McEwen, F.L.; Ritchey, G.; Liu, H.J.
A dose of 4 krad was the most appropriate for sterilizing pupae of Delia antiqua (Meigen) for field release: adult emergence was not reduced, emerging female flies were sterile, and the eggs produced by normal females which had mated with males irradiated as pupae had a lower hatch than those resulting from matings with normal males. Males irradiated as 6- to 8-day-old pupae were fully competitive under laboratory conditions. Continuous scrutiny of laboratory cultures to detect reduction in adult emergence or reduced competitiveness of males is stressed
Zhang, Yu-Juan; Hao, Youjin; Si, Fengling; Ren, Shuang; Hu, Ganyu; Shen, Li; Chen, Bin
The onion maggot Delia antiqua is a major insect pest of cultivated vegetables, especially the onion, and a good model to investigate the molecular mechanisms of diapause. To better understand the biology and diapause mechanism of the insect pest species, D. antiqua, the transcriptome was sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. Approximately 54 million reads were obtained, trimmed, and assembled into 29,659 unigenes, with an average length of 607 bp and an N50 of 818 bp. Among these unigenes, 21,605 (72.8%) were annotated in the public databases. All unigenes were then compared against Drosophila melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae. Codon usage bias was analyzed and 332 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected in this organism. These data represent the most comprehensive transcriptomic resource currently available for D. antiqua and will facilitate the study of genetics, genomics, diapause, and further pest control of D. antiqua. Copyright © 2014 Zhang et al.
Zhou, Fangyuan; Wu, Xiaoqing; Xu, Letian; Guo, Shuhai; Chen, Guanhong; Zhang, Xinjian
Insects form both mutualistic and antagonistic relationships with microbes, and some antagonistic microbes have been used as biocontrol agents (BCAs) in pest management. Contextually, BCAs may be inhibited by beneficial insect symbionts, which can become potential barriers for entomopathogen-dependent pest biocontrol. Thus, by using the symbioses formed by one devastating dipteran pest, Delia antiqua, and its associated microbes as a model system, we sought to determine whether the antagonistic interaction between BCAs and microbial symbionts could affect the outcome of entomopathogen-dependent pest biocontrol. The result showed that in contrast to non-axenic D. antiqua larvae, i.e., onion maggots, axenic larvae lost resistance to the entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana, and the re-inoculation of microbiota increased the resistance of axenic larvae to B. bassiana. Furthermore, bacteria, including Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter ludwigii, Pseudomonas protegens, Serratia plymuthica, Sphingobacterium faecium, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, frequently isolated from larvae suppressed B. bassiana conidia germination and hyphal growth, and the re-inoculation of specific individual bacteria enhanced the resistance of axenic larvae to B. bassiana. Bacteria associated with larvae, including C. freundii, E. ludwigii, P. protegens, S. plymuthica, S. faecium, and S. maltophilia, can inhibit B. bassiana infection. Removing the microbiota can suppress larval resistance to fungal infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Dosdall, L M; Clayton, G W; Harker, K N; O'Donovan, J T; Stevenson, F C
Several agronomic benefits can result from fall seeding of canola (Brassica spp.), but extensive research data are lacking on the potential impact of this practice on infestations of root maggots (Delia spp.) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), which are major pests of the crop in western Canada. Field experiments making up 13 location by year combinations were conducted in central Alberta, Canada, from 1998 to 2001 to determine the effect of fall versus spring seeding of canola on root maggot damage. Depending on the experiment, interactions with seeding rate, seed treatment, timing of weed removal, and canola species (cultivar) also were investigated. Root maggot damage declined with an increase in seeding rate for plots seeded in May but not in fall or April. Susceptibility to infestation was greater for plants of Brassica rapa L. than Brassica napus L., but seed treatment had no effect on damage by these pests. Combined analysis using data from all experiment by location by year combinations indicated that seeding date had no significant effect on root maggot damage. The extended emergence of Delia spp. adults, which spans the appearance of crop stages vulnerable to oviposition regardless of seeding date, prevented reduced root maggot attack. Covariance analysis demonstrated the importance of increasing seeding rate for reducing root maggot infestations, a practice that can be especially beneficial for May-seeded canola when growing conditions limit the ability of plants to compensate for root maggot damage. Results determined with the small plot studies described here should be validated in larger plots or on a commercial field scale, but both the combined and covariance analyses indicate that seeding canola in fall does not predispose plants to greater damage by larval root maggots than seeding in spring.
Gottrup, Finn; Jørgensen, Bo
Debridement is an essential component to promote healing in a problem wound. Several techniques are available including maggot debridement therapy (MDT). Objective: To describe the efficacy of MDT for treating problem wound especially diabetic foot ulcers. Methods: The topic is elucidated from...... different points of view: the mode of action, when to use, use in a practice, clinical results, and discussing the problem of creating evidence for the clinical effect. Results: Literature and own results demonstrate that MDT is a safe method with few side effects. Maggot debridement therapy is as good...... as or better than conventional often surgical debridement, is more selective than surgical debridement, decreases time to healing and stay of patients in the ward, and may decrease the risk of major amputations. However, the evidence of these effects of MDT on the highest level is presently lacking. A detailed...
Beck, Bert; Spanoghe, Pieter; Moens, Maurice; Brusselman, Eva; Temmerman, Femke; Pollet, Sabien; Nuyttens, David
The potential of the entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) Steinernema feltiae Filipjev as a biocontrol agent against the cabbage maggot Delia radicum (L.), was assessed in three field tests, focusing on EPN dosage, application technique and timing. Spraying cabbage plant trays with different doses of infective juveniles (IJs) (50,000, 100,000 and 200,000 per plant) generated a similar reduction of plant mortality. Spraying plant trays with 200,000 IJs of Steinernema feltiae per plant temporarily reduced the number of maggots around the plants' roots, while neither spraying a lower dose (50,000 IJs/plant) nor soil drenching with 200,000 or 50,000 IJs/plant) reduced maggot numbers. When applied as a plant tray spray, IJs of S. feltiae took 1-2 weeks to spread through the soil surrounding the roots. The pathogenicity of the EPNs, as evaluated by a Galleria mellonella bait test, was highest (up to 100% mortality) until up to five weeks after application, and declined to control levels after 4-7 weeks. Follow-up drench applications with EPNs, applied one and/or two weeks after the first EPN application, did not influence control of Delia radicum. Plant tray spraying provides better placement of Steinernema feltiae than soil drench treatments for control of Delia radicum. Plant mortality was not dose-dependent in the presented trials, unlike the reduction of maggot numbers. Further research into timing and application technique of follow-up treatments with S. feltiae is required to increase efficacy to commercial standards. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
Ana María Cuneo M.
Full Text Available La presente reflexión tiene por objeto configurar la "poética" inscrita en los textos poéticos de Delia Domínguez para develar el modo como la autora concibe su propio quehacer. La observación se ha realizado respetando el orden diacrónico para hacer visible y registrar el desarrollo escrituralThe present reflexion proposes to configurate the "poetics" inscribed in the poetical wor5k of Delia Domínguez, in order to reveal the way the author conceives her own craft. This observation is made in accord to the diachronic order which makes visible and permits to follow the writing process
Čičková, Helena; Čambal, Marek; Kozánek, Milan; Takáč, Peter
Maggot debridement therapy (MDT) is an established method of debridement of nonhealing wounds. Despite intense clinical research about its efficacy and effects of substances produced by the larvae, growth and development of maggots in the wounds remain largely unexplored. In the present study, the bags with larvae (n = 52), which had been used to debride traumatic, ischemic, diabetic and venous ulcers, were collected and examined. Survival, length, width and larval instar of the maggots withi...
Full Text Available Maggot therapy employs the use of freshly emerged, sterile larvae of the common green-bottle fly, Phaenicia (Lucilia sericata, and is a form of artificially induced myiasis in a controlled clinical situation. Maggot therapy has the following three core beneficial effects on a wound: debridement, disinfection and enhanced healing. In part II of this review article, we discuss clinical infections and the evidence supporting the potent antibacterial action of maggot secretions. Enhancement of wound healing by maggots is discussed along with the future of this highly successful, often controversial, alternative treatment.
Wang, Wanqiang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiaoping; Lei, Chaoliang; Tang, Rui; Zhang, Feng; Yang, Qizhi; Zhu, Fen
With the development of large-scale livestock farming, manure pollution has drawn much attention. Conversion by insects is a rapid and cost-effective new method for manure management. Swine manure conversion with maggots (Musca domestica larvae) has developed, and the harvested maggots are often used as animal feed. However, the flow of heavy metals from manure to downstream processes cannot be ignored, and therefore, heavy metal content was measured in untreated raw manure, maggot-treated manure, harvested maggots and maggot-eating chickens (chest muscle and liver) to evaluate potential heavy metal risks. The levels of zinc, copper, chromium, selenium, cadmium and lead had significant differences between untreated raw manure and maggot-treated manure. The concentrations of all detected heavy metals, except for cadmium and selenium, in maggots met the limits established by the feed or feed additive standards of many countries. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of heavy metals decreased with the increase of the maggot instar, indicating that heavy metals were discharged from the bodies of maggots with the growth of maggots. Also, the contents of overall heavy metals in chickens fed harvested maggots met the standards for food. In conclusion, regarding heavy metals, it is eco-safe to use maggots in manure management.
Full Text Available Maggot debridement therapy (MDT is an established method of debridement of nonhealing wounds. Despite intense clinical research about its efficacy and effects of substances produced by the larvae, growth and development of maggots in the wounds remain largely unexplored. In the present study, the bags with larvae (n=52, which had been used to debride traumatic, ischemic, diabetic and venous ulcers, were collected and examined. Survival, length, width and larval instar of the maggots within each bag were recorded and analyzed with respect to the wound type and duration of the treatment. Survival of maggots after a 48-h cycle of MDT ranged between 63.6 and 82.7%. Maggots in venous ulcers had on average 9–19% higher mortality than maggots within traumatic, ischemic, and diabetic ulcers. Length of larvae after 48 h cycle of MDT reached on average 7.09–9.68 mm, and average width varied between 1.77 and 2.26 mm. Larvae in venous ulcers were significantly smaller after 48 h, but not after 72 h treatment compared to the other wound types. Further studies should be aimed to identify other patient-associated factors which might influence growth and survival of the larvae during maggot debridement therapy.
Cičková, Helena; Cambal, Marek; Kozánek, Milan; Takáč, Peter
Maggot debridement therapy (MDT) is an established method of debridement of nonhealing wounds. Despite intense clinical research about its efficacy and effects of substances produced by the larvae, growth and development of maggots in the wounds remain largely unexplored. In the present study, the bags with larvae (n = 52), which had been used to debride traumatic, ischemic, diabetic and venous ulcers, were collected and examined. Survival, length, width and larval instar of the maggots within each bag were recorded and analyzed with respect to the wound type and duration of the treatment. Survival of maggots after a 48-h cycle of MDT ranged between 63.6 and 82.7%. Maggots in venous ulcers had on average 9-19% higher mortality than maggots within traumatic, ischemic, and diabetic ulcers. Length of larvae after 48 h cycle of MDT reached on average 7.09-9.68 mm, and average width varied between 1.77 and 2.26 mm. Larvae in venous ulcers were significantly smaller after 48 h, but not after 72 h treatment compared to the other wound types. Further studies should be aimed to identify other patient-associated factors which might influence growth and survival of the larvae during maggot debridement therapy.
Melta Rini Fahmi
Full Text Available Penggunaan maggot sebagai pakan alternatif ikan telah dikaji di Loka Riset Budidaya Ikan Hias Air Tawar (LRBIHAT, Depok. Maggot merupakan larva serangga black soldier (Hermetia illusence yang dapat mengkonversi material organik menjadi biomassanya. Salah satu keunggulan maggot adalah dapat diproduksi dalam berbagai ukuran, sesuai dengan kebutuhan. Penyimpanan maggot pada suhu rendah dapat menghambat pertumbuhan dan mempertahankan kehidupannya. Produksi maggot pada ukuran kecil dimulai dari penyediaan telur, penetasan, dan pembesaran dalam media PKM (Palm Kernel Meal atau bungkil kelapa sawit, pemanenan dan penyimpanan dalam suhu rendah. Nilai nutrisi maggot pada umur 6-7 hari adalah protein: 60,2%; lemak: 13,3%; abu: 7,7%; karbohidrat: 18,8%. Percobaan pemanfaatan maggot sebagai suplemen pakan diujikan terhadap ikan Balashark (Balantiocheilus melanopterus Bleeker ukuran 2,0 ± 0,2 g. Hasil yang didapatkan menunjukkan bahwa pemberian maggot memberikan pertumbuhan dan sintasan yang lebih baik. Dampak penambahan maggot pada ikan terlihat signifikan terhadap gambaran darah ikan yang menunjukkan daya tahan tubuh ikan yang lebih baik. Maggot utilization as fish feed alternative has been studied at Loka Riset Budidaya Ikan Hias Air Tawar (LRBIHAT, Depok. Maggot is an insect larvae of black soldier (Hermetia illusence that can convert organic material to its body biomass. One of the advantages in maggot culture is that it can be produced in different sizes according to fish requirement. Keeping maggot at low temperature can delay its growth while keeping it alive. Production of small size maggot starts from eggs preparation, hatching, and rearing in media of PKM (Palm Kernel Meal or coconut oil cake of palm, cropping and then keeping it in low temperature. Nutritional value of maggot at the age of 6-7 days is as follows: protein, 60.2%, fat; 13.3%, ash; 7.7%, carbohydrate; 18.8%. Trial feeding using maggot as feed supplement was done on Balashark
Mumcuoglu, K Y; Lipo, M; Ioffe-Uspensky, I; Miller, J; Galun, R
5 patients with diabetic-foot were treated by maggot therapy. The most serious case was in a 75-year-old man who had gangrene and osteomyelitis of the right foot. Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus sp., Providencia stuartii and Staphylococcus spec. (coagulase positive) were isolated from lesions which did not respond to antibiotic therapy. The patient had twice refused amputation but agreed to maggot therapy. Larvae of the sheep blowfly Phoenicia (Lucilia) sericata were used for twice-weekly treatment over a period of 7 months. Sterile larvae were applied to the wound and replaced every 3-4 days. After 4 months of treatment, the necrotic tissue around the toes and on the sole of the foot detached from the healthy tissue. During the last 3 months of treatment the larvae removed the remaining infected tissue. As therapy progressed, new layers of healthy tissue covered the wound. The offensive odor associated with the necrotic tissue and the intense pain in the foot decreased significantly. At the end of therapy, during which there were no complaints of discomfort, he was able to walk. In the 4 other patients who had relatively superficial gangrene, the maggots debrided the wounds within 2-4 weeks. Thereafter treatment was continued with antibiotics. Maggot therapy can be recommended in cases of intractable gangrene and osteomyelitis, when treatment with antibiotics and surgical debridement have failed.
Cazander, Gwendolyn; van de Veerdonk, Mariëlle C; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M J E; Schreurs, Marco W J; Jukema, Gerrolt N
Biofilm-associated infections in trauma surgery are difficult to treat with conventional therapies. Therefore, it is important to develop new treatment modalities. Maggots in captured bags, which are permeable for larval excretions/secretions, aid in healing severe, infected wounds, suspect for biofilm formation. Therefore we presumed maggot excretions/secretions would reduce biofilm formation. We studied biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterobacter cloacae on polyethylene, titanium, and stainless steel. We compared the quantities of biofilm formation between the bacterial species on the various biomaterials and the quantity of biofilm formation after various incubation times. Maggot excretions/secretions were added to existing biofilms to examine their effect. Comb-like models of the biomaterials, made to fit in a 96-well microtiter plate, were incubated with bacterial suspension. The formed biofilms were stained in crystal violet, which was eluted in ethanol. The optical density (at 595 nm) of the eluate was determined to quantify biofilm formation. Maggot excretions/secretions were pipetted in different concentrations to (nonstained) 7-day-old biofilms, incubated 24 hours, and finally measured. The strongest biofilms were formed by S. aureus and S. epidermidis on polyethylene and the weakest on titanium. The highest quantity of biofilm formation was reached within 7 days for both bacteria. The presence of excretions/secretions reduced biofilm formation on all biomaterials. A maximum of 92% of biofilm reduction was measured. Our observations suggest maggot excretions/secretions decrease biofilm formation and could provide a new treatment for biofilm formation on infected biomaterials.
Joseph, Shimat V; Godfrey, Larry D; Bettiga, Christopher
Larval stages of cabbage maggot, Delia radicum (L.) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), attack the roots of Brassica crops and cause severe economic damage. In the Salinas Valley of California, Brassica crops are often planted after successive lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) crops. The interval between postharvest soil incorporation of lettuce residue and the subsequent Brassica crop can be as short as 7 d, which could influence D. radicum infestation on broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck). In 2014 and 2015, the effect of intervals between crops (IBC) on D. radicum infestation was evaluated. The treatments were 7, 20, 33, and 48 d IBC, and NL (no lettuce), 7, 21, 36, and 49 d IBC in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Insect counts and feeding damage on broccoli was assessed during 3-6 wk after planting. Adult Delia fly captures were significantly greater at 7 d than 36-49 d IBC in both years. In both years, D. radicum eggs collected were significantly greater at 7 d than at 33 d or 36 d IBC plots. Larvae collected were significantly greater at 7 d IBC than all other treatments in 2014, but not in 2015. Similarly, severity of feeding injury was significantly greater in 7 d than 33 d or 48 d IBC in 2014, but not in 2015. In 2015, broccoli with no prior lettuce had significantly lower Delia flies and D. radicum egg densities than 7 d or 21 d IBC. The implication of these results as a cultural control tactic for D. radicum infestation is discussed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Gottrup, Finn; Jørgensen, Bo
Debridement is an essential component to promote healing in a problem wound. Several techniques are available including maggot debridement therapy (MDT). Objective: To describe the efficacy of MDT for treating problem wound especially diabetic foot ulcers. Methods: The topic is elucidated from different points of view: the mode of action, when to use, use in a practice, clinical results, and discussing the problem of creating evidence for the clinical effect. Results: Literature and own resul...
Wee, Jocelyn Liang Qi; Monteiro, Ant?nia
Butterflies of the South Asian and Australian genus Delias possess striking colours on the ventral wings that are presumed to serve as warning signals to predators. However, this has not been shown empirically. Here we experimentally tested whether the colours of one member of this diverse genus, Delias hyparete, function as aposematic signals. We constructed artificial paper models with either a faithful colour representation of D. hyparete, or with all of its colours converted to grey scale...
1976-01-01In the scope of a genetic control research project gametogenesis of the onion fly, Hylemya antiqua (Meigen), is studied as a base for investigations on radiation histopathology of the gonads.Various cytological, histological, electronmicroscopical and
Plas, Maartje Jeriena Adriana van der
The work described in this thesis focussed on the modes of action of maggot therapy in chronic wounds, especially related to the inflammatory phase of wound healing. For this purpose, the effect of maggot excretions and/or secretions on microbiological, haematological and immunological processes was
Stadler, Frank; Shaban, Ramon Z; Tatham, Peter
When disaster strikes, the number of patients requiring treatment can be overwhelming. In low-income countries, resources to assist the injured in a timely fashion may be limited. As a consequence, necrosis and wound infection in disaster patients is common and frequently leads to adverse health outcomes such as amputations, chronic wounds, and loss of life. In such compromised health care environments, low-tech and cheap wound care options are required that are in ready supply, easy to use, and have multiple therapeutic benefits. Maggot debridement therapy (MDT) is one such wound care option and may prove to be an invaluable tool in the treatment of wounds post-disaster. This report provides an overview of the wound burden experienced in various types of disaster, followed by a discussion of current treatment approaches, and the role MDT may play in the treatment of complex wounds in challenging health care conditions. Maggot debridement therapy removes necrotic and devitalized tissue, controls wound infection, and stimulates wound healing. These properties suggest that medicinal maggots could assist health care professionals in the debridement of disaster wounds, to control or prevent infection, and to prepare the wound bed for reconstructive surgery. Maggot debridement therapy-assisted wound care would be led by health care workers rather than physicians, which would allow the latter to focus on reconstructive and other surgical interventions. Moreover, MDT could provide a larger window for time-critical interventions, such as fasciotomies to treat compartment syndrome and amputations in case of life-threatening wound infection. There are social, medical, and logistic hurdles to overcome before MDT can become widely available in disaster medical aid. Thus, research is needed to further demonstrate the utility of MDT in Disaster Medicine. There is also a need for reliable MDT logistics and supply chain networks. Integration with other disaster management
Gottrup, Finn; Jørgensen, Bo
Debridement is an essential component to promote healing in a problem wound. Several techniques are available including maggot debridement therapy (MDT). To describe the efficacy of MDT for treating problem wound especially diabetic foot ulcers. The topic is elucidated from different points of view: the mode of action, when to use, use in a practice, clinical results, and discussing the problem of creating evidence for the clinical effect. Literature and own results demonstrate that MDT is a safe method with few side effects. Maggot debridement therapy is as good as or better than conventional often surgical debridement, is more selective than surgical debridement, decreases time to healing and stay of patients in the ward, and may decrease the risk of major amputations. However, the evidence of these effects of MDT on the highest level is presently lacking. A detailed description of how to use MDT in practice is provided including a visual demonstration in a video. In spite of lacking clinical evidence, MDT clinical experience strongly suggests that this technique is effective and safe. It can be used for most types of problem wounds, but our indication is primarily diabetic foot ulcers, because of its selectivity for debriding necrotic dead tissue. It may be a valuable alternative surgical/sharp debridement.
The economics of production of broiler chickens considered for 0-35 days, 35-56 days, and 0-56 days was compared for fishmeal (FM) and maggot meal (MM) diets. The maggot meal diet had a replacement of the fish meal at 75%> on protein basis. Replacing FM at 75% with MM resulted in reduced cost of feed as well as ...
van der Plas, Mariena J A; Andersen, Anders S; Nazir, Sheresma
Maggots of the blowfly Lucilia sericata are used for the treatment of chronic wounds. As haemostatic processes play an important role in wound healing, this study focused on the effects of maggot secretions on coagulation and fibrinolysis. The results showed that maggot secretions enhance plasmin...
In the scope of a genetic control research project gametogenesis of the onion fly, Hylemya antiqua (Meigen), is studied as a base for investigations on radiation histopathology of the gonads. Various cytological, histological, electronmicroscopical and autoradiographical methods, including investigation of living male germinal cells, are used. The gross anatomy of the male and female reproductive systems is simple as compared to other insect species. In newly hatched larvae the gonads contain on an average 13 germinal cells. Gonads in larvae which are less than 7 days old cannot be distinguished as being male or female. This distinction becomes possible after the apical cell and the apical somatic tissue respectively is formed in the young gonad. Spermatogenesis is treated in a number of paragraphs dealing with the description and identification of germinal and somatic cell types, the ontogenetic development of the testis, the dynamics of spermatogenesis and aspects comparative spermatogenesis. A proper identification of the testicular cell types is considered to be imperative to any correct experimental approach of spermatogenesis. Morphological descriptions of the various germinal and somatic cell types are given accordingly. Comparison of mainly morphological features of male germinal cell types in a number of insect species, including H. antiqua, indicates possibilities for comparative research of spermatogenesis in various insect species. This could provide a basis for comparative radiobiological or other experimental investigations on insect spermatogenesis. Spermatogenesis and oogenesis share a number of features, which suggests a certain similarity of the processes involved
Chain, Patrick S.G.; Hu, Ping; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Radnedge,Lyndsay; Larimer, Frank; Vergez, Lisa M.; Worsham, Patricia; Chu, May C.; Andersen, Gary L.
Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic andpneumonicplague, has undergone detailed study at the molecular level. Tofurther investigate the genomic diversity among this group and to helpcharacterize lineages of the plague organism that have no sequencedmembers, we present here the genomes of two isolates of the "classical"Antiqua biovar, strains Antiqua and Nepal516. The genomes of Antiqua andNepal516 are 4.7 Mb and 4.5 Mb and encode 4,138 and 3,956 open readingframes respectively. Though both strains belong to one of the threeclassical biovars, they represent separate lineages defined by recentphylogenetic studies. We compare all five currently sequenced Y. pestisgenomes and the corresponding features in Y. pseudotuberculosis. Thereare strain-specific rearrangements, insertions, deletions, singlenucleotide polymorphisms and a unique distribution of insertionsequences. We found 453 single nucleotide polymorphisms in protein codingregions, which were used to assess evolutionary relationships of these Y.pestis strains. Gene reduction analysis revealed that the gene deletionprocesses are under selective pressure and many of the inactivations areprobably related to the organism s interaction with its host environment.The results presented here clearly demonstrate the differences betweenthe two Antiqua lineages and support the notion that grouping Y. pestisstrains based strictly on the classical definition of biovars (predicatedupon two biochemical assays) does not accurately reflect the phylogeneticrelationships within this species. Comparison of four virulent Y. pestisstrains with the human-avirulent strain 91001 provides further insightinto the genetic basis of virulence to humans.
Jocelyn Liang Qi Wee
Full Text Available Butterflies of the South Asian and Australian genus Delias possess striking colours on the ventral wings that are presumed to serve as warning signals to predators. However, this has not been shown empirically. Here we experimentally tested whether the colours of one member of this diverse genus, Delias hyparete, function as aposematic signals. We constructed artificial paper models with either a faithful colour representation of D. hyparete, or with all of its colours converted to grey scale. We also produced models where single colours were left intact, while others were converted to grey-scale or removed entirely. We placed all model types simultaneously in the field, attached to a live mealworm, and measured relative attack rates at three separate field sites. Faithful models of D. hyparete, suffered the least amount of attacks, followed by grey-scale models with unaltered red patches, and by grey-scale models with unaltered yellow patches. We conclude that red and yellow colours function as warning signals. By mapping dorsal and ventral colouration onto a phylogeny of Delias, we observed that yellow and red colours appear almost exclusively on the ventral wing surfaces, and that basal lineages have mostly yellow, white, and black wings, whereas derived lineages contain red colour in addition to the other colours. Red appears to be, thus, a novel adaptive trait in this lineage of butterflies.
Wee, Jocelyn Liang Qi; Monteiro, Antónia
Butterflies of the South Asian and Australian genus Delias possess striking colours on the ventral wings that are presumed to serve as warning signals to predators. However, this has not been shown empirically. Here we experimentally tested whether the colours of one member of this diverse genus, Delias hyparete, function as aposematic signals. We constructed artificial paper models with either a faithful colour representation of D. hyparete, or with all of its colours converted to grey scale. We also produced models where single colours were left intact, while others were converted to grey-scale or removed entirely. We placed all model types simultaneously in the field, attached to a live mealworm, and measured relative attack rates at three separate field sites. Faithful models of D. hyparete, suffered the least amount of attacks, followed by grey-scale models with unaltered red patches, and by grey-scale models with unaltered yellow patches. We conclude that red and yellow colours function as warning signals. By mapping dorsal and ventral colouration onto a phylogeny of Delias, we observed that yellow and red colours appear almost exclusively on the ventral wing surfaces, and that basal lineages have mostly yellow, white, and black wings, whereas derived lineages contain red colour in addition to the other colours. Red appears to be, thus, a novel adaptive trait in this lineage of butterflies.
Andersen, A S; Joergensen, B; Bjarnsholt, T
Maggot debridement therapy (MDT) is widely used for debridement of chronic infected wounds; however, for wounds harbouring specific bacteria limited effect or failure of the treatment has been described. Here we studied the survival of Lucilia sericata maggots encountering Pseudomonas aeruginosa...... PAO1 in a simple assay with emphasis on the quorum-sensing (QS)-regulated virulence. The maggots were challenged with GFP-tagged P. aeruginosa wild-type (WT) PAO1 and a GFP-tagged P. aeruginosa DeltalasR rhlR (DeltaRR) QS-deficient mutant in different concentrations. Maggots were killed...
Shikata, Tomoyuki; Matsunaga, Shigeru; Kuwahara, Yusuke; Iwahori, Sho; Nishiyama, Yoshitaka
Most marine raphidophyte species cause noxious red tides in temperate coastal areas around the world. It is known that swimming abilities enable raphidophytes to accumulation of cells and to actively acquire light at surface layers and nutrients over a wide depth range. However, it remains unclear how the swimming behavior is affected by environmental conditions, especially light condition. In the present study, we observed the accumulation of the harmful red-tide raphidophyte Chattonella antiqua under various light conditions during the daytime in the laboratory. When exposed to ultraviolet-A/blue light (320-480nm) or red light (640-680nm) from above, cells moved downward. In the case of blue light (455nm), cells started to swim downward after 5-15min of irradiation at a photon flux density≥10μmolm(-2)s(-1). When exposed to monochromatic lights (400-680nm) from the side, cells moved away from the blue light source and then descended, but just moved downward under red light. However, mixing of green/orange light (520-630nm) diminished the effects of blue light. When exposed to a mixture of 30μmolm(-2)s(-1) of blue light (440nm) and ≥6μmolm(-2)s(-1) of yellow light (560nm) from above, cells did not move downward. These results indicate that blue light induces negative phototaxis and ultraviolet-A/blue and red lights induce descending, and green/orange light cancels out their effects in C. antiqua. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Aggarwal, Ashish; Maskara, Prasant
A 26-year-old male had suffered a burn injury to his scalp in childhood and ignored it. He presented with a complaint of something crawling on his head. Inspection of his scalp revealed multiple maggots on the brain surface with erosion of overlying bone and scalp. He was successfully managed by surgical debridement and regular dressing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Three meals were formulated from the earthworm (Endrilus eugineae) and maggot (Musca domestica) and fish (Engraulis encrosicolus). These meals were evaluated as a potential replacement for fishmeal. This is because fishmeal could be very expensive at times. The three meals were used in feeding the catfish (Heterobranchus isopterus) fry for 30 days. The study was conducted in 1991 at the Institute of Renewable Natural Resources Farm, University of Science and Technology. Two replicate...
Zhu, Feng-Xiang; Yao, Yan-Lai; Wang, Su-Juan; Du, Rong-Guang; Wang, Wei-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Yang; Hong, Chun-Lai; Qi, Bing; Xue, Zhi-Yong; Yang, Hong-Quan
In traditional composting, large amounts of bulking agents must be added to reduce the moisture of pig manure, which increases the cost of composting and dilutes the N, P and K content in organic fertilizers. In this study, maggot treatment was used in composting instead of bulking agents. In experiment of selecting an optimal inoculum level for composting, the treatment of 0.5% maggot inoculum resulted in the maximum yield of late instar maggots, 11.6% (maggots weight/manure weight). The manure residue became noticeably granular by day 6 and its moisture content was below 60%, which was suitable for further composting without bulking agents. Moreover, in composting experiment with a natural compost without maggot inoculum and maggot-treated compost at 0.5% inoculum level, there were no significant differences in nutrient content between the two organic fertilizers from the two treatments (paired Student's t15=1.0032, P=0.3317). Therefore, maggot culturing did not affect the characteristics of the organic fertilizer. The content of TNPK (total nitrogen+total phosphorus+total potassium) in organic fertilizer from maggot treatment was 10.72% (dry weight), which was far more than that of organic fertilizer made by conventional composting with bulking agents (about 8.0%). Dried maggots as feed meet the national standard (GB/T19164-2003) for commercial fish meal in China, which contained 55.32 ± 1.09% protein; 1.34 ± 0.02% methionine; 4.15 ± 0.10% lysine. This study highlights housefly maggot-treated composting can be considered sustainable alternatives for pig manure management to achieve high-quality organic fertilizer and maggots as feed without bulking agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chain, Patrick S [ORNL; Hu, Ping [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Malfatti, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Radnedge, Lyndsay [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Vergez, Lisa [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Worsham, Patricia [U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases; Chu, May C [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Anderson, Gary L [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)
Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic and pneumonic plagues, has undergone detailed study at the molecular level. To further investigate the genomic diversity among this group and to help characterize lineages of the plague organism that have no sequenced members, we present here the genomes of two isolates of the ''classical'' antiqua biovar, strains Antiqua and Nepal516. The genomes of Antiqua and Nepal516 are 4.7 Mb and 4.5 Mb and encode 4,138 and 3,956 open reading frames, respectively. Though both strains belong to one of the three classical biovars, they represent separate lineages defined by recent phylogenetic studies. We compare all five currently sequenced Y. pestis genomes and the corresponding features in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. There are strain-specific rearrangements, insertions, deletions, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and a unique distribution of insertion sequences. We found 453 single nucleotide polymorphisms in protein-coding regions, which were used to assess the evolutionary relationships of these Y. pestis strains. Gene reduction analysis revealed that the gene deletion processes are under selective pressure, and many of the inactivations are probably related to the organism's interaction with its host environment. The results presented here clearly demonstrate the differences between the two biovar antiqua lineages and support the notion that grouping Y. pestis strains based strictly on the classical definition of biovars (predicated upon two biochemical assays) does not accurately reflect the phylogenetic relationships within this species. A comparison of four virulent Y. pestis strains with the human-avirulent strain 91001 provides further insight into the genetic basis of virulence to humans.
van der Plas, Mariena J A; Jukema, Gerrolt N; Wai, Sin-Wen
OBJECTIVES: Lucilia sericata maggots are successfully used for treating chronic wounds. As the healing process in these wounds is complicated by bacteria, particularly when residing in biofilms that protect them from antibiotics and the immune system, we assessed the effects of maggot excretions...
A 56-day experiment was conducted to determine thereplacement value of maggot meal for fish meal in diet of laying chicken. Fish meal was included at 30 g kg-1 of the control diet. Maggot meal incrementally replaced fish meal at 250, 500, 750, and 1000 g kg-1 on crude protein basis. The five diets were fed to a total of ...
Meyling, Nicolai Vitt; Navntoft, Søren; Philipsen, Holger Frederik
In a field experiment, we evaluated effects of three different organic white cabbage-cropping systems (O1, O2, O3) on the cabbage root fly, Delia radicum, and its egg predators and pupal parasitoids over 3 years. The three systems all complied with regulations for organic production, but varied...... in external nutrient input and N-recycling, and were compared to a conventionally farmed control. One organic system (O3) included an intercropped strip of green manure between crop rows. Oviposition by D. radicum was generally not reduced in organic cropping systems. However, higher pupae/egg ratios were...... observed in the conventional compared to all organic systems, indicating that immature survival from oviposition to pupation was reduced under all the three organic farming practices. In organic system O2 most small coleopteran predators were recorded, but predation on fly eggs was not significantly higher...
Full Text Available It is now a universally acknowledged fact that maggot therapy can be used successfully to treat chronic, long-standing, infected wounds, which have previously failed to respond to conventional treatment. Such wounds are typically characterized by the presence of necrotic tissue, underlying infection and poor healing. Maggot therapy employs the use of freshly emerged, sterile larvae of the common green-bottle fly, Phaenicia (Lucilia sericata, and is a form of artificially induced myiasis in a controlled clinical situation. In this review article, we will discuss the role of maggots and their preparation for clinical use. Maggot therapy has the following three core beneficial effects on a wound: debridement, disinfection and enhanced healing. In part I we explore our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying these effects.
Anup Kumar Talukder
Full Text Available Objecitve: Maggot wound is common in domestic and pet animals but report on maggot wound treatment in wildlife species is scanty. The study reported here the surgical and conservative management of maggot wounds including anesthetic protocol and postoperative care in two Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris. Materials and methods: One female and one male tiger were presented with maggot wounds for treatment at the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Safari Park, Gazipur, Bangladesh. Tigers were anesthetized with combined injection of xylazine (dosed at 1.0 mg/kg bwt, IM and ketamine hydrochloride (dosed at 3.5 mg/kg bwt, IM. Superficial maggots were removed from wounds using sterile tissue forceps. Gauze soaked in oil of turpentine was allowed to remain in each wound pocket for 5 min for the removal of deep-seated maggots. Finally, wounds were dressed with tincture iodine to clean out the dead tissue debris and to induce inflammation for rapid healing. A single subcutaneous injection of ivermectin (dosed at 200 µg/kg bwt, IM was given in each tiger. In addition, long acting oxytetracycline (dosed at 10 mg/kg bwt, IM on 48 h interval for six days, chlorpheniramine maleate (dosed at 1 mg/kg bwt, IM once daily for three days, and ascorbic acid (dosed at 250 mg/tiger, IM once daily for seven days were administered in both tigers. Results: The tigers were recovered successfully without any complications in two weeks following treatment. Conclusion: Surgical management using oil of turpentine and tincture iodine along with parenteral administration of ivermectin, long acting oxytetracycline and chlorpheniramine maleate are effective for successful management of maggot wounds in Bengal tigers. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(1.000: 104-109
Márcio Henrique Muraca
Full Text Available O artigo pretende aproximar a figura popular da bruxa ao mito da mulher funesta, símbolo da ameaça da ordem política pela perturbação da consciência moral de uma época. Além da crença da bruxaria e dos mitos em torno da mulher, é possível chegar ao embate entre público e privado, político e psicológico. Quatro personagens femininas consagradas ilustram a tese que aqui se pretende: Medeia (Eurípedes – teatro grego, Lady Macbeth (Shakespeare – teatro moderno, Delia (Cortázar – literatura latino-americana, séc. XX e Catherine Tramell (Osborne – obra fílmica blockbuster e livro baseado no script. O princípio teórico norteador deste estudo é o das relações de poder, de Michel Foucault, sobretudo por meio da obra Microfísica do Poder. Quanto à questão da bruxa/bruxaria, o artigo vale-se de Pensando em Demônios, de Stuart Clark.
Sun, Xinjuan; Chen, Jin'an; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Wei; Sun, Jinshan; Wang, Aiping
To determine the role of maggot debridement therapy (MDT) on diabetic foot wound healing, we compared growth related factors in wounds before and after treatment. Furthermore, we utilized human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to explore responses to maggot excretions/secretions on markers of angiogenesis and proliferation. The results showed that there was neo-granulation and angiogenesis in diabetic foot wounds after MDT. Moreover, significant elevation in CD34 and CD68 levels was also observed in treated wounds. In vitro, ES increased HUVEC proliferation, improved tube formation, and increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 in a dose dependent manner. These results demonstrate that MDT and maggot ES can promote diabetic foot wound healing by up-regulating endothelial cell activity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Basti, Leila; Nagai, Kiyohito; Go, Jiyoji; Okano, Sho; Oda, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Yuji; Nagai, Satoshi
The inimical effects of the ichthyotoxic harmful algal bloom (HAB)-forming raphidophytes Heterosigma akashiwo, Chattonella marina, and Chattonella antiqua on the early-life stages of the Japanese pearl oyster Pinctada fucata martensii were studied. Fertilized eggs and developing embryos were not affected following exposure to the harmful raphidophytes; however, all three algal species severely affected trochophores and D-larvae, early-stage D-larvae, and late-stage pre-settling larvae. Exposure to C. marina (5×10 2 cellsml -1 ), C. antiqua (10 3 cellsml -1 ), and H. akashiwo (5×10 3 cellsml -1 ) resulted in decreased success of metamorphosis to the trochophore stage. A complete inhibition of trochophore metamorphosis was observed following exposure to C. antiqua at 5×10 3 cellsml -1 and C. marina at 8×10 3 cellsml -1 . In all experiments, more than 80% of newly formed trochophores were anomalous, and in the case of exposure to H. akashiwo at 10 5 cellsml -1 more than 70% of D-larvae were anomalous. The activity rates of D-larvae (1-day-old) were significantly reduced following exposure to C. antiqua (8×10 3 cellsml -1 , 24h), C. marina (8×10 3 cellsml -1 , 24h), and H. akashiwo (10 4 cellsml -1 , 24h). The activity rates of pre-settling larvae (21-day-old) were also significantly reduced following exposure to C. antiqua (10 3 cellsml -1 , 24h),C. marina (8×10 3 cellsml -1 , 24h), and H. akashiwo (5×10 4 cellsml -1 , 24h). Significant mortalities of both larval stages were induced by all three raphidophytes, with higher mortality rates registered for pre-settling larvae than D-larvae, especially following exposure to C. marina (5×10 2 -8×10 3 cellsml -1 , 48-86h) and C. antiqua (10 3 -8×10 3 cellsml -1 , 72-86h). Contact between raphidophyte cells and newly metamorphosed trochophores and D-larvae, 1-day-old D-larvae, and 21-day-old larvae resulted in microscopic changes in the raphidophytes, and then, in the motile early-life stages of pearl oysters. Upon
Ronald A. Sherman
Full Text Available Medicinal maggots are believed to have three major mechanisms of action on wounds, brought about chemically and through physical contact: debridement (cleaning of debris, disinfection, and hastened wound healing. Until recently, most of the evidence for these claims was anecdotal; but the past 25 years have seen an increase in the use and study of maggot therapy. Controlled clinical studies are now available, along with laboratory investigations that examine the interaction of maggot and host on a cellular and molecular level. This review was undertaken to extract the salient data, make sense, where possible, of seemingly conflicting evidence, and reexamine our paradigm for maggot-induced wound healing. Clinical and laboratory data strongly support claims of effective and efficient debridement. Clinical evidence for hastened wound healing is meager, but laboratory studies and some small, replicated clinical studies strongly suggest that maggots do promote tissue growth and wound healing, though it is likely only during and shortly after the period when they are present on the wound. The best way to evaluate—and indeed realize—maggot-induced wound healing may be to use medicinal maggots as a “maintenance debridement” modality, applying them beyond the point of gross debridement.
Daniel Gachuiri Njau
Full Text Available Frequently, forensic entomology is applied in the use of insect maggots for the identification of specimens or remains of humans. Maggot crop analysis could be valuable in criminal investigations when maggots are found at a crime scene and a corpse is absent. Human short tandem repeat (STR has previously been used to support the association of maggots to a specific corpse but not in the period at which the body has been decomposing. The aim of this research was to assess the time period for successful STR analyses of human DNA from third instar maggots (Protophormia terraenovae obtained from decomposing human corpses as well as to investigate the human DNA turnover and degradation in the maggot crop after they are removed from food and/or are fed on a beef (a new/different food source. Results showed that the amount of human DNA recovered from maggots decreased with time in all cases. For maggots fed on beef, the human DNA could only be recovered up to day two and up to day four for the starved maggots. STR analyses of human DNA from maggots’ crop content using 16 loci generated profiles that matched those of reference samples although some of the alleles were not amplifiable therefore generating partial profiles for the samples starved for 4 days and those fed on beef. This may be due to nuclease activity present in the gut of larvae that may have caused degradation of DNA and consequently reduction in DNA yield. It was possible to identify the decomposing body using STRs as markers.
One hundred and twenty (120) 4-week old finisher broilers of Ross breed were used to study the effect of feeding maggot meal replacing fish meal on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass and organ characteristics. The birds were divided into 5 treatment groups identified as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 with 24 birds in ...
Čeřovský, Václav; Bém, R.
Roč. 7, č. 3 (2014), s. 251-264 ISSN 1424-8247 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0536 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : antimicrobial peptide * insect defensin * lucifensin * maggot therapy * Lucilia sericata * Lucilia cuprina * peptide isolation * peptide identification Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry http://www.mdpi.com/1424-8247/7/3/251
'The Maggot Within': The state security apparatus in Ngũgĩ's Wizard of the Crow. ... the state security apparatus in Wizard of the Crow promote shady business deals and as well systematize corruption. ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...
Hsu, Yu-Feng; Huang, Hang-Chi; Lu, Chen-Chih
In recent years, a considerable number of pierid butterflies of the genus Delias have been found from Jinmen Islands, where no available hostplants grow, rendering a proof of cross sea water migration of these butterflies. It is suggested here that these butterflies come from nearby continent of eastern China, visiting the islands for nectar acquisition in seasons when nectar is in short supply because they mostly show up in autumn months. Samples obtained during the survey contained two species, namely Delias pasithoe (Linnaeus, 1767) and Delias acalis (Godart, 1819). Subspecific names applied to both species in eastern China appear to involve nomenclatural problems, with erroneous usage in recent literature.
Razinger, Jaka; Lutz, Matthias; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Palmisano, Marilena; Wohler, Christian; Urek, Gregor; Grunder, Jürg
A potential Delia radicum biological control strategy involving cauliflower plantlet inoculation with various fungi was investigated in a series of laboratory and glasshouse experiments. In addition to entomopathogenic fungi, fungi with a high rhizosphere competence and fungi with the ability to survive as saprotrophs in soil were tested. The following fungal species were evaluated in the experiments: Trichoderma atroviride, T. koningiopsis, T. gamsii, Beauveria bassiana, Metharhizium anisopliae, M. brunneum and Clonostachys solani. A commercial carbosulfan-based insecticide was used as a positive control. Additionally, two commercial products, one based on B. bassiana (Naturalis) and one on Bacillus thuringiensis (Delfin) were used as reference biocontrol agents. The aims were (i) to assess the pathogenicity of the selected fungal isolates to Delia radicum, (ii) to evaluate the fungal isolates' rhizosphere competence, with the emphasis on the persistence of the original inoculum on the growing roots, (iii) to assess possible endophytic plant tissue colonization, and (iv) to evaluate potential plant growth stimulating effects of the added inoculi. Significant pathogenicity of tested fungi against Delia radicum was confirmed in in vitro and glasshouse experiments. All tested fungi persisted on cauliflower rhizoplane. More importantly, the added fungi were found on thoroughly washed roots outside the original point of inoculation. This provided us with evidence that our tested fungi could be transferred via or grow with the elongating roots. In addition to colonizing the rhizoplane, some fungi were found inside the plant root or stem tissue, thus exhibiting endophytic characteristics. The importance of fungal ecology as a criterion in appropriate biological control agent selection is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sukontason, Kom; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Piangjai, Somsak; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Boonchu, Noppawan; Kurahashi, Hiromu
We reported on the hairy maggot of Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton, collected from a human corpse in Thailand. Although the general morphology of the third instar closely resembled the more common hairy maggot blow fly, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), the spines along the tubercles of each body segment could be used as a feature to distinguish between these species, with those of C. villeneuri bearing sharp-ended spines that encircle the entire tubercle. Not only has the resemblance of a hairy appearance between C. villeneuvi and C. rufifacies larvae been documented but also their similarity in predacious feeding behavior. The differentiation between these two species is necessary for post-mortem interval estimation in the corpse.
Bohac, M; Cambal, M; Zamborsky, R; Takac, P; Fedeles, J
Complex injuries of the hand remain a therapeutic challenge for surgeons. We present the case of a male who suffered a devastating injury of the hand caused by a conveyor belt. The patient developed a progressive Absidia corymbifera infection of the affected soft tissues. Initial treatments with serial surgical debridement and topical and intravenous itraconazole were unsuccessful in eliminating the infection. We decided to use maggot debridement therapy in a new special design to debride all necrotic, devitalized tissue and preserve only healthy tissue and functioning structures. This maneuverer followed by negative pressure therapy allowed progressive healing. In such complex hand injuries, maggot debridement combined with negative pressure therapy could be considered to achieve effective and considerable results, although future functional morbidity may occur (Fig. 4, Ref. 18).
Full Text Available For several decades, Drosophila has been widely used as a suitable model organism to study the fundamental processes of associative olfactory learning and memory. More recently, this condition also became true for the Drosophila larva, which has become a focus for learning and memory studies based on a number of technical advances in the field of anatomical, molecular, and neuronal analyses. The ongoing efforts should be mentioned to reconstruct the complete connectome of the larval brain featuring a total of about 10,000 neurons and the development of neurogenic tools that allow individual manipulation of each neuron. By contrast, standardized behavioral assays that are commonly used to analyze learning and memory in Drosophila larvae exhibit no such technical development. Most commonly, a simple assay with Petri dishes and odor containers is used; in this method, the animals must be manually transferred in several steps. The behavioral approach is therefore labor-intensive and limits the capacity to conduct large-scale genetic screenings in small laboratories. To circumvent these limitations, we introduce a training device called the Maggot Instructor. This device allows automatic training up to 10 groups of larvae in parallel. To achieve such goal, we used fully automated, computer-controlled optogenetic activation of single olfactory neurons in combination with the application of electric shocks. We showed that Drosophila larvae trained with the Maggot Instructor establish an odor-specific memory, which is independent of handling and non-associative effects. The Maggot Instructor will allow to investigate the large collections of genetically modified larvae in a short period and with minimal human resources. Therefore, the Maggot Instructor should be able to help extensive behavioral experiments in Drosophila larvae to keep up with the current technical advancements. In the longer term, this condition will lead to a better understanding of
Chromosal rearrangements in the onion fly Hylemya antiqua (Meigen), induced and isolated for genetic insect control purposes : studies on cytogenetics and fertility, with emphasis on an X-linked translocation
Heemert, van C.
The aim of this investigation was to isolate structural chromosome mutations causing "semi"-sterility which can be used for genetic control of the onion fly Hylemya antiqua (Meigen). For the induction, X-rays or fast neutrons were applied in different doses on males and females.
Johnson, Aidan; Archer, Melanie; Leigh-Shaw, Lyndie; Pais, Mike; O'Donnell, Chris; Wallman, James
A new technique has recently been developed for estimating the volume of maggot masses on deceased persons using post-mortem CT scans. This allows volume to be measured non-invasively and factored into maggot mass temperature calculations for both casework and research. Examination of admission scans also allows exploration of entomological evidence in anatomical areas not usually exposed by autopsy (e.g. nasal cavities and facial sinuses), and before autopsy disrupts the maggot distribution on a body. This paper expands on work already completed by providing the x-ray attenuation coefficient by way of Hounsfield unit (HU) values for various maggot species, maggot masses and human tissue adjacent to masses. Specifically, this study looked at the HU values for four forensically important blowfly larvae: Lucilia cuprina, L. sericata, Calliphora stygia and C. vicina. The Calliphora species had significantly lower HU values than the Lucilia species. This might be explained by histological analysis, which revealed a non-significant trend, suggesting that Calliphora maggots have a higher fat content than the Lucilia maggots. It is apparent that the variation in the x-ray attenuation coefficient usually precludes its use as a tool for delineating the maggot mass from human tissue and that morphology is the dominant method for delineating a mass. This paper also includes three case studies, which reveal different applications for interpreting entomological evidence using post-mortem CT scans.
Zhu, Feng-Xiang; Wang, Wei-Ping; Hong, Chun-Lai; Feng, Ming-Guang; Xue, Zhi-Yong; Chen, Xiao-Yang; Yao, Yan-Lai; Yu, Man
A two-stage composting experiment was performed to utilize pig manure for producing maggots as feed supplement and organic fertilizer. Seven-day composting of 1.8 ton fresh manure inoculated with 9 kg mixture of housefly neonates and wheat bran produced 193 kg aging maggots, followed by 12 week composting to maturity. Reaching the thermophilic phase and final maturity faster was characteristic of the maggot-treated compost compared with the same-size natural compost. Upon the transit of the maggot-treated compost to the second stage, the composting temperature maintained around 55 °C for 9 days and the moisture decreased to ~40%. Moreover, higher pH, faster detoxification and different activity patterns for some microbial enzymes were observed. There was a strong material loss (35% water-soluble carbon and 16% total nitrogen) caused by the maggot culture in the first stage. Our results highlight a higher economic value of pig manure achieved through the two-stage composting without bulking agents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van der Plas, Mariena J A; van Dissel, Jaap T; Nibbering, Peter H
BACKGROUND: Maggots of the blowfly Lucilia sericata are used for the treatment of chronic wounds. Earlier we reported maggot secretions to inhibit pro-inflammatory responses of human monocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maggot secretions on the differentiation...... for 18 h. The expression of cell surface molecules and the levels of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors in supernatants were measured. Our results showed secretions to affect monocyte-macrophage differentiation leading to MØ-1 with a partial MØ-2-like morphology but lacking CD163, which...... is characteristic for MØ-2. In response to LPS or LTA, secretions-differentiated MØ-1 produced less pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-12p40 and MIF) than control cells. Similar results were observed for MØ-2 when stimulated with low concentrations of LPS. Furthermore, secretions dose-dependently led to MØ-1...
Marilia A.R.Q. Pinheiro
Full Text Available This study reports the efficacy of maggot therapy in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer infected with multidrug resistant microorganisms. A 74 year old female patient with diabetes for over 30 years, was treated with maggot therapy using larvae of Chrysomya megacephala. The microbiological samples were collected to evaluate aetiology of the infection. The therapy done for 43 days resulted in a reduction of necrosis and the ulcer′s retraction of 0.7 cm  in area. Analysis of the bacteriological swabs revealed the presence of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Further studies need to be done to confirm the role of maggot therapy in wound healing using a large sample and a proper study design.
Putri, Dwi Septiani; Haryati; Zainuddin
This study aims to determine the extent of substitution of fish meal with maggot meal as a protein source that can produce the chemical composition of feed and a good body for milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal). This study used a complete randomized design (CRD) with five treatments and three replications. Treatment to be tested is the substitution of fish meal with maggot meal as much as 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Fish that used to have an average weight individual 0.84-0....
Sanei-Dehkordi, Alireza; Khamesipour, Ali; Akbarzadeh, Kamran; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Mir Amin Mohammadi, Akram; Mohammadi, Younes; Rassi, Yavar; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Alebrahim, Zahra; Eskandari, Seyed Ebrahim; Rafinejad, Javad
Use of sterile fly larvae (maggots) of blow flies for the treatment of many different types of skin and soft tissue wounds is called Maggot debridement therapy (MDT). The larvae of blow flies secrete a broad spectrum of compounds with diverse mechanisms of action in the gut and salivary glands called excretion/secretion (ES) products which showed to have antimicrobial activities against Gram negative and positive bacteria. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) which is the common form of leishmaniasis is difficult to treat. In this study, the effect of ES from 2 nd and 3 rd stages of L. sericata and C. vicina larvae on in vitro Leishmania major amastigote growth in macrophage was evaluated. The effect of ES on Leishmania growth was estimated by assessing the rate of macrophage infection and the number of amastigotes per infected macrophages. In addition, the anti Leishmania activities of larval and ES of L. sericata and C. vicina on the skin lesion induced by L. major infection was evaluated in susceptible BALB/c mice. The results showed that ES of both flies reduced the number of infected macrophages; 2.6 and 1.5-fold using L. sericata ES and C. vicina ES, respectively, and inhibited amastigotes growth in macrophages; 2.03 and 1.36-fold by L. sericata ES and C. vicina ES, respectively as compared to the control group. The results showed that L. sericata ES was significantly more effective than C. vicina ES to inhibit in vitro L. major amastigotes growth, The size of lesion was significantly smaller in BALB/c mice treated with L. sericata ES than treated with C. vicina ES. The results of in vivo experiments suggested that pre-treatment with ES derived from L. sericata may have some protective effects on the development of L. major lesion. Therefore, it seems that maggot ES might be considered as a possible candidate for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van der Plas, Mariena J A; Dambrot, Cheryl; Dogterom-Ballering, Heleen C M
OBJECTIVES: Maggots of the blowfly Lucilia sericata are used for the treatment of chronic wounds. Previously we reported that maggot excretions/secretions (ES) break down Staphylococcus aureus biofilms but do not kill the bacteria. As many antibiotics are not effective against biofilms we assessed...... the effect of combinations of ES and antibiotics on S. aureus biofilms and on the survival of the bacteria released from the biofilms. METHODS: Effects of ES, antibiotics (vancomycin, daptomycin or clindamycin) and combinations thereof on S. aureus ATCC 29 213 biofilms and bacterial viability were determined...... using microtitre plates and in vitro killing assays. RESULTS: Vancomycin and daptomycin dose-dependently enhanced biofilm formation, whereas clindamycin reduced S. aureus biofilm size. Adding ES to antibiotic incubations caused a complete biofilm breakdown. After a lag time the bacteria derived from...
Franta, Zdeněk; Vogel, Heiko; Lehmann, Rüdiger; Rupp, Oliver; Goesmann, Alexander; Vilcinskas, Andreas
Lucilia sericata larvae are used as an alternative treatment for recalcitrant and chronic wounds. Their excretions/secretions contain molecules that facilitate tissue debridement, disinfect, or accelerate wound healing and have therefore been recognized as a potential source of novel therapeutic compounds. Among the substances present in excretions/secretions various peptidase activities promoting the wound healing processes have been detected but the peptidases responsible for these activities remain mostly unidentified. To explore these enzymes we applied next generation sequencing to analyze the transcriptomes of different maggot tissues (salivary glands, gut, and crop) associated with the production of excretions/secretions and/or with digestion as well as the rest of the larval body. As a result we obtained more than 123.8 million paired-end reads, which were assembled de novo using Trinity and Oases assemblers, yielding 41,421 contigs with an N50 contig length of 2.22 kb and a total length of 67.79 Mb. BLASTp analysis against the MEROPS database identified 1729 contigs in 577 clusters encoding five peptidase classes (serine, cysteine, aspartic, threonine, and metallopeptidases), which were assigned to 26 clans, 48 families, and 185 peptidase species. The individual enzymes were differentially expressed among maggot tissues and included peptidase activities related to the therapeutic effects of maggot excretions/secretions.
Eltablawy, S.Y.; Amin, M.M.
Essential Oils are widely used for their medicinal properties. They block adhesion and colonization of pathogenic microbes to epithelial cells which associated with bacterial resistance to antibiotics. So, this study investigates the effect of Lu cilia sacarato (flesh fly-an ectoparasitic) excretions of non-irradiated and irradiated maggot and some essential oils on biofilm formation by tube method, antimicrobial susceptibility by agar disc diffusion method as well as on their anti-adherent activity by spectrophotometric method. The results showed that excretions and secretions (E/S) of non-irradiated and irradiated maggots (at 20 Gy), as well as (clove and cinnamon oils) did not have antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Staphylococcus aureus (St. aureus) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (St. epidermidis) except marjoram oil which has low antimicrobial activity against all the tested strains. The results also showed that the most potent oil was clove which decrease biofilm of P. aeruginosa by 83%, followed by marjoram (69%), then E/S of non-irradiated maggots (66%). Whiles, biofilm was less affected by cinnamon oil and E/S of irradiated maggots by 50 % and 36%, respectively. In addition, clove oil and E/S of non-irradiated maggots affect the pre-adhered biofilm of P. aeruginosa by 57 and 45 %, respectively. Conclusion: Clove oil flowed by marjoram had anti-adherent effect on P. aeruginosa. Greater inhibition of adhesion was observed by excretions of non-irradiated lucilia sericata.
Sun, Xinjuan; Jiang, Kechun; Chen, Jingan; Wu, Liang; Lu, Hui; Wang, Aiping; Wang, Jianming
This study aimed to systematically evaluate maggot debridement therapy (MDT) in the treatment of chronically infected wounds and ulcers. We performed a meta-analysis referring to the PRISMA statement (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses). We searched for published articles in the following databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Wanfang (Chinese), and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). The latest search was updated on March 14, 2014. For dichotomous outcomes, the effects of MDT were expressed as the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). For continuous outcomes with different measurement scales, we calculated the standardized mean difference (SMD). The pooled effects were estimated using a fixed effect model or random effect model based on the heterogeneity test. Subgroup analyses were performed according to the types of wounds or ulcers. MDT had a significantly increased positive effect on wound healing compared with conventional therapies, with a pooled RR of 1.80 (95% CI 1.24-2.60). The subgroup analysis revealed that the combined RRs were 1.79 (95% CI 0.95-3.38) for patients with diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) and 1.70 (95% CI 1.28-2.27) for patients with other types of ulcers. The time to healing of the ulcers was significantly shorter among patients treated with MDT, with a pooled SMD of -0.95 (95% CI -1.24, -0.65). For patients with DFU, the SMD was -0.79 (95% CI -1.18, -0.41), and for patients with other types of ulcers, the SMD was -1.16 (95% CI -1.63, -0.69). MDT not only shortened the healing time but also improved the healing rate of chronic ulcers. Therefore, MDT may be a feasible alternative in the treatment of chronic ulcers. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Biofilms, sedimented microbial communities embedded in a biopolymer matrix cause vast majority of human bacterial infections and many severe complications such as chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. Biofilms' resistance to the host immunity and antibiotics makes this kind of infection particularly intractable. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are a ubiquitous facet of innate immunity in animals. However, AMPs activity was studied mainly on planktonic bacteria and little is known about their effects on biofilms. We studied structure and anti-biofilm activity of AMP complex produced by the maggots of blowfly Calliphora vicina living in environments extremely contaminated by biofilm-forming germs. The complex exhibits strong cell killing and matrix destroying activity against human pathogenic antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii biofilms as well as non-toxicity to human immune cells. The complex was found to contain AMPs from defensin, cecropin, diptericin and proline-rich peptide families simultaneously expressed in response to bacterial infection and encoded by hundreds mRNA isoforms. All the families combine cell killing and matrix destruction mechanisms, but the ratio of these effects and antibacterial activity spectrum are specific to each family. These molecules dramatically extend the list of known anti-biofilm AMPs. However, pharmacological development of the complex as a whole can provide significant advantages compared with a conventional one-component approach. In particular, a similar level of activity against biofilm and planktonic bacteria (MBEC/MIC ratio provides the complex advantage over conventional antibiotics. Available methods of the complex in situ and in vitro biosynthesis make this idea practicable.
Gordya, Natalia; Yakovlev, Andrey; Kruglikova, Anastasia; Tulin, Dmitry; Potolitsina, Evdokia; Suborova, Tatyana; Bordo, Domenico; Rosano, Camillo; Chernysh, Sergey
Biofilms, sedimented microbial communities embedded in a biopolymer matrix cause vast majority of human bacterial infections and many severe complications such as chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. Biofilms' resistance to the host immunity and antibiotics makes this kind of infection particularly intractable. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a ubiquitous facet of innate immunity in animals. However, AMPs activity was studied mainly on planktonic bacteria and little is known about their effects on biofilms. We studied structure and anti-biofilm activity of AMP complex produced by the maggots of blowfly Calliphora vicina living in environments extremely contaminated by biofilm-forming germs. The complex exhibits strong cell killing and matrix destroying activity against human pathogenic antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii biofilms as well as non-toxicity to human immune cells. The complex was found to contain AMPs from defensin, cecropin, diptericin and proline-rich peptide families simultaneously expressed in response to bacterial infection and encoded by hundreds mRNA isoforms. All the families combine cell killing and matrix destruction mechanisms, but the ratio of these effects and antibacterial activity spectrum are specific to each family. These molecules dramatically extend the list of known anti-biofilm AMPs. However, pharmacological development of the complex as a whole can provide significant advantages compared with a conventional one-component approach. In particular, a similar level of activity against biofilm and planktonic bacteria (MBEC/MIC ratio) provides the complex advantage over conventional antibiotics. Available methods of the complex in situ and in vitro biosynthesis make this idea practicable.
Esteve Valls Alecha
Full Text Available This paper presents a first dialectometric approach to the geolinguistic distribution of the Romance varieties using a new corpus based on the Atlas Linguistique Roman ( ALiR which is currently being developed at the Centro Ramón Piñeiro para a Investigación en Humanidades. The dialectometrization of the ALiR will not only allow us to analyze linguistic distance among the varieties of the Romania Antiqua, but may also shed light from a quantitative perspective on several issues that have historically aroused controversy. Specifically, this paper deals with the degree of individuality of the Galician language with respect to Portuguese and Spanish (a controversy closely related to the still ongoing debate about the standardization of Galician, and concludes that reinforcing the presence and visibility of elements shared with Portuguese in corpus planning may have a postive effect on its prestige.
Deasy, William; Shepherd, Tom; Alexander, Colin J; Birch, A Nicholas E; Evans, K Andrew
Collection of volatiles from plant roots poses technical challenges due to difficulties accessing the soil environment without damaging the roots. To validate a new non-invasive method for passive sampling of root volatiles in situ, from plants grown under field conditions, using solid phase micro-extraction (SPME). SPME fibres were inserted into perforated polytetrafluoroethene (PTFE) tubes positioned in the soil next to broccoli plants for collection of root volatiles pre- and post-infestation with Delia radicum larvae. After sample analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to determine differences in the profiles of volatiles between samples. GC-MS analysis revealed that this method can detect temporal changes in root volatiles emitted before and after Delia radicum damage. PCA showed that samples collected pre- and post-infestation were compositionally different due to the presence of root volatiles induced by D. radicum feeding. Sulphur containing compounds, in particular, accounted for the differences observed. Root volatiles emission patterns post-infestation are thought to follow the feeding and developmental progress of larvae. This study shows that volatiles released by broccoli roots can be collected in situ using SPME fibres within perforated PTFE tubes under field conditions. Plants damaged by Delia radicum larvae could be distinguished from plants sampled pre-infestation and soil controls on the basis of larval feeding-induced sulphur-containing volatiles. These results show that this new method is a powerful tool for non-invasive sampling of root volatiles below-ground. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Background: Infections include soft tissue infections are notable reason for hospital admission among IDUs, owing to unsterile injection techniques and equipment, contamination of drugs with organisms, and poor hygiene. In present case report a patient with profound limb infection is introduced. Case: A 32 years old man was transferred to the emergency department. He was IDU with Iranian for 3 years. Gangrenous deformity of left lower extremity below the knee was seen. Live maggots were moving around the limb freely. The patient underwent before knee amputation (BKA to remove the infected tissues of the limb. Conclusion: In order to evaluate and treat the serious infectious disease problems, drug abuse treatment programs will need to develop appropriate procedures. It is important that physicians, nurses, and other health care providers become better educated about drug abuse. Workers in drug abuse treatment should be well informed about infectious diseases and other complications of drug abuse.
Daniela Marina Mot
Full Text Available Myiasis represents an infestation of animals and humans caused by the maggots of certain fly species of Diptera order, Insecta class, which feed on the hosts' living or dead tissues or body fluids. In sheep, myiasis is a major animal welfare issue developing serious pain, suffering and in untreated cases may result in tissue injuries, reproduction and productivity losses and even death. There are two most important fly species which cause traumatic cutaneous myiasis of sheep in Europe: Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Sarcophagidae implicated in etiology of wound myiasis in southern and eastern Europe and Lucilia sericata (Calliphoridae, implicated in etiology of sheep strike, mainly in the middle latitudes of Europe continent. A few farmers from Timiş, Arad and Caraş-Severin counties were been asked to response to a questionnaire on the prevalence of traumatic myiasis which evolved in their sheep flock in April-September period of year 2012. From a total number of 2206 sheep taken into study were been discovered 1658 healthy sheep (75.16% and 548 sheep with myiasis (24.84%. From identified lesions with myiasis were been collected insects maggots from all three stages of development and were been prepared in Microbiology laboratory in the view to obtain data on the culturable bacteria isolated under aerobic conditions. Bacteria detected from maggots samples were: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus vulgaris, Micrococcus luteus and Escherichia coli. The myasis insects maggots in sheep infestation can acquire many bacteria from their host or from their surroundings, all these can, together another bacteria, complicate the lesions and without treatment may lead to animals death.
Khan, S; Khan, R U; Sultan, A; Khan, M; Hayat, S U; Shahid, M S
This study was conducted to replace soya bean meal with maggot meal at difference percentages. A total of 120 one-day-old broiler chicks were divided into four groups. Four diets were formulated with maggot meal to replace soya bean meal at the rate of 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% designated as A, B, C and D respectively. Feed and water were offered ad libitum during the study which lasted for 28 days. Feed intake decreased significantly in treated groups while body weight, Feed conversion ratio and dressing percentage increased significantly in group D. Apparent metabolizable energy increased significantly in the group fed 30% maggot meal; however, no significant difference was found in dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract, ash and nitrogen free extract between the control and treated groups. The result of sensory evaluation revealed that tenderness and juiciness increased significantly in group C and B respectively. The colour and flavour were most accepted in group B and C. The results indicate that replacement of soya bean meal at the rate of 30% in broiler feed produced most favourable results. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Johnson, Aidan P; Wighton, Samuel J; Wallman, James F
The current study responds to the lack of understanding about the temperatures experienced by individual blow fly larvae within "maggot masses." The temperature selection of both aggregating (in a mass) and nonaggregating larvae was compared and their pattern of movement assessed. Infrared imaging determined the temperatures within a mass and in the vicinity of the constituent individual larvae, whose movements were tracked by dyeing their tissues red. Individual Chrysomya rufifacies larvae selected temperatures above 27°C, significantly higher than the temperature selected by Calliphora vicina larvae (24.5°C). However, this same difference was not seen within a mass, with both species selecting temperatures around 28°C. Larval movement in a mass was nonrandom, indicating that larvae actively select their position in a mass. Furthermore, larvae have a strong tendency to select the hottest part of a mass; therefore, maximum mass temperatures might provide a reliable proxy for the actual temperatures experienced by larvae. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Dong, Jian-Li; Dong, Hai-Cao; Yang, Liang; Qiu, Zhe-Wen; Liu, Jia; Li, Hong; Zhong, Li-Xia; Song, Xue; Zhang, Peng; Li, Pei-Nan; Zheng, Lian-Jie
Maggot extract (ME) accelerates rat skin wound healing, however its effect on cell maintenance in wound tissues remains unclear. B‑cell lymphoma (Bcl) 2‑associated athanogene (BAG)3 inhibits apoptosis and promotes autophagy by associating with Bcl‑2 or Beclin 1. Bcl‑2, the downstream effector of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling, is enhanced in ME‑treated wound tissues, which may reinforce the Bcl‑2 anti‑apoptotic activity and/or cooperate with Beclin 1 to regulate autophagy during wound healing. The present study investigated expression levels of BAG3, Bcl‑2, Beclin 1 and light chain (LC)3 levels in rat skin wound tissues in the presence and absence of ME treatment. The results revealed frequent TUNEL‑negative cell death in the wound tissues in the early three days following injury, irrespective to ME treatment. TUNEL‑positive cells appeared in the wound tissues following 4 days of injury and 150 µg/ml ME efficiently reduced apoptotic rate and enhanced BAG3 and Bcl‑2 expression. Elevated Beclin 1 and LC3 levels and an increased LC3 II ratio were revealed in the ME‑treated tissues during the wound healing. The results of the present study demonstrate the anti‑apoptotic effects of BAG3 and Bcl‑2 in ME‑promoted wound healing. Beclin 1/LC3 mediated autophagy may be favorable in maintaining cell survival in the damaged tissues and ME‑upregulated BAG3 may enhance its activity.
Otsyula, R.M.; Nderitu, J.H.
Field bean phaseolus vulgaris tolerance to root rot (BRR) and bean stem maggot (BSM) is enhanced by improvement of soil nutrients. Organic and inorganic sources of soil nutrients were evaluated in this study to determine their effects on crop tolerance to BRR and BSM. Three variety of GLP 585 susceptible to BRR and BSM; GLP X92 tolerant to BRR and BSM; and KK-8 resistant to BRR and BSM were used. The study was conducted in farmer's field with high level of BRR and BSM over three seasons in a split plot design. Nutrient sources were laid down in main plots while varieties were in subplots. KK-8 gave the highest plant survival and yield over the seasons. GLP 585 had the lowest mean yield and plant survival. Crop tolerance was greatly improved by application of DAP as applied as nutrient sources and varieties for crop tolerance were identified
Zhang, Hui; Wu, Shengyong; Xing, Zhenlong; Wang, Xiaoqing; Lei, Zhongren
When flies were dipped in 1 × 10 8 conidia/ml conidia suspensions and then kept in the incubator (22 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 5% RH), scanning electron microscope observations revealed that, at 2 h, the majority of adhering Beauveria bassiana conidia were attached to either the wing surface or the interstitial area between the macrochaetae on the thorax and abdomen of the onion maggot adults. Germ tubes were being produced and had oriented toward the cuticle by 18 h. Penetration of the insect cuticle had occurred by 36 h, and by 48 h, germ tubes had completely penetrated the cuticle. Fungal mycelia had emerged from the insect body and were proliferating after 72 h. The superficial area and structure of the wings and macrochaetae may facilitate the attachment of conidia and enable effective penetration. The susceptibility of adults to 12 isolates, at a concentration of 1 × 10 7 conidia/ml, was tested in laboratory experiments. Eight of the more potent strains caused in excess of 85% adult mortality 8 d post inoculation, while the median lethal time (LT 50 ) of these strains was bassiana strains are highly virulent to onion maggot adults and should be considered as potential biocontrol agents against the adult flies. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Development and Validation of a SPME-GC-MS Method for In situ Passive Sampling of Root Volatiles from Glasshouse-Grown Broccoli Plants Undergoing Below-Ground Herbivory by Larvae of Cabbage Root Fly, Delia radicum L.
Deasy, William; Shepherd, Tom; Alexander, Colin J; Birch, A Nicholas E; Evans, K Andrew
Research on plant root chemical ecology has benefited greatly from recent developments in analytical chemistry. Numerous reports document techniques for sampling root volatiles, although only a limited number describe in situ collection. To demonstrate a new method for non-invasive in situ passive sampling using solid phase micro extraction (SPME), from the immediate vicinity of growing roots. SPME fibres inserted into polyfluorotetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sampling tubes located in situ which were either perforated, covered with stainless steel mesh or with microporous PTFE tubing, were used for non-invasive sub-surface sampling of root volatiles from glasshouse-grown broccoli. Sampling methods were compared with above surface headspace collection using Tenax TA. The roots were either mechanically damaged or infested with Delia radicum larvae. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to investigate the effect of damage on the composition of volatiles released by broccoli roots. Analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with SPME and automated thermal desorption (ATD) confirmed that sulphur compounds, showing characteristic temporal emission patterns, were the principal volatiles released by roots following insect larval damage. Use of SPME with in situ perforated PTFE sampling tubes was the most robust method for out-of-lab sampling. This study describes a new method for non-invasive passive sampling of volatiles in situ from intact and insect damaged roots using SPME. The method is highly suitable for remote sampling and has potential for wide application in chemical ecology/root/soil research. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Cammack, Jonathan A; Nelder, Mark P
The hairy maggot blow fly Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) has expanded its range in the United States since its introduction into Texas (ca. 1980) and has been collected in 15 states. We investigated the bionomics of immature and adult C. rufifacies collected from carcasses of a raccoon Procyon lotor (Linnaeus) and white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman in Upstate South Carolina during November 2007, and used these insects to estimate the minimum period of insect activity. Puparia of C. rufifacies were collected from deer carrion; 28% were parasitized by Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). The mean daily ambient temperature during this study was 11.4+/-1.02 degrees C, representing the lowest recorded mean temperature for adult activity of C. rufifacies; adults of C. rufifacies were observed flying among the carcasses at 9.0 degrees C. Although C. rufifacies is considered a warm-weather blow fly, researchers should be aware of its activity at suboptimal conditions, behavior that might aid its expansion into more northern areas. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Silvia Emelia Herrera Higuita
Full Text Available
Larval therapy is used in the treatment of infected chronic wounds by allowing the removal of necrotic tissue, which induces the formation of granular tissue and the growth of healthy skin.
Considering the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance, this type of therapy may be an effective alternative in the management of infected chronic wounds. In this article we report the use of maggot therapy using the Lucilia eximia species in 42 patients with chronic skin wounds associated to different pathologies including: venous and arterial ulcers, diabetic foot, sickle cell disease, vasculopathy, elephantiasis, Berger disease, pyoderma gangrenosum (PG, traumatic wounds, erysipelas, and hospital acquired infections. Four cases are depicted photographically.
La terapia larval es utilizada desde los años 30 del siglo pasado para la remoción del tejido necrótico en el tratamiento de úlceras crónicas infectadas logrando con ello promover la formación de tejido granuloso para el crecimiento de piel sana; especialmente a partir de la aparición de la resistencia a los antibioticos se la reconoce
Klassen, W.; Curtis, C.F.
During the 1930s and 1940s the idea of releasing insects of pest species to introduce sterility (sterile insect technique or SIT) into wild populations, and thus control them, was independently conceived in three extremely diverse intellectual environments. The key researchers were A. S. Serebrovskii at Moscow State University, F. L. Vanderplank at a tsetse field research station in rural Tanganyika (now Tanzania), and E. F. Knipling of the United States Department of Agriculture. Serebrovskii's work on chromosomal translocations for pest population suppression could not succeed in the catastrophic conditions in the USSR during World War II, after which he died. Vanderplank used hybrid sterility to suppress a tsetse population in a large field experiment, but lacked the resources to develop this method further. Knipling and his team exploited H. J. Muller's discovery that ionizing radiation can induce dominant lethal mutations, and after World War II this approach was applied on an area-wide basis to eradicate the New World screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) in the USA, Mexico, and Central America. Since then very effective programmes integrating the SIT have been mounted against tropical fruit flies, some species of tsetse flies Glossina spp., the pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), and the codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.). In non-isolated onion fields in the Netherlands, the onion maggot Delia antiqua (Meigen) has since 1981 been suppressed by the SIT. In the 1970s there was much research conducted on mosquito SIT, which then went into 'eclipse', but now appears to be reviving. Development of the SIT for use against the boll weevil Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman and the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) has ended, but it is in progress for two sweetpotato weevil species, Cylas formicarius (F.) and Euscepes postfasciatus (Fairmaire), the false codling moth Cryptophlebia leucotreta (Meyrick), the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae
Preliminary evaluation of maggot (Diptera: Calliphoridae therapy as a potential treatment for leishmaniasis ulcers Evaluación preliminar en un modelo animal de la terapia con larvas de Lucilia sericata para el tratamiento de la leishmaniasis cutánea
Full Text Available Introduction. Maggot debridement therapy has been widely used for treating a variety of scarred-over soft-tissue wounds. Published accounts record several illnesses in which treatment with larval therapy has promoted injury healing in conjunction with infection by bacterial pathogens resistant to conventional antibiotics.
Objective. An initial test of the maggot therapy was developed for cutaneous injuries produced by Leishmania amazonensis.
Materials and methods. An experimental design based on an animal model with three replicates in Mesocricetus aureatus (Rodentia: Muridae was used to evaluate size variation lesion before and after after larval therapy with Lucilia sericata maggots. The criteria used for therapy evaluation were lesion size, maggot application time, and presence or absence of edema and secretions.
Results. Effective scarring and wound healing was observed after therapy with L. sericata larvae, i.e. 80% to 100% lesion area reduction after 12 hours.
Conclusion. The preliminary results suggest that fly maggots of L. sericata have a potential use as natural medical and veterinary alternative therapy for the cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Introducción. La terapia con larvas ha sido ampliamente utilizada para el tratamiento de lesiones ulcerativas de la piel; existen registros de enfermedades, como podopatía diabética, osteomielitis y úlceras varicosas, en las cuales el uso de la terapia con larvas ha promovido la cicatrización de la lesión en presencia de patógenos bacterianos resistentes a los antibióticos convencionales.
Objetivo. Realizar una prueba piloto de terapia con larvas de Lucilia sericata sobre lesiones cutáneas producidas por Leishmania amazonensis.
Materiales y métodos. En el presente trabajo se empleó un diseño experimental en animales ( Mesocricetus aureatus, tres réplicas con la finalidad de analizar las variaciones del tamaño de la lesión por leishmaniasis antes y
This paper describes the origin, practical application, problems in application and prospects of control of the onion fly, Delia antiqua (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), in the Netherlands by the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). The larva of the onion fly is a severe pest in onions in temperate regions. Development of resistance of the onion fly against insecticides caused research on the SIT to be started by the Dutch Government in 1965. This research was on mass-rearing, long-term storage of pupae, sterilization, and release and ratio assessment techniques. By 1979 sufficient information had been turned over to any interested private company. In the case of the onion fly the SIT can be applied like a control treatment instead of chemical control to individual onion fields. This is due to the limited dispersal activity of the flies and the scattered distribution of onion fields in the Netherlands, with 5-10% of the onion growing areas planted with onions
Presents a hands-on lesson in biology in which students evaluate the evidence from four death scenarios. Students use knowledge of ecological principles, specifically ecological succession, and insect biology. Recommends three web sites related to the subject. (SOE)
Part of the butterfly collection of Mr. P. Zondervan, who died in a Japanese camp, was saved from destruction during the Japanese occupation and the post-war troubles and finally came into my hands. The material is for the greater part still in an excellent condition and contains many interesting
Conclusion: Our evidence suggests that MWT is significantly better for wound healing and more cost-effective than CWT. An updated meta-analysis or large scale randomized controlled trial (RCT is required to confirm this effect.
Davis, Jeremy M; Coogan, Laura E; Papaj, Daniel R
The ability of individual animals to select habitats optimal for development and survival can be constrained by the costs of moving through the environment. Animals that seek overwintering sites underground, for example, may be constrained by the energy required to burrow into the soil. We conducted field and laboratory studies to determine the relationship between individual size and overwintering site selection in the tephritid flies, Rhagoletis juglandis and Rhagoletis suavis. We also explored the effect of site selection on pupal mortality, parasitism, and the ability to emerge from overwintering sites after eclosion. In both species, and in both lab and field tests, larger pupae were found at deeper soil depths. In addition, marginally non-significant trends indicated pupae in deeper sites were 48% more likely to survive the overwintering period. Finally, larger individuals were more likely to eclose and emerge from the soil at a given depth, but flies in deep overwintering sites were less likely to emerge from those sites than flies in shallow sites. Our data indicate that overwintering site selection represents a trade-off between avoiding predators and parasites that occur at shallow sites, and the energetic and mortality costs of burrowing to, overwintering in, and emerging from, deeper sites. The size-dependent overwintering site selection demonstrated here has implications for population dynamics and pest control strategies. Some fly control measures, such as the introduction of parasites or predators, will be mitigated when the deepest and least accessible overwintering pupae represent a disproportionately large amount of the population's reproductive capacity.
Čeřovský, Václav; Slaninová, Jiřina; Fučík, Vladimír; Monincová, Lenka; Bednárová, Lucie; Maloň, Petr; Štokrová, Jitka
Roč. 12, č. 9 (2011), s. 1352-1361 ISSN 1439-4227 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : antimicrobial peptide * disulfide bridge * lucifensin * solid phase synthesis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.944, year: 2011
Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Monum, Tawachai; Wannasan, Anchalee; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sukontason, Kom; Sukontason, Kabkaew L
Correct species identification and development data of insects associated with a cadaver can help estimate the time of colonization which could be used to infer a minimal post-mortem interval (minPMI) for forensic investigations. Human remains are found in a variety of locations ranging from open fields to inside automobiles. We report the investigation of blow fly larvae collected from a decomposing body located in the trunk of a car. There were two blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species: Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart) and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). Blow flies can enter the vehicle and colonize human remains. Based on age estimations of third stage larvae of A. rufifacies, the minPMI was estimated to be 4-5 days, which was within the range of 3-5 days estimated by other forensically relevant information.
Zarchi, K.; Jemec, G.B.
in a variety of ulcers. However, comparative clinical trials and in particular randomized controlled trials investigating the efficacy of MDT are sparse. A systematic search in the literature showed three randomized clinical trials and five non randomized studies evaluating the efficacy of sterile Lucilia......, including hydrocolloid, hydrogel and saline moistened gauze. However, the design of the studies was suboptimal, with important differences in the use of other therapies, such as compression, that may influence both debridement and healing between the compared groups, as well as inappropriately short follow...
Roethle, Christopher James
In this thesis, I contend that some form of aura can be recovered from the ravages of technological reproduction described in Walter Benjamin's "The Work of Art in the Age of its Technological Reproducibility (Third Version)." Recovering this aura, however, may require adopting an aesthetic of immediacy through destruction and even wanton disposability (what Georges Bataille in his general economic theory calls "nonproductive expenditure") to ensure that, though routinely diluted and discarded, the split-second authenticity of a work remains, its radical ephemerality and formal irreproducibility opposing the enslaving, commodifying powers of the copy. The poetry and poetic theory of American poet Charles Olson, especially in his long poem "The Kingfishers" and his essays "Projective Verse" and "Human Universe," serves as an example of how an author might inscribe auratic energy along nonproductive, general economic lines.
Gonzalez Cepero, Maria C; Trujillo Gil, Delfina; Teran Vidaly, Zoilo; Altane Valentin, Sonia
At the National Institute of Agricultural Sciences was obtained a mutant of Hibiscus sabdariffa variety that differs from the donor (Yersy) in the cycle, color of leaves,stems, flowers and fruits in the form of leaves and yield per plant
Cytogenetic analysis was conducted of 15 lines of the cabbage root fly with hereditary semisterility in the form of late embryonic lethals (LEL). In 14 lines (93%), the presence of translocations was noted. A high yield of translocations linked with the male sex was obtained, which was caused by the fact that determination of male sex in this species is apparently associated with the largest chromosome 6, and not with chromosome 1, as was believed previously
Müller, C. J.; Matos Maravi, Pavel F.; Beheregaray, L. B.
Roč. 40, č. 5 (2013), s. 881-893 ISSN 0305-0270 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : butterflies * DEC model * historical biogeography Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.969, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jbi.12040/pdf
Research Advances: DNA Computing Targets West Nile Virus, Other Deadly Diseases, and Tic-Tac-Toe; Marijuana Component May Offer Hope for Alzheimer's Disease Treatment; New Wound Dressing May Lead to Maggot Therapy--Without the Maggots
King, Angela G.
This article presents three reports of research advances. The first report describes a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-based computer that could lead to faster, more accurate tests for diagnosing West Nile Virus and bird flu. Representing the first "medium-scale integrated molecular circuit," it is the most powerful computing device of its type to…
Davies, C E; Woolfrey, G; Hogg, N; Dyer, J; Cooper, A; Waldron, J; Bulbulia, R; Whyman, M R; Poskitt, K R
Slough in chronic venous leg ulcers may be associated with delayed healing. The purpose of this study was to assess larval debridement in chronic venous leg ulcers and to assess subsequent effect on healing. All patients with chronic leg ulcers presenting to the leg ulcer service were evaluated for the study. Exclusion criteria were: ankle brachial pressure indices 1.25, no venous reflux on duplex and ulcer surface covered with slough. Participants were randomly allocated to either 4-layer compression bandaging alone or 4-layer compression bandaging + larvae. Surface areas of ulcer and slough were assessed on day 4; 4-layer compression bandaging was then continued and ulcer size was measured every 2 weeks for up to 12 weeks. A total of 601 patients with chronic leg ulcers were screened between November 2008 and July 2012. Of these, 20 were randomised to 4-layer compression bandaging and 20 to 4-layer compression bandaging + larvae. Median (range) ulcer size was 10.8 (3-21.3) cm(2) and 8.1 (4.3-13.5) cm(2) in the 4-layer compression bandaging and 4-layer compression bandaging + larvae groups, respectively (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.184). On day 4, median reduction in slough area was 3.7 cm(2) in the 4-layer compression bandaging group (P bandaging + larvae group. Median percentage area reduction of slough was 50% in the 4-layer compression bandaging group and 84% in the 4-layer compression bandaging + larvae group (Mann-Whitney U test, P bandaging and 4-layer compression bandaging + larvae groups, respectively (Kaplan-Meier analysis, P = 0.664). Larval debridement therapy improves wound debridement in chronic venous leg ulcers treated with multilayer compression bandages. However, no subsequent improvement in ulcer healing was demonstrated. © The Author(s) 2014.
Antiqua" SIZE=4>Antiqua"> The results of a series of studies designed to understand the principal factors that determine the differential attractiveness of humans to the malaria vector Anopheles
The results of a series of studies designed to understand the principal factors that determine the differential attractiveness of humans to the malaria vector Anopheles
Masiero, Franciéle Souza; Thyssen, Patricia Jacqueline
Larval therapy consists on the application of sterilized carrion flies larvae, reared in laboratory, on acute, chronic, and/or infected wounds in order to promote healing. Conventional methods for treating injuries include mechanical debridement or silver-based dressings; however, they are not always effective for wound healing. Larval therapy is a feasible and safe treatment for therapeutic application and, in many cases, the only and the most recommended alternative for difficult healing injuries. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the competence of Cochliomyia macellaria F. (Diptera: Calliphoridae) as a suitable species for therapeutic application and evaluate time and effectiveness of the types of treatments most commonly used to treat integumental injuries. C. macellaria eggs were obtained from colonies established in laboratory and sterilized prior to application. Twenty-five larvae were applied for each centimeter squared of lesion. Lesions were induced in 24 Wistar rats; type 1 diabetes mellitus was induced in 12 of them. Animals were divided in four groups with three individuals each, being denominated: larval therapy, larval therapy associated with foam dressing with silver release, mechanical debridement with foam dressing silver and control group, without treatment. All treatments were applied once and held for 24 h. Medical application of larvae was found to be safe, as only dead tissue was removed, and efficient to accelerate healing process when compared to other treatments.
Li, X; Cai, J F; Guo, Y D; Xiong, F; Zhang, L; Feng, H; Meng, F M; Fu, Y; Li, J B; Chen, Y Q
Insect larvae and adult insects found on human corpses can provide important forensic evidence however it is useful to be able to prove evidence of association. Without this, it could be claimed that the insect evidence was a contaminant or had been planted on the body. This paper describes how mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and STR analysis of the crop contents of larvae of the blowfly Aldrichina grahami collected from separated body parts was used to provide evidence of association.
李云章; 杨晓野; 韩敏; 王志
38 John Markus and Paul J. DeLia, “Jamming,” AccessScience , accessed March 22, 2014, http://accessscience.com/content/Jamming/358300. 39 Sean M...www.infoworld.com/d/security-central/fbi-worried-DOD-sold-counterfeit- cisco-gear-266. Markus, John and Paul J. DeLia. “Jamming.” AccessScience
Krull, Hasso, 1964-
Arvustus: Imemuinasjutud / koostanud ja toimetanud Risto Järv, Mairi Kaasik, Kärri Toomeos-Orglaan. Tartu : Eesti Kirjandusmuuseumi Teaduskirjastus, 2009.(Monumenta Estoniae antiquae. V, Eesti muinasjutud ; I:1)
Krull, Hasso, 1964-
Arvustus: Imemuinasjutud / koostanud ja toimetanud Risto Järv, Mairi Kaasik, Kärri Toomeos-Orglaan. Tartu : Eesti Kirjandusmuuseumi Teaduskirjastus, 2009.(Monumenta Estoniae antiquae. V, Eesti muinasjutud ; I:1)
Lotman, Maria-Kristiina, 1974-
Tutvustus: Sallustius. Catilina vandenõu / Gaius Sallustius Crispus ; ladina keelest tõlkinud Maria-Kristiina Lotman ja Kai Tafenau. Tallinn : Tallinna Ülikooli Kirjastus, 2011. (Bibliotheca antiqua (Tallinna Ülikool))
Schmidtmann, E T
Sand, gravel, sawdust, and pine shavings were used as bedding in outdoor calf hutches and compared with straw relative to the density of immature (maggot) house flies, Musca domestica, and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans. In 6-wk field trials, average densities of house and stable fly maggots in concrete mix sand ranged from only .3 to 1.6 and 0 to .1 maggots/L, respectively; pea size gravel bedding also strongly suppressed densities from less than .1 to .3 and less than .1 to .1 maggots/L, respectively. These densities represent reductions of 76 to greater than 99% relative to straw bedding, but both sand and gravel compacted and became soiled with calf feces, which resulted in unacceptable bedding sanitation and foul odors. Densities of house and stable fly maggots in pine shavings did not differ from those in straw bedding. Nevertheless, in sawdust bedding, maggot density was limited to averages of 1.4 to 8.3 house and 9.8 to 11.8 stable fly maggots/L; this represented reductions of 45 to 91% relative to straw. In a follow-up trial, house and stable fly maggot densities in sawdust averaged 11.3 and 43.9 maggots/L, respectively, reductions of 77 and 46%. These findings suggest that bedding calf hutches with sawdust during warm weather can be useful as an ecologically sound approach to controlling muscoid fly populations on dairy farms.
..., William Danelo, Daniel J. Davis, Delia Davis, Robert de Vallance, Brian Dean, Nicole DeVita, Charles Di..., Roberta Stern, Warren Stewart, Sharon Stinnett, Melanie S. Strack, Barbara L. Stroud, Dennie Michael...
Delia, Jesse G.; O'Keefe, Daniel J.
Advocates according a central role to context-relevant beliefs in the operation of attitudinal saliency through contrasting Delia et al's cognitive-constructivist analysis with Cronen and Conville's operant conditioning and aggression displacement accounts. (Author)
José Pereira Novo-Neto
Full Text Available Myiasis is a parasitic disease caused by developing maggots of fly species, which can infect humans. Patients with special needs, especially those with severe neuropsychomotor limitations, may have oral manifestations of this disease. Here, we present a clinical case in which a disabled person was affected by oral myiasis caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax. Maggots were found in two ulcerated lesions, a 2 cm diameter lesion in the maxilla and a 6 cm diameter lesion in the mandible. Forty-five maggots were removed during inspection, whereas 75 maggots were surgically removed under general anesthesia with nasotracheal intubation. Dipyrone, ivermectin, and clindamycin were prescribed, and the patient remained hospitalized for 3 days. Seven days after surgical intervention, no maggots were observed. Our study emphasizes that dentists must recognize the symptoms and behaviors of parasitic diseases that affect the oral cavity.
Novo-Neto, José Pereira; Dos Santos, Fabiano de Sant'Ana; Pontes, Ana Emília Farias; Ribeiro, Fernando Salimon; Scannavino, Fábio Luiz Ferreira; Martins, Alex Tadeu
Myiasis is a parasitic disease caused by developing maggots of fly species, which can infect humans. Patients with special needs, especially those with severe neuropsychomotor limitations, may have oral manifestations of this disease. Here, we present a clinical case in which a disabled person was affected by oral myiasis caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax. Maggots were found in two ulcerated lesions, a 2 cm diameter lesion in the maxilla and a 6 cm diameter lesion in the mandible. Forty-five maggots were removed during inspection, whereas 75 maggots were surgically removed under general anesthesia with nasotracheal intubation. Dipyrone, ivermectin, and clindamycin were prescribed, and the patient remained hospitalized for 3 days. Seven days after surgical intervention, no maggots were observed. Our study emphasizes that dentists must recognize the symptoms and behaviors of parasitic diseases that affect the oral cavity.
Louis S. Hesler
Full Text Available Volatile chemicals increased trap catch of flies from the families Lauxaniidae [Homoneura bispina (Loew and Camptoprosopella borealis Shewell], Chloropidae (Olcella sp., and Anthomyiidae (Delia spp. in field crops. With lauxaniids, baiting with 2-phenylethanol on cotton-roll dispensers increased catch of H. bispina in two corn plot tests, and methyl salicylate increased trap catch in one test. Traps baited with methyl salicylate increased the catch of C. borealis. When using plastic-sachet dispensers, traps baited with methyl salicylate caught more H. bispina than ones baited with 2-phenylethanol, whereas traps baited with 2-phenylethanol caught more C. borealis than those with methyl salicylate. For chloropids, traps baited with 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine greatly increased catch of Olcella flies in corn and soybean. With anthomyiids, catch of male Delia flies in wheat increased with 2-phenylethanol on cotton rolls and with either 2-phenylethanol or methyl salicylate using plastic dispensers. In soybean, 2-phenylethanol formulated on cotton rolls or in plastic dispensers increased catch of male Delia flies, but methyl salicylate did not affect trap catch. Trap catch of female Delia flies did not vary among chemicals. In another test in soybean, trap catch of both male and female Delia flies was greater with 2-phenylethanol than with other volatile chemicals.
Ban, van den E.C.D.
Antiqua"> This Ph.D. project started in 1997 and its main goal was to obtain insight in the reductive capacity of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus . The research was focused on the biocatalytic reduction of carboxylic
This Ph.D. project started in 1997 and its main goal was to obtain insight in the reductive capacity of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus . The research was focused on the biocatalytic reduction of carboxylic
Antiqua"> Greenways are systems and/or networks of protected lands that are managed for multiple uses including: nature protection, biodiversity management, water resources, recreation, and cultural/historic resource protection. Greenway planning is defined here as a
Greenways are systems and/or networks of protected lands that are managed for multiple uses including: nature protection, biodiversity management, water resources, recreation, and cultural/historic resource protection. Greenway planning is defined here as a
Antiqua,Georgia" SIZE=2> Key words, Market reforms, smallholder agricultural development, prices, institutional framework, resource allocation and productivity,
Key words, Market reforms, smallholder agricultural development, prices, institutional framework, resource allocation and productivity,
Wang, Xiaoyi; Zhou, Dongsheng; Qin, Long
between Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis but also to the intra-species microevolution of both of species. The results confirmed our earlier hypothesis that Y. pestis Antiqua isolates from the natural plague focus B in China represented the most ancestral strains in China, hence phylogenetically...
Full Text Available Zootechnic Performances of Turkey Poults Fed with Maggot Flour -based Rations. Fish meal was partially substituted by maggot flour in the rations of 96 young turkeys aged between 0 and2 days. Chicks with their mothers were randomly divided into three batches and fed during the starting phase that lasted four weeks with rations R1, R2 and R3 containing respectively 0%, 5% and 10% flour maggots. During the growth phase which also lasted 4 weeks, the proportion of flour maggots in the ration was halved. After the starting phase, the young turkeys of batches R3 and R2 showed an Average Daily Gain (ADG slightly above the control, despite a significantly lower food consumption (p0.05 between the different batches of animals. The mortality rate of 16.7%, 14.5% and 14.8% respectively for lots 1, 2 and 3 showed no significant differences (p>0.05.
José Pereira Novo-Neto; Fabiano de Sant’Ana dos Santos; Ana Emília Farias Pontes; Fernando Salimon Ribeiro; Fábio Luiz Ferreira Scannavino; Alex Tadeu Martins
Myiasis is a parasitic disease caused by developing maggots of fly species, which can infect humans. Patients with special needs, especially those with severe neuropsychomotor limitations, may have oral manifestations of this disease. Here, we present a clinical case in which a disabled person was affected by oral myiasis caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax. Maggots were found in two ulcerated lesions, a 2?cm diameter lesion in the maxilla and a 6?cm diameter lesion in the mandible. Forty-five ...
Williams, J. Michael; Cottle, Cindy C.
Normative comparisons are an integral component of neuropsychological test interpretation and provide the basis for an inference of abnormal function and impairment. In order to remedy a deficit of normative standards for a large number of neuropsychology tests, Mitrushina, Boone, Razani, and D'Elia (2005) used the meta-analysis of studies that…
.... Crocetti Jr., Louis D. Cullen, Susan M. Cummiskey, Chris Daitch, William Davis, Delia P. Dayton, Mark de.... Armstrong, Charles R. Ayala, Janice Aytes, Michael L. Bacon, Roxana Baldwin, William D. Baroukh, Nader Barr... Brundage, William Bucella, Donna A. Bucher, Steven P. Buckingham, Patricia A. Burke, Richard Butcher...
Johnston, Melissa P.; Green, Lucy Santos
In 2003 Delia Neuman wrote "Research in School Library Media for the Next Decade: Polishing the Diamond." One of the most influential pieces on school library research written in the last twenty years, the article provided a map for school library research by defining areas of concern and importance. Neuman developed questions grounded…
Durán Amavizca, Norma Delia
tesis que para obtener el grado de Doctor en Pedagogía, presenta Norma Delia Durán Amavizca ; asesor Patricia Mar Velasco, Horacio Cerruti Guldberg, Mario Camarena Ocampo. 396 páginas. Doctorado en Pedagogía UNAM, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, 2011
Cotes, Belén; Rännbäck, Linda Marie; Björkman, Maria
both a parasitoid and its host, parasitoids may reduce the risk of intraguild predation (IGP) by avoiding such patches. In this study, we examined whether the presence of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium brunneum and Beauveria bassiana in soil habitats of a root herbivore, Delia radicum, affects...
Cytotoxic activity of Agave lechuguilla Torr · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Florita Ramos Casillas, Azucena Oranday Cardenas, Catalina Rivas Morales, Ma. Julia Verde Star, Delia Elva Cruz-Vega, 12229-12231 ...
Ester, A.; Putter, de H.; Bilsen, van J.G.P.M.
Four field experiments were carried out between 1999 and 2001, to assess the protection against cabbage root fly larvae (Delia radicum), flea beetle (Phyllotreta nemorum and P. undulata), cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) and caterpillars achieved in white cabbage and cauliflower crops by
Stavenga, DG; Stowe, S; Siebke, K; Zeil, J; Arikawa, K
The wing-scale morphologies of the pierid butterflies Pieris rapae (small white) and Delias nigrina (common jezabel), and the heliconine Heliconius melpomene are compared and related to the wing-reflectance spectra. Light scattering at the wing scales determines the wing reflectance, but when the
Giraldo, M. A.; Yoshioka, S.; Stavenga, D. G.
The angular and spectral reflectance of single scales of five different butterfly species was measured and related to the scale anatomy. The scales of the pierids Pieris rapae and Delias nigrina scatter white light randomly, in close agreement with Lambert's cosine law, which can be well understood
Carvalho, S.M.P.; Almeida, J.; Eveleens-Clark, B.A.; Bakker, M.J.; Heuvelink, E.
An explanatory model for predicting kalanchoe plant height and cropping duration has been developed for one cultivar and one pot size, as described in earlier papers. In two experiments (winter and summer) seven contrasting cultivars (`Anatole¿, `Debbie¿, `Delia¿, `Mie¿, `Pandora¿, `Tenorio¿ and
Sophie Cunningham, Melbourne (2011 Matthew Condon, Brisbane (2010 Paul Daley, Canberra (2012 Delia Falconer, Sydney (2010 Kerryn Goldsworthy, Adelaide (2011 Eleanor Hogan, Alice Springs (2012 Tess Lea, Darwin (2014 Peter Timms, In Search of Hobart (2012 David Whish-Wilson, Perth (2013
Full Text Available Antiqua',Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;"> Antiqua";">"Self-help" literature has become one of the most significant cultural manifestations of the last 90 years in Argentina. It has established a new way of conceiving the self. In this article we trace the conception of "the other" that can be found in these books, and the consequences that this has for the social world. We find that self-help literature sets up "the other" as a hindrance or as an aid, to self- realization. That diminishes the importance that other people have for the constitution of one's personal identity.
Antiqua";">"Self-help" literature has become one of the most significant cultural manifestations of the last 90 years in Argentina. It has established a new way of conceiving the self. In this article we trace the conception of "the other" that can be found in these books, and the consequences that this has for the social world. We find that self-help literature sets up "the other" as a hindrance or as an aid, to self- realization. That diminishes the importance that other people have for the constitution of one's personal identity.Antiqua';">La literatura de autoayuda logró convertirse en una de las manifestaciones culturales más significativas de los años 90 en Argentina, erigiéndose como un fenómeno sintomático y constitutivo de una nueva forma de concebir el yo. Antiqua';">En estos escritos nos proponemos rastrear la concepción del otro, de la alteridad, que se halla en los libros de autoayuda, y las consecuencias que esta tienen para pensar la vida social. Hallando que esta literatura insta a concebir al otro como un obstáculo o como un medio para la autorrealización, lo que dificulta comprender la importancia que poseen los otros para la constitución de la identidad personal.
Zacà, Ilaria; Tornese, Giuliano; Baglivo, Cristina; Congedo, Paolo Maria; D'Agostino, Delia
"Efficient Solutions and Cost-Optimal Analysis for Existing School Buildings" (Paolo Maria Congedo, Delia D'Agostino, Cristina Baglivo, Giuliano Tornese, Ilaria Zacà)  is the paper that refers to this article. It reports the data related to the establishment of several variants of energy efficient retrofit measures selected for two existing school buildings located in the Mediterranean area. In compliance with the cost-optimal analysis described in the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive and its guidelines (EU, Directive, EU 244,) , , these data are useful for the integration of renewable energy sources and high performance technical systems for school renovation. The data of cost-efficient high performance solutions are provided in tables that are explained within the following sections. The data focus on the describe school refurbishment sector to which European policies and investments are directed. A methodological approach already used in previous studies about new buildings is followed (Baglivo Cristina, Congedo Paolo Maria, D׳Agostino Delia, Zacà Ilaria, 2015; IlariaZacà, Delia D'Agostino, Paolo Maria Congedo, Cristina Baglivo; Baglivo Cristina, Congedo Paolo Maria, D'Agostino Delia, Zacà Ilaria, 2015; Ilaria Zacà, Delia D'Agostino, Paolo Maria Congedo, Cristina Baglivo, 2015; Paolo Maria Congedo, Cristina Baglivo, IlariaZacà, Delia D'Agostino,2015) , , , , . The files give the cost-optimal solutions for a kindergarten (REF1) and a nursery (REF2) school located in Sanarica and Squinzano (province of Lecce Southern Italy). The two reference buildings differ for construction period, materials and systems. The eleven tables provided contain data about the localization of the buildings, geometrical features and thermal properties of the envelope, as well as the energy efficiency measures related to walls, windows, heating, cooling, dhw and renewables. Output values of energy consumption, gas emission and costs are given for a
Arnauld S. M. Djissou
Full Text Available Abstract To completely replace the fish meal by a mixture of earthworm and maggot meals, experimental diets were tested during 42 days on Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. Five isoproteic and isoenergetic diets (40 % crude protein and 17.9 ± 0.3 kJ g−1 including the control diet (D1 based on fish meal, were formulated. All these diets satisfied the essential amino acids requirements of C. gariepinus fingerlings. These diets were tested on triplicate groups of 50 fishes (initial body weight: 3 ± 0.1 g bred in tank (0.5 m3. The approximate ratios 2:5; 1:4; 1:12 and 0:1 between the earthworm meal and the maggot meal were used, respectively, to formulate four diets D2, D3, D4 and D5 without fish meal. After the feeding period, significant differences (P < 0.05 were observed on growth, feed utilization between control diet (D1 and test diets (D2–D5. Fish fed earthworm- and maggot-based diets were grown better than those fed the control diet. Survival and feed utilization were not significantly affected by the ratio between earthworm meal and maggot meal in the test diets. Lipid content was higher in carcass and fillet of fishes fed earthworm- and maggot meals-based diets than that of those fed fish meal-based diet. This study indicates that when the ratio 2:5 between the earthworm meal and the maggot meal is used to entirely replace fish meal and the ratio lysine/arginine of the diet is inferior to 1, the growth performances and feed utilization of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings are improved.
Vanin, S; Mazzariol, S; Menandro, M L; Lafisca, A; Turchetto, M
Myiases are caused by the presence of maggots in vertebrate tissues and organs. Myiases have been studied widely in humans, farm animals, and pets, whereas reports of myiasis in reptiles are scarce. We describe a case of myiasis caused by the Megaselia scalaris (Loew) in an Indian python (Python molurus bivittatus, Kuhl) (Ophida: Boidae). The python, 15 yr old, born and reared in a terrarium in the mainland of Venice (Italy), was affected by diffuse, purulent pneumonia caused by Burkholderia cepacia. The severe infestation of maggots found in the lungs during an autopsy indicated at a myiasis.
Investigation (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1993), 72. 23 Smith, 86. 24 G. Bianchini, “La Biologia Del Cadaver, ” Archivic Antropologia...May R. Ninety-Nine More Maggots, Mites, and Munchers. Urbana and Chi- cago: University of Illinois Press, 1985. Bianchini, G. “La Biologia Del
One hundred and twenty (120) four weeks old Ross breed broiler finisher birds were used to study the effect of feeding maggot meal as a replacement for fish meal on erythrocyte indices and serum biochemical constituents. The birds were divided into 5 treatment groups identified as T1, T2, T3 , T4 and T5 with 24 birds per ...
Renkema, Justin M; Cutler, G Christopher; Gaul, Sonia O
Blueberry maggot, Rhagoletis mendax Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most important pest of blueberries in eastern North America. Insecticide use in fruit-bearing lowbush blueberry fields could be reduced with management strategies focused on vegetative fields. Fly distribution and fruit infestation levels were assessed where fruit-bearing and vegetative fields adjoin and along forested edges of vegetative fields. Along adjoining edges, immature female flies were captured in fruiting fields and mature females in vegetative fields throughout the season. Male fly captures and fruit infestation levels were greater at 5 m than at 30 m from the edge. Along forested edges, fly captures were best predicted by densities of ripe lowbush blueberries and large coniferous trees. Maggot infestation level in lowbush blueberries was best predicted by blueberry density and small deciduous trees. Bunchberry, Cornus canadensis L., was the only non-crop host in which blueberry maggot was found. We have shown that relatively high numbers of flies occur in vegetative fields and at edges of fruiting fields. Ripe blueberries and certain vegetation in forested edges affect fly distribution and probably maintain populations. These results may help to predict where controls for blueberry maggot should be targeted and suggest that management strategies focused on vegetative fields and field edges may be worthwhile. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
[Figure 6]. Barb can be single or multiple with different types of baits like colored feathers (to imitate insect wings) and live baits like earthworm or grasshopper. Kamath described a case of fishhook injury to the eyelid in which the fish hook was loaded with live maggots. Multiple barb fishhooks are much difficult to remove.
females are typically maggot-like and neotenic, living within the body of the host .... viviparously and emerges through the genital opening of the female. ... itself with the host tissue for evading the hosts' immune system. The next moult leads to ...
... production (NAICS code 111). [emsp14]Animal production (NAICS code 112). [emsp14]Food manufacturing (NAICS... since the use is for expansion of an antibiotic, and of potential public interest. A notice of receipt... are available to control the cabbage maggot in turnip and rutabaga production and significant economic...
Polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (BvPGIP) genes were cloned from a sugar beet breeding line F1016 with increased tolerance to the sugar beet root maggot. Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins are cell wall leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins with crucial roles in development, pathogen defense an...
Temperate fruit flies in the genus Rhagoletis (Diptera: Tephritidae) have narrow host ranges relative to those of tropical fruit flies, suggesting they will not attack or are incapable of developing in most novel fruit. Here we tested the hypothesis that apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Wals...
Juveniles of catfish, Clarias anguillaris (mean weight, 119.8g) were fed unconventional diets for ten weeks in outdoor hapas (net cages, 1m3 dimension) and the growth responses and feed utilization by the juveniles were compared. The experimental diets were (i) live maggots, (ii) live tilapia fry, (iii) commercial catfish feed ...
R West-Pavlov. Vol 54, No 1 (2017), 'The Maggot Within': The state security apparatus in Ngũgĩ's Wizard of the Crow, Abstract PDF. Emmanuel Chibuzor Okereke. Vol 49, No 2 (2012), 'Zou de wereldbol een beetje aan het leeglopen zijn?' Herman de Coninck over het Afrikaans en Afrikaner maatschappij, cultuur en politiek ...
To edit is to make a choice, or series of choices. Will I write a rough draft of this essay in longhand, or hammer it out on my computer? If the latter, what font shall I use? Times New Roman, Book Antiqua, or Garamond? Once I get started, what style shall I adopt: realistic, confessional or impr...... or impressionistic; or a combination of all three (Van Maanen 1988)? Should I try to impress with ‘learned scholarship’, or should I merely outline in conversational English a few thoughts based on my own experiences?...
Full Text Available In the Magellan region, much of the shoreline of the Beagle Channel coast (54°53´S; 67° - 68°W is bordered by Holocene raised beaches, which contain a large number of molluscs and other shelled taxa. The purpose of this work is to document the presence of various molluscan assemblages deposited with little or no postmortem transportation. An epifaunal Chlamys patagonica palaeocommunity (ca. 8,000 - 7,000 BP and three infaunal (Tawera gayi, Ameghinomya antiqua - Hiatella solida and Ameghinomya antiqua - Ensis macha palaeocommunities (ca. 4,400 - 4,000 BP were recognized. All the assemblages studied represent shallow, subtidal, cold-temperate environments. Based on comparisons with modern benthic communities in this region, these associations show that no remarkable ecologic and climatic changes occurred during the period ca. 8,000 - 4,000 BP. Thus, an apparent stability of modern marine communities over a period of several thousand years is suggested.
and T.J. Wrathall. 1988. Aspects OfSeagrass Ecology Along The Eastern Coast Of The Red Sea. Botanica Marina, 31, 83-92. Thiel, H. 1987. Benthos Of... Botanica Marina, V35 N6, pp. 541-552. Couper, A. 1983. The Times Atlas of the Oceans. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. DElia, C.F. 1983. Gradients...Medley, P.A.H., Smith, M.G.S., Ormond, R.F.G. and Wrathall, T.J. 1988. Aspects ofSeagrass Ecology along the Eastern Coast of the Red Sea. Botanica
Conferencia pronunciada en el curso de verano La violencia y sus formas, coordinado por Delia Manzanero y Marta Nogueroles, y celebrado del 7 al 9 de septiembre de 2015 en la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras de la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Una versión anterior de este texto, con el título “Diez tesis sobre la violencia”, fue presentada en el X Congreso Internacional de Antropología Filosófica Guerra y paz: perspectivas filosóficas (organizado por la Sociedad Hispánica de Antro...
Full Text Available Myiasis is derived from a Latin word "Muia," which means fly and "iasis," which means disease. It is a pathological condition in which there is an infestation of living mammals with the dipterous larvae, which, at least for a certain period feed on the host′s dead or living tissue and develop as parasites. Oral myiasis is a rare pathology in humans and is associated with poor oral hygiene, alcoholism, senility, suppurating lesions, severe halitosis, malignancy, low socioeconomic status and others conditions. The treatment consists of mechanical removal of the maggot one by one along with a systemic treatment of ivermectin, a semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic. We present a case report of a 25-year-old man with intellectual disability, poor oral hygiene, epilepsy, with a deep lacerated wound in the gingiva of maxillary anterior region with acute swelling of the upper lip and presence of larvae of maggot.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Oral Myiasis, a condition of infestation of the body by fly larvae (maggots is a rare pathology in humans. It is associated with poor oral hygiene, alcoholism, senility, suppurating lesions, severe halitosis. It is seen frequently in tropical countries and hot climatic regions. The reported cases in literature of oral Myiasis associated with oral cancer are few. The treatment is a mechanical removal of the maggots but a systemic treatment with Ivermectin, a semi - synthetic macrolide antibiotic, has been used successfully for treatment for oral m yiasis. We present a case of 55 yr old male alcoholic patient with oral myiasis with extensive proliferative growth of oral cavity. Our patient was managed with manual debridement and administration of systemic ivermect in along with antibiotic coverage. Incisional biopsy of the proliferative lesion showed well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Thus our patient showed presence of oral myiasis in association with oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Ugwu, B T; Nwadiaro, P O
A case of furuncular myiasis of the breast due to infestation by the larva of Cordylobia anthropophaga in a young lady is presented. Some of the physical presentations of Cordylobia anthropophaga mastitis are similar to those of carcinoma of the breast. High index of suspicion in endemic areas, including patients who had visited such areas, the characteristic intense itching of the affected breast, the use of the magnifying hand lens and subsequent extraction of the offending maggots are the invaluable aids to diagnosis and treatment. The ulcer left on the breast after extraction of the maggot should be biopsied and the associated ill defined mass and skin changes must be seen to resolve completely before carcinoma of the breast can be safely ruled out. The various methods of extraction and the preventive measures are highlighted. Though furuncular myiasis has been reported to involve every part of domestic animals, this is the first reported case in literature involving the human breast.
Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Sukontason, Kom; Lertthamnongtham, Sirisuda; Kuntalue, Budsabong; Thijuk, Natchanart; Vogtsberger, Roy C; Olson, Jimmy K
The surface ultrastructure of all larval instars of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) is described by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Morphological changes were greatest from the first to the second instar, but less from the second to the third instar. Most of these changes involved the structure of the anterior spiracle, posterior spiracle, integument of the body, and mouthhooks. Modification of the mouthhooks, especially in the third instar, are helpful in explaining the ferocious feeding ability of the older maggots. The common name of "hairy-maggot" for C. rufifacies is only appropriate for the second and third instars because of their elongated tubercles along the body, whereas this name is not descriptive of the first instar that lack tubercles.
Full Text Available Oral myiasis is a rare pathology and is associated with poor oral hygiene, alcoholism, senility, suppurating lesions, and severe halitosis. It arises from invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals by maggots or larvae of certain dipterian flies. It is mostly reported in developing countries and in the tropics. We hereby report a rare case of oral myiasis in a 70-year-old female with extensive necrotic oral lesion burrowing into the hard palate through which numerous live maggots (larvae and seen emerging out and discuss the definition, etiology, predisposing factors, classification, and management of the same. Furthermore, the life cycle of the causative organism in the present case, that is, Chrysomya bezziana, has also been discussed.
Rose Mary Tomy
Full Text Available Infestation of the living tissues of the eye, ocular adnexae or orbit by larvae of flies of the order Diptera is known as ophthalmomyiasis. Ophthalmomyiasis externa is a limited superficial infestation of external ocular structures such as conjunctiva and adnexae. A case of follicular carcinoma thyroid with orbital metastasis presenting as ophthalmomyiasis externa is reported. The patient presented with foul smelling ulcers of the medial and lateral orbital walls of the right eye extending into the lids and nose, teeming with maggots. Computerized Tomography (CT showed widespread bone destruction with extension into surrounding sinuses. Over 200 maggots were manually removed after immobilisation with turpentine oil instillation. Entomological examination showed it to be a case of accidental myiasis caused by the common housefly Musca domestica. The patient was managed conservatively and the ulcer cavities filled up with healthy granulation tissue. This case is presented on account of its rarity.
Cansi, ER; Bonorino, R; Ataíde, HS; Pujol-Luz, JR
In April 2009, a wild maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, was captured in an area of cerrado in Brasília, DF, Brazil, with screw worm maggots in external wounds. Fifty larvae were bred in the laboratory and eight adults of Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) emerged 10 days after pupation. This is the first report of a myiasis by C. hominivorax in a free-living maned wolf in Brazil.
Cansi, E R; Bonorino, R; Ataíde, H S; Pujol-Luz, J R
In April 2009, a wild maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, was captured in an area of cerrado in Brasília, DF, Brazil, with screw worm maggots in external wounds. Fifty larvae were bred in the laboratory and eight adults of Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) emerged 10 days after pupation. This is the first report of a myiasis by C. hominivorax in a free-living maned wolf in Brazil.
Heo, C C; Mohamad, A M; John, J; Baharudin, O
This entomological study was conducted in a man-made freshwater pond in a palm oil plantation in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor from 23 July 2007 by using pig (Sus scrofa) as a carcass model. A 1.5 month old piglet (5 kg), which died of asphyxia after being accidentally crushed by its mother, was thrown into a pond. Observation was made for ten days; one visit per day and climatological data were recorded. On the first two days, the piglet carcass sunk to the bottom of the pond. The carcass floated to the surface on the third day but no fly activities were seen. The blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies started to oviposit on the fourth day. Other than adult flies, a spider (Arachnida) was also observed on the carcass. Bubbles accumulated at the mouthpart, and the abdomen was greenish black. A lot of blow fly eggs were seen on the body surface on the fifth day (floating decay), along with first and second instars C. megacephala crawling under the piglet's skin. On the sixth day, adult blow fly, C. megacephala,and C. rufifacies,and muscid flies, Ophyra spinigera and Musca domestica were observed on to the carcass. High numbers of first and second instars of flies were observed wandering around the body surface with C. megacephala larvae being the predominant species. Two prominent maggot masses occurred on seventh and eighth days. Bloated deterioration stage began on day eighth exposing rib bones, humerus bones and intestines. Carcass was partially sinking and the maggot masses were at the water level. On day ninth, the carcass was partially sinking and three maggot masses were observed on the exposed surface. There were very few adult flies, including a scarab beetle was sighted on the carcass at this stage. The carcass along with the maggots sunk on day tenth, leaving an oily layer on the water surface.
Lai, Poh Soon; Khoo, Lay See; Mohd Hilmi, Saidin; Ahmad Hafizam, Hasmi; Mohd Shah, Mahmood; Nurliza, Abdullah; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad
Skeletal examination is an important aspect of forensic pathology practice, requiring effective bone cleaning with minimal artefact. This study was conducted to compare between chemical and entomology methods of bone cleaning. Ten subjects between 20 and 40 years old who underwent uncomplicated medico-legal autopsies at the Institute of Forensic Medicine Malaysia were randomly chosen for this descriptive cross sectional study. The sternum bone was divided into 4 parts, each part subjected to a different cleaning method, being two chemical approaches i.e. laundry detergent and a combination of 6% hydrogen peroxide and powder sodium bicarbonate and two entomology approaches using 2nd instar maggots of Chrysomyia rufifacies and Ophyra spinigera. A scoring system for grading the outcome of cleaning was used. The effectiveness of the methods was evaluated based on average weight reduction per day and median number of days to achieve the average score of less than 1.5 within 12 days of the bone cleaning process. Using maggots was the most time-effective and costeffective method, achieving an average weight reduction of 1.4 gm per day, a median of 11.3 days to achieve the desired score and an average cost of MYR 4.10 per case to reach the desired score within 12 days. This conclusion was supported by blind validation by forensic specialists achieving a 77.8% preference for maggots. Emission scanning electron microscopy evaluation also revealed that maggots especially Chrysomyia rufifacies preserved the original condition of the bones better allowing improved elucidation of bone injuries in future real cases.
Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Gaillard, Julien; Borée-Moreau, Diane; Bailly, Éric; Andres, Christian R; Chandenier, Jacques
We report a case of facultative intestinal myiasis due to larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax, also named the rat-tailed maggots. The development of larvae in the lower bowel was responsible for non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms that resembled ulcerative proctitis. The diagnosis was established upon the observation of four spontaneously excreted mobile larvae. The definite identification of the E. tenax species was made possible by scanning electron microscopy. The clinical outcome was satisfactory.
Ayu Raisa Khairun Nisa'
Full Text Available Butterflies have some roles in environmental as pollinator and bioindicator. Habitat is one of important factor to support butterflies growth. The aim of this research was to describe butterflies diversity in some green open spaces in Malang. Direct observations of butterflies diversity, vegetation structures and abiotic factors in Brawijaya University, Veteran, Jakarta and Velodrom Green Open Space were conducted on June 2012. Sampling was took place in each sites using cruising method in three times observation at 07.00, 11.00 a.m. and 3.30 p.m . Data were analyzed by statistical descriptive using Microsoft Excel 2007 and PAST. The result showed that butterflies composition in all sites dominated by Delias sp., Leptosia nina and Eurema venusta. The diversity index of all sites showed moderate rank that indicate communities equilibrium in environment was still good. In this case, Velodrom Green Open Space has the highest one of diversity index, it was about 2,199. Brawijaya University and Jakarta Green Open Space have a high similarity index based on Morisita Index. The highest abundance of butterflies was observed at 11.00-12.30 a.m. Delias sp. and Leptosia nina has temporal spread all day long, while Eurema venusta just in day light.
Heo, C C; Mohamad, A M; Ahmad Firdaus, M S; Jeffery, J; Baharudin, Omar
This preliminary study was carried out in a palm oil plantation in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor in 17 May 2007 by using pig (Sus scrofa) as a carcass model in forensic entomological research. A 3 month old pig (8.5 kg) that died of pneumonio was placed in the field to observe the decomposition stages and the fauna succession of forensically important flies. Observation was made for two weeks; two visits per day and all climatological data were recorded. The first visitor to the pig carcass was a muscid fly, seen within a minute, and followed by ants and spiders. Within half an hour, calliphorid flies came over. On the second day (fresh), few calliphorid and sarcophagid flies were found on the carcass. Two different species of moths were trapped in the hanging net. The first larva mass occurred on the third day (bloated) around the mouthpart, with some L1 and L2 found in the eyes. Reduvid bugs and Staphylinidae beetles were recovered on the fourth day (active decay), and new maggot masses occurred in the eyes and anus. L3 larvae could be found beneath the pig carcass on the fourth day. On the fifth day (active decay), new maggot masses were found on neck, thorax, and hind legs. Advance decay occurred on the sixth day with abundant maggots covering all over the body. The main adult fly population was Chrysomya megacephala (day 2 to day 6), but the larvae population was mainly those of Chrysomya rufifacies (day 4 to day 14). The dry stage began on the eighth day. Hermetia illucens adult was caught on day-13, and a larvae mass of Chrysomya rufifacies was seen burrowing under the soil. This forensic entomological research using pig carcass model was the first record in this country.
Full Text Available Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larvae in a patient with neurological deficiency.
Full Text Available A 65-year-old man presented with the complaints of a growth on the scalp, which ruptured spontaneously leading to bleeding and foul smelling discharge associated with severe pain. Examination revealed ulceroproliferative growth with slough and surrounding induration, infested with maggots. Histopathological examination revealed proliferating trichilemmal tumor (PTT with secondary infection. Wide excision of the tumor was done with 1 cm margin all around it. PTT is a benign neoplasm that can rarely undergo malignant transformation thought to originate from trichilemmal cyst. Malignant PTT (MPTT predominantly affects the scalp, eyelids, neck, and face and the treatment recommended being a wide local excision.
Shahid, S A; Hall, R D; Haskell, N H; Merritt, R W
The hairy maggot blow fly, Chrsomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) was collected in large numbers as both adults and immatures in the Knoxville, Tennessee, area during 1998 and is likely established there. The distribution of this species in the Old World, isothermal data, and its collection from mid-Michigan during 1998 suggest that it will eventually occupy most of the U.S. The forensic importance of C. rufifacies makes it probable that it will factor into an increasing number of medicolegal cases, but the expanding distribution of this species decreases its utility as a geographic indicator when postmortem movement of decedents is suspected.
STS-34 crewmembers, on their first space flight, appear to enjoy mealtime in a zero-gravity environment. They are Pilot Michael J. McCulley and Mission Specialist (MS) Ellen S. Baker. The two, who were in the 1984 class of NASA astronauts, balance their meal trays and attempt to eat in an area of Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, middeck that pays tribute to their astronaut roots. The 'maggot' decal or insignia has direct reference to the group. During the flight, the two made former Astronaut Paul J. Weitz, now JSC Deputy Director, an honorary member of the 1984 class. Weitz's flight suit portrait hangs on the galley facing.
Bishwa Raj Dawadi
antibiotics, analgesics and anti-in ammatory medication. Daily local asepsis of the wound with antiseptic solution (betadine was done. We removed more than 30 larvae by the fourth day after which no more larvae were seen and she gradually recovered in the following days. It is our opinion that the cause of vulvar myiasis in our patient was her poor sanitary hygiene. Simple measures such as washing clothes thoroughly, drying and ironing of clothes are also necessary to reduce the risk of this human myiasis. Keywords: external genitalia; female; maggots; myiasis.
Benecke, M; Seifert, B
The combined analysis of both ant and blow fly evidence recovered from a corpse, and from the boot of a suspect, suggested that an assumed scenario in a high profile murder case was likely to be true. The ants (Lasius fuliginous) were used as classical crime scene stains that linked the suspect to the scene. Blow fly maggots (Calliphora spec.) helped to determine the post mortem interval (PMI) with the calculated PMI overlapping with the assumed time of the killing. In the trial, the results of the medico-legal analysis of the insects was understood to be crucial scientific evidence, and the suspect was sentenced to 8 years in prison.
Full Text Available The following paper shall focus especially on the work of Carlos Giménez, a comic author from Madrid who attempts to represent there Spanish daily life from Civil War times up to the end of the Francoist regime –and his own life experience displays there an unavoidable reference point: 36-39 Malos tiempos, but mostly Paracuellos and Barrio are part of his own life story during the Civil War and the Francoist regime. In Argentina, authors such as Mariano Grassi or María Delia Lozupone and Rafael Cippolini try a similar intimist gaze upon the representation of dictatorship times in Argentina. This paper shall seek to establish a dialogue between these manifestations, attempting thereby to analyze the intimate plot of history and representation in these comic books.
Bowler, Dermot M; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Gardiner, John M
Diminished episodic memory and diminished use of semantic information to aid recall by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both thought to result from diminished relational binding of elements of complex stimuli. To test this hypothesis, we asked high-functioning adults with ASD and typical comparison participants to study grids in which some cells contained drawings of objects in non-canonical colours. Participants were told at study which features (colour, item, location) would be tested in a later memory test. In a second experiment, participants studied similar grids and were told that they would be tested on object-location or object-colour combinations. Recognition of combinations was significantly diminished in ASD, which survived covarying performance on the Color Trails Test (D'Elia et al. Color trails test. Professional manual. Psychological Assessment Resources, Lutz, 1996), a test of executive difficulties. The findings raise the possibility that medial temporal as well as frontal lobe processes are dysfunctional in ASD.
Lachaise, Tom; Ourry, Morgane; Lebreton, Lionel; Guillerm-Erckelboudt, Anne-Yvonne; Linglin, Juliette; Paty, Chrystelle; Chaminade, Valérie; Marnet, Nathalie; Aubert, Julie; Poinsot, Denis; Cortesero, Anne-Marie; Mougel, Christophe
Interactions between plants and phytophagous insects play an important part in shaping the biochemical composition of plants. Reciprocally plant metabolites can influence major life history traits in these insects and largely contribute to their fitness. Plant rhizospheric microorganisms are an important biotic factor modulating plant metabolites and adaptation to stress. While plant-insects or plant-microorganisms interactions and their consequences on the plant metabolite signature are well-documented, the impact of soil microbial communities on plant defenses against phytophagous insects remains poorly known. In this study, we used oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and the cabbage root fly (Delia radicum) as biological models to tackle this question. Even though D. radicum is a belowground herbivore as a larva, its adult life history traits depend on aboveground signals. We therefore tested whether soil microbial diversity influenced emergence rate and fitness but also fly oviposition behavior, and tried to link possible effects to modifications in leaf and root metabolites. Through a removal-recolonization experiment, 3 soil microbial modalities ("high," "medium," "low") were established and assessed through amplicon sequencing of 16S and 18S ribosomal RNA genes. The "medium" modality in the rhizosphere significantly improved insect development traits. Plant-microorganism interactions were marginally associated to modulations of root metabolites profiles, which could partly explain these results. We highlighted the potential role of plant-microbial interaction in plant defenses against Delia radicum. Rhizospheric microbial communities must be taken into account when analyzing plant defenses against herbivores, being either below or aboveground. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Full Text Available The present catalogue of Anthomyiidae attempts to list all species (173 described or recorded from mainland China (165 and Taiwan (8 that for various reasons are not treated in “Flies of China” from 1998. The catalogue further lists Chinese species that are presently standing in new generic combinations compared to those of “Flies of China”, species that have changed name because of synonymy or misidentification, and species upgraded from subspecies to species. Regional distribution by province is specified for all species. Literature sources to descriptions or records of anthomyiid species from China are only given for those 173 species not covered by “Flies of China”. Four new combinations are proposed: Enneastigma fulva (Malloch, 1934, Enneastigma henanensis (Ge & Fan, 1982, Enneastigma lengshanensis (Xue, 2001 and Hylemya qinghaiensis (Fan, Chen & Ma, 1989. Eremomyia turbida Huckett, 1951 is revived from synonymy with Chortophila triticiperda Stein, 1900 (current name Eutrichota turbida. One subspecies is upgraded to species: Adia asiatica Fan, 1988. The following eight new synonymies are proposed: Delia pectinator fuscilateralis Fan in Fan & Zheng, 1992 with Delia pectinator Suwa, 1984; Eremomyia pilimana pilimarginata Fan & Qian in Fan, Chen, Ma & Ge, 1982 with Eremomyia turbida Huckett, 1951 (current name Eutrichota turbida; Lopesohylemya Fan, Chen & Ma, 1989 with Hylemya Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830; Deliomyia Fan in Fan et al., 1988 with Subhylemyia Ringdahl, 1933; Hydrophoria disticrassa Xue & Bai, 2009 with Hydrophoria pullata Wu, Liu & Wei, 1995 (current name Zaphne pullata; Heteroterma Wei, 2006 with Scathophaga Meigen, 1803; Heteroterma fanjingensis Wei, 2006 with Scathophaga curtipilata Feng, 2002; Scatomyza fansipanicola Ozerov in Ozerov & Krivosheina, 2011 with Scathophaga curtipilata Feng, 2002. The genus Heteroterma Wei, 2006 and species Heteroterma fanjingensis Wei, 2006 are reassigned from Anthomyiidae to
H. de Souza Lopes
Full Text Available The author publishes a comparative study of eleven species of Sarcophagid flies and gives a redescription of the larval stages of Musca domestica L. as a model. The work was made upon material obtained from Sarcophagidae reared in the Laboratory. Some of them were parasitic flies from Insects and other invertebrates. Protodexia was reared using the domestic cockroach (Periplaneta americana instead of the Orthroptera or Mantodea its true hosts. The larvae obtained by dissection of female abdomen was reared in flesh or agarhorse serum. The last proceeding is very good since the skins of all larval stages can be conserved for study and it is possible to observe the ecdyses. Some of the larvae prefer dead snails (Bulimulus and Fruticicola and is able to destroy larvae of other species found in the same molluscs. The first stage maggot can be obtained by dissections of dried female specimens and furnishes very good characters to determine the species and establish the philogenetical relationship of the genera in the family. Th pseudocephalon presents very curious ornaments or grooves in some species (Oxysarcodexia. Sometimes there is a pigmented capsule covering a great part of the pseudocephalon (Titanogrypa. The cephaloskeletal sclerietes have a peculiar shape and constitution for every species, mainly in the first stage maggot.
Scott, M J; Pimsler, M L; Tarone, A M
The Calliphoridae or blow flies are a family of insects that occupy diverse habitats and perform important ecological roles, particularly the decomposition of animal remains. Some Calliphoridae species are also important in the forensic sciences, in agriculture (e.g. as livestock pests) and in medicine (e.g. maggot therapy). Calliphoridae provide striking examples in support of the hypothesis that sex determination regulatory gene hierarchies evolve in the reverse order, with the gene at the top being the most recently added. Unlike the model fly Drosophila melanogaster, where sex is determined by the number of X chromosomes, in the Australian sheep blow fly (Lucilia cuprina) sex is determined by a Y-linked male-determining gene (M). A different regulatory system appears to operate in the hairy maggot blow fly (Chrysomya rufifacies) where the maternal genotype determines sex. It is hypothesized that females heterozygous for a dominant female-determining factor (F/f) produce only female offspring and homozygous f/f females produce only sons. The bottom of the regulatory hierarchy appears to be the same in D. melanogaster and L. cuprina, with sex-specific splicing of doublesex transcripts being controlled by the female-specific Transformer (TRA) protein. We discuss a model that has been proposed for how tra transcripts are sex-specifically spliced in calliphorids, which is very different from D. melanogaster. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Registro de Peckia (Squamatodes trivittata (Curran (Diptera, Sarcophagidae parasitada por Gnathopleura semirufa (Brullé (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae no cerrado de Brasília, DF Record of Peckia (Squamatodes trivittata (Curran (Diptera, Sarcophagidae parasited by Gnathopleura semirufa (Brullé (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae in the cerrado of Brasília, DF
Rodrigo Meneses de Barros
Full Text Available Em Julho de 2004, foram observados adultos de G. semirufa atacando larvas de Peckia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 enquanto estas se alimentavam de carcaça de porco Sus scrofa em área de cerrado. Em Dezembro do mesmo ano, no mesmo local, larvas de terceiro instar de P. trivittata foram coletadas em outra carcaça de porco e levadas ao laboratório. As larvas foram criadas em condições naturais. Das 31 pupas obtidas, emergiram 19 adultos de G. semirufa e seis adultos de P. trivittata, correspondendo a uma prevalência de 61% de parasitismo.In July 2004, adults of G. semirufa were observed attacking maggots of Peckia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 while feeding on a Sus scrofa carcass in a cerrado area. In December of the same year, in the same location, third instar maggots of P. trivittata were collected from another pig carcass and taken to laboratory. They were reared in natural conditions. 19 adults of G. semirufa and six adults of P. trivittata emerged from the 31 pupae we had obtained previously, corresponding to 61% of parasitic prevalence.
García, Carlos; Pérez, Francisco; Contreras, Cristóbal; Figueroa, Diego; Barriga, Andrés; López-Rivera, Américo; Araneda, Oscar F; Contreras, Héctor R
Harmful algae blooms (HABs) are the main source of marine toxins in the aquatic environment surrounding the austral fjords in Chile. Huichas Island (Aysén) has an history of HABs spanning more than 30 years, but there is limited investigation of the bioaccumulation of marine toxins in the bivalves and gastropods from the Region of Aysén. In this study, bivalves (Mytilus chilenses, Choromytilus chorus, Aulacomya ater, Gari solida, Tagelus dombeii and Venus antiqua) and carnivorous gastropods (Argobuccinum ranelliformes and Concholepas concholepas) were collected from 28 sites. Researchers analysed the accumulation of STX-group toxins using a LC with a derivatisation post column (LC-PCOX), while lipophilic toxins (OA-group, azapiracids, pectenotoxins and yessotoxins) were analysed using LC-MS/MS with electrospray ionisation (+/-) in visceral (hepatopancreas) and non-visceral tissues (mantle, adductor muscle, gills and foot). Levels of STX-group and OA-group toxins varied among individuals from the same site. Among all tissue samples, the highest concentrations of STX-group toxins were noted in the hepatopancreas in V. antiqua (95 ± 0.1 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)), T. dombeii (148 ± 1.4 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)) and G. solida (3232 ± 5.2 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1); p concholepas (81 ± 0.7 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)) and T. dombeii (114 ± 1.2 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)). The highest variability of toxins was detected in G. solida, where high levels of carbamate derivatives were identified (GTXs, neoSTX and STX). In addition to the detected hydrophilic toxins, OA-group toxins were detected (OA and DTX-1) with an average ratio of ≈1:1. The highest levels of OA-group toxins were in the foot of C. concholepas, with levels of 400.3 ± 3.6 μg OA eq kg(-1) (p mantle > adductor muscle for the STX-group toxins and foot > digestive gland for the OA-group toxins. These results gave a better understanding of the variability and compartmentalisation of STX-group and OA-group toxins in different
Shiao, Shiuh-Feng; Yeh, Ta-Chuan
Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies are two predominant necrophagous species in Taiwan. Larvae of the latter can prey on other maggots, including that of their own species as facultative food. This facultative characteristic of C. rufifacies may enhance its competitive advantage over other maggots and could also change the situation of other coexisting colonies. In this study, these two species were colonized in the laboratory, and the main objective was to try to understand the effect of competition on larval development. According to our results, intraspecific competition mostly occurred as competition for food; when the rearing density was increased, larvae pupated earlier, resulting in a lighter adult dry weight. The tendencies were similar in both species, but C. megacephala developed smaller viable adults and had higher survivorship at high densities. Although C. rufifacies could use the food resource of cannibalism, its survivorship was still low. Our results also showed there were significant interactions between intraspecific competition and the density factor. However, with interspecific competition, the first-instar larvae of C. rufifacies invaded maggot masses of C. megacephala to feed together. The third instars of C. rufifacies were able to expel C. megacephala larvae from food by using a fleshy protrusion on their body surface; C. megacephala was usually forced to pupate earlier by shortening its larval stages. The results indicated that a temporary competitive advantage could only be obtained by C. rufifacies under a proper larval density. In addition, the effects on different larval stages, the responses to different competition intensities, and the temperature-dependent effects on interspecific competition are also discussed. In general, under mixed-species rearing at different temperatures and densities, larval duration, adult dry weight, and survivorship of both species decreased. However, our results did not completely agree with
Lucas Silveira Antonietto
Full Text Available The Sergipe-Alagoas Basin has one of the most complete, exposed lithological successions of the Cretaceous period in the continental margin of Brazil. It captures several phases of the evolution of the South Atlantic Ocean, including rift, gulf and drift. The upper Aptian–Albian Riachuelo Formation corresponds to the first stages of the southern proto-Atlantic Ocean invasion in that basin. The present study reviews the taxonomic identification and ecology of 39 ostracod species of this formation, proposing a new genus – Gabonorygma gen. nov. – and three new species – Praebythoceratina deltalata sp. nov., Gabonorygma sergipana gen. et sp. nov. and Brachycythere smithsoniana sp. nov. Other taxa include Conchoecia? sp. 1, Cytherella sp. 1, C. besrineensis comb. nov., Cytherelloidea aff. globosa, C. btaterensis, Bairdoppilata sp. 1, Bairdoppilata sp. 2, B. comanchensis comb. nov., B. pseudoseptentrionalis, Robsoniella falklandensis, Cetacella sp. 1, Paracypris eniotmetos, Harbinia sinuata?, H. crepata, Liasina sp. 1, Praebythoceratina amsittenensis comb. nov., P. trinodosa comb. nov., Patellacythere sp. 1, P. shimonensis comb. nov., Xestoleberis? sp. 1, Xestoleberis? sp. 2, Apatocythere? sp. 1, Neocythere? aff. pseudovanveeni, N. (Physocythere tenuis, Aracajuia antiqua comb. nov., A. benderi, A. fragilis comb. nov., Eocytheropteron sp. 1, Metacytheropteron aff. minuta, Microceratina? sp. 1, M. azazoulensis, Veenia guianensis, Algeriana? sp. 1, Quasihermanites? sp. 1 and Sergipella viviersae.
Ayyadurai, Saravanan; Flaudrops, Christophe; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel
Accurate identification is necessary to discriminate harmless environmental Yersinia species from the food-borne pathogens Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and from the group A bioterrorism plague agent Yersinia pestis. In order to circumvent the limitations of current phenotypic and PCR-based identification methods, we aimed to assess the usefulness of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) protein profiling for accurate and rapid identification of Yersinia species. As a first step, we built a database of 39 different Yersinia strains representing 12 different Yersinia species, including 13 Y. pestis isolates representative of the Antiqua, Medievalis and Orientalis biotypes. The organisms were deposited on the MALDI-TOF plate after appropriate ethanol-based inactivation, and a protein profile was obtained within 6 minutes for each of the Yersinia species. When compared with a 3,025-profile database, every Yersinia species yielded a unique protein profile and was unambiguously identified. In the second step of analysis, environmental and clinical isolates of Y. pestis (n = 2) and Y. enterocolitica (n = 11) were compared to the database and correctly identified. In particular, Y. pestis was unambiguously identified at the species level, and MALDI-TOF was able to successfully differentiate the three biotypes. These data indicate that MALDI-TOF can be used as a rapid and accurate first-line method for the identification of Yersinia isolates.
Full Text Available One of the oldest churches in Krakow, dedicated to All Saints, was situated between Grodzka and Franciszkańska Street. It was build in the XIII century, could had been replacement church for first Cracow’s parish, which was transferred from Saint Trinity church. The name of All Saints church was mentioned for the first time in Vita S. Stanislai. The second time in 1278 his rector Arnold was noted. Most interesting fact is that in the Tables of Pence from 1325–1327 you can find two rectors, who had separate salary and were called rectors of wooden and brick churches. In 1490 church got a collegiate title. Than double rectory was liquidated and positions of provost and dean were established. Church was a place where Brotherhood of the Poor created by Bishop Zbigniew Oleśnicki used to work. Our knowledge of churches looks comes from iconography which was made when the building was already a ruin. According to those sources church had two naves, was oriented and had simply completed presbytery. The building had adhered tower, sacristy, treasure and chapel, called capella antiqua. Description of the interior of the church comes from 1599, when Jerzy Radziwiłł, Bishop of Cracow had visited it. According to the decision of the City Beautification Committee, the church was demolished in 1835, and church’s equipment was sold on auction. The tower survived till 1840, when it shared the fate of the rest of the building.
Full Text Available Introduction: Cancer wounds need regular dressing; else they develop infection, foul odor, and in extreme cases, maggots. Patients resist dressing due to the severe incidental pain during dressing. Intranasal ketamine was tried as an analgesic to reduce this incidental pain. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with wounds requiring regular dressing were selected; these patients had a basal pain score of 4/10 and incidental pain score of 7/10 during four consecutive dressings. Ketamine 0.5 mg/kg was administered transmucosally 10 min before dressing, and pain scores, hemodynamic parameters, and sedation were recorded for up to 2 h in six consecutive dressings. Results: Ketamine produced a significant reduction in incidental pain without any hemodynamic changes or sedation. Conclusion: Ketamine appears to be a safe and effective analgesic when used intranasally for incidental pain.
Baumgartner, D L
The taxonomy, distribution, bionomics, and medical and veterinary importance of C. rufifacies are reviewed and summarized. Late instars are beneficial as predators of the maggots of pathogen-transmitting and myiasis-producing flies, but strains from parts of Australia, India, and Hawaii are harmful as secondary myiasis agents. The effects of invasions, possible competition, and displacement of native calliphorids are discussed. The developmental duration of the immature stadia at different temperatures are reviewed. The primary literature (274 papers) dealing with this fly is given and cross-referenced by subject to serve as a reference to research entomologists and governmental agencies involved in the control of this livestock parasite in the Americas and Australia.
Sukontason, K L; Sukontason, K; Narongchai, P; Lertthamnongtham, S; Piangjai, S; Olson, J K
The first documented use of the larvae of the hairy maggot blow fly, Chrysomya rufifacies, for estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) of a decomposing human corpse in Thailand is reported. A honeycomb-like wound observed on one leg of the corpse was infested with numerous third-stage C. rufifacies larvae. Based on the pupae and larvae present in accordance with the ambient temperature previously recorded, six days postmortem was estimated for a corpse at the time of its discovery and investigation. Since adult C. rufifacies specimens have been collected in many parts of both urban and mountainous areas in Thailand, more biological information about this blowfly species is needed to increase the accuracy of forensic investigations where the fly is present.
Sergio E Bermúdez
Full Text Available We present the results of a study on myiasis in Panama during the first years of a Cochliomyia hominivorax eradication program (1998-2005, with the aim of investigating the behavior of the flies that produce myiasis in animals and human beings. The hosts that registered positive for myiasis were cattle (46.4%, dogs (15.3%, humans (14.7%, birds (12%, pigs (6%, horses (4%, and sheep (1%. Six fly species caused myiasis: Dermatobia hominis (58%, Phaenicia spp. (20%, Cochliomyia macellaria (19%, Chrysomya rufifacies (0.4%, and maggots of unidentified species belonging to the Sarcophagidae (3% and Muscidae (0.3%. With the Dubois index, was no evidence that the absence of C. hominivorax allowed an increase in the cases of facultative myiasis.
Byrd, J H; Butler, J F
Growth curves were studied for the egg, larva, and pupa of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) under mean cyclic temperatures of 15.6, 21.1, 26.7, and 35.0 degrees C and a constant temperature of 25.0 degrees C. Development from egg to adult under all regimes ranged from 190 to 598 h. A constant temperature of 25 degrees C produced a range of pupation times from 134 to 162 h, with adult emergence ranging from 237 to 289 h. The maximal preferential temperature of 35.1 degrees C was determined for maggots using a gradient system. Highly predictable developmental time, minimal larval length variation, and low cohort variation emphasize the utility of this species in entomological-based postmortem interval determinations. Therefore, C. rufifacies should be of primary forensic importance when recovered alone or in conjunction with other species of Calliphoridae.
Kavitha, Rajagopal; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad; Tan, Tian Chye; Lee, Han Lim; Isa, Mohd Noor Mat; Azirun, Mohd Sofian
Forensic entomology applies knowledge about insects associated with decedent in crime scene investigation. It is possible to calculate a minimum postmortem interval (PMI) by determining the age and species of the oldest blow fly larvae feeding on decedent. This study was conducted in Malaysia to identify maggot specimens collected during crime scene investigations. The usefulness of the molecular and morphological approach in species identifications was evaluated in 10 morphologically identified blow fly larvae sampled from 10 different crime scenes in Malaysia. The molecular identification method involved the sequencing of a total length of 2.2 kilo base pairs encompassing the 'barcode' fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI), cytochrome oxidase II (COII) and t-RNA leucine genes. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the presence of Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies and Chrysomya nigripes. In addition, one unidentified blow fly species was found based on phylogenetic tree analysis.
Sukontason, Kom; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Piangjai, Somsak; Narongchai, Paitoon; Samai, Wirachai; Boonchu, Noppawan; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Ngern-Klun, Radchadawan; Siriwattanarungsee, Sirisuda
The morphology of the second and third instars of Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton, a fly species of forensic importance, was presented by use of light microscopy. Both instars were of hairy appearance, bearing elongated tubercles along the abdominal and caudal segments. The anterior spiracle had 13-15 papillae. Minute dark spots were observed to thoroughly cover the tubercle's surface, with 4-6 strong dark tips. Regarding the third instar, the intersegmental spines between the prothorax and mesothorax were heavily pigmented. The posterior spiracle had a thick and heavily pigmented incomplete peritreme. The surface and tip of the tubercles was covered with heavily pigmented sharp spines. The integument of the body was covered with numerous distinct net-like patches. A comparison with another well-known hairy maggot, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), was discussed.
Kaye, Brian H.
Who killed Napoleon? Were the witches of Salem high on LSD? What do maggots on a body tell us about the time of death? In his unique, engaging style, Brian Kaye tells the story of some spectacular cases in which forensic evidence played a key role. You'll also read about the fascinating ways in which scientific evidence can be used to establish guilt or innocence in today's courtroom. The use of voice analysis, methods for developing fingerprints and for uncovering art forgeries, and the examination of bullet wounds are just a few topics considered. In a special section on fraud, the author takes you into the world of counterfeit money. There's no solving crime without science. Written for everyone interested in whodunnits, this book explains the basis of the analytical techniques available for studying evidence in offenses ranging from doping in sports to first-degree murder.
Full Text Available Myiasis is the invasion of body tissues of humans and animals by the larvae of the Diptera or two-winged flies. There are only sporadic reports in the literature concerning human ear myiasis. A 62-year-old bedridden woman in an intensive care unit was examined because of her intense swollen and erythematous right ear. Physical examination revealed 80 live larvae (maggots in the posterior part of right outer ear and external auditory canal. Entomological studies of the third instar larvae revealed it’s identity as Lucilia sericata. The entomological aspects, clinical and epidemiological characteristics are evaluated. In particular, we underline the rarity of myiasis because of both etiological agent and the anatomical site.
Forensic entomology is recognized in many countries as an important tool for legal investigations. Unfortunately, it has not received much attention in India as an important investigative tool. The maggots of the flies crawling on the dead bodies are widely considered to be just another disgusting element of decay and are not collected at the time of autopsy. They can aid in death investigations (time since death, manner of death, etc.. This paper reviews the various methods of post mortem interval estimation using Calliphoridae to make the investigators, law personnel and researchers aware of the importance of entomology in criminal investigations. The various problems confronted by forensic entomologists in estimating the time since death have also been discussed and there is a need for further research in the field as well as the laborator. Correct estimation of the post mortem interval is one of the most important aspects of legal medicine.
Lushnikov Sergey V.
Full Text Available This article presents the results of experimental work during 2004-2005 on oil decontamination of bottom sediments of Lake Schuchye, situated in the Komi Republic (Northern Russia. The cause of thecontamination were huge oil spills occurred after a series of accidental ruptures on the Harjaga-Usinsk and Vozej-Usinsk oil-pipe lines in 1994. Flotation technology was used for the cleaning of bottom sediments.157 tons of crude oil were removed during the course of 2-year experimental work from an area of 4,1 ha.The content of aliphatic and alicyclic oil hydrocarbons was reduced from 53,3 g/kg to 2,2 g/kg, on average.Hydrobiological investigations revealed that bottom sediments started to be inhabited by benthos organisms, dominantly Oligochaeta. Besides Oligochaeta, Chironomidae maggots and Bivalvia were detected. Theappearance of Macrozoobenthos organisms can serve as a bioindicator of water quality.
Franciéle S Masiero
Full Text Available Larval therapy (LT or maggot debridement therapy (MDT con-sists in applying sterile and live larvae of necrophagous flies reared in lab-oratories on injuries, chronic or infected wounds. This treatment aims to help the wound healing process from the removal of devitalized tissue and secretion by larvae. Furthermore, the larvae apparently inhibit the growth of pathogenic microorganisms in the wound bed, due to bactericidal sub-stances secreted by them. This study aims to expose an overview of the im-portance of LT (or MDT as an alternative therapeutic modality to promote healing of acute and/or chronic injuries, to stimulate health professionals and educators in the dissemination and propagation of knowledge and de-mystification of this technique for application large-scale public health.
Musyoki, M.; Kasina, M.
Fruit flies (Family Tephritidae) is one of the most destructive and economically challenging pest insect of fruits and vegetables. It is responsible for loss of export markets and poor farm gate prices of fruits and vegetables. Fruit flies are insects (Diptera) and undergoes complete metamorphosis: eggs- larva- pupa- adult. Only larva (maggots) are extremely damaging and the Adults in addition cause economic injury through stippling. The purpose of this project is to build capacity of African countries in the management of fruit flies using area wide approach and incorporating sterile insect technique (SIT ). sterile insect technique is a method that uses sterile insects (males) to flood them in the wild, and by so doing they mate with wild fertile individuals, resulting to no progeny. KALRO looking forward to develop mass rearing facility for fruit flies and SIT facility
Full Text Available Myiasis is the condition of infestation of the body by fly larvae (maggots. The deposited eggs develop into larvae, which penetrate deep structures causing adjacent tissue destruction. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in tropical countries and hot climate regions, and associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions, alcoholism and senility. The diagnosis of Myiasis is basically made by the presence of larvae. The reported cases of oral Myiasis associated with oral cancer in the literature are few. This paper reports two cases of oral and maxillofacial Myiasis involving larvae in patients with squamous cell carcinoma in adult males. The condition was managed by manual removal of the larvae, one by one, with the help of forceps and subsequent management through proper health care.
Miller, W.R.; McDonald, R.E.
Blueberries must be subjected to a quarantine treatment of methyl bromide fumigation when shipped to certain domestic or export markets. The principle insects that inhibit distribution of blueberries are the apple maggot [Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh)], blueberry maggot (R. mendax Curran), and plum curculio [Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst)]. Methyl bromide fumigation is the only approved quarantine treatment for blueberries and it is scheduled to be phased out by the year 2001. Highbush blueberries’ tolerance to low-dose irradiation is cultivar-dependent (Eaton et al., 1970). Two main cultivars grown in Florida, ‘Climax’ and ‘Sharpblue’, will tolerate irradiation up to 0.75 kGy without loss of fruit market quality (Miller et al., 1994a, 1994b, 1995). A 1.0-kGy dose is the maximum allowed (U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 1986) for treatment of fresh fruit or vegetables, and reportedly (personal communications, J. Sharp and G. Hallman) »0.3 kGy is sufficient for control of blueberry insects requiring quarantine certification. Two or three times the minimum dose may, however, be required to assure that the minimum dose is absorbed by all berries during commercial application. Therefore, it is most important to determine the tolerance of berries to irradiation stress. The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of low-dose irradiation on the quality and condition of ‘Brightwell’ and ‘Tifblue’, two major rabbiteye cultivars grown in Georgia. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (P £ 0.05) on a split-block experimental design, with harvest dates for ‘Brightwell’, and randomized sample sets as replications for ‘Tifblue’ berries. The data were tested for the main effect of irradiation dosage on quality attributes
El-Tantawy, Nora L
By definition, parasites cause harm to their hosts. But, considerable evidence from ancient traditional medicine has supported the theory of using parasites and their products in treating many diseases. Maggots have been used successfully to treat chronic, long-standing, infected wounds which failed to respond to conventional treatment by many beneficial effects on the wound including debridement, disinfection, and healing enhancement. Maggots are also applied in forensic medicine to estimate time between the death and discovery of a corpse and in entomotoxicology involving the potential use of insects as alternative samples for detecting drugs and toxins in death investigations. Leeches are segmented invertebrates, famous by their blood-feeding habits and used in phlebotomy to treat various ailments since ancient times. Leech therapy is experiencing resurgence nowadays in health care principally in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Earthworms provide a source of medicinally useful products with potential antimicrobial, antiviral, and anticancer properties. Lumbrokinases are a group of fibrinolytic enzymes isolated and purified from earthworms capable of degrading plasminogen-rich and plasminogen-free fibrin and so can be used to treat various conditions associated with thrombotic diseases. Helminth infection has been proved to have therapeutic effects in both animal and human clinical trials with promising evidence in treating many allergic diseases and can block the induction of or reduce the severity of some autoimmune disorders as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. What is more, venomous arthropods such as scorpions, bees, wasps, spiders, ants, centipedes, snail, beetles, and caterpillars. The venoms and toxins from these arthropods provide a promising source of natural bioactive compounds which can be employed in the development of new drugs to treat diseases as cancer. The possibility of using these active molecules in biotechnological processes can
Slone, D.H.; Gruner, Susan V.
The growth and development of carrion-feeding calliphorid (Diptera Calliphoridae) larvae, or maggots, is of great interest to forensic sciences, especially for estimation of a postmortem interval (PMI). The development rate of calliphorid larvae is influenced by the temperature of their immediate environment. Heat generation in larval feeding aggregations (=maggot masses) is a well-known phenomenon, but it has not been quantitatively described. Calculated development rates that do not include internally generated temperatures will result in overestimation of PMI. Over a period of 2.5 yr, 80 pig, Sus scrofa L., carcasses were placed out at study sites in north central Florida and northwestern Indiana. Once larval aggregations started to form, multiple internal and external temperatures, and weather observations were taken daily or every few days between 1400 and 1800 hours until pupation of the larvae. Volume of each aggregation was determined by measuring surface area and average depth. Live and preserved samples of larvae were taken for species identification. The four most common species collected were Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phaenicia) (Macquart) (77%), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (8.3%), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart) (7.7%), and Phormia regina (Meigen) (5.5%). Statistical analyses showed that 1) volume of a larval mass had a strong influence on its temperature, 2) internal temperatures of masses on the ground were influenced by soil temperature and mass volume, 3) internal temperatures of masses smaller than 20 cm3 were influenced by ambient air temperature and mass volume, and 4) masses larger than 20 cm3 on the carcass had strongly regulated internal temperatures determined only by the volume of the mass, with larger volumes associated with higher temperatures. Nonsignificant factors included presence of rain or clouds, shape of the aggregation, weight of the carcass, species composition of the aggregation, time since death, or season.
Grow, Nanda B; Wirdateti; Nekaris, K A I
The venom produced by slow lorises (Nycticebus spp.) is toxic both intra- and inter-specifically. In this study we assessed the ecoparasite repellent properties of their venom. We tested venom from two Indonesian slow loris species: Nycticebus javanicus and Nycticebus coucang. Arthropods directly exposed to brachial gland secretions mixed with saliva from both species were immediately impaired or exhibited reduced activity (76%), and often died as a result (61%). We found no significant difference in the result of 60-min trials between N. coucang and N. javanicus [X(2)(1, n = 140) = 2.110, p = 0.3482]. We found evidence that the degree of lethality of the venom varies according to the arthropod taxa to which it is exposed. While most maggots (84%) were initially impaired from the venom after 10 min, maggots died after a 1 h trial 42% of the time. In contrast, at the end of 1 h trial, spiders died 78% of the time. For all arthropods, the average time to death from exposure was less than 25 min (M = 24.40, SD = 22.60). Ectoparasites including ticks, members of the arachnid order, are known to transmit pathogens to hosts and may be an intended target of the toxic secretions. Our results suggest that one function of slow loris venom is to repel parasites that affect their fitness, and that their topical anointing behaviour may be an adaptive response to ectoparasites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Edwards, Laura L; Donovan-Kicken, Erin; Reis, Janet S
Parents with HIV/AIDS are confronted with unique challenges when discussing HIV-related information with their children. Strategies for navigating these challenges effectively have not been systematically examined. In this study, we conducted in-depth interviews with 76 parents with HIV/AIDS who had children ages 10-18 years. Guided by O'Keefe and Delia's definition of a complex communication situation and Goldsmith's normative approach to interpersonal communication, we examined parents' goals for discussing HIV-related information, factors that made conversations challenging, and instances where these conversational purposes conflicted with one another. Our data reveal the following parent-adolescent communication predicaments: relaying safety information about HIV while minimizing child anxiety, modeling open family communication without damaging one's parental identity, and balancing parent-child relational needs amid living with an unpredictable health condition. Parents also described a variety of strategies for mitigating challenges when discussing HIV-related topics. Strategies parents perceived as effective included reframing HIV as a chronic, manageable illness; keeping talk educational; and embedding HIV-related topics within more general conversations. The theoretical and practical applications of these findings are discussed with regard to their relevance to health communication scholars and HIV care professionals.
Full Text Available Florin Zaharie,1,* Roxana Cojocneanu-Petric,1,* Mihai Muresan,1 Ioana Frinc,2 Delia Dima,2 Bobe Petrushev,3 Alina Tanase,4 Cristian Berce,1 Mariana Chitic,2 Ioana Berindan-Neagoe,1 Valentina Pileczki,1 Alexandru Irimie,5 Ciprian Tomuleasa2 1Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 2Department of Hematology, Ion Chiricuta Oncology Institute, 3Department of Pathology, Emergency University Hospital, Cluj Napoca, 4Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, Fundeni Clinical Institute, Bucharest, 5Department of Surgery, Ion Chiricuta Oncology Institute, Cluj Napoca, Romania *These authors contributed equally to this communicationWe have read with great interest the paper by Tang and Chen1 published in the most recent issue of the International Journal of Nanomedicine, in which the authors describe the protocol by which scientists constructed the ideal BRAF (V600E-modeled structure through homology modeling and introduced the method of structure-based docking or virtual screening from a large compound database. They concluded that BRAF (V600E has a quite prominent structural or conformational variation when compared to the wild-type BRAF protein by matrix of root mean square fluctuation and principal component analysis. On the basis of structure-based virtual screening, ligand-based quantitative structure activity relationship models, and molecular dynamics simulation, we recommend aknadicine and 16beta-hydroxy-19s-vindolinine N-oxide as potent compounds for developing novel inhibitors in the future. Read the original article
Hou Guangyun; Jing Liling
A complete delia cross (no reciprocal hybrid) was made using 5 wheat mutants with distinctive characters. The heterosis and combining ability of 8 agronomic characters were studied in 10 crosses F 1 and 5 parents. The dominance degree of F 1 indicated that except for the remarkable negative heterosis for heading-date, the positive heterosis was remarkable for all the other 7 characters. The performance of parents was significantly related to the gca effects. However, gca effects were not completely consistent with the value of heterosis. As germplasm resources, dwarf-stalk mutant 890376 was the best for reducing plant height. A large grain mutant, Hesheng 2, was the best for increasing 1000-grain weight. An early maturity mutant 890236 was the best for earlier heading and fillering ability. A large head mutant 890018 was the best for improving head length, number of spikelets per head, number of grain per head and grain weight per head. To sum up, the above 4 distinctive mutants were very useful for improving the characters corresponding with their mutated characters. For some characters, the cross will have a bigger sca effects if its parents have a bigger gca effects. However, it is not the same for all their characters. Sca effects of crosses were significantly related to the heterosis over mean parent
Full Text Available Fra i manoscritti deila Biblioteca Comunale di Bassano· del Grappa è custodita - insieme con altre ·""' una inedita versione carilica delia Parabola del Figliuol prodigo, proveniente dall' "Epistolario racccolto da Bartolomeo Gamba" (con la collocazione numero 2589 XVII-"A-ll, un erudite locale, vissuto frail 1766 e il 1841. Essa devette far parte·""' con le altre - di quella silloge di versidni friulane, che Pietro Oliva del Turco di Aviano aveva commissionato a corrispondenti locali per canto di Bernardino Biondeili, il note autore del saggio sui dialetti ·· gallo-italici Milano 1853,·il quafetuttavia non vi inserì le versioni della nostra Regione: alla loro pubblicazione provvide - riprendendole dai manoscritti delle-stesso, rimasti inediti - Carlo Salvioni con le Versioni friulane della Parabola del;Figliuol prodigo tratte dale carte Biondeili, in "Memorie Stori che Forogiuliesi"t IX (1913}, pp. 80-95;
de Frias, Cindy M; Dixon, Roger A; Strauss, Esther
The authors examined the structure and invariance of executive functions (EF) across (a) a continuum of cognitive status in 3 groups of older adults (cognitively elite [CE], cognitively normal [CN], and cognitively impaired [CI]) and (b) a 3-year longitudinal interval. Using latent variable analyses (LISREL 8.80), the authors tested 3-factor models ("Inhibition": Hayling [Burgess & Shallice, 1997], Stroop [Regard, 1981]; "Shifting": Brixton [Burgess & Shallice, 1997], Color Trails [D'Elia et al., 1996]; and "Updating": Reading and Computational Span [Salthouse & Babcock, 1991]) and 1-factor models within each group. Participants (initial N = 570; 53-90 years) were from the Victoria Longitudinal Study (Sample 3, Waves 1 and 2). Cross-sectionally, the authors observed a 3-factor EF structure especially for the CE group and 1-factor solutions for all 3 groups. Longitudinally, temporal invariance was supported for the 3-factor model (CE and CN groups) and the 1-factor model (CI and CN groups). Subgroups with higher cognitive status and greater 3-year stability performed better on EF factors than corresponding groups with lower cognitive status and less stability. Studies of EF structure, performance, dedifferentiation, and dysfunction will benefit from considering initial cognitive status and longitudinal stability.
Full Text Available Salinization is one of the most serious problems confronting sustainable agriculture in semi-arid and arid regions. Accurate mapping of soil salinization and the associated risk represent a fundamental step in planning agricultural and remediation activities. Geostatistical analysis is very useful for soil quality assessment because it makes it possible to determine the spatial relationships between selected variables and to produce synthetic maps of spatial variation. The main objective of this paper was to map the soil salinization risk in the Delia-Nivolelli alluvial basin (south-western Sicily, southern Italy, using multivariate geostatistical techniques and a set of topographical, physical and soil hydraulic properties. Elevation data were collected from existing topographic maps and analysed preliminarily to improve the estimate precision of sparsely sampled primary variables. For interpolation multi-collocated cokriging was applied to the dataset, including textural and hydraulic properties and electrical conductivity measurements carried out on 128 collected soil samples, using elevation data as auxiliary variable. Spatial dependence among elevation and physical soil properties was explored with factorial kriging analysis (FKA that could isolate and display the sources of variation acting at different spatial scales. FKA isolated significant regionalised factors which give a concise description of the complex soil physical variability at the different selected spatial scales. These factors mapped, allowed the delineation of zones at different salinisation risk to be managed separately to control and prevent salinization risk. The proposed methodology could be a valid support for land use and soil remediation planning at regional scale.
Chan, Michelle W C; Yip, James T H; Lee, Tatia M C
The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether patients with different subtypes of schizophrenia are differentially impaired on measures of attention. Forty-eight patients with schizophrenia (19 paranoid and 29 nonparanoid) and 48 healthy controls (matched on chronological age, sex, and years of education) were administered five measures of attention including the Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT; Stroop, 1935), the Digit Vigilance Test (DVT; Lewis, 1992), the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT; Smith, 1982), the Backward Digit Span Test (BDST; Wechsler, 1987), and the Color Trails Test (CTT; D'Elia et al., 1996) to assess selective attention, sustained attention, switching attention, and attentional control processing by the latter two tests respectively. Results from the present study showed that patients with schizophrenia performed poorer on the SCWT, the DVT, and the SDMT, relative to their healthy counterparts. Furthermore, patients with different subtypes of schizophrenia also had different degrees of attentional impairment. While patients with paranoid schizophrenia performed worse on the SCWT, those with nonparanoid schizophrenia performed worse on the SDMT. Nevertheless, these findings may suggest that patients with paranoid and nonparanoid schizophrenia may have different profiles with respect to their performances on measures of attention.
Full Text Available Remains of Neogene and Quaternary "natricine" colubrids, elapids and viperids, including snakes previously described and those undescribed yet, coming from Poland, Ukraine, Moldavia, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Greece are discussed. The following taxa, including 11 extinct species, were recognized: "Natricinae": Neonatrix nova, Neonatrix sp., Palaeonatrix silesiaca, Palaeonatrix lehmani, Natrix longivertebrata, Natrix cf. N. longivertebrata, Natrix natrix, Natrix tesselata, Natrix cf. N. tesselata, Natrix sp., "Natricinae" indet.; Elapidae: Naja romani, Naja sp., cf. Naja sp.; Viperidae: Vipera platyspondyla, Vipera sarmatica, Vipera burgenlandica, Vipera gedulyi, Vipera kuchurganica, Vipera antiqua, Vipera cf. V. ammodytes, Vipera berus, Vipera sp ('Oriental vipers' group, Vipera sp. ('aspis' group, Vipera sp. ('berus' group, Vipera sp. . (status unknown. Taxonomic status of two other extinct species, Natrix parva and Laophis crotaloides, is uncertain. Modern species appeared fírst in Central and East Europe in the middle Pliocene (MN 15. Older snakes belonged to extinct species of either extinct or extant genera; taxonomic distinction of most extinct genera is, however, not fully demonstrated. Best recognized oldest snakes from the area (Elapidae, Viperidae, and sorne Colubridae are clearly referable to modern genera and intrageneric subdivisions occurring today are observed in oldest (Iower Miocene remains; closest living relatives of these fossils are presently distributed in the Oriental Realm.Se revisan y estudian los restos neógenos y cuaternarios de colúbridos Â«natricinosÂ», elápidos y vipéridos, incluyendo tanto serpientes previamente descritas como- otras inéditas. Los materiales analizados proceden de Polonia, Ukrania, Moldavia, Checoslovaquia, Austria, Hungría, Rumania, Bulgaria y Grecia. Se reconocen los siguientes taxones, incluyendo 11 especies extinguidas: Natricinae: Neonatrix nova
die Funktionalität der Nachkorrektur deutschsprachiger Frakturschrift erweitert. In einem Ausblick werden Bedarfe und Möglichkeiten für die Zukunft aufgezeigt. Gradually, the humanities are provided with a number of computer based tools and scientific infrastructures of the digital humanities. As digital full text is strongly needed for these tools and infrastructures, the demand for high-quality full texts is constantly rising. OCRed full text from Gothic typeface texts is of considerably worse quality than OCRed full text from Antiqua. The value of uncorrected and unstructured OCR full text is fairly low. As multiple millions of pages need to be processed, the method should be efficient with respect to expenditure and costs. Therefore, we introduce an almost fully automated approach for the post correction of OCR full text. The approach developed at the Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Bremen (SuUB is a straightforward one. One of the requirements, a list of historical word forms, was easily generated. An efficient algorithm carries out the matching of 1,7 million word forms against almost 80 million words taken from the historical journal Die Grenzboten. The parametrization of the algorithm, i.e. the adaption to the specific requirements of the full text project, is comprehensible and easy to understand. The results which can be achieved strongly depend on the initial quality of the full text, the dimension and quality of the list of historical word forms and the error model applied. For example, specific types of errors can only be corrected by taking context information into account. Furthermore, the cloud service overProof was enhanced by the ability to correct German Gothic typeset. This was done in a cooperation with the Australian company ProjectComputing. In the discussion, requirements and options for the future are presented.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The species Yersinia pestis is commonly divided into three classical biovars, Antiqua, Medievalis, and Orientalis, belonging to subspecies pestis pathogenic for human and the (atypical non-human pathogenic biovar Microtus (alias Pestoides including several non-pestis subspecies. Recent progress in molecular typing methods enables large-scale investigations in the population structure of this species. It is now possible to test hypotheses about its evolution which were proposed decades ago. For instance the three classical biovars of different geographical distributions were suggested to originate from Central Asia. Most investigations so far have focused on the typical pestis subspecies representatives found outside of China, whereas the understanding of the emergence of this human pathogen requires the investigation of strains belonging to subspecies pestis from China and to the Microtus biovar. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Multi-locus VNTR analysis (MLVA with 25 loci was performed on a collection of Y. pestis isolates originating from the majority of the known foci worldwide and including typical rhamnose-negative subspecies pestis as well as rhamnose-positive subspecies pestis and biovar Microtus. More than 500 isolates from China, the Former Soviet Union (FSU, Mongolia and a number of other foci around the world were characterized and resolved into 350 different genotypes. The data revealed very close relationships existing between some isolates from widely separated foci as well as very high diversity which can conversely be observed between nearby foci. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results obtained are in full agreement with the view that the Y. pestis subsp. pestis pathogenic for humans emerged in the Central Asia region between China, Kazakhstan, Russia and Mongolia, only three clones of which spread out of Central Asia. The relationships among the strains in China, Central Asia and the rest of the world based on the MLVA
Amendt, Jens; Rodner, Sandra; Schuch, Claus-Peter; Sprenger, Heinz; Weidlich, Lars; Reckel, Frank
One of the most common techniques applied for searching living and even dead persons is the FLIR (Forward Looking Infrared) system fixed on an aircraft like e.g. a helicopter, visualizing the thermal patterns emitted from objects in the long-infrared spectrum. However, as body temperature cools down to ambient values within approximately 24h after death, it is common sense that searching for deceased persons can be just applied the first day post-mortem. We postulated that the insect larval masses on a decomposing body generate a heat which can be considerably higher than ambient temperatures for a period of several weeks and that such heat signatures might be used for locating insect infested human remains. We examined the thermal history of two 70 and 90kg heavy pig cadavers for 21days in May and June 2014 in Germany. Adult and immature insects on the carcasses were sampled daily. Temperatures were measured on and inside the cadavers, in selected maggot masses and at the surroundings. Thermal imaging from a helicopter using the FLIR system was performed at three different altitudes up to 1500ft. during seven day-flights and one night-flight. Insect colonization was dominated by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) which occurred almost immediately after placement of the cadavers. Larvae were noted first on day 2 and infestation of both cadavers was enormous with several thousand larvae each. After day 14 a first wave of post-feeding larvae left the carcasses for pupation. Body temperature of both cadavers ranged between 15°C and 35°C during the first two weeks of the experiment, while body surface temperatures peaked at about 45°C. Maggot masses temperatures reached values up to almost 25°C above ambient temperature. Detection of both cadavers by thermal imaging was possible on seven of the eight helicopter flights until day 21. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Dissection laboratory is the only place where the three dimensional structure of the human body is reinforced by visual, auditory and tactile pathways. Cadavers are main teaching tools in Anatomy and are handled by the staff and students routinely. Very often the cadavers enbalmed by various chemicals are not effective in inhibiting growth of fungi, bacteria, maggots etc. To date limited studies have been carried out to overcome this problem hence this study was undertaken to find out safe and effective enbalming fluid. Aims and Objectives: The main object of the present study is to provide a composition of body-preservation fluid which is effective in preventing decomposition of cadavers, maintaining a desired life-like appearance of the body which is non hazardous for dissection and environmentally safe. It was observed that chemical composition of the embalming fluid was very effective in prevention of growth of bacteria, fungus and also decay and discoloration. Results: This study was carried out in the department of Anatomy, Goa Medical College, Bambolim Goa (India from the year 2006 to 2011. Total 100 cadavers were embalmed with the following composition of the embalming fluid. It was observed that the solution in tanks where intact bodies were preserved was clear without any fungus form a period of 5 years whereas the dissected cadavers were kept separately also containing 10 percent formalin showed minimal growth of fungus after 12 months and the solution was replaced after 12 months. Conclusions: In our present study the tank containing undissected cadavers has not shown any growth of fungus for a period of 5 years. Routine dissected parts showed fungal growth only after 12 months, whereupon the scum was removed and the tank solution replaced. The arterial fluid was red in colour and could be differentiated from cavity fluid. The cadavers were free from growth of fungus and maggots during their entire first MBBS course. Not
Scianna, A.; La Guardia, M.
Full Text Available Delia BisharaPharmacy Department, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, United KingdomAbstract: Paliperidone palmitate is a new long-acting antipsychotic injection for the treatment of acute and maintenance therapy in schizophrenia. Paliperidone (9-hydroxyrisperidone is the major active metabolite of risperidone and acts at dopamine D2 and serotonin 5HT2A receptors. As with other atypical antipsychotics, it exhibits a high 5HT2A:D2 affinity ratio. It also has binding activity as an antagonist at α1- and α2 adrenergic receptors and H1 histaminergic receptors, but has virtually no affinity for cholinergic receptors. Paliperidone palmitate has been shown to be effective in reducing Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total scores in four short-term trials in acute schizophrenia. It was also effective as maintenance therapy in a long-term trial in which time to recurrence of symptoms was significantly longer in paliperidone-treated patients compared with placebo. In addition, paliperidone was shown to be noninferior to risperidone long-acting injection in one study, but this noninferiority was not established in another longer study comparing the two drugs. Treatment should be initiated with 234 mg on day 1 and 156 mg on day 8, followed by a recommended monthly maintenance dose of 39–234 mg based on efficacy and tolerability. Paliperidone palmitate is generally well tolerated, although it can cause weight gain and a rise in prolactin levels, which is generally greater in women than in men. Overall, paliperidone palmitate may have advantages over other currently available long-acting injections, and therefore may be a useful alternative for the treatment of schizophrenia, although further long-term trials comparing it with active treatments are warranted.Keywords: paliperidone palmitate, injection, schizophrenia, long-acting
Rännbäck, Linda-Marie; Cotes, Belen; Anderson, Peter; Rämert, Birgitta; Meyling, Nicolai V
Biological control of pests in agroecosystems could be enhanced by combining multiple natural enemies. However, this approach might also compromise the control efficacy through intraguild predation (IGP) among the natural enemies. Parasitoids may be able to avoid the risk of unidirectional IGP posed by entomopathogenic fungi through selective oviposition behavior during host foraging. Trybliographa rapae is a larval parasitoid of the cabbage root fly, Delia radicum. Here we evaluated the susceptibility of D. radicum and T. rapae to two species of generalist entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium brunneum isolate KVL 04-57 and Beauveria bassiana isolate KVL 03-90. Furthermore, T. rapae oviposition behavior was assessed in the presence of these entomopathogenic fungi either as infected hosts or as infective propagules in the environment. Both fungi were pathogenic to D. radicum larvae and T. rapae adults, but with variable virulence. When host patches were inoculated with M. brunneum conidia in a no-choice situation, more eggs were laid by T. rapae in hosts of those patches compared to control and B. bassiana treated patches. Females that later succumbed to mycosis from either fungus laid significantly more eggs than non-mycosed females, indicating that resources were allocated to increased oviposition due to perceived decreased life expectancy. When presented with a choice between healthy and fungal infected hosts, T. rapae females laid more eggs in healthy larvae than in M. brunneum infected larvae. This was less pronounced for B. bassiana. Based on our results we propose that T. rapae can perceive and react towards IGP risk posed by M. brunneum but not B. bassiana to the foraging female herself and her offspring. Thus, M. brunneum has the potential to be used for biological control against D. radicum with a limited risk to T. rapae populations. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Razinger, Jaka; Žerjav, Metka; Zemljič-Urbančič, Meta; Modic, Špela; Lutz, Matthias; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Grunder, Jürg; Fellous, Simon; Urek, Gregor
Cabbage root fly (Delia radicum L.) control represents a major challenge in brassica production, therefore different management strategies for its control were tested in conventionally managed open field cauliflower production. Strategies included treatments with low-risk methods such as nitrogen lime, the insecticide spinosad and the Beauveria bassiana ATCC 74040-based biopesticide Naturalis. Their effects were compared with treatments based on nonformulated fungal species Metarhizium brunneum, B. bassiana, Clonostachys solani, Trichoderma atroviride, T. koningiopsis, and T. gamsii and commercial insecticides λ-cyhalothrin and thiamethoxam. Spinosad and thiamethoxam were pipetted to individual plants before transplanting; λ-cyhalothrin was sprayed after transplanting; nitrogen lime was applied at first hoeing. Nonformulated fungi were delivered onto cauliflower plantlets' roots as a single pretransplantation inoculation. The cabbage root fly population dynamics exhibited a strong spatiotemporal variation. The lowest number of cabbage root fly pupae recovered from cauliflower roots in the field experiments was recorded in plants treated with spinosad (significant reduction), followed by Naturalis and one of the tested M. brunneum strains (nonsignificant reduction). Significantly more pupae were counted in the nitrogen lime treatment. The field experiments showed that a single drench of cauliflower plantlets with spinosad offered consistent and enduring cabbage root fly control. Naturalis and nonformulated fungal isolates did not decrease cabbage root fly pressure significantly, apparently due to lack of statistical power. The implications of the substantial intra- and inter-annual pest pressure variation and the benefits of using single plant treatments are discussed, and recommendations for improvement of rhizosphere-competence utilizing biological control strategies provided. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Kavitha, Rajagopal; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad; Tan, Tian Chye; Lee, Han Lim; Azirun, Mohd Sofian
Forensic entomological specimens collected from human decedents during crime scene investigations in Malaysia in the past 6 years (2005-2010) are reviewed. A total of 80 cases were recorded and 93 specimens were collected. From these specimens, 10 species of cyclorrphagic flies were identified, consisting of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) -38 specimens (40.86%), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) -36 specimens (38.70%), Chrysomya villeneuvi (Patton) -2 specimens (2.15%), Chrysomya nigripes (Aubertin) -2 specimens (2.15%), Chrysomya pinguis (Walker) -1 specimen (1.08%), Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus) -1 specimen (1.08%), Hemipyrellia liguriens (Wiedemann) -5 specimens (5.37%), Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) -1 specimen (1.08%), Megaselia scalaris (Loew)-1 specimen (1.08%) and Sarcophaga ruficornis (Fabricius) -4 specimens (4.30%). In two specimens (2.15%), the maggots were not identifiable. Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies were the commonest species found in human decedents from three different ecological habitats. S. nudiseta is an uncommon species found only on human cadavers from indoors. A total of 75 cases (93.75%) had a single fly infestation and 5 cases (6.25%) had double fly infestation. In conclusion, although large numbers of fly species were found on human decedents, the predominant species are still those of Chrysomya. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Nurcahyo Iman Prakoso
Full Text Available Batrocera carambolae was one of the main pests in some types of fruits. This pest attack resulted in quantitative damage in the form of fall of young fruit and qualitatively in the form of fruit to rot and contains maggots. This research was conducted to determine selected extract from Andrographis Paniculata Ness, Piper betle Linn and Acacia auriculiformis leaves which have repellent activity for Batrocera carambolae. Nine extracts from the maceration process of the three leaves were evaluated by placing the extracts and flies together in the cage. The ethanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane extracts from Andrographis Paniculata Ness, Piper betle Linn and Acacia auriculiformis leaves were applied to the test pieces and fed into a cage containing 10 male and female flies. From observation, N-hexane extracts from Andrographis Paniculata Ness and Piper betle Linn leaves and ethyl acetate extracts from Acacia auriculiformis leaf having good activity as repellent and potentially to be used as a insect ovipositing repellent of Batrocera carambolae.
Nurcahyo Iman Prakoso
Full Text Available Batrocera carambolae was one of the main pests in some types of fruits. This pest attack resulted in quantitative damage in the form of fall of young fruit and qualitatively in the form of fruit to rot and contains maggots. This research was conducted to determine selected extract from Andrographis Paniculata Ness, Piper betle Linn and Acacia auriculiformis leaves which have repellent activity for Batrocera carambolae. Nine extracts from the maceration process of the three leaves were evaluated by placing the extracts and flies together in the cage. The ethanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane extracts from Andrographis Paniculata Ness, Piper betle Linn and Acacia auriculiformis leaves were applied to the test pieces and fed into a cage containing 10 male and female flies. From observation, N-hexane extracts from Andrographis Paniculata Ness and Piper betle Linn leaves and ethyl acetate extracts from Acacia auriculiformis leaf having good activity as repellent and potentially to be used as a insect ovipositing repellent of Batrocera carambolae.
Zhu, Fengxiang; Pan, Zaifa; Hong, Chunlai; Wang, Weiping; Chen, Xiaoyang; Xue, Zhiyong; Yao, Yanlai
Changes in volatile organic compound contents in compost samples during pig manure composting were studied using a headspace, solid-phase micro-extraction method (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS). Parameters affecting the SPME procedure were optimized as follows: the coating was carbon molecular sieve/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) fiber, the temperature was 60°C and the time was 30min. Under these conditions, 87 compounds were identified from 17 composting samples. Most of the volatile components could only be detected before day 22. However, benzenes, alkanes and alkenes increased and eventually stabilized after day 22. Phenol and acid substances, which are important factors for compost quality, were almost undetectable on day 39 in natural compost (NC) samples and on day 13 in maggot-treated compost (MC) samples. Our results indicate that the approach can be effectively used to determine the composting times by analysis of volatile substances in compost samples. An appropriate composting time not only ensures the quality of compost and reduces the loss of composting material but also reduces the generation of hazardous substances. The appropriate composting times for MC and NC were approximately 22days and 40days, respectively, during the summer in Zhejiang. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
U S Udgaonkar
Full Text Available Purpose: Intestinal myiasis is a condition when the fly larvae inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and are passed out in faeces. This type of infestation results when eggs or larvae of the fly, deposited on food are inadvertently taken by man. They survive the unfavourable conditions within the gastrointestinal tract and produce disturbances, which may vary from mild to severe. The condition is not uncommon and is often misdiagnosed as pinworm infestation. Correct diagnosis by the clinical microbiologist is important to avoid unnecessary treatment. Materials and Methods: We had 7 cases of intestinal myiasis. In 2 cases the larvae were reared to adult fly in modified meat and sand medium (developed by Udgaonkar. This medium is simple and can be easily prepared in the laboratory. Results: Of the 7 larvae, 5 were Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis, 1 Megaselia species and 1 was identified as Muscina stabulans. Conclusions: S. haemorrhoidalis was the commonest maggot involved. A high index of suspicion is required for clinical diagnosis when the patient complains of passing wriggling worms in faeces for a long period without any response to antihelminthics. The reason for long duration of illness and recurrence of infestation is baffling. The nearest to cure was colonic wash. We feel prevention is of utmost importance, which is to avoid eating food articles with easy access to flies.
Udgaonkar, U S; Dharamsi, R; Kulkarni, S A; Shah, S R; Patil, S S; Bhosale, A L; Gadgil, S A; Mohite, R S
Intestinal myiasis is a condition when the fly larvae inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and are passed out in faeces. This type of infestation results when eggs or larvae of the fly, deposited on food are inadvertently taken by man. They survive the unfavourable conditions within the gastrointestinal tract and produce disturbances, which may vary from mild to severe. The condition is not uncommon and is often misdiagnosed as pinworm infestation. Correct diagnosis by the clinical microbiologist is important to avoid unnecessary treatment. We had 7 cases of intestinal myiasis. In 2 cases the larvae were reared to adult fly in modified meat and sand medium (developed by Udgaonkar). This medium is simple and can be easily prepared in the laboratory. Of the 7 larvae, 5 were Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis, 1 Megaselia species and 1 was identified as Muscina stabulans. S. haemorrhoidalis was the commonest maggot involved. A high index of suspicion is required for clinical diagnosis when the patient complains of passing wriggling worms in faeces for a long period without any response to antihelminthics. The reason for long duration of illness and recurrence of infestation is baffling. The nearest to cure was colonic wash. We feel prevention is of utmost importance, which is to avoid eating food articles with easy access to flies.
Fukuda, Akira; Usui, Masaru; Okamura, Masashi; Dong-Liang, Hu; Tamura, Yutaka
Flies play an important role as vectors in the transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (ARB) and are hypothesized to transfer ARB between internal and external livestock housing areas. The aim of this study was to understand the role that flies may play in the maintenance of ARB in the farm environment. We first evaluated the fate of ingested antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli harboring a plasmid containing antimicrobial-resistance genes (ARGs) throughout the housefly (Musca domestica) life cycle, from adult to the subsequent F1 generation. Antimicrobial-resistant E. coli was isolated from different life cycle stages and ARG carriage quantified. The ingested E. coli persisted throughout the fly life cycle, and ARG carriage was maintained at a constant level in the housefly microbiota. To clarify the transmission of ARB from flies to livestock, 30-day-old chickens were inoculated with maggots containing antimicrobial-resistant E. coli. Based on the quantification of bacteria isolated from cecal samples, antimicrobial-resistant E. coli persisted in these chickens for at least 16 days. These results suggest that flies act as a reservoir of ARB throughout their life cycle and may therefore be involved in the maintenance and circulation of ARB in the farm environment.
Aleksandra Aleksandrovna Akatova
Full Text Available The semantic frame is a cognitive model, some mental structure that unites the world map and the thesaurus of a person, the hierarchy of meanings and values of the linguistic model of the world. Conceptual-cognitive content of a semantic frame includes three constituents: the reader, the author, and culture. The postmodernistic metatext, a vivid example of which is the metatext of John Fowles, is made of lexical-semantic frames, filled with allusions, general cultural precedent phenomena, cross-references, leitmotif lexemes. The frames of "freedom" and "game" exemplify integrated leitmotif of enclosed space, sea, theater, meta-theatre, god, god's imitations, magician (wizard, and fool. The application of a semantic frames method for the analysis of lexical-allusive elements in the works of John Fowles (The Aristos, The Magus, The Ebony Tower, Daniel Martin, French Lieutenant's Woman, A Maggot, Wormholes allowed to identify the net of allusive inclusions and arrange them into lexical-semantic frames, which helped to decode linguocultural metatext of the society and the individual (author. The interpretation of linguistic and cultural items in the text has lead to distinguishing the dominant frame of the metatext, that is "freedom". It is stated that creativity is freedom in action, responsibility is the condition for complete freedom, the path from the Fool to the Magician is the way from blindness of the stereotypes in the society to the intrinsic vision of internal freedom and unifying meaning of existence.
Zaidi, Farrah; Fatima, Syeda Hira; Gul, Ayesha
Regional surveys were carried out in different parts of North West Pakistan among domestic animals (N=57,921) including pets and livestock identifying cases of traumatic myiasis (n=1037). A total of four surveys focused general livestock population during Eid ul Adha (Eid surveys; incidence=1.21%) while another four surveys (Miscellaneous surveys; incidence=7.34%) targeted animal population brought to veterinary hospitals and dispensaries. Timeframe spanned four years from 2012 to 2015. Maggots were sampled and location of the wound was recorded for each host. Taxonomic identification used light and electron microscopic techniques. Our dataset shows three species as principle agents of myiasis (n=882) including Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (n=394), Wohlfahrtia magnifica (n=244) and Lucilia cuprina Wiedemann (n=244). Others (n=155) including Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Lucilia illustris (Meigen), Lucilia porphyrina (Walker), Hemipyrellia ligguriens (Wiedemann), Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Sarcophaga crassipalpalis (Macquart) and Sarcophaga species were identified as species of minor importance. The obligatory screwworm species W. magnifica is a first report from Pakistan. The results based on this dataset are presented in a recent publication "Distribution Modeling of three screwworm species in the ecologically diverse landscape of North West Pakistan" (Zaidi et al., 2016) .
Full Text Available Regional surveys were carried out in different parts of North West Pakistan among domestic animals (N=57,921 including pets and livestock identifying cases of traumatic myiasis (n=1037. A total of four surveys focused general livestock population during Eid ul Adha (Eid surveys; incidence=1.21% while another four surveys (Miscellaneous surveys; incidence=7.34% targeted animal population brought to veterinary hospitals and dispensaries. Timeframe spanned four years from 2012 to 2015. Maggots were sampled and location of the wound was recorded for each host. Taxonomic identification used light and electron microscopic techniques. Our dataset shows three species as principle agents of myiasis (n=882 including Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (n=394, Wohlfahrtia magnifica (n=244 and Lucilia cuprina Wiedemann (n=244. Others (n=155 including Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart, Lucilia sericata (Meigen, Lucilia illustris (Meigen, Lucilia porphyrina (Walker, Hemipyrellia ligguriens (Wiedemann, Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy, Sarcophaga crassipalpalis (Macquart and Sarcophaga species were identified as species of minor importance. The obligatory screwworm species W. magnifica is a first report from Pakistan. The results based on this dataset are presented in a recent publication “Distribution Modeling of three screwworm species in the ecologically diverse landscape of North West Pakistan” (Zaidi et al., 2016 .
Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Narongchai, Paitoon; Kanchai, Chaturong; Vichairat, Karnda; Piangjai, Somsak; Boonsriwong, Worachote; Bunchu, Nophawan; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Kuntalue, Budsabong; Siriwattanarungsee, Sirisuda; Sukontason, Kom
In Thailand, the hairy maggots of the blow flies, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) and Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton, are of forensic importance. Both flies are closely related species, not only in the morphological appearance of their larvae and puparia, but also on the aggressive feeding habit of the former. In our continuing studies of forensically important flies, identification of immature ones needs particular attention. In this study, we reported the morphological comparison between the puparia of these two blow fly species using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Observation revealed that the cuticular sculpture of tubercles along the dorsal and lateral segments had markedly different features: with C. rufifacies having many sharp spines assembling only at the tip, while of C. villeneuvi bore stout spines throughout the tubercle. A larger number of globules at the bubble membrane on the dorsolateral border of the fifth segment was found in C. villeneuvi (average 225) than in C. rufifacies (average 35), and more papillae was observed on the anterior spiracle in C. villeneuvi (13-15) than in C. rufifacies (9-12). However, the morphology of distinct net-like patches of the integument and structure of the posterior spiracle of both species were almost identical. Morphological comparison in this study permitted identification of the puparia of both fly species, particularly in areas where they co-exist.
Flores, Micah; Longnecker, Michael; Tomberlin, Jeffery K
The hairy maggot blow fly, Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is a forensically important fly often encountered on human and other vertebrate remains in temperate and tropic regions throughout the world including Australia, Asia, Central America and North America. C. rufifacies was reared under controlled laboratory conditions on three muscle types (i.e., porcine, equine and canine) at three temperatures (i.e., 20.8, 24.8 and 28.3°C). Rate of larval weight gain across time was statistically significant between muscle types (P≤0.0001) and approaching significance across time between temperatures (P=0.0511). This research represents the first development study for C. rufifacies from central Texas, USA and the first study to examine the impact of tissue type on its development. Furthermore, these data, when compared to those available in the literature, indicate developmental differences that could be due to genetic differences in populations or possibly methods employed during the studies. Caution should be emphasized when applying development data for this species from one region to forensic investigations in other ecoregions as such differences in development based on tissue fed upon by larvae, population genetics, and methodologies used in the studies could represent error in estimating the time of colonization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann and Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius (Diptera, Calliphoridae used to estimate the postmortem interval in a forensic case in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The corpse of a man was found in a Brazilian highland savanna (cerrado in the state of Minas Gerais. Fly larvae were collected at the crime scene and arrived at the laboratory three days afterwards. From the eight pre-pupae, seven adults of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819 emerged and, from the two larvae, two adults of Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius, 1805 were obtained. As necrophagous insects use corpses as a feeding resource, their development rate can be used as a tool to estimate the postmortem interval. The post-embryonary development stage of the immature collected on the body was estimated as the difference between the total development time and the time required for them to become adults in the lab. The estimated age of the maggots from both species and the minimum postmortem interval were four days. This is the first time that H. segmentaria is used to estimate the postmortem interval in a forensic case.
Tóth, Erika M; Márialigeti, K; Fodor, A; Lucskai, A; Farkas, R
The blowfly Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is the primary agent of cutaneous myiasis of sheep in northern Europe, southern Africa, Australia and New Zealand. As the application of chemicals has several disadvantages, alternative control measures of traumatic myiasis of livestock must be developed. In this study, the use of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) as potential biocontrol agents against second instar larvae of Lucilia sericata was considered. The following nematode species were tested: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (IS 5, HHU 1, Hmol, HNC 1, HAZ 36, Hbrecon, HHU 2, HAZ 29, HHP 88, HHU 3, HHU 4 and HGua), Steinernema intermedia, NC513 strain of S. glaserii, S. anomali, S. riobrave, Steinernema sp. and 5 strains of S. feltiae (22, Vija Norway, HU 1, scp, and IS 6). None of the examined EPN species or strains showed larvicidal efficacy at 37 degrees C (no killing effect was observed in the case of the two heat-tolerant strains--H. bacteriophora and S.feltiae) against L. sericata larvae. At lower temperatures (20 degrees C and 25 degrees C) only strains of S. feltiae were found to be active. The overall odds ratios calculated for L. sericata maggots to contract S. feltiae nematode infection show significant (p nematode occurred in the cadavers.
Halide Nihal Açıkgöz
Full Text Available Forensic entomological practices rely upon accurate larval identification and measurement of larval length, for the estimation of post-mortem intervals. The methods used for killing larvae may affect the length of larvae. In the autopsy hall, corpses which are contain entomological remains have been washed with grape vinegar. Besides, while collecting and killing the larvae on corpses, crime scene teams use alcohol 70% because it is practical. The aim of this study was to determine which of hot water (90°C, cold vinegar and cold alcohol 96 % method, preserved the best the length of larvae. To achieve this aim, third instar larvae which are reared on 200 g of veal meat were killed using hot water, cold vinegar and cold alcohol. Before killing and after killing the maggots, their length was measured. To determine the difference between the groups to be compared ANOVA test, to reliability and validity analyses Kruskal-Wallis and whether there was any difference between the groups were made with Tukey’s Honestly Significant Difference (Tukey’s HSD Hot water was found to preserve the length of the larvae more accurately than cold vinegar and alcohol.
Lindgren, Natalie K; Sisson, Melissa S; Archambeault, Alan D; Rahlwes, Brent C; Willett, James R; Bucheli, Sibyl R
A yearlong survey of insect taxa associated with human decomposition was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science (STAFS) facility located in the Center for Biological Field Studies of Sam Houston State University in Huntsville, TX. During this study, four insect-cadaver interactions were observed that represent previously poorly documented yet forensically significant interactions: Syrphidae maggots colonized a corpse in an aquatic situation; Psychodidae adults mated and oviposited on an algal film that was present on a corpse that had been recently removed from water; several Panorpidae were the first insects to feed upon a freshly placed corpse in the autumn; and a noctuid caterpillar was found chewing and ingesting dried human skin. Baseline knowledge of insect-cadaver interactions is the foundation of forensic entomology, and unique observations have the potential to expand our understanding of decomposition ecology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Pérez-Bañón, Celeste; Hurtado, Pilar; García-Gras, Elena; Rojo, Santos
Adult drone flies (Syrphidae: Eristalis spp.) resemble male honeybees in appearance. Their immature stages are commonly known as rat-tailed maggots due to the presence of a very long anal segment and a telescopic breathing tube. The larvae are associated with decaying organic material in liquid or semi-liquid media, as in the case of other saprophagous eristalines. Biological and morphological data were obtained from both laboratory cultures and sampling in the field. Drone flies are important pollinators for wild flowers and crops. In fact, mass rearing protocols of Eristalis species are being developed to be used as efficient alternative pollinators. However, deeper knowledge of larval morphology and biology is required to improve artificial rearing. The production quality control of artificial rearing must manage the consistency and reliability of the production output avoiding, for example contamination with similar species. This article presents the first description of the larva and puparium of E. similis, including a comparative morphological study of preimaginal stages of the anthropophilic and ubiquitous European hoverfly species E. tenax. Scanning electron microscopy has been used for the first time to describe larvae and puparia of both species. Moreover, the preimaginal morphology of E. similis has been compared with all known descriptions of the genus Eristalis. The main diagnostic characters of the preimaginal stages of E. similis are the morphology of the anterior spiracles (shape of clear area and arrangement of facets) and pupal spiracles (length, shape, and arrangement of tubercles). Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hayes, Matthew J; Levine, Timothy P; Wilson, Roger H
Here, we describe a nano-scale surface structure on the rat-tailed maggot, the aquatic larva of the Drone fly Eristalis tenax(L.). Larvae of this syrphid hover fly live in stagnant, anaerobic water-courses that are rich in organic matter. The larvae burrow into fetid slurry and feed on microorganisms which they filter out from the organic material. This environment is rich in bacteria, fungi and algae with the capacity to form biofilms that might develop on the larval surface and harm them. Using transmission and scanning electron microscopy we have identified an array of slender (typically < 100 nm in diameter) nanopillars that cover the surface of the larvae. The high density and dimensions of these spine-like projections appear to make it difficult for bacteria to colonize the surface of the animal. This may interfere with the formation of biofilms and potentially act as a defence against bacterial infection. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.
Schmutzhard, Erich; Helbok, Raimund
Rhizobiales (formerly named Rickettsiales) cause in rare instances meningitis and meningovasculitis, respectively. In case of history of exposure, infection by Rhizobiales needs to be considered since both diagnosis and therapy may be extremely difficult and pathogen-specific. The same applies to protozoa; in this chapter, Babesia species, free-living amoebae and Entamoeba histolytica infection, including severe meningitis and brain abscess, infection by Trypanosoma species (South American and African trypanosomiasis) are discussed with respect to history, epidemiology, clinical signs, and symptoms as well as differential diagnosis and therapy. Parasitic flatworms and roundworms, potentially able to invade the central nervous system, trematodes (flukes), cestodes (in particular, Cysticercus cellulosae), but also nematodes (in particular, Strongyloides spp. in the immunocompromised) are of worldwide importance. In contrast, filarial worms, Toxocara spp., Trichinella spp., Gnathostoma and Angiostrongylus spp. are seen only in certain geographically confined areas. Even more regionally confined are infestations of the central nervous system by metazoa, in particular, tongue worms (=arthropods) or larvae of flies (=maggots). The aim of this chapter is (1) to alert the neurologist to these infections, and (2) to enable the attending emergency neurologist to take a knowledgeable history, with an emphasis on epidemiology, clinical signs, and symptoms as well as therapeutic management possibilities. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Thyssen, Patricia Jacqueline; de Souza, Carina Mara; Shimamoto, Paula Midori; Salewski, Thais de Britto; Moretti, Thiago Carvalho
Blowflies have major medical and sanitary importance because they can be vectors of viruses, bacteria, and helminths and are also causative agents of myiasis. Also, these flies, especially those belonging to the genus Chrysomya, are among the first insects to arrive at carcasses and are therefore valuable in providing data for the estimation of the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin). The PMImin can be calculated by assessing the weight, length, or development stage of blowfly larvae. Lack of information on the variables that might affect these parameters in different fly species can generate inaccuracies in estimating the PMImin. This study evaluated the effects of different types of bovine tissues (the liver, muscle, tongue, and stomach) and chicken heart on the development rates of larvae of Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann, Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius, and Chrysomya putoria Wiedemann (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The efficiency of each rearing substrate was assessed by maggot weight gain (mg), larval development time (h), larval and pupal survival (%), and emergence interval (h). The development rates of larvae of all blowfly species studied here were directly influenced by the type of food substrate. Tissues that have high contents of protein and fat (muscle and heart) allowed the highest larval weight gain. For bovine liver, all Chrysomya species showed slower growth, by as much as 48 h, compared to the other tissues. Different rates of development are probably associated with specific energy requirements of calliphorids and the nutritional composition of each type of food.
Zago, Myrka; Lacquaniti, Francesco; Gomez-Marin, Alex
We report the discovery that the locomotor trajectories of Drosophila larvae follow the power-law relationship between speed and curvature previously found in the movements of human and non-human primates. Using high-resolution behavioural tracking in controlled but naturalistic sensory environments, we tested the law in maggots tracing different trajectory types, from reaching-like movements to scribbles. For most but not all flies, we found that the law holds robustly, with an exponent close to three-quarters rather than to the usual two-thirds found in almost all human situations, suggesting dynamic effects adding on purely kinematic constraints. There are different hypotheses for the origin of the law in primates, one invoking cortical computations, another viscoelastic muscle properties coupled with central pattern generators. Our findings are consistent with the latter view and demonstrate that the law is possible in animals with nervous systems orders of magnitude simpler than in primates. Scaling laws might exist because natural selection favours processes that remain behaviourally efficient across a wide range of neural and body architectures in distantly related species. © 2016 The Authors.
Full Text Available Minilivestock, village development and the role of BEDIM.Minilivestock encompasses all animals of small site, and little-known in terras of production but usable as food, feed or revenues if not eaten. Sustainable breeding becomes possible, and should progressively replace uncontrolled gathering in the wild. Amongst vertebrates, an important meat supply is based on edible rodents like Thryonomys, Cricetomys, Xerus, Atherurus, Tenrec; Hydrochoerus, Dasyprocta, Myocastor, Capromys, Dolichotis, Agouti, etc. The saine applies to the guinea-pig Cavia porcellus and to frogs. Invertebrates farming is also practised through breeding of maggots, termites, butterflies (pupae and adults for consumption or sale; giant snails are also highly appreciated in many African countries. Minilivestock development is usually a back-yard activity, hence its interest as it relies on local species, substrates and raw materials for infrastructure. The demand for minilivestock product is high but there is still reluctance often from the official authorities, unfortunately. However minilivestock is not an utopia, and a country like Papua-New-Guinea, which bas officially adopted minilivestock production as a tool to help to develop remote villages, is an excellent example of success
Full Text Available Except for honey as food, and silk for clothing and pollination of plants, people give little thought to the benefits of insects in their lives. This overview briefly describes significant recent advances in developing insect natural products as potential new medicinal drugs. This is an exciting and rapidly expanding new field since insects are hugely variable and have utilised an enormous range of natural products to survive environmental perturbations for 100s of millions of years. There is thus a treasure chest of untapped resources waiting to be discovered. Insects products, such as silk and honey, have already been utilised for thousands of years, and extracts of insects have been produced for use in Folk Medicine around the world, but only with the development of modern molecular and biochemical techniques has it become feasible to manipulate and bioengineer insect natural products into modern medicines. Utilising knowledge gleaned from Insect Folk Medicines, this review describes modern research into bioengineering honey and venom from bees, silk, cantharidin, antimicrobial peptides, and maggot secretions and anticoagulants from blood-sucking insects into medicines. Problems and solutions encountered in these endeavours are described and indicate that the future is bright for new insect derived pharmaceuticals treatments and medicines.
Ananya Suntirukpong, M.D.
Full Text Available Objective: Crime scene investigators, forensic medicine doctors and pathologists, and forensic anthropologists frequently encounter postmortem scavenging of human remains by household pets. Case presentation: The authors present a case report of a partially skeletonized adult male found dead after more than three months in his apartment in Thailand. The body was in an advanced stage of decomposition with nearly complete skeletonization of the head, neck, hands, and feet. The presence of maggots and necrophagous (flesh eating beetles on the body confirmed that insects had consumed much of the soft tissues. Examination of the hand and foot bones revealed canine tooth puncture marks. Evidence of chewing indicated that one or more of the decedent’s three house cats had fed on the body after death. Recognizing and identifying carnivore and rodent activity on the soft flesh and bones of human remains is important in interpreting and reconstructing postmortem damage. Thorough analysis may help explain why skeletal elements are missing, damaged, or out of anatomical position. Conclusion: This report presents a multi-disciplinary approach combining forensic anthropology and forensic medicine in examining and interpreting human remains.
Full Text Available Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae is the most important pest of Chinese chive. Insecticides are used widely and frequently to control B. odoriphaga in China. However, the performance of the insecticides chlorpyrifos and clothianidin in controlling the Chinese chive maggot is quite different. Using next generation sequencing technology, different expression unigenes (DEUs in B. odoriphaga were detected after treatment with chlorpyrifos and clothianidin for 6 and 48 h in comparison with control. The number of DEUs ranged between 703 and 1161 after insecticide treatment. In these DEUs, 370–863 unigenes can be classified into 41–46 categories of gene ontology (GO, and 354–658 DEUs can be mapped into 987–1623 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways. The expressions of DEUs related to insecticide-metabolism-related genes were analyzed. The cytochrome P450-like unigene group was the largest group in DEUs. Most glutathione S-transferase-like unigenes were down-regulated and most sodium channel-like unigenes were up-regulated after insecticide treatment. Finally, 14 insecticide-metabolism-related unigenes were chosen to confirm the relative expression in each treatment by quantitative Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR. The results of qRT-PCR and RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq are fairly well-established. Our results demonstrate that a next-generation sequencing tool facilitates the identification of insecticide-metabolism-related genes and the illustration of the insecticide mechanisms of chlorpyrifos and clothianidin.
Grandim Balarama Gupta Vinit
Full Text Available Myiasis is a rare disease primarily caused by the invasion of tissue by larvae of certain dipteran flies. Oral myiasis is still more "rare" and "unique" owing to the fact that oral cavity rarely provides the necessary habitat conducive for a larval lifecycle. Common predisposing factors are poor oral hygiene, halitosis, trauma, senility, learning disabilities, physically and mentally challenged conditions. Oral myiasis can lead to rapid tissue destruction and disfigurement and requires immediate treatment. Treatment consists of manual removal of maggots from the oral cavity after application of chemical agents. Good sanitation, personal and environmental hygiene and cleanliness and special care for debilitated persons are the best methods to prevent oral myiasis. This case report describes the presentation of oral myiasis caused by musca nebulo (common house fly in a 40-year-old male patient, with recent maxillofacial trauma. The patient was treated by manual removal larvae by topical application of turpentine oil, followed by surgical debridement of the wound and open reduction and internal fixation of the fracture.
Pinilla, Yudi T; Moreno-Pérez, Darwin A; Patarroyo, Manuel A; Bello, Felio J
Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a medically important necrophagous fly which is used for establishing the post-mortem interval. Diptera maggots release proteolytic enzymes contained in larval excretion and secretion (ES) products playing a key role in digestion. Special interest in proteolytic enzymes has also been aroused regarding understanding their role in wound healing since they degrade necrotic tissue during larval therapy. This study was thus aimed at identifying and characterising S. magellanica proteolytic enzyme ES products for the first time. These products were obtained from first-, second- and third-instar larvae taken from a previously-established colony. ES proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and their proteolytic activity was characterised by zymograms and inhibition assays involving BAPNA (Nα-benzoyl-dl-Arg-p-nitroanilide) and SAPNA substrates, using synthetic inhibitors. The protein profile ranged from ∼69kDa to ∼23kDa; several of them coincided with the Lucilia sericata ES protein profile. Serine-protease hydrolysis activity (measured by zymogram) was confirmed when a ∼25kDa band disappeared upon ES incubation with PMSF inhibitor at pH 7.8. Analysis of larval ES proteolytic activity on BAPNA and SAPNA substrates (determined by using TLCK and TPCK specific inhibitors) suggested a greater amount of trypsin-like protease. These results support the need for further experiments aimed at validating S. magellanica use in larval therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Janssens, P G; Pattyn, S R
Two endemic foci of plague have been discovered in Zaïre, the first in the Ituri in 1928, the other in North-Kivu in 1938. They are situated in the region of the great East-African Rift and are adjacent to the Ugandan focus, identified in 1877. A strict surveillance of these endemic foci makes it possible to state that, between 1928 and 1959, 632 cases of plague have been diagnosed in the Ituri, or 20 a year, and 190 in the N-Kivu, or 8 a year. Since then several flare ups have been notified. This situation is very remote from the "black death" concept. Yersinia pestis presents, besides its bipolar staining, many other characteristics such as the indispensable presence of iron to produce virulence, or the fermentation of glycerine and reduction of nitrates as parameters for the identification of 3 biovars, corresponding with a specific geographic distribution: antiqua, medievalis, orientalis or maritima. The antigenic structure has been discussed and also the role of plasmids. Plague is a disease of rats, a variegated gathering of rodents with different degrees of tolerance and sensitiveness to Y.pestis, living in a frail equilibrium. The multimammate houserat was in the Ituri the principal agent until the black rat Rattus rattus invaded the region and a new balance came into being. The frequent changes in taxonomy of Mastomys caused uncertainties. The transmission is due to fleas subject to a blocking of their ventriculum by Y.pestis. Fleas play an active part in the process. Man is only a casual intruder. The pathogenicity is related to its invasiveness and its intracellular localization in macrophages and other R.E. cells, in which Y.pestis can survive. The bubo is characteristic of the disease. In Zaïre a septicaemic tendency has been observed, with a possible involvement of the C.N.S. and of the lungs. The latter may produce among the surrounding relatives primary pneumonic plague. The clinical diagnosis ought to be confirmed by bacteriologic investigation
Intracellular haemolytic agents of Heterocapsa circularisquama exhibit toxic effects on H. circularisquama cells themselves and suppress both cell-mediated haemolytic activity and toxicity to rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis).
Nishiguchi, Tomoki; Cho, Kichul; Yasutomi, Masumi; Ueno, Mikinori; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Basti, Leila; Yamasaki, Yasuhiro; Takeshita, Satoshi; Kim, Daekyung; Oda, Tatsuya
A harmful dinoflagellate, Heterocapsa circularisquama, is highly toxic to shellfish and the zooplankton rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. A previous study found that H. circularisquama has both light-dependent and -independent haemolytic agents, which might be responsible for its toxicity. Detailed analysis of the haemolytic activity of H. circularisquama suggested that light-independent haemolytic activity was mediated mainly through intact cells, whereas light-dependent haemolytic activity was mediated by intracellular agents which can be discharged from ruptured cells. Because H. circularisquama showed similar toxicity to rotifers regardless of the light conditions, and because ultrasonic ruptured H. circularisquama cells showed no significant toxicity to rotifers, it was suggested that live cell-mediated light-independent haemolytic activity is a major factor responsible for the observed toxicity to rotifers. Interestingly, the ultrasonic-ruptured cells of H. circularisquama suppressed their own lethal effect on the rotifers. Analysis of samples of the cell contents (supernatant) and cell fragments (precipitate) prepared from the ruptured H. circularisquama cells indicated that the cell contents contain inhibitors for the light-independent cell-mediated haemolytic activity, toxins affecting H. circularisquama cells themselves, as well as light-dependent haemolytic agents. Ethanol extract prepared from H. circularisquama, which is supposed to contain a porphyrin derivative that displays photosensitising haemolytic activity, showed potent toxicity to Chattonella marina, Chattonella antiqua, and Karenia mikimotoi, as well as to H. circularisquama at the concentration range at which no significant toxicity to rotifers was observed. Analysis on a column of Sephadex LH-20 revealed that light-dependent haemolytic activity and inhibitory activity on cell-mediated light-independent haemolytic activity existed in two separate fractions (f-2 and f-3), suggesting that both
Zamorano, Ruben; Marín, Michelle; Cabrera, Fabiola; Figueroa, Diego; Contreras, Cristóbal; Barriga, Andrés; Lagos, Néstor; García, Carlos
The aim of this study was to analyse and determine the composition of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins and lipophilic toxins in the Region of Aysén, Chile, in wild endemic mussels (Mytilus chilensis, Venus antiqua, Aulacomya ater, Choromytilus chorus, Tagelus dombeii and Gari solida) and in two endemic carnivorous molluscs species (Concholepas concholepas and Argobuccinum ranelliforme). PSP-toxin contents were determined by using HPLC with fluorescence detection, while lipophilic toxins were determined by using LC-MS/MS. Mean concentrations for the total of PSP toxins were in the range 55-2505 μg saxitoxin-equivalent/100 g. The two most contaminated samples for PSP toxicity were bivalve Gari solida and carnivorous Argobuccinum ranelliforme with 2505 ± 101 and 1850 ± 137 μg saxitoxin-equivalent/100 g, respectively (p < 0.05). The lipophilic toxins identified were okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1), azaspiracid-1 (AZA-1), pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2) and yessotoxins (YTX). All analysed molluscs contained lipophilic toxins at levels ranging from 56 ± 4.8 to 156.1 ± 8.2 μg of okadaic acid-equivalent/kg shellfish together with YTX at levels ranging from 1.0 ± 0.1 to 18 ± 0.9 μg of YTX-equivalent/kg shellfish and AZA at levels ranging from 3.6 ± 0.2 to 31 ± 2.1 μg of AZA-equivalent/kg shellfish. Furthermore, different bivalves and gastropods differ in their capacity of retention of lipophilic toxins, as shown by the determination of their respective lipophilic toxins levels. In all the evaluated species, the presence of lipophilic toxins associated with biotransformation in molluscs and carnivorous gastropods was not identified, in contrast to the identification of PSP toxins, where the profiles identified in the different species are directly related to biotransformation processes. Thus, this study provides evidence that the concentration of toxins in the food intake of the evaluated species (Bivalvia and Gastropoda class) determines the degree of
primary elevator muscle palsy, 4 patients with primary supranuclear palsy and secondary inferior rectus restriction, and 7 subjects with pure inferior rectus restriction. Mean follow-up was 22.0±20.0 (range 3-63.5 months. Mean pre and post-operative deviation was 32.0±8.0 PD and 3.8±8.0 PD (P < 0.001 respectively, and mean restriction before and after the operation(s was -3.5±0.7 and -2.3±1.2 (P < 0.001, respectively. Success rate was 77% for correction of deviation and 80% for improvement in muscle restriction. CONCLUSION: Surgery for double elevator palsy must be individualized according to FDT, FGT and Bell's reflex. The outcomes are favorable with appropriate surgical planning.
Acknowledgements This conference would not have been possible without the generous support from Brookhaven National Laboratory and the George Washington University INS and IMPACT institutes, Columbian College of Arts and Sciences, the Office of Vice-President for Research, and the Department of Physics. We thank them wholeheartedly. We are also very grateful for the support of our colleagues on the local organizing committee, Walter Freeman and Frank Lee, and on the International Advisory Committee: Simon Hands, Tetsuo Hatsuda, Frithjof Karsch, Maria Paola Lombardo, Tereza Mendes, Atsushi Nakamura, Owe Philipsen, Claudia Ratti, Paul Romatschke, Misha Stephanov, and Nu Xu. List of participants Alexandru, Andrei George Washington University Bazavov, Alexei Brookhaven National Laboratory Bloch, Jacques University of Regensburg Braun-Munzinger, Peter EMMI, GSI Breto Rangel, Guillermo CMS/UC Davis D'Elia, Massimo University of Pisa, INFN Dexheimer, Veronica UFSC - Federal University of Santa Catarina Ding, Heng-Tong Brookhaven National Laboratory Dion, Alan Stony Brook University Dumitru, Adrian RBRC and Baruch College, CUNY Freeman, Walter George Washington University Gavai, Rajiv Tata Institute (TIFR), Mumbai Hanada, Masanori KEK Theory Center Hands, Simon Swansea University Hegde, Prasad Brookhaven National Laboratory Heinke, Craig University of Alberta Horvath, Ivan University of Kentucky Karsch, Frithjof Brookhaven National Laboratory Krieg, Stefan Wuppertal University Lattimer, James Stony Brook University Lee, Frank George Washington University Li, Anyi Institute for Nuclear Theory Liu, Keh-Fei University of Kentucky Lombardo, Maria Paola INFN - LNF Lottini, Stefano Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main Maezawa, Yu Brookhaven National Laboratory Miura, Kohtaroh Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati - INFN Monnai, Akihiko The University of Tokyo Mukherjee, Swagato Brookhaven National Laboratory Myers, Joyce University of Groningen Nakamura, Atsushi RIISE, Hiroshima
Full Text Available Teodora Chiţă,1,2 Bogdan Timar,1,2 Delia Muntean,1,2 Luminiţa Bădiţoiu,1,3 Florin Horhat,1,2 Elena Hogea,1 Roxana Moldovan,1,3 Romulus Timar,1,2 Monica Licker1,2 1Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy Timisoara, 2Pius Brinzeu Emergency Hospital, 3Regional Centre of Public Health, Timisoara, Romania Aim: Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM have an increased risk of infections, especially urinary tract infections (UTIs. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and etiology of UTIs and identify the risk factors for their development in patients with DM. Patients and methods: In this retrospective, noninterventional study, the medical records of 2,465 adult patients with DM who were hospitalized in a Diabetes Clinic were reviewed. Data regarding the presence of UTI and possible associated risk factors were collected and their possible relation was analyzed. The study protocol and procedures were approved by the Ethics Committee of Timişoara Emergency Hospital. All data were collected and analyzed using SPSS v.17 statistical software. Results: The prevalence of UTIs in patients with DM was 12.0% (297 cases, being higher in females than in males and higher in patients with type 2 DM compared with patients with type 1 DM. In univariate logistic regression analysis, risk factors associated with UTIs were female gender, age, type 2 DM, longer duration of DM, and the presence of chronic kidney disease and coronary artery disease. Multivariate analysis identified age, duration of DM, and metabolic control (hemoglobin A1c levels as independent risk factors for UTIs. The gram-negative bacilli from the Enterobacteriaceae family were predominant, with Escherichia coli being the most frequent of them (70.4%. Conclusion: UTIs are a frequent condition associated with DM. It is necessary to improve the care and the screening of UTIs in patients with DM to prevent the occurrence of possible associated severe renal complications
Jiang, X Y; Wang, J F; Zhu, G H; Ma, M Y; Lai, Y; Zhou, H
To detect the changes of microbial community functional diversity of corpses with different postmortem interval （PMI） and to evaluate forensic application value for estimating PMI. The cultivation of microbial community from the anal swabs of a Sus scrofa and a human corpse placed in field environment from 0 to 240 h after death was performed using the Biolog-Eco Microplate and the variations of the absorbance values were also monitored. Combined with the technology of forensic pathology and flies succession, the metabolic characteristics and changes of microbial community on the decomposed corpse under natural environment were also observed. The diversity of microbial metabolism function was found to be negatively correlated with the number of maggots in the corpses. The freezing processing had the greatest impact on average well color development value at 0 h and the impact almost disappeared after 48 h. The diversity of microbial metabolism of the samples became relatively unstable after 192 h. The principal component analysis showed that 31 carbon sources could be consolidated for 5 principal components （accumulative contribution ratio >90%）.The carbon source tsquare-analysis showed that N -acetyl- D -glucosamine and L -serine were the dominant carbon sources for estimating the PMI （0=240 h） of the Sus scrofa and human corpse. The Biolog-Eco method can be used to reveal the metabolic differences of the carbon resources utilization of the microbial community on the corpses during 0-240 h after death, which could provide a new basis for estimating the PMI. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine
Identification of host fruit volatiles from domestic apple (Malus domestica), native black hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii) and introduced ornamental hawthorn (C. monogyna) attractive to Rhagoletis pomonella flies from the western United States.
Cha, Dong H; Yee, Wee L; Goughnour, Robert B; Sim, Sheina B; Powell, Thomas H Q; Feder, Jeffrey L; Linn, Charles E
The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests apple (Malus domestica) and hawthorn species (most notably the downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis) in the eastern USA. Evidence suggests that the fly was introduced into the western USA sometime in the last 60 years. In addition to apple, R. pomonella also infests two species of hawthorns in the western USA as major hosts: the native black hawthorn (C. douglasii) and the introduced ornamental English hawthorn, C. monogyna. Apple and downy hawthorn-origin flies in the eastern USA use volatile blends emitted from the surface of their respective ripening fruit to find and discriminate among host trees. To test whether the same is true for western flies, we used coupled gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and developed a 7-component apple fruit blend for western apple-origin flies, an 8-component black hawthorn fruit blend for flies infesting C. douglasii, and a 9-component ornamental hawthorn blend for flies from C. monogyna. Crataegus douglasii and C. monogyna-origin flies showed similar levels of upwind directed flight to their respective natal synthetic fruit blends in flight tunnel assays compared to whole fruit adsorbent extracts, indicating that the blends contain all the behaviorally relevant fruit volatiles to induce maximal response levels. The black and ornamental hawthorn blends shared four compounds in common including 3-methylbutan-1-ol, which appears to be a key volatile for R. pomonella populations in the eastern, southern, and western USA that show a preference for fruit from different Crataegus species. However, the blends also differed from one another and from domesticated apple in several respects that make it possible that western R. pomonella flies behaviorally discriminate among fruit volatiles and form ecologically differentiated host races, as is the case for eastern apple and hawthorn flies.
Johnson, Aidan P; Wallman, James F
Estimation of minimum postmortem interval commonly relies on predicting the age of blowfly larvae based on their size and an estimate of the temperatures to which they have been exposed throughout their development. The majority of larval growth rate data have been developed using small larval masses in order to avoid excess heat generation. The current study collected growth rate data for larvae at different mass volumes, and assessed the temperature production of these masses, for two forensically important blow fly species, Chrysomya rufifacies and Calliphora vicina. The growth rate of larvae in a small mass, exposed to the higher temperatures equivalent to those experienced by large masses, was also assessed to determine if observed differences were due to the known temperature effects of maggot masses. The results showed that temperature production increased with increasing mass volume, with temperature increases of 11 °C observed in the large Ch. rufifacies masses and increases of 5 °C in the large C. vicina masses. Similarly, the growth rate of the larvae was affected by mass size. The larvae from small masses grown at the higher temperatures experienced by large masses displayed an initial delay in growth, but then grew at a similar rate to those larvae at a constant 23 °C. Since these larvae from masses of equivalent sizes displayed similar patterns of growth rate, despite differing temperatures, and these growth rates differed from larger masses exposed to the same temperatures, it can be concluded that larval growth rate within a mass may be affected by additional factors other than temperature. Overall, this study highlights the importance of understanding the role of massing in larval development and provides initial developmental data for mass sizes of two forensically important blowfly species commonly encountered in Australian forensic casework. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brundage, Adrienne L; Crippen, Tawni L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K
Maggot debridement therapy (MDT) is the use of the larval stage of flies (i.e., Calliphoridae) to remove necrotic tissue and disinfect wounds. Effective MDT requires aseptic technique to prevent the unintentional introduction of pathogenic bacteria into a wound to be debrided; yet the external surface of Calliphoridae eggs is often heavily contaminated with bacteria. Studies of external disinfection of dipteran eggs have been reported, but neither their efficacy nor effect on egg viability has been adequately assessed. The present study evaluated the efficacy of ten disinfection techniques involving immersion, rinse, or a combination of both in formalin, Lysol, formaldehyde, bleach, ethanol, Sporgon, or benzalkonium chloride. All techniques resulted in significant decreases in culturable, aerobic bacterial load on Lucilia cuprina eggs. For L. cuprina, a 10 minute 3% Lysol immersion was the most efficacious, disinfecting 96.67% of egg samples, while resulting in 31.84% egg mortality. The 5% formalin immersion was least efficacious, disinfecting only 3.33% of L. cuprina egg samples, while resulting in 33.51% egg mortality. A formaldehyde immersion, one of the most commonly used disinfection techniques, was moderately effective, disinfecting 66.7% of egg samples, while resulting in 40.16% egg mortality. For Chrysomya rufifacies and Cochliomyia macellaria egg samples, the 10 minute 3% Lysol immersion disinfected 100% of the samples, and for Lucilia sericata, 80% of egg samples, while resulting in 33.97%, 7.34%, and 36.96% egg mortality, respectively. H2 CO disinfected 16.67% of Ch. rufifacies, 26.67% of C. macellaria, and 56.67% of L. sericata egg samples, while resulting in 21.98%, 10.18%, and 32.19% egg mortality, respectively. Due to its high disinfection efficacy and relatively low egg mortality, a 10 minutes 3% Lysol immersion is recommended for sterilizing Calliphoridae eggs prior to rearing of larvae for use in MDT. © 2016 by the Wound Healing Society.
Full Text Available In poultry, feed based on maggots, like larvae of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens is an attractive option to substitute current ingredients which are expensive and often in direct or indirect competition with human food. Little information is currently available on the utility of these larvae in poultry feed, so goals of this study were to determine whether larvae could be reared on horse manure under traditional farming conditions and to evaluate the growth performances of a local poultry fed these larvae and the fatty acids profiles of their meat. After freezing and thawing, larvae were introduced in the feed of Ardennaise chickens between 30 and 80 days of age. Birds in the control group received a commercial standard feed, while those in the treatment group received the same commercial feed in which 8% was substituted with whole fresh larvae corresponding to 2% on a dry matter basis. Means ± standard errors of larval length and weight were 20.67 ± 2.21 mm and 0.14 ± 0.02 g, respectively. Mean larval percentages of dry matter and of substances extractable in diethyl ether were 24.6% and 23.1%, respectively. Larval fatty acids profiles were predominantly composed of lauric acid (28.1% and palmitic acid (22.0%. Least squares means of weekly weights of chicken, adjusted for the effects of sex, replication and initial weights, were significantly higher (P < 0.05 by 77.03 ± 53.37 g in larvae-fed than in control chickens. All other measurements were not statistically different between larvae-fed and control chicken, including fatty acid profiles, protein content and ω6/ω3 ratio. Keywords: Insect farming, Chicken, Local breed, Growth performance, Meat quality, Fatty acid profile
Čičková, Helena; Newton, G Larry; Lacy, R Curt; Kozánek, Milan
The idea of using fly larvae for processing of organic waste was proposed almost 100 years ago. Since then, numerous laboratory studies have shown that several fly species are well suited for biodegradation of organic waste, with the house fly (Musca domestica L.) and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) being the most extensively studied insects for this purpose. House fly larvae develop well in manure of animals fed a mixed diet, while black soldier fly larvae accept a greater variety of decaying organic matter. Blow fly and flesh fly maggots are better suited for biodegradation of meat processing waste. The larvae of these insects have been successfully used to reduce mass of animal manure, fecal sludge, municipal waste, food scrapes, restaurant and market waste, as well as plant residues left after oil extraction. Higher yields of larvae are produced on nutrient-rich wastes (meat processing waste, food waste) than on manure or plant residues. Larvae may be used as animal feed or for production of secondary products (biodiesel, biologically active substances). Waste residue becomes valuable fertilizer. During biodegradation the temperature of the substrate rises, pH changes from neutral to alkaline, ammonia release increases, and moisture decreases. Microbial load of some pathogens can be substantially reduced. Both larvae and digested residue may require further treatment to eliminate pathogens. Facilities utilizing natural fly populations, as well as pilot and full-scale plants with laboratory-reared fly populations have been shown to be effective and economically feasible. The major obstacles associated with the production of fly larvae from organic waste on an industrial scale seem to be technological aspects of scaling-up the production capacity, insufficient knowledge of fly biology necessary to produce large amounts of eggs, and current legislation. Technological innovations could greatly improve performance of the biodegradation facilities and
Transient spontaneous engraftment of CD34 hematopoietic cord blood stem cells as seen in peripheral blood: treatment of leprosy patients with anemia by placental umbilical cord whole blood transfusion.
Cord blood, because of its rich mix of fetal and adult hemoglobin, high platelet and white blood cell (WBC) counts, and a plasma filled with cytokine and growth factors, as well as its hypoantigenic nature and altered metabolic profile, has all the potential of a real and safe alternative to adult blood transfusion. Our experience of 74 units (50 ml-146 ml mean, 86 ml +/- 7.6 ml SD, median 80 ml, mean packed cell volume 48 +/- 4.1 SD, mean percent hemoglobin concentration 16.2 g/dl +/- 1.8 g/dl of placental umbilical cord whole blood collection (from 1 April 1999) after lower uterine cesarean section (LUCS) from consenting mothers and transfusion of the same to 16 informed, consenting patients with percent plasma hemoglobin 8 g/dl or less, is presented here. After collection the blood was immediately preserved in the refrigerator and transfused within 72 hours of collection. Fifteen males and one female, aged 12-72 yrs (mean 48.4 yrs) participated: five cases were pausibacillary type (PB) and 11 cases were multibacillary type (MB). The clinical spectrum of the cases varied widely from the tuberculoid to the lepromatous type and one patient presented with gangrene of the leg preceding an auto amputation which was infested with maggots. Each case was approved by the institutional ethical committee and received two to eight units of freshly collected placental umbilical cord blood in one transfusion without encountering any clinical, immunological or non-immunological reaction. Seven days after completion of the placental umbilical cord blood transfusion, the peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell (CD34) estimation revealed a rise from the pretransfusion base level (.09%), varying from 3.6% to 16.2%, in 75% of the cases, without provoking any clinical graft vs host reaction in any of the leprosy victims. This value returned to normal within three months in most cases.
Full Text Available The relationship between insect development and temperature has been well established and has a wide range of uses, including the use of blow flies for postmortem (PMI interval estimations in death investigations. To use insects in estimating PMI, we must be able to determine the insect age at the time of discovery and backtrack to time of oviposition. Unfortunately, existing development models of forensically important insects are only linear approximations and do not take into account the curvilinear properties experienced at extreme temperatures. A series of experiments were conducted with Lucilia sericata, a forensically important blow fly species, that met the requirements needed to create statistically valid development models. Experiments were conducted over 11 temperatures (7.5 to 32.5 °C, at 2.5 °C with a 16:8 L:D cycle. Experimental units contained 20 eggs, 10 g beef liver, and 2.5 cm of pine shavings. Each life stage (egg to adult had five sampling times. Each sampling time was replicated four times, for a total of 20 measurements per life stage. For each sampling time, the cups were pulled from the chambers and the stage of each maggot was documented morphologically through posterior spiracle slits and cephalopharyngeal skeletal development. Data were normally distributed with the later larval stages (L3f, L3m having the most variation within and transitioning between stages. The biological minimum was between 7.5 °C and 10 °C, with little egg development and no egg emergence at 7.5 °C. Temperature-induced mortality was highest from 10.0 to 17.5 °C and 32.5 °C. The development data generated illustrates the advantages of large datasets in modeling Lucilia sericata development and the need for curvilinear models in describing development at environmental temperatures near the biological minima and maxima.
Syamsa, Rizal Abdullah; Omar, Baharudin; Ahmad, Firdaus Mohd Salleh; Hidayatulfathi, Othman; Shahrom, Abd Wahid
Forensic entomology refers to the science of collection and analysis of insect evidence in order to determine the minimum time period since death. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of forensically important flies on 34 human remains referred to Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre over a period of three years. Entomological specimens were collected at the death scenes and/or during autopsies. Live specimens were reared into adults while preserved specimens were processed for species identification. Five families, seven genera and nine species of flies were identified from human remains. The results of the study showed Chrysomya megacephala (Calliphoridae) maggots occurred on corpses with the highest frequency (70.6%), followed by Ch. rufifacies (Calliphoridae) (44.1%), sarcophagid fly (Sarcophagidae) (38.2%), Synthesiomya nudiseta (Muscidae) (20.6%), Megaselia scalaris (Phoridae) (14.7%), Lucilia cuprina (Calliphoridae) (5.9%), Ch. nigripes (Calliphoridae) (5.9%), Eristalis spp. (Syrphidae) (5.9%) and Hydrotaea spinigera (Muscidae) (2.9%). The greatest fly diversity occurred on remains recovered indoors (eight species) compared to outdoors (three species). Whilst, single and double infestations were common for both indoor and outdoor cases, multiple infestation of up to six species was observed in one of the indoor cases. Although large numbers of fly species were found on human remains, the predominant species were still those of Chrysomya, while S. nudiseta was found only on human remains recovered from indoors. The present study provides additional knowledge in the context of Malaysian forensic entomology and the distribution of forensically important flies which is of relevance to forensic science. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
De Jong, Grant D; Hoback, W Wyatt; Higley, Leon G
Often carrion decomposition studies are conducted using a single carcass or a few carcasses sampled repeatedly through time to reveal trends in succession community composition. Measurements of biomass and other abiotic parameters (e.g., temperature) are often collected on the same carcasses but are rarely a focal point of the studies. This study investigated the effects that repeated sampling during experiments have on the decomposition of carrion, measured as both gross biomass (carcass plus fauna) and net biomass (carcass only), on carcasses disturbed on every visit (with weighing only or also with the collection of fauna) and on carcasses disturbed only once. Each trial lasted at least 21 days, with samples taken in triplicate. Rat carcasses used in this study were placed in the field on the same day and either weighed on every visit or ignored until a given day. Internal and ambient air temperatures were recorded on each carcass at the time of sampling and on undisturbed carcasses using temperature loggers. The presence of succession fauna did not result in significant biomass loss on most days; however, there were individual days early in decomposition (days 3 through 6) when the succession fauna comprised a large portion of the gross biomass. With the exception of biomass loss by the emigration of maggots on days 4 and 5, neither repeated weighing of the carcasses nor repeated weighing and faunal sampling of the carcasses statistically affected the rate of biomass loss. Internal temperatures of carcasses sampled repeatedly were frequently 2-5°C lower than those that had not been disturbed, and ambient temperatures differed significantly depending on the location of measurement device. Results indicate that methods used historically for biomass loss determination in experimental forensic entomology studies are adequate, but further refinements to experimental methodology are desirable. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Hydrolytic Amino Acids Employed as a Novel Organic Nitrogen Source for the Preparation of PGPF-Containing Bio-Organic Fertilizer for Plant Growth Promotion and Characterization of Substance Transformation during BOF Production
Feng, Chenglong; Ran, Wei; Yu, Guanghui; Zhang, Yingjun; Shen, Qirong
Opportunity costs seriously limit the large-scale production of bio-organic fertilizers (BOFs) both in China and internationally. This study addresses the utilization of amino acids resulting from the acidic hydrolysis of pig corpses as organic nitrogen sources to increase the density of TrichodermaharzianumT-E5 (a typical plant growth-promoting fungi, PGPF). This results in a novel, economical, highly efficient and environmentally friendly BOF product. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy combined with fluorescence regional integration (FRI) was employed to monitor compost maturity levels, while pot experiments were utilized to test the effects of this novel BOF on plant growth. An optimization experiment, based on response surface methodologies (RSMs), showed that a maximum T-E5 population (3.72 × 108 ITS copies g−1) was obtained from a mixture of 65.17% cattle manure compost (W/W), 19.33% maggot manure (W/W), 15.50% (V/W)hydrolytic amino acid solution and 4.69% (V/W) inoculum at 28.7°C after a 14 day secondary solid fermentation. Spectroscopy analysis revealed that the compost transformation process involved the degradation of protein-like substances and the formation of fulvic-like and humic-like substances. FRI parameters (PI, n, PII, n, PIII, n and PV, n) were used to characterize the degree of compost maturity. The BOF resulted in significantly higher increased chlorophyll content, shoot length, and shoot and root dry weights of three vegetables (cucumber, tomato and pepper) by 9.9%~22.4%, 22.9%~58.5%, 31.0%~84.9%, and 24.2%~34.1%, respectively. In summary, this study presents an operational means of increasing PGPF T-E5 populations in BOF to promote plant growth with a concomitant reduction in production cost. In addition, a BOF compost maturity assessment using fluorescence EEM spectroscopy and FRI ensured its safe field application. PMID:26974549
Background Antiseptics are frequently used for the prophylaxis and treatment of local infections of chronic wounds. Whereas local antiseptics in general have a positive effect on wound healing an uncritical use may impair wound healing due to toxic side effects. Objective We sought to assess the vascular irritation potential of different antiseptic solutions and ointments commonly used for short and long term application as a measure of tissue toxicity. Method The vascular irritation was evaluated by the hen's egg test (HET) on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). The effects on the vessels of a mucous membrane were directly assessed by stereomicroscopic observation in vivo. Results Severe CAM irritation was observed after short-term applications of 1% octenidin-2HCl (Octeni sept™), 72% isopropanol (Cutasept™), 0.35% chloroxylenol (Dettol™) and 10% PVP-I ointment (Betaisodona™). Medium irritations were observed for 10% PVP-I solution (Betaisodona™), 3% lysosomal PVP-I ointment (Repithel™), 1.8% cadexomer-iodine ointment (Iodosorb™) and 1% cadexomer-iodine pellets (Iodosorb™). Finally, slight irritations were observed for 1% PVP-I solution (Betaisodona™), 0.1% polyhexanid plus betain (Prontosan™) and 1% silver-sulfadiazine ointment (Flammazine™), whereas 0.04% polyhexanid solution (Lavanid™), washings from sterile maggots of Lucilia sericata and filtrated enzymes from Clostridium histolyticum (Iruxol-N™) showed no effects of irritation. In the long-term approaches, no vascular irritations were found for polyhexanid, washings from Lucilia sericata and enzyme filtrations from Clostridium histolyticum. Conclusion The vascular injuries caused by the studied antiseptics are an indirect indicator of their tissue toxicity. Strikingly, even therapeutic substances, which have been regarded as safe in their application for the treatment of chronic wounds in clinical studies, showed severe irritations on the CAM. We suggest that agents with no or low
Full Text Available Abstract Background Antiseptics are frequently used for the prophylaxis and treatment of local infections of chronic wounds. Whereas local antiseptics in general have a positive effect on wound healing an uncritical use may impair wound healing due to toxic side effects. Objective We sought to assess the vascular irritation potential of different antiseptic solutions and ointments commonly used for short and long term application as a measure of tissue toxicity. Method The vascular irritation was evaluated by the hen's egg test (HET on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM. The effects on the vessels of a mucous membrane were directly assessed by stereomicroscopic observation in vivo. Results Severe CAM irritation was observed after short-term applications of 1% octenidin-2HCl (Octeni sept™, 72% isopropanol (Cutasept™, 0.35% chloroxylenol (Dettol™ and 10% PVP-I ointment (Betaisodona™. Medium irritations were observed for 10% PVP-I solution (Betaisodona™, 3% lysosomal PVP-I ointment (Repithel™, 1.8% cadexomer-iodine ointment (Iodosorb™ and 1% cadexomer-iodine pellets (Iodosorb™. Finally, slight irritations were observed for 1% PVP-I solution (Betaisodona™, 0.1% polyhexanid plus betain (Prontosan™ and 1% silver-sulfadiazine ointment (Flammazine™, whereas 0.04% polyhexanid solution (Lavanid™, washings from sterile maggots of Lucilia sericata and filtrated enzymes from Clostridium histolyticum (Iruxol-N™ showed no effects of irritation. In the long-term approaches, no vascular irritations were found for polyhexanid, washings from Lucilia sericata and enzyme filtrations from Clostridium histolyticum. Conclusion The vascular injuries caused by the studied antiseptics are an indirect indicator of their tissue toxicity. Strikingly, even therapeutic substances, which have been regarded as safe in their application for the treatment of chronic wounds in clinical studies, showed severe irritations on the CAM. We suggest that agents
Weber, Harald W.
their home and at barbecues during the hot and humid evenings of typical Iowa summer days. We were sometimes lucky in persuading John to sing for us in his beautiful baritone. He performed regularly at special events in the Church or at ISU's Musica Antiqua. We all got to know their children, Paul and Jean, and followed their development with great pleasure. Paul became a well known physicist himself. With the advent of high temperature superconductivity, John played a leading role worldwide, as the editor and heart of the famous 'High-Tc Update' and as the author of fundamental papers on the subject. He was certainly the most sought-after invited or plenary speaker, both at small workshops and at huge international conferences; and each of his lectures was certainly to the point and enlightening! As fate unfortunately hit the Clem family in 2001 and Judy became completely paralyzed after brain tumor surgery, John took early retirement in order to be at home and to take care of his beloved wife. However, in 2009 he too received bad news as he was diagnosed with 'mesothelioma', a type of lung cancer, which he thought he may have contracted as a youngster working with asbestos during the school holidays. He lost this battle on 2 August 2013. John, we'll miss you and we'll certainly remember you with the greatest respect for your science and with great love for your warm and charming personality. Genova, 18 September 2013
Full Text Available Sergey Chernysh,* Natalia Gordya,* Dmitry Tulin, Andrey Yakovlev Laboratory of Insect Biopharmacology and Immunology, Faculty of Biology, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: The aim of this study is to improve the anti-biofilm activity of antibiotics. We hypothesized that the antimicrobial peptide (AMP complex of the host’s immune system can be used for this purpose and examined the assumption on model biofilms. Methods: FLIP7, the AMP complex of the blowfly Calliphora vicina containing a combination of defensins, cecropins, diptericins and proline-rich peptides was isolated from the hemolymph of bacteria-challenged maggots. The complex interaction with antibiotics of various classes was studied in biofilm and planktonic cultures of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii by the checkerboard method using trimethyl tetrazolium chloride cell viability and crystal violet biofilm eradication assays supplemented with microscopic analysis. Results: We found that FLIP7 demonstrated: high synergy (fractional inhibitory concentration index <0.25 with meropenem, amikacin, kanamycin, ampicillin, vancomycin and cefotaxime; synergy with clindamycin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol; additive interaction with oxacillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin; and no interaction with polymyxin B. The interaction in planktonic cell models was significantly weaker than in biofilms of the same strains. The analysis of the dose–effect curves pointed to persister cells as a likely target of FLIP7 synergistic effect. The biofilm eradication assay showed that the effect also caused total destruction of S. aureus and E. coli biofilm materials. The effect allowed reducing the effective anti-biofilm concentration of the antibiotic to a level well below the one clinically achievable (2–3 orders of magnitude in
Womeni Hilaire Macaire
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present the beneficial aspects of some insects consumed in sub-Saharan Africa, based on examples of insects consumed in Cameroon, to present their potential as sources of lipids and essential fatty acids. In Africa, termites, larvae of raphia weevil, caterpillars, crickets, bees, maggots, butterflies, weevil, etc. are significant sources of food. These insects belong mainly to the orders of : Isoptera, Orthoptera, Dictyoptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera. Depending on the species, insects are rich in proteins, minerals (K, Ca, Mg, Zn, P, Fe and/or vitamins (thiamine/B1, riboflavine/B2, pyridoxine/B6, acid pantothenic, niacin. The composition of oils extracted from the following six insects consumed in Cameroon was investigated : larvaes of raphia weevil (Rhynchophorus phoenicis, crickets (Homorocoryphus nitidulus, grasshopper (Zonocerus variegates, termites (Macrotermes sp., a variety of caterpillars (Imbrasia sp. and an unidentified caterpillar from the forest (UI carterpillar. The extraction yields of oil were 53.75%, 67.25%, 9.12%, 49.35%, 24.44% and 20.17% respectively for raphia weevil larvae, crickets, devastating crickets, termites, Imbrasia and UI caterpillar. The oil from raphia weevil mainly contains 37.60% of palmitoleic acid and 45.46% of linoleic acid. The oil from crickets is principally made up of palmitoleic acid (27.59%, linoleic acid (45.63% and α-linolenic acid (16.19%. The oil from grasshoppers is composed of palmitoleic acid (23.83%, oleic acid (10.71%, linoleic acid (21.07%, α-linolenic acid (14.76% and γ-linolenic acid (22.54%. The main components of termite oil are : palmitic acid (30.47%, oleic acid (47.52% and linoleic acid (8.79%. Palmitic acid (36.08% and linolenic acid (38.01% are the two dominant fatty acids of Imbrasia oil. As Imbrasia oil, UI caterpillar oil is composed of palmitic acid (30.80% and linolenic acid (41.79%. Stearic acid (7.04%, oleic acid
Calvo, M S; Gerry, A C; McGarvey, J A; Armitage, T L; Mitloehner, F M
Environmental stressors, such as high fly density, can affect calf well-being. Sodium bisulfate (SBS) is an acidifier that reduces the pH of flooring and bedding, creating a medium that neither bacteria nor immature flies (also known as larvae or maggots) can thrive in. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the application of SBS to a mixture of rice hull calf bedding and calf slurry (BED) to reduce house fly (Musca domestica L.) larval density and the abundance of bacteria. In experiment 1, dish pans containing 1L of BED and 3,000 house fly eggs were treated with SBS at concentrations of 0, 8.9, 17.7, and 26.5g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED (CON, LOW, MED, and HIGH, respectively), with each SBS concentration applied to 4 individual pans (16 pans total). Reapplication of the same SBS concentrations in each pan occurred 3 times/wk throughout the 23-d trial. Larval house fly survival was significantly reduced in all pans with SBS relative to CON pans, with lowest survival rates in the MED and HIGH pans (99% and 100% reduction, respectively). The mean pH for each treatment was inversely related to the SBS concentration. In experiment 2, pans containing 1L of BED and 3,000 house fly eggs were treated with either 0g of SBS (CON), 8.9g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED with reapplication of the acidifier 3 times/wk (SB3x), or 8.9g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED applied only once at 48h before the end of the 8 d-trial (SB48). Larval house fly survival and bacterial concentrations were reduced (90% larval reduction and 68% bacterial reduction) in the SB3x treatment relative to the CON. Mean pH was also reduced in SB3x pans relative to CON or SB48 pans. Overall, acidification of calf BED using the acidifier SBS resulted in a reduction of bacteria and house fly larval survival. This form of fly control might be expected to reduce adult fly production and, therefore, fly-related stress in calves.
Hirche, Christoph; Citterio, Antonella; Hoeksema, Henk; Koller, Ján; Lehner, Martina; Martinez, José Ramón; Monstrey, Stan; Murray, Alexandra; Plock, Jan A; Sander, Frank; Schulz, Alexandra; Ziegler, Benjamin; Kneser, Ulrich
Early debridement and/or eschar removal is regarded as a significant step in the treatment of deep partial and full thickness burns. It aims to control wound bioburden and allows early wound closure by conservative treatment or skin grafting. Preservation of viable dermis accompanied by early wound closure, is regarded as a necessary step to reduce scar related complication, e.g. functional limitations and/or unaesthetic scar formation. Aside from the classical techniques of surgical excision as tangential excision for eschar removal, hydro-surgery, maggot therapy, laser, enzymatic debridement have been described as additional techniques in the burn surgeon's armamentarium. It is widely accepted that early eschar removal within 72h improves the outcome of burn wound treatment by reducing bacterial wound colonization, infection and length of hospital stay. In contrast, the right technique for eschar removal is still a matter of debate. There is increasing evidence that enzymatic debridement is a powerful tool to remove eschar in burn wounds, reducing blood loss, the need for autologous skin grafting and the number of wounds requiring surgical excision. In order to assess the role and clinical advantages of enzymatic debridement by a mixture of proteolytic enzymes enriched in Bromelain (Nexobrid ® ) beyond the scope of the literature and in view of users' experience, a European Consensus Meeting was scheduled. The aim was to provide statements for application, based on the mutual experience of applying enzymatic debridement in more than 500 adult and pediatric patients by the consensus panelists. Issues to be addressed were: indications, pain management and anesthesia, timing of application, technique of application, after-intervention care, skin grafting after enzymatic debridement, blood loss, training strategies and learning curve and areas of future research needs. Sixty-eight (68) consensus statements were provided for the use of enzymatic debridement. The
Monroe, Courtney M; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Larsen, Chelsea A; Magradey, Karen; Brandt, Heather M; Wilcox, Sara; Sundstrom, Beth; West, Delia Smith
healthy diet and staying physically active). Email was the most frequently used electronic platform, with 96% (48/50) of students reporting current use of it. Email was also the most frequently cited preferred eHealth delivery platform, with 86% (43/50) of students selecting it. Facebook was preferred by the second greatest proportion of students (40%, 20/50). Most college freshmen have concerns about an array of weight gain prevention topics and are generally open to the possibility of receiving eHealth interventions designed to address their concerns, preferably via email compared with popular social media platforms. These preliminary findings offer a foundation to build upon when it comes to future descriptive investigations focused on behavioral weight gain prevention among college freshmen in the digital age. ©Courtney M Monroe, Gabrielle Turner-McGrievy, Chelsea A Larsen, Karen Magradey, Heather M Brandt, Sara Wilcox, Beth Sundstrom, Delia Smith West. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 12.10.2017.
Full Text Available Mirna Edith Morales-Marín,1 Alma Delia Genis-Mendoza,1,2 Carlos Alfonso Tovilla-Zarate,3 Nuria Lanzagorta,4 Michael Escamilla,5 Humberto Nicolini1,4 1Genomics of Psychiatric and Neurodegenerative Diseases Laboratory, National Institute of Genomic Medicine (INMEGEN, CDMX, Mexico; 2Psychiatric Care Services, Child Psychiatric Hospital Dr Juan N Navarro, CDMX, Mexico; 3Genomics Research Center, Juarez Autonomous University of Tabasco, Comalcalco, Mexico; 4Carracci Medical Group, CDMX, Mexico; 5Department of Psychiatry, Paul L Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Science Center, El Paso TX, USA Background: The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been considered as an important candidate gene in bipolar disorder (BD; this association has been derived from several genetic and genome-wide studies. A polymorphic variant of the BDNF (Val66Met confers some differences in the clinical presentation of affective disorders. In this study, we evaluated a sample population from Mexico City to determine whether the BDNF (rs6265 Val66Met polymorphism is associated with the body mass index (BMI of patients with BD.Methods: This association study included a sample population of 357 individuals recruited in Mexico City. A total of 139 participants were diagnosed with BD and 137 were classified as psychiatrically healthy controls (all individuals were interviewed and evaluated by the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR assay was performed in 96-well plates using the TaqMan Universal Thermal Cycling Protocol. After the PCR end point was reached, fluorescence intensity was measured in a 7,500 real-time PCR system and evaluated using the SDS v2.1 software, results were analyzed with Finetti and SPSS software. Concerning BMI stratification, random groups were defined as follows: normal <25 kg/m2, overweight (Ow =25.1–29.9 kg/m2
Saita, Fernando Adolfo; Giavedoni, María Delia
Committee and the Local Committee, we would like to thank the Institutions that sponsored the Meeting, namely: the National Scientific Research Council of Argentina (CONICET) and the National Agency for Scientific and Technology Promotion (ANPCyT), who supported the meeting with grants-in-aid; and the Universidad Nacional del Litoral, who provided all the logistic support needed to achieve a successful and enjoyable Conference. All the papers constituting this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been reviewed by experts in the field; though they are just a limited number of the works presented at the Meeting the volume provides a scientific record of the topics discussed. We hope that the readers will enjoy the reading. Fernando Adolfo Saita and María Delia Giavedoni
D'Elia, A; Newstead, S; Cameron, M
reinforce the benefits of reducing low level speeding - the central message of "Wipe Off 5". These strategies were implemented across the entire state of Victoria with the intention of covering as many road users as possible. This study aimed to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the speed-related package. The study objectives were: to document the increased speed camera activity in each speed limit zone and in Melbourne compared with the rest of Victoria; to evaluate the overall effect on crash outcomes of the package; to account as far as possible for the effect on crash outcomes of non-speed road safety initiatives and socio-economic factors, which would otherwise influence the speed-related package evaluation; and to examine speed trends in Melbourne and on Victorian rural highways, especially the proportions of vehicles travelling at excessive speeds. This paper presents the results of the evaluation of the overall impact on crash outcomes associated with the speed-related package, after adjusting as far as possible for the effect of non-speed road safety initiatives and socio-economic factors. D'Elia, Newstead and Cameron (2007) document the study results in full.
this work David Delia, with the work â€œContributions regarding the improvement of the banking accountancy dealing with credits granted to non-financial clientsâ€ and so on. An outstanding attention payed to this subject was the one of the governor of the National Bank of Romania, Mugur Isarescu, who issued a series of articles and books on this subject. Also, Silviu Cerna, Aurelian Paul Berea, Vasile Dedu, Nicolae Danila approached in their books the problem regarding the evolution of the Romanian banking system. The National Bank of Romania offers to its users, information regarding the evolution of the banking industry through the Reports of Financial Stability and The Annual Report. The results of the research and the general conclusions regarding the concern on the evolution of the Romanian banking system are presented at the end of the work.
Baryon Tensor Posadas
Full Text Available In 1984, William Gibson published a novel that began new traditions in science fiction writing —Neuromancer. the novel won a hat-trick of all three of the major science fiction awards: The Hugo, Nebula, and the Philip K. Dick. The opening chapter was set in Chiba prefecture, a large coastal region east of the capital Tokyo with the line "The sky above the port was the color of television turned to a dead channel" (Gibson 1. It was the centerpiece of the cyberpunk movement characterized by a mix of high technology in the fields of computer networking and biomechanical interface and urban street life (Sterling xi.Yet despite its opening scenes being set in Tokyo, Gibson at that time had never set foot in Japan. Furthermore, practically all of Gibson's novels—Neuromancer (1984, Count Zero (1986, Mona Liza Overdrive (1988, Virtual Light (1991, and Idoru (1995 along with several of his short stories, have dealt with Japan in varying degrees, wether as a setting or by involving Japanese social system sush as the yakuza and the zaibatsu system of corporate management as atmospheric elements.Another impetus came from Delia Aguilar's study on Filipino housewives and the politics of gender. This study reveals that " . . . in the private space of the family as the major mechanism for the reproduction of social relations, women are at once validated and oppressed, a process that is powerfully mediated by the maternal ideology of which women are the foremost proponents." This maternal ideology shapes Filipino women's idea of motherhood that sees devotion to children, self-sacrifice, and care giving as the essence of motherhood, allowing them to embrace oppression and subordination. In this context, the interrogation of maternal ideology in Philippine literature is important to the overall feminist movement. Women writers who have freed themselves from the mystifying notions of motherhood may have been inspired to represent women in their works
Ventrella, D.; Giglio, L.; Charfeddine, M.; Palatella, L.; Pizzigalli, C.; Vitale, D.; Paradisi, P.; Miglietta, M. M.; Rana, G.
The climatic change induced by the global warming is expected to modify the agricultural activity and consequently the other social and economical sectors. In this context, an efficient management of the water resources is considered very important for Italy and in particular for Southern areas characterized by a typical Mediterranean climate in order to improve the economical and environmental sustainability of the agricultural activity. Climate warming could have a substantial impact on some agronomical practices as the choice of the crops to be included in the rotations, the sowing time and the irrigation scheduling. For a particular zone, the impact of climatic change on agricultural activity will depend also on the continuum "soil-plant-climate" and this continuum has to be included in the analysis for forecasting purposes. The Project CLIMESCO is structured in four workpackages (WP): (1) Identification of homogeneous areas, (2) Climatic change, (3) Optimization of water resources and (4) Scenarios analysis. In this study we applied a statistical downscaling method, Canonical Correlation Analysis after Principal Component Analysis filtering, to two sub-regions of agricultural interest in Sicily and Apulia (respectively, Delia basin and Capitanata). We adopt, as large scale predictors, the sea level pressure from the the EMULATE project dataset and the 1000 hPa temperature obtained from the NCEP reanalyses, while the predictands are monthly time series of maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation. As the crop growth models need daily datasets, a stochastic weather generator (the LARS-WG model) has been applied for this purpose. LARS-WG needs a preliminary calibration with daily time series of meteorological fields, that are available in the framework of CLIMESCO project. Then, the statistical relationships have been applied to two climate change scenarios (SRES A2 and B2), provided by three different GCM's: the Hadley Centre Coupled Model version 3 (Had
reported in other populations. The large majority of cases are unaware of their condition.
aqueous level of AT II is higher in diabetic eyes and is correlated with the severity of diabetic macular edema. Considering the possible role of AT II in the pathogenesis of diabetic macular edema, modulation of the ocular renin-angiotensin system may become an important target for its treatment.
Opp, Susan B.; Reynolds, Katherine M.; Pickel, Carolyn; Olson, William
The walnut husk fly (WHF), Rhagoletis completa Cresson, is a key pest of walnuts (Juglans spp.) in California, where over 95% of the US and approximately two-thirds of the world's commercial walnuts are produced. The primary hosts of this monophagous fruit fly are J. regia L. (commercially grown English walnut), J. californica S. Wats. var. hindsii (northern California black walnut), J. californica var. californica (southern California black walnut) and J. nigra Thunb. (eastern black walnut). Some cultivars of the English walnut are more susceptible than others; the most heavily infested varieties of English walnut include Eureka, Franquette, Hartley, Mayette and Payne. Neither English walnuts nor the walnut husk fly are native to California. So-called 'English' walnuts are sometimes more appropriately called 'Persian' walnuts, in reference to Persia, the origin of J. regia. English walnuts were first planted in southern California in the 1860s. In contrast, the native range of WHF is the mid- and south-central United States where it attacks J. nigra (Boyce 1934). The fly was likely to have been introduced into southern California in the mid-1920s by tourists travelling from Kansas, New Mexico, Texas or Oklahoma. WHF was first documented in California in 1926 in the San Bernardino County when maggots were found in the husks of English walnuts (Boyce 1929). The fly gradually spread throughout walnut growing regions of California. In 1928, only three or four orchards in the San Bernardino County were known to be infested. By 1932, the fly was also found in the Los Angeles and Orange Counties (Boyce 1933), and by 1954, it was found in Ventura, Riverside, and the San Diego Counties, in addition to the northern California county of Sonoma (Anonymous 1966). The spread of the fly in northern California was rapid. By 1958, WHF was found in San Joaquin County; in 1963, the fly was in Amador, Lake, Solano, Tulare and Yolo Counties; in 1964, it was found in Fresno, Mendocino
bioplastic bag both have shortcomings. Many of the shortcomings are related to the supplier/producer. Other problems such as misplaced waste, problems with mould, fly-maggots/flies etc. can be solved with information. Problems as corrosion on the collection vehicles and metallic substance in the plant have also been observed. A common problem when it comes to stores is how to best treat packaged material. Today there are treatment plants that treat certain packaged food waste, but a solution for glass is still missing. An issue which is not directly linked to the producer or the supplier is the issue of standardization of sorting equipment in kitchens. Many kitchens have own sorting equipment under the sink where the bags rarely fit. This leads to the bags being used in the wrong way. An important project would therefore be to gather the waste industry and kitchen suppliers to try to come up with a solution to this. There are a lot of technical problems in the process as arise when the biogas plant will digest the food waste as not are a homogenous material. The plants inquire for more effective technology for pretreatment the food waste and this could be a new research working. All that somehow affects the quality of digestate and compost are of interest to Waste Refinery, since quality issues are and will continue to be main issues within biological treatment
PERIODONTITIS TREATMENT 17.\tDr. Tatar Daniela Monica, Dr. Dogaru Gabriela, Dr. Ungur Rodica - INFLUENCE OF NATURAL FACTORS ON BRONCHIAL ASTHMA 18.\tIspas Alexandra, Gabriela Dogaru, Motricala Marieta - EFFECTS OF NATURAL THERAPEUTIC FACTORS IN BĂILE TUSNAD ON THE REHABILITATION OF POST-STROKE PATIENTS 19.\tMaria Daniela Crăciun - IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF LIFE IN CLIMAX WITH KINETOTHERAPY AND NATURAL FACTORS IN VATRA DORNEI RESORT 20.\tDenisa Muresan, Gabriela Dogaru, Motricala Marieta - EFFECTIVENESS OF NATURAL THERAPEUTIC FACTORS IN BĂILE TUSNAD FOR THE REHABILITATION OF PATIENTS WITH PARKINSON’S DISEASE 21.\tGabriel Ranghiuc, Roxana Hodorogea, Asist.Dr.BioIng. Cătălina LUCA - STUDIUL TULBURĂRILOR MUSCULO-SCHELETALE UTILIZÂND ELECTROGONIOMETRIA ŞI ELECTROMIOGRAFIA 22.\tMonica Delia POP, Letitia Mihaela Morar - How do we protect ourselves of MALPRACTICE? MEDICAL MALPRACTICE - ACTUALITY, PERSPECTIVES AND SIGNIFICANTLY JURISPRUDENCE 23.\tOctavian D Olariu, Claudia Dascal, Ionut Cadar - REHABILITATION “KEY POINTS” IN ZONE V FLEXOR TENDONS INJURIES 24.\tSuceveanu Mihaela, Pop Dana, Suceveanu Paul, Sitar Tǎut Adela Viviana, Zdrenghea Dumitru, Hâncu Nicolae - EFFECTS OF CARDIOVASCULAR REHABILITATION IN PATIENTS ADMITTED TO THE “Dr Benedek Geza” Hospital of Rehabilitation IN CARDIOVASCULAR Diseases, COVASNA 25.\tCadar D Ionut, Dogaru B Gabriela - THE PHYSICAL THERAPY ROLE IN FUNCTIONAL REHABILITATION AFTER TOTAL SHOULDER ARTHROPLASTY 26.\tDr. Glogojeanu Remus Relu, Dr. Bucur Ileana, Dr. Dogaru Gabriela, Kt. Glogojeanu Olivia Daniela - THE SIGNIFICANT RISKS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF OSTEOPOROSIS IN THE AERONAUTICAL PERSONNEL. PREVENTION AND TREATMENT 27.\tTatiana Bihari, Denes Marton, Doina Moldovan - SILICONE IMPLANT ARTHROPLASTY OF THE PROXIMAL INTERPHALANGEAL JOINT (PIPJ OF FINGER V OF THE RIGHT HAND – A THERAPEUTIC VARIANT IN POSTTRAUMATIC ARTHROSIS 28.\tPop Daniela Dogaru Gabriela, Stanescu Ioana, Pop Ioana - ROLE OF MEDICAL REHABILITATION TREATMENT IN POST
a concluding Press Conference , during which the outcome of this unique event will be summarized by the participants and the organisers: Monday, November 20, 1995, 15:30 pm, at the ESO Headquarters, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany List of National First-Prize Winners Belgium: Mr. Freddy Allemeersch (Teacher), Mr. Pieter De Ceuninck, Mr. Jeroen Staelens (Onze-Lieve-Vrouwecollege, Brugge) Denmark: Mr. Joern C. Olsen, Mr. Henrik Struckmann, Mr. Uffe A. Hansen, Mr. Mogens Winther (Teacher) (Soenderborg Amtsgymnasium) Finland: Mr. Reima Eresmaa, Ms. Laura Elina Nykyri, Ms. Reetamaija Janhonen (Cygnaeues-Lukeo, Jyvaeskylae and Jyvaeskylaen Lyseon Lukeo) France: Mr. Rene Cavaroz (Teacher), Mr. Vincent Hardy, Mr. Antoine Lesuffleur (Lycee Chartier, Bayeux) Germany: Ms. Dorothee Barth, Mr. Walter Czech (Teacher), Mr. Uwe Kranz, Ms. Karin Wieland (Immanuel-Kant-Gymnasium, Leinfelden-Echterdingen, Baden-Wuerttemberg) Greece: Ms. Agni Ioannidi, Ms. Elena Katifori, Mr. Vassilis Samiotis, Mr. Vassillos Tzotzes (Teacher) (Second Varvakelo Experimental Lyceum, Athens) Ireland: Mr. Declan Maccuarta (Teacher), Mr. Colm Mcloughlin (St. Peter's College, Wexford, Co. Wexford) Italy: Mr. Pasquale Ciarletta, Ms. Francesca D'elia, Ms. Ada Fortugna (Teacher), Mr. Alfredo Pudano (Liceo Scientifico `Leonardo da Vinci', Reggio Calabria) The Netherlands: Mr. Alex De Beer, Mr. Klaas Huijbregts, Mr. Ruud Nellen (Norbertuscollege, Rosendaal) Spain: Mr. Aritz Atela Aio, Mr. Julen Sarasola Manich (Teacher), Mr. Jon Huertas Rodriquez (Txorierri Batxilergoko Institua, Derio Bizkaia) Sweden: Mr. Rahman Amanullah, Mr. Kjell L. Bonander (Teacher), Mr. Tomas Oppelstrup, Ms. Christin Wiedemann (Saltsjoebadens Samskola, Saltsjoebaden) United Kingdom: Mr. Michael Ching, Dr. Richard Field (Teacher) (Oundle School, Peterborough) National Committees Further information about the national contests may be obtained from the National Committees: Belgium: Dr. C. Sterken, Vrije Universiteit
somewhat similar to the Earth, but it is too cold for life as we know it, and because of its comparatively small size, the atmospheric pressure is very low. It would in principle be possible to detect the outermost planet with the HST, if the distance to this planetary system was less than about 30 light-years. Ireland: Mr. Declan MacCuarta (Teacher), Mr. Colm McLoughlin (St. Peter's College, Wexford, Co. Wexford) The nearest star, Alpha Centauri, is a double star and a hypothetical planetary system around the A-component, a solar-type star, is studied in some detail. The presence of the companion star makes some planetary orbits unstable. In this project, 4 planets are placed within 2 AU (300 million km) of the central star; 3 of these are terrestrial (no. 3 is Earth-like) and the outermost is a small gaseous planet. Cometary orbits may be very complex in this gravitatinal field. A planetary system like the one described may be barely observable with the Hubble Space Telescope, and only if one of the planets passes in front of the star (an `occultation') and its light diminishes accordingly. Italy: Mr. Pasquale Ciarletta, Ms. Francesca D'elia, Ms. Ada Fortugna (Teacher), Mr. Alfredo Pudano (Liceo Scientifico `Leonardo da Vinci', Reggio Calabria) This group built a spectrograph from scratch, with a grating and all the usual optical parts. They were able to calibrate the solar spectrum with the help of standard lamps and in this way, they observed several prominent, solar absorption lines. Among them were the H-alpha line at 6562 A, the sodium D-lines at 5890--96 And the magnesium triplet near 5175 A. These observations were made with the eye and also with the photographic recording technique. They were planning to observe the spectra of some stars also, but in the end time was too short and they had to hurry to send in the report. The Netherlands: Mr. Alex De Beer, Mr. KlAs Huijbregts, Mr. Ruud Nellen (Norbertuscollege, RosendAl) This team has designed their own planetary
ța in the period 01 January 2014–30 June 2016. Epidemiological considerations. Iulia Gabriela Șerban, Ghiulendan Resul, Consuela Marcaș A47 Acute liver failure with favorable evolution in an HIV-HBV coinfected patient Iosif Marincu, Patricia Poptelecan, Bogdan Trincă, Sorina Mitrescu, Anca Tudor, Daliborca Vlad, Livius Tirnea A48 Lifestyle impact on HIV management Nurcan Baydaroglu, Alina Cristina Neguț, Oana Săndulescu, Daniela Manolache, Gabriela Ceapraga, Monica Andreea Stoica, Anca Streinu-Cercel, Adrian Streinu-Cercel 49. HIV positive mothers newborns - clinical experience from January 2012 to June 2016 Carmen Manciuc, Mariana Pagute, Cristina Nicolau, Carmen Dorobăț, Alexandra Largu A50 Rediscovering HIV-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and HIV encephalopathy: clinical suspicion and subsequent brain autopsies Ioan-Alexandru Diaconu, Laurențiu Stratan, Daniela Ion, Luciana Nichita, Cristina Popescu, Raluca Năstase, Daniela Munteanu, Violeta Molagic, Cătălin Tilișcan, Mihaela Rădulescu, Alexandra Diaconu, Anca Negru, Alina Orfanu, Cristina Dragomirescu, Remulus Catană, Anca Leuștean, Irina Duport-Dodot, Cristina Murariu, Iulia Bodoșca, Violeta Niță, Alexandra Badea, Victoria Aramă A51 Antenatal surveillance of pregnant women with risk behavior and its impact on mother-to-child HIV transmission in Romania Mariana Mărdărescu, Cristina Petre, Marieta Iancu, Rodica Ungurianu, Alina Cibea, Ruxandra Drăghicenoiu, Ana Maria Tudor, Delia Vlad, Sorin Petrea, Carina Matei, Dan Oțelea, Carmen Crăciun, Cristian Anghelina, Alexandra Mărdărescu A52 Noninvasive assessments (APRI, Fib-4, transient elastography of fibrosis in patients with HIV and HIV/HBV infection Elena Dumea, Adrian Streinu-Cercel, Sorin Rugină, Lucian Cristian Petcu, Stela Halichidis, Simona Claudia Cambrea A53 Undetectable HIV viral load – the main goal in the management of HIV-infected patients Carmen Chiriac, Nina-Ioana Bodnar, Iringo-Erzsebet Zaharia