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Sample records for magallanes-fagnano fault tierra

  1. Seismically-induced soft-sediment deformation structures associated with the Magallanes-Fagnano Fault System (Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorato, M. Romina; Perucca, Laura; Coronato, Andrea; Rabassa, Jorge; López, Ramiro

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, evidence of paleoearthquake-induced soft-sediment deformation structures associated with the Magallanes-Fagnano Fault System in the Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, southern Argentina, has been identified. Well-preserved soft-sediment deformation structures were found in a Holocene sequence of the Udaeta pond. These structures were analyzed in terms of their geometrical characteristics, deformation mechanism, driving force system and possible trigger agent. They were also grouped in different morphological types: sand dykes, convolute lamination, load structures and faulted soft-sediment deformation features. Udaeta, a small pond in Argentina Tierra del Fuego, is considered a Quaternary pull-apart basin related to the Magallanes-Fagnano Fault System. The recognition of these seismically-induced features is an essential tool for paleoseismic studies. Since the three main urban centers in the Tierra del Fuego province of Argentina (Ushuaia, Río Grande and Tolhuin) have undergone an explosive growth in recent years, the results of this study will hopefully contribute to future analyses of the seismic risk of the region.

  2. Preliminary study of gravimetric anomalies in the Magallanes-Fagnano fault system, South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Alcacer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to recognize several geological structures associated with the shear zones of the MFFS (Magallanes – Fagnano fault system by the analysis and interpretation of gravimetric anomalies. Besides, to compare the gravimetrical response of the cortical blocks that integrate the region under study, which is related to the different morphotectonic domains recognized in the region. This research was developed employing data obtained from World Gravity 1.0, which includes earth and satellite gravity data derived from the EGM2008 model. The study and interpretation of the MFFS from the analysis and processing of the gravimetric data, allowed appreciation of a noticeable correlation with the most superficial cortical structure.

  3. Localización de hipocentros y determinación de su magnitud en Tierra del Fuego y zonas aledañas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Buffoni

    2009-12-01

    order to study Tierra del Fuego seismicity. The region has a complex tectonic setting: the island is crossed by a transforming fault named Magallanes-Fagnano which divides Tierra del Fuego in two continental blocks. This fault system constitutes the major continental segment of the South America-Scotia plate's border. The island has an important seismological history which includes an event of magnitude 7.8 occurred on December 1949. Reports of earthquakes occurred in 1929, 1930, 1944, 1949 and 1970 are known by a study of historical seismicity. In this paper hypocentre locations and error analysis have been carried out. Records at five seismological stations have been analyzed during January-December 2007. More than 180 events have been identified and some of them were compared to events of NEIC (National Earthquake Information Center and ISC (International Seismological Centre. Magnitude determinations have been calculated with first arrival amplitude. The majority of earthquakes have magnitude mb between 2 and 4 degrees. With respect to hypocentral depths, more than 50% of located earthquakes have their depths in the first 10 km. The seismicity map obtained shows that beyond rather dispersed seismicity related to the Magallanes-Fagnano fault, a concentration of epicentres is found in the Darwin Cordillera area and in the Scotia plate surrounding, displaying evidence of a correlation with the geotectonic area of study.

  4. Estudio de la estructura cortical en la Isla de Tierra del Fuego a partir de datos sismológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Buffoni, C.; Schimmel, Martin; Sabbione, N.C.; Rosa, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    La Isla de Tierra del Fuego (TdF) se encuentra ubicada en el extremo sur de la Cuenca de Magallanes, donde el borde transformante entre la Placa de Scotia y la Sudamericana define el Sistema de Fallas Magallanes-Fagnano (MFS), cuya falla principal tiene un movimiento sinestral. Con el fin de obtener información de la corteza, se realizó un análisis de funciones receptoras (FR) a partir de datos registrados en cinco estaciones sismológicas instaladas en la Isla. Una FR es el resultado de un pr...

  5. El fin de la tierra

    OpenAIRE

    Benitez Peña, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Ana Faura, una representante de una asociación de desplazados, desea recuperar la tierra que le fue arrebatada para enterrar allí los restos óseos de su esposo asesinado y volver a una vida que añora. En su propósito deberá enfrentarse no solo a amenazas de muerte en contra suya y de su único hijo sino a la necesidad de perdonar a los victimarios para lograr un verdadero retorno.

  6. La Memoria De Nuestra Tierra: Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, Judy

    2005-01-01

    La Memoria de Nuestra Tierra combines a meticulously hand-painted landscape with historic photographs in a seamless blend imprinted on the holographic-like surface of a metallic coated substrate. The mural for the Denver International Airport, entitled La Memoria de Nuestra Tierra is a breakthrough in digital murals, printed digitally on a…

  7. Construcciones a base de tierra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez Alonso, Marina

    1984-11-01

    oriented towards dissipating possible prejudices which exist with regard to earthen constructions.Trabajo realizado y basado en las nuevas posibilidades de las construcciones con tierra, una vez considerado su interés en épocas anteriores y las nuevas posibilidades que ofrece ante la crítica impuesta por la crisis de la energía. Se hacen consideraciones sobre las necesidades de vivienda previstas hasta el año 2000 y otros parámetros que vuelven a ser importantes al confrontarlos económicamente con los materiales industrializados, sistemas de construcción, soluciones orientadas a los países en vías de desarrollo, etc. Continúa el trabajo con las primeras vías de experimentación práctica desarrolladas por el equipo de trabajo de viviendas de bajo coste orientadas a la búsqueda y promoción de recursos locales y abundantes como el material tierra, vías de experimentación que comienzan con el conocimiento por el equipo de técnicas y materiales durante el curso realizado en Ciadueña (Soria. Se describen aspectos técnicos del material tierra desarrollados paralelamente a la experiencia práctica inicial y orientada a la elección idónea de los componentes, una vez confrontada la información bibliográfica relacionada con el tema. Entre las consideraciones técnicas se llega a una exposición más exhaustiva sobre: 1 Las técnicas existentes: ladrillos de adobe, tierra apisonada (tapial, etc. 2 Porcentajes idóneos de los componentes para la elección de los materiales preferibles en cada una de las técnicas anteriores. 3 Consideraciones de los aspectos físicos y mecánicos de la maquinaria existente y en experimentación, así como de las posibilidades respecto a su puesta en obra, costes comparativos, etc. 4 Estudio de las posibilidades para mejorar las características del material tierra mediante diferentes técnicas de estabilización (compactación y correcciones granulométricas, estabilizantes fisicoquímicos, betunes, productos

  8. Bloque de tierra comprimida como material constructivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Javier Gutiérrez Junco

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La construcción con tierra es poco usada en la actualidad debido a la falta de difusión e investigación, y a que es relacionada con la pobreza; por ende, se desaprovechan muchas de sus ventajas, como la abundancia demateria prima, la localización, la disponibilidad, el reciclaje, la producción sin consumo de energía (calorífica, el bajo costo y la resistencia –con un adecuado estudio del material tierra, de la estructuración y del suelo de fundación–; otras de sus ventajas son el aislamiento térmico y acústico. Con el paso del tiempo se han mejorado las técnicas constructivas con tierra, realizando estabilizaciones e implementando el uso de maquinaria y herramienta mecánica para elaborar bloques de tierra comprimida, y así facilitar el trabajo y obtener mayor rendimiento. Este artículo presenta la tierra como material constructivo, las técnicas o sistemas constructivos, los bloques de tierra comprimida (BTC y algunos ensayos realizados a estos bloques.

  9. Aquilo que nomeia lei: a Madre Tierra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Zanella Rodrigues

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Este texto é sustentado teoricamente na Análise do Discurso de viés pêcheuxtiano e tem por corpus dois textos legais: a Ley de Derechos de La Madre Tierra (Ley nº 71/2010 e a Ley Marco de La Madre Tierra y Desarrollo Integral para Vivir Bien (Ley nº 300/2012 aprovadas na Bolívia. A irrupção da Madre Tierra como nome de lei faz ecoar, do lugar da voz dos povos originários, a memória cosmovisionária como discurso da resistência contra o silenciamento de uma história.  Ao atentar para o processo de subjetivação e os ruídos que este acontecimento pode ocasionar, há por objetivo analisar que efeitos de sentido e deslocamentos teóricos são produzidos a partir das formas de nomear, designar, referenciar, subjetivar a Madre Tierra na sua materialização linguístico-discursiva num texto legal. E como se podem operar os conceitos de falta, excesso e estranhamento (ERNST, 2009 no trabalho de análise do nome que nomeia uma lei.

  10. Ecologia de las lombrices de tierra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizelle Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    De los organismos de suelo, las lombrices de tierra son las mas conocidas y a menudo son consideradas las mas importantes por su influencia en el funcionamiento de ecosistemas de suelo (Hendriz y Bohlen, 2002). Tienen un efecto significativo en la estructura del suelo, el ciclo de nutrimentos y ls productividad de las cosechas. En terminos de biomasa, generalmente...

  11. The Patagonian Orocline: Paleomagnetic evidence of a large counter-clockwise rotation during the closure of the Rocas Verdes basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblete, Fernando; Roperch, Pierrick; Herve, Francisco; Ramirez, Cristobal; Arriagada, Cesar

    2014-05-01

    (53°-54.5°S), paleomagnetic results indicate a counterclockwise rotation of ~15° after 60 Ma. AMS results show a good correlation between magnetic lineations and the strikes of structures of the fold and thrust belt except near the Magallanes Fagnano fault zone. On the other hand, the magnetic lineations in both intrusive and sedimentary rocks along the Beagle Channel are mainly vertical suggesting compressive deformation during pluton emplacement at ~90 Ma along the Beagle channel fault. In summary, the formation of the Patagonian Orocline occurred in two stages during a period of convergence and collision of the Antarctic Peninsula with Patagonia. The first stage is associated with large counterclockwise rotations and closure of the Rocas Verdes basin during the late Cretaceous. The second stage corresponds to the formation of the curved, mainly non-rotational Magallanes fold and thrust belt during the Tertiary. Funding for this study was provided by CONICYT Project ACT-105 and CONICYT/IRD scholarships to F. Poblete.

  12. Comprobaciones resistentes de elementos constructivos de tierra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrada, Enrique

    1986-11-01

    Full Text Available This work has the purpose to compare, by means of different tests on adobe bricks and masonry, the obtained resistant properties and those of other similar works carried out in countries having a wide tradition and knowledge about earth as construction material. Elements (adobe bricks and blocks have been tested to compression and bending, and masonry made of those elements to compression and diagonal compression.El presente trabajo pretende comparar, por medio de distintos ensayos sobre elementos y fábricas de mampostería de tierra, las propiedades resistentes obtenidas con las de otros trabajos similares realizados en países con dilatada tradición y conocimiento de la tierra como material de construcción. Se han ensayado elementos (adobes y bloques a compresión y flexotracción y fábricas formadas por conjuntos de los mismos a compresión y a compresión diagonal.

  13. Tierra Caliente, Michoacán

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    C. I. Villa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas de producción ganaderos de la región de Tierra Caliente están vinculados al manejo agrosilvopastoril, aprovechando una amplia gama de recursos forrajeros naturales, siendo las familias quienes conducen la administración y aprovechamiento de dichos recursos. Se buscó definir las características, recursos forrajeros aprovechables e insumos alimenticios, estimando su calidad nutricional, con el fin de encontrar estrategias de alimentación de ganado que reduzcan al mínimo el uso de insumos externos al interior de las unidades productivas. Se trabajó en comunidades del municipio de Tuzantla, en la región de Tierra Caliente del estado de Michoacán. El método incluye la recolección de información por medio de encuestas aplicadas a productores campesinos, durante el ciclo productivo 2007. Se analizaron de 200 a 300 g de 41 muestras de alimentos con el método de Wendee, para analizar su composición química. Se encontró que para la región de Tierra Caliente existe un sistema de producción bovina de mediana escala, semi-estabulado y trashumante que, en promedio, tiene 250 a 260 ha y 86 cabezas de ganado destinado a la producción de carne y pie de cría, y que producen 9.2 l/vaca/día; con esta leche se elabora queso a razón de 1kg de queso por cada 10 litros de leche. Se identificó, también, el uso de seis ingredientes fundamentales que componen dos dietas básicas, cuya composición química detectada fue de 10.2- 13.9% (PC, 7.9-11.8% (FC, 62.8-67.9% (ELN, 1.4-5% (EE y 1.9-8.8% (cenizas. Por tanto, se concluye que los ganaderos cubren los requerimientos nutricionales con base en el alto uso de concentrados, dejando los forrajes para satisfacer las necesidades de consumo de su ganado. Por esto, se requiere establecer un sistema de balanceo de raciones que permita optimizar los recursos

  14. El recurso tierra en Costa Rica

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    Floria Bertsch

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un análisis sistemático de la evolución del recurso tierra durante los últimos 10 años, desde diferentes perspectivas: las instituciones involucradas en su manejo, su uso actual y potencial, la actividad agropecuaria que sustenta dicho recurso a través de diferentes mundos agrícolas, y algunas otras opciones de agricultura sostenible que han surgido recientemente como es la agricultura orgánica. También se analiza el urbanismo, como aquella presión que efectúa la población sobre el recurso, y se discuten algunas alternativas de conservación planteadas a nivel nacional. Como conclusiones de la autora, en términos generales, el tema adolece de falta de información confiable desde hace 20 años, hay una clara tendencia al paso de la tierra de pequeños a más grandes propietarios y un incremento en la “peonización” a partir de la pérdida de la propiedad. El país se dirige hacia una clara dependencia de la compra en mercados extranjeros para la alimentación básica, a pesar de la existencia de nuevas opciones tecnológicas. Existen avances importantes en legislación pero aún están a nivel de papel y en términos urbanísticos, la presión social vence el ordenamiento territorial.

  15. La temperatura del interior de la tierra

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    Eslava R. Jesús A.

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of defining the Earth interior temperature is analized from Heat Flow observations and the acceptance of convection processes in the mantle. Comparative analyses of thermal, adiabatic, and melting point profiles, allow to obtain the optimum temperature profile, wich fits the seismic model of a liquid external core.

    EI problema de definir la temperatura del interior de la Tierra, se analiza a partir de las observaciones del flujo térmico y la aceptación de procesos de convección en el manto.

    Análisis comparativos de perfiles térmicos, adiabáticos y de puntos de fusión, permiten obtener un perfil óptimo de distribución de temperaturas, que además satisface la observación sísmica de un núcleo externo líquido.

  16. Estado, mercado de tierra urbana e inundaciones en ciudades argentinas

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    Nora Clichevsky

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre las relaciones que se establecen entre los mercados de tierra urbana y las inundaciones en ciudades argentinas, en el marco más amplio de la vulnerabilidad urbana. Se pretende despejar incógnitas acerca del papel jugado por el Estado como regulador del mercado en áreas urbanas con vulnerabilidad natural a la inundación y como constructor de defensas contra las inundaciones y acerca de los impactos que han tenido las inundaciones y las obras de defensa contra ellas sobre el mercado de tierra y, por lo tanto, sobre el acceso al suelo urbano por parte de los distintos sectores de la población.

  17. La Arquitectura de tierra es una herencia humana

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    Walter Domínguez Vega

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se aborda el uso de la tierra en la restauración y conservación de la vivienda más antigua de Holguín. Se basa en la tendencia actual para la conservación sostenible de los bienes patrimoniales y culturales que orienta los materiales utilizados en los trabajos de intervención, se detiene sobre la relevancia y alcance histórico cultural del patrimonio edificado en la provincia de Holguín, describe las características constructivas de sus muros de embarrado los morteros utilizados y las dificultades para la conservación de ésta. Propone que se revitalice el uso de la tierra en construcciones de viviendas y menciona las investigaciones arqueológicas históricas en el interior y exterior de la casa.

  18. Faults Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Through the study of faults and their effects, much can be learned about the size and recurrence intervals of earthquakes. Faults also teach us about crustal...

  19. Saber tradicional, ética de la tierra y sustentabilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyd, Thomas

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This is the crucial moment to take on sustainable forms of life, and hence it is now of primary importance to adopt a land ethic that takes into account not only the use value but also the intrinsic value of the beings that make up our natural environment. In this essay I begin by focusing on the obstacles that the development of a land ethic has to face, obstacles that are due to limitations in knowledge and to mistaken assumptions. As a way to resolve these practical difficulties I first point out the existence of our natural inclinations toward the land and life. Furthermore, I propose that the traditional knowledge of those peoples that have lived for extended periods with their environments can serve us as models for the development of a culture of appreciation for the earth and its inhabitants.

    Éste ese! momento crucial para emprender formas de vida sustentables, por lo que resulta esencial adoptar una ética de la tierra que reconozca el valor intrínseco además del valor útil de los seres que pueblan nuestro medio ambiente natural. En este ensayo empiezo enfocando los obstáculos a que se enfrenta el desarrollo de una ética de la tierra, obstáculos que resultan ser el producto de conocimientos limitados y suposiciones equivocadas. En resolución de esas problemáticas prácticas apunto, primero, la existencia de inclinaciones naturales hacia la tierra y la vida. Además propongo que en el saber tradicional de los pueblos que han convivido mucho tiempo con sus espacios tenemos modelos de formas del conocer que nos pueden servir de modelo para llegar a desarrollar una cultura de aprecio de la tierra y de sus habitantes.

  20. Fault finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Richard H.

    1986-01-01

    A fault finder for locating faults along a high voltage electrical transmission line. Real time monitoring of background noise and improved filtering of input signals is used to identify the occurrence of a fault. A fault is detected at both a master and remote unit spaced along the line. A master clock synchronizes operation of a similar clock at the remote unit. Both units include modulator and demodulator circuits for transmission of clock signals and data. All data is received at the master unit for processing to determine an accurate fault distance calculation.

  1. Exploraciones Micológicas en Tierra del Fuego Mycological explorations in Tierra del Fuego

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    Irma J. Gamundí

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Se narran las expediciones marítimas y terrestres en Tierra del Fuego durante los siglos XIX y XX, desde el punto de vista de la exploración micológica cuyos resultados han sido vertidos en publicaciones, destacando las expediciones argentinas. Contiene mapas con las principales expediciones argentinas. Se hace una evaluación de la diversidad fúngica de acuerdo con los datos previamente analizados, comparando los registros de colección en ambos períodos que indican una duplicación del número total de taxones de 647 especies descriptas en el siglo XIX hasta 1269 en el siglo XX. Simultáneamente se observa una disminución del 50,4 % al 19.7 % en el número de especies nuevas publicadas. Se agrega una lista de coleccionistas y otra del estado de conservación ex situ de especies seleccionadas. Se hace un breve comentario sobre la conservación de hábitats colonizados por hongos que están perturbados por la explotación no sustentable de los recursos naturales.A narration of the leading maritime and terrestrial expeditions in Fuegia during the XIX and XX centuries is approached from the point of view of the mycological exploration and published results on the mycobiota, emphazising the Argentine expeditions. Maps with the itinerary of main Argentine expeditions is given. An evaluation of the fungal diversity according to the previous review is presented, comparing the fungal records during both periods that shows duplication of the total number of taxa from 647 species described in XIX century to 1269 in the XX century. Simultaneously there is a decrease from 50.4 % to 19.7 % in the number of new species published. A list of collectors and a table with the state of ex-situ conservation of selected species is presented. A brief comment is given on conservation of habitats supporting fungal population that are disturbed by unsustainable exploitation of natural resources.

  2. LUCHA POR LA TIERRA EN EL NORTE DE URUGUAY

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    Gabriel Oyhantçabal Benelli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la trayectoria de la lucha por la tierra en Bella Unión, una región característica en Uruguay por la producción de caña de azúcar, a través de los movimientos de clase de sus principales protagonistas: los cortadores de caña sindicalizados en la Unión de Trabajadores Azucareros de Artigas (UTAA. El recorrido histórico hace énfasis en dos períodos históricos diferentes: 1961-1973 y 2005-presente. El primero va desde la fundación del sindicato hasta el golpe militar. Se da en un contexto de auge de la lucha de masas en Uruguay en el cual los trabajadores rurales se organizan en la UTAA levantando, entre otras, la bandera de la Reforma Agraria. El segundo período está marcado por la llegada al gobierno nacional del Frente Amplio, una coalición social-demócrata que reactiva la producción de caña de azúcar en Bella Unión. Este cambio supone una oportunidad para las luchas sociales que la UTAA aprovecha con ocupaciones de tierra favoreciendo un proceso de colonización para los trabajadores rurales. Sin embargo el acceso a la tierra genera nuevas contradicciones, y por tanto nuevos desafíos, por los cambios en la forma de subsunción del trabajo al capital.

  3. Construcción con tierra en el siglo XXI

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    Bestraten, S.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Earthen construction during the 21rst century first decade has resurfaced worldwide as a sustainable, low environmental impact and great expressive material. The research and the number of projects has been increased related to the growth of the associations, institutions, universities and events surrounding this sector. These projects have managed to modernize the traditional techniques of building with earth in order to adapt them to today’s projecting needs, and have been widely recognized for its quality. The aim of this article is to provide a global view on earth construction internationally, providing technical data of its utilization in contemporary architectural projects.

    La construcción con tierra durante la primera década del siglo XXI ha resurgido en todo el mundo como un material con propiedades sostenibles, de bajo impacto ambiental y de gran capacidad expresiva. Se ha experimentado un crecimiento a nivel de proyectos e investigaciones sobre el material relacionado con el aumento de número de asociaciones, instituciones, universidades y eventos alrededor de este sector. Los proyectos actuales han sabido modernizar las técnicas tradicionales de construcción con tierra para adaptarlas a las necesidades proyectuales y constructivas, siendo ampliamente reconocidos por su calidad. El objetivo de este artículo es ofrecer una visión actual sobre la construcción con tierra a nivel internacional, aportando datos técnicos de su utilización en proyectos arquitectónicos contemporáneos.

  4. Sol, Tierra y Luna. Movimientos relativos y sus consecuencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Cardenete García

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cuando se pregunta a los estudiantes por la causa de las estaciones suelen responder: "en verano estamos más próximos al Sol y en invierno estamos más lejos del Sol". La persistencia de esta idea y el hecho de su generalización entre los estudiantes y muchos adultos me ha inducido a escribir este artículo, en el cual se trata de explicar, de una forma clara y simple, el motivo de este y otros fenómenos debidos al movimiento de la Luna alrededor de la Tierra y de ésta alrededor del Sol.

  5. Transient analysis for grounding systems considering the ground ionization; Analisis transitorio de sistemas de puesta a tierra considerando la ionizacion del suelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado Salgado, Luis Alberto

    2008-06-15

    All electrical installation must have an effective grounding system. The purpose of this grounding system is to provide a low impedance path for draining electric currents generated by faults, switching operations or atmospheric discharges to earth, avoiding damage to people, equipment or installations. High currents drained to ground leads to an electric field which can be capable of breaking down the dielectric strength of the ground. When this happens, the ionization phenomena takes place, which reduce the grounding system impedance and modify its performance. In this thesis, a computational model for evaluating the transient performance of grounding systems subjected to high magnitude and frequency currents is presented. The model is based in a transmission line approach and the grounding system transient analysis is carried out in the frequency domain. The time domain translation is performed by means of the Fast Fourier Inverse Transform (FFIT). The computer model is capable of simulating soil ionization. The computer model developed is used to study the performance of vertical rods and grounding grids of different sizes. In every case, different electric field magnitudes and soil's resistivity were used, currents of different frequency components and magnitude values where used as well. The obtained results presented were compared and validated with other computer model results and measurements published in the literature. [Spanish] Toda instalacion electrica debe contar con un sistema de puesta a tierra efectivo. La finalidad de este sistema es proporcionar un camino de baja impedancia para drenar a tierra las corrientes generadas por fallas, maniobras o fenomenos naturales como las descargas atmosfericas, evitando de esta manera danos a las personas, equipos o instalaciones. Cuando las corrientes drenadas a tierra son de gran magnitud se origina un campo electrico critico capaz de romper la rigidez dielectrica del suelo que rodea los conductores del

  6. Fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Kathy

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the research in this area of fault management is to develop and implement a decision aiding concept for diagnosing faults, especially faults which are difficult for pilots to identify, and to develop methods for presenting the diagnosis information to the flight crew in a timely and comprehensible manner. The requirements for the diagnosis concept were identified by interviewing pilots, analyzing actual incident and accident cases, and examining psychology literature on how humans perform diagnosis. The diagnosis decision aiding concept developed based on those requirements takes abnormal sensor readings as input, as identified by a fault monitor. Based on these abnormal sensor readings, the diagnosis concept identifies the cause or source of the fault and all components affected by the fault. This concept was implemented for diagnosis of aircraft propulsion and hydraulic subsystems in a computer program called Draphys (Diagnostic Reasoning About Physical Systems). Draphys is unique in two important ways. First, it uses models of both functional and physical relationships in the subsystems. Using both models enables the diagnostic reasoning to identify the fault propagation as the faulted system continues to operate, and to diagnose physical damage. Draphys also reasons about behavior of the faulted system over time, to eliminate possibilities as more information becomes available, and to update the system status as more components are affected by the fault. The crew interface research is examining display issues associated with presenting diagnosis information to the flight crew. One study examined issues for presenting system status information. One lesson learned from that study was that pilots found fault situations to be more complex if they involved multiple subsystems. Another was pilots could identify the faulted systems more quickly if the system status was presented in pictorial or text format. Another study is currently under way to

  7. De vuelta a la concentración de tierras en el Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Arias Nieto, Custodio

    2014-01-01

    En este artículo presento el nuevo proceso de concentración de tierras en el Perú producido en los últimos quince años, teniendo como marco las normas legales del modelo neoliberal. Éstas han permitido la emergencia del latifundio en las mejores tierras que se encuentran en la costa peruana, cuya producción es principalmente para la exportación. Asimismo, las concesiones mineras, petroleras y forestales también vienen conduciendo a un nuevo tipo de concentración de tierras que degrada o destr...

  8. La arquitectura en tierra: Una alternativa para la construcción sostenible

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Zuleta Roa

    2012-01-01

    La inquietud sobre la sostenibilidad de la arquitectura hecha con tierra se convierte en el punto de partida para escribir este artículo sobre el uso de la tierra como alternativa para realizar construcciones sostenibles. Se inicia con una mirada histórica del uso de la tierra como material de construcción en el mundo y en Colombia; sus características en relación con la sostenibilidad en los procesos constructivos y finalmente su contextualización dentro de las normas que regulan la construc...

  9. La arquitectura en tierra: Una alternativa para la construcción sostenible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Zuleta Roa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La inquietud sobre la sostenibilidad de la arquitectura hecha con tierra se convierte en el punto de partida para escribir este artículo sobre el uso de la tierra como alternativa para realizar construcciones sostenibles. Se inicia con una mirada histórica del uso de la tierra como material de construcción en el mundo y en Colombia; sus características en relación con la sostenibilidad en los procesos constructivos y finalmente su contextualización dentro de las normas que regulan la construcción.

  10. Midiendo el diámetro de la Tierra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierra Porta, S.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available De distintas maneras se han ingeniado interesantes procedimientos para medir el radio de la tierra. Aquí se expone uno con la utilización de muchas técnicas sea formales o no para tal fín. El procedimiento es lo suficientemente sencillo como para que cualquier aficionado pueda repetirlo. No es un nuevo método, pero puede verse como pequeñas variaciones al mismo pudieran dar menos o más errores. El método precisa de tres piedras, una cuerda y una regla, de acuerdo con sus indicaciones, se debe contar también con un cerro desde donde podamos divisar el horizonte desde un lugar despejado en dos direcciones opuestas. La altura ideal de esta colina o promontorio seria de 30 a 300 metros sobre el nivel del mar (fácilmente podría ser desde un edificio; desde ella se divisara claramente una zona despejada. La motivación principal es proporcionar un marco para que los estudiantes en clase diserten acerca de la posibilidad de medier el tamaño de la tierra con argumentos muy sencillos y al alcance de todos. Se estimula de formulación de proyectos para investigación en el aula. Además se considera, en concordancia con las reformas de la educación y la globalización de las ciencias y los conocimientos, como estas actividades pueden acoger distintas disciplinas para un análisis óptimo de los resultados.

  11. Cultural tourism in fragile institutional contexts: project for cultural routes in Tierra del Fuego

    OpenAIRE

    Garcés Feliu, Eugenio

    2012-01-01

    The following paper presents a project of Cultural Routes designed for the Chilean Tierra del Fuego, linked to promoting tourism and boosting the economy, through the development of a specific high standard tourism offer, linked to its natural and cultural heritage, with the purpose of capturing the potential income generation for Chile. The project had as main goal to enhance the competitiveness of the tourism sector of special interests in Tierra del Fuego, a key sector of South...

  12. El nuevo acaparamiento de tierras y las cambiantes dinamicas de la agricultura en el sur de Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    El termino 'acaparamiento con fuerza en los ultimos anos para describir el renovado interes de las empresas por la tierra agraria, que se materializado en forma de cerramientos y privatizaciones de tierras a gran escala. Sin embargo, este termino esconde importantes diferencias respecto a la legalidad, la estructura y los resultados de los acuerdos comerciales sobre la tierra, de manera que desvia la atencion respecto al papel desempenado por las elites y los gobernos locales como socios, int...

  13. Acaparamiento de tierras y acumulación global capitalista: aspectos clave en América Latina.

    OpenAIRE

    Landívar, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    El análisis del acaparamiento de la tierra en América Latina está centrado básicamente en dos conceptos: la extranjerización y concentración de la tierra. Por un lado, en varios países como Argentina, Brasil, Uruguay, Paraguay y Guatemala la discusión se ha centrado en la extranjerización de la propiedad de la tierra. Esta se refiere a la adquisición de tierra por actores extranjeros, como gobiernos y corporaciones, así como de individuos, para una variedad de propósitos y de diferentes escal...

  14. Optimal fault signal estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Niemann, H.H.; Saberi, A.; Sannuti, P.

    2002-01-01

    We consider here both fault identification and fault signal estimation. Regarding fault identification, we seek either exact or almost fault identification. On the other hand, regarding fault signal estimation, we seek either $H_2$ optimal, $H_2$ suboptimal or Hinfinity suboptimal estimation. By

  15. Formas de tierra y clases de pendiente del departamento de Cusco: informe ejecutivo

    OpenAIRE

    Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales. Dirección General de Estudios y Proyectos

    2000-01-01

    Muestra la evaluación de las formas de tierra y clases de pendiente de la región sierra del departamento de Cusco. El objetivo principal es presentar de manera esquemática el conjunto de formas de tierra, clases de pendiente dominante, sus diferencias morfoclimáticas y evolutivas, así como la identificación de las principales acciones erosivas que actualmente puedan significar riesgos a las actividades humanas, o a coadyuvar al deterioro generalizado del medio. El documento ha sido elaborado ...

  16. Formas de tierra y clases de pendiente del departamento de Amazonas: informe ejecutivo

    OpenAIRE

    Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales. Dirección General de Estudios y Proyectos

    2000-01-01

    Muestra la evaluación de las formas de tierra y clases de pendiente de la región sierra del departamento de Amazonas. El objetivo principal es presentar de manera esquemática el conjunto de formas de tierra, clases de pendiente dominante, sus diferencias morfoclimáticas y evolutivas, así como la identificación de las principales acciones erosivas que actualmente puedan significar riesgos a las actividades humanas, o a coadyuvar al deterioro generalizado del medio. El documento ha sido elabora...

  17. Formas de tierra y clases de pendiente del departamento de Ica: informe ejecutivo

    OpenAIRE

    Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales. Dirección General de Estudios y Proyectos

    2000-01-01

    Abarca la evaluación de las formas de tierra y clases de pendiente de la región sierra del departamento de Ica. El objetivo principal es brindar de manera esquemática el conjunto de formas de tierra, clases de pendiente dominante, sus diferencias morfoclimáticas y evolutivas, así como la identificación de las principales acciones erosivas que actualmente puedan significar riesgos a las actividades humanas, o a coadyuvar al deterioro generalizado del medio. El documento ha sido elaborado en el...

  18. Formas de tierra y clases de pendiente del departamento de Arequipa: informe ejecutivo

    OpenAIRE

    Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales. Dirección General de Estudios y Proyectos

    1999-01-01

    Abarca la evaluación de las formas de tierra y clases de pendiente de la región sierra del departamento de Arequipa. El objetivo principal es mostrar de manera esquemática el conjunto de formas de tierra, clases de pendiente dominante, sus diferencias morfoclimáticas y evolutivas, así como la identificación de las principales acciones erosivas que actualmente puedan significar riesgos a las actividades humanas, o a coadyuvar al deterioro generalizado del medio. El documento ha sido elaborado ...

  19. The architecture of the extremes cultural landscapes in Tierra del Fuego

    OpenAIRE

    Garcés Feliú, Eugenio

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the relevance of applying the notion of extreme cultural landscape to Tierra del Fuego, as a complementary category to those defined by Unesco. It states that in Chile there are anumber of territories at the margins –in the end, along the border– that have been built as landscapes, specifics and concretes, where the exploitation of natural resources has proved profitable and the building of human settlements as been allowed. This is the case of Tierra del Fuego, con...

  20. Un congreso de fisica estudia la composicion de las capas de la tierra

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "El Congreso de Internacional de Neutrinos, que ayer comenzo en el Jardin Botanico de Valencia, aborda, entre otros aspectos, la composicion y el perfil tomografico de las distintas capas de estratos del interior de la Tierra, segun informo a Efe el profesor Jose Furtado Valle" (1/2 page).

  1. La Carta de la Tierra en educación obligatoria desde una perspectiva internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Francisca Hinojosa-Pareja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La Carta de la Tierra surge como iniciativa de la sociedad civil en el año 2000. Desde su comienzo, es avalada por instituciones y organizaciones internacionales como la Unesco, que apoyó su contenido en 2003, e incorporada como instrumento educativo en proyectos de aplicación internacional como la “Década de la Educación para el Desarrollo Sostenible (2005-2014”, promovida por Naciones Unidas. Este artículo analiza distintas experiencias internacionales que utilizan la Carta de la Tierra como elemento de innovación en el ámbito de la educación obligatoria (infantil, primaria y secundaria. Una década después de la publicación de la Carta de la Tierra, y a través del análisis del contenido de estas experiencias, pretendemos hacer balance del camino recorrido, del grado de compromiso asumido desde el ámbito educativo, y favorecer el diálogo y la progresiva toma de conciencia sobre la Carta de la Tierra y su relevancia a nivel educativo.

  2. Relaciones entre la presencia de tierra y la supervivencia en serpientes de coral mantenidas en cautiverio

    OpenAIRE

    Reynoso, H.; Bucher, Enrique; Merlini, H. O.

    1985-01-01

    Teniendo en cuenta las particularidades de la especie Micrurus frontalis pyrrhocryptus (coral) en lo referente a su comportamiento semifosorial, hemos considerado conveniente relacionar distintos aspectos biológicos de la especie tales como longevidad, peso y producción de veneno, con la disponibilidad de tierra en recipientes y exposición a la luz.

  3. Los Takanas: el acceso a la tierra y los recursos naturales (1950-2003.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulema Lehm Ardaya

    2010-01-01

    uso comercial de diferentes especies naturales. El artículo discute la adaptación de los takanas a los desafíos y tendencias del uso de los recursos naturales en sistemas de acceso comunitario a la tierra.

  4. IMPACTOS DEL CAMBIO DE USO DE LA TIERRA EN LA MICROCUENCA MEMBRILLO, MANABÍ, ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Hernández Jiménez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El cambio de uso de la tierra, sobre todo el cambio de tierras forestales a tierras cultivadas, es una de las prácticas que mayor impacto ha tenido en la degradación de los suelos en el mundo y que ha provocado, en gran parte, la emisión de CO2 a la atmósfera. Por esto se hace necesario evaluar los cambios que han tenido las propiedades de los suelos por los diferentes ecosistemas, para de esta forma, tomar las medidas de mejoramiento y conservación de los suelos. En este trabajo, se estudia por primera vez, el cambio de algunas propiedades de los suelos de las partes medias y bajas de la microcuenca Membrillo (provincia de Manabí, Ecuador. Esta microcuenca presenta un relieve alomado, premontañoso, en la cual predominan bosques primarios y secundarios y plantaciones de cacao, pastizales y cultivos como el maíz en su parte baja. Los suelos son Feozems, Cambisoles y Fluvisoles y se presentan los resultados sobre cambios en sus características morfológicas (color, tipo de estructura, espesor de los horizontes A y B, las pérdidas de carbono orgánico y el cambio en la densidad aparente del suelo, provocado por el cambio de uso de la tierra.

  5. Review of Los nuevos amos de la tierra. Land Grabbing (Liberti, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Ignacio Ochoa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stefano Liberti. 2015. Los nuevos amos de la tierra. Land Grabbing. Bogotá: Penguin Random House Grupo Editorial. 250 pp. ISBN: 9788430616886. [Título original en italiano: Land Grabbing. Come il mercato delle terre crea il nuovo colonialismo].

  6. Information Based Fault Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2008-01-01

    Fault detection and isolation, (FDI) of parametric faults in dynamic systems will be considered in this paper. An active fault diagnosis (AFD) approach is applied. The fault diagnosis will be investigated with respect to different information levels from the external inputs to the systems. These ...

  7. Capitalismo, crisis y naturaleza: Un análisis del acaparamiento de tierras dentro y desde el Sur Global

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Sol

    2016-01-01

    El acaparamiento de tierras (land grabbing) refiere al proceso de adquisiciones a gran escala de tierras agrícolas en otros estados, desatado en el contexto de la convergencia de crisis internacionales —alimentaria, energética, financiera y climática— de 2008. Este artículo analiza las razones que convirtieron al acaparamiento de tierras en un fenómeno global, irreductible a la lógica Norte-Sur. Adicionalmente, indaga sus implicaciones sobre la posición internacional y definici...

  8. Summary: beyond fault trees to fault graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alesso, H.P.; Prassinos, P.; Smith, C.F.

    1984-09-01

    Fault Graphs are the natural evolutionary step over a traditional fault-tree model. A Fault Graph is a failure-oriented directed graph with logic connectives that allows cycles. We intentionally construct the Fault Graph to trace the piping and instrumentation drawing (P and ID) of the system, but with logical AND and OR conditions added. Then we evaluate the Fault Graph with computer codes based on graph-theoretic methods. Fault Graph computer codes are based on graph concepts, such as path set (a set of nodes traveled on a path from one node to another) and reachability (the complete set of all possible paths between any two nodes). These codes are used to find the cut-sets (any minimal set of component failures that will fail the system) and to evaluate the system reliability

  9. The architecture of the extremes cultural landscapes in Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Garcés Feliú

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the relevance of applying the notion of extreme cultural landscape to Tierra del Fuego, as a complementary category to those defined by Unesco. It states that in Chile there are anumber of territories at the margins –in the end, along the border– that have been built as landscapes, specifics and concretes, where the exploitation of natural resources has proved profitable and the building of human settlements as been allowed. This is the case of Tierra del Fuego, considered as a landscape and as a resource, according to Gregotti and Sola-Morales, that has been formed by a human process on the geographical support of Tierra del Fuego, and owes its existence to a process that transformed this territory into a product, placed south of the ice fields, southeast of the Strait of Magellan, in the confines of America, between south latitudes 52 and 55 degrees. On the other hand, reading the area in terms of palimpsest, according to Corboz, brings out several layers to form the extreme landscapes in Tierra del Fuego, considering some key issues including: the nomination of Magellan as extreme and special area by Cideze; the geographical context of Tierra del Fuego, as the exceptional finish of Patagonia and the gateway to Antarctica; the important collection of narratives and maps bequeathed by European explorers who recognized it; the rich cultural legacy of the aboriginal sélknam; and the human settlements, which emerged at the late nineteenth century, setting some recognizable and typical landscapes. In this way, we argued that the extreme cultural landscapes in Tierra del Fuego have been formed in the manner of overlapping layers, like a palimpsest, in a construction that transcends the physical territory, to settle in the Western cultural fantasy as an imaginary of that remote boundary.

  10. Fault tree handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haasl, D.F.; Roberts, N.H.; Vesely, W.E.; Goldberg, F.F.

    1981-01-01

    This handbook describes a methodology for reliability analysis of complex systems such as those which comprise the engineered safety features of nuclear power generating stations. After an initial overview of the available system analysis approaches, the handbook focuses on a description of the deductive method known as fault tree analysis. The following aspects of fault tree analysis are covered: basic concepts for fault tree analysis; basic elements of a fault tree; fault tree construction; probability, statistics, and Boolean algebra for the fault tree analyst; qualitative and quantitative fault tree evaluation techniques; and computer codes for fault tree evaluation. Also discussed are several example problems illustrating the basic concepts of fault tree construction and evaluation

  11. Visión de la Concentración de la Tierra en América Latina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Kay (Cristóbal)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractEn este breve artículo presento de manera muy general y esquemática algunos aspectos sobre la concentración de la tierra en América Latina. No pretendo hacer un análisis detallado y completo sobre la problemática de la tierra en la región. Pero espero poder resaltar algunos factores que

  12. Fault Tolerant Feedback Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.

    2001-01-01

    An architecture for fault tolerant feedback controllers based on the Youla parameterization is suggested. It is shown that the Youla parameterization will give a residual vector directly in connection with the fault diagnosis part of the fault tolerant feedback controller. It turns out...... that there is a separation be-tween the feedback controller and the fault tolerant part. The closed loop feedback properties are handled by the nominal feedback controller and the fault tolerant part is handled by the design of the Youla parameter. The design of the fault tolerant part will not affect the design...... of the nominal feedback con-troller....

  13. Desplazamiento forzado y propiedad de la tierra en Antioquia, 1996-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Felipe Gaviria

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El desplazamiento forzoso es un fenómeno mundial que ha acompañado crisis políticas y sociales, relacionado, además, con el dominio del territorio por parte de los grupos inmersos en el conflicto. En Colombia, este fenómeno social se ha incrementado en los últimos años, junto con problemas agrarios, sociales y productivos. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar la relación existente entre el desplazamiento forzado y los procesos de concentración de la tierra en Antioquia entre 1996-2004. Se encuentra que existe una relación positiva entre propiedad de la tierra y desplazamiento forzado; en especial en Urabá y Oriente, subregiones antioqueñas con la producción agrícola más importante.

  14. Efecto de la impermeabilidad del Mucílago de Nopal en bloques de tierra comprimidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Guadalupe Aranda Jiménez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La arquitectura de tierra1 es conocida desde hace siglos, sin embargo, actualmente es poco utilizada comparado con los sistemas constructivos comunes. Los bloques de tierra comprimido (BTC son elementos constructivos con un potencial elevado para ser utilizado en las construcciones de vivienda en México, principalmente por su similitud con los bloques tradicionales, siendo conveniente mejorar sus características a partir de un estabilizante. Se realizó el estudio de BTC estabilizados con cemento y una sustancia proveniente de las pencas maduras de nopal. Se encontró que al añadir mucílago de nopal se observa un incremento significativo de la resistencia a la compresión húmeda y seca, lo cual estar relacionado con una disminución de la porosidad; se ofrecen algunas relaciones del efecto del mucílago en el sólido analizado.

  15. Design of earth network in electric substations; Diseno de redes de tierra en subestaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raull-Martin, J. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a summarized version of the different types of construction of grounding systems, as web as their materials and formulas, which are necessary and useful for the design and building of a grounding network for medium to high voltage facilities. A description is also made of how to determine the electrical resistivity of subsoil layers with different physical characteristics. Several illustrative examples are also solved in the paper. [Spanish] El proposito de este articulo es presentar de manera resumida los diferentes tipos de construccion de los sistemas de tierra, asi como sus materiales y formulas, los cuales son necesarios y utiles para el diseno y edificacion de una red de tierra para instalaciones de mediana y alta tension. Se describe tambien la obtencion de las diferentes resistividades que presentan los terrenos con diversas caracteristicas fisicas. Asi mismo, se solucionan ejercicios ilustrativos a lo largo del articulo.

  16. Cultural Tourism In Fragile Institutional Contexts Project For Cultural Routes In Tierra Del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Garcés Feliú

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The following paper presents a project of Cultural Routes designed for the Chilean Tierra del Fuego, linked to promoting tourism and boosting the economy, through the development of a specific high standard tourism offer, linked to its natural and cultural heritage, with the purpose of capturing the potential income generation for Chile. The project had as main goal to enhance the competitiveness of the tourism sector of special interests in Tierra del Fuego, a key sector of Southern Patagonia, through the dissemination and transfer of technologies and knowledge, acquired in over 10 years of research and projects, onto the territory and local agents. These Cultural Routes build an innovative offer, capable of structuring the diverse touristic resources and strengthening the basis for the development of a new stage of national and international tourism market, located on the southern extreme of Chile and America.

  17. Arquitectura de tierra -histórica y moderna- en Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galdieri, Eugenio

    1986-02-01

    Full Text Available This work about the history of mud constructions in Italy -both of brick and formwork- gives an exposition of geographical zones where those are located, the kind of uses so as their possible historic origins, among which the author points the strong connections with Spanish adobe constructions, both in Cagliars (Aragonese influence and in Oristano (Castilian influence.El trabajo de carácter histórico sobre las construcciones con tierra en Italia, tanto de adobe como de tapial presenta una panorámica de las zonas geográficas en las que se encuentran enclavadas, así como el tipo de usos y posibles orígenes históricos, entre los que el autor señala los fuertes vínculos con las construcciones de tierra españolas, tanto en Cagliaria (influencia aragonesa como en Oristano (influencia castellana.

  18. Bryophyte diversity patterns in flooded and tierra firme forests in the Araracuara Region, Colombian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Benavides, Juan C.; Idarraga, Alvaro; Alvarez, Esteban

    2004-01-01

    We investigated patterns of bryophyte species richness and composition in two forest types of Colombian Amazonia, non-flooded tierra firme forest and floodplain forest of the Caquetá River. A total of 109 bryophyte species were recorded from 14 0.2 ha plots. Bryophyte life forms and habitats were analyzed, including the canopy and epiphylls. Bryophyte species did not show significant differences between landscapes but mosses and liverworts were different and with opposite responses balancing ...

  19. La adecuación de tierras en el departamento de Antioquia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arango T. Julio César

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Los programas estatales de adecuación de tierras en Colombia comenzaron a partir de la década del 50, durante la cual se emprendió la construcción de infraestructuras básicas para el riego, el drenaje y el control de inundaciones. Las inversiones efectuadas por distintas entidades que en el país han tenido que ver con el Sector de la Adecuación de Tierras han sido cuantiosas y con ellas, se beneficiaron durante muchos años, los agricultores situados en distintas zonas planas de los departamentos del Tolima, Boyacá, Magdalena, Valle del Cauca entre otros. Antioquia durante este mismo tiempo, no se favoreció de esos recursos, por la carencia de políticas estatales en el Sector de la Adecuación de Tierras, solamente a partir de 1983, con el montaje por parte del HIMAT del Programa Nacional de Pequeña Irrigación, comienzan a solucionarse los problemas de manejo del agua para el riego de los cultivos en distintas veredas de Antioquia. Hoy se dispone de 29 distritos de riego en pequeña escala, los cuales corresponden a una superficie total de 3.759 ha, en las cuales, se benefician 1.510 familias campesinas.

  20. Design of fault simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabbar, Hossam A. [Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), Ontario, L1H 7K4 (Canada)], E-mail: hossam.gabbar@uoit.ca; Sayed, Hanaa E.; Osunleke, Ajiboye S. [Okayama University, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Division of Industrial Innovation Sciences Department of Intelligent Systems Engineering, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Masanobu, Hara [AspenTech Japan Co., Ltd., Kojimachi Crystal City 10F, Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan)

    2009-08-15

    Fault simulator is proposed to understand and evaluate all possible fault propagation scenarios, which is an essential part of safety design and operation design and support of chemical/production processes. Process models are constructed and integrated with fault models, which are formulated in qualitative manner using fault semantic networks (FSN). Trend analysis techniques are used to map real time and simulation quantitative data into qualitative fault models for better decision support and tuning of FSN. The design of the proposed fault simulator is described and applied on experimental plant (G-Plant) to diagnose several fault scenarios. The proposed fault simulator will enable industrial plants to specify and validate safety requirements as part of safety system design as well as to support recovery and shutdown operation and disaster management.

  1. Iowa Bedrock Faults

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This fault coverage locates and identifies all currently known/interpreted fault zones in Iowa, that demonstrate offset of geologic units in exposure or subsurface...

  2. Layered Fault Management Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sztipanovits, Janos

    2004-01-01

    ... UAVs or Organic Air Vehicles. The approach of this effort was to analyze fault management requirements of formation flight for fleets of UAVs, and develop a layered fault management architecture which demonstrates significant...

  3. Fault detection and isolation in systems with parametric faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1999-01-01

    The problem of fault detection and isolation of parametric faults is considered in this paper. A fault detection problem based on parametric faults are associated with internal parameter variations in the dynamical system. A fault detection and isolation method for parametric faults is formulated...

  4. Fault tolerant computing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randell, B.

    1981-01-01

    Fault tolerance involves the provision of strategies for error detection damage assessment, fault treatment and error recovery. A survey is given of the different sorts of strategies used in highly reliable computing systems, together with an outline of recent research on the problems of providing fault tolerance in parallel and distributed computing systems. (orig.)

  5. Fault zone hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bense, V. F.; Gleeson, T.; Loveless, S. E.; Bour, O.; Scibek, J.

    2013-12-01

    Deformation along faults in the shallow crust (research effort of structural geologists and hydrogeologists. However, we find that these disciplines often use different methods with little interaction between them. In this review, we document the current multi-disciplinary understanding of fault zone hydrogeology. We discuss surface- and subsurface observations from diverse rock types from unlithified and lithified clastic sediments through to carbonate, crystalline, and volcanic rocks. For each rock type, we evaluate geological deformation mechanisms, hydrogeologic observations and conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Outcrop observations indicate that fault zones commonly have a permeability structure suggesting they should act as complex conduit-barrier systems in which along-fault flow is encouraged and across-fault flow is impeded. Hydrogeological observations of fault zones reported in the literature show a broad qualitative agreement with outcrop-based conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Nevertheless, the specific impact of a particular fault permeability structure on fault zone hydrogeology can only be assessed when the hydrogeological context of the fault zone is considered and not from outcrop observations alone. To gain a more integrated, comprehensive understanding of fault zone hydrogeology, we foresee numerous synergistic opportunities and challenges for the discipline of structural geology and hydrogeology to co-evolve and address remaining challenges by co-locating study areas, sharing approaches and fusing data, developing conceptual models from hydrogeologic data, numerical modeling, and training interdisciplinary scientists.

  6. Performance based fault diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Different aspects of fault detection and fault isolation in closed-loop systems are considered. It is shown that using the standard setup known from feedback control, it is possible to formulate fault diagnosis problems based on a performance index in this general standard setup. It is also shown...

  7. Características y Problemas de Tenencia de la Tierra en el Sector Agropecuario Colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobón Restrepo Arturo

    1964-12-01

    Full Text Available El término “Tenencia” es bastante amplio, pues relaciona la posesión física de un bien sin importar la legitimidad en el dominio de él. En cuanto a la posesión nuestro Código Civil (3 estipula: "La posesión es la tenencia de una cosa determinada con ánimo de señor o dueño, sea que el dueño o el que se la da por tal tenga la cosa por sí misma, o por otra persona que la tenga en lugar y a nombre de él". Para nuestro fin concretemos únicamente en el aspecto de la tierra. El presente estudio se encauza hacia la economía agrícola y la administración rural, más que al aspecto jurídico de la tenencia de la tierra Es bien sabido que en el sistema económico cada factor de producción encierra numerosas especificaciones, además el uso de uno de ellos .implica la combinación en el uso de los demás. Es por ello que al hablar de solución a un problema no se debe decir que se llegue a salvar los obstáculos que impiden el desarrollo económico en el panorama nacional ya que la tenencia de la tierra es un rubro dentro de los muchos con que cuenta el factor tierra. Es claro, que no podría separarse por completo el concepto de tenencia de la tierra de las demás circunstancias de carácter económico en todos sus aspectos; pero las consideraciones que se harán en el transcurso del presente trabajo serán tomadas con cierta tendencia individualista hacia el tema en mención.

  8. TECNOLOGÍAS DE TRATAMIENTO PARA LA TIERRA FULLER CONTAMINADA CON ACEITE DIELÉCTRICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Darío Beltrán Pérez

    Full Text Available Desde hace algunos años en Colombia se vienen implementando convenios y normas para el adecuado manejo y disposición final de los residuos peligrosos, debido a que la cantidad generada cada vez va en aumento y al impacto adverso que estos residuos presentan en el ser humano y el medio ambiente. La tierra Fuller es un material inorgánico adsorbente (mineral de aluminosilicatos principalmente, utilizado en la industria eléctrica para la regeneración del aceite dieléctrico, un derivado del petróleo empleado como aislante eléctrico y térmico en los transformadores de potencia. Después del proceso de regeneración del aceite, el contenido de hidrocarburos del tipo poliaromáticos (o los PAH por sus siglas en inglés que presenta la tierra Fuller la convierten en un residuo peligroso que requiere de un adecuado tratamiento, para que reduzca su contaminación y permita su reutilización o segura disposición final en un relleno sanitario. Por esto, en este artículo se revisan las tecnologías disponibles para el tratamiento de este tipo de residuo peligroso (tierra Fuller contaminada con aceite dieléctrico, dividiendo los tratamientos en dos corrientes, las tecnologías fisicoquímicas y las biológicas, explorando las alternativas más apropiadas y eficientes para su tratamiento. La escasa información acerca de los tratamientos existentes para la tierra Fuller contaminada con aceite dieléctrico han orientado la revisión en términos de las tecnologías implementadas en suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos siendo válida la analogía debido a las similares características físicas que presenta la tierra Fuller con respecto a un suelo de bajo contenido de carbono.

  9. Abundancia y Biomasa de Lombrices de Tierra en dos Ecosistemas Intervenidos del Bosque Trópica l Húmedo, Bluefields Las lombrices de tierra son el intestino de la tierra Gilbert White, 1789.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Luna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Muchos estudios han demostrado que las lombrices de tierra (Anelidae son el componente más abundante de la macrofauna del suelo y desempeñan funciones ecológicas dentro de él.El objetivo fue evaluar la abundancia y biomasa de lombrices de tierra en dos hábitats del bosque tropical húmedo con diferentes usos de suelo en la ciudad de Bluefields, Región Autónoma Atlántico Sur (RAAS. En cada hábitat se seleccionaron dos micro-hábitats: uno con sombra y otro sin sombra y en cada uno se delimitaron tres subparcelas de 1pie2 cada una, y una profundidad de 10 cm, ubicadas al azar y a una distancia mínima de 15 m entre sí.Cada muestra de suelo se tamizó y se extrajeron, se midieron y se pesaron los individuos por subparcela. El número de lombrices registradas fue mayor en el hábitat de área reforestada que en el hábitat de bosque, pero ocurrió lo contrario con respecto al tamaño promedio de los individuos.La mayor disponibilidad de materia orgánica en el bosque puede explicar el mayor tamaño de los individuos en este sitio.En aquellos suelos que han sufrido alteraciones antrópicas, como en el campus universitario, las comunidades de lombrices han experimentado cambios extremos denotando así una mala salud; sin embargo, estas comunidades se están recuperando, especialmente en los microhabitats con sombra.

  10. La función económica social: un medio para el acceso y conservación de la tenencia de la tierra en Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Bejarano Torrejón, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    La tenencia de la tierra constituye un factor importante en la estructura productiva y de desarrollo de los Estados, por cuanto el equilibrio entre las fuerzas productivas denominadas tierra y hombre constituyen la base para un desarrollo armónico del área rural lo cual impacta también en el desarrollo del mismo Estado; así la tenencia de la tierra es la relación entre la cantidad de tierra existente en un determinado Estado y su población, mediando su ocupación o posesión. El principio ag...

  11. Epidemiología de las lesiones por mordedura de perro en Tierra del Fuego, Argentina Epidemiology of dog bite lesions in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Zanini

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available La convivencia del hombre y el perro ha resultado en beneficios mutuos durante miles de años, si bien en el último tiempo han surgido una serie de inconvenientes donde las lesiones por mordeduras ocupan un lugar destacado. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue describir las características epidemiológicas de las lesiones por mordedura de perro ocurridas a lo largo de un año en Tierra del Fuego. Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo, transversal, de los pacientes que ingresaron con lesiones por mordedura de perro al Servicio de Guardia Clínica y Pediátrica de los Hospitales y Centros de Salud desde el 1/3/05 hasta el 1/3/06. Se confeccionaron 382 planillas. El 49.5% fueron niños resultando más afectado el grupo de 5-9 años (44.4%; IC95% 37.2-51.8. En adultos correspondió al grupo de 15-24 años (29.5%; IC95% 23.2-36.5. Se registraron más lesiones en varones (57.6% que en mujeres (42.4% (x² = 8.6, p= 0.003. En los meses primavera y verano se registró el 56.5% de las lesiones, en la vía pública el 72.8% de ellas. Los perros de tamaño grande causaron el 49.7% (IC95% 44.6-54.9 de las lesiones. El 89.8% de los ataques fueron causados por perros ajenos. El 55.8% (IC95% 50.6-60.8 se registró en miembros inferiores y el 11% (IC95% 8.1-14.7 en cabeza y cuello. Los datos obtenidos demuestran que en Tierra del Fuego las lesiones por mordedura de perro afectan en forma permanente la salud e impactan en la calidad de vida de la población.The coexistence between man and dog has resulted in mutual benefits during thousands of years, nevertheless some problems have recently arisen where bite injuries have an important role. The aim of this work was to describe the epidemiological characteristics of dog bite lesions which occurred during a year in Tierra del Fuego. A descriptive observational, transversal study of patients who were admitted with dog bite injuries to clinic and pediatric emergency services of hospitals and health

  12. Habitar en Tierras Secas: La Tierra Cruda como vehículo de habitabilidad en el territorio no irrigado del norte de la Provincia de Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Miranda Gassull

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El territorio no irrigado del norte de la provincia de Mendoza es un vasto espacio sin acceso al bien hídrico, donde habita dispersa una población campesina de identidad originaria Huarpe. Habitar en este territorio ha sido desde hace siglos un desafío tanto al clima/ambiente como a condiciones sociopolíticas. Por lo tanto, el hábitat en tierras secas presenta particulares características respecto a su forma de gestión (autónoma, a su adaptación al ambiente y al uso de la técnica constructiva con tierra cruda: adobe. El objetivo a desarrollar aquí se sustenta en el uso actual del adobe, concebido como un vehículo que facilita la autoconstrucción y autoproducción de soluciones habitacionales en poblaciones desposeídas, ajustando su vivienda a las implicancias de un territorio árido y a un largo proceso de vulnerabilidad de derechos. Este artículo aproxima los primeros resultados de los relevamientos realizados sobre la técnica constructiva del adobe (a través de técnicas cuantitativas: encuesta y muestras in situ y las características propias del hábitat social de la población originaria Huarpe, a partir de la técnica de la observación participante.

  13. Fault tolerant control for uncertain systems with parametric faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2006-01-01

    A fault tolerant control (FTC) architecture based on active fault diagnosis (AFD) and the YJBK (Youla, Jarb, Bongiorno and Kucera)parameterization is applied in this paper. Based on the FTC architecture, fault tolerant control of uncertain systems with slowly varying parametric faults...... is investigated. Conditions are given for closed-loop stability in case of false alarms or missing fault detection/isolation....

  14. Mapa de usos potenciales de la tierra de Galicia. Una perspectiva arqueológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Currás Refojos, Brais X.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A digital version of the map of potential land use of Galicia is here presented, adapted to a reclassification of three types of potential land use, established using historical criteria. An analytical procedure is developed to select the land-types and the system used for their digitalisation. In the final part the map is used to critically revise the possibilities of using this record for territorial characterisation in archaeological research.La cartografía de usos potenciales de la tierra es una herramienta de gran utilidad en el estudio de las formas de poblamiento y su relación con la explotación de los recursos agrícolas desde el enfoque de la arqueología del paisaje. La digitalización de esta información permite su aplicación sistemática en el análisis del territorio mediante SIG. En este trabajo se presenta el Mapa de usos potenciales de la tierra de Galicia, reclasificado en tres tipos establecidos en función de criterios históricos. Se muestra el procedimiento analítico desarrollado para la selección y clasificación de los tipos de tierra y su sistema de digitalización. Se examina la validez de esta fuente para la investigación arqueológica de las formas agrícolas en la antigu.edad desde el punto de vista del análisis del territorio y se ofrece una visión crítica sobre sus ventajas y limitaciones.

  15. [Tierra del Fuego: the scientific-political construction of exclusion and counter-image of the ideal city dweller].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacach, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Due to its late incorporation into the national State, the social, economic and political setting of the Argentine province Tierra del Fuego differed from that of the rest of the national territory. In the construction of dependent otherness, objectifications and representations were imposed by state-related and non-state-related institutions, among other agencies. In this context, the Salesian mission of La Candelaria and Ushuaia's Jail for recidivists stand out as spaces in which biopolitics was concretised. The native population and criminals in Tierra del Fuego were those to be subjugated. The thesis of the extinction of the Indian and the simultaneous exaltation of the criminal as the subject of progress identified the scientific and political mechanisms by which the exclusion of certain social groups (Tierra del Fuego's indigenous population) and the inclusion of others (criminals) were regulated.

  16. Las normativas de construcción con tierra en el mundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cid, J.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, earth has been used as a construction material. Nevertheless, the normative in this matter is very scattered, and in the most developed countries, carrying out a construction with this material implies a variety of technical and legal problems. This article analyzes, in an international level, the normative panorama about constructions with earth, analyzing fifty five standards and regulations of countries all around the five continents; these represent the state of art that normalizes the earth as a construction material. It is a study indexed on the actual procedures and regulations developed by the national organisms of normalization or correspondent authorities. The standards and the organisms that produce them appear, analyzing the structure and the content of each one. We have studied and analyzed the most relevant aspects, such as stabilization, soil selections, the requisites of the products and the existent test, comparing the diverse normative. The knowledge from this study could be very useful for the development of future standards and as a reference for architects and engineers that work with earth.

    La tierra ha sido utilizada como material de construcción desde hace siglos. No obstante, la normativa al respecto está muy dispersa, y en la mayoría de países desarrollados surgen numerosos problemas técnicos y legales para llevar a cabo una construcción con este material. Este artículo estudia el panorama normativo para las construcciones con tierra cruda a nivel internacional, analizando cincuenta y cinco normas y reglamentos de países repartidos por los cinco continentes, que representan el estado del arte de la normalización de la tierra cruda como material de construcción. Es un estudio referenciado sobre las normas y reglamentos vigentes desarrollados por los organismos nacionales de normalización o autoridades correspondientes. Se presentan las normativas y los organismos que las emiten

  17. Modelo de levantamiento de informacion fisica catastral para el Instituto Nacional de Tierras, oficina regional Trujillo

    OpenAIRE

    Castellanos, Víctor

    2011-01-01

    Se identificó la metodología utilizada para el catastro físico de los Asentamientos Campesinos del Estado Trujillo, durante la vigencia del Instituto Agrario Nacional, y la existente actualmente con el Instituto Nacional de Tierras, Ofi cina Regional Trujillo. La evaluación de esta información determinó la propuesta de un modelo de levantamiento con fi nes de densifi cación de redes geodésicas utilizando tecnología satelital GPS, que facilite la actualización catastral de los pred...

  18. La industria textil en Tierra de Campos afines de la Edad Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipólito Rafael OLIVA HERRER

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El presente articulo trata de analizar el desarrollo de la industria textil rural en la región de Tierra de Campos, en torno al tradicional centro de producción textil de Palencia, a fines del XV y comienzos del XVI. La producción en el entorno rural conoció un amplio desarrollo basado en la producción de paños de calidad media-baja destinados al consumo interno, y dio lugar a formas organizativas complejas que se constituyeron en una alternativa frente al sistema gremial imperante en la urbe palentina, implicando intereses de un amplio espectro de grupos sociales.ABSTRACT: The present article aims to analyze the spreading of the rural textile industry in the region of Tierra de Campos in the late fifteenth and the early sixteenth centuries, around the traditional productive centre of Palencia. Here rural clothing experienced an important development based on the production of low and medium quality cloth under a putting-out system directed to interregional trade. The interests around rural industry involved a wide range of social groups, giving rise to complex organization forms and arising as an alternative to the traditional gudd stmcture.

  19. Ecohydrological features of some contrasting mires in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grootjans

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In November 2005, Tierra del Fuego (Argentina hosted the biennial conference and field excursion of the International Mire Conservation Group (IMCG. The group considered the vegetation, hydrology, peat stratigraphy and possible management options for about 20 mires which were visited during a seven-day excursion. We report here some field observations and measurements of electrical conductivity (EC25 in five mires which have been selected to encompass the most important ecohydrological features of the mires of Tierra del Fuego. Existing and new data on landscape topography and vegetation were combined in three-dimensional drawings. These drawings are actually conceptual models which could underpin further ecohydrological research, and proved to be very useful as a basis for discussions amongst conference participants about possible ecohydrological relationships. The mires that were studied developed under a wide range of climatic conditions and included fens and bogs. The bogs typically developed from lakes or fens and most are now dominated by Sphagnum magellanicum. This species forms large hummocks, and can invade weakly-buffered fens. Most of the mires were well preserved, but effects of human impact - such as road building and peat extraction - were also noticeable.

  20. State of knowledge of the Corallinales (Rhodophyta of Tierra del Fuego and the Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Mendoza

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Corallinales (Rhodophyta in Tierra del Fuego are abundant, with 9 genera, 17 species and 1 subspecies. Pseudolithophyllum with 1 species (P. fueguianum, which represents 35.8% of the coralline algae, is dominant. The genera Parahydrolithon with 4 species (P. consociatum, P. discoideum, P. falklandicum, P. subantarcticum and 20%, Lithothamnion with 3 species (Lt. heterocladum, Lt. rugosum, Lt. granuliferum and 17.5%, and Synarthrophyton with 3 species (S. neglectum, S. patena, S. schmitzii and 12% share are abundant. Clathromorphum with 4 species (Cl. annulatum, Cl. lemoineanum, Cl. obtectulum, Cl. Variabile and a share of 5.8%, and Mesophyllum with 1 species (M. fueguianum and a share of 4.9% are frequent. The remaining three genera, Bossiella with 1 subspecies (B. orbigniana ssp. orbigniana, Corallina with 2 species (C. elongata, C. officinalis (1.1%, and Titanoderna with 1 species (T. conspectum (1% are scarce. C. officinalis is a cosmopolitan, and the other geniculate corallines are found in both hemispheres, whereas the crustose coralline occur only in the southern hemisphere. The characteristic vertical distribution of the species in the intertidal and subtidal zone of Tierra del Fuego is given. The Corallinales in the Antarctic Region are poorly known and need further investigation.

  1. Fault tree graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, L.; Wynholds, H.W.; Porterfield, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    Described is an operational system that enables the user, through an intelligent graphics terminal, to construct, modify, analyze, and store fault trees. With this system, complex engineering designs can be analyzed. This paper discusses the system and its capabilities. Included is a brief discussion of fault tree analysis, which represents an aspect of reliability and safety modeling

  2. How do normal faults grow?

    OpenAIRE

    Blækkan, Ingvild; Bell, Rebecca; Rotevatn, Atle; Jackson, Christopher; Tvedt, Anette

    2018-01-01

    Faults grow via a sympathetic increase in their displacement and length (isolated fault model), or by rapid length establishment and subsequent displacement accrual (constant-length fault model). To test the significance and applicability of these two models, we use time-series displacement (D) and length (L) data extracted for faults from nature and experiments. We document a range of fault behaviours, from sympathetic D-L fault growth (isolated growth) to sub-vertical D-L growth trajectorie...

  3. Characterization of leaky faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Chao.

    1990-05-01

    Leaky faults provide a flow path for fluids to move underground. It is very important to characterize such faults in various engineering projects. The purpose of this work is to develop mathematical solutions for this characterization. The flow of water in an aquifer system and the flow of air in the unsaturated fault-rock system were studied. If the leaky fault cuts through two aquifers, characterization of the fault can be achieved by pumping water from one of the aquifers, which are assumed to be horizontal and of uniform thickness. Analytical solutions have been developed for two cases of either a negligibly small or a significantly large drawdown in the unpumped aquifer. Some practical methods for using these solutions are presented. 45 refs., 72 figs., 11 tabs

  4. Solar system fault detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr.

    1984-05-14

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  5. Analysis, simulation and control of electromagnetic transients in gas insulated substations in SF6 by means of grounding grid; Analisis, simulacion y control de transitorios electromagneticos en subestaciones aisladas en SF6 por medio de redes de tierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Martinez, Gaston

    2007-12-15

    The use of SF6 substations is actually an extensive practice in industrial countries. Some of they replace conventional air substations and the others are new designs in the range of 34.5 kV to 1000 kV. During the switching events in a GIS substation, very fast transients overvoltage may appear and originate faults, malfunctions in the electronic and control equipment, besides the risk by electrical discharge in the personnel who are working in the substation. These overvoltage are produced by the collapse of the electric field on GIS terminals during switching events originating Very Fast Transient Overvoltage (VFTO) and the increase of the Transient Enclosure Voltage (TEV). This investigation is focused on diminishing the magnitude of the VFTO and TEV by designing and redesigning grounding grids for gas insulated substations in SF6. The objective of this work is to design a grounding grid for an air substation and redesign it for a GIS substation. The computer simulation uses a detailed model of the substation in SF6 interconnected with an aerial grounding grid and by adding methodologically grounding rods, the VFTO and TEV within the GIS are reduced. The results of the computer simulation show that the designed grounding grid allows considerably diminishing the magnitude of the VFTO; nevertheless this design doesn't appropriately attenuate the TEV magnitude. [Spanish] Hoy en dia, el uso de subestaciones GIS se ha generalizado. Algunas reemplazan a las subestaciones aereas y otras son de nueva creacion y se instalan en tensiones de 34.5kV hasta 1000 kV. Durante las operaciones de maniobra de la subestacion GIS, se presentan sobretensiones transitorias ultra rapidas que pueden dar origen a diversas fallas, a un malfuncionamiento del equipo electronico y de control asi como el riesgo por descarga electrica al personal que labora en la subestacion. Estas sobretensiones se producen debido al colapso del campo electrico en terminales del interruptor ante

  6. Taenia saginata Goeze, 1872 (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda: Taeniidae en un indígena de Tierra del Fuego, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo I. Faúndez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Se entrega el primer registro del céstodo Taenia saginata en un indígena de Tierra del Fuego (Patagonia chilena, correspondiente al año 1902. Se discute la importancia del registro y se entregan ilustraciones del ejemplar.

  7. Modelo matemático para la descripción de la transferencia de calor para tierra vertida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Jonathan Suárez-Domínguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La arquitectura de tierra implica procesos constructivos sustentables ya que utiliza materiales vernáculos duraderos cuyos residuos son de bajo impacto al ambiente. La tierra vertida es una técnica a partir de la cual pueden tenerse muros resistentes dentro de la edificación de viviendas pero cuyas propiedades han sido poco evaluadas y representadas a partir de modelos. La transferencia de calor es una de las características más importantes cuando se edifica en zonas calurosas pues implica ciertos niveles de confort para los usuarios. El presente trabajo propone un modelo para determinar la difusividad térmica de tierra vertida con uso potencial para otras determinaciones a diversas temperaturas, algunas implicaciones también son presentadas. Se encontró que el coeficiente de difusividad térmica de muestras de tierra vertida fue de   4.319  10 8 m 2 s 1 , mientras que su calor específico es de 1.1030 kJkg-1K 1 .

  8. Familia nuclear y jefatura del hogar: acceso a la mujer a la tierra en las reformas agrarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena León

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available En este texto se analizan las consecuencias que la neutralidad de género ha dejado para la política pública, en el caso específico de las reformas agrarias y acceso de la mujer a la tierra en América Latina.

  9. Fault Management Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stephen B.; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Haste, Deepak; Moore, Craig

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the theory and considerations in the application of metrics to measure the effectiveness of fault management. Fault management refers here to the operational aspect of system health management, and as such is considered as a meta-control loop that operates to preserve or maximize the system's ability to achieve its goals in the face of current or prospective failure. As a suite of control loops, the metrics to estimate and measure the effectiveness of fault management are similar to those of classical control loops in being divided into two major classes: state estimation, and state control. State estimation metrics can be classified into lower-level subdivisions for detection coverage, detection effectiveness, fault isolation and fault identification (diagnostics), and failure prognosis. State control metrics can be classified into response determination effectiveness and response effectiveness. These metrics are applied to each and every fault management control loop in the system, for each failure to which they apply, and probabilistically summed to determine the effectiveness of these fault management control loops to preserve the relevant system goals that they are intended to protect.

  10. Fault isolability conditions for linear systems with additive faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we shall show that an unlimited number of additive single faults can be isolated under mild conditions if a general isolation scheme is applied. Multiple faults are also covered. The approach is algebraic and is based on a set representation of faults, where all faults within a set...

  11. Fault Analysis in Cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Joye, Marc

    2012-01-01

    In the 1970s researchers noticed that radioactive particles produced by elements naturally present in packaging material could cause bits to flip in sensitive areas of electronic chips. Research into the effect of cosmic rays on semiconductors, an area of particular interest in the aerospace industry, led to methods of hardening electronic devices designed for harsh environments. Ultimately various mechanisms for fault creation and propagation were discovered, and in particular it was noted that many cryptographic algorithms succumb to so-called fault attacks. Preventing fault attacks without

  12. La tierra en armas de Dávalos-Serrano (o las armas del teatro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Beatriz Sosa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La tierra en armas (1926 constituye un texto enigmático por diversas cuestiones, a pesar de su celebridad –es la obra teatral más famosa de la literatura salteña- y de su aparente transparencia al representar hechos históricos relativos a la gesta de Güemes. El primer enigma es el problema de la autoría, ya que La tierra en armas surge de la escritura en colaboración de Juan Carlos Dávalos y Ramón Serrano, pero en el momento de publicación del texto (1935 aparecerá en la portada sólo el nombre de Dávalos. El gesto editorial de borrar el nombre del segundo autor en esa primera publicación es decisivo para el futuro teatral de Serrano, quien desaparece posteriormente de la escena salteña. La segunda cuestión deriva de la categoría de teatro histórico a la cual pertenece La tierra en armas La ficcionalización de un personaje histórico implica plantear las complejas relaciones que se establecen entre discurso dramático y discurso histórico. Luego de trazar someramente la trayectoria épica de Güemes, se realiza una descripción de la acción dramática y de los fundamentales procedimientos discursivos, como el encadenamiento entre la intriga principal (histórica y la secundaria (sentimental, la mise en abyme de la leyenda de la flor del Ilolay y la visualización escénica del texto. La tercera cuestión incluye el contexto de producción, circulación y recepción del teatro de la época, así como el nivel ideológico, sin los cuales sería imposible postular una interpretación del texto de Dávalos y Serrano como estrategia individual y colectiva de afianzamiento de la identidad.

  13. Respuesta transitoria de las puestas a tierra en la protección contra rayos. Software GTIERRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor David Gómez Montoya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se usa un programa computacional desarrollado en Matlab (GTIERRAS que implementa un modelo de base electromagnética, para determinar la impedancia de puesta a tierra de configuraciones arbitrarias y su comportamiento ante excitaciones tipo impulso. Impedancia, corrientes y voltajes, u otras variables eléctricas de sistemas de puesta a tierra se pueden presentar en el dominio de la frecuencia o del tiempo usando la transformada rápida de Fourier. La base general del modelo considerado se usa para valorar no sólo sobretensiones por descargas atmosféricas, sino también, otros transitorios típicos asociados con problemas de compatibilidad electromagnética. Los resultados muestran la influencia de algunas variables en la respuesta del sistema de puesta a tierra y revelan algunas diferencias que se deben tener en cuenta cuando se aplican criterios basados en el desempeño a baja frecuencia, para esfuerzos impulsivos de puestas a tierra. Adicionalmente, se presentan ejemplos de cálculo y comparaciones con resultados de otros autores para ilustrar algunos comportamientos que de ninguna manera son evidentes. Se investiga además, el efecto de la geometría de los electrodos y la resistividad del suelo, así como del frente de onda y el número de puntos de inyección. También se presentan resultados de tensiones de contacto y de paso, así como, el estudio de un sistema de protección contra rayos como ampliación de las aplicaciones del modelo. Finalmente, se derivan algunas conclusiones útiles para el diseño de sistemas de puesta a tierra.

  14. Fault tolerant control based on active fault diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2005-01-01

    An active fault diagnosis (AFD) method will be considered in this paper in connection with a Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) architecture based on the YJBK parameterization of all stabilizing controllers. The architecture consists of a fault diagnosis (FD) part and a controller reconfiguration (CR......) part. The FTC architecture can be applied for additive faults, parametric faults, and for system structural changes. Only parametric faults will be considered in this paper. The main focus in this paper is on the use of the new approach of active fault diagnosis in connection with FTC. The active fault...... diagnosis approach is based on including an auxiliary input in the system. A fault signature matrix is introduced in connection with AFD, given as the transfer function from the auxiliary input to the residual output. This can be considered as a generalization of the passive fault diagnosis case, where...

  15. Quaternary Fault Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This data set contains locations and information on faults and associated folds in the United States that are believed to be sources of M>6 earthquakes during the...

  16. RIESGOS CLIMÁTICOS EN LAS TIERRAS VALENCIANAS. INCIDENCIA EN LA ACTIVIDAD AGRARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Olcina Cantos

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available La actividad agraria es el sector económico que, con mayor frecuencia, sufre los efectos de episodios atmosféricos excepcionales que ocasionan graves pérdi- das de cosecha y daños en campos de cultivo e infraestructura agraria (caminos, redes de riego. El campo valenciano no es ajeno a estos eventos, por lo demás condignos a sus condiciones climáticas (lluvias torrenciales, heladas, tormentas de granizo, temporales de viento y sequías, que precisan estudio de causas, consecuencias económicas y localización territorial de sectores de riesgo, para la posterior propuesta de medidas de actuación. La relación de prácticas de defensa puestas en práctica en tierras valencianas ante estos sucesos atmosféri- cos completa el presente estudio.

  17. El regreso de los judíos hispanos a Tierra Santa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Cantera Montenegro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Tras un breve análisis acerca del lugar que la ciudad de Jerusalén y la Tierra Prometida ocupan en el judaismo y en la conciencia colectiva del pueblo judío, y del papel que la Ciudad Santa desempeña como meta de los peregrinos judíos, se estudian los movimientos de migración de los judíos hispanos hacia Palestina, a lo largo de la Edad Media y hasta el siglo XVII.After a brief analysis about the importance of Jerusalem and the Promised Land in the Judaism and in the collective consciousness of the Jewish people, and the role played by the Holy City as a destination for the Jewish pilgrims, the migration movements of the Spanish Jewish to Palestine are studied, along the Middle Ages, until the 17th century.

  18. Substations grounding systems design; Diseno de sistemas de conexion a tierra en subestaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez Sanchez, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    The grounding systems have been the object of a great number of analytical and experimental studies in the past 15 years, that have given rise to research reports on the several aspects involved in this technique. In this work are briefly reviewed various aspects that is necessary to take into account for its design, analysis and put in operation. [Espanol] Los sistemas de conexion a tierra han sido objeto de gran cantidad de estudios analiticos y experimentales en los pasados quince anos, que han dado origen a informes de investigacion sobre los diversos aspectos que involucra esta tecnica. En este trabajo se revisan brevemente diversos aspectos que es necesario considerar para su diseno, analisis y puesta en operacion.

  19. Soil-water retention curve and beginning of monitoring in Tierra Blanca Joven (TBJ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, Jose; Lopez, Reynaldo; Kopecky, Lubomir; Landaverde, Jose

    2013-01-01

    The areas covered by the volcanic tephras Tierra Blanca Joven (TBJ) in El Salvador, was suffered mass movements, liquefaction and erosion during the rainy season or when major earthquakes occur, causing important environmental, social and economic losses. A pressure plate, centrifuge and filter paper were used to build a Soil-Water Retention Curve, obtain the characterization of these unsaturated soil, suction values of the fall unit of TBJ. The use of this curve into finite elements software can help to acquire shear strength and permeability properties. The filter paper showed to be a practical method but close to saturation the pressure plate is needed.Scatter results were observed with the centrifuge. The Quickdraw tensiometre (suction) and TMS3 (soil moisture content) are being used in field test to proposed a field methodology for an early warning system for the slopes, that could help in urban planning and risk assessment. (author)

  20. Soil-water retention curve and beginning of monitoring in Tierra Blanca Joven (TBJ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, Jose A.; Lopez, Reynaldo; Kopecky, Lubomir; Landaverde, Jose

    2013-01-01

    The areas covered by the Tierra Blanca Joven volcanic tephra (TBJ) have suffered hillside movements, liquefaction and erosion causing important environmental, social and economic losses during the rainy season or when earthquakes occur in El Salvador. Suction values of a TBJ drop unit were obtained with the pressure cooker, centrifuge and filter paper to construct the Soil-Water Retention Curve to initiate the characterization of these partially saturated soils. The use of this curve in finite element programs has helped to know the shear stresses and permeability. The filter paper has proved to be a practical method but it is necessary to use the pressure cooker as it becomes saturated. Field tests with tensiometer (suction) and TMS3 (humidity) have been carried out to propose field methodology for an early warning system for hillsides, which can help urban planning and risk studies. (author)

  1. La tierra entre derecho y cultura indígena en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Rosti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the relationships between the indigenous peoples and the Argentinian State since the XIX century until 1994, when it was introduced in the Constitution the provision acknowledging to the indigenous peoples “la posesión y propiedad comunitarias de las tierras que tradicionalmente ocupan”, “la entrega de otras aptas y suficientes para el desarrollo humano” and granting them “la parcipación en la gestión referida a sus recursos naturales y a los demás intereses que los afecten” (art. 75, inc. 17. The paper describes then the issue concerning the claim for indigenous land – raised by the new constitutional provision – and focuses on some significant cases and the more recent jurisprudence on that issue.

  2. Atmospheric electric discharges and grounding systems; Descargas atmosfericas y sistemas de conexion a tierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, Elena [ed.] [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this article the work made by the Institute of Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), in the area of atmospheric electric discharges and grounding connections at Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) is presented. The work consisted of the revision of the procedures for the design of transmission lines and substations of CFE from which high indexes of interruptions are reported, from this, a program was defined that allowed to improve the existing designs in CFE. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta el trabajo realizado por el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), en el area de descargas atmosfericas y conexiones a tierra en Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). El trabajo consistio en la revision de los procedimientos de diseno de las areas de transmision y subestaciones de la CFE para los que se reportan altos indices de salidas, a partir de esto se definio un programa que permitio mejorar los disenos existentes en la CFE.

  3. Substations grounding systems design; Diseno de sistemas de conexion a tierra en subestaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez Sanchez, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    The grounding systems have been the object of a great number of analytical and experimental studies in the past 15 years, that have given rise to research reports on the several aspects involved in this technique. In this work are briefly reviewed various aspects that is necessary to take into account for its design, analysis and put in operation. [Espanol] Los sistemas de conexion a tierra han sido objeto de gran cantidad de estudios analiticos y experimentales en los pasados quince anos, que han dado origen a informes de investigacion sobre los diversos aspectos que involucra esta tecnica. En este trabajo se revisan brevemente diversos aspectos que es necesario considerar para su diseno, analisis y puesta en operacion.

  4. Violence in Tierra Caliente: Inequality, Development and Education Rates in Drug War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Zepeda Gil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The following article presents the effects of social and economic variables on the increment of violence in regional areas of Mexico, upon the intensification of drug prohibitions policies established by former President Felipe Calderon’s administration. This study involved using a data panel of homicides rates with firearms in 31 municipalities of the region of Tierra Caliente for the time period between 2006 to 2012. The results from the study help indicate that agroindustrial development, income inequality, and education rates have been effected in correlation with the increasing of homicidal rates. Also, based on the relevance of the inequality indicators of the study, it can be argued that there is a possible coincidence between the literature of civil wars and sociology of crime in that can be used to explain such cases of violence.

  5. Parábola existencial de la primera Residencia en la Tierra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gómez

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available Como sucede con muchos artistas, es el amor el que hace de Neruda un gran poeta. Su iniciación en la literatura universal data, sin duda, de los "Veinte poemas de amor y una canción desesperada" pero es a partír de "Residencia en la tierra" que logra afianzarse, en profundidad, como uno de los grandes poetas de la lengua castellana y uno de los más extraordinarios líricos de la historia de la literatura. En "Veinte poemas... ", el amor lo hace compenetrarse, estremecido, con la Naturaleza, lo desnuda de convenciones y prejuicios, lo embriaga de gozos dolorosos y le descubre todo el vasto mundo popular del drama sentim ental, depurado y abierto a la profundidad cósmica.

  6. Significações da queda em Residencia en la tierra

    OpenAIRE

    Luigi Patruno

    2011-01-01

    En el presente trabajo, estudio las variantes que asume la imagen de la caída en Residencia en la tierra de Pablo Neruda. Por un lado, la caída se vincula con la decadencia y la muerte y es el movimiento que insiste en la condición frágil del sujeto; por el otro, es imagen de un hundimiento deseable en la memoria, tensión positiva hacia el conocimiento y descenso poético. En mi análisis, procedo hacia una revisión general de los discursos críticos sobre la caída en los poemas de Neruda, propo...

  7. Bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations during primary succession in recently Deglaciated areas of Tierra del Fuego (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arróniz-Crespo, María; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; De Los Ríos, Asunción; Green, T G Allan; Ochoa-Hueso, Raúl; Casermeiro, Miguel Ángel; de la Cruz, María Teresa; Pintado, Ana; Palacios, David; Rozzi, Ricardo; Tysklind, Niklas; Sancho, Leopoldo G

    2014-01-01

    Bryophyte establishment represents a positive feedback process that enhances soil development in newly exposed terrain. Further, biological nitrogen (N) fixation by cyanobacteria in association with mosses can be an important supply of N to terrestrial ecosystems, however the role of these associations during post-glacial primary succession is not yet fully understood. Here, we analyzed chronosequences in front of two receding glaciers with contrasting climatic conditions (wetter vs drier) at Cordillera Darwin (Tierra del Fuego) and found that most mosses had the capacity to support an epiphytic flora of cyanobacteria and exhibited high rates of N2 fixation. Pioneer moss-cyanobacteria associations showed the highest N2 fixation rates (4.60 and 4.96 µg N g-1 bryo. d-1) very early after glacier retreat (4 and 7 years) which may help accelerate soil development under wetter conditions. In drier climate, N2 fixation on bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations was also high (0.94 and 1.42 µg N g-1 bryo. d-1) but peaked at intermediate-aged sites (26 and 66 years). N2 fixation capacity on bryophytes was primarily driven by epiphytic cyanobacteria abundance rather than community composition. Most liverworts showed low colonization and N2 fixation rates, and mosses did not exhibit consistent differences across life forms and habitat (saxicolous vs terricolous). We also found a clear relationship between cyanobacteria genera and the stages of ecological succession, but no relationship was found with host species identity. Glacier forelands in Tierra del Fuego show fast rates of soil transformation which imply large quantities of N inputs. Our results highlight the potential contribution of bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations to N accumulation during post-glacial primary succession and further describe the factors that drive N2-fixation rates in post-glacial areas with very low N deposition.

  8. Guanaco’s diet and forage preferences in Nothofagus forest environments of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinteros, C.P.; Bava, J.; Gobbi, M.E.; Defossé, G.E.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: Guanaco (Lama guanicoe Müller), is a South American native ungulate widely distributed in Patagonia, which in the island of Tierra del Fuego (TF), extends its habitat into Nothofagus spp. forests. Within these forests, guanacos consume lenga (Nothofagus pumilio) leaves and twigs, and other understory species. The aim of this work was to determine: 1) the spring and summer diet of free ranging guanacos, and 2) which plants, grown in the forest understory, guanacos do prefer, or avoid, in these seasons of great forage abundance. Area of study: Tierra del Fuego (Argentina), on three representative areas which combined Nothofagus forests and adjacent meadows (vegas). Material and Methods: uanacos’ diet was determined by comparing epidermal and non-epidermal plant fragments with micro-histological analyses of feces. The analysis was made from composite samples of fresh feces, collected at the seasons of maximum forage productivity (spring and summer). Main results: During spring, 48% of guanacos’ diet was composed of lenga leaves, 30% of grass-like species, 15% of grasses, and less than 7% of herbs, shrubs, and lichens. In summer, 40% of the diet was composed of grasses, 30% of lenga leaves, 25% of grass-like species and the rest corresponded to herbs, shrubs, and lichens. Within the forest understory, guanaco selected lenga leaves and twigs, grass species were consumed according to their availability (or sometimes rejected), while other herbs were not consumed at all. Research highlights: Guanacos’ consumption preference for lenga, even considering the high availability of other forages, could adversely affect forest regeneration.

  9. Bryophyte-Cyanobacteria Associations during Primary Succession in Recently Deglaciated Areas of Tierra del Fuego (Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arróniz-Crespo, María; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; De los Ríos, Asunción; Green, T. G. Allan; Ochoa-Hueso, Raúl; Casermeiro, Miguel Ángel; de la Cruz, María Teresa; Pintado, Ana; Palacios, David; Rozzi, Ricardo; Tysklind, Niklas; Sancho, Leopoldo G.

    2014-01-01

    Bryophyte establishment represents a positive feedback process that enhances soil development in newly exposed terrain. Further, biological nitrogen (N) fixation by cyanobacteria in association with mosses can be an important supply of N to terrestrial ecosystems, however the role of these associations during post-glacial primary succession is not yet fully understood. Here, we analyzed chronosequences in front of two receding glaciers with contrasting climatic conditions (wetter vs drier) at Cordillera Darwin (Tierra del Fuego) and found that most mosses had the capacity to support an epiphytic flora of cyanobacteria and exhibited high rates of N2 fixation. Pioneer moss-cyanobacteria associations showed the highest N2 fixation rates (4.60 and 4.96 µg N g−1 bryo. d−1) very early after glacier retreat (4 and 7 years) which may help accelerate soil development under wetter conditions. In drier climate, N2 fixation on bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations was also high (0.94 and 1.42 µg N g−1 bryo. d−1) but peaked at intermediate-aged sites (26 and 66 years). N2 fixation capacity on bryophytes was primarily driven by epiphytic cyanobacteria abundance rather than community composition. Most liverworts showed low colonization and N2 fixation rates, and mosses did not exhibit consistent differences across life forms and habitat (saxicolous vs terricolous). We also found a clear relationship between cyanobacteria genera and the stages of ecological succession, but no relationship was found with host species identity. Glacier forelands in Tierra del Fuego show fast rates of soil transformation which imply large quantities of N inputs. Our results highlight the potential contribution of bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations to N accumulation during post-glacial primary succession and further describe the factors that drive N2-fixation rates in post-glacial areas with very low N deposition. PMID:24819926

  10. Guanaco’s diet and forage preferences in Nothofagus forest environments of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinteros, C.P.; Bava, J.; Gobbi, M.E.; Defossé, G.E.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of study: Guanaco (Lama guanicoe Müller), is a South American native ungulate widely distributed in Patagonia, which in the island of Tierra del Fuego (TF), extends its habitat into Nothofagus spp. forests. Within these forests, guanacos consume lenga (Nothofagus pumilio) leaves and twigs, and other understory species. The aim of this work was to determine: 1) the spring and summer diet of free ranging guanacos, and 2) which plants, grown in the forest understory, guanacos do prefer, or avoid, in these seasons of great forage abundance. Area of study: Tierra del Fuego (Argentina), on three representative areas which combined Nothofagus forests and adjacent meadows (vegas). Material and Methods: uanacos’ diet was determined by comparing epidermal and non-epidermal plant fragments with micro-histological analyses of feces. The analysis was made from composite samples of fresh feces, collected at the seasons of maximum forage productivity (spring and summer). Main results: During spring, 48% of guanacos’ diet was composed of lenga leaves, 30% of grass-like species, 15% of grasses, and less than 7% of herbs, shrubs, and lichens. In summer, 40% of the diet was composed of grasses, 30% of lenga leaves, 25% of grass-like species and the rest corresponded to herbs, shrubs, and lichens. Within the forest understory, guanaco selected lenga leaves and twigs, grass species were consumed according to their availability (or sometimes rejected), while other herbs were not consumed at all. Research highlights: Guanacos’ consumption preference for lenga, even considering the high availability of other forages, could adversely affect forest regeneration.

  11. Fault lubrication during earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Toro, G; Han, R; Hirose, T; De Paola, N; Nielsen, S; Mizoguchi, K; Ferri, F; Cocco, M; Shimamoto, T

    2011-03-24

    The determination of rock friction at seismic slip rates (about 1 m s(-1)) is of paramount importance in earthquake mechanics, as fault friction controls the stress drop, the mechanical work and the frictional heat generated during slip. Given the difficulty in determining friction by seismological methods, elucidating constraints are derived from experimental studies. Here we review a large set of published and unpublished experiments (∼300) performed in rotary shear apparatus at slip rates of 0.1-2.6 m s(-1). The experiments indicate a significant decrease in friction (of up to one order of magnitude), which we term fault lubrication, both for cohesive (silicate-built, quartz-built and carbonate-built) rocks and non-cohesive rocks (clay-rich, anhydrite, gypsum and dolomite gouges) typical of crustal seismogenic sources. The available mechanical work and the associated temperature rise in the slipping zone trigger a number of physicochemical processes (gelification, decarbonation and dehydration reactions, melting and so on) whose products are responsible for fault lubrication. The similarity between (1) experimental and natural fault products and (2) mechanical work measures resulting from these laboratory experiments and seismological estimates suggests that it is reasonable to extrapolate experimental data to conditions typical of earthquake nucleation depths (7-15 km). It seems that faults are lubricated during earthquakes, irrespective of the fault rock composition and of the specific weakening mechanism involved.

  12. Vipava fault (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Placer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available During mapping of the already accomplished Razdrto – Senožeče section of motorway and geologic surveying of construction operations of the trunk road between Razdrto and Vipava in northwestern part of External Dinarides on the southwestern slope of Mt. Nanos, called Rebrnice, a steep NW-SE striking fault was recognized, situated between the Predjama and the Ra{a faults. The fault was named Vipava fault after the Vipava town. An analysis of subrecent gravitational slips at Rebrnice indicates that they were probably associated with the activity of this fault. Unpublished results of a repeated levelling line along the regional road passing across the Vipava fault zone suggest its possible present activity. It would be meaningful to verify this by appropriate geodetic measurements, and to study the actual gravitational slips at Rebrnice. The association between tectonics and gravitational slips in this and in similar extreme cases in the areas of Alps and Dinarides points at the need of complex studying of geologic proceses.

  13. Fault morphology of the lyo Fault, the Median Tectonic Line Active Fault System

    OpenAIRE

    後藤, 秀昭

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the various fault features of the lyo fault and depicted fault lines or detailed topographic map. The results of this paper are summarized as follows; 1) Distinct evidence of the right-lateral movement is continuously discernible along the lyo fault. 2) Active fault traces are remarkably linear suggesting that the angle of fault plane is high. 3) The lyo fault can be divided into four segments by jogs between left-stepping traces. 4) The mean slip rate is 1.3 ~ ...

  14. Knowing for controlling: ecological effects of invasive vertebrates in Tierra del Fuego Conocer para controlar: efectos ecológicos de vertebrados invasores en Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA A SILVA

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Tierra del Fuego (TDF archipelago is recognized as part o the last places on Earth that may still be considered wild. However, this condition may be threatened by the large number of invasive species present on the archipelago. These species can have significant effects on the ecology of the invaded ecosystems, at the genetic as well as at population, community and ecosystem levels. The aim of this study is to, by a bibliographic review, systematize existing information on the ecological impacts these species would be having on the TDF archipelago and detect information gaps in order to orient future research and effective management programs on these species. We restricted our review to vertebrate, non-marine invaders. We determined which species have invaded TDF, described their impacts on the archipelago and evaluated their potential impacts; this last issue was determined by reviewing some of the impacts these species have had in other geographic areas. Our findings indicate that at least nine vertebrate species (Salmo trutta, Salvelinus fontinalis, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Castor canadensis, Ondatra zibethicus, Oryctolagus cuniculus, Pseudalopex griseus, Mustela vison and Sus seroja have wild populations established away from human settlements in TDF. There is some scientific evidence on ecological impacts on the area for only five of these invaders, with the American beaver (Castor canadensis being the species monopolizing the greatest number of studies. These results contrast with the recognition, both in TDF and worldwide, of the potential of most of these species to cause significant ecological impacts, which makes it unlikely that the lack of verified impacts on TDF reflects an absence of significant effects of these invaders on the archipelago. We suggest that future research should focus on determining population density and distribution of these and other (i.e., feral species invasive vertebrates, as well as their impacts mainly on

  15. Active Fault Isolation in MIMO Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2014-01-01

    isolation is based directly on the input/output s ignals applied for the fault detection. It is guaranteed that the fault group includes the fault that had occurred in the system. The second step is individual fault isolation in the fault group . Both types of isolation are obtained by applying dedicated......Active fault isolation of parametric faults in closed-loop MIMO system s are considered in this paper. The fault isolation consists of two steps. T he first step is group- wise fault isolation. Here, a group of faults is isolated from other pos sible faults in the system. The group-wise fault...

  16. Fault Detection for Industrial Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new fault-relevant KPCA algorithm is proposed. Then the fault detection approach is proposed based on the fault-relevant KPCA algorithm. The proposed method further decomposes both the KPCA principal space and residual space into two subspaces. Compared with traditional statistical techniques, the fault subspace is separated based on the fault-relevant influence. This method can find fault-relevant principal directions and principal components of systematic subspace and residual subspace for process monitoring. The proposed monitoring approach is applied to Tennessee Eastman process and penicillin fermentation process. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Fault tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Suggestion are made concerning the method of the fault tree analysis, the use of certain symbols in the examination of system failures. This purpose of the fault free analysis is to find logical connections of component or subsystem failures leading to undesirable occurrances. The results of these examinations are part of the system assessment concerning operation and safety. The objectives of the analysis are: systematical identification of all possible failure combinations (causes) leading to a specific undesirable occurrance, finding of reliability parameters such as frequency of failure combinations, frequency of the undesirable occurrance or non-availability of the system when required. The fault tree analysis provides a near and reconstructable documentation of the examination. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Centro de Control de Tierra para Colaboración de Vehículos Autónomos Marinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Bonache Seco

    2017-12-01

    donde la incorporación del operador en la supervisión y control de las maniobras de los vehículos es un requisito imprescindible para dar seguridad y confianza a la operación realizada. Finalmente, se presenta un caso de uso del Centro de Control de Tierra donde se realiza una maniobra de seguimiento entre dos vehículos autónomos de superficie.

  19. A new genus and new species of felt scales (Homoptera: Coccinea: Eriococcidae from Tierra del Fuego (Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya A. Gavrilov-Zimin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Telmatococcus igniumterrae gen. nov. et sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on the material collected from a sphagnum bog in the extreme southern part of South America (Tierra del Fuego. The new monotypic genus differs from all known genera of Eriococcidae in having short cylindrical truncated setae of the anal apparatus and pouches with numerous quinquelocular pores near the anal apparatus. The habitat of the new taxon is characterized.

  20. Computer hardware fault administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-09-14

    Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.

  1. Fault Tolerant Computer Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Sorin, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    For many years, most computer architects have pursued one primary goal: performance. Architects have translated the ever-increasing abundance of ever-faster transistors provided by Moore's law into remarkable increases in performance. Recently, however, the bounty provided by Moore's law has been accompanied by several challenges that have arisen as devices have become smaller, including a decrease in dependability due to physical faults. In this book, we focus on the dependability challenge and the fault tolerance solutions that architects are developing to overcome it. The two main purposes

  2. Fault tolerant linear actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesar, Delbert

    2004-09-14

    In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.

  3. Fate of a broad spectrum of perfluorinated compounds in soils and biota from Tierra del Fuego and Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llorca, Marta; Farré, Marinella; Tavano, Máximo Sebastián; Alonso, Bruno; Koremblit, Gabriel; Barceló, Damià

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the presence of 18 perfluorinated compounds was investigated in biota and environmental samples from the Antarctica and Tierra de Fuego, which were collected during a sampling campaign carried out along February and March 2010. 61 samples were analysed including fish, superficial soils, guano, algae, dung and tissues of Papua penguin by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The concentrations of PFCs were ranging from 0.10 to 240 ng/g for most of the samples except for penguin dung, which presented levels between 95 and 603 ng/g for perfluorooctane sulfonate, and guano samples from Ushuaia, with concentration levels of 1190–2480 ng/g of perfluorohexanoic acid. PFCs acids presented, in general, the highest levels of concentration and perfluorooctanesulfonate was the most frequently found compound. The present study provides a significant amount of results, which globally supports the previous studies, related to the transport, deposition, biodegradation and bioaccumulation patterns of PFCs. - Highlights: ► 61 samples from the Antarctica and Tierra de Fuego analysed for the presence of 18 perfluorinated compounds. ► Acid compounds presented the highest levels of concentration and perfluorooctane sulfonate was the most frequently found. ► Concentrations in algae much higher than those in soils. ► Data supporting existing models for the transport, deposition, biodegradation and bioaccumulation patterns are presented. - 18 perfluorinated compounds assessed in biota and environmental samples from Tierra del Fuego and the Antarctica. Concentrations related to Compounds properties.

  4. Género y arrebato de tierras: el caso del nuevo aeropuerto internacional de Ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Vázquez García

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se explora la dinámica de género del arrebato de tierras en el municipio de Atenco, Estado de México, para la construcción del nuevo aeropuerto internacional de la Ciudad de México. A partir de datos obtenidos mediante la sistematización de expedientes ejidales, la observación participante y las entrevistas a profundidad, se analiza la discriminación de género en la venta de tierras y las estrategias de las mujeres para enfrentarla. El artículo contribuye a estudiar la infraestructura de comunicaciones, un sector poco teorizado; a utilizar información documental, principalmente testimonial, y a visibilizar los efectos de género y el papel de las mujeres en la resistencia. Se muestra que los agentes del arrebato de tierras son el Estado, el capital y las estructuras comunitarias que reproducen la inequidad de género, para concentrar la riqueza y los privilegios políticos en manos predominantemente masculinas.

  5. Seguimiento al comportamiento del mercado de tierras rurales a través de un GIS, Santander Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lozano-Botache

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de los marcos legales y políticas públicas, en algunos países, los derechos de propiedad sobre la tierra siguen siendo usurpados o impedidos con métodos violentos. Este trabajo de investigación, desde el marco de referencia de la Administración de Tierras, el Neoinstitucionalismo y las herramientas computacionales –conocidas genéricamente como Sistemas de Información Geográfica (GIS, por sus siglas en inglés– presenta un modelo de observación regional de precios que, por la secuencia de datos y su proceso informático, puede mantenerse a través del tiempo como referente en procesos agrarios de restitución de tierras a víctimas del despojo, así como en la ejecución de proyectos de desarrollo social o económico.

  6. The perceived image of Tierra del Fuego (Argentina in travel stories published by “TravelPod”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Andrea Mosti

    2017-07-01

    environmental conditions, with inhospitable landscapes and, by all appearances, a pristine ecosystem. Together these things form a constitutive part the territorial identity of southern Patagonia. The cartography, the scientific expeditions, the religious missions, the journalism and the literature played an important role in the diffusion and permanency of these representations. In modern Western societies, companies have positioned the concept as a powerful tourist resource, capable of motivating travelers coming to Tierra del Fuego. The present communication proposes an approximation to the perceived image of Tierra del Fuego, according to tourists’ statements in trip blogs, taking these chronicles from sources posted on the site Travelpod. The aim is to examine the contents of the perceived image and to investigate the ways that the concept “End of the World” is resignified. The tourists’ testimonies appeal always to the idea of the End of the World; these representations can be condensed to two dimensions, the one linked to physical – geographical aspects and another that recreates symbolic contents. In the perceived images of Tierra del Fuego, there is an intermingling of the archaic, the legend and the distance, the impregnable vastness of the nature and the recollection of heroic expeditions.

  7. Negociando la tierra: empresas extranjeras, minería a gran escala y derechos humanos en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Velasco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La adquisición masiva de tierras por parte de empresas extranjeras en países africanos, asiáticos y latinoamericanos refleja una nueva fase del capitalismo global (Sassen, 2013. Colombia no ha escapado a esta lógica mundial del capitalismo, pues en la última década la influencia de las empresas extranjeras en el mercado de tierras ha sido notoria. En esa lógica, este artículo compara, desde un enfoque de Derechos Humanos, las prácticas de adquisición de tierras de tres compañías extranjeras que han explotado carbón a cielo abierto en La Guajira y Cesar. Los resultados indican que la formalidad de la propiedad agraria y las restricciones institucionales de las empresas —asociadas al gobierno corporativo, la participación en bolsa de valores y el veto de compradores internacionales—influyen significativamente en el respeto a los derechos humanos.

  8. PERSPECTIVAS DEL PROCESO DE TITULACIÓN DE TIERRAS EN LA COMUNIDAD CAMPESINA SAN JUAN DE MIRAFLORES, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Ricardo Ríos Ramirez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar las perspectivas hacia la titulación de tierras en la Comunidad Campesina San Juan de Miraflores (CCSJM.El estudio fue de tipo descriptivo, con un diseño no experimental transversal. Se aplicó un cuestionario estructurado para evaluar perspectivas a una muestra de 353 comuneros seleccionados de manera aleatoria, estratificada y proporcional, previa validación de expertos y con una confiabilidad alfa de Cronbach α =  0.944.En la CCSJM, las parcelas no tienen las características necesarias para que la agricultura o ganadería se desarrollen, asimismo la actividad campesina no es la principal actividad económica. Asimismo, los comuneros de la CCSJM muestran una perspectiva favorable hacia la titulación de tierras.Por lo tanto, consideramos imperante el proceso de titulación de tierras y la promoción de opciones laborales distintas a las que usualmente realiza un campesino.

  9. Wind turbine fault detection and fault tolerant control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Johnson, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    In this updated edition of a previous wind turbine fault detection and fault tolerant control challenge, we present a more sophisticated wind turbine model and updated fault scenarios to enhance the realism of the challenge and therefore the value of the solutions. This paper describes...

  10. Rock Magnetic Properties of Laguna Carmen (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina): Implications for Paleomagnetic Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogorza, C. G.; Orgeira, M. J.; Ponce, F.; Fernández, M.; Laprida, C.; Coronato, A.

    2013-05-01

    We report preliminary results obtained from a multi-proxy analysis including paleomagnetic and rock-magnetic studies of two sediment cores of Laguna Carmen (53°40'60" S 68°19'0" W, ~83m asl) in the semiarid steppe in northern Tierra del Fuego island, Southernmost Patagonia, Argentina. Two short cores (115 cm) were sampled using a Livingstone piston corer during the 2011 southern fall. Sediments are massive green clays (115 to 70 cm depth) with irregularly spaced thin sandy strata and lens. Massive yellow clay with thin sandy strata continues up to 30 cm depth; from here up to 10 cm yellow massive clays domain. The topmost 10 cm are mixed yellow and green clays with fine sand. Measurements of intensity and directions of Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM), magnetic susceptibility, isothermal remanent magnetization, saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM), back field and anhysteretic remanent magnetization at 100 mT (ARM100mT) were performed and several associated parameters calculated (ARM100mT/k and SIRM/ ARM100mT). Also, as a first estimate of relative magnetic grain-size variations, the median destructive field of the NRM (MDFNRM), was determined. Additionally, we present results of magnetic parameters measured with vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The stability of the NRM was analyzed by alternating field demagnetization. The magnetic properties have shown variable values, showing changes in both grain size and concentration of magnetic minerals. It was found that the main carrier of remanence is magnetite with the presence of hematite in very low percentages. This is the first paleomagnetic study performed in lakes located in the northern, semiarid fuegian steppe, where humid-dry cycles have been interpreted all along the Holocene from an aeolian paleosoil sequence (Orgeira et el, 2012). Comparison between paleomagnetic records of Laguna Carmen and results obtained in earlier studies carried out at Laguna Potrok Aike (Gogorza et al., 2012

  11. Fault management and systems knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Pilots are asked to manage faults during flight operations. This leads to the training question of the type and depth of system knowledge required to respond to these faults. Based on discussions with multiple airline operators, there is agreement th...

  12. ESR dating of fault rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Kwon

    2002-03-01

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then trow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected from the Yangsan fault system. ESR dates from the this fault system range from 870 to 240 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity continued into the pleistocene

  13. Fault diagnosis of induction motors

    CERN Document Server

    Faiz, Jawad; Joksimović, Gojko

    2017-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive, structural approach to fault diagnosis strategy. The different fault types, signal processing techniques, and loss characterisation are addressed in the book. This is essential reading for work with induction motors for transportation and energy.

  14. ESR dating of fault rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then trow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected from the Yangsan fault system. ESR dates from the this fault system range from 870 to 240 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity continued into the pleistocene.

  15. ANÁLISIS PRELIMINAR DEL TRATAMIENTO FISICOQUÍMICO Y BIOLÓGICO DEL ACEITE DIELÉCTRICO PRESENTE EN TIERRA FULLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDISON ALEXANDER AGUDELO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio evalúa dos tecnologías: una físico-química y otra biológica, que buscan eliminar la contaminación por el aceite dieléctrico presente en la tierra Fuller, Buscando con ello gestionar de forma ambientalmente adecuada este residuo peligroso. Para la Tecnología físico-química, se usó hexano como solvente y se alcanzó de manera preliminar remociones del aceite dieléctrico del orden del 87% en la tierra Fuller tratada, con una relación tierra Fuller: solvente de 1:8 p/v, una velocidad de agitación de 100 rpm y un tiempo de contacto de 30 minutos. La calidad del aceite dieléctrico recuperado no es apta para su uso en equipos eléctricos, por su baja rigidez dieléctrica, baja densidad y color desfavorable. La tierra Fuller recuperada alcanzó una densidad aparente de 0.623 gr/ml, una densidad real de 2.231 gr/ml y una porosidad de 72.075 %, lo que indica al menos preliminarmente que dicha tierra está muycercana en sus características físicas a la tierra fuller limpia. Para la tecnología biológica se trató la tierra contaminada en un reactor biológico de tierra activada, evaluando la velocidad de agitación y el tiempo de degradación necesario para alcanzar niveles de contaminación adecuados que permitan disponer el residuo en un relleno sanitario convencional sin riesgo para la salud de los ecosistemas y el ser humano, esta fase aún se encuentra en experimentación y los resultados dependen del análisis cromatográfi co del aceite dieléctrico que permanece en la tierra Fuller tratada, en el cual se hará el seguimiento de 10 especies que son clave dentro de este producto, debido a su cantidad y/o toxicidad , falta comprobar la calidad química de la tierra fuller y del aceite dieléctrico recuperados en el tratamiento físico-químico, y validar el proceso biológico para degradar el aceite dieléctrico.

  16. Introduction to fault tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, R.E.; Lambert, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    An elementary, engineering oriented introduction to fault tree analysis is presented. The basic concepts, techniques and applications of fault tree analysis, FTA, are described. The two major steps of FTA are identified as (1) the construction of the fault tree and (2) its evaluation. The evaluation of the fault tree can be qualitative or quantitative depending upon the scope, extensiveness and use of the analysis. The advantages, limitations and usefulness of FTA are discussed

  17. Fault Tolerant Wind Farm Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years the wind turbine industry has focused on optimizing the cost of energy. One of the important factors in this is to increase reliability of the wind turbines. Advanced fault detection, isolation and accommodation are important tools in this process. Clearly most faults are deal...... scenarios. This benchmark model is used in an international competition dealing with Wind Farm fault detection and isolation and fault tolerant control....

  18. Row fault detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Pinnow, Kurt Walter [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian Edward [Rochester, MN

    2008-10-14

    An apparatus, program product and method checks for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  19. Fault isolation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, A.

    1981-01-01

    Three major areas that are considered in the development of an overall maintenance scheme of computer equipment are described. The areas of concern related to fault isolation techniques are: the programmer (or user), company and its policies, and the manufacturer of the equipment.

  20. Fault Tolerant Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, S. A.

    This thesis considered the development of fault tolerant control systems. The focus was on the category of automated processes that do not necessarily comprise a high number of identical sensors and actuators to maintain safe operation, but still have a potential for improving immunity to component...

  1. Fault-Related Sanctuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardi, L.

    2001-12-01

    Beyond the study of historical surface faulting events, this work investigates the possibility, in specific cases, of identifying pre-historical events whose memory survives in myths and legends. The myths of many famous sacred places of the ancient world contain relevant telluric references: "sacred" earthquakes, openings to the Underworld and/or chthonic dragons. Given the strong correspondence with local geological evidence, these myths may be considered as describing natural phenomena. It has been possible in this way to shed light on the geologic origin of famous myths (Piccardi, 1999, 2000 and 2001). Interdisciplinary researches reveal that the origin of several ancient sanctuaries may be linked in particular to peculiar geological phenomena observed on local active faults (like ground shaking and coseismic surface ruptures, gas and flames emissions, strong underground rumours). In many of these sanctuaries the sacred area is laid directly above the active fault. In a few cases, faulting has affected also the archaeological relics, right through the main temple (e.g. Delphi, Cnidus, Hierapolis of Phrygia). As such, the arrangement of the cult site and content of relative myths suggest that specific points along the trace of active faults have been noticed in the past and worshiped as special `sacred' places, most likely interpreted as Hades' Doors. The mythological stratification of most of these sanctuaries dates back to prehistory, and points to a common derivation from the cult of the Mother Goddess (the Lady of the Doors), which was largely widespread since at least 25000 BC. The cult itself was later reconverted into various different divinities, while the `sacred doors' of the Great Goddess and/or the dragons (offspring of Mother Earth and generally regarded as Keepers of the Doors) persisted in more recent mythologies. Piccardi L., 1999: The "Footprints" of the Archangel: Evidence of Early-Medieval Surface Faulting at Monte Sant'Angelo (Gargano, Italy

  2. Tierras estatales y desigualdad de género en Uruguay=State lands and gender inequality in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Florit O`Neill

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En Uruguay, el Instituto Nacional de Colonización (INC es la institución encargada de la adjudicación de tierra por parte del Estado, orientado a la distribución racional de la tierra y su acceso por parte de la población rural más vulnerable. A partir del año 2005, atravesó una reforma que jerarquizó su rol en las políticas de Estado y gestó un nuevo modelo de adjudicación de tierras: las experiencias asociativas. Ese mismo año, el nuevo gobierno impulsó la transversalización de género en el Estado, impulso que anclara en el INC a partir del 2013. Este artículo analiza desde una perspectiva de género la reforma refundacional y la nueva política de tierras, develando la ceguera de género de la reforma y evidenciando desafíos pendientes para la transversalización de género en el diseño de la principal modalidad de adjudicación de tierras públicas.      Abstract In Uruguay, the National Institute of Colonization is the institution resposible for the adjudication of land by the State, aimed at the rational distribution of land and its access by the most vulnerable rural population. Since 2005, the INC went through a reform that prioritized its role in the policies of the State and created a new model of land adjudication: associative experiences of colonization. In that same year, the new government promoted gender mainstreaming in the State, impulse that took roots in the INC from 2013 onwards. This article analyzes from a gender perspective the refounding reform and the new land policy, unveiling the gender blindness of the reform and highlighting pending challenges for gender mainstreaming in the design of the main public land adjudication modality.

  3. Health at the Extremes. Epidemiological and Sanitary Scene in Tierra del Fuego, 1890-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Casali

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the epidemiological and sanitary conditions of the city of Ushuaia (National Territory of Tierra del Fuego at a key time in its history- a time in which interethnic contact and the consolidation of the Argentine nation-state were intensified as two parallel and related processes. Materials and methods: All death certificates available for the period 1890-1930 were analyzed, as well as relevant government documents and secondary sources in order to ob¬tain the health profile of the city and its relationship with the country in the following aspects: type of epidemiological phase, mortality rates, population structure, and the structure in health¬care. Conclusions: There was a great relevance of infectious diseases, and specially tuberculosis, among the population of the city in general, and among the indigenous and criminal population in particular. This epidemiological profile showed the shortcomings of a national health system that was trying to establish at the time, especially in a region difficult to reach.

  4. Arriendo y desigualdad en las tierras altas de Jujuy (Argentina a fines del siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia A. Fandos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Las estructuras agrarias originadas en los procesos más generales de desarrollo capitalista y de redefinición de los derechos de propiedad del siglo XIX en la provincia argentina de Jujuy, resultaron favorables a la formación de importantes latifundios. La contracara de esa fuerte concentración de tierras fue la existencia de un amplio sector de la sociedad que compartía la condición de arrendatarios. De ahí que en este artículo nos proponemos estudiar a los arrendatarios como productores –la riqueza y los ingresos brutos procedentes de la explotación rural que tenían a su cargo– a fin de indagar su capacidad de remuneración, contrastándolos entre sí y con otras situaciones sociales. Para ello, analizamos dos casos que tratan el asunto de sus relaciones de producción en el arriendo. A partir de fuentes fiscales y censales de la década de 1890 que contienen datos de la actividad agropecuaria y de informes sobre la rentabilidad de los distintos productos de origen agrícola o ganaderos de la misma época, reconstruimos el ingreso bruto de esas unidades para cada uno de los actores involucrados en ellas y analizamos los niveles de desigualdad para ese conjunto social.

  5. Functional ecology of soil microbial communities along a glacier forefield in Tierra del Fuego (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Martínez, Miguel A; Pointing, Stephen B; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; Arróniz-Crespo, María; Green, T G Allan; Rozzi, Ricardo; Sancho, Leopoldo G; de Los Ríos, Asunción

    2016-09-01

    A previously established chronosequence from Pia Glacier forefield in Tierra del Fuego (Chile) containing soils of different ages (from bare soils to forest ones) is analyzed. We used this chronosequence as framework to postulate that microbial successional development would be accompanied by changes in functionality. To test this, the GeoChip functional microarray was used to identify diversity of genes involved in microbial carbon and nitrogen metabolism, as well as other genes related to microbial stress response and biotic interactions. Changes in putative functionality generally reflected succession-related taxonomic composition of soil microbiota. Major shifts in carbon fixation and catabolism were observed, as well as major changes in nitrogen metabolism. At initial microbial dominated succession stages, microorganisms could be mainly involved in pathways that help to increase nutrient availability, while more complex microbial transformations such as denitrification and methanogenesis, and later degradation of complex organic substrates, could be more prevalent at vegetated successional states. Shifts in virus populations broadly reflected changes in microbial diversity. Conversely, stress response pathways appeared relatively well conserved for communities along the entire chronosequence. We conclude that nutrient utilization is likely the major driver of microbial succession in these soils. [Int Microbiol 19(3):161-173 (2016)]. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  6. EVALUATION OF INSECTICIDES FOR PEST CONTROL IN MANGO (Mangifera indica L. IN TIERRA CALIENTE, GUERRERO, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuridia Duran

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The mango crop is attacked by various pests, in Arcelia, Tierra Caliente, Guerrero, Mexico. Scale insects (Hemiptera and thrips (Thysanoptera were identified, the pesticides imidacloprid, spinosad, sulfur and mineral oil were tested against them, as well as their effect on fruit quality, using pest action thresholds. The thrips Frankliniella invasor appeared in the highest populations, but F. difficilis, F. occidentalis, F. fortissima, F. cephalica, Leptothrips macconnelli, L. bifurcatus and L. theobromae were also found. It was observed that mineral oil maintained the lowest populations and least damage in fruit; thrips species did not cause significant damage because they were seasonal pests that only occur when soft tissue is available in plants and once this tissue becomes unavailable populations diminish without the need of insecticides.  The mite Cisaberoptus kenyae was identified, which in high populations can cause crop damage; for its control sulfur yielded better results. The scale Milviscutulus mangiferae was present in very low populations. Treatment with mineral oil resulted in the highest quality fruits.

  7. MICROFUNGAL COMPOSITION IN AN ASTELIA-DONATIA CUSHION PEATLAND IN TIERRA DEL FUEGO, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia I. Paredes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En el Hemisferio Sur las turberas almacenan grandes cantidades de carbono en el suelo. A pesar de su importancia en el ciclo global del carbono, se sabe poco acerca de los procesos de descomposición y su diversidad fúngica. El presente estudio se realizó para describir la composición de hongos filamen - tosos en dos profundidades de una turbera compacta donde las especies vegetales predominantes son Astelia (Asteliaceae y Donatia (Donatiaceae en Moat, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. De 48 muestras procesadas, se obtuvieron 338 aislamientos. Mediante el uso de diferentes metodologías de cultivo, a través de observación microscópica y por métodos moleculares identificamos 38 especies fúngicas y 18 géneros de Ascomycetes y Zygomycetes. Los aislamientos de Ascomycetes fueron los más abundantes, con dominancia de Penicillium y Trichoderma . Se describe la composición fúngica y se comparó la diversidad y equitatividad de las especies a dos profundidades de muestreo. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre la composición de especies, la diversidad y equitatividad. La turbera estudiada es un ecosistema que presenta alta diversidad de especies fúngicas filamentosas, algunas de ellas descritas en otras turberas en todo el mundo.

  8. LAMPF first-fault identifier for fast transient faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, A.R.; Hill, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    The LAMPF accelerator is presently producing 800-MeV proton beams at 0.5 mA average current. Machine protection for such a high-intensity accelerator requires a fast shutdown mechanism, which can turn off the beam within a few microseconds of the occurrence of a machine fault. The resulting beam unloading transients cause the rf systems to exceed control loop tolerances and consequently generate multiple fault indications for identification by the control computer. The problem is to isolate the primary fault or cause of beam shutdown while disregarding as many as 50 secondary fault indications that occur as a result of beam shutdown. The LAMPF First-Fault Identifier (FFI) for fast transient faults is operational and has proven capable of first-fault identification. The FFI design utilized features of the Fast Protection System that were previously implemented for beam chopping and rf power conservation. No software changes were required

  9. Tierras de la microcuenca potrerillo (Cauca, Colombia: Clasificación local en relación con propiedades edáficas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerón Rengifo Carmen Patricia

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio se realizó con el objetivo de relacionar la clasificación local de tierras con propiedades físicas, químicas y biológicas del suelo. Se hicieron entrevistas a 36 agricultores de la microcuenca, Potrerillo, Cauca, Colombia, para considerar criterios culturales de clasificación local; se tomaron muestras de suelo en 8 tierras, de 0 a 5 y 0 a 20 cm, con 5 repeticiones. Se determinó color, textura, N y P disponible, C total, fracción liviana de materia orgánica (LL, PH, Ca, K, Mg y Al. Los datos se trabajaron estadísticamente a partir de análisis de varianza, prueba Duncan y análisis de clasificación de datos. La información sugiere que los agricultores diferencias las tierras a partir de la ubicación, características físicas del suelo y de categorías culturales llamadas tierra buena, mala, brava y cansada. Las tierras consideradas buenas se relacionan con colores pardos oscuros, contenidos más altos de N, C y fracción LL, mayor densidad de miriápodos en tierras con vegetación arbórea y mayor biomasa de lombrices en barbecho de la parte baja de la colina. Entre las tierras de menor calidad, disminuye N, C fracción LL y Al y aumenta el pH; en aquellas que no son utilizadas son frecuentes los colores amarillos o rojos, decrecen los valores de N, C, LL, Ph y se incrementa el Al.

  10. Fault-tolerant computing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dal Cin, M.; Hohl, W.

    1991-01-01

    Tests, Diagnosis and Fault Treatment were chosen as the guiding themes of the conference. However, the scope of the conference included reliability, availability, safety and security issues in software and hardware systems as well. The sessions were organized for the conference which was completed by an industrial presentation: Keynote Address, Reconfiguration and Recover, System Level Diagnosis, Voting and Agreement, Testing, Fault-Tolerant Circuits, Array Testing, Modelling, Applied Fault Tolerance, Fault-Tolerant Arrays and Systems, Interconnection Networks, Fault-Tolerant Software. One paper has been indexed separately in the database. (orig./HP)

  11. Fault rocks and uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Hangshou.

    1991-01-01

    The types of fault rocks, microstructural characteristics of fault tectonite and their relationship with uranium mineralization in the uranium-productive granite area are discussed. According to the synthetic analysis on nature of stress, extent of crack and microstructural characteristics of fault rocks, they can be classified into five groups and sixteen subgroups. The author especially emphasizes the control of cataclasite group and fault breccia group over uranium mineralization in the uranium-productive granite area. It is considered that more effective study should be made on the macrostructure and microstructure of fault rocks. It is of an important practical significance in uranium exploration

  12. Network Fault Diagnosis Using DSM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Hao; Yan Pu-liu; Chen Xiao; Wu Jing

    2004-01-01

    Difference similitude matrix (DSM) is effective in reducing information system with its higher reduction rate and higher validity. We use DSM method to analyze the fault data of computer networks and obtain the fault diagnosis rules. Through discretizing the relative value of fault data, we get the information system of the fault data. DSM method reduces the information system and gets the diagnosis rules. The simulation with the actual scenario shows that the fault diagnosis based on DSM can obtain few and effective rules.

  13. El escritor, las sombras y la Patria: En esta dulce tierra de Andrés Rivera The writer, the shadows and the homeland in Andrés Rivera's "La dulce tierra"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Perilli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La novela En esta dulce tierra arma un simulacro histórico que se desintegra en una narración de finales múltiples. Parodia su nombre "en esta dulce tierra" ya que el circunstancial anuncia sucesos terribles que hacen estallar el adjetivo. Remite a la literatura decimonónica, en especial a los romances fundacionales como Amalia de José Mármol. La nación se imagina como espacio cerrado, clausurado por el despotismo en el asilo, la morgue, la cárcel, el sótano. Los protagonistas se mueven ilusoriamente de Sur a Norte. Si Sarmiento invoca la sombra de Facundo, Rivera evoca en Cufré otras propias sombras, dobles en tiempos y lugares otros. La narración de la historia argentina es la narración de una derrota, la de la civilización. La imagen histórica es disfórica: el mundo está enfermo, ebrio de sangre y violencia. Facundo es la sombra de la barbarie, cifra de la naturaleza americana, producto de los llanos riojanos. Cufré es la sombra de una clase "culta" que dibuja en su trayectoria una figura paradojal. Las dos son víctimas de una tierra concebida como naturaleza bárbara en un caso y de una tierra construida como patria siniestra en el otro. El Poder actúa como una segunda naturaleza que, en esta tierra, tiene el sabor de la muerte.The novel En esta dulce tierra sets up a historical pretense that disintegrates into several endings. The title is an irony, since terrible events take place in this "sweet land." It refers to the literature of the XIX century, especially to the founding romances such as that of José Mármol's Amalia. The nation is envisioned as a closed space relegated by despotism to the asylum, the morgue, the jail, the basement. The characters live an illusion moving from north to south. If Sarmiento invokes the shadow of Facundo, Rivera evokes some of his own shadows in Cufré, doubles in different times and spaces. The narration of the Argentine history is a story of defeat: civilizarion's. The historical

  14. EL SITIO HESHKAIA 35: NUEVOS DATOS SOBRE LA ARQUEOLOGÍA DE MOAT (TIERRA DEL FUEGO, ARGENTINA / Heshkaia 35 site: new data on the archaeology of Moat (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilio Francisco Zangrando

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available arqueológicos recuperados en el sitio Heshkaia 35 (costa sur de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Este sitio se ubica en un ámbito costero en la sección media de la cuenca del río Moat y registra ocupaciones durante el Holoceno Tardío (ca. 800-500 AP. La diversidad tecnológica y el registro zooarqueológico señalan el desarrollo de actividades múltiples. Los artefactos líticos dominan el conjunto tecnológico. Los desechos líticos indican un fuerte énfasis hacia los estadios finales de talla, puesto de manifiesto en la baja presencia de artefactos con corteza y la elevada frecuencia de lascas de formatización y de reactivación de filos. El conjunto zooarqueológico se compone mayormente de restos óseos de guanacos. Los moluscos también habrían cumplido un rol significativo en la dieta. Restos óseos de mamíferos marinos, zorros, aves y peces están representados por frecuencias bajas. La composición artefactual y arqueofaunística estaría indicando que el aprovisionamiento de recursos se habría articulado principalmente desde el ámbito costero y no necesariamente en el mar. Se discuten las implicaciones de esta evidencia para las pautas conductuales de cazadores-recolectores en la costa sur de Tierra del Fuego. Palabras Clave: Arqueología de costas, Cazadores-recolectores, Tierra del Fuego, Holoceno Tardío   Abstract This paper presents and discusses the archaeological evidence from Heshkaia 35 site (southern coast of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. This site is located in a coastal setting in the middle section of the Moat River Basin and records occupations during the Late Holocene (ca. 800-500 BP. Technological diversity and the zooarchaeological record point to the development of multiple activities. Lithic artifacts dominate the technological assemblage. Lithic debitage indicates a strong emphasis towards final stages of reduction, shown by the lower occurrence of artifacts with cortex and the high frequency resharpening

  15. Faults in Linux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palix, Nicolas Jean-Michel; Thomas, Gaël; Saha, Suman

    2011-01-01

    In 2001, Chou et al. published a study of faults found by applying a static analyzer to Linux versions 1.0 through 2.4.1. A major result of their work was that the drivers directory contained up to 7 times more of certain kinds of faults than other directories. This result inspired a number...... of development and research efforts on improving the reliability of driver code. Today Linux is used in a much wider range of environments, provides a much wider range of services, and has adopted a new development and release model. What has been the impact of these changes on code quality? Are drivers still...... a major problem? To answer these questions, we have transported the experiments of Chou et al. to Linux versions 2.6.0 to 2.6.33, released between late 2003 and early 2010. We find that Linux has more than doubled in size during this period, but that the number of faults per line of code has been...

  16. The Sorong Fault Zone, Indonesia: Mapping a Fault Zone Offshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, S.; Hall, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Sorong Fault Zone is a left-lateral strike-slip fault zone in eastern Indonesia, extending westwards from the Bird's Head peninsula of West Papua towards Sulawesi. It is the result of interactions between the Pacific, Caroline, Philippine Sea, and Australian Plates and much of it is offshore. Previous research on the fault zone has been limited by the low resolution of available data offshore, leading to debates over the extent, location, and timing of movements, and the tectonic evolution of eastern Indonesia. Different studies have shown it north of the Sula Islands, truncated south of Halmahera, continuing to Sulawesi, or splaying into a horsetail fan of smaller faults. Recently acquired high resolution multibeam bathymetry of the seafloor (with a resolution of 15-25 meters), and 2D seismic lines, provide the opportunity to trace the fault offshore. The position of different strands can be identified. On land, SRTM topography shows that in the northern Bird's Head the fault zone is characterised by closely spaced E-W trending faults. NW of the Bird's Head offshore there is a fold and thrust belt which terminates some strands. To the west of the Bird's Head offshore the fault zone diverges into multiple strands trending ENE-WSW. Regions of Riedel shearing are evident west of the Bird's Head, indicating sinistral strike-slip motion. Further west, the ENE-WSW trending faults turn to an E-W trend and there are at least three fault zones situated immediately south of Halmahera, north of the Sula Islands, and between the islands of Sanana and Mangole where the fault system terminates in horsetail strands. South of the Sula islands some former normal faults at the continent-ocean boundary with the North Banda Sea are being reactivated as strike-slip faults. The fault zone does not currently reach Sulawesi. The new fault map differs from previous interpretations concerning the location, age and significance of different parts of the Sorong Fault Zone. Kinematic

  17. La ganadería lanar en Madrid y su tierra durante la Edad Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Puñal Fernández

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de la ganadería en general y ovina en particular ofrece un campo muy generoso de investigación porque permite conocer muchas de las estructuras socioeconómicas regionales y locales de un país o territorio. En el caso de Madrid dicho estudio es importante por cuanto en el conjunto de las labores agropecuarias del concejo, las ganaderas fueron las que mejor marcaron su desarrollo económico. La tierra madrileña es tierra de ganado, sobre todo lanar, y ello fue el punto de referencia de diversas actividades económicas que iban desde el abastecimiento de carne para la alimentación hasta la obtención de materia prima, lana y pieles, para las industrias textil y del cuero. Para tener una visión más amplia e interdisciplinar el presente estudio se ha hecho desde una doble perspectiva económica y social. Desde la ganadería estante y local a la trashumante, con especial mención a la Mesta y toda su problemática, así como los aspectos cuantitativos derivados del número de ovejas y el tamaño y tipo de los rebaños y sus aspectos fiscales concomitantes. En relación a ello toda la infraestructura de pastos y cañadas. Los aspectos sociales se refieren a los propietarios de ovejas como una oligarquía rural de labradores enriquecidos, así como a los trabajadores del ganado, es decir los pastores, sus contratos, salarios y condiciones de vida. En conjunto el panorama que se ofrece es muy significativo y permite acercarnos un poco más a la realidad socioeconómica del Madrid medieval.The study of the livestock in general and sheep in particular, offers a huge field to research as it allows to know many of the local and regional socioeconomíc structures of a city or country. In the case of Madrid, that study is important because the sheep livestock is, among the rest of the agricultural activities, the main one for its contribution to the economic development. Madrid is a livestock área, mainly for sheep, as the point of

  18. ESR dating of fault rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Kwon

    2003-02-01

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then grow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs. grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size; these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the Gori nuclear reactor. Most of the ESR signals of fault rocks collected from the basement are saturated. This indicates that the last movement of the faults had occurred before the Quaternary period. However, ESR dates from the Oyong fault zone range from 370 to 310 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity of the Oyong fault zone continued into the Pleistocene

  19. Large earthquakes and creeping faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ruth A.

    2017-01-01

    Faults are ubiquitous throughout the Earth's crust. The majority are silent for decades to centuries, until they suddenly rupture and produce earthquakes. With a focus on shallow continental active-tectonic regions, this paper reviews a subset of faults that have a different behavior. These unusual faults slowly creep for long periods of time and produce many small earthquakes. The presence of fault creep and the related microseismicity helps illuminate faults that might not otherwise be located in fine detail, but there is also the question of how creeping faults contribute to seismic hazard. It appears that well-recorded creeping fault earthquakes of up to magnitude 6.6 that have occurred in shallow continental regions produce similar fault-surface rupture areas and similar peak ground shaking as their locked fault counterparts of the same earthquake magnitude. The behavior of much larger earthquakes on shallow creeping continental faults is less well known, because there is a dearth of comprehensive observations. Computational simulations provide an opportunity to fill the gaps in our understanding, particularly of the dynamic processes that occur during large earthquake rupture and arrest.

  20. ESR dating of fault rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-15

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then grow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs. grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size; these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the Gori nuclear reactor. Most of the ESR signals of fault rocks collected from the basement are saturated. This indicates that the last movement of the faults had occurred before the Quaternary period. However, ESR dates from the Oyong fault zone range from 370 to 310 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity of the Oyong fault zone continued into the Pleistocene.

  1. Mires and mire types of Peninsula Mitre, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grootjans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, a field visit by members of the International Mire Conservation Group (IMCG to the Atlantic coast of Peninsula Mitre (the easternmost part of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina gathered information on mire diversity in this remote wild area with largely pristine mires. Our expedition showed that Peninsula Mitre hosts a wide variety of habitats across two exciting ecological gradients: (i a regional west–east gradient from Sphagnum magellanicum dominated mires in the west to Astelia pumila dominated mires in the east; and (ii a gradient from extremely acid to extremely carbonate rich mire types induced by local bedrock. The large variety of hydromorphological mire types comprises raised bogs, blanket bogs, sloping fens, string fens, flat fens and calcareous spring fens. In the Atlantic coastal area, the abundance of Sphagnum magellanicum in the ombrogenic systems decreases conspicuously from west to east with the species being almost absent in the east. However, the fossil record shows thick layers of Sphagnum peat close beneath mire surfaces everywhere, indicating that substantial hydrological and ecological changes have taken place in the recent past. We observed large scale erosion in the mires along the Atlantic coast. Locally, well-developed fen systems are present, including calcareous spring fens with active travertine (tufa deposition. The regional vegetation can be regarded as a parallel to that of boreal oceanic regions in the northern hemisphere. The mires and peatlands of the peninsula are of global significance. They are impressive, peculiar, extensive and largely pristine mires in a globally very rare climatic and biogeographical context embedded in a landscape with significant natural dynamics. The damaging impact of free-roaming cattle on the mires and upland vegetation is, however, conspicuous and needs urgent attention. Peninsula Mitre deserves the highest possible protection, e.g. as a provincial protected

  2. Real-time fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Zhiwei; Ding, Steven X.; Cecati, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    This "Special Section on Real-Time Fault Diagnosis and Fault-Tolerant Control" of the IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics is motivated to provide a forum for academic and industrial communities to report recent theoretic/application results in real-time monitoring, diagnosis, and fault-tolerant design, and exchange the ideas about the emerging research direction in this field. Twenty-three papers were eventually selected through a strict peer-reviewed procedure, which represent the mo...

  3. Imaging of Subsurface Faults using Refraction Migration with Fault Flooding

    KAUST Repository

    Metwally, Ahmed Mohsen Hassan

    2017-05-31

    We propose a novel method for imaging shallow faults by migration of transmitted refraction arrivals. The assumption is that there is a significant velocity contrast across the fault boundary that is underlain by a refracting interface. This procedure, denoted as refraction migration with fault flooding, largely overcomes the difficulty in imaging shallow faults with seismic surveys. Numerical results successfully validate this method on three synthetic examples and two field-data sets. The first field-data set is next to the Gulf of Aqaba and the second example is from a seismic profile recorded in Arizona. The faults detected by refraction migration in the Gulf of Aqaba data were in agreement with those indicated in a P-velocity tomogram. However, a new fault is detected at the end of the migration image that is not clearly seen in the traveltime tomogram. This result is similar to that for the Arizona data where the refraction image showed faults consistent with those seen in the P-velocity tomogram, except it also detected an antithetic fault at the end of the line. This fault cannot be clearly seen in the traveltime tomogram due to the limited ray coverage.

  4. Imaging of Subsurface Faults using Refraction Migration with Fault Flooding

    KAUST Repository

    Metwally, Ahmed Mohsen Hassan; Hanafy, Sherif; Guo, Bowen; Kosmicki, Maximillian Sunflower

    2017-01-01

    We propose a novel method for imaging shallow faults by migration of transmitted refraction arrivals. The assumption is that there is a significant velocity contrast across the fault boundary that is underlain by a refracting interface. This procedure, denoted as refraction migration with fault flooding, largely overcomes the difficulty in imaging shallow faults with seismic surveys. Numerical results successfully validate this method on three synthetic examples and two field-data sets. The first field-data set is next to the Gulf of Aqaba and the second example is from a seismic profile recorded in Arizona. The faults detected by refraction migration in the Gulf of Aqaba data were in agreement with those indicated in a P-velocity tomogram. However, a new fault is detected at the end of the migration image that is not clearly seen in the traveltime tomogram. This result is similar to that for the Arizona data where the refraction image showed faults consistent with those seen in the P-velocity tomogram, except it also detected an antithetic fault at the end of the line. This fault cannot be clearly seen in the traveltime tomogram due to the limited ray coverage.

  5. Geoprocesamiento aplicado al analisis del uso de la tierra en el municipio de San Pedro de Ycuamandyyú , Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Agustín Figueredo Torres

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El municipio de San Pedro de Ycuamandyyú está ubicado en el noroeste de la región oriental del Paraguay. Los objetivos de este trabajo constituyen la elaboración y el análisis del mapa del uso de la tierra para la planificación de actividades forestales en la zona, para los cuales se utilizaron técnicas de cartografía, sensores remotos y (SIG Sistemas de Informaciones Geográficas, que posibilitaron el análisis de informaciones provenientes de imágenes satelitales LANDSAT TM 5, de cartas topográficas y de (GPS Sistema de Posicionamiento Global, que permitió el procesamiento de datos en el programa Idrisi 2.0 para la confección de un mapa que posibilitó el análisis sobre la situación del uso de la tierra en el municipio. Se distinguió categorías predominantes como praderas altas o campos naturales, uso agropecuario y praderas bajas o bañados, siendo la cobertura forestal con valor inferior al 25%. Se concluyó que el municipio presenta bastantes áreas de campos naturales y uso agropecuario que podrían utilizarse para actividades de reforestación, sea con especies nativas o exóticas de rápido crecimiento con la finalidad de obtener valores de cobertura forestal en equilibrio con las demás categorías de uso de la tierra.

  6. Geoprocesamiento aplicado al analisis del uso de la tierra en el municipio de San Pedro de Ycuamandyyú, Paraguay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Agustín Torres Figueredo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available El municipio de San Pedro de Ycuamandyyú está ubicado en el noroeste de la región oriental del Paraguay. Los objetivos de este trabajo constituyen la elaboración y el análisis del mapa del uso de la tierra para la planificación de actividades forestales en la zona, para los cuales se utilizaron técnicas de cartografía, sensores remotos y (SIG Sistemas de Informaciones Geográficas, que posibilitaron el análisis de informaciones provenientes de imágenes satelitales LANDSAT TM 5, de cartas topográficas y de (GPS Sistema de Posicionamiento Global, que permitió el procesamiento de datos en el programa Idrisi 2.0 para la confección de un mapa que posibilitó el análisis sobre la situación del uso de la tierra en el municipio. Se distinguió categorías predominantes como praderas altas o campos naturales, uso agropecuario y praderas bajas o bañados, siendo la cobertura forestal con valor inferior al 25%. Se concluyó que el municipio presenta bastantes áreas de campos naturales y uso agropecuario que podrían utilizarse para actividades de reforestación, sea con especies nativas o exóticas de rápido crecimiento con la finalidad de obtener valores de cobertura forestal en equilibrio con las demás categorías de uso de la tierra.

  7. GEOPROCESAMIENTO APLICADO AL ANALISIS DEL USO DE LA TIERRA EN EL MUNICIPIO DE SAN PEDRO DE YCUAMANDYYÚ, PARAGUAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Agustín Torres Figueredo

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available El municipio de San Pedro de Ycuamandyyú está ubicado en el noroeste de la región oriental del Paraguay. Los objetivos de este trabajo constituyen la elaboración y el análisis del mapa del uso de la tierra para la planificación de actividades forestales en la zona, para los cuales se utilizaron técnicas de cartografía, sensores remotos y (SIG Sistemas de Informaciones Geográficas, que posibilitaron el análisis de informaciones provenientes de imágenes satelitales LANDSAT TM 5, de cartas topográficas y de (GPS Sistema de Posicionamiento Global, que permitió el procesamiento de datos en el programa Idrisi 2.0 para la confección de un mapa que posibilitó el análisis sobre la situación del uso de la tierra en el municipio. Se distinguió categorías predominantes como praderas altas o campos naturales, uso agropecuario y praderas bajas o bañados, siendo la cobertura forestal con valor inferior al 25%. Se concluyó que el municipio presenta bastantes áreas de campos naturales y uso agropecuario que podrían utilizarse para actividades de reforestación, sea con especies nativas o exóticas de rápido crecimiento con la finalidad de obtener valores de cobertura forestal en equilibrio con las demás categorías de uso de la tierra.

  8. El acaparamiento de tierras como proceso dinámico. Las estrategias de los actores en contextos de estancamiento económico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gras

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende contribuir a la comprensión de los procesos de acaparamiento de tierras. A partir de un análisis realizado en el norte de Córdoba (Argentina, se sugiere que dicho fenómeno: (a no es lineal, uniforme ni se incrementa de manera sostenida en el tiempo; y (b no se limita a la concentración de tierras sino que integra recursos estratégicos (financieros, tecnológicos, gerenciales que convergen en el objetivo más general de acaparamiento de capital. Analizamos una dinámica específica, la “ralentización” o disminución en la cantidad de tierra controlada por las empresas, bajo la hipótesis que ella no constituye necesariamente una retracción del acaparamiento.

  9. Modelos del planeta Tierra en escolares rurales de Chile / Planet Earth models about students in rural schools from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Alonqueo Boudon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar los modelos del planeta Tierra en escolares mapuches y no mapuches de procedencia rural. Los participantes fueron 40 escolares distribuidos en dos grupos de edad, quienes respondieron a una tarea cognitiva que indaga la representación de la forma del planeta Tierra. En base al grado de acuerdo con la representación científica, cada participante fue categorizado en uno de cuatro modelos del planeta Tierra. El modelo 4, concordante con el conocimiento científico, no fue observado, pues la mayoría de los participantes se concentra en el modelo 3 en el que coexisten conocimientos previos con algunos elementos científicos. En los niños no mapuches se aprecia que el modelo del planeta Tierra se ajusta a los significados científicos a medida que aumenta el conocimiento escolar. Por el contrario, en los niños mapuches no se observa esta tendencia. Se discute el papel de la cultura y la enseñanza en el aprendizaje del modelo científico del planeta. ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to identify planet Earth models in mapuches and non mapuches students of rural origin. The participants were 40 students divided into two age groups who responded to a cognitive task which explores the representation of the shape of the planet Earth. Based on the degree of agreement with the scientific representation, each participant was categorized into one of four models of planet Earth. Model 4, consistent with the scientific knowledge was not observed because the majority of the participants were concentrated in Model 3. In non mapuche children, it is observed that the model of the planet Earth is adjusted to the scientific meaning in accordance with the increase of school knowledge. On the other hand, this trend is not observed in mapuche children. The role of culture and teaching is discussed in the learning of planet scientific model.

  10. Género, propiedad y empoderamiento: tierra, Estado y mercado en América Latina [Reseña

    OpenAIRE

    García Núñez, Luis Fernando; León, Magdalena; Deere, Carmen Diana

    2001-01-01

    Es un texto de una gran importancia para el momento actual. Un documento que trabaja el problema de género desde otras perspectivas. Integra el conflicto alrededor de las fronteras de lo social, lo político, lo cultural y lo económico. "Desde nuestra investigación inicial en los años setenta y ochenta se habían realizado relativamente pocos estudios sobre género y derecho a la tierra, y casi no se había prestado atención a las implicaciones de género de la contrarreforma agraria neoliberal". ...

  11. Tierra y negocios en Salta a fines del siglo XIX y principios del XX. Estudio de casos

    OpenAIRE

    del Valle Michel, Azucena; Parrón, Mario Gustavo; Corregidor, Blanca Esther

    2017-01-01

    El trabajo analiza las estrategias desarrolladas por Vicente Arquati y Paulino Echazú en diferentes espacios socioeconómicos de la provincia de Salta, entre fines del siglo XIX y principios del XX. Las mismas, posibilitaron la concentración de tierras, la comercialización de productos y otras actividades lucrativas. Sobre estas cuestiones se plantean interrogantes para identificar los factores explicativos de la imposibilidad de esos sujetos de mantener sus logros económicos, a pesar de haber...

  12. Difference fractal surfaces poured earth floors Tamaulipas / Diferencia fractal en superficies de tierra vertida con suelo de Tamaulipas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Jonathan Suárez Dominguez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Poured earth is a sustainable construction and economically feasible technique to develop in Tamaulipas, by the materials availability and traditional manufacturing procedures uses. There are several variables to be considered in these elements for their properties, among them it can be found roughness and porosity analysis which are important because they are related to material mechanical resistance and durability. This study aimed to characterize solid surfaces using fractal dimension to know its uniformity and porosity, compared with a concrete surface. Solids were obtained from poured earth of two combinations of soils stabilized with cement from the state of Tamaulipas. We found that a surface of a sample, obtained with ground, is more uniform than poured concrete surface, and that fractal dimension is higher while porosity increases; results suggest that this is because of the presence of clay in the poured earth mixtures. La tierra vertida es una técnica constructiva sustentable y económicamente viable para desarrollarse en Tamaulipas, por la disponibilidad de materiales y procedimientos de fabricación similares a los tradicionales. Son diversas las variables que deben estudiarse en estos elementos para conocer sus propiedades, entre las que se encuentran la rugosidad y la porosidad, las cuales son importantes debido a su estrecha relación con la resistencia mecánica y durabilidad del material estudiado. El presente trabajo tuvo por objetivo caracterizar superficies sólidas a partir de la dimensión fractal para conocer su uniformidad y porosidad, comparándola con una superficie de concreto. Los sólidos fueron obtenidos a partir de tierra vertida conformada de dos combinaciones de suelos estabilizadas con cemento provenientes del estado de Tamaulipas. Se encontró que una superficie de tierra vertida es menos irregular que una superficie de concreto además de tener una menor porosidad reflejada en una menor dimensión fractal

  13. Tenencia de la tierra y desarrollo rural sostenible: algunos puntos para la reflexión en el caso venezolano.

    OpenAIRE

    Delahaye, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    1.- Artículos Tenencia de la tierra y desarrollo rural sostenible: algunos puntos para la reflexión en el caso venezolano. Land tenure and sustained rural development: points for reflecting on the Venezuelan case. Tenure de la terre et développement rural durable : quelques points pour la réflexion dans le cas du Venezuela. Delahaye, Olivier Paradigmas del mercado financiero rural en países en desarrollo. Paradigms in the rural financial markets in developing countries. ...

  14. Acceso a la tierra de los ex huasipungueros en la hacienda "Carpuela", en el valle del Chota.

    OpenAIRE

    Villa Zura, Marco Patricio

    2015-01-01

    El propo?sito del presente estudio de investigacio?n es abordar como fue el acceso a la tierra de los ex huasipungueros en la hacienda Carpuela en el Valle del Chota, parroquia Ambuqui?, canto?n Ibarra, Provincia de Imbabura, quienes fortalecieron la organizacio?n comunitaria, apoya?ndose en la Ley de Reforma Agraria, ejecutada por el Instituto Ecuatoriano de Reforma Agraria y Colonizacio?n de 1964 y la de 1973 que continuo. Adema?s autores teo?ricos reflejan la historia de los jesuitas qu...

  15. Cultivable microflora and endo mycorrhizas obtained in litter forest (Paramo Guerrero - Finca Puente de Tierra) Zipaquira, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, Eleonora; Celis, Sebastian; Galindez, Ximena; Moratto, Claudia; Sanchez, Jimena; Garcia, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The count of cultivable microorganisms (bacteria and fungi), cellulolytic microorganisms and endo mycorrhizas present in litter forest (property Puente de Tierra) in the Guerrero's moor, Colombia was made. The most frequently isolated microorganisms belonged to the staphylococcus, bacillus, pseudomonas, micrococcus, penicillium and rhodotorulagenus and cladosporium sp., which is a cellulolytic microorganism, was isolated in carboxymethyl cellulose agar. In addition eight morphotypes of endomycorrhizas were found, species of glomus and acaulospora predominated among them. This study contributes with the knowledge of the cultivable microorganisms of litter that have been little explored in moor ecosystems

  16. Forestaciones en tierras agrarias de la Región de Murcia : cambios medioambientales y paisajísticos

    OpenAIRE

    González Botía, Miguel Ángel

    2017-01-01

    El objetivo principal de esta tesis ha sido el estudio de las consecuencias derivadas de las forestaciones de tierras agrarias abandonadas en la Región de Murcia (FOTARM), considerada una medida agroambiental de la PAC, que pretende paliar los graves problemas de erosión, degradación y desertificación, derivados de dicho abandono. Primeramente se ha realizado un minucioso análisis de las forestaciones, que se llevaron a cabo en dos periodos: el primero (y principal) de 1994 a 1999, (llegando ...

  17. Wilshire fault: Earthquakes in Hollywood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummon, Cheryl; Schneider, Craig L.; Yeats, Robert S.; Dolan, James F.; Sieh, Kerry E.; Huftile, Gary J.

    1994-04-01

    The Wilshire fault is a potentially seismogenic, blind thrust fault inferred to underlie and cause the Wilshire arch, a Quaternary fold in the Hollywood area, just west of downtown Los Angeles, California. Two inverse models, based on the Wilshire arch, allow us to estimate the location and slip rate of the Wilshire fault, which may be illuminated by a zone of microearthquakes. A fault-bend fold model indicates a reverse-slip rate of 1.5-1.9 mm/yr, whereas a three-dimensional elastic-dislocation model indicates a right-reverse slip rate of 2.6-3.2 mm/yr. The Wilshire fault is a previously unrecognized seismic hazard directly beneath Hollywood and Beverly Hills, distinct from the faults under the nearby Santa Monica Mountains.

  18. What is Fault Tolerant Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Frei, C. W.; Kraus, K.

    2000-01-01

    Faults in automated processes will often cause undesired reactions and shut-down of a controlled plant, and the consequences could be damage to the plant, to personnel or the environment. Fault-tolerant control is the synonym for a set of recent techniques that were developed to increase plant...... availability and reduce the risk of safety hazards. Its aim is to prevent that simple faults develop into serious failure. Fault-tolerant control merges several disciplines to achieve this goal, including on-line fault diagnosis, automatic condition assessment and calculation of remedial actions when a fault...... is detected. The envelope of the possible remedial actions is wide. This paper introduces tools to analyze and explore structure and other fundamental properties of an automated system such that any redundancy in the process can be fully utilized to enhance safety and a availability....

  19. Cambio del uso de la tierra y pérdida de la cobertura boscosa, comunidades agrarias Sechina, La Ensenada y Cerro San Gil, Izabal Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddi Alejandro Vanegas Chacón

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available En Guatemala, pocas temáticas son abordadas con tanta pasión como el acceso a la tierra y sus relaciones de productividad. Ante el juicio histórico y la evidencia de las estadísticas se deslumbra que las políticas agrarias de los últimos cincuenta años, si bien mitigaron la pobreza en el agro rural conllevaron con ellas daños ambientales irreversibles y deudas agrarias millonarias. Se estudió la dinámica del cambio de uso de la tierra y la pérdida de la cobertura boscosa en las comunidades agrarias beneficiadas por la Ley de Transformación Agraria, Sechina, La Ensenada y Cerro San Gil ubicadas en el departamento de Izabal. Se utilizó fotointerpretación y se realizaron estudios semidetallados de la intensidad de la tierra para el periodo 1958 a 2010. Se concluyó que bajo las premisas de “mejora a la tierra” de la Ley de Transformación Agraria ocurrió cambio de uso y cobertura de la tierra, de forestal a agropecuaria, en las comunidades agrarias Sechina 42%, La Ensenada 46,2% y Cerro San Gil 48,6%, donde se promovieron sistemas de aprovechamiento agrícola que conllevaron al sobre-uso de las tierras en 42%, 78% y 30%, respectivamente. Esto sugiere, que la adquisición de la tierra no es el fin, más bien es el medio, para promover desarrollo rural sostenible, a través de acompañamiento técnico agropecuario, monitoreo y evaluación tanto económica como ambiental.

  20. Advanced cloud fault tolerance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumangali, K.; Benny, Niketa

    2017-11-01

    Cloud computing has become a prevalent on-demand service on the internet to store, manage and process data. A pitfall that accompanies cloud computing is the failures that can be encountered in the cloud. To overcome these failures, we require a fault tolerance mechanism to abstract faults from users. We have proposed a fault tolerant architecture, which is a combination of proactive and reactive fault tolerance. This architecture essentially increases the reliability and the availability of the cloud. In the future, we would like to compare evaluations of our proposed architecture with existing architectures and further improve it.

  1. Final Technical Report: PV Fault Detection Tool.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Bruce Hardison [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Christian Birk [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The PV Fault Detection Tool project plans to demonstrate that the FDT can (a) detect catastrophic and degradation faults and (b) identify the type of fault. This will be accomplished by collecting fault signatures using different instruments and integrating this information to establish a logical controller for detecting, diagnosing and classifying each fault.

  2. Fault current limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmann, Francis Anthony

    2013-10-08

    A fault current limiter (FCL) includes a series of high permeability posts for collectively define a core for the FCL. A DC coil, for the purposes of saturating a portion of the high permeability posts, surrounds the complete structure outside of an enclosure in the form of a vessel. The vessel contains a dielectric insulation medium. AC coils, for transporting AC current, are wound on insulating formers and electrically interconnected to each other in a manner such that the senses of the magnetic field produced by each AC coil in the corresponding high permeability core are opposing. There are insulation barriers between phases to improve dielectric withstand properties of the dielectric medium.

  3. Estudios florísticos y ecológicos sobre las algas de agua dulce de turberas de Tierra del Fuego

    OpenAIRE

    Mataloni, María Gabriela

    1994-01-01

    En esta Tesis Doctoral se realizan diversas investigaciones florísticas y ecológicas sobre las algas de turberas de Sphagnum de la provincia de Tierra Fuego. Para ello se condijeron básicamente dos trabajos. en la primera parte se estudiaron ocho ojos de agua pertenecientes a siete turberas ubicadas en el sur de Tierra del Fuego. En cada una de ellas se muestrearon tanto el fitoplancton del agua libre como las algas que viven asociadas a Sphagnum a lo largo de un gradiente ambiental caracteri...

  4. El acaparamiento de tierras como proceso dinámico. Las estrategias de los actores en contextos de estancamiento económico

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Gras; Daniel M. Cáceres

    2017-01-01

    Este artículo pretende contribuir a la comprensión de los procesos de acaparamiento de tierras. A partir de un análisis realizado en el norte de Córdoba (Argentina), se sugiere que dicho fenómeno: (a) no es lineal, uniforme ni se incrementa de manera sostenida en el tiempo; y (b) no se limita a la concentración de tierras sino que integra recursos estratégicos (financieros, tecnológicos, gerenciales) que convergen en el objetivo más general de acaparamiento de capital. Analizamos una dinámica...

  5. El Límite a la Protección de las Tierras Indígenas de la Ley 19.253

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Salamanca Huenchullán

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aborda el tema del límite a la protección de las tierras indígenas, que como una exigencia del interés nacional introduce en la legislación chilena la Ley Indígena 19.253, en su relación con la expropiación para la construcción de obras públicas, que en virtud de la utilidad pública se construyen sobre estas mismas tierras.

  6. Fault Management Design Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John C.; Johnson, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Development of dependable systems relies on the ability of the system to determine and respond to off-nominal system behavior. Specification and development of these fault management capabilities must be done in a structured and principled manner to improve our understanding of these systems, and to make significant gains in dependability (safety, reliability and availability). Prior work has described a fundamental taxonomy and theory of System Health Management (SHM), and of its operational subset, Fault Management (FM). This conceptual foundation provides a basis to develop framework to design and implement FM design strategies that protect mission objectives and account for system design limitations. Selection of an SHM strategy has implications for the functions required to perform the strategy, and it places constraints on the set of possible design solutions. The framework developed in this paper provides a rigorous and principled approach to classifying SHM strategies, as well as methods for determination and implementation of SHM strategies. An illustrative example is used to describe the application of the framework and the resulting benefits to system and FM design and dependability.

  7. Evaluación del efecto insecticida de tierra de diatomeas sobre Triatoma infestans (Hemíptera, Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana L Bilbao

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available El Triatoma infestans es el principal vector de la enfermedad de Chagas en Argentina. La tierra de diatomeas (TD es un producto natural que se comercializa actualmente con fines insecticidas y que produce la muerte por deshidratación. Se evaluó la eficacia insecticida de TD al 60% de pureza, proveniente del yacimiento La Iglesiana (San Juan, Argentina sobre ninfas V y adultos de T.infestans. Se ensayaron dos dosis: 112,5 g/m2 (T1 y 225 g/m2 (T2, con cuatro réplicas por tratamiento, con cinco ejemplares, incluyendo los controles (TC en el laboratorio. Se contaron los individuos vivos y muertos durante cinco días. No se encontró diferencias en la mortalidad (ANOVA, p>0,05 en los adultos (T1: 40%, T2: 25% y TC: 30% ni en las ninfas V (T1: 10%, T2: 15% y TC: 10%. Se concluye que la tierra de diatomeas del yacimiento La Iglesiana, en las condiciones de laboratorio evaluadas, no posee capacidad insecticida sobre T.infestans.

  8. Crecimiento ganadero y ocupación de tierras públicas, causas de conflictividad en la frontera bonaerense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Enrique Barba

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sin dudas, la forma más visible de violencia practicada en la frontera de Buenos Aires durante los siglos XVIII y XIX fue la guerra entre el blanco y las diferentes parcialidades indígenas. Si bien puede afirmarse en sentido amplio que dicha guerra fue permanente, esta se intensificó en momentos determinados coincidentes con lo que podemos calificar, en rasgos generales, períodos de expansión ganadera. La presente colaboración intenta señalar entonces cuatro momentos en el proceso de expansión ganadera cuyas características generales fueron el aumento de los rebaños y ocupación de nuevas tierras, siendo estos hechos seguidos por la reacción de los indios quienes incrementaron los malones, pequeños en general y eventualmente masivos, en busca de los ganados de todo tipo existentes en las estancias bonaerenses. Los cuatro períodos a estudiar son: 1º a partir de las últimas vaquerías (1718; 2º la formación del virreinato y las nuevas condiciones de comercio; 3º la expansión ganadera a partir de 1810 y la ocupación de tierras más allá del Salado y 4º y el gran crecimiento a partir de Caseros

  9. Plan de manejo sostenible de tierra para la producción de leche en la UBPC Aguadita, Cienfuegos, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eligia de la C Cuellar

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio en la UBPC Aguadita, del municipio Rodas _provincia Cienfuegos, Cuba_, con el objetivo de elaborar un plan de manejo sostenible del suelo para incrementar la producción de leche. Se utilizó la guía contenida en el manual de procedimientos para la implementación del manejo sostenible de tierra. Los pasos de la guía permitieron concebir una investigación no experimental, de tipo correlacional/múltiple, en la que se utilizaron métodos teóricos y prácticos con sus correspondientes técnicas (entrevistas, encuestas, revisión documental, observación directa; y se realizaron mediciones en el lugar, con la aplicación de diez herramientas metodológicas. Se demostró que la baja producción de leche en la UBPC es causada fundamentalmente por la degradación de los suelos, la mala calidad de los pastos y la deficiente gestión del conocimiento, lo que coincide con la principal barrera para la aplicación del manejo sostenible de tierra. A partir de estos resultados se elaboró el plan de manejo sostenible, como herramienta que contribuye a desarrollar acciones que mitiguen el impacto negativo de la degradación de suelos en el rendimiento lechero de la unidad.

  10. Diversity of endosymbiotic Nostoc in Gunnera magellanica from Tierra del Fuego, Chile [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Martínez, M A; de Los Ríos, A; Sancho, L G; Pérez-Ortega, S

    2013-08-01

    Global warming is causing ice retreat in glaciers worldwide, most visibly over the last few decades in some areas of the planet. One of the most affected areas is the region of Tierra del Fuego (southern South America). Vascular plant recolonisation of recently deglaciated areas in this region is initiated by Gunnera magellanica, which forms symbiotic associations with the cyanobacterial genus Nostoc, a trait that likely confers advantages in this colonisation process. This symbiotic association in the genus Gunnera is notable as it represents the only known symbiotic relationship between angiosperms and cyanobacteria. The aim of this work was to study the genetic diversity of the Nostoc symbionts in Gunnera at three different, nested scale levels: specimen, population and region. Three different genomic regions were examined in the study: a fragment of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (16S), the RuBisCO large subunit gene coupled with its promoter sequence and a chaperon-like protein (rbcLX) and the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The identity of Nostoc as the symbiont was confirmed in all the infected rhizome tissue analysed. Strains isolated in the present study were closely related to strains known to form symbioses with other organisms, such as lichen-forming fungi or bryophytes. We found 12 unique haplotypes in the 16S rRNA (small subunit) region analysis, 19 unique haplotypes in the ITS region analysis and 57 in the RuBisCO proteins region (rbcLX). No genetic variability was found among Nostoc symbionts within a single host plant while Nostoc populations among different host plants within a given sampling site revealed major differences. Noteworthy, interpopulation variation was also shown between recently deglaciated soils and more ancient ones, between eastern and western sites and between northern and southern slopes of Cordillera Darwin. The cell structure of the symbiotic relationship was observed with low-temperature scanning

  11. Accelerometer having integral fault null

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-08-01

    An improved accelerometer is introduced. It comprises a transducer responsive to vibration in machinery which produces an electrical signal related to the magnitude and frequency of the vibration; and a decoding circuit responsive to the transducer signal which produces a first fault signal to produce a second fault signal in which ground shift effects are nullified.

  12. Checklist of the Discomycetes (Fungi of Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego and adjacent antarctic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma J. Gamundí

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La información brindada en este catálogo consiste en registrar las especies de hongos pertenecientes a los órdenes Cyttariales, Helotiales, Ostropales, Pezizales, Rhytismatales y Thelebolales (Discomycetes coleccionadas en Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego y áreas adyacentes antárticas (Patagonia. Además datos sobre sus organismos asociados fueron localizados, resumidos, validados y editados. Las fuentes de información fueron las exsiccatae depositadas en colecciones de Argentina y otros países y de las publicaciones listadas en la bibliografía. Otros registros derivaron de observaciones de campo sobre material fresco y colecciones de referencia. La información fue acumulada en un sistema computarizado relacional de datos taxonómicos, nomenclaturales, bibliográficos, de distribución geográfica y de observaciones biológicas. Este sistema permite la acumulación de datos paralelos en diferentes idiomas, y distingue la información original de la opinión corriente de lo que puede significar esa información. En la Biological Records Database, 5029 registros fueron creados para observaciones sobre la ocurrencia temporal y espacial de los organismos vivos de la región. De éstos, 2613 corresponden a registros de colecciones de Discomycetes de la Patagonia y Tierra del Fuego, con la siguiente distribución: 1854 para a la Argentina, 687 para Chile y 72 para áreas adyacentes antárticas. Excluyendo los sinónimos, los Discomycetes están representados por 361 especies y taxones subespecíficos (160 géneros, 22 familias y 7 órdenes. Los registros remanentes fueron de organismos asociados con los Discomycetes: 163 animales (8 especies, 8 géneros, 6 familias y 5 órdenes; 2 Chromista; 223 hongos (52 especies, 54 géneros, 26 familias y 13 ódenes; 2028 plantas (159 especies, 122 géneros, 59 familias y 39 órdenes. Cada uno de estos taxones (y cada sinónimo conocido está representado por un registro separado en la Base de Datos Taxon

  13. Modelo para evaluar la calidad de las tierras: caso del cultivo de papa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Luis Joel

    2006-06-01

    Hidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Intense Emphasis" />

    Dentro de la busqueda de la sostenibilidad y la competitividad de la agricultura, la evaluacion de la calidad de las tierras es un aspecto basico que permite tomar decisiones sobre  las areas mas apropiadas para ubicar los cultivos y sobre los procesos de degradación de las tierras, con el fin de tomar medidas para su manejo y conservacion. En esta investigacion se

  14. Fault isolatability conditions for linear systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we shall show that an unlimited number of additive single faults can be isolated under mild conditions if a general isolation scheme is applied. Multiple faults are also covered. The approach is algebraic and is based on a set representation of faults, where all faults within a set...... the faults have occurred. The last step is a fault isolation (FI) of the faults occurring in a specific fault set, i.e. equivalent with the standard FI step. A simple example demonstrates how to turn the algebraic necessary and sufficient conditions into explicit algorithms for designing filter banks, which...

  15. ESR dating of the fault rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Kwon

    2005-01-01

    We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the nuclear reactor. The Upcheon fault zone is exposed close to the Ulzin nuclear reactor. The space-time pattern of fault activity on the Upcheon fault deduced from ESR dating of fault gouge can be summarised as follows : this fault zone was reactivated between fault breccia derived from Cretaceous sandstone and tertiary volcanic sedimentary rocks about 2 Ma, 1.5 Ma and 1 Ma ago. After those movements, the Upcheon fault was reactivated between Cretaceous sandstone and fault breccia zone about 800 ka ago. This fault zone was reactivated again between fault breccia derived form Cretaceous sandstone and Tertiary volcanic sedimentary rocks about 650 ka and after 125 ka ago. These data suggest that the long-term(200-500 k.y.) cyclic fault activity of the Upcheon fault zone continued into the Pleistocene. In the Ulzin area, ESR dates from the NW and EW trend faults range from 800 ka to 600 ka NE and EW trend faults were reactivated about between 200 ka and 300 ka ago. On the other hand, ESR date of the NS trend fault is about 400 ka and 50 ka. Results of this research suggest the fault activity near the Ulzin nuclear reactor fault activity continued into the Pleistocene. One ESR date near the Youngkwang nuclear reactor is 200 ka

  16. Fault Current Characteristics of the DFIG under Asymmetrical Fault Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xiao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available During non-severe fault conditions, crowbar protection is not activated and the rotor windings of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG are excited by the AC/DC/AC converter. Meanwhile, under asymmetrical fault conditions, the electrical variables oscillate at twice the grid frequency in synchronous dq frame. In the engineering practice, notch filters are usually used to extract the positive and negative sequence components. In these cases, the dynamic response of a rotor-side converter (RSC and the notch filters have a large influence on the fault current characteristics of the DFIG. In this paper, the influence of the notch filters on the proportional integral (PI parameters is discussed and the simplified calculation models of the rotor current are established. Then, the dynamic performance of the stator flux linkage under asymmetrical fault conditions is also analyzed. Based on this, the fault characteristics of the stator current under asymmetrical fault conditions are studied and the corresponding analytical expressions of the stator fault current are obtained. Finally, digital simulation results validate the analytical results. The research results are helpful to meet the requirements of a practical short-circuit calculation and the construction of a relaying protection system for the power grid with penetration of DFIGs.

  17. Arc fault detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, K.N.

    1999-05-18

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard. 1 fig.

  18. Arc fault detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Kamal N.

    1999-01-01

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard.

  19. Probabilistic assessment of faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foden, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    Probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) is the process by which the probability (or frequency of occurrence) of reactor fault conditions which could lead to unacceptable consequences is assessed. The basic objective of a PSA is to allow a judgement to be made as to whether or not the principal probabilistic requirement is satisfied. It also gives insights into the reliability of the plant which can be used to identify possible improvements. This is explained in the article. The scope of a PSA and the PSA performed by the National Nuclear Corporation (NNC) for the Heysham II and Torness AGRs and Sizewell-B PWR are discussed. The NNC methods for hazards, common cause failure and operator error are mentioned. (UK)

  20. Expansión estatal, política de tierras y desarrollo de la repartición topográfica en Buenos Aires, siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Araceli D'Agostino

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aborda la política de tierras del Estado provincial bonaerensey su relación con el proceso de conformación de la repartición topográfi ca,tomando como punto de partida el contexto de expansión territorial y deincorporación de tierras a la economía provincial abierto luego de la rupturadel vínculo colonial. Se considera que la centralidad de la problemática dela tierra en este contexto impulsó la temprana organización de la reparticióndestinada a: realizar las tareas de reconocimiento, mensura y delimitación delos territorios de dominio público y privado, elaborar un catastro territorial,controlar el traspaso de tierras públicas a particulares, perfeccionar el trazadode pueblos y ejidos y regular las actividades de los agentes encargados de lasmismas, entre otras.

  1. Organización territorial y distribución de la tierra en la comunidad de San Felipe Otlaltepec, Puebla, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús García Maceda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available San Felipe Otlaltepec, una comunidad indígena Popoloca del estado de Puebla, organiza su territorio en secciones, una unidad territorial colonial. Esta organización es la base de la apropiación del territorio urbano y de las tierras agrícolas. Con entrevistas y fotografías aéreas, se construyó un modelo de la conformación original y actual de las viviendas de las secciones y de la apropiación de la tierra, para su comparación. Actualmente, se observa una mezcla de viviendas de diferentes secciones, que no corresponde al arreglo original de las mismas. Situación similar se observó en la distribución de las tierras agrícolas. Estos cambios se deben principalmente a casamientos entre miembros de diferentes secciones, los cuales cambian la posesión de la tierra y la pertenencia a una sección determinada. A pesar de la mezcla de viviendas de diferentes secciones, los entrevistados manifestaron un sentido profundo de pertenencia a la sección a la que pertenecen formalmente.

  2. Regulación en el uso de la tierra con fines preventivos en los alrededores del cuadrante de la antigua comunidad de Cinchona, Alajuela, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esquivel Valverde, Lidier

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La regulación del uso de la tierra permite establecer cuales lugares son aptas para el establecimiento de zonas habitacionales, comercios, industria, actividades agrícolas, actividades turísticas, entre otras, evitando incrementar la vulnerabilidad física o ambiental. El presente artículo se basa en un estudio realizado a la comunidad de Cinchona a raíz del sismo del año 2009, el cual, por las características topográficas y geológicas de la región, generó una cantidad alta de daños a la infraestructura y pérdida de vidas humanas, lo que propició la elaboración de una herramienta técnica normativa que regulara el uso de la tierra en esa zona. La investigación consideró aspectos como el uso de la tierra antes del sismo, tenencia de la tierra, producción agropecuaria, valor de la tierra, pendientes de terreno, geomorfología, capacidad de uso de la tierra, aguas subterráneas, zonas de vida y áreas silvestres y por último las amenazas más relevantes. Como resultado del estudio se presenta en el artículo un resumen de la regulación de tierra propuesta, la cual comprende el sector de Vieja Cinchona (zona devastada por el sismo y las microcuencas cercanas Land use regulations allow to identify suitable places to establish housing, commerce, industry, agricultural activities, and tourism, among others, avoiding to increase physical or environmental vulnerability. This article is based on a study developed at the Cinchona community after the 2009 earthquake, which due to the topographic and geological characteristics generated a lot of damages to infrastructures and losses of human lives. In this context, a normative technical tool was developed to regulate the land use in the zone. The investigation considered aspects such as land use before the earthquake, land possession, farming production, land value, land slopes, geomorphology, land use capacity, underground water, wild life areas and most relevant threats. As a result of

  3. Historia y memoria campesina: silencios y representaciones sobre la lucha por la tierra y la represión en Ongoy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Chati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo sostiene que hay espacios sociales en Perú donde se producen memorias alternativas sobre la violencia política que tuvo lugar entre 1980 y 2000. En Andahuaylas, Apurímac, las narrativas recurrentes hablan acerca de la servidumbre en la hacienda, de la movilización campesina por la restitución de sus tierras, la ocupación de tierras y sobre su violenta represión. Existe esta memoria victoriosa respecto de la ocupación de la tierra, al lado de una memoria de victimización respecto de la guerra interna. Sin embargo, esas representaciones han sido silenciadas a través de estudios oficiales sobre la memoria, que están tan de moda. En Ongoy, Andahuaylas, bajo la apariencia de un conflicto entre las comunidades y hacienda, se encuentran prácticas políticas campesinas en relación con el Estado. Los campesinos desarrollan redes con las instituciones del Estado, sindicatos, estudiantes, inmigrantes, partidos políticos y otros en busca de la restitución de sus tierras. Reúnen documentos que utilizan como apoyo de su memoria y de su precedencia en el territorio. Ellos muestran que la lucha por la tierra que relativamente termina en 1963 con la ocupación de la tierra, la masacre de los campesinos y la represión, tiene orígenes coloniales. Son historias y recuerdos que reconstruyen la lucha por la tierra como un acto heroico y se superponen con otras representaciones más recientes de la violencia política. Para analizar el proceso, reconstruyo lo ocurrido en Ongoy entre 1960 y 1969 en diálogo con los documentos que los campesinos reunieron y con los testimonios de los actores sobre la forma en que se da una lectura posterior a la violencia política.

  4. Absolute age determination of quaternary faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Chang Sik; Lee, Seok Hoon; Choi, Man Sik

    2000-03-01

    To constrain the age of neotectonic fault movement, Rb-Sr, K-Ar, U-series disequilibrium, C-14 and Be-10 methods were applied to the fault gouges, fracture infillings and sediments from the Malbang, Ipsil, Wonwonsa faults faults in the Ulsan fault zone, Yangsan fault in the Yeongdeog area and southeastern coastal area. Rb-Sr and K-Ar data imply that the fault movement of the Ulan fault zone initiated at around 30 Ma and preliminary dating result for the Yang san fault is around 70 Ma in the Yeongdeog area. K-Ar and U-series disequilibrium dating results for fracture infillings in the Ipsil fault are consistent with reported ESR ages. Radiocarbon ages of quaternary sediments from the Jeongjari area are discordant with stratigraphic sequence. Carbon isotope data indicate a difference of sedimentry environment for those samples. Be-10 dating results for the Suryum fault area are consistent with reported OSL results

  5. Absolute age determination of quaternary faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Chang Sik; Lee, Seok Hoon; Choi, Man Sik [Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2000-03-15

    To constrain the age of neotectonic fault movement, Rb-Sr, K-Ar, U-series disequilibrium, C-14 and Be-10 methods were applied to the fault gouges, fracture infillings and sediments from the Malbang, Ipsil, Wonwonsa faults faults in the Ulsan fault zone, Yangsan fault in the Yeongdeog area and southeastern coastal area. Rb-Sr and K-Ar data imply that the fault movement of the Ulan fault zone initiated at around 30 Ma and preliminary dating result for the Yang san fault is around 70 Ma in the Yeongdeog area. K-Ar and U-series disequilibrium dating results for fracture infillings in the Ipsil fault are consistent with reported ESR ages. Radiocarbon ages of quaternary sediments from the Jeongjari area are discordant with stratigraphic sequence. Carbon isotope data indicate a difference of sedimentry environment for those samples. Be-10 dating results for the Suryum fault area are consistent with reported OSL results.

  6. Comparison of Cenozoic Faulting at the Savannah River Site to Fault Characteristics of the Atlantic Coast Fault Province: Implications for Fault Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumbest, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study compares the faulting observed on the Savannah River Site and vicinity with the faults of the Atlantic Coastal Fault Province and concludes that both sets of faults exhibit the same general characteristics and are closely associated. Based on the strength of this association it is concluded that the faults observed on the Savannah River Site and vicinity are in fact part of the Atlantic Coastal Fault Province. Inclusion in this group means that the historical precedent established by decades of previous studies on the seismic hazard potential for the Atlantic Coastal Fault Province is relevant to faulting at the Savannah River Site. That is, since these faults are genetically related the conclusion of ''not capable'' reached in past evaluations applies.In addition, this study establishes a set of criteria by which individual faults may be evaluated in order to assess their inclusion in the Atlantic Coast Fault Province and the related association of the ''not capable'' conclusion

  7. Subaru FATS (fault tracking system)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winegar, Tom W.; Noumaru, Junichi

    2000-07-01

    The Subaru Telescope requires a fault tracking system to record the problems and questions that staff experience during their work, and the solutions provided by technical experts to these problems and questions. The system records each fault and routes it to a pre-selected 'solution-provider' for each type of fault. The solution provider analyzes the fault and writes a solution that is routed back to the fault reporter and recorded in a 'knowledge-base' for future reference. The specifications of our fault tracking system were unique. (1) Dual language capacity -- Our staff speak both English and Japanese. Our contractors speak Japanese. (2) Heterogeneous computers -- Our computer workstations are a mixture of SPARCstations, Macintosh and Windows computers. (3) Integration with prime contractors -- Mitsubishi and Fujitsu are primary contractors in the construction of the telescope. In many cases, our 'experts' are our contractors. (4) Operator scheduling -- Our operators spend 50% of their work-month operating the telescope, the other 50% is spent working day shift at the base facility in Hilo, or day shift at the summit. We plan for 8 operators, with a frequent rotation. We need to keep all operators informed on the current status of all faults, no matter the operator's location.

  8. Evaluación de la tasa de infiltración en tierras agrícolas, forestales y de pastoreo en la subcuenca del río Shullcas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Carlos Gómez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Evaluar y determinar el uso del suelo con mayor tasa de infiltración en la subcuenca del río Shullcas en Huancayo. Métodos: Se desarrolló una investigación básica con diseño correlacional. Los usos actuales de la tierra fueron identificadas y demarcadas, según la normativa peruana de clasificación de tierras por su capacidad de uso mayor; en estas zonas se seleccionó 31 puntos de muestreo al azar usando las herramientas de software ArcGIS, en los que se midieron la infiltración empleando infiltrómetros de doble anillo, se registraron los tipos de cobertura vegetal y se tomaron muestras de suelo para analizar sus contenidos de arcilla, arena, limo y humedad; asimismo densidad aparente y porosidad en laboratorio. Resultados: Las tasas de infiltración promedio, según el tipo de uso de tierras, fueron: 14,04 cm/h para las tierras forestales; 12,42 cm/h para las tierras agrícolas y 2,07 cm/h para las tierras de pastoreo; además, solo el 12,63% de la subcuenca del río Shullcas tiene infiltración mayor a 0,2 cm/h. Conclusiones: No existe diferencia estadística significativa entre la tasa de infiltración de tierras forestales y agrícolas, pero si existe diferencias de la tasa de infiltración de tierras forestales y agrícolas respecto a la tasa de infiltración de tierras de pastoreo.

  9. Why the 2002 Denali fault rupture propagated onto the Totschunda fault: implications for fault branching and seismic hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, David P.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Dawson, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    The propagation of the rupture of the Mw7.9 Denali fault earthquake from the central Denali fault onto the Totschunda fault has provided a basis for dynamic models of fault branching in which the angle of the regional or local prestress relative to the orientation of the main fault and branch plays a principal role in determining which fault branch is taken. GeoEarthScope LiDAR and paleoseismic data allow us to map the structure of the Denali-Totschunda fault intersection and evaluate controls of fault branching from a geological perspective. LiDAR data reveal the Denali-Totschunda fault intersection is structurally simple with the two faults directly connected. At the branch point, 227.2 km east of the 2002 epicenter, the 2002 rupture diverges southeast to become the Totschunda fault. We use paleoseismic data to propose that differences in the accumulated strain on each fault segment, which express differences in the elapsed time since the most recent event, was one important control of the branching direction. We suggest that data on event history, slip rate, paleo offsets, fault geometry and structure, and connectivity, especially on high slip rate-short recurrence interval faults, can be used to assess the likelihood of branching and its direction. Analysis of the Denali-Totschunda fault intersection has implications for evaluating the potential for a rupture to propagate across other types of fault intersections and for characterizing sources of future large earthquakes.

  10. Architecture of thrust faults with alongstrike variations in fault-plane dip: anatomy of the Lusatian Fault, Bohemian Massif

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Coubal, Miroslav; Adamovič, Jiří; Málek, Jiří; Prouza, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 3 (2014), s. 183-208 ISSN 1802-6222 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:67985891 Keywords : fault architecture * fault plane geometry * drag structures * thrust fault * sandstone * Lusatian Fault Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.405, year: 2014

  11. El movimiento de los trabajadores rurales sin tierra y la reforma agraria en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo FERNÁNDEZ FRANCO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este artículo, es un primer avance, de carácter exploratorio, de una investigación más amplia que el autor está llevando a cabo sobre el mismo tema. Centrado en el "Movimiento de los Trabajadores Rurales sin Tierra", habitualmente identificado en Brasil por las siglas MST, se contempla dicho movimiento social desde sus orígenes más remotos, al final de los años 50, hasta nuestros días situándolo, por un lado, en las transformaciones políticas y en parte sociales, y en el largo y lento proceso de una reforma agraria inconclusa, por otro. De forma descriptiva, se desarrollan, en un primer paso, los antecedentes, proceso de constitución, etapas y estructura agraria brasileña, se plantea de forma suscinta la problemática de la reforma agraria. Con estas consideraciones preliminares, siguiendo casi literalmente la formulación del propio MST, se exponen, con mayor amplitud, los objetivos y características de la Reforma Agraria desde la perspectiva de los propios trabajadores rurales. Asimismo, aunque de forma más esquemática y en base a los datos oficiales, se plantean las directrices, metas y algunas de las realizaciones del Gobierno de Fernando H. Cardoso sobre dicha reforma. En definitiva, con este artículo, se pretenden establecer las bases y los ejes analíticos necesarios para una investigación más amplia y comprensiva de este fenómeno social de masas que va más allá de la propia realidad de injusticia que se está viviendo en el mundo rural brasileño y que está contando también con un amplio y sorprendente apoyo de sectores urbanos de la población brasileña.ABSTRACT: This article is an introductory and exploratory advance of a more extensive investigation that the author is carrying out on the same subject. The research is centred on the "Movement of the Rural Workers without Land", which is ussually identified in Brazil with the initials MST. This social movement is analyzed since its remotest origins, the

  12. Fault Features Extraction and Identification based Rolling Bearing Fault Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, B; Sun, G D; Zhang L Y; Wang J G; HU, J

    2017-01-01

    For the fault classification model based on extreme learning machine (ELM), the diagnosis accuracy and stability of rolling bearing is greatly influenced by a critical parameter, which is the number of nodes in hidden layer of ELM. An adaptive adjustment strategy is proposed based on vibrational mode decomposition, permutation entropy, and nuclear kernel extreme learning machine to determine the tunable parameter. First, the vibration signals are measured and then decomposed into different fault feature models based on variation mode decomposition. Then, fault feature of each model is formed to a high dimensional feature vector set based on permutation entropy. Second, the ELM output function is expressed by the inner product of Gauss kernel function to adaptively determine the number of hidden layer nodes. Finally, the high dimension feature vector set is used as the input to establish the kernel ELM rolling bearing fault classification model, and the classification and identification of different fault states of rolling bearings are carried out. In comparison with the fault classification methods based on support vector machine and ELM, the experimental results show that the proposed method has higher classification accuracy and better generalization ability. (paper)

  13. 20 CFR 410.561b - Fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fault. 410.561b Section 410.561b Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits § 410.561b Fault. Fault as used in without fault (see § 410...

  14. Fault Detection for Diesel Engine Actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.; Bøgh, S.A.; Jørgensen, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    Feedback control systems are vulnerable to faults in control loop sensors and actuators, because feedback actions may cause abrupt responses and process damage when faults occur.......Feedback control systems are vulnerable to faults in control loop sensors and actuators, because feedback actions may cause abrupt responses and process damage when faults occur....

  15. 22 CFR 17.3 - Fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fault. 17.3 Section 17.3 Foreign Relations...) § 17.3 Fault. A recipient of an overpayment is without fault if he or she performed no act of... agency may have been at fault in initiating an overpayment will not necessarily relieve the individual...

  16. Active fault diagnosis by temporary destabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    An active fault diagnosis method for parametric or multiplicative faults is proposed. The method periodically adds a term to the controller that for a short period of time renders the system unstable if a fault has occurred, which facilitates rapid fault detection. An illustrative example is given....

  17. LA MOVILIZACIÓN DE LOS GARÍFUNAS PARA PRESERVAR SUS TIERRAS «ANCESTRALES» EN GUATEMALA

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolás Rey

    2009-01-01

    Livingston, en el noreste de Guatemala, es la «ciudad negra» de ese país que cuenta con una población de mayoría maya. Los derechos de los garífunas, mayas y xincas —recuperación de tierras ancestrales, valorización de su identidad y desarrollo socioeconómico— fueron inscritos en los Acuerdos de Paz, 1995-1996. Este artículo, resultado de una amplia investigación, presenta la increíble trayectoria de los garífunas: - un pueblo «en resistencia» nacido en las Antillas Menores, del encuentr...

  18. La tierra urbana en el portafolio de las fortunas antioqueñas en la primera mitad del siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Botero

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available La tesis principal, motivo de debate abierto que se plantea con este ensayo, tiene que ver con el papel que la tierra urbana tuvo en el conjunto de las fortunas antioqueñas. A su vez, esta temática sirve como puente para conectar los negocios a la historia urbana y ayudar a iluminar el debate en torno a la acumulación de capital en Antioquia. De esta forma la polémica sirve como pretexto y telón de fondo para exponer algunas tesis alternativas y proponer una nueva ventana para leer nuestro pasado y recuperar la memoria perdida que constituye el gran potencial y la esperanza para construir nuestro futuro.

  19. Identifying potential differences in ontogentic ages between modern and archaeological Nacella deaurata shells, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surge, D. M.; Godino, I. B. I.; Álvarez, M.; López, M. B. I.

    2017-12-01

    Patelloid limpet shells are common constituents of rocky shore habitats along the eastern Atlantic basin and are often found in archaeological shell middens. Nacella deaurata is an intertidal species found in the Magellanic Province along the southern tip of South America. Recent discoveries of archaeological shell middens in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, identify N. deaurata as one of the abundant shells in these deposits. Preliminary observations reveal that modern N. deaurata shells achieve larger sizes compared to those found in the archaeological middens. Here, we provide preliminary data to test the hypothesis that the larger, modern specimens grow to older ontogenetic ages than the smaller archaeological specimens. Our results may provide insights into harvesting pressures on this species during the time when the archaeological sites were inhabited. Understanding their annual growth patterns also has important implications for generating oxygen isotope proxy data to reconstruct seasonal variation in sea surface temperature.

  20. El acaparamiento de las tierras a gran escala en el mundo. El papel de las firmas multinacionales (Internacional)

    OpenAIRE

    Perdriault, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    En los años 2007 y 2008, los medios de comunicación se hicieron eco, de manera creciente, de la adquisición –por intereses públicos o privados–, de los derechos de propiedad sobre grandes extensiones de tierra, especialmente en África, América y Europa del Este. Los miembros de la ONG GRAIN están entre los primeros que han observado la proliferación de artículos de prensa sobre este tema. Se los presentó ante los ojos de la opinión pública mundial, en octubre del 2008, mediante una recopilac...

  1. Effect of resource spatial correlation and hunter-fisher-gatherer mobility on social cooperation in Tierra del Fuego.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Santos

    Full Text Available This article presents an agent-based model designed to explore the development of cooperation in hunter-fisher-gatherer societies that face a dilemma of sharing an unpredictable resource that is randomly distributed in space. The model is a stylised abstraction of the Yamana society, which inhabited the channels and islands of the southernmost part of Tierra del Fuego (Argentina-Chile. According to ethnographic sources, the Yamana developed cooperative behaviour supported by an indirect reciprocity mechanism: whenever someone found an extraordinary confluence of resources, such as a beached whale, they would use smoke signals to announce their find, bringing people together to share food and exchange different types of social capital. The model provides insight on how the spatial concentration of beachings and agents' movements in the space can influence cooperation. We conclude that the emergence of informal and dynamic communities that operate as a vigilance network preserves cooperation and makes defection very costly.

  2. From fault classification to fault tolerance for multi-agent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Potiron, Katia; Taillibert, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Faults are a concern for Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) designers, especially if the MAS are built for industrial or military use because there must be some guarantee of dependability. Some fault classification exists for classical systems, and is used to define faults. When dependability is at stake, such fault classification may be used from the beginning of the system's conception to define fault classes and specify which types of faults are expected. Thus, one may want to use fault classification for MAS; however, From Fault Classification to Fault Tolerance for Multi-Agent Systems argues that

  3. Differential Fault Analysis on CLEFIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Wu, Wenling; Feng, Dengguo

    CLEFIA is a new 128-bit block cipher proposed by SONY corporation recently. The fundamental structure of CLEFIA is a generalized Feistel structure consisting of 4 data lines. In this paper, the strength of CLEFIA against the differential fault attack is explored. Our attack adopts the byte-oriented model of random faults. Through inducing randomly one byte fault in one round, four bytes of faults can be simultaneously obtained in the next round, which can efficiently reduce the total induce times in the attack. After attacking the last several rounds' encryptions, the original secret key can be recovered based on some analysis of the key schedule. The data complexity analysis and experiments show that only about 18 faulty ciphertexts are needed to recover the entire 128-bit secret key and about 54 faulty ciphertexts for 192/256-bit keys.

  4. Fault Tolerant External Memory Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Mølhave, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Algorithms dealing with massive data sets are usually designed for I/O-efficiency, often captured by the I/O model by Aggarwal and Vitter. Another aspect of dealing with massive data is how to deal with memory faults, e.g. captured by the adversary based faulty memory RAM by Finocchi and Italiano....... However, current fault tolerant algorithms do not scale beyond the internal memory. In this paper we investigate for the first time the connection between I/O-efficiency in the I/O model and fault tolerance in the faulty memory RAM, and we assume that both memory and disk are unreliable. We show a lower...... bound on the number of I/Os required for any deterministic dictionary that is resilient to memory faults. We design a static and a dynamic deterministic dictionary with optimal query performance as well as an optimal sorting algorithm and an optimal priority queue. Finally, we consider scenarios where...

  5. Cell boundary fault detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Pinnow, Kurt Walter [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian Edward [Rochester, MN

    2009-05-05

    A method determines a nodal fault along the boundary, or face, of a computing cell. Nodes on adjacent cell boundaries communicate with each other, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  6. El Hidróxido de Calcio y los bloques de tierra comprimida, alternativa sostenible de construcción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Salvador Roux Gutiérrez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, en nuestro país se hace mención a que existen una serie de problemas con los programas de vivienda, aún cuando se ha reducido el déficit de vivienda o que se han construido c ada año más viviendas en beneficio de las personas de bajos ingresos. Topelson (2011 el presente artículo describe un estudio sobre una alternativa sustentable de edificación y a la vez pretende demostrar las ventajas del uso del hidróxido de cal y los bl oques de tierra comprimida (BTC, para la edificación de vivienda y así poder reducir las emisones de CO 2 emitidas por los procesos constructivos convenci o nales El presente artículo trata dos materiales elementales en los procesos constructivos de las viv iendas, por un lado se realizá el estudio químico de los morteros cal – arena que se utilizán para el pegado de los mampuestos y los revoques, con la finalidad de determinar la absorción de CO 2 y por otra parte se hace el estudio mecánicos de un materia l alternativo para el uso de muros de carga como son los Bloques de Tierra Comprimida estabilizados con cal, por último se hace un comparativo entre estos materiales alternativos y los convencionales con relación a las emisones de CO2.

  7. Estado y territorio: aportes, desafíos y tensiones en torno a los problemas de tierra en San Juan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Moscheni Bustos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La disputa por la tierra se ha convertido en un tema relevante para la política argentina en el siglo XX. Poseedores históricos, propietarios y desposeídos son los actores que participan en la trama. Atravesando el juego, se encuentra el Estado en sus distintos niveles, que con cierta autonomía relativa, regula a favor de unos y en detrimento de otros. Este trabajo se propone aportar datos empíricos sobre algunas tensiones territoriales en la provincia de San Juan y el rol del Estado y sus contradicciones en los distintos niveles. El caso gira en torno a la disputa por la tierra, generando tensiones políticas entre propiedad privada y propiedad comunitaria, o entre el derecho civil y los derechos emanados de la Constitución Nacional, los Tratados Internacionales y la Ley de Bosques Nativos N° 26.331. ABSTRACT The fight about lands has been became in a relevant situation for the argentine politics in the 20th century, the historic owners, and dispossessed are the most important actors. The state through its different levels has a certain kind of autonomy and regulate and take actions which tend to favor some social groups and damage others. In this work is proposed give some empirical facts about territorial tensions in the province of San Juan, its role and contradictions in its different levels. The case revolves around the land dispute, generating political tensions between private property and communal property, or between civil law and rights arising out of the National Constitution, international treaties and Native Forest Law, No. 26.331.

  8. [Distribution patterns of canopy and understory tree species at local scale in a Tierra Firme forest, the Colombian Amazonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto-Silva, Juan Sebastian; López, Dairon Cárdenas; Montoya, Alvaro Javier Duque

    2014-03-01

    The effect of environmental variation on the structure of tree communities in tropical forests is still under debate. There is evidence that in landscapes like Tierra Firme forest, where the environmental gradient decreases at a local level, the effect of soil on the distribution patterns of plant species is minimal, happens to be random or is due to biological processes. In contrast, in studies with different kinds of plants from tropical forests, a greater effect on floristic composition of varying soil and topography has been reported. To assess this, the current study was carried out in a permanent plot of ten hectares in the Amacayacu National Park, Colombian Amazonia. To run the analysis, floristic and environmental variations were obtained according to tree species abundance categories and growth forms. In order to quantify the role played by both environmental filtering and dispersal limitation, the variation of the spatial configuration was included. We used Detrended Correspondence Analysis and Canonical Correspondence Analysis, followed by a variation partitioning, to analyze the species distribution patterns. The spatial template was evaluated using the Principal Coordinates of Neighbor Matrix method. We recorded 14 074 individuals from 1 053 species and 80 families. The most abundant families were Myristicaceae, Moraceae, Meliaceae, Arecaceae and Lecythidaceae, coinciding with other studies from Northwest Amazonia. Beta diversity was relatively low within the plot. Soils were very poor, had high aluminum concentration and were predominantly clayey. The floristic differences explained along the ten hectares plot were mainly associated to biological processes, such as dispersal limitation. The largest proportion of community variation in our dataset was unexplained by either environmental or spatial data. In conclusion, these results support random processes as the major drivers of the spatial variation of tree species at a local scale on Tierra Firme

  9. Un suelo referible al periodo calido medieval en Patagonia Austral y Tierra del Fuego (Argentina. Aspectos cronologicos y paleoclimaticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favier Dubois, C. M.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Geoarchaeological work done in Southernmost Patagonia and in the north of Tierra del Fuego, have revealed the recurrent presence of a paedogenesis interval represented by a soil of an A-AC-C profile, with a mollic epipedon, in the upper section of eolian and colluvial deposits of the late Holocene. This soil is today buried in the sites that have been analyzed, while it remains exposed in other areas of the landscape. Radiocarbon dates obtained on materials placed below it (maximum ages and those obtained by OCR (Oxidizable Carbon Ratio in the AC horizon of this soil (minimum ages, indicate the beginning of its development around the year 1000 BP. Its chronology and environmental implications suggest a relationship with the medieval climatic fluctuations called Medieval Warm Period or Medieval Optimum in Europe. This period has correlates detected in Patagonia by dendroclimatic studies.Estudios geoarqueológicos realizados en 5 localidades de Patagonia austral y norte Tierra del Fuego han revelado la recurrente presencia de un suelo de perfil A-AC-C, de epipedon mólico, en depósitos eólicos y coluviales del Holoceno tardío. Este suelo se observa sepultado en los yacimientos arqueológicos analizados, mientras que permanece expuesto en otras posiciones del paisaje. Numerosas edades máximas y mínimas obtenidas por 14C y por la técnica de OCR (Oxidizable Carbon Ratio indican el comienzo de su desarrollo hacia el 1000 AP. Su cronología e implicancias ambientales permiten vincularlo con fluctuaciones climáticas desarrolladas durante el denominado Período Cálido Medieval u Optimo Medieval Europeo, con correlatos detectados en Patagonia a través de estudios dendroclimáticos.

  10. Inferencias paleodietarias mediante isótopos estables en restos óseos humanos provenientes de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schinder, Gala

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Las actuales lineas de acción vinculadas al uso de isótopos estables en la Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego están orientándose a acotar factores de variación (especialmente la variación espacial y temporal y al cruce con otras lineas de evidencias como los estilos de vida. A partir de la ocupación europea en el Siglo XVIII se modificó el estilo de vida de las poblaciones históricas de la región. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivos explorar la variabilidad en cuanto al tipo de recursos consurnidos por hombres y mujeres a partir de la información isotópica obtenida de huesos de individuos provenientes de diferentes sectores geográficos (Norte, Sudeste y Beagle y la determinación de la composición de la dieta en términos de contenido proteico. Los datos isotópicos se complementaron con información etnográfica. El análisis Kruskal-Wallis sugiere que existen diferencias significativas entre los diferentes sectores geográficos, pero no se registraron diferencias significativas entre hombres y mujeres. Asimismo, los isótopos indican que los individuos del Sudeste consumían preferentemente dietas más ricas en proteínas que sus vecinos del norte de la Isla. En los últimos años, ha crecido el interé por los estudios orientados al análisis de la división sexual del trabajo en sociedades cazadoras recolectoras. Este trabajo constituye un primer aporte para evaluar la variabilidad en cuanto a las diferencias en la obtención de recursos entre sexos y el tipo de dieta en individuos históricos de Tierra del Fuego.

  11. Deformation around basin scale normal faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spahic, D.

    2010-01-01

    Faults in the earth crust occur within large range of scales from microscale over mesoscopic to large basin scale faults. Frequently deformation associated with faulting is not only limited to the fault plane alone, but rather forms a combination with continuous near field deformation in the wall rock, a phenomenon that is generally called fault drag. The correct interpretation and recognition of fault drag is fundamental for the reconstruction of the fault history and determination of fault kinematics, as well as prediction in areas of limited exposure or beyond comprehensive seismic resolution. Based on fault analyses derived from 3D visualization of natural examples of fault drag, the importance of fault geometry for the deformation of marker horizons around faults is investigated. The complex 3D structural models presented here are based on a combination of geophysical datasets and geological fieldwork. On an outcrop scale example of fault drag in the hanging wall of a normal fault, located at St. Margarethen, Burgenland, Austria, data from Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) measurements, detailed mapping and terrestrial laser scanning were used to construct a high-resolution structural model of the fault plane, the deformed marker horizons and associated secondary faults. In order to obtain geometrical information about the largely unexposed master fault surface, a standard listric balancing dip domain technique was employed. The results indicate that for this normal fault a listric shape can be excluded, as the constructed fault has a geologically meaningless shape cutting upsection into the sedimentary strata. This kinematic modeling result is additionally supported by the observation of deformed horizons in the footwall of the structure. Alternatively, a planar fault model with reverse drag of markers in the hanging wall and footwall is proposed. Deformation around basin scale normal faults. A second part of this thesis investigates a large scale normal fault

  12. Qademah Fault Passive Data

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this field trip we collect passive data to 1. Convert passive to surface waves 2. Locate Qademah fault using surface wave migration INTRODUCTION: In this field trip we collected passive data for several days. This data will be used to find the surface waves using interferometry and then compared to active-source seismic data collected at the same location. A total of 288 receivers are used. A 3D layout with 5 m inline intervals and 10 m cross line intervals is used, where we used 12 lines with 24 receivers at each line. You will need to download the file (rec_times.mat), it contains important information about 1. Field record no 2. Record day 3. Record month 4. Record hour 5. Record minute 6. Record second 7. Record length P.S. 1. All files are converted from original format (SEG-2) to matlab format P.S. 2. Overlaps between records (10 to 1.5 sec.) are already removed from these files

  13. Exposing the faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    UK NIREX, the body with responsibility for finding an acceptable strategy for deposition of radioactive waste has given the impression throughout its recent public consultation that the problem of nuclear waste is one of public and political acceptability, rather than one of a technical nature. However the results of the consultation process show that it has no mandate from the British public to develop a single, national, deep repository for the burial of radioactive waste. There is considerable opposition to this method of managing radioactive waste and suspicion of the claims by NIREX concerning the supposed integrity and safety of this deep burial option. This report gives substance to those suspicions and details the significant areas of uncertainty in the concept of effective geological containment of hazardous radioactive elements, which remain dangerous for tens of thousands of years. Because the science of geology is essentially retrospective rather than predictive, NIREX's plans for a single, national, deep 'repository' depend heavily upon a wide range of assumptions about the geological and hydrogeological regimes in certain areas of the UK. This report demonstrates that these assumptions are based on a limited understanding of UK geology and on unvalidated and simplistic theoretical models of geological processes, the performance of which can never be directly tested over the long time-scales involved. NIREX's proposals offer no guarantees for the safe and effective containment of radioactivity. They are deeply flawed. This report exposes the faults. (author)

  14. Fault-tolerant rotary actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesar, Delbert

    2006-10-17

    A fault-tolerant actuator module, in a single containment shell, containing two actuator subsystems that are either asymmetrically or symmetrically laid out is provided. Fault tolerance in the actuators of the present invention is achieved by the employment of dual sets of equal resources. Dual resources are integrated into single modules, with each having the external appearance and functionality of a single set of resources.

  15. Static Decoupling in fault detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1998-01-01

    An algebraic approach is given for a design of a static residual weighting factor in connection with fault detection. A complete parameterization is given of the weighting factor which will minimize a given performance index......An algebraic approach is given for a design of a static residual weighting factor in connection with fault detection. A complete parameterization is given of the weighting factor which will minimize a given performance index...

  16. Diagnosis and fault-tolerant control

    CERN Document Server

    Blanke, Mogens; Lunze, Jan; Staroswiecki, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Fault-tolerant control aims at a gradual shutdown response in automated systems when faults occur. It satisfies the industrial demand for enhanced availability and safety, in contrast to traditional reactions to faults, which bring about sudden shutdowns and loss of availability. The book presents effective model-based analysis and design methods for fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control. Architectural and structural models are used to analyse the propagation of the fault through the process, to test the fault detectability and to find the redundancies in the process that can be used to ensure fault tolerance. It also introduces design methods suitable for diagnostic systems and fault-tolerant controllers for continuous processes that are described by analytical models of discrete-event systems represented by automata. The book is suitable for engineering students, engineers in industry and researchers who wish to get an overview of the variety of approaches to process diagnosis and fault-tolerant contro...

  17. Aeromagnetic anomalies over faulted strata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauch, V.J.S.; Hudson, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution aeromagnetic surveys are now an industry standard and they commonly detect anomalies that are attributed to faults within sedimentary basins. However, detailed studies identifying geologic sources of magnetic anomalies in sedimentary environments are rare in the literature. Opportunities to study these sources have come from well-exposed sedimentary basins of the Rio Grande rift in New Mexico and Colorado. High-resolution aeromagnetic data from these areas reveal numerous, curvilinear, low-amplitude (2–15 nT at 100-m terrain clearance) anomalies that consistently correspond to intrasedimentary normal faults (Figure 1). Detailed geophysical and rock-property studies provide evidence for the magnetic sources at several exposures of these faults in the central Rio Grande rift (summarized in Grauch and Hudson, 2007, and Hudson et al., 2008). A key result is that the aeromagnetic anomalies arise from the juxtaposition of magnetically differing strata at the faults as opposed to chemical processes acting at the fault zone. The studies also provide (1) guidelines for understanding and estimating the geophysical parameters controlling aeromagnetic anomalies at faulted strata (Grauch and Hudson), and (2) observations on key geologic factors that are favorable for developing similar sedimentary sources of aeromagnetic anomalies elsewhere (Hudson et al.).

  18. Passive fault current limiting device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Daniel J.; Cha, Yung S.

    1999-01-01

    A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment.

  19. RECENT GEODYNAMICS OF FAULT ZONES: FAULTING IN REAL TIME SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. O. Kuzmin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent deformation processes taking place in real time are analyzed on the basis of data on fault zones which were collected by long-term detailed geodetic survey studies with application of field methods and satellite monitoring.A new category of recent crustal movements is described and termed as parametrically induced tectonic strain in fault zones. It is shown that in the fault zones located in seismically active and aseismic regions, super intensive displacements of the crust (5 to 7 cm per year, i.e. (5 to 7·10–5 per year occur due to very small external impacts of natural or technogenic / industrial origin.The spatial discreteness of anomalous deformation processes is established along the strike of the regional Rechitsky fault in the Pripyat basin. It is concluded that recent anomalous activity of the fault zones needs to be taken into account in defining regional regularities of geodynamic processes on the basis of real-time measurements.The paper presents results of analyses of data collected by long-term (20 to 50 years geodetic surveys in highly seismically active regions of Kopetdag, Kamchatka and California. It is evidenced by instrumental geodetic measurements of recent vertical and horizontal displacements in fault zones that deformations are ‘paradoxically’ deviating from the inherited movements of the past geological periods.In terms of the recent geodynamics, the ‘paradoxes’ of high and low strain velocities are related to a reliable empirical fact of the presence of extremely high local velocities of deformations in the fault zones (about 10–5 per year and above, which take place at the background of slow regional deformations which velocities are lower by the order of 2 to 3. Very low average annual velocities of horizontal deformation are recorded in the seismic regions of Kopetdag and Kamchatka and in the San Andreas fault zone; they amount to only 3 to 5 amplitudes of the earth tidal deformations per year.A ‘fault

  20. El proyecto de restitución de tierras en Colombia: ¿ilustración de la fuerza civilizadora de la hipocresía?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula Saffon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo ofrece una interpretación teórica acerca de las disposiciones sobre restitución de tierras contenidas en la famosa “Ley de Víctimas”, la cual fue debatida en el Congreso colombiano en el año 2008. El proyecto de ley preveía mecanismos específicos encaminados a garantizar la restitución de tierras a las víctimas del conflicto armado colombiano. En su momento, el proyecto de ley fue respaldado por los principales actores políticos del país, incluyendo el gobierno y las élites que lo apoyaban, por un lado, y las organizaciones de víctimas y de derechos humanos y los grupos de oposición, por el otro. El hecho de que todos los actores políticos del país estuviesen considerando seriamente la posibilidad de restituir las tierras a las víctimas del conflicto armado colombiano parecía indicar la existencia de un consenso entre actores políticos cuyas posiciones normalmente están enfrentadas, sobre un tema que tradicionalmente ha generado altos niveles de polarización. Le existencia de dicho consenso es desconcertante porque no parece corresponder ni a los intereses ni a la visión de justicia de dichos actores políticos, y además porque la restitución de tierras enfrenta enormes dificultades tanto prácticas como normativas, lo que indica que posiblemente no sea la mejor alternativa para enfrentar la problemática de distribución de tierras en Colombia. El artículo concluye que el respaldo dado por todos los actores al principio de justicia restaurativa podría llevar a su efectiva realización, y consiguientemente generar un resultado que a pesar de (o quizás por no ser intencional, podría contribuir sustancialmente a resolver el problema de la desigual distribución de tierras en Colombia

  1. Construcción sismorresistente en tierra: la gran experiencia contemporánea de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blondet, M.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries the most common alternative for dwelling construction is building with earth because the material is abundant and cheap. The quality of most traditional earthen construction is very low, because it is done informally, with little or no technical assistance. In seismic areas where earthen construction is common, every time an earthquake occurs, many dwellings collapse, causing considerable economic losses and tragic injuries and deaths. The professional and academic communities in some seismic countries have not remained indifferent to this important problem. Researchers at the Catholic University of Peru (PUCP have been investigating on the construction of earthen buildings in seismic areas for about 40 years and have obtained invaluable results. This article describes the evolution of the knowledge generated at PUCP of reinforced earth, a material composed of earth and compatible reinforcements, with which it is possible to build seismic-resistant constructions.

    En muchos países en vías de desarrollo la alternativa de vivienda más común es la construcción con tierra, pues el material es abundante y barato. La construcción tradicional de viviendas de tierra se realiza informalmente, sin asesoría técnica. Por ello, la calidad de estas construcciones es generalmente muy baja. En zonas sísmicas donde se construye con tierra, cada vez que ocurre un terremoto colapsan muchas construcciones de este material, causando considerables pérdidas económicas y lamentables pérdidas de vidas. Las comunidades académicas y profesionales de algunos países sísmicos no han permanecido impasibles frente a esta grave situación. En el Perú, investigadores de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (PUCP han venido investigando la construcción con tierra en áreas sísmicas desde hace cerca 40 años y han obtenido invalorables resultados. Este artículo describe la evolución del conocimiento generado en la

  2. Fault Management Guiding Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Marilyn E.; Friberg, Kenneth H.; Fesq, Lorraine; Barley, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Regardless of the mission type: deep space or low Earth orbit, robotic or human spaceflight, Fault Management (FM) is a critical aspect of NASA space missions. As the complexity of space missions grows, the complexity of supporting FM systems increase in turn. Data on recent NASA missions show that development of FM capabilities is a common driver for significant cost overruns late in the project development cycle. Efforts to understand the drivers behind these cost overruns, spearheaded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), indicate that they are primarily caused by the growing complexity of FM systems and the lack of maturity of FM as an engineering discipline. NASA can and does develop FM systems that effectively protect mission functionality and assets. The cost growth results from a lack of FM planning and emphasis by project management, as well the maturity of FM as an engineering discipline, which lags behind the maturity of other engineering disciplines. As a step towards controlling the cost growth associated with FM development, SMD has commissioned a multi-institution team to develop a practitioner's handbook representing best practices for the end-to-end processes involved in engineering FM systems. While currently concentrating primarily on FM for science missions, the expectation is that this handbook will grow into a NASA-wide handbook, serving as a companion to the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook. This paper presents a snapshot of the principles that have been identified to guide FM development from cradle to grave. The principles range from considerations for integrating FM into the project and SE organizational structure, the relationship between FM designs and mission risk, and the use of the various tools of FM (e.g., redundancy) to meet the FM goal of protecting mission functionality and assets.

  3. Fault geometry and earthquake mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Andrews

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake mechanics may be determined by the geometry of a fault system. Slip on a fractal branching fault surface can explain: 1 regeneration of stress irregularities in an earthquake; 2 the concentration of stress drop in an earthquake into asperities; 3 starting and stopping of earthquake slip at fault junctions, and 4 self-similar scaling of earthquakes. Slip at fault junctions provides a natural realization of barrier and asperity models without appealing to variations of fault strength. Fault systems are observed to have a branching fractal structure, and slip may occur at many fault junctions in an earthquake. Consider the mechanics of slip at one fault junction. In order to avoid a stress singularity of order 1/r, an intersection of faults must be a triple junction and the Burgers vectors on the three fault segments at the junction must sum to zero. In other words, to lowest order the deformation consists of rigid block displacement, which ensures that the local stress due to the dislocations is zero. The elastic dislocation solution, however, ignores the fact that the configuration of the blocks changes at the scale of the displacement. A volume change occurs at the junction; either a void opens or intense local deformation is required to avoid material overlap. The volume change is proportional to the product of the slip increment and the total slip since the formation of the junction. Energy absorbed at the junction, equal to confining pressure times the volume change, is not large enongh to prevent slip at a new junction. The ratio of energy absorbed at a new junction to elastic energy released in an earthquake is no larger than P/µ where P is confining pressure and µ is the shear modulus. At a depth of 10 km this dimensionless ratio has th value P/µ= 0.01. As slip accumulates at a fault junction in a number of earthquakes, the fault segments are displaced such that they no longer meet at a single point. For this reason the

  4. Fault Analysis in Solar Photovoltaic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ye

    Fault analysis in solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays is a fundamental task to increase reliability, efficiency and safety in PV systems. Conventional fault protection methods usually add fuses or circuit breakers in series with PV components. But these protection devices are only able to clear faults and isolate faulty circuits if they carry a large fault current. However, this research shows that faults in PV arrays may not be cleared by fuses under some fault scenarios, due to the current-limiting nature and non-linear output characteristics of PV arrays. First, this thesis introduces new simulation and analytic models that are suitable for fault analysis in PV arrays. Based on the simulation environment, this thesis studies a variety of typical faults in PV arrays, such as ground faults, line-line faults, and mismatch faults. The effect of a maximum power point tracker on fault current is discussed and shown to, at times, prevent the fault current protection devices to trip. A small-scale experimental PV benchmark system has been developed in Northeastern University to further validate the simulation conclusions. Additionally, this thesis examines two types of unique faults found in a PV array that have not been studied in the literature. One is a fault that occurs under low irradiance condition. The other is a fault evolution in a PV array during night-to-day transition. Our simulation and experimental results show that overcurrent protection devices are unable to clear the fault under "low irradiance" and "night-to-day transition". However, the overcurrent protection devices may work properly when the same PV fault occurs in daylight. As a result, a fault under "low irradiance" and "night-to-day transition" might be hidden in the PV array and become a potential hazard for system efficiency and reliability.

  5. Radial basis function neural network in fault detection of automotive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radial basis function neural network in fault detection of automotive engines. ... Five faults have been simulated on the MVEM, including three sensor faults, one component fault and one actuator fault. The three sensor faults ... Keywords: Automotive engine, independent RBFNN model, RBF neural network, fault detection

  6. Application of fault current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, A.

    2007-11-30

    This report presents the results of a study commissioned by the Department for Business, Enterprise and Industry (BERR; formerly the Department of Trade and Industry) into the application of fault current limiters in the UK. The study reviewed the current state of fault current limiter (FCL) technology and regulatory position in relation to all types of current limiters. It identified significant research and development work with respect to medium voltage FCLs and a move to high voltage. Appropriate FCL technologies being developed include: solid state breakers; superconducting FCLs (including superconducting transformers); magnetic FCLs; and active network controllers. Commercialisation of these products depends on successful field tests and experience, plus material development in the case of high temperature superconducting FCL technologies. The report describes FCL techniques, the current state of FCL technologies, practical applications and future outlook for FCL technologies, distribution fault level analysis and an outline methodology for assessing the materiality of the fault level problem. A roadmap is presented that provides an 'action agenda' to advance the fault level issues associated with low carbon networks.

  7. Fault trees for diagnosis of system fault conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, H.E.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1977-01-01

    Methods for generating repair checklists on the basis of fault tree logic and probabilistic importance are presented. A one-step-ahead optimization procedure, based on the concept of component criticality, minimizing the expected time to diagnose system failure is outlined. Options available to the operator of a nuclear power plant when system fault conditions occur are addressed. A low-pressure emergency core cooling injection system, a standby safeguard system of a pressurized water reactor power plant, is chosen as an example illustrating the methods presented

  8. Identifying Conventionally Sub-Seismic Faults in Polygonal Fault Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, C.; Dix, J.

    2017-12-01

    Polygonal Fault Systems (PFS) are prevalent in hydrocarbon basins globally and represent potential fluid pathways. However the characterization of these pathways is subject to the limitations of conventional 3D seismic imaging; only capable of resolving features on a decametre scale horizontally and metres scale vertically. While outcrop and core examples can identify smaller features, they are limited by the extent of the exposures. The disparity between these scales can allow for smaller faults to be lost in a resolution gap which could mean potential pathways are left unseen. Here the focus is upon PFS from within the London Clay, a common bedrock that is tunnelled into and bears construction foundations for much of London. It is a continuation of the Ieper Clay where PFS were first identified and is found to approach the seafloor within the Outer Thames Estuary. This allows for the direct analysis of PFS surface expressions, via the use of high resolution 1m bathymetric imaging in combination with high resolution seismic imaging. Through use of these datasets surface expressions of over 1500 faults within the London Clay have been identified, with the smallest fault measuring 12m and the largest at 612m in length. The displacements over these faults established from both bathymetric and seismic imaging ranges from 30cm to a couple of metres, scales that would typically be sub-seismic for conventional basin seismic imaging. The orientations and dimensions of the faults within this network have been directly compared to 3D seismic data of the Ieper Clay from the offshore Dutch sector where it exists approximately 1km below the seafloor. These have typical PFS attributes with lengths of hundreds of metres to kilometres and throws of tens of metres, a magnitude larger than those identified in the Outer Thames Estuary. The similar orientations and polygonal patterns within both locations indicates that the smaller faults exist within typical PFS structure but are

  9. Una Nota sobre la Construcción de Series de Precios de Activos Reales: Tierra y Casas en Chile Una Nota sobre la Construcción de Series de Precios de Activos Reales: Tierra y Casas en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Raimundo Soto; Felipe Morandé

    1992-01-01

    Una Nota sobre la Construcción de Series de Precios de Activos Reales: Tierra y Casas en Chile This note presents previously unpublished data on prices of agricultural land in Chile's central region and houses (both rental and purchasing prices) in Santiago, with the corresponding methodology. As such, it is a follow-up to an Appendix in Morande (1992).

  10. Design of a grounding network in electrical substations. Materials and formulas the most used; Diseno de redes de tierra en subestaciones electricas. Materiales y formulas mas utilizadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raull Martin, J. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a summarized version of the different types of construction of grounding systems, as well as their materials and formulas, which are necessary and useful for the design and building of a grounding network for medium to high voltage facilities. A description is also made of how to determine the electrical resistivity of subsoil layers with different physical characteristics. Several illustrative examples are also solved in the paper. [Spanish] El proposito de este articulo es presentar de manera resumida los diferentes tipos de construccion de los sistemas de tierra, asi como sus materiales y formulas, los cuales son necesarios y utiles para el diseno y edificacion de una red de tierra para instalaciones de mediana y alta tension. Se describe tambien la obtencion de las diferentes resistividades que presenta los terrenos con diversas caracteristicas fisicas. Asimismo, se solucionan ejercicios ilustrativos a lo largo del articulo.

  11. Neutralizar la degradación de las tierras, una aspiración global. ¿Es posible lograrlo en México?

    OpenAIRE

    Armando López Santos

    2016-01-01

    Neutralizar la degradación de las tierras (LDN, por sus siglas en inglés) o equilibrar su deterioro, es un reto planteado por el Comité de Ciencia y Tecnología (CCT) de la Convención de las Naciones Unidas de Lucha Contra la Desertificación (UNCCD, por sus siglas en inglés), de la que México forma parte, es un concepto moderno que va más allá del recurso edáfico, que expresa un objetivo aspiracional global y una meta voluntaria nacional para contrarrestar el avance de la degradación de tierra...

  12. Fault-tolerant architecture: Evaluation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, R.E.; Kisner, R.A.

    1992-08-01

    The design and reliability of four fault-tolerant architectures that may be used in nuclear power plant control systems were evaluated. Two architectures are variations of triple-modular-redundant (TMR) systems, and two are variations of dual redundant systems. The evaluation includes a review of methods of implementing fault-tolerant control, the importance of automatic recovery from failures, methods of self-testing diagnostics, block diagrams of typical fault-tolerant controllers, review of fault-tolerant controllers operating in nuclear power plants, and fault tree reliability analyses of fault-tolerant systems

  13. Fault Isolation for Shipboard Decision Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajic, Zoran; Blanke, Mogens; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2010-01-01

    Fault detection and fault isolation for in-service decision support systems for marine surface vehicles will be presented in this paper. The stochastic wave elevation and the associated ship responses are modeled in the frequency domain. The paper takes as an example fault isolation of a containe......Fault detection and fault isolation for in-service decision support systems for marine surface vehicles will be presented in this paper. The stochastic wave elevation and the associated ship responses are modeled in the frequency domain. The paper takes as an example fault isolation...... to the quality of decisions given to navigators....

  14. An architecture for fault tolerant controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    degradation in the sense of guaranteed degraded performance. A number of fault diagnosis problems, fault tolerant control problems, and feedback control with fault rejection problems are formulated/considered, mainly from a fault modeling point of view. The method is illustrated on a servo example including......A general architecture for fault tolerant control is proposed. The architecture is based on the (primary) YJBK parameterization of all stabilizing compensators and uses the dual YJBK parameterization to quantify the performance of the fault tolerant system. The approach suggested can be applied...

  15. Fault estimation - A standard problem approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, J.; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a range of optimization based approaches to fault diagnosis. A variety of fault diagnosis problems are reformulated in the so-called standard problem set-up introduced in the literature on robust control. Once the standard problem formulations are given, the fault diagnosis...... problems can be solved by standard optimization techniques. The proposed methods include (1) fault diagnosis (fault estimation, (FE)) for systems with model uncertainties; FE for systems with parametric faults, and FE for a class of nonlinear systems. Copyright...

  16. Integrated fault tree development environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, B.W.

    1986-01-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) techniques are utilized in the nuclear industry to perform safety analyses of complex defense-in-depth systems. A major effort in PRA development is fault tree construction. The Integrated Fault Tree Environment (IFTREE) is an interactive, graphics-based tool for fault tree design. IFTREE provides integrated building, editing, and analysis features on a personal workstation. The design philosophy of IFTREE is presented, and the interface is described. IFTREE utilizes a unique rule-based solution algorithm founded in artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. The impact of the AI approach on the program design is stressed. IFTREE has been developed to handle the design and maintenance of full-size living PRAs and is currently in use

  17. Neutralizar la degradación de las tierras, una aspiración global. ¿Es posible lograrlo en México?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando López Santos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neutralizar la degradación de las tierras (LDN, por sus siglas en inglés o equilibrar su deterioro, es un reto planteado por el Comité de Ciencia y Tecnología (CCT de la Convención de las Naciones Unidas de Lucha Contra la Desertificación (UNCCD, por sus siglas en inglés, de la que México forma parte, es un concepto moderno que va más allá del recurso edáfico, que expresa un objetivo aspiracional global y una meta voluntaria nacional para contrarrestar el avance de la degradación de tierras al 2030. De ponerse en marcha, implicaría detener o revertir la tendencia de disminución de calidad físico-biótica (agua-suelo-planta-atmósfera que sostiene el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas, de manera que esto permita conseguir un estado de equilibrio suficiente para mantener un nivel de salud ecosistémica y una garantía en la seguridad alimentaria para las generaciones futuras. El objetivo del presente ensayo fue analizar qué posibilidades tiene México para poner en marcha los principios y acciones necesarias para prevenir, detener y revertir el ritmo de degradación de sus tierras. Un breve análisis de las circunstancias, tanto a nivel global como en el contexto nacional, donde se vislumbran dificultades para conciliar la política ambiental con las metas de crecimiento económico o asumir las consecuencias por la sobre-explotación evidente de los recursos territoriales, de lo contrario LDN solo llegará a ser un reto frustrado ante la tendencia de la degradación de las tierras y comprometiendo con ello cada vez más la calidad de vida de las futuras generaciones.

  18. Composición florística de dos bosques (Tierra firme y varzea) en la región de Araracuara, Amazonia Colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    Londoño Vega Ana Catalina; Alvarez Dávila Estéban

    1997-01-01

    Two rain forests of the Araracuara region (Colombian Amazon) are described and compared in terms of vascular terrestrial plant composition. Two 1.8 ha rectangular plots, located in upland (tierra firme) and seasonally flooded (várzea) sites, were sampled for individuals taller than 0.5 m. A total of 1149 species, 347 genera and 98 families were found. Arborescent species comprised 65% of the total at both sites; climbers (woody and herbaceous) contributed 24%, shrubs 8% and terrestrial herbs ...

  19. El acaparamiento de tierras en América Latina y el Caribe visto desde una perspectiva internacional más amplia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Borras jr. (Saturnino); J.C. Franco (Jennifer); C. Kay (Cristóbal); M. Spoor (Monique)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstractEste volumen continúa la discusión surgida de los antecedentes recogidos en la investigación presentada en el libro “Dinámicas del mercado de la tierra en América Latina y el Caribe: concentración y extranjerización”, publicado por la Oficina Regional de la FAO en junio de

  20. Cartografía mediante imágenes Landsat de suelos salinos en la tierra de Medina (Valladolid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Rodríguez, M. P.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is the mapping of saline soils (solonchaks, solonetzs and luvisols with salic phases in «Tierra de Medina» (Valladolid using images of the TM and ETM sensors of the Landsat satellites. The spectral signatures of these soils show very high digital values, which allows to differentiate them from other types of soils and superficial covers. The highest values correspond to those which have salt efflorescences and the lowest values to soils affected by hydromorphic processes. The images obtained with the NDVI do not allow a clear discrimination of saline soils, but they allow to interpret the changes in their use. In these soils the values of NDVI are very low, due to their scarce vegetation. There is a remarkable vegetation reduction between years 1987 and 2001, which implies a structure deterioration and a great loss of vegetal cover; many of soils affected by salinization have not been cultivated any more.

    El objetivo del estudio es cartografiar los suelos salinos (solonchaks, solonetzs y luvisoles con fases sálicas en la Tierra de Medina (Valladolid utilizado imágenes de los sensores TM y ETM de los satélites Landsat. Las signaturas espectrales de estos suelos muestran valores digitales muy altos, lo que permite diferenciarlos de otros tipos de suelos y cubiertas superficiales. Los valores más altos corresponden a los que tienen eflorescencias salinas en superficie y los más bajos a los suelos afectados por hidromorfismo. Las imágenes obtenidas con el NDVI no permiten una clara discriminación de los suelos salinos, pero sí interpretar los cambios en su uso. En estos suelos los valores de NDVI son muy bajos, acordes con su escasa vegetación. Hay un notable descenso entre los años 1987 y 2001, lo que implica un deterioro de su estructura y una gran pérdida de cubierta vegetal; muchos de los suelos afectados por salinización se han dejado de cultivar. [fr] L’objectif de l’étude est

  1. A new form of land concentration in Colombia Una nueva forma de concentración de la tierra en Colombia:la ley 1448 de 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Henao Guzmán

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show how the Law 1448 of 2011, which explains reparation and restitution of victims, and the National Development Plan (NDP 2011-2014 generate land concentration in Colombia. This is due to how the NDP objectives disintegrate the Law 1448 objectives; this phenomenon could be explained using an agency model and the subsequent moral risk issue formed between the State and the victims. Regarding these results, a game-theory model was built, and this effectively concludes that the Law 1448 and the NDP generate land concentration in ColombiaEn este artículo se pretende mostrar, mediante un análisis económico, cómo la Ley 1448 de 2011 (o Ley de Víctimas y Restitución de Tierras, junto al Plan Nacional de Desarrollo (PND 2011-2014, generan concentración de la tierra en Colombia. Esto se debe a que los objetivos del PND terminan disgregando los que busca la Ley 1448, lo cual se explica con el uso de un modelo de agencia y el subsecuente problema de riesgo moral para el Estado y las víctimas del conflicto. A partir de los resultados anteriores se construye un modelo de teoría de juegos, del que se concluye que, efectivamente, la Ley 1448 y el PND generan concentración de la tierra en Colombia.

  2. Producción de biomasa aérea y uso equivalente de la tierra en intercultivos de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. W Pereyra

    Full Text Available Tradicionalmente, el incremento de la productividad se ha asociado al aumento del rendimiento a través del mejoramiento genético y las prácticas de manejo del cultivo. Sin embargo, si se considera la producción por unidad de área y de tiempo, el sistema de intercultivos puede ser otra forma de mejorar la rentabilidad. El objetivo del experimento fue determinar la biomasa producida y el uso equivalente de la tierra en monocultivo e intercultivos de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. con sorgo sudán (Sorghum sudanense L. y avena (Avena sativa L.. Se determinó la biomasa aérea de todos los tratamientos (expresada por unidad de superficie y el uso equivalente de la tierra. El diseño fue completamente aleatorizado, dispuesto en bloques con dos repeticiones. Los resultados se sometieron a un ANOVA y las medias se compararon mediante la prueba de Duncan, a través del paquete estadístico INFOSTAT. El intercultivo alfalfa-sorgo triplicó la producción de alfalfa en relación con el monocultivo, mientras que alfalfa-avena no superó la producción de alfalfa pura en los meses de invierno. El intercultivo alfalfa-sorgo fue un 57 % más eficiente en el uso de la tierra que sus respectivos monocultivos, mientras que alfalfa-avena no logró superar la unidad.

  3. Persuasión lingüística para la defensa de la tierra: El Título Primordial de Santiago Sula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Puente González

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Los pueblos de indios de la Nueva España crearon, a fines de la época colonial, una forma de  defender sus territorios ante la amenaza de colonos españoles, criollos y otros indios que usurpaban ilegalmente terrenos e intentaban rentabilizar el control de las tierras. Empezaron a producir un tipo de textos, sus Títulos Primordiales, que presentaban en los juicios para demostrar la titularidad de sus posesiones. No son textos del tipo administrativo, sino que insertan narraciones con los acontecimientos pasados más importantes para la comunidad. Pero principalmente son escritos que fueron pensados para persuadir a los receptores de la veracidad de sus argumentos. Buscaban convencer, en lo lingüístico y textual, para tener efecto en la vida real: que no se les arrebatase sus tierras. En este trabajo se abordará la aproximación a este tipo textual mediante el estudio, desde la pragmática lingüística y el análisis del discurso, del Título Primordial de Santiago Sula, un documento paradigmático del género. Con ello se quiere demostrar que el Título Primordial de Santiago Sulase caracteriza por una estructura argumentativa con un narrador que dispone de distintos tipos de argumentos y otras estrategias textuales para reforzar la única conclusión final: la defensa dela tierra.

  4. Los ocupantes de tierras en la Norpatagonia. Los Inspectores nacionales, el colono ideal y el poblador real al comenzar el siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco, Graciela

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo realiza una aproximación a los pobladores que se asentaron en el norte de la Patagonia Argentina, particularmente en el Territorio de Río Negro, a partir de los informes de inspección realizados por funcionarios de la Dirección Nacional de Tierras en los años 1904, 1910 y 1920-21. Estos informes no abarcan la totalidad del territorio, inspeccionándose en esos años distintas zonas, particularmente las destinadas a funcionar como colonias o reservas –Conesa, Choele Choel, Frias, El Cuy, Valcheta-. Los mismos dan cuenta de los pobladores, la forma de tenencia de la tierra, la producción y las inversiones realizadas, clasificando y calificando a los pobladores de acuerdo a diferentes variables. El relato construido por estos inspectores resultaba el insumo más importante a la hora de decidir el acceso a la tierra. Se estudian los informes que estos agentes estatales producían, caracterizando las condiciones del poblamiento y puesta en producción de la región por parte de los pequeños productores de ganado menor o crianceros, complementando esas fuentes con la prensa regional y la producción existente sobre el tema.

  5. «Le Domaine de la Terre», un conjunto de realizaciones-piloto a base de tierra, en L'isle D'abeau (Francia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas, J.

    1986-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, some of the experimental housing works (blocks, formwork, mud and straw... built on the outskirts of Lyon (France are presented in a systematic way. The ensemble is called «Le Domaine de la Terre», and eleven different projects are concerned, where a number of institutions and teams of professionals have worked. In its whole it is an excelent exposition at natural scale of the possibilities of mud construction, even though the results are of a great diversity -formal and conceptually- between those diverse projects.Se presentan en el trabajo de forma sistematizada algunas de las realizaciones de viviendas experimentales a base de tierra (bloques, tapial, bloques compactados, tierra-paja.... realizadas en las cercanías de Lyon (Francia y que constituyen el conjunto «Le Domaine de la Terre». Se trata de una realización a base de once proyectos distintos en los que han intervenido un buen número de instituciones, equipos de proyecto y profesionales franceses. Globalmente constituyen una excelente exposición a escala natural de las posibilidades de las construcciones de tierra, aunque los resultados son muy diversos -formal y conceptualmente- entre los distintos proyectos.

  6. Update: San Andreas Fault experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulidis, D. C.; Smith, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    Satellite laser ranging techniques are used to monitor the broad motion of the tectonic plates comprising the San Andreas Fault System. The San Andreas Fault Experiment, (SAFE), has progressed through the upgrades made to laser system hardware and an improvement in the modeling capabilities of the spaceborne laser targets. Of special note is the launch of the Laser Geodynamic Satellite, LAGEOS spacecraft, NASA's only completely dedicated laser satellite in 1976. The results of plate motion projected into this 896 km measured line over the past eleven years are summarized and intercompared.

  7. Faulting at Mormon Point, Death Valley, California: A low-angle normal fault cut by high-angle faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, Charles; Serpa, Laura; Pavlis, Terry L.

    1993-04-01

    New geophysical and fault kinematic studies indicate that late Cenozoic basin development in the Mormon Point area of Death Valley, California, was accommodated by fault rotations. Three of six fault segments recognized at Mormon Point are now inactive and have been rotated to low dips during extension. The remaining three segments are now active and moderately to steeply dipping. From the geophysical data, one active segment appears to offset the low-angle faults in the subsurface of Death Valley.

  8. A Geochemical and Sedimentary Record of High Southern Latitude Holocene Climate Evolution from Lago Fagnano, Tierra del Fuego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moy, C M; Dunbar, R B; Guilderson, T P; Waldmann, N; Mucciarone, D A; Recasens, C; Austin, J A; Anselmetti, F S

    2010-11-19

    Situated at the southern margin of the hemispheric westerly wind belt and immediately north of the Antarctic Polar Frontal zone, Tierra del Fuego is well-positioned to monitor coupled changes in the ocean-atmosphere system of the high southern latitudes. Here we describe a Holocene paleoclimate record from sediment cores obtained from Lago Fagnano, a large lake in southern Tierra del Fuego at 55{sup o}S, to investigate past changes in climate related to these two important features of the global climate system. We use an AMS radiocarbon chronology for the last 8,000 years based on pollen concentrates, thereby avoiding contamination from bedrock-derived lignite. Our chronology is consistent with a tephrochronologic age date for deposits from the middle Holocene Volcan Hudson eruption. Combining bulk organic isotopic ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N) and elemental (C and N) parameters with physical sediment properties allow us to better understand sediment provenance and transport mechanisms and to interpret Holocene climate and tectonic change during the last 8,000 years. Co-variability and long-term trends in C/N ratio, carbon accumulation rate, and magnetic susceptibility reflect an overall Holocene increase in the delivery of terrestrial organic and lithogenic material to the deep eastern basin. We attribute this variability to westerly wind-derived precipitation. Increased wind strength and precipitation in the late Holocene drives the Nothofagus forest eastward and enhances run-off and terrigenous inputs to the lake. Superimposed on the long-term trend are a series of abrupt 9 negative departures in C/N ratio, which constrain the presence of seismically-driven mass flow events in the record. We identify an increase in bulk {delta}{sup 13}C between 7,000 and 5,000 cal yr BP that we attribute to enhanced aquatic productivity driven by warmer summer temperatures. The Lago Fagnano {delta}{sup 13}C record shows similarities with Holocene records of sea surface

  9. EN LA RESIDENCIA EN LA TIERRA, UN “CABALLERO SOLO” VIVE POSEÍDO POR EL DESEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alfonso Castro Sotelo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A través del análisis textual, palabras clave, estructura, tema y perspectiva de la voz lírica, se pretende rescatar los elementos estéticos e ideológicos del poema "Caballero solo" del libro Residencia en la tierra. Se asume tal poema como evidencia de la transformación en el sistema nerudiano, un poema donde los elementos de lo social conviven y se enfrentan contra el sujeto individual que escribe y padece. En cierto modo, este poema propone una explicación tipo tesis sobre el funcionamiento del deseo, origen y tránsito, y la vida sexual del mundo social que rodea al poeta y que provoca el retorno posible al espacio primigenio del bosque, la naturaleza y los monstruos de la fantasía: después de percibir el sexo en todas partes, el poeta se protege y rodea por los elementos que lo acompañaron en la infancia y, tal vez, formaron parte del paisaje de todos los hombres a la hora del deseo y del sexo.In these pages, the poem "Caballero solo" is seen as a particularly rich discourse for textual analysis. The poem is built up around key words and concepts, an evocative structure, an attractive issue, and a thought provoking perspective, following an undoubtedly Nerudian lyric voice. The focus lies on the aesthetic and ideological elements in "Caballero solo", included in Residencia en la tierra. The poem is seen as evidence of a transformation in the Nerudian system, where the social elements coexist along with and confront the subject who writes and suffers. Emphasis is paid to the way the poem states a thesis regarding the functioning of desires, their origins and evolution, and sexuality in the social world of the poet, the subject. This world provides a possibility of returning to the primitive spaces of nature, the woods, and the monsters of fantasy. After having perceived sexuality everywhere, the poet shelters himself amongst the elements of his infancy, which can be taken as a common human landscape alluding to sex and desire.

  10. LA MOVILIZACIÓN DE LOS GARÍFUNAS PARA PRESERVAR SUS TIERRAS «ANCESTRALES» EN GUATEMALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Rey

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Livingston, en el noreste de Guatemala, es la «ciudad negra» de ese país que cuenta con una población de mayoría maya. Los derechos de los garífunas, mayas y xincas —recuperación de tierras ancestrales, valorización de su identidad y desarrollo socioeconómico— fueron inscritos en los Acuerdos de Paz, 1995-1996. Este artículo, resultado de una amplia investigación, presenta la increíble trayectoria de los garífunas: - un pueblo «en resistencia» nacido en las Antillas Menores, del encuentro entre indígenas caribes y negros cimarrones durante la colonización y la esclavitud; luego deportado a América Central, - que está reconquistando «espacios» como la tierra, lo político... gracias a una dinámica social compleja que une los vivos a los muertos —culto a los ancestros—, en alianza a veces con otros grupos mayas y ladinos.   ABSTRACT Livingston, in the northeast of Guatemala, is a «black city» in a country with a predominantly Maya population. The rights of the Garinagu, Maya and Xinca—the recovery of their ancestral lands, the value placed on their identity, and socio-economic development—were enshrined in the peace agreements (1995-1996. This article, resulting from an extensive research project, describes the incredible story of the Garinagu: - a people in «resistance» born in the Lesser Antilles from the encounter between Carib Indians and black runaway slaves, during colonization and slavery, later deported to Central America - who are reconquering «spaces» such as land and politics, thanks to a complex social dynamic that links those who are alive to the dead —ancestor worship—, occasionally in conjunction with other groups —Maya, Ladinos—.

  11. De la tierra al suelo: la transformación del paisaje y el nuevo turismo residencial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aledo Tur, Antonio

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Residential Tourism has had a main role of speeding up the social and environmental processes of change that took place in Spain during the second half of the last century. This article begins with the description of its main characteristics, its effects at a local level and the different phases of its evolution. A special reference will be made with regard to last phase (2002-2007 which has been nomitaded New Residential Tourism (NRT. NRT is characterized by the appearance of urban megaprojects of thousands of households, with several golf courses and all the services needed. Its goal is to build privatized units of residential leisure, which are autonomous and independent from the territory where they are settled. In this paper there is an underlying reflection about the socio-cultural consequences of the transformation of agricultural land into urban land. A land that is definitely denatured and transformed into urban space for tourism consumption.El turismo residencial ha sido un agente acelerador de los procesos de transformación social y ambiental acaecidos en la España mediterránea durante la segunda mitad del siglo pasado. Este trabajo se inicia con la descripción de sus principales características, sus efectos a escala local y sus diferentes fases evolutivas. Se hará una especial referencia al último período que se ha iniciado en 2002 y que se ha denominado Nuevo Turismo Residencia (NTR. El NTR se caracteriza por la aparición de megaproyectos urbanísticos de miles de viviendas, con varios campos de golf y todos los servicios necesarios para convertirlo en una unidad de ocio residencial privatizada, autónoma e independiente del territorio en el que se instale. En última instancia, en este artículo subyace una reflexión en torno a las consecuencias socioculturales de la transformación de la tierra en suelo ya que éste es el principal recurso del turismo residencial. La tierra ha pasado de entenderse como un espacio para la

  12. CO2 and CH4 fluxes of contrasting pristine bogs in southern Patagonia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münchberger, Wiebke; Blodau, Christian; Kleinebecker, Till; Pancotto, Veronica

    2015-04-01

    South Patagonian peatlands cover a wide range of the southern terrestrial area and thus are an important component of the terrestrial global carbon cycle. These extremely southern ecosystems have been accumulating organic material since the last glaciation up to now and are - in contrast to northern hemisphere bogs - virtually unaffected by human activities. So far, little attention has been given to these pristine ecosystems and great carbon reservoirs which will potentially be affected by climate change. We aim to fill the knowledge gap in the quantity of carbon released from these bogs and in what controls their fluxes. We study the temporal and spatial variability of carbon fluxes in two contrasting bog ecosystems in southern Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego. Sphagnum-dominated bog ecosystems in Tierra del Fuego are similar to the ones on the northern hemisphere, while cushion plant-dominated bogs can almost exclusively be found in southern Patagonia. These unique cushion plant-dominated bogs are found close to the coast and their occurrence changes gradually to Sphagnum-dominated bogs with increasing distance from the coast. We conduct closed chamber measurements and record relevant environmental variables for CO2 and CH4 fluxes during two austral vegetation periods from December to April. Chamber measurements are performed on microforms representing the main vegetation units of the studied bogs. Gas concentrations are measured with a fast analyzer (Los Gatos Ultraportable Greenhouse Gas Analyzer) allowing to accurately record CH4 fluxes in the ppm range. We present preliminary results of the carbon flux variability from south Patagonian peat bogs and give insights into their environmental controls. Carbon fluxes of these two bog types appear to be highly different. In contrast to Sphagnum-dominated bogs, cushion plant-dominated bogs release almost no CH4 while their CO2 flux in both, photosynthesis and respiration, can be twice as high as for Sphagnum

  13. Fault-tolerant system for catastrophic faults in AMR sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zambrano Constantini, A.C.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    Anisotropic Magnetoresistance angle sensors are widely used in automotive applications considered to be safety-critical applications. Therefore dependability is an important requirement and fault-tolerant strategies must be used to guarantee the correct operation of the sensors even in case of

  14. Fault Management Assistant (FMA), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — S&K Aerospace (SKA) proposes to develop the Fault Management Assistant (FMA) to aid project managers and fault management engineers in developing better and more...

  15. SDEM modelling of fault-propagation folding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, O.R.; Egholm, D.L.; Poulsen, Jane Bang

    2009-01-01

    and variations in Mohr-Coulomb parameters including internal friction. Using SDEM modelling, we have mapped the propagation of the tip-line of the fault, as well as the evolution of the fold geometry across sedimentary layers of contrasting rheological parameters, as a function of the increased offset......Understanding the dynamics and kinematics of fault-propagation-folding is important for evaluating the associated hydrocarbon play, for accomplishing reliable section balancing (structural reconstruction), and for assessing seismic hazards. Accordingly, the deformation style of fault-propagation...... a precise indication of when faults develop and hence also the sequential evolution of secondary faults. Here we focus on the generation of a fault -propagated fold with a reverse sense of motion at the master fault, and varying only the dip of the master fault and the mechanical behaviour of the deformed...

  16. A summary of the active fault investigation in the extension sea area of Kikugawa fault and the Nishiyama fault , N-S direction fault in south west Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, S.

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we carried out two sets of active fault investigation by the request from Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in the sea area of the extension of Kikugawa fault and the Nishiyama fault. We want to clarify the five following matters about both active faults based on those results. (1)Fault continuity of the land and the sea. (2) The length of the active fault. (3) The division of the segment. (4) Activity characteristics. In this investigation, we carried out a digital single channel seismic reflection survey in the whole area of both active faults. In addition, a high-resolution multichannel seismic reflection survey was carried out to recognize the detailed structure of a shallow stratum. Furthermore, the sampling with the vibrocoring to get information of the sedimentation age was carried out. The reflection profile of both active faults was extremely clear. The characteristics of the lateral fault such as flower structure, the dispersion of the active fault were recognized. In addition, from analysis of the age of the stratum, it was recognized that the thickness of the sediment was extremely thin in Holocene epoch on the continental shelf in this sea area. It was confirmed that the Kikugawa fault extended to the offing than the existing results of research by a result of this investigation. In addition, the width of the active fault seems to become wide toward the offing while dispersing. At present, we think that we can divide Kikugawa fault into some segments based on the distribution form of the segment. About the Nishiyama fault, reflection profiles to show the existence of the active fault was acquired in the sea between Ooshima and Kyushu. From this result and topographical existing results of research in Ooshima, it is thought that Nishiyama fault and the Ooshima offing active fault are a series of structure. As for Ooshima offing active fault, the upheaval side changes, and a direction changes too. Therefore, we

  17. 31 CFR 29.522 - Fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fault. 29.522 Section 29.522 Money... Overpayments § 29.522 Fault. (a) General rule. A debtor is considered to be at fault if he or she, or any other... requirement. (3) The following factors may affect the decision as to whether the debtor is or is not at fault...

  18. H infinity Integrated Fault Estimation and Fault Tolerant Control of Discrete-time Piecewise Linear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeipour, Seyed Mojtaba; Bak, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of fault estimation and accommodation for discrete time piecewise linear systems. A robust fault estimator is designed to estimate the fault such that the estimation error converges to zero and H∞ performance of the fault estimation is minimized. Then, the es...

  19. Cell boundary fault detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Pinnow, Kurt Walter [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian Edward [Rochester, MN

    2011-04-19

    An apparatus and program product determine a nodal fault along the boundary, or face, of a computing cell. Nodes on adjacent cell boundaries communicate with each other, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  20. RESULTS, RESPONSIBILITY, FAULT AND CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy Stoyanov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the responsibility arising from the registered financial results. The analysis of this responsibility presupposes its evaluation and determination of the role of fault in the formation of negative results. The search for efficiency in this whole process is justified by the understanding of the mechanisms that regulate the behavior of economic actors.

  1. Fault detection using (PI) observers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, J.; Shafai, B.

    1997-01-01

    The fault detection and isolation (FDI) problem in connection with Proportional Integral (PI) Observers is considered in this paper. A compact formulation of the FDI design problem using PI observers is given. An analysis of the FDI design problem is derived with respectt to the time domain...

  2. Exact, almost and delayed fault detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Anton A.

    1999-01-01

    Considers the problem of fault detection and isolation while using zero or almost zero threshold. A number of different fault detection and isolation problems using exact or almost exact disturbance decoupling are formulated. Solvability conditions are given for the formulated design problems....... The l-step delayed fault detection problem is also considered for discrete-time systems....

  3. 5 CFR 831.1402 - Fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fault. 831.1402 Section 831.1402...) RETIREMENT Standards for Waiver of Overpayments § 831.1402 Fault. A recipient of an overpayment is without fault if he/she performed no act of commission or omission which resulted in the overpayment. The fact...

  4. 40 CFR 258.13 - Fault areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fault areas. 258.13 Section 258.13... SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.13 Fault areas. (a) New MSWLF units and lateral expansions shall not be located within 200 feet (60 meters) of a fault that has had displacement in Holocene...

  5. On the "stacking fault" in copper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransens, J.R.; Pleiter, F

    2003-01-01

    The results of a perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlations experiment on In-111 implanted into a properly cut single crystal of copper show that the defect known in the literature as "stacking fault" is not a planar faulted loop but a stacking fault tetrahedron with a size of 10-50 Angstrom.

  6. 20 CFR 255.11 - Fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fault. 255.11 Section 255.11 Employees... § 255.11 Fault. (a) Before recovery of an overpayment may be waived, it must be determined that the overpaid individual was without fault in causing the overpayment. If recovery is sought from other than the...

  7. 5 CFR 845.302 - Fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fault. 845.302 Section 845.302... EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEBT COLLECTION Standards for Waiver of Overpayments § 845.302 Fault. A recipient of an overpayment is without fault if he or she performed no act of commission or omission that...

  8. Fault-related clay authigenesis along the Moab Fault: Implications for calculations of fault rock composition and mechanical and hydrologic fault zone properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solum, J.G.; Davatzes, N.C.; Lockner, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of clays in fault rocks influences both the mechanical and hydrologic properties of clay-bearing faults, and therefore it is critical to understand the origin of clays in fault rocks and their distributions is of great importance for defining fundamental properties of faults in the shallow crust. Field mapping shows that layers of clay gouge and shale smear are common along the Moab Fault, from exposures with throws ranging from 10 to ???1000 m. Elemental analyses of four locations along the Moab Fault show that fault rocks are enriched in clays at R191 and Bartlett Wash, but that this clay enrichment occurred at different times and was associated with different fluids. Fault rocks at Corral and Courthouse Canyons show little difference in elemental composition from adjacent protolith, suggesting that formation of fault rocks at those locations is governed by mechanical processes. Friction tests show that these authigenic clays result in fault zone weakening, and potentially influence the style of failure along the fault (seismogenic vs. aseismic) and potentially influence the amount of fluid loss associated with coseismic dilation. Scanning electron microscopy shows that authigenesis promotes that continuity of slip surfaces, thereby enhancing seal capacity. The occurrence of the authigenesis, and its influence on the sealing properties of faults, highlights the importance of determining the processes that control this phenomenon. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Architecting Fault-Tolerant Software Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sözer, Hasan

    2009-01-01

    The increasing size and complexity of software systems makes it hard to prevent or remove all possible faults. Faults that remain in the system can eventually lead to a system failure. Fault tolerance techniques are introduced for enabling systems to recover and continue operation when they are

  10. Machine Learning of Fault Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. A.; Rouet-Leduc, B.; Hulbert, C.; Marone, C.; Guyer, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    We are applying machine learning (ML) techniques to continuous acoustic emission (AE) data from laboratory earthquake experiments. Our goal is to apply explicit ML methods to this acoustic datathe AE in order to infer frictional properties of a laboratory fault. The experiment is a double direct shear apparatus comprised of fault blocks surrounding fault gouge comprised of glass beads or quartz powder. Fault characteristics are recorded, including shear stress, applied load (bulk friction = shear stress/normal load) and shear velocity. The raw acoustic signal is continuously recorded. We rely on explicit decision tree approaches (Random Forest and Gradient Boosted Trees) that allow us to identify important features linked to the fault friction. A training procedure that employs both the AE and the recorded shear stress from the experiment is first conducted. Then, testing takes place on data the algorithm has never seen before, using only the continuous AE signal. We find that these methods provide rich information regarding frictional processes during slip (Rouet-Leduc et al., 2017a; Hulbert et al., 2017). In addition, similar machine learning approaches predict failure times, as well as slip magnitudes in some cases. We find that these methods work for both stick slip and slow slip experiments, for periodic slip and for aperiodic slip. We also derive a fundamental relationship between the AE and the friction describing the frictional behavior of any earthquake slip cycle in a given experiment (Rouet-Leduc et al., 2017b). Our goal is to ultimately scale these approaches to Earth geophysical data to probe fault friction. References Rouet-Leduc, B., C. Hulbert, N. Lubbers, K. Barros, C. Humphreys and P. A. Johnson, Machine learning predicts laboratory earthquakes, in review (2017). https://arxiv.org/abs/1702.05774Rouet-LeDuc, B. et al., Friction Laws Derived From the Acoustic Emissions of a Laboratory Fault by Machine Learning (2017), AGU Fall Meeting Session S025

  11. Purificando la tierra, colonizando el espíritu: conflicto armado y religiosidad en la mítica Marquetalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Ospina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El quebrado territorio de la cordillera central en Colombia ha sido el epicentrode luchas políticas, militares y especialmente espirituales en las que el territorioen pugna, la mítica zona de Marquetalia, debate creencias y prácticas, en torno alpoder, la sangre y la tierra. Lógicas de diverso orden que vinculan la lucha armada,la conquista espiritual y la cosmología del pueblo indígena Nasa –que habita en lazona–, ponen acento crítico en una tensa relación que confronta a la vez que vinculael orden político con el actuar religioso. Este trabajo, centrado en las relacionesemergentes de un campo etnográfico, busca dar cuenta de acciones y relaciones quearticulan y condensan tales enfrentamientos, al mismo tiempo que sugiere un marcode interpretación desde las prácticas religiosas que evidencia la forma en que varioselementos del conflicto armado en Colombia tienen como móvil un componenteespiritual.

  12. Martín Sancho (siglos XIV-XVI un despoblado bajomedieval en la tierra de Medellín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Clemente Ramos

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The Extremaduran village of Martin Sancho is documented for the first time in 1374. In the second half of the fourteenth century, something that may initially have been an individual appropriation has given rise to a concentrated settlement. Its population seems never to have been more than twenty-five. This village had its own district and council, whose only official was the mayor. Its inhabitants were parishioners of the church of San Martin de Medellín. Around the middle of the fifteenth century, Martin Sancho experienced a certain demographic decline, its population no more than 15-20, of whom only a part resided there permanently. This situation appears to have increased the importance of cattle raising, in the context of the relative abundance of grasses and perhaps also the accumulation of properties on the part of qualified members of the village. The violence of the governor of the tierra and future landlord Rodrigo Portocarrero, who appropriates the district, produces rapid depopulation. In the first quarter of the sixteenth century, Medellín manages through a judicial process to integrate it in its public land.

  13. La restitución de la tierra y la prevención del desplazamiento forzado en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Gómez-Isa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El conflicto armado interno en Colombia se caracteriza por la generación de más de tres millones de desplazados internos, con consecuencias dramáticas desde el punto de vista humanitario y desde la óptica de la protección de sus derechos. En ocasiones, las razones fundamentales de dicho desplazamiento descansan en una dinámica de control y apropiación territorial con fines tanto estratégico-militares como puramente económicos. Los estándares jurídicos de orden interno e internacional establecen el derecho de las víctimas a la restitución de sus viviendas y patrimonio como el “medio preferente” de reparación en casos de desplazamiento, algo que no se está teniendo en cuenta suficientemente por parte de las políticas de atención al desplazamiento del Gobierno colombiano y de diversas instituciones internacionales. Cualquier política integral de reparación a las víctimas debe pasar necesariamente por la reversión del despojo de tierras, territorios y bienes que se ha producido en Colombia al amparo del conflicto armado interno.

  14. Pedagogía de la Tierra: los sujetos del campo y la Enseñanza Superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Martins

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En el contexto de las políticas y prácticas de la enseñanza superior, de manera general, cada vez más atraídas por la lógica de mercado, se intenta en este artículo dar visibilidad a una experiencia en este nivel de enseñanza, que pretende posicionarse en la contracorriente de aquella lógica: la Pedagogía de la Tierra. Bajo la forma de política pública afirmativa, encarada hacia los sujetos del campo, se construye en Brasil un curso especial con características singulares y propias, que ha llamado la atención de los investigadores y de la sociedad civil. Esta experiencia señala elementos significativos que sustentan la definición de políticas y prácticas de una enseñanza superior vinculada a una perspectiva emancipatoria, orientada específicamente a las clases populares. Palabras clave: movimientos sociales, participación, universidad.

  15. La arquitectura de los puestos de pastoreo en las tierras altas del norte argentino (Susques, provincia de Jujuy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Tomasi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo nos proponemos analizar las características que presentan los puestos de pastoreo en las tierras altas de la provincia de Jujuy, en el noroeste argentino. El análisis considerará las lógicas de emplazamiento, las configuraciones y las materialidades de estos puestos. Tomaremos en cuenta particularmente los sentidos que la topografía tiene en la configuración de la arquitectura doméstica. Estas construcciones tienen un sentido específico en el marco de los sistemas de asentamiento de los grupos pastoriles, en relación con las estrategias de movilidad de las familias junto con los rebaños. El estudio se basa en el material del trabajo de campo etnográfico que se ha venido desarrollando desde el 2004 en la localidad de Susques, el cual ha implicado un relevamiento sistemático de los distintos tipos de asentamiento, en el marco de una investigación sobre las espacialidades y la arquitectura pastoril en los Andes.

  16. Salamanca como referente simbólico: la urbe del siglo XXI en Tierra Violenta de Luciano G. Egido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Eva Rodríguez Valentín

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es examinar el material simbólico y los vínculos sociales entre la memoria colectiva, la identidad y el espacio de Salamanca, en el siglo XXI a través de la novela, Tierra Violenta, de Luciano G. Egido. Desde esta perspectiva, propongo una lectura del texto que nos ayude a entender cómo las circunstancias políticas y económicas determinan la estructura de la ciudad; que cambia, a su vez,  la vida de sus habitantes. Se trata de una ciudad que, aparentemente, vive en el pasado, pero que no es inmune a los mecanismos que rigen el siglo XXI. En esta aproximación, el texto literario es una fuente de distintas líneas de análisis para entender las temporalidades urbanas y la dialéctica de ambos, el proyecto público y  la herencia urbana.

  17. El arbitrio de tierras de 1622 y el debate sobre las propiedades y los derechos coloniales de los indios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glave, Luis Miguel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the 1622 tax on the sale of lands within the context of the broad debate regarding the lawfulness of the sale and composition of properties, initiated at the end of the sixteenth century. The opportunity to press upon the natives’ resources is studied, as well as the defensive measures available to them, while striving to call attention to the dialogue between metropolitan policy – which sought to increase monetary resources in times of need – and discrepancies within the Andean kingdom at a time of legal and administrative changes that attempted to respond to imperial demands.Este artículo analiza un arbitrio sobre la venta de tierras de 1622, situándolo en el extenso debate acerca de la licitud de la enajenación y composición de propiedades comenzado a finales del siglo XVI. Se estudia la coyuntura de presión sobre los recursos de los naturales y las opciones de defensa de los mismos, procurando resaltar el diálogo entre la política metropolitana, que buscaba ampliar recursos monetarios en tiempo de necesidad, y las discrepancias internas del reino andino en pleno proceso de cambios administrativos y legales que intentaban responder a esa demanda imperial.

  18. «En tierra de hombres» (2005. El acoso psicológico en el trabajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen María VIZOSO GÓMEZ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available El acoso psicológico en el trabajo está considerado un grave problema en el entorno laboral debido a los efectos negativos que provoca no solo en la convivencia dentro de la empresa y en la productividad de los trabajadores sino también en la salud de la víctima y en el bienestar de su familia. La película En tierra de hombres está inspirada en un caso real de acoso en el trabajo, concretamente de acoso sexual, sufrido por las mujeres que trabajaban en una mina de hierro. Esta situación desembocó en la primera demanda colectiva sobre discriminación sexual. En el presente artículo se analizan las escenas, los diálogos y las características de los personajes para explicar en qué consiste este tipo de acoso. Así, se describe el clima laboral en la empresa, las conductas vejatorias de los acosadores, el proceso de desarrollo del problema hasta que la víctima abandona la empresa, las consecuencias del acoso en diversos ámbitos y también una posible forma de solucionarlo. Por último, se defiende el valor que tiene este film como recurso didáctico para la formación de estudiantes y trabajadores y para la prevención del acoso en el ámbito laboral.

  19. Edipo y Gaia : el tema de la Madre Tierra en el Oráculo de Delfos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Luis Casquillo Fumanal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cuando el oráculo de Delfos proclamó destino de Edipo el casarse con su madre, éste entendió de forma unívoca que la Pitia se refería a su madre biológica. Pero la equivocidad (y la analogía era una característica propia de Delfos, que empleaba conceptos —como el de madre— de forma ambigua: El término madre en la ideología délfica podía referirse analógicamente a la Madre Tierra. Si Edipo hubiera entendido el oráculo de forma analógica, su destino podría haber sido distinto.When Delphic oracle proclaimed Oedipus;destiny marrying his own mother, he understood in an univocal way that Pythia meant his biological mother. But aequivocity (or analogy was characteristic of Delphi, which employed concepts —as mother— in an ambiguous way. The word mother, in Delphic ideology, could mean Mother Earth. If Oedipus had understood Delphic oracle in an analogical way, his destiny could have been different.

  20. Fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control based on adaptive control approach

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Qikun; Shi, Peng

    2017-01-01

    This book provides recent theoretical developments in and practical applications of fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control for complex dynamical systems, including uncertain systems, linear and nonlinear systems. Combining adaptive control technique with other control methodologies, it investigates the problems of fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control for uncertain dynamic systems with or without time delay. As such, the book provides readers a solid understanding of fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control based on adaptive control technology. Given its depth and breadth, it is well suited for undergraduate and graduate courses on linear system theory, nonlinear system theory, fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control techniques. Further, it can be used as a reference source for academic research on fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control, and for postgraduates in the field of control theory and engineering. .

  1. Robust Fault Diagnosis Design for Linear Multiagent Systems with Incipient Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingping Xia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of a robust fault estimation observer is studied for linear multiagent systems subject to incipient faults. By considering the fact that incipient faults are in low-frequency domain, the fault estimation of such faults is proposed for discrete-time multiagent systems based on finite-frequency technique. Moreover, using the decomposition design, an equivalent conclusion is given. Simulation results of a numerical example are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques.

  2. Active fault traces along Bhuj Fault and Katrol Hill Fault, and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    face, passing through the alluvial-colluvial fan at location 2. The gentle warping of the surface was completely modified because of severe cultivation practice. Therefore, it was difficult to confirm it in field. To the south ... scarp has been modified by present day farming. At location 5 near Wandhay village, an active fault trace ...

  3. Novel neural networks-based fault tolerant control scheme with fault alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qikun; Jiang, Bin; Shi, Peng; Lim, Cheng-Chew

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, the problem of adaptive active fault-tolerant control for a class of nonlinear systems with unknown actuator fault is investigated. The actuator fault is assumed to have no traditional affine appearance of the system state variables and control input. The useful property of the basis function of the radial basis function neural network (NN), which will be used in the design of the fault tolerant controller, is explored. Based on the analysis of the design of normal and passive fault tolerant controllers, by using the implicit function theorem, a novel NN-based active fault-tolerant control scheme with fault alarm is proposed. Comparing with results in the literature, the fault-tolerant control scheme can minimize the time delay between fault occurrence and accommodation that is called the time delay due to fault diagnosis, and reduce the adverse effect on system performance. In addition, the FTC scheme has the advantages of a passive fault-tolerant control scheme as well as the traditional active fault-tolerant control scheme's properties. Furthermore, the fault-tolerant control scheme requires no additional fault detection and isolation model which is necessary in the traditional active fault-tolerant control scheme. Finally, simulation results are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the developed techniques.

  4. Managing Space System Faults: Coalescing NASA's Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Brian; Fesq, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    Managing faults and their resultant failures is a fundamental and critical part of developing and operating aerospace systems. Yet, recent studies have shown that the engineering "discipline" required to manage faults is not widely recognized nor evenly practiced within the NASA community. Attempts to simply name this discipline in recent years has been fraught with controversy among members of the Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM), Fault Management (FM), Fault Protection (FP), Hazard Analysis (HA), and Aborts communities. Approaches to managing space system faults typically are unique to each organization, with little commonality in the architectures, processes and practices across the industry.

  5. Synthesis of Fault-Tolerant Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eles, Petru; Izosimov, Viacheslav; Pop, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This work addresses the issue of design optimization for fault- tolerant hard real-time systems. In particular, our focus is on the handling of transient faults using both checkpointing with rollback recovery and active replication. Fault tolerant schedules are generated based on a conditional...... process graph representation. The formulated system synthesis approaches decide the assignment of fault-tolerance policies to processes, the optimal placement of checkpoints and the mapping of processes to processors, such that multiple transient faults are tolerated, transparency requirements...

  6. Diagnosis and Fault-tolerant Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Kinnaert, Michel; Lunze, Jan

    the applicability of the presented methods. The theoretical results are illustrated by two running examples which are used throughout the book. The book addresses engineering students, engineers in industry and researchers who wish to get a survey over the variety of approaches to process diagnosis and fault......The book presents effective model-based analysis and design methods for fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control. Architectural and structural models are used to analyse the propagation of the fault through the process, to test the fault detectability and to find the redundancies in the process...

  7. Computer aided construction of fault tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Z.

    1982-01-01

    Computer code CAT for the automatic construction of the fault tree is briefly described. Code CAT makes possible simple modelling of components using decision tables, it accelerates the fault tree construction process, constructs fault trees of different complexity, and is capable of harmonized co-operation with programs PREPandKITT 1,2 for fault tree analysis. The efficiency of program CAT and thus the accuracy and completeness of fault trees constructed significantly depends on the compilation and sophistication of decision tables. Currently, program CAT is used in co-operation with programs PREPandKITT 1,2 in reliability analyses of nuclear power plant systems. (B.S.)

  8. Active fault detection in MIMO systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2014-01-01

    The focus in this paper is on active fault detection (AFD) for MIMO systems with parametric faults. The problem of design of auxiliary inputs with respect to detection of parametric faults is investigated. An analysis of the design of auxiliary inputs is given based on analytic transfer functions...... from auxiliary input to residual outputs. The analysis is based on a singular value decomposition of these transfer functions Based on this analysis, it is possible to design auxiliary input as well as design of the associated residual vector with respect to every single parametric fault in the system...... such that it is possible to detect these faults....

  9. Deformation associated with continental normal faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resor, Phillip G.

    Deformation associated with normal fault earthquakes and geologic structures provide insights into the seismic cycle as it unfolds over time scales from seconds to millions of years. Improved understanding of normal faulting will lead to more accurate seismic hazard assessments and prediction of associated structures. High-precision aftershock locations for the 1995 Kozani-Grevena earthquake (Mw 6.5), Greece image a segmented master fault and antithetic faults. This three-dimensional fault geometry is typical of normal fault systems mapped from outcrop or interpreted from reflection seismic data and illustrates the importance of incorporating three-dimensional fault geometry in mechanical models. Subsurface fault slip associated with the Kozani-Grevena and 1999 Hector Mine (Mw 7.1) earthquakes is modeled using a new method for slip inversion on three-dimensional fault surfaces. Incorporation of three-dimensional fault geometry improves the fit to the geodetic data while honoring aftershock distributions and surface ruptures. GPS Surveying of deformed bedding surfaces associated with normal faulting in the western Grand Canyon reveals patterns of deformation that are similar to those observed by interferometric satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) for the Kozani Grevena earthquake with a prominent down-warp in the hanging wall and a lesser up-warp in the footwall. However, deformation associated with the Kozani-Grevena earthquake extends ˜20 km from the fault surface trace, while the folds in the western Grand Canyon only extend 500 m into the footwall and 1500 m into the hanging wall. A comparison of mechanical and kinematic models illustrates advantages of mechanical models in exploring normal faulting processes including incorporation of both deformation and causative forces, and the opportunity to incorporate more complex fault geometry and constitutive properties. Elastic models with antithetic or synthetic faults or joints in association with a master

  10. Mesoscopic Structural Observations of Cores from the Chelungpu Fault System, Taiwan Chelungpu-Fault Drilling Project Hole-A, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Sone

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural characteristics of fault rocks distributed within major fault zones provide basic information in understanding the physical aspects of faulting. Mesoscopic structural observations of the drilledcores from Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project Hole-A are reported in this article to describe and reveal the distribution of fault rocks within the Chelungpu Fault System.

  11. Numerical modelling of the mechanical and fluid flow properties of fault zones - Implications for fault seal analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heege, J.H. ter; Wassing, B.B.T.; Giger, S.B.; Clennell, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Existing fault seal algorithms are based on fault zone composition and fault slip (e.g., shale gouge ratio), or on fault orientations within the contemporary stress field (e.g., slip tendency). In this study, we aim to develop improved fault seal algorithms that account for differences in fault zone

  12. Development of methods for evaluating active faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The report for long-term evaluation of active faults was published by the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion on Nov. 2010. After occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, the safety review guide with regard to geology and ground of site was revised by the Nuclear Safety Commission on Mar. 2012 with scientific knowledges of the earthquake. The Nuclear Regulation Authority established on Sep. 2012 is newly planning the New Safety Design Standard related to Earthquakes and Tsunamis of Light Water Nuclear Power Reactor Facilities. With respect to those guides and standards, our investigations for developing the methods of evaluating active faults are as follows; (1) For better evaluation on activities of offshore fault, we proposed a work flow to date marine terrace (indicator for offshore fault activity) during the last 400,000 years. We also developed the analysis of fault-related fold for evaluating of blind fault. (2) To clarify the activities of active faults without superstratum, we carried out the color analysis of fault gouge and divided the activities into thousand of years and tens of thousands. (3) To reduce uncertainties of fault activities and frequency of earthquakes, we compiled the survey data and possible errors. (4) For improving seismic hazard analysis, we compiled the fault activities of the Yunotake and Itozawa faults, induced by the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. (author)

  13. ESR dating of the fault rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-01-15

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then grow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs, grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the Ulzin nuclear reactor. ESR signals of quartz grains separated from fault rocks collected from the E-W trend fault are saturated. This indicates that the last movement of these faults had occurred before the quaternary period. ESR dates from the NW trend faults range from 300ka to 700ka. On the other hand, ESR date of the NS trend fault is about 50ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity near the Ulzin nuclear reactor continued into the pleistocene.

  14. Fault Recoverability Analysis via Cross-Gramian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Engineering systems are vulnerable to different kinds of faults. Faults may compromise safety, cause sub-optimal operation and decline in performance if not preventing the whole system from functioning. Fault tolerant control (FTC) methods ensure that the system performance maintains within...... with feedback control. Fault recoverability provides important and useful information which could be used in analysis and design. However, computing fault recoverability is numerically expensive. In this paper, a new approach for computation of fault recoverability for bilinear systems is proposed...... approach for computation of fault recoverability is proposed which reduces the computational burden significantly. The proposed results are used for an electro-hydraulic drive to reveal the redundant actuating capabilities in the system....

  15. Active fault diagnosis by controller modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Two active fault diagnosis methods for additive or parametric faults are proposed. Both methods are based on controller reconfiguration rather than on requiring an exogenous excitation signal, as it is otherwise common in active fault diagnosis. For the first method, it is assumed that the system...... considered is controlled by an observer-based controller. The method is then based on a number of alternate observers, each designed to be sensitive to one or more additive faults. Periodically, the observer part of the controller is changed into the sequence of fault sensitive observers. This is done...... in a way that guarantees the continuity of transition and global stability using a recent result on observer parameterization. An illustrative example inspired by a field study of a drag racing vehicle is given. For the second method, an active fault diagnosis method for parametric faults is proposed...

  16. Improved DFIG Capability during Asymmetrical Grid Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    In the wind power application, different asymmetrical types of the grid fault can be categorized after the Y/d transformer, and the positive and negative components of a single-phase fault, phase-to-phase fault, and two-phase fault can be summarized. Due to the newly introduced negative and even...... the natural component of the Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) stator flux during the fault period, their effects on the rotor voltage can be investigated. It is concluded that the phase-to-phase fault has the worst scenario due to its highest introduction of the negative stator flux. Afterwards......, the capability of a 2 MW DFIG to ride through asymmetrical grid faults can be estimated at the existing design of the power electronics converter. Finally, a control scheme aimed to improve the DFIG capability is proposed and the simulation results validate its feasibility....

  17. Fault kinematics and localised inversion within the Troms-Finnmark Fault Complex, SW Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervas, I.; Omosanya, K. O.; Lippard, S. J.; Johansen, S. E.

    2018-04-01

    The areas bounding the Troms-Finnmark Fault Complex are affected by complex tectonic evolution. In this work, the history of fault growth, reactivation, and inversion of major faults in the Troms-Finnmark Fault Complex and the Ringvassøy Loppa Fault Complex is interpreted from three-dimensional seismic data, structural maps and fault displacement plots. Our results reveal eight normal faults bounding rotated fault blocks in the Troms-Finnmark Fault Complex. Both the throw-depth and displacement-distance plots show that the faults exhibit complex configurations of lateral and vertical segmentation with varied profiles. Some of the faults were reactivated by dip-linkages during the Late Jurassic and exhibit polycyclic fault growth, including radial, syn-sedimentary, and hybrid propagation. Localised positive inversion is the main mechanism of fault reactivation occurring at the Troms-Finnmark Fault Complex. The observed structural styles include folds associated with extensional faults, folded growth wedges and inverted depocentres. Localised inversion was intermittent with rifting during the Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous at the boundaries of the Troms-Finnmark Fault Complex to the Finnmark Platform. Additionally, tectonic inversion was more intense at the boundaries of the two fault complexes, affecting Middle Triassic to Early Cretaceous strata. Our study shows that localised folding is either a product of compressional forces or of lateral movements in the Troms-Finnmark Fault Complex. Regional stresses due to the uplift in the Loppa High and halokinesis in the Tromsø Basin are likely additional causes of inversion in the Troms-Finnmark Fault Complex.

  18. Caracterización de suelos bajo bosques de Nothofagus betuloides (Mirb Blume, en Tierra del Fuego, Chile Characterization of soils of Nothofagus betuloides (Mirb Blume forests, in Tierra del Fuego, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VÍCTOR GERDING

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available En tres sectores de la parte occidental de Tierra del Fuego (54º45'-54º15' S, 68º40'-70º10' O se caracterizó morfológica, física y químicamente los suelos bajo bosques de coigüe de Magallanes (Nothofagus betuloides (Mirb Blume y sus especies asociadas lenga (Nothofagus pumilio (P. et E. Krasser y canelo (Drimys winteri Forst.. Se describieron 85 perfiles de suelo y aproximadamente 250 observaciones con bastón pedológico. Los suelos bajo coigüe de Magallanes eran jóvenes, muy influidos por la actividad volcánica, topografía y clima. Se observó la presencia de los órdenes Spodosol e Iceptisol, principalmente. En general los suelos eran delgados a muy delgados (mayoritariamente entre 10 y 40 cm, con un alto volumen de esqueleto, textura franca, estructura masiva a granular, capacidad de agua aprovechable baja y drenaje externo e interno moderado a lento. Además, presentan una alta acidez (pH 4-5,5, una baja oferta nutricional y muy altos niveles de saturación de aluminio (promedio > 60 %. El mantillo (Oe/Oa presentó condiciones adecuadas para el desarrollo radicular. Existe comúnmente un horizonte blanco (frecuentemente 10 YR 5/1-2 inmediatamente debajo del mantillo, con textura franco limosa y estructura masiva, con arraigamiento muy bajo. Se plantea como hipótesis que este horizonte se originó por depósitos de cenizas volcánicas y procesos de podzolización. Se concluye que la fertilidad de estos suelos es baja debido a limitantes físicas (dificultades de arraigamiento y químicas (acidez, toxicidad de aluminio, baja oferta de basesSoils under coigüe de Magallanes (Nothofagus betuloides (Mirb Blume forests, located in the oriental part of Tierra del Fuego (54º45'-54º15' S, 68º40'-70º10' W, were characterized morphologically, physically and chemically. Associated tree species were lenga (Nothofagus pumilio (P. et E. Krasser and canelo (Drimys winterii Forst.. A total of 85 soil profiles and approximately 250 soil

  19. Superconducting dc fault current limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cointe, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Within the framework of the electric power market liberalization, DC networks have many interests compared to alternative ones, but their protections need to use new systems. Superconducting fault current limiters enable by an overstepping of the critical current to limit the fault current to a preset value, lower than the theoretical short-circuit current. For these applications, coated conductors offer excellent opportunities. We worked on the implementation of these materials and built a test bench. We carried out limiting experiments to estimate the quench homogeneity at various short-circuit parameters. An important point is the temperature measurement by deposited sensors on the ribbon, results are in good correlation with the theoretical models. Improved quench behaviours for temperatures close to the critical temperature have been confirmed. Our results enable to better understand the limitation mechanisms of coated conductors. (author)

  20. Perspective View, San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The prominent linear feature straight down the center of this perspective view is California's famous San Andreas Fault. The image, created with data from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), will be used by geologists studying fault dynamics and landforms resulting from active tectonics. This segment of the fault lies west of the city of Palmdale, Calif., about 100 kilometers (about 60 miles) northwest of Los Angeles. The fault is the active tectonic boundary between the North American plate on the right, and the Pacific plate on the left. Relative to each other, the Pacific plate is moving away from the viewer and the North American plate is moving toward the viewer along what geologists call a right lateral strike-slip fault. Two large mountain ranges are visible, the San Gabriel Mountains on the left and the Tehachapi Mountains in the upper right. Another fault, the Garlock Fault lies at the base of the Tehachapis; the San Andreas and the Garlock Faults meet in the center distance near the town of Gorman. In the distance, over the Tehachapi Mountains is California's Central Valley. Along the foothills in the right hand part of the image is the Antelope Valley, including the Antelope Valley California Poppy Reserve. The data used to create this image were acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000.This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated 1.5 times vertically. The Landsat image was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.SRTM uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour

  1. Nuclear power plant pressurizer fault diagnosis using fuzzy signed-digraph and spurious faults elimination methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joo Hyun

    1994-02-01

    In this work, the Fuzzy Signed Digraph(FSD) method which has been researched for the fault diagnosis of industrial process plant systems is improved and applied to the fault diagnosis of the Kori-2 nuclear power plant pressurizer. A method for spurious faults elimination is also suggested and applied to the fault diagnosis. By using these methods, we could diagnose the multi-faults of the pressurizer and could also eliminate the spurious faults of the pressurizer caused by other subsystems. Besides the multi-fault diagnosis and system-wide diagnosis capabilities, the proposed method has many merits such as real-time diagnosis capability, independency of fault pattern, direct use of sensor values, and transparency of the fault propagation to the operators

  2. Nuclear power plant pressurizer fault diagnosis using fuzzy signed-digraph and spurious faults elimination methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joo Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1994-01-01

    In this work, the Fuzzy Signed Digraph (FSD) method which has been researched for the fault diagnosis of industrial process plant systems is improved and applied to the fault diagnosis of the Kori-2 nuclear power plant pressurizer. A method for spurious faults elimination is also suggested and applied to the fault diagnosis. By using these methods, we could diagnose the multi-faults of the pressurizer and could also eliminate the spurious faults of the pressurizer caused by other subsystems. Besides the multi-fault diagnosis and system-wide diagnosis capabilities, the proposed method has many merits such as real-time diagnosis capability, independency of fault pattern, direct use of sensor values, and transparency of the fault propagation to the operators. (Author)

  3. Watching Faults Grow in Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Accretionary sandbox experiments provide a rich environment for investigating the processes of fault development. These experiments engage students because 1) they enable direct observation of fault growth, which is impossible in the crust (type 1 physical model), 2) they are not only representational but can also be manipulated (type 2 physical model), 3) they can be used to test hypotheses (type 3 physical model) and 4) they resemble experiments performed by structural geology researchers around the world. The structural geology courses at UMass Amherst utilize a series of accretionary sandboxes experiments where students first watch a video of an experiment and then perform a group experiment. The experiments motivate discussions of what conditions they would change and what outcomes they would expect from these changes; hypothesis development. These discussions inevitably lead to calculations of the scaling relationships between model and crustal fault growth and provide insight into the crustal processes represented within the dry sand. Sketching of the experiments has been shown to be a very effective assessment method as the students reveal which features they are analyzing. Another approach used at UMass is to set up a forensic experiment. The experiment is set up with spatially varying basal friction before the meeting and students must figure out what the basal conditions are through the experiment. This experiment leads to discussions of equilibrium and force balance within the accretionary wedge. Displacement fields can be captured throughout the experiment using inexpensive digital image correlation techniques to foster quantitative analysis of the experiments.

  4. Pathogenic and enzyme activities of the entomopathogenic fungus Tolypocladium cylindrosporum (Ascomycota: Hypocreales from Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C Scorsetti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tolypocladium cylindrosporum is an entomopathogenic fungi that has been studied as a biological control agent against insects of several orders. The fungus has been isolated from the soil as well as from insects of the orders Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera. In this study, we analyzed the ability of a strain of T. cylindrosporum, isolated from soil samples taken in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, to produce hydrolytic enzymes, and to study the relationship of those activities to the fungus pathogenicity against pest aphids. We have made the traditional and molecular characterization of this strain of T. cylindrosporum. The expression of hydrolase activity in the fungal strain was estimated at three incubation temperatures (4ºC, 12ºC and 24ºC, on different agar media supplemented with the following specific substrates: chitin azure, Tween ® 20, casein, and urea for chitinase, lipase, protease, and urease activity, respectively. The hydrolytic-enzyme activity was estimated qualitatively according to the presence of a halo of clarification through hydrolase action, besides was expressed semi-quantitatively as the ratio between the hydrolytic-halo and colony diameters. The pathogenicity of the fungus was tested on adults of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi at three temperatures of incubation (4ºC, 12ºC and 24ºC. The suspension was adjusted to a concentration of 1x10 7 conidia/ml. In pathogenicity assays at seven days post-inoculation, the fungus caused the mortality of adults of Ropalosiphum padi at different temperatures also showed a broad ability to grow on several agar-culture media, supplemented with different carbon sources at the three incubation temperatures tested. Although, the growth was greater with higher incubation temperatures (with maximum levels at 24°C, the fungus reached similar colony diameters after 15 days of incubation on the medium supplemented with Tween® 20 at the lower two incubation temperatures of 4

  5. Comportamiento de comunidades de lombrices de tierra en dos sistemas ganaderos Behavior of earthworm communities in two livestock production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saray Sánchez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento de comunidades de lombrices de tierra en dos sistemas ganaderos (pastizal de gramíneas y sistema silvopastoril, los cuales se manejaron para la ceba de animales vacunos y la producción de semillas, se realizó una investigación en la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes «Indio Hatuey», Matanzas. Para el estudio de las comunidades de lombrices se hicieron seis colectas. En cada una de las áreas descritas se tomaron 40 muestras de suelo, según la Metodología del Programa de Investigación Internacional «Biología y Fertilidad del Suelo Tropical». Se encontraron 297 y 740 organismos en el pastizal de gramíneas y en el sistema silvopastoril, respectivamente. La especie Onychochaeta elegans mostró una mayor abundancia proporcional en el pastizal de gramíneas; mientras que en el sistema silvopastoril se encontraron tres especies, de ellas dos típicas de zonas boscosas: Polypheretima elongata y Onychochaeta windlei; la primera tuvo un mayor valor, con diferencias significativas respecto a las especies halladas del género Onychochaeta. Se concluye que la presencia de árboles en pastizales de gramíneas contribuye a estimular los organismos del suelo, en especial las lombrices de tierra, las que desempeñan un papel importante al mejorar no solo los indicadores físicos y químicos de este, sino también como estimuladoras de otros organismos.In order to evaluate the behavior of earthworm communities in two livestock production systems (grassland and silvopastoral system, which were managed for cattle fattening and seed production, a study was conducted at the Experimental Station of Pastures and Forages «Indio Hatuey», Matanzas. For the study of the earthworm communities six collections were made. In each of the described areas 40 soil samples were taken, according to the Methodology of the International Research Program «Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility». In the grassland and

  6. A fault detection and diagnosis in a PWR steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung Yub

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a fault detection and diagnosis scheme that can monitor process fault and instrument fault of a steam generator. The suggested scheme consists of a Kalman filter and two bias estimators. Method of detecting process and instrument fault in a steam generator uses the mean test on the residual sequence of Kalman filter, designed for the unfailed system, to make a fault decision. Once a fault is detected, two bias estimators are driven to estimate the fault and to discriminate process fault and instrument fault. In case of process fault, the fault diagnosis of outlet temperature, feed-water heater and main steam control valve is considered. In instrument fault, the fault diagnosis of steam generator's three instruments is considered. Computer simulation tests show that on-line prompt fault detection and diagnosis can be performed very successfully.(Author)

  7. Research of fault activity in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohara, T.; Nakatsuka, N.; Takeda, S.

    2004-01-01

    Six hundreds and eighty earthquakes causing significant damage have been recorded since the 7. century in Japan. It is important to recognize faults that will or are expected to be active in future in order to help reduce earthquake damage, estimate earthquake damage insurance and siting of nuclear facilities. Such faults are called 'active faults' in Japan, the definition of which is a fault that has moved intermittently for at least several hundred thousand years and is expected to continue to do so in future. Scientific research of active faults has been ongoing since the 1930's. Many results indicated that major earthquakes and fault movements in shallow crustal regions in Japan occurred repeatedly at existing active fault zones during the past. After the 1995 Southern Hyogo Prefecture Earthquake, 98 active fault zones were selected for fundamental survey, with the purpose of efficiently conducting an active fault survey in 'Plans for Fundamental Seismic Survey and Observation' by the headquarters for earthquake research promotion, which was attached to the Prime Minister's office of Japan. Forty two administrative divisions for earthquake disaster prevention have investigated the distribution and history of fault activity of 80 active fault zones. Although earthquake prediction is difficult, the behaviour of major active faults in Japan is being recognised. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) submitted a report titled 'H12: Project to Establish the. Scientific and Technical Basis for HLW Disposal in Japan' to the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) of Japan for official review W. The Guidelines, which were defined by AEC, require the H12 Project to confirm the basic technical feasibility of safe HLW disposal in Japan. In this report the important issues relating to fault activity were described that are to understand the characteristics of current fault movements and the spatial extent and magnitude of the effects caused by these movements, and to

  8. Fault tolerant operation of switched reluctance machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei

    The energy crisis and environmental challenges have driven industry towards more energy efficient solutions. With nearly 60% of electricity consumed by various electric machines in industry sector, advancement in the efficiency of the electric drive system is of vital importance. Adjustable speed drive system (ASDS) provides excellent speed regulation and dynamic performance as well as dramatically improved system efficiency compared with conventional motors without electronics drives. Industry has witnessed tremendous grow in ASDS applications not only as a driving force but also as an electric auxiliary system for replacing bulky and low efficiency auxiliary hydraulic and mechanical systems. With the vast penetration of ASDS, its fault tolerant operation capability is more widely recognized as an important feature of drive performance especially for aerospace, automotive applications and other industrial drive applications demanding high reliability. The Switched Reluctance Machine (SRM), a low cost, highly reliable electric machine with fault tolerant operation capability, has drawn substantial attention in the past three decades. Nevertheless, SRM is not free of fault. Certain faults such as converter faults, sensor faults, winding shorts, eccentricity and position sensor faults are commonly shared among all ASDS. In this dissertation, a thorough understanding of various faults and their influence on transient and steady state performance of SRM is developed via simulation and experimental study, providing necessary knowledge for fault detection and post fault management. Lumped parameter models are established for fast real time simulation and drive control. Based on the behavior of the faults, a fault detection scheme is developed for the purpose of fast and reliable fault diagnosis. In order to improve the SRM power and torque capacity under faults, the maximum torque per ampere excitation are conceptualized and validated through theoretical analysis and

  9. Linking invasive exotic vertebrates and their ecosystem impacts in Tierra del Fuego to test theory and determine action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Alejandro E. J.; Anderson, Christopher B.; Fasola, Laura; Cabello, José L.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding processes and impacts of biological invasions is fundamental for ecology and management. Recent reviews summarized the mechanisms by which invasive species alter entire ecosystems, but quantitative assessments of these mechanisms are lacking for actual assemblages to determine their relative importance, frequency and patterns. We updated information on introduced vertebrates in the Tierra del Fuego Archipelago (TDF) via an exhaustive literature review and new data to evaluate ecosystem impact mechanisms and provide management recommendations. To date, 24 exotic vertebrates have naturalized in TDF, outnumbering natives nearly 2:1, with the North American beaver (Castor canadensis) and muskrat (Ondatra zibethica) being the most widely distributed species and also impacting the ecosystem through the greatest number of mechanisms. Introduced vertebrates occupied most parts of the archipelago with human-inhabited islands having greater taxa richness. All exotics potentially altered ecosystems by one or more mechanisms: 100% food webs, 92% invasional meltdown, 42% habitat modification, 38% disease or parasite transmission, 21% soil property and disturbance regime changes. Impact to habitat structure was the main clustering criterion for this assemblage. Within the species that physically alter habitats, we found two sub-groups: 1) large herbivores and 2) "others" including beavers and muskrats. Species that did not alter habitat were divided further into those with predatory trophic effects (carnivorous mammals and trout, sub-group 4) and the rest with assorted impacts (sub-group 3). By establishing high quality information on archipelago-wide assemblage, distribution, impacts and mechanisms for exotic vertebrates, we recommend, based on ecological criteria, prioritizing the management of sub-group 2. A secondary priority might be given to the carnivores in sub-group 4, while species in sub-groups 1 and 3 are less urgent. As the first systematic survey of

  10. Mass balance evolution of Martial Este Glacier, Tierra del Fuego (Argentina for the period 1960–2099

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Buttstädt

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Martial Este Glacier in southern Tierra del Fuego was studied in order to estimate the surface mass balance from 1960 until 2099. For this reason a degree-day model was calibrated. Air temperature and precipitation data obtained from 3 weather stations as well as glaciological measurements were applied. The model was driven using a vertical air temperature gradient of 0.69 K/100 m, a degree-day factor for snow of 4.7 mm w.e. K−1 day−1, a degree-day factor for ice of 9.4 mm w.e. K−1 day−1 and a precipitation gradient of 22%/100 m. For the purpose of surface mass balance reconstruction for the time period 1960 until 2006 a winter vertical air temperature gradient of 0.57 K/100 m and a summer vertical air temperature gradient of 0.71 K/100 m were added as well as a digital terrain model. The key finding is an almost continuous negative mass balance of −772 mm w.e. a−1 throughout this period. While the calculation of the mass balance for the period 1960–2006 is based on instrumental records, the mass balance for the years 2007 until 2099 was estimated based on the IPCC SRES A2-scenario. To accomplish this estimation, the dataset of the global climate model HadCM3 was statistically downscaled to fit local conditions at Martial Este Glacier. Subsequently, the downscaled air temperature and precipitation were applied to a volume-area scaling glacier change model. Findings reveal an enduring deglaciation resulting in a surface area reduction of nearly 93% until 2099. This implicates that the Martial Este Glacier might be melted off at the beginning of the 22nd century.

  11. Rayleigh waves from correlation of seismic noise in Great Island of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina: Constraints on upper crustal structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Buffoni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the ambient seismic noise cross-correlation technique is applied to estimate the upper structure of the crust beneath Great Island of Tierra del Fuego (TdF, Argentina, by the analysis of short-period Rayleigh wave group velocities. The island, situated in the southernmost South America, is a key area of investigation among the interaction between the South American and Scotia plates and is considered as a very seismically active one. Through cross-correlating the vertical components of ambient seismic noise registered at four broadband stations in TdF, we were able to extract Rayleigh waves which were used to estimate group velocities in the period band of 2.5–16 s using a time-frequency analysis. Although ambient noise sources are distributed inhomogeneously, robust empirical Green's functions could be recovered from the cross-correlation of 12 months of ambient noise. The observed group velocities were inverted considering a non-linear iterative damped least-squares inversion procedure and several 1-D shear wave velocity models of the upper crust were obtained. According to the inversion results, the S-wave velocity ranges between 1.75 and 3.7 km/s in the first 10 km of crust, depending on the pair of stations considered. These results are in agreement to the major known surface and sub-surface geological and tectonic features known in the area. This study represents the first ambient seismic noise analysis in TdF in order to constraint the upper crust beneath this region. It can also be considered as a successful feasibility study for future analyses with a denser station deployment for a more detailed imaging of structure.

  12. Perfil epidemiológico del accidente ofídico en las tierras bajas de Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Guerra-Centeno

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el perfil epidemiológico del accidente ofídico en las tierras bajas de Guatemala a partir del análisis de 305 expedientes de casos atendidos en los hospitales regionales de Escuintla y San Benito, Petén, entre 2008 y 2013. De los 305 casos, 169 correspondieron al Hospital Regional de Escuintla y 136 al Hospital Regional de San Benito Petén. Los casos del Hospital Regional de Escuintla correspondieron a pacientes provenientes de los departamentos de Escuintla, Santa Rosa, Chimaltenango, Retalhuleu, Suchitepéquez, Sacatepéquez, Sololá y Guatemala. Los casos del Hospital Regional de San Benito Petén correspondieron a pacientes provenientes del área centro y norte de Petén, y algunos referidos del área sur. La edad media de la víctima fue 25.2 años. La enfermedad afectó más a hombres (61.3% que a mujeres (38.7%. La mayoría de los afectados (28.3% eran agricultores. Las especies de serpiente que se consignaron en los expedientes con mayor frecuencia fueron Bothrops asper (serpiente barba amarilla en la región norte y Crotalus simus (serpiente cascabel en la región sur. La mayoría de las mordeduras ocurrieron en los miembros inferiores. Los eventos de mordedura ocurrieron durante el día y durante la noche en proporciones similares. El tiempo medio que tarda la víctima en llegar al hospital fue de 5.6 horas. Se describen también otros aspectos epidemiológicos y se discuten las implicaciones ecológicas y sociales de los datos generados.

  13. Construcción e impacto sobre el ambiente: el caso de la tierra y otros materiales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez Espí, Mariano

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of the impact on the environment of the diverse human activities becomes more unavoidable as the signs of the ecological damage become more evident. Here, the relative merit of several formulations for the physical cost of building (embodied energy, exergy cost and matter cost of materials is analysed; it is also analysed the structure of the aggregate physical cost, including the relative evaluation of its more meaningful items. As a way of concrete examples, the energy and matter embodied into different building functions is evaluated depending on the material used (earth, steel, concrete, brick. Lastly, some conclusions about the attributes of a future, "sustainable" building are taken out.Conforme los indicios del deterioro ecológico se hacen más evidentes, la evaluación del impacto sobre el ambiente de las distintas actividades humanas se vuelve más insoslayable. Aquí se analiza el relativo mérito de distintas formulaciones del coste físico de la construcción: energía incorporada, coste exergético y coste material; también la estructura del coste físico agregado, incluyendo la valoración relativa de sus términos más significativos. Como ejemplos concretos, se evalúa la energía y la materia incorporada por distintas funciones constructivas según el material empleado (tierra, acero, ladrillo, hormigón. Finalmente, se extraen algunas conclusiones acerca de las características de una futura construcción "sostenible ".

  14. Robust Mpc for Actuator–Fault Tolerance Using Set–Based Passive Fault Detection and Active Fault Isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Feng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a fault-tolerant control (FTC scheme is proposed for actuator faults, which is built upon tube-based model predictive control (MPC as well as set-based fault detection and isolation (FDI. In the class of MPC techniques, tubebased MPC can effectively deal with system constraints and uncertainties with relatively low computational complexity compared with other robust MPC techniques such as min-max MPC. Set-based FDI, generally considering the worst case of uncertainties, can robustly detect and isolate actuator faults. In the proposed FTC scheme, fault detection (FD is passive by using invariant sets, while fault isolation (FI is active by means of MPC and tubes. The active FI method proposed in this paper is implemented by making use of the constraint-handling ability of MPC to manipulate the bounds of inputs.

  15. La formación del mercado de tierras durante la expansión de la frontera bonaerense. Chascomús y Junín, 1860-1890

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Banzato

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo nos proponemos analizar la formación del mercado de tierras durante la expansión de la frontera de la provincia de Buenos Aires entre 1860 y 1890, a partir de un enfoque local comparado, enfocando la investigación en dos partidos: Chascomús y Junín. Postulamos que la constitución del mercado de tierras en la campaña bonaerense fue un proceso gradual, que se inició apenas comenzaron a poblarse las tierras defendidas por los fuertes de la frontera interior y se establecían ciertas garantías de seguridad para la propiedad privada

  16. La mecánica de fluidos y la teoría de la figura de la Tierra entre Newton y Clairaut (1687-1743)

    OpenAIRE

    Lafuente, Antonio

    1983-01-01

    El objeto de este artículo es analizar la literatura publicada sobre el tema de la figura de la Tierra entre 1687 y 1743. La primera fecha coincide con la publicación de los Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. El estudio de Newton demostraba la insuficiencia de recursos de la ciencia experimental y el abismo existente entre la precisión que podían asegurar los métodos de la astronomía práctica y las nuevas exigencias planteadas por su mecánica celeste. La segunda fech...

  17. ENTRE LA COSTA DE COBIJA Y TIERRAS ALTAS: EL TRÁFICO ARRIERO A INICIOS DE LA REPÚBLICA BOLIVIANA

    OpenAIRE

    Letelier Cosmelli, Javiera

    2016-01-01

    Desde la configuración del Puerto de Cobija hasta la guerra del Pacífico, tanto indígenas como bolivianos y extranjeros establecieron relaciones en el marco de un contexto cambiante y complejo tanto a nivel nacional como internacional en donde se introduce la economía capitalista industrial. Es en ese marco que los arrieros y la movilidad entre costa y tierras altas se constituyeron en piezas claves para dar vida a Cobija y resto de Atacama. A partir de este escenario realizamos una revisión ...

  18. Impacto social del arrendamiento de tierras para generar energía eléctrica en La Venta, Juchitán de Zaragoza, Oaxaca.

    OpenAIRE

    Racilla Manuel, Sarita

    2013-01-01

    La investigación analiza lo que es el impacto social del arrendamiento de tierras y los cambios producidos por la instalación de parques eólicos, como caso de estudio del Ejido de La Venta, Juchitán de Zaragoza, Oaxaca. La tesis se realizó con una metodología mixta;(cuantitativa-cualitativa), para analizar el fenómeno antes descrito; está comprendida en cuatro capítulos. El primer capítulo plantea la estructura general de la investigación. El segundo, aborda el marco teórico y distintas visio...

  19. The profile of the imprisoned minors in detention centres for offenders and the professionals who treat them: a descriptive study in the Tierras de Oria institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Sola Martínez

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Although juvenile delinquency is a present matter in media since many years ago, the profile that defines both imprisoned minors in detention centres and proffesionals who treat them is still unknown for most of our society. This article aims for these profiles to be shown by means of a descriptive study carried out in the “Tierras de Oria” institution about the age, gender and education of both their inmates and the proffesionals who intervene in their re-education and guarantee their social and labour rehabilitation when they join our society.

  20. Patrones de distribución de especies arbóreas de dosel y sotobosque a escala local en bosques de tierra firme, Amazonia colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Sebastian Barreto-Silva; Dairon Cárdenas López; Álvaro Javier Duque Montoya

    2014-01-01

    El efecto de la variación ambiental en la estructura de las comunidades arbóreas en bosques tropicales, aún se debate. En paisajes como los bosques de tierra firme, donde el gradiente ambiental disminuye, el efecto de los suelos sobre los patrones de distribución de especies es mínimo. En contraste, un mayor efecto de la variación edáfica y topográfica sobre la composición florística, se ha reportado en estudios con diferentes tipos de plantas en bosques tropicales. Este estudio se realizó en...

  1. Modelación de sistemas de puesta a tierra para evaluación de sobretensiones transitorias; Modelling large grounding systems to evaluate transient voltages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yandi Anibal Gallego Landera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available En plantas generadoras y en subestaciones se requieren sistemas de puesta a tierra (SPT espaciosos, con configuraciones complejas como parte del sistema de protección contra rayos. Las corrientes provocadas por una descarga atmosférica pueden causar altas tensiones en los cables de señales ubicados cerca de los SPT. Estas tensiones transitorias pueden causar falsas señales, las cuales provocan un mal funcionamiento de la instrumentación electrónica. Determinar medidas de protección contra rayos requiere del conocimiento de la máxima elevación de la tensión entre el SPT y la tierra remota. El presente trabajo propone una metodología para analizar el comportamiento transitorio de redes de tierra. La técnica se basa en considerar los diferentes segmentos de la malla de tierra como elementos de líneas de transmisión. Para desarrollar esta metodología se utilizó el software MATLAB-Simulink. Los resultados se validan por comparación con modelos basados en la teoría del campo electromagnético publicados en la literatura. In generating plants and substations spacious grounding systems with complex configuration as part of the protection system against lighting, are required. The current caused by an atmospheric discharge can cause high voltages in the signal cables located near the grounding systems. These transient voltages may be the reason for the occurrence of false signals, which can cause malfunctioning and of electronic instruments. The knowledge of maximum elevation of voltage between the grounding systems and the remote ground is required to determine protection against lightning. This paper proposes a methodology to analyze the transient behavior of grounding grid. The technique is based on considering the different segments of the ground grid as elements of transmission lines. For modeling the grounding systems behavior in its transient state faster, the MATLAB-Simulink software was used. The results were validated by

  2. Fuzzy fault diagnosis system of MCFC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhenlei; Qian Feng; Cao Guangyi

    2005-01-01

    A kind of fault diagnosis system of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) stack is proposed in this paper. It is composed of a fuzzy neural network (FNN) and a fault diagnosis element. FNN is able to deal with the information of the expert knowledge and the experiment data efficiently. It also has the ability to approximate any smooth system. FNN is used to identify the fault diagnosis model of MCFC stack. The fuzzy fault decision element can diagnose the state of the MCFC generating system, normal or fault, and can decide the type of the fault based on the outputs of FNN model and the MCFC system. Some simulation experiment results are demonstrated in this paper.

  3. Fault diagnosis based on controller modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Detection and isolation of parametric faults in closed-loop systems will be considered in this paper. A major problem is that a feedback controller will in general reduce the effects from variations in the systems including parametric faults on the controlled output from the system. Parametric...... faults can be detected and isolated using active methods, where an auxiliary input is applied. Using active methods for the diagnosis of parametric faults in closed-loop systems, the amplitude of the applied auxiliary input need to be increased to be able to detect and isolate the faults in a reasonable......-parameterization (after Youla, Jabr, Bongiorno and Kucera) for the controller, it is possible to modify the feedback controller with a minor effect on the closed-loop performance in the fault-free case and at the same time optimize the detection and isolation in a faulty case. Controller modification in connection...

  4. A setup for active fault diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    A setup for active fault diagnosis (AFD) of parametric faults in dynamic systems is formulated in this paper. It is shown that it is possible to use the same setup for both open loop systems, closed loop systems based on a nominal feedback controller as well as for closed loop systems based...... on a reconfigured feedback controller. This will make the proposed AFD approach very useful in connection with fault tolerant control (FTC). The setup will make it possible to let the fault diagnosis part of the fault tolerant controller remain unchanged after a change in the feedback controller. The setup for AFD...... is based on the YJBK (after Youla, Jabr, Bongiorno and Kucera) parameterization of all stabilizing feedback controllers and the dual YJBK parameterization. It is shown that the AFD is based directly on the dual YJBK transfer function matrix. This matrix will be named the fault signature matrix when...

  5. Fault displacement along the Naruto-South fault, the Median Tectonic Line active fault system in the eastern part of Shikoku, southwestern Japan

    OpenAIRE

    高田, 圭太; 中田, 高; 後藤, 秀昭; 岡田, 篤正; 原口, 強; 松木, 宏彰

    1998-01-01

    The Naruto-South fault is situated of about 1000m south of the Naruto fault, the Median Tectonic Line active fault system in the eastern part of Shikoku. We investigated fault topography and subsurface geology of this fault by interpretation of large scale aerial photographs, collecting borehole data and Geo-Slicer survey. The results obtained are as follows; 1) The Naruto-South fault runs on the Yoshino River deltaic plain at least 2.5 km long with fault scarplet. the Naruto-South fault is o...

  6. Computer modelling of superconductive fault current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.A.; Campbell, A.M.; Coombs, T.A.; Cardwell, D.A.; Storey, R.J. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Superconductivity (IRC); Hancox, J. [Rolls Royce, Applied Science Division, Derby (United Kingdom)

    1998-05-01

    Investigations are being carried out on the use of superconductors for fault current limiting applications. A number of computer programs are being developed to predict the behavior of different `resistive` fault current limiter designs under a variety of fault conditions. The programs achieve solution by iterative methods based around real measured data rather than theoretical models in order to achieve accuracy at high current densities. (orig.) 5 refs.

  7. Fault Diagnosis in Deaerator Using Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Srinivasan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a fuzzy logic based fault diagnosis system for a deaerator in a power plant unit is presented. The system parameters are obtained using the linearised state space deaerator model. The fuzzy inference system is created and rule base are evaluated relating the parameters to the type and severity of the faults. These rules are fired for specific changes in system parameters and the faults are diagnosed.

  8. Qademah Fault Seismic Data Set - Northern Part

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Is the Qademah fault that was detected in 2010 the main fault? We collected a long 2D profile, 526 m, where the fault that was detected in 2010 is at around 300 m. Layout: We collected 264 CSGs, each has 264 receivers. The shot and receiver interval is 2 m. We also collected an extra 48 CSGs with offset = 528 to 622 m with shot interval = 2 m. The receivers are the same as the main survey.

  9. Distributed bearing fault diagnosis based on vibration analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, Boštjan; Boškoski, Pavle; Juričić, Đani

    2016-01-01

    Distributed bearing faults appear under various circumstances, for example due to electroerosion or the progression of localized faults. Bearings with distributed faults tend to generate more complex vibration patterns than those with localized faults. Despite the frequent occurrence of such faults, their diagnosis has attracted limited attention. This paper examines a method for the diagnosis of distributed bearing faults employing vibration analysis. The vibrational patterns generated are modeled by incorporating the geometrical imperfections of the bearing components. Comparing envelope spectra of vibration signals shows that one can distinguish between localized and distributed faults. Furthermore, a diagnostic procedure for the detection of distributed faults is proposed. This is evaluated on several bearings with naturally born distributed faults, which are compared with fault-free bearings and bearings with localized faults. It is shown experimentally that features extracted from vibrations in fault-free, localized and distributed fault conditions form clearly separable clusters, thus enabling diagnosis.

  10. Identifiability of Additive Actuator and Sensor Faults by State Augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Suresh; Gonzalez, Oscar R.; Upchurch, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    A class of fault detection and identification (FDI) methods for bias-type actuator and sensor faults is explored in detail from the point of view of fault identifiability. The methods use state augmentation along with banks of Kalman-Bucy filters for fault detection, fault pattern determination, and fault value estimation. A complete characterization of conditions for identifiability of bias-type actuator faults, sensor faults, and simultaneous actuator and sensor faults is presented. It is shown that FDI of simultaneous actuator and sensor faults is not possible using these methods when all sensors have unknown biases. The fault identifiability conditions are demonstrated via numerical examples. The analytical and numerical results indicate that caution must be exercised to ensure fault identifiability for different fault patterns when using such methods.

  11. A Design Method for Fault Reconfiguration and Fault-Tolerant Control of a Servo Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A design scheme that integrates fault reconfiguration and fault-tolerant position control is proposed for a nonlinear servo system with friction. Analysis of the non-linear friction torque and fault in the system is used to guide design of a sliding mode position controller. A sliding mode observer is designed to achieve fault reconfiguration based on the equivalence principle. Thus, active fault-tolerant position control of the system can be realized. A real-time simulation experiment is performed on a hardware-in-loop simulation platform. The results show that the system reconfigures well for both incipient and abrupt faults. Under the fault-tolerant control mechanism, the output signal for the system position can rapidly track given values without being influenced by faults.

  12. An Active Fault-Tolerant Control Method Ofunmanned Underwater Vehicles with Continuous and Uncertain Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daqi Zhu

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel thruster fault diagnosis and accommodation system for open-frame underwater vehicles with abrupt faults. The proposed system consists of two subsystems: a fault diagnosis subsystem and a fault accommodation sub-system. In the fault diagnosis subsystem a ICMAC(Improved Credit Assignment Cerebellar Model Articulation Controllers neural network is used to realize the on-line fault identification and the weighting matrix computation. The fault accommodation subsystem uses a control algorithm based on weighted pseudo-inverse to find the solution of the control allocation problem. To illustrate the proposed method effective, simulation example, under multi-uncertain abrupt faults, is given in the paper.

  13. Fault prediction for nonlinear stochastic system with incipient faults based on particle filter and nonlinear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Bo; Fang, Huajing

    2017-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the fault prediction for the nonlinear stochastic system with incipient faults. Based on the particle filter and the reasonable assumption about the incipient faults, the modified fault estimation algorithm is proposed, and the system state is estimated simultaneously. According to the modified fault estimation, an intuitive fault detection strategy is introduced. Once each of the incipient fault is detected, the parameters of which are identified by a nonlinear regression method. Then, based on the estimated parameters, the future fault signal can be predicted. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by the simulations of the Three-tank system. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Determinación de la máxima capacidad de adsorción de la tierra de arriera en la eliminación de fosfatos en soluciones acuosas

    OpenAIRE

    Cremades Oliver, Lázaro Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Los materiales existentes en el trópico como es la tierra de arriera pueden ser usados como una herramienta de biorremediación en procesos de purificación y descontaminación de aguas residuales contaminadas. El objetivo de este estudio consistió en determinar la máxima capacidad de adsorción de tierra de arriera en la eliminación de fosfatos en periodos de tiempos determinados. La metodología aplicada consistió en la extracción de fósforo adsorbido por las arcillas y la técnica de Melhich, a ...

  15. Influencia del uso de la tierra con cultivos de cacao, chakras y bosque primario, sobre la diversidad, almacenamiento de carbono y productividad en la Reserva de la Biosfera Sumaco, Ecuador.

    OpenAIRE

    Jadán Maza, Ángel Oswaldo

    2013-01-01

    La investigación se realizó en la Reserva de la Biosfera Sumaco, en la provincia del Napo, Republica del Ecuador. Se estudiaron siete sistemas de uso de la tierra: Chakras con y sin sombra, cultivos de cacao propagados por semilla con y sin sombra, cacao injertado con y sin sombra y bosque primario. Se evaluaron tres variables de respuesta: diversidad arbórea y arbustiva, almacenamiento-acumulación de carbono (C) y productividad, en los diferentes sistemas de usos de la tierra.

  16. UN MÉTODO DE GESTIÓN AMBIENTAL PARA EL TRATAMIENTO Y LA DISPOSICIÓN FINAL ADECUADA DE UN RESIDUO PELIGROSO. CASO: TIERRA FULLER CONTAMINADA CON ACEITE DIELÉCTRICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUDELO EDISON ALEXANDER

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available La gestión ambiental de un residuo peligroso comprende diferentes etapas: generación, minimización, transporte, valorización, tratamiento y disposición. Este trabajo explora dos tecnologías para el tratamiento y disposición final de un residuo peligroso (RESPEL o tierra Fuller contaminada con aceite dieléctrico: una físico-química y otra biológica. Para la tecnología físico-química se usó hexano como solvente y se alcanzaron remociones del aceite dieléctrico del orden del 87% en la tierra Fuller contaminada, con una relación tierra Fuller: solvente de 1:8 p/v, una velocidad de agitación de 100 rpm y un tiempo de contacto de 30 min. La calidad del aceite dieléctrico recuperado no es apta para su uso nuevamente en equipos eléctricos, por su baja rigidez dieléctrica, baja densidad y color desfavorable. La tierra Fuller recuperada registró una densidad aparente de 0.641 gr/ml, una densidad real de 2.231 gr/ml y una porosidad de 72.075 %, lo que indica que dicha tierra esta muy cercana en sus características físicas a la tierra Fuller limpia.Para la tecnología biológica se trató la tierra contaminada en un biorreactor biológico de tierra activada, evaluando la velocidad de agitación y el tiempo de degradación necesario para alcanzar los niveles de descontaminación adecuados que permitan disponer el residuo en un relleno sanitario convencional o una escombrera sin riesgo alguno para la salud de los ecosistemas y el ser humano. Se alcanzaron remociones en este sistema del orden de 49.68%, aunque no se alcanzó los niveles de limpieza exigidos por la Resolución 1170 de 1997 del DAMA. El resultado es importante en cuanto se creía que altas concentraciones de hidrocarburos (superiores al 10% son inhibitorias de la actividad biológica. Se hizo el seguimiento cromatográfico a 10 especies de hidrocarburos presentes en el aceite dieléctrico que son importantes dentro de este producto.

  17. Dinámica reciente de la concentración de la propiedad y uso de la tierra en Colombia. Algunas reflexiones a propósito de la especialización productiva

    OpenAIRE

    Suescún, Carlos Alberto

    2011-01-01

    La dinámica histórica de desigualdad rural en Colombia, ha estado caracterizada principalmente por una persistente concentración de la propiedad de la tierra, que en tiempo reciente ha estado impulsada por factores como el despojo de tierras y la profundización de las desigualdades en el sector rural en un contexto de violencia y narcotráfico. A estos factores estructurales, en las últimas dos décadas se han sumado dos adicionales que han profundizado las desigualdades: la especialización pro...

  18. Caracterización actual de la utilización del uso del suelo y la cobertura vegetal en la región de la Tierra Indígena Sangradouto/Volta Grande-Mato Grosso, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Shinji Kawakubo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available El objeto de este trabajo fue el mapear el uso y cobertura vegetal en la tierra indígena Sangradouro/Volta Grande-MT (Brasil. Para ello se emplearon técnicas de Modelo Lineal de Mezcla Espectral acompañadas por la segmentación de las imágenes sintéticas y clasificación supervisada de los componentes divididos. El cálculo de las áreas correspondientes a las clases de uso del suelo y cobertura vegetal, permitió estimar el estado actual de la tierra en el contexto ambiental.

  19. Integrating cyber attacks within fault trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nai Fovino, Igor; Masera, Marcelo; De Cian, Alessio

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for quantitative security risk assessment of complex systems is presented, combining fault-tree analysis, traditionally used in reliability analysis, with the recently introduced Attack-tree analysis, proposed for the study of malicious attack patterns. The combined use of fault trees and attack trees helps the analyst to effectively face the security challenges posed by the introduction of modern ICT technologies in the control systems of critical infrastructures. The proposed approach allows considering the interaction of malicious deliberate acts with random failures. Formal definitions of fault tree and attack tree are provided and a mathematical model for the calculation of system fault probabilities is presented.

  20. Fault tolerant control design for hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hao; Jiang, Bin [Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China); Cocquempot, Vincent [Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2010-07-01

    This book intends to provide the readers a good understanding on how to achieve Fault Tolerant Control goal of Hybrid Systems. The book can be used as a reference for the academic research on Fault Tolerant Control and Hybrid Systems or used in Ph.D. study of control theory and engineering. The knowledge background for this monograph would be some undergraduate and graduate courses on Fault Diagnosis and Fault Tolerant Control theory, linear system theory, nonlinear system theory, Hybrid Systems theory and Discrete Event System theory. (orig.)

  1. Soil radon levels across the Amer fault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Font, Ll.; Baixeras, C.; Moreno, V.; Bach, J.

    2008-01-01

    Soil radon levels have been measured across the Amer fault, which is located near the volcanic region of La Garrotxa, Spain. Both passive (LR-115, time-integrating) and active (Clipperton II, time-resolved) detectors have been used in a survey in which 27 measurement points were selected in five lines perpendicular to the Amer fault in the village area of Amer. The averaged results show an influence of the distance to the fault on the mean soil radon values. The dynamic results show a very clear seasonal effect on the soil radon levels. The results obtained support the hypothesis that the fault is still active

  2. Integrating cyber attacks within fault trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nai Fovino, Igor [Joint Research Centre - EC, Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen, Ispra, VA (Italy)], E-mail: igor.nai@jrc.it; Masera, Marcelo [Joint Research Centre - EC, Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen, Ispra, VA (Italy); De Cian, Alessio [Department of Electrical Engineering, University di Genova, Genoa (Italy)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper, a new method for quantitative security risk assessment of complex systems is presented, combining fault-tree analysis, traditionally used in reliability analysis, with the recently introduced Attack-tree analysis, proposed for the study of malicious attack patterns. The combined use of fault trees and attack trees helps the analyst to effectively face the security challenges posed by the introduction of modern ICT technologies in the control systems of critical infrastructures. The proposed approach allows considering the interaction of malicious deliberate acts with random failures. Formal definitions of fault tree and attack tree are provided and a mathematical model for the calculation of system fault probabilities is presented.

  3. Fault detection and fault-tolerant control for nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Linlin

    2016-01-01

    Linlin Li addresses the analysis and design issues of observer-based FD and FTC for nonlinear systems. The author analyses the existence conditions for the nonlinear observer-based FD systems to gain a deeper insight into the construction of FD systems. Aided by the T-S fuzzy technique, she recommends different design schemes, among them the L_inf/L_2 type of FD systems. The derived FD and FTC approaches are verified by two benchmark processes. Contents Overview of FD and FTC Technology Configuration of Nonlinear Observer-Based FD Systems Design of L2 nonlinear Observer-Based FD Systems Design of Weighted Fuzzy Observer-Based FD Systems FTC Configurations for Nonlinear Systems< Application to Benchmark Processes Target Groups Researchers and students in the field of engineering with a focus on fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control fields The Author Dr. Linlin Li completed her dissertation under the supervision of Prof. Steven X. Ding at the Faculty of Engineering, University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany...

  4. Study of fault diagnosis software design for complex system based on fault tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Run; Li Yazhou; Wang Jianye; Hu Liqin; Wang Jiaqun; Wu Yican

    2012-01-01

    Complex systems always have high-level reliability and safety requirements, and same does their diagnosis work. As a great deal of fault tree models have been acquired during the design and operation phases, a fault diagnosis method which combines fault tree analysis with knowledge-based technology has been proposed. The prototype of fault diagnosis software has been realized and applied to mobile LIDAR system. (authors)

  5. The morphology of strike-slip faults - Examples from the San Andreas Fault, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilham, Roger; King, Geoffrey

    1989-01-01

    The dilatational strains associated with vertical faults embedded in a horizontal plate are examined in the framework of fault kinematics and simple displacement boundary conditions. Using boundary element methods, a sequence of examples of dilatational strain fields associated with commonly occurring strike-slip fault zone features (bends, offsets, finite rupture lengths, and nonuniform slip distributions) is derived. The combinations of these strain fields are then used to examine the Parkfield region of the San Andreas fault system in central California.

  6. Qademah Fault 3D Survey

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Collect 3D seismic data at Qademah Fault location to 1. 3D traveltime tomography 2. 3D surface wave migration 3. 3D phase velocity 4. Possible reflection processing Acquisition Date: 26 – 28 September 2014 Acquisition Team: Sherif, Kai, Mrinal, Bowen, Ahmed Acquisition Layout: We used 288 receiver arranged in 12 parallel lines, each line has 24 receiver. Inline offset is 5 m and crossline offset is 10 m. One shot is fired at each receiver location. We use the 40 kgm weight drop as seismic source, with 8 to 15 stacks at each shot location.

  7. Fault-ignorant quantum search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrana, Péter; Reeb, David; Reitzner, Daniel; Wolf, Michael M

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the problem of quantum searching on a noisy quantum computer. Taking a fault-ignorant approach, we analyze quantum algorithms that solve the task for various different noise strengths, which are possibly unknown beforehand. We prove lower bounds on the runtime of such algorithms and thereby find that the quadratic speedup is necessarily lost (in our noise models). However, for low but constant noise levels the algorithms we provide (based on Grover's algorithm) still outperform the best noiseless classical search algorithm. (paper)

  8. Fault Detection/Isolation Verification,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    63 - A I MCC ’I UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIPICATION OP THIS PAGE tMh*f Dal f&mered, REPORT D00CUMENTATION PAGE " .O ORM 1. REPORT NUM.9ft " 2. GOVT...test the performance of th .<ver) DO 2" 1473 EoIoTON OP iNov os i OSoLTe UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIPICATION 0 T"IS PAGE (P 3 . at Sted) I...UNCLASSIFIED Acumy, C .AMICATIN Of THIS PAGS. (m ... DO&.m , Algorithm on these netowrks , several different fault scenarios were designed for each network. Each

  9. Passive Fault-tolerant Control of Discrete-time Piecewise Affine Systems against Actuator Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeipour, Seyed Mojtaba; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Bak, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for passive fault-tolerant control of discrete time piecewise affine systems. Actuator faults are considered. A reliable piecewise linear quadratic regulator (LQR) state feedback is designed such that it can tolerate actuator faults. A sufficient condition f...... is illustrated on a numerical example and a two degree of freedom helicopter....

  10. Rectifier Fault Diagnosis and Fault Tolerance of a Doubly Fed Brushless Starter Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Shi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rectifier fault diagnosis method with wavelet packet analysis to improve the fault tolerant four-phase doubly fed brushless starter generator (DFBLSG system reliability. The system components and fault tolerant principle of the high reliable DFBLSG are given. And the common fault of the rectifier is analyzed. The process of wavelet packet transforms fault detection/identification algorithm is introduced in detail. The fault tolerant performance and output voltage experiments were done to gather the energy characteristics with a voltage sensor. The signal is analyzed with 5-layer wavelet packets, and the energy eigenvalue of each frequency band is obtained. Meanwhile, the energy-eigenvalue tolerance was introduced to improve the diagnostic accuracy. With the wavelet packet fault diagnosis, the fault tolerant four-phase DFBLSG can detect the usual open-circuit fault and operate in the fault tolerant mode if there is a fault. The results indicate that the fault analysis techniques in this paper are accurate and effective.

  11. Fault-tolerant cooperative output regulation for multi-vehicle systems with sensor faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Liguo; He, Xiao; Zhou, D. H.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a unified framework of fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant cooperative output regulation (FTCOR) for a linear discrete-time multi-vehicle system with sensor faults. The FTCOR control law is designed through three steps. A cooperative output regulation (COR) controller is designed based on the internal mode principle when there are no sensor faults. A sufficient condition on the existence of the COR controller is given based on the discrete-time algebraic Riccati equation (DARE). Then, a decentralised fault diagnosis scheme is designed to cope with sensor faults occurring in followers. A residual generator is developed to detect sensor faults of each follower, and a bank of fault-matching estimators are proposed to isolate and estimate sensor faults of each follower. Unlike the current distributed fault diagnosis for multi-vehicle systems, the presented decentralised fault diagnosis scheme in each vehicle reduces the communication and computation load by only using the information of the vehicle. By combing the sensor fault estimation and the COR control law, an FTCOR controller is proposed. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the FTCOR controller.

  12. Fault-tolerant reference generation for model predictive control with active diagnosis of elevator jamming faults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferranti, L.; Wan, Y.; Keviczky, T.

    2018-01-01

    This paper focuses on the longitudinal control of an Airbus passenger aircraft in the presence of elevator jamming faults. In particular, in this paper, we address permanent and temporary actuator jamming faults using a novel reconfigurable fault-tolerant predictive control design. Due to their

  13. FSN-based fault modelling for fault detection and troubleshooting in CANDU stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasimi, E., E-mail: elnara.nasimi@brucepower.com [Bruce Power LLP., Tiverton, Ontario(Canada); Gabbar, H.A. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Tech., Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    An accurate fault modeling and troubleshooting methodology is required to aid in making risk-informed decisions related to design and operational activities of current and future generation of CANDU designs. This paper presents fault modeling approach using Fault Semantic Network (FSN) methodology with risk estimation. Its application is demonstrated using a case study of Bruce B zone-control level oscillations. (author)

  14. Fault Diagnosis and Fault Tolerant Control with Application on a Wind Turbine Low Speed Shaft Encoder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Sardi, Hector Eloy Sanchez; Escobet, Teressa

    2015-01-01

    tolerant control of wind turbines using a benchmark model. In this paper, the fault diagnosis scheme is improved and integrated with a fault accommodation scheme which enables and disables the individual pitch algorithm based on the fault detection. In this way, the blade and tower loads are not increased...

  15. Reciente invasión del Archipiélago de Tierra del Fuego por la avispa Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. SOLA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vespula germanica es una especie invasora de nivel mundial que ha sido detectada en la Patagonia continental de la Argentina y Chile. En este trabajo, ampliamos el rango de distribución de este véspido de la Patagonia, al Archipiélago de Tierra del Fuego. Indicamos ubicación, año y ambiente de cada avistamiento y/o captura. El patrón de expansión indicaría que esta especie está bien establecida tanto en áreas naturales como antrópicas, y probablemente ha dependido del transporte humano para llegar desde el continente. Esta comunicación breve sirve también para tomar medidas prácticas de mitigación y control de esta especie, incluyendo información básica para que la ciudadanía tome conciencia sobre su presencia y esto ayude a evitar su transporte a nuevos lugares. Finalmente, se recomienda mayor investigación para el manejo y control de esta especie invasora en Tierra del Fuego.

  16. Tierra y revolución. La campaña salteña en las primeras décadas del siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Emilia Mata

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available La formación de la Junta de Gobierno en Buenos Aires en 1810 dio inicio a un proceso político que adquirió derroteros diversos en el interior del extenso territorio perteneciente al Virreinato del Río de la Plata. Al igual que en las provincias del Alto Perú,  la jurisdicción de Salta fue escenario  de una guerra de recursos de la cual participó la población rural integrando las milicias provinciales o “Escuadrones Gauchos”.  Interesa entonces observar en qué medida el conflicto bélico agudizó y puso en evidencia las tensiones existentes por los derechos de propiedad y usufructo de la tierra ya manifestadas a fines del siglo XVIII, particularmente en el valle de Lerma, y su incidencia en las disputas en torno a la tierra que tuvieron lugar luego de concluida la guerra en la provincia de Salta.

  17. La devolución de las tierras usurpadas al Concejo de Salamanca en los inicios de la Edad Moderna. Aproximación a su estudio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Isabel LÓPEZ BENITO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La importancia de las usurpaciones de tierras sufridas por el Concejo de Salamanca en sus términos y jurisdicción a lo largo del siglo XV quedó claramente demostrada con la publicación de N. Cabrillana, quien a partir de una rica documentación procedente del Archivo de la Biblioteca Nacional de Madrid, sacó a la luz un problema prácticamente desconocido hasta ese momento. Otras publicaciones posteriores, basadas en noticias aportadas por el Archivo Municipal de Salamanca, han complementado aquella aportación decisiva, aunque sin poder disponer nunca de un documento del alcance de la Pesquisa utilizada por Cabrillana; ni siquiera de un cuerpo de documentos homogéneo que permita medir y valorar de forma global la incidencia del fenómeno usurpador. Sin embargo, nadie duda de la trascendencia que éste tiene para la historia socioeconómica, e incluso paisajística, de la provincia de Salamanca. Este interés nos mueve a presentar ciertos datos y documentos recogidos en el siempre sorprendente Archivo de nuestro municipio, para intentar llegar un poco más allá en el conocimiento de las enajenaciones de tierras concejiles.

  18. Modelado, Simulación y Control de Satélites en los Puntos de Lagrange del Sistema Tierra - Luna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Alonso Zotes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El objetivo de este artículo es modelar, analizar y controlar una constelación de cinco satélites, situados en los puntos de Lagrange del sistema Tierra – Luna. El modelo se ha desarrollado incluyendo efectos complejos no considerados habitualmente, como el viento solar, la no esfericidad de los planetas y la deriva de la órbita lunar, para hacerlo más realista. Sobre los satélites se ejerce una propulsión continua, calculada por medio de controladores tipo PD, tanto convencionales como borrosos, y cuya finalidad es situar y mantener a cada satélite en su punto de Lagrange frente a las inestabilidades y derivas inherentes al sistema. El sistema completo se ha implementado en el lenguaje de modelado Modelica, para el que se han creado una serie de elementos aeroespaciales, y las simulaciones se han desarrollado con el software Dymola. Tanto con los controladores clásicos como con los borrosos se han obtenido muy buenos resultados. Palabras clave: modelado, simulación, control borroso, satélites, puntos de Lagrange, sistema Tierra-Luna

  19. 3D modelling of the Salesian mission Nuestra Señora de la Candelaria cemetery (Río Grande, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa A. Salerno

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Salesian mission Nuestra Señora de La Candelaria operated between the late 19th and the mid-20th centuries in Río Grande (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Its cemetery still holds the remains of indigenous and religious people who lived in the institution, and settlers who lived nearby. For some years, the place has received the attention of a research project interested in discussing the dynamics of colonial relationships in Tierra del Fuego. The cemetery has a long history of changes, and even though it was declared part of the national and provincial heritage, its preservation conditions are relatively poor. In this article we present the work carried out to produce a 3D model of the cemetery, combining information obtained by planialtimetric and photographic survey. The result represents a detailed and photorealistic record of the materiality of the cemetery at present. Therefore, it does not only provide a relevant tool to colaborate in the promotion and protection of the archaeological heritage. It also provides a platform for future 3D modelling of historical images of the cemetery, with different research goals.

  20. USOS DE LA TIERRA, CONFLICTO Y PODER POLÍTICO EN LA FRONTERA AGRÍCOLA DEL ALTO SINÚ 1940-1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Esther Gutierrez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo presenta un recorrido histórico, a partir del cual aborda las perspectivas historiográficas desde donde se ha estudiado la manera cómo la subregión del alto Sinú se convirtió en una frontera agrícola, que a mediados del siglo XX y más específicamente entre 1940 y 1970, despertó un profundo interés en las élites económicas y políticas nacionales y regionales, quienes abiertamente iniciaron un proceso de acaparamiento de las tierras e instauración de sistemas laborales que incluían la sujeción de la mano de obra a las corrientes bipartidistas liberales y conservadoras. Así mismo, se presentan las formas contestatarias que adoptaron los campesinos del alto Sinú frente al monopolio de la tierra ostentado por gamonales y funcionarios públicos.

  1. Información molecular obtenida a partir de pieles de la colección del Museo Regional Fagnano, Río Grande, Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrigh, Romi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se aplicaron técnicas moleculares sobre muestras poco conservadas de pieles depositadas en la colección del Museo Regional Monseñor Fagnano, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, con el objetivo de identificar la especie con la que fueron confeccionadas. Se extrajeron pelos de mantas realizadas con pieles de guanaco (Lama guanicoe por Selk’nam y de una piel de puma (Puma concolor procedente de la provincia de Santa Cruz. Ambas muestras se encontraban almacenadas en el Museo Regional Monseñor Fagnano y en la Misión Salesiana Candelaria en Rio Grande, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. La extracción de ADN de los fragmentos de pelos de 5mm de longitud se realizó en un buffer de lisis PCR-compatible. Se amplificaron por PCR fragmentos específicos de ADN mitocondrial y se secuenciaron. Las secuencias fueron comparadas con las depositadas en la base de secuencias de nucleótidos del National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI de Estados Unidos. La aplicación de técnicas moleculares permitió recuperar secuencias de ADN de muestras de pieles con un estado de conservación poco óptimo para análisis genéticos, pudiendo extenderse a otras fuentes de pelos como las fibras textiles de origen arqueológico de la región.

  2. EFICACIA EN LA RESTITUCIÓN DE TIERRAS A VÍCTIMAS DE DESPLAZAMIENTO FORZADO DE OCAÑA NORTE DE SANTANDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidencio Suarez Vargas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En este trabajo investigativo desarrollamos el tema referente a la eficacia en la restitución de tierras a las víctimas de desplazamiento forzado de la ciudad de Ocaña, Norte de Santander, durante el año 2014. A través del mismo nos propusimos compendia y analizar los distintos componentes jurídicos referentes al tema de estudio, con el objeto de establecer su funcionalidad en el municipio de Ocaña. Por medio del análisis cuantitativo de las cifras que reportan los juzgados de restitución de tierras respecto al número de reclamaciones realizadas a partir de la expedición de la ley, número de sentencias y número de restituciones llevadas a cabo, establecimos el nivel de eficacia del estado en lo que respecta al cumplimiento de este derecho principalísimo a las víctimas del conflicto armado colombiano. Finalmente, conoceremos que el grado de cumplimiento por parte del estado a las víctimas de desplazamiento del municipio de Ocaña es inexistente.

  3. Ejércitos irregulares y organización campesina: Guáimaro, el camino hacia la restitución del derecho a la tierra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Stella Jaramillo Guerra

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo recoge los resultados preliminares del proyecto de Extensión “Estructura Agraria, soberanía alimentaria y mujer rural”, donde se relaciona el impacto del paramilitarismo en un corregimiento ribereño del departamento del Magdalena. En el decurso del proceso investigativo se encontró que, luego de un dramático capítulo de violencia y desplazamiento paramilitar, mediante el cual se evidenció empíricamente la concreción de estos grupos irregulares como empresas armadas, generaron procesos de apropiación forzosa de la tierra, robusteciendo aún más el esquema de concentración que históricamente se ha consolidado. Justamente en este contexto se ha presentado un interesante proceso de movilización campesina que busca desarticular el curso de su descomposición descendente, al colocar la tierra, en primer lugar, como fin esencial en sus dimensiones productivas pero identitarias, por sobre todo.

  4. Aproximación a la patología presentada en las construcciones de tierra. Algunas recomendaciones de intervención

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article shows several points to consider in the study and conservation of the heritage of earth. We show the most characteristic damages of these buildings and we propose some recommendations for the correct diagnostic of their pathology. Finally, some recommendations for the conservation of this heritage are given.

    En el presente artículo se ponen de manifiesto una serie de aspectos que es necesario tener presente a la hora de acometer un estudio sobre la patología presentada en las construcciones de tierra en general, y patrimoniales en particular. Para ello, y tras proponer una serie de recomendaciones que contribuyan a un correcto diagnóstico de la patología presentada, se identifican las lesiones más características de este tipo de construcciones. Por último, se proponen algunas pautas de intervención en función de la patología presentada, así como recomendaciones de carácter general para la conservación del patrimonio de estructuras de tierra.

  5. Pathogenic and enzyme activities of the entomopathogenic fungus Tolypocladium cylindrosporum (Ascomycota: Hypocreales from Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C Scorsetti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tolypocladium cylindrosporum is an entomopathogenic fungi that has been studied as a biological control agent against insects of several orders. The fungus has been isolated from the soil as well as from insects of the orders Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera. In this study, we analyzed the ability of a strain of T. cylindrosporum, isolated from soil samples taken in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, to produce hydrolytic enzymes, and to study the relationship of those activities to the fungus pathogenicity against pest aphids. We have made the traditional and molecular characterization of this strain of T. cylindrosporum. The expression of hydrolase activity in the fungal strain was estimated at three incubation temperatures (4ºC, 12ºC and 24ºC, on different agar media supplemented with the following specific substrates: chitin azure, Tween ® 20, casein, and urea for chitinase, lipase, protease, and urease activity, respectively. The hydrolytic-enzyme activity was estimated qualitatively according to the presence of a halo of clarification through hydrolase action, besides was expressed semi-quantitatively as the ratio between the hydrolytic-halo and colony diameters. The pathogenicity of the fungus was tested on adults of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi at three temperatures of incubation (4ºC, 12ºC and 24ºC. The suspension was adjusted to a concentration of 1x10 7 conidia/ml. In pathogenicity assays at seven days post-inoculation, the fungus caused the mortality of adults of Ropalosiphum padi at different temperatures also showed a broad ability to grow on several agar-culture media, supplemented with different carbon sources at the three incubation temperatures tested. Although, the growth was greater with higher incubation temperatures (with maximum levels at 24°C, the fungus reached similar colony diameters after 15 days of incubation on the medium supplemented with Tween® 20 at the lower two incubation temperatures of 4

  6. Tierras indígenas, demarcaciones territoriales y gubernamentalización: El caso Huarpe, Pcia de Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Katzer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar, a través del acercamiento a una etnografía de los procesos administrativos, la trama de dispositivos estatales que han operado en la asignación de tierras a los indígenas adscriptos como Huarpes y que operan contemporáneamente en la definición de sus derechos territoriales. Se trata de explicitar las representaciones, intereses y saberes que han guiado las propuestas de intervención, recuperándolos como componentes constitutivos de un proceso social e histórico. A diferencia de las narrativas administrativas -que mediante la adopción de un lenguaje tecnicista y de nociones como la de hábitat, terminan por naturalizar, neutralizar y deshistorizar los conflictos políticos implícitos en la construcción de territorios étnicos- enfocamos los mecanismos de intervención sobre los indígenas como una forma de territorialización, revisando críticamente la pretendida mirada neutra y objetiva del aparato administrativo-judicial, apoyada en representaciones atemporales.The objective of this work is to analyze, through approach to one ethnography of the administrative processes, the plot of state devices that have operated in the allocation of earth to the adscript indigenous like Huarpes and that operate contemporarily in the definition of their territorial rights. It is tried to specify the representations, interests and learnings that they have guided the intervention proposals, recovering them like constituent components of a social and historical process. Unlike the administrative narratives - that by means of the adoption of a technicist language and slight knowledge like the one of habitat, they finish naturalizing, neutralizing and unhistoring the conflicts implicit politicians in the construction of ethnic territories we focused the intervention mechanisms on the natives like one territorialization form, reviewing critically the tried neutral and objective glance of the administrative

  7. LA DEGRADACIÓN DE TIERRAS COMO EJE EN LA ORGANIZACIÓN DE LOS CONTENIDOS EN GEOGRAFÍA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Chiementon

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El deterioro ambiental no es un fenómeno reciente, pero la magnitud de los cambios que se observan actualmente no tiene precedentes. En este sentido, la degradación de tierras es una de las problemáticas que alcanza niveles alarmantes a escala mundial, poniéndose de manifiesto a través de una disminución significativa de la capacidad productiva del territorio. Esta problemática también está presente en la región patagónica y en particular en la Provincia de Neuquén afectando especialmente a los productores de menores recursos. Los procesos degradatorios son producto de las transformaciones que se introducen en el sistema natural, asociadas sobre todo a la aceleración de la erosión hídrica y eólica, que modifican el equilibrio y la dinámica de las relaciones entre todos sus componentes. Si bien se trata de un problema que se expresa fundamentalmente en la alteración de procesos naturales, su raíz es política, social y económica. En este marco la riqueza que ofrece este tema como eje de trabajo, propicia numerosas posibilidades en el vínculo entre el proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje con la actualidad. De esta manera se presenta como una forma diferente de trabajo áulico en la construcción de conceptos, procedimientos y valores, favoreciendo el tratamiento y la reflexión de temas tradicionales como la erosión, los circuitos productivos, etc. y aprovechando el uso cada vez más masivo de las imágenes satelitales que permiten mostrar la dimensión del problema. El presente trabajo intenta generar aportes para su abordaje conceptual y metodológico en la enseñanza de la Geografía, reconociendo la gravedad de la situación, por sus alcances a mediano y largo plazo en las distintas escalas. Analizarlo desde una perspectiva geográfica permite comprenderlo y explicarlo a partir de la articulación Sociedad-Naturaleza, organizando un amplio abanico de temas y pudiendo ser utilizado como hilo conductor en la organización de

  8. Pathogenic and enzyme activities of the entomopathogenic fungus Tolypocladium cylindrosporum (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) from Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorsetti, Ana C; Elíades, Lorena A; Stenglein, Sebastián A; Cabello, Marta N; Pelizza, Sebastián A; Saparrat, Mario C N

    2012-06-01

    Tolypocladium cylindrosporum is an entomopathogenic fungi that has been studied as a biological control agent against insects of several orders. The fungus has been isolated from the soil as well as from insects of the orders Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera. In this study, we analyzed the ability of a strain of T cylindrosporum, isolated from soil samples taken in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, to produce hydrolytic enzymes, and to study the relationship of those activities to the fungus pathogenicity against pest aphids. We have made the traditional and molecular characterization of this strain of T cylindrosporum. The expression of hydrolase activity in the fungal strain was estimated at three incubation temperatures (4 degreeC, 12 degreeC and 24 degreeC), on different agar media supplemented with the following specific substrates: chitin azure, Tween 20, casein, and urea for chitinase, lipase, protease, and urease activity, respectively. The hydrolytic-enzyme activity was estimated qualitatively according to the presence of a halo of clarification through hydrolase action, besides was expressed semi-quantitatively as the ratio between the hydrolytic-halo and colony diameters. The pathogenicity of the fungus was tested on adults of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi at three temperatures of incubation (4 degree C, 12 degree C and 24 degree C). The suspension was adjusted to a concentration of 1x10(7) conidia/ml. In pathogenicity assays at seven days post-inoculation, the fungus caused the mortality of adults of Ropalosiphum padi at different temperatures also showed a broad ability to grow on several agar-culture media, supplemented with different carbon sources at the three incubation temperatures tested. Although, the growth was greater with higher incubation temperatures (with maximum levels at 24 degreeC), the fungus reached similar colony diameters after 15 days of incubation on the medium supplemented with Tween 20 at the lower two incubation

  9. Fault Management Techniques in Human Spaceflight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, Brian; Crocker, Alan

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses human spaceflight fault management operations. Fault detection and response capabilities available in current US human spaceflight programs Space Shuttle and International Space Station are described while emphasizing system design impacts on operational techniques and constraints. Preflight and inflight processes along with products used to anticipate, mitigate and respond to failures are introduced. Examples of operational products used to support failure responses are presented. Possible improvements in the state of the art, as well as prioritization and success criteria for their implementation are proposed. This paper describes how the architecture of a command and control system impacts operations in areas such as the required fault response times, automated vs. manual fault responses, use of workarounds, etc. The architecture includes the use of redundancy at the system and software function level, software capabilities, use of intelligent or autonomous systems, number and severity of software defects, etc. This in turn drives which Caution and Warning (C&W) events should be annunciated, C&W event classification, operator display designs, crew training, flight control team training, and procedure development. Other factors impacting operations are the complexity of a system, skills needed to understand and operate a system, and the use of commonality vs. optimized solutions for software and responses. Fault detection, annunciation, safing responses, and recovery capabilities are explored using real examples to uncover underlying philosophies and constraints. These factors directly impact operations in that the crew and flight control team need to understand what happened, why it happened, what the system is doing, and what, if any, corrective actions they need to perform. If a fault results in multiple C&W events, or if several faults occur simultaneously, the root cause(s) of the fault(s), as well as their vehicle-wide impacts, must be

  10. Effects of Fault Displacement on Emplacement Drifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, F.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate potential effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts, including drip shields and waste packages emplaced in emplacement drifts. The output from this analysis not only provides data for the evaluation of long-term drift stability but also supports the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) process model report (PMR) and Disruptive Events Report currently under development. The primary scope of this analysis includes (1) examining fault displacement effects in terms of induced stresses and displacements in the rock mass surrounding an emplacement drift and (2 ) predicting fault displacement effects on the drip shield and waste package. The magnitude of the fault displacement analyzed in this analysis bounds the mean fault displacement corresponding to an annual frequency of exceedance of 10 -5 adopted for the preclosure period of the repository and also supports the postclosure performance assessment. This analysis is performed following the development plan prepared for analyzing effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts (CRWMS M and O 2000). The analysis will begin with the identification and preparation of requirements, criteria, and inputs. A literature survey on accommodating fault displacements encountered in underground structures such as buried oil and gas pipelines will be conducted. For a given fault displacement, the least favorable scenario in term of the spatial relation of a fault to an emplacement drift is chosen, and the analysis is then performed analytically. Based on the analysis results, conclusions are made regarding the effects and consequences of fault displacement on emplacement drifts. Specifically, the analysis will discuss loads which can be induced by fault displacement on emplacement drifts, drip shield and/or waste packages during the time period of postclosure

  11. Computer aided fault tree synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poucet, A.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear as well as non-nuclear organisations are showing during the past few years a growing interest in the field of reliability analysis. This urges for the development of powerful, state of the art methods and computer codes for performing such analysis on complex systems. In this report an interactive, computer aided approach is discussed, based on the well known fault tree technique. The time consuming and difficut task of manually constructing a system model (one or more fault trees) is replaced by an efficient interactive procedure in which the flexibility and the learning process inherent to the manual approach are combined with the accuracy in the modelling and the speed of the fully automatical approach. The method presented is based upon the use of a library containing component models. The possibility of setting up a standard library of models of general use and the link with a data collection system are discussed. The method has been implemented in the CAFTS-SALP software package which is described shortly in the report

  12. Paleoseismicity of two historically quiescent faults in Australia: Implications for fault behavior in stable continental regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, A.J.; De Martini, P. M.; Machette, M.M.; Okumura, K.; Prescott, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Paleoseismic studies of two historically aseismic Quaternary faults in Australia confirm that cratonic faults in stable continental regions (SCR) typically have a long-term behavior characterized by episodes of activity separated by quiescent intervals of at least 10,000 and commonly 100,000 years or more. Studies of the approximately 30-km-long Roopena fault in South Australia and the approximately 30-km-long Hyden fault in Western Australia document multiple Quaternary surface-faulting events that are unevenly spaced in time. The episodic clustering of events on cratonic SCR faults may be related to temporal fluctuations of fault-zone fluid pore pressures in a volume of strained crust. The long-term slip rate on cratonic SCR faults is extremely low, so the geomorphic expression of many cratonic SCR faults is subtle, and scarps may be difficult to detect because they are poorly preserved. Both the Roopena and Hyden faults are in areas of limited or no significant seismicity; these and other faults that we have studied indicate that many potentially hazardous SCR faults cannot be recognized solely on the basis of instrumental data or historical earthquakes. Although cratonic SCR faults may appear to be nonhazardous because they have been historically aseismic, those that are favorably oriented for movement in the current stress field can and have produced unexpected damaging earthquakes. Paleoseismic studies of modern and prehistoric SCR faulting events provide the basis for understanding of the long-term behavior of these faults and ultimately contribute to better seismic-hazard assessments.

  13. Methods for recognition and segmentation of active fault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Chang Hun; Noh, Myung Hyun; Lee, Kieh Hwa; Chang, Tae Woo; Kyung, Jai Bok; Kim, Ki Young

    2000-03-01

    In order to identify and segment the active faults, the literatures of structural geology, paleoseismology, and geophysical explorations were investigated. The existing structural geological criteria for segmenting active faults were examined. These are mostly based on normal fault systems, thus, the additional criteria are demanded for application to different types of fault systems. Definition of the seismogenic fault, characteristics of fault activity, criteria and study results of fault segmentation, relationship between segmented fault length and maximum displacement, and estimation of seismic risk of segmented faults were examined in paleoseismic study. The history of earthquake such as dynamic pattern of faults, return period, and magnitude of the maximum earthquake originated by fault activity can be revealed by the study. It is confirmed through various case studies that numerous geophysical explorations including electrical resistivity, land seismic, marine seismic, ground-penetrating radar, magnetic, and gravity surveys have been efficiently applied to the recognition and segmentation of active faults

  14. Density of oxidation-induced stacking faults in damaged silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, F.G.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De; Verwey, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    A model for the relation between density and length of oxidation-induced stacking faults on damaged silicon surfaces is proposed, based on interactions of stacking faults with dislocations and neighboring stacking faults. The model agrees with experiments.

  15. A Fault-tolerant RISC Microprocessor for Spacecraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoc, Constantin; Benz, Harry

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on a fault-tolerant RISC microprocessor for spacecraft applications are presented. Topics covered include: reduced instruction set computer; fault tolerant registers; fault tolerant ALU; and double rail CMOS logic.

  16. Reverse fault growth and fault interaction with frictional interfaces: insights from analogue models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Emanuele; Bonini, Lorenzo; Basili, Roberto; Toscani, Giovanni; Seno, Silvio

    2017-04-01

    The association of faulting and folding is a common feature in mountain chains, fold-and-thrust belts, and accretionary wedges. Kinematic models are developed and widely used to explain a range of relationships between faulting and folding. However, these models may result not to be completely appropriate to explain shortening in mechanically heterogeneous rock bodies. Weak layers, bedding surfaces, or pre-existing faults placed ahead of a propagating fault tip may influence the fault propagation rate itself and the associated fold shape. In this work, we employed clay analogue models to investigate how mechanical discontinuities affect the propagation rate and the associated fold shape during the growth of reverse master faults. The simulated master faults dip at 30° and 45°, recalling the range of the most frequent dip angles for active reverse faults that occurs in nature. The mechanical discontinuities are simulated by pre-cutting the clay pack. For both experimental setups (30° and 45° dipping faults) we analyzed three different configurations: 1) isotropic, i.e. without precuts; 2) with one precut in the middle of the clay pack; and 3) with two evenly-spaced precuts. To test the repeatability of the processes and to have a statistically valid dataset we replicate each configuration three times. The experiments were monitored by collecting successive snapshots with a high-resolution camera pointing at the side of the model. The pictures were then processed using the Digital Image Correlation method (D.I.C.), in order to extract the displacement and shear-rate fields. These two quantities effectively show both the on-fault and off-fault deformation, indicating the activity along the newly-formed faults and whether and at what stage the discontinuities (precuts) are reactivated. To study the fault propagation and fold shape variability we marked the position of the fault tips and the fold profiles for every successive step of deformation. Then we compared

  17. Fault-Tolerant Approach for Modular Multilevel Converters under Submodule Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Tian, Yanjun; Zhu, Rongwu

    2016-01-01

    The modular multilevel converter (MMC) is attractive for medium- or high-power applications because of the advantages of its high modularity, availability, and high power quality. The fault-tolerant operation is one of the important issues for the MMC. This paper proposed a fault-tolerant approach...... for the MMC under submodule (SM) faults. The characteristic of the MMC with arms containing different number of healthy SMs under faults is analyzed. Based on the characteristic, the proposed approach can effectively keep the MMC operation as normal under SM faults. It can effectively improve the MMC...

  18. The Curiosity Mars Rover's Fault Protection Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Ed

    2014-01-01

    The Curiosity Rover, currently operating on Mars, contains flight software onboard to autonomously handle aspects of system fault protection. Over 1000 monitors and 39 responses are present in the flight software. Orchestrating these behaviors is the flight software's fault protection engine. In this paper, we discuss the engine's design, responsibilities, and present some lessons learned for future missions.

  19. A Game Theoretic Fault Detection Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Walter H.; Speyer, Jason L.

    1995-01-01

    The fault detection process is modelled as a disturbance attenuation problem. The solution to this problem is found via differential game theory, leading to an H(sub infinity) filter which bounds the transmission of all exogenous signals save the fault to be detected. For a general class of linear systems which includes some time-varying systems, it is shown that this transmission bound can be taken to zero by simultaneously bringing the sensor noise weighting to zero. Thus, in the limit, a complete transmission block can he achieved, making the game filter into a fault detection filter. When we specialize this result to time-invariant system, it is found that the detection filter attained in the limit is identical to the well known Beard-Jones Fault Detection Filter. That is, all fault inputs other than the one to be detected (the "nuisance faults") are restricted to an invariant subspace which is unobservable to a projection on the output. For time-invariant systems, it is also shown that in the limit, the order of the state-space and the game filter can be reduced by factoring out the invariant subspace. The result is a lower dimensional filter which can observe only the fault to be detected. A reduced-order filter can also he generated for time-varying systems, though the computational overhead may be intensive. An example given at the end of the paper demonstrates the effectiveness of the filter as a tool for fault detection and identification.

  20. Modular representation and analysis of fault trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmos, J; Wolf, L [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (USA). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1978-08-01

    An analytical method to describe fault tree diagrams in terms of their modular compositions is developed. Fault tree structures are characterized by recursively relating the top tree event to all its basic component inputs through a set of equations defining each of the modulus for the fault tree. It is shown that such a modular description is an extremely valuable tool for making a quantitative analysis of fault trees. The modularization methodology has been implemented into the PL-MOD computer code, written in PL/1 language, which is capable of modularizing fault trees containing replicated components and replicated modular gates. PL-MOD in addition can handle mutually exclusive inputs and explicit higher order symmetric (k-out-of-n) gates. The step-by-step modularization of fault trees performed by PL-MOD is demonstrated and it is shown how this procedure is only made possible through an extensive use of the list processing tools available in PL/1. A number of nuclear reactor safety system fault trees were analyzed. PL-MOD performed the modularization and evaluation of the modular occurrence probabilities and Vesely-Fussell importance measures for these systems very efficiently. In particular its execution time for the modularization of a PWR High Pressure Injection System reduced fault tree was 25 times faster than that necessary to generate its equivalent minimal cut-set description using MOCUS, a code considered to be fast by present standards.

  1. Fault tolerancy in cooperative adaptive cruise control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunen, E. van; Ploeg, J.; Medina, A.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2013-01-01

    Future mobility requires sound solutions in the field of fault tolerance in real-time applications amongst which Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC). This control system cannot rely on the driver as a backup and is constantly active and therefore more prominent to the occurrences of faults

  2. Training for Skill in Fault Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    The Knitting, Lace and Net Industry Training Board has developed a training innovation called fault diagnosis training. The entire training process concentrates on teaching based on the experiences of troubleshooters or any other employees whose main tasks involve fault diagnosis and rectification. (Author/DS)

  3. Dynamic modeling of gearbox faults: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xihui; Zuo, Ming J.; Feng, Zhipeng

    2018-01-01

    Gearbox is widely used in industrial and military applications. Due to high service load, harsh operating conditions or inevitable fatigue, faults may develop in gears. If the gear faults cannot be detected early, the health will continue to degrade, perhaps causing heavy economic loss or even catastrophe. Early fault detection and diagnosis allows properly scheduled shutdowns to prevent catastrophic failure and consequently result in a safer operation and higher cost reduction. Recently, many studies have been done to develop gearbox dynamic models with faults aiming to understand gear fault generation mechanism and then develop effective fault detection and diagnosis methods. This paper focuses on dynamics based gearbox fault modeling, detection and diagnosis. State-of-art and challenges are reviewed and discussed. This detailed literature review limits research results to the following fundamental yet key aspects: gear mesh stiffness evaluation, gearbox damage modeling and fault diagnosis techniques, gearbox transmission path modeling and method validation. In the end, a summary and some research prospects are presented.

  4. Detecting Fan Faults in refrigerated Cabinets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, C.; Rasmussen, B.D.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2002-01-01

    Fault detection in supermarket refrigeration systems is an important topic due to both economic and food safety reasons. If faults can be detected and diagnosed before the system drifts outside the specified operational envelope, service costs can be reduced and in extreme cases the costly discar...

  5. Fault Detection for a Diesel Engine Actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.; Bøgh, S.A.; Jørgensen, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    An electro-mechanical position servo is introduced as a benchmark for mode-based Fault Detection and Identification (FDI).......An electro-mechanical position servo is introduced as a benchmark for mode-based Fault Detection and Identification (FDI)....

  6. Norm based design of fault detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Mike Lind; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1999-01-01

    The design of fault detectors for fault detection and isolation (FDI) in dynamic systems is considered in this paper from a norm based point of view. An analysis of norm based threshold selection is given based on different formulations of FDI problems. Both the nominal FDI problem as well...

  7. Naive Fault Tree : formulation of the approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajabalinejad, M

    2017-01-01

    Naive Fault Tree (NFT) accepts a single value or a range of values for each basic event and returns values for the top event. This accommodates the need of commonly used Fault Trees (FT) for precise data making them prone to data concerns and limiting their area of application. This paper extends

  8. Intermittent resistive faults in digital cmos circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoff, Hans G.; Ebrahimi, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    A major threat in extremely dependable high-end process node integrated systems in e.g. Avionics are no failures found (NFF). One category of NFFs is the intermittent resistive fault, often originating from bad (e.g. Via or TSV-based) interconnections. This paper will show the impact of these faults

  9. Engine gearbox fault diagnosis using empirical mode ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kiran Vernekar

    Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka,. Surathkal ... proposed approach is an effective method for engine fault diagnosis. Keywords. Engine fault ... (DAQ) card and analysed using LabVIEW software from. Figure 1. .... and reduce numerical difficulties during the calculation. T.

  10. Statistical fault detection in photovoltaic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Garoudja, Elyes; Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying; Kara, Kamel; Chouder, Aissa; Silvestre, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    and efficiency. Here, an innovative model-based fault-detection approach for early detection of shading of PV modules and faults on the direct current (DC) side of PV systems is proposed. This approach combines the flexibility, and simplicity of a one-diode model

  11. Spatial analysis of hypocenter to fault relationships for determining fault process zone width in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Bill Walter; Roberts, Barry L.; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Coburn, Timothy C.

    2004-01-01

    Preliminary investigation areas (PIA) for a potential repository of high-level radioactive waste must be evaluated by NUMO with regard to a number of qualifying factors. One of these factors is related to earthquakes and fault activity. This study develops a spatial statistical assessment method that can be applied to the active faults in Japan to perform such screening evaluations. This analysis uses the distribution of seismicity near faults to define the width of the associated process zone. This concept is based on previous observations of aftershock earthquakes clustered near active faults and on the assumption that such seismic activity is indicative of fracturing and associated impacts on bedrock integrity. Preliminary analyses of aggregate data for all of Japan confirmed that the frequency of earthquakes is higher near active faults. Data used in the analysis were obtained from NUMO and consist of three primary sources: (1) active fault attributes compiled in a spreadsheet, (2) earthquake hypocenter data, and (3) active fault locations. Examination of these data revealed several limitations with regard to the ability to associate fault attributes from the spreadsheet to locations of individual fault trace segments. In particular, there was no direct link between attributes of the active faults in the spreadsheet and the active fault locations in the GIS database. In addition, the hypocenter location resolution in the pre-1983 data was less accurate than for later data. These pre-1983 hypocenters were eliminated from further analysis

  12. Spatial analysis of hypocenter to fault relationships for determining fault process zone width in Japan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Bill Walter; Roberts, Barry L.; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Coburn, Timothy C. (Abilene Christian University, Abilene, TX)

    2004-09-01

    Preliminary investigation areas (PIA) for a potential repository of high-level radioactive waste must be evaluated by NUMO with regard to a number of qualifying factors. One of these factors is related to earthquakes and fault activity. This study develops a spatial statistical assessment method that can be applied to the active faults in Japan to perform such screening evaluations. This analysis uses the distribution of seismicity near faults to define the width of the associated process zone. This concept is based on previous observations of aftershock earthquakes clustered near active faults and on the assumption that such seismic activity is indicative of fracturing and associated impacts on bedrock integrity. Preliminary analyses of aggregate data for all of Japan confirmed that the frequency of earthquakes is higher near active faults. Data used in the analysis were obtained from NUMO and consist of three primary sources: (1) active fault attributes compiled in a spreadsheet, (2) earthquake hypocenter data, and (3) active fault locations. Examination of these data revealed several limitations with regard to the ability to associate fault attributes from the spreadsheet to locations of individual fault trace segments. In particular, there was no direct link between attributes of the active faults in the spreadsheet and the active fault locations in the GIS database. In addition, the hypocenter location resolution in the pre-1983 data was less accurate than for later data. These pre-1983 hypocenters were eliminated from further analysis.

  13. Active fault diagnosis in closed-loop uncertain systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Fault diagnosis of parametric faults in closed-loop uncertain systems by using an auxiliary input vector is considered in this paper, i.e. active fault diagnosis (AFD). The active fault diagnosis is based directly on the socalled fault signature matrix, related to the YJBK (Youla, Jabr, Bongiorno...... and Kucera) parameterization. Conditions are given for exact detection and isolation of parametric faults in closed-loop uncertain systems....

  14. Stability of fault submitted to fluid injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantut, N.; Passelegue, F. X.; Mitchell, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    Elevated pore pressure can lead to slip reactivation on pre-existing fractures and faults when the coulomb failure point is reached. From a static point of view, the reactivation of fault submitted to a background stress (τ0) is a function of the peak strength of the fault, i.e. the quasi-static effective friction coefficient (µeff). However, this theory is valid only when the entire fault is affected by fluid pressure, which is not the case in nature, and during human induced-seismicity. In this study, we present new results about the influence of the injection rate on the stability of faults. Experiments were conducted on a saw-cut sample of westerly granite. The experimental fault was 8 cm length. Injections were conducted through a 2 mm diameter hole reaching the fault surface. Experiments were conducted at four different order magnitudes fluid pressure injection rates (from 1 MPa/minute to 1 GPa/minute), in a fault system submitted to 50 and 100 MPa confining pressure. Our results show that the peak fluid pressure leading to slip depends on injection rate. The faster the injection rate, the larger the peak fluid pressure leading to instability. Wave velocity surveys across the fault highlighted that decreasing the injection-rate leads to an increase of size of the fluid pressure perturbation. Our result demonstrate that the stability of the fault is not only a function of the fluid pressure requires to reach the failure criterion, but is mainly a function of the ratio between the length of the fault affected by fluid pressure and the total fault length. In addition, we show that the slip rate increases with the background effective stress and with the intensity of the fluid pressure pertubation, i.e. with the excess shear stress acting on the part of the fault pertubated by fluid injection. Our results suggest that crustal fault can be reactivated by local high fluid overpressures. These results could explain the "large" magnitude human-induced earthquakes

  15. From tomographic images to fault heterogeneities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Amato

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Local Earthquake Tomography (LET is a useful tool for imaging lateral heterogeneities in the upper crust. The pattern of P- and S-wave velocity anomalies, in relation to the seismicity distribution along active fault zones. can shed light on the existence of discrete seismogenic patches. Recent tomographic studies in well monitored seismic areas have shown that the regions with large seismic moment release generally correspond to high velocity zones (HVZ's. In this paper, we discuss the relationship between the seismogenic behavior of faults and the velocity structure of fault zones as inferred from seismic tomography. First, we review some recent tomographic studies in active strike-slip faults. We show examples from different segments of the San Andreas fault system (Parkfield, Loma Prieta, where detailed studies have been carried out in recent years. We also show two applications of LET to thrust faults (Coalinga, Friuli. Then, we focus on the Irpinia normal fault zone (South-Central Italy, where a Ms = 6.9 earthquake occurred in 1980 and many thousands of attershock travel time data are available. We find that earthquake hypocenters concentrate in HVZ's, whereas low velocity zones (LVZ’ s appear to be relatively aseismic. The main HVZ's along which the mainshock rupture bas propagated may correspond to velocity weakening fault regions, whereas the LVZ's are probably related to weak materials undergoing stable slip (velocity strengthening. A correlation exists between this HVZ and the area with larger coseismic slip along the fault, according to both surface evidence (a fault scarp as high as 1 m and strong ground motion waveform modeling. Smaller wave-length, low-velocity anomalies detected along the fault may be the expression of velocity strengthening sections, where aseismic slip occurs. According to our results, the rupture at the nucleation depth (~ 10-12 km is continuous for the whole fault lenoth (~ 30 km, whereas at shallow depth

  16. An effort allocation model considering different budgetary constraint on fault detection process and fault correction process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fault detection process (FDP and Fault correction process (FCP are important phases of software development life cycle (SDLC. It is essential for software to undergo a testing phase, during which faults are detected and corrected. The main goal of this article is to allocate the testing resources in an optimal manner to minimize the cost during testing phase using FDP and FCP under dynamic environment. In this paper, we first assume there is a time lag between fault detection and fault correction. Thus, removal of a fault is performed after a fault is detected. In addition, detection process and correction process are taken to be independent simultaneous activities with different budgetary constraints. A structured optimal policy based on optimal control theory is proposed for software managers to optimize the allocation of the limited resources with the reliability criteria. Furthermore, release policy for the proposed model is also discussed. Numerical example is given in support of the theoretical results.

  17. Fault-tolerant Control of Unmanned Underwater Vehicles with Continuous Faults: Simulations and Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel thruster fault diagnosis and accommodation method for open-frame underwater vehicles is presented in the paper. The proposed system consists of two units: a fault diagnosis unit and a fault accommodation unit. In the fault diagnosis unit an ICMAC (Improved Credit Assignment Cerebellar Model Articulation Controllers neural network information fusion model is used to realize the fault identification of the thruster. The fault accommodation unit is based on direct calculations of moment and the result of fault identification is used to find the solution of the control allocation problem. The approach resolves the continuous faulty identification of the UV. Results from the experiment are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed method in uncertain continuous faulty situation.

  18. Fault-tolerant Control of Unmanned Underwater Vehicles with Continuous Faults: Simulations and Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel thruster fault diagnosis and accommodation method for open-frame underwater vehicles is presented in the paper. The proposed system consists of two units: a fault diagnosis unit and a fault accommodation unit. In the fault diagnosis unit an ICMAC (Improved Credit Assignment Cerebellar Model Articulation Controllers neural network information fusion model is used to realize the fault identification of the thruster. The fault accommodation unit is based on direct calculations of moment and the result of fault identification is used to find the solution of the control allocation problem. The approach resolves the continuous faulty identification of the UV. Results from the experiment are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed method in uncertain continuous faulty situation.

  19. Fault Detection for Automotive Shock Absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Alcantara, Diana; Morales-Menendez, Ruben; Amezquita-Brooks, Luis

    2015-11-01

    Fault detection for automotive semi-active shock absorbers is a challenge due to the non-linear dynamics and the strong influence of the disturbances such as the road profile. First obstacle for this task, is the modeling of the fault, which has been shown to be of multiplicative nature. Many of the most widespread fault detection schemes consider additive faults. Two model-based fault algorithms for semiactive shock absorber are compared: an observer-based approach and a parameter identification approach. The performance of these schemes is validated and compared using a commercial vehicle model that was experimentally validated. Early results shows that a parameter identification approach is more accurate, whereas an observer-based approach is less sensible to parametric uncertainty.

  20. Solving fault diagnosis problems linear synthesis techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Varga, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses fault detection and isolation topics from a computational perspective. Unlike most existing literature, it bridges the gap between the existing well-developed theoretical results and the realm of reliable computational synthesis procedures. The model-based approach to fault detection and diagnosis has been the subject of ongoing research for the past few decades. While the theoretical aspects of fault diagnosis on the basis of linear models are well understood, most of the computational methods proposed for the synthesis of fault detection and isolation filters are not satisfactory from a numerical standpoint. Several features make this book unique in the fault detection literature: Solution of standard synthesis problems in the most general setting, for both continuous- and discrete-time systems, regardless of whether they are proper or not; consequently, the proposed synthesis procedures can solve a specific problem whenever a solution exists Emphasis on the best numerical algorithms to ...

  1. Fault Reconnaissance Agent for Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhadi M. Shakshuki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key prerequisite for a scalable, effective and efficient sensor network is the utilization of low-cost, low-overhead and high-resilient fault-inference techniques. To this end, we propose an intelligent agent system with a problem solving capability to address the issue of fault inference in sensor network environments. The intelligent agent system is designed and implemented at base-station side. The core of the agent system – problem solver – implements a fault-detection inference engine which harnesses Expectation Maximization (EM algorithm to estimate fault probabilities of sensor nodes. To validate the correctness and effectiveness of the intelligent agent system, a set of experiments in a wireless sensor testbed are conducted. The experimental results show that our intelligent agent system is able to precisely estimate the fault probability of sensor nodes.

  2. Self-triggering superconducting fault current limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xing [Albany, NY; Tekletsadik, Kasegn [Rexford, NY

    2008-10-21

    A modular and scaleable Matrix Fault Current Limiter (MFCL) that functions as a "variable impedance" device in an electric power network, using components made of superconducting and non-superconducting electrically conductive materials. The matrix fault current limiter comprises a fault current limiter module that includes a superconductor which is electrically coupled in parallel with a trigger coil, wherein the trigger coil is magnetically coupled to the superconductor. The current surge doing a fault within the electrical power network will cause the superconductor to transition to its resistive state and also generate a uniform magnetic field in the trigger coil and simultaneously limit the voltage developed across the superconductor. This results in fast and uniform quenching of the superconductors, significantly reduces the burnout risk associated with non-uniformity often existing within the volume of superconductor materials. The fault current limiter modules may be electrically coupled together to form various "n" (rows).times."m" (columns) matrix configurations.

  3. Methodology for Designing Fault-Protection Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barltrop, Kevin; Levison, Jeffrey; Kan, Edwin

    2006-01-01

    A document describes a methodology for designing fault-protection (FP) software for autonomous spacecraft. The methodology embodies and extends established engineering practices in the technical discipline of Fault Detection, Diagnosis, Mitigation, and Recovery; and has been successfully implemented in the Deep Impact Spacecraft, a NASA Discovery mission. Based on established concepts of Fault Monitors and Responses, this FP methodology extends the notion of Opinion, Symptom, Alarm (aka Fault), and Response with numerous new notions, sub-notions, software constructs, and logic and timing gates. For example, Monitor generates a RawOpinion, which graduates into Opinion, categorized into no-opinion, acceptable, or unacceptable opinion. RaiseSymptom, ForceSymptom, and ClearSymptom govern the establishment and then mapping to an Alarm (aka Fault). Local Response is distinguished from FP System Response. A 1-to-n and n-to- 1 mapping is established among Monitors, Symptoms, and Responses. Responses are categorized by device versus by function. Responses operate in tiers, where the early tiers attempt to resolve the Fault in a localized step-by-step fashion, relegating more system-level response to later tier(s). Recovery actions are gated by epoch recovery timing, enabling strategy, urgency, MaxRetry gate, hardware availability, hazardous versus ordinary fault, and many other priority gates. This methodology is systematic, logical, and uses multiple linked tables, parameter files, and recovery command sequences. The credibility of the FP design is proven via a fault-tree analysis "top-down" approach, and a functional fault-mode-effects-and-analysis via "bottoms-up" approach. Via this process, the mitigation and recovery strategy(s) per Fault Containment Region scope (width versus depth) the FP architecture.

  4. Stafford fault system: 120 million year fault movement history of northern Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powars, David S.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Horton, J. Wright; Schindler, J. Stephen; Pavich, Milan J.

    2015-01-01

    The Stafford fault system, located in the mid-Atlantic coastal plain of the eastern United States, provides the most complete record of fault movement during the past ~120 m.y. across the Virginia, Washington, District of Columbia (D.C.), and Maryland region, including displacement of Pleistocene terrace gravels. The Stafford fault system is close to and aligned with the Piedmont Spotsylvania and Long Branch fault zones. The dominant southwest-northeast trend of strong shaking from the 23 August 2011, moment magnitude Mw 5.8 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake is consistent with the connectivity of these faults, as seismic energy appears to have traveled along the documented and proposed extensions of the Stafford fault system into the Washington, D.C., area. Some other faults documented in the nearby coastal plain are clearly rooted in crystalline basement faults, especially along terrane boundaries. These coastal plain faults are commonly assumed to have undergone relatively uniform movement through time, with average slip rates from 0.3 to 1.5 m/m.y. However, there were higher rates during the Paleocene–early Eocene and the Pliocene (4.4–27.4 m/m.y), suggesting that slip occurred primarily during large earthquakes. Further investigation of the Stafford fault system is needed to understand potential earthquake hazards for the Virginia, Maryland, and Washington, D.C., area. The combined Stafford fault system and aligned Piedmont faults are ~180 km long, so if the combined fault system ruptured in a single event, it would result in a significantly larger magnitude earthquake than the Mineral earthquake. Many structures most strongly affected during the Mineral earthquake are along or near the Stafford fault system and its proposed northeastward extension.

  5. Proyecto de reforestación de tierras agrarias con encina (Quercus ilex L ballota Samp) para la producción de trufa (Tuber melanosporum Vitt.), en el término municipal de Peralveche, Guadalajara

    OpenAIRE

    RUIPÉREZ MARTÍNEZ, DIEGO

    2010-01-01

    Ruipérez Martínez, D. (2010). Proyecto de reforestación de tierras agrarias con encina (Quercus ilex L ballota Samp) para la producción de trufa (Tuber melanosporum Vitt.), en el término municipal de Peralveche, Guadalajara. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/8975. Archivo delegado

  6. Sin Tierras No Hay Paraíso: Turismo, organizaciones agrarias y apropiación territorial en México. Gustavo Marín Guardado (Coordinador. El Sauzal, Tenerife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano E Korstanje

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sin Tierras No Hay Paraíso se sitúa como un trabajo editado por el profesor Marín Guardado que convoca 10 excelentes capítulos donde queda en evidencia esa tensión primigenia entre tierras orientadas al trabajo, y esta suerte de centros ejemplares ideológicamente orquestados para reforzar la superioridad de una clase sobre el resto de la sociedad.  En dicho proceso, y lejos de generar un crecimiento sustentable, el turismo monopoliza el uso de ciertas tierras creando serios efectos indeseados en zonas enteramente dedicadas a la agricultura. La lucha de las organizaciones agrarias en México por permanecer en las tierras que históricamente les pertenecían es inversamente proporcional a la voracidad empresaria del capitalismo moderno. Una de las grandes falencias de los estudios turísticos consiste en la sobrevaloración del turismo como un organizador social y geográfico, ciertamente con fallas que deben ser corregidas pero trivializando los alcances de los estudios postmarxistas los cuales han denunciado como los procesos de re-territorialización esconden una lógica de la “expropiación” y/o transferencia de riqueza.

  7. Reconfigurable fault tolerant avionics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, M. M.; Asami, K.; Cho, Mengu

    This paper presents the design of a reconfigurable avionics system based on modern Static Random Access Memory (SRAM)-based Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) to be used in future generations of nano satellites. A major concern in satellite systems and especially nano satellites is to build robust systems with low-power consumption profiles. The system is designed to be flexible by providing the capability of reconfiguring itself based on its orbital position. As Single Event Upsets (SEU) do not have the same severity and intensity in all orbital locations, having the maximum at the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) and the polar cusps, the system does not have to be fully protected all the time in its orbit. An acceptable level of protection against high-energy cosmic rays and charged particles roaming in space is provided within the majority of the orbit through software fault tolerance. Check pointing and roll back, besides control flow assertions, is used for that level of protection. In the minority part of the orbit where severe SEUs are expected to exist, a reconfiguration for the system FPGA is initiated where the processor systems are triplicated and protection through Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) with feedback is provided. This technique of reconfiguring the system as per the level of the threat expected from SEU-induced faults helps in reducing the average dynamic power consumption of the system to one-third of its maximum. This technique can be viewed as a smart protection through system reconfiguration. The system is built on the commercial version of the (XC5VLX50) Xilinx Virtex5 FPGA on bulk silicon with 324 IO. Simulations of orbit SEU rates were carried out using the SPENVIS web-based software package.

  8. Drilling the North Anatolian Fault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Aktar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An international workshop entitled “GONAF: A deep Geophysical Observatory at the North Anatolian Fault”, was held 23–27 April 2007 in Istanbul, Turkey. The aim of this workshop was to refine plans for a deep drilling project at the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ in northwestern Turkey. The current drilling target is located in the Marmara Sea offshore the megacity of Istanbul in the direct vicinity of the main branch of the North Anatolian Fault on the PrinceIslands (Figs. 1 and 2.The NAFZ represents a 1600-km-long plate boundary that slips at an average rate of 20–30 mm·yr-1 (McClusky et al., 2000. It has developed in the framework of the northward moving Arabian plate and the Hellenic subduction zone where the African lithosphere is subducting below the Aegean. Comparison of long-term slip rates with Holocene and GPS-derived slip rates indicate an increasing westwardmovement of the Anatolian plate with respect to stable Eurasia. During the twentieth century, the NAFZ has ruptured over 900 km of its length. A series of large earthquakes starting in 1939 near Erzincan in Eastern Anatolia propagated westward towards the Istanbul-Marmara region in northwestern Turkey that today represents a seismic gap along a ≥100-km-long segment below the Sea of Marmara. This segment did not rupture since 1766 and, if locked, may have accumulated a slip deficit of 4–5 m. It is believed being capable of generating two M≥7.4 earthquakes within the next decades (Hubert-Ferrari et al., 2000; however, it could even rupture in a large single event (Le Pichon et al., 1999.

  9. Fault failure with moderate earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M. J. S.; Linde, A. T.; Gladwin, M. T.; Borcherdt, R. D.

    1987-12-01

    High resolution strain and tilt recordings were made in the near-field of, and prior to, the May 1983 Coalinga earthquake ( ML = 6.7, Δ = 51 km), the August 4, 1985, Kettleman Hills earthquake ( ML = 5.5, Δ = 34 km), the April 1984 Morgan Hill earthquake ( ML = 6.1, Δ = 55 km), the November 1984 Round Valley earthquake ( ML = 5.8, Δ = 54 km), the January 14, 1978, Izu, Japan earthquake ( ML = 7.0, Δ = 28 km), and several other smaller magnitude earthquakes. These recordings were made with near-surface instruments (resolution 10 -8), with borehole dilatometers (resolution 10 -10) and a 3-component borehole strainmeter (resolution 10 -9). While observed coseismic offsets are generally in good agreement with expectations from elastic dislocation theory, and while post-seismic deformation continued, in some cases, with a moment comparable to that of the main shock, preseismic strain or tilt perturbations from hours to seconds (or less) before the main shock are not apparent above the present resolution. Precursory slip for these events, if any occurred, must have had a moment less than a few percent of that of the main event. To the extent that these records reflect general fault behavior, the strong constraint on the size and amount of slip triggering major rupture makes prediction of the onset times and final magnitudes of the rupture zones a difficult task unless the instruments are fortuitously installed near the rupture initiation point. These data are best explained by an inhomogeneous failure model for which various areas of the fault plane have either different stress-slip constitutive laws or spatially varying constitutive parameters. Other work on seismic waveform analysis and synthetic waveforms indicates that the rupturing process is inhomogeneous and controlled by points of higher strength. These models indicate that rupture initiation occurs at smaller regions of higher strength which, when broken, allow runaway catastrophic failure.

  10. Rare-Earth-Rich Alloys; Alliages a Teneur Elevee en Terres Rares; Splavy, obogashchennye redkozemel'nymi ehlementami; Aleaciones Ricas en Tierras Raras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, M.; Kato, H. [Albany Metallurgy Research Center, Bureau of Mines, United States Department of the Interior, Albany, OR (United States)

    1964-06-15

    ainsi que leurs effets sur les points de fusion, les transformations de l'etat solide et la resistance a la corrosion. Ils ont etabli des diagrammes de phases jusqu'au premier compose ou entectique a teneur elevee en terres rares, selon que l'un ou l'autre apparaissait le premier. Une fois cette partie des travaux termines, ils ont fabrique des alliages qu'ils ont traites a chaud pour obtenir le maximum de solubilite a l'etat solide du metal d'alliage qui n'est pas une terre rare,, et ils ont fait des essais d'oxydation et de corrosion. Ils n'ont observe aucune amelioration de la resistance des terres rares a l 'oxydation dans l 'atmosphere a la suite de l 'operation; en fait, la plupart des metaux d'addition se sont reveles nuisibles. L'aluminium augmentait fortement la resistance a la corrosion par l'eau chaude des terres rares ayant fait l'objet des essais; d'autres metaux n'augmentaient cette resistance des terres rares qu'a un moindre degre. (author) [Spanish] Los metales de las tierras raras presentan interes en el control de reactores de potencia debido a su elevada seccion eficaz de captura de neutrones termicos, pero por desgracia se corroen con facilidad. Partiendo del supuesto de que ciertos metales no pertenecientes al grupo de las tierras raras pueden alearse con disprosio, erbio, gadolinio y samario mejorando sus propiedades, los autores estudiaron los efectos que esta aleacion ejerce sobre las tierras raras. Estudiaron la solubilidad de metales como el circonio, vanadio, cromo, hierro, niquel, cobre, aluminio y silicio en disprosio, erbio, gadolinio y samario, y determinaron sus efectos sobre los respectivos puntos de fusion, las transformaciones de estado solido y la resistencia a la corrosion. Prepararon diagramas de fase hasta el primer compuesto rico en tierra rara o hasta el eutectico, segun cual apareciera primero. A l terminar esta parte del trabajo, prepararon aleaciones, que sometieron a un tratamiento termico para obtener un maximo de

  11. Especiación de tierras raras en las soluciones ácidas y neutras del sistema de drenaje del Arroyo del Val (Zaragoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamora, A.

    1994-08-01

    -90 % of LREE and for 100 % of HREE. LnPO04 and Ln(PO43-2 complexes are quite significant compared to carbonate complexes, mainly in the speciation of HREE. These results il1ustrate the importance of phosphate ion concentration and REE phosphate complexation reactions in REEs speciation calculations.Las soluciones de la cuenca de drenaje del Arroyo del Val (Zaragoza presentan unas características geoquímicas muy diferenciadas, lo que las hace especialmente apropiadas para el estudio de diferentes aspectos acerca del comportamiento de los elementos de las Tierras Raras. Esta cuenca está constituida por un curso principal (Arroyo del Val de aguas ácidas (con valores de pH entre 3 y 4.5 e importantes concentraciones de sulfato, Al, Fe y distintos metales pesados al que desaguan varios afluentes de aguas bicarbonatadas (sulfatadas cálcicas (con valores de pH de hasta 7.5, alcalinidad apreciable y notables concentraciones de fosfato. En los puntos de confluencia del Arroyo del Val con los afluentes se producen espectaculares procesos de floculación de coloides ricos en aluminio, hierro y sulfato que tapizan el fondo del curso principal. Los elementos de las Tierras Raras fueron analizados en distintas muestras de aguas ácidas tomadas a lo largo de la cabecera del Arroyo del Val y en dos muestras de aguas neutras correspondientes a dos de los afluentes del sistema. Las concentraciones de estos elementos determinadas en las soluciones ácidas son, cuando menos, dos órdenes de magnitud superiores a las de las soluciones neutras y sus pautas de distribución (normalizadas frente a NASC muestran un marcado enriquecimiento en las Tierras Raras Intermedias (IREE; Eu-Tb. Los cálculos de especiación de REE realizados en las aguas ácidas muestran que estos elementos se encuentran de forma dominante como especies iónicas libres (Ln3+ ≈ 35 % y especialmente formando complejos con sulfato (LnSO+4 ≈ 60% y en menor proporción como Ln(SO4-2 ≈ 5%. Estos porcentajes

  12. How fault evolution changes strain partitioning and fault slip rates in Southern California: Results from geodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jiyang; Liu, Mian

    2017-08-01

    In Southern California, the Pacific-North America relative plate motion is accommodated by the complex southern San Andreas Fault system that includes many young faults (faults and their impact on strain partitioning and fault slip rates are important for understanding the evolution of this plate boundary zone and assessing earthquake hazard in Southern California. Using a three-dimensional viscoelastoplastic finite element model, we have investigated how this plate boundary fault system has evolved to accommodate the relative plate motion in Southern California. Our results show that when the plate boundary faults are not optimally configured to accommodate the relative plate motion, strain is localized in places where new faults would initiate to improve the mechanical efficiency of the fault system. In particular, the Eastern California Shear Zone, the San Jacinto Fault, the Elsinore Fault, and the offshore dextral faults all developed in places of highly localized strain. These younger faults compensate for the reduced fault slip on the San Andreas Fault proper because of the Big Bend, a major restraining bend. The evolution of the fault system changes the apportionment of fault slip rates over time, which may explain some of the slip rate discrepancy between geological and geodetic measurements in Southern California. For the present fault configuration, our model predicts localized strain in western Transverse Ranges and along the dextral faults across the Mojave Desert, where numerous damaging earthquakes occurred in recent years.

  13. Eigenvector of gravity gradient tensor for estimating fault dips considering fault type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumoto, Shigekazu

    2017-12-01

    The dips of boundaries in faults and caldera walls play an important role in understanding their formation mechanisms. The fault dip is a particularly important parameter in numerical simulations for hazard map creation as the fault dip affects estimations of the area of disaster occurrence. In this study, I introduce a technique for estimating the fault dip using the eigenvector of the observed or calculated gravity gradient tensor on a profile and investigating its properties through numerical simulations. From numerical simulations, it was found that the maximum eigenvector of the tensor points to the high-density causative body, and the dip of the maximum eigenvector closely follows the dip of the normal fault. It was also found that the minimum eigenvector of the tensor points to the low-density causative body and that the dip of the minimum eigenvector closely follows the dip of the reverse fault. It was shown that the eigenvector of the gravity gradient tensor for estimating fault dips is determined by fault type. As an application of this technique, I estimated the dip of the Kurehayama Fault located in Toyama, Japan, and obtained a result that corresponded to conventional fault dip estimations by geology and geomorphology. Because the gravity gradient tensor is required for this analysis, I present a technique that estimates the gravity gradient tensor from the gravity anomaly on a profile.

  14. Fault diagnosis of sensor networked structures with multiple faults using a virtual beam based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Jing, X. J.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a virtual beam based approach suitable for conducting diagnosis of multiple faults in complex structures with limited prior knowledge of the faults involved. The "virtual beam", a recently-proposed concept for fault detection in complex structures, is applied, which consists of a chain of sensors representing a vibration energy transmission path embedded in the complex structure. Statistical tests and adaptive threshold are particularly adopted for fault detection due to limited prior knowledge of normal operational conditions and fault conditions. To isolate the multiple faults within a specific structure or substructure of a more complex one, a 'biased running' strategy is developed and embedded within the bacterial-based optimization method to construct effective virtual beams and thus to improve the accuracy of localization. The proposed method is easy and efficient to implement for multiple fault localization with limited prior knowledge of normal conditions and faults. With extensive experimental results, it is validated that the proposed method can localize both single fault and multiple faults more effectively than the classical trust index subtract on negative add on positive (TI-SNAP) method.

  15. Data Fault Detection in Medical Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Medical body sensors can be implanted or attached to the human body to monitor the physiological parameters of patients all the time. Inaccurate data due to sensor faults or incorrect placement on the body will seriously influence clinicians’ diagnosis, therefore detecting sensor data faults has been widely researched in recent years. Most of the typical approaches to sensor fault detection in the medical area ignore the fact that the physiological indexes of patients aren’t changing synchronously at the same time, and fault values mixed with abnormal physiological data due to illness make it difficult to determine true faults. Based on these facts, we propose a Data Fault Detection mechanism in Medical sensor networks (DFD-M. Its mechanism includes: (1 use of a dynamic-local outlier factor (D-LOF algorithm to identify outlying sensed data vectors; (2 use of a linear regression model based on trapezoidal fuzzy numbers to predict which readings in the outlying data vector are suspected to be faulty; (3 the proposal of a novel judgment criterion of fault state according to the prediction values. The simulation results demonstrate the efficiency and superiority of DFD-M.

  16. ESTRUCTURA POBLACIONAL DE LA PALMA IRIARTEA DELTOIDEA, EN UN BOSQUE DE TIERRA FIRME DE LA AMAZONIA COLOMBIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Roy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue caracterizar la densidad y la estructura poblacional de la palma bombona Iriartea deltoidea en un bosque de tierra firme de la zona sur del Parque Nacional Natural Amacayacu, en la Amazonia Colombiana. En seis parcelas de 1 ha y 90 transectos de 50 x 1 m, se censaron todos los individuos de la especie. Para cada individuo, se registró la altura del tallo, el estado morfológico de las hojas (i.e. hojas enteras, hojas divididas, forma de las pinnas, la formación de raíz fúlcrea, la altura del cono de la raíz y el estado fenol��gico (brácteas, inflorescencias e infrutescencias. Se encontraron 2819 individuos (376±58 ind/ha que se agruparon en tres grandes categorías de edad significativamente diferentes (e.g. plántulas, juveniles y adultos. La gran categoría Plántulas se caracterizó por individuos con hojas no divididas, sin formación de raíces fúlcreas y comprendió el 96.6% de los individuos muestreados. Esta se subdividió en seis categorías de plántulas estadísticamente significativas dadas por cambios en la altura, número y morfología de las hojas. La gran categoría Juvenil consistió en individuos con hojas divididas en pinnas, formación de raíces fúlcreas con altura de cono radicular menor a 1 m, sin estructuras reproductivas y con 1.5% (42 de los individuos totales. Esta se subdividió en dos categorías de juveniles (I y II. La categoría Adultos incluyó todos los individuos con hojas divididas en pinnas, formación de raíces fúlcreas con altura del cono radicular mayor a 1 m y con presencia de estructuras reproductivas. Estos correspondieron al 1.9% (54 de los individuos y se subdividieron en dos categorías: Adultos I y Adultos II, dadas principalmente por diferencias significativas en la altura. La densidad de la población presentó una distribución típica de poblaciones naturales de plantas tropicales, siguiendo un modelo de Poisson en donde abundan individuos de

  17. Fault tree analysis for vital area identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varnado, G.B.; Ortiz, N.R.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of fault tree analysis to identify those areas of nuclear fuel cycle facilities which must be protected to prevent acts of sabotage that could lead to sifnificant release of radioactive material. By proper manipulation of the fault trees for a plant, an analyst can identify vital areas in a manner consistent with regulatory definitions. This paper discusses the general procedures used in the analysis of any nuclear facility. In addition, a structured, generic approach to the development of the fault trees for nuclear power reactors is presented along with selected results of the application of the generic approach to several plants

  18. Concatenated codes for fault tolerant quantum computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knill, E.; Laflamme, R.; Zurek, W.

    1995-05-01

    The application of concatenated codes to fault tolerant quantum computing is discussed. We have previously shown that for quantum memories and quantum communication, a state can be transmitted with error {epsilon} provided each gate has error at most c{epsilon}. We show how this can be used with Shor`s fault tolerant operations to reduce the accuracy requirements when maintaining states not currently participating in the computation. Viewing Shor`s fault tolerant operations as a method for reducing the error of operations, we give a concatenated implementation which promises to propagate the reduction hierarchically. This has the potential of reducing the accuracy requirements in long computations.

  19. Fault Tolerant Control of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Kinnaert, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a test benchmark model for the evaluation of fault detection and accommodation schemes. This benchmark model deals with the wind turbine on a system level, and it includes sensor, actuator, and system faults, namely faults in the pitch system, the drive train, the generator......, and the converter system. Since it is a system-level model, converter and pitch system models are simplified because these are controlled by internal controllers working at higher frequencies than the system model. The model represents a three-bladed pitch-controlled variable-speed wind turbine with a nominal power...

  20. Fault Detection and Isolation for Spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans-Christian Becker; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2002-01-01

    This article realizes nonlinear Fault Detection and Isolation for actuators, given there is no measurement of the states in the actuators. The Fault Detection and Isolation of the actuators is instead based on angular velocity measurement of the spacecraft and knowledge about the dynamics...... of the satellite. The algorithms presented in this paper are based on a geometric approach to achieve nonlinear Fault Detection and Isolation. The proposed algorithms are tested in a simulation study and the pros and cons of the algorithms are discussed....

  1. Norm based Threshold Selection for Fault Detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Mike Lind; Niemann, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    The design of fault detectors for fault detection and isolation (FDI) in dynamic systems is considered from a norm based point of view. An analysis of norm based threshold selection is given based on different formulations of FDI problems. Both the nominal FDI problem as well as the uncertain FDI...... problem are considered. Based on this analysis, a performance index based on norms of the involved transfer functions is given. The performance index allows us also to optimize the structure of the fault detection filter directly...

  2. Fault Tolerant Control: A Simultaneous Stabilization Result

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Blondel, V.D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem of designing fault tolerant compensators that stabilize a given system both in the nominal situation, as well as in the situation where one of the sensors or one of the actuators has failed. It is shown that such compensators always exist, provided that the system...... is detectable from each output and that it is stabilizable. The proof of this result is constructive, and a worked example shows how to design a fault tolerant compensator for a simple, yet challeging system. A family of second order systems is described that requires fault tolerant compensators of arbitrarily...

  3. Navigation System Fault Diagnosis for Underwater Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Thomas; Gregersen, Rene Tavs; Blanke, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates fault diagnosis on unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV) based on analysis of structure of the nonlinear dynamics. Residuals are generated using dierent approaches in structural analysis followed by statistical change detection. Hypothesis testing thresholds are made signal...... based to cope with non-ideal properties seen in real data. Detection of both sensor and thruster failures are demonstrated. Isolation is performed using the residual signature of detected faults and the change detection algorithm is used to assess severity of faults by estimating their magnitude...

  4. Mechanical Models of Fault-Related Folding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A. M.

    2003-01-09

    The subject of the proposed research is fault-related folding and ground deformation. The results are relevant to oil-producing structures throughout the world, to understanding of damage that has been observed along and near earthquake ruptures, and to earthquake-producing structures in California and other tectonically-active areas. The objectives of the proposed research were to provide both a unified, mechanical infrastructure for studies of fault-related foldings and to present the results in computer programs that have graphical users interfaces (GUIs) so that structural geologists and geophysicists can model a wide variety of fault-related folds (FaRFs).

  5. Scissoring Fault Rupture Properties along the Median Tectonic Line Fault Zone, Southwest Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, M.; Nishizaka, N.; Onishi, K.; Sakamoto, J.; Takahashi, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Median Tectonic Line fault zone (hereinafter MTLFZ) is the longest and most active fault zone in Japan. The MTLFZ is a 400-km-long trench parallel right-lateral strike-slip fault accommodating lateral slip components of the Philippine Sea plate oblique subduction beneath the Eurasian plate [Fitch, 1972; Yeats, 1996]. Complex fault geometry evolves along the MTLFZ. The geomorphic and geological characteristics show a remarkable change through the MTLFZ. Extensional step-overs and pull-apart basins and a pop-up structure develop in western and eastern parts of the MTLFZ, respectively. It is like a "scissoring fault properties". We can point out two main factors to form scissoring fault properties along the MTLFZ. One is a regional stress condition, and another is a preexisting fault. The direction of σ1 anticlockwise rotate from N170°E [Famin et al., 2014] in the eastern Shikoku to Kinki areas and N100°E [Research Group for Crustral Stress in Western Japan, 1980] in central Shikoku to N85°E [Onishi et al., 2016] in western Shikoku. According to the rotation of principal stress directions, the western and eastern parts of the MTLFZ are to be a transtension and compression regime, respectively. The MTLFZ formed as a terrain boundary at Cretaceous, and has evolved with a long active history. The fault style has changed variously, such as left-lateral, thrust, normal and right-lateral. Under the structural condition of a preexisting fault being, the rupture does not completely conform to Anderson's theory for a newly formed fault, as the theory would require either purely dip-slip motion on the 45° dipping fault or strike-slip motion on a vertical fault. The fault rupture of the 2013 Barochistan earthquake in Pakistan is a rare example of large strike-slip reactivation on a relatively low angle dipping fault (thrust fault), though many strike-slip faults have vertical plane generally [Avouac et al., 2014]. In this presentation, we, firstly, show deep subsurface

  6. Determining on-fault magnitude distributions for a connected, multi-fault system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, E. L.; Parsons, T.

    2017-12-01

    A new method is developed to determine on-fault magnitude distributions within a complex and connected multi-fault system. A binary integer programming (BIP) method is used to distribute earthquakes from a 10 kyr synthetic regional catalog, with a minimum magnitude threshold of 6.0 and Gutenberg-Richter (G-R) parameters (a- and b-values) estimated from historical data. Each earthquake in the synthetic catalog can occur on any fault and at any location. In the multi-fault system, earthquake ruptures are allowed to branch or jump from one fault to another. The objective is to minimize the slip-rate misfit relative to target slip rates for each of the faults in the system. Maximum and minimum slip-rate estimates around the target slip rate are used as explicit constraints. An implicit constraint is that an earthquake can only be located on a fault (or series of connected faults) if it is long enough to contain that earthquake. The method is demonstrated in the San Francisco Bay area, using UCERF3 faults and slip-rates. We also invoke the same assumptions regarding background seismicity, coupling, and fault connectivity as in UCERF3. Using the preferred regional G-R a-value, which may be suppressed by the 1906 earthquake, the BIP problem is deemed infeasible when faults are not connected. Using connected faults, however, a solution is found in which there is a surprising diversity of magnitude distributions among faults. In particular, the optimal magnitude distribution for earthquakes that participate along the Peninsula section of the San Andreas fault indicates a deficit of magnitudes in the M6.0- 7.0 range. For the Rodgers Creek-Hayward fault combination, there is a deficit in the M6.0- 6.6 range. Rather than solving this as an optimization problem, we can set the objective function to zero and solve this as a constraint problem. Among the solutions to the constraint problem is one that admits many more earthquakes in the deficit magnitude ranges for both faults

  7. Data-driven design of fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Steven X

    2014-01-01

    Data-driven Design of Fault Diagnosis and Fault-tolerant Control Systems presents basic statistical process monitoring, fault diagnosis, and control methods, and introduces advanced data-driven schemes for the design of fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control systems catering to the needs of dynamic industrial processes. With ever increasing demands for reliability, availability and safety in technical processes and assets, process monitoring and fault-tolerance have become important issues surrounding the design of automatic control systems. This text shows the reader how, thanks to the rapid development of information technology, key techniques of data-driven and statistical process monitoring and control can now become widely used in industrial practice to address these issues. To allow for self-contained study and facilitate implementation in real applications, important mathematical and control theoretical knowledge and tools are included in this book. Major schemes are presented in algorithm form and...

  8. Data-based fault-tolerant control for affine nonlinear systems with actuator faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chun-Hua; Yang, Guang-Hong

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates the fault-tolerant control (FTC) problem for unknown nonlinear systems with actuator faults including stuck, outage, bias and loss of effectiveness. The upper bounds of stuck faults, bias faults and loss of effectiveness faults are unknown. A new data-based FTC scheme is proposed. It consists of the online estimations of the bounds and a state-dependent function. The estimations are adjusted online to compensate automatically the actuator faults. The state-dependent function solved by using real system data helps to stabilize the system. Furthermore, all signals in the resulting closed-loop system are uniformly bounded and the states converge asymptotically to zero. Compared with the existing results, the proposed approach is data-based. Finally, two simulation examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Guaranteed Cost Fault-Tolerant Control for Networked Control Systems with Sensor Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixin Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the large scale and complicated structure of networked control systems, time-varying sensor faults could inevitably occur when the system works in a poor environment. Guaranteed cost fault-tolerant controller for the new networked control systems with time-varying sensor faults is designed in this paper. Based on time delay of the network transmission environment, the networked control systems with sensor faults are modeled as a discrete-time system with uncertain parameters. And the model of networked control systems is related to the boundary values of the sensor faults. Moreover, using Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequalities (LMI approach, the guaranteed cost fault-tolerant controller is verified to render such networked control systems asymptotically stable. Finally, simulations are included to demonstrate the theoretical results.

  10. Fault detection in finite frequency domain for Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy systems with sensor faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Jian; Yang, Guang-Hong

    2014-08-01

    This paper is concerned with the fault detection (FD) problem in finite frequency domain for continuous-time Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy systems with sensor faults. Some finite-frequency performance indices are initially introduced to measure the fault/reference input sensitivity and disturbance robustness. Based on these performance indices, an effective FD scheme is then presented such that the generated residual is designed to be sensitive to both fault and reference input for faulty cases, while robust against the reference input for fault-free case. As the additional reference input sensitivity for faulty cases is considered, it is shown that the proposed method improves the existing FD techniques and achieves a better FD performance. The theory is supported by simulation results related to the detection of sensor faults in a tunnel-diode circuit.

  11. Fault detection for discrete-time switched systems with sensor stuck faults and servo inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Guang-Xin; Yang, Guang-Hong

    2015-09-01

    This paper addresses the fault detection problem of switched systems with servo inputs and sensor stuck faults. The attention is focused on designing a switching law and its associated fault detection filters (FDFs). The proposed switching law uses only the current states of FDFs, which guarantees the residuals are sensitive to the servo inputs with known frequency ranges in faulty cases and robust against them in fault-free case. Thus, the arbitrarily small sensor stuck faults, including outage faults can be detected in finite-frequency domain. The levels of sensitivity and robustness are measured in terms of the finite-frequency H- index and l2-gain. Finally, the switching law and FDFs are obtained by the solution of a convex optimization problem. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Late quaternary faulting along the Death Valley-Furnace Creek fault system, California and Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogan, G.E.; Kellogg, K.S.; Terhune, C.L.; Slemmons, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    The Death Valley-Furnace Creek fault system, in California and Nevada, has a variety of impressive late Quaternary neotectonic features that record a long history of recurrent earthquake-induced faulting. Although no neotectonic features of unequivocal historical age are known, paleoseismic features from multiple late Quaternary events of surface faulting are well developed throughout the length of the system. Comparison of scarp heights to amount of horizontal offset of stream channels and the relationships of both scarps and channels to the ages of different geomorphic surfaces demonstrate that Quaternary faulting along the northwest-trending Furnace Creek fault zone is predominantly right lateral, whereas that along the north-trending Death Valley fault zone is predominantly normal. These observations are compatible with tectonic models of Death Valley as a northwest- trending pull-apart basin

  13. CONFLICTOS DE INTERESES EN LA ORDENACIÓN DE UN TERRITORIO DE MONTAÑA: EL TURISMO RURAL EN LA TIERRA PINARIEGA SORIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús María Bachiller Martínez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El auge del uso público en los espacios rurales es un componente más de las crecientes relaciones campo-ciudad. Los conflictos se multiplican, no solo en la relación entre desarrollo turístico y conservación, sino también en el trato con los propietarios rústicos, públicos y privados, que tienden a organizarse y plantear sus reivindicaciones en la ordenación y gestión de los territorios implicados. Se expone, como ejemplo, un propietario de excepción, la Mancomunidad de los 150 pueblos de la Tierra de Soria/ayuntamiento de Soria, que ha tenido que hacer frente al cambio de función que ha supuesto el aumento del uso público en sus montes.

  14. Propiedades magnéticas y micromorfología de suelos en el sitio arqueológico Marazzi 2, Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Ozán, Ivana Laura; Orgeira, Maria Julia

    2017-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo es investigar el origen de la señal magnética (natural y/o antrópica) y su vinculación con la micromorfología de suelos, en dos perfiles del sitio arqueológico Marazzi 2, perteneciente al Holoceno tardío y ubicado en el noroeste de la Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego (Chile). Los resultados muestran que el perfil P1 presenta un pico de la señal magnética (presencia de magnetita y/o titanomagnetita) entre los 30 - 70 cm, que coincide con un horizonte Ab y ABb en...

  15. Study of the thermal behaviour of traditional wine cellars: the case of the area of ''Tierras Sorianas del Cid'' (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, I.C.; Ocana, S.M. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain). Dpto. de Construccion y Vias Rurales

    2005-01-01

    This article studies the hygro-thermal behaviour of two traditional underground wine cellars from Morcuera (Soria, Spain). The differences between them are analyzed and our hypothesis is that one of these constructions is better than the other for the ageing of wines. The hypothesis takes into consideration the existence of a temperature difference of over 20{sup o}C between them as a basis for reaching the aforementioned conclusion. However, the relative humidity inside both of them is 100%, which could pose problems if the presence of mould is not controlled. This study is based on fieldwork for the inventory and cataloguing of traditional agrarian constructions in the ''Tierras Sorianas'' area. The objective of this investigation is to highlight some advantages of traditional building techniques over modern construction practices from the energy-saving viewpoint. (author)

  16. En una tierra inmensa y sin clérigos. La fundación del seminario del Tucumán, 1587-1611

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Pérez Puente

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudia la creación del seminario conciliar de la diócesis del Tucumán. Un colegio muy distinto a los ordenados en el concilio de Trento, tanto por sus características, como porque su fundación formal tuvo por objetivo que la Compañía de Jesús se arraigara en el territorio tucumano y se hiciera cargo de la evangelización. Se trata de un ejemplo de cómo los mandatos del Concilio de Trento debieron modificarse al implantarse en Indias, pues, al igual que cualquier otra norma, los decretos canónicos tuvieron que adaptarse para responder a las necesidades de cada una de las diócesis, a las características de la tierra y a la forma en que en ella se organizaban los poderes.

  17. Misbheaving Faults: The Expanding Role of Geodetic Imaging in Unraveling Unexpected Fault Slip Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, W. D.; Briggs, R.

    2015-12-01

    Geodetic imaging techniques enable researchers to "see" details of fault rupture that cannot be captured by complementary tools such as seismology and field studies, thus providing increasingly detailed information about surface strain, slip kinematics, and how an earthquake may be transcribed into the geological record. For example, the recent Haiti, Sierra El Mayor, and Nepal earthquakes illustrate the fundamental role of geodetic observations in recording blind ruptures where purely geological and seismological studies provided incomplete views of rupture kinematics. Traditional earthquake hazard analyses typically rely on sparse paleoseismic observations and incomplete mapping, simple assumptions of slip kinematics from Andersonian faulting, and earthquake analogs to characterize the probabilities of forthcoming ruptures and the severity of ground accelerations. Spatially dense geodetic observations in turn help to identify where these prevailing assumptions regarding fault behavior break down and highlight new and unexpected kinematic slip behavior. Here, we focus on three key contributions of space geodetic observations to the analysis of co-seismic deformation: identifying near-surface co-seismic slip where no easily recognized fault rupture exists; discerning non-Andersonian faulting styles; and quantifying distributed, off-fault deformation. The 2013 Balochistan strike slip earthquake in Pakistan illuminates how space geodesy precisely images non-Andersonian behavior and off-fault deformation. Through analysis of high-resolution optical imagery and DEMs, evidence emerges that a single fault map slip as both a strike slip and dip slip fault across multiple seismic cycles. These observations likewise enable us to quantify on-fault deformation, which account for ~72% of the displacements in this earthquake. Nonetheless, the spatial distribution of on- and off-fault deformation in this event is highly spatially variable- a complicating factor for comparisons

  18. A novel KFCM based fault diagnosis method for unknown faults in satellite reaction wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Di; Sarosh, Ali; Dong, Yun-Feng

    2012-03-01

    Reaction wheels are one of the most critical components of the satellite attitude control system, therefore correct diagnosis of their faults is quintessential for efficient operation of these spacecraft. The known faults in any of the subsystems are often diagnosed by supervised learning algorithms, however, this method fails to work correctly when a new or unknown fault occurs. In such cases an unsupervised learning algorithm becomes essential for obtaining the correct diagnosis. Kernel Fuzzy C-Means (KFCM) is one of the unsupervised algorithms, although it has its own limitations; however in this paper a novel method has been proposed for conditioning of KFCM method (C-KFCM) so that it can be effectively used for fault diagnosis of both known and unknown faults as in satellite reaction wheels. The C-KFCM approach involves determination of exact class centers from the data of known faults, in this way discrete number of fault classes are determined at the start. Similarity parameters are derived and determined for each of the fault data point. Thereafter depending on the similarity threshold each data point is issued with a class label. The high similarity points fall into one of the 'known-fault' classes while the low similarity points are labeled as 'unknown-faults'. Simulation results show that as compared to the supervised algorithm such as neural network, the C-KFCM method can effectively cluster historical fault data (as in reaction wheels) and diagnose the faults to an accuracy of more than 91%. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quaternary Geology and Surface Faulting Hazard: Active and Capable Faults in Central Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcucci, E.; Gori, S.

    2015-12-01

    The 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (Mw 6.1), in central Italy, raised the issue of surface faulting hazard in Italy, since large urban areas were affected by surface displacement along the causative structure, the Paganica fault. Since then, guidelines for microzonation were drew up that take into consideration the problem of surface faulting in Italy, and laying the bases for future regulations about related hazard, similarly to other countries (e.g. USA). More specific guidelines on the management of areas affected by active and capable faults (i.e. able to produce surface faulting) are going to be released by National Department of Civil Protection; these would define zonation of areas affected by active and capable faults, with prescriptions for land use planning. As such, the guidelines arise the problem of the time interval and general operational criteria to asses fault capability for the Italian territory. As for the chronology, the review of the international literature and regulatory allowed Galadini et al. (2012) to propose different time intervals depending on the ongoing tectonic regime - compressive or extensional - which encompass the Quaternary. As for the operational criteria, the detailed analysis of the large amount of works dealing with active faulting in Italy shows that investigations exclusively based on surface morphological features (e.g. fault planes exposition) or on indirect investigations (geophysical data), are not sufficient or even unreliable to define the presence of an active and capable fault; instead, more accurate geological information on the Quaternary space-time evolution of the areas affected by such tectonic structures is needed. A test area for which active and capable faults can be first mapped based on such a classical but still effective methodological approach can be the central Apennines. Reference Galadini F., Falcucci E., Galli P., Giaccio B., Gori S., Messina P., Moro M., Saroli M., Scardia G., Sposato A. (2012). Time

  20. Tierra, palma africana y conflicto armado en el Bajo Atrato chocoano, Colombia. Una lectura desde el cambio en los órdenes de extracción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola García Reyes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde la década de 1990 la región del Pacífico colombiano vive un proceso inédito de agudización del conflicto armado interno. Algunos estudios han descrito este hecho como una consecuencia no intencionada del reconocimiento de las poblaciones negras de la región como grupos étnicos propietarios de los territorios en los que habitan. En este artículo me pregunto de qué forma resultaron modificadas las dinámicas de conflicto en la subregión del Bajo Atrato chocoano (1985-2005 en Colombia, si esto se vincula con la explotación de sus recursos naturales, en particular la palma de aceite y cuál fue el papel que jugó en estas dinámicas el cambio en el régimen de propiedad de la tierra. Para responder a estas preguntas me baso en los estudios sobre la economía política de los conflictos armados e introduzco el concepto de órdenes de extracción con el fin de analizar las acciones de los actores del conflicto, los empresarios de la palma, el Estado como agente regulador y las poblaciones negras. Mi conclusión principal es que el cambio en la estructura de propiedad de la tierra no fue causa del conflicto y que el tipo de actor involucrado es una variable relevante.

  1. Inusual riqueza, composición y estructura arbórea en el bosque de tierra firme del Pongo Qoñec, Sur Oriente peruano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isau Huamantupa-Chuquimaco

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Se estableció una parcela de 1 ha, en bosque de tierra firme en el Pongo de Qoñec, valle Kosñipata (Cusco, dentro de la Reserva Biósfera del Manú, a 710 m; 12°53'53"S y 72°22'25"W. Se registró 56 familias, 153 géneros, 249 especies con 813 individuos con Dap ≥ 10 cm. Las familias, más ricas fueron: Fabaceae (32 especies, Moraceae (24, Rubiaceae (17 y Lauraceae (12; los géneros más ricos, Inga (17, Neea (7, Miconia (5; se halló un área basal total de 40,50 m2, de ellas Iriartea deltoidea con 6,58 m2, Socratea salazarii 2,28 m2, y Endlicheria sp 1,65 m2, obtuvieron mayor ab; la especie con mayor valor de importancia fue: I. deltoidea, cor- roborando estudios anteriores en bosques de tierra firme. El análisis estructural muestra que clases diamétricas 10-20 cm, abarcan 71,3% del total de fustes. Al comparar nuestros resultados, el Pongo de Qoñec, sorpren- dentemente supera en riqueza a parcelas adyacentes dentro del sur peruano y muestra un patrón de riqueza de familias y géneros similar a parcelas peruanas diversas como Yanamono 300 especies y Mishana (289, en Loreto. Consideramos que esta inusual riqueza se debe en gran medida a factores ambientales únicos que se dan en este Pongo, como son la alta precipitación, dinámica de vientos y la variabilidad de suelos en áreas pequeñas. Por tanto estos resultados difieren considerablemente de enunciados conocidos, que consideran a la amazonia sur peruana con moderada a baja riqueza arbórea.

  2. Methodology for evaluating the grounding system in electrical substations; Metodologia para la evaluacion del sistema de puesta a tierra en subestaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrelles Rivas, L.F [Universidad Nacional Experimental Politecnica: Antonio Jose de Sucre (UNEXPO), Guayana, Bolivar (Venezuela)]. E-mail: torrellesluis@gmail.com; Alvarez, P. [Petroleos de Venezuela S.A (PDVSA), Maturin, Monagas (Venezuela)]. E-mail: alvarezph@pdvsa.com

    2013-03-15

    The present work proposes a methodology for evaluating grounding systems in electrical substations from medium and high voltage, in order to diagnose the state of the elements of the grounding system and the corresponding electrical variables. The assessment methodology developed includes a visual inspection phase to the elements of the substation. Then, by performing measurements and data analysis, the electrical continuity between the components of the substation and the mesh ground is verified, the soil resistivity and resistance of the mesh. Also included in the methodology the calculation of the step and touch voltage of the substation, based on the criteria of the International IEEE standards. We study the case of the 115 kV Pirital Substation belonging to PDVSA Oriente Transmission Network. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se plantea una metodologia para la evaluacion de sistemas de puesta a tierra en subestaciones electricas de media y alta tension, con la finalidad de diagnosticar el estado de los elementos que conforman dicho sistema y las variables electricas correspondientes. La metodologia de evaluacion desarrollada incluye una fase de inspeccion visual de los elementos que conforman la subestacion. Luego, mediante la ejecucion de mediciones y analisis de datos, se verifica la continuidad electrica entre los componentes de la subestacion y la malla de puesta a tierra, la resistividad del suelo y resistencia de la malla. Se incluye tambien en la metodologia el calculo de las tensiones de paso y de toque de la subestacion, segun lo fundamentado en los criterios de los estandares Internacionales IEEE. Se estudia el caso de la Subestacion Pirital 115 kV perteneciente a la Red de Transmision de PDVSA Oriente.

  3. VOCES EN EL BOSQUE: EL USO DE RECURSOS VEGETALES ENTRE CAZADORES-RECOLECTORES DE LA ZONA CENTRAL DE TIERRA DEL FUEGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Caruso

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron las modalidades de aprovechamiento de las plantas entre los Selknam de Tierra del Fuego (Argentina y se presentan aquí los resultados obtenidos a partir del análisis de los restos de madera carbonizada y sin carbonizar del sitito Ewan, ocupado a principios del siglo XX para la realización de un ritual de iniciación. Los resultados permitieron una mejor comprensión de las estrategias de aprovechamiento de las plantas entre las sociedades cazadoras-recolectoras. La identificación de las especies empleadas y el registro de las principales características morfométricas permitió documentar el aprovechamiento del "ñire" (Nothofagus antarctica. Esta especie, dominante en el entorno, fue utilizada para la construcción de la vivienda y como combustible. En ambos casos se seleccionaron troncos de forma y tamaño adecuados. Los resultados del trabajo arqueobotánico y su confrontación con los datos etnográficos evidenciaron la importancia de los recursos vegetales dentro de la dinámica socioeconómica de este grupo humano. Los recursos vegetales, más allá de su rol alimentario, fueron relevantes en otros aspectos tales como la tecnología, la construcción, el combustible y debieron constituir una ventaja considerable en el ámbito de los bosques de la zona central de Tierra del Fuego.

  4. Patrones de distribución de especies arbóreas de dosel y sotobosque a escala local en bosques de tierra firme, Amazonia colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sebastian Barreto-Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available El efecto de la variación ambiental en la estructura de las comunidades arbóreas en bosques tropicales, aún se debate. En paisajes como los bosques de tierra firme, donde el gradiente ambiental disminuye, el efecto de los suelos sobre los patrones de distribución de especies es mínimo. En contraste, un mayor efecto de la variación edáfica y topográfica sobre la composición florística, se ha reportado en estudios con diferentes tipos de plantas en bosques tropicales. Este estudio se realizó en diez hectáreas de una parcela permanente. Se evaluó el efecto de la variación ambiental y la configuración espacial sobre los patrones florísticos de las especies arbóreas a escala local, según el estado de desarrollo y categorías de abundancia relativa. Se registraron 14 074 individuos de 1 053 especies y 80 familias. Los suelos son ácidos, presentan altas concentraciones de Aluminio y son predominantemente arcillosos. La diversidad beta fue baja. Las diferencias florísticas explicadas fueron asociadas con procesos biológicos espacialmente estructurados, particularmente, con la limitación en dispersión. Aunque, la mayor parte de la variación no fue explicada por las variables consideradas. Estos resultados sugieren que procesos aleatorios son determinantes esenciales de la variación florística en bosques de tierra firme de la amazonia.

  5. Influencia de informalidad en titulación de tierras y planificación productiva, en cadenas agroexportadoras del Valle del Mantaro, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Rodríguez Giráldez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue determinar la influencia de la informalidad en la titulación de tierras sobre la planificación productiva en cadenas agroexportadoras del Valle del Mantaro. Investigación de alcance descriptivo-correlacional, no experimental, transeccional. Fueron encuestados 383 productores agrícolas de las provincias que comprenden el Valle del Mantaro: Huancayo, Concepción, Jauja y Chupaca. Se utilizaron estadísticos descriptivos como, distribución de frecuencias, tablas de contingencia, y ji al cuadrado para prueba de hipótesis. Entre los resultados se tiene que, 1 En informalidad en titulación de tierras, 61 % de productores tienen título de propiedad y 2 % en trámite; 95,7 % saben de beneficios del título de propiedad; 55 % manifiestan que terrenos son de su propiedad; 45 % consideran que parte de sus terrenos los alquilan; 2 En planificación productiva, 52 % de productores deciden qué sembrar en función a la demanda y mejor precio de mercado, 62 % mejoraron resultados gracias a la planificación, 23 % lograron metas de producción entre el 75 % y 100 %, solo 19 % mejoraron su productividad esperada y 47 % mejoraron rangos inferiores a 25 %; además el 87 % consideran que en la planificación de la producción deben participar productores y empresas. En conclusión, participar en cadenas productivas no depende de la tenencia de terrenos con título de propiedad. El trabajo asociativo no depende de la decisión de sembrar, de la planificación, de mejoras de productividad, ni de participación en procesos de planificación.

  6. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report: Ground Fault Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrova, Olga [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flicker, Jack David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We have examined ground faults in PhotoVoltaic (PV) arrays and the efficacy of fuse, current detection (RCD), current sense monitoring/relays (CSM), isolation/insulation (Riso) monitoring, and Ground Fault Detection and Isolation (GFID) using simulations based on a Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis SPICE ground fault circuit model, experimental ground faults installed on real arrays, and theoretical equations.

  7. Recording real case data of earth faults in distribution lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haenninen, S. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The most common fault type in the electrical distribution networks is the single phase to earth fault. According to the earlier studies, for instance in Nordic countries, about 80 % of all faults are of this type. To develop the protection and fault location systems, it is important to obtain real case data of disturbances and faults which occur in the networks. For example, the earth fault initial transients can be used for earth fault location. The aim of this project was to collect and analyze real case data of the earth fault disturbances in the medium voltage distribution networks (20 kV). Therefore, data of fault occurrences were recorded at two substations, of which one has an unearthed and the other a compensated neutral, measured as follows: (a) the phase currents and neutral current for each line in the case of low fault resistance (b) the phase voltages and neutral voltage from the voltage measuring bay in the case of low fault resistance (c) the neutral voltage and the components of 50 Hz at the substation in the case of high fault resistance. In addition, the basic data of the fault occurrences were collected (data of the line, fault location, cause and so on). The data will be used in the development work of fault location and earth fault protection systems

  8. Active fault diagnosis in closed-loop systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2005-01-01

    Active fault diagnosis (AFD) of parametric faults is considered in connection with closed loop feedback systems. AFD involves auxiliary signals applied on the closed loop system. A fault signature matrix is introduced in connection with AFD and it is shown that if a limited number of faults can...

  9. Incorporating Fault Tolerance Tactics in Software Architecture Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harrison, Neil B.; Avgeriou, Paris

    2008-01-01

    One important way that an architecture impacts fault tolerance is by making it easy or hard to implement measures that improve fault tolerance. Many such measures are described as fault tolerance tactics. We studied how various fault tolerance tactics can be implemented in the best-known

  10. Recording real case data of earth faults in distribution lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haenninen, S [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The most common fault type in the electrical distribution networks is the single phase to earth fault. According to the earlier studies, for instance in Nordic countries, about 80 % of all faults are of this type. To develop the protection and fault location systems, it is important to obtain real case data of disturbances and faults which occur in the networks. For example, the earth fault initial transients can be used for earth fault location. The aim of this project was to collect and analyze real case data of the earth fault disturbances in the medium voltage distribution networks (20 kV). Therefore, data of fault occurrences were recorded at two substations, of which one has an unearthed and the other a compensated neutral, measured as follows: (a) the phase currents and neutral current for each line in the case of low fault resistance (b) the phase voltages and neutral voltage from the voltage measuring bay in the case of low fault resistance (c) the neutral voltage and the components of 50 Hz at the substation in the case of high fault resistance. In addition, the basic data of the fault occurrences were collected (data of the line, fault location, cause and so on). The data will be used in the development work of fault location and earth fault protection systems

  11. Nonlinear Model-Based Fault Detection for a Hydraulic Actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eykeren, L.; Chu, Q.P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based fault detection algorithm for a specific fault scenario of the ADDSAFE project. The fault considered is the disconnection of a control surface from its hydraulic actuator. Detecting this type of fault as fast as possible helps to operate an aircraft more cost

  12. Faults and Diagnosis Systems in Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Kyo-Beum; Choi, Uimin

    2014-01-01

    A power converter is needed in almost all kinds of renewable energy systems and drive systems. It is used both for controlling the renewable source and for interfacing with the load, which can be grid-connected or working in standalone mode. Further, it drives the motors efficiently. Increasing...... efforts have been put into making these systems better in terms of reliability in order to achieve high power source availability, reduce the cost of energy and also increase the reliability of overall systems. Among the components used in power converters, a power device and a capacitor fault occurs most...... frequently. Therefore, it is important to monitor the power device and capacitor fault to increase the reliability of power electronics. In this chapter, the diagnosis methods for power device fault will be discussed by dividing into open- and short-circuit faults. Then, the condition monitoring methods...

  13. Reset Tree-Based Optical Fault Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howon Kim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new reset tree-based scheme to protect cryptographic hardware against optical fault injection attacks. As one of the most powerful invasive attacks on cryptographic hardware, optical fault attacks cause semiconductors to misbehave by injecting high-energy light into a decapped integrated circuit. The contaminated result from the affected chip is then used to reveal secret information, such as a key, from the cryptographic hardware. Since the advent of such attacks, various countermeasures have been proposed. Although most of these countermeasures are strong, there is still the possibility of attack. In this paper, we present a novel optical fault detection scheme that utilizes the buffers on a circuit’s reset signal tree as a fault detection sensor. To evaluate our proposal, we model radiation-induced currents into circuit components and perform a SPICE simulation. The proposed scheme is expected to be used as a supplemental security tool.

  14. Stator Fault Modelling of Induction Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Sandberg; Kallesøe, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a model of an induction motor affected by stator faults is presented. Two different types of faults are considered, these are; disconnection of a supply phase, and inter-turn and turn-turn short circuits inside the stator. The output of the derived model is compared to real measurem......In this paper a model of an induction motor affected by stator faults is presented. Two different types of faults are considered, these are; disconnection of a supply phase, and inter-turn and turn-turn short circuits inside the stator. The output of the derived model is compared to real...... measurements from a specially designed induction motor. With this motor it is possible to simulate both terminal disconnections, inter-turn and turn-turn short circuits. The results show good agreement between the measurements and the simulated signals obtained from the model. In the tests focus...

  15. Posbist fault tree analysis of coherent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.-Z.; Tong Xin; Zuo, Ming J.

    2004-01-01

    When the failure probability of a system is extremely small or necessary statistical data from the system is scarce, it is very difficult or impossible to evaluate its reliability and safety with conventional fault tree analysis (FTA) techniques. New techniques are needed to predict and diagnose such a system's failures and evaluate its reliability and safety. In this paper, we first provide a concise overview of FTA. Then, based on the posbist reliability theory, event failure behavior is characterized in the context of possibility measures and the structure function of the posbist fault tree of a coherent system is defined. In addition, we define the AND operator and the OR operator based on the minimal cut of a posbist fault tree. Finally, a model of posbist fault tree analysis (posbist FTA) of coherent systems is presented. The use of the model for quantitative analysis is demonstrated with a real-life safety system

  16. Imaging Shear Strength Along Subduction Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletery, Quentin; Thomas, Amanda M.; Rempel, Alan W.; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2017-11-01

    Subduction faults accumulate stress during long periods of time and release this stress suddenly, during earthquakes, when it reaches a threshold. This threshold, the shear strength, controls the occurrence and magnitude of earthquakes. We consider a 3-D model to derive an analytical expression for how the shear strength depends on the fault geometry, the convergence obliquity, frictional properties, and the stress field orientation. We then use estimates of these different parameters in Japan to infer the distribution of shear strength along a subduction fault. We show that the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake ruptured a fault portion characterized by unusually small variations in static shear strength. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that large earthquakes preferentially rupture regions with relatively homogeneous shear strength. With increasing constraints on the different parameters at play, our approach could, in the future, help identify favorable locations for large earthquakes.

  17. Fault diagnosis methods for district heating substations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakanen, J.; Hyvaerinen, J.; Kuismin, J.; Ahonen, M. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1996-12-31

    A district heating substation is a demanding process for fault diagnosis. The process is nonlinear, load conditions of the district heating network change unpredictably and standard instrumentation is designed only for control and local monitoring purposes, not for automated diagnosis. Extra instrumentation means additional cost, which is usually not acceptable to consumers. That is why all conventional methods are not applicable in this environment. The paper presents five different approaches to fault diagnosis. While developing the methods, various kinds of pragmatic aspects and robustness had to be considered in order to achieve practical solutions. The presented methods are: classification of faults using performance indexing, static and physical modelling of process equipment, energy balance of the process, interactive fault tree reasoning and statistical tests. The methods are applied to a control valve, a heat excharger, a mud separating device and the whole process. The developed methods are verified in practice using simulation, simulation or field tests. (orig.) (25 refs.)

  18. Testing of high-impedance fault relays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, M. [Powertech Labs., Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    A test system and protocol was developed for the testing of high-impedance fault (HIF) detection devices. A technique was established for point-by-point addition of fault and load currents, the resultant was used for testing the performance of the devices in detecting HIFs in the presence of load current. The system used digitized data from recorded faults and normal currents to generate analog test signals for high-impedance fault detection relays. A test apparatus was built with a 10 kHz band-width and playback duration of 30 minutes on 6 output channels for testing purposes. Three devices which have recently become available were tested and their performance was evaluated based on their respective test results.

  19. Real-Time Fault Tolerant Networking Protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henzinger, Thomas A

    2004-01-01

    We made significant progress in the areas of video streaming, wireless protocols, mobile ad-hoc and sensor networks, peer-to-peer systems, fault tolerant algorithms, dependability and timing analysis...

  20. Linear discriminant analysis for welding fault detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; Simpson, S.W.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a new method for real time welding fault detection in industry based on Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). A set of parameters was calculated from one second blocks of electrical data recorded during welding and based on control data from reference welds under good conditions, as well as faulty welds. Optimised linear combinations of the parameters were determined with LDA and tested with independent data. Short arc welds in overlap joints were studied with various power sources, shielding gases, wire diameters, and process geometries. Out-of-position faults were investigated. Application of LDA fault detection to a broad range of welding procedures was investigated using a similarity measure based on Principal Component Analysis. The measure determines which reference data are most similar to a given industrial procedure and the appropriate LDA weights are then employed. Overall, results show that Linear Discriminant Analysis gives an effective and consistent performance in real-time welding fault detection.

  1. Fault tolerant control of systems with saturations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents framework for fault tolerant controllers (FTC) that includes input saturation. The controller architecture known from FTC is based on the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera (YJBK) parameterization is extended to handle input saturation. Applying this controller architecture in connec......This paper presents framework for fault tolerant controllers (FTC) that includes input saturation. The controller architecture known from FTC is based on the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera (YJBK) parameterization is extended to handle input saturation. Applying this controller architecture...... in connection with faulty systems including input saturation gives an additional YJBK transfer function related to the input saturation. In the fault free case, this additional YJBK transfer function can be applied directly for optimizing the feedback loop around the input saturation. In the faulty case......, the design problem is a mixed design problem involved both parametric faults and input saturation....

  2. Imaging shear strength along subduction faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletery, Quentin; Thomas, Amanda M.; Rempel, Alan W.; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2017-01-01

    Subduction faults accumulate stress during long periods of time and release this stress suddenly, during earthquakes, when it reaches a threshold. This threshold, the shear strength, controls the occurrence and magnitude of earthquakes. We consider a 3-D model to derive an analytical expression for how the shear strength depends on the fault geometry, the convergence obliquity, frictional properties, and the stress field orientation. We then use estimates of these different parameters in Japan to infer the distribution of shear strength along a subduction fault. We show that the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake ruptured a fault portion characterized by unusually small variations in static shear strength. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that large earthquakes preferentially rupture regions with relatively homogeneous shear strength. With increasing constraints on the different parameters at play, our approach could, in the future, help identify favorable locations for large earthquakes.

  3. Radon emanation on San Andreas Fault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.-Y.

    1978-01-01

    It is stated that subsurface radon emanation monitored in shallow dry holes along an active segment of the San Andreas fault in central California shows spatially coherent large temporal variations that seem to be correlated with local seismicity. (author)

  4. Interactive Data Fault Localization System an Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bianco, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    .... A graphical user interface (GUI) coupled to the processor displays each query in accordance with the hierarchal order thereof. The GUT simultaneously displays identification of the various subsystems having a relationship with the data type experiencing the data fault.

  5. Distributed Fault-Tolerant Control of Networked Uncertain Euler-Lagrange Systems Under Actuator Faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Song, Yongduan; Lewis, Frank L

    2016-05-03

    This paper investigates the distributed fault-tolerant control problem of networked Euler-Lagrange systems with actuator and communication link faults. An adaptive fault-tolerant cooperative control scheme is proposed to achieve the coordinated tracking control of networked uncertain Lagrange systems on a general directed communication topology, which contains a spanning tree with the root node being the active target system. The proposed algorithm is capable of compensating for the actuator bias fault, the partial loss of effectiveness actuation fault, the communication link fault, the model uncertainty, and the external disturbance simultaneously. The control scheme does not use any fault detection and isolation mechanism to detect, separate, and identify the actuator faults online, which largely reduces the online computation and expedites the responsiveness of the controller. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a test-bed of multiple robot-arm cooperative control system is developed for real-time verification. Experiments on the networked robot-arms are conduced and the results confirm the benefits and the effectiveness of the proposed distributed fault-tolerant control algorithms.

  6. Fault diagnosis of power transformer based on fault-tree analysis (FTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongliang; Li, Xiaoqiang; Ma, Jianwei; Li, SuoYu

    2017-05-01

    Power transformers is an important equipment in power plants and substations, power distribution transmission link is made an important hub of power systems. Its performance directly affects the quality and health of the power system reliability and stability. This paper summarizes the five parts according to the fault type power transformers, then from the time dimension divided into three stages of power transformer fault, use DGA routine analysis and infrared diagnostics criterion set power transformer running state, finally, according to the needs of power transformer fault diagnosis, by the general to the section by stepwise refinement of dendritic tree constructed power transformer fault

  7. Two sides of a fault: Grain-scale analysis of pore pressure control on fault slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhibing; Juanes, Ruben

    2018-02-01

    Pore fluid pressure in a fault zone can be altered by natural processes (e.g., mineral dehydration and thermal pressurization) and industrial operations involving subsurface fluid injection and extraction for the development of energy and water resources. However, the effect of pore pressure change on the stability and slip motion of a preexisting geologic fault remains poorly understood; yet, it is critical for the assessment of seismic hazard. Here, we develop a micromechanical model to investigate the effect of pore pressure on fault slip behavior. The model couples fluid flow on the network of pores with mechanical deformation of the skeleton of solid grains. Pore fluid exerts pressure force onto the grains, the motion of which is solved using the discrete element method. We conceptualize the fault zone as a gouge layer sandwiched between two blocks. We study fault stability in the presence of a pressure discontinuity across the gouge layer and compare it with the case of continuous (homogeneous) pore pressure. We focus on the onset of shear failure in the gouge layer and reproduce conditions where the failure plane is parallel to the fault. We show that when the pressure is discontinuous across the fault, the onset of slip occurs on the side with the higher pore pressure, and that this onset is controlled by the maximum pressure on both sides of the fault. The results shed new light on the use of the effective stress principle and the Coulomb failure criterion in evaluating the stability of a complex fault zone.

  8. Two sides of a fault: Grain-scale analysis of pore pressure control on fault slip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhibing; Juanes, Ruben

    2018-02-01

    Pore fluid pressure in a fault zone can be altered by natural processes (e.g., mineral dehydration and thermal pressurization) and industrial operations involving subsurface fluid injection and extraction for the development of energy and water resources. However, the effect of pore pressure change on the stability and slip motion of a preexisting geologic fault remains poorly understood; yet, it is critical for the assessment of seismic hazard. Here, we develop a micromechanical model to investigate the effect of pore pressure on fault slip behavior. The model couples fluid flow on the network of pores with mechanical deformation of the skeleton of solid grains. Pore fluid exerts pressure force onto the grains, the motion of which is solved using the discrete element method. We conceptualize the fault zone as a gouge layer sandwiched between two blocks. We study fault stability in the presence of a pressure discontinuity across the gouge layer and compare it with the case of continuous (homogeneous) pore pressure. We focus on the onset of shear failure in the gouge layer and reproduce conditions where the failure plane is parallel to the fault. We show that when the pressure is discontinuous across the fault, the onset of slip occurs on the side with the higher pore pressure, and that this onset is controlled by the maximum pressure on both sides of the fault. The results shed new light on the use of the effective stress principle and the Coulomb failure criterion in evaluating the stability of a complex fault zone.

  9. Crustal Density Variation Along the San Andreas Fault Controls Its Secondary Faults Distribution and Dip Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H.; Moresi, L. N.

    2017-12-01

    The San Andreas fault forms a dominant component of the transform boundary between the Pacific and the North American plate. The density and strength of the complex accretionary margin is very heterogeneous. Based on the density structure of the lithosphere in the SW United States, we utilize the 3D finite element thermomechanical, viscoplastic model (Underworld2) to simulate deformation in the San Andreas Fault system. The purpose of the model is to examine the role of a big bend in the existing geometry. In particular, the big bend of the fault is an initial condition of in our model. We first test the strength of the fault by comparing the surface principle stresses from our numerical model with the in situ tectonic stress. The best fit model indicates the model with extremely weak fault (friction coefficient 200 kg/m3) than surrounding blocks. In contrast, the Mojave block is detected to find that it has lost its mafic lower crust by other geophysical surveys. Our model indicates strong strain localization at the jointer boundary between two blocks, which is an analogue for the Garlock fault. High density lower crust material of the Great Valley tends to under-thrust beneath the Transverse Range near the big bend. This motion is likely to rotate the fault plane from the initial vertical direction to dip to the southwest. For the straight section, north to the big bend, the fault is nearly vertical. The geometry of the fault plane is consistent with field observations.

  10. Active Fault-Tolerant Control for Wind Turbine with Simultaneous Actuator and Sensor Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to show a novel fault-tolerant tracking control (FTC strategy with robust fault estimation and compensating for simultaneous actuator sensor faults. Based on the framework of fault-tolerant control, developing an FTC design method for wind turbines is a challenge and, thus, they can tolerate simultaneous pitch actuator and pitch sensor faults having bounded first time derivatives. The paper’s key contribution is proposing a descriptor sliding mode method, in which for establishing a novel augmented descriptor system, with which we can estimate the state of system and reconstruct fault by designing descriptor sliding mode observer, the paper introduces an auxiliary descriptor state vector composed by a system state vector, actuator fault vector, and sensor fault vector. By the optimized method of LMI, the conditions for stability that estimated error dynamics are set up to promote the determination of the parameters designed. With this estimation, and designing a fault-tolerant controller, the system’s stability can be maintained. The effectiveness of the design strategy is verified by implementing the controller in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s 5-MW nonlinear, high-fidelity wind turbine model (FAST and simulating it in MATLAB/Simulink.

  11. Users' manual for the FTDRAW (Fault Tree Draw) code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Tetsukuni; Hikawa, Michihiro; Tanabe, Syuichi; Nakamura, Norihiro

    1985-02-01

    This report provides the information needed to use the FTDRAW (Fault Tree Draw) code, which is designed for drawing a fault tree. The FTDRAW code has several optional functions, such as the overview of a fault tree output, fault tree output in English description, fault tree output in Japanese description and summary tree output. Inputs for the FTDRAW code are component failure rate information and gate information which are filed out by a execution of the FTA-J (Fault Tree Analysis-JAERI) code system and option control data. Using the FTDRAW code, we can get drawings of fault trees which is easy to see, efficiently. (author)

  12. Energy-efficient fault-tolerant systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mathew, Jimson; Pradhan, Dhiraj K

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the state-of-the-art in energy efficient, fault-tolerant embedded systems. It covers the entire product lifecycle of electronic systems design, analysis and testing and includes discussion of both circuit and system-level approaches. Readers will be enabled to meet the conflicting design objectives of energy efficiency and fault-tolerance for reliability, given the up-to-date techniques presented.

  13. FAULT TOLERANCE IN MOBILE GRID COMPUTING

    OpenAIRE

    Aghila Rajagopal; M.A. Maluk Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel model for Surrogate Object based paradigm in mobile grid environment for achieving a Fault Tolerance. Basically Mobile Grid Computing Model focuses on Service Composition and Resource Sharing Process. In order to increase the performance of the system, Fault Recovery plays a vital role. In our Proposed System for Recovery point, Surrogate Object Based Checkpoint Recovery Model is introduced. This Checkpoint Recovery model depends on the Surrogate Object and the Fau...

  14. A survey of fault diagnosis technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedesel, Joel

    1989-01-01

    Existing techniques and methodologies for fault diagnosis are surveyed. The techniques run the gamut from theoretical artificial intelligence work to conventional software engineering applications. They are shown to define a spectrum of implementation alternatives where tradeoffs determine their position on the spectrum. Various tradeoffs include execution time limitations and memory requirements of the algorithms as well as their effectiveness in addressing the fault diagnosis problem.

  15. Automatic location of short circuit faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hakola, T.; Antila, E. [ABB Power Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Seppaenen, M. [North-Carelian Power Company (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In this presentation, the automatic location of short circuit faults on medium voltage distribution lines, based on the integration of computer systems of medium voltage distribution network automation is discussed. First the distribution data management systems and their interface with the substation telecontrol, or SCADA systems, is studied. Then the integration of substation telecontrol system and computerised relay protection is discussed. Finally, the implementation of the fault location system is presented and the practical experience with the system is discussed

  16. Fault Detection and Isolation using Eigenstructure Assignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, R. B.; Patton, R.; Chen, J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the robustness to model uncertainties of observer based fault detection and isolation. The approach is designed with a straight forward dynamic nad the observer.......The purpose of this article is to investigate the robustness to model uncertainties of observer based fault detection and isolation. The approach is designed with a straight forward dynamic nad the observer....

  17. A Fault Tolerant Integrated Circuit Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Barton, Anthony Francis

    1980-01-01

    Most commercially produced integrated circuits are incapable of tolerating manufacturing defects. The area and function of the circuits is thus limited by the probability of faults occurring within the circuit. This thesis examines techniques for using redundancy in memory circuits to provide fault tolerance and to increase storage capacity. A hierarchical memory architecture using multiple Hamming codes is introduced and analysed to determine its resistance to manufa...

  18. Modeling Fluid Flow in Faulted Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faille I.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a basin simulator designed to better take faults into account, either as conduits or as barriers to fluid flow. It computes hydrocarbon generation, fluid flow and heat transfer on the 4D (space and time geometry obtained by 3D volume restoration. Contrary to classical basin simulators, this calculator does not require a structured mesh based on vertical pillars nor a multi-block structure associated to the fault network. The mesh follows the sediments during the evolution of the basin. It deforms continuously with respect to time to account for sedimentation, erosion, compaction and kinematic displacements. The simulation domain is structured in layers, in order to handle properly the corresponding heterogeneities and to follow the sedimentation processes (thickening of the layers. In each layer, the mesh is unstructured: it may include several types of cells such as tetrahedra, hexahedra, pyramid, prism, etc. However, a mesh composed mainly of hexahedra is preferred as they are well suited to the layered structure of the basin. Faults are handled as internal boundaries across which the mesh is non-matching. Different models are proposed for fault behavior such as impervious fault, flow across fault or conductive fault. The calculator is based on a cell centered Finite Volume discretisation, which ensures conservation of physical quantities (mass of fluid, heat at a discrete level and which accounts properly for heterogeneities. The numerical scheme handles the non matching meshes and guaranties appropriate connection of cells across faults. Results on a synthetic basin demonstrate the capabilities of this new simulator.

  19. Automatic location of short circuit faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hakola, T; Antila, E [ABB Power Oy (Finland); Seppaenen, M [North-Carelian Power Company (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    In this chapter, the automatic location of short circuit faults on medium voltage distribution lines, based on the integration of computer systems of medium voltage distribution network automation is discussed. First the distribution data management systems and their interface with the substation telecontrol, or SCADA systems, is studied. Then the integration of substation telecontrol system and computerized relay protection is discussed. Finally, the implementation of the fault location system is presented and the practical experience with the system is discussed

  20. Automatic location of short circuit faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hakola, T; Antila, E [ABB Power Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Seppaenen, M [North-Carelian Power Company (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    In this presentation, the automatic location of short circuit faults on medium voltage distribution lines, based on the integration of computer systems of medium voltage distribution network automation is discussed. First the distribution data management systems and their interface with the substation telecontrol, or SCADA systems, is studied. Then the integration of substation telecontrol system and computerised relay protection is discussed. Finally, the implementation of the fault location system is presented and the practical experience with the system is discussed