of RNA to assess expression dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Veronika A; Reichholf, Brian; Neumann, Tobias; Rescheneder, Philipp; Bhat, Pooja; Burkard, Thomas R; Wlotzka, Wiebke; von Haeseler, Arndt; Zuber, Johannes; Ameres, Stefan L

    2017-12-01

    Gene expression profiling by high-throughput sequencing reveals qualitative and quantitative changes in RNA species at steady state but obscures the intracellular dynamics of RNA transcription, processing and decay. We developed thiol(SH)-linked alkylation for the metabolic sequencing of RNA (SLAM seq), an orthogonal-chemistry-based RNA sequencing technology that detects 4-thiouridine (s 4 U) incorporation in RNA species at single-nucleotide resolution. In combination with well-established metabolic RNA labeling protocols and coupled to standard, low-input, high-throughput RNA sequencing methods, SLAM seq enabled rapid access to RNA-polymerase-II-dependent gene expression dynamics in the context of total RNA. We validated the method in mouse embryonic stem cells by showing that the RNA-polymerase-II-dependent transcriptional output scaled with Oct4/Sox2/Nanog-defined enhancer activity, and we provide quantitative and mechanistic evidence for transcript-specific RNA turnover mediated by post-transcriptional gene regulatory pathways initiated by microRNAs and N 6 -methyladenosine. SLAM seq facilitates the dissection of fundamental mechanisms that control gene expression in an accessible, cost-effective and scalable manner.

  5. Combining miRNA and mRNA Expression Profiles in Wilms Tumor Subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Ludwig

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wilms tumor (WT is the most common childhood renal cancer. Recent findings of mutations in microRNA (miRNA processing proteins suggest a pivotal role of miRNAs in WT genesis. We performed miRNA expression profiling of 36 WTs of different subtypes and four normal kidney tissues using microarrays. Additionally, we determined the gene expression profile of 28 of these tumors to identify potentially correlated target genes and affected pathways. We identified 85 miRNAs and 2107 messenger RNAs (mRNA differentially expressed in blastemal WT, and 266 miRNAs and 1267 mRNAs differentially expressed in regressive subtype. The hierarchical clustering of the samples, using either the miRNA or mRNA profile, showed the clear separation of WT from normal kidney samples, but the miRNA pattern yielded better separation of WT subtypes. A correlation analysis of the deregulated miRNA and mRNAs identified 13,026 miRNA/mRNA pairs with inversely correlated expression, of which 2844 are potential interactions of miRNA and their predicted mRNA targets. We found significant upregulation of miRNAs-183, -301a/b and -335 for the blastemal subtype, and miRNAs-181b, -223 and -630 for the regressive subtype. We found marked deregulation of miRNAs regulating epithelial to mesenchymal transition, especially in the blastemal subtype, and miRNAs influencing chemosensitivity, especially in regressive subtypes. Further research is needed to assess the influence of preoperative chemotherapy and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes on the miRNA and mRNA patterns in WT.

  6. Identification of Subtype Specific miRNA-mRNA Functional Regulatory Modules in Matched miRNA-mRNA Expression Data: Multiple Myeloma as a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of miRNA-mRNA modules is an important step to elucidate their combinatorial effect on the pathogenesis and mechanisms underlying complex diseases. Current identification methods primarily are based upon miRNA-target information and matched miRNA and mRNA expression profiles. However, for heterogeneous diseases, the miRNA-mRNA regulatory mechanisms may differ between subtypes, leading to differences in clinical behavior. In order to explore the pathogenesis of each subtype, it is important to identify subtype specific miRNA-mRNA modules. In this study, we integrated the Ping-Pong algorithm and multiobjective genetic algorithm to identify subtype specific miRNA-mRNA functional regulatory modules (MFRMs through integrative analysis of three biological data sets: GO biological processes, miRNA target information, and matched miRNA and mRNA expression data. We applied our method on a heterogeneous disease, multiple myeloma (MM, to identify MM subtype specific MFRMs. The constructed miRNA-mRNA regulatory networks provide modular outlook at subtype specific miRNA-mRNA interactions. Furthermore, clustering analysis demonstrated that heterogeneous MFRMs were able to separate corresponding MM subtypes. These subtype specific MFRMs may aid in the further elucidation of the pathogenesis of each subtype and may serve to guide MM subtype diagnosis and treatment.

  7. mRNA/microRNA gene expression profile in microsatellite unstable colorectal cancer

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    Calin George A

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer develops through two main genetic instability pathways characterized by distinct pathologic features and clinical outcome. Results We investigated colon cancer samples (23 characterized by microsatellite stability, MSS, and 16 by high microsatellite instability, MSI-H for genome-wide expression of microRNA (miRNA and mRNA. Based on combined miRNA and mRNA gene expression, a molecular signature consisting of twenty seven differentially expressed genes, inclusive of 8 miRNAs, could correctly distinguish MSI-H versus MSS colon cancer samples. Among the differentially expressed miRNAs, various members of the oncogenic miR-17-92 family were significantly up-regulated in MSS cancers. The majority of protein coding genes were also up-regulated in MSS cancers. Their functional classification revealed that they were most frequently associated with cell cycle, DNA replication, recombination, repair, gastrointestinal disease and immune response. Conclusion This is the first report that indicates the existence of differences in miRNA expression between MSS versus MSI-H colorectal cancers. In addition, the work suggests that the combination of mRNA/miRNA expression signatures may represent a general approach for improving bio-molecular classification of human cancer.

  8. Detecting microRNA activity from gene expression data

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Madden, Stephen F

    2010-05-18

    Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to the messenger RNA (mRNA) of protein coding genes. They control gene expression by either inhibiting translation or inducing mRNA degradation. A number of computational techniques have been developed to identify the targets of miRNAs. In this study we used predicted miRNA-gene interactions to analyse mRNA gene expression microarray data to predict miRNAs associated with particular diseases or conditions. Results Here we combine correspondence analysis, between group analysis and co-inertia analysis (CIA) to determine which miRNAs are associated with differences in gene expression levels in microarray data sets. Using a database of miRNA target predictions from TargetScan, TargetScanS, PicTar4way PicTar5way, and miRanda and combining these data with gene expression levels from sets of microarrays, this method produces a ranked list of miRNAs associated with a specified split in samples. We applied this to three different microarray datasets, a papillary thyroid carcinoma dataset, an in-house dataset of lipopolysaccharide treated mouse macrophages, and a multi-tissue dataset. In each case we were able to identified miRNAs of biological importance. Conclusions We describe a technique to integrate gene expression data and miRNA target predictions from multiple sources.

  9. Detecting microRNA activity from gene expression data.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Madden, Stephen F

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to the messenger RNA (mRNA) of protein coding genes. They control gene expression by either inhibiting translation or inducing mRNA degradation. A number of computational techniques have been developed to identify the targets of miRNAs. In this study we used predicted miRNA-gene interactions to analyse mRNA gene expression microarray data to predict miRNAs associated with particular diseases or conditions. RESULTS: Here we combine correspondence analysis, between group analysis and co-inertia analysis (CIA) to determine which miRNAs are associated with differences in gene expression levels in microarray data sets. Using a database of miRNA target predictions from TargetScan, TargetScanS, PicTar4way PicTar5way, and miRanda and combining these data with gene expression levels from sets of microarrays, this method produces a ranked list of miRNAs associated with a specified split in samples. We applied this to three different microarray datasets, a papillary thyroid carcinoma dataset, an in-house dataset of lipopolysaccharide treated mouse macrophages, and a multi-tissue dataset. In each case we were able to identified miRNAs of biological importance. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a technique to integrate gene expression data and miRNA target predictions from multiple sources.

  10. associated virus (AAV)-mediated expression of small interfering RNA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-11

    Apr 11, 2011 ... disadvantages. In this study, a siRNA expression recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) was .... cleotides were designed, which contained a sense strand of p53 or ..... During MJ, Kaplitt MG, Stem MB, Eidelberg D (2001).

  11. MicroRNA expression variability in human cervical tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia M Pereira

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short (approximately 22 nt non-coding regulatory RNAs that control gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Deregulation of miRNA expression has been discovered in a wide variety of tumours and it is now clear that they contribute to cancer development and progression. Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide and there is a strong need for a non-invasive, fast and efficient method to diagnose the disease. We investigated miRNA expression profiles in cervical cancer using a microarray platform containing probes for mature miRNAs. We have evaluated miRNA expression profiles of a heterogeneous set of cervical tissues from 25 different patients. This set included 19 normal cervical tissues, 4 squamous cell carcinoma, 5 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL and 9 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL samples. We observed high variability in miRNA expression especially among normal cervical samples, which prevented us from obtaining a unique miRNA expression signature for this tumour type. However, deregulated miRNAs were identified in malignant and pre-malignant cervical tissues after tackling the high expression variability observed. We were also able to identify putative target genes of relevant candidate miRNAs. Our results show that miRNA expression shows natural variability among human samples, which complicates miRNA data profiling analysis. However, such expression noise can be filtered and does not prevent the identification of deregulated miRNAs that play a role in the malignant transformation of cervical squamous cells. Deregulated miRNAs highlight new candidate gene targets allowing for a better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying the development of this tumour type.

  12. Expression of RNA virus proteins by RNA polymerase II dependent expression plasmids is hindered at multiple steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Überla Klaus

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins of human and animal viruses are frequently expressed from RNA polymerase II dependent expression cassettes to study protein function and to develop gene-based vaccines. Initial attempts to express the G protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV and the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV by eukaryotic promoters revealed restrictions at several steps of gene expression. Results Insertion of an intron flanked by exonic sequences 5'-terminal to the open reading frames (ORF of VSV-G and RSV-F led to detectable cytoplasmic mRNA levels of both genes. While the exonic sequences were sufficient to stabilise the VSV-G mRNA, cytoplasmic mRNA levels of RSV-F were dependent on the presence of a functional intron. Cytoplasmic VSV-G mRNA levels led to readily detectable levels of VSV-G protein, whereas RSV-F protein expression remained undetectable. However, RSV-F expression was observed after mutating two of four consensus sites for polyadenylation present in the RSV-F ORF. Expression levels could be further enhanced by codon optimisation. Conclusion Insufficient cytoplasmic mRNA levels and premature polyadenylation prevent expression of RSV-F by RNA polymerase II dependent expression plasmids. Since RSV replicates in the cytoplasm, the presence of premature polyadenylation sites and elements leading to nuclear instability should not interfere with RSV-F expression during virus replication. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the destabilisation of the RSV-F and VSV-G mRNAs and the different requirements for their rescue by insertion of an intron remain to be defined.

  13. Expression of calmodulin mRNA in rat olfactory neuroepithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffo, S; Goren, T; Khew-Goodall, Y S; Miara, J; Margolis, F L

    1991-04-01

    A calmodulin (CaM) cDNA was isolated by differential hybridization screening of a lambda gt10 library prepared from rat olfactory mucosa. This cDNA fragment, containing most of the open reading frame of the rat CaMI gene, was subcloned and used to characterize steady-state expression of CaM mRNA in rat olfactory neuroepithelium and bulb. Within the bulb mitral cells are the primary neuronal population expressing CaM mRNA. The major CaM mRNA expressed in the olfactory mucosa is 1.7 kb with smaller contributions from mRNAs of 4.0 and 1.4 kb. CaM mRNA was primarily associated with the olfactory neurons and, despite the cellular complexity of the tissue and the known involvement of CaM in diverse cellular processes, was only minimally evident in sustentacular cells, gland cells or respiratory epithelium. Following bulbectomy CaM mRNA declines in the olfactory neuroepithelium as does olfactory marker protein (OMP) mRNA. In contrast to the latter, CaM mRNA makes a partial recovery by one month after surgery. These results, coupled with those from in situ hybridization, indicate that CaM mRNA is expressed in both mature and immature olfactory neurons. The program regulating CaM gene expression in olfactory neurons is distinct from those controlling expression of B50/GAP43 in immature, or OMP in mature, neurons respectively.

  14. magna (Straus, 1820.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Parlak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nif Çayi Kirletilmiş Tatli Su ve Sedimentinin Daphnia magna (Strauss, 1820 Üzerine Akut Ve Kronik Toksisitesi. Nif Çayı Endüstriyel, evsel ve tarımsal deşarjlar ile doğrudan kirlenmektedir. Çayın suyunun evsel ve endüstriyel alanlarda sulama ve yıkama suyu olarak kullanılması rahatsızlık verici boyuttadır, bu nedenle doğal populasyonlar için potansiyel toksisitesinin bilinmesi büyük öneme sahiptir. Bu çalışmanın amacı Nif Çayı su ve sediment örneklerinin su piresi Daphnia magna kullanılarak toksisitesinin belirlenmesidir. Su ve sediment örneklerinin letal toksisitesi 48-saat akut test, subletal toksisite ise 7-gün kronik test ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. D.magna kullanılarak yapılan 48 saat Akut test sonuçlarına göre LC 50 değerleri su örnekleri için 6.8 ile 12.67 µl/L arasında sediment örnekleri içn 6.826 ile 38.038 µg/L arasında bulunmuştur. Subletal konsantrasyonlara maruz bırakılarak yapılan kronik testler sonucunda tüm istasyonlardan alınan su ve sediment örneklerin canlının üremesi üzerine negatif etkisi olduğu gözlenmiştir. Elde edilen veriler ışığında bu deneme sisteminin rutin kirlilik belirleme çalışmaları için uygunluğu tespit edilmiştir

  15. RNA preparation and characterization for gene expression studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Much information can be obtained from knowledge of the relative expression level of each gene in the transcriptome. With the current advances in technology as little as a single cell is required as starting material for gene expression experiments. The mRNA from a single cell may be linearly...

  16. MicroRNA expression profiling of the porcine developing brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podolska, Agnieszka; Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Busk, Peter Kamp

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small, non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play an important role in the control of developmental and physiological processes. In particular, the developing brain contains an impressive diversity of microRNAs. Most micro...... and the growth curve when compared to humans. Considering these similarities, studies examining microRNA expression during porcine brain development could potentially be used to predict the expression profile and role of microRNAs in the human brain....

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Eimeria magna (Apicomplexa: Coccidia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Si-Qin; Cui, Ping; Fang, Su-Fang; Liu, Guo-Hua; Wang, Chun-Ren; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we determined the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Eimeria magna from rabbits for the first time, and compared its gene contents and genome organizations with that of seven Eimeria spp. from domestic chickens. The size of the complete mt genome sequence of E. magna is 6249 bp, which consists of 3 protein-coding genes (cytb, cox1 and cox3), 12 gene fragments for the large subunit (LSU) rRNA, and 7 gene fragments for the small subunit (SSU) rRNA, without transfer RNA genes, in accordance with that of Eimeria spp. from chickens. The putative direction of translation for three genes (cytb, cox1 and cox3) was the same as those of Eimeria species from domestic chickens. The content of A + T is 65.16% for E. magna mt genome (29.73% A, 35.43% T, 17.09 G and 17.75% C). The E. magna mt genome sequence provides novel mtDNA markers for studying the molecular epidemiology and population genetics of Eimeria spp. and has implications for the molecular diagnosis and control of rabbit coccidiosis.

  18. A simple and robust vector-based shRNA expression system used for RNA interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-jun; Li, Ying; Huang, Hai; Zhang, Xiu-juan; Xie, Pei-wen; Hu, Wei; Li, Dan-dan; Wang, Sheng-qi

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) mediated by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) has become a powerful genetic tool for conducting functional studies. Previously, vector-based shRNA-expression strategies capable of inducing RNAi in viable cells have been developed, however, these vector systems have some disadvantages, either because they were error-prone or cost prohibitive. In this report we described the development of a simple, robust shRNA expression system utilizing 1 long oligonucleotide or 2 short oligonucleotides for half the cost of conventional shRNA construction methods and with a >95% cloning success rate. The shRNA loop sequence and stem structure were also compared and carefully selected for better RNAi efficiency. Furthermore, an easier strategy was developed based on isocaudomers which permit rapid combination of the most efficient promoter-shRNA cassettes. Finally, using this method, the conservative target sites for hepatitis B virus (HBV) knockdown were systemically screened and HBV antigen expression shown to be successfully suppressed in the presence of connected multiple shRNAs both in vitro and in vivo. This novel design describes an inexpensive and effective way to clone and express single or multiple shRNAs from the same vector with the capacity for potent and effective silencing of target genes.

  19. A simple and robust vector-based shRNA expression system used for RNA interference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-jun Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: RNA interference (RNAi mediated by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs or short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs has become a powerful genetic tool for conducting functional studies. Previously, vector-based shRNA-expression strategies capable of inducing RNAi in viable cells have been developed, however, these vector systems have some disadvantages, either because they were error-prone or cost prohibitive. RESULTS: In this report we described the development of a simple, robust shRNA expression system utilizing 1 long oligonucleotide or 2 short oligonucleotides for half the cost of conventional shRNA construction methods and with a >95% cloning success rate. The shRNA loop sequence and stem structure were also compared and carefully selected for better RNAi efficiency. Furthermore, an easier strategy was developed based on isocaudomers which permit rapid combination of the most efficient promoter-shRNA cassettes. Finally, using this method, the conservative target sites for hepatitis B virus (HBV knockdown were systemically screened and HBV antigen expression shown to be successfully suppressed in the presence of connected multiple shRNAs both in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSION: This novel design describes an inexpensive and effective way to clone and express single or multiple shRNAs from the same vector with the capacity for potent and effective silencing of target genes.

  20. Profiling microRNA expression in bovine alveolar macrophages using RNA-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegh, Peter; Foroushani, Amir B K; Magee, David A; McCabe, Matthew S; Browne, John A; Nalpas, Nicolas C; Conlon, Kevin M; Gordon, Stephen V; Bradley, Daniel G; MacHugh, David E; Lynn, David J

    2013-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression and are known to play a key role in regulating both adaptive and innate immunity. Bovine alveolar macrophages (BAMs) help maintain lung homeostasis and constitute the front line of host defense against several infectious respiratory diseases, such as bovine tuberculosis. Little is known, however, about the role miRNAs play in these cells. In this study, we used a high-throughput sequencing approach, RNA-seq, to determine the expression levels of known and novel miRNAs in unchallenged BAMs isolated from lung lavages of eight different healthy Holstein-Friesian male calves. Approximately 80 million sequence reads were generated from eight BAM miRNA Illumina sequencing libraries, and 80 miRNAs were identified as being expressed in BAMs at a threshold of at least 100 reads per million (RPM). The expression levels of miRNAs varied over a large dynamic range, with a few miRNAs expressed at very high levels (up to 800,000RPM), and the majority lowly expressed. Notably, many of the most highly expressed miRNAs in BAMs have known roles in regulating immunity in other species (e.g. bta-let-7i, bta-miR-21, bta-miR-27, bta-miR-99b, bta-miR-146, bta-miR-147, bta-miR-155 and bta-miR-223). The most highly expressed miRNA in BAMs was miR-21, which has been shown to regulate the expression of antimicrobial peptides in Mycobacterium leprae-infected human monocytes. Furthermore, the predicted target genes of BAM-expressed miRNAs were found to be statistically enriched for roles in innate immunity. In addition to profiling the expression of known miRNAs, the RNA-seq data was also analysed to identify potentially novel bovine miRNAs. One putatively novel bovine miRNA was identified. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first RNA-seq study to profile miRNA expression in BAMs and provides an important reference dataset for investigating the regulatory roles miRNAs play in this important immune cell type. Copyright

  1. Use of bacterially expressed dsRNA to downregulate Entamoeba histolytica gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F Solis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Modern RNA interference (RNAi methodologies using small interfering RNA (siRNA oligonucleotide duplexes or episomally synthesized hairpin RNA are valuable tools for the analysis of gene function in the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. However, these approaches still require time-consuming procedures including transfection and drug selection, or costly synthetic molecules. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report an efficient and handy alternative for E. histolytica gene down-regulation mediated by bacterial double-stranded RNA (dsRNA targeting parasite genes. The Escherichia coli strain HT115 which is unable to degrade dsRNA, was genetically engineered to produce high quantities of long dsRNA segments targeting the genes that encode E. histolytica beta-tubulin and virulence factor KERP1. Trophozoites cultured in vitro were directly fed with dsRNA-expressing bacteria or soaked with purified dsRNA. Both dsRNA delivery methods resulted in significant reduction of protein expression. In vitro host cell-parasite assays showed that efficient downregulation of kerp1 gene expression mediated by bacterial dsRNA resulted in significant reduction of parasite adhesion and lytic capabilities, thus supporting a major role for KERP1 in the pathogenic process. Furthermore, treatment of trophozoites cultured in microtiter plates, with a repertoire of eighty-five distinct bacterial dsRNA segments targeting E. histolytica genes with unknown function, led to the identification of three genes potentially involved in the growth of the parasite. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that the use of bacterial dsRNA is a powerful method for the study of gene function in E. histolytica. This dsRNA delivery method is also technically suitable for the study of a large number of genes, thus opening interesting perspectives for the identification of novel drug and vaccine targets.

  2. Roles of Prolyl Isomerases in RNA-Mediated Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopa Thapar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases (PPIases that include immunophilins (cyclophilins and FKBPs and parvulins (Pin1, Par14, Par17 participate in cell signaling, transcription, pre-mRNA processing and mRNA decay. The human genome encodes 19 cyclophilins, 18 FKBPs and three parvulins. Immunophilins are receptors for the immunosuppressive drugs cyclosporin A, FK506, and rapamycin that are used in organ transplantation. Pin1 has also been targeted in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, asthma, and a number of cancers. While these PPIases are characterized as molecular chaperones, they also act in a nonchaperone manner to promote protein-protein interactions using surfaces outside their active sites. The immunosuppressive drugs act by a gain-of-function mechanism by promoting protein-protein interactions in vivo. Several immunophilins have been identified as components of the spliceosome and are essential for alternative splicing. Pin1 plays roles in transcription and RNA processing by catalyzing conformational changes in the RNA Pol II C-terminal domain. Pin1 also binds several RNA binding proteins such as AUF1, KSRP, HuR, and SLBP that regulate mRNA decay by remodeling mRNP complexes. The functions of ribonucleoprotein associated PPIases are largely unknown. This review highlights PPIases that play roles in RNA-mediated gene expression, providing insight into their structures, functions and mechanisms of action in mRNP remodeling in vivo.

  3. Small RNA expression and strain specificity in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Bruijn Ewart

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Digital gene expression (DGE profiling has become an established tool to study RNA expression. Here, we provide an in-depth analysis of small RNA DGE profiles from two different rat strains (BN-Lx and SHR from six different rat tissues (spleen, liver, brain, testis, heart, kidney. We describe the expression patterns of known and novel micro (miRNAs and piwi-interacting (piRNAs. Results We confirmed the expression of 588 known miRNAs (54 in antisense orientation and identified 56 miRNAs homologous to known human or mouse miRNAs, as well as 45 new rat miRNAs. Furthermore, we confirmed specific A to I editing in brain for mir-376a/b/c and identified mir-377 as a novel editing target. In accordance with earlier findings, we observed a highly tissue-specific expression pattern for all tissues analyzed. The brain was found to express the highest number of tissue-specific miRNAs, followed by testis. Notably, our experiments also revealed robust strain-specific differential miRNA expression in the liver that is caused by genetic variation between the strains. Finally, we identified two types of germline-specific piRNAs in testis, mapping either to transposons or in strand-specific clusters. Conclusions Taken together, the small RNA compendium described here advances the annotation of small RNAs in the rat genome. Strain and tissue-specific expression patterns furthermore provide a strong basis for studying the role of small RNAs in regulatory networks as well as biological process like physiology and neurobiology that are extensively studied in this model system.

  4. Phototoxicity and oxidative stress responses in Daphnia magna under exposure to sulfathiazole and environmental level ultraviolet B irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jungkon; Park, Yena; Choi, Kyungho

    2009-01-01

    Sulfonamide antibiotics frequently occur in aquatic environments. In this study, phototoxicity of sulfathiazole (STZ) and its mechanism of action were investigated using Daphnia magna. We evaluated the changes of molecular level stress responses by assessing gene expression, enzyme induction and lipid peroxidation, and the related organism-level effects in D. magna. In the presence of ultraviolet B (UV-B) light (continuous irradiation with 13.8 ± 1.0 μW cm -2 d -1 ), STZ (at the nominal concentration of 94.9 mg/L) caused a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lipid peroxidation. Catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) showed concentration-dependent increases caused by the exposure. Exposure to STZ and UV-B light caused apparent up-regulation of α-esterase, hemoglobin, and vitellogenin mRNA. The survival of daphnids was significantly affected by the co-exposure to STZ and UV-B. The biochemical and molecular level observations in combination with organism-level effects suggest that the phototoxicity of STZ was mediated in part by ROS generated by oxidative stress in D. magna

  5. Phototoxicity and oxidative stress responses in Daphnia magna under exposure to sulfathiazole and environmental level ultraviolet B irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jungkon [School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: koguma@snu.ac.kr; Park, Yena [School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: elohim@snu.ac.kr; Choi, Kyungho [School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kyungho@snu.ac.kr

    2009-01-18

    Sulfonamide antibiotics frequently occur in aquatic environments. In this study, phototoxicity of sulfathiazole (STZ) and its mechanism of action were investigated using Daphnia magna. We evaluated the changes of molecular level stress responses by assessing gene expression, enzyme induction and lipid peroxidation, and the related organism-level effects in D. magna. In the presence of ultraviolet B (UV-B) light (continuous irradiation with 13.8 {+-} 1.0 {mu}W cm{sup -2} d{sup -1}), STZ (at the nominal concentration of 94.9 mg/L) caused a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lipid peroxidation. Catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) showed concentration-dependent increases caused by the exposure. Exposure to STZ and UV-B light caused apparent up-regulation of {alpha}-esterase, hemoglobin, and vitellogenin mRNA. The survival of daphnids was significantly affected by the co-exposure to STZ and UV-B. The biochemical and molecular level observations in combination with organism-level effects suggest that the phototoxicity of STZ was mediated in part by ROS generated by oxidative stress in D. magna.

  6. Aberrant microRNA expression in multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Gimsing, Peter; Grønbæk, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a devastating disease with a complex biology, and in spite of improved survivability by novel treatment strategies over the last decade, MM is still incurable by current therapy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at a post...

  7. Construction of lentiviral shRNA expression vector targeting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA oligo was cloned into lentiviral expression vector, and then polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing analyses were conducted to verify the constructs. The verified vectors were co-transfected into 293FT cells that could produce lentiviral. shRNA lentiviruses from the selected constructs were propagated and ...

  8. Cloning and mRNA expression pattern analysis under low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research cloned endochitinase-antifreeze protein precursor (EAPP) gene of Dong-mu 70 rye (Secale cereale) by designing special primers according to Genbank's EAPP gene sequence, and analyzing the influence of low temperature stress on the expression of mRNA with RT-PCR. The results indicated that the ...

  9. MicroRNA expression characterizes oligometastasis(es).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, Yves A; Xing, H Rosie; Salama, Joseph K; Khodarev, Nikolai N; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Qingbei; Khan, Sajid A; Yang, Xinan; Hasselle, Michael D; Darga, Thomas E; Malik, Renuka; Fan, Hanli; Perakis, Samantha; Filippo, Matthew; Corbin, Kimberly; Lee, Younghee; Posner, Mitchell C; Chmura, Steven J; Hellman, Samuel; Weichselbaum, Ralph R

    2011-01-01

    Cancer staging and treatment presumes a division into localized or metastatic disease. We proposed an intermediate state defined by ≤ 5 cumulative metastasis(es), termed oligometastases. In contrast to widespread polymetastases, oligometastatic patients may benefit from metastasis-directed local treatments. However, many patients who initially present with oligometastases progress to polymetastases. Predictors of progression could improve patient selection for metastasis-directed therapy. Here, we identified patterns of microRNA expression of tumor samples from oligometastatic patients treated with high-dose radiotherapy. Patients who failed to develop polymetastases are characterized by unique prioritized features of a microRNA classifier that includes the microRNA-200 family. We created an oligometastatic-polymetastatic xenograft model in which the patient-derived microRNAs discriminated between the two metastatic outcomes. MicroRNA-200c enhancement in an oligometastatic cell line resulted in polymetastatic progression. These results demonstrate a biological basis for oligometastases and a potential for using microRNA expression to identify patients most likely to remain oligometastatic after metastasis-directed treatment.

  10. MiRNA expression patterns predict survival in glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niyazi, Maximilian; Belka, Claus; Zehentmayr, Franz; Niemöller, Olivier M; Eigenbrod, Sabina; Kretzschmar, Hans; Osthoff, Klaus-Schulze; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Atkinson, Mike; Mörtl, Simone

    2011-01-01

    In order to define new prognostic subgroups in patients with glioblastoma a miRNA screen (> 1000 miRNAs) from paraffin tissues followed by a bio-mathematical analysis was performed. 35 glioblastoma patients treated between 7/2005 - 8/2008 at a single institution with surgery and postoperative radio(chemo)therapy were included in this retrospective analysis. For microarray analysis the febit biochip 'Geniom ® Biochip MPEA homo-sapiens' was used. Total RNA was isolated from FFPE tissue sections and 1100 different miRNAs were analyzed. It was possible to define a distinct miRNA expression pattern allowing for a separation of distinct prognostic subgroups. The defined miRNA pattern was significantly associated with early death versus long-term survival (split at 450 days) (p = 0.01). The pattern and the prognostic power were both independent of the MGMT status. At present, this is the first dataset defining a prognostic role of miRNA expression patterns in patients with glioblastoma. Having defined such a pattern, a prospective validation of this observation is required

  11. MicroRNA expression characterizes oligometastasis(es.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves A Lussier

    Full Text Available Cancer staging and treatment presumes a division into localized or metastatic disease. We proposed an intermediate state defined by ≤ 5 cumulative metastasis(es, termed oligometastases. In contrast to widespread polymetastases, oligometastatic patients may benefit from metastasis-directed local treatments. However, many patients who initially present with oligometastases progress to polymetastases. Predictors of progression could improve patient selection for metastasis-directed therapy.Here, we identified patterns of microRNA expression of tumor samples from oligometastatic patients treated with high-dose radiotherapy.Patients who failed to develop polymetastases are characterized by unique prioritized features of a microRNA classifier that includes the microRNA-200 family. We created an oligometastatic-polymetastatic xenograft model in which the patient-derived microRNAs discriminated between the two metastatic outcomes. MicroRNA-200c enhancement in an oligometastatic cell line resulted in polymetastatic progression.These results demonstrate a biological basis for oligometastases and a potential for using microRNA expression to identify patients most likely to remain oligometastatic after metastasis-directed treatment.

  12. Specific RNA Interference in Caenorhabditis elegans by Ingested dsRNA Expressed in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezzerini, M.; van de Ven, K.; Veerman, M.; Brul, S.; Budovskaya, Y.V.

    2015-01-01

    In nematodes, genome-wide RNAi-screening has been widely used as a rapid and efficient method to identify genes involved in the aging processes. By far the easiest way of inducing RNA interference (RNAi) in Caenorhabditis elegans is by feeding Escherichia coli that expresses specific double stranded

  13. Gene transcription in Daphnia magna: effects of acute exposure to a carbamate insecticide and an acetanilide herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Joana Luísa; Hill, Christopher J; Sibly, Richard M; Bolshakov, Viacheslav N; Gonçalves, Fernando; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik; Callaghan, Amanda

    2010-05-05

    Daphnia magna is a key invertebrate in the freshwater environment and is used widely as a model in ecotoxicological measurements and risk assessment. Understanding the genomic responses of D. magna to chemical challenges will be of value to regulatory authorities worldwide. Here we exposed D. magna to the insecticide methomyl and the herbicide propanil to compare phenotypic effects with changes in mRNA expression levels. Both pesticides are found in drainage ditches and surface water bodies standing adjacent to crops. Methomyl, a carbamate insecticide widely used in agriculture, inhibits acetylcholinesterase, a key enzyme in nerve transmission. Propanil, an acetanilide herbicide, is used to control grass and broad-leaf weeds. The phenotypic effects of single doses of each chemical were evaluated using a standard immobilisation assay. Immobilisation was linked to global mRNA expression levels using the previously estimated 48h-EC(1)s, followed by hybridization to a cDNA microarray with more than 13,000 redundant cDNA clones representing >5000 unique genes. Following exposure to methomyl and propanil, differential expression was found for 624 and 551 cDNAs, respectively (one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni correction, P

  14. Integrated Analysis of Long Noncoding RNA and Coding RNA Expression in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumorigenesis is a complex dynamic biological process that includes multiple steps of genetic and epigenetic alterations, aberrant expression of noncoding RNA, and changes in the expression profiles of coding genes. We call the collection of those perturbations in genome space the “cancer initiatome.” Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs are pervasively transcribed in the genome and they have key regulatory functions in chromatin remodeling and gene expression. Spatiotemporal variation in the expression of lncRNAs has been observed in development and disease states, including cancer. A few dysregulated lncRNAs have been studied in cancers, but the role of lncRNAs in the cancer initiatome remains largely unknown, especially in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. We conducted a genome-wide screen of the expression of lncRNAs and coding RNAs from ESCC and matched adjacent nonneoplastic normal tissues. We identified differentially expressed lncRNAs and coding RNAs in ESCC relative to their matched normal tissue counterparts and validated the result using polymerase chain reaction analysis. Furthermore, we identified differentially expressed lncRNAs that are co-located and co-expressed with differentially expressed coding RNAs in ESCC and the results point to a potential interaction between lncRNAs and neighboring coding genes that affect ether lipid metabolism, and the interaction may contribute to the development of ESCC. These data provide compelling evidence for a potential novel genomic biomarker of esophageal squamous cell cancer.

  15. Effects of active acromegaly on bone mRNA and microRNA expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaya, Zhanna; Grebennikova, Tatiana; Melnichenko, Galina; Nikitin, Alexey; Solodovnikov, Alexander; Brovkina, Olga; Grigoriev, Andrey; Rozhinskaya, Liudmila; Lutsenko, Alexander; Dedov, Ivan

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the response of bone to chronic long-term growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) excess by measuring the expression of selected mRNA and microRNA (miR) in bone tissue samples of patients with active acromegaly. Case-control study. Bone tissue samples were obtained during transsphenoidal adenomectomy from the sphenoid bone (sella turcica) from 14 patients with clinically and biochemically confirmed acromegaly and 10 patients with clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) matched by sex and age. Expression of genes involved in the regulation of bone remodeling was studied using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Of the genes involved in osteoblast and osteoclast activity, only alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mRNA was 50% downregulated in patients with acromegaly. GH excess caused increased expression of the Wnt signaling antagonists ( DKK1) and agonists ( WNT10B) and changes in the levels of miR involved in mesenchymal stem cell commitment to chondrocytes (miR-199a-5p) or adipocytes (miR-27-5p, miR-125b-5p, miR-34a-5p, miR-188-3p) P  Acromegaly had minimal effects on tested mRNAs specific to osteoblast or osteoclast function except for downregulated ALP expression. The expressions of miR known to be involved in mesenchymal stem cell commitment and downregulated TWIST1 expression suggest acromegaly has a negative effect on osteoblastogenesis. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.

  16. Logic programming to infer complex RNA expression patterns from RNA-seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weirick, Tyler; Militello, Giuseppe; Ponomareva, Yuliya; John, David; Döring, Claudia; Dimmeler, Stefanie; Uchida, Shizuka

    2018-03-01

    To meet the increasing demand in the field, numerous long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) databases are available. Given many lncRNAs are specifically expressed in certain cell types and/or time-dependent manners, most lncRNA databases fall short of providing such profiles. We developed a strategy using logic programming to handle the complex organization of organs, their tissues and cell types as well as gender and developmental time points. To showcase this strategy, we introduce 'RenalDB' (http://renaldb.uni-frankfurt.de), a database providing expression profiles of RNAs in major organs focusing on kidney tissues and cells. RenalDB uses logic programming to describe complex anatomy, sample metadata and logical relationships defining expression, enrichment or specificity. We validated the content of RenalDB with biological experiments and functionally characterized two long intergenic noncoding RNAs: LOC440173 is important for cell growth or cell survival, whereas PAXIP1-AS1 is a regulator of cell death. We anticipate RenalDB will be used as a first step toward functional studies of lncRNAs in the kidney.

  17. Regulation of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 and isochorismate synthase gene expression in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia J R Hunter

    Full Text Available RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs function in anti-viral silencing in Arabidopsis thaliana and other plants. Salicylic acid (SA, an important defensive signal, increases RDR1 gene expression, suggesting that RDR1 contributes to SA-induced virus resistance. In Nicotiana attenuata RDR1 also regulates plant-insect interactions and is induced by another important signal, jasmonic acid (JA. Despite its importance in defense RDR1 regulation has not been investigated in detail.In Arabidopsis, SA-induced RDR1 expression was dependent on 'NON-EXPRESSER OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES 1', indicating regulation involves the same mechanism controlling many other SA- defense-related genes, including pathogenesis-related 1 (PR1. Isochorismate synthase 1 (ICS1 is required for SA biosynthesis. In defensive signal transduction RDR1 lies downstream of ICS1. However, supplying exogenous SA to ics1-mutant plants did not induce RDR1 or PR1 expression to the same extent as seen in wild type plants. Analysing ICS1 gene expression using transgenic plants expressing ICS1 promoter:reporter gene (β-glucuronidase constructs and by measuring steady-state ICS1 transcript levels showed that SA positively regulates ICS1. In contrast, ICS2, which is expressed at lower levels than ICS1, is unaffected by SA. The wound-response hormone JA affects expression of Arabidopsis RDR1 but jasmonate-induced expression is independent of CORONATINE-INSENSITIVE 1, which conditions expression of many other JA-responsive genes. Transiently increased RDR1 expression following tobacco mosaic virus inoculation was due to wounding and was not a direct effect of infection. RDR1 gene expression was induced by ethylene and by abscisic acid (an important regulator of drought resistance. However, rdr1-mutant plants showed normal responses to drought.RDR1 is regulated by a much broader range of phytohormones than previously thought, indicating that it plays roles beyond those already suggested in virus

  18. Identifying Cancer Subtypes from miRNA-TF-mRNA Regulatory Networks and Expression Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taosheng Xu

    Full Text Available Identifying cancer subtypes is an important component of the personalised medicine framework. An increasing number of computational methods have been developed to identify cancer subtypes. However, existing methods rarely use information from gene regulatory networks to facilitate the subtype identification. It is widely accepted that gene regulatory networks play crucial roles in understanding the mechanisms of diseases. Different cancer subtypes are likely caused by different regulatory mechanisms. Therefore, there are great opportunities for developing methods that can utilise network information in identifying cancer subtypes.In this paper, we propose a method, weighted similarity network fusion (WSNF, to utilise the information in the complex miRNA-TF-mRNA regulatory network in identifying cancer subtypes. We firstly build the regulatory network where the nodes represent the features, i.e. the microRNAs (miRNAs, transcription factors (TFs and messenger RNAs (mRNAs and the edges indicate the interactions between the features. The interactions are retrieved from various interatomic databases. We then use the network information and the expression data of the miRNAs, TFs and mRNAs to calculate the weight of the features, representing the level of importance of the features. The feature weight is then integrated into a network fusion approach to cluster the samples (patients and thus to identify cancer subtypes. We applied our method to the TCGA breast invasive carcinoma (BRCA and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM datasets. The experimental results show that WSNF performs better than the other commonly used computational methods, and the information from miRNA-TF-mRNA regulatory network contributes to the performance improvement. The WSNF method successfully identified five breast cancer subtypes and three GBM subtypes which show significantly different survival patterns. We observed that the expression patterns of the features in some miRNA-TF-mRNA

  19. MicroRNA expression in a phosphaturic mesenchymal tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrell Green

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumours are a heterogeneous set of bone and soft tissue neoplasms that can cause a number of paraneoplastic syndromes such as tumour induced osteomalacia. The term phosphaturic comes from the common finding that these tumours secrete high levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 which causes renal phosphate wasting leading to hypophosphatemia. Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumours are rare and diagnosis is difficult. A very active 68 year old male presented with bone pain and muscle weakness. He was hypophosphataemic and total alkaline phosphatase was markedly elevated. The patient was placed on vitamin D supplementation but his condition progressed. In the fifth year of presentation the patient required the use of a wheelchair and described “explosive” bone pain on physical contact. Serum 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D was low and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 was significantly elevated, raising suspicion of a phosphaturic mesenchymal tumour. A lesion was detected in his left femoral head and the patient underwent a total hip replacement. The patient displayed a rapid improvement to his condition and during a three year follow up period he returned to an active lifestyle. As molecular testing may help provide a robust diagnosis and is particularly useful in rare diseases we took a next generation sequencing approach to identify a differential expression of small RNAs in the resected tumour. Small RNAs are non-coding RNA molecules that play a key role in regulation of gene expression and can be used as specific biomarkers. We found an upregulation of miR-197. We also found a downregulation of miR-20b, miR-144 and miR-335 which is a small RNA profile typical of osteosarcoma. MiR-21, the most frequently upregulated microRNA in cancer, was downregulated. We conclude that the specific small RNA profile is typical of osteosarcoma except for the downregulation of oncogenic miR-21. Transcriptional plasticity of miR-197, which is

  20. Adverse Intrauterine Environment and Cardiac miRNA Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell C. Lock

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Placental insufficiency, high altitude pregnancies, maternal obesity/diabetes, maternal undernutrition and stress can result in a poor setting for growth of the developing fetus. These adverse intrauterine environments result in physiological changes to the developing heart that impact how the heart will function in postnatal life. The intrauterine environment plays a key role in the complex interplay between genes and the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate their expression. In this review we describe how an adverse intrauterine environment can influence the expression of miRNAs (a sub-set of non-coding RNAs and how these changes may impact heart development. Potential consequences of altered miRNA expression in the fetal heart include; Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF activation, dysregulation of angiogenesis, mitochondrial abnormalities and altered glucose and fatty acid transport/metabolism. It is important to understand how miRNAs are altered in these adverse environments to identify key pathways that can be targeted using miRNA mimics or inhibitors to condition an improved developmental response.

  1. Arsenic exposure triggers a shift in microRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturchio, Elena; Colombo, Teresa; Boccia, Priscilla; Carucci, Nicoletta; Meconi, Claudia; Minoia, Claudio; Macino, Giuseppe

    2014-02-15

    Exposure to inorganic Arsenic (iAs) through drinking water is a major public health problem affecting most countries. iAs has been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as Group 1: "Carcinogenic to humans". Although numerous studies have shown the related adverse effects of iAs, sensitive appropriate biomarkers for studies of environmental epidemiology are still required. The present work aims at investigate the role of microRNAs (miRNAs), powerful negative regulators of gene expression, playing a key role in many physiological and pathological cellular processes, in iAs exposure. To this end, we analyzed miRNA changes in expression profile triggered by iAs exposure in Jurkat cell line. We used microarray technology to profile the expression of miRNAs following 2 μmol/L sodium arsenite treatment at different time points. Moreover, we performed phenotypic analysis of iAs treated cells. Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was used to validate miRNA microarray data and to assay expression modulation of selected relevant mRNAs. Finally, bioinformatics techniques were applied to reconstruct iAs-relevant molecular pathways and miRNA regulatory networks from the expression data. We report miRNAs modulated after iAs treatment in Jurkat cells. In particular, we highlight 36 miRNAs exhibiting consistent dysregulation and particularly a panel of 8 miRNAs which we also validated by RT-PCR analysis. Computational analysis of lists of putative target genes for these 8 miRNAs points to an involvement in arsenic-response pathways, for a subset of them, that were analyzed by RT-PCR. Furthermore, iAs exposure reveals induction of cell cycle progression and the failure of apoptosis, supporting the idea of iAs carcinogenic activity. Our study provides a list of miRNAs whose expression levels are affected by iAs treatment, corroborating the importance of proceeding with the hunt for specific subset of miRNAs, which can serve as potential biomarkers of

  2. Increased IL-10 mRNA and IL-23 mRNA expression in multiple sclerosis: interferon-beta treatment increases IL-10 mRNA expression while reducing IL-23 mRNA expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakauer, M.; Sorensen, P.; Khademi, M.

    2008-01-01

    volunteers served to confirm initial findings. mRNA was analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: We found elevated expression of interleukin (IL)-23 and IL-10 in untreated MS patients. IFN-beta therapy increased IL-10 and decreased IL-23 expression independently...... of the regulatory cytokine IL-10. The elevated IL-23 mRNA levels in MS patients are noteworthy in view of the newly discovered IL-23-driven Th17 T-cell subset, which is crucial in animal models of MS. Since IFN-beta therapy resulted in decreased IL-23 mRNA levels, the Th17 axis could be another target of IFN...

  3. Integrated Analysis of Long Noncoding RNA and mRNA Expression Profile in Advanced Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

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    Ling Feng

    Full Text Available Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA plays an important role in tumorigenesis. However, the expression pattern and function of lncRNAs in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC are still unclear. To investigate the aberrantly expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs in advanced LSCC, we screened lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles in 9 pairs of primary Stage IVA LSCC tissues and adjacent non-neoplastic tissues by lncRNA and mRNA integrated microarrays. Gene Ontology and pathway analysis were performed to find out the significant function and pathway of the differentially expressed mRNAs, gene-gene functional interaction network and ceRNA network were constructed to select core mRNAs, and lncRNA-mRNA expression correlation network was built to identify the interactions between lncRNA and mRNA. qRT-PCR was performed to further validate the expressions of selected lncRNAs and mRNAs in advanced LSCC. We found 1459 differentially expressed lncRNAs and 2381 differentially expressed mRNAs, including 846 up-regulated lncRNAs and 613 down-regulated lncRNAs, 1542 up-regulated mRNAs and 839 down-regulated mRNAs. The mRNAs ITGB1, HIF1A, and DDIT4 were selected as core mRNAs, which are mainly involved in biological processes, such as matrix organization, cell cycle, adhesion, and metabolic pathway. LncRNA-mRNA expression correlation network showed LncRNA NR_027340, MIR31HG were positively correlated with ITGB1, HIF1A respectively. LncRNA SOX2-OT was negatively correlated with DDIT4. qRT-PCR further validated the expression of these lncRNAs and mRNAs. The work provides convincing evidence that the identified lncRNAs and mRNAs are potential biomarkers in advanced LSCC for further future studies.

  4. Changes in apoptotic microRNA and mRNA expression profiling in Caenorhabditis elegans during the Shenzhou-8 mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Ying; Li Shuai; Xu Dan; Wang Junjun; Sun Yeqing

    2015-01-01

    Radiation and microgravity exposure have been proven to induce abnormal apoptosis in microRNA (miRNA) and mRNA expression, but whether space conditions, including radiation and microgravity, activate miRNAs to regulate the apoptosis is undetermined. For that purpose, we investigated miRNome and mRNA expression in the ced-1 Caenorhabditis elegans mutant vs the wild-type, both of which underwent spaceflight, spaceflight 1g-centrifuge control and ground control conditions during the Shenzhou-8 mission. Results showed that no morphological changes in the worms were detected, but differential miRNA expression increased from 43 (ground control condition) to 57 and 91 in spaceflight and spaceflight control conditions, respectively. Microgravity altered miRNA expression profiling by decreasing the number and significance of differentially expressed miRNA compared with 1 g incubation during spaceflight. Alterations in the miRNAs were involved in alterations in apoptosis, neurogenesis larval development, ATP metabolism and GTPase-mediated signal transduction. Among these, 17 altered miRNAs potentially involved in apoptosis were screened and showed obviously different expression signatures between space conditions. By integrated analysis of miRNA and mRNA, miR-797 and miR-81 may be involved in apoptosis by targeting the genes ced-10 and both drp-1 and hsp-1, respectively. Compared with ground condition, space conditions regulated apoptosis though a different manner on transcription, by altering expression of seven core apoptotic genes in spaceflight condition, and eight in spaceflight control condition. Results indicate that, miRNA of Caenorhabditis elegans probably regulates apoptotic gene expression in response to space environmental stress, and shows different behavior under microgravity condition compared with 1 g condition in the presence of space radiation. (author)

  5. Heterogeneity of miRNA expression in localized prostate cancer with clinicopathological correlations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zedan, Ahmed Hussein; Blavnsfeldt, Søren Garm; Hansen, Torben Frøstrup

    2017-01-01

    ).RESULTS: Four miRNAs (miRNA-21, miRNA-34a, miRNA-125, and miRNA-126) were significantly upregulated in PCa compared to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and except for miRNA-21 these miRNAs documented a positive correlation between the expression level in PCa cores and their matched BPH cores, (r > 0......-free survival (p = 0.016).CONCLUSION: The present study documents significant upregulation of the expression of miRNA-21, miRNA-34a, miRNA-125, and miRNA-126 in PCa compared to BPH and suggests a possible prognostic value associated with the expression of miRNA-143. The results, however, document intra...

  6. Heterogeneity of miRNA expression in localized prostate cancer with clinicopathological correlations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zedan, Ahmed Hussein; Blavnsfeldt, Søren Garm; Hansen, Torben Frøstrup

    2017-01-01

    ). RESULTS: Four miRNAs (miRNA-21, miRNA-34a, miRNA-125, and miRNA-126) were significantly upregulated in PCa compared to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and except for miRNA-21 these miRNAs documented a positive correlation between the expression level in PCa cores and their matched BPH cores, (r > 0......-free survival (p = 0.016). CONCLUSION: The present study documents significant upregulation of the expression of miRNA-21, miRNA-34a, miRNA-125, and miRNA-126 in PCa compared to BPH and suggests a possible prognostic value associated with the expression of miRNA-143. The results, however, document intra...

  7. Integrating microRNA and mRNA expression profiles in response to radiation-induced injury in rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Ling; Zhou, Jundong; Zhang, Shuyu; Chen, Qing; Lai, Rensheng; Ding, Weiqun; Song, ChuanJun; Meng, XingJun; Wu, Jinchang

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to radiation provokes cellular responses, which are likely regulated by gene expression networks. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs, which regulate gene expression by promoting mRNA degradation or inhibiting protein translation. The expression patterns of both mRNA and miRNA during the radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) remain less characterized and the role of miRNAs in the regulation of this process has not been studied. The present study sought to evaluate miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in the rat lung after irradiation. Male Wistar rats were subjected to single dose irradiation with 20 Gy using 6 MV x-rays to the right lung. (A dose rate of 5 Gy/min was applied). Rats were sacrificed at 3, 12 and 26 weeks after irradiation, and morphological changes in the lung were examined by haematoxylin and eosin. The miRNA and mRNA expression profiles were evaluated by microarrays and followed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. A cDNA microarray analysis found 2183 transcripts being up-regulated and 2917 transcripts down-regulated (P ≤ 0.05, ≥2.0 fold change) in the lung tissues after irradiation. Likewise, a miRNAs microarray analysis indicated 15 miRNA species being up-regulated and 8 down-regulated (P ≤ 0.05). Subsequent bioinformatics anal -yses of the differentially expressed mRNA and miRNAs revealed that alterations in mRNA expression following irradiation were negatively correlated with miRNAs expression. Our results provide evidence indicating that irradiation induces alterations of mRNA and miRNA expression in rat lung and that there is a negative correlation of mRNA and miRNA expression levels after irradiation. These findings significantly advance our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of radiation-induced lung injury. In summary, RILI does not develop gradually in a linear process. In fact, different cell types interact via cytokines in a very complex network. Furthermore, this study suggests that

  8. Correlation analyses revealed global microRNA-mRNA expression associations in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Zhu, Jiang; Deng, Fei-Yan; Wu, Long-Fei; Mo, Xing-Bo; Zhu, Xiao-Wei; Xia, Wei; Xie, Fang-Fei; He, Pei; Bing, Peng-Fei; Qiu, Ying-Hua; Lin, Xiang; Lu, Xin; Zhang, Lei; Yi, Neng-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Hong; Lei, Shu-Feng

    2018-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can regulate gene expression through binding to complementary sites in the 3'-untranslated regions of target mRNAs, which will lead to existence of correlation in expression between miRNA and mRNA. However, the miRNA-mRNA correlation patterns are complex and remain largely unclear yet. To establish the global correlation patterns in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), multiple miRNA-mRNA correlation analyses and expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis were conducted in this study. We predicted and achieved 861 miRNA-mRNA pairs (65 miRNAs, 412 mRNAs) using multiple bioinformatics programs, and found global negative miRNA-mRNA correlations in PBMC from all 46 study subjects. Among the 861 pairs of correlations, 19.5% were significant (P correlation network was complex and highlighted key miRNAs/genes in PBMC. Some miRNAs, such as hsa-miR-29a, hsa-miR-148a, regulate a cluster of target genes. Some genes, e.g., TNRC6A, are regulated by multiple miRNAs. The identified genes tend to be enriched in molecular functions of DNA and RNA binding, and biological processes such as protein transport, regulation of translation and chromatin modification. The results provided a global view of the miRNA-mRNA expression correlation profile in human PBMCs, which would facilitate in-depth investigation of biological functions of key miRNAs/mRNAs and better understanding of the pathogenesis underlying PBMC-related diseases.

  9. Analysis of gene expression in normal and neoplastic human testis: new roles of RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novotny, G W; Nielsen, J E; Sonne, Si Brask

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale methods for analysing gene expression, such as microarrays, have yielded a wealth of information about gene expression at the mRNA level. However, expression of alternative transcripts, together with the presence of a wide range of largely undescribed RNA transcripts combined with reg......Large-scale methods for analysing gene expression, such as microarrays, have yielded a wealth of information about gene expression at the mRNA level. However, expression of alternative transcripts, together with the presence of a wide range of largely undescribed RNA transcripts combined...

  10. Clinical significance of LUNX mRNA, CK19 mRNA, CEA mRNA expression in detecting micrometastasis from lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Guangying; Liu Delin; Chen Jie

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and clinical significance of CK19 mRNA, CEA mRNA and LUNX mRNA for detecting micrometastasis by sampling the peripheral blood and regional lymph nodes of lung cancer patients. Methods: Reverse transcriptase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect LUNX mRNA, CK19 mRNA, CEA mRNA for micrometastasis by sampling the peripheral blood of 48 lung cancer patients and 44 regional lymph nodes of such patients treated by curative resection. Peripheral blood of 30 patients with pulmonary benign lesions and 10 normal healthy volunteers and lymph nodes of 6 patients with benign pulmonary diseases served as control. Results: 1) LUNX mRNA, CK19 mRNA, CEA mRNA were expressed in all (35/35) lung cancer tissues. 2) In the peripheral blood from 48 lung cancer patients, 30 (62.5%) were positive for LUNX mRNA, 24 (50.0%) positive for CK19 mRNA and 32(66.7%) positive for CEA mRNA. The positive detection rates of micrometastasis in 44 lymph nodes from lung cancer patients were 36.4% (16 out of 44) for LUNX mRNA, 27.3% (12 out of 44) for CK19 mRNA and 40.9% (18 out of 44) for CEA mRNA. 3) In the 30 blood samples from patients with pulmonary benign diseases, 2 (6.7%) expressed CK19 mRNA, but none expressed LUNX mRNA or CEA mRNA. All the 3 molecular markers were negative in the 10 blood samples from healthy volunteers. In 11 lymph nodes from patients with pulmonary benign lesions, none was positive for any of the three markers. 4) In 44 regional lymph nodes from lung cancer patients, 6 (13.6%) were positive for metastasis by histopathological examination, with a positive rate significantly lower than that of the RT-PCR (P<0.05). 5) The micrometastatic positive rate in the peripheral blood of 40 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients was significantly related to TNM stage (P=0.01). Conclusions: LUNX mRNA, CK19 MRNA, CEA mRNA are all appropriate target genes for the detection of micrometastasis from lung cancer. LUNX mRNA and CEA mRNA

  11. Brain Gene Expression Signatures From Cerebrospinal Fluid Exosome RNA Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanello, S. B.; Stevens, B.; Calvillo, E.; Tang, R.; Gutierrez Flores, B.; Hu, L.; Skog, J.; Bershad, E.

    2016-01-01

    While the Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome observations have focused on ocular symptoms, spaceflight has been also associated with a number of other performance and neurologic signs, such as headaches, cognitive changes, vertigo, nausea, sleep/circadian disruption and mood alterations, which, albeit likely multifactorial, can also result from elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP). We therefore hypothesize that these various symptoms are caused by disturbances in the neurophysiology of the brain structures and are correlated with molecular markers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as indicators of neurophysiological changes. Exosomes are 30-200 nm microvesicles shed into all biofluids, including blood, urine, and CSF, carrying a highly rich source of intact protein and RNA cargo. Exosomes have been identified in human CSF, and their proteome and RNA pool is a potential new reservoir for biomarker discovery in neurological disorders. The purpose of this study is to investigate changes in brain gene expression via exosome analysis in patients suffering from ICP elevation of varied severity (idiopathic intracranial hypertension -IIH), a condition which shares some of the neuroophthalmological features of VIIP, as a first step toward obtaining evidence suggesting that cognitive function and ICP levels can be correlated with biomarkers in the CSF. Our preliminary work, reported last year, validated the exosomal technology applicable to CSF analysis and demonstrated that it was possible to obtain gene expression evidence of inflammation processes in traumatic brain injury patients. We are now recruiting patients with suspected IIH requiring lumbar puncture at Baylor College of Medicine. Both CSF (5 ml) and human plasma (10 ml) are being collected in order to compare the pattern of differentially expressed genes observed in CSF and in blood. Since blood is much more accessible than CSF, we would like to determine whether plasma biomarkers for

  12. Repertoire of bovine miRNA and miRNA-like small regulatory RNAs expressed upon viral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny A Glazov

    Full Text Available MicroRNA (miRNA and other types of small regulatory RNAs play a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. Several distinct classes of small regulatory RNAs have been discovered in recent years. To extend the repertoire of small RNAs characterized in mammals and to examine relationship between host miRNA expression and viral infection we used Illumina's ultrahigh throughput sequencing approach. We sequenced three small RNA libraries prepared from cell line derived from the adult bovine kidney under normal conditions and upon infection of the cell line with Bovine herpesvirus 1. We used a bioinformatics approach to distinguish authentic mature miRNA sequences from other classes of small RNAs and short RNA fragments represented in the sequencing data. Using this approach we detected 219 out of 356 known bovine miRNAs and 115 respective miRNA* sequences. In addition we identified five new bovine orthologs of known mammalian miRNAs and discovered 268 new cow miRNAs many of which are not identifiable in other mammalian genomes and thus might be specific to the ruminant lineage. In addition we found seven new bovine mirtron candidates. We also discovered 10 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA loci that give rise to small RNA with possible miRNA-like function. Results presented in this study extend our knowledge of the biology and evolution of small regulatory RNAs in mammals and illuminate mechanisms of small RNA biogenesis and function. New miRNA sequences and the original sequencing data have been submitted to miRNA repository (miRBase and NCBI GEO archive respectively. We envisage that these resources will facilitate functional annotation of the bovine genome and promote further functional and comparative genomics studies of small regulatory RNA in mammals.

  13. MicroRNA Expression Profile in Penile Cancer Revealed by Next-Generation Small RNA Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    Full Text Available Penile cancer (PeCa is a relatively rare tumor entity but possesses higher morbidity and mortality rates especially in developing countries. To date, the concrete pathogenic signaling pathways and core machineries involved in tumorigenesis and progression of PeCa remain to be elucidated. Several studies suggested miRNAs, which modulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level, were frequently mis-regulated and aberrantly expressed in human cancers. However, the miRNA profile in human PeCa has not been reported before. In this present study, the miRNA profile was obtained from 10 fresh penile cancerous tissues and matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues via next-generation sequencing. As a result, a total of 751 and 806 annotated miRNAs were identified in normal and cancerous penile tissues, respectively. Among which, 56 miRNAs with significantly different expression levels between paired tissues were identified. Subsequently, several annotated miRNAs were selected randomly and validated using quantitative real-time PCR. Compared with the previous publications regarding to the altered miRNAs expression in various cancers and especially genitourinary (prostate, bladder, kidney, testis cancers, the most majority of deregulated miRNAs showed the similar expression pattern in penile cancer. Moreover, the bioinformatics analyses suggested that the putative target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs between cancerous and matched normal penile tissues were tightly associated with cell junction, proliferation, growth as well as genomic instability and so on, by modulating Wnt, MAPK, p53, PI3K-Akt, Notch and TGF-β signaling pathways, which were all well-established to participate in cancer initiation and progression. Our work presents a global view of the differentially expressed miRNAs and potentially regulatory networks of their target genes for clarifying the pathogenic transformation of normal penis to PeCa, which research resource also

  14. Expression and Functional Studies on the Noncoding RNA, PRINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márta Széll

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PRINS, a noncoding RNA identified earlier by our research group, contributes to psoriasis susceptibility and cellular stress response. We have now studied the cellular and histological distribution of PRINS by using in situ hybridization and demonstrated variable expressions in different human tissues and a consistent staining pattern in epidermal keratinocytes and in vitro cultured keratinocytes. To identify the cellular function(s of PRINS, we searched for a direct interacting partner(s of this stress-induced molecule. In HaCaT and NHEK cell lysates, the protein proved to be nucleophosmin (NPM protein as a potential physical interactor with PRINS. Immunohistochemical experiments revealed an elevated expression of NPM in the dividing cells of the basal layers of psoriatic involved skin samples as compared with healthy and psoriatic uninvolved samples. Others have previously shown that NPM is a ubiquitously expressed nucleolar phosphoprotein which shuttles to the nucleoplasm after UV-B irradiation in fibroblasts and cancer cells. We detected a similar translocation of NPM in UV-B-irradiated cultured keratinocytes. The gene-specific silencing of PRINS resulted in the retention of NPM in the nucleolus of UV-B-irradiated keratinocytes; suggesting that PRINS may play a role in the NPM-mediated cellular stress response in the skin.

  15. microRNA expression profiles in human peripheral blood lymphocytes cultured in modeled microgravity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the present study we analyzed miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) incubated in microgravity condition simulated by a...

  16. Genetic homogeneity of Fascioloides magna in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husch, Christian; Sattmann, Helmut; Hörweg, Christoph; Ursprung, Josef; Walochnik, Julia

    2017-08-30

    The large American liver fluke, Fascioloides magna, is an economically relevant parasite of both domestic and wild ungulates. F. magna was repeatedly introduced into Europe, for the first time already in the 19th century. In Austria, a stable population of F. magna has established in the Danube floodplain forests southeast of Vienna. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of F. magna in Austria. A total of 26 individuals from various regions within the known area of distribution were investigated for their cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nicotinamide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene haplotypes. Interestingly, all 26 individuals revealed one and the same haplotype, namely concatenated haplotype Ha5. This indicates a homogenous population of F. magna in Austria and may argue for a single introduction. Alternatively, genetic homogeneity might also be explained by a bottleneck effect and/or genetic drift. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Differentially expressed microRNA in multiple sclerosis: A window into pathogenesis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Nellie Anne; Illés, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNA are small non-coding RNA that mediate mRNA translation repression or mRNA degradation, and thereby refine protein expression levels. More than 30–60% of all genes are regulated by microRNA. Exploring disease-related microRNA signatures is an emerging tool in biomarker discovery, and sile......MicroRNA are small non-coding RNA that mediate mRNA translation repression or mRNA degradation, and thereby refine protein expression levels. More than 30–60% of all genes are regulated by microRNA. Exploring disease-related microRNA signatures is an emerging tool in biomarker discovery......RNA related to multiple sclerosis has increased significantly in recent years. Differentially expressed microRNA have been identified in the whole blood, serum, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, blood-derived cell subsets and brain lesions of patients with multiple sclerosis....... Most studies applied a non-candidate approach of screening by microarray and validation by quantitative polymerase chain reaction or next generation sequencing; others used a candidate-driven approach. Despite a relatively high number of multiple sclerosis-associated microRNA, just a few could...

  18. miRNA and mRNA Expression Profiles Reveal Insight into Chitosan-Mediated Regulation of Plant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqian; Li, Kecheng; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Chen, Xiaolin; Yang, Haoyue; Li, Pengcheng

    2018-04-18

    Chitosan has been numerously studied as a plant growth regulator and stress tolerance inducer. To investigate the roles of chitosan as bioregulator on plant and unravel its possible metabolic responses mechanisms, we simultaneously investigated mRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs) expression profiles of wheat seedlings in response to chitosan heptamer. We found 400 chitosan-responsive differentially expressed genes, including 268 up-regulated and 132 down-regulated mRNAs, many of which were related to photosynthesis, primary carbon and nitrogen metabolism, defense responses, and transcription factors. Moreover, miRNAs also participate in chitosan-mediated regulation on plant growth. We identified 87 known and 21 novel miRNAs, among which 56 miRNAs were induced or repressed by chitosan heptamer, such as miRNA156, miRNA159a, miRNA164, miRNA171a, miRNA319, and miRNA1127. The integrative analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in this case provides fundamental information for further investigation of regulation mechanisms of chitosan on plant growth and will facilitate its application in agriculture.

  19. [Correlation between RNA Expression Level and Early PMI in Human Brain Tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Y H; Ma, K J; Li, Z H; Gu, J; Bao, J Y; Yang, Z F; Gao, J; Zeng, Y; Tao, L; Chen, L

    2016-08-01

    To explore the correlation between the expression levels of several RNA markers in human brain tissue and early postmortem interval (PMI). Twelve individuals with known PMI (range from 4.3 to 22.5 h) were selected and total RNA was extracted from brain tissue. Eight commonly used RNA markers were chosen including β -actin, GAPDH, RPS29, 18S rRNA, 5S rRNA, U6 snRNA, miRNA-9 and miRNA-125b, and the expression levels were detected in brain tissue by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. The internal reference markers with stable expression in early PMI were screened using geNorm software and the relationship between its expression level and some relevant factors such as age, gender and cause of death were analyzed. RNA markers normalized by internal reference were inserted into the mathematic model established by previous research for PMI estimation using R software. Model quality was judged by the error rate calculated with estimated PMI. 5S rRNA, miRNA-9 and miRNA-125b showed quite stable expression and their expression levels had no relation with age, gender and cause of death. The error rate of estimated PMI using β -actin was 24.6%, while GAPDH was 41.0%. 5S rRNA, miRNA-9 and miRNA-125b are suitable as internal reference markers of human brain tissue owing to their stable expression in early PMI. The expression level of β -actin correlates well with PMI, which can be used as an additional index for early PMI estimation. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  20. Antagonism pattern detection between microRNA and target expression in Ewing's sarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Martignetti

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs have emerged as fundamental regulators that silence gene expression at the post-transcriptional and translational levels. The identification of their targets is a major challenge to elucidate the regulated biological processes. The overall effect of miRNA is reflected on target mRNA expression, suggesting the design of new investigative methods based on high-throughput experimental data such as miRNA and transcriptome profiles. We propose a novel statistical measure of non-linear dependence between miRNA and mRNA expression, in order to infer miRNA-target interactions. This approach, which we name antagonism pattern detection, is based on the statistical recognition of a triangular-shaped pattern in miRNA-target expression profiles. This pattern is observed in miRNA-target expression measurements since their simultaneously elevated expression is statistically under-represented in the case of miRNA silencing effect. The proposed method enables miRNA target prediction to strongly rely on cellular context and physiological conditions reflected by expression data. The procedure has been assessed on synthetic datasets and tested on a set of real positive controls. Then it has been applied to analyze expression data from Ewing's sarcoma patients. The antagonism relationship is evaluated as a good indicator of real miRNA-target biological interaction. The predicted targets are consistently enriched for miRNA binding site motifs in their 3'UTR. Moreover, we reveal sets of predicted targets for each miRNA sharing important biological function. The procedure allows us to infer crucial miRNA regulators and their potential targets in Ewing's sarcoma disease. It can be considered as a valid statistical approach to discover new insights in the miRNA regulatory mechanisms.

  1. Impact of MicroRNA Levels, Target-Site Complementarity, and Cooperativity on Competing Endogenous RNA-Regulated Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzler, Rémy; McGeary, Sean E; Title, Alexandra C; Agarwal, Vikram; Bartel, David P; Stoffel, Markus

    2016-11-03

    Expression changes of competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) have been proposed to influence microRNA (miRNA) activity and thereby regulate other transcripts containing miRNA-binding sites. Here, we find that although miRNA levels define the extent of repression, they have little effect on the magnitude of the ceRNA expression change required to observe derepression. Canonical 6-nt sites, which typically mediate modest repression, can nonetheless compete for miRNA binding, with potency ∼20% of that observed for canonical 8-nt sites. In aggregate, low-affinity/background sites also contribute to competition. Sites with extensive additional complementarity can appear as more potent, but only because they induce miRNA degradation. Cooperative binding of proximal sites for the same or different miRNAs does increase potency. These results provide quantitative insights into the stoichiometric relationship between miRNAs and target abundance, target-site spacing, and affinity requirements for ceRNA-mediated gene regulation, and the unusual circumstances in which ceRNA-mediated gene regulation might be observed. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. IER5 gene's mRNA expression after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Kuke; Shen Jingjing; Xu Lili; Li Yanling; Zhou Ping; Ma Binrong; Zhao Zengqiang; Sui Jianli; Zhou Pingkun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of irradiation on IER5 gene expression. Methods: Two kinds of cells (AHH-1 and HeLa) and the BALB/c-nu mice inoculated with tumor cells were exposed to 60 Co γ- rays and analyzed by real-time PCR. The above-mentioned irradiated objects were firstly divided into groups by different doses and post-radiation time, then mRNA were extracted and reverse-transcripted to DNA before real-time PCR test. Results: Under the same condition, AHH-1 was more sensitive to radiation than HeLa. The dose level corresponding to the expression peak of AHH-1 was less than that of HeLa. For AHH-1 cells, the response to 2 Gy irradiation was earlier than that to 10 Gy. But there was not remarkable difference for HeLa response between 2 and 10 Gy, and the top transcriptional levels for both cells nearly simultaneously appeared at 2 h after irradiation. In addition, the IER5 gene of human liver tumor was more sensitive than that of lung cancer and brain tumor. Conclusions: IER5 might be a candidate biomarker of radiation injury, and had the potential value in radiation-therapy for liver tumor. (authors)

  3. Optimal consistency in microRNA expression analysis using reference-gene-based normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Gardiner, Erin J; Cairns, Murray J

    2015-05-01

    Normalization of high-throughput molecular expression profiles secures differential expression analysis between samples of different phenotypes or biological conditions, and facilitates comparison between experimental batches. While the same general principles apply to microRNA (miRNA) normalization, there is mounting evidence that global shifts in their expression patterns occur in specific circumstances, which pose a challenge for normalizing miRNA expression data. As an alternative to global normalization, which has the propensity to flatten large trends, normalization against constitutively expressed reference genes presents an advantage through their relative independence. Here we investigated the performance of reference-gene-based (RGB) normalization for differential miRNA expression analysis of microarray expression data, and compared the results with other normalization methods, including: quantile, variance stabilization, robust spline, simple scaling, rank invariant, and Loess regression. The comparative analyses were executed using miRNA expression in tissue samples derived from subjects with schizophrenia and non-psychiatric controls. We proposed a consistency criterion for evaluating methods by examining the overlapping of differentially expressed miRNAs detected using different partitions of the whole data. Based on this criterion, we found that RGB normalization generally outperformed global normalization methods. Thus we recommend the application of RGB normalization for miRNA expression data sets, and believe that this will yield a more consistent and useful readout of differentially expressed miRNAs, particularly in biological conditions characterized by large shifts in miRNA expression.

  4. A construct with fluorescent indicators for conditional expression of miRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Xugang

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transgenic RNAi holds promise as a simple, low-cost, and fast method for reverse genetics in mammals. It may be particularly useful for producing animal models for hypomorphic gene function. Inducible RNAi that permits spatially and temporally controllable gene silencing in vivo will enhance the power of transgenic RNAi approach. Furthermore, because microRNA (miRNA targeting specific genes can be expressed simultaneously with protein coding genes, incorporation of fluorescent marker proteins can simplify the screening and analysis of transgenic RNAi animals. Results We sought to optimally express a miRNA simultaneously with a fluorescent marker. We compared two construct designs. One expressed a red fluorescent protein (RFP and a miRNA placed in its 3' untranslated region (UTR. The other expressed the same RFP and miRNA, but the precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA coding sequence was placed in an intron that was inserted into the 3'-UTR. We found that the two constructs expressed comparable levels of miRNA. However, the intron-containing construct expressed a significantly higher level of RFP than the intron-less construct. Further experiments indicate that the 3'-UTR intron enhances RFP expression by its intrinsic gene-expression-enhancing activity and by eliminating the inhibitory effect of the pre-miRNA on the expression of RFP. Based on these findings, we incorporated the intron-embedded pre-miRNA design into a conditional expression construct that employed the Cre-loxP system. This construct initially expressed EGFP gene, which was flanked by loxP sites. After exposure to Cre recombinase, the transgene stopped EGFP expression and began expression of RFP and a miRNA, which silenced the expression of specific cellular genes. Conclusion We have designed and tested a conditional miRNA-expression construct and showed that this construct expresses both the marker genes strongly and can silence the target gene efficiently upon Cre

  5. CRISPR/Cas-mediated targeted mutagenesis in Daphnia magna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Nakanishi

    Full Text Available The water flea Daphnia magna has been used as an animal model in ecology, evolution, and environmental sciences. Thanks to the recent progress in Daphnia genomics, genetic information such as the draft genome sequence and expressed sequence tags (ESTs is now available. To investigate the relationship between phenotypes and the available genetic information about Daphnia, some gene manipulation methods have been developed. However, a technique to induce targeted mutagenesis into Daphnia genome remains elusive. To overcome this problem, we focused on an emerging genome editing technique mediated by the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated (CRISPR/Cas system to introduce genomic mutations. In this study, we targeted a functionally conserved regulator of eye development, the eyeless gene in D. magna. When we injected Cas9 mRNAs and eyeless-targeting guide RNAs into eggs, 18-47% of the survived juveniles exhibited abnormal eye morphology. After maturation, up to 8.2% of the adults produced progenies with deformed eyes, which carried mutations in the eyeless loci. These results showed that CRISPR/Cas system could introduce heritable mutations into the endogenous eyeless gene in D. magna. This is the first report of a targeted gene knockout technique in Daphnia and will be useful in uncovering Daphnia gene functions.

  6. Comparison of microRNA expression using different preservation methods of matched psoriatic skin samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendorf, Marianne B; Zibert, John R; Hagedorn, Peter H

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs are non-coding RNA molecules modulating gene expression post-transcriptionally. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedding (FFPE) is a standard preservation method often used in clinical practices, but induces RNA degradation. Extracting high-quality RNA from human skin can be challenging as skin...

  7. Multilevel Regulation of Bacterial Gene Expression with the Combined STAR and Antisense RNA System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Je; Kim, Soo-Jung; Moon, Tae Seok

    2018-03-16

    Synthetic small RNA regulators have emerged as a versatile tool to predictably control bacterial gene expression. Owing to their simple design principles, small size, and highly orthogonal behavior, these engineered genetic parts have been incorporated into genetic circuits. However, efforts to achieve more sophisticated cellular functions using RNA regulators have been hindered by our limited ability to integrate different RNA regulators into complex circuits. Here, we present a combined RNA regulatory system in Escherichia coli that uses small transcription activating RNA (STAR) and antisense RNA (asRNA) to activate or deactivate target gene expression in a programmable manner. Specifically, we demonstrated that the activated target output by the STAR system can be deactivated by expressing two different types of asRNAs: one binds to and sequesters the STAR regulator, affecting the transcription process, while the other binds to the target mRNA, affecting the translation process. We improved deactivation efficiencies (up to 96%) by optimizing each type of asRNA and then integrating the two optimized asRNAs into a single circuit. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the combined STAR and asRNA system can control gene expression in a reversible way and can regulate expression of a gene in the genome. Lastly, we constructed and simultaneously tested two A AND NOT B logic gates in the same cell to show sophisticated multigene regulation by the combined system. Our approach establishes a methodology for integrating multiple RNA regulators to rationally control multiple genes.

  8. MicroRNA expression in nodal and extranodal Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Charlotte; Petersen, Anders; Højfeldt, Anne Dirks

    MicroRNA expression in nodal and extranodal Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma   C. Mandrup1, A. Petersen1, A. D. Hoejfeldt1, H. F. Thomsen1, J. Madsen1, J. Dahlgaard1, P. Johansen2, A. Bukh1, K. Dybkaer1 and H. E Johnsen1. 1Department of Hematology, 2Pathological Institute, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus...... University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark Introduction: The aim of this project was to analyse microRNA (miRNA) expression in nodal and extranodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Manifestation at diagnosis may be nodal and/or extranodal. At present, there are no known determinants for none...... of the manifestations, and no way to predict the potential progression from nodal to extranodal disease. miRNA are small regulatory RNA molecules with core function to repress/cleave sequence complementary mRNA targets. Abnormalities in miRNA genetics and expression are known to affect initiation and development...

  9. Nickel and binary metal mixture responses in Daphnia magna: Molecular fingerprints and (sub)organismal effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenbrouck, Tine; Soetaert, Anneleen; Ven, Karlijn van der; Blust, Ronny; Coen, Wim de

    2009-01-01

    The recent development of a custom cDNA microarray platform for one of the standard organisms in aquatic toxicology, Daphnia magna, opened up new ways to mechanistic insights of toxicological responses. In this study, the mRNA expression of several genes and (sub)organismal responses (Cellular Energy Allocation, growth) were assayed after short-term waterborne metal exposure. Microarray analysis of Ni-exposed daphnids revealed several affected functional gene classes, of which the largest ones were involved in different metabolic processes (mainly protein and chitin related processes), cuticula turnover, transport and signal transduction. Furthermore, transcription of genes involved in oxygen transport and heme metabolism (haemoglobin, δ-aminolevilunate synthase) was down-regulated. Applying a Partial Least Squares regression on nickel fingerprints and biochemical (sub)organismal parameters revealed a set of co-varying genes (haemoglobin, RNA terminal phosphate cyclase, a ribosomal protein and an 'unknown' gene fragment). An inverse relationship was seen between the mRNA expression levels of different cuticula proteins and available energy reserves. In addition to the nickel exposure, daphnids were exposed to binary mixtures of nickel and cadmium or nickel and lead. Using multivariate analysis techniques, the mixture mRNA expression fingerprints (Ni 2+ + Cd 2+ , Ni 2+ + Pb 2+ ) were compared to those of the single metal treatments (Ni 2+ , Cd 2+ , Pb 2+ ). It was hypothesized that the molecular fingerprints of the mixtures would be additive combinations of the gene transcription profiles of the individual compounds present in the mixture. However, our results clearly showed additionally affected pathways after mixture treatment (e.g. additional affected genes involved in carbohydrate catabolic processes and proteolysis), indicating interactive molecular responses which are not merely the additive sum of the individual metals. These findings, although indicative of

  10. Heterogeneity of miRNA expression in localized prostate cancer with clinicopathological correlations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hussein Zedan

    Full Text Available In the last decade microRNAs (miRNAs have been widely investigated in prostate cancer (PCa and have shown to be promising biomarkers in diagnostic, prognostic and predictive settings. However, tumor heterogeneity may influence miRNA expression. The aims of this study were to assess the impact of tumor heterogeneity, as demonstrated by a panel of selected miRNAs in PCa, and to correlate miRNA expression with risk profile and patient outcome.Prostatectomy specimens and matched, preoperative needle biopsies from a retrospective cohort of 49 patients, who underwent curatively intended surgery for localized PCa, were investigated with a panel of 6 miRNAs (miRNA-21, miRNA-34a, miRNA-125b, miRNA-126, miRNA-143, and miRNA-145 using tissue micro-array (TMA and in situ hybridization (ISH. Inter- and intra-patient variation was assessed using intra-class correlation (ICC.Four miRNAs (miRNA-21, miRNA-34a, miRNA-125, and miRNA-126 were significantly upregulated in PCa compared to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, and except for miRNA-21 these miRNAs documented a positive correlation between the expression level in PCa cores and their matched BPH cores, (r > 0.72. The ICC varied from 0.451 to 0.764, with miRNA-34a showing an intra-tumoral heterogeneity accounting for less than 50% of the total variation. Regarding clinicopathological outcomes, only miRNA-143 showed potential as a prognostic marker with a higher expression correlating with longer relapse-free survival (p = 0.016.The present study documents significant upregulation of the expression of miRNA-21, miRNA-34a, miRNA-125, and miRNA-126 in PCa compared to BPH and suggests a possible prognostic value associated with the expression of miRNA-143. The results, however, document intra-tumoral heterogeneity in the expression of various miRNAs calling for caution when using these tumor tissue biomarkers in prognostic and predictive settings.

  11. Methods for small RNA preparation for digital gene expression profiling by next-generation sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linsen, S.E.V.; Cuppen, E.

    2012-01-01

    Digital gene expression (DGE) profiling techniques are playing an eminent role in the detection, localization, and differential expression quantification of many small RNA species, including microRNAs (1-3). Procedures in small RNA library preparation techniques typically include adapter ligation by

  12. Expression of connexin 37, 40, and 43 mRNA and protein in renal preglomerular arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arensbak, B; Mikkelsen, Hanne Birte; Gustafsson, F

    2001-01-01

    arterioles in frozen sections was evaluated. SMC were isolated from kidneys using an iron oxide sieve method and explant technique. Total RNA from these cultures was tested by RT-PCR analysis for the expression of the three connexins mRNA. Using immunofluorescence we examined whether the expression pattern...

  13. Responses of mRNA expression of PepT1 in small intestine to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the effect of circulation small peptides concentration on mRNA expression in small intestine, graded amount of soybean small peptides (SSP) were infused into lactating goats through duodenal fistulas. Peptide-bound amino acid (PBAA) concentration in arterial plasma and the mRNA expression of PepT1 was ...

  14. Exogenous mRNA encoding tetanus or botulinum neurotoxins expressed in Aplysia neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mochida, Sumiko; Poulain, Bernard; Eisel, Ulrich; Binz, Thomas; Kurazono, Hisao; Niemann, Heiner; Tauc, Ladislav; Bullock, Theodore H.

    1990-01-01

    Injection of exogenous mRNA purified from various tissue preparations into cellular translation systems such as Xenopus oocytes has allowed expression of complex proteins (e.g., receptors for neurotransmitters). No evidence for expression of injected exogenous mRNA, however, has been reported in

  15. Integrated Analysis of Dysregulated ncRNA and mRNA Expression Profiles in Humans Exposed to Carbon Nanotubes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A Shvedova

    Full Text Available As the application of carbon nanotubes (CNT in consumer products continues to rise, studies have expanded to determine the associated risks of exposure on human and environmental health. In particular, several lines of evidence indicate that exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT could pose a carcinogenic risk similar to asbestos fibers. However, to date the potential markers of MWCNT exposure are not yet explored in humans.In the present study, global mRNA and ncRNA expression profiles in the blood of exposed workers, having direct contact with MWCNT aerosol for at least 6 months (n = 8, were compared with expression profiles of non-exposed (n = 7 workers (e.g., professional and/or technical staff from the same manufacturing facility.Significant changes in the ncRNA and mRNA expression profiles were observed between exposed and non-exposed worker groups. An integrative analysis of ncRNA-mRNA correlations was performed to identify target genes, functional relationships, and regulatory networks in MWCNT-exposed workers. The coordinated changes in ncRNA and mRNA expression profiles revealed a set of miRNAs and their target genes with roles in cell cycle regulation/progression/control, apoptosis and proliferation. Further, the identified pathways and signaling networks also revealed MWCNT potential to trigger pulmonary and cardiovascular effects as well as carcinogenic outcomes in humans, similar to those previously described in rodents exposed to MWCNTs.This study is the first to investigate aberrant changes in mRNA and ncRNA expression profiles in the blood of humans exposed to MWCNT. The significant changes in several miRNAs and mRNAs expression as well as their regulatory networks are important for getting molecular insights into the MWCNT-induced toxicity and pathogenesis in humans. Further large-scale prospective studies are necessary to validate the potential applicability of such changes in mRNAs and miRNAs as prognostic markers

  16. 60Co γ-irradiation enhances expression of GAP-43 mRNA in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Bingyin; Cai Wenqin; Zhang Chenggang

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between the expression of GAP-43 mRNA and nerve regeneration in rat brain after 60 Co γ-irradiation. Methods: Wistar rats were subjected to whole-body irradiation with 8 Gy 60 Co γ-rays. The expression of GAP-43 was detected by in situ hybridization histochemistry using Dig-cRNA probe. Results: It was found that the expression of GAP-43 mRNA increased in the cerebral cortex, caudate, putamen, globus pallidum, thalamus and hypothalamus one week after 8 Gy 60 Co γ-irradiation. The peak of GAP-43 mRNA expression was observed in the fourth week and then began to decrease but still remained at a higher than normal level. However, it decreased to a low level after 7 weeks. Conclusion: Enhanced expression of GAP-43 mRNA after 60 Co γ-irradiation in rat brain is associated with nerve regeneration and reconstruction of synapse

  17. Bioinspired nanocomplex for spatiotemporal imaging of sequential mRNA expression in differentiating neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Ruili; Wang, Zhongliang; Wang, He-Fang; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Fu; Li, Weitao; Niu, Gang; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2014-12-23

    Messenger RNA plays a pivotal role in regulating cellular activities. The expression dynamics of specific mRNA contains substantial information on the intracellular milieu. Unlike the imaging of stationary mRNAs, real-time intracellular imaging of the dynamics of mRNA expression is of great value for investigating mRNA biology and exploring specific cellular cascades. In addition to advanced imaging methods, timely extracellular stimulation is another key factor in regulating the mRNA expression repertoire. The integration of effective stimulation and imaging into a single robust system would significantly improve stimulation efficiency and imaging accuracy, producing fewer unwanted artifacts. In this study, we developed a multifunctional nanocomplex to enable self-activating and spatiotemporal imaging of the dynamics of mRNA sequential expression during the neural stem cell differentiation process. This nanocomplex showed improved enzymatic stability, fast recognition kinetics, and high specificity. With a mechanism regulated by endogenous cell machinery, this nanocomplex realized the successive stimulating motif release and the dynamic imaging of chronological mRNA expression during neural stem cell differentiation without the use of transgenetic manipulation. The dynamic imaging montage of mRNA expression ultimately facilitated genetic heterogeneity analysis. In vivo lateral ventricle injection of this nanocomplex enabled endogenous neural stem cell activation and labeling at their specific differentiation stages. This nanocomplex is highly amenable as an alternative tool to explore the dynamics of intricate mRNA activities in various physiological and pathological conditions.

  18. Integration analysis of microRNA and mRNA paired expression profiling identifies deregulated microRNA-transcription factor-gene regulatory networks in ovarian endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luyang; Gu, Chenglei; Ye, Mingxia; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Li'an; Fan, Wensheng; Meng, Yuanguang

    2018-01-22

    The etiology and pathophysiology of endometriosis remain unclear. Accumulating evidence suggests that aberrant microRNA (miRNA) and transcription factor (TF) expression may be involved in the pathogenesis and development of endometriosis. This study therefore aims to survey the key miRNAs, TFs and genes and further understand the mechanism of endometriosis. Paired expression profiling of miRNA and mRNA in ectopic endometria compared with eutopic endometria were determined by high-throughput sequencing techniques in eight patients with ovarian endometriosis. Binary interactions and circuits among the miRNAs, TFs, and corresponding genes were identified by the Pearson correlation coefficients. miRNA-TF-gene regulatory networks were constructed using bioinformatic methods. Eleven selected miRNAs and TFs were validated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in 22 patients. Overall, 107 differentially expressed miRNAs and 6112 differentially expressed mRNAs were identified by comparing the sequencing of the ectopic endometrium group and the eutopic endometrium group. The miRNA-TF-gene regulatory network consists of 22 miRNAs, 12 TFs and 430 corresponding genes. Specifically, some key regulators from the miR-449 and miR-34b/c cluster, miR-200 family, miR-106a-363 cluster, miR-182/183, FOX family, GATA family, and E2F family as well as CEBPA, SOX9 and HNF4A were suggested to play vital regulatory roles in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Integration analysis of the miRNA and mRNA expression profiles presents a unique insight into the regulatory network of this enigmatic disorder and possibly provides clues regarding replacement therapy for endometriosis.

  19. Integrated analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression in childhood medulloblastoma compared with neural stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Genovesi

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma (MB is the most common malignant brain tumor in children and a leading cause of cancer-related mortality and morbidity. Several molecular sub-types of MB have been identified, suggesting they may arise from distinct cells of origin. Data from animal models indicate that some MB sub-types arise from multipotent cerebellar neural stem cells (NSCs. Hence, microRNA (miRNA expression profiles of primary MB samples were compared to CD133+ NSCs, aiming to identify deregulated miRNAs involved in MB pathogenesis. Expression profiling of 662 miRNAs in primary MB specimens, MB cell lines, and human CD133+ NSCs and CD133- neural progenitor cells was performed by qRT-PCR. Clustering analysis identified two distinct sub-types of MB primary specimens, reminiscent of sub-types obtained from their mRNA profiles. 21 significantly up-regulated and 12 significantly down-regulated miRNAs were identified in MB primary specimens relative to CD133+ NSCs (p<0.01. The majority of up-regulated miRNAs mapped to chromosomal regions 14q32 and 17q. Integration of the predicted targets of deregulated miRNAs with mRNA expression data from the same specimens revealed enrichment of pathways regulating neuronal migration, nervous system development and cell proliferation. Transient over-expression of a down-regulated miRNA, miR-935, resulted in significant down-regulation of three of the seven predicted miR-935 target genes at the mRNA level in a MB cell line, confirming the validity of this approach. This study represents the first integrated analysis of MB miRNA and mRNA expression profiles and is the first to compare MB miRNA expression profiles to those of CD133+ NSCs. We identified several differentially expressed miRNAs that potentially target networks of genes and signaling pathways that may be involved in the transformation of normal NSCs to brain tumor stem cells. Based on this integrative approach, our data provide an important platform for future

  20. Negative regulation of neuromedin U mRNA expression in the rat pars tuberalis by melatonin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayaka Aizawa

    Full Text Available The pars tuberalis (PT is part of the anterior pituitary gland surrounding the median eminence as a thin cell layer. The characteristics of PT differ from those of the pars distalis (PD, such as cell composition and gene expression, suggesting that the PT has a unique physiological function compared to the PD. Because the PT highly expresses melatonin receptor type 1, it is considered a mediator of seasonal and/or circadian signals of melatonin. Expression of neuromedin U (NMU that is known to regulate energy balance has been previously reported in the rat PT; however, the regulatory mechanism of NMU mRNA expression and secretion in the PT are still obscure. In this study, we examined both the diurnal change of NMU mRNA expression in the rat PT and the effects of melatonin on NMU in vivo. In situ hybridization and quantitative PCR analysis of laser microdissected PT samples revealed that NMU mRNA expression in the PT has diurnal variation that is high during the light phase and low during the dark phase. Furthermore, melatonin administration significantly suppressed NMU mRNA expression in the PT in vivo. On the other hand, 48 h fasting did not have an effect on PT-NMU mRNA expression, and the diurnal change of NMU mRNA expression was maintained. We also found the highest expression of neuromedin U receptor type 2 (NMUR2 mRNA in the third ventricle ependymal cell layer, followed by the arcuate nucleus and the spinal cord. These results suggest that NMU mRNA expression in the PT is downregulated by melatonin during the dark phase and shows diurnal change. Considering that NMU mRNA in the PT showed the highest expression level in the brain, PT-NMU may act on NMUR2 in the brain, especially in the third ventricle ependymal cell layer, with a circadian rhythm.

  1. Methods and compositions for controlling gene expression by RNA processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doudna, Jennifer A.; Qi, Lei S.; Haurwitz, Rachel E.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2017-08-29

    The present disclosure provides nucleic acids encoding an RNA recognition sequence positioned proximal to an insertion site for the insertion of a sequence of interest; and host cells genetically modified with the nucleic acids. The present disclosure also provides methods of modifying the activity of a target RNA, and kits and compositions for carrying out the methods.

  2. RNA interference prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced preprotachykinin gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Y.-L.; Yu, S.C.; Chen, M.-J.

    2003-01-01

    We showed previously that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces noncholinergic airway hyperreactivity to capsaicin via an upregulation of tachykinin synthesis. This study was designed to test whether double-stranded preprotachykinin (ds PPT) RNA, RNA interference (RNAi), prevents the LPS-induced alterations. First, cultured primary nodose ganglial cells of newborn Brown-Norway rats were divided into four groups: control; LPS; LPS+RNAi; and LPS+RNAi+liposome. Second, young Brown-Norway rats for the in vivo study were divided into three groups (control; LPS; and LPS+RNAi), and ds PPT RNA was microinjected bilaterally into the nodose ganglia in the LPS+RNAi group. Then, ganglial cells were collected from the culture whereas the nodose ganglia and lungs were sampled from the animals, and PPT mRNA and substance P (SP) levels were analyzed. Also, airway reactivity to capsaicin was performed in vivo. LPS induced significant increases in PPT mRNA and SP levels in vitro and in vivo and an increase in airway reactivity to capsaicin in vivo. However, ds PPT RNA, but not scrambled RNA, prevented all LPS-induced alterations. The effect of ds PPT RNA was not enhanced by liposome in vitro. Therefore, we demonstrated that the local application of RNAi prevents effectively the activation of the noncholinergic system modulating the lungs/airways

  3. Simultaneous visualization of the subfemtomolar expression of microRNA and microRNA target gene using HILO microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Zhen; Ou, Da-Liang; Chang, Hsin-Yuan; Lin, Wei-Yu; Hsu, Chiun; Chang, Po-Ling

    2017-09-01

    The family of microRNAs (miRNAs) not only plays an important role in gene regulation but is also useful for the diagnosis of diseases. A reliable method with high sensitivity may allow researchers to detect slight fluctuations in ultra-trace amounts of miRNA. In this study, we propose a sensitive imaging method for the direct probing of miR-10b (miR-10b-3p, also called miR-10b*) and its target ( HOXD10 mRNA) in fixed cells based on the specific recognition of molecular beacons combined with highly inclined and laminated optical sheet (HILO) fluorescence microscopy. The designed dye-quencher-labelled molecular beacons offer excellent efficiencies of fluorescence resonance energy transfer that allow us to detect miRNA and the target mRNA simultaneously in hepatocellular carcinoma cells using HILO fluorescence microscopy. Not only can the basal trace amount of miRNA be observed in each individual cell, but the obtained images also indicate that this method is useful for monitoring the fluctuations in ultra-trace amounts of miRNA when the cells are transfected with a miRNA precursor or a miRNA inhibitor (anti-miR). Furthermore, a reasonable causal relation between the miR-10b and HOXD10 expression levels was observed in miR-10b* precursor-transfected cells and miR-10b* inhibitor-transfected cells. The trends of the miRNA alterations obtained using HILO microscopy completely matched the RT-qPCR data and showed remarkable reproducibility (the coefficient of variation [CV] = 0.86%) and sensitivity (<1.0 fM). This proposed imaging method appears to be useful for the simultaneous visualisation of ultra-trace amounts of miRNA and target mRNA and excludes the procedures for RNA extraction and amplification. Therefore, the visualisation of miRNA and the target mRNA should facilitate the exploration of the functions of ultra-trace amounts of miRNA in fixed cells in biological studies and may serve as a powerful tool for diagnoses based on circulating cancer cells.

  4. NONOates regulate KCl cotransporter-1 and -3 mRNA expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fulvio, Mauricio; Lauf, Peter K; Shah, Shalin; Adragna, Norma C

    2003-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) donors regulate KCl cotransport (KCC) activity and cotransporter-1 and -3 (KCC1 and KCC3) mRNA expression in sheep erythrocytes and in primary cultures of rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), respectively. In this study, we used NONOates as rapid and slow NO releasers to provide direct evidence implicating NO as a regulator of KCC3 gene expression at the mRNA level. In addition, we used the expression of KCC3 mRNA to further investigate the mechanism of action of these NO donors at the cellular level. Treatment of VSMCs with rapid NO releasers, like NOC-5 and NOC-9, as well as with the direct NO-independent soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) stimulator YC-1, acutely increased KCC3 mRNA expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The slow NO releaser NOC-18 had no effect on KCC3 gene expression. A specific NO scavenger completely prevented the NONOate-induced KCC3 mRNA expression. Inhibition of sGC with LY-83583 blocked the NONOate- and YC-1-induced KCC3 mRNA expression. This study shows that in primary cultures of rat VSMCs, the fast NO releasers NOC-9 and NOC-5, but not the slow NO releaser NOC-18, acutely upregulate KCC3 mRNA expression in a NO/sGC-dependent manner.

  5. RNA deep sequencing reveals differential microRNA expression during development of sea urchin and sea star.

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    Sabah Kadri

    Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNAs are small (20-23 nt, non-coding single stranded RNA molecules that act as post-transcriptional regulators of mRNA gene expression. They have been implicated in regulation of developmental processes in diverse organisms. The echinoderms, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (sea urchin and Patiria miniata (sea star are excellent model organisms for studying development with well-characterized transcriptional networks. However, to date, nothing is known about the role of miRNAs during development in these organisms, except that the genes that are involved in the miRNA biogenesis pathway are expressed during their developmental stages. In this paper, we used Illumina Genome Analyzer (Illumina, Inc. to sequence small RNA libraries in mixed stage population of embryos from one to three days after fertilization of sea urchin and sea star (total of 22,670,000 reads. Analysis of these data revealed the miRNA populations in these two species. We found that 47 and 38 known miRNAs are expressed in sea urchin and sea star, respectively, during early development (32 in common. We also found 13 potentially novel miRNAs in the sea urchin embryonic library. miRNA expression is generally conserved between the two species during development, but 7 miRNAs are highly expressed in only one species. We expect that our two datasets will be a valuable resource for everyone working in the field of developmental biology and the regulatory networks that affect it. The computational pipeline to analyze Illumina reads is available at http://www.benoslab.pitt.edu/services.html.

  6. RNA Deep Sequencing Reveals Differential MicroRNA Expression during Development of Sea Urchin and Sea Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Sabah; Hinman, Veronica F.; Benos, Panayiotis V.

    2011-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are small (20–23 nt), non-coding single stranded RNA molecules that act as post-transcriptional regulators of mRNA gene expression. They have been implicated in regulation of developmental processes in diverse organisms. The echinoderms, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (sea urchin) and Patiria miniata (sea star) are excellent model organisms for studying development with well-characterized transcriptional networks. However, to date, nothing is known about the role of miRNAs during development in these organisms, except that the genes that are involved in the miRNA biogenesis pathway are expressed during their developmental stages. In this paper, we used Illumina Genome Analyzer (Illumina, Inc.) to sequence small RNA libraries in mixed stage population of embryos from one to three days after fertilization of sea urchin and sea star (total of 22,670,000 reads). Analysis of these data revealed the miRNA populations in these two species. We found that 47 and 38 known miRNAs are expressed in sea urchin and sea star, respectively, during early development (32 in common). We also found 13 potentially novel miRNAs in the sea urchin embryonic library. miRNA expression is generally conserved between the two species during development, but 7 miRNAs are highly expressed in only one species. We expect that our two datasets will be a valuable resource for everyone working in the field of developmental biology and the regulatory networks that affect it. The computational pipeline to analyze Illumina reads is available at http://www.benoslab.pitt.edu/services.html. PMID:22216218

  7. Determination of sRNA expressions by RNA-seq in Yersinia pestis grown in vitro and during infection.

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    Yanfeng Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs facilitate host-microbe interactions. They have a central function in the post-transcriptional regulation during pathogenic lifestyles. Hfq, an RNA-binding protein that many sRNAs act in conjunction with, is required for Y. pestis pathogenesis. However, information on how Yersinia pestis modulates the expression of sRNAs during infection is largely unknown. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used RNA-seq technology to identify the sRNA candidates expressed from Y. pestis grown in vitro and in the infected lungs of mice. A total of 104 sRNAs were found, including 26 previously annotated sRNAs, by searching against the Rfam database with 78 novel sRNA candidates. Approximately 89% (93/104 of these sRNAs from Y. pestis are shared with its ancestor Y. pseudotuberculosis. Ninety-seven percent of these sRNAs (101/104 are shared among more than 80 sequenced genomes of 135 Y. pestis strains. These 78 novel sRNAs include 62 intergenic and 16 antisense sRNAs. Fourteen sRNAs were selected for verification by independent Northern blot analysis. Results showed that nine selected sRNA transcripts were Hfq-dependent. Interestingly, three novel sRNAs were identified as new members of the transcription factor CRP regulon. Semi-quantitative analysis revealed that Y. pestis from the infected lungs induced the expressions of six sRNAs including RyhB1, RyhB2, CyaR/RyeE, 6S RNA, RybB and sR039 and repressed the expressions of four sRNAs, including CsrB, CsrC, 4.5S RNA and sR027. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: This study is the first attempt to subject RNA from Y. pestis-infected samples to direct high-throughput sequencing. Many novel sRNAs were identified and the expression patterns of relevant sRNAs in Y. pestis during in vitro growth and in vivo infection were revealed. The annotated sRNAs accounted for the most abundant sRNAs either expressed in bacteria grown in vitro or differentially expressed in the infected lungs

  8. Expression of coding (mRNA) and non-coding (microRNA) RNA in lung tissue and blood isolated from pigs suffering from bacterial pleuropneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Wendt, Karin Tarp

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules (18-23 nt), that regulate the activity of other genes at the post-transcriptional level. Recently it has become evident that microRNA plays an important role in modulating and fine tuning innate and adaptive immune responses. Still, little is known about...... the impact of microRNAs in the development and pathogenesis of lung infections. Expression of microRNA known to be induced by bacterial (i.e., LPS) ligands and thus supposed to play a role in the regulation of antimicrobial defence, were studied in lung tissue and in blood from pigs experimentally infected...... with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (AP). Expression differences of mRNA and microRNA were quantified at different time points (6h, 12h, 24h, 48h PI) using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (Rotor-Gene and Fluidigm). Expression profiles of miRNA in blood of seven animals were further studied using mi...

  9. MiRNA-21 Expression Decreases from Primary Tumors to Liver Metastases in Colorectal Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Feiersinger

    Full Text Available Metastasis is the major cause of death in colorectal cancer patients. Expression of certain miRNAs in the primary tumors has been shown to be associated with progression of colorectal cancer and the initiation of metastasis. In this study, we compared miRNA expression in primary colorectal cancer and corresponding liver metastases in order to get an idea of the oncogenic importance of the miRNAs in established metastases.We analyzed the expression of miRNA-21, miRNA-31 and miRNA-373 in corresponding formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue samples of primary colorectal cancer, liver metastasis and healthy tissues of 29 patients by quantitative real-time PCR.All three miRNAs were significantly up-regulated in the primary tumor tissues as compared to healthy colon mucosa of the respective patients (p < 0.01. MiRNA-21 and miRNA-31 were also higher expressed in liver metastases as compared to healthy liver tissues (p < 0.01. No significant difference of expression of miRNA-31 and miRNA-373 was observed between primary tumors and metastases. Of note, miRNA-21 expression was significantly reduced in liver metastases as compared to the primary colorectal tumors (p < 0.01.In the context of previous studies demonstrating increased miRNA-21 expression in metastatic primary tumors, our findings raise the question whether miRNA-21 might be involved in the initiation but not in the perpetuation and growth of metastases.

  10. Characterisation of microRNA expression in post-natal mouse mammary gland development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karagavriilidou Konstantina

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The differential expression pattern of microRNAs (miRNAs during mammary gland development might provide insights into their role in regulating the homeostasis of the mammary epithelium. Our aim was to analyse these regulatory functions by deriving a comprehensive tissue-specific combined miRNA and mRNA expression profile of post-natal mouse mammary gland development. We measured the expression of 318 individual murine miRNAs by bead-based flow-cytometric profiling of whole mouse mammary glands throughout a 16-point developmental time course, including juvenile, puberty, mature virgin, gestation, lactation, and involution stages. In parallel whole-genome mRNA expression data were obtained. Results One third (n = 102 of all murine miRNAs analysed were detected during mammary gland development. MicroRNAs were represented in seven temporally co-expressed clusters, which were enriched for both miRNAs belonging to the same family and breast cancer-associated miRNAs. Global miRNA and mRNA expression was significantly reduced during lactation and the early stages of involution after weaning. For most detected miRNA families we did not observe systematic changes in the expression of predicted targets. For miRNA families whose targets did show changes, we observed inverse patterns of miRNA and target expression. The data sets are made publicly available and the combined expression profiles represent an important community resource for mammary gland biology research. Conclusion MicroRNAs were expressed in likely co-regulated clusters during mammary gland development. Breast cancer-associated miRNAs were significantly enriched in these clusters. The mechanism and functional consequences of this miRNA co-regulation provide new avenues for research into mammary gland biology and generate candidates for functional validation.

  11. High ALK mRNA expression has a negative prognostic significance in rhabdomyosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvini, P; Zin, A; Alaggio, R; Pawel, B; Bisogno, G; Rosolen, A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase aberrantly expressed in cancer, but its clinical and functional importance remain controversial. Mutation or amplification of ALK, as well as its expression levels assessed by conventional immunohistochemistry methods, has been linked to prognosis in cancer, although with potential bias because of the semi-quantitative approaches. Herein, we measured ALK mRNA expression in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and determined its clinical impact on patients' stratification and outcome. Methods: Specimens were obtained from RMS patients and cell lines, and ALK expression was analysed by quantitative RT–PCR, western blotting, IHC, and copy number analysis. Results: High ALK mRNA expression was detected in the vast majority of PAX3/7-FOXO1-positive tumours, whereas PAX3/7-FOXO1-negative RMS displayed considerably lower amounts of both mRNA and protein. Notably, ALK mRNA distinguished unfavourable PAX3/7-FOXO1-positive tumours from PAX3/7-FOXO1-negative RMS (Ptumour size (PALK mRNA levels were of prognostic relevance by Cox univariate regression analysis and correlated with increased risk of relapse (P=0.001) and survival (P=0.01), whereas by multivariate analysis elevated ALK mRNA expression resulted a negative prognostic marker when clinical stage was not included. Conclusion: Quantitative assessment of ALK mRNA expression helps to improve risk stratification of RMS patients and identifies tumours with adverse biological characteristics and aggressive behaviour. PMID:24149177

  12. The mRNA expression of XRCC repair genes in mice after γ-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qin; Yue Jingyin; Li Jin; Mu Chuanjie; Fan Feiyue

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of XRCC repair genes in radioresistance of IRM-2 inbred mice. Methods: Northern hybridization was used to measure mRNA expression of XRCC1 and XRCC5 genes in IRM-2 inbred mice. ICR/JCL and 615 after exposure to different doses of γ-ray radiation at different postirradiation time. Results: The levels of XRCC1 and XRCC5 mRNA expression in control IRM-2 mice were higher significantly than those in their control parental mice (P<0.01 and P<0.05). The mRNA expression of XRCC genes in ICR/JCL and 615 mice all increased to some extent after exposure 1, 2 and 4 Gy radiation. But the levels were significantly higher at 2h postirradiation (P<0.05) . The levels of XRCC mRNA expression in IRM-2 mice did not increase significnatly compared with the control mice after exposure 1 and 2 Gy radiation. But the levels of XRCC1 and XRCC5 mRNA expression increased markedly at 4Gy 1h postirradiation (P<0.05 and P<0.01). Conclusion: The basal levels of XRCC1 and XRCC5 mRNA expression in IRM-2 mice were high. The high level of XRCC5 mRNA expression was involved in the repair of DNA double strand breaks induced by higher dose radiation, which perhaps was one of radioresistance causes of IRM-2 mice. (authors)

  13. Efficient construction of an inverted minimal H1 promoter driven siRNA expression cassette: facilitation of promoter and siRNA sequence exchange.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoorig Nassanian

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi, mediated by small interfering RNA (siRNA, is an effective method used to silence gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Upon introduction into target cells, siRNAs incorporate into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC. The antisense strand of the siRNA duplex then "guides" the RISC to the homologous mRNA, leading to target degradation and gene silencing. In recent years, various vector-based siRNA expression systems have been developed which utilize opposing polymerase III promoters to independently drive expression of the sense and antisense strands of the siRNA duplex from the same template.We show here the use of a ligase chain reaction (LCR to develop a new vector system called pInv-H1 in which a DNA sequence encoding a specific siRNA is placed between two inverted minimal human H1 promoters (approximately 100 bp each. Expression of functional siRNAs from this construct has led to efficient silencing of both reporter and endogenous genes. Furthermore, the inverted H1 promoter-siRNA expression cassette was used to generate a retrovirus vector capable of transducing and silencing expression of the targeted protein by>80% in target cells.The unique design of this construct allows for the efficient exchange of siRNA sequences by the directional cloning of short oligonucleotides via asymmetric restriction sites. This provides a convenient way to test the functionality of different siRNA sequences. Delivery of the siRNA cassette by retroviral transduction suggests that a single copy of the siRNA expression cassette efficiently knocks down gene expression at the protein level. We note that this vector system can potentially be used to generate a random siRNA library. The flexibility of the ligase chain reaction suggests that additional control elements can easily be introduced into this siRNA expression cassette.

  14. Inflammation-related microRNA expression level in the bovine milk is affected by mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yu-Chang; Fujikawa, Takuro; Maemura, Tadashi; Ando, Takaaki; Kitahara, Go; Endo, Yasuyuki; Yamato, Osamu; Koiwa, Masateru; Kubota, Chikara; Miura, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) in tissue and liquid samples have been shown to be associated with many diseases including inflammation. We aimed to identify inflammation-related miRNA expression level in the bovine mastitis milk. Expression level of inflammation-related miRNA in milk from mastitis-affected and normal cows was analyzed using qPCR. We found that expression level of miR-21, miR-146a, miR-155, miR-222, and miR-383 was significantly upregulated in California mastitis test positive (CMT+) milk. We further analyzed these miRNA using a chip-based QuantStudio Digital PCR System. The digital PCR results correlated with those of qPCR, demonstrating upregulation of miR-21, miR-146a, miR-155, miR-222, and miR-383 in CMT+ milk. In conclusion, we identified miRNA that are upregulated in CMT+ milk. These miRNA exhibited sensitivity and specificity greater than 80% for differentiating between CMT+ milk and normal milk. Our findings suggest that inflammation-related miRNA expression level in the bovine milk was affected by mastitis, and miRNA in milk have potential for use as biomarkers of bovine mastitis.

  15. RNA-Seq of Bacillus licheniformis: active regulatory RNA features expressed within a productive fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The production of enzymes by an industrial strain requires a complex adaption of the bacterial metabolism to the conditions within the fermenter. Regulatory events within the process result in a dynamic change of the transcriptional activity of the genome. This complex network of genes is orchestrated by proteins as well as regulatory RNA elements. Here we present an RNA-Seq based study considering selected phases of an industry-oriented fermentation of Bacillus licheniformis. Results A detailed analysis of 20 strand-specific RNA-Seq datasets revealed a multitude of transcriptionally active genomic regions. 3314 RNA features encoded by such active loci have been identified and sorted into ten functional classes. The identified sequences include the expected RNA features like housekeeping sRNAs, metabolic riboswitches and RNA switches well known from studies on Bacillus subtilis as well as a multitude of completely new candidates for regulatory RNAs. An unexpectedly high number of 855 RNA features are encoded antisense to annotated protein and RNA genes, in addition to 461 independently transcribed small RNAs. These antisense transcripts contain molecules with a remarkable size range variation from 38 to 6348 base pairs in length. The genome of the type strain B. licheniformis DSM13 was completely reannotated using data obtained from RNA-Seq analyses and from public databases. Conclusion The hereby generated data-sets represent a solid amount of knowledge on the dynamic transcriptional activities during the investigated fermentation stages. The identified regulatory elements enable research on the understanding and the optimization of crucial metabolic activities during a productive fermentation of Bacillus licheniformis strains. PMID:24079885

  16. RNA-Seq of Bacillus licheniformis: active regulatory RNA features expressed within a productive fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Sandra; Dietrich, Sascha; Hertel, Robert; Bongaerts, Johannes; Evers, Stefan; Volland, Sonja; Daniel, Rolf; Liesegang, Heiko

    2013-10-01

    The production of enzymes by an industrial strain requires a complex adaption of the bacterial metabolism to the conditions within the fermenter. Regulatory events within the process result in a dynamic change of the transcriptional activity of the genome. This complex network of genes is orchestrated by proteins as well as regulatory RNA elements. Here we present an RNA-Seq based study considering selected phases of an industry-oriented fermentation of Bacillus licheniformis. A detailed analysis of 20 strand-specific RNA-Seq datasets revealed a multitude of transcriptionally active genomic regions. 3314 RNA features encoded by such active loci have been identified and sorted into ten functional classes. The identified sequences include the expected RNA features like housekeeping sRNAs, metabolic riboswitches and RNA switches well known from studies on Bacillus subtilis as well as a multitude of completely new candidates for regulatory RNAs. An unexpectedly high number of 855 RNA features are encoded antisense to annotated protein and RNA genes, in addition to 461 independently transcribed small RNAs. These antisense transcripts contain molecules with a remarkable size range variation from 38 to 6348 base pairs in length. The genome of the type strain B. licheniformis DSM13 was completely reannotated using data obtained from RNA-Seq analyses and from public databases. The hereby generated data-sets represent a solid amount of knowledge on the dynamic transcriptional activities during the investigated fermentation stages. The identified regulatory elements enable research on the understanding and the optimization of crucial metabolic activities during a productive fermentation of Bacillus licheniformis strains.

  17. Parallel mRNA, proteomics and miRNA expression analysis in cell line models of the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Finbarr; Keenan, Joanne; Aherne, Sinead; O'Neill, Fiona; Clarke, Colin; Henry, Michael; Meleady, Paula; Breen, Laura; Barron, Niall; Clynes, Martin; Horgan, Karina; Doolan, Padraig; Murphy, Richard

    2017-11-07

    To identify miRNA-regulated proteins differentially expressed between Caco2 and HT-29: two principal cell line models of the intestine. Exponentially growing Caco-2 and HT-29 cells were harvested and prepared for mRNA, miRNA and proteomic profiling. mRNA microarray profiling analysis was carried out using the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Gene 1.0 ST array. miRNA microarray profiling analysis was carried out using the Affymetrix Genechip miRNA 3.0 array. Quantitative Label-free LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis was performed using a Dionex Ultimate 3000 RSLCnano system coupled to a hybrid linear ion trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Peptide identities were validated in Proteome Discoverer 2.1 and were subsequently imported into Progenesis QI software for further analysis. Hierarchical cluster analysis for all three parallel datasets (miRNA, proteomics, mRNA) was conducted in the R software environment using the Euclidean distance measure and Ward's clustering algorithm. The prediction of miRNA and oppositely correlated protein/mRNA interactions was performed using TargetScan 6.1. GO biological process, molecular function and cellular component enrichment analysis was carried out for the DE miRNA, protein and mRNA lists via the Pathway Studio 11.3 Web interface using their Mammalian database. Differential expression (DE) profiling comparing the intestinal cell lines HT-29 and Caco-2 identified 1795 Genes, 168 Proteins and 160 miRNAs as DE between the two cell lines. At the gene level, 1084 genes were upregulated and 711 were downregulated in the Caco-2 cell line relative to the HT-29 cell line. At the protein level, 57 proteins were found to be upregulated and 111 downregulated in the Caco-2 cell line relative to the HT-29 cell line. Finally, at the miRNAs level, 104 were upregulated and 56 downregulated in the Caco-2 cell line relative to the HT-29 cell line. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of the DE mRNA identified cell adhesion, migration and ECM organization, cellular lipid

  18. Cardiac Gene Expression Knockdown Using Small Inhibitory RNA-Loaded Microbubbles and Ultrasound.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Kopechek

    Full Text Available RNA interference has potential therapeutic value for cardiac disease, but targeted delivery of interfering RNA is a challenge. Custom designed microbubbles, in conjunction with ultrasound, can deliver small inhibitory RNA to target tissues in vivo. The efficacy of cardiac RNA interference using a microbubble-ultrasound theranostic platform has not been demonstrated in vivo. Therefore, our objective was to test the hypothesis that custom designed microbubbles and ultrasound can mediate effective delivery of small inhibitory RNA to the heart. Microbubble and ultrasound mediated cardiac RNA interference was tested in transgenic mice displaying cardiac-restricted luciferase expression. Luciferase expression was assayed in select tissues of untreated mice (n = 14. Mice received intravenous infusion of cationic microbubbles bearing small inhibitory RNA directed against luciferase (n = 9 or control RNA (n = 8 during intermittent cardiac-directed ultrasound at mechanical index of 1.6. Simultaneous echocardiography in a separate group of mice (n = 3 confirmed microbubble destruction and replenishment during treatment. Three days post treatment, cardiac luciferase messenger RNA and protein levels were significantly lower in ultrasound-treated mice receiving microbubbles loaded with small inhibitory RNA directed against luciferase compared to mice receiving microbubbles bearing control RNA (23±7% and 33±7% of control mice, p<0.01 and p = 0.03, respectively. Passive cavitation detection focused on the heart confirmed that insonification resulted in inertial cavitation. In conclusion, small inhibitory RNA-loaded microbubbles and ultrasound directed at the heart significantly reduced the expression of a reporter gene. Ultrasound-targeted destruction of RNA-loaded microbubbles may be an effective image-guided strategy for therapeutic RNA interference in cardiac disease.

  19. Expression of a novel non-coding mitochondrial RNA in human proliferating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Jaime; Burzio, Veronica; Villota, Claudio; Landerer, Eduardo; Martinez, Ronny; Santander, Marcela; Martinez, Rodrigo; Pinto, Rodrigo; Vera, María I; Boccardo, Enrique; Villa, Luisa L; Burzio, Luis O

    2007-01-01

    Previously, we reported the presence in mouse cells of a mitochondrial RNA which contains an inverted repeat (IR) of 121 nucleotides (nt) covalently linked to the 5' end of the mitochondrial 16S RNA (16S mtrRNA). Here, we report the structure of an equivalent transcript of 2374 nt which is over-expressed in human proliferating cells but not in resting cells. The transcript contains a hairpin structure comprising an IR of 815 nt linked to the 5' end of the 16S mtrRNA and forming a long double-stranded structure or stem and a loop of 40 nt. The stem is resistant to RNase A and can be detected and isolated after digestion with the enzyme. This novel transcript is a non-coding RNA (ncRNA) and several evidences suggest that the transcript is synthesized in mitochondria. The expression of this transcript can be induced in resting lymphocytes stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). Moreover, aphidicolin treatment of DU145 cells reversibly blocks proliferation and expression of the transcript. If the drug is removed, the cells re-assume proliferation and over-express the ncmtRNA. These results suggest that the expression of the ncmtRNA correlates with the replicative state of the cell and it may play a role in cell proliferation.

  20. Guidance for RNA-seq co-expression network construction and analysis: safety in numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballouz, S; Verleyen, W; Gillis, J

    2015-07-01

    RNA-seq co-expression analysis is in its infancy and reasonable practices remain poorly defined. We assessed a variety of RNA-seq expression data to determine factors affecting functional connectivity and topology in co-expression networks. We examine RNA-seq co-expression data generated from 1970 RNA-seq samples using a Guilt-By-Association framework, in which genes are assessed for the tendency of co-expression to reflect shared function. Minimal experimental criteria to obtain performance on par with microarrays were >20 samples with read depth >10 M per sample. While the aggregate network constructed shows good performance (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve ∼0.71), the dependency on number of experiments used is nearly identical to that present in microarrays, suggesting thousands of samples are required to obtain 'gold-standard' co-expression. We find a major topological difference between RNA-seq and microarray co-expression in the form of low overlaps between hub-like genes from each network due to changes in the correlation of expression noise within each technology. jgillis@cshl.edu or sballouz@cshl.edu Networks are available at: http://gillislab.labsites.cshl.edu/supplements/rna-seq-networks/ and supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. RRE-dependent HIV-1 Env RNA effects on Gag protein expression, assembly and release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López, Claudia S.; Sloan, Rachel; Cylinder, Isabel; Kozak, Susan L.; Kabat, David; Barklis, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The HIV-1 Gag proteins are translated from the full-length HIV-1 viral RNA (vRNA), whereas the envelope (Env) protein is translated from incompletely spliced Env mRNAs. Nuclear export of vRNAs and Env mRNAs is mediated by the Rev accessory protein which binds to the rev-responsive element (RRE) present on these RNAs. Evidence has shown there is a direct or indirect interaction between the Gag protein, and the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of the Env protein. Our current work shows that env gene expression impacts HIV-1 Gag expression and function in two ways. At the protein level, full-length Env expression altered Gag protein expression, while Env CT-deletion proteins did not. At the RNA level, RRE-containing Env mRNA expression reduced Gag expression, processing, and virus particle release from cells. Our results support models in which Gag is influenced by the Env CT, and Env mRNAs compete with vRNAs for nuclear export. - Highlights: • At the protein level, full-length HIV-1 Env alters Gag protein expression. • HIV-1 Env RNA expression reduces Gag levels and virus release. • Env RNA effects on Gag are dependent on the RRE. • RRE-containing Env RNAs compete with vRNAs for nuclear export

  2. Cigarette smoking decreases global microRNA expression in human alveolar macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel W Graff

    Full Text Available Human alveolar macrophages are critical components of the innate immune system. Cigarette smoking-induced changes in alveolar macrophage gene expression are linked to reduced resistance to pulmonary infections and to the development of emphysema/COPD. We hypothesized that microRNAs (miRNAs could control, in part, the unique messenger RNA (mRNA expression profiles found in alveolar macrophages of cigarette smokers. Activation of macrophages with different stimuli in vitro leads to a diverse range of M1 (inflammatory and M2 (anti-inflammatory polarized phenotypes that are thought to mimic activated macrophages in distinct tissue environments. Microarray mRNA data indicated that smoking promoted an "inverse" M1 mRNA expression program, defined by decreased expression of M1-induced transcripts and increased expression of M1-repressed transcripts with few changes in M2-regulated transcripts. RT-PCR arrays identified altered expression of many miRNAs in alveolar macrophages of smokers and a decrease in global miRNA abundance. Stratification of human subjects suggested that the magnitude of the global decrease in miRNA abundance was associated with smoking history. We found that many of the miRNAs with reduced expression in alveolar macrophages of smokers were predicted to target mRNAs upregulated in alveolar macrophages of smokers. For example, miR-452 is predicted to target the transcript encoding MMP12, an important effector of smoking-related diseases. Experimental antagonism of miR-452 in differentiated monocytic cells resulted in increased expression of MMP12. The comprehensive mRNA and miRNA expression profiles described here provide insight into gene expression regulation that may underlie the adverse effects cigarette smoking has on alveolar macrophages.

  3. Calling genotypes from public RNA-sequencing data enables identification of genetic variants that affect gene-expression levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, Patrick; Zhernakova, Daria V.; de Haan, Mark; van der Sijde, Marijke; Bonder, Marc Jan; Karjalainen, Juha; van der Velde, K. Joeri; Abbott, Kristin M.; Fu, Jingyuan; Wijmenga, Cisca; Sinke, Richard J.; Swertz, Morris A.; Franke, Lude

    2015-01-01

    Background: RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) is a powerful technique for the identification of genetic variants that affect gene-expression levels, either through expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping or through allele-specific expression (ASE) analysis. Given increasing numbers of RNA-seq

  4. Expression of annexin and Annexin-mRNA in rat brain under influence of steroid drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voermans, PH; Go, KG; ter Horst, GJ; Ruiters, MHJ; Solito, E; Parente, L; James, HE; Marshall, LF; Reulen, HJ; Baethmann, A; Marmarou, A; Ito, U; Hoff, JT; Kuroiwa, T; Czernicki, Z

    1997-01-01

    Brain tissue of rats pretreated with methylprednisolone or with the 21-aminosteroid U74389F, and that of untreated control rats, was assessed for the expression of Annexin-l (Anx-1) and the transcription of its mRNA. For this purpose Anx-1 cDNA was amplified and simultaneously a T7-RNA-polymerase

  5. Alteration of rRNA gene copy number and expression in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intellectual disability (ID) is an important medical and social problem that can be caused by different genetic and environmental factors. One such factor could be rDNA amplification and changes in rRNA expression and maturation. Aim of the study: The aim of the present study was to investigate rRNA levels in ...

  6. Nonparametric testing for DNA copy number induced differential mRNA gene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wieringen, W.N.; van de Wiel, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The central dogma of molecular biology relates DNA with mRNA. Array CGH measures DNA copy number and gene expression microarrays measure the amount of mRNA. Methods that integrate data from these two platforms may uncover meaningful biological relationships that further our understanding of cancer.

  7. Synergistic Effect of Auto-Activation and Small RNA Regulation on Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Li-Ping; Ma, Yu-Qiang; Tang, Lei-Han

    2010-09-01

    Auto-activation and small ribonucleic acid (RNA)-mediated regulation are two important mechanisms in controlling gene expression. We study the synergistic effect of these two regulations on gene expression. It is found that under this combinatorial regulation, gene expression exhibits bistable behaviors at the transition regime, while each of these two regulations, if working solely, only leads to monostability. Within the stochastic framework, the base pairing strength between sRNA and mRNA plays an important role in controlling the transition time between on and off states. The noise strength of protein number in the off state approaches 1 and is smaller than that in the on state. The noise strength also depends on which parameters, the feedback strength or the synthesis rate of small RNA, are tuned in switching the gene expression on and off. Our findings may provide a new insight into gene-regulation mechanism and can be applied in synthetic biology.

  8. Synergistic Effect of Auto-Activation and Small RNA Regulation on Gene Expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li-Ping, Xiong; Yu-Qiang, Ma; Lei-Han, Tang

    2010-01-01

    Auto-activation and small ribonucleic acid (RNA)-mediated regulation are two important mechanisms in controlling gene expression. We study the synergistic effect of these two regulations on gene expression. It is found that under this combinatorial regulation, gene expression exhibits bistable behaviors at the transition regime, while each of these two regulations, if working solely, only leads to monostability. Within the stochastic framework, the base pairing strength between sRNA and mRNA plays an important role in controlling the transition time between on and off states. The noise strength of protein number in the off state approaches 1 and is smaller than that in the on state. The noise strength also depends on which parameters, the feedback strength or the synthesis rate of small RNA, are tuned in switching the gene expression on and off. Our findings may provide a new insight into gene-regulation mechanism and can be applied in synthetic biology

  9. Differential expression of PARP1 mRNA in leucocytes of patients ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P. 2011 Differential expression of PARP1 mRNA in leucocytes of patients with Down's syndrome. J. Genet. ... of Alzheimer disease at an earlier age than subjects with- ... family and personal informed consent. .... In effect, they report that.

  10. Astrocyte cultures derived from human brain tissue express angiotensinogen mRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milsted, A.; Barna, B.P.; Ransohoff, R.M.; Brosnihan, K.B.; Ferrario, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have identified human cultured cell lines that are useful for studying angiotensinogen gene expression and its regulation in the central nervous system. A model cell system of human central nervous system origin expressing angiotensinogen has not previously been available. Expression of angiotensinogen mRNA appears to be a basal property of noninduced human astrocytes, since astrocytic cell lines derived from human glioblastomas or nonneoplastic human brain tissue invariably produced angiotensinogen mRNA. In situ hybridization histochemistry revealed that angiotensinogen mRNA production was not limited to a subpopulation of astrocytes because >99% of cells in these cultures contained angiotensinogen mRNA. These cell lines will be useful in studies of the molecular mechanisms controlling angiotensin synthesis and the role of biologically active angiotensin in the human brain by allowing the authors to examine regulation of expression of the renin-angiotensin system in human astrocyte cultures

  11. Study of bantam miRNA expression in brain tumour resulted due to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ANIMESH BANERJEE

    2017-06-19

    Jun 19, 2017 ... these genes lead to an inappropriate segregation of cell fate determinants ... ground could possibly be a consequence of brain tumour resulting ... Expression of bantam miRNA in Drosophila brain tumour. Figure 1. Bantam is ...

  12. RESEARCH NOTE Study of bantam miRNA expression in brain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    Study of bantam miRNA expression in brain tumour resulted due to loss of polarity ... of neuroblasts (neural stem cells) along withtumours in different tissues and .... retains the regeneration capability and a smaller GMC (Ganglion Mother Cell).

  13. A miRNA expression based diagnostic tool for breast cancer using random forests

    OpenAIRE

    Wenric, Stéphane; Freres, Pierre; Josse, Claire; Bours, Vincent; Jerusalem, Guy

    2013-01-01

    We developed a novel diagnostic tool for breast cancer using circulating miRNA expression levels as features of a supervised machine learning problem. We showed very good results on an independent validation cohort.

  14. MicroRNA-146a expression as a potential biomarker for rheumatoid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MicroRNA-146a expression as a potential biomarker for rheumatoid arthritis in Egypt. Heba Mohamed Abdelkader Elsayed, Walaa Shawky Khater, Ayman Asaad Ibrahim, Maha Salah El-din Hamdy, Nashwa Aly Morshedy ...

  15. Construction of lentiviral shRNA expression vector targeting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... was then selected, while the titer of lentiviral packing PLD2-shRNA was 3.47 × 104 TU/ml and the virus was successfully ... MATERIALS AND METHODS .... such as: transfecting cells not only in mitotic active phase but also in ...

  16. Expression and clinicopathological significance of Mel-18 and Bmi-1 mRNA in gastric carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, You-Wei; Li, Jin; Guo, Wei-Jian

    2010-11-08

    The Polycomb group (PcG) genes are a class of regulators responsible for maintaining homeotic gene expression throughout cell division. PcG expression is deregulated in some types of human cancer. Both Bmi-1 and Mel-18 are of the key PcG proteins. We investigate the expression and clinicopathological roles of Mel-18 and Bmi-1 mRNA in gastric cancer. The expression of Mel-18 and Bmi-1 in a series of 71 gastric cancer tissues and paired normal mucosal tissues distant from the tumorous lesion was assayed by quantitative real time RT-PCR. The correlation between Mel-18 and Bmi-1 mRNA expression, and between Mel-18 or Bmi-1 mRNA level and clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed. Expression of Mel-18 and Bmi-1 genes was variably detected, but overexpression of Bmi-1 mRNA and decreased expression of Mel-18 mRNA were the most frequent alteration. In addition, the expression of Bmi-1 and Mel-18 mRNA inversely correlates in gastric tumors. Moreover, a significant positive correlation between Bmi-1 overexpression and tumor size, depth of invasion, or lymph node metastasis, and a significant negative correlation between Mel-18 low-expression with lymph node metastasis or the clinical stage were observed. Our data suggest that Mel-18 and Bmi-1 may play crucial but opposite roles in gastric cancer. Decreased Mel-18 and increased Bmi-1 mRNA expression was associated with the carcinogenesis and progression of gastric cancer. It is possible to list Bmi-1 and Mel-18 as biomarkers for predicting the prognosis of gastric cancer.

  17. Environmental contaminants and microRNA regulation: Transcription factors as regulators of toxicant-altered microRNA expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sollome, James; Martin, Elizabeth [Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Sethupathy, Praveen [Department of Genetics, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Fry, Rebecca C., E-mail: rfry@unc.edu [Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Curriculum in Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2016-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by binding mRNA and inhibiting translation and/or inducing degradation of the associated transcripts. Expression levels of miRNAs have been shown to be altered in response to environmental toxicants, thus impacting cellular function and influencing disease risk. Transcription factors (TFs) are known to be altered in response to environmental toxicants and play a critical role in the regulation of miRNA expression. To date, environmentally-responsive TFs that are important for regulating miRNAs remain understudied. In a state-of-the-art analysis, we utilized an in silico bioinformatic approach to characterize potential transcriptional regulators of environmentally-responsive miRNAs. Using the miRStart database, genomic sequences of promoter regions for all available human miRNAs (n = 847) were identified and promoter regions were defined as − 1000/+500 base pairs from the transcription start site. Subsequently, the promoter region sequences of environmentally-responsive miRNAs (n = 128) were analyzed using enrichment analysis to determine overrepresented TF binding sites (TFBS). While most (56/73) TFs differed across environmental contaminants, a set of 17 TFs was enriched for promoter binding among miRNAs responsive to numerous environmental contaminants. Of these, one TF was common to miRNAs altered by the majority of environmental contaminants, namely SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily A, member 3 (SMARCA3). These identified TFs represent candidate common transcriptional regulators of miRNAs perturbed by environmental toxicants. - Highlights: • Transcription factors that regulate environmentally-modulated miRNA expression are understudied • Transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) located within DNA promoter regions of miRNAs were identified. • Specific transcription factors may serve as master regulators of environmentally-mediated microRNA expression.

  18. Environmental contaminants and microRNA regulation: Transcription factors as regulators of toxicant-altered microRNA expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sollome, James; Martin, Elizabeth; Sethupathy, Praveen; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by binding mRNA and inhibiting translation and/or inducing degradation of the associated transcripts. Expression levels of miRNAs have been shown to be altered in response to environmental toxicants, thus impacting cellular function and influencing disease risk. Transcription factors (TFs) are known to be altered in response to environmental toxicants and play a critical role in the regulation of miRNA expression. To date, environmentally-responsive TFs that are important for regulating miRNAs remain understudied. In a state-of-the-art analysis, we utilized an in silico bioinformatic approach to characterize potential transcriptional regulators of environmentally-responsive miRNAs. Using the miRStart database, genomic sequences of promoter regions for all available human miRNAs (n = 847) were identified and promoter regions were defined as − 1000/+500 base pairs from the transcription start site. Subsequently, the promoter region sequences of environmentally-responsive miRNAs (n = 128) were analyzed using enrichment analysis to determine overrepresented TF binding sites (TFBS). While most (56/73) TFs differed across environmental contaminants, a set of 17 TFs was enriched for promoter binding among miRNAs responsive to numerous environmental contaminants. Of these, one TF was common to miRNAs altered by the majority of environmental contaminants, namely SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily A, member 3 (SMARCA3). These identified TFs represent candidate common transcriptional regulators of miRNAs perturbed by environmental toxicants. - Highlights: • Transcription factors that regulate environmentally-modulated miRNA expression are understudied • Transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) located within DNA promoter regions of miRNAs were identified. • Specific transcription factors may serve as master regulators of environmentally-mediated microRNA expression

  19. Increased IL-10 mRNA and IL-23 mRNA expression in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakauer, Martin; Sorensen, P; Khademi, M

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interferon (IFN)-beta therapy in multiple sclerosis (MS) has been suggested to promote a deviation from T lymphocyte production of pathogenic Th1 cytokines to less detrimental Th2 cytokines, but this is still controversial. We studied patterns of in vivo blood mononuclear cell (MNC...... of any Th1 or Th2 cytokines. The largest changes in cytokine mRNA levels occurred early (~9-12 h) after an IFN-beta injection. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence of a Th1- or Th2-mRNA-promoting effect of IFN-beta therapy. The therapeutic effect of IFN-beta is more likely attributable to the induction...

  20. cWords - systematic microRNA regulatory motif discovery from mRNA expression data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Simon Horskjær; Jacobsen, Anders; Krogh, Anders

    2013-01-01

    and statistical methods of cWords, resulting in at least a factor 100 speed gain over the previous implementation. On a benchmark dataset of 19 microRNA (miRNA) perturbation experiments cWords showed equal or better performance than two comparable methods, miReduce and Sylamer. We have developed rigorous motif...... that demonstrate comparable or better performance than other existing methods. Rich visualization of results promotes intuitive and efficient interpretation of data. cWords is available as a stand-alone Open Source program at Github https://github.com/simras/cWords webcite and as a web-service at: http...

  1. A multiplexed miRNA and transgene expression platform for simultaneous repression and expression of protein coding sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyhan, Attila A

    2016-01-01

    Knockdown of single or multiple gene targets by RNA interference (RNAi) is necessary to overcome escape mutants or isoform redundancy. It is also necessary to use multiple RNAi reagents to knockdown multiple targets. It is also desirable to express a transgene or positive regulatory elements and inhibit a target gene in a coordinated fashion. This study reports a flexible multiplexed RNAi and transgene platform using endogenous intronic primary microRNAs (pri-miRNAs) as a scaffold located in the green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a model for any functional transgene. The multiplexed intronic miRNA - GFP transgene platform was designed to co-express multiple small RNAs within the polycistronic cluster from a Pol II promoter at more moderate levels to reduce potential vector toxicity. The native intronic miRNAs are co-transcribed with a precursor GFP mRNA as a single transcript and presumably cleaved out of the precursor-(pre) mRNA by the RNA splicing machinery, spliceosome. The spliced intron with miRNA hairpins will be further processed into mature miRNAs or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) capable of triggering RNAi effects, while the ligated exons become a mature messenger RNA for the translation of the functional GFP protein. Data show that this approach led to robust RNAi-mediated silencing of multiple Renilla Luciferase (R-Luc)-tagged target genes and coordinated expression of functional GFP from a single transcript in transiently transfected HeLa cells. The results demonstrated that this design facilitates the coordinated expression of all mature miRNAs either as individual miRNAs or as multiple miRNAs and the associated protein. The data suggest that, it is possible to simultaneously deliver multiple negative (miRNA or shRNA) and positive (transgene) regulatory elements. Because many cellular processes require simultaneous repression and activation of downstream pathways, this approach offers a platform technology to achieve that dual manipulation efficiently

  2. T-lymphocyte cytokine mRNA expression in cystic echinococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauser, S; Kern, P

    1997-04-01

    In the present study we investigated cytokine mRNA expression by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with cystic echinococcosis (CE) after stimulation with different antigens. By using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) we could demonstrate that restimulation with crude Echinococcus granulosus antigen (Eg-Ag) induced or enhanced Th2 cytokine mRNA expression, especially IL-5 (by using antigen from sheep cyst fluid) in 23 out of 26 investigated CE patients and IL-10 (by using antigen from camel cyst fluid) in 10 out of 10 investigated CE patients. In contrast, IL-5 mRNA expression was absent in PBMC of healthy controls after Eg-Ag stimulation. To determine the specificity of this reaction we stimulated PBMC from 11 CE patients with crude Echinococcus multilocularis antigen (Em-Ag) and PBMC from 8 CE patients with Toxocara canis antigen (Tc-Ag). We found that the PBMC of patients showed a similar mRNA cytokine pattern on stimulation with Em-Ag when compared with Eg-Ag stimulation. The cytokine mRNA pattern on stimulation with Tc-Ag, however, resembled the cytokine mRNA pattern of unstimulated PBMC. Furthermore, the stimulation of PBMC with crude Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen (H37Ra) and purified protein derivative (PPD) of M. tuberculosis revealed distinct IL-5 mRNA expression in all investigated CE patients, whereas in healthy controls IL-5 mRNA expression was very weak or totally absent. Thus, our results indicate an induction of Th2 cytokine mRNA expression in CE patients, which is frequently observed in parasite infections. Interestingly, this response persists after stimulation with tuberculosis antigens, which normally induce Th1 response.

  3. Dysregulated RNA-Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) Assembly within CNS Corresponds with Abnormal miRNA Expression during Autoimmune Demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewkowicz, Przemysław; Cwiklińska, Hanna; Mycko, Marcin P; Cichalewska, Maria; Domowicz, Małgorzata; Lewkowicz, Natalia; Jurewicz, Anna; Selmaj, Krzysztof W

    2015-05-13

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) associate with Argonaute (Ago), GW182, and FXR1 proteins to form RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs). RISCs represent a critical checkpoint in the regulation and bioavailability of miRNAs. Recent studies have revealed dysregulation of miRNAs in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE); however, the function of RISCs in EAE and MS is largely unknown. Here, we examined the expression of Ago, GW182, and FXR1 in CNS tissue, oligodendrocytes (OLs), brain-infiltrating T lymphocytes, and CD3(+)splenocytes (SCs) of EAE mic, and found that global RISC protein levels were significantly dysregulated. Specifically, Ago2 and FXR1 levels were decreased in OLs and brain-infiltrating T cells in EAE mice. Accordingly, assembly of Ago2/GW182/FXR1 complexes in EAE brain tissues was disrupted, as confirmed by immunoprecipitation experiments. In parallel with alterations in RISC complex content in OLs, we found downregulation of miRNAs essential for differentiation and survival of OLs and myelin synthesis. In brain-infiltrating T lymphocytes, aberrant RISC formation contributed to miRNA-dependent proinflammatory helper T-cell polarization. In CD3(+) SCs, we found increased expression of both Ago2 and FXR1 in EAE compared with nonimmunized mice. Therefore, our results demonstrate a gradient in expression of miRNA between primary activated T cells in the periphery and polarized CNS-infiltrating T cells. These results suggest that, in polarized autoreactive effector T cells, miRNA synthesis is inhibited in response to dysregulated RISC assembly, allowing these cells to maintain a highly specific proinflammatory program. Therefore, our findings may provide a mechanism that leads to miRNA dysregulation in EAE/MS. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357521-17$15.00/0.

  4. Interleukin-21 mRNA expression during virus infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Christian; Nyvold, Charlotte Guldborg; Paludan, Søren Riis

    2006-01-01

    and activational effects of IL-21 on different leukocytes come into play in vivo in an immune response has so far not been fully investigated. We show here for the first time in vivo, that IL-21 mRNA is produced in the spleen when mice are challenged with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) or lymphocytic...... choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). We show in HSV-2 challenged mice that this production takes place in CD4+ T cell fractions and is absent in CD4+ T cell-depleted fractions. We also show that the peak of IL-21 mRNA production in both the HSV-2 and LCMV-challenged mice coincides with the onset of the adaptive immune...

  5. Integrating miRNA and mRNA Expression Profiling Uncovers miRNAs Underlying Fat Deposition in Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangxian Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenous, noncoding RNAs that regulate various biological processes including adipogenesis and fat metabolism. Here, we adopted a deep sequencing approach to determine the identity and abundance of miRNAs involved in fat deposition in adipose tissues from fat-tailed (Kazakhstan sheep, KS and thin-tailed (Tibetan sheep, TS sheep breeds. By comparing HiSeq data of these two breeds, 539 miRNAs were shared in both breeds, whereas 179 and 97 miRNAs were uniquely expressed in KS and TS, respectively. We also identified 35 miRNAs that are considered to be putative novel miRNAs. The integration of miRNA-mRNA analysis revealed that miRNA-associated targets were mainly involved in the gene ontology (GO biological processes concerning cellular process and metabolic process, and miRNAs play critical roles in fat deposition through their ability to regulate fundamental pathways. These pathways included the MAPK signaling pathway, FoxO and Wnt signaling pathway, and focal adhesion. Taken together, our results define miRNA expression signatures that may contribute to fat deposition and lipid metabolism in sheep.

  6. Lower FOXO3 mRNA expression in granulosa cells is involved in unexplained infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hikaru; Yamashita, Yoshiki; Saito, Natsuho; Hayashi, Atsushi; Hayashi, Masami; Terai, Yoshito; Ohmichi, Masahide

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether FOXO1 and FOXO3 mRNA expression in granulosa cells is the cause of unexplained infertility. Thirty-one patients aged infertility and 18 with male partner infertility as a control group) whose serum anti-Müllerian hormone level was >0.5 ng/μL were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent oocyte retrieval under a short protocol from June 2012 to October 2013. Real-time PCR was carried out using mRNA extracted from granulosa cells retrieved from mature follicles. We compared FOXO1 and FOXO3 mRNA expression ratios in granulosa cells between the unexplained infertility group and the male infertility group. The relation between FOXO1 and FOXO3 mRNA expression ratios in granulosa cells and assisted reproduction technology clinical outcome was also examined. FOXO3 mRNA expression ratio was significantly lower in the unexplained infertility group than in the male infertility group. Moreover, FOXO3 mRNA expression ratio showed a positive correlation with both the number of retrieved oocytes and serum anti-Müllerian hormone level. A positive correlation was also identified between FOXO1 mRNA expression and total dose of hMG. As well, the number of retrieved oocytes in the unexplained infertility group was statistically lower than that in the male infertility group. A lower FOXO3 mRNA expression in granulosa cells leads to poor oocyte development in patients with unexplained infertility undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. RNA expression patterns in serum microvesicles from patients with glioblastoma multiforme and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noerholm Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA from exosomes and other microvesicles contain transcripts of tumour origin. In this study we sought to identify biomarkers of glioblastoma multiforme in microvesicle RNA from serum of affected patients. Methods Microvesicle RNA from serum from patients with de-novo primary glioblastoma multiforme (N = 9 and normal controls (N = 7 were analyzed by microarray analysis. Samples were collected according to protocols approved by the Institutional Review Board. Differential expressions were validated by qRT-PCR in a separate set of samples (N = 10 in both groups. Results Expression profiles of microvesicle RNA correctly separated individuals in two groups by unsupervised clustering. The most significant differences pertained to down-regulated genes (121 genes > 2-fold down in the glioblastoma multiforme patient microvesicle RNA, validated by qRT-PCR on several genes. Overall, yields of microvesicle RNA from patients was higher than from normal controls, but the additional RNA was primarily of size Conclusions Serum microvesicle RNA from patients with glioblastoma multiforme has significantly down-regulated levels of RNAs coding for ribosome production, compared to normal healthy controls, but a large overabundance of RNA of unknown origin with size

  8. RNA expression patterns in serum microvesicles from patients with glioblastoma multiforme and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noerholm, Mikkel; Balaj, Leonora; Limperg, Tobias; Salehi, Afshin; Zhu, Lin Dan; Hochberg, Fred H; Breakefield, Xandra O; Carter, Bob S; Skog, Johan

    2012-01-01

    RNA from exosomes and other microvesicles contain transcripts of tumour origin. In this study we sought to identify biomarkers of glioblastoma multiforme in microvesicle RNA from serum of affected patients. Microvesicle RNA from serum from patients with de-novo primary glioblastoma multiforme (N = 9) and normal controls (N = 7) were analyzed by microarray analysis. Samples were collected according to protocols approved by the Institutional Review Board. Differential expressions were validated by qRT-PCR in a separate set of samples (N = 10 in both groups). Expression profiles of microvesicle RNA correctly separated individuals in two groups by unsupervised clustering. The most significant differences pertained to down-regulated genes (121 genes > 2-fold down) in the glioblastoma multiforme patient microvesicle RNA, validated by qRT-PCR on several genes. Overall, yields of microvesicle RNA from patients was higher than from normal controls, but the additional RNA was primarily of size < 500 nt. Gene ontology of the down-regulated genes indicated these are coding for ribosomal proteins and genes related to ribosome production. Serum microvesicle RNA from patients with glioblastoma multiforme has significantly down-regulated levels of RNAs coding for ribosome production, compared to normal healthy controls, but a large overabundance of RNA of unknown origin with size < 500 nt

  9. Expression of miRNA-122 Induced by Liver Toxicants in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Sik Nam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA-122 (miRNA-122, also known as liver-specific miRNA, has recently been shown to be a potent biomarker in response to liver injury in mammals. The objective of this study was to examine its expression in response to toxicant treatment and acute liver damage, using the zebrafish system as an alternative model organism. For the hepatotoxicity assay, larval zebrafish were arrayed in 24-well plates. Adult zebrafish were also tested and arrayed in 200 mL cages. Animals were exposed to liver toxicants (tamoxifen or acetaminophen at various doses, and miRNA-122 expression levels were analyzed using qRT-PCR in dissected liver, brain, heart, and intestine, separately. Our results showed no significant changes in miRNA-122 expression level in tamoxifen-treated larvae; however, miRNA-122 expression was highly induced in tamoxifen-treated adults in a tissue-specific manner. In addition, we observed a histological change in adult liver (0.5 μM and cell death in larval liver (5 μM at different doses of tamoxifen. These results indicated that miRNA-122 may be utilized as a liver-specific biomarker for acute liver toxicity in zebrafish.

  10. Aberrant Expression of miRNA and mRNAs in Lesioned Tissues of Graves' Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Qin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Abnormal microRNA (miRNA expression is found in many diseases including autoimmune diseases. However, little is known about the role of miRNA regulation in Graves' disease (GD. Here, we simultaneously detected different expressions of miRNA and mRNAs in thyroid tissues via a high-throughput transcriptomics approach, known as microarray, in order to reveal the relationship between aberrant expression of miRNAs and mRNAs spectrum and GD. Methods: Totally 7 specimens of thyroid tissue from 4 GD patients and 3 controls were obtained by surgery for microarray analysis. Then, 30 thyroid specimens (18 GD and 12 controls were also collected for further validation by quantitative real-time PCR ( qRT-PCR . Results: Statistical analysis showed that the expressions of 5 specific miRNA were increased significantly while those of other 18 miRNA were decreased in thyroid tissue of GD patients (FC≥1.3 or≤0.77 and pConclusion: Our study highlights the possibility that miRNA-target gene network may be involved in the pathogenesis of GD and could provide new insights into understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of GD.

  11. Accounting for technical noise in differential expression analysis of single-cell RNA sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Cheng; Hu, Yu; Kelly, Derek; Kim, Junhyong; Li, Mingyao; Zhang, Nancy R

    2017-11-02

    Recent technological breakthroughs have made it possible to measure RNA expression at the single-cell level, thus paving the way for exploring expression heterogeneity among individual cells. Current single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) protocols are complex and introduce technical biases that vary across cells, which can bias downstream analysis without proper adjustment. To account for cell-to-cell technical differences, we propose a statistical framework, TASC (Toolkit for Analysis of Single Cell RNA-seq), an empirical Bayes approach to reliably model the cell-specific dropout rates and amplification bias by use of external RNA spike-ins. TASC incorporates the technical parameters, which reflect cell-to-cell batch effects, into a hierarchical mixture model to estimate the biological variance of a gene and detect differentially expressed genes. More importantly, TASC is able to adjust for covariates to further eliminate confounding that may originate from cell size and cell cycle differences. In simulation and real scRNA-seq data, TASC achieves accurate Type I error control and displays competitive sensitivity and improved robustness to batch effects in differential expression analysis, compared to existing methods. TASC is programmed to be computationally efficient, taking advantage of multi-threaded parallelization. We believe that TASC will provide a robust platform for researchers to leverage the power of scRNA-seq. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Identification of a Polyomavirus microRNA Highly Expressed in Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun Jung; Cox, Jennifer E.; Azarm, Kristopher; Wylie, Karen N.; Woolard, Kevin D.; Pesavento, Patricia A.; Sullivan, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    Polyomaviruses (PyVs) are associated with tumors including Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). Several PyVs encode microRNAs (miRNAs) but to date no abundant PyV miRNAs have been reported in tumors. To better understand the function of the Merkel cell PyV (MCPyV) miRNA, we examined phylogenetically-related viruses for miRNA expression. We show that two primate PyVs and the more distantly-related raccoon PyV (RacPyV) encode miRNAs that share genomic position and partial sequence identity with MCPyV miRNAs. Unlike MCPyV miRNA in MCC, RacPyV miRNA is highly abundant in raccoon tumors. RacPyV miRNA negatively regulates reporters of early viral (T antigen) transcripts, yet robust viral miRNA expression is tolerated in tumors. We also identify raccoon miRNAs expressed in RacPyV-associated neuroglial brain tumors, including several likely oncogenic miRNAs (oncomiRs). This work describes the first PyV miRNA abundantly expressed in tumors and is consistent with a possible role for both host and viral miRNAs in RacPyV-associated tumors. PMID:25514573

  13. Global Analysis of miRNA Gene Clusters and Gene Families Reveals Dynamic and Coordinated Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To further understand the potential expression relationships of miRNAs in miRNA gene clusters and gene families, a global analysis was performed in 4 paired tumor (breast cancer and adjacent normal tissue samples using deep sequencing datasets. The compositions of miRNA gene clusters and families are not random, and clustered and homologous miRNAs may have close relationships with overlapped miRNA species. Members in the miRNA group always had various expression levels, and even some showed larger expression divergence. Despite the dynamic expression as well as individual difference, these miRNAs always indicated consistent or similar deregulation patterns. The consistent deregulation expression may contribute to dynamic and coordinated interaction between different miRNAs in regulatory network. Further, we found that those clustered or homologous miRNAs that were also identified as sense and antisense miRNAs showed larger expression divergence. miRNA gene clusters and families indicated important biological roles, and the specific distribution and expression further enrich and ensure the flexible and robust regulatory network.

  14. RNA-Seq reveals MicroRNA expression signature and genetic polymorphism associated with growth and muscle quality traits in rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of microRNA expression and genetic variation in microRNA-binding sites of target genes on growth and muscle quality traits is poorly characterized. We used RNA-Seq approach to investigate their importance on 5 growth and muscle quality traits: whole body weight (WBW), muscle yield, muscle c...

  15. Molecular characterization and expression of maternally expressed gene 3 (Meg3/Gtl2) RNA in the mouse inner ear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manji, S.S.; Sørensen, Brita Singers; Klockars, T.

    2006-01-01

    The pathways responsible for sound perception in the cochlea involve the coordinated and regulated expression of hundreds of genes. By using microarray analysis, we identified several transcripts enriched in the inner ear, including the maternally expressed gene 3 (Meg3/Gtl2), an imprinted...... noncoding RNA. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that Meg3/Gtl2 was highly expressed in the cochlea, brain, and eye. Molecular studies revealed the presence of several Meg3/Gtl2 RNA splice variants in the mouse cochlea, brain, and eye. In situ hybridizations showed intense Meg3/Gtl2 RNA staining...... otocyst and localized to the spiral ganglion, stria vascularis, Reissner's membrane, and greater epithelial ridge (GER) in the cochlear duct. RT-PCR analysis performed on cell lines derived from the organ of Corti, representing neural, supporting, and hair cells, showed significantly elevated levels...

  16. IBTK Differently Modulates Gene Expression and RNA Splicing in HeLa and K562 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Fiume

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The IBTK gene encodes the major protein isoform IBTKα that was recently characterized as substrate receptor of Cul3-dependent E3 ligase, regulating ubiquitination coupled to proteasomal degradation of Pdcd4, an inhibitor of translation. Due to the presence of Ankyrin-BTB-RCC1 domains that mediate several protein-protein interactions, IBTKα could exert expanded regulatory roles, including interaction with transcription regulators. To verify the effects of IBTKα on gene expression, we analyzed HeLa and K562 cell transcriptomes by RNA-Sequencing before and after IBTK knock-down by shRNA transduction. In HeLa cells, 1285 (2.03% of 63,128 mapped transcripts were differentially expressed in IBTK-shRNA-transduced cells, as compared to cells treated with control-shRNA, with 587 upregulated (45.7% and 698 downregulated (54.3% RNAs. In K562 cells, 1959 (3.1% of 63128 mapped RNAs were differentially expressed in IBTK-shRNA-transduced cells, including 1053 upregulated (53.7% and 906 downregulated (46.3%. Only 137 transcripts (0.22% were commonly deregulated by IBTK silencing in both HeLa and K562 cells, indicating that most IBTKα effects on gene expression are cell type-specific. Based on gene ontology classification, the genes responsive to IBTK are involved in different biological processes, including in particular chromatin and nucleosomal organization, gene expression regulation, and cellular traffic and migration. In addition, IBTK RNA interference affected RNA maturation in both cell lines, as shown by the evidence of alternative 3′- and 5′-splicing, mutually exclusive exons, retained introns, and skipped exons. Altogether, these results indicate that IBTK differently modulates gene expression and RNA splicing in HeLa and K562 cells, demonstrating a novel biological role of this protein.

  17. IBTK Differently Modulates Gene Expression and RNA Splicing in HeLa and K562 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Giuseppe; Scialdone, Annarita; Rizzo, Francesca; De Filippo, Maria Rosaria; Laudanna, Carmelo; Albano, Francesco; Golino, Gaetanina; Vecchio, Eleonora; Pontoriero, Marilena; Mimmi, Selena; Ceglia, Simona; Pisano, Antonio; Iaccino, Enrico; Palmieri, Camillo; Paduano, Sergio; Viglietto, Giuseppe; Weisz, Alessandro; Scala, Giuseppe; Quinto, Ileana

    2016-11-07

    The IBTK gene encodes the major protein isoform IBTKα that was recently characterized as substrate receptor of Cul3-dependent E3 ligase, regulating ubiquitination coupled to proteasomal degradation of Pdcd4, an inhibitor of translation. Due to the presence of Ankyrin-BTB-RCC1 domains that mediate several protein-protein interactions, IBTKα could exert expanded regulatory roles, including interaction with transcription regulators. To verify the effects of IBTKα on gene expression, we analyzed HeLa and K562 cell transcriptomes by RNA-Sequencing before and after IBTK knock-down by shRNA transduction. In HeLa cells, 1285 (2.03%) of 63,128 mapped transcripts were differentially expressed in IBTK -shRNA-transduced cells, as compared to cells treated with control-shRNA, with 587 upregulated (45.7%) and 698 downregulated (54.3%) RNAs. In K562 cells, 1959 (3.1%) of 63128 mapped RNAs were differentially expressed in IBTK -shRNA-transduced cells, including 1053 upregulated (53.7%) and 906 downregulated (46.3%). Only 137 transcripts (0.22%) were commonly deregulated by IBTK silencing in both HeLa and K562 cells, indicating that most IBTKα effects on gene expression are cell type-specific. Based on gene ontology classification, the genes responsive to IBTK are involved in different biological processes, including in particular chromatin and nucleosomal organization, gene expression regulation, and cellular traffic and migration. In addition, IBTK RNA interference affected RNA maturation in both cell lines, as shown by the evidence of alternative 3'- and 5'-splicing, mutually exclusive exons, retained introns, and skipped exons. Altogether, these results indicate that IBTK differently modulates gene expression and RNA splicing in HeLa and K562 cells, demonstrating a novel biological role of this protein.

  18. Primary structure, gene organization and polypeptide expression of poliovirus RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, N. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook); Semler, B.L.; Rothberg, P.G.

    1981-06-18

    The primary structure of the poliovirus genome has been determined. The RNA molecule is 7433 nucleotides long, polyadenylated at the 3' terminus, and covalently linked to a small protein (VPg) at the 5' terminus. An open reading frame of 2207 consecutive triplets spans over 89% of the nucleotide sequence and codes for the viral polyprotein NCVPOO. Twelve viral polypeptides have been mapped by amino acid sequence analysis and were found to be proteolytic cleavage products of the polyprotein, cleavages occurring predominantly at Gln-Gly pairs.

  19. Interleukin 21 Controls mRNA and MicroRNA Expression in CD40-Activated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loris De Cecco

    Full Text Available Several factors support CLL cell survival in the microenvironment. Under different experimental conditions, IL21 can either induce apoptosis or promote CLL cell survival. To investigate mechanisms involved in the effects of IL21, we studied the ability of IL21 to modulate gene and miRNA expressions in CD40-activated CLL cells. IL21 was a major regulator of chemokine production in CLL cells and it modulated the expression of genes involved in cell movement, metabolism, survival and apoptosis. In particular, IL21 down-regulated the expression of the chemokine genes CCL4, CCL3, CCL3L1, CCL17, and CCL2, while it up-regulated the Th1-related CXCL9 and CXCL10. In addition, IL21 down-regulated the expression of genes encoding signaling molecules, such as CD40, DDR1 and PIK3CD. IL21 modulated a similar set of genes in CLL and normal B-cells (e.g. chemokine genes, whereas other genes, including MYC, TNF, E2F1, EGR2 and GAS-6, were regulated only in CLL cells. An integrated analysis of the miRNome and gene expression indicated that several miRNAs were under IL21 control and these could, in turn, influence the expression of potential target genes. We focused on hsa-miR-663b predicted to down-regulate several relevant genes. Transfection of hsa-miR-663b or its specific antagonist showed that this miRNA regulated CCL17, DDR1, PIK3CD and CD40 gene expression. Our data indicated that IL21 modulates the expression of genes mediating the crosstalk between CLL cells and their microenvironment and miRNAs may take part in this process.

  20. Decreased neutrophil-associated miRNA and increased B-cell associated miRNA expression during tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rensburg, I C; du Toit, L; Walzl, G; du Plessis, N; Loxton, A G

    2018-05-20

    MicroRNAs are short non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to, and suppressing the expression of genes. Research show that microRNAs have potential to be used as biomarkers for diagnosis, treatment response and can be used for therapeutic interventions. Furthermore, microRNA expression has effects on immune cell functions, which may lead to disease. Considering the important protective role of neutrophils and B-cells during M.tb infection, we evaluated the expression of microRNAs, known to alter function of these cells, in the context of human TB. We utilised real-time PCR to evaluate the levels of microRNA transcripts in the peripheral blood of TB cases and healthy controls. We found that neutrophil-associated miR-197-3p, miR-99b-5p and miR-191-5p transcript levels were significantly lower in TB cases. Additionally, B-cell-associated miR-320a, miR-204-5p, miR331-3p and other transcript levels were higher in TB cases. The miRNAs differentially expressed in neutrophils are predominantly implicated in signalling pathways leading to cytokine productions. Here, the decreased expression in TB cases may imply a lack of suppression on signalling pathways, which may lead to increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-gamma. Furthermore, the miRNAs differentially expressed in B-cells are mostly involved in the induction/suppression of apoptosis. Further functional studies are however required to elucidate the significance and functional effects of changes in the expression of these microRNAs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A systems biology approach for miRNA-mRNA expression patterns analysis in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Ali; Tavallaei, Mahmood; Hosseini, Sayed Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) is a prevalent and heterogeneous subtype of lung cancer accounting for 85 percent of patients. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small endogenous non-coding RNAs, incorporate into regulation of gene expression post-transcriptionally. Therefore, deregulation of miRNAs' expression has provided further layers of complexity to the molecular etiology and pathogenesis of different diseases and malignancies. Although, until now considerable number of studies has been carried out to illuminate this complexity in NSCLC, they have remained less effective in their goal due to lack of a holistic and integrative systems biology approach which considers all natural elaborations of miRNAs' function. It is able to reliably nominate most affected signaling pathways and therapeutic target genes by deregulated miRNAs during a particular pathological condition. Herein, we utilized a holistic systems biology approach, based on appropriate re-analyses of microarray datasets followed by reliable data filtering, to analyze integrative and combinatorial deregulated miRNA-mRNA interaction network in NSCLC, aiming to ascertain miRNA-dysregulated signaling pathway and potential therapeutic miRNAs and mRNAs which represent a lion' share during various aspects of NSCLC's pathogenesis. Our systems biology approach introduced and nominated 1) important deregulated miRNAs in NSCLCs compared with normal tissue 2) significant and confident deregulated mRNAs which were anti-correlatively targeted by deregulated miRNA in NSCLCs and 3) dysregulated signaling pathways in association with deregulated miRNA-mRNAs interactions in NSCLCs. These results introduce possible mechanism of function of deregulated miRNAs and mRNAs in NSCLC that could be used as potential therapeutic targets.

  2. Design, Construction, and Validation of Artificial MicroRNA Vectors Using Agrobacterium-Mediated Transient Expression System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwat, Basdeo; Chi, Ming; Han, Dianwei; Tang, Haifeng; Tang, Guiliang; Xiang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Artificial microRNA (amiRNA) technology utilizes microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis pathway to produce artificially selected small RNAs using miRNA gene backbone. It provides a feasible strategy for inducing loss of gene function, and has been applied in functional genomics study, improvement of crop quality and plant virus disease resistance. A big challenge in amiRNA applications is the unpredictability of silencing efficacy of the designed amiRNAs and not all constructed amiRNA candidates would be expressed effectively in plant cells. We and others found that high efficiency and specificity in RNA silencing can be achieved by designing amiRNAs with perfect or almost perfect sequence complementarity to their targets. In addition, we recently demonstrated that Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression system can be used to validate amiRNA constructs, which provides a simple, rapid and effective method to select highly expressible amiRNA candidates for stable genetic transformation. Here, we describe the methods for design of amiRNA candidates with perfect or almost perfect base-pairing to the target gene or gene groups, incorporation of amiRNA candidates in miR168a gene backbone by one step inverse PCR amplification, construction of plant amiRNA expression vectors, and assay of transient expression of amiRNAs in Nicotiana benthamiana through agro-infiltration, small RNA extraction, and amiRNA Northern blot.

  3. mESAdb: microRNA expression and sequence analysis database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Koray D; Karakülah, Gökhan; Yakicier, Cengiz M; Acar, Aybar C; Konu, Ozlen

    2011-01-01

    microRNA expression and sequence analysis database (http://konulab.fen.bilkent.edu.tr/mirna/) (mESAdb) is a regularly updated database for the multivariate analysis of sequences and expression of microRNAs from multiple taxa. mESAdb is modular and has a user interface implemented in PHP and JavaScript and coupled with statistical analysis and visualization packages written for the R language. The database primarily comprises mature microRNA sequences and their target data, along with selected human, mouse and zebrafish expression data sets. mESAdb analysis modules allow (i) mining of microRNA expression data sets for subsets of microRNAs selected manually or by motif; (ii) pair-wise multivariate analysis of expression data sets within and between taxa; and (iii) association of microRNA subsets with annotation databases, HUGE Navigator, KEGG and GO. The use of existing and customized R packages facilitates future addition of data sets and analysis tools. Furthermore, the ability to upload and analyze user-specified data sets makes mESAdb an interactive and expandable analysis tool for microRNA sequence and expression data.

  4. MicroRNA Expression Profiles in Cultured Human Fibroblasts in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Honglu; Lu, Tao; Jeevarajan, John; Rohde, Larry; Zhang, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Microgravity, or an altered gravity environment from the static 1g, has been shown to influence global gene expression patterns and protein levels in living organisms. However, it is unclear how these changes in gene and protein expressions are related to each other or are related to other factors regulating such changes. A different class of RNA, the small non-coding microRNA (miRNA), can have a broad effect on gene expression networks by mainly inhibiting the translation process. Previously, we investigated changes in the expression of miRNA and related genes under simulated microgravity conditions on the ground using the NASA invented bioreactor. In comparison to static 1 g, simulated microgravity altered a number of miRNAs in human lymphoblastoid cells. Pathway analysis with the altered miRNAs and RNA expressions revealed differential involvement of cell communication and catalytic activity, as well as immune response signaling and NGF activation of NF-kB pathways under simulated microgravity condition. The network analysis also identified several projected networks with c- Rel, ETS1 and Ubiquitin C as key factors. In a flight experiment on the International Space Station (ISS), we will investigate the effects of actual spaceflight on miRNA expressions in nondividing human fibroblast cells in mostly G1 phase of the cell cycle. A fibroblast is a type of cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, the structural framework for tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing and other functions. In addition to miRNA expressions, we will investigate the effects of spaceflight on the cellular response to DNA damages from bleomycin treatment.

  5. Construction of permanently inducible miRNA-based expression vectors using site-specific recombinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garwick-Coppens Sara E

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA interference (RNAi is a conserved gene silencing mechanism mediated by small inhibitory microRNAs (miRNAs. Promoter-driven miRNA expression vectors have emerged as important tools for delivering natural or artificially designed miRNAs to eukaryotic cells and organisms. Such systems can be used to query the normal or pathogenic functions of natural miRNAs or messenger RNAs, or to therapeutically silence disease genes. Results As with any molecular cloning procedure, building miRNA-based expression constructs requires a time investment and some molecular biology skills. To improve efficiency and accelerate the construction process, we developed a method to rapidly generate miRNA expression vectors using recombinases instead of more traditional cut-and-paste molecular cloning techniques. In addition to streamlining the construction process, our cloning strategy provides vectors with added versatility. In our system, miRNAs can be constitutively expressed from the U6 promoter, or inducibly expressed by Cre recombinase. We also engineered a built-in mechanism to destroy the vector with Flp recombinase, if desired. Finally, to further simplify the construction process, we developed a software package that automates the prediction and design of optimal miRNA sequences using our system. Conclusions We designed and tested a modular system to rapidly clone miRNA expression cassettes. Our strategy reduces the hands-on time required to successfully generate effective constructs, and can be implemented in labs with minimal molecular cloning expertise. This versatile system provides options that permit constitutive or inducible miRNA expression, depending upon the needs of the end user. As such, it has utility for basic or translational applications.

  6. Tuning protein expression using synonymous codon libraries targeted to the 5' mRNA coding region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Lise; Borch Jensen, Martin; Bentin, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    intermediate expression levels of green fluorescent protein in Escherichia coli. At least in one case, no apparent effect on protein stability was observed, pointing to RNA level effects as the principal reason for the observed expression differences. Targeting a synonymous codon library to the 5' coding...

  7. Major aging-associated RNA expressions change at two distinct age-positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gheorghe, M.; Snoeck, M.; Emmerich, M.; Back, T.; Goeman, J.J.; Raz, V.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genome-wide expression profiles are altered during biological aging and can describe molecular regulation of tissue degeneration. Age-regulated mRNA expression trends from cross-sectional studies could describe how aging progresses. We developed a novel statistical methodology to

  8. Expressed microRNA associated with high rate of egg production in chicken ovarian follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, N; Gaur, U; Zhu, Q; Chen, B; Xu, Z; Zhao, X; Yang, M; Li, D

    2017-04-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) is a highly conserved class of small noncoding RNA about 19-24 nucleotides in length that function in a specific manner to post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression in organisms. Tissue miRNA expression studies have discovered a myriad of functions for miRNAs in various aspects, but a role for miRNAs in chicken ovarian tissue at 300 days of age has not hitherto been reported. In this study, we performed the first miRNA analysis of ovarian tissues in chickens with low and high rates of egg production using high-throughput sequencing. By comparing low rate of egg production chickens with high rate of egg production chickens, 17 significantly differentially expressed miRNAs were found (P chickens with high rates of egg production, suggesting that these miRNAs have an important role in ovary development and reproductive management of chicken. Furthermore, we uncovered that a significantly up-regulated miRNA-gga-miR-200a-3p-is ubiquitous in reproduction-regulation-related pathways. This miRNA may play a special central role in the reproductive management of chicken, and needs to be further studied for confirmation. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  9. Diet and lifestyle factors associated with miRNA expression in colorectal tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slattery ML

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Martha L Slattery,1 Jennifer S Herrick,1 Lila E Mullany,1 John R Stevens,2 Roger K Wolff1 1Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Utah, Salt Lake City, 2Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Utah State University, Logan, UT, USA Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-protein-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression. Diet and lifestyle factors have been hypothesized to be involved in the regulation of miRNA expression. In this study it was hypothesized that diet and lifestyle factors are associated with miRNA expression. Data from 1,447 cases of colorectal cancer to evaluate 34 diet and lifestyle variables using miRNA expression in normal colorectal mucosa as well as for differential expression between paired carcinoma and normal tissue were used. miRNA data were obtained using an Agilent platform. Multiple comparisons were adjusted for using the false discovery rate q-value. There were 250 miRNAs differentially expressed between carcinoma and normal colonic tissue by level of carbohydrate intake and 198 miRNAs differentially expressed by the level of sucrose intake. Of these miRNAs, 166 miRNAs were differentially expressed for both carbohydrate intake and sucrose intake. Ninety-nine miRNAs were differentially expressed by the level of whole grain intake in normal colonic mucosa. Level of oxidative balance score was associated with 137 differentially expressed miRNAs between carcinoma and paired normal rectal mucosa. Additionally, 135 miRNAs were differentially expressed in colon tissue based on recent NSAID use. Other dietary factors, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and long-term physical activity levels did not alter miRNA expression after adjustment for multiple comparisons. These results suggest that diet and lifestyle factors regulate miRNA level. They provide additional support for the influence of carbohydrate, sucrose, whole grains, NSAIDs, and oxidative balance score on colorectal cancer risk

  10. Simple method for assembly of CRISPR synergistic activation mediator gRNA expression array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vad-Nielsen, Johan; Nielsen, Anders Lade; Luo, Yonglun

    2018-05-20

    When studying complex interconnected regulatory networks, effective methods for simultaneously manipulating multiple genes expression are paramount. Previously, we have developed a simple method for generation of an all-in-one CRISPR gRNA expression array. We here present a Golden Gate Assembly-based system of synergistic activation mediator (SAM) compatible CRISPR/dCas9 gRNA expression array for the simultaneous activation of multiple genes. Using this system, we demonstrated the simultaneous activation of the transcription factors, TWIST, SNAIL, SLUG, and ZEB1 a human breast cancer cell line. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Small RNA Sequencing Reveals Differential miRNA Expression in the Early Development of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) Pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wang, Yu; Wu, Mei; Li, Lihong; Jin, Chuan; Zhang, Qingli; Chen, Chengbin; Song, Wenqin; Wang, Chunguo

    2017-01-01

    Pollen development is an important and complex biological process in the sexual reproduction of flowering plants. Although the cytological characteristics of pollen development are well defined, the regulation of its early stages remains largely unknown. In the present study, miRNAs were explored in the early development of broccoli ( Brassica oleracea var. italica ) pollen. A total of 333 known miRNAs that originated from 235 miRNA families were detected. Fifty-five novel miRNA candidates were identified. Sixty of the 333 known miRNAs and 49 of the 55 predicted novel miRNAs exhibited significantly differential expression profiling in the three distinct developmental stages of broccoli pollen. Among these differentially expressed miRNAs, miRNAs that would be involved in the developmental phase transition from uninucleate microspores to binucleate pollen grains or from binucleate to trinucleate pollen grains were identified. miRNAs that showed significantly enriched expression in a specific early stage of broccoli pollen development were also observed. In addition, 552 targets for 127 known miRNAs and 69 targets for 40 predicted novel miRNAs were bioinformatically identified. Functional annotation and GO (Gene Ontology) analysis indicated that the putative miRNA targets showed significant enrichment in GO terms that were related to plant organ formation and morphogenesis. Some of enriched GO terms were detected for the targets directly involved in plant male reproduction development. These findings provided new insights into the functions of miRNA-mediated regulatory networks in broccoli pollen development.

  12. Distinct RNA transcriptome patterns are potentially associated with angiogenesis in Tie2-expressing monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinjing; Dai, Zhiyuan; Wu, Xiaoli; Wang, Kai; Wang, Xipeng

    2016-04-10

    Tie2-expressing Monocytes (TEMs) were previously identified as a novel subset of monocytes and were believed to have prominent pro-angiogenesis activities in human tumors. While the molecular mechanism of the angiogenesis promoting capacity of TEMs remains unclear. RNA transcriptome pattern, including non-coding RNAs as microRNA (miRNA) and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), plays important role in cell differentiation and functions. However, little is known about the transcriptome patterns of TEMs, including those non-coding RNAs. We explore the transcriptome of TEMs and the matched monocytes that do not express Tie2 (Tie2(-)monocytes) isolated from peripheral blood of healthy adults employing the Agilent Human miRNA(8*60K,Design ID: 046064)microarray and the Agilent lncRNA Gene Expression(4*180K, Design ID: 042818)microarray. A total of 141 mRNAs, 142 lncRNAs and 75 miRNAs were found dysregulated in TEMs compared to Tie2(-)monocytes. TEMs have the distinct RNA transcriptome patterns according to the Hierarchical clustering and then the gene expression patterns were confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Functional annotation by Gene Ontology (GO) analyses showed that the up-regulated mRNAs in TEMs were associated to blood vessel remodeling and positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation, and the up-regulated insulin like growth factor 1(IGF1) mRNA was involved in both pathways. For functional analysis of those dysregulated non-coding RNAs, target genes of the miRNAs were predicted and cis/trans-regulation analysis of the lncRNAs were performed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantitative miRNA expression analysis: comparing microarrays with next-generation sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willenbrock, Hanni; Salomon, Jesper; Søkilde, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    Recently, next-generation sequencing has been introduced as a promising, new platform for assessing the copy number of transcripts, while the existing microarray technology is considered less reliable for absolute, quantitative expression measurements. Nonetheless, so far, results from the two...... technologies have only been compared based on biological data, leading to the conclusion that, although they are somewhat correlated, expression values differ significantly. Here, we use synthetic RNA samples, resembling human microRNA samples, to find that microarray expression measures actually correlate...... better with sample RNA content than expression measures obtained from sequencing data. In addition, microarrays appear highly sensitive and perform equivalently to next-generation sequencing in terms of reproducibility and relative ratio quantification....

  14. Spatio-temporal regulation of circular RNA expression during porcine embryonic brain development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venø, Morten T; Hansen, Thomas B; Venø, Susanne T

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, thousands of circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been discovered in various tissues and cell types from human, mouse, fruit fly and nematodes. However, expression of circRNAs across mammalian brain development has never been examined. RESULTS: Here we profile the expression of circ......RNA in five brain tissues at up to six time-points during fetal porcine development, constituting the first report of circRNA in the brain development of a large animal. An unbiased analysis reveals a highly complex regulation pattern of thousands of circular RNAs, with a distinct spatio-temporal expression...... are functionally conserved between mouse and human. Furthermore, we observe that "hot-spot" genes produce multiple circRNA isoforms, which are often differentially expressed across porcine brain development. A global comparison of porcine circRNAs reveals that introns flanking circularized exons are longer than...

  15. U6 snRNA expression prevents toxicity in TDP-43-knockdown cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Yahara

    Full Text Available Depletion of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS-associated transactivation response (TAR RNA/DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43 alters splicing efficiency of multiple transcripts and results in neuronal cell death. TDP-43 depletion can also disturb expression levels of small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs as spliceosomal components. Despite this knowledge, the relationship between cell death and alteration of snRNA expression during TDP-43 depletion remains unclear. Here, we knocked down TDP-43 in murine neuroblastoma Neuro2A cells and found a time lag between efficient TDP-43 depletion and appearance of cell death, suggesting that several mechanisms mediate between these two events. The amount of U6 snRNA was significantly decreased during TDP-43 depletion prior to increase of cell death, whereas that of U1, U2, and U4 snRNAs was not. Downregulation of U6 snRNA led to cell death, whereas transient exogenous expression of U6 snRNA counteracted the effect of TDP-43 knockdown on cell death, and slightly decreased the mis-splicing rate of Dnajc5 and Sortilin 1 transcripts, which are assisted by TDP-43. These results suggest that regulation of the U6 snRNA expression level by TDP-43 is a key factor in the increase in cell death upon TDP-43 loss-of-function.

  16. Persistent interferon transgene expression by RNA interference-mediated silencing of interferon receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yuki; Vikman, Elin; Nishikawa, Makiya; Ando, Mitsuru; Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2010-09-01

    The in vivo half-life of interferons (IFNs) is very short, and its extension would produce a better therapeutic outcome in IFN-based therapy. Delivery of IFN genes is one solution for providing a sustained supply. IFNs have a variety of functions, including the suppression of transgene expression, through interaction with IFN receptors (IFNRs). This suppression could prevent IFNs from being expressed from vectors delivered. Silencing the expression of IFNAR and IFNGR, the receptors for type I and II IFNs, respectively, in cells expressing IFNs may prolong transgene expression of IFNs. Mouse melanoma B16-BL6 cells or mouse liver were selected as a site expressing IFNs (not a target for IFN gene therapy) and IFN-expressing plasmid DNA was delivered with or without small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting IFNRs. Transfection of B16-BL6 cells with siRNA targeting IFNAR1 subunit (IFNAR1) resulted in the reduced expression of IFNAR on the cell surface. This silencing significantly increased the IFN-beta production in cells that were transfected with IFN-beta-expressing plasmid DNA. Similar results were obtained with the combination of IFN-gamma and IFNGR. Co-injection of IFN-beta-expressing plasmid DNA with siRNA targeting IFNAR1 into mice resulted in sustained plasma concentration of IFN-beta. These results provide experimental evidence that the RNAi-mediated silencing of IFNRs in cells expressing IFN, such as hepatocytes, is an effective approach for improving transgene expression of IFNs when their therapeutic target comprises cells other than those expressing IFNs.

  17. A Systematic Analysis on mRNA and MicroRNA Expression in Runting and Stunting Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haiping; Xu, Zhenqiang; Ma, Jinge; Li, Bixiao; Lin, Shudai; Nie, Qinghua; Luo, Qingbin; Zhang, Xiquan

    2015-01-01

    Runting and stunting syndrome (RSS), which is characterized by lower body weight, widely occurs in broilers. Some RSS chickens simply exhibit slow growth without pathological changes. An increasing number of studies indicate that broiler strains differ in susceptibility to infectious diseases, most likely due to their genetic differences. The objective of this study was to detect the differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs in RSS and normal chickens. By integrating miRNA with mRNA expression profiling, potential molecular mechanisms involved in RSS could be further explored. Twenty-two known miRNAs and 1,159 genes were differentially expressed in RSS chickens compared with normal chickens (P chicken liver albeit with reduced abundance. Dual-luciferase reporter assay indicated that gga-miR-30b/c directly target CARS through binding to its 3′UTR. The miR-30b/c: CARS regulation mainly occurred in liver. In thigh muscle and the hypothalamus, miR-30b/c are expressed at higher levels in RSS chickens compared with normal chickens from 2 to 6 w of age, and notably significant differences are observed at 4 w of age. PMID:26010155

  18. Role of Melt Curve Analysis in Interpretation of Nutrigenomics' MicroRNA Expression Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Farid E; Gouda, Mostafa M; Hussein, Laila A; Ahmed, Nancy C; Vos, Paul W; Mohammad, Mahmoud A

    2017-01-01

    This article illustrates the importance of melt curve analysis (MCA) in interpretation of mild nutrogenomic micro(mi)RNA expression data, by measuring the magnitude of the expression of key miRNA molecules in stool of healthy human adults as molecular markers, following the intake of Pomegranate juice (PGJ), functional fermented sobya (FS), rich in potential probiotic lactobacilli, or their combination. Total small RNA was isolated from stool of 25 volunteers before and following a three-week dietary intervention trial. Expression of 88 miRNA genes was evaluated using Qiagen's 96 well plate RT 2 miRNA qPCR arrays. Employing parallel coordinates plots, there was no observed significant separation for the gene expression (Cq) values, using Roche 480® PCR LightCycler instrument used in this study, and none of the miRNAs showed significant statistical expression after controlling for the false discovery rate. On the other hand, melting temperature profiles produced during PCR amplification run, found seven significant genes (miR-184, miR-203, miR-373, miR-124, miR-96, miR-373 and miR-301a), which separated candidate miRNAs that could function as novel molecular markers of relevance to oxidative stress and immunoglobulin function, for the intake of polyphenol (PP)-rich, functional fermented foods rich in lactobacilli (FS), or their combination. We elaborate on these data, and present a detailed review on use of melt curves for analyzing nutigenomic miRNA expression data, which initially appear to show no significant expressions, but are actually more subtle than this simplistic view, necessitating the understanding of the role of MCA for a comprehensive understanding of what the collective expression and MCA data collectively imply. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  19. RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, James E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Ribonucleic acid (RNA) converts genetic information into protein and usually must be processed to serve its function. RNA types, chemical structure, protein synthesis, translation, manufacture, and processing are discussed. Concludes that the first genes might have been spliced RNA and that humans might be closer than bacteria to primitive…

  20. Decreased EGFR mRNA expression in response to antipsoriatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... pathogenesis of psoriasis, the objective of this study was to investigate the transcriptional effect of dithranol .... N.E. Fusenig, German Cancer Research Centre, Heidelberg, ... RT-PCR analysis of EGFR expression in HaCaT cells treated with ... reliability. ... relationship to cancer risk and therapy response.

  1. Phytochrome B mRNA expression enhances biomass yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A wide variety of physiological responses, including most light responses, also are modulated by photoreceptor gene such as PHYB. Phytochrome B (PHYB) expression patterns may be significant in the daily regulation of plant physiology and indicate an unexpectedly intimate relationship between the components of the ...

  2. Gene expression profiles in BCL11B-siRNA treated malignant T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabarczyk Piotr

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Downregulation of the B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL/lymphoma11B (BCL11B gene by small interfering RNA (siRNA leads to growth inhibition and apoptosis of the human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL cell line Molt-4. To further characterize the molecular mechanism, a global gene expression profile of BCL11B-siRNA -treated Molt-4 cells was established. The expression profiles of several genes were further validated in the BCL11B-siRNA -treated Molt-4 cells and primary T-ALL cells. Results 142 genes were found to be upregulated and 109 genes downregulated in the BCL11B-siRNA -treated Molt-4 cells by microarray analysis. Among apoptosis-related genes, three pro-apoptotic genes, TNFSF10, BIK, BNIP3, were upregulated and one anti-apoptotic gene, BCL2L1 was downregulated. Moreover, the expression of SPP1 and CREBBP genes involved in the transforming growth factor (TGF-β pathway was down 16-fold. Expression levels of TNFSF10, BCL2L1, SPP1, and CREBBP were also examined by real-time PCR. A similar expression pattern of TNFSF10, BCL2L1, and SPP1 was identified. However, CREBBP was not downregulated in the BLC11B-siRNA -treated Molt-4 cells. Conclusion BCL11B-siRNA treatment altered expression profiles of TNFSF10, BCL2L1, and SPP1 in both Molt-4 T cell line and primary T-ALL cells.

  3. Authentic interdomain communication in an RNA helicase reconstituted by expressed protein ligation of two helicase domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karow, Anne R; Theissen, Bettina; Klostermeier, Dagmar

    2007-01-01

    RNA helicases mediate structural rearrangements of RNA or RNA-protein complexes at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. Members of the DEAD box helicase family consist of two flexibly connected helicase domains. They share nine conserved sequence motifs that are involved in nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, RNA binding, and helicase activity. Most of these motifs line the cleft between the two helicase domains, and extensive communication between them is required for RNA unwinding. The two helicase domains of the Bacillus subtilis RNA helicase YxiN were produced separately as intein fusions, and a functional RNA helicase was generated by expressed protein ligation. The ligated helicase binds adenine nucleotides with very similar affinities to the wild-type protein. Importantly, its intrinsically low ATPase activity is stimulated by RNA, and the Michaelis-Menten parameters are similar to those of the wild-type. Finally, ligated YxiN unwinds a minimal RNA substrate to an extent comparable to that of the wild-type helicase, confirming authentic interdomain communication.

  4. MicroRNA Expression Varies according to Glucose Tolerance, Measurement Platform, and Biological Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysregulated microRNA (miRNA expression is observed during type 2 diabetes (T2D, although the consistency of miRNA expression across measurement platform and biological source is uncertain. Here we report miRNA profiling in the whole blood and serum of South African women with different levels of glucose tolerance, using next generation sequencing (NGS and quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR. Whole blood-derived miRNAs from women with newly diagnosed T2D (n=4, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT (n=4, and normal glucose tolerance (NGT (n=4 were subjected to NGS, whereafter transcript levels of selected miRNAs were quantified in the whole blood and serum of these women using qRT-PCR. Of the five significantly differentially expressed miRNAs identified by NGS, only the directional increase of miR-27b in women with IGT compared to NGT was confirmed in whole blood and serum, using qRT-PCR. Functional enrichment of miR-27b gene targets identified biological pathways associated with glucose transport and insulin regulation. In conclusion, this study showed poor correlation in miRNA expression profiled using NGS and qRT-PCR and in whole blood and serum. The consistent increased expression of miR-27b in women with IGT compared to NGT across measurement platform and biological source holds potential as a biomarker for risk stratification in our population.

  5. Dysregulation of hepatic microRNA expression profiles with Clonorchis sinensis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Su; Tang, Qiaoran; Lu, Xi; Chen, Rui; Li, Yihong; Shu, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoli; Cao, Jianping

    2016-11-30

    Clonorchiasis remains an important zoonotic parasitic disease worldwide. The molecular mechanisms of host-parasite interaction are not fully understood. Non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) are considered to be key regulators in parasitic diseases. The regulation of miRNAs and host micro-environment may be involved in clonorchiasis, and require further investigation. MiRNA microarray technology and bioinformatic analysis were used to investigate the regulatory mechanisms of host miRNA and to compare miRNA expression profiles in the liver tissues of control and Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis)-infected rats. A total of eight miRNAs were downregulated and two were upregulated, which showed differentially altered expression profiles in the liver tissue of C. sinensis-infected rats. Further analysis of the differentially expressed miRNAs revealed that many important signal pathways were triggered after infection with C. sinensis, which were related to clonorchiasis pathogenesis, such as cell apoptosis and inflammation, as well as genes involved in signal transduction mechanisms, such as pathways in cancer and the Wnt and Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathways. The present study revealed that the miRNA expression profiles of the host were changed by C. sinensis infection. This dysregulation in miRNA expression may contribute to the etiology and pathophysiology of clonorchiasis. These results also provide new insights into the regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs in clonorchiasis, which may present potential targets for future C. sinensis control strategies.

  6. Tissue-specific RNA expression marks distant-acting developmental enhancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Wu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Short non-coding transcripts can be transcribed from distant-acting transcriptional enhancer loci, but the prevalence of such enhancer RNAs (eRNAs within the transcriptome, and the association of eRNA expression with tissue-specific enhancer activity in vivo remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the expression dynamics of tissue-specific non-coding RNAs in embryonic mouse tissues via deep RNA sequencing. Overall, approximately 80% of validated in vivo enhancers show tissue-specific RNA expression that correlates with tissue-specific enhancer activity. Globally, we identified thousands of tissue-specifically transcribed non-coding regions (TSTRs displaying various genomic hallmarks of bona fide enhancers. In transgenic mouse reporter assays, over half of tested TSTRs functioned as enhancers with reproducible activity in the predicted tissue. Together, our results demonstrate that tissue-specific eRNA expression is a common feature of in vivo enhancers, as well as a major source of extragenic transcription, and that eRNA expression signatures can be used to predict tissue-specific enhancers independent of known epigenomic enhancer marks.

  7. High ALK mRNA expression has a negative prognostic significance in rhabdomyosarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Bonvini, P; Zin, A; Alaggio, R; Pawel, B; Bisogno, G; Rosolen, A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase aberrantly expressed in cancer, but its clinical and functional importance remain controversial. Mutation or amplification of ALK, as well as its expression levels assessed by conventional immunohistochemistry methods, has been linked to prognosis in cancer, although with potential bias because of the semi-quantitative approaches. Herein, we measured ALK mRNA expression in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and determined its clin...

  8. High SINE RNA Expression Correlates with Post-Transcriptional Downregulation of BRCA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bosco

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements (SINEs are non-autonomous retrotransposons that comprise a large fraction of the human genome. SINEs are demethylated in human disease, but whether SINEs become transcriptionally induced and how the resulting transcripts may affect the expression of protein coding genes is unknown. Here, we show that downregulation of the mRNA of the tumor suppressor gene BRCA1 is associated with increased transcription of SINEs and production of sense and antisense SINE small RNAs. We find that BRCA1 mRNA is post-transcriptionally down-regulated in a Dicer and Drosha dependent manner and that expression of a SINE inverted repeat with sequence identity to a BRCA1 intron is sufficient for downregulation of BRCA1 mRNA. These observations suggest that transcriptional activation of SINEs could contribute to a novel mechanism of RNA mediated post-transcriptional silencing of human genes.

  9. How to measure RNA expression in rare senescent cells expressing any specific protein such as p16Ink4a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyapalan, Jessie C; Sedivy, John M

    2013-02-01

    Here we describe a carefully optimized method for the preparation of high quality RNA by flow sorting of formaldehyde fixed senescent cells immunostained for any intracellular antigen. Replicative cellular senescence is a phenomenon of irreversible growth arrest triggered by the accumulation of a discrete number of cell divisions. The underlying cause of senescence due to replicative exhaustion is telomere shortening. We document here a spontaneous and apparently stochastic process that continuously generates senescent cells in cultures fully immortalized with telomerase. In the course of studying this phenomenon we developed a preparative fluorescence activated flow sorting method based on immunofluorescent staining of intracellular antigens that can also deliver RNA suitable for quantitative analysis of global gene expression. The protocols were developed using normal human diploid fibroblasts (HDF) and up to 5x107 cells could be conveniently processed in a single experiment. The methodology is based on formaldehyde crosslinking of cells, followed by permeabilization, antibody staining, flow sorting, reversal of the crosslinks, and recovery of the RNA. We explored key parameters such as crosslink reversal that affect the fragmentation of RNA. The recovered RNA is of high quality for downstream molecular applications based on short range sequence analysis, such qPCR, hybridization microarrays, and next generation sequencing. The RNA was analyzed by Affymetrix Gene Chip expression profiling and compared to RNA prepared by the direct lysis of cells. The correlation between the data sets was very high, indicating that the procedure does not introduce systematic changes in the mRNA transcriptome. The methods presented in this communication should be of interest to many investigators working in diverse model systems.

  10. Developmental and Functional Expression of miRNA-Stability Related Genes in the Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    de Sousa, ?rica; Walter, Lais Takata; Higa, Guilherme Shigueto Vilar; Casado, Ot?vio Augusto Nocera; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    In the nervous system, control of gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs) has been investigated in fundamental processes, such as development and adaptation to ambient demands. The action of these short nucleotide sequences on specific genes depends on intracellular concentration, which in turn reflects the balance of biosynthesis and degradation. Whereas mechanisms underlying miRNA biogenesis has been investigated in recent studies, little is known about miRNA-stability related proteins. We fi...

  11. Evaluation of external RNA controls for the standardisation of gene expression biomarker measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaswarapu Ramnath

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression profiling is an important approach for detecting diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, and predicting drug safety. The development of a wide range of technologies and platforms for measuring mRNA expression makes the evaluation and standardization of transcriptomic data problematic due to differences in protocols, data processing and analysis methods. Thus, universal RNA standards, such as those developed by the External RNA Controls Consortium (ERCC, are proposed to aid validation of research findings from diverse platforms such as microarrays and RT-qPCR, and play a role in quality control (QC processes as transcriptomic profiling becomes more commonplace in the clinical setting. Results Panels of ERCC RNA standards were constructed in order to test the utility of these reference materials (RMs for performance characterization of two selected gene expression platforms, and for discrimination of biomarker profiles between groups. The linear range, limits of detection and reproducibility of microarray and RT-qPCR measurements were evaluated using panels of RNA standards. Transcripts of low abundance (≤ 10 copies/ng total RNA showed more than double the technical variability compared to higher copy number transcripts on both platforms. Microarray profiling of two simulated 'normal' and 'disease' panels, each consisting of eight different RNA standards, yielded robust discrimination between the panels and between standards with varying fold change ratios, showing no systematic effects due to different labelling and hybridization runs. Also, comparison of microarray and RT-qPCR data for fold changes showed agreement for the two platforms. Conclusions ERCC RNA standards provide a generic means of evaluating different aspects of platform performance, and can provide information on the technical variation associated with quantification of biomarkers expressed at different levels of physiological abundance

  12. [Effects of lipopolysaccharides extracted from Porphyromonas endodontalis on the expression of IL-1beta mRNA and IL-6 mRNA in osteoblasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Di; Li, Ren; Qiu, Li-Hong; Li, Chen

    2009-04-01

    To quantify the IL-1 beta mRNA and IL-6 mRNA expression induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS)extracted from Porphyromonas endodontalis(P.e) in osteoblasts, and to relate P.e-LPS to bone absorption pathogenesis in lesions of chronical apical periodontitis. MG63 was treated with different concentrations of P.e-LPS(0-50 microg/mL) for different hours(0-24h). The expression of IL-1 beta mRNA and IL-6 mRNA was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Statistical analysis was performed using one- way ANOVA and Dunnett t test with SPSS11.0 software package. The level of IL-1 beta mRNA and IL-6 mRNA increased significantly after treatment with P.e-LPS at more than 5 microg/mL (P<0.01)and for more than 1 hour (P<0.01), which indicated that P.e-LPS induced osteoblasts to express IL-1 beta mRNA and IL-6 mRNA in dose and time dependent manners. P.e-LPS may promote bone resorption in lesions of chronical apical periodontitis by inducing IL-1 beta mRNA and IL-6 mRNA expression in osteoblasts.

  13. Evaluation of the miRNA-146a and miRNA-155 Expression Levels in Patients with Oral Lichen Planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Bayat, Zeynab; Hajilooi, Mehrdad; Shahryar-Hesami, Soroosh; Mahdavinezhad, Ali; Samie, Lida; Solgi, Ghasem

    2017-12-01

    Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) is a chronic autoimmune disease that could be considered as a potential premalignant status. To evaluate the miRNA-146a and miRNA-155 expression levels in patients with oral Lichen planus lesions compared to healthy subjects with normal oral mucosa. Forty patients with oral lichen planus and 18 healthy age and gender-matched controls were recruited in this case-control study. Oral lichen planus was diagnosed clinically and pathologically. The expression levels of two miRNAs in peripheral blood samples were determined using commercial TaqMan MicroRNA Assays. Relative quantification of gene expression was calculated by the 2-ΔΔct method. The expression levels of miRNA-146a and miRNA-155 in patients with oral Lichen planus were significantly higher than those of healthy controls. Also, a direct but insignificant correlation was found between miRNA-155 and miRNA-146a expression levels among the patient group. Our findings indicate that miRNA-146a and miRNA-155 could be potential biomarkers for the immunopathogenesis of oral lichen planus.

  14. Expression of galectin-9 mRNA in obese children with polymorphism of the lactase gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Abaturov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study is to investigate the association of expression of galectin-9 (Gal-9 mRNA and lactose malabsorption in obese children with polymorphism (SNP of the lactase gene (LCT and to study the efficacy of lactase deficiency therapy using exogenous lactase preparations. Materials and methods. Seventy obese children (BMI > 95th percentile and 16 children without obesity aged 6–18 years were examined. There was studied SNP LCT (material for investigation venous blood by real-time PCR, expression of Gal-9 mRNA (study material buccal epithelium by real-time PCR with reverse transcription, malabsorption of lactose by hydrogen breath test (HBT. Among obese children, 38 children with genotype C/C 13910 presented the first observation group, 32 children with phenotype identical genotypes C/T 13910 and T/T 13910, p > 0.05, presented the second group. Children from the first observation group also determined the level of expression of Gal-9 mRNA and lactose malabsorption after using exogenous lactase preparations. Results. The genotype C/C 13910 was determined in 38 (54.3 %, genotype C/T 13910 in 22 (31.4 % and genotype T/T in 10 (14.3 % patients. Malabsorption of lactose in children with genotype C/C 13910 averaged 32.7 ± 10.4 pmm, in children with genotypes C/T 13910 — 26.3 ± 4.9 pmm (p > 0.05 and with genotype T/T 13910 and was absent in children without obesity (p < 0.05. The average level of expression of Gal-9 mRNA in children with genotype C/C 13910 was 564.3 ± 32.8 RU DmRNA Gal-9/mRNA actin, in children with genotypes C/T and T/T 13910 — 61.04 ± 15.30 RU DmRNA Gal-9/mRNA actin, p < 0.01. It is of great importance that the children with genotype C/C 13910 and lactose malabsorption (n = 20 had the lowest average level of expression of Gal-9 mRNA (42.47 ± 13.30 RU DmRNA Gal-9/mRNA actin whereas the children with genotype C/C 13910 and without lactose malabsorption (n =18 had the largest level (1086

  15. Detailed analysis of the δ-crystallin mRNA-expressing region in early development of the chick pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Makiko; Shiina, Tomoya; Aizawa, Sayaka; Sakata, Ichiro; Takagi, Hiroyasu; Sakai, Takafumi

    2012-06-01

    Although δ-crystallin (δ-crys), also known as lens protein, is transiently expressed in Rathke's pouch (RP) of the chick embryo, detailed temporal and spatial expression patterns have been obscure. In this study, to understand the relationship between the δ-crys mRNA-expressing region and RP formation, we examined the embryonic expression pattern of δ-crys mRNA in the primordium of the adenohypophysis. δ-crys mRNA expression was initially found at stage 15 anterior to the foregut and posterior to the invaginated oral ectoderm. After RP formation, the δ-crys mRNA was expressed in the post-ventral region of RP and the anterior region of RP. δ-crys mRNA expression was then restricted to the cephalic lobe of the pituitary gland. From stage 20, the δ-crys and alpha-glycoprotein subunit (αGSU) mRNA-expressing regions were almost completely overlapping. The αGSU mRNA-expressing region is thought to be the primordium of the pars tuberalis, and these regions were overlapped with the Lhx3 mRNA-expressing region. The intensity of δ-crys mRNA expression gradually decreased with development and completely disappeared by stage 34. These results suggest that the embryonic chick pituitary gland consists of two different regions labeled with δ-crys and Lhx3.

  16. Circular RNA expression profiles in hippocampus from mice with perinatal glyphosate exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ning; Tong, Yun; Zhang, Danni; Zhao, Shanshan; Fan, Xinli; Wu, Lihui; Ji, Hua

    2018-05-19

    Glyphosate is the active ingredient in numerous herbicide formulations. The roles of glyphosate in embryo-toxicity and neurotoxicity have been reported in human and animal models. Recently, several studies have reported evidence linking neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) with gestational glyphosate exposure. However, the role of glyphosate in neuronal development is still not fully understood. Our previous study found that perinatal glyphosate exposure resulted in differential microRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex of mouse offspring. However, the mechanism of glyphosate-induced neurotoxicity in the developing brain is still not fully understood. Considering the pivotal role of Circular RNAs (circRNAs) in the regulation of gene expression, a circRNA microarray method was used in this study to investigate circRNA expression changes in the hippocampus of mice with perinatal glyphosate exposure. The circRNA microarrays revealed that 663 circRNAs were significantly altered in the perinatal glyphosate exposure group compared with the control group. Among them, 330 were significantly upregulated, and the other 333 were downregulated. Furthermore, the relative expression levels of mmu-circRNA-014015, mmu-circRNA-28128 and mmu-circRNA-29837 were verified using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses demonstrated that stress-associated steroid metabolism pathways, such as aldosterone synthesis and secretion pathways, may be involved in the neurotoxicity of glyphosate. These results showed that circRNAs are aberrantly expressed in the hippocampus of mice with perinatal glyphosate exposure and play potential roles in glyphosate-induced neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. RNA-based, transient modulation of gene expression in human haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Yvonne; Jurk, Marion; Kandil, Britta; Choi, Yeong-Hoon; Wild, Stefan; Bissels, Ute; Bosio, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Modulation of gene expression is a useful tool to study the biology of haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and might also be instrumental to expand these cells for therapeutic approaches. Most of the studies so far have employed stable gene modification by viral vectors that are burdensome when translating protocols into clinical settings. Our study aimed at exploring new ways to transiently modify HSPC gene expression using non-integrating, RNA-based molecules. First, we tested different methods to deliver these molecules into HSPCs. The delivery of siRNAs with chemical transfection methods such as lipofection or cationic polymers did not lead to target knockdown, although we observed more than 90% fluorescent cells using a fluorochrome-coupled siRNA. Confocal microscopic analysis revealed that despite extensive washing, siRNA stuck to or in the cell surface, thereby mimicking a transfection event. In contrast, electroporation resulted in efficient, siRNA-mediated protein knockdown. For transient overexpression of proteins, we used optimised mRNA molecules with modified 5′- and 3′-UTRs. Electroporation of mRNA encoding GFP resulted in fast, efficient and persistent protein expression for at least seven days. Our data provide a broad-ranging comparison of transfection methods for hard-to-transfect cells and offer new opportunities for DNA-free, non-integrating gene modulation in HSPCs. PMID:26599627

  18. Optimization of laser capture microdissection and RNA amplification for gene expression profiling of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasmatzis George

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To discover prostate cancer biomarkers, we profiled gene expression in benign and malignant cells laser capture microdissected (LCM from prostate tissues and metastatic prostatic adenocarcinomas. Here we present methods developed, optimized, and validated to obtain high quality gene expression data. Results RNase inhibitor was included in solutions used to stain frozen tissue sections for LCM, which improved RNA quality significantly. Quantitative PCR assays, requiring minimal amounts of LCM RNA, were developed to determine RNA quality and concentration. SuperScript II™ reverse transcriptase was replaced with SuperScript III™, and SpeedVac concentration was eliminated to optimize linear amplification. The GeneChip® IVT labeling kit was used rather than the Enzo BioArray™ HighYield™ RNA transcript labeling kit since side-by-side comparisons indicated high-end signal saturation with the latter. We obtained 72 μg of labeled complementary RNA on average after linear amplification of about 2 ng of total RNA. Conclusion Unsupervised clustering placed 5/5 normal and 2/2 benign prostatic hyperplasia cases in one group, 5/7 Gleason pattern 3 cases in another group, and the remaining 2/7 pattern 3 cases in a third group with 8/8 Gleason pattern 5 cases and 3/3 metastatic prostatic adenocarcinomas. Differential expression of alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase (AMACR and hepsin was confirmed using quantitative PCR.

  19. Analysis of miRNA expression profiles in melatonin-exposed GC-1 spg cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoling; Chen, Shuxiong; Jiang, Yanwen; Xu, Ying; Zhao, Yun; Chen, Lu; Li, Chunjin; Zhou, Xu

    2018-02-05

    Melatonin is an endocrine neurohormone secreted by pinealocytes in the pineal gland. It exerts diverse physiological effects, such as circadian rhythm regulator and antioxidant. However, the functional importance of melatonin in spermatogenesis regulation remains unclear. The objectives of this study are to: (1) detect melatonin affection on miRNA expression profiles in GC-1 spg cells by miRNA deep sequencing (DeepSeq) and (2) define melatonin affected miRNA-mRNA interactions and associated biological processes using bioinformatics analysis. GC-1 spg cells were cultured with melatonin (10 -7 M) for 24h. DeepSeq data were validated using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis (qRT-PCR). A total of 176 miRNA expressions were found to be significantly different between two groups (fold change of >2 or melatonin could regulate the expression of miRNA to perform its physiological effects in GC-1 spg cells. These results should be useful to investigate the biological function of miRNAs regulated by melatonin in spermatogenesis and testicular germ cell tumor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Protein profiling as early detection biomarkers for TiO2 nanoparticle toxicity in Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá-Pereira, Paula; Diniz, Mário S; Moita, Liliana; Pinheiro, Teresa; Mendonça, Elsa; Paixão, Susana M; Picado, Ana

    2018-05-01

    The mode of action for nanoparticle (NP) toxicity in aquatic organisms is not yet fully understood. In this work, a strategy other than toxicity testing was applied to Daphnia magna exposed to TiO 2 -NPs: the use of nuclear microscopy and the assessment of protein profile. D. magna is a keystone species broadly used as a model system in ecotoxicology. Titanium (Ti) was found in the D. magna digestive tract, mainly in the gut. The penetration of Ti into the epithelial region was greater at higher exposure levels and also observed in eggs in the brood pouch. The protein profile of individuals exposed to different concentrations showed that 2.8 and 5.6 mg/L TiO 2 -NP concentrations induced an over-expression of the majority of proteins, in particular proteins with molecular weight of ∼120, 85 and 15 kDa, while 11.2 mg/L TiO 2 -NP had an inhibitory effect on protein expression. The Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization with tandem time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) analysis of these proteins consistently identified them as vitellogenin (Vtg)-like proteins, associated with enzymes involved in redox balance. These results indicate that Vtg-like proteins are up-regulated in D. magna exposed to TiO 2 -NPs. Vitellogenesis is associated with the reproduction system, suggesting that TiO 2 -NP exposure can impair reproduction by affecting this process. The precise mode of action of TiO 2 -NPs is still unclear and the results from this study are a first attempt to identify specific proteins as potential markers of TiO 2 -NP toxicity in D. magna, providing useful information for future research.

  1. In Situ Detection of MicroRNA Expression with RNAscope Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Viravuth P

    2018-01-01

    Elucidating the spatial resolution of gene transcripts provides important insight into potential gene function. MicroRNAs are short, singled-stranded noncoding RNAs that control gene expression through base-pair complementarity with target mRNAs in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) and inhibiting protein expression. However, given their small size of ~22- to 24-nt and low expression levels, standard in situ hybridization detection methods are not amendable for microRNA spatial resolution. Here, I describe a technique that employs RNAscope probe design and propriety amplification technology that provides simultaneous single molecule detection of individual microRNA and its target gene. This method allows for rapid and sensitive detection of noncoding RNA transcripts in frozen tissue sections.

  2. Visfatin mRNA expression in human subcutaneous adipose tissue is regulated by exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydelund-Larsen, Lone; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Nielsen, Søren

    2006-01-01

    in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle biopsies obtained from healthy young men at time points 0, 3, 4.5, 6, 9, and 24 h in relation to either 3 h of ergometer cycle exercise at 60% of Vo(2 max) or rest. Adipose tissue visfatin mRNA expression increased threefold at the time points 3, 4......Visfatin [pre-beta-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF)] is a novel adipokine that is produced by adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver and has insulin-mimetic actions. Regular exercise enhances insulin sensitivity. In the present study, we therefore examined visfatin mRNA expression.......5, and 6 h in response to exercise (n = 8) compared with preexercise samples and compared with the resting control group (n = 7, P = 0.001). Visfatin mRNA expression in skeletal muscle was not influenced by exercise. The exercise-induced increase in adipose tissue visfatin was, however, not accompanied...

  3. Three new shRNA expression vectors targeting the CYP3A4 coding sequence to inhibit its expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyun Xu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi is useful for selective gene silencing. Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4, which metabolizes approximately 50% of drugs in clinical use, plays an important role in drug metabolism. In this study, we aimed to develop a short hairpin RNA (shRNA to modulate CYP3A4 expression. Three new shRNAs (S1, S2 and S3 were designed to target the coding sequence (CDS of CYP3A4, cloned into a shRNA expression vector, and tested in different cells. The mixture of three shRNAs produced optimal reduction (55% in CYP3A4 CDS-luciferase activity in both CHL and HEK293 cells. Endogenous CYP3A4 expression in HepG2 cells was decreased about 50% at both mRNA and protein level after transfection of the mixture of three shRNAs. In contrast, CYP3A5 gene expression was not altered by the shRNAs, supporting the selectivity of CYP3A4 shRNAs. In addition, HepG2 cells transfected with CYP3A4 shRNAs were less sensitive to Ginkgolic acids, whose toxic metabolites are produced by CYP3A4. These results demonstrate that vector-based shRNAs could modulate CYP3A4 expression in cells through their actions on CYP3A4 CDS, and CYP3A4 shRNAs may be utilized to define the role of CYP3A4 in drug metabolism and toxicity.

  4. Intratumoral Heterogeneity of MicroRNA Expression in Rectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Anne Haahr Mellergaard; Andersen, Rikke Fredslund; Nielsen, Boye Schnack

    2016-01-01

    study was to assess the heterogeneity of a panel of selected miRNAs in rectal cancer, using two different technical approaches. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of the investigated miRNAs was analysed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and in situ hybridization (ISH......) in tumour specimens from 27 patients with T3-4 rectal cancer. From each tumour, tissue from three different luminal localisations was examined. Inter- and intra-patient variability was assessed by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Correlations between RT-qPCR and ISH were evaluated...

  5. Expression of MicroRNA-146a and MicroRNA-155 in Placental Villi in Early- and Late-Onset Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizyaeva, N V; Kulikova, G V; Nagovitsyna, M N; Kan, N E; Prozorovskaya, K N; Shchegolev, A I; Sukhikh, G T

    2017-07-01

    We studied the expression of microRNA-146a and microRNA-155 in placental villi from 18 women (26-39 weeks of gestation) of reproductive age with early- or late-onset preeclampsia. The reference group consisted of women with physiological pregnancy and full-term gestation and with preterm birth after caesarian section on gestation week 26-31. MicroRNA-146a and microRNA-155 were detected by in situ hybridization with digoxigenin on paraffin sections. It was found that the expression of microRNA-146a in both syncytiotrophoblast of the intermediate villi and syncytial knots was lower at late-onset preeclampsia than at physiologic pregnancy of full-term period (p=0.037 and p=0.001 respectively). The expression of microRNA-155 in syncytiotrophoblast of intermediate placental villi in early-onset preeclampsia was higher than in group with preterm delivery (p=0.003). However, in syncytiotrophoblast of intermediate villi and in syncytial knots, the expression of microRNA-155 was lower at late-onset preeclampsia in comparison with full-term physiological pregnancy (p=0.005). In addition, the expression of microRNA-146a and microRNA-155 did not increase in the later terms in preeclampsia, while in the reference groups demonstrating gradual increase in the expression of these markers with increasing gestational age. Expression microRNA-146a and microRNA-155 little differed in early- and late-onset preeclampsia. These findings suggest that different variants of preeclampsia are probably characterized by common pathogenetic pathways. Damaged trophoblast cannot maintain of microRNAs synthesis at the required level, which determines the formation of a vicious circle in preeclampsia and further progression of the disease.

  6. BAY11 enhances OCT4 synthetic mRNA expression in adult human skin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awe, Jason P; Crespo, Agustin Vega; Li, You; Kiledjian, Megerditch; Byrne, James A

    2013-02-06

    The OCT4 transcription factor is involved in many cellular processes, including development, reprogramming, maintaining pluripotency and differentiation. Synthetic OCT4 mRNA was recently used (in conjunction with other reprogramming factors) to generate human induced pluripotent stem cells. Here, we discovered that BAY 11-7082 (BAY11), at least partially through an NF-κB-inhibition based mechanism, could significantly increase the expression of OCT4 following transfection of synthetic mRNA (synRNA) into adult human skin cells. We tested various chemical and molecular small molecules on their ability to suppress the innate immune response seen upon synthetic mRNA transfection. Three molecules - B18R, BX795, and BAY11 - were used in immunocytochemical and proliferation-based assays. We also utilized global transcriptional meta-analysis coupled with quantitative PCR to identify relative gene expression downstream of OCT4. We found that human skin cells cultured in the presence of BAY11 resulted in reproducible increased expression of OCT4 that did not inhibit normal cell proliferation. The increased levels of OCT4 resulted in significantly increased expression of genes downstream of OCT4, including the previously identified SPP1, DUSP4 and GADD45G, suggesting the expressed OCT4 was functional. We also discovered a novel OCT4 putative downstream target gene SLC16A9 which demonstrated significantly increased expression following elevation of OCT4 levels. For the first time we have shown that small molecule-based stabilization of synthetic mRNA expression can be achieved with use of BAY11. This small molecule-based inhibition of innate immune responses and subsequent robust expression of transfected synthetic mRNAs may have multiple applications for future cell-based research and therapeutics.

  7. RNA Sequencing Reveals that Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Infection Mimics Hypoxia Gene Expression Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viollet, Coralie; Davis, David A.; Tekeste, Shewit S.; Reczko, Martin; Pezzella, Francesco; Ragoussis, Jiannis

    2017-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) causes several tumors and hyperproliferative disorders. Hypoxia and hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) activate latent and lytic KSHV genes, and several KSHV proteins increase the cellular levels of HIF. Here, we used RNA sequencing, qRT-PCR, Taqman assays, and pathway analysis to explore the miRNA and mRNA response of uninfected and KSHV-infected cells to hypoxia, to compare this with the genetic changes seen in chronic latent KSHV infection, and to explore the degree to which hypoxia and KSHV infection interact in modulating mRNA and miRNA expression. We found that the gene expression signatures for KSHV infection and hypoxia have a 34% overlap. Moreover, there were considerable similarities between the genes up-regulated by hypoxia in uninfected (SLK) and in KSHV-infected (SLKK) cells. hsa-miR-210, a HIF-target known to have pro-angiogenic and anti-apoptotic properties, was significantly up-regulated by both KSHV infection and hypoxia using Taqman assays. Interestingly, expression of KSHV-encoded miRNAs was not affected by hypoxia. These results demonstrate that KSHV harnesses a part of the hypoxic cellular response and that a substantial portion of hypoxia-induced changes in cellular gene expression are induced by KSHV infection. Therefore, targeting hypoxic pathways may be a useful way to develop therapeutic strategies for KSHV-related diseases. PMID:28046107

  8. Statistical Use of Argonaute Expression and RISC Assembly in microRNA Target Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Stephen A.; Sengupta, Srikumar; den Boon, Johan; Ahlquist, Paul; Newton, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) posttranscriptionally regulate targeted messenger RNAs (mRNAs) by inducing cleavage or otherwise repressing their translation. We address the problem of detecting m/miRNA targeting relationships in homo sapiens from microarray data by developing statistical models that are motivated by the biological mechanisms used by miRNAs. The focus of our modeling is the construction, activity, and mediation of RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) competent for targeted mRNA cleavage. We demonstrate that regression models accommodating RISC abundance and controlling for other mediating factors fit the expression profiles of known target pairs substantially better than models based on m/miRNA expressions alone, and lead to verifications of computational target pair predictions that are more sensitive than those based on marginal expression levels. Because our models are fully independent of exogenous results from sequence-based computational methods, they are appropriate for use as either a primary or secondary source of information regarding m/miRNA target pair relationships, especially in conjunction with high-throughput expression studies. PMID:19779550

  9. Tissue-specific mRNA expression profiling in grape berry tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimplet, Jerome; Deluc, Laurent G; Tillett, Richard L; Wheatley, Matthew D; Schlauch, Karen A; Cramer, Grant R; Cushman, John C

    2007-01-01

    Background Berries of grape (Vitis vinifera) contain three major tissue types (skin, pulp and seed) all of which contribute to the aroma, color, and flavor characters of wine. The pericarp, which is composed of the exocarp (skin) and mesocarp (pulp), not only functions to protect and feed the developing seed, but also to assist in the dispersal of the mature seed by avian and mammalian vectors. The skin provides volatile and nonvolatile aroma and color compounds, the pulp contributes organic acids and sugars, and the seeds provide condensed tannins, all of which are important to the formation of organoleptic characteristics of wine. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling tissue-specific mRNA expression patterns, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on each tissue of mature berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0. In order to monitor the influence of water-deficit stress on tissue-specific expression patterns, mRNA expression profiles were also compared from mature berries harvested from vines subjected to well-watered or water-deficit conditions. Results Overall, berry tissues were found to express approximately 76% of genes represented on the Vitis microarray. Approximately 60% of these genes exhibited significant differential expression in one or more of the three major tissue types with more than 28% of genes showing pronounced (2-fold or greater) differences in mRNA expression. The largest difference in tissue-specific expression was observed between the seed and pulp/skin. Exocarp tissue, which is involved in pathogen defense and pigment production, showed higher mRNA abundance relative to other berry tissues for genes involved with flavonoid biosynthesis, pathogen resistance, and cell wall modification. Mesocarp tissue, which is considered a nutritive tissue, exhibited a higher mRNA abundance of genes involved in cell wall function and

  10. Tissue-specific mRNA expression profiling in grape berry tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cramer Grant R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Berries of grape (Vitis vinifera contain three major tissue types (skin, pulp and seed all of which contribute to the aroma, color, and flavor characters of wine. The pericarp, which is composed of the exocarp (skin and mesocarp (pulp, not only functions to protect and feed the developing seed, but also to assist in the dispersal of the mature seed by avian and mammalian vectors. The skin provides volatile and nonvolatile aroma and color compounds, the pulp contributes organic acids and sugars, and the seeds provide condensed tannins, all of which are important to the formation of organoleptic characteristics of wine. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling tissue-specific mRNA expression patterns, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on each tissue of mature berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0. In order to monitor the influence of water-deficit stress on tissue-specific expression patterns, mRNA expression profiles were also compared from mature berries harvested from vines subjected to well-watered or water-deficit conditions. Results Overall, berry tissues were found to express approximately 76% of genes represented on the Vitis microarray. Approximately 60% of these genes exhibited significant differential expression in one or more of the three major tissue types with more than 28% of genes showing pronounced (2-fold or greater differences in mRNA expression. The largest difference in tissue-specific expression was observed between the seed and pulp/skin. Exocarp tissue, which is involved in pathogen defense and pigment production, showed higher mRNA abundance relative to other berry tissues for genes involved with flavonoid biosynthesis, pathogen resistance, and cell wall modification. Mesocarp tissue, which is considered a nutritive tissue, exhibited a higher mRNA abundance of genes involved in cell

  11. Connecting rules from paired miRNA and mRNA expression data sets of HCV patients to detect both inverse and positive regulatory relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Renhua; Liu, Qian; Liu, Tao; Li, Jinyan

    2015-01-01

    Background Intensive research based on the inverse expression relationship has been undertaken to discover the miRNA-mRNA regulatory modules involved in the infection of Hepatitis C virus (HCV), the leading cause of chronic liver diseases. However, biological studies in other fields have found that inverse expression relationship is not the only regulatory relationship between miRNAs and their targets, and some miRNAs can positively regulate a mRNA by binding at the 5' UTR of the mRNA. Result...

  12. Connecting protein and mRNA burst distributions for stochastic models of gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgart, Vlad; Jia, Tao; Fenley, Andrew T; Kulkarni, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    The intrinsic stochasticity of gene expression can lead to large variability in protein levels for genetically identical cells. Such variability in protein levels can arise from infrequent synthesis of mRNAs which in turn give rise to bursts of protein expression. Protein expression occurring in bursts has indeed been observed experimentally and recent studies have also found evidence for transcriptional bursting, i.e. production of mRNAs in bursts. Given that there are distinct experimental techniques for quantifying the noise at different stages of gene expression, it is of interest to derive analytical results connecting experimental observations at different levels. In this work, we consider stochastic models of gene expression for which mRNA and protein production occurs in independent bursts. For such models, we derive analytical expressions connecting protein and mRNA burst distributions which show how the functional form of the mRNA burst distribution can be inferred from the protein burst distribution. Additionally, if gene expression is repressed such that observed protein bursts arise only from single mRNAs, we show how observations of protein burst distributions (repressed and unrepressed) can be used to completely determine the mRNA burst distribution. Assuming independent contributions from individual bursts, we derive analytical expressions connecting means and variances for burst and steady-state protein distributions. Finally, we validate our general analytical results by considering a specific reaction scheme involving regulation of protein bursts by small RNAs. For a range of parameters, we derive analytical expressions for regulated protein distributions that are validated using stochastic simulations. The analytical results obtained in this work can thus serve as useful inputs for a broad range of studies focusing on stochasticity in gene expression

  13. Cardioactive effects of diphenhydramine and curcumin in Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelle Erin Romero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although used as a model for examining the cardioactive effects of various compounds, the neuromuscular regulation of the heart of the crustacean Daphnia magna (D. magna is not well understood. In the present study, we sought to determine how the heart rate of D. magna was affected by two previously untested compounds: curcumin and diphenhydramine (DPHM. DPHM produces a number of cardiotoxic side effects in vertebrates, particularly sinus tachycardia. Curcumin acts as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI and was expected toincrease the heart rate of D. magna. DPHM was found unexpectedly to lower the heart rate of D. magna with time. Curcumin increased heart rate when administered in higher concentrations. However, co-administration of curcumin with DPHM negated this effect. These findings may be explained by the potential role of histamine as a sympathetic cardiac neurotransmitter in D. magna.

  14. Association of chemerin mRNA expression in human epicardial adipose tissue with coronary atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Linjie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing evidence suggests that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT may play a key role in the pathogenesis and development of coronary artery disease (CAD by producing several inflammatory adipokines. Chemerin, a novel adipokine, has been reported to be involved in regulating immune responses and glucolipid metabolism. Given these properties, chemerin may provide an interesting link between obesity, inflammation and atherosclerosis. In this study, we sought to determine the relationship of chemerin expression in EAT and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis in Han Chinese patients. Methods Serums and adipose tissue biopsies (epicardial and thoracic subcutaneous were obtained from CAD (n = 37 and NCAD (n = 16 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Gensini score was used to assess the severity of CAD. Serum levels of chemerin, adiponectin and insulin were measured by ELISA. Chemerin protein expression in adipose tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry. The mRNA levels of chemerin, chemR23, adiponectin and TNF-alpha in adipose tissue were detected by RT-PCR. Results We found that EAT of CAD group showed significantly higher levels of chemerin and TNF-alpha mRNA, and significantly lower level of adiponectin mRNA than that of NCAD patients. In CAD group, significantly higher levels of chemerin mRNA and protein were observed in EAT than in paired subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, whereas such significant difference was not found in NCAD group. Chemerin mRNA expression in EAT was positively correlated with Gensini score (r = 0.365, P P P P P P P > 0.05. Conclusions The expressions of chemerin mRNA and protein are significantly higher in EAT from patients with CAD in Han Chinese patients. Furthermore, the severity of coronary atherosclerosis is positive correlated with the level of chemerin mRNA in EAT rather than its circulating level.

  15. Expression, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of RNA-binding protein Hfq (YmaH) from Bacillus subtilis in complex with an RNA aptamer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Seiki; Someya, Tatsuhiko; Kawai, Gota; Nakamura, Kouji; Kumasaka, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    The RNA-binding protein Hfq from B. subtilis was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method in two crystal forms that belonged to space groups I422 and F222; diffraction data were collected to 2.2 Å resolution from both forms. The Hfq protein is a hexameric RNA-binding protein which regulates gene expression by binding to RNA under the influence of diverse environmental stresses. Its ring structure binds various types of RNA, including mRNA and sRNA. RNA-bound structures of Hfq from Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus have been revealed to have poly(A) RNA at the distal site and U-rich RNA at the proximal site, respectively. Here, crystals of a complex of the Bacillus subtilis Hfq protein with an A/G-repeat 7-mer RNA (Hfq–RNA) that were prepared using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique are reported. The type 1 Hfq–RNA crystals belonged to space group I422, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 123.70, c = 119.13 Å, while the type 2 Hfq–RNA crystals belonged to space group F222, with unit-cell parameters a = 91.92, b = 92.50, c = 114.92 Å. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.20 Å from both crystal forms. The hexameric structure of the Hfq protein was clearly shown by self-rotation analysis

  16. Active RNA replication of hepatitis C virus downregulates CD81 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Po-Yuan; Chen, Steve S-L

    2013-01-01

    So far how hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication modulates subsequent virus growth and propagation still remains largely unknown. Here we determine the impact of HCV replication status on the consequential virus growth by comparing normal and high levels of HCV RNA expression. We first engineered a full-length, HCV genotype 2a JFH1 genome containing a blasticidin-resistant cassette inserted at amino acid residue of 420 in nonstructural (NS) protein 5A, which allowed selection of human hepatoma Huh7 cells stably-expressing HCV. Short-term establishment of HCV stable cells attained a highly-replicating status, judged by higher expressions of viral RNA and protein as well as higher titer of viral infectivity as opposed to cells harboring the same genome without selection. Interestingly, maintenance of highly-replicating HCV stable cells led to decreased susceptibility to HCV pseudotyped particle (HCVpp) infection and downregulated cell surface level of CD81, a critical HCV entry (co)receptor. The decreased CD81 cell surface expression occurred through reduced total expression and cytoplasmic retention of CD81 within an endoplasmic reticulum -associated compartment. Moreover, productive viral RNA replication in cells harboring a JFH1 subgenomic replicon containing a similar blasticidin resistance gene cassette in NS5A and in cells robustly replicating full-length infectious genome also reduced permissiveness to HCVpp infection through decreasing the surface expression of CD81. The downregulation of CD81 surface level in HCV RNA highly-replicating cells thus interfered with reinfection and led to attenuated viral amplification. These findings together indicate that the HCV RNA replication status plays a crucial determinant in HCV growth by modulating the expression and intracellular localization of CD81.

  17. Active RNA replication of hepatitis C virus downregulates CD81 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Yuan Ke

    Full Text Available So far how hepatitis C virus (HCV replication modulates subsequent virus growth and propagation still remains largely unknown. Here we determine the impact of HCV replication status on the consequential virus growth by comparing normal and high levels of HCV RNA expression. We first engineered a full-length, HCV genotype 2a JFH1 genome containing a blasticidin-resistant cassette inserted at amino acid residue of 420 in nonstructural (NS protein 5A, which allowed selection of human hepatoma Huh7 cells stably-expressing HCV. Short-term establishment of HCV stable cells attained a highly-replicating status, judged by higher expressions of viral RNA and protein as well as higher titer of viral infectivity as opposed to cells harboring the same genome without selection. Interestingly, maintenance of highly-replicating HCV stable cells led to decreased susceptibility to HCV pseudotyped particle (HCVpp infection and downregulated cell surface level of CD81, a critical HCV entry (coreceptor. The decreased CD81 cell surface expression occurred through reduced total expression and cytoplasmic retention of CD81 within an endoplasmic reticulum -associated compartment. Moreover, productive viral RNA replication in cells harboring a JFH1 subgenomic replicon containing a similar blasticidin resistance gene cassette in NS5A and in cells robustly replicating full-length infectious genome also reduced permissiveness to HCVpp infection through decreasing the surface expression of CD81. The downregulation of CD81 surface level in HCV RNA highly-replicating cells thus interfered with reinfection and led to attenuated viral amplification. These findings together indicate that the HCV RNA replication status plays a crucial determinant in HCV growth by modulating the expression and intracellular localization of CD81.

  18. mRNA Expression of Ovine Angiopoietin-like Protein 4 Gene in Adipose Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4 is involved in a variety of functions, including lipoprotein metabolism and angiogenesis. To reveal the role of ANGPTL4 in fat metabolism of sheep, ovine ANGPTL4 mRNA expression was analyzed in seven adipose tissues from two breeds with distinct tail types. Forty-eight animals with the gender ratio of 1:1 for both Guangling Large Tailed (GLT and Small Tailed Han (STH sheep were slaughtered at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months of age, respectively. Adipose tissues were collected from greater and lesser omental, subcutaneous, retroperitoneal, perirenal, mesenteric, and tail fats. Ontogenetic mRNA expression of ANGPTL4 in these adipose tissues from GTL and STH was studied by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that ANGPTL4 mRNA expressed in all adipose tissues studied with the highest in subcutaneous and the lowest in mesenteric fat depots. Months of age, tissue and breed are the main factors that significantly influence the mRNA expression. These results provide new insights into ovine ANGPTL4 gene expression and clues for its function mechanism.

  19. mirEX: a platform for comparative exploration of plant pri-miRNA expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielewicz, Dawid; Dolata, Jakub; Zielezinski, Andrzej; Alaba, Sylwia; Szarzynska, Bogna; Szczesniak, Michal W; Jarmolowski, Artur; Szweykowska-Kulinska, Zofia; Karlowski, Wojciech M

    2012-01-01

    mirEX is a comprehensive platform for comparative analysis of primary microRNA expression data. RT-qPCR-based gene expression profiles are stored in a universal and expandable database scheme and wrapped by an intuitive user-friendly interface. A new way of accessing gene expression data in mirEX includes a simple mouse operated querying system and dynamic graphs for data mining analyses. In contrast to other publicly available databases, the mirEX interface allows a simultaneous comparison of expression levels between various microRNA genes in diverse organs and developmental stages. Currently, mirEX integrates information about the expression profile of 190 Arabidopsis thaliana pri-miRNAs in seven different developmental stages: seeds, seedlings and various organs of mature plants. Additionally, by providing RNA structural models, publicly available deep sequencing results, experimental procedure details and careful selection of auxiliary data in the form of web links, mirEX can function as a one-stop solution for Arabidopsis microRNA information. A web-based mirEX interface can be accessed at http://bioinfo.amu.edu.pl/mirex.

  20. Magna-field irradiation: physical considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dyk, J.

    1983-12-01

    Magna-field radiotherapy in the form of total body, half body and total nodal irradiation is becoming increasingly prominent and involves dosimetric problems that are much more pronounced than they are for conventional field sizes. In this review of the physical considerations of magna-field irradiation, a number of possible alternate methods of producing large radiation fields are outlined, the basic beam dosimetry is reviewed and the factors producing dose variation in the patient are considered. Since the lung contains large regions of low density tissues and has a lower tolerance to radiaiton than most other tissues, special consideration is given to methods of dose determination and dose reduction to this organ. The question of accuracy in dose delivery is briefly discussed and the concept of delivering a radiation dose 'as precisely as readily achievable (APARA), technological and biological factors being taken into account' is introduced.

  1. Transient Gene and miRNA Expression Profile Changes of Confluent Human Fibroblast Cells in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Lu, Tao; Wong, Michael; Feiveson, Alan; Stodieck, Louis; Karouia, Fathi; Wang, Xiaoyu; Wu, Honglu

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity or an altered gravity environment from the static 1 gravitational constant has been shown to influence global gene expression patterns and protein levels in cultured cells. However, most of the reported studies conducted in space or using simulated microgravity on the ground have focused on the growth or differentiation of the cells. Whether non-dividing cultured cells will sense the presence of microgravity in space has not been specifically addressed. In an experiment conducted on the International Space Station, confluent human fibroblast cells were fixed after being cultured in space for 3 and 14 days for investigations of gene and miRNA (microRNA) expression profile changes in these cells. A fibroblast is a type of cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, the structural framework for tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing and other functions. Results of the experiment showed that on Day 3, both the flown and ground cells were still proliferating slowly even though they were confluent, as measured by the expression of the protein Ki-67 positive cells, and the cells in space grew slightly faster. Gene and miRNA expression data indicated activation of NF(sub kappa)B (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) and other growth related pathways involving HGF and VEGF in the flown cells. On Day 14 when the cells were mostly non-dividing, the gene and miRNA expression profiles between the flight and ground samples were indistinguishable. Comparison of gene and miRNA expressions in the Day 3 samples in respect to Day 14 revealed that most of the changes observed on Day 3 were related to cell growth for both the flown and ground cells. Analysis of cytoskeleton changes by immunohistochemistry staining of the cells with antibodies for alpha-tubulin showed no difference between the flight and ground samples. Results of our study suggest that in true non-dividing human fibroblast cells, microgravity in

  2. MicroRNA expression in melanocytic nevi: the usefulness of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material for miRNA microarray profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glud, Martin; Klausen, Mikkel; Gniadecki, Robert; Rossing, Maria; Hastrup, Nina; Nielsen, Finn C; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T

    2009-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNA molecules that regulate cellular differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. MiRNAs are expressed in a developmentally regulated and tissue-specific manner. Aberrant expression may contribute to pathological processes such as cancer, and miRNA may therefore serve as biomarkers that may be useful in a clinical environment for diagnosis of various diseases. Most miRNA profiling studies have used fresh tissue samples. However, in some types of cancer, including malignant melanoma, fresh material is difficult to obtain from primary tumors, and most surgical specimens are formalin fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE). To explore whether FFPE material would be suitable for miRNA profiling in melanocytic lesions, we compared miRNA expression patterns in FFPE versus fresh frozen samples, obtained from 15 human melanocytic nevi. Out of microarray data, we identified 84 miRNAs that were expressed in both types of samples and represented an miRNA profile of melanocytic nevi. Our results showed a high correlation in miRNA expression (Spearman r-value of 0.80) between paired FFPE and fresh frozen material. The data were further validated by quantitative RT-PCR. In conclusion, FFPE specimens of melanocytic lesions are suitable as a source for miRNA microarray profiling.

  3. Circulating MicroRNA Expression Levels Associated With Internet Gaming Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minho Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAddictive use of the Internet and online games is a potential psychiatric disorder termed Internet gaming disorder (IGD. Altered microRNA (miRNA expression profiles have been reported in blood and brain tissue of patients with certain psychiatric disorders and suggested as biomarkers. However, there have been no reports on blood miRNA profiles in IGD.MethodsTo discover IGD-associated miRNAs, we analyzed the miRNA expression profiles of 51 samples (25 IGD and 26 controls using the TaqMan Low Density miRNA Array. For validation, we performed quantitative reverse transcription PCR with 36 independent samples (20 IGD and 16 controls.ResultsThrough discovery and independent validation, we identified three miRNAs (hsa-miR-200c-3p, hsa-miR-26b-5p, hsa-miR-652-3p that were significantly downregulated in the IGD group. Individuals with all three miRNA alterations had a much higher risk of IGD than those with no alteration [odds ratio (OR 22, 95% CI 2.29–211.11], and the ORs increased dose dependently with number of altered miRNAs. The predicted target genes of the three miRNAs were associated with neural pathways. We explored the protein expression of the three downstream target genes by western blot and confirmed that expression of GABRB2 and DPYSL2 was significantly higher in the IGD group.ConclusionWe observed that expressions of hsa-miR-200c-3p, hsa-miR-26b-5p, and hsa-miR-652-3p were downregulated in the IGD patients. Our results will be helpful to understand the pathophysiology of IGD.

  4. Differential expression of microRNA-675, microRNA-139-3p and microRNA-335 in benign and malignant adrenocortical tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwig, J; Bertram, S; Sheu, S Y; Suttorp, A C; Seggewiß, J; Willscher, E; Walz, M K; Worm, K; Schmid, K W

    2011-01-01

    Background For the clinical management of adrenocortical neoplasms it is crucial to correctly distinguish between benign and malignant tumours. Even histomorphologically based scoring systems do not allow precise separation in single lesions, thus novel parameters are desired which offer a more accurate differentiation. The tremendous potential of microRNAs (miRNAs) as diagnostic biomarkers in surgical pathology has recently been shown in a broad variety of tumours. Methods In order to elucidate the diagnostic impact of miRNA expression in adrenocortical neoplasms, a cohort of 20 adrenocortical specimens including normal adrenal tissue (n=4), adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs) (n=9), adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) (n=4) and metastases (n=3) was analysed using TaqMan low density arrays to identify specific miRNA profiles in order to distinguish between benign and malignant adrenocortical lesions. Results were validated in a validation cohort (n=16). Results Concerning the differential diagnosis of ACAs and ACCs, 159 out of 667 miRNAs were up- and 89 were down-regulated in ACAs. Using real-time PCR analysis of three of the most significantly expressed single key miRNAs allowed separation of ACAs from ACCs. ACCs exhibited significantly lower levels of miR-139-3p (up to 8.49-fold, p<0.001), miR-675 (up to 23.25-fold, p<0.001) and miR-335 (up to 5.25-fold, p<0.001). A validation cohort of 16 specimen with known Weiss score showed up-regulation of miR-335 and miR-675 in the majority of cases with probable malignant course, although overlapping values exist. Conclusion miRNA profiling of miR-675 and miR-335 helps in discriminating ACCs from ACAs. miRNA analysis may indicate malignant behaviour in cases with indeterminate malignant potential. PMID:21471143

  5. Microarray mRNA expression analysis of Fanconi anemia fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galetzka, D; Weis, E; Rittner, G; Schindler, D; Haaf, T

    2008-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) cells are generally hypersensitive to DNA cross-linking agents, implying that mutations in the different FANC genes cause a similar DNA repair defect(s). By using a customized cDNA microarray chip for DNA repair- and cell cycle-associated genes, we identified three genes, cathepsin B (CTSB), glutaredoxin (GLRX), and polo-like kinase 2 (PLK2), that were misregulated in untreated primary fibroblasts from three unrelated FA-D2 patients, compared to six controls. Quantitative real-time RT PCR was used to validate these results and to study possible molecular links between FA-D2 and other FA subtypes. GLRX was misregulated to opposite directions in a variety of different FA subtypes. Increased CTSB and decreased PLK2 expression was found in all or almost all of the analyzed complementation groups and, therefore, may be related to the defective FA pathway. Transcriptional upregulation of the CTSB proteinase appears to be a secondary phenomenon due to proliferation differences between FA and normal fibroblast cultures. In contrast, PLK2 is known to play a pivotal role in processes that are linked to FA defects and may contribute in multiple ways to the FA phenotype: PLK2 is a target gene for TP53, is likely to function as a tumor suppressor gene in hematologic neoplasia, and Plk2(-/-) mice are small because of defective embryonal development. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Expression of human ARGONAUTE 2 inhibits endogenous microRNA activity in Arabidopsis

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    Ira eDeveson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant and animal microRNA (miRNA pathways share many analogous components, the ARGONAUTE (AGO proteins being foremost among them. We sought to ascertain the degree of functional conservation shared by Homo sapiens ARGONAUTE 2 (HsAGO2 and Arabidopsis thaliana ARGONAUTE 1 (AtAGO1, which are the predominant AGO family members involved with miRNA activity in their respective species. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing HsAGO2 were indistinguishable from counterparts over-expressing AtAGO1, each group exhibiting the morphological and molecular hallmarks of miRNA-pathway loss-of-function alleles. However, unlike AtAGO1, HsAGO2 was unable to rescue the ago1-27 allele. We conclude that, despite the evolutionary gulf between them, HsAGO2 is likely capable of interacting with some component/s of the Arabidopsis miRNA pathway, thereby perturbing its operation, although differences have arisen such that HsAGO2 alone is insufficient to confer efficient silencing of miRNA targets in planta.

  7. Nanosystems based on siRNA silencing HuR expression counteract diabetic retinopathy in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadio, Marialaura; Pascale, Alessia; Cupri, Sarha; Pignatello, Rosario; Osera, Cecilia; D Agata, Velia; D Amico, Agata Grazia; Leggio, Gian Marco; Ruozi, Barbara; Govoni, Stefano; Drago, Filippo; Bucolo, Claudio

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated whether specifically and directly targeting human antigen R (HuR), a member of embryonic lethal abnormal vision (ELAV) proteins family, may represent a new potential therapeutic strategy to manage diabetic retinopathy. Nanosystems loaded with siRNA silencing HuR expression (lipoplexes), consisting of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and liposomes (SUV) were prepared. Photon correlation spectroscopy analysis, Zeta potential measurement and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies were carried out to characterize the complexation of siRNA with the lipid nanocarriers. Nanosystems were evaluated by using AFM and scanning electron microscopy. The lipoplexes were injected into the eye of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Retinal HuR and VEGF levels were detected by Western blot and ELISA, respectively. Retinal histology was also carried out. The results demonstrated that retinal HuR and VEGF are significantly increased in STZ-rats and are blunted by HuR siRNA treatment. Lipoplexes with a weak positive surface charge and with a 4:1 N/P (cationic lipid nitrogen to siRNA phosphate) ratio exert a better transfection efficiency, significantly dumping retinal HuR and VEGF levels. In conclusion, we demonstrated that siRNA can be efficiently delivered into the rat retina using lipid-based nanocarriers, and some of the lipoplexes loaded with siRNA silencing HuR expression are potential candidates to manage retinal diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pharmacomodulation of microRNA Expression in Neurocognitive Diseases: Obstacles and Future Opportunities.

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    Simion, Viorel; Nadim, Wissem Deraredj; Benedetti, Helene; Pichon, Chantal; Morisset-Lopez, Severine; Baril, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Given the importance of microRNAs (miRNAs) in modulating brain functions and their implications in neurocognitive disorders there are currently significant efforts devoted in the field of miRNA-based therapeutics to correct and/or to treat these brain diseases. The observation that miRNA 29a/b-1 cluster, miRNA 10b and miRNA 7, for instance, are frequently deregulated in the brains of patients with neurocognitive diseases and in animal models of Alzheimer, Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases, suggest that correction of miRNA expression using agonist or antagonist miRNA oligonucleotides might be a promising approach to correct or even to cure such diseases. The encouraging results from recent clinical trials allow envisioning that pharmacological approaches based on miRNAs might, in a near future, reach the requirements for successful therapeutic outcomes and will improve the healthcare of patients with brain injuries or disorders. This review will focus on the current strategies used to modulate pharmacological function of miRNA using chemically modified oligonucleotides. We will then review the recent literature on strategies to improve nucleic acid delivery across the blood-brain barrier which remains a severe obstacle to the widespread application of miRNA therapeutics to treat brain diseases. Finally, we provide a state-of-art of current preclinical research performed in animal models for the treatment of neurocognitive disorders using miRNA as therapeutic agents and discuss future developments of miRNA therapeutics.

  9. RNA Helicase DDX5 Regulates MicroRNA Expression and Contributes to Cytoskeletal Reorganization in Basal Breast Cancer Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Daojing; Huang, Jing; Hu, Zhi

    2011-11-15

    RNA helicase DDX5 (also p68) is involved in all aspects of RNA metabolism and serves as a transcriptional co-regulator, but its functional role in breast cancer remains elusive. Here, we report an integrative biology study of DDX5 in breast cancer, encompassing quantitative proteomics, global MicroRNA profiling, and detailed biochemical characterization of cell lines and human tissues. We showed that protein expression of DDX5 increased progressively from the luminal to basal breast cancer cell lines, and correlated positively with that of CD44 in the basal subtypes. Through immunohistochemistry analyses of tissue microarrays containing over 200 invasive human ductal carcinomas, we observed that DDX5 was upregulated in the majority of malignant tissues, and its expression correlated strongly with those of Ki67 and EGFR in the triple-negative tumors. We demonstrated that DDX5 regulated a subset of MicroRNAs including miR-21 and miR-182 in basal breast cancer cells. Knockdown of DDX5 resulted in reorganization of actin cytoskeleton and reduction of cellular proliferation. The effects were accompanied by upregulation of tumor suppressor PDCD4 (a known miR-21 target); as well as upregulation of cofilin and profilin, two key proteins involved in actin polymerization and cytoskeleton maintenance, as a consequence of miR-182 downregulation. Treatment with miR-182 inhibitors resulted in morphologic phenotypes resembling those induced by DDX5 knockdown. Using bioinformatics tools for pathway and network analyses, we confirmed that the network for regulation of actin cytoskeleton was predominantly enriched for the predicted downstream targets of miR-182. Our results reveal a new functional role of DDX5 in breast cancer via the DDX5→miR-182→actin cytoskeleton pathway, and suggest the potential clinical utility of DDX5 and its downstream MicroRNAs in the theranostics of breast cancer.

  10. Altered miRNA expression in the cervix during pregnancy associated with lead and mercury exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Alison P; Burris, Heather H; Just, Allan C; Motta, Valeria; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Svensson, Katherine; Oken, Emily; Solano-Gonzalez, Maritsa; Mercado-Garcia, Adriana; Pantic, Ivan; Schwartz, Joel; Tellez-Rojo, Martha M; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Wright, Robert O

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Toxic metals including lead and mercury are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study aimed to assess the association between miRNA expression in the cervix during pregnancy with lead and mercury levels. Materials & methods: We obtained cervical swabs from pregnant women (n = 60) and quantified cervical miRNA expression. Women's blood lead, bone lead and toenail mercury levels were analyzed. We performed linear regression to examine the association between metal levels and expression of 74 miRNAs adjusting for covariates. Results: Seventeen miRNAs were negatively associated with toenail mercury levels, and tibial bone lead levels were associated with decreased expression of miR-575 and miR-4286. Conclusion: The findings highlight miRNAs in the human cervix as novel responders to maternal chemical exposure during pregnancy. PMID:26418635

  11. Keratinocyte growth factor mRNA expression in periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, S; Wandall, H H; Grøn, B

    1997-01-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a fibroblast growth factor which mediates epithelial growth and differentiation. KGF is expressed in subepithelial fibroblasts, but generally not in fibroblasts of deep connective tissue, such as fascia and ligaments. Here we demonstrate that KGF mRNA is expres......Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a fibroblast growth factor which mediates epithelial growth and differentiation. KGF is expressed in subepithelial fibroblasts, but generally not in fibroblasts of deep connective tissue, such as fascia and ligaments. Here we demonstrate that KGF m......RNA is expressed in periodontal ligament fibroblasts, and that the expression is increased upon serum stimulation. Fibroblasts from human periodontal ligament, from buccal mucosa, from gingiva, and from skin were established from explants. Alkaline phosphatase activity was used as an indicator of the periodontal...

  12. Expression of microRNA related to bone remodeling regulation in plasma in patients with acromegaly

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    Tatiana A. Grebennikova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Backgraund. MiсroRNA are small regulatory factors that regulate gene expression by post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA, playing an important role in numerous cellular processes including organogenesis, apoptosis, cell proliferation and differentiation. Acromegaly causes bone fragility, but the pathogenetic mechanism is generally unknown. Aim. To evaluate levels of microRNA related to bone remodeling regulation in plasma samples from patients with acromegaly Materials and methods. Fasting plasma samples were taken and stored in aliquot at ≤ -80°C from consecutive subjects with clinically evident and biochemically confirmed active acromegaly and healthy volunteers matched by age, sex and body mass index (BMI. miRNeasy Serum/Plasma Kit, TaqMan Advanced miRNA cDNA Synthesis Kit, TaqMan Advanced miRNA Assays were used to assay plasma miRNA expression. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1 was measured by immunochemiluminescence assay (Liaison. Results. We enrolled 40 subjects 22 patients suffered from acromegaly and 18 matched healthy controls matched by sex, age and BMI. The median age of patients with acromegaly was 42 years (Q25;Q75 – 37;43 with no difference among the groups, p=0.205; BMI – 28 (24;32 kg/m2, p=0.253. The median IGF1 in subjects with acromegaly – 622 (514;1000 ng/ml was significantly higher as compared to the control group (p<0.001. Patients with acromegaly had significantly higher expression of microRNA-100-5р (p=0.051, microRNA-550а-5р (p=0.048, microRNA-7b-5р (p=0.005 and microRNA-96-5р (p=0.042 among 27 bone-specific microRNA tested in plasma Conclusions. This study reveals that several microRNAs, known to regulate bone remodeling can be detected in plasma samples of patients with acromegaly and may be suggested as biomarkers for skeletal involvement in patients with acromegaly.

  13. Anesthesia for euthanasia influences mRNA expression in healthy mice and after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staib-Lasarzik, Irina; Kriege, Oliver; Timaru-Kast, Ralph; Pieter, Dana; Werner, Christian; Engelhard, Kristin; Thal, Serge C

    2014-10-01

    Tissue sampling for gene expression analysis is usually performed under general anesthesia. Anesthetics are known to modulate hemodynamics, receptor-mediated signaling cascades, and outcome parameters. The present study determined the influence of anesthetic paradigms typically used for euthanization and tissue sampling on cerebral mRNA expression in mice. Naïve mice and animals with acute traumatic brain injury induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI) were randomized to the following euthanasia protocols (n=10-11/group): no anesthesia (NA), 1 min of 4 vol% isoflurane in room air (ISO), 3 min of a combination of 5 mg/kg midazolam, 0.05 mg/kg fentanyl, and 0.5 mg/kg medetomidine intraperitoneally (COMB), or 3 min of 360 mg/kg chloral hydrate intraperitoneally (CH). mRNA expression of actin-1-related gene (Act1), FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (FosB), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), heat shock protein beta-1 (HspB1), interleukin (IL)-6, tight junction protein 1 (ZO-1), IL-1ß, cyclophilin A, micro RNA 497 (miR497), and small cajal body-specific RNA 17 were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in hippocampus samples. In naïve animals, Act1 expression was downregulated in the CH group compared with NA. FosB expression was downregulated in COMB and CH groups compared with NA. CCI reduced Act1 and FosB expression, whereas HspB1 and TNFα expression increased. After CCI, HspB1 expression was significantly higher in ISO, COMB, and CH groups, and TNFα expression was elevated in ISO and COMB groups. MiR497, IL-6, and IL-1ß were upregulated after CCI but not affected by anesthetics. Effects were independent of absolute mRNA copy numbers. The data demonstrate that a few minutes of anesthesia before tissue sampling are sufficient to induce immediate mRNA changes, which seem to predominate in the early-regulated gene cluster. Anesthesia-related effects on gene expression might explain limited reproduciblity of real

  14. Advanced Design of Dumbbell-shaped Genetic Minimal Vectors Improves Non-coding and Coding RNA Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoou; Yu, Han; Teo, Cui Rong; Tan, Genim Siu Xian; Goh, Sok Chin; Patel, Parasvi; Chua, Yiqiang Kevin; Hameed, Nasirah Banu Sahul; Bertoletti, Antonio; Patzel, Volker

    2016-09-01

    Dumbbell-shaped DNA minimal vectors lacking nontherapeutic genes and bacterial sequences are considered a stable, safe alternative to viral, nonviral, and naked plasmid-based gene-transfer systems. We investigated novel molecular features of dumbbell vectors aiming to reduce vector size and to improve the expression of noncoding or coding RNA. We minimized small hairpin RNA (shRNA) or microRNA (miRNA) expressing dumbbell vectors in size down to 130 bp generating the smallest genetic expression vectors reported. This was achieved by using a minimal H1 promoter with integrated transcriptional terminator transcribing the RNA hairpin structure around the dumbbell loop. Such vectors were generated with high conversion yields using a novel protocol. Minimized shRNA-expressing dumbbells showed accelerated kinetics of delivery and transcription leading to enhanced gene silencing in human tissue culture cells. In primary human T cells, minimized miRNA-expressing dumbbells revealed higher stability and triggered stronger target gene suppression as compared with plasmids and miRNA mimics. Dumbbell-driven gene expression was enhanced up to 56- or 160-fold by implementation of an intron and the SV40 enhancer compared with control dumbbells or plasmids. Advanced dumbbell vectors may represent one option to close the gap between durable expression that is achievable with integrating viral vectors and short-term effects triggered by naked RNA.

  15. Modulation of microRNA editing, expression and processing by ADAR2 deaminase in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaselli, Sara; Galeano, Federica; Alon, Shahar; Raho, Susanna; Galardi, Silvia; Polito, Vinicia Assunta; Presutti, Carlo; Vincenti, Sara; Eisenberg, Eli; Locatelli, Franco; Gallo, Angela

    2015-01-13

    ADAR enzymes convert adenosines to inosines within double-stranded RNAs, including microRNA (miRNA) precursors, with important consequences on miRNA retargeting and expression. ADAR2 activity is impaired in glioblastoma and its rescue has anti-tumoral effects. However, how ADAR2 activity may impact the miRNome and the progression of glioblastoma is not known. By integrating deep-sequencing and array approaches with bioinformatics analyses and molecular studies, we show that ADAR2 is essential to edit a small number of mature miRNAs and to significantly modulate the expression of about 90 miRNAs in glioblastoma cells. Specifically, the rescue of ADAR2 activity in cancer cells recovers the edited miRNA population lost in glioblastoma cell lines and tissues, and rebalances expression of onco-miRNAs and tumor suppressor miRNAs to the levels observed in normal human brain. We report that the major effect of ADAR2 is to reduce the expression of a large number of miRNAs, most of which act as onco-miRNAs. ADAR2 can edit miR-222/221 and miR-21 precursors and decrease the expression of the corresponding mature onco-miRNAs in vivo and in vitro, with important effects on cell proliferation and migration. Our findings disclose an additional layer of complexity in miRNome regulation and provide information to better understand the impact of ADAR2 editing enzyme in glioblastoma. We propose that ADAR2 is a key factor for maintaining edited-miRNA population and balancing the expression of several essential miRNAs involved in cancer.

  16. Natural variation of piRNA expression affects immunity to transposable elements.

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    Sergei Ryazansky

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the Drosophila germline, transposable elements (TEs are silenced by PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA that originate from distinct genomic regions termed piRNA clusters and are processed by PIWI-subfamily Argonaute proteins. Here, we explore the variation in the ability to restrain an alien TE in different Drosophila strains. The I-element is a retrotransposon involved in the phenomenon of I-R hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Genomes of R strains do not contain active I-elements, but harbour remnants of ancestral I-related elements. The permissivity to I-element activity of R females, called reactivity, varies considerably in natural R populations, indicating the existence of a strong natural polymorphism in defense systems targeting transposons. To reveal the nature of such polymorphisms, we compared ovarian small RNAs between R strains with low and high reactivity and show that reactivity negatively correlates with the ancestral I-element-specific piRNA content. Analysis of piRNA clusters containing remnants of I-elements shows increased expression of the piRNA precursors and enrichment by the Heterochromatin Protein 1 homolog, Rhino, in weak R strains, which is in accordance with stronger piRNA expression by these regions. To explore the nature of the differences in piRNA production, we focused on two R strains, weak and strong, and showed that the efficiency of maternal inheritance of piRNAs as well as the I-element copy number are very similar in both strains. At the same time, germline and somatic uni-strand piRNA clusters generate more piRNAs in strains with low reactivity, suggesting the relationship between the efficiency of primary piRNA production and variable response to TE invasions. The strength of adaptive genome defense is likely driven by naturally occurring polymorphisms in the rapidly evolving piRNA pathway proteins. We hypothesize that hyper-efficient piRNA production is contributing to elimination of a telomeric

  17. High responders to resistance exercise training demonstrate differential regulation of skeletal muscle microRNA expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Peter K; Gallagher, Iain J; Hartman, Joseph W

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA), small noncoding RNA molecules, may regulate protein synthesis, while resistance exercise training (RT) is an efficient strategy for stimulating muscle protein synthesis in vivo. However, RT increases muscle mass, with a very wide range of effectiveness in humans. We therefore...... determined the expression level of 21 abundant miRNAs to determine whether variation in these miRNAs was able to explain the variation in RT-induced gains in muscle mass. Vastus lateralis biopsies were obtained from the top and bottom ~20% of responders from 56 young men who undertook a 5 day/wk RT program...... for 12 wk. Training-induced muscle mass gain was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and fiber size was evaluated by histochemistry. The expression level of each miRNA was quantified using TaqMan-based quantitative PCR, with the analysis carried out in a blinded manner. Gene ontology...

  18. Comparison of the Functional microRNA Expression in Immune Cell Subsets of Neonates and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Ren; Hsu, Te-Yao; Huang, Hsin-Chun; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Li, Sung-Chou; Yang, Kuender D.; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Diversity of biological molecules in newborn and adult immune cells contributes to differences in cell function and atopic properties. Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are reported to involve in the regulation of immune system. Therefore, determining the miRNA expression profile of leukocyte subpopulations is important for understanding immune system regulation. In order to explore the unique miRNA profiling that contribute to altered immune in neonates, we comprehensively analyzed the functional miRNA signatures of eight leukocyte subsets (polymorphonuclear cells, monocytes, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, natural killer cells, B cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and myeloid dendritic cells) from both neonatal and adult umbilical cord and peripheral blood samples, respectively. We observed distinct miRNA profiles between adult and neonatal blood leukocyte subsets, including unique miRNA signatures for each cell lineage. Leukocyte miRNA signatures were altered after stimulation. Adult peripheral leukocytes had higher let-7b-5p expression levels compared to neonatal cord leukocytes across multiple subsets, irrespective of stimulation. Transfecting neonatal monocytes with a let-7b-5p mimic resulted in a reduction of LPS-induced interleukin (IL)-6 and TNF-α production, while transfection of a let-7b-5p inhibitor into adult monocytes enhanced IL-6 and TNF-α production. With this functional approach, we provide intact differential miRNA expression profiling of specific immune cell subsets between neonates and adults. These studies serve as a basis to further understand the altered immune response observed in neonates and advance the development of therapeutic strategies. PMID:28066425

  19. Comparison of the functional microRNA expression in immune cell subsets of neonates and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ren Yu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of biological molecules in newborn and adult immune cells contributes to differences in cell function and atopic properties. Micro RNAs (miRNAs are reported involve in the regulation of immune system. Therefore, determining the miRNA expression profile of leukocyte sub-populations is important for understanding immune system regulation. In order to explore the unique microRNA profiling that contribute to altered immune in neonates, we comprehensively analyzed the functional miRNA signatures of eight leukocyte subsets (polymorphonuclear cells, monocytes, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, natural killer cells, B cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs, and myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs from both neonatal and adult umbilical cord and peripheral blood samples, respectively. We observed distinct miRNA profiles between adult and neonatal blood leukocyte subsets, including unique miRNA signatures for each cell lineage. Leukocyte miRNA signatures were altered after stimulation. Adult peripheral leukocytes had higher let-7b-5p expression levels compared to neonatal cord leukocytes across multiple subsets, irrespective of stimulation. Transfecting neonatal monocytes with a let-7b-5p mimic resulted in a reduction of LPS-induced IL-6 and TNF-alpha production, while transfection of a let-7b-5p inhibitor into adult monocytes enhanced IL-6 and TNF-alpha production. With this functional approach, we provide intact differential microRNA expression profiling of specific immune cell subsets between neonates and adults. These studies serve as a basis to further understand the altered immune response observed in neonates and advance the development of therapeutic strategies.

  20. Expression, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of RNA-binding protein Hfq (YmaH) from Bacillus subtilis in complex with an RNA aptamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Seiki; Someya, Tatsuhiko; Kawai, Gota; Nakamura, Kouji; Kumasaka, Takashi

    2010-05-01

    The Hfq protein is a hexameric RNA-binding protein which regulates gene expression by binding to RNA under the influence of diverse environmental stresses. Its ring structure binds various types of RNA, including mRNA and sRNA. RNA-bound structures of Hfq from Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus have been revealed to have poly(A) RNA at the distal site and U-rich RNA at the proximal site, respectively. Here, crystals of a complex of the Bacillus subtilis Hfq protein with an A/G-repeat 7-mer RNA (Hfq-RNA) that were prepared using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique are reported. The type 1 Hfq-RNA crystals belonged to space group I422, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 123.70, c = 119.13 A, while the type 2 Hfq-RNA crystals belonged to space group F222, with unit-cell parameters a = 91.92, b = 92.50, c = 114.92 A. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.20 A from both crystal forms. The hexameric structure of the Hfq protein was clearly shown by self-rotation analysis.

  1. MicroRNA-223 Expression Is Upregulated in Insulin Resistant Human Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Yueh Chuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short noncoding RNAs involved in posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression and influence many cellular functions including glucose and lipid metabolism. We previously reported that adipose tissue (AT from women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS or controls with insulin resistance (IR revealed a differentially expressed microRNA (miRNA profile, including upregulated miR-93 in PCOS patients and in non-PCOS women with IR. Overexpressed miR-93 directly inhibited glucose transporter isoform 4 (GLUT4 expression, thereby influencing glucose metabolism. We have now studied the role of miR-223, which is also abnormally expressed in the AT of IR subjects. Our data indicates that miR-223 is significantly overexpressed in the AT of IR women, regardless of whether they had PCOS or not. miR-223 expression in AT was positively correlated with HOMA-IR. Unlike what is reported in cardiomyocytes, overexpression of miR-223 in human differentiated adipocytes was associated with a reduction in GLUT4 protein content and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. In addition, our data suggests miR-223 regulates GLUT4 expression by direct binding to its 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR. In conclusion, in AT miR-223 is an IR-related miRNA that may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of IR-related disorders.

  2. Relationship of calcitonin mRNA expression to the differentiation state of HL 60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, P; Bacher, M; Pflüger, K H

    1994-05-01

    Raised plasma levels of immunoreactive human calcitonin (ihCT) can be found in patients with myeloid leukemia and seem to indicate a poor prognosis. High levels were found in acute undifferentiated and acute myeloblastic leukemia. To test whether CT expression could be a marker of myeloid differentiation, we used the promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL 60 which also expresses ihCT as a model system for myeloid differentiation. Exponentially growing HL 60 cells as well as differentiation induced HL 60 cells expressed a single 1.0 Kb CT transcript. The induction of HL 60 cell differentiation along the granulocytic lineage by DMSO or HMBA had no effect on the level of CT transcripts. Induction of monocytic/macrophagic differentiation by TPA resulted in a transient, about 10-fold elevated expression of CT steady state mRNA after 24 h. In contrast to TPA, induction of HL 60 cell differentiation along the monocytic pathway by Vit D3 had no detectable effect on the level of the CT in RNA expression at corresponding time points. These findings suggest that the transient induction of CT steady state mRNA expression by TPA is rather a direct effect of the phorbol ester than commitment along the monocytic line of differentiation.

  3. Alterations in Bronchial Airway miRNA Expression for Lung Cancer Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Ana B; Campbell, Joshua D; Liu, Gang; Elashoff, David; Dubinett, Steven; Smith, Kate; Whitney, Duncan; Lenburg, Marc E; Spira, Avrum

    2017-11-01

    We have previously shown that gene expression alterations in normal-appearing bronchial epithelial cells can serve as a lung cancer detection biomarker in smokers. Given that miRNAs regulate airway gene expression responses to smoking, we evaluated whether miRNA expression is also altered in the bronchial epithelium of smokers with lung cancer. Using epithelial brushings from the mainstem bronchus of patients undergoing bronchoscopy for suspected lung cancer (as part of the AEGIS-1/2 clinical trials), we profiled miRNA expression via small-RNA sequencing from 347 current and former smokers for which gene expression data were also available. Patients were followed for one year postbronchoscopy until a final diagnosis of lung cancer ( n = 194) or benign disease ( n = 153) was made. Following removal of 6 low-quality samples, we used 138 patients (AEGIS-1) as a discovery set to identify four miRNAs (miR-146a-5p, miR-324-5p, miR-223-3p, and miR-223-5p) that were downregulated in the bronchial airway of lung cancer patients (ANOVA P cancer patients (GSEA FDR lung cancer significantly improves its performance (AUC) in the 203 samples (AEGIS-1/2) serving an independent test set (DeLong P lung cancer, and that they may regulate cancer-associated gene expression differences. Cancer Prev Res; 10(11); 651-9. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. microRNA expression profiling in fetal single ventricle malformation identified by deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhang-Bin; Han, Shu-Ping; Bai, Yun-Fei; Zhu, Chun; Pan, Ya; Guo, Xi-Rong

    2012-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key regulators in many biological processes, particularly cardiac growth and development, although the specific miRNA expression profile associated with this process remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to characterize the cellular microRNA profile involved in the development of congenital heart malformation, through the investigation of single ventricle (SV) defects. Comprehensive miRNA profiling in human fetal SV cardiac tissue was performed by deep sequencing. Differential expression of 48 miRNAs was revealed by sequencing by oligonucleotide ligation and detection (SOLiD) analysis. Of these, 38 were down-regulated and 10 were up-regulated in differentiated SV cardiac tissue, compared to control cardiac tissue. This was confirmed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis. Predicted target genes of the 48 differentially expressed miRNAs were analyzed by gene ontology and categorized according to cellular process, regulation of biological process and metabolic process. Pathway-Express analysis identified the WNT and mTOR signaling pathways as the most significant processes putatively affected by the differential expression of these miRNAs. The candidate genes involved in cardiac development were identified as potential targets for these differentially expressed microRNAs and the collaborative network of microRNAs and cardiac development related-mRNAs was constructed. These data provide the basis for future investigation of the mechanism of the occurrence and development of fetal SV malformations.

  5. Expression analysis of miRNA and target mRNAs in esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, X.R. [Oncology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Lu, P. [Gastrointestinal Surgery Department, People' s Hospital of Zhengzhou, Zhengzhou (China); Mei, J.Z.; Liu, G.J. [Medical Oncology Department, People' s Hospital of Zhengzhou, Zhengzhou (China); Fan, Q.X. [Oncology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China)

    2014-08-01

    We aimed to investigate miRNAs and related mRNAs through a network-based approach in order to learn the crucial role that they play in the biological processes of esophageal cancer. Esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) and adenocarcinoma (EAC)-related miRNA and gene expression data were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, and differentially expressed miRNAs and genes were selected. Target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted and their regulatory networks were constructed. Differentially expressed miRNA analysis selected four miRNAs associated with EAC and ESCC, among which hsa-miR-21 and hsa-miR-202 were shared by both diseases. hsa-miR-202 was reported for the first time to be associated with esophageal cancer in the present study. Differentially expressed miRNA target genes were mainly involved in cancer-related and signal-transduction pathways. Functional categories of these target genes were related to transcriptional regulation. The results may indicate potential target miRNAs and genes for future investigations of esophageal cancer.

  6. Effect of method of deduplication on estimation of differential gene expression using RNA-seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V. Klepikova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background RNA-seq is a useful tool for analysis of gene expression. However, its robustness is greatly affected by a number of artifacts. One of them is the presence of duplicated reads. Results To infer the influence of different methods of removal of duplicated reads on estimation of gene expression in cancer genomics, we analyzed paired samples of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and non-tumor liver tissue. Four protocols of data analysis were applied to each sample: processing without deduplication, deduplication using a method implemented in SAMtools, and deduplication based on one or two molecular indices (MI. We also analyzed the influence of sequencing layout (single read or paired end and read length. We found that deduplication without MI greatly affects estimated expression values; this effect is the most pronounced for highly expressed genes. Conclusion The use of unique molecular identifiers greatly improves accuracy of RNA-seq analysis, especially for highly expressed genes. We developed a set of scripts that enable handling of MI and their incorporation into RNA-seq analysis pipelines. Deduplication without MI affects results of differential gene expression analysis, producing a high proportion of false negative results. The absence of duplicate read removal is biased towards false positives. In those cases where using MI is not possible, we recommend using paired-end sequencing layout.

  7. [Comparison of manual and automated (MagNA Pure) nucleic acid isolation methods in molecular diagnosis of HIV infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, Alpaslan; Us, Dürdal; Hasçelik, Gülşen

    2004-01-01

    Rapid quantitative molecular methods are very important for the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, assessment of prognosis and follow up. The purpose of this study was to compare and evaluate the performances of conventional manual extraction method and automated MagNA Pure system, for the nucleic acid isolation step which is the first and most important step in molecular diagnosis of HIV infections. Plasma samples of 35 patients in which anti-HIV antibodies were found as positive by microparticule enzyme immunoassay and confirmed by immunoblotting method, were included in the study. The nucleic acids obtained simultaneously by manual isolation kit (Cobas Amplicor, HIV-1 Monitor Test, version 1.5, Roche Diagnostics) and automated system (MagNA Pure LC Total Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit, Roche Diagnostics), were amplified and detected in Cobas Amplicor (Roche Diagnostics) instrument. Twenty three of 35 samples (65.7%) were found to be positive, and 9 (25.7%) were negative by both of the methods. The agreement between the methods were detected as 91.4%, for qualitative results. Viral RNA copies detected by manual and MagNA Pure isolation methods were found between 76.0-7.590.000 (mean: 487.143) and 113.0-20.300.0000 (mean: 2.174.097) copies/ml, respectively. When both of the overall and individual results were evaluated, the number of RNA copies obtained with automatized system, were found higher than the manual method (p<0.05). Three samples which had low numbers of nucleic acids (113, 773, 857, respectively) with MagNA Pure, yielded negative results with manual method. In conclusion, the automatized MagNA Pure system was found to be a reliable, rapid and practical method for the isolation of HIV-RNA.

  8. Silencing effect of shRNA expression vectors with stem length of 21 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Then, the recombinant plasmids were transfected into mouse embryonic fibroblast with lipofection and injected into leg muscle of mouse. The mRNA expression level of the green fluorescent protein gene was checked by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The silencing effect of the 29 bp shRNA ...

  9. MicroRNA MiR-17 retards tissue growth and represses fibronectin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Sze Wan; Lee, Daniel Y; Deng, Zhaoqun; Shatseva, Tatiana; Jeyapalan, Zina; Du, William W; Zhang, Yaou; Xuan, Jim W; Yee, Siu-Pok; Siragam, Vinayakumar; Yang, Burton B

    2009-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded regulatory RNAs, frequently expressed as clusters. Previous studies have demonstrated that the six-miRNA cluster miR-17~92 has important roles in tissue development and cancers. However, the precise role of each miRNA in the cluster is unknown. Here we show that overexpression of miR-17 results in decreased cell adhesion, migration and proliferation. Transgenic mice overexpressing miR-17 showed overall growth retardation, smaller organs and greatly reduced haematopoietic cell lineages. We found that fibronectin and the fibronectin type-III domain containing 3A (FNDC3A) are two targets that have their expression repressed by miR-17, both in vitro and in transgenic mice. Several lines of evidence support the notion that miR-17 causes cellular defects through its repression of fibronectin expression. Our single miRNA expression assay may be evolved to allow the manipulation of individual miRNA functions in vitro and in vivo. We anticipate that this could serve as a model for studying gene regulation by miRNAs in the development of gene therapy.

  10. Sheep oocyte expresses leptin and functional leptin receptor mRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Jalil Taheri

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: The result of present study reveals that leptin and its functional receptor (Ob-Rb mRNA are expressed in sheep oocyte and further studies should investigate the role(s of leptin on sheep oocyte physiology and embryo development.

  11. Expression analysis of argonaute, Dicer-like, and RNA-dependent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DEFANG GAN

    the first report of expression analysis of all CsDCL, CsAGO and CsRDR family genes in cucumber under .... tissues and organs were detected using online data and semi- ...... Wheeler B. S. 2013 Small RNAs, big impact: small RNA pathways.

  12. Circulating microRNA expression profiles associated with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Anting Liu; Schetter, Aaron J; Nielsen, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the specificity of expression patterns of cell-free, circulating microRNAs in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: Total RNA was purified from plasma and 45 different specific mature microRNAs were determined using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain...

  13. Aging alters mRNA expression of amyloid transporter genes at the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osgood, Doreen; Miller, Miles C; Messier, Arthur A; Gonzalez, Liliana; Silverberg, Gerald D

    2017-09-01

    Decreased clearance of potentially toxic metabolites, due to aging changes, likely plays a significant role in the accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides and other macromolecules in the brain of the elderly and in the patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aging is the single most important risk factor for AD development. Aβ transport receptor proteins expressed at the blood-brain barrier are significantly altered with age: the efflux transporters lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 and P-glycoprotein are reduced, whereas the influx transporter receptor for advanced glycation end products is increased. These receptors play an important role in maintaining brain biochemical homeostasis. We now report that, in a rat model of aging, gene transcription is altered in aging, as measured by Aβ receptor gene messenger RNA (mRNA) at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 20, 30, and 36 months. Gene mRNA expression from isolated cerebral microvessels was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 and P-glycoprotein mRNA were significantly reduced in aging, and receptor for advanced glycation end products was increased, in parallel with the changes seen in receptor protein expression. Transcriptional changes appear to play a role in aging alterations in blood-brain barrier receptor expression and Aβ accumulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. PAX5α and PAX5β mRNA expression in breast Cancer: Relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Many studies evaluated the role of paired box gene 5 (PAX5) in breast cancer. However, few investigated PAX5α and PAX5β isoforms individually. Objective: The aim of the present study is to evaluate mRNA expression of PAX5α and PAX5β in breast cancer and assessing their underlying pathological roles ...

  15. The potential lipolysis function of musclin and its mRNA expression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Musclin is a newly discovered factor and its functions remain to be defined. This study investigated the tissue expression pattern of musclin gene and its potential effect on lipid metabolism. Musclin mRNA levels in adipose, muscle tissues and primary adipocytes were examined by quantitative PCR. The musclin gene ...

  16. The effects of valproic acid on the mRNA expression of Natriuretic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mona Hajikazemi

    2017-04-28

    Apr 28, 2017 ... Real Time RT-PCR was used to quantify differential mRNA expression of NPR-A and KCNQ1 genes. Two-way ANOVA and bonferroni post-tests were used to analyze data statistically. Results: We showed that VPA treatment inhibits the growth of SW-480 cells more efficiently compared to. HT-29. NPR-A ...

  17. MicroRNA expression profiles associated with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and ampullary adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nicolai A; Werner, Jens; Willenbrock, Hanni

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs have potential as diagnostic cancer biomarkers. The aim of this study was (1) to define microRNA expression patterns in formalin-fixed parafin-embedded tissue from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, ampullary adenocarcinoma, normal pancreas and chronic pancreatitis without using micro-di...

  18. Lipoprotein Lipase mRNA expression in different tissues of farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) controls triacylglycerol partitioning between adipose tissues and muscles, so it is important enzyme for fattening of animals .The present work was planned to clarify the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of LPL mRNA expression in different tissues representing internal organs of ...

  19. MicroRNA expression in melanocytic nevi: the usefulness of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material for miRNA microarray profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, M.; Klausen, M.; Gniadecki, R.

    2009-01-01

    surgical specimens are formalin fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE). To explore whether FFPE material would be suitable for miRNA profiling in melanocytic lesions, we compared miRNA expression patterns in FFPE versus fresh frozen samples, obtained from 15 human melanocytic nevi. Out of microarray data, we...

  20. MicroRNA Expression Profiling of Human Respiratory Epithelium Affected by Invasive Candida Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Aun Muhammad

    Full Text Available Invasive candidiasis is potentially life-threatening systemic fungal infection caused by Candida albicans (C. albicans. Candida enters the blood stream and disseminate throughout the body and it is often observed in hospitalized patients, immunocompromised individuals or those with chronic diseases. This infection is opportunistic and risk starts with the colonization of C. albicans on mucocutaneous surfaces and respiratory epithelium. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs which are involved in the regulation of virtually every cellular process. They regulate and control the levels of mRNA stability and post-transcriptional gene expression. Aberrant expression of miRNAs has been associated in many disease states, and miRNA-based therapies are in progress. In this study, we investigated possible variations of miRNA expression profiles of respiratory epithelial cells infected by invasive Candida species. For this purpose, respiratory epithelial tissues of infected individuals from hospital laboratory were accessed before their treatment. Invasive Candida infection was confirmed by isolation of Candia albicans from the blood cultures of the same infected individuals. The purity of epithelial tissues was assessed by flow cytometry (FACSCalibur cytometer; BD Biosciences, Heidelberg, Germany using statin antibody (S-44. TaqMan quantitative real-time PCR (in a TaqMan Low Density Array format was used for miRNA expression profiling. MiRNAs investigated, the levels of expression of 55 miRNA were significantly altered in infected tissues. Some miRNAs showed dramatic increase (miR-16-1 or decrease of expression (miR-17-3p as compared to control. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of these miRNA-targeted genes suggests that Candidal infection affect many important biological pathways. In summary, disturbance in miRNA expression levels indicated the change in cascade of pathological processes and the regulation of respiratory epithelial functions

  1. Changes in Rat Brain MicroRNA Expression Profiles Following Sevoflurane and Propofol Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sevoflurane and propofol are widely used anesthetics for surgery. Studies on the mechanisms of general anesthesia have focused on changes in protein expression properties and membrane lipid. MicroRNAs (miRNAs regulate neural function by altering protein expression. We hypothesize that sevoflurane and propofol affect miRNA expression profiles in the brain, expect to understand the mechanism of anesthetic agents. Methods: Rats were randomly assigned to a 2% sevoflurane group, 600 μg·kg − 1·min − 1 propofol group, and a control group without anesthesia (n = 4, respectively. Treatment group was under anesthesia for 6 h, and all rats breathed spontaneously with continuous monitoring of respiration and blood gases. Changes in rat cortex miRNA expression profiles were analyzed by miRNA microarrays and validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Differential expression of miRNA using qRT-PCR among the control, sevoflurane, and propofol groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: Of 677 preloaded rat miRNAs, the microarray detected the expression of 277 miRNAs in rat cortex (40.9%, of which 9 were regulated by propofol and (or sevoflurane. Expression levels of three miRNAs (rno-miR-339-3p, rno-miR-448, rno-miR-466b-1FNx01 were significantly increased following sevoflurane and six (rno-miR-339-3p, rno-miR-347, rno-miR-378FNx01, rno-miR-412FNx01, rno-miR-702-3p, and rno-miR-7a-2FNx01 following propofol. Three miRNAs (rno-miR-466b-1FNx01, rno-miR-3584-5p and rno-miR-702-3p were differentially expressed by the two anesthetic treatment groups. Conclusions: Sevoflurane and propofol anesthesia induced distinct changes in brain miRNA expression patterns, suggesting differential regulation of protein expression. Determining the targets of these differentially expressed miRNAs may help reveal both the common and agent-specific actions of anesthetics on neurological and physiological

  2. Expression profiles of mRNA and long noncoding RNA in the ovaries of letrozole-induced polycystic ovary syndrome rat model through deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lu-Lu; Xu, Ying; Li, Dan-Dan; Dai, Xiao-Wei; Xu, Xin; Zhang, Jing-Shun; Ming, Hao; Zhang, Xue-Ying; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Ma, Ya-Lan; Zheng, Lian-Wen

    2018-05-30

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in reproductive-aged women. However, the exact pathophysiology of PCOS remains largely unclear. We performed deep sequencing to investigate the mRNA and long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) expression profiles in the ovarian tissues of letrozole-induced PCOS rat model and control rats. A total of 2147 mRNAs and 158 lncRNAs were differentially expressed between the PCOS models and control. Gene ontology analysis indicated that differentially expressed mRNAs were associated with biological adhesion, reproduction, and metabolic process. Pathway analysis results indicated that these aberrantly expressed mRNAs were related to several specific signaling pathways, including insulin resistance, steroid hormone biosynthesis, PPAR signaling pathway, cell adhesion molecules, autoimmune thyroid disease, and AMPK signaling pathway. The relative expression levels of mRNAs and lncRNAs were validated through qRT-PCR. LncRNA-miRNA-mRNA network was constructed to explore ceRNAs involved in the PCOS model and were also verified by qRTPCR experiment. These findings may provide insight into the pathogenesis of PCOS and clues to find key diagnostic and therapeutic roles of lncRNA in PCOS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Developmental and functional expression of miRNA-stability related genes in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Érica; Walter, Lais Takata; Higa, Guilherme Shigueto Vilar; Casado, Otávio Augusto Nocera; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    In the nervous system, control of gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs) has been investigated in fundamental processes, such as development and adaptation to ambient demands. The action of these short nucleotide sequences on specific genes depends on intracellular concentration, which in turn reflects the balance of biosynthesis and degradation. Whereas mechanisms underlying miRNA biogenesis has been investigated in recent studies, little is known about miRNA-stability related proteins. We first detected two genes in the retina that have been associated to miRNA stability, XRN2 and PAPD4. These genes are highly expressed during retinal development, however with distinct subcellular localization. We investigated whether these proteins are regulated during specific phases of the cell cycle. Combined analyses of nuclei position in neuroblastic layer and labeling using anti-cyclin D1 revealed that both proteins do not accumulate in S or M phases of the cell cycle, being poorly expressed in progenitor cells. Indeed, XRN2 and PAPD4 were observed mainly after neuronal differentiation, since low expression was also observed in astrocytes, endothelial and microglial cells. XRN2 and PAPD4 are expressed in a wide variety of neurons, including horizontal, amacrine and ganglion cells. To evaluate the functional role of both genes, we carried out experiments addressed to the retinal adaptation in response to different ambient light conditions. PAPD4 is upregulated after 3 and 24 hours of dark- adaptation, revealing that accumulation of this protein is governed by ambient light levels. Indeed, the fast and functional regulation of PAPD4 was not related to changes in gene expression, disclosing that control of protein levels occurs by post-transcriptional mechanisms. Furthermore, we were able to quantify changes in PAPD4 in specific amacrine cells after dark -adaptation, suggesting for circuitry-related roles in visual perception. In summary, in this study we first described the

  4. A possible new mechanism for the control of miRNA expression in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, Erika Reime; Higa, Guilherme Shigueto Vilar; de Sousa, Erica; Casado, Otávio Augusto Nocera; Damico, Marcio Vinicius; Britto, Luiz Roberto G; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki

    2013-10-01

    The control of gene expression by miRNAs has been widely investigated in different species and cell types. Following a probabilistic rather than a deterministic regimen, the action of these short nucleotide sequences on specific genes depends on intracellular concentration, which in turn reflects the balance between biosynthesis and degradation. Recent studies have described the involvement of XRN2, an exoribonuclease, in miRNA degradation and PAPD4, an atypical poly(A) polymerase, in miRNA stability. Herein, we examined the expression of XRN2 and PAPD4 in developing and adult rat hippocampi. Combining bioinformatics and real-time PCR, we demonstrated that XRN2 and PAPD4 expression is regulated by the uncorrelated action of transcription factors, resulting in distinct gene expression profiles during development. Analyses of nuclei position and nestin labeling revealed that both proteins progressively accumulated during neuronal differentiation, and that they are weakly expressed in immature neurons and absent in glial and endothelial cells. Despite the differences in subcellular localization, both genes were concurrently identified within identical neuronal subpopulations, including specific inhibitory interneurons. Thus, we cope with a singular circumstance in biology: an almost complete intersected expression of functional-opposed genes, reinforcing that their antagonistically driven actions on miRNAs "make sense" if simultaneously present at the same cells. Considering that the transcriptome in the nervous system is finely tuned to physiological processes, it was remarkable that miRNA stability-related genes were concurrently identified in neurons that play essential roles in cognitive functions such as memory and learning. In summary, this study reveals a possible new mechanism for the control of miRNA expression. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cyclic-AMP mediated regulation of ABCB mRNA expression in mussel haemocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Franzellitti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The multixenobiotic resistance system (MXR allows aquatic organisms to cope with their habitat despite high pollution levels by over-expressing membrane and intracellular transporters, including the P-glycoprotein (Pgp. In mammals transcription of the ABCB1 gene encoding Pgp is under cAMP/PKA-mediated regulation; whether this is true in mollusks is not fully clarified. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: cAMP/PKA regulation and ABCB mRNA expression were assessed in haemocytes from Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed in vivo for 1 week to 0.3 ng/L fluoxetine (FX alone or in combination with 0.3 ng/L propranolol (PROP. FX significantly decreased cAMP levels and PKA activity, and induced ABCB mRNA down-regulation. FX effects were abolished in the presence of PROP. In vitro experiments using haemocytes treated with physiological agonists (noradrenaline and serotonin and pharmacological modulators (PROP, forskolin, dbcAMP, and H89 of the cAMP/PKA system were performed to obtain clear evidence about the involvement of the signaling pathway in the transcriptional regulation of ABCB. Serotonin (5-HT decreased cAMP levels, PKA activity and ABCB mRNA expression but increased the mRNA levels for a putative 5-HT1 receptor. Interestingly, 5-HT1 was also over-expressed after in vivo exposures to FX. 5-HT effects were counteracted by PROP. Forskolin and dbcAMP increased PKA activity as well as ABCB mRNA expression; the latter effect was abolished in the presence of the PKA inhibitor H89. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first direct evidence for the cAMP/PKA-mediated regulation of ABCB transcription in mussels.

  6. Expression of hsa Let-7a MicroRNA of Macrophages Infected by Leishmania Major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Hashemi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a vector-born disease caused by species of the genus Leishmania and is transmitted from host to host through the bite of an infected sandfly. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are non-coding small RNAs with 22-nucleotide length. They are involved in some biological and cellular processes. We aimed to evaluate the expression of let-7a in human macrophages miRNA when are infected by Leishmania major. We also evaluated the impact of Leishmania major infection on the expression of let-7a at two different times, 24 and 48 hours, after infection. Blood samples were collected from ten healthy volunteers with no history of leishmaniasis. Development of macrophages from peripheral monocytes and infection with stationary phase of Leishmania major promastigotes were done through serial cultures under 5% CO2 environment and 37C. To measure the expression levels of let-7a real-time PCR was performed with specific related primers using the SYBR® Green master mix Kit™. The real-time PCR showed let-7a was expressed in cells infected with parasites after 24 and 48h post-infection. Comparison of let-7a miRNA expression after 24 and 48 h revealed that let-7a miRNAs were down-regulated at 48 h post-infection more than 24h after infection. The results of this study suggest that according to the main function of miRNA in repression of mRNA translation it could be possible to manipulate host cells in order to alter miRNA levels and regulate macrophage functions after establishment of intracellular parasites such as Leishmania.

  7. Altered retinal microRNA expression profiles in early diabetic retinopathy: an in silico analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Fen; Du, Xinhua; Hu, Jianyan; Li, Tingting; Du, Shanshan; Wu, Qiang

    2014-07-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) - as negative regulators of target genes - are associated with various human diseases, but their precise role(s) in diabetic retinopathy (DR) remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to elucidate the involvement of miRNAs in early DR using in silico analysis to explore their gene expression patterns. We used the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat to investigate the roles of miRNAs in early DR. Retinal miRNA expression profiles from diabetic versus healthy control rats were examined by miRNA array analysis. Based on several bioinformatic systems, specifically, gene ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, we identified signatures of the potential pathological processes, gene functions, and signaling pathways that are influenced by dysregulated miRNAs. We used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to validate six (i.e. those with significant changes in expression levels) of the 17 miRNAs that were detected in the miRNA array. We also describe the significant role of the miRNA-gene network, which is based on the interactions between miRNAs and target genes. GO analysis of the 17 miRNAs detected in the miRNA array analysis revealed the most prevalent miRNAs to be those related to biological processes, olfactory bulb development and axonogenesis. These miRNAs also exert significant influence on additional pathways, including the mitogen-activated protein and calcium signaling pathways. Six of the seventeen miRNAs were chosen for qRT-PCR validation. With the exception of a slight difference in miRNA-350, our results are in close agreement with the differential expressions detected by array analysis. This study, which describes miRNA expression during the early developmental phases of DR, revealed extensive miRNA interactions. Based on both their target genes and signaling pathways, we suggest that miRNAs perform critical regulatory functions during the early stages of DR

  8. Integrating microRNA and mRNA expression profiling in Symbiodinium microadriaticum, a dinoflagellate symbiont of reef-building corals.

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgarten, Sebastian; Bayer, Till; Aranda, Manuel; Liew, Yi Jin; Carr, Adrian; Micklem, Gos; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2013-01-01

    Animal and plant genomes produce numerous small RNAs (smRNAs) that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally affecting metabolism, development, and epigenetic inheritance. In order to characterize the repertoire of endogenous smRNAs and potential gene targets in dinoflagellates, we conducted smRNA and mRNA expression profiling over 9 experimental treatments of cultures from Symbiodinium microadriaticum, a photosynthetic symbiont of scleractinian corals.

  9. Integrating microRNA and mRNA expression profiling in Symbiodinium microadriaticum, a dinoflagellate symbiont of reef-building corals.

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgarten, Sebastian

    2013-10-12

    Animal and plant genomes produce numerous small RNAs (smRNAs) that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally affecting metabolism, development, and epigenetic inheritance. In order to characterize the repertoire of endogenous smRNAs and potential gene targets in dinoflagellates, we conducted smRNA and mRNA expression profiling over 9 experimental treatments of cultures from Symbiodinium microadriaticum, a photosynthetic symbiont of scleractinian corals.

  10. Comprehensive processing of high-throughput small RNA sequencing data including quality checking, normalization, and differential expression analysis using the UEA sRNA Workbench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Matthew; Mohorianu, Irina; Stocks, Matthew; Applegate, Christopher; Dalmay, Tamas; Moulton, Vincent

    2017-06-01

    Recently, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) has revealed compelling details about the small RNA (sRNA) population in eukaryotes. These 20 to 25 nt noncoding RNAs can influence gene expression by acting as guides for the sequence-specific regulatory mechanism known as RNA silencing. The increase in sequencing depth and number of samples per project enables a better understanding of the role sRNAs play by facilitating the study of expression patterns. However, the intricacy of the biological hypotheses coupled with a lack of appropriate tools often leads to inadequate mining of the available data and thus, an incomplete description of the biological mechanisms involved. To enable a comprehensive study of differential expression in sRNA data sets, we present a new interactive pipeline that guides researchers through the various stages of data preprocessing and analysis. This includes various tools, some of which we specifically developed for sRNA analysis, for quality checking and normalization of sRNA samples as well as tools for the detection of differentially expressed sRNAs and identification of the resulting expression patterns. The pipeline is available within the UEA sRNA Workbench, a user-friendly software package for the processing of sRNA data sets. We demonstrate the use of the pipeline on a H. sapiens data set; additional examples on a B. terrestris data set and on an A. thaliana data set are described in the Supplemental Information A comparison with existing approaches is also included, which exemplifies some of the issues that need to be addressed for sRNA analysis and how the new pipeline may be used to do this. © 2017 Beckers et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  11. Suppression of MicroRNA let-7a Expression by Agmatine Regulates Neural Stem Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juhyun; Oh, Yumi; Kim, Jong Youl; Cho, Kyoung Joo; Lee, Jong Eun

    2016-11-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) effectively reverse some severe central nervous system (CNS) disorders, due to their ability to differentiate into neurons. Agmatine, a biogenic amine, has cellular protective effects and contributes to cellular proliferation and differentiation in the CNS. Recent studies have elucidated the function of microRNA let-7a (let-7a) as a regulator of cell differentiation with roles in regulating genes associated with CNS neurogenesis. This study aimed to investigate whether agmatine modulates the expression of crucial regulators of NSC differentiation including DCX, TLX, c-Myc, and ERK by controlling let-7a expression. Our data suggest that high levels of let-7a promoted the expression of TLX and c-Myc, as well as repressed DCX and ERK expression. In addition, agmatine attenuated expression of TLX and increased expression of ERK by negatively regulating let-7a. Our study therefore enhances the present understanding of the therapeutic potential of NSCs in CNS disorders.

  12. SR proteins in vertical integration of gene expression from transcription to RNA processing to translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiang-Yang; Wang, Pingping; Han, Joonhee; Rosenfeld, Michael G; Fu, Xiang-Dong

    2009-07-10

    SR proteins have been studied extensively as a family of RNA-binding proteins that participate in both constitutive and regulated pre-mRNA splicing in mammalian cells. However, SR proteins were first discovered as factors that interact with transcriptionally active chromatin. Recent studies have now uncovered properties that connect these once apparently disparate functions, showing that a subset of SR proteins seem to bind directly to the histone 3 tail, play an active role in transcriptional elongation, and colocalize with genes that are engaged in specific intra- and interchromosome interactions for coordinated regulation of gene expression in the nucleus. These transcription-related activities are also coupled with a further expansion of putative functions of specific SR protein family members in RNA metabolism downstream of mRNA splicing, from RNA export to stability control to translation. These findings, therefore, highlight the broader roles of SR proteins in vertical integration of gene expression and provide mechanistic insights into their contributions to genome stability and proper cell-cycle progression in higher eukaryotic cells.

  13. Applying the breaks on gene expression - mRNA deadenylation by Pop2p

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper Røjkjær; Jonstrup, Anette Thyssen; Van, Lan Bich

    When driving a car, control of the brakes is just as important as control of the accelerator pedal. Likewise, in gene expression, regulation of mRNA degradation is as important as regulation of its synthesis (Mühlemann, 2005). The rate-determining step of mRNA decay in eukaryotes seems to be the ......When driving a car, control of the brakes is just as important as control of the accelerator pedal. Likewise, in gene expression, regulation of mRNA degradation is as important as regulation of its synthesis (Mühlemann, 2005). The rate-determining step of mRNA decay in eukaryotes seems...... to be the shortening of the poly(A) tail (deadenylation), as this step is slower than the subsequent decapping and degradation of the mRNA body. The Mega-Dalton Ccr4-Not complex contains two exonucleases, Ccr4p and Pop2p, responsible for this process. It is not known at present why two conserved nucleases are needed...

  14. Proanthocyanidins modulate microRNA expression in human HepG2 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Arola-Arnal

    Full Text Available Mi(croRNAs are small non-coding RNAs of 18-25 nucleotides in length that modulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. These RNAs have been shown to be involved in a several biological processes, human diseases and metabolic disorders. Proanthocyanidins, which are the most abundant polyphenol class in the human diet, have positive health effects on a variety of metabolic disorders such as inflammation, obesity, diabetes and insulin resistance. The present study aimed to evaluate whether proanthocyanidin-rich natural extracts modulate miRNA expression. Using microarray analysis and Q-PCR, we investigated miRNA expression in HepG2 cells treated with proanthocyanidins. Our results showed that when HepG2 cells were treated with grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE, cocoa proanthocyanidin extract (CPE or pure epigallocatechin gallate isolated from green tea (EGCG, fifteen, six and five differentially expressed miRNAs, respectively, were identified out of 904 mRNAs. Specifically, miR-30b* was downregulated by the three treatments, and treatment with GSPE or CPE upregulated miR-1224-3p, miR-197 and miR-532-3p. Therefore, these results provide evidence of the capacity of dietary proanthocyanidins to influence microRNA expression, suggesting a new mechanism of action of proanthocyanidins.

  15. MicroRNA miR-328 regulates zonation morphogenesis by targeting CD44 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Hui; Lee, Daniel Y; Deng, Zhaoqun; Jeyapalan, Zina; Lee, Shao-Chen; Kahai, Shireen; Lu, Wei-Yang; Zhang, Yaou; Yang, Burton B

    2008-06-18

    Morphogenesis is crucial to initiate physiological development and tumor invasion. Here we show that a microRNA controls zonation morphogenesis by targeting hyaluronan receptor CD44. We have developed a novel system to study microRNA functions by generating constructs expressing pre-miRNAs and mature miRNAs. Using this system, we have demonstrated that expression of miR-328 reduced cell adhesion, aggregation, and migration, and regulated formation of capillary structure. Protein analysis indicated that miR-328 repressed CD44 expression. Activities of luciferase constructs harboring the target site in CD44, but not the one containing mutation, were repressed by miR-328. Zonation morphogenesis appeared in cells transfected by miR-328: miR-328-transfected cells were present on the surface of zonating structures while the control cells stayed in the middle. MiR-328-mediated CD44 actions was validated by anti-CD44 antibody, hyaluronidase, CD44 siRNA, and CD44 expression constructs. In vivo experiments showed that CD44-silencing cells appeared as layers on the surfaces of nodules or zonating structures. Immuno-histochemistry also exhibited CD44-negative cells on the surface layers of normal rat livers and the internal zones of Portal veins. Our results demonstrate that miR-328 targets CD44, which is essential in regulating zonation morphogenesis: silencing of CD44 expression is essential in sealing the zonation structures to facilitate their extension and to inhibit complex expansion.

  16. Comparison of miRNA and gene expression profiles between metastatic and primary prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kaimin; Liang, Zuowen; Li, Fubiao; Wang, Hongliang

    2017-11-01

    The present study aimed to identify the regulatory mechanisms associated with the metastasis of prostate cancer (PC). The microRNA (miRNA/miR) microarray dataset GSE21036 and gene transcript dataset GSE21034 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Following pre-processing, differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between samples from patients with primary prostate cancer (PPC) and metastatic prostate cancer (MPC) with |log 2 fold change (FC)| >1 and a false discovery rate terms (36 terms), followed by miR-494 (24 terms), miR-30d (18 terms), miR-181a (15 terms), hsa-miR-196a (8 terms), miR-708 (7 terms) and miR-486-5p (2 terms). Therefore, these miRNAs may serve roles in the metastasis of PC cells via downregulation of their corresponding target DEGs.

  17. MicroRNA expression profiling during the life cycle of the silkworm (Bombyx mori)

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shiping; Zhang, Liang; Li, Qibin; Zhao, Ping; Duan, Jun; Cheng, Daojun; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Xia, Qingyou

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are expressed by a wide range of eukaryotic organisms, and function in diverse biological processes. Numerous miRNAs have been identified in Bombyx mori, but the temporal expression profiles of miRNAs corresponding to each stage transition over the entire life cycle of the silkworm remain to be established. To obtain a comprehensive overview of the correlation between miRNA expression and stage transitions, we performed a whole-life test and subsequent s...

  18. UCP2 mRNA expression is dependent on glucose metabolism in pancreatic islets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalgaard, Louise T.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► UCP2 mRNA levels are decreased in islets of Langerhans from glucokinase deficient mice. ► UCP2 mRNA up-regulation by glucose is dependent on glucokinase. ► Absence of UCP2 increases GSIS of glucokinase heterozygous pancreatic islets. ► This may protect glucokinase deficient mice from hyperglycemic damages. -- Abstract: Uncoupling Protein 2 (UCP2) is expressed in the pancreatic β-cell, where it partially uncouples the mitochondrial proton gradient, decreasing both ATP-production and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Increased glucose levels up-regulate UCP2 mRNA and protein levels, but the mechanism for UCP2 up-regulation in response to increased glucose is unknown. The aim was to examine the effects of glucokinase (GK) deficiency on UCP2 mRNA levels and to characterize the interaction between UCP2 and GK with regard to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic islets. UCP2 mRNA expression was reduced in GK+/− islets and GK heterozygosity prevented glucose-induced up-regulation of islet UCP2 mRNA. In contrast to UCP2 protein function UCP2 mRNA regulation was not dependent on superoxide generation, but rather on products of glucose metabolism, because MnTBAP, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, did not prevent the glucose-induced up-regulation of UCP2. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was increased in UCP2−/− and GK+/− islets compared with GK+/− islets and UCP2 deficiency improved glucose tolerance of GK+/− mice. Accordingly, UCP2 deficiency increased ATP-levels of GK+/− mice. Thus, the compensatory down-regulation of UCP2 is involved in preserving the insulin secretory capacity of GK mutant mice and might also be implicated in limiting disease progression in MODY2 patients.

  19. Endoplasmic reticulum stress increases AT1R mRNA expression via TIA-1-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backlund, Michael; Paukku, Kirsi; Kontula, Kimmo K; Lehtonen, Jukka Y A

    2016-04-20

    As the formation of ribonucleoprotein complexes is a major mechanism of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) regulation, we sought to identify novel AT1R mRNA binding proteins. By affinity purification and mass spectroscopy, we identified TIA-1. This interaction was confirmed by colocalization of AT1R mRNA and TIA-1 by FISH and immunofluorescence microscopy. In immunoprecipitates of endogenous TIA- 1, reverse transcription-PCR amplified AT1R mRNA. TIA-1 has two binding sites within AT1R 3'-UTR. The binding site proximal to the coding region is glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)-dependent whereas the distal binding site is not. TIA-1 functions as a part of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response leading to stress granule (SG) formation and translational silencing. We and others have shown that AT1R expression is increased by ER stress-inducing factors. In unstressed cells, TIA-1 binds to AT1R mRNA and decreases AT1R protein expression. Fluorescence microscopy shows that ER stress induced by thapsigargin leads to the transfer of TIA-1 to SGs. In FISH analysis AT1R mRNA remains in the cytoplasm and no longer colocalizes with TIA-1. Thus, release of TIA-1-mediated suppression by ER stress increases AT1R protein expression. In conclusion, AT1R mRNA is regulated by TIA-1 in a ER stress-dependent manner. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. microRNA-7 down-regulation mediates excessive collagen expression in localized scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etoh, Mitsuhiko; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Makino, Katsunari; Yamane, Keitaro; Nakayama, Wakana; Aoi, Jun; Honda, Noritoshi; Kajihara, Ikko; Makino, Takamitsu; Fukushima, Satoshi; Ihn, Hironobu

    2013-01-01

    Localized scleroderma (LSc), a connective tissue disorder restricted to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, is characterized by skin fibrosis due to an excessive deposition of types I collagen. The mechanism of such fibrosis is still unknown, but epigenetics may play some roles in the excessive collagen expression. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of fibrosis seen in LSc, focusing on microRNA (miRNA). miRNA expression was determined by PCR array, real-time PCR, and in situ hybridization. The function of miRNA was evaluated using specific inhibitor. Immunoblotting was performed to detect α2(I) collagen protein. PCR array analysis using tissue miRNA demonstrated miR-7 level was significantly decreased in LSc skin as well as keloid tissue compared to normal skin in vivo. In situ hybridization also showed miR-7 expression in dermal fibroblasts was decreased in LSc dermis. The transfection of specific inhibitor for miR-7 into cultured normal dermal fibroblasts resulted in the up-regulation of α2(I) collagen protein in vitro. Also, the serum levels of miR-7 were significantly decreased in LSc patients compared with healthy controls, but serum miR-29a levels not. Systemic or local down-regulation of miR-7 may contribute to the pathogenesis of LSc via the overexpression of α2(I) collagen, and serum miR-7 may be useful as a disease marker. Investigation of the regulatory mechanisms of LSc by miRNA may lead to new treatments by the transfection into the lesional skin of this disease.

  1. Decreased expression of microRNA-29 family in leiomyoma contributes to increased major fibrillar collagen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Erica E; Steinberg, Marissa L; Parker, J Brandon; Wu, Ju; Chakravarti, Debabrata; Bulun, Serdar E

    2016-09-01

    To determine the expression and function of the microRNA-29 family (miRNA-29a, miRNA-29b, miRNA-29c) in human leiomyoma and myometrium. Basic science experimental design. Academic medical center. Women undergoing surgery for symptomatic uterine fibroids. Overexpression and knockdown of miRNA-29a, miRNA-29b, and miRNA-29c in primary leiomyoma and myometrial cells. [1] Expression of the miRNA-29 family members in vivo in leiomyoma versus myometrium; [2] Major fibrillar collagen (I, II, III) expression in leiomyoma and myometrial cells with manipulation of miRNA-29 species. Members of the miRNA-29 family (29a, 29b, 29c) are all down-regulated in leiomyoma versus myometrium in vivo. The expression of the miRNA-29 family can be successfully modulated in primary leiomyoma and myometrial cells. Overexpression of the miRNA-29 family in leiomyoma cells results in down-regulation of the major fibrillar collagens. Down-regulation of the miRNA-29 species in myometrium results in an increase in collagen type III deposition. The miRNA-29 family is consistently down-regulated in leiomyoma compared to matched myometrial tissue. This down-regulation contributes to the increased collagen seen in leiomyomas versus myometrium. When miRNA-29 members are overexpressed in leiomyoma cells, protein levels of all of the major fibrillar collagens decrease. The miRNA-29 members are potential therapeutic targets in this highly prevalent condition. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Engineering and Validation of a Vector for Concomitant Expression of Rare Transfer RNA (tRNA and HIV-1 nef Genes in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aisyah Mualif

    Full Text Available Relative ease in handling and manipulation of Escherichia coli strains make them primary candidate to express proteins heterologously. Overexpression of heterologous genes that contain codons infrequently used by E. coli is related with difficulties such as mRNA instability, early termination of transcription and/or translation, deletions and/or misincorporation, and cell growth inhibition. These codon bias -associated problems are addressed by co-expressing ColE1-compatible, rare tRNA expressing helper plasmids. However, this approach has inadequacies, which we have addressed by engineering an expression vector that concomitantly expresses the heterologous protein of interest, and rare tRNA genes in E. coli. The expression vector contains three (argU, ileY, leuW rare tRNA genes and a useful multiple cloning site for easy in-frame cloning. To maintain the overall size of the parental plasmid vector, the rare tRNA genes replaced the non-essential DNA segments in the vector. The cloned gene is expressed under the control of T7 promoter and resulting recombinant protein has a C-terminal 6His tag for IMAC-mediated purification. We have evaluated the usefulness of this expression vector by expressing three HIV-1 genes namely HIV-1 p27 (nef, HIV-1 p24 (ca, and HIV-1 vif in NiCo21(DE3 E.coli and demonstrated the advantages of using expression vector that concomitantly expresses rare tRNA and heterologous genes.

  3. Purification and properties of poliovirus RNA polymerase expressed in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotch, S.J.; Palant, O.; Gluzman, Y.

    1989-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding the RNA polymerase of poliovirus has been expressed in Escherichia coli under the transcriptional control of a T7 bacteriophage promoter. This poliovirus enzyme was designed to contain only a single additional amino acid, the N-terminal methionine. The recombinant enzyme has been purified to near homogeneity, and polyclonal antibodies have been prepared against it. The enzyme exhibits poly(A)-dependent oligo(U)-primed ply(U) polymerase activity as well as RNA polymerase activity. In the presence of an oligo(U) primer, the enzyme catalyzes the synthesis of a full-length copy of either poliovirus or globin RNA templates. In the absence of added primer, RNA products up to twice the length of the template are synthesized. When incubated in the presence of a single nucleoside triphosphate, [α- 32 P]UTP, the enzyme catalyzes the incorporation of radioactive label into template RNA. These results are discussed in light of previously proposed models of poliovirus RNA synthesis in vitro

  4. Down-Regulation of Gene Expression by RNA-Induced Gene Silencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travella, Silvia; Keller, Beat

    Down-regulation of endogenous genes via post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is a key to the characterization of gene function in plants. Many RNA-based silencing mechanisms such as post-transcriptional gene silencing, co-suppression, quelling, and RNA interference (RNAi) have been discovered among species of different kingdoms (plants, fungi, and animals). One of the most interesting discoveries was RNAi, a sequence-specific gene-silencing mechanism initiated by the introduction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), homologous in sequence to the silenced gene, which triggers degradation of mRNA. Infection of plants with modified viruses can also induce RNA silencing and is referred to as virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). In contrast to insertional mutagenesis, these emerging new reverse genetic approaches represent a powerful tool for exploring gene function and for manipulating gene expression experimentally in cereal species such as barley and wheat. We examined how RNAi and VIGS have been used to assess gene function in barley and wheat, including molecular mechanisms involved in the process and available methodological elements, such as vectors, inoculation procedures, and analysis of silenced phenotypes.

  5. Gene expression profiling of non-polyadenylated RNA-seq across species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ou Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptomes are dynamic and unique, with each cell type/tissue, developmental stage and species expressing a different repertoire of RNA transcripts. Most mRNAs and well-characterized long noncoding RNAs are shaped with a 5′ cap and 3′ poly(A tail, thus conventional transcriptome analyses typically start with the enrichment of poly(A+ RNAs by oligo(dT selection, followed by deep sequencing approaches. However, accumulated lines of evidence suggest that many RNA transcripts are processed by alternative mechanisms without 3′ poly(A tails and, therefore, fail to be enriched by oligo(dT purification and are absent following deep sequencing analyses. We have described an enrichment strategy to purify non-polyadenylated (poly(A−/ribo− RNAs from human total RNAs by removal of both poly(A+ RNA transcripts and ribosomal RNAs, which led to the identification of many novel RNA transcripts with non-canonical 3′ ends in human. Here, we describe the application of non-polyadenylated RNA-sequencing in rhesus monkey and mouse cell lines/tissue, and further profile the transcription of non-polyadenylated RNAs across species, providing new resources for non-polyadenylated RNA identification and comparison across species.

  6. Expression microarray reproducibility is improved by optimising purification steps in RNA amplification and labelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenton James D

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression microarrays have evolved into a powerful tool with great potential for clinical application and therefore reliability of data is essential. RNA amplification is used when the amount of starting material is scarce, as is frequently the case with clinical samples. Purification steps are critical in RNA amplification and labelling protocols, and there is a lack of sufficient data to validate and optimise the process. Results Here the purification steps involved in the protocol for indirect labelling of amplified RNA are evaluated and the experimentally determined best method for each step with respect to yield, purity, size distribution of the transcripts, and dye coupling is used to generate targets tested in replicate hybridisations. DNase treatment of diluted total RNA samples followed by phenol extraction is the optimal way to remove genomic DNA contamination. Purification of double-stranded cDNA is best achieved by phenol extraction followed by isopropanol precipitation at room temperature. Extraction with guanidinium-phenol and Lithium Chloride precipitation are the optimal methods for purification of amplified RNA and labelled aRNA respectively. Conclusion This protocol provides targets that generate highly reproducible microarray data with good representation of transcripts across the size spectrum and a coefficient of repeatability significantly better than that reported previously.

  7. Peripheral mononuclear cell resistin mRNA expression is increased in type 2 diabetic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiotra, Panayoula C; Tsigos, Constantine; Anastasiou, Eleni; Yfanti, Eleni; Boutati, Eleni; Souvatzoglou, Emmanouil; Kyrou, Ioannis; Raptis, Sotirios A

    2008-01-01

    Resistin has been shown to cause insulin resistance and to impair glucose tolerance in rodents, but in humans its physiological role still remains elusive. The aim of this study was to examine whether resistin mRNA expression in human peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and its corresponding plasma levels are altered in type 2 diabetes. Resistin mRNA levels were easily detectable in human PBMC, and found to be higher in DM2 compared to healthy women (P = .05). Similarly, mononuclear mRNA levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 were all significantly higher in DM2 compared to control women (P DM2 women (P = .051), and overall, they correlated significantly with BMI (r = 0.406, P = .010) and waist circumference (r = 0.516, P = .003), but not with fasting insulin levels or HOMA-IR. Resistin mRNA expression is increased in PBMC from DM2 women, together with increased expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-6, independent of obesity. These results suggest that resistin and cytokines might contribute to the low-grade inflammation and the increased atherogenic risk observed in these patients.

  8. Peripheral Mononuclear Cell Resistin mRNA Expression Is Increased in Type 2 Diabetic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayoula C. Tsiotra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistin has been shown to cause insulin resistance and to impair glucose tolerance in rodents, but in humans its physiological role still remains elusive. The aim of this study was to examine whether resistin mRNA expression in human peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMCs and its corresponding plasma levels are altered in type 2 diabetes. Resistin mRNA levels were easily detectable in human PBMC, and found to be higher in DM2 compared to healthy women (P=.05. Similarly, mononuclear mRNA levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 were all significantly higher in DM2 compared to control women (P<.001. The corresponding plasma resistin levels were slightly, but not significantly, increased in DM2 women (P=.051, and overall, they correlated significantly with BMI (r=0.406, P=.010 and waist circumference (r=0.516, P=.003, but not with fasting insulin levels or HOMA-IR. Resistin mRNA expression is increased in PBMC from DM2 women, together with increased expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6, independent of obesity. These results suggest that resistin and cytokines might contribute to the low-grade inflammation and the increased atherogenic risk observed in these patients.

  9. Independent effects of sham laparotomy and anesthesia on hepatic microRNA expression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Wiebke; Sallmon, Hannes; Leder, Annekatrin; Lippert, Steffen; Reutzel-Selke, Anja; Morgül, Mehmet Haluk; Jonas, Sven; Dame, Christof; Neuhaus, Peter; Iacomini, John; Tullius, Stefan G; Sauer, Igor M; Raschzok, Nathanael

    2014-10-08

    Studies on liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy (PH) have identified several microRNAs (miRNAs) that show a regulated expression pattern. These studies involve major surgery to access the liver, which is known to have intrinsic effects on hepatic gene expression and may also affect miRNA screening results. We performed two-third PH or sham laparotomy (SL) in Wistar rats to investigate the effect of both procedures on miRNA expression in liver tissue and corresponding plasma samples by microarray and qRT-PCR analyses. As control groups, non-treated rats and rats undergoing anesthesia only were used. We found that 49 out of 323 miRNAs (15%) were significantly deregulated after PH in liver tissue 12 to 48 hours postoperatively (>20% change), while 45 miRNAs (14%) were deregulated following SL. Out of these miRNAs, 10 miRNAs were similarly deregulated after PH and SL, while one miRNA showed opposite regulation. In plasma, miRNA upregulation was observed for miR-133a and miR-133b following PH and SL, whereas miR-100 and miR-466c were similarly downregulated following anesthesia and surgery. We show that miRNAs are indeed regulated by sham laparotomy and anesthesia in rats. These findings illustrate the critical need for finding appropriate control groups in experimental surgery.

  10. Paper-Based MicroRNA Expression Profiling from Plasma and Circulating Tumor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Sai Mun; Tan, Karen Mei-Ling; Chua, Hui Wen; Huang, Mo-Chao; Cheong, Wai Chye; Li, Mo-Huang; Tucker, Steven; Koay, Evelyn Siew-Chuan

    2017-03-01

    Molecular characterization of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) holds great promise for monitoring metastatic progression and characterizing metastatic disease. However, leukocyte and red blood cell contamination of routinely isolated CTCs makes CTC-specific molecular characterization extremely challenging. Here we report the use of a paper-based medium for efficient extraction of microRNAs (miRNAs) from limited amounts of biological samples such as rare CTCs harvested from cancer patient blood. Specifically, we devised a workflow involving the use of Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) ® Elute Card with a digital PCR-inspired "partitioning" method to extract and purify miRNAs from plasma and CTCs. We demonstrated the sensitivity of this method to detect miRNA expression from as few as 3 cancer cells spiked into human blood. Using this method, background miRNA expression was excluded from contaminating blood cells, and CTC-specific miRNA expression profiles were derived from breast and colorectal cancer patients. Plasma separated out during purification of CTCs could likewise be processed using the same paper-based method for miRNA detection, thereby maximizing the amount of patient-specific information that can be derived from a single blood draw. Overall, this paper-based extraction method enables an efficient, cost-effective workflow for maximized recovery of small RNAs from limited biological samples for downstream molecular analyses. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  11. Rhythmic expression of Nocturnin mRNA in multiple tissues of the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green Carla B

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nocturnin was originally identified by differential display as a circadian clock regulated gene with high expression at night in photoreceptors of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. Although encoding a novel protein, the nocturnin cDNA had strong sequence similarity with a C-terminal domain of the yeast transcription factor CCR4, and with mouse and human ESTs. Since its original identification others have cloned mouse and human homologues of nocturnin/CCR4, and we have cloned a full-length cDNA from mouse retina, along with partial cDNAs from human, cow and chicken. The goal of this study was to determine the temporal pattern of nocturnin mRNA expression in multiple tissues of the mouse. Results cDNA sequence analysis revealed a high degree of conservation among vertebrate nocturnin/CCR4 homologues along with a possible homologue in Drosophila. Northern analysis of mRNA in C3H/He and C57/Bl6 mice revealed that the mNoc gene is expressed in a broad range of tissues, with greatest abundance in liver, kidney and testis. mNoc is also expressed in multiple brain regions including suprachiasmatic nucleus and pineal gland. Furthermore, mNoc exhibits circadian rhythmicity of mRNA abundance with peak levels at the time of light offset in the retina, spleen, heart, kidney and liver. Conclusion The widespread expression and rhythmicity of mNoc mRNA parallels the widespread expression of other circadian clock genes in mammalian tissues, and suggests that nocturnin plays an important role in clock function or as a circadian clock effector.

  12. MicroRNA expression in benign breast tissue and risk of subsequent invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohan, Thomas; Ye, Kenny; Wang, Yihong; Glass, Andrew G; Ginsberg, Mindy; Loudig, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    MicroRNAs are endogenous, small non-coding RNAs that control gene expression by directing their target mRNAs for degradation and/or posttranscriptional repression. Abnormal expression of microRNAs is thought to contribute to the development and progression of cancer. A history of benign breast disease (BBD) is associated with increased risk of subsequent breast cancer. However, no large-scale study has examined the association between microRNA expression in BBD tissue and risk of subsequent invasive breast cancer (IBC). We conducted discovery and validation case-control studies nested in a cohort of 15,395 women diagnosed with BBD in a large health plan between 1971 and 2006 and followed to mid-2015. Cases were women with BBD who developed subsequent IBC; controls were matched 1:1 to cases on age, age at diagnosis of BBD, and duration of plan membership. The discovery stage (316 case-control pairs) entailed use of the Illumina MicroRNA Expression Profiling Assay (in duplicate) to identify breast cancer-associated microRNAs. MicroRNAs identified at this stage were ranked by the strength of the correlation between Illumina array and quantitative PCR results for 15 case-control pairs. The top ranked 14 microRNAs entered the validation stage (165 case-control pairs) which was conducted using quantitative PCR (in triplicate). In both stages, linear regression was used to evaluate the association between the mean expression level of each microRNA (response variable) and case-control status (independent variable); paired t-tests were also used in the validation stage. None of the 14 validation stage microRNAs was associated with breast cancer risk. The results of this study suggest that microRNA expression in benign breast tissue does not influence the risk of subsequent IBC.

  13. Plasma and White Blood Cells Show Different miRNA Expression Profiles in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwienbacher, Christine; Foco, Luisa; Picard, Anne; Corradi, Eloina; Serafin, Alice; Panzer, Jörg; Zanigni, Stefano; Blankenburg, Hagen; Facheris, Maurizio F; Giannini, Giulia; Falla, Marika; Cortelli, Pietro; Pramstaller, Peter P; Hicks, Andrew A

    2017-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) diagnosis is based on the assessment of motor symptoms, which manifest when more than 50% of dopaminergic neurons are degenerated. To date, no validated biomarkers are available for the diagnosis of PD. The aims of the present study are to evaluate whether plasma and white blood cells (WBCs) are interchangeable biomarker sources and to identify circulating plasma-based microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for an early detection of PD. We profiled plasma miRNA levels in 99 L-dopa-treated PD patients from two independent data collections, in ten drug-naïve PD patients, and in unaffected controls matched by sex and age. We evaluated expression levels by reverse transcription and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and combined the results from treated PD patients using a fixed effect inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. We revealed different expression profiles comparing plasma and WBCs and drug-naïve and L-dopa-treated PD patients. We observed an upregulation trend for miR-30a-5p in L-dopa-treated PD patients and investigated candidate target genes by integrated in silico analyses. We could not analyse miR-29b-3p, normally expressed in WBCs, due to the very low expression in plasma. We observed different expression profiles in WBCs and plasma, suggesting that they are both suitable but not interchangeable peripheral sources for biomarkers. We revealed miR-30a-5p as a potential biomarker for PD in plasma. In silico analyses suggest that miR-30a-5p might have a regulatory role in mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy. Further investigations are needed to confirm miR-30a-5p deregulation and targets and to investigate the influence of L-dopa treatment on miRNA expression levels.

  14. MicroRNA expression in multiple myeloma is associated with genetic subtype, isotype and survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezzella Francesco

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs are small RNA species that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally and are aberrantly expressed in many cancers including hematological malignancies. However, the role of microRNAs in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM is only poorly understood. We therefore used microarray analysis to elucidate the complete miRNome (miRBase version 13.0 of purified tumor (CD138+ cells from 33 patients with MM, 5 patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS and 9 controls. Results Unsupervised cluster analysis revealed that MM and MGUS samples have a distinct microRNA expression profile from control CD138+ cells. The majority of microRNAs aberrantly expressed in MM (109/129 were up-regulated. A comparison of these microRNAs with those aberrantly expressed in other B-cell and T-cell malignancies revealed a surprising degree of similarity (~40% suggesting the existence of a common lymphoma microRNA signature. We identified 39 microRNAs associated with the pre-malignant condition MGUS. Twenty-three (59% of these were also aberrantly expressed in MM suggesting common microRNA expression events in MM progression. MM is characterized by multiple chromosomal abnormalities of varying prognostic significance. We identified specific microRNA signatures associated with the most common IgH translocations (t(4;14 and t(11;14 and del(13q. Expression levels of these microRNAs were distinct between the genetic subtypes (by cluster analysis and correctly predicted these abnormalities in > 85% of cases using the support vector machine algorithm. Additionally, we identified microRNAs associated with light chain only myeloma, as well as IgG and IgA-type MM. Finally, we identified 32 microRNAs associated with event-free survival (EFS in MM, ten of which were significant by univariate (logrank survival analysis. Conclusions In summary, this work has identified aberrantly expressed microRNAs associated with the

  15. P2X7 mRNA expression in non-small cell lung cancer: MicroRNA regulation and prognostic value

    OpenAIRE

    BOLDRINI, LAURA; GIORDANO, MIRELLA; ALÌ, GRETA; MELFI, FRANCA; ROMANO, GAETANO; LUCCHI, MARCO; FONTANINI, GABRIELLA

    2014-01-01

    The human P2X7 receptor is significant and exhibits several functions in neoplasia. At present, little is known with regard to its regulation. P2X7 expression may be regulated post-transcriptionally and putative microRNA (miRNA) binding sites are considered to be involved. The aim of this study was to determine whether miRNAs (miR-21, let-7 g and miR-205) regulate P2X7 mRNA stability. In addition, the impact of P2X7 expression in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was investigat...

  16. RILES, a novel method for temporal analysis of the in vivo regulation of miRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzine, Safia; Vassaux, Georges; Pitard, Bruno; Barteau, Benoit; Malinge, Jean-Marc; Midoux, Patrick; Pichon, Chantal; Baril, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Novel methods are required to investigate the complexity of microRNA (miRNA) biology and particularly their dynamic regulation under physiopathological conditions. Herein, a novel plasmid-based RNAi-Inducible Luciferase Expression System (RILES) was engineered to monitor the activity of endogenous RNAi machinery. When RILES is transfected in a target cell, the miRNA of interest suppresses the expression of a transcriptional repressor and consequently switch-ON the expression of the luciferase reporter gene. Hence, miRNA expression in cells is signed by the emission of bioluminescence signals that can be monitored using standard bioluminescence equipment. We validated this approach by monitoring in mice the expression of myomiRs-133, -206 and -1 in skeletal muscles and miRNA-122 in liver. Bioluminescence experiments demonstrated robust qualitative and quantitative data that correlate with the miRNA expression pattern detected by quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR). We further demonstrated that the regulation of miRNA-206 expression during the development of muscular atrophy is individual-dependent, time-regulated and more complex than the information generated by qPCR. As RILES is simple and versatile, we believe that this methodology will contribute to a better understanding of miRNA biology and could serve as a rationale for the development of a novel generation of regulatable gene expression systems with potential therapeutic applications.

  17. Expression and significance of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA in benign and malignant ascites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Li, Xiao-Feng; Kong, Li-Xia; Ma, Lin; Liao, Su-Huan; Jiang, Chang-You

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mRNA expression of cyclooxygensae-2 (COX-2) in benign and malignant ascites, and to explore the difference in COX-2 mRNA expression among different diseases. METHODS: A total of 36 samples were collected from the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University and divided into two experimental groups: benign ascites (n = 21) and malignant ascites (n = 15). Benign ascites included cirrhotic ascites (n = 10) and tuberculous ascites (n = 5). Malignant ascites included oophoroma (n = 7), cancer of colon (n = 5), cancer of the liver (n = 6), gastric cancer (n = 2), and bladder carcinoma (n = 1). The mRNA expression of COX-2 in ascites was examined with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technology, and the positive rate of COX-2 mRNA was compared between different diseases. RESULTS: The positive rate of COX-2 mRNA in malignant ascites was 42.9% (9/21), which was significantly higher than in benign ascites, 6.7% (1/15), difference being significant between these two groups (χ2 = 4.051, P = 0.044). The proportion of the positive rate in the malignant ascites was as follows: ovarian cancers 57.1% (4/7), colon cancer 40.0% (2/5), liver cancer 33.3% (2/6), gastric cancer 50.0% (1/2), and bladder cancer 0.00% (0/1). However, there was no significant difference in COX-2 mRNA expression among various tumors with malignant ascites (χ2 = 1.614, P = 0.806). Among the benign ascites, COX-2 mRNA levels were different between the tuberculous ascites (0/5) and cirrhotic ascites (1/10), but there was no significant difference (P = 1.000). CONCLUSION: COX-2 mRNA, detected by RT-PCR, is useful in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant ascites, which also has potential value in the clinical diagnosis of tumors. PMID:24187465

  18. MicroRNA expression profiles in human cancer cells after ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemoeller, Olivier M; Niyazi, Maximilian; Corradini, Stefanie; Zehentmayr, Franz; Li, Minglun; Lauber, Kirsten; Belka, Claus

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs are regulators of central cellular processes and are implicated in the pathogenesis and prognosis of human cancers. MicroRNAs also modulate responses to anti-cancer therapy. In the context of radiation oncology microRNAs were found to modulate cell death and proliferation after irradiation. However, changes in microRNA expression profiles in response to irradiation have not been comprehensively analyzed so far. The present study's intend is to present a broad screen of changes in microRNA expression following irradiation of different malignant cell lines. 1100 microRNAs (Sanger miRBase release version 14.0) were analyzed in six malignant cell lines following irradiation with clinically relevant doses of 2.0 Gy. MicroRNA levels 6 hours after irradiation were compared to microRNA levels in non-irradiated cells using the 'Geniom Biochip MPEA homo sapiens'. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed a pattern, which significantly (p = 0.014) discerned irradiated from non-irradiated cells. The expression levels of a number of microRNAs known to be involved in the regulation of cellular processes like apoptosis, proliferation, invasion, local immune response and radioresistance (e. g. miR-1285, miR-24-1, miR-151-5p, let-7i) displayed 2 - 3-fold changes after irradiation. Moreover, several microRNAs previously not known to be radiation-responsive were discovered. Ionizing radiation induced significant changes in microRNA expression profiles in 3 glioma and 3 squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. The functional relevance of these changes is not addressed but should by analyzed by future work especially focusing on clinically relevant endpoints like radiation induced cell death, proliferation, migration and metastasis

  19. UVA and UVB irradiation differentially regulate microRNA expression in human primary keratinocytes.

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    Anne Kraemer

    Full Text Available MicroRNA (miRNA-mediated regulation of the cellular transcriptome is an important epigenetic mechanism for fine-tuning regulatory pathways. These include processes related to skin cancer development, progression and metastasis. However, little is known about the role of microRNA as an intermediary in the carcinogenic processes following exposure to UV-radiation. We now show that UV irradiation of human primary keratinocytes modulates the expression of several cellular miRNAs. A common set of miRNAs was influenced by exposure to both UVA and UVB. However, each wavelength band also activated a distinct subset of miRNAs. Common sets of UVA- and UVB-regulated miRNAs harbor the regulatory elements GLYCA-nTRE, GATA-1-undefined-site-13 or Hox-2.3-undefined-site-2 in their promoters. In silico analysis indicates that the differentially expressed miRNAs responding to UV have potential functions in the cellular pathways of cell growth and proliferation. Interestingly, the expression of miR-23b, which is a differentiation marker of human keratinocytes, is remarkably up-regulated after UVA irradiation. Studying the interaction between miR-23b and its putative skin-relevant targets using a Luciferase reporter assay revealed that RRAS2 (related RAS viral oncogene homolog 2, which is strongly expressed in highly aggressive malignant skin cancer, to be a direct target of miR-23b. This study demonstrates for the first time a differential miRNA response to UVA and UVB in human primary keratinocytes. This suggests that selective regulation of signaling pathways occurs in response to different UV energies. This may shed new light on miRNA-regulated carcinogenic processes involved in UV-induced skin carcinogenesis.

  20. UVA and UVB Irradiation Differentially Regulate microRNA Expression in Human Primary Keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Anne; Chen, I-Peng; Henning, Stefan; Faust, Alexandra; Volkmer, Beate; Atkinson, Michael J.; Moertl, Simone; Greinert, Ruediger

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation of the cellular transcriptome is an important epigenetic mechanism for fine-tuning regulatory pathways. These include processes related to skin cancer development, progression and metastasis. However, little is known about the role of microRNA as an intermediary in the carcinogenic processes following exposure to UV-radiation. We now show that UV irradiation of human primary keratinocytes modulates the expression of several cellular miRNAs. A common set of miRNAs was influenced by exposure to both UVA and UVB. However, each wavelength band also activated a distinct subset of miRNAs. Common sets of UVA- and UVB-regulated miRNAs harbor the regulatory elements GLYCA-nTRE, GATA-1-undefined-site-13 or Hox-2.3-undefined-site-2 in their promoters. In silico analysis indicates that the differentially expressed miRNAs responding to UV have potential functions in the cellular pathways of cell growth and proliferation. Interestingly, the expression of miR-23b, which is a differentiation marker of human keratinocytes, is remarkably up-regulated after UVA irradiation. Studying the interaction between miR-23b and its putative skin-relevant targets using a Luciferase reporter assay revealed that RRAS2 (related RAS viral oncogene homolog 2), which is strongly expressed in highly aggressive malignant skin cancer, to be a direct target of miR-23b. This study demonstrates for the first time a differential miRNA response to UVA and UVB in human primary keratinocytes. This suggests that selective regulation of signaling pathways occurs in response to different UV energies. This may shed new light on miRNA-regulated carcinogenic processes involved in UV-induced skin carcinogenesis. PMID:24391759

  1. Chronological changes in microRNA expression in the developing human brain.

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    Michael P Moreau

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenously expressed noncoding RNA molecules that are believed to regulate multiple neurobiological processes. Expression studies have revealed distinct temporal expression patterns in the developing rodent and porcine brain, but comprehensive profiling in the developing human brain has not been previously reported.We performed microarray and TaqMan-based expression analysis of all annotated mature miRNAs (miRBase 10.0 as well as 373 novel, predicted miRNAs. Expression levels were measured in 48 post-mortem brain tissue samples, representing gestational ages 14-24 weeks, as well as early postnatal and adult time points.Expression levels of 312 miRNAs changed significantly between at least two of the broad age categories, defined as fetal, young, and adult.We have constructed a miRNA expression atlas of the developing human brain, and we propose a classification scheme to guide future studies of neurobiological function.

  2. Liposomal curcumin alters chemosensitivity of breast cancer cells to Adriamycin via regulating microRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Siying; Li, Jian; Xu, Hanzi; Zhang, Sijie; Chen, Xiu; Chen, Wei; Yang, Sujin; Zhong, Shanliang; Zhao, Jianhua; Tang, Jinhai

    2017-07-30

    Emerging evidence suggests that curcumin can overcome drug resistance to classical chemotherapies, but poor bioavailability and low absorption have limited its clinical use and the mechanisms remain unclear. Also, Adriamycin (Adr) is one of the most active cytotoxic agents in breast cancer; however, the high resistant rate of Adr leads to a poor prognosis. We utilized encapsulation in liposomes as a strategy to improve the bioavailability of curcumin and demonstrated that liposomal curcumin altered chemosensitivity of Adr-resistant MCF-7 human breast cancer (MCF-7/Adr) by MTT assay. The miRNA and mRNA expression profiles of MCF-7/S, MCF-7/Adr and curcumin-treated MCF-7/Adr cells were analyzed by microarray and further confirmed by real-time PCR. We focused on differentially expressed miR-29b-1-5p to explore the involvement of miR-29b-1-5p in the resistance of Adr. Candidate genes of dysregulated miRNAs were identified by prediction algorithms based on gene expression profiles. Networks of KEGG pathways were organized by the selected dysregulated miRNAs. Moreover, protein-protein interaction (PPI) was utilized to map protein interaction networks of curcumin regulated proteins. We first demonstrated liposomal curcumin could rescue part of Adriamycin resistance in breast cancer and further identified 67 differentially expressed microRNAs among MCF-7/S, MCF-7/Adr and curcumin-treated MCF-7/Adr. The results showed that lower expressed miR-29b-1-5p decreased the IC50 of MCF-7/Adr cells and higher expressed miR-29b-1-5p, weaken the effects of liposomal curcumin to Adr-resistance. Besides, we found that 20 target genes (mRNAs) of each dysregulated miRNA were not only predicted by prediction algorithms, but also differentially expressed in the microarray. The results showed that MAPK, mTOR, PI3K-Akt, AMPK, TNF, Ras signaling pathways and several target genes such as PPARG, RRM2, SRSF1and EPAS1, may associate with drug resistance of breast cancer cells to Adr. We determined

  3. The regulation of non-coding RNA expression in the liver of mice fed DDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Joan; Bardag-Gorce, Fawzia; French, Barbara A; Li, Jun; French, Samuel W

    2009-08-01

    Mallory-Denk bodies (MDBs) are found in the liver of patients with alcoholic and chronic nonalcoholic liver disease, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Diethyl 1,4-dihydro-2,4,6,-trimethyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate (DDC) is used as a model to induce the formation of MDBs in mouse liver. Previous studies in this laboratory showed that DDC induced epigenetic modifications in DNA and histones. The combination of these modifications changes the phenotype of the MDB forming hepatocytes, as indicated by the marker FAT10. These epigenetic modifications are partially prevented by adding to the diet S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) or betaine, both methyl donors. The expression of three imprinted ncRNA genes was found to change in MDB forming hepatocytes, which is the subject of this report. NcRNA expression was quantitated by real-time PCR and RNA FISH in liver sections. Microarray analysis showed that the expression of three ncRNAs was regulated by DDC: up regulation of H19, antisense Igf2r (AIR), and down regulation of GTL2 (also called MEG3). S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) feeding prevented these changes. Betaine, another methyl group donor, prevented only H19 and AIR up regulation induced by DDC, on microarrays. The results of the SAMe and betaine groups were confirmed by real-time PCR, except for AIR expression. After 1 month of drug withdrawal, the expression of the three ncRNAs tended toward control levels of expression. Liver tumors that developed also showed up regulation of H19 and AIR. The RNA FISH approach showed that the MDB forming cells' phenotype changed the level of expression of AIR, H19 and GTL2, compared to the surrounding cells. Furthermore, over expression of H19 and AIR was demonstrated in tumors formed in mice withdrawn for 9 months. The dysregulation of ncRNA in MDB forming liver cells has been observed for the first time in drug-primed mice associated with liver preneoplastic foci and tumors.

  4. Whole Blood mRNA Expression-Based Prognosis of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giridhar, Karthik V; Sosa, Carlos P; Hillman, David W; Sanhueza, Cristobal; Dalpiaz, Candace L; Costello, Brian A; Quevedo, Fernando J; Pitot, Henry C; Dronca, Roxana S; Ertz, Donna; Cheville, John C; Donkena, Krishna Vanaja; Kohli, Manish

    2017-11-03

    The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) prognostic score is based on clinical parameters. We analyzed whole blood mRNA expression in metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (mCCRCC) patients and compared it to the MSKCC score for predicting overall survival. In a discovery set of 19 patients with mRCC, we performed whole transcriptome RNA sequencing and selected eighteen candidate genes for further evaluation based on associations with overall survival and statistical significance. In an independent validation of set of 47 patients with mCCRCC, transcript expression of the 18 candidate genes were quantified using a customized NanoString probeset. Cox regression multivariate analysis confirmed that two of the candidate genes were significantly associated with overall survival. Higher expression of BAG1 [hazard ratio (HR) of 0.14, p < 0.0001, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04-0.36] and NOP56 (HR 0.13, p < 0.0001, 95% CI 0.05-0.34) were associated with better prognosis. A prognostic model incorporating expression of BAG1 and NOP56 into the MSKCC score improved prognostication significantly over a model using the MSKCC prognostic score only ( p < 0.0001). Prognostic value of using whole blood mRNA gene profiling in mCCRCC is feasible and should be prospectively confirmed in larger studies.

  5. Whole Blood mRNA Expression-Based Prognosis of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik V. Giridhar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC prognostic score is based on clinical parameters. We analyzed whole blood mRNA expression in metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (mCCRCC patients and compared it to the MSKCC score for predicting overall survival. In a discovery set of 19 patients with mRCC, we performed whole transcriptome RNA sequencing and selected eighteen candidate genes for further evaluation based on associations with overall survival and statistical significance. In an independent validation of set of 47 patients with mCCRCC, transcript expression of the 18 candidate genes were quantified using a customized NanoString probeset. Cox regression multivariate analysis confirmed that two of the candidate genes were significantly associated with overall survival. Higher expression of BAG1 [hazard ratio (HR of 0.14, p < 0.0001, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.04–0.36] and NOP56 (HR 0.13, p < 0.0001, 95% CI 0.05–0.34 were associated with better prognosis. A prognostic model incorporating expression of BAG1 and NOP56 into the MSKCC score improved prognostication significantly over a model using the MSKCC prognostic score only (p < 0.0001. Prognostic value of using whole blood mRNA gene profiling in mCCRCC is feasible and should be prospectively confirmed in larger studies.

  6. Abnormal levels of expression of plasma microRNA-33 in patients with psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, S; Arias-Santiago, S; Orgaz-Molina, J; Magro-Checa, C; Valenzuela, I; Navarro, P; Naranjo-Sintes, R; Sancho, J; Zubiaur, M

    2014-06-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNA) are involved in the posttranscriptional regulation of genes associated with lipid metabolism (miRNA-33) and vascular function and angiogenesis (miRNA-126). The objective of this exploratory study was to measure plasma levels of miRNA-33 and miRNA-126 in patients with plaque psoriasis and evaluate their association with clinical parameters. We studied 11 patients with plaque psoriasis. The median Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) was 13 (interquartile range [IQR], 9-14) and body surface area involvement was 12 (IQR, 11-15). Eleven healthy controls matched for age and sex were also included. We analyzed cardiovascular risk factors and subclinical carotid atheromatosis. Plasma miRNAs were evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Carotid intima-media thickness was greater in patients (0.57mm; IQR, 0.54-0.61; n=11) than in controls (0.50mm; IQR, 0.48-0.54; data available for 9 controls) (P=.0055, Mann-Whitney). Expression of miRNA-33 in patients (5.34; IQR, 3.12-7.96; n=11) was significantly higher than in controls (2.33; IQR, 1.71-2.84; only detected in 7 of 11 controls) (P=.0049, Wilcoxon signed rank). No differences in miRNA-126 levels were observed between patients and controls. In patients (n=11), we observed a positive correlation between miRNA-33 and insulin levels (r=0.7289, P=.0109) and a negative correlation between miRNA-126 and carotid intima-media thickness (r=-0.6181, P=.0426). In psoriasis patients plasma levels of lipid and glucose metabolism-related miRNA-33 are increased and correlated with insulin. The study of circulating miRNA-33 in psoriasis may provide new insights about the associated systemic inflammatory abnormalities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  7. miRNA-130a regulates C/EBP-ε expression during granulopoiesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Maria T; Häger, Mattias; Glenthøj, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    cells. In contrast, C/EBP-ε protein is virtually detectable only in the MC/MM population, indicating that expression in more immature cells could be inhibited by microRNAs (miRNAs). We found that miRNA-130a (miR-130a) regulates C/EBP-ε protein expression in both murine and human granulocytic precursors...... target site for miR-130a restored both C/EBP-ε production, expression of Camp and Lcn2, and resulted in the cells having a more mature phenotype. We conclude that miR-130a is important for the regulation of the timed expression of C/EBP-ε during granulopoiesis.......CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-ε (C/EBP-ε) is considered a master transcription factor regulating terminal neutrophil maturation. It is essential for expression of secondary granule proteins, but it also regulates proliferation, cell cycle, and maturation during granulopoiesis. Cebpe(-/-) mice have...

  8. Expression status and clinical significance of lncRNA APPAT in the progression of atherosclerosis

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    Fanming Meng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs have been reported to modulate cardiovascular diseases, and expression dynamics of lncRNAs in the bloodstream were proposed to be potential biomarkers for clinical diagnosis. However, few cardiovascular diseases-related circulating lncRNAs were identified and their prediction power has not been investigated in depth. Here we report a new circulating lncRNA, atherosclerotic plaque pathogenesis associated transcript (APPAT, and evaluated its role and predicting ability in atherosclerotic development. Methods APPAT was analyzed and screened by high-throughput sequencing, and then detected in vitro and in vivo. Immunofluorescence-fluorescence in situ hybridization (IF-FISH was utilized to explore distribution and subcellular location of APPAT. The expressing alteration of APPAT in samples of healthy and pathological coronary artery was explored further. We also assessed the level of circulating APPAT in blood samples from healthy individuals, and patients with angina pectoris (AP or myocardial infarction (MI. Additionally, we predicted and validated microRNA targets of APPAT, then showed the expression level of a candidate target which was primarily measured in human VSMCs cell line, coronary artery, and blood samples. Lastly, we examined the potential indicating ability of APPAT for the risk of AP or MI. Results APPAT showed significant reduction in ox-LDL treated human VSMCs in vitro. It enriched in contractile VSMCs of artery tunica media and mainly existed in cytoplasm. Significant down-regulation of APPAT was found in coronary artery samples with severe stenosis. More importantly, we observed decreased expression of APPAT in blood samples accompanying disease progression. ROC and correlation analyses further verified the relatively high predicting ability of APPAT. We also observed the predicted miRNA exhibited opposite expression direction to that of APPAT. Conclusions This study revealed that

  9. Local IGFBP-3 mRNA expression, apoptosis and risk of colorectal adenomas

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    Omofoye Oluwaseun

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3 regulates the bioavailability of insulin-like growth factors I and II, and has both anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic properties. Elevated plasma IGFBP-3 has been associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer (CRC, but the role of tissue IGFBP-3 is not well defined. We evaluated the association between tissue or plasma IGFBP-3 and risk of colorectal adenomas or low apoptosis. Methods Subjects were consenting patients who underwent a clinically indicated colonoscopy at UNC Hospitals and provided information on diet and lifestyle. IGFBP-3 mRNA in normal colon was assessed by real time RT-PCR. Plasma IGFBP-3 was measured by ELISA and apoptosis was determined by morphology on H & E slides. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals. Results We observed a modest correlation between plasma IGFBP-3 and tissue IGFBP-3 expression (p = 0.007. There was no significant association between plasma IGFBP-3 and adenomas or apoptosis. Tissue IGFBP-3 mRNA expression was significantly lower in cases than controls. Subjects in the lowest three quartiles of tissue IGFBP-3 gene expression were more likely to have adenomas. Consistent with previous reports, low apoptosis was significantly associated with increased risk of adenomas (p = 0.003. Surprisingly, local IGFBP-3 mRNA expression was inversely associated with apoptosis. Conclusion Low expression of IGFBP-3 mRNA in normal colonic mucosa predicts increased risk of adenomas. Our findings suggest that local IGFBP-3 in the colon may directly increase adenoma risk but IGFBP-3 may act through a pathway other than apoptosis to influence adenoma risk.

  10. Local IGFBP-3 mRNA expression, apoptosis and risk of colorectal adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keku, Temitope O; Sandler, Robert S; Simmons, James G; Galanko, Joseph; Woosley, John T; Proffitt, Michelle; Omofoye, Oluwaseun; McDoom, Maya; Lund, Pauline K

    2008-01-01

    IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) regulates the bioavailability of insulin-like growth factors I and II, and has both anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic properties. Elevated plasma IGFBP-3 has been associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the role of tissue IGFBP-3 is not well defined. We evaluated the association between tissue or plasma IGFBP-3 and risk of colorectal adenomas or low apoptosis. Subjects were consenting patients who underwent a clinically indicated colonoscopy at UNC Hospitals and provided information on diet and lifestyle. IGFBP-3 mRNA in normal colon was assessed by real time RT-PCR. Plasma IGFBP-3 was measured by ELISA and apoptosis was determined by morphology on H & E slides. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals. We observed a modest correlation between plasma IGFBP-3 and tissue IGFBP-3 expression (p = 0.007). There was no significant association between plasma IGFBP-3 and adenomas or apoptosis. Tissue IGFBP-3 mRNA expression was significantly lower in cases than controls. Subjects in the lowest three quartiles of tissue IGFBP-3 gene expression were more likely to have adenomas. Consistent with previous reports, low apoptosis was significantly associated with increased risk of adenomas (p = 0.003). Surprisingly, local IGFBP-3 mRNA expression was inversely associated with apoptosis. Low expression of IGFBP-3 mRNA in normal colonic mucosa predicts increased risk of adenomas. Our findings suggest that local IGFBP-3 in the colon may directly increase adenoma risk but IGFBP-3 may act through a pathway other than apoptosis to influence adenoma risk

  11. An intergenic non-coding rRNA correlated with expression of the rRNA and frequency of an rRNA single nucleotide polymorphism in lung cancer cells.

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    Yih-Horng Shiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ribosomal RNA (rRNA is a central regulator of cell growth and may control cancer development. A cis noncoding rRNA (nc-rRNA upstream from the 45S rRNA transcription start site has recently been implicated in control of rRNA transcription in mouse fibroblasts. We investigated whether a similar nc-rRNA might be expressed in human cancer epithelial cells, and related to any genomic characteristics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using quantitative rRNA measurement, we demonstrated that a nc-rRNA is transcribed in human lung epithelial and lung cancer cells, starting from approximately -1000 nucleotides upstream of the rRNA transcription start site (+1 and extending at least to +203. This nc-rRNA was significantly more abundant in the majority of lung cancer cell lines, relative to a nontransformed lung epithelial cell line. Its abundance correlated negatively with total 45S rRNA in 12 of 13 cell lines (P = 0.014. During sequence analysis from -388 to +306, we observed diverse, frequent intercopy single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in rRNA, with a frequency greater than predicted by chance at 12 sites. A SNP at +139 (U/C in the 5' leader sequence varied among the cell lines and correlated negatively with level of the nc-rRNA (P = 0.014. Modelling of the secondary structure of the rRNA 5'-leader sequence indicated a small increase in structural stability due to the +139 U/C SNP and a minor shift in local configuration occurrences. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results demonstrate occurrence of a sense nc-rRNA in human lung epithelial and cancer cells, and imply a role in regulation of the rRNA gene, which may be affected by a +139 SNP in the 5' leader sequence of the primary rRNA transcript.

  12. Effects of fasting, temperature, and photoperiod on preproghrelin mRNA expression in Chinese perch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Zhao, Cheng; Liang, Xu-Fang; He, Shan; Tian, Changxu; Cheng, Xiaoyan; Yuan, Xiaochen; Lv, Liyuan; Guo, Wenjie; Xue, Min; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2017-06-01

    Preproghrelin, a gut/brain peptide, plays an important role in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis in teleost and mammals. In the present study, we obtained the full-length preproghrelin cDNA in Chinese perch. The preproghrelin messenger RNA (mRNA) tissue expression showed that level was much higher in stomach and pituitary than in other tissues. The fasting study showed, after gastric emptying (3-6 h), short-term fasting (6-12 h) increased preproghrelin expression in the stomach. While in the pituitary, fasting reduced preproghrelin expression at 1, 3, 12, and 48 h, presenting state fluctuation of self-adjustment. The temperature study showed that the mRNA expression of preproghrelin was the highest in the brain at 26 °C and highest in the stomach at 32 °C, respectively, with different optimum temperature in these two tissues, reflecting spatiotemporal differences of regulation by central nervous system and peripheral organs. The photoperiod study showed that normal light (11 h of lightness and 13 h of darkness) led to highest preproghrelin expression, both in the brain and in the stomach, than continuous light or continuous dark, proving food intake is adapted to natural photoperiod or normal light in this study. These results all indicated that tissue-specific preproghrelin expression of Chinese perch could be significantly affected by environmental factors. Short-term fasting of 6 h after gastric emptying, 26 °C, and normal light led to higher preproghrelin expression, which indicated potential appetite increase in Chinese perch.

  13. HFE mRNA expression is responsive to intracellular and extracellular iron loading: short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Kosha J; Farnaud, Sebastien; Patel, Vinood B

    2017-10-01

    In liver hepatocytes, the HFE gene regulates cellular and systemic iron homeostasis by modulating cellular iron-uptake and producing the iron-hormone hepcidin in response to systemic iron elevation. However, the mechanism of iron-sensing in hepatocytes remain enigmatic. Therefore, to study the effect of iron on HFE and hepcidin (HAMP) expressions under distinct extracellular and intracellular iron-loading, we examined the effect of holotransferrin treatment (1, 2, 5 and 8 g/L for 6 h) on intracellular iron levels, and mRNA expressions of HFE and HAMP in wild-type HepG2 and previously characterized iron-loaded recombinant-TfR1 HepG2 cells. Gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR and intracellular iron was measured by ferrozine assay. Data showed that in the wild-type cells, where intracellular iron content remained unchanged, HFE expression remained unaltered at low holotransferrin treatments but was upregulated upon 5 g/L (p HFE and HAMP expressions were elevated only at low 1 g/L treatment (p HFE (p HFE mRNA was independently elevated by extracellular and intracellular iron-excess. Thus, it may be involved in sensing both, extracellular and intracellular iron. Repression of HAMP expression under simultaneous intracellular and extracellular iron-loading resembles non-hereditary iron-excess pathologies.

  14. Profiling and bioinformatic analysis of circular RNA expression regulated by c-Myc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Qiheng; Wu, Ke; Zhou, Jian-Kang; Xie, Yuxin; Liu, Lunxu; Peng, Yong

    2017-09-22

    The c-Myc transcription factor is involved in cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis by activating or repressing transcription of multiple genes. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are widely expressed non-coding RNAs participating in the regulation of gene expression. Using a high-throughput microarray assay, we showed that Myc regulates the expression of certain circRNAs. A total of 309 up- and 252 down-regulated circRNAs were identified. Among them, randomly selected 8 circRNAs were confirmed by real-time PCR. Subsequently, Myc-binding sites were found to generally exist in the promoter regions of differentially expressed circRNAs. Based on miRNA sponge mechanism, we constructed circRNAs/miRNAs network regulated by Myc, suggesting that circRNAs may widely regulate protein expression through miRNA sponge mechanism. Lastly, we took advantage of Gene Ontology and KEGG analyses to point out that Myc-regulated circRNAs could impact cell proliferation through affecting Ras signaling pathway and pathways in cancer. Our study for the first time demonstrated that Myc transcription factor regulates the expression of circRNAs, adding a novel component of the Myc tumorigenic program and opening a window to investigate the function of certain circRNAs in tumorigenesis.

  15. Association of microRNA-200c expression levels with clinicopathological factors and prognosis in endometrioid endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczynski, Milosz; Danielska, Justyna; Domanska-Senderowska, Daria; Dzieniecka, Monika; Szymanska, Bozena; Malinowski, Andrzej

    2018-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are regulators of gene expression, which play an important role in many critical cellular processes including apoptosis, proliferation and cell differentiation. Aberrant miRNA expression has been reported in a variety of human malignancies. Therefore, miRNAs may be potentially used as cancer biomarkers. miRNA-200c, which is a member of the miRNA-200 family, might play an essential role in tumor progression. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic and clinical significance of miRNA-200c in women with endometrioid endometrial cancer. Total RNA extraction from 90 archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples of endometri-oid endometrial cancer and 10 normal endometrium samples was performed. After cDNA synthesis, real-time polymerase chain reaction was conducted and relative expression of miRNA-200c was assessed. Then, miRNA-200c expression levels were evaluated with regard to clinicopathological characteristics. The expression levels of miRNA-200c were significantly increased in endometrioid endometrial cancer samples. Expression of miRNA-200c maintained at significantly higher levels in the early stage endometrioid endometrial cancer compared with more advanced stages. In the Kaplan-Meier analysis, lower levels of miRNA-200c expression were associated with inferior survival. Expression levels of miRNA-200c might be associated with clinicopathological factors and survival in endometrioid endometrial cancer. © 2018 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Gene expression and stress response mediated by the epigenetic regulation of a transposable element small RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea D McCue

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The epigenetic activity of transposable elements (TEs can influence the regulation of genes; though, this regulation is confined to the genes, promoters, and enhancers that neighbor the TE. This local cis regulation of genes therefore limits the influence of the TE's epigenetic regulation on the genome. TE activity is suppressed by small RNAs, which also inhibit viruses and regulate the expression of genes. The production of TE heterochromatin-associated endogenous small interfering RNAs (siRNAs in the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana is mechanistically distinct from gene-regulating small RNAs, such as microRNAs or trans-acting siRNAs (tasiRNAs. Previous research identified a TE small RNA that potentially regulates the UBP1b mRNA, which encodes an RNA-binding protein involved in stress granule formation. We demonstrate that this siRNA, siRNA854, is under the same trans-generational epigenetic control as the Athila family LTR retrotransposons from which it is produced. The epigenetic activation of Athila elements results in a shift in small RNA processing pathways, and new 21-22 nucleotide versions of Athila siRNAs are produced by protein components normally not responsible for processing TE siRNAs. This processing results in siRNA854's incorporation into ARGONAUTE1 protein complexes in a similar fashion to gene-regulating tasiRNAs. We have used reporter transgenes to demonstrate that the UPB1b 3' untranslated region directly responds to the epigenetic status of Athila TEs and the accumulation of siRNA854. The regulation of the UPB1b 3' untranslated region occurs both on the post-transcriptional and translational levels when Athila TEs are epigenetically activated, and this regulation results in the phenocopy of the ubp1b mutant stress-sensitive phenotype. This demonstrates that a TE's epigenetic activity can modulate the host organism's stress response. In addition, the ability of this TE siRNA to regulate a gene's expression in trans blurs

  17. A genomic portrait of the genetic architecture and regulatory impact of microRNA expression in response to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddle, Katherine J; Deschamps, Matthieu; Tailleux, Ludovic; Nédélec, Yohann; Pothlichet, Julien; Lugo-Villarino, Geanncarlo; Libri, Valentina; Gicquel, Brigitte; Neyrolles, Olivier; Laval, Guillaume; Patin, Etienne; Barreiro, Luis B; Quintana-Murci, Lluís

    2014-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are critical regulators of gene expression, and their role in a wide variety of biological processes, including host antimicrobial defense, is increasingly well described. Consistent with their diverse functional effects, miRNA expression is highly context dependent and shows marked changes upon cellular activation. However, the genetic control of miRNA expression in response to external stimuli and the impact of such perturbations on miRNA-mediated regulatory networks at the population level remain to be determined. Here we assessed changes in miRNA expression upon Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and mapped expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) in dendritic cells from a panel of healthy individuals. Genome-wide expression profiling revealed that ∼40% of miRNAs are differentially expressed upon infection. We find that the expression of 3% of miRNAs is controlled by proximate genetic factors, which are enriched in a promoter-specific histone modification associated with active transcription. Notably, we identify two infection-specific response eQTLs, for miR-326 and miR-1260, providing an initial assessment of the impact of genotype-environment interactions on miRNA molecular phenotypes. Furthermore, we show that infection coincides with a marked remodeling of the genome-wide relationships between miRNA and mRNA expression levels. This observation, supplemented by experimental data using the model of miR-29a, sheds light on the role of a set of miRNAs in cellular responses to infection. Collectively, this study increases our understanding of the genetic architecture of miRNA expression in response to infection, and highlights the wide-reaching impact of altering miRNA expression on the transcriptional landscape of a cell.

  18. Impact of gastro-esophageal reflux on mucin mRNA expression in the esophageal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roon, Aafke H C; Mayne, George C; Wijnhoven, Bas P L; Watson, David I; Leong, Mary P; Neijman, Gabriëlle E; Michael, Michael Z; McKay, Andrew R; Astill, David; Hussey, Damian J

    2008-08-01

    Changes in the expression of mucin genes in the esophageal mucosa associated with uncomplicated gastro-esophageal reflux disease have not been evaluated even though such changes could be associated with reflux-induced mucosal damage. We therefore sought to identify reflux-induced changes in mucin gene expression using a cell line and biopsies from the esophageal mucosa in patients with and without reflux. MUC-1, MUC-3, MUC-4, and MUC-5AC gene expressions were investigated in the HET-1A cell line following exposure to acid (pH 4) and/or bile (120 muM of a bile salt milieu), and in esophageal mucosal biopsies from controls, subjects with non-erosive gastro-esophageal reflux, and subjects with reflux associated with ulcerative esophagitis (erosive). The mucosal biopsies were also evaluated for IL-6 mRNA expression (inflammatory marker) and CK-14 mRNA expression (mucosal basal cell layer marker). Gene expression was determined using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. In the cell line studies, there were differences in mRNA levels for all of the evaluated mucins following treatment with either acid or the acid and bile combination. In the studies which evaluated tissue specimens, IL-6 and CK-14 mRNA levels increased according to degree of reflux pathology. The expression of MUC-1 and MUC-4 in mucosa from patients with erosive reflux was lower than in subjects without reflux and in patients with non-erosive reflux, whereas the expression of MUC-3 and MUC-5AC was increased (although these differences did not reach significance at p reflux groups. The correlation between IL-6 and MUC-3 was significant within the control and erosive reflux groups, and the correlation between MUC-1 and MUC-5AC was significant within the erosive reflux group. The results of this study suggest that the profile of mucin expression in the esophageal mucosa is influenced by the pH and composition of the gastro-esophageal reflux. Further work should explore the

  19. MicroRNA Expression Profiling Altered by Variant Dosage of Radiation Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuei-Fang Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various biological effects are associated with radiation exposure. Irradiated cells may elevate the risk for genetic instability, mutation, and cancer under low levels of radiation exposure, in addition to being able to extend the postradiation side effects in normal tissues. Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE is the focus of rigorous research as it may promote the development of cancer even at low radiation doses. Alterations in the DNA sequence could not explain these biological effects of radiation and it is thought that epigenetics factors may be involved. Indeed, some microRNAs (or miRNAs have been found to correlate radiation-induced damages and may be potential biomarkers for the various biological effects caused by different levels of radiation exposure. However, the regulatory role that miRNA plays in this aspect remains elusive. In this study, we profiled the expression changes in miRNA under fractionated radiation exposure in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. By utilizing publicly available microRNA knowledge bases and performing cross validations with our previous gene expression profiling under the same radiation condition, we identified various miRNA-gene interactions specific to different doses of radiation treatment, providing new insights for the molecular underpinnings of radiation injury.

  20. Group II intron inhibits conjugative relaxase expression in bacteria by mRNA targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Carol Lyn; Smith, Dorie

    2018-01-01

    Group II introns are mobile ribozymes that are rare in bacterial genomes, often cohabiting with various mobile elements, and seldom interrupting housekeeping genes. What accounts for this distribution has not been well understood. Here, we demonstrate that Ll.LtrB, the group II intron residing in a relaxase gene on a conjugative plasmid from Lactococcus lactis, inhibits its host gene expression and restrains the naturally cohabiting mobile element from conjugative horizontal transfer. We show that reduction in gene expression is mainly at the mRNA level, and results from the interaction between exon-binding sequences (EBSs) in the intron and intron-binding sequences (IBSs) in the mRNA. The spliced intron targets the relaxase mRNA and reopens ligated exons, causing major mRNA loss. Taken together, this study provides an explanation for the distribution and paucity of group II introns in bacteria, and suggests a potential force for those introns to evolve into spliceosomal introns. PMID:29905149

  1. Using RNA-Seq Data to Evaluate Reference Genes Suitable for Gene Expression Studies in Soybean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldrin Kay-Yuen Yim

    Full Text Available Differential gene expression profiles often provide important clues for gene functions. While reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is an important tool, the validity of the results depends heavily on the choice of proper reference genes. In this study, we employed new and published RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq datasets (26 sequencing libraries in total to evaluate reference genes reported in previous soybean studies. In silico PCR showed that 13 out of 37 previously reported primer sets have multiple targets, and 4 of them have amplicons with different sizes. Using a probabilistic approach, we identified new and improved candidate reference genes. We further performed 2 validation tests (with 26 RNA samples on 8 commonly used reference genes and 7 newly identified candidates, using RT-qPCR. In general, the new candidate reference genes exhibited more stable expression levels under the tested experimental conditions. The three newly identified candidate reference genes Bic-C2, F-box protein2, and VPS-like gave the best overall performance, together with the commonly used ELF1b. It is expected that the proposed probabilistic model could serve as an important tool to identify stable reference genes when more soybean RNA-Seq data from different growth stages and treatments are used.

  2. Regulation of mouse hepatic CYP2D9 mRNA expression by growth and adrenal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan; Sakuma, Tsutomu; Jaruchotikamol, Atika; Oguro, Miki; Nemoto, Nobuo

    2006-02-01

    The constitutive expression of CYP2D9 is sexually dimorphic, namely, strong in males, but diminutive in females. Repetition of mimic growth hormone (GH) secretion pattern impressively returned the mRNA expression level to that in intact mice: the GH secretion pattern's regulation of CYP2D9 mRNA expression has been predominantly disrupted by exogenous GH-administration. The extensive decline of CYP2D9 mRNA expression becoming a sexually non-specific P450 in 9-week-old male mice exposed as neonates to monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) suggested that the male GH secretion pattern is a key to the regulation of male-specific CYP2D9 mRNA expression in adult mice. Dexamethasone (Dex) showed possibility to induce CYP2D9 mRNA expression in adult MSG-neonatally treated mice of either sex. However, the antagonism was observed by co-administration of Dex and GH in the males. Dex-administration in adrenalectomized mice significantly elevated CYP2D9 mRNA expression levels. These findings suggest that an adrenal hormone participates in the regulatory mechanism of CYP2D9 mRNA expression in association with GH.

  3. Correlation of mRNA Expression and Signal Variability in Chronic Intracortical Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Jessica D; Carroll, Sheridan L; Saxena, Tarun; Mandavia, Dev; Clark, Alexus; Yarabarla, Varun; Bellamkonda, Ravi V

    2018-01-01

    The goal for this research was to identify molecular mechanisms that explain animal-to-animal variability in chronic intracortical recordings. Microwire electrodes were implanted into Sprague Dawley rats at an acute (1 week) and a chronic (14 weeks) time point. Weekly recordings were conducted, and action potentials were evoked in the barrel cortex by deflecting the rat's whiskers. At 1 and 14 weeks, tissue was collected, and mRNA was extracted. mRNA expression was compared between 1 and 14 weeks using a high throughput multiplexed qRT-PCR. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between mRNA expression and signal-to-noise ratios at 14 weeks. At 14 weeks, a positive correlation between signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and NeuN and GFAP mRNA expression was observed, indicating a relationship between recording strength and neuronal population, as well as reactive astrocyte activity. The inflammatory state around the electrode interface was evaluated using M1-like and M2-like markers. Expression for both M1-like and M2-like mRNA markers remained steady from 1 to 14 weeks. Anti-inflammatory markers, CD206 and CD163, however, demonstrated a significant positive correlation with SNR quality at 14 weeks. VE-cadherin, a marker for adherens junctions, and PDGFR-β, a marker for pericytes, both partial representatives of blood-brain barrier health, had a positive correlation with SNR at 14 weeks. Endothelial adhesion markers revealed a significant increase in expression at 14 weeks, while CD45, a pan-leukocyte marker, significantly decreased at 14 weeks. No significant correlation was found for either the endothelial adhesion or pan-leukocyte markers. A positive correlation between anti-inflammatory and blood-brain barrier health mRNA markers with electrophysiological efficacy of implanted intracortical electrodes has been demonstrated. These data reveal potential mechanisms for further evaluation to determine potential target mechanisms to improve

  4. Differential Expression Analysis by RNA-Seq Reveals Perturbations in the Platelet mRNA Transcriptome Triggered by Pathogen Reduction Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdimajid Osman

    Full Text Available Platelet concentrates (PCs are prepared at blood banks for transfusion to patients in certain clinical conditions associated with a low platelet count. To prevent transfusion-transmitted infections via PCs, different pathogen reduction (PR systems have been developed that inactivate the nucleic acids of contaminating pathogens by chemical cross-linking, a mechanism that may also affect platelets' nucleic acids. We previously reported that treatment of stored platelets with the PR system Intercept significantly reduced the level of half of the microRNAs that were monitored, induced platelet activation and compromised the platelet response to physiological agonists. Using genome-wide differential expression (DE RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq, we now report that Intercept markedly perturbs the mRNA transcriptome of human platelets and alters the expression level of >800 mRNAs (P<0.05 compared to other PR systems and control platelets. Of these, 400 genes were deregulated with DE corresponding to fold changes (FC ≥ 2. At the p-value < 0.001, as many as 147 genes were deregulated by ≥ 2-fold in Intercept-treated platelets, compared to none in the other groups. Finally, integrated analysis combining expression data for microRNA (miRNA and mRNA, and involving prediction of miRNA-mRNA interactions, disclosed several positive and inverse correlations between miRNAs and mRNAs in stored platelets. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Intercept markedly deregulates the platelet mRNA transcriptome, concomitant with reduced levels of mRNA-regulatory miRNAs. These findings should enlighten authorities worldwide when considering the implementation of PR systems, that target nucleic acids and are not specific to pathogens, for the management of blood products.

  5. Gender and obesity specific MicroRNA expression in adipose tissue from lean and obese pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mentzel, Caroline M. Junker; Anthon, Christian; Jacobsen, Mette Juul

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a complex condition that increases the risk of life threatening diseases such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Studying the gene regulation of obesity is important for understanding the molecular mechanisms behind the obesity derived diseases and may lead to better intervention...... and treatment plans. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs regulating target mRNA by binding to their 3'UTR. They are involved in numerous biological processes and diseases, including obesity. In this study we use a mixed breed pig model designed for obesity studies to investigate differentially...... expressed miRNAs in subcutaneous adipose tissue by RNA sequencing (RNAseq). Both male and female pigs are included to explore gender differences. The RNAseq study shows that the most highly expressed miRNAs are in accordance with comparable studies in pigs and humans. A total of six mi...

  6. Region specific regulation of glutamic acid decarboxylase mRNA expression by dopamine neurons in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindefors, N; Brene, S; Herrera-Marschitz, M; Persson, H

    1989-01-01

    In situ hybridization histochemistry and RNA blots were used to study the expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) mRNA in rats with or without a unilateral lesion of midbrain dopamine neurons. Two populations of GAD mRNA positive neurons were found in the intact caudate-putamen, substantia nigra and fronto-parietal cortex. In caudate-putamen, only one out of ten of the GAD mRNA positive neurons expressed high levels, while in substantia nigra every second of the positive neurons expressed high levels of GAD mRNA. Relatively few, but intensively labelled neurons were found in the intact fronto-parietal cerebral cortex. In addition, one out of six of the GAD mRNA positive neurons in the fronto-parietal cortex showed a low labeling. On the ipsilateral side, the forebrain dopamine deafferentation induced an increase in the number of neurons expressing high levels of GAD mRNA in caudate-putamen, and a decrease in fronto-parietal cortex. A smaller decrease was also seen in substantia nigra. However, the total number of GAD mRNA positive neurons were not significantly changed in any of these brain regions. The changes in the levels of GAD mRNA after the dopamine lesion were confirmed by RNA blot analysis. Hence, midbrain dopamine neurons appear to control neuronal expression of GAD mRNA by a tonic down-regulation in a fraction of GAD mRNA positive neurons in caudate-putamen, and a tonic up-regulation in a fraction of GAD mRNA positive neurons in fronto-parietal cortex and substantia nigra.

  7. Visual Display of 5p-arm and 3p-arm miRNA Expression with a Mobile Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chao-Yu; Kuo, Wei-Ting; Chiu, Chien-Yuan; Lin, Wen-Chang

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in human cancers. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that both 5p-arm and 3p-arm of mature miRNAs could be expressed from the same precursor and we further interrogated the 5p-arm and 3p-arm miRNA expression with a comprehensive arm feature annotation list. To assist biologists to visualize the differential 5p-arm and 3p-arm miRNA expression patterns, we utilized a user-friendly mobile App to display. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) miRNA-Seq expression information. We have collected over 4,500 miRNA-Seq datasets from 15 TCGA cancer types and further processed them with the 5p-arm and 3p-arm annotation analysis pipeline. In order to be displayed with the RNA-Seq Viewer App, annotated 5p-arm and 3p-arm miRNA expression information and miRNA gene loci information were converted into SQLite tables. In this distinct application, for any given miRNA gene, 5p-arm miRNA is illustrated on the top of chromosome ideogram and 3p-arm miRNA is illustrated on the bottom of chromosome ideogram. Users can then easily interrogate the differentially 5p-arm/3p-arm expressed miRNAs with their mobile devices. This study demonstrates the feasibility and utility of RNA-Seq Viewer App in addition to mRNA-Seq data visualization.

  8. Visual Display of 5p-arm and 3p-arm miRNA Expression with a Mobile Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Yu Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs play important roles in human cancers. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that both 5p-arm and 3p-arm of mature miRNAs could be expressed from the same precursor and we further interrogated the 5p-arm and 3p-arm miRNA expression with a comprehensive arm feature annotation list. To assist biologists to visualize the differential 5p-arm and 3p-arm miRNA expression patterns, we utilized a user-friendly mobile App to display. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA miRNA-Seq expression information. We have collected over 4,500 miRNA-Seq datasets from 15 TCGA cancer types and further processed them with the 5p-arm and 3p-arm annotation analysis pipeline. In order to be displayed with the RNA-Seq Viewer App, annotated 5p-arm and 3p-arm miRNA expression information and miRNA gene loci information were converted into SQLite tables. In this distinct application, for any given miRNA gene, 5p-arm miRNA is illustrated on the top of chromosome ideogram and 3p-arm miRNA is illustrated on the bottom of chromosome ideogram. Users can then easily interrogate the differentially 5p-arm/3p-arm expressed miRNAs with their mobile devices. This study demonstrates the feasibility and utility of RNA-Seq Viewer App in addition to mRNA-Seq data visualization.

  9. Uncovering robust patterns of microRNA co-expression across cancers using Bayesian Relevance Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameswaran Ramachandran

    Full Text Available Co-expression networks have long been used as a tool for investigating the molecular circuitry governing biological systems. However, most algorithms for constructing co-expression networks were developed in the microarray era, before high-throughput sequencing-with its unique statistical properties-became the norm for expression measurement. Here we develop Bayesian Relevance Networks, an algorithm that uses Bayesian reasoning about expression levels to account for the differing levels of uncertainty in expression measurements between highly- and lowly-expressed entities, and between samples with different sequencing depths. It combines data from groups of samples (e.g., replicates to estimate group expression levels and confidence ranges. It then computes uncertainty-moderated estimates of cross-group correlations between entities, and uses permutation testing to assess their statistical significance. Using large scale miRNA data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we show that our Bayesian update of the classical Relevance Networks algorithm provides improved reproducibility in co-expression estimates and lower false discovery rates in the resulting co-expression networks. Software is available at www.perkinslab.ca.

  10. Hypoxia regulates microRNA expression in the human carotid body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mkrtchian, Souren; Lee, Kian Leong; Kåhlin, Jessica; Ebberyd, Anette; Poellinger, Lorenz; Fagerlund, Malin Jonsson; Eriksson, Lars I.

    2017-01-01

    The carotid body (CB) is the key sensing organ for physiological oxygen levels in the body. Under conditions of low oxygen (hypoxia), the CB plays crucial roles in signaling to the cardiorespiratory center in the medulla oblongata for the restoration of oxygen homeostasis. How hypoxia regulates gene expression in the human CB remains poorly understood. While limited information on transcriptional regulation in animal CBs is available, the identity and impact of important post-transcriptional regulators such as non-coding RNAs, and in particular miRNAs are not known. Here we show using ex vivo experiments that indeed a number of miRNAs are differentially regulated in surgically removed human CB slices when acute hypoxic conditions were applied. Analysis of the hypoxia-regulated miRNAs shows that they target biological pathways with upregulation of functions related to cell proliferation and immune response and downregulation of cell differentiation and cell death functions. Comparative analysis of the human CB miRNAome with the global miRNA expression patterns of a large number of different human tissues showed that the CB miRNAome had a unique profile which reflects its highly specialized functional status. Nevertheless, the human CB miRNAome is most closely related to the miRNA expression pattern of brain tissues indicating that they may have the most similar developmental origins. - Highlights: • Hypoxia triggers differential expression of many miRNAs in the human carotid body. • This can lead to the upregulation of proliferation and immune response functions. • CB expression profile in the carotid body resembles the miRNA expression pattern in the brain. • miRNAs are involved in the regulation of carotid body functions including oxygen sensing.

  11. Hypoxia regulates microRNA expression in the human carotid body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mkrtchian, Souren, E-mail: souren.mkrtchian@ki.se [Section for Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Lee, Kian Leong, E-mail: csilkl@nus.edu.sg [Cancer Science Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, 117599 Singapore (Singapore); Kåhlin, Jessica [Section for Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Function Perioperative Medicine and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Ebberyd, Anette [Section for Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Poellinger, Lorenz [Cancer Science Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, 117599 Singapore (Singapore); Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Fagerlund, Malin Jonsson; Eriksson, Lars I. [Section for Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Function Perioperative Medicine and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-03-15

    The carotid body (CB) is the key sensing organ for physiological oxygen levels in the body. Under conditions of low oxygen (hypoxia), the CB plays crucial roles in signaling to the cardiorespiratory center in the medulla oblongata for the restoration of oxygen homeostasis. How hypoxia regulates gene expression in the human CB remains poorly understood. While limited information on transcriptional regulation in animal CBs is available, the identity and impact of important post-transcriptional regulators such as non-coding RNAs, and in particular miRNAs are not known. Here we show using ex vivo experiments that indeed a number of miRNAs are differentially regulated in surgically removed human CB slices when acute hypoxic conditions were applied. Analysis of the hypoxia-regulated miRNAs shows that they target biological pathways with upregulation of functions related to cell proliferation and immune response and downregulation of cell differentiation and cell death functions. Comparative analysis of the human CB miRNAome with the global miRNA expression patterns of a large number of different human tissues showed that the CB miRNAome had a unique profile which reflects its highly specialized functional status. Nevertheless, the human CB miRNAome is most closely related to the miRNA expression pattern of brain tissues indicating that they may have the most similar developmental origins. - Highlights: • Hypoxia triggers differential expression of many miRNAs in the human carotid body. • This can lead to the upregulation of proliferation and immune response functions. • CB expression profile in the carotid body resembles the miRNA expression pattern in the brain. • miRNAs are involved in the regulation of carotid body functions including oxygen sensing.

  12. Common changes in global gene expression induced by RNA polymerase inhibitors in Shigella flexneri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Fu

    Full Text Available Characterization of expression profile of organisms in response to antimicrobials provides important information on the potential mechanism of action of the drugs. The special expression signature can be used to predict whether other drugs act on the same target. Here, the common response of Shigella flexneri to two inhibitors of RNA polymerase was examined using gene expression profiling. Consistent with similar effects of the two drugs, the gene expression profiles indicated that responses of the bacteria to these drugs were roughly the same, with 225 genes affected commonly. Of them, 88 were induced and 137 were repressed. Real-time PCR was performed for selected genes to verify the microarray results. Analysis of the expression data revealed that more than 30% of the plasmid-encoded genes on the array were up-regulated by the antibiotics including virF regulon, other virulence-related genes, and genes responsible for plasmid replication, maintenance, and transfer. In addition, some chromosome-encoded genes involved in virulence and genes acquired from horizontal transfer were also significantly up-regulated. However, the expression of genes encoding the beta-subunit of RNA polymerase was increased moderately. The repressed genes include those that code for products associated with the ribosome, citrate cycle, glycolysis, thiamine biosynthesis, purine metabolism, fructose metabolism, mannose metabolism, and cold shock proteins. This study demonstrates that the two antibiotics induce rapid cessation of RNA synthesis resulting in inhibition of translation components. It also indicates that the production of virulence factors involved in intercellular dissemination, tissue invasion and inflammatory destruction may be enhanced through derepressing horizontal transfer genes by the drugs.

  13. Expression and role of oncogenic miRNA-224 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Zhimei; Li, Ming; Li, Shuo; Ren, Lihua; Zhu, Hong; Xiao, Bin; Shi, Ruihua

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant expression of miR-224 is associated with tumor development and progression. This study investigated the role of miR-224 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) ex vivo and in vitro. A total of 103 esophageal intraepithelial neoplasia, ESCC tissue specimens, and their matched distant normal tissues were collected to test miR-224 expression using qRT-PCR analysis. Western blot was used to quantify the level of PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase 1 (PHLPP1) and PHLPP2 in ESCC tissues. Cell viability, apoptosis, invasion, and colony formation assays were used to assess the altered phenotypes of esophageal cancer cell lines after miR-224 expression or inhibition. A luciferase reporter assay was used to confirm miR-224 binding to PHLPP1 and PHLPP2 mRNA. miR-224 was significantly overexpressed in esophageal intraepithelial neoplasia and ESCC tissues, while the expression of PHLPP1 and PHLPP2 proteins, the target genes of miR-224, was downregulated in ESCC tissues. miR-224 expression was associated with advanced clinical TNM stage, pathologic grade, and the level of PHLPP1 and PHLPP2 proteins in ESCC tissues. Ectopic overexpression of miR-224 promoted proliferation, migration, and invasion, but suppressed apoptosis of ESCC cells. miR-224 was able to bind to the 3′ untranslated region (3′-UTR) of PHLPP1 and PHLPP2 mRNA to suppress their expression. The current study demonstrated that miR-224 acts as an oncogenic miRNA in ESCC, possibly by targeting PHLPP1 and PHLPP2. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1581-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  14. MicroRNA expression, target genes, and signaling pathways in infants with a ventricular septal defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Hui; Yan, Zhaoyuan; Huang, Ke; Jiang, Yuanqing; Zhang, Lin

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to systematically investigate the relationship between miRNA expression and the occurrence of ventricular septal defect (VSD), and characterize the miRNA target genes and pathways that can lead to VSD. The miRNAs that were differentially expressed in blood samples from VSD and normal infants were screened and validated by implementing miRNA microarrays and qRT-PCR. The target genes regulated by differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted using three target gene databases. The functions and signaling pathways of the target genes were enriched using the GO database and KEGG database, respectively. The transcription and protein expression of specific target genes in critical pathways were compared in the VSD and normal control groups using qRT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. Compared with the normal control group, the VSD group had 22 differentially expressed miRNAs; 19 were downregulated and three were upregulated. The 10,677 predicted target genes participated in many biological functions related to cardiac development and morphogenesis. Four target genes (mGLUR, Gq, PLC, and PKC) were involved in the PKC pathway and four (ECM, FAK, PI3 K, and PDK1) were involved in the PI3 K-Akt pathway. The transcription and protein expression of these eight target genes were significantly upregulated in the VSD group. The 22 miRNAs that were dysregulated in the VSD group were mainly downregulated, which may result in the dysregulation of several key genes and biological functions related to cardiac development. These effects could also be exerted via the upregulation of eight specific target genes, the subsequent over-activation of the PKC and PI3 K-Akt pathways, and the eventual abnormal cardiac development and VSD.

  15. UCP2 mRNA expression is dependent on glucose metabolism in pancreatic islets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Louise Torp

    2012-01-01

    Uncoupling Protein 2 (UCP2) is expressed in the pancreatic β-cell, where it partially uncouples the mitochondrial proton gradient, decreasing both ATP-production and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Increased glucose levels up-regulate UCP2 mRNA and protein levels, but the mechanism f...... down-regulation of UCP2 is involved in preserving the insulin secretory capacity of GK mutant mice and might also be implicated in limiting disease progression in MODY2 patients....

  16. MicroRNA-146a expression as a potential biomarker for rheumatoid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heba Mohamed Abdelkader Elsayed

    2016-07-26

    Jul 26, 2016 ... lows; enzyme activation at 95 °C, followed by 40 cycles of denaturation at 94 °C for 15s annealing at 55 °C for 30 s and extension at 70 °C for 30 s. The expression of the U6B small nuclear RNA (RNU6B) was used as endogenous control for data normalization. The RQ level (fold change) for miR-146a was ...

  17. MicroRNA expression profiles of cancer stem cells in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    YATA, KAZUYA; BEDER, LEVENT BEKIR; TAMAGAWA, SHUNJI; HOTOMI, MUNEKI; HIROHASHI, YOSHIHIKO; GRENMAN, REIDAR; YAMANAKA, NOBORU

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that cancer stem cells have essential roles in tumor initiation, progression, metastasis and resistance to chemo-radiation. Recent research has pointed out biological importance of microRNAs in cancer stem cell dysregulation. Total number of mature microRNAs in human genome increased to more than 2,500 with the recent up-date of the database. However, currently no information is available regarding microRNA expression profiles of cancer stem cells in head and nec...

  18. Expression of Versican 3′-Untranslated Region Modulates Endogenous MicroRNA Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daniel Y.; Jeyapalan, Zina; Fang, Ling; Yang, Jennifer; Zhang, Yaou; Yee, Albert Y.; Li, Minhui; Du, William W.; Shatseva, Tatiana; Yang, Burton B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Mature microRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded RNAs that regulate post-transcriptional gene expression. In our previous study, we have shown that versican 3′UTR, a fragment of non-coding transcript, has the ability to antagonize miR-199a-3p function thereby regulating expression of the matrix proteins versican and fibronectin, and thus resulting in enhanced cell-cell adhesion and organ adhesion. However, the impact of this non-coding fragment on tumorigenesis is yet to be determined. Methods and Findings Using computational prediction confirmed with in vitro and in vivo experiments, we report that the expression of versican 3′UTR not only antagonizes miR-199a-3p but can also lower its steady state expression. We found that expression of versican 3′UTR in a mouse breast carcinoma cell line, 4T1, decreased miR-199a-3p levels. The decrease in miRNA activity consequently translated into differences in tumor growth. Computational analysis indicated that both miR-199a-3p and miR-144 targeted a cell cycle regulator, Rb1. In addition, miR-144 and miR-136, which have also been shown to interact with versican 3′UTR, was found to target PTEN. Expression of Rb1 and PTEN were up-regulated synergistically in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that the 3′UTR binds and modulates miRNA activities, freeing Rb1 and PTEN mRNAs for translation. In tumor formation assays, cells transfected with the 3′UTR formed smaller tumors compared with cells transfected with a control vector. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that a 3′UTR fragment can be used to modulate miRNA functions. Our study also suggests that miRNAs in the cancer cells are more susceptible to degradation, due to its interaction with a non-coding 3′UTR. This non-coding component of mRNA may be used retrospectively to modulate miRNA activities. PMID:21049042

  19. Expression of versican 3'-untranslated region modulates endogenous microRNA functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daniel Y; Jeyapalan, Zina; Fang, Ling; Yang, Jennifer; Zhang, Yaou; Yee, Albert Y; Li, Minhui; Du, William W; Shatseva, Tatiana; Yang, Burton B

    2010-10-25

    Mature microRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded RNAs that regulate post-transcriptional gene expression. In our previous study, we have shown that versican 3'UTR, a fragment of non-coding transcript, has the ability to antagonize miR-199a-3p function thereby regulating expression of the matrix proteins versican and fibronectin, and thus resulting in enhanced cell-cell adhesion and organ adhesion. However, the impact of this non-coding fragment on tumorigenesis is yet to be determined. Using computational prediction confirmed with in vitro and in vivo experiments, we report that the expression of versican 3'UTR not only antagonizes miR-199a-3p but can also lower its steady state expression. We found that expression of versican 3'UTR in a mouse breast carcinoma cell line, 4T1, decreased miR-199a-3p levels. The decrease in miRNA activity consequently translated into differences in tumor growth. Computational analysis indicated that both miR-199a-3p and miR-144 targeted a cell cycle regulator, Rb1. In addition, miR-144 and miR-136, which have also been shown to interact with versican 3'UTR, was found to target PTEN. Expression of Rb1 and PTEN were up-regulated synergistically in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that the 3'UTR binds and modulates miRNA activities, freeing Rb1 and PTEN mRNAs for translation. In tumor formation assays, cells transfected with the 3'UTR formed smaller tumors compared with cells transfected with a control vector. Our results demonstrated that a 3'UTR fragment can be used to modulate miRNA functions. Our study also suggests that miRNAs in the cancer cells are more susceptible to degradation, due to its interaction with a non-coding 3'UTR. This non-coding component of mRNA may be used retrospectively to modulate miRNA activities.

  20. Expression of versican 3'-untranslated region modulates endogenous microRNA functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Y Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mature microRNAs (miRNAs are single-stranded RNAs that regulate post-transcriptional gene expression. In our previous study, we have shown that versican 3'UTR, a fragment of non-coding transcript, has the ability to antagonize miR-199a-3p function thereby regulating expression of the matrix proteins versican and fibronectin, and thus resulting in enhanced cell-cell adhesion and organ adhesion. However, the impact of this non-coding fragment on tumorigenesis is yet to be determined. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using computational prediction confirmed with in vitro and in vivo experiments, we report that the expression of versican 3'UTR not only antagonizes miR-199a-3p but can also lower its steady state expression. We found that expression of versican 3'UTR in a mouse breast carcinoma cell line, 4T1, decreased miR-199a-3p levels. The decrease in miRNA activity consequently translated into differences in tumor growth. Computational analysis indicated that both miR-199a-3p and miR-144 targeted a cell cycle regulator, Rb1. In addition, miR-144 and miR-136, which have also been shown to interact with versican 3'UTR, was found to target PTEN. Expression of Rb1 and PTEN were up-regulated synergistically in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that the 3'UTR binds and modulates miRNA activities, freeing Rb1 and PTEN mRNAs for translation. In tumor formation assays, cells transfected with the 3'UTR formed smaller tumors compared with cells transfected with a control vector. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that a 3'UTR fragment can be used to modulate miRNA functions. Our study also suggests that miRNAs in the cancer cells are more susceptible to degradation, due to its interaction with a non-coding 3'UTR. This non-coding component of mRNA may be used retrospectively to modulate miRNA activities.

  1. Improving RNA-Seq expression estimates by correcting for fragment bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The biochemistry of RNA-Seq library preparation results in cDNA fragments that are not uniformly distributed within the transcripts they represent. This non-uniformity must be accounted for when estimating expression levels, and we show how to perform the needed corrections using a likelihood based approach. We find improvements in expression estimates as measured by correlation with independently performed qRT-PCR and show that correction of bias leads to improved replicability of results across libraries and sequencing technologies. PMID:21410973

  2. Balancing gene expression without library construction via a reusable sRNA pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodasara, Amar; Voigt, Christopher A

    2017-07-27

    Balancing protein expression is critical when optimizing genetic systems. Typically, this requires library construction to vary the genetic parts controlling each gene, which can be expensive and time-consuming. Here, we develop sRNAs corresponding to 15nt 'target' sequences that can be inserted upstream of a gene. The targeted gene can be repressed from 1.6- to 87-fold by controlling sRNA expression using promoters of different strength. A pool is built where six sRNAs are placed under the control of 16 promoters that span a ∼103-fold range of strengths, yielding ∼107 combinations. This pool can simultaneously optimize up to six genes in a system. This requires building only a single system-specific construct by placing a target sequence upstream of each gene and transforming it with the pre-built sRNA pool. The resulting library is screened and the top clone is sequenced to determine the promoter controlling each sRNA, from which the fold-repression of the genes can be inferred. The system is then rebuilt by rationally selecting parts that implement the optimal expression of each gene. We demonstrate the versatility of this approach by using the same pool to optimize a metabolic pathway (β-carotene) and genetic circuit (XNOR logic gate). © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Association of BIM Deletion Polymorphism and BIM-γ RNA Expression in NSCLC with EGFR Mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Kazutoshi; Kakimoto, Atsushi; Mikami, Tetsuo; Kaburaki, Kyohei; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Yoshizawa, Takahiro; Makino, Takashi; Otsuka, Hajime; Sano, G O; Sugino, Keishi; Sakamoto, Susumu; Takai, Yujiro; Tochigi, Naobumi; Iyoda, Akira; Homma, Sakae

    This pilot study assessed the association of BIM deletion polymorphism and BIM RNA isoform in patients with EGFR-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The study included 33 patients with EGFR-positive NSCLC treated with gefitinib. BIM deletion polymorphism and BIM RNA isoform (EL/L/S/γ) were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). BIM-γ expression was significantly higher in patients with BIM deletion polymorphism than among those without BIM deletion polymorphism inside tumors (p=0.038) and around tumors (p=0.0024). Relative BIM-γ expression was significantly higher in patients with BIM deletion polymorphism than among those without BIM deletion polymorphism (p=0.0017). Patients with BIM-γ had significantly shorter progression-free survival than those without BIM-γ (median: 304 vs. 732 days; p=0.023). Expression of BIM-γ mRNA and BIM deletion polymorphism were strongly associated. BIM-γ overexpression may have a role in apoptosis related to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Copyright© 2016, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  4. A comparative study of techniques for differential expression analysis on RNA-Seq data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong Hong Zhang

    Full Text Available Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technology allow high-throughput cDNA sequencing (RNA-Seq to be widely applied in transcriptomic studies, in particular for detecting differentially expressed genes between groups. Many software packages have been developed for the identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs between treatment groups based on RNA-Seq data. However, there is a lack of consensus on how to approach an optimal study design and choice of suitable software for the analysis. In this comparative study we evaluate the performance of three of the most frequently used software tools: Cufflinks-Cuffdiff2, DESeq and edgeR. A number of important parameters of RNA-Seq technology were taken into consideration, including the number of replicates, sequencing depth, and balanced vs. unbalanced sequencing depth within and between groups. We benchmarked results relative to sets of DEGs identified through either quantitative RT-PCR or microarray. We observed that edgeR performs slightly better than DESeq and Cuffdiff2 in terms of the ability to uncover true positives. Overall, DESeq or taking the intersection of DEGs from two or more tools is recommended if the number of false positives is a major concern in the study. In other circumstances, edgeR is slightly preferable for differential expression analysis at the expense of potentially introducing more false positives.

  5. MicroRNA Expression in Formalin-fixed Paraffin-embedded Cancer Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Mogens Karsbøl; Dehlendorff, Christian; Linnemann, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    of miRNA expression in FFPE tissue samples from patients with colorectal (CRC) and pancreatic (PC) cancer and to quantify the variability associated with sample age and fixation. METHODS: High-throughput miRNA profiling results from 203 CRC and 256 PC FFPE samples as well as from 37 paired frozen....../FFPE samples from nine other CRC tumors (methodological samples) were used. Candidate reference miRNAs were identified by their correlation with global mean expression. The stability of reference genes was analyzed according to published methods. The association between sample age and global mean mi...... to global mean expression in each cancer type. Nine of these miRNAs were present in both lists, and miR-103a-3p was the most stable reference miRNA for both CRC and PC FFPE tissue. The optimal number of reference miRNAs was 4 in CRC and 10 in PC. Sample age had a significant effect on global mi...

  6. Altered expression of asparagine synthetase mRNA in human leukemic and carcinoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, L.O.; Guzowski, D.E.; Millan, C.A. [North Shore Univ. Hospital/Cornell Univ. Medical College, Manhasset, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Asparagine synthetase (AS) is the enzyme responsible for the ATP-dependant conversion of aspartic acid to asparagine. The AS gene is expressed constitutively in most mammalian cells, including cells of the lymphoid lineage, as a 2 kb mRNA. In some leukemic phenotypes, AS expression is abrogated, resulting in no detectable enzyme activity. These cells are rendered sensitive to killing by L-asparaginase, which destroys extracellular asparagine. Prolonged treatment of leukemic cells with this agent can lead to resistance and the reappearance of AS activity, suggesting derepression of the AS gene, which has been shown to be regulated by intracellular levels of asparagine. Modulation of AS expression by asparagine employs cis and trans-acting elements involved in transcriptional and translational regulation. We have cloned and sequenced the human AS gene and surrounding sequence elements as well as the full-length cDNA. Using probes specific to the third and fourth exons of AS, we have identified an additional higher molecular weight mRNA (2.7 kb) in Northern blots derived from a chronic myelogenous leukemia and a colon carcinoma but not in normal lymphocytic or other human cell lines. We speculate that elements present in the cancer-derived mRNAs may be involved in the derepression of AS activity. This hypothesis is being evaluated by RNase protection assays using RNA isolated from a variety of human cell lines to characterize and elucidate the nature of this additional AS encoded message.

  7. Myofibril-Inducing RNA (MIR is essential for tropomyosin expression and myofibrillogenesis in axolotl hearts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemanski Sharon L

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Mexican axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, carries the naturally-occurring recessive mutant gene 'c' that results in a failure of homozygous (c/c embryos to form hearts that beat because of an absence of organized myofibrils. Our previous studies have shown that a noncoding RNA, Myofibril-Inducing RNA (MIR, is capable of promoting myofibrillogenesis and heart beating in the mutant (c/c axolotls. The present study demonstrates that the MIR gene is essential for tropomyosin (TM expression in axolotl hearts during development. Gene expression studies show that mRNA expression of various tropomyosin isoforms in untreated mutant hearts and in normal hearts knocked down with double-stranded MIR (dsMIR are similar to untreated normal. However, at the protein level, selected tropomyosin isoforms are significantly reduced in mutant and dsMIR treated normal hearts. These results suggest that MIR is involved in controlling the translation or post-translation of various TM isoforms and subsequently of regulating cardiac contractility.

  8. MirZ: an integrated microRNA expression atlas and target prediction resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausser, Jean; Berninger, Philipp; Rodak, Christoph; Jantscher, Yvonne; Wirth, Stefan; Zavolan, Mihaela

    2009-07-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNAs that act as guides for the degradation and translational repression of protein-coding mRNAs. A large body of work showed that miRNAs are involved in the regulation of a broad range of biological functions, from development to cardiac and immune system function, to metabolism, to cancer. For most of the over 500 miRNAs that are encoded in the human genome the functions still remain to be uncovered. Identifying miRNAs whose expression changes between cell types or between normal and pathological conditions is an important step towards characterizing their function as is the prediction of mRNAs that could be targeted by these miRNAs. To provide the community the possibility of exploring interactively miRNA expression patterns and the candidate targets of miRNAs in an integrated environment, we developed the MirZ web server, which is accessible at www.mirz.unibas.ch. The server provides experimental and computational biologists with statistical analysis and data mining tools operating on up-to-date databases of sequencing-based miRNA expression profiles and of predicted miRNA target sites in species ranging from Caenorhabditis elegans to Homo sapiens.

  9. Promoter Methylation and mRNA Expression of Response Gene to Complement 32 in Breast Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasab, E. E.; Nasab, E. E.; Hashemi, M.; Rafighdoost, F.

    2016-01-01

    Response gene to complement 32 (RGC32), induced by activation of complements, has been characterized as a cell cycle regulator; however, its role in carcinogenesis is still controversial. In the present study we compared RGC32 promoter methylation patterns and mRNA expression in breast cancerous tissues and adjacent normal tissues. Materials and Methods. Sixty-three breast cancer tissues and 63 adjacent non neoplastic tissues were included in our study. Design. Nested methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (Nested-MSP) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were used to determine RGC32 promoter methylation status and its mRNA expression levels, respectively. Results. RGC32 methylation pattern was not different between breast cancerous tissue and adjacent non neoplastic tissue (OR=2.30, 95% CI=0.95-5.54). However, qPCR analysis displayed higher levels of RGC32 mRNA in breast cancerous tissues than in noncancerous tissues (1.073 versus 0.959; P=0.001), irrespective of the promoter methylation status. The expression levels and promoter methylation of RGC32 were not correlated with any of patients’ clinical characteristics (P>0.05).

  10. HemaExplorer: a database of mRNA expression profiles in normal and malignant haematopoiesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Frederik Otzen; Rapin, Nicolas; Theilgaard-Mönch, Kim

    2013-01-01

    lead to full integrity of the data in the database. The HemaExplorer has comprehensive visualization interface that can make it useful as a daily tool for biologists and cancer researchers to assess the expression patterns of genes encountered in research or literature. HemaExplorer is relevant for all......The HemaExplorer (http://servers.binf.ku.dk/hemaexplorer) is a curated database of processed mRNA Gene expression profiles (GEPs) that provides an easy display of gene expression in haematopoietic cells. HemaExplorer contains GEPs derived from mouse/human haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells...... as well as from more differentiated cell types. Moreover, data from distinct subtypes of human acute myeloid leukemia is included in the database allowing researchers to directly compare gene expression of leukemic cells with those of their closest normal counterpart. Normalization and batch correction...

  11. Stimulation of Pol III-dependent 5S rRNA and U6 snRNA gene expression by AP-1 transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Richa; Kumar, Vijay

    2017-07-01

    RNA polymerase III transcribes structurally diverse group of essential noncoding RNAs including 5S ribosomal RNA (5SrRNA) and U6 snRNA. These noncoding RNAs are involved in RNA processing and ribosome biogenesis, thus, coupling Pol III activity to the rate of protein synthesis, cell growth, and proliferation. Even though a few Pol II-associated transcription factors have been reported to participate in Pol III-dependent transcription, its activation by activator protein 1 (AP-1) factors, c-Fos and c-Jun, has remained unexplored. Here, we show that c-Fos and c-Jun bind to specific sites in the regulatory regions of 5S rRNA (type I) and U6 snRNA (type III) gene promoters and stimulate their transcription. Our chromatin immunoprecipitation studies suggested that endogenous AP-1 factors bind to their cognate promoter elements during the G1/S transition of cell cycle apparently synchronous with Pol III transcriptional activity. Furthermore, the interaction of c-Jun with histone acetyltransferase p300 promoted the recruitment of p300/CBP complex on the promoters and facilitated the occupancy of Pol III transcriptional machinery via histone acetylation and chromatin remodeling. The findings of our study, together, suggest that AP-1 factors are novel regulators of Pol III-driven 5S rRNA and U6 snRNA expression with a potential role in cell proliferation. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  12. Rift Valley fever virus NSS gene expression correlates with a defect in nuclear mRNA export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Anna Maria; Van Deusen, Nicole M; Schmaljohn, Connie S

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the localization of host mRNA during Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infection. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that infection with RVFV altered the localization of host mRNA. mRNA accumulated in the nuclei of RVFV-infected but not mock-infected cells. Further, overexpression of the NSS gene, but not the N, GN or NSM genes correlated with mRNA nuclear accumulation. Nuclear accumulation of host mRNA was not observed in cells infected with a strain of RVFV lacking the gene encoding NSS, confirming that expression of NSS is likely responsible for this phenomenon. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. MicroRNA expression profiling during the life cycle of the silkworm (Bombyx mori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Daojun

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are expressed by a wide range of eukaryotic organisms, and function in diverse biological processes. Numerous miRNAs have been identified in Bombyx mori, but the temporal expression profiles of miRNAs corresponding to each stage transition over the entire life cycle of the silkworm remain to be established. To obtain a comprehensive overview of the correlation between miRNA expression and stage transitions, we performed a whole-life test and subsequent stage-by-stage examinations on nearly one hundred miRNAs in the silkworm. Results Our results show that miRNAs display a wide variety of expression profiles over the whole life of the silkworm, including continuous expression from embryo to adult (miR-184, up-regulation over the entire life cycle (let-7 and miR-100, down-regulation over the entire life cycle (miR-124, expression associated with embryogenesis (miR-29 and miR-92, up-regulation from early 3rd instar to pupa (miR-275, and complementary pulses in expression between miR-34b and miR-275. Stage-by-stage examinations revealed further expression patterns, such as emergence at specific time-points during embryogenesis and up-regulation of miRNA groups in late embryos (miR-1 and bantam, expression associated with stage transition between instar and molt larval stages (miR-34b, expression associated with silk gland growth and spinning activity (miR-274, continuous high expression from the spinning larval to pupal and adult stages (miR-252 and miR-31a, a coordinate expression trough in day 3 pupae of both sexes (miR-10b and miR-281, up-regulation in pupal metamorphosis of both sexes (miR-29b, and down-regulation in pupal metamorphosis of both sexes (miR-275. Conclusion We present the full-scale expression profiles of miRNAs throughout the life cycle of Bombyx mori. The whole-life expression profile was further investigated via stage-by-stage analysis. Our data provide an important resource for more detailed

  14. MicroRNA expression profiling during the life cycle of the silkworm (Bombyx mori).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiping; Zhang, Liang; Li, Qibin; Zhao, Ping; Duan, Jun; Cheng, Daojun; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Xia, Qingyou

    2009-09-28

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are expressed by a wide range of eukaryotic organisms, and function in diverse biological processes. Numerous miRNAs have been identified in Bombyx mori, but the temporal expression profiles of miRNAs corresponding to each stage transition over the entire life cycle of the silkworm remain to be established. To obtain a comprehensive overview of the correlation between miRNA expression and stage transitions, we performed a whole-life test and subsequent stage-by-stage examinations on nearly one hundred miRNAs in the silkworm. Our results show that miRNAs display a wide variety of expression profiles over the whole life of the silkworm, including continuous expression from embryo to adult (miR-184), up-regulation over the entire life cycle (let-7 and miR-100), down-regulation over the entire life cycle (miR-124), expression associated with embryogenesis (miR-29 and miR-92), up-regulation from early 3rd instar to pupa (miR-275), and complementary pulses in expression between miR-34b and miR-275. Stage-by-stage examinations revealed further expression patterns, such as emergence at specific time-points during embryogenesis and up-regulation of miRNA groups in late embryos (miR-1 and bantam), expression associated with stage transition between instar and molt larval stages (miR-34b), expression associated with silk gland growth and spinning activity (miR-274), continuous high expression from the spinning larval to pupal and adult stages (miR-252 and miR-31a), a coordinate expression trough in day 3 pupae of both sexes (miR-10b and miR-281), up-regulation in pupal metamorphosis of both sexes (miR-29b), and down-regulation in pupal metamorphosis of both sexes (miR-275). We present the full-scale expression profiles of miRNAs throughout the life cycle of Bombyx mori. The whole-life expression profile was further investigated via stage-by-stage analysis. Our data provide an important resource for more detailed functional analysis of miRNAs in this animal.

  15. microRNA as a potential vector for the propagation of robustness in protein expression and oscillatory dynamics within a ceRNA network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Gérard

    Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. miRNAs can induce thresholds in protein synthesis. Such thresholds in protein output can be also achieved by oligomerization of transcription factors (TF for the control of gene expression. First, we propose a minimal model for protein expression regulated by miRNA and by oligomerization of TF. We show that miRNA and oligomerization of TF generate a buffer, which increases the robustness of protein output towards molecular noise as well as towards random variation of kinetics parameters. Next, we extend the model by considering that the same miRNA can bind to multiple messenger RNAs, which accounts for the dynamics of a minimal competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs network. The model shows that, through common miRNA regulation, TF can control the expression of all proteins formed by the ceRNA network, even if it drives the expression of only one gene in the network. The model further suggests that the threshold in protein synthesis mediated by the oligomerization of TF can be propagated to the other genes, which can increase the robustness of the expression of all genes in such ceRNA network. Furthermore, we show that a miRNA could increase the time delay of a "Goodwin-like" oscillator model, which may favor the occurrence of oscillations of large amplitude. This result predicts important roles of miRNAs in the control of the molecular mechanisms leading to the emergence of biological rhythms. Moreover, a model for the latter oscillator embedded in a ceRNA network indicates that the oscillatory behavior can be propagated, via the shared miRNA, to all proteins formed by such ceRNA network. Thus, by means of computational models, we show that miRNAs could act as vectors allowing the propagation of robustness in protein synthesis as well as oscillatory behaviors within ceRNA networks.

  16. Deciphering the transcriptional circuitry of microRNA genes expressed during human monocytic differentiation

    KAUST Repository

    Schmeier, Sebastian; MacPherson, Cameron R; Essack, Magbubah; Kaur, Mandeep; Schaefer, Ulf; Suzuki, Harukazu; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Macrophages are immune cells involved in various biological processes including host defence, homeostasis, differentiation, and organogenesis. Disruption of macrophage biology has been linked to increased pathogen infection, inflammation and malignant diseases. Differential gene expression observed in monocytic differentiation is primarily regulated by interacting transcription factors (TFs). Current research suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) degrade and repress translation of mRNA, but also may target genes involved in differentiation. We focus on getting insights into the transcriptional circuitry regulating miRNA genes expressed during monocytic differentiation. Results: We computationally analysed the transcriptional circuitry of miRNA genes during monocytic differentiation using in vitro time-course expression data for TFs and miRNAs. A set of TF?miRNA associations was derived from predicted TF binding sites in promoter regions of miRNA genes. Time-lagged expression correlation analysis was utilised to evaluate the TF?miRNA associations. Our analysis identified 12 TFs that potentially play a central role in regulating miRNAs throughout the differentiation process. Six of these 12 TFs (ATF2, E2F3, HOXA4, NFE2L1, SP3, and YY1) have not previously been described to be important for monocytic differentiation. The remaining six TFs are CEBPB, CREB1, ELK1, NFE2L2, RUNX1, and USF2. For several miRNAs (miR-21, miR-155, miR-424, and miR-17-92), we show how their inferred transcriptional regulation impacts monocytic differentiation. Conclusions: The study demonstrates that miRNAs and their transcriptional regulatory control are integral molecular mechanisms during differentiation. Furthermore, it is the first study to decipher on a large-scale, how miRNAs are controlled by TFs during human monocytic differentiation. Subsequently, we have identified 12 candidate key controllers of miRNAs during this differentiation process. 2009 Schmeier et al; licensee Bio

  17. Deciphering the transcriptional circuitry of microRNA genes expressed during human monocytic differentiation

    KAUST Repository

    Schmeier, Sebastian

    2009-12-10

    Background: Macrophages are immune cells involved in various biological processes including host defence, homeostasis, differentiation, and organogenesis. Disruption of macrophage biology has been linked to increased pathogen infection, inflammation and malignant diseases. Differential gene expression observed in monocytic differentiation is primarily regulated by interacting transcription factors (TFs). Current research suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) degrade and repress translation of mRNA, but also may target genes involved in differentiation. We focus on getting insights into the transcriptional circuitry regulating miRNA genes expressed during monocytic differentiation. Results: We computationally analysed the transcriptional circuitry of miRNA genes during monocytic differentiation using in vitro time-course expression data for TFs and miRNAs. A set of TF?miRNA associations was derived from predicted TF binding sites in promoter regions of miRNA genes. Time-lagged expression correlation analysis was utilised to evaluate the TF?miRNA associations. Our analysis identified 12 TFs that potentially play a central role in regulating miRNAs throughout the differentiation process. Six of these 12 TFs (ATF2, E2F3, HOXA4, NFE2L1, SP3, and YY1) have not previously been described to be important for monocytic differentiation. The remaining six TFs are CEBPB, CREB1, ELK1, NFE2L2, RUNX1, and USF2. For several miRNAs (miR-21, miR-155, miR-424, and miR-17-92), we show how their inferred transcriptional regulation impacts monocytic differentiation. Conclusions: The study demonstrates that miRNAs and their transcriptional regulatory control are integral molecular mechanisms during differentiation. Furthermore, it is the first study to decipher on a large-scale, how miRNAs are controlled by TFs during human monocytic differentiation. Subsequently, we have identified 12 candidate key controllers of miRNAs during this differentiation process. 2009 Schmeier et al; licensee Bio

  18. Long non-coding RNA expression profiling of mouse testis during postnatal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sun

    Full Text Available Mammalian testis development and spermatogenesis play critical roles in male fertility and continuation of a species. Previous research into the molecular mechanisms of testis development and spermatogenesis has largely focused on the role of protein-coding genes and small non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs and piRNAs. Recently, it has become apparent that large numbers of long (>200 nt non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs are transcribed from mammalian genomes and that lncRNAs perform important regulatory functions in various developmental processes. However, the expression of lncRNAs and their biological functions in post-natal testis development remain unknown. In this study, we employed microarray technology to examine lncRNA expression profiles of neonatal (6-day-old and adult (8-week-old mouse testes. We found that 8,265 lncRNAs were expressed above background levels during post-natal testis development, of which 3,025 were differentially expressed. Candidate lncRNAs were identified for further characterization by an integrated examination of genomic context, gene ontology (GO enrichment of their associated protein-coding genes, promoter analysis for epigenetic modification, and evolutionary conservation of elements. Many lncRNAs overlapped or were adjacent to key transcription factors and other genes involved in spermatogenesis, such as Ovol1, Ovol2, Lhx1, Sox3, Sox9, Plzf, c-Kit, Wt1, Sycp2, Prm1 and Prm2. Most differentially expressed lncRNAs exhibited epigenetic modification marks similar to protein-coding genes and tend to be expressed in a tissue-specific manner. In addition, the majority of differentially expressed lncRNAs harbored evolutionary conserved elements. Taken together, our findings represent the first systematic investigation of lncRNA expression in the mammalian testis and provide a solid foundation for further research into the molecular mechanisms of lncRNAs function in mammalian testis development and spermatogenesis.

  19. Impact of gastro-oesophageal reflux on microRNA expression, location and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cameron M; Michael, Michael Z; Watson, David I; Tan, Grace; Astill, David St J; Hummel, Richard; Hussey, Damian J

    2013-01-08

    Ulceration of the oesophageal squamous mucosa (ulcerative oesophagitis) is a pathological manifestation of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, and is a major risk factor for the development of Barrett's oesophagus. Barrett's oesophagus is characterised by replacement of reflux-damaged oesophageal squamous epithelium with a columnar intestinal-like epithelium. We previously reported discovery of microRNAs that are differentially expressed between oesophageal squamous mucosa and Barrett's oesophagus mucosa. Now, to better understand early steps in the initiation of Barrett's oesophagus, we assessed the expression, location and function of these microRNAs in oesophageal squamous mucosa from individuals with ulcerative oesophagitis. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to compare miR-21, 143, 145, 194, 203, 205 and 215 expression levels in oesophageal mucosa from individuals without pathological gastro-oesophageal reflux to individuals with ulcerative oesophagitis. Correlations between microRNA expression and messenger RNA differentiation markers BMP-4, CK8 and CK14 were analyzed. The cellular localisation of microRNAs within the oesophageal mucosa was determined using in-situ hybridisation. microRNA involvement in proliferation and apoptosis was assessed following transfection of a human squamous oesophageal mucosal cell line (Het-1A). miR-143, miR-145 and miR-205 levels were significantly higher in gastro-oesophageal reflux compared with controls. Elevated miR-143 expression correlated with BMP-4 and CK8 expression, and elevated miR-205 expression correlated negatively with CK14 expression. Endogenous miR-143, miR-145 and miR-205 expression was localised to the basal layer of the oesophageal epithelium. Transfection of miR-143, 145 and 205 mimics into Het-1A cells resulted in increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation. Elevated miR-143, miR-145 and miR-205 expression was observed in oesophageal squamous mucosa of individuals with ulcerative oesophagitis. These mi

  20. Impact of gastro-oesophageal reflux on microRNA expression, location and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Cameron M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ulceration of the oesophageal squamous mucosa (ulcerative oesophagitis is a pathological manifestation of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, and is a major risk factor for the development of Barrett’s oesophagus. Barrett’s oesophagus is characterised by replacement of reflux-damaged oesophageal squamous epithelium with a columnar intestinal-like epithelium. We previously reported discovery of microRNAs that are differentially expressed between oesophageal squamous mucosa and Barrett’s oesophagus mucosa. Now, to better understand early steps in the initiation of Barrett’s oesophagus, we assessed the expression, location and function of these microRNAs in oesophageal squamous mucosa from individuals with ulcerative oesophagitis. Methods Quantitative real-time PCR was used to compare miR-21, 143, 145, 194, 203, 205 and 215 expression levels in oesophageal mucosa from individuals without pathological gastro-oesophageal reflux to individuals with ulcerative oesophagitis. Correlations between microRNA expression and messenger RNA differentiation markers BMP-4, CK8 and CK14 were analyzed. The cellular localisation of microRNAs within the oesophageal mucosa was determined using in-situ hybridisation. microRNA involvement in proliferation and apoptosis was assessed following transfection of a human squamous oesophageal mucosal cell line (Het-1A. Results miR-143, miR-145 and miR-205 levels were significantly higher in gastro-oesophageal reflux compared with controls. Elevated miR-143 expression correlated with BMP-4 and CK8 expression, and elevated miR-205 expression correlated negatively with CK14 expression. Endogenous miR-143, miR-145 and miR-205 expression was localised to the basal layer of the oesophageal epithelium. Transfection of miR-143, 145 and 205 mimics into Het-1A cells resulted in increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation. Conclusions Elevated miR-143, miR-145 and miR-205 expression was observed in

  1. Downregulation of TIM-3 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, X.Z. [Central Laboratory, First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Department of Immunology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Huang, W.Y.; Qiao, Y.; Chen, Y.; Du, S.Y.; Chen, D.; Yu, S. [Central Laboratory, First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Liu, N. [Department of Nephrology, First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Dou, L.Y. [Central Laboratory, First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Jiang, Y. [Central Laboratory, First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Department of Immunology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Department of Dermatology, First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang (China)

    2014-10-17

    The T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM) family is associated with autoimmune diseases, but its expression level in the immune cells of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the expression of TIM-3 mRNA is associated with pathogenesis of SLE. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis (qRT-PCR) was used to determine TIM-1, TIM-3, and TIM-4 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 132 patients with SLE and 62 healthy controls. The PBMC surface protein expression of TIMs in PBMCs from 20 SLE patients and 15 healthy controls was assayed by flow cytometry. Only TIM-3 mRNA expression decreased significantly in SLE patients compared with healthy controls (P<0.001). No significant differences in TIM family protein expression were observed in leukocytes from SLE patients and healthy controls (P>0.05). SLE patients with lupus nephritis (LN) had a significantly lower expression of TIM-3 mRNA than those without LN (P=0.001). There was no significant difference in the expression of TIM-3 mRNA within different classes of LN (P>0.05). Correlation of TIM-3 mRNA expression with serum IgA was highly significant (r=0.425, P=0.004), but was weakly correlated with total serum protein (r{sub s}=0.283, P=0.049) and serum albumin (r{sub s}=0.297, P=0.047). TIM-3 mRNA expression was weakly correlated with the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI; r{sub s}=-0.272, P=0.032). Our results suggest that below-normal expression of TIM-3 mRNA in PBMC may be involved in the pathogenesis of SLE.

  2. Downregulation of TIM-3 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, X.Z.; Huang, W.Y.; Qiao, Y.; Chen, Y.; Du, S.Y.; Chen, D.; Yu, S.; Liu, N.; Dou, L.Y.; Jiang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM) family is associated with autoimmune diseases, but its expression level in the immune cells of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the expression of TIM-3 mRNA is associated with pathogenesis of SLE. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis (qRT-PCR) was used to determine TIM-1, TIM-3, and TIM-4 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 132 patients with SLE and 62 healthy controls. The PBMC surface protein expression of TIMs in PBMCs from 20 SLE patients and 15 healthy controls was assayed by flow cytometry. Only TIM-3 mRNA expression decreased significantly in SLE patients compared with healthy controls (P<0.001). No significant differences in TIM family protein expression were observed in leukocytes from SLE patients and healthy controls (P>0.05). SLE patients with lupus nephritis (LN) had a significantly lower expression of TIM-3 mRNA than those without LN (P=0.001). There was no significant difference in the expression of TIM-3 mRNA within different classes of LN (P>0.05). Correlation of TIM-3 mRNA expression with serum IgA was highly significant (r=0.425, P=0.004), but was weakly correlated with total serum protein (r s =0.283, P=0.049) and serum albumin (r s =0.297, P=0.047). TIM-3 mRNA expression was weakly correlated with the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI; r s =-0.272, P=0.032). Our results suggest that below-normal expression of TIM-3 mRNA in PBMC may be involved in the pathogenesis of SLE

  3. Systematic Analysis of mRNA and miRNA Expression of 3D-Cultured Neural Stem Cells (NSCs in Spaceflight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Cui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, with the development of the space program there are growing concerns about the influence of spaceflight on tissue engineering. The purpose of this study was thus to determine the variations of neural stem cells (NSCs during spaceflight. RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq based transcriptomic profiling of NSCs identified many differentially expressed mRNAs and miRNAs between space and earth groups. Subsequently, those genes with differential expression were subjected to bioinformatic evaluation using gene ontology (GO, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway (KEGG and miRNA-mRNA network analyses. The results showed that NSCs maintain greater stemness ability during spaceflight although the growth rate of NSCs was slowed down. Furthermore, the results indicated that NSCs tended to differentiate into neuron in outer space conditions. Detailed genomic analyses of NSCs during spaceflight will help us to elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind their differentiation and proliferation when they are in outer space.

  4. Studies on mRNA expression of the somatostatin receptor family in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jing; Deng Jinglan; Wu Shengxi; Qiao Hongqing

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the characteristics of expression and distribution of 5 subtypes of somatostatin receptors (SSTR1∼5) in lung cancer. Methods: With [α- 35 S]dATP labelled oligonucleotides of the 5 SSTR subtypes as probes, using in situ hybridization, patterns of mRNA expression were detected in lung cancer tissue sections of 21 cases which fell in varied pathologic types. Additionally, Leica Q-500 image analyzing device was employed to semi-quantitatively analyze density of the expression. Results: Patterns of SSTR1∼5 expression in lung cancer were as follows: SSTR2 expression was dominant in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) while in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) such as adenous and squamous, SSTR1 expression was stronger than that of the other 4 subtypes, In density of SSTR1∼5 expression in lung cancer, NSCLC was higher than SCLC (P<0.01). Conclusions: even though patterns and density of expression of SSTR subtypes in the lung cancer showed heterogeneity in different histopathologic types, as in SCLC and in NSCLC. Therefore, it has positive prospects for somatostatin analog-oriented agents to be used in treatment of both types of the lung cancers

  5. Robust Transgene Expression from Bicistronic mRNA in the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

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    Masayuki Onishi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a model organism that provides an opportunity to understand the evolution and functional biology of the lineage that includes the land plants, as well as aspects of the fundamental core biology conserved throughout the eukaryotic phylogeny. Although many tools are available to facilitate genetic, molecular biological, biochemical, and cell biological studies in Chlamydomonas, expression of unselected transgenes of interest (GOIs has been challenging. In most methods used previously, the GOI and a selectable marker are expressed from two separate mRNAs, so that their concomitant expression is not guaranteed. In this study, we developed constructs that allow expression of an upstream GOI and downstream selectable marker from a single bicistronic mRNA. Although this approach in other systems has typically required a translation-enhancing element such as an internal ribosome entry site for the downstream marker, we found that a short stretch of unstructured junction sequence was sufficient to obtain adequate expression of the downstream gene, presumably through post-termination reinitiation. With this system, we obtained robust expression of both endogenous and heterologous GOIs, including fluorescent proteins and tagged fusion proteins, in the vast majority of transformants, thus eliminating the need for tedious secondary screening for GOI-expressing transformants. This improved efficiency should greatly facilitate a variety of genetic and cell-biological studies in Chlamydomonas and also enable new applications such as expression-based screens and large-scale production of foreign proteins.

  6. Biomarker MicroRNAs for Diagnosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Identified Based on Gene Expression Data and MicroRNA-mRNA Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Li, Tangxin; Zheng, Linqing

    2017-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most malignant tumors with high mortality rate worldwide. Biomarker discovery is critical for early diagnosis and precision treatment of this disease. MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNA molecules which often regulate essential biological processes and are good candidates for biomarkers. By integrative analysis of both the cancer-associated gene expression data and microRNA-mRNA network, miR-148b-3p, miR-629-3p, miR-27a-3p, and miR-142-3p were screened as novel diagnostic biomarkers for oral squamous cell carcinoma based on their unique regulatory abilities in the network structure of the conditional microRNA-mRNA network and their important functions. These findings were confirmed by literature verification and functional enrichment analysis. Future experimental validation is expected for the further investigation of their molecular mechanisms. PMID:29098014

  7. MicroRNA-146a Contributes to SCI Recovery via Regulating TRAF6 and IRAK1 Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jinsong; Wang, Jiafeng; Zhou, Yulan; Yan, Shouquan; Li, Keshen; Lin, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA-146a participates in spinal cord injury (SCI) recovery. Until recently, how miRNA-146a participates in SCI remained unclear. In this study, we tried to explore the roles of miRNA-146a in the recovery of SCI using a rat model. The expression of the probable target genes of miRNA-146a (including IRAK1 and TARF6) as well as proinflammation cytokines were measured until 7 days after surgery in the three groups (sham group, SCI group, and miRNA-146a antagomir injection group). Also, the animals' motivations were estimated using Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) during the whole experiment. A luciferase assay was performed to demonstrate that miRNA-146a could directly target the mRNAs of IRAK1 and TRAF6 . Our experiments indicate that miRNA-146a inhibits proinflammatory cytokine secretion by suppressing IRAK1 and TRAF6 expression in the SCI model. In contrast, miRNA-146a may be upregulated by inflammatory mediators via the IRAK1 / TRAF6 pathway in the spinal cord. As a negative feedback element, miRNA-146a could make sure that the expression of IRAK1 - and TRAF6 -mediated genes was under tight control. Thus, miRNA-146a may serve as a novel therapeutic target for SCI interventions.

  8. Seasonal relationship between gonadotropin, growth hormone, and estrogen receptor mRNA expression in the pituitary gland of largemouth bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Kroll, Kevin J; Porak, Wesley F; Steward, Cheree; Grier, Harry J; Denslow, Nancy D

    2009-09-15

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the seasonal changes in pituitary gonadotropins, growth hormone (GH), and estrogen receptor (ER) isoform mRNA in wild female and male largemouth bass (LMB) (Micropterus salmoides) from an unpolluted habitat to better understand reproductive physiology in this ecologically important species. Female pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) beta subunit and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) beta subunit mRNA showed significant seasonal variation with levels peaking from January to April and were lowest from May to August. Male LMB showed more variation in gonadotropin subunit expression from month to month. Females had approximately 2-3 times higher gonadotropin mRNA levels in the pituitary when compared to males. All three gonadotropin mRNAs in females were positively correlated to gonadosomatic index (GSI), but only LHbeta mRNA was correlated to GSI in males. Gonadotropin mRNA expression also increased with increasing oocyte and sperm maturation. Gonadotropin beta subunit mRNA expression was positively correlated to GH mRNA in both sexes. The expression of all three ER isoforms was significantly correlated to each other in both sexes. The concurrent increase in all three ER mRNA isoforms with increasing gonadotropin mRNA in females and males suggests a prominent role for E2 feedback on pituitary gonadotropin synthesis in both sexes and that each of the three ER isoforms are likely to play a role in the pituitary during teleost reproduction.

  9. Phenotypic characterization of neurotensin messenger RNA-expressing cells in the neuroleptic-treated rat striatum: a detailed cellular co-expression study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emson, P.C.; Westmore, K.; Augood, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    The chemical phenotype of proneurotensin messenger RNA-expressing cells was determined in the acute haloperidol-treated rat striatum using a combination of [ 35 S]-labelled and alkaline phosphatase-labelled oligonucleotides. Cellular sites of proneurotensin messenger RNA expression were visualized simultaneously on tissue sections processed to reveal cellular sites of preproenkephalin A messenger RNA or the dopamine and adenylate cyclase phosphoprotein-32, messenger RNA. The cellular co-expression of preproenkepahlin A and preprotachykinin messenger RNA was also examined within forebrain structures. Cellular sites of preproenkephalin A and dopamine and adenylate cyclase phosphoprotein-32 messenger RNAs were visualized using alkaline phosphatase-labelled oligonucleotides whilst sites of preprotachykinin and proneurotensin messenger RNA expression were detected using [ 35 S]-labelled oligos. Cellular sites of enkephalin and dopamine and adenylate cyclase phosphoprotein-32 gene expression were identified microscopically by the concentration of purple alkaline phosphatase reaction product within the cell cytoplasm, whereas sites of substance P and proneurotensin gene expression were identified by the dense clustering of silver grains overlying cells.An intense hybridization signal was detected for all three neuropeptide messenger RNAs in the striatum, the nucleus accumbens and septum. Dopamine and adenylate cyclase phosphoprotein-32 messenger RNA was detected within the neostriatum but not within the septum. In all forebrain regions examined, with the exception of the islands of Cajella, the cellular expression of enkephalin messenger RNA and substance P messenger RNA was discordant; the two neuropeptide messenger RNAs were detected essentially in different cells, although in the striatum and nucleus accumbens occasional isolated cells were detected which contained both hybridization signals; dense clusters of silver grains overlay alkaline phosphatase-positive cells

  10. Phenotypic characterization of neurotensin messenger RNA-expressing cells in the neuroleptic-treated rat striatum: a detailed cellular co-expression study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emson, P C; Westmore, K; Augood, S J [MRC Molecular Neuroscience Group, The Department of Neurobiology, The Babraham Institute, Babraham, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-11

    The chemical phenotype of proneurotensin messenger RNA-expressing cells was determined in the acute haloperidol-treated rat striatum using a combination of [{sup 35}S]-labelled and alkaline phosphatase-labelled oligonucleotides. Cellular sites of proneurotensin messenger RNA expression were visualized simultaneously on tissue sections processed to reveal cellular sites of preproenkephalin A messenger RNA or the dopamine and adenylate cyclase phosphoprotein-32, messenger RNA. The cellular co-expression of preproenkepahlin A and preprotachykinin messenger RNA was also examined within forebrain structures. Cellular sites of preproenkephalin A and dopamine and adenylate cyclase phosphoprotein-32 messenger RNAs were visualized using alkaline phosphatase-labelled oligonucleotides whilst sites of preprotachykinin and proneurotensin messenger RNA expression were detected using [{sup 35}S]-labelled oligos. Cellular sites of enkephalin and dopamine and adenylate cyclase phosphoprotein-32 gene expression were identified microscopically by the concentration of purple alkaline phosphatase reaction product within the cell cytoplasm, whereas sites of substance P and proneurotensin gene expression were identified by the dense clustering of silver grains overlying cells.An intense hybridization signal was detected for all three neuropeptide messenger RNAs in the striatum, the nucleus accumbens and septum. Dopamine and adenylate cyclase phosphoprotein-32 messenger RNA was detected within the neostriatum but not within the septum. In all forebrain regions examined, with the exception of the islands of Cajella, the cellular expression of enkephalin messenger RNA and substance P messenger RNA was discordant; the two neuropeptide messenger RNAs were detected essentially in different cells, although in the striatum and nucleus accumbens occasional isolated cells were detected which contained both hybridization signals; dense clusters of silver grains overlay alkaline phosphatase

  11. Developmental and functional expression of miRNA-stability related genes in the nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica de Sousa

    Full Text Available In the nervous system, control of gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs has been investigated in fundamental processes, such as development and adaptation to ambient demands. The action of these short nucleotide sequences on specific genes depends on intracellular concentration, which in turn reflects the balance of biosynthesis and degradation. Whereas mechanisms underlying miRNA biogenesis has been investigated in recent studies, little is known about miRNA-stability related proteins. We first detected two genes in the retina that have been associated to miRNA stability, XRN2 and PAPD4. These genes are highly expressed during retinal development, however with distinct subcellular localization. We investigated whether these proteins are regulated during specific phases of the cell cycle. Combined analyses of nuclei position in neuroblastic layer and labeling using anti-cyclin D1 revealed that both proteins do not accumulate in S or M phases of the cell cycle, being poorly expressed in progenitor cells. Indeed, XRN2 and PAPD4 were observed mainly after neuronal differentiation, since low expression was also observed in astrocytes, endothelial and microglial cells. XRN2 and PAPD4 are expressed in a wide variety of neurons, including horizontal, amacrine and ganglion cells. To evaluate the functional role of both genes, we carried out experiments addressed to the retinal adaptation in response to different ambient light conditions. PAPD4 is upregulated after 3 and 24 hours of dark- adaptation, revealing that accumulation of this protein is governed by ambient light levels. Indeed, the fast and functional regulation of PAPD4 was not related to changes in gene expression, disclosing that control of protein levels occurs by post-transcriptional mechanisms. Furthermore, we were able to quantify changes in PAPD4 in specific amacrine cells after dark -adaptation, suggesting for circuitry-related roles in visual perception. In summary, in this study we

  12. MicroRNA miR-328 regulates zonation morphogenesis by targeting CD44 expression.

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    Chia-Hui Wang

    Full Text Available Morphogenesis is crucial to initiate physiological development and tumor invasion. Here we show that a microRNA controls zonation morphogenesis by targeting hyaluronan receptor CD44. We have developed a novel system to study microRNA functions by generating constructs expressing pre-miRNAs and mature miRNAs. Using this system, we have demonstrated that expression of miR-328 reduced cell adhesion, aggregation, and migration, and regulated formation of capillary structure. Protein analysis indicated that miR-328 repressed CD44 expression. Activities of luciferase constructs harboring the target site in CD44, but not the one containing mutation, were repressed by miR-328. Zonation morphogenesis appeared in cells transfected by miR-328: miR-328-transfected cells were present on the surface of zonating structures while the control cells stayed in the middle. MiR-328-mediated CD44 actions was validated by anti-CD44 antibody, hyaluronidase, CD44 siRNA, and CD44 expression constructs. In vivo experiments showed that CD44-silencing cells appeared as layers on the surfaces of nodules or zonating structures. Immuno-histochemistry also exhibited CD44-negative cells on the surface layers of normal rat livers and the internal zones of Portal veins. Our results demonstrate that miR-328 targets CD44, which is essential in regulating zonation morphogenesis: silencing of CD44 expression is essential in sealing the zonation structures to facilitate their extension and to inhibit complex expansion.

  13. CVD-associated non-coding RNA, ANRIL, modulates expression of atherogenic pathways in VSMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congrains, Ada; Kamide, Kei; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Yasuda, Osamu; Oguro, Ryousuke; Yamamoto, Koichi; Ohishi, Mitsuru; Rakugi, Hiromi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► ANRIL maps in the strongest susceptibility locus for cardiovascular disease. ► Silencing of ANRIL leads to altered expression of tissue remodeling-related genes. ► The effects of ANRIL on gene expression are splicing variant specific. ► ANRIL affects progression of cardiovascular disease by regulating proliferation and apoptosis pathways. -- Abstract: ANRIL is a newly discovered non-coding RNA lying on the strongest genetic susceptibility locus for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the chromosome 9p21 region. Genome-wide association studies have been linking polymorphisms in this locus with CVD and several other major diseases such as diabetes and cancer. The role of this non-coding RNA in atherosclerosis progression is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the implication of ANRIL in the modulation of gene sets directly involved in atherosclerosis. We designed and tested siRNA sequences to selectively target two exons (exon 1 and exon 19) of the transcript and successfully knocked down expression of ANRIL in human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (HuAoVSMC). We used a pathway-focused RT-PCR array to profile gene expression changes caused by ANRIL knock down. Notably, the genes affected by each of the siRNAs were different, suggesting that different splicing variants of ANRIL might have distinct roles in cell physiology. Our results suggest that ANRIL splicing variants play a role in coordinating tissue remodeling, by modulating the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, extra-cellular matrix remodeling and inflammatory response to finally impact in the risk of cardiovascular disease and other pathologies.

  14. CVD-associated non-coding RNA, ANRIL, modulates expression of atherogenic pathways in VSMC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Congrains, Ada; Kamide, Kei [Department of Geriatric Medicine and Nephrology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Katsuya, Tomohiro [Clinical Gene Therapy, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Yasuda, Osamu [Department of Cardiovascular Clinical and Translational Research, Kumamoto University Hospital (Japan); Oguro, Ryousuke; Yamamoto, Koichi [Department of Geriatric Medicine and Nephrology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Ohishi, Mitsuru, E-mail: ohishi@geriat.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Geriatric Medicine and Nephrology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Rakugi, Hiromi [Department of Geriatric Medicine and Nephrology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ANRIL maps in the strongest susceptibility locus for cardiovascular disease. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silencing of ANRIL leads to altered expression of tissue remodeling-related genes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of ANRIL on gene expression are splicing variant specific. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ANRIL affects progression of cardiovascular disease by regulating proliferation and apoptosis pathways. -- Abstract: ANRIL is a newly discovered non-coding RNA lying on the strongest genetic susceptibility locus for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the chromosome 9p21 region. Genome-wide association studies have been linking polymorphisms in this locus with CVD and several other major diseases such as diabetes and cancer. The role of this non-coding RNA in atherosclerosis progression is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the implication of ANRIL in the modulation of gene sets directly involved in atherosclerosis. We designed and tested siRNA sequences to selectively target two exons (exon 1 and exon 19) of the transcript and successfully knocked down expression of ANRIL in human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (HuAoVSMC). We used a pathway-focused RT-PCR array to profile gene expression changes caused by ANRIL knock down. Notably, the genes affected by each of the siRNAs were different, suggesting that different splicing variants of ANRIL might have distinct roles in cell physiology. Our results suggest that ANRIL splicing variants play a role in coordinating tissue remodeling, by modulating the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, extra-cellular matrix remodeling and inflammatory response to finally impact in the risk of cardiovascular disease and other pathologies.

  15. Distinct temporal changes in host cell lncRNA expression during the course of an adenovirus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Hongxing, E-mail: Hongxing.Zhao@igp.uu.se [The Beijer Laboratory, Dept. of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, S-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Chen, Maoshan [Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria 3086 (Australia); Lind, Sara Bergström [Department of Chemistry-BMC, Analytical Chemistry, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 599, SE-751 24 Uppsala (Sweden); Pettersson, Ulf [The Beijer Laboratory, Dept. of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, S-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2016-05-15

    The deregulation of cellular long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression during a human adenovirus infection was studied by deep sequencing. Expression of lncRNAs increased substantially following the progression of the infection. Among 645 significantly expressed lncRNAs, the expression of 398 was changed more than 2-fold. More than 80% of them were up-regulated and 80% of them were detected during the late phase. Based on the genomic locations of the deregulated lncRNAs in relation to known mRNAs and miRNAs, they were predicted to be involved in growth, structure, apoptosis and wound healing in the early phase, cell proliferation in the intermediate phase and protein synthesis, modification and transport in the late phase. The most significant functions of cellular RNA-binding proteins, previously shown to interact with the deregulated lncRNAs identified here, are involved in RNA splicing, nuclear export and translation events. We hypothesize that adenoviruses exploit the lncRNA network to optimize their reproduction. - Highlights: • The expression of 398 lncRNAs showed a distinct temporal pattern during Ad2 infection. • 80% of the deregulated lncRNAs were up-regulated during the late phase of infection. • The deregulated lncRNAs potentiallyinteract with 33 cellular RNA binding proteins. • These RBPs are involved in RNA splicing, nuclear export and translation. • Adenovirus exploits the cellular lncRNA network to optimize its replication.

  16. Suppressing miRNA-15a/-16 expression by interleukin-6 enhances drug-resistance in myeloma cells

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    Chang Hong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The bone marrow microenvironment facilitates the survival, differentiation, and proliferation of myeloma (MM cells. This study identified that microRNA-15a and -16 expressions tightly correlated with proliferation and drug sensitivity of MM cells. miRNA-15a/-16 expression in MM cells was significantly increased after treatment with cytotoxic agents. The interaction of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC with MM cells resulted in decreased miRNA-15a/-16 expression and promoted the survival of the MM cells. Interleukin-6 (IL-6 produced by BMSCs suppressed the expression of miRNA-15a and 16 in a time- and dose- dependent pattern, with the suppression on miRNA-15a being more significant than on miRNA-16. miRNA-15a-transfected MM cells were found to be arrested in G1/S checkpoint, and the transfected MM cells had decreased growth and survival. In conclusion, our data suggest that via suppressing miRNA-15a and -16 expressions, IL-6 secreted by BMSCs promotes drug-resistance in myeloma cells.

  17. Cell cycle-dependent transcription factors control the expression of yeast telomerase RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, Isabelle; Larose, Stéphanie; Dandjinou, Alain T; Abou Elela, Sherif; Wellinger, Raymund J

    2013-07-01

    Telomerase is a specialized ribonucleoprotein that adds repeated DNA sequences to the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes to preserve genome integrity. Some secondary structure features of the telomerase RNA are very well conserved, and it serves as a central scaffold for the binding of associated proteins. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomerase RNA, TLC1, is found in very low copy number in the cell and is the limiting component of the known telomerase holoenzyme constituents. The reasons for this low abundance are unclear, but given that the RNA is very stable, transcriptional control mechanisms must be extremely important. Here we define the sequences forming the TLC1 promoter and identify the elements required for its low expression level, including enhancer and repressor elements. Within an enhancer element, we found consensus sites for Mbp1/Swi4 association, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed the binding of Mbp1 and Swi4 to these sites of the TLC1 promoter. Furthermore, the enhancer element conferred cell cycle-dependent regulation to a reporter gene, and mutations in the Mbp1/Swi4 binding sites affected the levels of telomerase RNA and telomere length. Finally, ChIP experiments using a TLC1 RNA-binding protein as target showed cell cycle-dependent transcription of the TLC1 gene. These results indicate that the budding yeast TLC1 RNA is transcribed in a cell cycle-dependent fashion late in G1 and may be part of the S phase-regulated group of genes involved in DNA replication.

  18. A comparative review of microRNA expression patterns in autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A Middleton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a wide spectrum of deficits in social interaction, communication, and behavior. There is a significant genetic component to ASD, yet no single gene variant accounts for greater than one percent of incidence. Post-transcriptional mechanisms such as microRNAs (miRNAs regulate gene expression without altering the genetic code. They are abundant in the developing brain and are dysregulated in children with ASD. Patterns of miRNA expression are altered in the brain, blood, saliva, and olfactory precursor cells of ASD subjects. The ability of miRNAs to regulate broad molecular pathways in response to environmental stimuli makes them an intriguing player in ASD, a disorder characterized by genetic predisposition with ill-defined environmental triggers. In addition, the availability and extracellular stability of miRNAs make them an ideal candidate for biomarker discovery. Here we discuss 27 miRNAs with overlap across ASD studies, including three miRNAs identified in 3 or more studies (miR-23a, miR-146a, and miR-106b. Together these 27 miRNAs have 1245 high-confidence mRNA targets, a significant number of which are expressed in the brain. Furthermore, these mRNA targets demonstrate over-representation of autism-related genes with enrichment of neurotrophic signaling molecules. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a molecule involved in hippocampal neurogenesis and altered in ASD, is targeted by 6 of the 27 miRNAs of interest. This neurotrophic pathway represents one intriguing mechanism by which perturbations in miRNA signaling might influence CNS development in children with ASD.

  19. A Comparative Review of microRNA Expression Patterns in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Steven D; Middleton, Frank A

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a wide spectrum of deficits in social interaction, communication, and behavior. There is a significant genetic component to ASD, yet no single gene variant accounts for >1% of incidence. Posttranscriptional mechanisms such as microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression without altering the genetic code. They are abundant in the developing brain and are dysregulated in children with ASD. Patterns of miRNA expression are altered in the brain, blood, saliva, and olfactory precursor cells of ASD subjects. The ability of miRNAs to regulate broad molecular pathways in response to environmental stimuli makes them an intriguing player in ASD, a disorder characterized by genetic predisposition with ill-defined environmental triggers. In addition, the availability and extracellular stability of miRNAs make them an ideal candidate for biomarker discovery. Here, we discuss 27 miRNAs with overlap across ASD studies, including 3 miRNAs identified in 3 or more studies (miR-23a, miR-146a, and miR-106b). Together, these 27 miRNAs have 1245 high-confidence mRNA targets, a significant number of which are expressed in the brain. Furthermore, these mRNA targets demonstrate over-representation of autism-related genes with enrichment of neurotrophic signaling molecules. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, a molecule involved in hippocampal neurogenesis and altered in ASD, is targeted by 6 of the 27 miRNAs of interest. This neurotrophic pathway represents one intriguing mechanism by which perturbations in miRNA signaling might influence central nervous system development in children with ASD.

  20. Gene expression profiling of liver cancer stem cells by RNA-sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Y Ho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence supports that tumor growth and cancer relapse are driven by cancer stem cells. Our previous work has demonstrated the existence of CD90(+ liver cancer stem cells (CSCs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Nevertheless, the characteristics of these cells are still poorly understood. In this study, we employed a more sensitive RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq to compare the gene expression profiling of CD90(+ cells sorted from tumor (CD90(+CSCs with parallel non-tumorous liver tissues (CD90(+NTSCs and elucidate the roles of putative target genes in hepatocarcinogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: CD90(+ cells were sorted respectively from tumor and adjacent non-tumorous human liver tissues using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The amplified RNAs of CD90(+ cells from 3 HCC patients were subjected to RNA-Seq analysis. A differential gene expression profile was established between CD90(+CSCs and CD90(+NTSCs, and validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR on the same set of amplified RNAs, and further confirmed in an independent cohort of 12 HCC patients. Five hundred genes were differentially expressed (119 up-regulated and 381 down-regulated genes between CD90(+CSCs and CD90(+NTSCs. Gene ontology analysis indicated that the over-expressed genes in CD90(+CSCs were associated with inflammation, drug resistance and lipid metabolism. Among the differentially expressed genes, glypican-3 (GPC3, a member of glypican family, was markedly elevated in CD90(+CSCs compared to CD90(+NTSCs. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that GPC3 was highly expressed in forty-two human liver tumor tissues but absent in adjacent non-tumorous liver tissues. Flow cytometry indicated that GPC3 was highly expressed in liver CD90(+CSCs and mature cancer cells in liver cancer cell lines and human liver tumor tissues. Furthermore, GPC3 expression was positively correlated with the number of CD90(+CSCs in liver tumor tissues. CONCLUSIONS

  1. Gene Expression Profiling of Liver Cancer Stem Cells by RNA-Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chi Tat; Ng, Michael N. P.; Yu, Wan Ching; Lau, Joyce; Wan, Timothy; Wang, Xiaoqi; Yan, Zhixiang; Liu, Hang; Fan, Sheung Tat

    2012-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence supports that tumor growth and cancer relapse are driven by cancer stem cells. Our previous work has demonstrated the existence of CD90+ liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Nevertheless, the characteristics of these cells are still poorly understood. In this study, we employed a more sensitive RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) to compare the gene expression profiling of CD90+ cells sorted from tumor (CD90+CSCs) with parallel non-tumorous liver tissues (CD90+NTSCs) and elucidate the roles of putative target genes in hepatocarcinogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings CD90+ cells were sorted respectively from tumor and adjacent non-tumorous human liver tissues using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The amplified RNAs of CD90+ cells from 3 HCC patients were subjected to RNA-Seq analysis. A differential gene expression profile was established between CD90+CSCs and CD90+NTSCs, and validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) on the same set of amplified RNAs, and further confirmed in an independent cohort of 12 HCC patients. Five hundred genes were differentially expressed (119 up-regulated and 381 down-regulated genes) between CD90+CSCs and CD90+NTSCs. Gene ontology analysis indicated that the over-expressed genes in CD90+CSCs were associated with inflammation, drug resistance and lipid metabolism. Among the differentially expressed genes, glypican-3 (GPC3), a member of glypican family, was markedly elevated in CD90+CSCs compared to CD90+NTSCs. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that GPC3 was highly expressed in forty-two human liver tumor tissues but absent in adjacent non-tumorous liver tissues. Flow cytometry indicated that GPC3 was highly expressed in liver CD90+CSCs and mature cancer cells in liver cancer cell lines and human liver tumor tissues. Furthermore, GPC3 expression was positively correlated with the number of CD90+CSCs in liver tumor tissues. Conclusions/Significance The identified genes

  2. Novel prediction of anticancer drug chemosensitivity in cancer cell lines: evidence of moderation by microRNA expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Daniel S

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study are (1) to develop a novel "moderation" model of drug chemosensitivity and (2) to investigate if miRNA expression moderates the relationship between gene expression and drug chemosensitivity, specifically for HSP90 inhibitors applied to human cancer cell lines. A moderation model integrating the interaction between miRNA and gene expressions was developed to examine if miRNA expression affects the strength of the relationship between gene expression and chemosensitivity. Comprehensive datasets on miRNA expressions, gene expressions, and drug chemosensitivities were obtained from National Cancer Institute's NCI-60 cell lines including nine different cancer types. A workflow including steps of selecting genes, miRNAs, and compounds, correlating gene expression with chemosensitivity, and performing multivariate analysis was utilized to test the proposed model. The proposed moderation model identified 12 significantly-moderating miRNAs: miR-15b*, miR-16-2*, miR-9, miR-126*, miR-129*, miR-138, miR-519e*, miR-624*, miR-26b, miR-30e*, miR-32, and miR-196a, as well as two genes ERCC2 and SF3B1 which affect chemosensitivities of Tanespimycin and Alvespimycin - both HSP90 inhibitors. A bootstrap resampling of 2,500 times validates the significance of all 12 identified miRNAs. The results confirm that certain miRNA and gene expressions interact to produce an effect on drug response. The lack of correlation between miRNA and gene expression themselves suggests that miRNA transmits its effect through translation inhibition/control rather than mRNA degradation. The results suggest that miRNAs could serve not only as prognostic biomarkers for cancer treatment outcome but also as interventional agents to modulate desired chemosensitivity.

  3. MicroRNA Expression Profiling to Identify and Validate Reference Genes for the Relative Quantification of microRNA in Rectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Anne Haahr Mellergaard; Andersen, Rikke Fredslund; Pallisgaard, Niels

    2016-01-01

    the miRNA profiling experiment, miR-645, miR-193a-5p, miR-27a and let-7g were identified as stably expressed, both in malignant and stromal tissue. In addition, NormFinder confirmed high expression stability for the four miRNAs. In the RT-qPCR based validation experiments, no significant difference...... management. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is commonly used, when measuring miRNA expression. Appropriate normalisation of RT-qPCR data is important to ensure reliable results. The aim of the present study was to identify stably expressed miRNAs applicable as normaliser candidates...... in future studies of miRNA expression in rectal cancer.MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed high-throughput miRNA profiling (OpenArray®) on ten pairs of laser micro-dissected rectal cancer tissue and adjacent stroma. A global mean expression normalisation strategy was applied to identify the most stably...

  4. Amniotic fluid RNA gene expression profiling provides insights into the phenotype of Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massingham, Lauren J; Johnson, Kirby L; Scholl, Thomas M; Slonim, Donna K; Wick, Heather C; Bianchi, Diana W

    2014-09-01

    Turner syndrome is a sex chromosome aneuploidy with characteristic malformations. Amniotic fluid, a complex biological material, could contribute to the understanding of Turner syndrome pathogenesis. In this pilot study, global gene expression analysis of cell-free RNA in amniotic fluid supernatant was utilized to identify specific genes/organ systems that may play a role in Turner syndrome pathophysiology. Cell-free RNA from amniotic fluid of five mid-trimester Turner syndrome fetuses and five euploid female fetuses matched for gestational age was extracted, amplified, and hybridized onto Affymetrix(®) U133 Plus 2.0 arrays. Significantly differentially regulated genes were identified using paired t tests. Biological interpretation was performed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and BioGPS gene expression atlas. There were 470 statistically significantly differentially expressed genes identified. They were widely distributed across the genome. XIST was significantly down-regulated (p Turner syndrome transcriptome from other aneuploidies we previously studied. Manual curation of the differentially expressed gene list identified genes of possible pathologic significance, including NFATC3, IGFBP5, and LDLR. Transcriptomic differences in the amniotic fluid of Turner syndrome fetuses are due to genome-wide dysregulation. The hematologic/immune system differences may play a role in early-onset autoimmune dysfunction. Other genes identified with possible pathologic significance are associated with cardiac and skeletal systems, which are known to be affected in females with Turner syndrome. The discovery-driven approach described here may be useful in elucidating novel mechanisms of disease in Turner syndrome.

  5. Expression and clinicopathological significance of Mel-18 mRNA in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ji; Liu, Yan-Long; Zhang, Gan; Ma, Yu-Yan; Cui, Bin-Bin; Yang, Yan-Mei

    2014-10-01

    Mel-18 is a member of the polycomb group (PcG) of proteins, which are chromatin regulatory factors that play an important role in oncogenesis. This study was designed to investigate the clinical and prognostic significance of Mel-18 in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. For this purpose, expression of Mel-18 mRNA was evaluated in 82 primary CRC and paired noncancerous mucosa samples by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. We found that overall Mel-18 mRNA expression in the CRC tissue was significantly lower than in the noncancerous mucosal tissue (p = 0.007, Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test). Mel-18 was conversely correlated with the pathological classifications (p = 0.003 for T, p Mel-18 showed prolonged disease-free survivals (DFS) (p Mel-18 expression may be a risk factor for the patients' 3-year DFS (HR = 1.895; 95 % CI 1.032, 3.477; p = 0.039). It was therefore concluded that the lower Mel-18 expression might contribute to the CRC development/progression.

  6. Nitric oxide signaling pathway regulates potassium chloride cotransporter-1 mRNA expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fulvio, M; Lauf, P K; Adragna, N C

    2001-11-30

    Rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) express at least two mRNAs for K-Cl cotransporters (KCC): KCC1 and KCC3. cGMP-dependent protein kinase I regulates KCC3 mRNA expression in these cells. Here, we show evidence implicating the nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP signaling pathway in the expression of KCC1 mRNA, considered to be the major cell volume regulator. VSMCs, expressing soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and PKG-I isoforms showed a time- and concentration-dependent increase in KCC1 mRNA levels after treatment with sodium nitroprusside as demonstrated by semiquantitative RT-PCR. sGC-dependent regulation of KCC1 mRNA expression was confirmed using YC-1, a NO-independent sGC stimulator. The sGC inhibitor LY83583 blocked the effects of sodium nitroprusside and YC-1. Moreover, 8-Br-cGMP increased KCC1 mRNA expression in a concentration- and time-dependent fashion. The 8-Br-cGMP effect was partially blocked by KT5823 but not by actinomycin D. However, actinomycin D and cycloheximide increased basal KCC1 mRNA in an additive manner, suggesting different mechanisms of action for both drugs. These findings suggest that in VSMCs, the NO/cGMP-signaling pathway participates in KCC1 mRNA regulation at the post-transcriptional level.

  7. Prognostic role of long non-coding RNA TUG1 expression in various cancers: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongping; Lu, Yuxuan; Li, Runmin; Yan, Nana; Li, Xiding; Dai, Tu

    2017-11-21

    Several studies were conducted to explore the prognostic role of long non-coding RNA taurine upregulated gene 1 (lncRNA TUG1) expression in various cancers, with contradictory. This study aims to summarize the prognostic role of lncRNA TUG1 expression in various cancers. Embase, PubMed and Cochrane Library were completely retrieved. The cohort studies focusing on the prognostic role of lncRNA TUG1 expression in various cancers were eligible. The endpoints were overall survival (OS) and clinicopathological parameters. 9 studies involving a total of 1,078 patients were identified. The results showed that high lncRNA TUG1 expression was obviously associated with worse OS when compared to the low lncRNA TUG1 expression (HR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.07-1.76, P = 0.01; I 2 = 85%). However, No distinct relationship was observed between the lncRNA TUG1 expression and age (OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.76-1.28, P = 0.92; I2 = 4%), gender (OR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.70-1.22, P = 0.57; I 2 = 0%), diameter (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.34-2.01, P = 0.67; I 2 = 85%), smoking (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.37-3.21, P = 0.87; I 2 = 73%), TNM stage (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.25-1.43, P = 0.25; I 2 = 86%) and lymph node metastasis (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.47-2.45, P = 0.87; I 2 = 86%). In conclusion, it was revealed that high lncRNA TUG1 expression is an unfavorable predictor of OS in patients with cancers, and lncRNA TUG1 expression is a promising prognostic biomarker for various cancers.

  8. MicroRNA-gene expression network in murine liver during Schistosoma japonicum infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis japonica remains a significant public health problem in China and Southeast Asian countries. The most typical and serious outcome of the chronic oriental schistosomiasis is the progressive granuloma and fibrosis in the host liver, which has been a major medical challenge. However, the molecular mechanism underling the hepatic pathogenesis is still not clear. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using microarrays, we quantified the temporal gene expression profiles in the liver of Schistosoma japonicum-infected BALB/c mice at 15, 30, and 45 day post infection (dpi with that from uninfected mice as controls. Gene expression alternation associated with liver damage was observed in the initial phase of infection (dpi 15, which became more magnificent with the onset of egg-laying. Up-regulated genes were dominantly associated with inflammatory infiltration, whereas down-regulated genes primarily led to the hepatic functional disorders. Simultaneously, microRNA profiles from the same samples were decoded by Solexa sequencing. More than 130 miRNAs were differentially expressed in murine liver during S. japonicum infection. MiRNAs significantly dysregulated in the mid-phase of infection (dpi 30, such as mmu-miR-146b and mmu-miR-155, may relate to the regulation of hepatic inflammatory responses, whereas miRNAs exhibiting a peak expression in the late phase of infection (dpi 45, such as mmu-miR-223, mmu-miR-146a/b, mmu-miR-155, mmu-miR-34c, mmu-miR-199, and mmu-miR-134, may represent a molecular signature of the development of schistosomal hepatopathy. Further, a dynamic miRNA-gene co-expression network in the progression of infection was constructed. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: This study presents a global view of dynamic expression of both mRNA and miRNA transcripts in murine liver during S. japonicum infection, and highlights that miRNAs may play a variety of regulatory roles in balancing the immune responses during the

  9. High-Salt Intake Suppressed MicroRNA-133a Expression in Dahl SS Rat Myocardium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tong-Shuai; Zhang, Jie; Mu, Jian-Jun; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Ren, Ke-Yu; Wang, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Salt-sensitive individuals show earlier and more serious cardiac damage than nonsalt-sensitive ones. Some studies have suggested that microRNA-133a could reduce cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis. The current study aims to investigate the different functions of high-salt intake on salt-sensitive (SS) rats and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and the involvement of microRNA-133a in these roles. After high-salt intervention, the left ventricular mass (LVW) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) of the salt-sensitive high salt (SHS) group were obviously higher than those of the salt-sensitive low salt (SLS) group. However, the difference between the Sprague-Dawley high salt (DHS) group and the Sprague-Dawley low salt (DLS) group was not significant. Compared with SLS group, collagen I and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in the heart of SHS group were significantly higher, whereas no statistical difference was observed between the DHS group and the DLS group. Compared with low-salt diet, microRNA-133a in the heart of both strains were significantly decreased, but that in the SHS group decreased more significantly. These results suggest that high salt intervention could down-regulate the expression of myocardial microRNA-133a, which may be one of the mechanisms involved in myocardial fibrosis in salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:24937684

  10. High-Salt Intake Suppressed MicroRNA-133a Expression in Dahl SS Rat Myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong-Shuai Guo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Salt-sensitive individuals show earlier and more serious cardiac damage than nonsalt-sensitive ones. Some studies have suggested that microRNA-133a could reduce cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis. The current study aims to investigate the different functions of high-salt intake on salt-sensitive (SS rats and Sprague-Dawley (SD rats and the involvement of microRNA-133a in these roles. After high-salt intervention, the left ventricular mass (LVW and left ventricular mass index (LVMI of the salt-sensitive high salt (SHS group were obviously higher than those of the salt-sensitive low salt (SLS group. However, the difference between the Sprague-Dawley high salt (DHS group and the Sprague-Dawley low salt (DLS group was not significant. Compared with SLS group, collagen I and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF in the heart of SHS group were significantly higher, whereas no statistical difference was observed between the DHS group and the DLS group. Compared with low-salt diet, microRNA-133a in the heart of both strains were significantly decreased, but that in the SHS group decreased more significantly. These results suggest that high salt intervention could down-regulate the expression of myocardial microRNA-133a, which may be one of the mechanisms involved in myocardial fibrosis in salt-sensitive hypertension.

  11. miRNA Expression Profiles in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Blood of Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sofie Sølvsten; Nygaard, Ann-Britt; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    in the cell-free fractions of CSF and blood were analyzed by a microarray technique (miRCURY LNA™ microRNA Array, Exiqon A/S, Denmark) using a quantitative PCR (qPCR) platform containing 378 miRNA primers. In total, 183 different miRNAs were detected in the CSF, of which two miRNAs (let-7c and miR-221-3p......The aims of the study were (1) to determine whether miRNAs (microRNAs) can be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood of patients with ischemic stroke and (2) to compare these miRNA profiles with corresponding profiles from other neurological patients to address whether the mi......RNA profiles of CSF or blood have potential usefulness as diagnostic biomarkers of ischemic stroke. CSF from patients with acute ischemic stroke (n = 10) and patients with other neurological diseases (n = 10) was collected by lumbar puncture. Blood samples were taken immediately after. Expression profiles...

  12. Influenza virus gene expression: viral RNA replication in vivo and in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, G.I.

    1987-01-01

    To develop an overall scheme for the control of influenza virus gene expression, single-stranded M13 DNAs specific for the various genomic segments were used to analyze the synthesis of virus-specific RNAs in infected cells. The results showed that virus infection is divided into two distinct phases. During the early phase, the syntheses of specific virion RNAs (vRNAs), viral mRNAs, and viral proteins were coupled. This phase lasted for 2.5 hours in BHK-21 cells, the time when the rate of synthesis of all the viral mRNAs was maximal. During the late phase, the synthesis of all the vRNAs remained at or near maximum, whereas the rate of synthesis of all the viral mRNAs declined dramatically. Viral mRNA and protein syntheses were also not coupled, as the synthesis of all the viral proteins continued at maximum levels, indicating that protein synthesis during this phase was directed principally by previously synthesized viral mRNAs. Pulses with [ 3 H]uridine and nonaqueous fractionation of cells were used to show that influenza vRNA, like viral mRNAs, are synthesized in the nucleus and efficiently transported to the cytoplasm. In contrast, the full-length transcripts of the vRNAs, the templates for new vRNA synthesis, were synthesized only at early times, and remained sequestered in the nucleus to direct vRNA synthesis throughout infection

  13. Increased Expression of microRNA-17 Predicts Poor Prognosis in Human Glioma

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    Shengkui Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the clinical significance of microRNA-17 (miR-17 expression in human gliomas. Methods. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR analysis was used to characterize the expression patterns of miR-17 in 108 glioma and 20 normal brain tissues. The associations of miR-17 expression with clinicopathological factors and prognosis of glioma patients were also statistically analyzed. Results. Compared with normal brain tissues, miR-17 expression was significantly higher in glioma tissues (P<0.001. In addition, the increased expression of miR-17 in glioma was significantly associated with advanced pathological grade (P=0.006 and low Karnofsky performance score (KPS, P=0.01. Moreover, Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyses showed that miR-17 overexpression (P=0.008 and advanced pathological grade (P=0.02 were independent factors predicting poor prognosis for gliomas. Furthermore, subgroup analyses showed that miR-17 expression was significantly associated with poor overall survival in glioma patients with high pathological grades (for grade III~IV: P<0.001. Conclusions. Our data offer the convinced evidence that the increased expression of miR-17 may have potential value for predicting poor prognosis in glioma patients with high pathological grades, indicating that miR-17 may contribute to glioma progression and be a candidate therapeutic target for this disease.

  14. RNA-Seq Mouse Brain Regions Expression Data Analysis: Focus on ApoE Functional Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babenko Vladimir N.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ApoE expression status was proved to be a highly specific marker of energy metabolism rate in the brain. Along with its neighbor, Translocase of Outer Mitochondrial Membrane 40 kDa (TOMM40 which is involved in mitochondrial metabolism, the corresponding genomic region constitutes the neuroenergetic hotspot. Using RNA-Seq data from a murine model of chronic stress a significant positive expression coordination of seven neighboring genes in ApoE locus in five brain regions was observed. ApoE maintains one of the highest absolute expression values genome-wide, implying that ApoE can be the driver of the neighboring gene expression alteration observed under stressful loads. Notably, we revealed the highly statistically significant increase of ApoE expression in the hypothalamus of chronically aggressive (FDR < 0.007 and defeated (FDR < 0.001 mice compared to the control. Correlation analysis revealed a close association of ApoE and proopiomelanocortin (Pomc gene expression profiles implying the putative neuroendocrine stress response background of ApoE expression elevation therein.

  15. A novel rat genomic simple repeat DNA with RNA-homology shows triplex (H-DNA)-like structure and tissue-specific RNA expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Indranil; Rath, Pramod C.

    2005-01-01

    Mammalian genome contains a wide variety of repetitive DNA sequences of relatively unknown function. We report a novel 227 bp simple repeat DNA (3.3 DNA) with a d {(GA) 7 A (AG) 7 } dinucleotide mirror repeat from the rat (Rattus norvegicus) genome. 3.3 DNA showed 75-85% homology with several eukaryotic mRNAs due to (GA/CU) n dinucleotide repeats by nBlast search and a dispersed distribution in the rat genome by Southern blot hybridization with [ 32 P]3.3 DNA. The d {(GA) 7 A (AG) 7 } mirror repeat formed a triplex (H-DNA)-like structure in vitro. Two large RNAs of 9.1 and 7.5 kb were detected by [ 32 P]3.3 DNA in rat brain by Northern blot hybridization indicating expression of such simple sequence repeats at RNA level in vivo. Further, several cDNAs were isolated from a rat cDNA library by [ 32 P]3.3 DNA probe. Three such cDNAs showed tissue-specific RNA expression in rat. pRT 4.1 cDNA showed strong expression of a 2.39 kb RNA in brain and spleen, pRT 5.5 cDNA showed strong expression of a 2.8 kb RNA in brain and a 3.9 kb RNA in lungs, and pRT 11.4 cDNA showed weak expression of a 2.4 kb RNA in lungs. Thus, genomic simple sequence repeats containing d (GA/CT) n dinucleotides are transcriptionally expressed and regulated in rat tissues. Such d (GA/CT) n dinucleotide repeats may form structural elements (e.g., triplex) which may be sites for functional regulation of genomic coding sequences as well as RNAs. This may be a general function of such transcriptionally active simple sequence repeats widely dispersed in mammalian genome

  16. Complex p63 mRNA isoform expression patterns in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thurfjell, N.; Coates, P.J.; Uusitalo, T.

    2004-01-01

    on the role of p63 expression in human tumours, we used quantitative real-time RT-PCR to study individual p63 isoforms in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (SCCHN). In keeping with previous reports, expression of the deltaN- and p63alpha-isoforms predominated and deltaNp63 mRNA was expressed...

  17. ACE-it: a tool for genome-wide integration of gene dosage and RNA expression data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wieringen, W.N.; Belien, J.A.M.; Vosse, S.; Achame, E.M.; Ylstra, B.

    2006-01-01

    Summary: We describe a tool, called ACE-it (Array CGH Expression integration tool). ACE-it links the chromosomal position of the gene dosage measured by array CGH to the genes measured by the expression array. ACE-it uses this link to statistically test whether gene dosage affects RNA expression. ©

  18. MicroRNA expression profiling identifies activated B cell status in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqiang Li

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is thought to be a disease of resting lymphocytes. However, recent data suggest that CLL cells may more closely resemble activated B cells. Using microRNA (miRNA expression profiling of highly-enriched CLL cells from 38 patients and 9 untransformed B cells from normal donors before acute CpG activation and 5 matched B cells after acute CpG activation, we demonstrate an activated B cell status for CLL. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA identified statistically-significant similarities in miRNA expression between activated B cells and CLL cells including upregulation of miR-34a, miR-155, and miR-342-3p and downregulation of miR-103, miR-181a and miR-181b. Additionally, decreased levels of two CLL signature miRNAs miR-29c and miR-223 are associated with ZAP70(+ and IgV(H unmutated status and with shorter time to first therapy. These data indicate an activated B cell status for CLL cells and suggest that the direction of change of individual miRNAs may predict clinical course in CLL.

  19. Expression of preprotachykinin-A and neuropeptide-Y messenger RNA in the thymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, A; Geenen, V; Robert, F; Legros, J J; Vrindts-Gevaert, Y; Franchimont, P; Brene, S; Persson, H

    1990-08-01

    The preprotachykinin-A gene, the common gene of mRNAs encoding both substance-P (SP) and neurokinin-A (NKA), was shown to be expressed in Sprague-Dawley rat thymus by detection of specific mRNA in gel-blot analyses. In situ hybridization revealed dispersed PPT-A-labeled cells in sections from rat thymus, with a concentration of grains over a subpopulation of cells in the thymic medulla. Also, neuropeptide-Y mRNA-expressing cells were found in the rat thymus, primarily in the thymic medulla. Rat thymic extracts contained SP-like immunoreactivity (SP-LI), and the major part of the immunoreactivity coeluted with authentic SP and SP sulfoxide standards. SP-LI was also detected in human thymus, which contained between 0.09-0.88 ng SP-LI/g wet wt. Evidence for translation of preprotachykinin-A mRNA in the rat thymus was obtained from the demonstration of NKA-LI in thymic cells with an epithelial-like cell morphology. Combined with previous observations on the immunoregulatory roles of tachykinin peptides and the existence of specific receptors on immunocompetent cells, the demonstration of intrathymic synthesis of NKA suggests a role for NKA-LI peptides in T-cell differentiation in the thymus.

  20. Analysis of MicroRNA Expression Profiles in Weaned Pig Skeletal Muscle after Lipopolysaccharide Challenge

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    Jing Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs constitute a class of non-coding RNAs that play a crucial regulatory role in skeletal muscle development and disease. Several acute inflammation conditions including sepsis and cancer are characterized by a loss of skeletal muscle due primarily to excessive muscle catabolism. As a well-known inducer of acute inflammation, a lipopolysaccharide (LPS challenge can cause serious skeletal muscle wasting. However, knowledge of the role of miRNAs in the course of inflammatory muscle catabolism is still very limited. In this study, RNA extracted from the skeletal muscle of pigs injected with LPS or saline was subjected to small RNA deep sequencing. We identified 304 conserved and 114 novel candidate miRNAs in the pig. Of these, four were significantly increased in the LPS-challenged samples and five were decreased. The expression of five miRNAs (ssc-miR-146a-5p, ssc-miR-221-5p, ssc-miR-148b-3p, ssc-miR-215 and ssc-miR-192 were selected for validation by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, which found that ssc-miR-146a-5p and ssc-miR-221-5p were significantly upregulated in LPS-challenged pig skeletal muscle. Moreover, we treated mouse C2C12 myotubes with 1000 ng/mL LPS as an acute inflammation cell model. Expression of TNF-α, IL-6, muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx and muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1 mRNA was strongly induced by LPS. Importantly, miR-146a-5p and miR-221-5p also showed markedly increased expression in LPS-treated C2C12 myotubes, suggesting the two miRNAs may be involved in muscle catabolism systems in response to acute inflammation caused by a LPS challenge. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine miRNA expression profiles in weaned pig skeletal muscle challenged with LPS, and furthers our understanding of miRNA function in the regulation of inflammatory muscle catabolism.

  1. Sample size calculation while controlling false discovery rate for differential expression analysis with RNA-sequencing experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Ran; Liu, Peng

    2016-03-31

    RNA-Sequencing (RNA-seq) experiments have been popularly applied to transcriptome studies in recent years. Such experiments are still relatively costly. As a result, RNA-seq experiments often employ a small number of replicates. Power analysis and sample size calculation are challenging in the context of differential expression analysis with RNA-seq data. One challenge is that there are no closed-form formulae to calculate power for the popularly applied tests for differential expression analysis. In addition, false discovery rate (FDR), instead of family-wise type I error rate, is controlled for the multiple testing error in RNA-seq data analysis. So far, there are very few proposals on sample size calculation for RNA-seq experiments. In this paper, we propose a procedure for sample size calculation while controlling FDR for RNA-seq experimental design. Our procedure is based on the weighted linear model analysis facilitated by the voom method which has been shown to have competitive performance in terms of power and FDR control for RNA-seq differential expression analysis. We derive a method that approximates the average power across the differentially expressed genes, and then calculate the sample size to achieve a desired average power while controlling FDR. Simulation results demonstrate that the actual power of several popularly applied tests for differential expression is achieved and is close to the desired power for RNA-seq data with sample size calculated based on our method. Our proposed method provides an efficient algorithm to calculate sample size while controlling FDR for RNA-seq experimental design. We also provide an R package ssizeRNA that implements our proposed method and can be downloaded from the Comprehensive R Archive Network ( http://cran.r-project.org ).

  2. Enhanced whitefly resistance in transgenic tobacco plants expressing double stranded RNA of v-ATPase A gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Nidhi; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Verma, Praveen C; Chandrashekar, Krishnappa; Tuli, Rakesh; Singh, Pradhyumna K

    2014-01-01

    Expression of double strand RNA (dsRNA) designed against important insect genes in transgenic plants have been shown to give protection against pests through RNA interference (RNAi), thus opening the way for a new generation of insect-resistant crops. We have earlier compared the efficacy of dsRNAs/siRNAs, against a number of target genes, for interference in growth of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) upon oral feeding. The v-ATPase subunit A (v-ATPaseA) coding gene was identified as a crucial target. We now report the effectiveness of transgenic tobacco plants expressing siRNA to silence v-ATPaseA gene expression for the control of whitefly infestation. Transgenic tobacco lines were developed for the expression of long dsRNA precursor to make siRNA and knock down the v-ATPaseA mRNA in whitefly. Molecular analysis and insecticidal properties of the transgenic plants established the formation of siRNA targeting the whitefly v-ATPaseA, in the leaves. The transcript level of v-ATPaseA in whiteflies was reduced up to 62% after feeding on the transgenic plants. Heavy infestation of whiteflies on the control plants caused significant loss of sugar content which led to the drooping of leaves. The transgenic plants did not show drooping effect. Host plant derived pest resistance was achieved against whiteflies by genetic transformation of tobacco which generated siRNA against the whitefly v-ATPaseA gene. Transgenic tobacco lines expressing dsRNA of v-ATPaseA, delivered sufficient siRNA to whiteflies feeding on them, mounting a significant silencing response, leading to their mortality. The transcript level of the target gene was reduced in whiteflies feeding on transgenic plants. The strategy can be taken up for genetic engineering of plants to control whiteflies in field crops.

  3. Enhanced whitefly resistance in transgenic tobacco plants expressing double stranded RNA of v-ATPase A gene.

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    Nidhi Thakur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Expression of double strand RNA (dsRNA designed against important insect genes in transgenic plants have been shown to give protection against pests through RNA interference (RNAi, thus opening the way for a new generation of insect-resistant crops. We have earlier compared the efficacy of dsRNAs/siRNAs, against a number of target genes, for interference in growth of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci upon oral feeding. The v-ATPase subunit A (v-ATPaseA coding gene was identified as a crucial target. We now report the effectiveness of transgenic tobacco plants expressing siRNA to silence v-ATPaseA gene expression for the control of whitefly infestation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Transgenic tobacco lines were developed for the expression of long dsRNA precursor to make siRNA and knock down the v-ATPaseA mRNA in whitefly. Molecular analysis and insecticidal properties of the transgenic plants established the formation of siRNA targeting the whitefly v-ATPaseA, in the leaves. The transcript level of v-ATPaseA in whiteflies was reduced up to 62% after feeding on the transgenic plants. Heavy infestation of whiteflies on the control plants caused significant loss of sugar content which led to the drooping of leaves. The transgenic plants did not show drooping effect. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Host plant derived pest resistance was achieved against whiteflies by genetic transformation of tobacco which generated siRNA against the whitefly v-ATPaseA gene. Transgenic tobacco lines expressing dsRNA of v-ATPaseA, delivered sufficient siRNA to whiteflies feeding on them, mounting a significant silencing response, leading to their mortality. The transcript level of the target gene was reduced in whiteflies feeding on transgenic plants. The strategy can be taken up for genetic engineering of plants to control whiteflies in field crops.

  4. Microarray Analysis of microRNA Expression during Axolotl Limb Regeneration

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    Holman, Edna C.; Campbell, Leah J.; Hines, John; Crews, Craig M.

    2012-01-01

    Among vertebrates, salamanders stand out for their remarkable capacity to quickly regrow a myriad of tissues and organs after injury or amputation. The limb regeneration process in axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) has been well studied for decades at the cell-tissue level. While several developmental genes are known to be reactivated during this epimorphic process, less is known about the role of microRNAs in urodele amphibian limb regeneration. Given the compelling evidence that many microRNAs tightly regulate cell fate and morphogenetic processes through development and adulthood by modulating the expression (or re-expression) of developmental genes, we investigated the possibility that microRNA levels change during limb regeneration. Using two different microarray platforms to compare the axolotl microRNA expression between mid-bud limb regenerating blastemas and non-regenerating stump tissues, we found that miR-21 was overexpressed in mid-bud blastemas compared to stump tissue. Mature A. mexicanum (“Amex”) miR-21 was detected in axolotl RNA by Northern blot and differential expression of Amex-miR-21 in blastema versus stump was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. We identified the Amex Jagged1 as a putative target gene for miR-21 during salamander limb regeneration. We cloned the full length 3′UTR of Amex-Jag1, and our in vitro assays demonstrated that its single miR-21 target recognition site is functional and essential for the response of the Jagged1 gene to miR-21 levels. Our findings pave the road for advanced in vivo functional assays aimed to clarify how microRNAs such as miR-21, often linked to pathogenic cell growth, might be modulating the redeployment of developmental genes such as Jagged1 during regenerative processes. PMID:23028429

  5. Microarray analysis of microRNA expression during axolotl limb regeneration.

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    Edna C Holman

    Full Text Available Among vertebrates, salamanders stand out for their remarkable capacity to quickly regrow a myriad of tissues and organs after injury or amputation. The limb regeneration process in axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum has been well studied for decades at the cell-tissue level. While several developmental genes are known to be reactivated during this epimorphic process, less is known about the role of microRNAs in urodele amphibian limb regeneration. Given the compelling evidence that many microRNAs tightly regulate cell fate and morphogenetic processes through development and adulthood by modulating the expression (or re-expression of developmental genes, we investigated the possibility that microRNA levels change during limb regeneration. Using two different microarray platforms to compare the axolotl microRNA expression between mid-bud limb regenerating blastemas and non-regenerating stump tissues, we found that miR-21 was overexpressed in mid-bud blastemas compared to stump tissue. Mature A. mexicanum ("Amex" miR-21 was detected in axolotl RNA by Northern blot and differential expression of Amex-miR-21 in blastema versus stump was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. We identified the Amex Jagged1 as a putative target gene for miR-21 during salamander limb regeneration. We cloned the full length 3'UTR of Amex-Jag1, and our in vitro assays demonstrated that its single miR-21 target recognition site is functional and essential for the response of the Jagged1 gene to miR-21 levels. Our findings pave the road for advanced in vivo functional assays aimed to clarify how microRNAs such as miR-21, often linked to pathogenic cell growth, might be modulating the redeployment of developmental genes such as Jagged1 during regenerative processes.

  6. Maternally expressed gene 3, an imprinted noncoding RNA gene, is associated with meningioma pathogenesis and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xun; Gejman, Roger; Mahta, Ali; Zhong, Ying; Rice, Kimberley A; Zhou, Yunli; Cheunsuchon, Pornsuk; Louis, David N; Klibanski, Anne

    2010-03-15

    Meningiomas are common tumors, representing 15% to 25% of all central nervous system tumors. NF2 gene inactivation on chromosome 22 has been shown as an early event in tumorigenesis; however, few factors underlying tumor growth and progression have been identified. The chromosomal abnormalities of 14q32 are often associated with meningioma pathogenesis and progression; therefore, it has been proposed that an as yet unidentified tumor suppressor is present at this locus. Maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) is an imprinted gene located at 14q32 which encodes a noncoding RNA with an antiproliferative function. We found that MEG3 mRNA is highly expressed in normal arachnoidal cells. However, MEG3 is not expressed in the majority of human meningiomas or the human meningioma cell lines IOMM-Lee and CH157-MN. There is a strong association between loss of MEG3 expression and tumor grade. Allelic loss at the MEG3 locus is also observed in meningiomas, with increasing prevalence in higher grade tumors. In addition, there is an increase in CpG methylation within the promoter and the imprinting control region of MEG3 gene in meningiomas. Functionally, MEG3 suppresses DNA synthesis in both IOMM-Lee and CH157-MN cells by approximately 60% in bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays. Colony-forming efficiency assays show that MEG3 inhibits colony formation in CH157-MN cells by approximately 80%. Furthermore, MEG3 stimulates p53-mediated transactivation in these cell lines. Therefore, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that MEG3, which encodes a noncoding RNA, may be a tumor suppressor gene at chromosome 14q32 involved in meningioma progression via a novel mechanism.

  7. Efficient cell-free expression with the endogenous E. Coli RNA polymerase and sigma factor 70

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    Noireaux Vincent

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli cell-free expression systems use bacteriophage RNA polymerases, such as T7, to synthesize large amounts of recombinant proteins. These systems are used for many applications in biotechnology, such as proteomics. Recently, informational processes have been reconstituted in vitro with cell-free systems. These synthetic approaches, however, have been seriously limited by a lack of transcription modularity. The current available cell-free systems have been optimized to work with bacteriophage RNA polymerases, which put significant restrictions to engineer processes related to biological information. The development of efficient cell-free systems with broader transcription capabilities is required to study complex informational processes in vitro. Results In this work, an efficient cell-free expression system that uses the endogenous E. coli RNA polymerase only and sigma factor 70 for transcription was prepared. Approximately 0.75 mg/ml of Firefly luciferase and enhanced green fluorescent protein were produced in batch mode. A plasmid was optimized with different regulatory parts to increase the expression. In addition, a new eGFP was engineered that is more translatable in cell-free systems than the original eGFP. The protein production was characterized with three different adenosine triphosphate (ATP regeneration systems: creatine phosphate (CP, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP, and 3-phosphoglyceric acid (3-PGA. The maximum protein production was obtained with 3-PGA. Preparation of the crude extract was streamlined to a simple routine procedure that takes 12 hours including cell culture. Conclusions Although it uses the endogenous E. coli transcription machinery, this cell-free system can produce active proteins in quantities comparable to bacteriophage systems. The E. coli transcription provides much more possibilities to engineer informational processes in vitro. Many E. coli promoters/operators specific to sigma

  8. GABAergic Neurons in the Rat Medial Septal Complex Express Relaxin-3 Receptor (RXFP3 mRNA

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    Hector Albert-Gascó

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The medial septum (MS complex modulates hippocampal function and related behaviors. Septohippocampal projections promote and control different forms of hippocampal synchronization. Specifically, GABAergic and cholinergic projections targeting the hippocampal formation from the MS provide bursting discharges to promote theta rhythm, or tonic activity to promote gamma oscillations. In turn, the MS is targeted by ascending projections from the hypothalamus and brainstem. One of these projections arises from the nucleus incertus in the pontine tegmentum, which contains GABA neurons that co-express the neuropeptide relaxin-3 (Rln3. Both stimulation of the nucleus incertus and septal infusion of Rln3 receptor agonist peptides promotes hippocampal theta rhythm. The Gi/o-protein-coupled receptor, relaxin-family peptide receptor 3 (RXFP3, is the cognate receptor for Rln3 and identification of the transmitter phenotype of neurons expressing RXFP3 in the septohippocampal system can provide further insights into the role of Rln3 transmission in the promotion of septohippocampal theta rhythm. Therefore, we used RNAscope multiplex in situ hybridization to characterize the septal neurons expressing Rxfp3 mRNA in the rat. Our results demonstrate that Rxfp3 mRNA is abundantly expressed in vesicular GABA transporter (vGAT mRNA- and parvalbumin (PV mRNA-positive GABA neurons in MS, whereas ChAT mRNA-positive acetylcholine neurons lack Rxfp3 mRNA. Approximately 75% of Rxfp3 mRNA-positive neurons expressed vGAT mRNA (and 22% were PV mRNA-positive, while the remaining 25% expressed Rxfp3 mRNA only, consistent with a potential glutamatergic phenotype. Similar proportions were observed in the posterior septum. The occurrence of RXFP3 in PV-positive GABAergic neurons gives support to a role for the Rln3-RXFP3 system in septohippocampal theta rhythm.

  9. Detection and comparison of microRNA expression in the serum of Doberman Pinschers with dilated cardiomyopathy and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steudemann, Carola; Bauersachs, Stefan; Weber, Karin; Wess, Gerhard

    2013-01-17

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the most common heart disease in Doberman Pinschers. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs playing important roles in gene regulation. Different miRNA expression patterns have been described for DCM in humans and might represent potential diagnostic markers. There are no studies investigating miRNA expression profiles in canine DCM. The aims of this study were to screen the miRNA expression profile of canine serum using miRNA microarray and to compare expression patterns of a group of Doberman Pinschers with DCM and healthy controls. Eight Doberman Pinschers were examined by echocardiography and 24-hour-ECG and classified as healthy (n=4) or suffering from DCM (n=4). Total RNA was extracted from serum and hybridized on a custom-designed 8x60k miRNA microarray (Agilent) containing probes for 1368 individual miRNAs. Although total RNA concentrations were very low in serum samples, 404 different miRNAs were detectable with sufficient signal intensity on miRNA microarray. 22 miRNAs were differentially expressed in the two groups (p1.5), but did not reach statistical significance after multiple testing correction (false discovery rate adjusted p>0.05). Five miRNAs were selected for further analysis using quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR (qPCR) assays. No significant differences were found using specific miRNA qPCR assays (p>0.05). Numerous miRNAs can be detected in canine serum. Between healthy and DCM dogs, miRNA expression changes could be detected, but the results did not reach statistical significance most probably due to the small group size. miRNAs are potential new circulating biomarkers in veterinary medicine and should be investigated in larger patient groups and additional canine diseases.

  10. Analysis of allelic expression patterns in clonal somatic cells by single-cell RNA-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinius, Björn; Mold, Jeff E; Ramsköld, Daniel; Deng, Qiaolin; Johnsson, Per; Michaëlsson, Jakob; Frisén, Jonas; Sandberg, Rickard

    2016-11-01

    Cellular heterogeneity can emerge from the expression of only one parental allele. However, it has remained controversial whether, or to what degree, random monoallelic expression of autosomal genes (aRME) is mitotically inherited (clonal) or stochastic (dynamic) in somatic cells, particularly in vivo. Here we used allele-sensitive single-cell RNA-seq on clonal primary mouse fibroblasts and freshly isolated human CD8 + T cells to dissect clonal and dynamic monoallelic expression patterns. Dynamic aRME affected a considerable portion of the cells' transcriptomes, with levels dependent on the cells' transcriptional activity. Notably, clonal aRME was detected, but it was surprisingly scarce (aRME occurs transiently within individual cells, and patterns of aRME are thus primarily scattered throughout somatic cell populations rather than, as previously hypothesized, confined to patches of clonally related cells.

  11. RNA-sequence analysis of gene expression from honeybees (Apis mellifera) infected with Nosema ceranae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougeroux, André; Petit, Fabien; Anselmo, Anna; Gorni, Chiara; Cucurachi, Marco; Cersini, Antonella; Granato, Anna; Cardeti, Giusy; Formato, Giovanni; Mutinelli, Franco; Giuffra, Elisabetta; Williams, John L.; Botti, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera) are constantly subjected to many biotic stressors including parasites. This study examined honeybees infected with Nosema ceranae (N. ceranae). N. ceranae infection increases the bees energy requirements and may contribute to their decreased survival. RNA-seq was used to investigate gene expression at days 5, 10 and 15 Post Infection (P.I) with N. ceranae. The expression levels of genes, isoforms, alternative transcription start sites (TSS) and differential promoter usage revealed a complex pattern of transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene regulation suggesting that bees use a range of tactics to cope with the stress of N. ceranae infection. N. ceranae infection may cause reduced immune function in the bees by: (i)disturbing the host amino acids metabolism (ii) down-regulating expression of antimicrobial peptides (iii) down-regulation of cuticle coatings and (iv) down-regulation of odorant binding proteins. PMID:28350872

  12. Long non-coding RNA expression profiles in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Pernille M; Larsen, Martin Jakob; Kjeldsen, Anette D

    2014-01-01

    transcriptome, we wanted to assess whether lncRNAs play a role in the molecular pathogenesis of HHT manifestations. By microarray technology, we profiled lncRNA transcripts from HHT nasal telangiectasial and non-telangiectasial tissue using a paired design. The microarray probes were annotated using the GENCODE...... v.16 dataset, identifying 4,810 probes mapping to 2,811 lncRNAs. Comparing HHT telangiectasial tissue with HHT non-telangiectasial tissue, we identified 42 lncRNAs that are differentially expressed (qUsing GREAT, a tool that assumes cis-regulation, we showed that differently expressed lncRNAs...... to the TGF-β signalling pathway. The exact mechanism of how haploinsufficiency of ENG and ACVRL1 leads to HHT manifestations remains to be identified. As long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are increasingly recognized as key regulators of gene expression and constitute a sizable fraction of the human...

  13. G-cimp status prediction of glioblastoma samples using mRNA expression data.

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    Mehmet Baysan

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM is a tumor with high mortality and no known cure. The dramatic molecular and clinical heterogeneity seen in this tumor has led to attempts to define genetically similar subgroups of GBM with the hope of developing tumor specific therapies targeted to the unique biology within each of these subgroups. Recently, a subset of relatively favorable prognosis GBMs has been identified. These glioma CpG island methylator phenotype, or G-CIMP tumors, have distinct genomic copy number aberrations, DNA methylation patterns, and (mRNA expression profiles compared to other GBMs. While the standard method for identifying G-CIMP tumors is based on genome-wide DNA methylation data, such data is often not available compared to the more widely available gene expression data. In this study, we have developed and evaluated a method to predict the G-CIMP status of GBM samples based solely on gene expression data.

  14. G-cimp status prediction of glioblastoma samples using mRNA expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysan, Mehmet; Bozdag, Serdar; Cam, Margaret C; Kotliarova, Svetlana; Ahn, Susie; Walling, Jennifer; Killian, Jonathan K; Stevenson, Holly; Meltzer, Paul; Fine, Howard A

    2012-01-01

    Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is a tumor with high mortality and no known cure. The dramatic molecular and clinical heterogeneity seen in this tumor has led to attempts to define genetically similar subgroups of GBM with the hope of developing tumor specific therapies targeted to the unique biology within each of these subgroups. Recently, a subset of relatively favorable prognosis GBMs has been identified. These glioma CpG island methylator phenotype, or G-CIMP tumors, have distinct genomic copy number aberrations, DNA methylation patterns, and (mRNA) expression profiles compared to other GBMs. While the standard method for identifying G-CIMP tumors is based on genome-wide DNA methylation data, such data is often not available compared to the more widely available gene expression data. In this study, we have developed and evaluated a method to predict the G-CIMP status of GBM samples based solely on gene expression data.

  15. Positive Bioluminescence Imaging of MicroRNA Expression in Small Animal Models Using an Engineered Genetic-Switch Expression System, RILES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Patrick; Pichon, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, noncoding RNAs which regulate gene expression by directing their target mRNA for degradation or translational repression. Since their discovery in the early 1990s, miRNAs have emerged as key components in the posttranscriptional regulation of gene networks, shaping many biological processes from development, morphogenesis, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Although understanding of the molecular basis of miRNA biology is improving, methods to monitor the dynamic and the spatiotemporal aspects of miRNA expression under physiopathological conditions are required. However, monitoring of miRNAs is difficult due to their small size, low abundance, high degree of sequence similarity, and their dynamic expression pattern which is subjected to tight transcriptional and post-transcriptional controls. Recently, we developed a miRNA monitoring system called RILES, standing for RNAi-inducible expression system, which relies on an engineered regulatable expression system, to switch on the expression of the luciferase gene when the targeted miRNA is expressed in cells. We demonstrated that RILES is a specific, sensitive, and robust method to determine the fine-tuning of miRNA expression during the development of an experimental pathological process in mice. Because RILES offers the possibility for longitudinal studies on individual subjects, sharper insights into miRNA regulation can be generated, with applications in physiology, pathophysiology and development of RNAi-based therapies. This chapter describes methods and protocols to monitor the expression of myomiR-206, -1, and -133 in the tibialis anterior muscle of mice. These protocols can be used and adapted to monitor the expression of other miRNAs in other biological processes.

  16. RBiomirGS: an all-in-one miRNA gene set analysis solution featuring target mRNA mapping and expression profile integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background With the continuous discovery of microRNA’s (miRNA association with a wide range of biological and cellular processes, expression profile-based functional characterization of such post-transcriptional regulation is crucial for revealing its significance behind particular phenotypes. Profound advancement in bioinformatics has been made to enable in depth investigation of miRNA’s role in regulating cellular and molecular events, resulting in a huge quantity of software packages covering different aspects of miRNA functional analysis. Therefore, an all-in-one software solution is in demand for a comprehensive yet highly efficient workflow. Here we present RBiomirGS, an R package for a miRNA gene set (GS analysis. Methods The package utilizes multiple databases for target mRNA mapping, estimates miRNA effect on the target mRNAs through miRNA expression profile and conducts a logistic regression-based GS enrichment. Additionally, human ortholog Entrez ID conversion functionality is included for target mRNAs. Results By incorporating all the core steps into one package, RBiomirGS eliminates the need for switching between different software packages. The modular structure of RBiomirGS enables various access points to the analysis, with which users can choose the most relevant functionalities for their workflow. Conclusions With RBiomirGS, users are able to assess the functional significance of the miRNA expression profile under the corresponding experimental condition by minimal input and intervention. Accordingly, RBiomirGS encompasses an all-in-one solution for miRNA GS analysis. RBiomirGS is available on GitHub (http://github.com/jzhangc/RBiomirGS. More information including instruction and examples can be found on website (http://kenstoreylab.com/?page_id=2865.

  17. Presence of 25(OH)D deficiency and its effect on vitamin D receptor mRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, R; Mondal, A M; Tomar, N; Ray, D; Chattopadhyay, P; Gupta, N; Sreenivas, V

    2009-03-01

    Vitamin D and its metabolites act through vitamin D receptor (VDR). We hypothesized that subjects with low serum 25(OH)D levels but normal PTH might have increased VDR expression. VDRmRNA expression was assessed by real time PCR in duodenal mucosa and PBMC (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) in 45 subjects with normal duodenoscopy and in PBMC alone in 48 healthy volunteers with hypovitaminosis D. 25(OH)D, PTH and VDRmRNA expression in PBMC was reassessed after 8 weeks of oral cholecalciferol (60 000 IU per week) in a subset (n=23) of healthy volunteers. The VDRmRNA expressions in the duodenum and PBMC were significantly correlated (r=0.42), but the expression was 13 times higher in the former than the latter. The mean VDRmRNA expression was similar in 25(OH)D-deficient subjects with or without PTH elevation, both in the duodenum and PBMC. The PBMC VDRmRNA expression showed no significant change after cholecalciferol supplementation. A weak correlation coefficient between duodenal mucosa and PBMC VDRmRNA suggests that caution needs to be exercised while using the latter as a surrogate for other sites.

  18. Analysis of miRNA and mRNA Expression Profiles Highlights Alterations in Ionizing Radiation Response of Human Lymphocytes under Modeled Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casara, Silvia; Sales, Gabriele; Lanfranchi, Gerolamo; Celotti, Lucia; Mognato, Maddalena

    2012-01-01

    Background Ionizing radiation (IR) can be extremely harmful for human cells since an improper DNA-damage response (DDR) to IR can contribute to carcinogenesis initiation. Perturbations in DDR pathway can originate from alteration in the functionality of the microRNA-mediated gene regulation, being microRNAs (miRNAs) small noncoding RNA that act as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. In this study we gained insight into the role of miRNAs in the regulation of DDR to IR under microgravity, a condition of weightlessness experienced by astronauts during space missions, which could have a synergistic action on cells, increasing the risk of radiation exposure. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed miRNA expression profile of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) incubated for 4 and 24 h in normal gravity (1 g) and in modeled microgravity (MMG) during the repair time after irradiation with 0.2 and 2Gy of γ-rays. Our results show that MMG alters miRNA expression signature of irradiated PBL by decreasing the number of radio-responsive miRNAs. Moreover, let-7i*, miR-7, miR-7-1*, miR-27a, miR-144, miR-200a, miR-598, miR-650 are deregulated by the combined action of radiation and MMG. Integrated analyses of miRNA and mRNA expression profiles, carried out on PBL of the same donors, identified significant miRNA-mRNA anti-correlations of DDR pathway. Gene Ontology analysis reports that the biological category of “Response to DNA damage” is enriched when PBL are incubated in 1 g but not in MMG. Moreover, some anti-correlated genes of p53-pathway show a different expression level between 1 g and MMG. Functional validation assays using luciferase reporter constructs confirmed miRNA-mRNA interactions derived from target prediction analyses. Conclusions/Significance On the whole, by integrating the transcriptome and microRNome, we provide evidence that modeled microgravity can affects the DNA-damage response to IR in human PBL. PMID:22347458

  19. Ecotoxicity tests based on phototactic behaviour in Daphnia magna; Saggi di ecotossicita` con Daphnia magna basati sul comportamento fototattico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dojmi di Delupis, Gianluigi [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Comparata ed Ecotossicologia

    1997-03-01

    Zooplankton behaviour depending on light, such as phototaxis, is important, mainly in terms of its ecological significance, as, for example, in the role of phototaxis in the diurnal vertical migration of Daphnia magna, and its possible involvement in predator-prey relations. In Daphnia magna chemicals were found to induce roughly three types of phototaxis alteration: depression, enhancement and sign change. These phenomena are based on mechanisms that require further investigation. In spite of the complex photobehaviour of Daphnia magna and the scarce knowledge of toxic effects, it was possible to set up rapid and easy ecotoxicity tests by fixing certain experimental conditions.

  20. Fluorescence-based codetection with protein markers reveals distinct cellular compartments for altered MicroRNA expression in solid tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sempere, Lorenzo F; Preis, Meir; Yezefski, Todd

    2010-01-01

    of altered miRNA expression in solid tumors, we developed a sensitive fluorescence-based in situ hybridization (ISH) method to visualize miRNA accumulation within individual cells in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens. This ISH method was implemented to be compatible with routine clinical...

  1. Intragraft interleukin 2 mRNA expression during acute cellular rejection and left ventricular total wall thickness after heart transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot-Kruseman, H A; Baan, C C; Hagman, E M; Mol, W M; Niesters, H G; Maat, A P; Zondervan, P E; Weimar, W; Balk, A H

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether diastolic graft function is influenced by intragraft interleukin 2 (IL-2) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in rejecting cardiac allografts. DESIGN: 16 recipients of cardiac allografts were monitored during the first three months after transplantation. The presence of IL-2

  2. Regulatory RNAs in Bacillus subtilis : a Gram-Positive Perspective on Bacterial RNA-Mediated Regulation of Gene Expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mars, Ruben A. T.; Nicolas, Pierre; Denham, Emma L.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria can employ widely diverse RNA molecules to regulate their gene expression. Such molecules include trans-acting small regulatory RNAs, antisense RNAs, and a variety of transcriptional attenuation mechanisms in the 5= untranslated region. Thus far, most regulatory RNA research has focused on

  3. Simultaneous silencing of multiple genes in the apple scab fungus, Venturia inaequalis, by expression of RNA with chimeric inverted repeats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitzgerald, A.; Kan, van J.A.L.; Plummer, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    RNA-mediated gene silencing has been demonstrated in plants, animals, and more recently in filamentous fungi. Here, we report high frequency, RNA-mediated gene silencing in the apple scab fungus, Venturia inaequalis. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgene was silenced in a GFP-expressing

  4. CRISPR/Cas-mediated knock-in via non-homologous end-joining in the crustacean Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Hitoshi; Nakanishi, Takashi; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Kato, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Hajime

    2017-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated system (Cas) is widely used for mediating the knock-in of foreign DNA into the genomes of various organisms. Here, we report a process of CRISPR/Cas-mediated knock-in via non-homologous end joining by the direct injection of Cas9/gRNA ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) in the crustacean Daphnia magna, which is a model organism for studies on toxicology, ecology, and evolution. First, we confirmed the cleavage activity of Cas9 RNPs comprising purified Cas9 proteins and gRNAs in D. magna. We used a gRNA that targets exon 10 of the eyeless gene. Cas9 proteins were incubated with the gRNAs and the resulting Cas9 RNPs were injected into D. magna eggs, which led to a typical phenotype of the eyeless mutant, i.e., eye deformity. The somatic and heritable mutagenesis efficiencies were up to 96% and 40%, respectively. Second, we tested the CRISPR/Cas-mediated knock-in of a plasmid by the injection of Cas9 RNPs. The donor DNA plasmid harboring the fluorescent reporter gene was designed to contain the gRNA recognition site. The co-injection of Cas9 RNPs together with the donor DNAs resulted in generation of one founder animal that produced fluorescent progenies. This transgenic Daphnia had donor DNA at the targeted genomic site, which suggested the concurrent cleavage of the injected plasmid DNA and genomic DNA. Owing to its simplicity and ease of experimental design, we suggest that the CRISPR/Cas-mediated knock-in method represents a promising tool for studying functional genomics in D. magna.

  5. Changes in growth hormone (GH) messenger RNA (GH mRNA) expression in the rat anterior pituitary after single interferon (IFN) alpha administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanowski, W.; Braczkowski, R.; Nowakowska-Zajdel, E.; Muc-Wierzgon, M.; Zubelewicz-Szkodzinska, B.; Kosiewicz, J.; Korzonek, I.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Interferon a (IFN-a) is a cytokine with pleiotropic effects which, via different pathways, influences the secretion of certain cytokines and hormones. Growth hormone (GH) secreted from the pituitary has physiological effects on various target tissues. The question is how IFN-a administered in various types of disease influences GH secretion. This study investigated the acute effect of IFN-a on GH mRNA expression in the rat anterior pituitary. Objective: The aim of the study was to measure the cellular expression of GH mRNA by in situ hybridisation in the anterior pituitary after a single administration of IFN-a. Material and methods: Rats were administered an intraperitoneal injection of IFN-a or saline. The rat pituitaries were taken 2 and 4 hours after IFN/saline administration and kept frozen until in situ hybridisation histochemistry. A 31 - base 35S -labelled oligonucleotide probe complementary to part of the exonic mRNA sequence coding for GH mRNA was used. All control and experimental sections were hybridised in the same hybridisation reaction. Results: Acute administration of interferon a increased GH mRNA expression in the anterior pituitary in the 4-hour group in comparison with the control group, and there was no difference between the control group and the 2-hour rats. Conclusion: A single IFN-a administration was found to exert an influence on anterior pituitary GH mRNA expression. These observations may pave the way for presenting a possible new action of IFN-a. (author) GH mRNA, anterior pituitary, interferon

  6. Comparative mRNA and microRNA expression profiling of three genitourinary cancers reveals common hallmarks and cancer-specific molecular events.

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    Xianxin Li

    Full Text Available Genome-wide gene expression profile using deep sequencing technologies can drive the discovery of cancer biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Such efforts are often limited to profiling the expression signature of either mRNA or microRNA (miRNA in a single type of cancer.Here we provided an integrated analysis of the genome-wide mRNA and miRNA expression profiles of three different genitourinary cancers: carcinomas of the bladder, kidney and testis.Our results highlight the general or cancer-specific roles of several genes and miRNAs that may serve as candidate oncogenes or suppressors of tumor development. Further comparative analyses at the systems level revealed that significant aberrations of the cell adhesion process, p53 signaling, calcium signaling, the ECM-receptor and cell cycle pathways, the DNA repair and replication processes and the immune and inflammatory response processes were the common hallmarks of human cancers. Gene sets showing testicular cancer-specific deregulation patterns were mainly implicated in processes related to male reproductive function, and general disruptions of multiple metabolic pathways and processes related to cell migration were the characteristic molecular events for renal and bladder cancer, respectively. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that tumors with the same histological origins and genes with similar functions tended to group together in a clustering analysis. By assessing the correlation between the expression of each miRNA and its targets, we determined that deregulation of 'key' miRNAs may result in the global aberration of one or more pathways or processes as a whole.This systematic analysis deciphered the molecular phenotypes of three genitourinary cancers and investigated their variations at the miRNA level simultaneously. Our results provided a valuable source for future studies and highlighted some promising genes, miRNAs, pathways and processes that may be useful for diagnostic or

  7. Expression of the proto-oncogene Pokemon in colorectal cancer--inhibitory effects of an siRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gan-Ting; Yang, Li-Juan; Li, Xi-Xia; Cui, Hui-Lin; Guo, Rui

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate expression of the proto-oncogene POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor (Pokemon) in colorectal cancer (CRC), and assess inhibitory effects of a small interference RNA (siRNA) expression vector in SW480 and SW620 cells. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry were performed to determine mRNA and protein expression levels of Pokemon in CRC tissues. Indirect immunofluorescence staining was applied to investigate the location of Pokemon in SW480 and SW620 cells. The siRNA expression vectors that were constructed to express a short hairpin RNA against Pokemon were transfected to the SW480 and SW620 cells with a liposome. Expression levels of Pokemon mRNA and protein were examined by real-time quantitative-fluorescent PCR and western blot analysis. The effects of Pokemon silencing on proliferation of SW480 and SW620 cells were evaluated with reference to growth curves with MTT assays. The mRNA expression level of Pokemon in tumor tissues (0.845 ± 0.344) was significantly higher than that in adjacent tumor specimens (0.321 ± 0.197). The positive expression ratio of Pokemon protein in CRC (87.0%) was significantly higher than that in the adjacent tissues (19.6%). Strong fluorescence staining of Pokemon protein was observed in the cytoplasm of the SW480 and SW620 cells. The inhibition ratios of Pokemon mRNA and protein in the SW480 cells were 83.1% and 73.5% at 48 and 72 h, respectively, compared with those of the negative control cells with the siRNA. In the SW620 cells, the inhibition ratios of Pokemon mRNA and protein were 76.3% and 68.7% at 48 and 72 h, respectively. MTT showed that Pokemon gene silencing inhibited the proliferation of SW480 and SW620 cells. Overexpression of Pokemon in CRC may have a function in carcinogenesis and progression. siRNA expression vectors could effectively inhibit mRNA and protein expression of Pokemon in SW480 and SW620 cells, thereby reducing

  8. Mathematical and Biological Modelling of RNA Secondary Structure and Its Effects on Gene Expression

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    T. A. Hughes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary structures within the 5′ untranslated regions of messenger RNAs can have profound effects on the efficiency of translation of their messages and thereby on gene expression. Consequently they can act as important regulatory motifs in both physiological and pathological settings. Current approaches to predicting the secondary structure of these RNA sequences find the structure with the global-minimum free energy. However, since RNA folds progressively from the 5′ end when synthesised or released from the translational machinery, this may not be the most probable structure. We discuss secondary structure prediction based on local-minimisation of free energy with thermodynamic fluctuations as nucleotides are added to the 3′ end and show that these can result in different secondary structures. We also discuss approaches for studying the extent of the translational inhibition specified by structures within the 5′ untranslated region.

  9. RNA- and protein-mediated control of Listeria monocytogenes virulence gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, Alice; Cossart, Pascale

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The model opportunistic pathogen Listeria monocytogenes has been the object of extensive research, aiming at understanding its ability to colonize diverse environmental niches and animal hosts. Bacterial transcriptomes in various conditions reflect this efficient adaptability. We review here our current knowledge of the mechanisms allowing L. monocytogenes to respond to environmental changes and trigger pathogenicity, with a special focus on RNA-mediated control of gene expression. We highlight how these studies have brought novel concepts in prokaryotic gene regulation, such as the ‘excludon’ where the 5′-UTR of a messenger also acts as an antisense regulator of an operon transcribed in opposite orientation, or the notion that riboswitches can regulate non-coding RNAs to integrate complex metabolic stimuli into regulatory networks. Overall, the Listeria model exemplifies that fine RNA tuners act together with master regulatory proteins to orchestrate appropriate transcriptional programmes. PMID:27217337

  10. microRNA expression in the neural retina: Focus on Müller glia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Heberto; Lamas, Mónica

    2018-03-01

    The neural retina hosts a unique specialized type of macroglial cell that not only preserves retinal homeostasis, function, and integrity but also may serve as a source of new neurons during regenerative processes: the Müller cell. Precise microRNA-driven mechanisms of gene regulation impel and direct the processes of Müller glia lineage acquisition from retinal progenitors during development, the triggering of their response to retinal degeneration and, in some cases, Müller cell reprogramming and regenerative events. In this review we survey the recent reports describing, through functional assays, the regulatory role of microRNAs in Müller cell physiology, differentiation potential, and retinal pathology. We discuss also the evidence based on expression analysis that points out the relevance of a Müller glia-specific microRNA signature that would orchestrate these processes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Regulation of gene expression in neuronal tissue by RNA interference and editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venø, Morten Trillingsgaard

    No tissue in the mammalian organism is more complex than the brain. This complexity is in part the result of precise timing and interplay of a large number mechanisms modulating gene expression post-transcriptionally. Fine-tuning mechanisms such as A-to-I editing of RNA transcripts and regulation...... mediated by microRNAs are crucial for the correct function of the mammalian brain. We are addressing A-to-I editing and regulation by microRNAs with spatio-temporal resolution in the embryonic porcine brain by Solexa sequencing of microRNAs and 454 sequencing of edited neuronal messenger RNAs, resulting...... in detailed data of both of these fine-tuning mechanisms in the embryonic development of the pig. Editing levels of transcripts examined are generally seen to increase through development, in agreement with editing of specific microRNA also examined in the Solexa sequencing study. Three studies examining...

  12. Selection and validation of reference genes for miRNA expression studies during porcine pregnancy.

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    Jocelyn M Wessels

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs comprise a family of small non-coding RNAs that modulate several developmental and physiological processes including pregnancy. Their ubiquitous presence is confirmed in mammals, worms, flies and plants. Although rapid advances have been made in microRNA research, information on stable reference genes for validation of microRNA expression is still lacking. Real time PCR is a widely used tool to quantify gene transcripts. An appropriate reference gene must be chosen to minimize experimental error in this system. A small difference in miRNA levels between experimental samples can be biologically meaningful as these entities can affect multiple targets in a pathway. This study examined the suitability of six commercially available reference genes (RNU1A, RNU5A, RNU6B, SNORD25, SCARNA17, and SNORA73A in maternal-fetal tissues from healthy and spontaneously arresting/dying conceptuses from sows were separately analyzed at gestation day 20. Comparisons were also made with non-pregnant endometrial tissues from sows. Spontaneous fetal loss is a prime concern to the commercial pork industry. Our laboratory has previously identified deficits in vasculature development at maternal-fetal interface as one of the major participating causes of fetal loss. Using this well-established model, we have extended our studies to identify suitable microRNA reference genes. A methodical approach to assessing suitability was adopted using standard curve and melting curve analysis, PCR product sequencing, real time PCR expression in a panel of gestational tissues, and geNorm and NormFinder analysis. Our quantitative real time PCR analysis confirmed expression of all 6 reference genes in maternal and fetal tissues. All genes were uniformly expressed in tissues from healthy and spontaneously arresting conceptus attachment sites. Comparisons between tissue types (maternal/fetal/non-pregnant revealed significant differences for RNU5A, RNU6B, SCARNA17, and SNORA73A

  13. RNA-Seq profiling reveals novel hepatic gene expression pattern in aflatoxin B1 treated rats.

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    B Alex Merrick

    Full Text Available Deep sequencing was used to investigate the subchronic effects of 1 ppm aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, a potent hepatocarcinogen, on the male rat liver transcriptome prior to onset of histopathological lesions or tumors. We hypothesized RNA-Seq would reveal more differentially expressed genes (DEG than microarray analysis, including low copy and novel transcripts related to AFB1's carcinogenic activity compared to feed controls (CTRL. Paired-end reads were mapped to the rat genome (Rn4 with TopHat and further analyzed by DESeq and Cufflinks-Cuffdiff pipelines to identify differentially expressed transcripts, new exons and unannotated transcripts. PCA and cluster analysis of DEGs showed clear separation between AFB1 and CTRL treatments and concordance among group replicates. qPCR of eight high and medium DEGs and three low DEGs showed good comparability among RNA-Seq and microarray transcripts. DESeq analysis identified 1,026 differentially expressed transcripts at greater than two-fold change (p<0.005 compared to 626 transcripts by microarray due to base pair resolution of transcripts by RNA-Seq, probe placement within transcripts or an absence of probes to detect novel transcripts, splice variants and exons. Pathway analysis among DEGs revealed signaling of Ahr, Nrf2, GSH, xenobiotic, cell cycle, extracellular matrix, and cell differentiation networks consistent with pathways leading to AFB1 carcinogenesis, including almost 200 upregulated transcripts controlled by E2f1-related pathways related to kinetochore structure, mitotic spindle assembly and tissue remodeling. We report 49 novel, differentially-expressed transcripts including confirmation by PCR-cloning of two unique, unannotated, hepatic AFB1-responsive transcripts (HAfT's on chromosomes 1.q55 and 15.q11, overexpressed by 10 to 25-fold. Several potentially novel exons were found and exon refinements were made including AFB1 exon-specific induction of homologous family members, Ugt1a6 and Ugt1a7c

  14. RNA-Seq profiling reveals novel hepatic gene expression pattern in aflatoxin B1 treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, B Alex; Phadke, Dhiral P; Auerbach, Scott S; Mav, Deepak; Stiegelmeyer, Suzy M; Shah, Ruchir R; Tice, Raymond R

    2013-01-01

    Deep sequencing was used to investigate the subchronic effects of 1 ppm aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a potent hepatocarcinogen, on the male rat liver transcriptome prior to onset of histopathological lesions or tumors. We hypothesized RNA-Seq would reveal more differentially expressed genes (DEG) than microarray analysis, including low copy and novel transcripts related to AFB1's carcinogenic activity compared to feed controls (CTRL). Paired-end reads were mapped to the rat genome (Rn4) with TopHat and further analyzed by DESeq and Cufflinks-Cuffdiff pipelines to identify differentially expressed transcripts, new exons and unannotated transcripts. PCA and cluster analysis of DEGs showed clear separation between AFB1 and CTRL treatments and concordance among group replicates. qPCR of eight high and medium DEGs and three low DEGs showed good comparability among RNA-Seq and microarray transcripts. DESeq analysis identified 1,026 differentially expressed transcripts at greater than two-fold change (p<0.005) compared to 626 transcripts by microarray due to base pair resolution of transcripts by RNA-Seq, probe placement within transcripts or an absence of probes to detect novel transcripts, splice variants and exons. Pathway analysis among DEGs revealed signaling of Ahr, Nrf2, GSH, xenobiotic, cell cycle, extracellular matrix, and cell differentiation networks consistent with pathways leading to AFB1 carcinogenesis, including almost 200 upregulated transcripts controlled by E2f1-related pathways related to kinetochore structure, mitotic spindle assembly and tissue remodeling. We report 49 novel, differentially-expressed transcripts including confirmation by PCR-cloning of two unique, unannotated, hepatic AFB1-responsive transcripts (HAfT's) on chromosomes 1.q55 and 15.q11, overexpressed by 10 to 25-fold. Several potentially novel exons were found and exon refinements were made including AFB1 exon-specific induction of homologous family members, Ugt1a6 and Ugt1a7c. We find the

  15. mRNA expression profile in DLD-1 and MOLT-4 cancer cell lines cultured under Microgravity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DLD-1 and MOLT-4 cell lines were cultured in a Rotating cell culture system to simulate microgravity and mRNA expression profile was observed in comparison to Static...

  16. Profiles of mRNA expression of genes related to sex differentiation of the gonads in the chicken embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, I; Tsukada, A; Saito, N; Shimada, K

    2003-09-01

    Sex is determined genetically in birds. The homogametic sex is male (ZZ), whereas the heterogametic sex is female (ZW). According to the genetic sex, gonads develop into testes or ovary. In this study, we performed experiments to reveal mRNA expression patterns in the gonad between d 5.5 and 8.5 of incubation and examined a possible role of Dss-Ahc critical region on the X chromosome 1 (Dax1), Steroidogenic factor 1 (Sf1), P450aromatase (P450arom), Estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha), doublesex and mab3 related transcription factor 1 (Dmrt1), Sry-related HMG box gene 9 (Sox9), Gata binding protein 4 (Gata4), and anti-müllerian hormone (Amh) in sex differentiation in chicken embryonic gonads using RNase protection assay. In embryonic chicken gonads, Dax1 mRNA was expressed in both sexes but was higher in females than in males at d 6.5 and 7.5 of incubation. The Sf1 mRNA was expressed in both sexes, but it was expressed more in males at d 5.5 than in females but more in females than in males at d 7.5 and 8.5 of incubation. The P450arom mRNA was expressed only in female gonads from d 5.5 of incubation. The ER alpha mRNA was expressed in both sexes, but it did not show a sex difference. On the other hand, the Dmrt1 mRNA was expressed in both sexes, but it showed a male-specific expression pattern. The male-specific expression pattern was observed in Sox9 mRNA, but it was not expressed in female gonads. The Gata4 mRNA was expressed in both sexes, and sex differences were not revealed throughout the observational period. Amh mRNA was expressed in both sexes, but it had male-specific mRNA expression pattern at d 6.5 to 8.5 of incubation. These results indicate that Dax1, Sf1, and P450arom have possible roles in ovary formation, whereas Dmrt1, Sox9, and Amh are related to testis formation in differentiating chicken gonads at d 5.5 to 8.5 of incubation.

  17. Rev-erb beta regulates the Srebp-1c promoter and mRNA expression in skeletal muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishnan, Sathiya N.; Lau, Patrick; Crowther, Lisa M. [The University of Queensland, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia); Cleasby, Mark E. [Diabetes and Obesity Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, St. Vincent' s Hospital, 384 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, Sydney, NSW 2010 (Australia); Millard, Susan; Leong, Gary M. [The University of Queensland, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia); Cooney, Gregory J. [Diabetes and Obesity Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, St. Vincent' s Hospital, 384 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, Sydney, NSW 2010 (Australia); Muscat, George E.O., E-mail: g.muscat@imb.uq.edu.au [The University of Queensland, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)

    2009-10-30

    The nuclear hormone receptor, Rev-erb beta operates as a transcriptional silencer. We previously demonstrated that exogenous expression of Rev-erb{beta}{Delta}E in skeletal muscle cells increased Srebp-1c mRNA expression. We validated these in vitro observations by injection of an expression vector driving Rev-erb{beta}{Delta}E expression into mouse tibialis muscle that resulted in increased Srebp-1c mRNA expression. Paradoxically, Rev-erb{beta} siRNA expression in skeletal muscle cells repressed Srebp-1c expression, and indicated that Rev-erb{beta} expression was necessary for Srebp-1c expression. ChIP analysis demonstrated that Rev-erb{beta} was recruited to the Srebp-1c promoter. Moreover, Rev-erb{beta} trans-activated the Srebp-1c promoter, in contrast, Rev-erb{beta} efficiently repressed the Rev-erb{alpha} promoter, a previously characterized target gene. Finally, treatment with the Rev-erb agonist (hemin) (i) increased the trans-activation of the Srebp-1c promoter by Rev-erb{beta}; and (ii) increased Rev-erb{beta} and Srebp-1c mRNA expression. These data suggest that Rev-erb{beta} has the potential to activate gene expression, and is a positive regulator of Srebp-1c, a regulator of lipogenesis.

  18. MicroRNA expression analysis of feline and canine parvovirus infection in vivo (felis.

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    Pei Zhou

    Full Text Available Feline panleukopenia is a common contagious disease with high morbidity and mortality. At present, feline parvovirus (FPV and canine parvovirus (CPV variants are the pathogens of feline panleukopenia. Many studies have shown that miRNAs are involved in virus-host interactions. Nevertheless, miRNA expression profiling of FPV (original virus or CPV-2b (new virus in cats has not been reported. To investigate these profiles, three 10-week-old cats were orally inoculated with 106 TCID50 of the viruses (FPV and CPV-2b, and the jejunums of one cat in each group were sectioned for miRNA sequencing at 5 days post-inoculation (dpi. This study is the first attempt to use miRNA analysis to understand the molecular basis of FPV and CPV infection in cats. The mi