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Sample records for maenas seasonal variation

  1. Cadmium in the shore crab Carcinus maenas along the Norwegian coast: geographical and seasonal variation and correlation to physiological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Heidi; Wiech, Martin; Duinker, Arne; Maage, Amund

    2018-03-27

    Previously, high concentrations of cadmium have been found in the hepatopancreas of the edible or brown crab (Cancer pagurus) sampled from positions north of about 67° N, compared to regions further south along the Norwegian coast, with no clear understanding why. In order to study a similar organism in the same ecosystem, the present study analyzed 210 shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) from four different locations along the Norwegian coast, two in the North and two in the South. The physiological variables size, sex, molting stage, hepatosomatic index, carapace color, and gonad maturation were registered, in attempt to explain the high inter-individual variation in cadmium levels in hepatopancreas. In contrast to the brown crabs, the shore crabs showed no clear geographical differences in cadmium concentrations. This indicates physiological differences between the two crab species. No clear and consistent correlations were found between cadmium levels and physiological parameters, except for sex, where cadmium concentration in hepatopancreas was twice as high in males compared to females. The cadmium levels also varied with season, with approximately 40 and 60% lower cadmium concentration in April than August for male and female shore crabs, respectively. None of the analyzed cadmium concentrations in muscle meat from claws exceeded EUs food safety limit, and low cadmium levels in soup prepared from shore crabs clearly indicated that this dish is not problematic regarding food safety.

  2. Seasonal fluctuations of tissue mercury contents in the European shore crab Carcinus maenas from low and high contamination areas (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, E; Abreu, S N; Coelho, J P; Lopes, C B; Pardal, M A; Vale, C; Duarte, A C

    2006-11-01

    The main objective was to study the seasonal variation of mercury concentrations in different tissues (muscle, hepatopancreas and gills) of Carcinus maenas from low and high Hg contaminated areas, a valuable resource in temperate estuaries and a possible pathway for human uptake. Individuals of two size classes (around 35 and 55 mm cephalothorax wide) were captured monthly between March 1999 and May 2000 in two areas of Ria de Aveiro: in the main navigation channel that connects the lagoon to the sea, and in the inner lagoon area heavily contaminated by mercury (maximum Hg in sediments of 5.4 microg g(-1)). Pronounced decreases in salinity and temperature and reduced food availability in winter seemed to be the responsible for the decline of the crab condition index (0.75-0.45) in larger individuals. Muscle and hepatopancreas exhibited higher mercury concentrations than gills, with concentrations in the contaminated site ranging from 0.03 to 0.63 microg g(-1) and 0.02 to 0.34 microg g(-1), respectively. Linear regressions between muscle and hepatopancreas (r=0.94, pcrabs presented elimination rates from 18 to 34 ng g(-1) per week, while the smaller crabs showed lower elimination rates (10-24 ng g(-1) per week). The uptake was similar in both size classes (11-15 ng g(-1) and 8.1-15 ng g(-1) per week, respectively for large and small crabs). Our results suggest that C. maenas harvested in the contaminated areas must be considered with caution, since Hg concentrations were found to exceed the threshold concentration allowed for human consumption (0.5 microg g(-1)).

  3. Clash of the crabs: Interspecific, inter-cohort competition between the native European green crab, Carcinus maenas and the exotic brush clawed crab Hemigrapsus takanoi on artificial oyster reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Anneke; Hutting, Samara

    2017-10-01

    Interaction between cohorts was investigated with juveniles of the native crab Carcinus maenas and adults of the exotic crab Hemigrapsus takanoi on artificial, intertidal oyster reefs. The reefs are occupied by C. maenas seasonally as a nursery habitat and consistently by adult H. takanoi. There was a distinct decrease in abundance of C. maenas of the same carapace width as most adult H. takanoi, suggesting competition at this size was occurring. Laboratory experiments indicated that H. takanoi was a more aggressive competitor for food and, with consistently high abundance on the reefs, may result in some exclusion of C. maenas from their nursery habitat. While total exclusion of C. maenas on the oyster reefs is unlikely, cohabitation may result in reduced population size or increased use of alternative nursery habitats.

  4. Camouflage and individual variation in shore crabs (Carcinus maenas from different habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Stevens

    Full Text Available Camouflage is widespread throughout the natural world and conceals animals from predators in a vast range of habitats. Because successful camouflage usually involves matching aspects of the background environment, species and populations should evolve appearances tuned to their local habitat, termed phenotype-environment associations. However, although this has been studied in various species, little work has objectively quantified the appearances of camouflaged animals from different habitats, or related this to factors such as ontogeny and individual variation. Here, we tested for phenotype-environment associations in the common shore crab (Carcinus maenas, a species highly variable in appearance and found in a wide range of habitats. We used field surveys and digital image analysis of the colors and patterns of crabs found in four locations around Cornwall in the UK to quantify how individuals vary with habitat (predominantly rockpool, mussel bed, and mudflat. We find that individuals from sites comprising different backgrounds show substantial differences in several aspects of color and pattern, and that this is also dependent on life stage (adult or juvenile. Furthermore, the level of individual variation is dependent on site and life stage, with juvenile crabs often more variable than adults, and individuals from more homogenous habitats less diverse. Ours is the most comprehensive study to date exploring phenotype-environment associations for camouflage and individual variation in a species, and we discuss the implications of our results in terms of the mechanisms and selection pressures that may drive this.

  5. Camouflage and individual variation in shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) from different habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Martin; Lown, Alice E; Wood, Louisa E

    2014-01-01

    Camouflage is widespread throughout the natural world and conceals animals from predators in a vast range of habitats. Because successful camouflage usually involves matching aspects of the background environment, species and populations should evolve appearances tuned to their local habitat, termed phenotype-environment associations. However, although this has been studied in various species, little work has objectively quantified the appearances of camouflaged animals from different habitats, or related this to factors such as ontogeny and individual variation. Here, we tested for phenotype-environment associations in the common shore crab (Carcinus maenas), a species highly variable in appearance and found in a wide range of habitats. We used field surveys and digital image analysis of the colors and patterns of crabs found in four locations around Cornwall in the UK to quantify how individuals vary with habitat (predominantly rockpool, mussel bed, and mudflat). We find that individuals from sites comprising different backgrounds show substantial differences in several aspects of color and pattern, and that this is also dependent on life stage (adult or juvenile). Furthermore, the level of individual variation is dependent on site and life stage, with juvenile crabs often more variable than adults, and individuals from more homogenous habitats less diverse. Ours is the most comprehensive study to date exploring phenotype-environment associations for camouflage and individual variation in a species, and we discuss the implications of our results in terms of the mechanisms and selection pressures that may drive this.

  6. The crab Carcinus maenas as a suitable experimental model in ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Elsa Teresa; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo

    2014-09-01

    Aquatic ecotoxicology broadly focuses on how aquatic organisms interact with pollutants in their environment in order to determine environmental hazard and potential risks to humans. Research has produced increasing evidence on the pivotal role of aquatic invertebrates in the assessment of the impact of pollutants on the environment. Its potential use to replace fish bioassays, which offers ethical advantages, has already been widely studied. Nevertheless, the selection of adequate invertebrate experimental models, appropriate experimental designs and bioassays, as well as the control of potential confounding factors in toxicity testing are of major importance to obtain scientifically valid results. Therefore, the present study reviews more than four decades of published research papers in which the Green crab Carcinus maenas was used as an experimental test organism. In general, the surveyed literature indicates that C. maenas is sensitive to a wide range of aquatic pollutants and that its biological responses are linked to exposure concentrations or doses. Current scientific knowledge regarding the biology and ecology of C. maenas and the extensive studies on toxicology found for the present review recognise the Green crab as a reliable estuarine/marine model for routine testing in ecotoxicology research and environmental quality assessment, especially in what concerns the application of the biomarker approach. Data gathered provide valuable information for the selection of adequate and trustworthy bioassays to be used in C. maenas toxicity testing. Since the final expression of high quality testing is a reliable outcome, the present review recommends gender, size and morphotype separation in C. maenas experimental designs and data evaluation. Moreover, the organisms' nutritional status should be taken into account, especially in long-term studies. Studies should also consider the crabs' resilience when facing historical and concurrent contamination. Finally

  7. Biochemical and locomotor responses of Carcinus maenas exposed to the serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Sofia Raquel; Guilhermino, Lúcia; Guimarães, Laura

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the widely used anti-depressant fluoxetine on behaviour (locomotion), moulting, neuromuscular transmission, energy production and anti-oxidant defences' efficiency of the epibenthic crab Carcinus maenas. Crabs were individually exposed to fluoxetine concentrations for 7d. Effects on locomotion were assessed at the end of the exposure using an open field test adapted to C. maenas in the present study. Tissue samples were later collected to evaluate fluoxetine effects on physiological functions using the activity of key enzymes and other parameters as biomarkers, namely: N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase (NAGase) in the epidermis (moulting) and the hepatopancreas; cholinesterases (ChE) in muscle (neuromuscular cholinergic transmission); NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and lactate dehydrogenease (LDH) in muscle (energy production); glutathione S-transferases (GST) in hepatopancreas (biotransformation and oxidative stress system); glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidade (GPx), total glutathione levels (TG) and lipid peroxidation levels in the hepatopancreas (anti-oxidant defences and oxidative damage). Because no information on C. maenas NAGase activity was previously available, its variation during the moult cycle was also investigated. The results showed that locomotion was significantly increased at fluoxetine concentrations equal or above 120 μg L⁻¹, with animals spending more time moving, walking longer distances than controls. Levels of NAGase activity were found to vary in relation to C. maenas moult cycle, but no alterations were observed after exposure to fluoxetine. Significant increases in the activity of ChE, GST and GR enzymes, and the levels of TG were found, with a lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) of 120 μg L⁻¹. Effects on locomotion were significantly and positively correlated to those induced on ChE activity. The results raise concern when hypothesising

  8. Infestation of an introduced host, the European green crab, Carcinus maenas, by a symbiotic nemertean egg predator, Carcinonemertes epialti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchin, M E; Lafferty, K D; Kuris, A M

    1996-06-01

    The recent introduction of the European green crab, Carcinus maenas, to the west coast of the U.S. has provided an opportunity for host transfer of the symbiotic nemertean egg predator, Carcinonemertes epialti, from its native shore crab host, Hemigrapsus oregonensis to the exotic C. maenas. Two surveys of C. maenas in Bodega Harbor, California, revealed that, in March 1995 prevalence of C. epialti on C. maenas was significantly lower than on H. oregonensis (11% versus 74%), but in November 1995 there was no significant difference between the 2 species (79% versus 98%). Only juvenile C. epialti were recovered from C. maenas in March 1995. However, in November 1995, ovigerous C. maenas were harboring actively feeding adult worms. Prevalence in both crab species significantly differed from March to November. Laboratory studies revealed that C. epialti fed and reproduced on eggs of C. maenas. The feeding rate of C. epialti on C. maenas eggs (2.5 eggs/trial) was not significantly different from that on H. oregonensis eggs (3.6 eggs/trial). Our findings suggest that this nemertean may have less host specificity than was previously thought. If C. epialti causes brood mortality of C. maenas in nature, it could potentially impact populations of this exotic crab.

  9. Association between cadmium and calcium uptake and distribution during the moult cycle of female shore crabs, Carcinus maenas: an in vivo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondgaard, Morten; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2005-01-01

    Net influxes into the haemolymph and tissue distribution of 45 Ca and 109 Cd were studied in vivo in female Carcinus maenas at different moult stages. Net influxes of 45 Ca and 109 Cd from water were higher in postmoult (A and B) C. maenas than in C 3 - and C 4 -intermoult crabs and the net influx of calcium was higher in C 3 -intermoult crabs than in C 4 -intermoult crabs. The net influxes of 45 Ca and 109 Cd increased in postmoult C. maenas with decreasing external calcium concentrations at constant salinity. At all external calcium concentrations a significant correlation existed between 45 Ca and 109 Cd accumulated in the haemolymph of individual animals. In vivo exposure of postmoult C. maenas to external lanthanum decreased the 45 Ca and 109 Cd uptake rates to 30 and 10%, respectively, of the control values. About 30% of injected 109 Cd were found in the midgut gland, 10-20% in the gills and only a few (1-2) percent was lost to the seawater 24 h after injection. No major variations in tissue distribution of 109 Cd were observed between moult stages in these tissues. Premoult crabs retained more cadmium in the haemolymph 24 h after injection than other moult stages, and postmoult crabs retained more in muscle. Between 20 and 40% of the injected 45 Ca were excreted to the water, while only a few percent of the injected 45 Ca were found in the soft tissues 24 h after injection. Large moult stage variations, however, were observed in the tissue distribution of internalised 45 Ca. This study demonstrates that cadmium and calcium uptakes are elevated in postmoult C. maenas. The results indicate that cadmium and calcium in this stage are taken up via Ca 2+ -channels located in the apical membrane of gill epithelium cells. When internalised, however, cadmium and calcium are metabolised in fundamentally different ways, determined by the chemical properties and biological significance of the two metals

  10. Competition and niche segregation following the arrival of Hemigrapsus takanoi in the formerly Carcinus maenas dominated Dutch delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, A. M.; Wijnhoven, S.; McLay, C. L.

    2012-10-01

    In a combined study including a 20 year monitoring programme of the benthic communities of four Dutch delta waters and a snapshot survey conducted in the Oosterschelde tidal bay in 2011, the populations of the native portunid European shore crab Carcinus maenas and the introduced varunid crabs Hemigrapsus takanoi and Hemigrapsus sanguineus were investigated. Whereas C. maenas was the most common shore crab in these waters, its numbers have declined on the soft sediment substrates during the last 20 years. As the two exotic crab species were first recorded in the Dutch delta in 1999, they could not have initiated the decline of the native C. maenas. However, within a few years H. takanoi completely dominated the intertidal hard substrate environments; the same environments on which juvenile C. maenas depend. On soft sediment substrate the native and exotic shore crab species are presently more or less equally abundant. H. takanoi might initially have taken advantage of the fact that C. maenas numbers were declining. Additionally H. takanoi are thriving in expanding oyster reefs of Crassostrea gigas (Pacific oyster) in the Dutch delta waters, which provide new habitat. Nowadays H. takanoi appears to be a fierce interference competitor or predator for small C. maenas specimens by expelling them from their shelters. These interactions have led to increased mortality of juvenile C. maenas. At present the C. maenas populations seem to be maintained by crabs that survive and reproduce on available soft sediment habitats where H. takanoi densities are low.

  11. Seasonal variation in sports participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüttoff, Ute; Pawlowski, Tim

    2018-02-01

    This study explores indicators describing socio-demographics, sports participation characteristics and motives which are associated with variation in sports participation across seasons. Data were drawn from the German Socio-Economic Panel which contains detailed information on the sports behaviour of adults in Germany. Overall, two different measures of seasonal variation are developed and used as dependent variables in our regression models. The first variable measures the coefficient of (seasonal) variation in sport-related energy expenditure per week. The second variable measures whether activity drops below the threshold as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Results suggest that the organisational setting, the intensity and number of sports practised, and the motive for participation are strongly correlated with the variation measures used. For example, both, participation in a sports club and a commercial facility, are associated with reduced seasonal variation and a significantly higher probability of participating at a volume above the WHO threshold across all seasons. These findings give some impetus for policymaking and the planning of sports programmes as well as future research directions.

  12. Methodical aspects of rearing decapod larvae, Pagurus bernhardus (Paguridae) and Carcinus maenas (Portunidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawirs, R. R.

    1982-12-01

    Improved methods for experimental rearing of Pagurus bernhardus and Carcinus maenas larvae are presented. Isolated maintenance was found essential for reliable statistical evaluation of results obtained from stages older than zoea-1. Only by isolated rearing is it possible to calculate mean values ±95% confidence intervals of stage duration. Mean values (without confidence intervals) can only be given for group-reared larvae if mortality is zero. Compared to group rearing, isolated rearing led to better survival, shorter periods of development and stimulated growth. Due to different swimming behavior P. bernhardus zoeae needed larger water volumes than Carcinus maenas larvae. P. bernhardus zoeae were reared with best results when isolated in Petri dishes (ca. 50 ml). They fed on newly hatched brine shrimp nauplii ( Artemia spp.). P. bernhardus megalopa did not require any gastropod shell or substratum; it developed best in glass vials without any food. C. maenas larvae could be reared most sucessfully in glass vials (ca 20 ml) under a simulated day-night regime (LD 16:8); constant darkness had a detrimental effect on development, leading to prolonged stage-duration times. C. maenas larvae were fed a mixture of newly hatched brine shrimp naupli and rotifers ( Brachionus plicatilis).

  13. Seasonal Variation in Epidemiology

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    Marrero, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Seasonality analyses are important in medical research. If the incidence of a disease shows a seasonal pattern, then an environmental factor must be considered in its etiology. We discuss a method for the simultaneous analysis of seasonal variation in multiple groups. The nuts and bolts are explained using simple trigonometry, an elementary…

  14. Seasonal variation of radon concentrations in UK homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J C H; Howarth, C B; Hunter, N

    2012-01-01

    The patterns of seasonal variation of radon concentrations were measured in 91 homes in five regions of the UK over a period of two years. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the regions in the pattern or magnitude of seasonal variation in radon concentrations. The arithmetic mean variation was found to be close to that found previously in the UK national survey. Differences in the pattern between the two years of the study were not significant. Two-thirds of homes in the study followed the expected pattern of high radon in the winter and low radon in the summer. Most of the rest showed little seasonal variation, and a few showed a reversed seasonal pattern. The study does not provide any clear evidence for the recorded house characteristics having an effect on the seasonal variation in radon concentrations in UK homes, though the statistical power for determining such effects is limited in this study. The magnitude of the seasonal variation varied widely between homes. Analysis of the individual results from the homes showed that because of the wide variation in the amount of seasonal variation, applying seasonal correction factors to the results of three-month measurements can yield only relatively small improvements in the accuracy of estimates of annual mean concentrations.

  15. Development and application of microsatellites in Carcinus maenas: genetic differentiation between Northern and Central Portuguese populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia Pascoal

    Full Text Available Carcinus maenas, the common shore crab of European coastal waters, has recently gained notoriety due to its globally invasive nature associated with drastic ecological and economic effects. The native ubiquity and worldwide importance of C. maenas has resulted in it becoming one of the best-studied estuarine crustacean species globally. Accordingly, there is significant interest in investigating the population genetic structure of this broadly distributed crab along European and invaded coastlines. Here, we developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR primers for one dinucleotide and two trinucleotide microsatellite loci, resulting from an enrichment process based on Portuguese populations. Combining these three new markers with six existing markers, we examined levels of genetic diversity and population structure of C. maenas in two coastal regions from Northern and Central Portugal. Genotypes showed that locus polymorphism ranged from 10 to 42 alleles (N = 135 and observed heterozygosity per locus ranged from 0.745 to 0.987 with expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.711 to 0.960; values typical of marine decapods. The markers revealed weak, but significant structuring among populations (global F(ST = 0.004 across a 450 km (over-water distance spatial scale. Combinations of these and existing markers will be useful for studying population genetic parameters at a range of spatial scales of C. maenas throughout its expanding species range.

  16. Seasonal variation of dystocia in a large Danish cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr Thomsen, Christine; Uldbjerg, Niels; Hvidman, Lone; Atladóttir, Hjördís Ósk; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Milidou, Ioanna

    2014-01-01

    Dystocia is one of the most frequent causes of cesarean delivery in nulliparous women. Despite this, its causes are largely unknown. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) has been found in the myometrium. Thus, it is possible that vitamin D affects the contractility of the myometrium and may be involved in the pathogenesis of dystocia. Seasonal variation of dystocia in areas with distinct seasonal variation in sunlight exposure, like Denmark, could imply that vitamin D may play a role. This study examined whether there was seasonal variation in the incidence of dystocia in a Danish population. We used information from a cohort of 34,261 nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies, spontaneous onset of labor between 37 and 42 completed gestational weeks, and vertex fetal presentation. All women gave birth between 1992 and 2010 at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby. Logistic regression combined with cubic spline was used to estimate the seasonal variation for each outcome after adjusting for calendar time. No evidence for seasonal variation was found for any of the outcomes: acute cesarean delivery due to dystocia (p = 0.44); instrumental vaginal delivery due to dystocia (p = 0.69); oxytocin augmentation due to dystocia (p = 0.46); and overall dystocia (p = 0.91). No seasonal variation in the incidence of dystocia was observed in a large cohort of Danish women. This may reflect no association between vitamin D and dystocia, or alternatively that other factors with seasonal variation and influence on the occurrence of dystocia attenuate such an association.

  17. Seasonal variation in admission for heart failure, hypertension and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal variation in admission for heart failure, hypertension and stroke. ... Background: Seasonal variation in hospitalization for cardiovascular disease has been ... hypertension and hypertension – related stroke (Cerebrovascular accident) ...

  18. Seasonal variations in sleep disorders of nurses.

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    Chang, Yuanmay; Lam, Calvin; Chen, Su-Ru; Sithole, Trevor; Chung, Min-Huey

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the difference between nurses and the general population regarding seasonal variations in sleep disorders during 2004-2008. The effects of season and group interaction on sleep disorders with regard to different comorbidities were also examined. Studies on seasonal variations in sleep disorders were mainly conducted in Norway for the general population. Furthermore, whether different comorbidities cause seasonal variations in sleep disorders in nurses remains unknown. A retrospective study. Data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database were used in generalised estimating equation Poisson distribution models to investigate the differences in sleep disorders between nurses and the general population diagnosed with sleep disorders (each n = 7643) as well as the interaction effects of sleep disorders between the groups with respect to different seasons. Furthermore, the interaction effects between groups and seasons on sleep disorders in the subgroups of comorbid anxiety disorders and depressive disorders were studied. Both the nurses and the general population had fewer outpatient visits for sleep disorders in winter than in other seasons. The nurses had fewer outpatient visits for sleep disorders than the general population did in each season. The nurses had more outpatient visits for sleep disorders in winter than in summer compared with the general population in the comorbid depressive disorder subgroup but not in the comorbid anxiety disorder subgroup. Nurses and the general population exhibited similar seasonal patterns of sleep disorders, but nurses had fewer outpatient visits for sleep disorders than the general population did in each season. For nurses with comorbid depressive disorders, outpatient visits for sleep disorders were more numerous in winter than in summer, potentially because nurses with comorbid depressive disorders are affected by shorter daylight exposure during winter. Depression and daylight exposure may

  19. Seasonal variation in human reproduction: environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronson, F H

    1995-06-01

    Almost all human populations exhibit seasonal variation in births, owing mostly to seasonal variation in the frequency of conception. This review focuses on the degree to which environmental factors like nutrition, temperature and photoperiod contribute to these seasonal patterns by acting directly on the reproductive axis. The reproductive strategy of humans is basically that of the apes: Humans have the capacity to reproduce continuously, albeit slowly, unless inhibited by environmental influences. Two, and perhaps three, environmental factors probably act routinely as seasonal inhibitors in some human populations. First, it seems likely that ovulation is regulated seasonally in populations experiencing seasonal variation in food availability. More specifically, it seems likely that inadequate food intake or the increased energy expenditure required to obtain food, or both, can delay menarche, suppress the frequency of ovulation in the nonlactating adult, and prolong lactational amenorrhea in these populations on a seasonal basis. This action is most easily seen in tropical subsistence societies where food availability often varies greatly owing to seasonal variation in rainfall; hence births in these populations often correlate with rainfall. Second, it seems likely that seasonally high temperatures suppress spermatogenesis enough to influence the incidence of fertilization in hotter latitudes, but possibly only in males wearing clothing that diminishes scrotal cooling. Since most of our knowledge about this phenomenon comes from temperate latitudes, the sensitivity of spermatogenesis in both human and nonhuman primates to heat in the tropics needs further study. It is quite possible that high temperatures suppress ovulation and early embryo survival seasonally in some of these same populations. Since we know less than desired about the effect of heat stress on ovulation and early pregnancy in nonhuman mammals, and nothing at all about it in humans or any of the

  20. Seasonal variations of indoor radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majborn, B.

    1990-01-01

    Seasonal variations of indoor radon concentrations have been studied in a cluster of 10 single-family houses. Eight of the houses are of a similar construction with slab-on-grade foundations. The remaining two houses have different substructures, one of them having a crawl space, and the other having partly a basement and partly a crawl space. A 'normal' seasonal variation of the radon concentration with a maximum in winter and a minimum in summer was observed in most of the houses. In these houses the variation showed a strong correlation with the indoor-outdoor temperature difference on a 2-month basis. However, deviating seasonal variations were observed in some of the houses, notably in the two houses having different substructures. This paper reports that a re-examination of the data obtained in a previous study indicates that winter/summer ratios of indoor radon concentrations in Danish houses depend on the house substructure. The mean winter/summer ratios were about 2.1 for houses with slab-on-grade foundations, 1.5 for houses having a basement, and 1.0 for houses with a crawl space (geometric mean values). However, a study with more houses in each substructure category will be needed to show whether or not the indicated differences are generally valid for Danish houses

  1. Seasonal variations of equatorial spread-F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Krishna Murthy

    Full Text Available The occurrence of spread-F at Trivandrum (8.5°N, 77°E, dip 0.5°N has been investigated on a seasonal basis in sunspot maximum and minimum years in terms of the growth rate of irregularities by the generalized collisional Rayleigh-Taylor (GRT instability mechanism which includes the gravitational and cross-field instability terms. The occurrence statistics of spread-F at Trivandrum have been obtained using quarter hourly ionograms. The nocturnal variations of the growth rate of irregularities by the GRT mechanism have been estimated for different seasons in sunspot maximum and minimum years at Trivandrum using h'F values and vertical drift velocities obtained from ionograms. It is found that the seasonal variation of spread-F occurrence at Trivandrum can, in general, be accounted for on the basis of the GRT mechanism.

  2. Seasonal variations of equatorial spread-F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. V. Subbarao

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of spread-F at Trivandrum (8.5°N, 77°E, dip 0.5°N has been investigated on a seasonal basis in sunspot maximum and minimum years in terms of the growth rate of irregularities by the generalized collisional Rayleigh-Taylor (GRT instability mechanism which includes the gravitational and cross-field instability terms. The occurrence statistics of spread-F at Trivandrum have been obtained using quarter hourly ionograms. The nocturnal variations of the growth rate of irregularities by the GRT mechanism have been estimated for different seasons in sunspot maximum and minimum years at Trivandrum using h'F values and vertical drift velocities obtained from ionograms. It is found that the seasonal variation of spread-F occurrence at Trivandrum can, in general, be accounted for on the basis of the GRT mechanism.

  3. Seasonal variation in the Dutch bovine raw milk composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heck, J.M.L.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Dijkstra, J.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we determined the detailed composition of and seasonal variation in Dutch dairy milk. Raw milk samples representative of the complete Dutch milk supply were collected weekly from February 2005 until February 2006. Large seasonal variation exists in the concentrations of the main

  4. Seasonal Variation in Group Size Is Related to Seasonal Variation in Neuropeptide Receptor Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Leah C; Goodson, James L; Kingsbury, Marcy A

    2016-01-01

    In many species, seasonal variation in grouping behavior is widespread, with shifts towards territoriality in the breeding season and grouping in the winter. Compared to the hormonal and neural mechanisms of seasonal territorial aggression, the mechanisms that promote seasonal grouping have received little attention. We collected brains in spring and winter from wild-caught males of two species of emberizid sparrows that seasonally flock (the field sparrow, Spizella pusilla, and the dark-eyed junco, Junco hyemalis) and two species that do not seasonally flock (the song sparrow, Melospiza melodia, and the eastern towhee, Pipilo erythrophthalmus). We used receptor autoradiography to quantify seasonal plasticity in available binding sites for three neuropeptides known to influence social behavior. We examined binding sites for 125I-vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), 125I-sauvagine (SG, a ligand for corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors) and 125I-ornithine vasotocin analog (OVTA, a ligand for the VT3 nonapeptide). For all species and ligands, brain areas that exhibited a seasonal pattern in binding density were characterized by a winter increase. Compared to nonflocking species, seasonally flocking species showed different binding patterns in multiple brain areas. Furthermore, we found that winter flocking was associated with elevated winter 125I-VIP binding density in the medial amygdala, as well as 125I-VIP and 125I-OVTA binding density in the rostral arcopallium. While the functional significance of the avian rostral arcopallium is unclear, it may incorporate parts of the pallial amygdala. Our results point to this previously undescribed area as a likely hot spot of social modulation. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Seasonal variation of flavonoids in Teucrium polium L. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjoshe Stefkov

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Тhe aim of the present study was identification of flavone aglycones and determination of the content of each and the content of total flavonoids as well as investigation of the eventual seasonal variations of flavonoids in Teucrium polium L. (Lamiaceae. The plant samples were collected at six different locations in Republic of Macedonia, during summer in 1999, 2000 and 2003. For determination of seasonal variations, the samples were collected in v. Koleshino, in 2004, each month during the whole season. Six flavone aglycones (luteolin, apigenin, diosmetin, cirsiliol, cirsimaritin and cirsilineol were identified in the hydrolyzed extracts of the over ground part of Teucrium polium by HPLC method. The most abundant flavone was luteolin, followed by apigenin and cirsimaritin. Great seasonal variations were found in the content of each and in the content of total amount of flavonoids. The most abundant flavone during the whole season was luteolin with the highest content in May. The content of total flavonids was the highest in the period from May to July, which could be recommended as the most convenience period in the season for collecting of the plant material from Teucrium polium.

  6. Seasonal variation of prices of sugar cane, ethanol and electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Carmem Ozana de; Silva, Gerson Henrique da; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho; Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the seasonal price of sugar cane, fuel alcohol (hydrated and anhydrous) and electricity tariffs as a way of aiding tool for optimization of energy generation, using biomass originating from cane sugar. Using the method of moving average centered was concluded that cane and electricity rates were close to seasonal average, with low range of prices, suggesting the non-occurrence of seasonal variation in prices. Unlike the seasonal indices of ethanol showed seasonal variation of prices with greater amplitude of seasonal index. Thus, the results suggest that the utilization of by-products of sugar cane to produce electrical power points to the prospect of reducing risks associated with variations in the price of ethanol, thereby contributing to greater stability and possibility to those involved in planning alcohol sector. (author)

  7. Seasonal temperature variation influences climate suitability for dengue, chikungunya, and Zika transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, John H; Childs, Marissa L; Caldwell, Jamie M; Mordecai, Erin A

    2018-05-01

    Dengue, chikungunya, and Zika virus epidemics transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes have recently (re)emerged and spread throughout the Americas, Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, and elsewhere. Understanding how environmental conditions affect epidemic dynamics is critical for predicting and responding to the geographic and seasonal spread of disease. Specifically, we lack a mechanistic understanding of how seasonal variation in temperature affects epidemic magnitude and duration. Here, we develop a dynamic disease transmission model for dengue virus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that integrates mechanistic, empirically parameterized, and independently validated mosquito and virus trait thermal responses under seasonally varying temperatures. We examine the influence of seasonal temperature mean, variation, and temperature at the start of the epidemic on disease dynamics. We find that at both constant and seasonally varying temperatures, warmer temperatures at the start of epidemics promote more rapid epidemics due to faster burnout of the susceptible population. By contrast, intermediate temperatures (24-25°C) at epidemic onset produced the largest epidemics in both constant and seasonally varying temperature regimes. When seasonal temperature variation was low, 25-35°C annual average temperatures produced the largest epidemics, but this range shifted to cooler temperatures as seasonal temperature variation increased (analogous to previous results for diurnal temperature variation). Tropical and sub-tropical cities such as Rio de Janeiro, Fortaleza, and Salvador, Brazil; Cali, Cartagena, and Barranquilla, Colombia; Delhi, India; Guangzhou, China; and Manila, Philippines have mean annual temperatures and seasonal temperature ranges that produced the largest epidemics. However, more temperate cities like Shanghai, China had high epidemic suitability because large seasonal variation offset moderate annual average temperatures. By accounting for seasonal

  8. Seasonal temperature variation influences climate suitability for dengue, chikungunya, and Zika transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H Huber

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Dengue, chikungunya, and Zika virus epidemics transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes have recently (reemerged and spread throughout the Americas, Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, and elsewhere. Understanding how environmental conditions affect epidemic dynamics is critical for predicting and responding to the geographic and seasonal spread of disease. Specifically, we lack a mechanistic understanding of how seasonal variation in temperature affects epidemic magnitude and duration. Here, we develop a dynamic disease transmission model for dengue virus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that integrates mechanistic, empirically parameterized, and independently validated mosquito and virus trait thermal responses under seasonally varying temperatures. We examine the influence of seasonal temperature mean, variation, and temperature at the start of the epidemic on disease dynamics. We find that at both constant and seasonally varying temperatures, warmer temperatures at the start of epidemics promote more rapid epidemics due to faster burnout of the susceptible population. By contrast, intermediate temperatures (24-25°C at epidemic onset produced the largest epidemics in both constant and seasonally varying temperature regimes. When seasonal temperature variation was low, 25-35°C annual average temperatures produced the largest epidemics, but this range shifted to cooler temperatures as seasonal temperature variation increased (analogous to previous results for diurnal temperature variation. Tropical and sub-tropical cities such as Rio de Janeiro, Fortaleza, and Salvador, Brazil; Cali, Cartagena, and Barranquilla, Colombia; Delhi, India; Guangzhou, China; and Manila, Philippines have mean annual temperatures and seasonal temperature ranges that produced the largest epidemics. However, more temperate cities like Shanghai, China had high epidemic suitability because large seasonal variation offset moderate annual average temperatures. By accounting

  9. Seasonal variation in heavy metal concentration in mangrove foliage

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Wafar, S.; Bhosle, N.B.

    Seasonal variation in the concentration of some heavy metals in the leaves of seven species of mangrove vegetation from Goa, revealed that maximum concentration of iron and manganese occurs during the monsoon season without any significant toxic...

  10. seasonal variation in chromium hexavalent and copper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Seasonal variation in heavy metal contamination of groundwater in the Jimeta- Yola area ... animal feedlots, industrial waste and food processing ...... and conservation of groundwater quality; a) ... significant role of hydrous Mn and Fe oxides.

  11. Trophic level transfer of microplastic: Mytilus edulis (L.) to Carcinus maenas (L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, Paul; Nelson, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the trophic transfer of microplastic from mussels to crabs. Mussels (Mytilus edulis) were exposed to 0.5 μm fluorescent polystyrene microspheres, then fed to crabs (Carcinus maenas). Tissue samples were then taken at intervals up to 21 days. The number of microspheres in the haemolymph of the crabs was highest at 24 h (15 033 ml −1 ± SE 3146), and was almost gone after 21 days (267 ml −1 ± SE 120). The maximum amount of microspheres in the haemolymph was 0.04% of the amount to which the mussels were exposed. Microspheres were also found in the stomach, hepatopancreas, ovary and gills of the crabs, in decreasing numbers over the trial period. This study is the first to show ‘natural’ trophic transfer of microplastic, and its translocation to haemolymph and tissues of a crab. This has implications for the health of marine organisms, the wider food web and humans. -- Highlights: ► Microplastic transferred in marine food chain. ► Microplastic transferred to haemolymph when ingested in food. ► Microplastic remains in organism for at least 21 days. -- This communication demonstrates trophic level transfer of microplastic particles from Mytilus edulis to Carcinus maenas

  12. Seasonal variation of daily physical activity in individuals with heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Shoemaker

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPrevious studies indicate that seasonal variation affects daily physical activity (PA, but none have investigated this relationship in individuals with heart failure (HF who also have implanted cardioverter defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy (ICD/CRT devices. The purpose of the present study was to determine if seasonal variation in temperature affects daily PA in patients with HF and ICD/CRTs.Patients and methodsSecondary analysis of data from 16 subjects with HF and Medtronic® ICD/CRT devices enrolled in a randomized trial investigating interventions to improve daily PA. Due to the rolling study enrollment, daily PA data for all subjects were not available for the entire time frame and were divided into two groups. Determination of seasonal variation of daily PA was determined using visual analysis of daily PA plotted with average temperature, autocorrelation, visual analysis of seasonal subseries plots and boxplot analysis, as well as Wilcoxon signed-rank tests.ResultsSubjects 1-8 demonstrated the greatest differences in daily PA during periods of seasonal transition whereas subjects 9-16 demonstrated the greatest variation in daily PA with greatest seasonal temperature difference. Wilcoxon signed-rank testing of the lowest and highest months for daily PA revealed median differences of 0.30 (p = 0.050 and 0.36 hours (p = 0.036 for subjects 1-8 and 9-16, with effect sizes of 0.69 and 0.74, respectively.ConclusionsSeasonal variation in mean temperature appears to affect daily PA in individuals with HF and ICD/CRT devices by a magnitude of 0.30-0.36 hours, which may need to be accounted for in future research investigating interventions to improve daily PA.

  13. Seasonal variations of the high-latitude F region for

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sojka, J.J.; Schunk, R.W.; Raitt, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    We combined a plasma convection model with an inosphere-atmospheric composition model in order to study the seasonal variations of the high-latitude F region for strong convection. Our numerical study produced time-dependent, three-dimensional, ion density distributions for the ions NO + , O 2 + , N 2 + , O + , N + , and He + . We covered the high-latitude ionosphere above 42 0 N magnetic latitude and at altitudes between 160 and 800 km for a time period of one complete day. From our study we found the following: (1) For strong convection, the high-altitude ionosphere exhibits a significant UT variation both during winter and summer. (2) In general, the electron density is lower in winter than in summer. However, at certain universal times the electron density in the dayside polar cap is larger in winter than in summer owing to the effect of the mid-latitude 'winter anomaly' in combination with strong antisunward convection. (3) In both summer and winter, the major region of low electron density is associated with the main or mid-latitudde trough. The trough is deeper and its local time extend is much greater in winter than in summer. (4) Typically, the electron density exhibits a much larger variation with altitude in winter than in summer. (5) The ion composition and molecular/atomic ion transition altitude are highly UT dependent in both summer and winter. (6) The ion composition also displays a significant seasonal variation. However, at a given location the seasonal variation can be opposite at different universal times. (7) High-speed convection cells should display a marked seasonal variation, with a much larger concentration of molecular ions near the F region peak in summer than in winter

  14. A further contribution to the seasonal variation of weighted mean temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Maohua; Hu, Wusheng

    2017-12-01

    The weighted mean temperature Tm is a variable parameter in the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) meteorology and the Askne-Nordius zenith wet delay (ZWD) model. Some parameters about the Tm seasonal variation (e.g. the annual mean value, the annual range, the annual and semi-annual amplitudes, and the long-term trend) were discussed before. In this study, some additional results about the Tm seasonal variation on a global scale were found by using the Tm time series at 309 global radiosonde sites. Periodic signals of the annual and semi-annual variations were detected in these Tm time series by using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram. The annual variation is the main component of the periodic Tm in non-tropical regions, while the annual variation or the semiannual variation can be the main component of the periodic Tm in tropics. The mean annual Tm almost keeps constant with the increasing latitude in tropics, while it decreases with the increasing latitude in non-tropical regions. From a global perspective, Tm has an increasing trend of 0.22 K/decade on average, which may be caused by the global warming effects. The annual phase is almost found in about January for the non-tropical regions of the Southern Hemisphere and in about July for the non-tropical regions of the Northern Hemisphere, but it has no clear symmetry in tropics. Unlike the annual phase, the geographical distributions of semi-annual phase do not follow obvious rules. In non-tropical regions, the maximum and minimum Tm of the seasonal model are usually found in respective summer and winter days while the maximum and minimum Tm are distributed over a whole year but not in any fixed seasons for tropical regions. The seasonal model errors increase with the increasing value of annual amplitude. A primary reason for the irregular seasonal variation in tropics is that Tm has rather small variations in this region.

  15. Seasonal Variation in Trypanosomosis Rates in Small Ruminants at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal variation in trypanosome parasitological infection rates in small ruminants was studied at the Kaduna Central abattoir, North Central Nigeria. Blood samples were obtained at slaughter from 320 goats and 209 sheep during the dry and rainy seasons and examined using the Haematocrit Centrifugation Technique ...

  16. The distribution and seasonal variations of diffuse fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anane-Fenin, K.

    1989-06-01

    A moving average approach is used to develop linear and polynomial regression models for the diffuse fraction averaged over 10, 15, 20 and 30 days. The correlations do not appear to be influenced by climate conditions or altitude. It is noted that the correlations vary with season. The time-dependent variations of the diffuse fraction correlations are examined by studying the residual differences between the measured diffuse fraction and those calculated from the over-all best-fit correlation. The residuals exhibit no pronounced pattern leading to the conclusion that the observed seasonal variation is caused by air mass and water vapour and that atmospheric turbidity plays little or no part. (author). 14 refs, 9 figs, 8 tabs

  17. Assessment and Seasonal Variations of Heavy Metals and Mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mal Raji

    ISSN 0794-5698. Assessment and Seasonal Variations of Heavy Metals and Mineral Elements in River ... immediately from Sokoto Cement Factory) at value above WHO's permissible limit in the rainy season. Ag .... level which is considered to represent a threat to the life of .... regulations governing waste management and.

  18. Variations in ecdysteroid levels and cytochrome P450 expression during moult and reproduction in male shore crabs Carcinus maenas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Styrishave, B.; Rewitz, K.; Lund, T.

    2004-01-01

    and intermoult. In the testis, 20E and E were present at high levels except in Postmoult Stage A, where low levels were observed. PoA was never observed in the testis. Ecdysteroids were quantified in the red and green colour forms of late intermoult C-4 crabs. In both phenotypes, 20E was the dominating...... had significantly higher testicular E levels than red crabs. Ecdysteroid levels were negatively related to CYP330A1 and CYP4C39 gene expression. CYP330A1 and CYP4C39 mRNA levels were low during intermoult and premoult but high during postmoult. The results suggest that E and 20E are involved in both......Ecdysteroid levels were investigated by HPLC-MS over the moult cycle and in relation to reproduction in male shore crabs Carcinus maenas. Ecdysone (E), 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and Ponasterone A (PoA) were quantified in the haemolymph, hepatopancreas and testis. Also, the expression of 2 recently...

  19. Seasonal variation in the Dutch bovine raw milk composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, J M L; van Valenberg, H J F; Dijkstra, J; van Hooijdonk, A C M

    2009-10-01

    In this study, we determined the detailed composition of and seasonal variation in Dutch dairy milk. Raw milk samples representative of the complete Dutch milk supply were collected weekly from February 2005 until February 2006. Large seasonal variation exists in the concentrations of the main components and milk fatty acid composition. Milk lactose concentration was rather constant throughout the season. Milk true protein content was somewhat more responsive to season, with the lowest content in June (3.21 g/100 g) and the highest content in December (3.38 g/100 g). Milk fat concentration increased from a minimum of 4.10 g/100 g in June to a maximum of 4.57 g/100 g in January. The largest (up to 2-fold) seasonal changes in the fatty acid composition were found for trans fatty acids, including conjugated linoleic acid. Milk protein composition was rather constant throughout the season. Milk unsaturation indices, which were used as an indication of desaturase activity, were lowest in spring and highest in autumn. Compared with a previous investigation of Dutch dairy milk in 1992, the fatty acid composition of Dutch raw milk has changed considerably, in particular with a higher content of saturated fatty acids in 2005 milk.

  20. Seasonal variation in food allergy to apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Vieths, S; Vestergaard, H

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility of a seasonal variation in reactivity to apples in 27 birch pollen allergic patients. Before and during the birch pollen season 1998, the patients were subjected to double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFCs) with grated fresh...... Golden Delicious apple followed by an open food challenge with whole fresh apple. The clinical reactions elicited during the challenges were evaluated both by the patients and the investigators. Moreover, the skin reactivity and the in vitro reactivity to apple were evaluated by skin prick test (SPT...

  1. Seasonal variation and food deprivation in common vampire bats (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Freitas

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of seasonal variation and fasting on fat reserves of the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. Plasma free fatty acids (FFA, along with lipid content of the liver and muscles, and fatty acids from the carcass were obtained from bats fed bovine blood and from whom food was subsequently withheld for 24 and 48 h. Animals were caught during both dry and rainy seasons. In general, fat tissue stores were not significantly influenced by seasonal variation. Lipid content of liver, muscles, and carcass decreased during some food deprivation periods, although the concomitant increase expected in plasma FFA was not observed. Lipid metabolism is hypothesized as being continued by the tissues themselves. In addition, free access to food sources (e.g., domestic livestock throughout the year is believed to contribute to the low seasonal variations in fat reserves observed in the common vampire bat.

  2. Seasonal Variation in Vitamin D Status among Frail Older Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhassan, M; Wirth, R

    2018-01-01

    Seasonal variation in 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels is the result of sunlight dependent skin synthesis of vitamin D. However, its presence is not studied in frail older hospitalized patients. We sought to investigate whether seasonal variation in 25(OH)D levels is evident among these patients. This study investigated older participants who were consecutively admitted between February 2015 and December 2016 to the geriatric acute care ward. Results of routine measurements of 25(OH)D at hospital admission were retrospectively analyzed and stratified according to months and seasons. Previous intake of vitamin D supplementation was derived from the patients' medical records. The study group comprised 679 participants (mean age 82.1±8.2; 457 females), of which 78% had vitamin D deficiency. Older individuals not taking vitamin D supplements had a lower mean serum 25(OH)D than those receiving supplements. Of those patients with no vitamin D supplementation, 87.0% were vitamin D deficient and only 5% showing sufficient vitamin 25(OH)D. Further, there were neither monthly nor seasonal variations in vitamin 25(OH)D levels among these patients and their vitamin D levels stayed far below the recommended threshold of 20 ng/ml across the seasons. Vitamin D deficiency was very prevalent in the subgroup of older hospitalized patients without vitamin D supplementation, irrespective of season. Since no seasonal variations in mean 25(OH)D levels was observed, sunlight dependent skin synthesis is unlikely to contribute to vitamin D status in these patients. Supplementation seems to be necessary to maintain desirable vitamin D levels among this population throughout the year.

  3. Characteristics of seasonal variation and solar activity dependence of the geomagnetic solar quiet daily variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinbori, A.; Koyama, Y.; Nose, M.; Hori, T.

    2017-12-01

    Characteristics of seasonal variation and solar activity dependence of the X- and Y-components of the geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation at Memanbetsu in mid-latitudes and Guam near the equator have been investigated using long-term geomagnetic field data with 1-h time resolution from 1957 to 2016. In this analysis, we defined the quiet day when the maximum value of the Kp index is less than 3 for that day. In this analysis, we used the monthly average of the adjusted daily F10.7 corresponding to geomagnetically quiet days. For identification of the monthly mean Sq variation in the X and Y components (Sq-X and Sq-Y), we first determined the baseline of the X and Y components from the average value from 22 to 2 h (LT: local time) for each quiet day. Next, we calculated a deviation from the baseline of the X- and Y-components of the geomagnetic field for each quiet day, and computed the monthly mean value of the deviation for each local time. As a result, Sq-X and Sq-Y shows a clear seasonal variation and solar activity dependence. The amplitude of seasonal variation increases significantly during high solar activities, and is proportional to the solar F10.7 index. The pattern of the seasonal variation is quite different between Sq-X and Sq-Y. The result of the correlation analysis between the solar F10.7 index and Sq-X and Sq-Y shows almost the linear relationship, but the slope and intercept of the linear fitted line varies as function of local time and month. This implies that the sensitivity of Sq-X and Sq-Y to the solar activity is different for different local times and seasons. The local time dependence of the offset value of Sq-Y at Guam and its seasonal variation suggest a magnetic field produced by inter-hemispheric field-aligned currents (FACs). From the sign of the offset value of Sq-Y, it is infer that the inter-hemispheric FACs flow from the summer to winter hemispheres in the dawn and dusk sectors and from the winter to summer hemispheres in

  4. Secular trends in seasonal variation in birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla Bjørn; Gamborg, M; Raymond, K

    2015-01-01

    and phase of the yearly cycles to change. RESULTS: There was a clear seasonal pattern in BW which, however, changed gradually across the study period. The highest BWs were seen during fall (September - October) from 1936 to 1963, but a new peak gradually grew from the early 1940s during early summer (May...... again. Sunshine did not explain the seasonal variation in BW. CONCLUSION: There was a clear seasonal pattern in BW in Denmark 1936-1989, which however changed across the study period. Throughout the study period we observed a peak in BW during the fall, but gradually, starting in the early 1940s...

  5. Seasonal variations of antioxidants in the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Safafar, Hamed; Pedersen, Anja

    Mainly the brown seaweeds are known for their high antioxidative capacity within the specific compounds such as phlorotannins, polyphenols, flavonoids, pigments, and these natural antioxidants are of high industrial interest. Previous studies have shown large seasonal variations in biomass...... composition. The aim of this study was to see if there was a seasonal variation in the antioxidant content of sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima), compare two cultivation sites, REF and IMTA, and test different solvents applied for extractions, methanol or ethyl acetate. Rope cultivated sugar kelp were sampled...

  6. Seasonal Variation of Cistus ladanifer L. Diterpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Alías

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The exudate of Cistus ladanifer L. consists mainly of two families of secondary metabolites: flavonoids and diterpenes. The amount of flavonoids present in the leaves has a marked seasonal variation, being maximum in summer and minimum in winter. In the present study, we demonstrate that the amount of diterpenes varies seasonally, but with a different pattern: maximum concentration in winter and minimum in spring-summer. The experiments under controlled conditions have shown that temperature influences diterpene production, and in particular, low temperatures. Given this pattern, the functions that these compounds perform in C. ladanifer are probably different.

  7. Seasonal and socio-economic variations in clinical and self-reported ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal and socio-economic variations in clinical and self-reported malaria in Accra, Ghana: Evidence from facility data and a community survey. ... Conclusions: Understanding these seasonal and geographic patterns have implications for both prevention and treatment of malaria-like morbidity in both children and adults ...

  8. seasonal variation in water quality of orle river basin, sw nigeria.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LUCY

    The seasonal variation of water quality of Orle River and its tributatries in S.W. Nigeria was investigated forthnightly or two ... KEYWORD: water quality, river basin, wet and dry seasons; pollution. ..... Environmental Modeling and Software,.

  9. Season-to-Season Variations of Physiological Fitness Within a Squad of Professional Male Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Niall A.; Edwards, Andrew M.; Morton, R. Hugh; Butterly, Ronald J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine season-to-season variations in physiological fitness parameters among a 1st team squad of professional adult male soccer players for the confirmatory purposes of identifying normative responses (immediately prior to pre-season training (PPS), mid-season (MID), and end-of-season (EOS)). Test-retest data were collected from a student population on the primary dependent variables of anaerobic threshold (AT) and maximal aerobic power (VO2 max) to define meaningful measurement change in excess of test-retest technical error between test-to-test performances. Participants from a pool of 42 professional soccer players were tested over a set sequence of tests during the 3-year period: 1) basic anthropometry, 2) countermovement jump (CMJ) tests 3) a combined AT and VO2 max test. Over the 3-year period there were no test-to-test changes in mean VO2 max performance exceeding pre-defined limits of test agreement (mean of eight measures: 61.6 ± 0.6 ml·kg-1·min-1). In contrast, VO2 at AT was significantly higher at the MID test occasion in seasons 2 (+4.8%; p = 0.04, p elite cohort between test-to-test occasions, VO2 max values did not vary significantly over the study which supports previous short-term observations suggesting a general ‘elite’ threshold of 60 ml·kg-1 min. Interestingly, AT significantly varied where VO2 max was stable and these variations also coincided with on- and off-seasons suggesting that AT is a better indication of acute training state than VO2 max. Key points Maximal aerobic power remains fairly stable across inter- and intra-season measurements. Anaerobic threshold appears more sensitive of training state confirming our earlier observations. The professional players tended to attain optimal performances at the mid-season interval over the 3 seasons, presumably prior to the development of accumulative fatigue. PMID:24150149

  10. The loss of 60Co by Scrobicularia plana and Carcinus maenas as influenced by the way of contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiard-Triquet, C.; Amiard, J.-C.

    1976-01-01

    The elimination of 60 Co by Scrobicularia plana and Carcinus maenas depends upon the way of contamination: the loss of cobalt by both species is relatively fast after a single intake of contaminated food. It is slower after chronic ingestion of radioactive food [fr

  11. Seasonal variation of imipramine binding in the blood platelets of normal controls and depressed patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, R.C.; Meltzer, H.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Imipramine binding (IB) was studied in the blood platelets from normal controls and depressed patients over a 4-year period (1981-1984) to determine if seasonal variation was present in Bmax or KD. Bimonthly variation in the Bmax of IB was found in normal controls studied longitudinally. No such variation was found when individual values from normal controls were examined on a monthly or seasonal basis. Bmax in depressed patients showed a significant seasonal, but not monthly, variation. KD of IB varied in normal controls using monthly or seasonal data, but not in the probably more reliable bimonthly data. These results suggest that IB studies comparing groups of subjects should match groups for season of the year or, for greater accuracy, month of the year

  12. Seasonal variations of volcanic eruption frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    Do volcanic eruptions have a tendency to occur more frequently in the months of May and June? Some past evidence suggests that they do. The present study, based on the new eruption catalog of Simkin et al.(1981), investigates the monthly statistics of the largest eruptions, grouped according to explosive magnitude, geographical latitude, and year. At the 2-delta level, no month-to-month variations in eruption frequency are found to be statistically significant. Examination of previously published month-to-month variations suggests that they, too, are not statistically significant. It is concluded that volcanism, at least averaged over large portions of the globe, is probably not periodic on a seasonal or annual time scale.

  13. PATIENT DEMOGRAPHIC, RISK FACTORS AND SEASONAL VARIATION IN ONSET OF STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. M. Kathyayani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Existence of particular chronobiological pattern in onset of acute cerebrovascular diseases characterised by circannual rhythms has been detected. India is a subtropical country with clear seasonal variations in weather conditions. Stroke causes death and disability worldwide. Seasons may influence stroke occurrence. The mechanisms underlying these seasonal variations of stroke are not fully understood, but a possible reason may include seasonal variation of biological factors such as arterial blood pressure, serum lipid levels and other blood components. Better understanding and controlling of risk factors associated with onset of stroke will improve the disease prevention. The objective of the present study is to examine the role of possible precipitating or triggering factors. This study reviews records of patients with stroke attending the Department of Medicine, KGH, Visakhapatnam. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients with diagnosis of stroke attending the Department of Medicine, KGH, Visakhapatnam, were selected. Computed tomographic types of stroke, both ischaemic and haemorrhagic and risk factors associated were considered with tropical seasonal variation. RESULTS A total of 150 stroke patients were included in the study of which 93 (62% were males, 57 (38% were females and 46% in 50-65 years age group, 4% in 20-35 years, 28% in 35-50 years, 22% in 65-80 years and above age groups. Of the total, 93.33% presented with 1st attack and only 6.66% presented with recurrent stroke. The prevalence of types of stroke was: ischaemic stroke 54.66%, haemorrhagic stroke 45.33%. The prevalence of risk factors associated with stroke was - male gender 62%, smoking 56.66%, hypertension 56%, age >50 years 46%, alcohol consumption 43%, hyperlipidaemia 16.66%, consumption of alcohol and smoking together 13.33%, valvular heart diseases 6.66%. A high seasonal prevalence was observed in winter season (50.66%. CONCLUSION This study revealed that male

  14. Seasonal Variation of the Material Transport Processes in the Ariake Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Manda, Atsuyoshi; Kanehara, Hisao; Aoshima, Takashi; Kinoshita, Tsukasa; Uchida, Jun; Nakata, Hideaki; Yanagi, Tetsuo

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal variation of the salt fluxes in the middle part of the Ariake Sea have been investigated by modeling with hydrographic and meteorological data. The salt flux due to the seasonally averaged density-driven currents accounts for approximately 60% of the total salt flux during summer. The salt flux due to the other processes, that are not treated explicitly, such as the tidal pumping, tideinduced residual currents, and short-term variations of the density- and winddriven currents dominat...

  15. INTER-MARKET AND SEASONAL VARIATION IN PRICES: AN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iya beji

    examined its seasonal price rise and analyzed the inter-market variation in prices of maize in the study area ... farmers are in business to sell their farm products at a fair returns or profit. ... from their investments and entrepreneurship. Therefore ...

  16. Competition and niche segregation following the arrival of Hemigrapsus takanoi in the formerly Carcinus maenas dominated Dutch delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den A.M.; Wijnhoven, S.; McLay, C.L.

    2012-01-01

    In a combined study including a 20 year monitoring programme of the benthic communities of four Dutch delta waters and a snapshot survey conducted in the Oosterschelde tidal bay in 2011, the populations of the native portunid European shore crab Carcinus maenas and the introduced varunid crabs

  17. Lack of seasonal variation in bone mass and biochemical estimates of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overgaard, K.; Nilas, L.; Johansen, J.S.; Christiansen, C.

    1988-01-01

    Three previous studies have indicated a seasonal variation in bone mineral content, with values during the summer being 1.7% to 7.5% higher than during the winter. We have examined the seasonal influence on both bone mass, biochemical estimates of bone turnover and vitamin D metabolites in 86 healthy women, aged 29-53 years. All participants were followed up for 2 years with examinations every 6 weeks or 3 months. Bone mineral content in the proximal and distal part of the forearm (single photon absorptiometry) did not reveal any significant seasonal variation, whereas bone mineral density of the lumbar spine (dual photon absorptiometry) indicated that the highest values occurred in winter. None of the biochemical parameters showed any statistically significant cyclical changes. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 showed a highly significant seasonal variation, whereas the serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentration was virtually unchanged. We conclude that seasonal variation in bone mineral content and bone turnover should not be taken into account when interpreting data from longitudinal studies of healthy pre- and postmenopausal women on a sufficient vitamin D nutriture

  18. Seasonal variations in fouling diatom communities on the Yantai coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cuiyun; Wang, Jianhua; Yu, Yang; Liu, Sujing; Xia, Chuanhai

    2015-03-01

    Fouling diatoms are a main component of biofilm, and play an important role in marine biofouling formation. We investigated seasonal variations in fouling diatom communities that developed on glass slides immersed in seawater, on the Yantai coast, northern Yellow Sea, China, using microscopy and molecular techniques. Studies were conducted during 2012 and 2013 over 3, 7, 14, and 21 days in each season. The abundance of attached diatoms and extracellular polymeric substances increased with exposure time of the slides to seawater. The lowest diatom density appeared in winter and the highest species richness and diversity were found in summer and autumn. Seasonal variation was observed in the structure of fouling diatom communities. Pennate diatoms Cylindrotheca, Nitzschia, Navicula, Amphora, Gomphonema, and Licmophora were the main fouling groups. Cylindrotheca sp. dominated in the spring. Under laboratory culture conditions, we found that Cylindrotheca grew very fast, which might account for the highest density of this diatom in spring. The lower densities in summer and autumn might result from the emergence of fouling animals and environmental factors. The Cylindrotheca sp. was identified as Cylindrotheca closterium using18S rDNA sequencing. The colonization process of fouling diatoms and significant seasonal variation in this study depended on environmental and biological factors. Understanding the basis of fouling diatoms is essential and important for developing new antifouling techniques.

  19. Seasonal variation of the South Indian tropical gyre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguiar-González, B.; Ponsoni, Leandro; Ridderinkhof, H.; van Aken, H.M.; de Ruijter, W.P.M.; Maas, L.R.M.

    2016-01-01

    Based on satellite altimeter data and global atlases of temperature, salinity, wind stress and wind-driven circulation we investigate the seasonal variation of the South Indian tropical gyre and its associated open-ocean upwelling system, known as the Seychelles–Chagos Thermocline Ridge (SCTR).

  20. seasonal variation and prevalence of tuberculosis among health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Damary

    2006-11-11

    Nov 11, 2006 ... effects of seasonal variation on the incidence of TB in the study area and to use sentinel analysis to predict areas of ... One third of the world's population is exposed to TB ... residence and ethnic origin) were collected from all.

  1. Seasonal variations in glycemic control of type 2 diabetes in Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Lee, Sungwha; Yoo, Hyung Joon; Choi, Moon-Gi

    2014-06-01

    Seasonal variations in lifestyle, such as food intake and physical activity, have been reported. Glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may be affected by such changes. We investigated seasonal variations in glycemic control, food intake, and physical activity in type 2 diabetic patients. This prospective observational study included 37 Korean female patients who had food intake (kcal/day), HbA1c, and anthropometry every 3 months (August, November, February, May, and August in the Northern Hemisphere) over 1 year. When anti-diabetic drugs were changed, we analyzed the data just before the changes. The mean HbA1c levels (%) of August and November in 2008, and February, May, and August in 2009 were 7.0 ± 0.1, 6.9 ± 0.1, 7.2 ± 0.2, 7.4 ± 0.2, and 7.2 ± 0.2, respectively (P = 0.018). The change of HbA1c was nearly 0.5 % for the 1-year period. From August to May of the following year, there were also seasonal variations in food intake (1,872 ± 143, 1,739 ± 97, 1,673 ± 86, 1,561 ± 132, respectively; P = 0.013), and total physical activity [7.7 (3.7-14.6), 6.3 (2.8-10.4), 5.1 (2.7-12.6), and 11.2 (4.7-20.5), respectively; P = 0.048]. However, the seasonal variations of HbA1c and total physical activity became non-significant when farmers were excluded. These data suggested that glycemic control, total physical activity, and food intake varied seasonally in Korean T2DM patients. These seasonal variations should be considered in education for glycemic control.

  2. Seasonal variation of semidiurnal internal tides in the East/Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Chanhyung; Park, Jae-Hun; Varlamov, Sergey M.; Yoon, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Young Ho; Seo, Seongbong; Park, Young-Gyu; Min, Hong Sik; Lee, Jae Hak; Kim, Cheol-Ho

    2014-05-01

    The seasonal variation of semidiurnal internal tides in the East/Japan Sea was investigated using 25 month long output from a real-time ocean forecasting system. The z coordinate eddy-resolving high-resolution numerical model, called the RIAM ocean model, incorporates data assimilation that nudges temperature and salinity fields together with volume transport through the Korea Strait to produce realistic oceanic currents and stratification. In addition to atmospheric forcing, it includes tidal forcing of 16 major components along open boundaries. The model generates energetic semidiurnal internal tides around the northern entrance of the Korea Strait. Energy conversion from barotropic to baroclinic (internal) tides varies seasonally with maxima in September (ranging 0.48-0.52 GW) and minima in March (ranging 0.11-0.16 GW). This seasonal variation is induced by the seasonality in stratification near the southwestern East/Japan Sea. The propagation distance of the internal tides is associated with generation intensity and wavelength. From late summer to early winter, the semidiurnal internal tides travel relatively far from the generation region due to stratification changes; its energy dissipates less as a result of longer wavelengths. Our results suggest that spatiotemporal variation of internal-tide-induced mixing due to the seasonality in the generation, propagation, and dissipation of internal tides should be considered for a more realistic simulation of water masses and circulation in models of the East/Japan Sea.

  3. Seasonal variations in heavy metal concentrations in soil and some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the seasonal variations in concentrations of the heavy metals - As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn - in soil and crops from a farm near the refuse dump site of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria were investigated during the two major seasons of Nigeria. This was done to assess the pollution ...

  4. Influence of seasonal variation in mood and behavior on cognitive test performance among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merikanto, Ilona; Lahti, Tuuli; Castaneda, Anu E; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Aalto-Setälä, Terhi; Suvisaari, Jaana; Partonen, Timo

    2012-10-01

    Seasonal variations in mood and behavior are common among the general population and may have a deteriorating effect on cognitive functions. In this study the effect of seasonal affective disorder (SAD-like symptoms) on cognitive test performance were evaluated in more detail. The data were derived from the study Mental Health in Early Adulthood in Finland. Participants (n = 481) filled in a modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) and performed cognitive tests in verbal and visual skills, attention and general intelligence. SAD-like symptoms, especially regarding the seasonal variations in weight and appetite, had a significant effect on working memory (Digit Span Backward, P = 0.008) and auditory attention and short-term memory (Digit Span Forward, P = 0.004). The seasonal variations in sleep duration and mood had an effect on auditory attention and short-term memory (Digit Span Forward, P = 0.02 and P = 0.0002, respectively). The seasonal variations in social activity and energy level had no effect. Seasonal changes in mood, appetite and weight have an impairing effect on auditory attention and processing speed. If performance tests are not to repeated in different seasons, attention needs to be given to the most appropriate season in which to test.

  5. A study on seasonal variations of indoor gamma dose in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M. Idrish

    2005-01-01

    Monthly variation of gamma dose rate measured in indoor air of buildings of Bangladesh was found to vary cosinusoidally through a period of 1 year. Significant seasonal variations were observed. Maximum dose rate, however, was observed in January and a minimum in July. Dose rate in January was 32% higher than the annual average, whereas dose rate in July was 50% lower. Seasonally varied ventilation and air exchange rates of the houses might play an important role in the observed variation. The average reduction with respect to winter dose was 59% in summer. Because of lower ventilation and air exchange rates between indoor and outdoor atmosphere, it is expected that the indoor dose rate would be higher in basements than that of upper floors. Monthly dose rate was also found to be influenced by the meteorological conditions. Correlations between dose rate and temperature (r 2 =0.85), rainfall (r=-0.83) and atmospheric pressure (r=0.92) were obtained, but no significant correlation (r=-0.45) was seen between dose rate and humidity. The results show that the seasonal variations of indoor dose rates should be taken into account to estimate annual effective dose equivalent. (author)

  6. Investigating the patterns and determinants of seasonal variation in vitamin D status in Australian adults: the Seasonal D Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura King

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D status generally varies seasonally with changing solar UVB radiation, time in the sun, amount of skin exposed, and, possibly, diet. The Seasonal D Study was designed to quantify the amplitude and phase of seasonal variation in the serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, (25OHD and identify the determinants of the amplitude and phase and those of inter-individual variability in seasonal pattern. Methods The Seasonal D Study collected data 2-monthly for 12 months, including demographics, personal sun exposure using a diary and polysulphone dosimeters over 7 days, and blood for serum 25(OHD concentration. The study recruited 333 adults aged 18–79 years living in Canberra (35°S, n = 168 and Brisbane (27°South, n = 165, Australia. Discussion We report the study design and cohort description for the Seasonal D Study. The study has collected a wealth of data to examine inter- and intra-individual seasonal variation in vitamin D status and serum 25(OHD levels in Australian adults.

  7. Seasonal and diurnal variations of ocular pressure in ocular hypertensive subjects in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, I A; Xiao, R X; Yang, B H; Zhang, J; Xiang, D W; Hui, J L

    1999-05-01

    Studies have been shown that intraocular pressure (IOP) shows a diurnal variation in ocular hypertensive subjects, but the amount of change differs from study to study. In recent years it has been noted that intraocular pressure is a dynamic function and is subjected to many influences both acutely and over the long term. The variability in the results may be due to negligence of factors that can affect IOP. Moreover, seasonal variations in the ocular hypertensive subjects have never been described. After placing control on those factors that can affect IOP, this study investigated seasonal and diurnal variations in IOP of ocular hypertensive subjects. IOP was measured each month over the course of 12 months with the Goldmann applanation tonometer in 91 ocular hypertensive male subjects. To see the diurnal changes, subjects were asked to stay in the hospital for 24 hours. The average IOP in the winter months was higher than those in spring, summer, and autumn. The IOP difference between winter and summer was (mean +/- sem) 2.9 +/- 0.9 mmHg (p < 0.001). The peak of mean IOP in diurnal variation curve (25.7 +/- 1.2 mmHg) appeared in the morning when the subjects had just awaken. The mean diurnal variation was found to be 4.2 +/- 0.6 mmHg (p < 0.001). This study confirms that seasons influence IOP and it shows diurnal variations. As compared to other nations, diurnal variations in ocular hypertensive subjects seem to be somewhat less in Pakistan. Knowledge of the seasonal and diurnal variations in IOP may help glaucoma screeners.

  8. Influence of flood variation on seasonal floodplain vegetation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the influence of flooding variation on floodplain vegetation in the Nxaraga Lagoon seasonal floodplains by sampling community composition and soil nutrient content in 1997, when flood levels were unusually low, and again in 2010 when flood levels were unusually high. In each of the eight ...

  9. Seasonal variation in male alternative reproductive tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, M J; Amundsen, T; Utne-Palm, A C; Mobley, K B

    2016-12-01

    Genetic parentage analyses reveal considerable diversity in alternative reproductive behaviours (e.g. sneaking) in many taxa. However, little is known about whether these behaviours vary seasonally and between populations. Here, we investigate seasonal variation in male reproductive behaviours in a population of two-spotted gobies (Gobiusculus flavescens) in Norway. Male two-spotted gobies guard nests, attract females and care for fertilized eggs. We collected clutches and nest-guarding males early and late in the breeding season in artificial nests and used microsatellite markers to reconstruct parentage from a subset of offspring from each nest. We hypothesized that mating, reproductive success and sneaking should be more prevalent early in the breeding season when competition for mates among males is predicted to be higher. However, parentage analyses revealed similar values of mating, reproductive success and high frequencies of successful sneaking early (30% of nests) and late (27% of nests) in the season. We also found that multiple females with eggs in the same nest were fertilized by one or more sneaker males, indicating that some males in this population engage in a satellite strategy. We contrast our results to previous work that demonstrates low levels of cuckoldry in a population in Sweden. Our results demonstrate marked stability in both the genetic mating system and male alternative reproductive tactics over the breeding season. However, sneaking rates may vary geographically within a species, likely due to local selection influencing ecological factors encountered at different locations. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  10. Appendicitis: Trends in incidence, age, sex, and seasonal variations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:Appendicitis is a common clinical condition worldwide. Differences in ... Aim:To assess the trends in incidence and pattern of variation with age, sex, and seasons of the year. .... population of 465000 (an annual population growth.

  11. Seasonal Variations of Some Physico-Chemical Properties of River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    The sampling points represent the villages within Abraka clan along the river. The seasonal variations are ... untreated waste water or poorly treated effluents accrued from .... Fakayode, S.O. (2005): Impact Assessment of. Industrial Effluent on ...

  12. Seasonal variation in concentration of radon and thoron at non-uranium mines in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Hongxing; Wu Yunyun; Zhang Qingzhao; Shang Bing

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the seasonal variation in concentrations of radon and thoron in non-uranium mine. Methods: Eight kinds of mineral types from 9 non-uranium mines were selected, including copper, gold, aluminium, manganese, antimonium, tungsten, copper-nickel and coal mines in 6 provinces, such as Yunnan, Shandong, Xinjiang, Heilongjiang, Hunan and Guizhou. LD-P R-T discriminative detectors were used to measure radon and thoron concentrations in underground mines during four seasons in one year. Results: Radon concentrations in underground mines showed a significantly seasonal variation. Radon concentration ranged from 35.5 to 4841 Bq/m 3 in summer, and the average value in four mines exceeded 1000 Bq/m 3 of the control limit for workplace (GB 18871-2002) . In winter, radon concentration ranged from 5 to 1917 Bq/m 3 , only one of them exceeded the control limit. The ratio of radon from summer to winter ranged from 2 to 12. Ventilation was one of the main factors which influenced the seasonal variation of radon. While the thoron concentration in underground mines showed a tendency that it was higher in summer and lower in winter. It was difficult to attain representative values for thoron, due to the influence of location of detectors. The seasonal variation of thoron should be further studied. Conclusions: Seasonal variation for radon and thoron should be taken into account to estimate the effective dose to miners. The values of radon concentration during the short term should be corrected. (authors)

  13. Seasonal variation of deep-sea bioluminescence in the Ionian Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, Jessica; Jamieson, Alan J.; Bagley, Philip M.; Priede, Imants G.

    2011-01-01

    The ICDeep (Image Intensified Charge Coupled Device for Deep sea research) profiler was used to measure the density of deep bioluminescent animals (BL) through the water column in the east, west and mid-Ionian Sea and in the Algerian Basin. A west to east decrease in BL density was found. Generalized additive modelling was used to investigate seasonal variation in the east and west Ionian Sea (NESTOR and NEMO neutrino telescope sites, respectively) from BL measurements in autumn 2008 and spring 2009. A significant seasonal effect was found in the west Ionian Sea (p<0.001), where a deep autumnal peak in BL density occurred between 500 and 2400 m. No significant seasonal variation in BL density was found in the east Ionian Sea (p=0.07). In both spring and autumn, significant differences in BL density were found through the water column between the east and west Ionian Sea (p<0.001).

  14. Seasonal variation of deep-sea bioluminescence in the Ionian Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, Jessica, E-mail: j.craig@abdn.ac.u [University of Aberdeen, Oceanlab, Main Street, Newburgh, Aberdeenshire, AB41 6AA (United Kingdom); Jamieson, Alan J.; Bagley, Philip M.; Priede, Imants G. [University of Aberdeen, Oceanlab, Main Street, Newburgh, Aberdeenshire, AB41 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-21

    The ICDeep (Image Intensified Charge Coupled Device for Deep sea research) profiler was used to measure the density of deep bioluminescent animals (BL) through the water column in the east, west and mid-Ionian Sea and in the Algerian Basin. A west to east decrease in BL density was found. Generalized additive modelling was used to investigate seasonal variation in the east and west Ionian Sea (NESTOR and NEMO neutrino telescope sites, respectively) from BL measurements in autumn 2008 and spring 2009. A significant seasonal effect was found in the west Ionian Sea (p<0.001), where a deep autumnal peak in BL density occurred between 500 and 2400 m. No significant seasonal variation in BL density was found in the east Ionian Sea (p=0.07). In both spring and autumn, significant differences in BL density were found through the water column between the east and west Ionian Sea (p<0.001).

  15. Seasonal Variations of Atmospheric CO2 over Fire Affected Regions Based on GOSAT Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y.; Matsunaga, T.

    2016-12-01

    Abstract: The carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions released from biomass burning significantly affect the temporal variations of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Based on a long-term (July 2009-June 2015) retrieved datasets by the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT), the seasonal cycle and interannual variations of column-averaged volume mixing ratios of atmospheric carbon dioxide (XCO2) in four fire affected continental regions were investigated. The results showed Northern Africa had the largest seasonal variations after removing its regional long-term trend of XCO2 with peak-to-peak amplitude of 6.2 ppm within the year, higher than central South America (2.4 ppm), Southern Africa (3.8 ppm) and Australia (1.7 ppm). The detrended regional XCO2 was found to be positively correlated with the fire CO2 emissions during fire activity period and negatively correlated with vegetation photosynthesis activity with different seasonal variabilities. Northern Africa recorded the largest change of seasonal variations of detrended XCO2 with a total of 12.8 ppm during fire seasons, higher than central South America, Southern Africa and Australia with 5.4 ppm, 6.7 ppm and 2.2 ppm, respectively. During fire episode, the positive detrended XCO2 was noticed during June-November in central South America, December-June in Northern Africa, May-November in Southern Africa. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the variations of detrended XCO2 and fire CO2 emissions from GFED4 (Global Fire Emissions Database v4) achieved best correlations in Southern Africa (R=0.77, p<0.05). Meanwhile, Southern Africa also experienced a significant negative relationship between the variations of detrended XCO2 and vegetation activity (R=-0.84, p<0.05). This study revealed that fire CO2 emissions and vegetation activity contributed greatly to the seasonal variations of GOSAT XCO2 dataset.

  16. Seasonal variations of seismicity and geodetic strain in the Himalaya induced by surface hydrology

    OpenAIRE

    Bettinelli, Pierre; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Flouzat, Mireille; Bollinger, Laurent; Ramillien, Guillaume; Rajaure, Sudhir; Sapkota, Som

    2008-01-01

    One way to probe earthquake nucleation processes and the relation between stress buildup and seismicity is to analyze the sensitivity of seismicity to stress perturbations. Here, we report evidence for seasonal strain and stress (~ 2–4 kPa) variations in the Nepal Himalaya, induced by water storage variations which correlate with seasonal variations of seismicity. The seismicity rate is twice as high in the winter as in the summer, and correlates with stress rate variations. We infer ~ 10–20 ...

  17. An ENA ATPase, MaENA1, of Metarhizium acridum influences the Na(+)-, thermo- and UV-tolerances of conidia and is involved in multiple mechanisms of stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qinsi; Jin, Kai; Peng, Guoxiong; Xia, Yuxian

    2015-10-01

    In fungi, ENA ATPases play key roles in osmotic and alkaline pH tolerance, although their functions in thermo- and UV-tolerances have not been explored. Entomopathogenic fungi are naturally widespread and have considerable potential in pest control. An ENA ATPase gene, MaENA1, from the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum was functionally analyzed by deletion. MaENA1-disruption strain (ΔMaENA1) was less tolerant to NaCl, heat, and UV radiation than a wild-type strain (WT). Digital Gene Expression profiling of conidial RNAs resulted in 281 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the WT and ΔMaENA1 strains. Eighty-five DEGs, 56 of which were down-regulated in the ΔMaENA1 strain, were shown to be associated with heat/UV tolerance, including six cytochrome P450 superfamily genes, 35 oxidoreductase genes, 24 ion-binding genes, seven DNA repair genes, and five other genes. In addition, eight genes were components of stress responsive pathways, including the Ras-cAMP PKA pathway, the RIM101 pathway, the Ca(2+)/calmodulin pathway, the TOR pathway, and the HOG/Spc1/Sty1/JNK pathway. These results demonstrated that MaENA1 influences fungal tolerances to Na(+), heat, and UV radiation in M. acridum, and is involved in multiple mechanisms of stress tolerance. Therefore, MaENA1 is required for the adaptation and survival of entomopathogenic fungi in stressful conditions in the environment and in their hosts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigation on seasonal variation of thermal-induced strain in flexible pavements based on field and laboratory measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simita Biswas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pavement temperature variation has a large influence on the structural response of flexible pavements. Daily and seasonal temperature fluctuation causes expansion and contraction of pavement material, which then leads to the generation of thermal strain. In this study, field observation and laboratory tests were conducted to investigate seasonal variation of thermal-induced strain in flexible pavement. Field observations were conducted at the Integrated Road Research Facility (IRRF’s test road in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, which is fully equipped with structural and environmental monitoring instruments. The main objective of the field study was to compare the variation of thermal-induced strain in warm and cold seasons. Field results indicated that thermal-induced strain is 1.4–2.0 times greater in cold seasons than in warm seasons following the same pavement temperature variations; however, strain generation rate was greater in warm seasons. Laboratory testing of asphalt slab and cylindrical samples produced comparable ratios. Moreover, field observation and laboratory testing showed a similar trend of temperature and thermal strain variations. Keywords: Thermal-induced strain, Asphalt strain gauge, Field observation, Flexible pavement, Laboratory testing, Seasonal variation

  19. Seasonal variation of diseases in children : a 6-year prospective cohort study in a general hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijver, Tessa V.; Brand, Paul L. P.; Bekhof, Jolita

    Seasonal variation in pediatrics has been well described in some infectious diseases, asthma, and diabetes, but data on seasonality for other diseases in children are sparse. To explore the extent of seasonal variation of the entire pediatric field, we analyzed diagnostic codes of all newly referred

  20. Seasonal variation in the behaviour of a short-lived rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccard, Jana A; Herde, Antje

    2013-11-15

    Short lived, iteroparous animals in seasonal environments experience variable social and environmental conditions over their lifetime. Animals can be divided into those with a "young-of-the-year" life history (YY, reproducing and dying in the summer of birth) and an "overwinter" life history (OW, overwintering in a subadult state before reproducing next spring).We investigated how behavioural patterns across the population were affected by season and sex, and whether variation in behaviour reflects the variation in life history patterns of each season. Applications of pace-of-life (POL) theory would suggest that long-lived OW animals are shyer in order to increase survival, and YY are bolder in order to increase reproduction. Therefore, we expected that in winter and spring samples, when only OW can be sampled, the animals should be shyer than in summer and autumn, when both OW and YY animals can be sampled.We studied common vole (Microtus arvalis) populations, which express typical, intra-annual density fluctuation. We captured a total of 492 voles at different months over 3 years and examined boldness and activity level with two standardised behavioural experiments. Behavioural variables of the two tests were correlated with each other. Boldness, measured as short latencies in both tests, was extremely high in spring compared to other seasons. Activity level was highest in spring and summer, and higher in males than in females. Being bold in laboratory tests may translate into higher risk-taking in nature by being more mobile while seeking out partners or valuable territories. Possible explanations include asset-protection, with OW animals being rather old with low residual reproductive value in spring. Therefore, OW may take higher risks during this season. Offspring born in spring encounter a lower population density and may have higher reproductive value than offspring of later cohorts. A constant connection between life history and animal personality, as

  1. Seasonal variations in physicochemical profiles of Guduchi Satva (starchy substance from Tinospora cordifolia [Willd.] Miers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Guduchi Satva (GS, the starchy material extracted from the Guduchi stem is well-known Ayurvedic single drug formulation having a wide range of therapeutic utility. Species of the plant, stem size, collection time, season and maturity of the plant may affect the yield and physico-chemical profile of GS. However, published data on such variations is lacking. Considering this, present study is planned to screen seasonal variations in physico-chemical profile of GS. 18 batches of GS were prepared in six different seasons (3 batches in each season and findings were systematically recorded. The obtained Satva was further subjected to relevant physico-chemical parameters. Principal component analysis method was adopted to analyze variations. Maximum yield of Satva was obtained in Shishira Ritu(January-February while the minimum in Grishma (May-June. Variation in taste and color was found in Satva prepared in Varsha Ritu. All functional groups were found to be same in each season. Total alkaloidal contents found bit higher in Varsha and Vasanta. More residual x-variance in alcohol soluble extract and more leverage were observed in water soluble extract due to impact of seasonal spells.

  2. Seasonal genetic variation associated with population dynamics of a poecilogonous polychaete worm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thonig, Anne; Banta, Gary Thomas; Hansen, Benni Winding

    2017-01-01

    Poecilogonous species show variation in developmental mode, with larvae that differ both morphologically and ecologically. The spionid polychaete Pygospio elegans shows variation in developmental mode not only between populations, but also seasonally within populations. We investigated...... differentiation at two of the sites. The seasonal genetic shift correlated with the appearance of new size cohorts in the populations. Additionally, we found that the genetic composition of reproductive individuals did not always reflect the genetic composition of the entire sample, indicating that variance...

  3. Acute effects of chlorpyryphos-ethyl and secondary treated effluents on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities in Carcinus maenas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jihene Ghedira; Jamel Jebali; Zied Bouraoui; Mohamed Banni; Lassaad Chouba; Hamadi Boussetta

    2009-01-01

    The acute effects of commercial formulation of chlorpyrifos-ethyl (Dursban(r)) and the secondary treated industrial/urban effluent (STIUE) exposure on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activities in hepatopancreas and gills of Mediterranean crab Carcinus maenas were investigated. After 2 d of exposure to chlorpyriphos-ethyl, the AChE activity was inhibited in both organs at concentrations of 3.12 and 7.82 μg/L, whereas the BuChE was inhibited only at higher concentration 7.82 μg/L of commercial preparation Dursban(r). The exposure of crabs to Dursban(r) (3.12 μg/L) showed a significant decrement of AChE activity at 24 and 48 h, whereas the BuChE was inhibited only after 24 h and no inhibition for both enzymes was observed after 72 h. Moreover, a significant repression of AChE activity was observed in both organs of C. maenas exposed to 5% of STIUE. Our experiments indicated that the measurement of AChE activity in gills and hepatopancreas of C. meanas would be useful biomarker of organophosphorous (OP) and of neurotoxic effects of STIUE in Tunisia.

  4. Seasonal variation of low-latitude E-region plasma irregularities studied using Gadanki radar and ionosonde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Phanikumar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present seasonal variation of E region field-aligned irregularities (FAIs observed using the Gadanki radar and compare them with the seasonal variation of Es observed from a nearby location SHAR. During daytime, FAIs occur maximum in summer and throughout the day, as compared to other seasons. During nighttime, FAIs occur equally in both summer and winter, and relatively less in equinoxes. Seasonal variations of Es (i.e. ftEs and fbEs show that the daytime activity is maximum in summer and the nighttime activity is maximum in equinoxes. No relation is found between FAIs occurrence/SNR and ftEs/fbEs. FAIs occurrence, however, is found to be related well with (ftEs−fbEs. This aspect is discussed in the light of the present understanding of the mid-latitude Es-FAIs relationship. The seasonal variations of FAIs observed at Gadanki are compared in detail with those of Piura, which show a significant difference in the daytime observations. The observed difference has been discussed considering the factors governing the generation of FAIs.

  5. Osmotic and ionic regulation in shore crabs Carcinus maenas inhabiting a tidal estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, A.; Siebers, D.; Becker, W.

    1988-03-01

    Shore crabs Carcinus maenas were exposed to salinities fluctuating according to the natural tidal rhythm. To this end they were maintained in net cages positioned in the estuarine waters of the river Elbe. The cages were lifted every hour, and between 8 12 specimens were analyzed for hemolymph concentrations of Na, K, Ca, Mg, and osmolality. The results obtained were compared with the respective data measured in external brackish water. In addition, the specific activity of Na-K-ATPase in a posterior gill was determined. Hemolymph Na and Mg as well as branchial Na-K-ATPase were also determined in crabs collected in the North Sea and the Baltic. The results show that in C. maenas living in salinities fluctuating with the tides by approx. 15‰ S, Na, K and Ca were hyperregulated, and Mg was effectively hyporegulated. The concentrations of all hemolymph ions and the activity of the Na-K-ATPase were kept constant over the whole tidal cycle. In Baltic crabs, Na was effectively hyperregulated and gill Na-K-ATPase was significantly elevated by a factor of ca 2 when compared with North Sea crabs. It is suggested that long-term hyperregulation of Na in constant salinities results from an increased number of Na-K-ATPase molecules which may change by synthesis or degradation following salinity stress. Constant hemolymph levels of hyperregulated Na in crabs inhabiting fluctuating brackish water are accomplished by activation of existing Na-K-ATPase by low Na and inhibition by higher ambient concentrations.

  6. Seasonal variations in the microflora from mangrove swamps in Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Mathani, S.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Seasonal variations in bacterial and fungal counts from the water and sediment samples of mangrove ecosystem of Goa (India) show that this ecosystem supports a very high population of fungi and bacteria...

  7. Seasonal variation of plankton communities influenced by environmental factors in an artificial lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuemei; Yu, Yuhe; Zhang, Tanglin; Feng, Weisong; Ao, Hongyi; Yan, Qingyun

    2012-05-01

    We evaluated the seasonal variation in plankton community composition in an artificial lake. We conducted microscopic analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified partial 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes to characterize the plankton community. The clustering of unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) was then used to investigate the similarity of these plankton communities. DGGE fingerprinting revealed that samples collected at the different sites within a season shared high similarity and were generally grouped together. In contrast, we did not observe any seasonal variation based on microscopic analysis. Redundancy analysis (RDA) of the plankton operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in relation to environmental factors revealed that transparency was negatively correlated with the first axis ( R=-0.931), and temperature and total phosphorus (TP) were positively correlated with the first axis ( R=0.736 and R=0.660, respectively). In conclusion, plankton communities in the artificial lake exhibited significant seasonal variation. Transparency, phosphorus and temperature appear to be the major factors driving the differences in plankton composition.

  8. Modeling seasonal surface temperature variations in secondary tropical dry forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Sen; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo

    2017-10-01

    Secondary tropical dry forests (TDFs) provide important ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration, biodiversity conservation, and nutrient cycle regulation. However, their biogeophysical processes at the canopy-atmosphere interface remain unknown, limiting our understanding of how this endangered ecosystem influences, and responds to the ongoing global warming. To facilitate future development of conservation policies, this study characterized the seasonal land surface temperature (LST) behavior of three successional stages (early, intermediate, and late) of a TDF, at the Santa Rosa National Park (SRNP), Costa Rica. A total of 38 Landsat-8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) data and the Surface Reflectance (SR) product were utilized to model LST time series from July 2013 to July 2016 using a radiative transfer equation (RTE) algorithm. We further related the LST time series to seven vegetation indices which reflect different properties of TDFs, and soil moisture data obtained from a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). Results showed that the LST in the dry season was 15-20 K higher than in the wet season at SRNP. We found that the early successional stages were about 6-8 K warmer than the intermediate successional stages and were 9-10 K warmer than the late successional stages in the middle of the dry season; meanwhile, a minimum LST difference (0-1 K) was observed at the end of the wet season. Leaf phenology and canopy architecture explained most LST variations in both dry and wet seasons. However, our analysis revealed that it is precipitation that ultimately determines the LST variations through both biogeochemical (leaf phenology) and biogeophysical processes (evapotranspiration) of the plants. Results of this study could help physiological modeling studies in secondary TDFs.

  9. Background levels of methane in Mars’ atmosphere show strong seasonal variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Christopher R.; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Moores, John E.; Flesch, Gregory J.; Malespin, Charles; McKay, Christopher P.; Martinez, German; Smith, Christina L.; Martin-Torres, Javier; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Zorzano, Maria-Paz; Wong, Michael H.; Trainer, Melissa G.; Steele, Andrew; Archer, Doug; Sutter, Brad; Coll, Patrice J.; Freissinet, Caroline; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Gough, Raina V.; House, Christopher H.; Pavlov, Alexander; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Pearson, John C.; Keymeulen, Didier; Christensen, Lance E.; Schwenzer, Susanne P.; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Pla-García, Jorge; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Vicente-Retortillo, Álvaro; Kahanpää, Henrik; Viudez-Moreiras, Daniel; Smith, Michael D.; Harri, Ari-Matti; Genzer, Maria; Hassler, Donald M.; Lemmon, Mark; Crisp, Joy; Sander, Stanley P.; Zurek, Richard W.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2018-06-01

    Variable levels of methane in the martian atmosphere have eluded explanation partly because the measurements are not repeatable in time or location. We report in situ measurements at Gale crater made over a 5-year period by the Tunable Laser Spectrometer on the Curiosity rover. The background levels of methane have a mean value 0.41 ± 0.16 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) (95% confidence interval) and exhibit a strong, repeatable seasonal variation (0.24 to 0.65 ppbv). This variation is greater than that predicted from either ultraviolet degradation of impact-delivered organics on the surface or from the annual surface pressure cycle. The large seasonal variation in the background and occurrences of higher temporary spikes (~7 ppbv) are consistent with small localized sources of methane released from martian surface or subsurface reservoirs.

  10. Seasonal Variation of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae Bacteremia According to Acquisition and Patient Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, Kim Oren; Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, Court

    2016-01-01

    subgroups by combining the following characteristics: species, acquisition, age group, gender, CCI level, and location of infection. Assuming a sinusoidal model, seasonal variation was assessed by the peak-to-trough (PTT) ratio with a 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS In total, we included 16,006 E...... variation was observed for S. aureus. S. pneumoniae showed high seasonal variation, which did not differ according to acquisition (overall PTT ratio, 3.42; 95% CI, 3.10-3.83). CONCLUSIONS Seasonal variation was mainly related to the species although the place of acquisition was important for E. coli. Infect....... coli, 6,924 S. aureus, and 4,884 S. pneumoniae bacteremia cases. For E. coli, the seasonal variation was highest for community-acquired cases (PTT ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.17-1.32), was diminished for HCA (PTT ratio, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.04-1.25), and was missing for hospital-acquired cases. No seasonal...

  11. Seasonal variations in aerosol optical properties over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuesi Wang; Jinyuan Xin; Zhanqing Li; Shigong Wang; Pucai Wang; Wei Min Hao; Bryce L. Nordgren; Hongbin Chen; Lili Wang; Yang Sun

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal variations in background aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol type are investigated over various ecosystems in China based upon three years' worth of meteorological data and data collected by the Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network. In most parts of China, AODs are at a maximum in spring or summer and at a minimum in autumn or winter. Minimum values (0.10~0....

  12. Comparison of seasonal variation in the fasting respiratory quotient of young Japanese, Polish and Thai women in relation to seasonal change in their percent body fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morinaka Tomoko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From the viewpoint of human physiological adaptability, we previously investigated seasonal variation in the amount of unabsorbed dietary carbohydrates from the intestine after breakfast in Japanese, Polish and Thai participants. In this investigation we found that there were significant seasonal variations in the amount of unabsorbed dietary carbohydrates in Japanese and Polish participants, while we could not find significant seasonal variation in Thai participants. These facts prompted us to examine seasonal variations in the respiratory quotient after an overnight fast (an indicator of the ratio of carbohydrate and fat oxidized after the last meal with female university students living in Osaka (Japan, Poznan (Poland and Chiang Mai (Thailand. Methods We enrolled 30, 33 and 32 paid participants in Japan, Poland and Thailand, respectively, and measurements were taken over the course of one full year. Fasting respiratory quotient was measured with the participants in their postabsorptive state (after 12 hours or more fasting before respiratory quotient measurement. Respiratory quotient measurements were carried out by means of indirect calorimetry using the mixing chamber method. The percent body fat was measured using an electric bioelectrical impedance analysis scale. Food intake of the participants in Osaka and Poznan were carried out by the Food Frequency Questionnaire method. Results There were different seasonal variations in the fasting respiratory quotient values in the three different populations; with a significant seasonal variation in the fasting respiratory quotient values in Japanese participants, while those in Polish and Thai participants were non-significant. We found that there were significant seasonal changes in the percent body fat in the three populations but we could not find any significant correlation between the fasting respiratory quotient values and the percent body fat. Conclusions There were

  13. Seasonal and daily variation in blood and urine concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-03-17

    Mar 17, 1998 ... ... both seasonal and daily cyclic variation in water stress, with concomitant changes in ... nutritional) stress, are of dubious applicability to animals in their natural ..... The similarity of haematocrit measurements in the two sea-.

  14. Patterns and Seasonal Variations of Perforated Peptic Ulcer Disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    multiruka1

    treatment is surgical. Objective: To describe the socio- demographics of the patients, seasonal variation in its incidence, modes of surgical management and outcome of patients. ... of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) as a causative agent in the 1980s. ... treatment is usually delayed hence with advanced peritonitis and sepsis.

  15. Seasonal variations of physico-chemical properties of the Great ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was attempted on the physico-chemical variability of the Great Vedaranyam Swamp of the Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary, South-east coast of India. Seasonal variation study was carried out to examine level of varying physico-chemical parameters such as temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, ...

  16. Determining wetland spatial extent and seasonal variations of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study, done in the Witbank Dam Catchment in Mpumalanga Province of South Africa, explores a remote-sensing technique to delineate wetland extent and assesses the seasonal variations of the inundated area. The objective was to monitor the spatio-temporal changes of wetlands over time through remote sensing ...

  17. Seasonal variation in hemodialysis initiation: A single-center retrospective analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujiro Maeoka

    Full Text Available The number of new dialysis patients has been increasing worldwide, particularly among elderly individuals. However, information on seasonal variation in hemodialysis initiation in recent decades is lacking, and the seasonal distribution of patients' conditions immediately prior to starting dialysis remains unclear. Having this information could help in developing a modifiable approach to improving pre-dialysis care. We retrospectively investigated the records of 297 patients who initiated hemodialysis at Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital from January 1st, 2009 to December 31st, 2013. Seasonal differences were assessed by χ2 or Kruskal-Wallis tests. Multiple comparison analysis was performed with the Steel test. The overall number of patients starting dialysis was greatest in winter (n = 85, 28.6%, followed by spring (n = 74, 24.9%, summer (n = 70, 23.6%, and autumn (n = 68, 22.9%, though the differences were not significant. However, there was a significant winter peak in dialysis initiation among patients aged ≥65 years, but not in those aged <65 years. Fluid overload assessed by clinicians was the most common uremic symptom among all patients, but a winter peak was only detected in patients aged ≥65 years. The body weight gain ratio showed a similar trend to fluid overload assessed by clinicians. Pulmonary edema was most pronounced in winter among patients aged ≥65 years compared with other seasons. The incidences of infection were modestly increased in summer and winter, but not statistically significant. Cardiac complications were similar in all seasons. This study demonstrated the existence of seasonal variation in dialysis initiation, with a winter peak among patients aged ≥65 years. The winter increment in dialysis initiation was mainly attributable to increased fluid overload. These findings suggest that elderly individuals should be monitored particularly closely during the winter.

  18. Effects of seasonal variation and tidal regimes on macrobenthic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of the effects of seasonal variation and tidal regimes on the distribution and density of macrobenthic invertebrates of the coastal Warri River, southern Nigeria was carried out from July 2014 to February 2015. Samples were collected from five longitudinal stations from headwater to mouth during high and low ...

  19. Seasonal variation in thoracic vessel calcifications: Evidence from a chest computed tomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehmas, Tapio; Leino-Arjas, Paeivi (Health and Work Ability, Finnish Inst. of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland)), e-mail: tapio.vehmas@ttl.fi; Hiltunen, Asta (Dept. of Radiology, Central Hospital of Laensi-Pohja, Kemi (Finland))

    2010-01-15

    Background: Cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality exhibit a winter peak and a summer trough, a fact that could have radiological manifestations. Purpose: To identify possible seasonal trends in the occurrence of thoracic vessel calcifications. Material and Methods: 505 male construction workers (aged 39-80 years) were each imaged once with chest spiral computed tomography (CT) during a 2-year period. Based on visual assessment of calcified plaques (0=no, 1=slight, 2=moderate, 3=extensive calcification), sum scores of atherosclerosis in coronary arteries, in the thoracic aorta, in the pre-cervical artery bases, and overall were constructed. The scores were regressed on the annual rank number of the CT day. Results: By using the cubic regression model, seasonal variation in calcified plaques in coronary arteries (P=0.003), in pre-cervical artery origins (P=0.015), and in the overall sum score (P=0.004) was observed. The peak occurred in January-February and the nadir in August. Depending on the model, about 2-3% of the variation in atherosclerotic calcifications could be explained by the season of imaging. Conclusion: The observed seasonal trend in calcifications parallels with mortality reports. Seasonal variations should be considered in atherosclerosis treatment studies. Confirmatory studies using modern imaging technology are needed in different countries and geographical locations, preferably with repeat imaging of the same individuals

  20. Seasonal Variations of the Antioxidant Composition in Ground Bamboo Sasa argenteastriatus Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youzuo Zhang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sasa argenteastriatus, with abundant active compounds and high antioxidant activity in leaves, is a new leafy bamboo grove suitable for exploitation. To utilize it more effectively and scientifically, we investigate the seasonal variations of antioxidant composition in its leaves and antioxidant activity. The leaves of Sasa argenteastriatus were collected on the 5th day of each month in three same-sized sample plots from May 2009 to May 2011. The total flavonoids (TF: phenolics (TP and triterpenoid (TT of bamboo leaves were extracted and the contents analyzed by UV-spectrophotometer. Our data showed that all exhibited variations with the changing seasons, with the highest levels appearing in November to March. Antioxidant activity was measured using DPPH and FRAP methods. The highest antioxidant activity appeared in December with the lowest in May. Correlation analyses demonstrated that TP and TF exhibited high correlation with bamboo antioxidant activity. Eight bamboo characteristic compounds (orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, homovitexin and p-coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid were determined by RP-HPLC synchronously. We found that chlorogenic acid, isoorientin and vitexin are the main compounds in Sasa argenteastriatus leaves and the content of isovitexin and chlorogenic acid showed a similar seasonal variation with the TF, TP and TT. Our results suggested that the optimum season for harvesting Sasa argenteastriatus leaves is between autumn and winter.

  1. Population differentiation of the shore crab Carcinus maenas (Brachyura: Portunidae on the southwest English coast based on genetic and morphometric analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês C. Silva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Carcinus maenas has a planktonic larval phase which can potentially disperse over large distances. Consequently, larval transport is expected to play an important role in promoting gene flow and determining population structure. In the present study, population structuring on the southwest coast of England was analysed using molecular and morphometric approaches. Variation at eight microsatellite loci suggested that the individuals sampled within this region comprise a single genetic population and that gene flow among them is not restricted. Nevertheless, the FST values estimated across loci for all populations suggested that the Tamar population was significantly different from the Exe, Camel and Torridge populations. This differentiation is not explained by isolation by distance, and coastal hydrological events that are apparently influencing larval flux might be the cause of this pattern. Morphometric analysis was also performed. Analysis of carapace and chela shape variation using landmark-based geometric morphometrics revealed extensive morphological variability, as the multivariate analysis of variance showed significant morphometric differences among geographic groups for both sexes. Thus, the morphological differentiation found may be a plastic response to habitat-specific selection pressures.

  2. Influence of seasonal variations in sea level on the salinity regime of a coastal groundwater-fed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Cameron; Harrington, Glenn A

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal variations in sea level are often neglected in studies of coastal aquifers; however, they may have important controls on processes such as submarine groundwater discharge, sea water intrusion, and groundwater discharge to coastal springs and wetlands. We investigated seasonal variations in salinity in a groundwater-fed coastal wetland (the RAMSAR listed Piccaninnie Ponds in South Australia) and found that salinity peaked during winter, coincident with seasonal sea level peaks. Closer examination of salinity variations revealed a relationship between changes in sea level and changes in salinity, indicating that sea level-driven movement of the fresh water-sea water interface influences the salinity of discharging groundwater in the wetland. Moreover, the seasonal control of sea level on wetland salinity seems to override the influence of seasonal recharge. A two-dimensional variable density model helped validate this conceptual model of coastal groundwater discharge by showing that fluctuations in groundwater salinity in a coastal aquifer can be driven by a seasonal coastal boundary condition in spite of seasonal recharge/discharge dynamics. Because seasonal variations in sea level and coastal wetlands are ubiquitous throughout the world, these findings have important implications for monitoring and management of coastal groundwater-dependent ecosystems. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  3. Lidar observed seasonal variation of vertical canopy structure in the Amazon evergreen forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H.; Dubayah, R.

    2017-12-01

    Both light and water are important environmental factors governing tree growth. Responses of tropical forests to their changes are complicated and can vary substantially across different spatial and temporal scales. Of particular interest is the dry-season greening-up of Amazon forests, a phenomenon undergoing considerable debates whether it is real or a "light illusion" caused by artifacts of passive optical remote sensing techniques. Here we analyze seasonal dynamic patterns of vertical canopy structure in the Amazon forests using lidar observations from NASA's Ice, Cloud, and and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat). We found that the net greening of canopy layer coincides with the wet-to-dry transition period, and its net browning occurs mostly at the late dry season. The understory also shows a seasonal cycle, but with an opposite variation to canopy and minimal correlation to seasonal variations in rainfall or radiation. Our results further suggest a potential interaction between canopy layers in the light regime that can optimize the growth of Amazon forests during the dry season. This light regime variability that exists in both spatial and temporal domains can better reveal the dry-season greening-up phenomenon, which appears less obvious when treating the Amazon forests as a whole.

  4. Seasonal and biological variation of urinary epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Garde, A H; Skovgaard, L T

    2001-01-01

    There is a significant circadian and seasonal periodicity in various endocrine functions. The present study describes the within-day and seasonal fluctuation for urinary catecholamines and cortisol and estimates the within- (CV(i)) and between-subject (CV(g)) coefficients of variation for healthy...

  5. Seasonal variations of melatonin in ram seminal plasma are correlated to those of testosterone and antioxidant enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muiño-Blanco Teresa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some breeds of sheep are highly seasonal in terms of reproductive capability, and these changes are regulated by photoperiod and melatonin secretion. These changes affect the reproductive performance of rams, impairing semen quality and modifying hormonal profiles. Also, the antioxidant defence systems seem to be modulated by melatonin secretion, and shows seasonal variations. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma and their variations between the breeding and non-breeding seasons. In addition, we analyzed the possible correlations between these hormones and the antioxidant enzyme defence system activity. Methods Seminal plasma from nine Rasa Aragonesa rams were collected for one year, and their levels of melatonin, testosterone, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione reductase (GRD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and catalase (CAT were measured. Results All samples presented measurable quantities of hormones and antioxidant enzymes. Both hormones showed monthly variations, with a decrease after the winter solstice and a rise after the summer solstice that reached the maximum levels in October-November, and a marked seasonal variation (P Conclusions These results show the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma, and that both hormones have seasonal variations, and support the idea that seasonal variations of fertility in the ram involve interplay between melatonin and the antioxidant defence system.

  6. Seasonal variation in semen quality of Dorper rams using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal variation in semen quality of Dorper rams using different collection ... libitum throughout the trial, and all rams being fed a 2.5 kg maintenance diet per day. ... quality collected by the AV versus the EE collection method was recorded.

  7. The ultrastructural basis of steroid production in the Y-organ and the mandibular organ of the crabs Hemigrapsus nudus (Dana) and Carcinus maenas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, C; Adelung, D

    1980-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the steroid producing Y-organ and the mandibular organ of the crustaceans Hemigrapsus nudus and Carcinus maenas has been studied with reference to the well investigated steroid secreting cells (SSC) of mammals. In accordance with the most important characteristic of mammalian SSC, abundant SER could be shown in the Y-organ, where it is unevenly distributed. The amount of SER seems to vary in correlation with the secretion of moulting hormone during the moult cycle. Most Y-organ cells contain a great number of mitochondria of the tubular type, another important characteristic of mammalian SSC. The ultrastructure of the mandibular organ of C. maenas differs considerably from that of the Y-organ. Some SER was found, mitochondria of unusual shape and size were conspicuous. No definite conclusion as to the function of the mandibular organ is yet to be drawn.

  8. Stable isotopes in a branching coral monitor seasonal temperature variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, R.B.; Wellington, G.M.

    1981-01-01

    Results are reported of 18 O composition measurements of specimens of the branching reef coral Pocillopora damicornis, which have grown in the field, while seawater temperatures were continuously recorded. It is shown that seasonal temperature changes are accurately recorded by 18 O variations in branches of this reef coral and that isotopic profiles may be used to estimate growth rates of branching corals, which lack annual density banding. The method provides a technique for high resolution palaeoclimatic reconstruction of seasonal temperature ranges and accurate estimation of rates of reef carbonate production. (U.K.)

  9. Man biting rate seasonal variation of malaria vectors in Roraima, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Saito Monteiro de Barros

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria control has been directed towards regional actions where more detailed knowledge of local determinants of transmission is of primary importance. This is a short report on range distribution and biting indices for Anopheles darlingi and An. albitarsis during the dry and rainy season that follows river level variation in a savanna/alluvial forest malaria system area in the Northern Amazon Basin. Distribution range and adult biting indices were at their highest during the rainy season for both An. darlingi and An. albitarsis. During the rainy season the neighboring alluvial forest was extensively flooded. This coincided with highest rates in malaria transmission with case clustering near the river. As the river receded, anopheline distribution range and density decreased. This decrease in distribution and density corresponded to a malaria decrease in the near area. An exponential regression function was derived to permit estimations of An. darlingi distribution over specified distances. Anopheline spatio-temporal variations lead to uneven malaria case distribution and are of important implications for control strategies.

  10. Seasonal variations of aerosol residence time in the lower atmospheric boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.A.; Mohamed, A.; Ali, A.E.; Barakat, A.; Abd El-Hady, M.; El-Hussein, A.

    2004-01-01

    During a one year period, from Jan. 2002 up to Dec. 2002, approximately 130 air samples were analyzed to determine the atmospheric air activity concentrations of short- and long-lived ( 222 Rn) decay products 214 Pb and 210 Pb. The samples were taken by using a single-filter technique and γ-spectrometry was applied to determine the activity concentrations. A seasonal fluctuation in the concentration of 214 Pb and 210 Pb in surface air was observed. The activity concentrations of both radionuclides were observed to be relatively higher during the winter/autumn season than in spring/summer season. The mean activity concentration of 214 Pb and 210 Pb within the whole year was found to be 1.4±0.27 Bq m -3 and 1.2±0.15 mBq m -3 , respectively. Different 210 Pb: 214 Pb activity ratios during the year varied between 1.78x10 -4 and 1.6x10 -3 with a mean value of 8.9x10 -4 ±7.6x10 -5 . From the ratio between the activity concentrations of the radon decay products 214 Pb and 210 Pb a mean residence time (MRT) of aerosol particles in the atmosphere of about 10.5±0.91 d could be estimated. The seasonal variation pattern shows relatively higher values of MRT in spring/summer season than in winter/autumn season. The MRT data together with relative humidity (RH), air temperature (T) and wind speed (WS), were used for a comprehensive regression analysis of its seasonal variation in the atmospheric air

  11. Seasonal variation of the global mixed layer depth: comparison between Argo data and FIO-ESM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yutong; Xu, Haiming; Qiao, Fangli; Dong, Changming

    2018-03-01

    The present study evaluates a simulation of the global ocean mixed layer depth (MLD) using the First Institute of Oceanography-Earth System Model (FIOESM). The seasonal variation of the global MLD from the FIO-ESM simulation is compared to Argo observational data. The Argo data show that the global ocean MLD has a strong seasonal variation with a deep MLD in winter and a shallow MLD in summer, while the spring and fall seasons act as transitional periods. Overall, the FIO-ESM simulation accurately captures the seasonal variation in MLD in most areas. It exhibits a better performance during summer and fall than during winter and spring. The simulated MLD in the Southern Hemisphere is much closer to observations than that in the Northern Hemisphere. In general, the simulated MLD over the South Atlantic Ocean matches the observation best among the six areas. Additionally, the model slightly underestimates the MLD in parts of the North Atlantic Ocean, and slightly overestimates the MLD over the other ocean basins.

  12. Biomonitoring seasonal variation of urban air polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using Ficus benghalensis leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prajapati, Santosh Kumar; Tripathi, B.D.

    2008-01-01

    Temporal and seasonal variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in leaves of Ficus benghalensis were investigated in Varanasi city (India). Leaf samples were collected from six sites from urban area of Varanasi and from a control site. PAH extraction was done by sonication in dichloromethane-acetone and quantification by GC-MS. In January total leaf PAHs concentrations at all the urban sites were twice higher as compared to other season's viz. summer and rainy. In contrast, at the control site leaf PAHs concentrations showed lower values than urban sites. The maximum concentrations of total PAHs in winter were due to the medium molecular weight PAHs which increases with respect to both low and high molecular weight PAHs. The temporal variation of medium molecular weight PAHs was similar both at the urban and remote sites. These results support biomonitoring ability of Ficus benghalensis leaves to temporal variations in PAHs contamination. - Biomonitoring PAHs in atmosphere using F. benghalensis leaves for its temporal and seasonal variation is cost effective as well as easier

  13. Seasonal variation of the single scattering albedo of the Jungfraujoch aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaud Coen, M.; Weingartner, E.; Corrigan, C.; Baltensperger, U.

    2003-03-01

    The single scattering albedo ({omega}{sub 0}) represents the fraction of the light extinction due to scattering. It is there-fore a key parameter to estimate the aerosol direct radiative forcing. The seasonal and diurnal variation of the single scattering albedo was calculated for the Jungfraujoch dry aerosol, which is representative for clean remote continental conditions. The values of {omega}{sub 0} vary between 0.7 and 0.9 depending on the season and on the wavelength. (author)

  14. Seasonal variation in kangaroo tooth enamel oxygen and carbon isotopes in southern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman, Tom H.; Ambrose, Stanley H.

    2012-09-01

    Serial sampling of tooth enamel growth increments for carbon and oxygen isotopic analyses of Macropus (kangaroo) teeth was performed to assess the potential for reconstructing paleoseasonality. The carbon isotope composition of tooth enamel apatite carbonate reflects the proportional intake of C3 and C4 vegetation. The oxygen isotopic composition of enamel reflects that of ingested and metabolic water. Tooth enamel forms sequentially from the tip of the crown to the base, so dietary and environmental changes during the tooth's formation can be detected. δ13C and δ18O values were determined for a series of enamel samples drilled from the 3rd and 4th molars of kangaroos that were collected along a 900 km north-south transect in southern Australia. The serial sampling method did not yield pronounced seasonal isotopic variation patterns in Macropus enamel. The full extent of dietary isotopic variation may be obscured by attenuation of the isotopic signal during enamel mineralisation. Brachydont (low-crowned) Macropus teeth may be less sensitive to seasonal variation in isotopic composition due to time-averaging during mineralisation. However, geographic variations observed suggest that there may be potential for tracking latitudinal shifts in vegetation zones and seasonal environmental patterns in response to climate change.

  15. Seasonal variation in thrombogenicity of blood: a word of caution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Sumit; Banerjee, Amit; Satsangi, Deepak K; Geelani, Mohammad A

    2009-01-01

    Thrombogenicity of blood is known to have seasonal variations. The clinical implications of seasonal variations in the anticoagulation profile of patients with mechanical valves was assessed. Data of patients implanted with a mechanical heart valve for more than 3 months were collected at follow-up or on presentation to the emergency department. The mean time from the previous follow-up examination was 3.6 +/- 0.3 months. The number of patients with an international normalized ratio >3.5 and the incidence of hemorrhagic events peaked in hottest part of the year (June-July), with 128 cases of prolonged clotting and 43 hemorrhagic events in this period. The number of patients with rapid clotting and the incidence of embolic events peaked in coldest part of the year (December-January), with 120 cases of international normalized ratio <1.5 and 37 embolic events in this period. There was a significant correlation between temperature and thrombogenicity in patients with prosthetic heart valves on long-term anticoagulation.

  16. Estimates of eddy turbulence consistent with seasonal variations of atomic oxygen and its possible role in the seasonal cycle of mesopause temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Vlasov

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available According to current understanding, adiabatic cooling and heating induced by the meridional circulation driven by gravity waves is the major process for the cold summer and warm winter polar upper mesosphere. However, our calculations show that the upward/downward motion needed for adiabatic cooling/heating of the summer/winter polar mesopause simultaneously induces a seasonal variation in both the O maximum density and the altitude of the [O] peak that is opposite to the observed variables generalized by the MSISE-90 model. It is usually accepted that eddy turbulence can produce the [O] seasonal variations. Using this approach, we can infer the eddy diffusion coefficient for the different seasons. Taking these results and experimental data on the eddy diffusion coefficient, we consider in detail and estimate the heating and cooling caused by eddy turbulence in the summer and winter polar upper mesosphere. The seasonal variations of these processes are similar to the seasonal variations of the temperature and mesopause. These results lead to the conclusion that heating/cooling by eddy turbulence is an important component in the energy budget and that adiabatic cooling/heating induced by upward/downward motion cannot dominate in the mesopause region. Our study shows that the impact of the dynamic process, induced by gravity waves, on [O] distributions must be included in models of thermal balance in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT for a consistent description because (a the [O] distribution is very sensitive to dynamic processes, and (b atomic oxygen plays a very important role in chemical heating and infrared cooling in the MLT. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to consider this aspect of the problem.

  17. Seasonal variation of the protozooplanktonic community in a tropical oligotrophic environment (Ilha Solteira reservoir, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansano, A S; Hisatugo, K F; Leite, M A; Luzia, A P; Regali-Seleghim, M H

    2013-05-01

    The seasonal variation of the protozooplanktonic community (ciliates and testate amoebae) was studied in a tropical oligotrophic reservoir in Brazil, which was under the influence of two contrasting climatic seasons (rainy/warm and dry/cold). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of these climatic changes on physical, chemical and biological variables in the dynamic of this community. The highest mean density of total protozoans occurred in the rainy/warm season (5683.2 ind L-1), while the lowest was in the dry/cold (2016.0 ind L-1). Considering the seasonal variations, the protozoan groups that are truly planktonic, such as the oligotrichs (Spirotrichea), predominated in the dry season, whereas during the rainy season, due to the material input and resuspension of sediment, sessile protozoans of the Peritrichia group were the most important ones. The dominant protozoans were Urotricha globosa, Cothurnia annulata, Pseudodifflugia sp. and Halteria grandinella. The highest densities of H. grandinella were associated with more oxygenated and transparent water conditions, while the highest densities of C. annulata occurred in sites with high turbidity, pH and trophic state index (TSI). The study demonstrated that density and composition of protozooplanktonic species and groups of the reservoir suffered seasonal variation due to the environmental variables (mainly temperature, turbidity, water transparency, dissolved oxygen and TSI) and the biological variables (e.g. morphological characteristics, eating habits and escape strategies from predation of the species).

  18. Effects of seasonal and climate variations on calves' thermal comfort and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripon, Iulian; Cziszter, Ludovic Toma; Bura, Marian; Sossidou, Evangelia N

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effect of season and climate variations on thermal comfort and behaviour of 6-month-old dairy calves housed in a semi-opened shelter to develop animal-based indicators for assessing animal thermal comfort. The ultimate purpose was to further exploit the use of those indicators to prevent thermal stress by providing appropriate care to the animals. Measurements were taken for winter and summer seasons. Results showed that season significantly influenced (P ≤ 0.01) the lying down behaviour of calves by reducing the time spent lying, from 679.9 min in winter to 554.1 min in summer. Moreover, season had a significant influence (P ≤ 0.01) on feeding behaviour. In detail, the total length of feeding periods was shorter in winter, 442.1 min in comparison to 543.5 min in summer. Time spent drinking increased significantly (P ≤ 0.001), from 11.9 min in winter to 26.9 min in summer. Furthermore, season had a significant influence (P ≤ 0.001) on self grooming behaviour which was 5.5 times longer in duration in winter than in summer (1,336 s vs 244 s). It was concluded that calves' thermal comfort is affected by seasonal and climate variations and that this can be assessed by measuring behaviour with animal-based indicators, such as lying down, resting, standing up, feeding, rumination, drinking and self grooming. The indicators developed may be a useful tool to prevent animal thermal stress by providing appropriate housing and handling to calves under seasonal and climate challenge.

  19. Seasonal Variation in Food Preference and Feeding Ecology of Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Seasonal Variation in Food Preference and Feeding Ecology of Two Juvenile. Marine Fishes, Pseudotolithus senegalensis (Sciaenidae) and Brachydeuterus auritus (Haemulidae) off Cape Coast, Ghana. J. Blay, Jr.1*, W. K. Awittor1 and D. Agbeko2. 1 Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, University of Cape Coast ...

  20. Seasonal and Diurnal Variations of Atmospheric Non-Methane Hydrocarbons in Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfeng Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, high ambient ozone concentrations have become one of the major regional air quality issues in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region. Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs, as key precursors of ozone, were found to be the limiting factor in photochemical ozone formation for large areas in the PRD. For source apportioning of NMHCs as well as ozone pollution control strategies, it is necessary to obtain typical seasonal and diurnal patterns of NMHCs with a large pool of field data. To date, few studies have focused on seasonal and diurnal variations of NMHCs in urban areas of Guangzhou. This study explored the seasonal variations of most hydrocarbons concentrations with autumn maximum and spring minimum in Guangzhou. The diurnal variations of most anthropogenic NMHCs typically showed two-peak pattern with one at 8:00 in the morning and another at 20:00 in the evening, both corresponding to traffic rush hours in Guangzhou, whereas isoprene displayed a different bimodal diurnal curve. Propene, ethene, m, p-xylene and toluene were the four largest contributors to ozone formation in Guangzhou, based on the evaluation of individual NMHCs’ photochemical reactivity. Therefore, an effective strategy for controlling ozone pollution may be achieved by the reduction of vehicle emissions in Guangzhou.

  1. Seasonal and daily variation of directions of approach to ground and balloon stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco, A.; Gall, R.

    1975-01-01

    The seasonal and daily variations of approach directions induced by the distortion of magnetic cavity has been studied by trajectory tracing technique in magnetospheric models. The main characteristics of these variations are reported here for McMurdo, Thule and Fort Churchill. (orig./WBU) [de

  2. Seasonal variations in the diet and food selection of the Algerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal variations in the diet and food selection of the Algerian hedgehog ... in prey selection, and a notable shift in food preference was observed during autumn. ... of this species before hibernation, in terms of quantity and/or quality.

  3. Seasonal variation of photosynthetic model parameters and leaf area index from global Fluxnet eddy covariance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenendijk, M.; Dolman, A. J.; Ammann, C.; Arneth, A.; Cescatti, A.; Dragoni, D.; Gash, J. H. C.; Gianelle, D.; Gioli, B.; Kiely, G.; Knohl, A.; Law, B. E.; Lund, M.; Marcolla, B.; van der Molen, M. K.; Montagnani, L.; Moors, E.; Richardson, A. D.; Roupsard, O.; Verbeeck, H.; Wohlfahrt, G.

    2011-12-01

    Global vegetation models require the photosynthetic parameters, maximum carboxylation capacity (Vcm), and quantum yield (α) to parameterize their plant functional types (PFTs). The purpose of this work is to determine how much the scaling of the parameters from leaf to ecosystem level through a seasonally varying leaf area index (LAI) explains the parameter variation within and between PFTs. Using Fluxnet data, we simulate a seasonally variable LAIF for a large range of sites, comparable to the LAIM derived from MODIS. There are discrepancies when LAIF reach zero levels and LAIM still provides a small positive value. We find that temperature is the most common constraint for LAIF in 55% of the simulations, while global radiation and vapor pressure deficit are the key constraints for 18% and 27% of the simulations, respectively, while large differences in this forcing still exist when looking at specific PFTs. Despite these differences, the annual photosynthesis simulations are comparable when using LAIF or LAIM (r2 = 0.89). We investigated further the seasonal variation of ecosystem-scale parameters derived with LAIF. Vcm has the largest seasonal variation. This holds for all vegetation types and climates. The parameter α is less variable. By including ecosystem-scale parameter seasonality we can explain a considerable part of the ecosystem-scale parameter variation between PFTs. The remaining unexplained leaf-scale PFT variation still needs further work, including elucidating the precise role of leaf and soil level nitrogen.

  4. Seasonal variation of low-latitude E-region plasma irregularities studied using Gadanki radar and ionosonde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Phanikumar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present seasonal variation of E region field-aligned irregularities (FAIs observed using the Gadanki radar and compare them with the seasonal variation of Es observed from a nearby location SHAR. During daytime, FAIs occur maximum in summer and throughout the day, as compared to other seasons. During nighttime, FAIs occur equally in both summer and winter, and relatively less in equinoxes. Seasonal variations of Es (i.e. ftEs and fbEs show that the daytime activity is maximum in summer and the nighttime activity is maximum in equinoxes. No relation is found between FAIs occurrence/SNR and ftEs/fbEs. FAIs occurrence, however, is found to be related well with (ftEs−fbEs. This aspect is discussed in the light of the present understanding of the mid-latitude Es-FAIs relationship. The seasonal variations of FAIs observed at Gadanki are compared in detail with those of Piura, which show a significant difference in the daytime observations. The observed difference has been discussed considering the factors governing the generation of FAIs.

  5. Seasonal variation in population density and heterotrophic activity of attached and free-living bacteria in coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iriberri, J.; Unanue, M.; Barcina, I.; Egea, L.

    1987-01-01

    The abundance and heterotrophic activity of attached and free-living bacteria was examined seasonally in coastal water. Heterotrophic activity was determined by the uptake of [ 14 C]glucose. The density of attached bacteria was always minor, not showing a seasonal variation, whereas the free-living bacteria were more numerous and showed a marked seasonal variation, their density being higher under warmer conditions. The contribution of the attached bacteria to the total assimilation of [ 14 C]glucose was lower than that of the free-living bacteria, neither of them showing a seasonal variation. On a cellular basis, attached bacteria were more active, since they assimilated more [ 14 C]glucose and showed, under warmer conditions, a higher cellular volume. The authors consider that the factors responsible for these observations were the amount and quality of the particulate material, the different availability of organic matter for the two types of bacteria, and in a fundamental way, the variation in water temperature

  6. Seasonal Variation in Penicillin Use in Mexico and Brazil: Analysis of the Impact of Over-the-Counter Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa-Ana-Tellez, Yared; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K.; Leufkens, Hubert G. M.

    2014-01-01

    During 2010, Mexico and Brazil implemented policies to enforce existing laws of restricting over-the-counter sales of antibiotics. We determined if the enforcement led to more appropriate antibiotic use by measuring changes in seasonal variation of penicillin use. We used retail quarterly sales data in defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitant-days (DDD/TID) from IMS Health from the private sector in Mexico and Brazil from the first quarter of 2007 to the first quarter of 2013. This database contains information on volume of antibiotics sold in retail pharmacies using information from wholesalers. We used interrupted time-series models controlling for external factors with the use of antihypertensives with interaction terms to assess changes in trend, level, and variation in use between quarters for total penicillin use and by active substance. The most used penicillin was amoxicillin, followed by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ampicillin (minimal use in Brazil). Before the restrictions, the seasonal variation in penicillin use was 1.1 DDD/TID in Mexico and 0.8 DDD/TID in Brazil. In Mexico, we estimated a significant decrease in the seasonal variation of 0.4 DDD/TID after the restriction, mainly due to changes in seasonal variation of amoxicillin and ampicillin. In Brazil, the seasonal variation did not change significantly, overall and in the breakdown by individual active substances. For Mexico, inappropriate penicillin use may have diminished after the restrictions were enforced. For Brazil, increasing use and no change in seasonal variation suggest that further efforts are needed to reduce inappropriate penicillin use. PMID:25313222

  7. Role of women in food security and seasonal variation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the socio-economic characteristics, role of women and expenditure pattern as it relates to seasonal variation in lagoon and marine fishing communities in Lagos State. A two stage stratified sampling method was used to select the sample size of 210 fishing (35 female and 175 male–headed) ...

  8. Seasonal variations in biochemical composition of some seaweeds from Goa coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Rajagopal, M.D.; Wafar, M.V.M.

    high in H. musciformis, whereas P. tetrastromatica, C. media and U. fasciata were rich in protein. The biochemical constituents in general did not show marked seasonal variations and it was attributed to the reproductive pattern of the algae studied...

  9. Seasonal variation in the mating system of a selfing annual with large floral displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ge; Barrett, Spencer C H; Luo, Yi-Bo; Bai, Wei-Ning

    2016-03-01

    Flowering plants display considerable variation in mating system, specifically the relative frequency of cross- and self-fertilization. The majority of estimates of outcrossing rate do not account for temporal variation, particularly during the flowering season. Here, we investigated seasonal variation in mating and fertility in Incarvillea sinensis (Bignoniaceae), an annual with showy, insect-pollinated, 'one-day' flowers capable of delayed selfing. We examined the influence of several biotic and abiotic environmental factors on day-to-day variation in fruit set, seed set and patterns of mating. We recorded daily flower number and pollinator abundance in nine 3 × 3-m patches in a population at Mu Us Sand land, Inner Mongolia, China. From marked flowers we collected data on daily fruit and seed set and estimated outcrossing rate and biparental inbreeding using six microsatellite loci and 172 open-pollinated families throughout the flowering period. Flower density increased significantly over most of the 50-d flowering season, but was associated with a decline in levels of pollinator service by bees, particularly on windy days. Fruit and seed set declined over time, especially during the latter third of the flowering period. Multilocus estimates of outcrossing rate were obtained using two methods (the programs MLTR and BORICE) and both indicated high selfing rates of ∼80 %. There was evidence for a significant increase in levels of selfing as the flowering season progressed and pollinator visitation declined. Biparental inbreeding also declined significantly as the flowering season progressed. Temporal variation in outcrossing rates may be a common feature of the mating biology of annual, insect-pollinated plants of harsh environments but our study is the first to examine seasonal mating-system dynamics in this context. Despite having large flowers and showy floral displays, I. sinensis attracted relatively few pollinators. Delayed selfing by corolla dragging

  10. Seasonal variation of mood and behaviour in a healthy middle-aged population in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, M; Shirakawa, S; Uchiyama, M; Oguri, M; Kohsaka, M; Mishima, K; Sakamoto, K; Inoue, H; Kamei, K; Takahashi, K

    1996-10-01

    A population survey of seasonality in six representative cities in Japan was conducted using the Japanese version of the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ). The questionnaires were given to 951 parents (male: female ratio 1:1 age range 34-59 years) of high-school students. Significant regional differences in seasonal variations of mood, length of sleep, and weight were observed; the proportion of individuals reporting high seasonality in the two northern cities was significantly higher than that in the other areas. These results provide evidence for a northern predominance in the prevalence of seasonal affective disorder in Japan.

  11. A seasonal variation of the three Leading diagnoses over fifty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A seasonal variation of the three Leading diagnoses over fifty months at the Duk Lost. Boys Clinic, South Sudan reed, williama, Dannan, Tomb, Friedman Danielc, MD, Manyok gabrield, Connor Barbarae, MD, reed Davidf, MD. Introduction. The Duk Lost Boys Clinic, a Primary Health Care Clinic in Duk Payuel, is the only ...

  12. Seasonal variations in vertical migration of glacier lanternfish, Benthosema glaciale

    KAUST Repository

    Dypvik, Eivind; Rø stad, Anders; Kaartvedt, Stein

    2012-01-01

    The seasonal variations in glacier lanternfish (Benthosema glaciale) vertical distribution and diel vertical migration (DVM) were studied by use of a bottom-mounted upward-facing 38 kHz echo sounder deployed at 392 m depth and cabled to shore in Masfjorden (~6052?N, ~524?E), Norway. Acoustic data from July 2007-October 2008 were analyzed, and scattering layers below ~220 m during daytime were attributed to glacier lanternfish based on net sampling in this, and previous studies, as well as from analysis of the acoustic data. At these depths, three different diel behavioral strategies were apparent: normal diel vertical migration (NDVM), inverse DVM (IDVM), and no DVM (NoDVM). NoDVM was present all year, while IDVM was present in autumn and winter, and NDVM was present during spring and summer. The seasonal differences in DVM behavior seem to correlate with previously established seasonal distribution of prey. We hypothesize that in regions with seasonally migrating zooplankton, such as where calanoid copepods overwinter at depth, similar plasticity in DVM behavior might occur in other populations of lanternfishes. 2012 The Author(s).

  13. Seasonal variations in vertical migration of glacier lanternfish, Benthosema glaciale

    KAUST Repository

    Dypvik, Eivind

    2012-06-05

    The seasonal variations in glacier lanternfish (Benthosema glaciale) vertical distribution and diel vertical migration (DVM) were studied by use of a bottom-mounted upward-facing 38 kHz echo sounder deployed at 392 m depth and cabled to shore in Masfjorden (~6052?N, ~524?E), Norway. Acoustic data from July 2007-October 2008 were analyzed, and scattering layers below ~220 m during daytime were attributed to glacier lanternfish based on net sampling in this, and previous studies, as well as from analysis of the acoustic data. At these depths, three different diel behavioral strategies were apparent: normal diel vertical migration (NDVM), inverse DVM (IDVM), and no DVM (NoDVM). NoDVM was present all year, while IDVM was present in autumn and winter, and NDVM was present during spring and summer. The seasonal differences in DVM behavior seem to correlate with previously established seasonal distribution of prey. We hypothesize that in regions with seasonally migrating zooplankton, such as where calanoid copepods overwinter at depth, similar plasticity in DVM behavior might occur in other populations of lanternfishes. 2012 The Author(s).

  14. Seasonal Variation in Essential oil Composition of Artemisianilagirica var. septentrionalis from Foot Hills of Western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Chandra Padalia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils composition of the aerial parts of Artemisia nilagirica (Clarke Pamp. var. septentrionalis Pamp. in different seasons viz. spring, summer, rainy, autumn and winter seasons under foot hills agroclimatic conditions of western Himalaya were analyzed and compared by GC–FID and GC–MS. Essential oils were mainly composed of monoterpenoids (59.0%-77.3% and sesquiterpenoids (15.7%-31.6%. The major constituents identified were artemisia ketone (38.3%-61.2%, chrysanthenone (1.5%-7.7%, germacrene D (3.1%-6.8%, β-caryophyllene (1.9%-6.8%, germacra-4,5,10-trien-1-α-ol (1.9%-4.9% and artemisia alcohol (1.4%-3.6%. Compositional analysis showed significant variations in the terpenoid compositions due to seasonal variations. Further, this is for the first time the seasonal variations in essential oil compositions of artemisia ketone rich chemotype of A. nilagirica var. septentrionalis is being reported from India.

  15. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Chinary, Assamica and Cambod tea (Camellia sinensis) Types during Development and Seasonal Variation using RNA-seq Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Chawla, Vandna; Sharma, Eshita; Mahajan, Pallavi; Shankar, Ravi; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Tea quality and yield is influenced by various factors including developmental tissue, seasonal variation and cultivar type. Here, the molecular basis of these factors was investigated in three tea cultivars namely, Him Sphurti (H), TV23 (T), and UPASI-9 (U) using RNA-seq. Seasonal variation in these cultivars was studied during active (A), mid-dormant (MD), dormant (D) and mid-active (MA) stages in two developmental tissues viz. young and old leaf. Development appears to affect gene expression more than the seasonal variation and cultivar types. Further, detailed transcript and metabolite profiling has identified genes such as F3‧H, F3‧5‧H, FLS, DFR, LAR, ANR and ANS of catechin biosynthesis, while MXMT, SAMS, TCS and XDH of caffeine biosynthesis/catabolism as key regulators during development and seasonal variation among three different tea cultivars. In addition, expression analysis of genes related to phytohormones such as ABA, GA, ethylene and auxin has suggested their role in developmental tissues during seasonal variation in tea cultivars. Moreover, differential expression of genes involved in histone and DNA modification further suggests role of epigenetic mechanism in coordinating global gene expression during developmental and seasonal variation in tea. Our findings provide insights into global transcriptional reprogramming associated with development and seasonal variation in tea.

  16. Seasonal variation in short-term mortality after surgery for colorectal cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, L H; Nielsen, H; Pedersen, L

    2010-01-01

    Comorbidity has a major impact on short-term and long-term survival of colorectal cancer (CRC) and many CRC patients suffer from comorbidities. Mortality rates for comorbidities like cardio-respiratory diseases exhibit distinct seasonal variations with highest rates in the winter. Therefore, we...

  17. Seasonal variation in penicillin use in Mexico and Brazil: analysis of the impact of over-the-counter restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa-Ana-Tellez, Yared; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Wirtz, Veronika J

    2015-01-01

    During 2010, Mexico and Brazil implemented policies to enforce existing laws of restricting over-the-counter sales of antibiotics. We determined if the enforcement led to more appropriate antibiotic use by measuring changes in seasonal variation of penicillin use. We used retail quarterly sales data in defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitant-days (DDD/TID) from IMS Health from the private sector in Mexico and Brazil from the first quarter of 2007 to the first quarter of 2013. This database contains information on volume of antibiotics sold in retail pharmacies using information from wholesalers. We used interrupted time-series models controlling for external factors with the use of antihypertensives with interaction terms to assess changes in trend, level, and variation in use between quarters for total penicillin use and by active substance. The most used penicillin was amoxicillin, followed by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ampicillin (minimal use in Brazil). Before the restrictions, the seasonal variation in penicillin use was 1.1 DDD/TID in Mexico and 0.8 DDD/TID in Brazil. In Mexico, we estimated a significant decrease in the seasonal variation of 0.4 DDD/TID after the restriction, mainly due to changes in seasonal variation of amoxicillin and ampicillin. In Brazil, the seasonal variation did not change significantly, overall and in the breakdown by individual active substances. For Mexico, inappropriate penicillin use may have diminished after the restrictions were enforced. For Brazil, increasing use and no change in seasonal variation suggest that further efforts are needed to reduce inappropriate penicillin use. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Community shelter use in response to two benthic decapod predators in the Long Island Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, David M; Reagan, Dugan; Crivello, Joseph F

    2016-01-01

    To investigate community shelter effects of two invasive decapod species, Hemigrapsus sanguineus and Carcinus maenas, in the Long Island Sound (LIS), we deployed artificial shelters in the intertidal and immediate subtidal zones. These consisted of five groups during the summer: a control, a resident H. sanguineus male or female group, and a resident C. maenas male or female group. We quantified utilization of the shelters at 24 h by counting crabs and fish present. We found significant avoidance of H. sanguineus in the field by benthic hermit crabs (Pagurus spp.) and significant avoidance of C. maenas by the seaboard goby (Gobiosoma ginsburgi). The grubby (Myoxocephalus aenaeus) avoided neither treatment, probably since it tends to be a predator of invertebrates. H. sanguineus avoided C. maenas treatments, whereas C. maenas did not avoid any treatment. Seasonal deployments in the subtidal indicated cohabitation of a number of benthic species in the LIS, with peak shelter use corresponding with increased predation and likely reproductive activity in spring and summer for green crabs (C. maenas), hermit crabs (Pagurus spp.), seaboard gobies (G. ginsburgi), and grubbies (Myoxocephalus aenaeus).

  19. Seasonal variations of vivax and falciparum malaria: an observation at a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, S.; Khan, M.N.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Malaria is a major public health problem in the malaria endemic zones of the world. Various factors influence the prevalence of malaria. This study was conducted to determine the variation in frequency of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in different seasons of the year in Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar. Methods: A total of 411 patients were included in the study. All these febrile patients were reported to have trophozoites of either Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium falciparum malaria on Giemsa stained thick and thin smears. The frequency of vivax and falciparum malaria was worked out and statistically analysed for different season of the year. The study was carried out from 2nd Jan 2004 till 31st December 2008. Results: Out of total 411 diagnosed malaria cases, total 134 (32.60%) presented in the autumn season (vivax=33.58%, and falciparum=66.42%), 37 (9%) in winter season (vivax=32.4%, and falciparum=67.6%), 76 (18.49%) in spring season (vivax=93.4% and falciparum 6.6%) and 164 (39.90%) in summer season (vivax=89.6, and falciparum=10.4%). The malaria showed a highly significant pattern in different seasons of the year (p=0.00) in a way that Plasmodium falciparum malaria reached its highest frequency in autumn and winter seasons while Plasmodium vivax malaria reached its peak frequency in spring and summer seasons. Conclusion: There was highly significant seasonal variation of vivax and falciparum malaria. There is arrival of Plasmodium falciparum in autumn which peaks in winter followed by arrival of Plasmodium vivax in spring till the end of summer. (author)

  20. Seasonal Variation in Fluoride Content in Groundwaters of Langtang Area, Northcentral Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibal, H. U.; Dajilak, W. N.; Lekmang, I. C.; Nimze, L. W.; Yenne, E. Y.

    2017-06-01

    Thirty groundwater samples were collected at the peak of the rainy season and analysed for fluoride and other cations and anions in drinking water sources of Langtang area. For comparative purposes, thirty seven groundwater samples were collected in the dry season. The aim of the study was to determine variation in fluoride content with respect to the seasons. Fluoride in water was determined by the Ion Selective Electrode (ISE) and the cations by the Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). The anion (sulphate) was determined by Multi - Ion Colorimeter, bicarbonate and chloride by titration method. In addition fluorine content in aquifer materials from a borehole section were determined by Fusion method. The two seasons show variation in content of fluoride in groundwater. Fluoride content in groundwater is higher in the dry season ranging from 0.13 - 10.3 mg/l compared to the 0.06 - 4.60 mg/l values in the rainy season. Content of fluorine (0.01 wt %) in the aquifer materials (sands) is low from depth of 0 to 7.95 m. However, fluorine content increases with depth, from 7.95 to 10.60 m with concentration of 0.04 wt %, 0.05 wt % from 10.60 to 13.25m, and 0.07 wt % from 13.25 to 15.70 m, the content of fluorine however, decreased at depth 15.70 to18.55m with concentration of 0.02 wt % even with fluorite mineral in the aquifer material at this depth. Dilution of fluoride ion as a result of rain input which recharges the aquifer may be the main reason for lower values recorded in the rainy season. Over fifty and sixty percent of waters in both dry and rainy season have fluoride concentration above the WHO upper limit of 1.5 mg/l. Consumption of these elevated values of fluoride in groundwater of the study area, clearly manifests as symptoms of dental fluorosis.

  1. Seasonal Variation in Fluoride Content in Groundwaters of Langtang Area, Northcentral Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibal H.U.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty groundwater samples were collected at the peak of the rainy season and analysed for fluoride and other cations and anions in drinking water sources of Langtang area. For comparative purposes, thirty seven groundwater samples were collected in the dry season. The aim of the study was to determine variation in fluoride content with respect to the seasons. Fluoride in water was determined by the Ion Selective Electrode (ISE and the cations by the Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES. The anion (sulphate was determined by Multi – Ion Colorimeter, bicarbonate and chloride by titration method. In addition fluorine content in aquifer materials from a borehole section were determined by Fusion method. The two seasons show variation in content of fluoride in groundwater. Fluoride content in groundwater is higher in the dry season ranging from 0.13 – 10.3 mg/l compared to the 0.06 – 4.60 mg/l values in the rainy season. Content of fluorine (0.01 wt % in the aquifer materials (sands is low from depth of 0 to 7.95 m. However, fluorine content increases with depth, from 7.95 to 10.60 m with concentration of 0.04 wt %, 0.05 wt % from 10.60 to 13.25m, and 0.07 wt % from 13.25 to 15.70 m, the content of fluorine however, decreased at depth 15.70 to18.55m with concentration of 0.02 wt % even with fluorite mineral in the aquifer material at this depth. Dilution of fluoride ion as a result of rain input which recharges the aquifer may be the main reason for lower values recorded in the rainy season. Over fifty and sixty percent of waters in both dry and rainy season have fluoride concentration above the WHO upper limit of 1.5 mg/l. Consumption of these elevated values of fluoride in groundwater of the study area, clearly manifests as symptoms of dental fluorosis.

  2. Seasonal Variations in Color Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, Karen B; Nelson, Rolf; Parker, Laura; Heck, Isobel A; Palmer, Stephen E

    2017-08-01

    We investigated how color preferences vary according to season and whether those changes could be explained by the ecological valence theory (EVT). To do so, we assessed the same participants' preferences for the same colors during fall, winter, spring, and summer in the northeastern United States, where there are large seasonal changes in environmental colors. Seasonal differences were most pronounced between fall and the other three seasons. Participants liked fall-associated dark-warm colors-for example, dark-red, dark-orange (brown), dark-yellow (olive), and dark-chartreuse-more during fall than other seasons. The EVT could explain these changes with a modified version of Palmer and Schloss' (2010) weighted affective valence estimate (WAVE) procedure that added an activation term to the WAVE equation. The results indicate that color preferences change according to season, as color-associated objects become more/less activated in the observer. These seasonal changes in color preferences could not be characterized by overall shifts in weights along cone-contrast axes. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  3. Comparison of seasonal variation between anthropogenic and natural emission inventory and Satellite observation in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, G.; Lalitaporn, P.

    2012-12-01

    Since the economic growth of the countries in Southeast Asia is significantly rapid, the emission of air pollutant from the anthropogenic activity, such as industry, power generation and transportation is rapidly increasing. Moreover, biomass burning due to unsuitable agricultural management, deforestation and expansion of farmland are discharging large amount of pollutants, such as Carbon monoxide, volatile organic compound and particulate matter. Especially, the particulate matter from biomass burning causes the serious haze pollution in surrounding area in Southeast Asia. Furthermore, the biomass fuel used for cooking at residential sector discharges harmful pollutants including a particulate matter, and causes the adverse health impact to people on indoor and outdoor. In this study, we evaluated the spatial distribution and the seasonal variation of emission inventory for Southeast Asia region by comparing with satellite observation data in order to improve the accuracy of the impact assessment of air pollution by regional atmospheric chemistry transport model (WRF and CMAQ). As an emission inventory data, we used our original regional emission inventory for Southeast Asia region developed from detail transportation and industry data sets as well as a several existing emission inventories. As satellite observation data, the vertical column density of NO2, Particulate matter and Carbon monoxide obtained by various satellite, such as GOME, GOME2, SCIAMACY, OMI and so on. As a result of comparisons between satellite observation and emission inventories from 1996 to 2011, in the case of anthropogenic emission, seasonal variation was comparatively well in agreement with the seasonal variation of satellite data. However, the uncertainty of the seasonal variation was large on several large cities. In the case of emission from biomass burning, the seasonal variation was clear, but inter-annual variation was also large due to large scale climate condition.

  4. Two distinct patterns of seasonal variation of airborne black carbon over Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo; Xu, Baiqing; Wang, Ninglian; Cao, Junji; Tie, Xuexi; Wang, Hailong; Zhu, Chongshu; Yang, Wei

    2016-12-15

    Airborne black carbon (BC) mass concentrations were measured from November 2012 to June 2013 at Ranwu and Beiluhe, located in the southeastern and central Tibetan Plateau, respectively. Monthly mean BC concentrations show a winter (November-February) high (413.2ngm -3 ) and spring (March-June) low (139.1ngm -3 ) at Ranwu, but in contrast a winter low and spring high at Beiluhe (204.8 and 621.6ngm -3 , respectively). By examining the meteorological conditions at various scales, we found that the monthly variation of airborne BC over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau (TP) was highly influenced by regional precipitation and over the hinterland by winds. Local precipitation at both sites showed little impact on the seasonal variation of airborne BC concentrations. Potential BC source regions are identified using air mass backward trajectory analysis. At Ranwu, BC was dominated by the air masses from the northeastern India and Bangladesh in both winter and spring, whereas at Beiluhe it was largely contributed by air masses from the south slope of Himalayas in winter, and from the arid region in the north of the TP in spring. The winter and spring seasonal peak of BC in the southern TP is largely contributed by emissions from South Asia, and this seasonal variation is heavily influenced by the regional monsoon. In the northern TP, BC had high concentrations during spring and summer seasons, which is very likely associated with more efficient transport of BC over the arid regions on the north of Tibetan Plateau and in Central Asia. Airborne BC concentrations at the Ranwu sampling site showed a significant diurnal cycle with a peak shortly after sunrise followed by a decrease before noon in both winter and spring, likely shaped by local human activities and the diurnal variation of wind speed. At the Beiluhe sampling site, the diurnal variation of BC is different and less distinct. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Two distinct patterns of seasonal variation of airborne black carbon over Tibetan Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Mo; Xu, Baiqing; Wang, Ninglian; Cao, Junji; Tie, Xuexi; Wang, Hailong; Zhu, Chongshu; Yang, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Airborne black carbon (BC) mass concentrations were measured from November 2012 to June 2013 at Ranwu and Beiluhe, located in the southeastern and central Tibetan Plateau, respectively. Monthly mean BC concentrations showawinter (November–February) high (413.2 ng m$-$3) and spring (March–June) low(139.1 ng m$-$3) at Ranwu, but in contrast awinter lowand spring high at Beiluhe (204.8 and 621.6 ng m$-$3, respectively). By examining the meteorological conditions at various scales, we found that themonthly variation of airborne BC over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau (TP) was highly influenced by regional precipitation and over the hinterland by winds. Local precipitation at both sites showed little impact on the seasonal variation of airborne BC concentrations. Potential BC source regions are identified using air mass backward trajectory analysis. At Ranwu, BC was dominated by the air masses from the northeastern India and Bangladesh in both winter and spring, whereas at Beiluhe it was largely contributed by air masses from the south slope of Himalayas in winter, and from the arid region in the north of the TP in spring. Thewinter and spring seasonal peak of BC in the southern TP is largely contributed by emissions from South Asia, and this seasonal variation is heavily influenced by the regional monsoon. In the northern TP, BC had high concentrations during spring and summer seasons, which is very likely associated with more efficient transport of BC over the arid regions on the north of Tibetan Plateau and in Central Asia. Airborne BC concentrations at the Ranwusampling site showed a significant diurnal cyclewith a peak shortly after sunrise followed by a decrease before noon in both winter and spring, likely shaped by local human activities and the diurnal variation of wind speed. At the Beiluhe sampling site, the diurnal variation of BC is different and less distinct.

  6. Seasonal variation in internet keyword searches: a proxy assessment of sex mating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, Patrick M; Markey, Charlotte N

    2013-05-01

    The current study investigated seasonal variation in internet searches regarding sex and mating behaviors. Harmonic analyses were used to examine the seasonal trends of Google keyword searches during the past 5 years for topics related to pornography, prostitution, and mate-seeking. Results indicated a consistent 6-month harmonic cycle with the peaks of keyword searches related to sex and mating behaviors occurring most frequently during winter and early summer. Such results compliment past research that has found similar seasonal trends of births, sexually transmitted infections, condom sales, and abortions.

  7. Seasonal Variations of Isotope Ratios and CO2 Concentrations in Firn Air

    OpenAIRE

    Weiler, Karin; Schwander, Jakob; Leuenberger, Markus; Blunier, Thomas; Mulvaney, Robert; Anderson, Philip S.; Salmon, Rhian; Sturges, William T.

    2009-01-01

    A first year-round firn air sampling carried out at the British Antarctic station Halley in 2003 shows isotope and CO2 changes owing to diffusive mixing driven by seasonal variations of surface temperature, and gas composition of the atmosphere. Seasonal firn temperatures are well reproduced from the atmospheric temperature history. Based on these profiles thermal diffusion is forced with thermal diffusion factors αT with respect to air. Application of the available literature data for αT (15...

  8. Seasonal variations and sources of sedimentary organic carbon in Tokyo Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Atsushi; Kanda, Jota

    2017-01-01

    Total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) contents, their stable C and N isotope ratio (δ 13 C and δ 15 N), and chlorophyll a ([Chl a] sed ) of surface sediments were investigated monthly to identify the seasonal variations and sources of organic matter in Tokyo Bay. The sedimentary TOC (TOC sed ) and TN (TN sed ) contents, and the sedimentary δ 13 C and δ 15 N (δ 13 C sed and δ 15 N sed ) values were higher in summer than other seasons. The seasonal variations were controlled by high primary production in the water column and hypoxic water in the bottom water during summer. The fraction of terrestrial and marine derived organic matter was estimated by Bayesian mixing model using stable isotope data and TOC/TN ratio. Surface sediments in Tokyo Bay are dominated by marine derived organic matter, which accounts for about 69 ± 5% of TOC sed . - Highlights: • High values of sedimentary organic carbon and nitrogen were observed in summer. • Surface sediments in Tokyo Bay were dominated by marine derived organic matter which was estimated by Bayesian mixing model. • The most amount of terrestrial POC was deposited and degraded in Tokyo Bay before being discharged to the open ocean.

  9. Analysis of trends and seasonal variation in primary cutaneous melanoma: an Irish study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Downes, M R

    2010-11-10

    A seasonal variation in the presentation of cutaneous melanoma has been documented in several studies. We performed a retrospective review of primary cutaneous melanomas (n = 263) from our institution to examine whether the seasonal patterns of presentation noted in the literature would be similar in Ireland, a climate with low ambient sunshine. A summer : winter ratio was determined for age, gender, subtype, location and Breslow thickness. We found an increase in total numbers of melanomas, particularly in men. The summer : winter ratio was 2.39 for all patients (95% CI 1.60-3.57, P < 0.001), with seasonal variations noted for location, thickness and subtype (excluding lentigo). Melanomas presenting over the summer tended towards a greater Breslow thickness than did those presenting in winter. This subclassification of primary cutaneous melanoma with summer : winter ratios based on patient and tumour characteristics gave remarkably similar results to previously published reports, notwithstanding the low levels of annual ambient sunshine in Ireland.

  10. Seasonal variations in VOC emission rates from gorse (Ulex europaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissard, C.; Cao, X.-L.; Juan, C.-Y.; Hewitt, C. N.; Gallagher, M.

    Seasonal variations of biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emission rates and standardised emission factors from gorse (Ulex europaeus) have been measured at two sites in the United Kingdom, from October 1994 to September 1995, within temperature and PAR conditions ranging from 3 to 34°C and 10-1300 μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. Isoprene was the dominant emitted compound with a relative composition fluctuating from 7% of the total VOC (winter) to 97% (late summer). The monoterpenes α-pinene, camphene, sabinene, β-pinene, myrcene, limonene, trans-ocimene and γ-terpinene were also emitted, with α-pinene being the dominant monoterpene during most the year. Trans-ocimene represented 33-66% of the total monoterpene during the hottest months from June to September. VOC emissions were found to be accurately predicted using existing algorithms. Standard (normalised) emission factors of VOCs from gorse were calculated using experimental parameters measured during the experiment and found to fluctuate with season, from 13.3±2.1 to 0.1±0.1 μg C (g dwt)-1 h-1 in August 1995 and January 1995, respectively, for isoprene, and from 2.5±0.2 to 0.4±0.2 μg C (g dwt)-1 h-1 in July and November 1995, respectively, for total monoterpenes. No simple clear relation was found to allow prediction of these seasonal variations with respect to temperature and light intensity. The effects of using inappropriate algorithms to derive VOC fluxes from gorse were assessed for isoprene and monoterpenes. Although on an annual basis the discrepancies are not significant, monthly estimation of isoprene were found to be overestimated by more than a factor of 50 during wintertime when the seasonality of emission factors is not considered.

  11. Seasonal variation and solar activity dependence of the quiet-time ionospheric trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, T.; Ogawa, Y.; Kadokura, A.; Hiraki, Y.; Häggström, I.

    2014-08-01

    We have conducted a statistical analysis of the ionospheric F region trough, focusing on its seasonal variation and solar activity dependence under geomagnetically quiet and moderate conditions, using plasma parameter data obtained via Common Program 3 observations performed by the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) radar between 1982 and 2011. We have confirmed that there is a major difference in frictional heating between the high- and low-latitude sides of the EISCAT field of view (FOV) at ~73°0'N-60°5'N (geomagnetic latitude) at an altitude of 325 km, which is associated with trough formation. Our statistical results show that the high-latitude and midlatitude troughs occur on the high- and low-latitude sides of the FOV, respectively. Seasonal variations indicate that dissociative recombination accompanied by frictional heating is a main cause of trough formation in sunlit regions. During summer, therefore, the occurrence rate is maintained at 80-90% in the postmidnight high-latitude region owing to frictional heating by eastward return flow. Solar activity dependence on trough formation indicates that field-aligned currents modulate the occurrence rate of the trough during the winter and equinox seasons. In addition, the trough becomes deeper via dissociative recombination caused by an increased ion temperature with F10.7, at least in the equinox and summer seasons but not in winter.

  12. Hybrid model for forecasting time series with trend, seasonal and salendar variation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhartono; Rahayu, S. P.; Prastyo, D. D.; Wijayanti, D. G. P.; Juliyanto

    2017-09-01

    Most of the monthly time series data in economics and business in Indonesia and other Moslem countries not only contain trend and seasonal, but also affected by two types of calendar variation effects, i.e. the effect of the number of working days or trading and holiday effects. The purpose of this research is to develop a hybrid model or a combination of several forecasting models to predict time series that contain trend, seasonal and calendar variation patterns. This hybrid model is a combination of classical models (namely time series regression and ARIMA model) and/or modern methods (artificial intelligence method, i.e. Artificial Neural Networks). A simulation study was used to show that the proposed procedure for building the hybrid model could work well for forecasting time series with trend, seasonal and calendar variation patterns. Furthermore, the proposed hybrid model is applied for forecasting real data, i.e. monthly data about inflow and outflow of currency at Bank Indonesia. The results show that the hybrid model tend to provide more accurate forecasts than individual forecasting models. Moreover, this result is also in line with the third results of the M3 competition, i.e. the hybrid model on average provides a more accurate forecast than the individual model.

  13. Seasonal variations in red deer (Cervus elaphus) hematology related to antler growth and biometrics measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar-López, Enrique; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Estevez, Jose Antonio; Ceacero, Francisco; Gallego, Laureano; García, Andrés Jose

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the study was to relate seasonal hematology changes with the rest of physiological variations suffered by red deer, such as antler and biometrics cycle, and to assess the relationship between hematology and the effort performed in antler development. Blood samples were taken from 21 male red deer every 4 weeks during 18 months. Samples were analyzed for the main hematological parameters. Simultaneously, biometrics measurements were taken, such as antler length, body weight, body condition score, testicular diameter (TD), and thoracic and neck girth. All the blood cell types (erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets) showed seasonal variations, increasing as antler cleaning approached, as did hematocrit and hemoglobin. The final size of antlers was negatively related to leukocyte count, nonlymphoid leukocyte count, red cell distribution width, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean platelet volume, and TD, whereas it was positively related to body condition during antler growth. Huge seasonal variations in some hematological values have been found to be related to changes in antler and biometrics measurements. Since these variations are even greater than the caused by deer handling, they should be taken into account when evaluating hematology in deer populations. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  14. Seasonal variation in Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope sex and age ratios from hunter-based surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Dalby, Lars; Sunde, Peter

    2013-01-01

    dominated by adult males, and juvenile proportions were highest in November and significantly lower before and after this peak. Nationwide field assessments undertaken in January 2012 showed no significant differences from sex and age ratios in the wing survey data from that particular hunting season (2011...... schemes. This study found consistent seasonal variation in Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope sex and age ratios among Danish hunter-based wing surveys, and describes how accounting for this variation might explain reported discrepancies between this and other monitoring methods. Early season flocks were....../2012), indicating that this survey is a good predictor of Wigeon demography. These results highlight the need to account for consistent temporal variation in such demographic time series when using the results to model population parameters....

  15. Seasonal variation of ozone deposition to a tropical rain forest in southwest Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Rummel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the project EUropean Studies on Trace gases and Atmospheric CHemistry as a contribution to Large-scale Biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia (LBA-EUSTACH, we performed tower-based eddy covariance measurements of O3 flux above an Amazonian primary rain forest at the end of the wet and dry season. Ozone deposition revealed distinct seasonal differences in the magnitude and diel variation. In the wet season, the rain forest was an effective O3 sink with a mean daytime (midday maximum deposition velocity of 2.3 cm s−1, and a corresponding O3 flux of −11 nmol m−2 s−1. At the end of the dry season, the ozone mixing ratio was about four times higher (up to maximum values of 80 ppb than in the wet season, as a consequence of strong regional biomass burning activity. However, the typical maximum daytime deposition flux was very similar to the wet season. This results from a strong limitation of daytime O3 deposition due to reduced plant stomatal aperture as a response to large values of the specific humidity deficit. As a result, the average midday deposition velocity in the dry burning season was only 0.5 cm s−1. The large diel ozone variation caused large canopy storage effects that masked the true diel variation of ozone deposition mechanisms in the measured eddy covariance flux, and for which corrections had to be made. In general, stomatal aperture was sufficient to explain the largest part of daytime ozone deposition. However, during nighttime, chemical reaction with nitrogen monoxide (NO was found to contribute substantially to the O3 sink in the rain forest canopy. Further contributions were from non-stomatal plant uptake and other processes that could not be clearly identified.

    Measurements, made simultaneously on a 22 years old cattle pasture enabled the spatially and temporally direct comparison of O3

  16. Variation in the serum bilirubin levels in newborns according to gender and seasonal changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Bala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bilirubin is a substance that is produced during the process of hemolysis. Gender influences on neonatal illnesses and outcomes have remained a topic of debate and investigation. Empirical neonatological experience suggests that prevalence and degree of neonatal jaundice might be dependent on seasonal variation also. The aim of our study is to interpret the bilirubin levels in newborns according to gender and seasonal variation. Materials and Methods: The study was done from October 2012 to July of 2013 (differentiated by seasonal variation. A total of 1000 jaundiced newborn (500 of each sex diagnosed clinically and divided equally in summer and winter season were studied to assess the total, direct and indirect serum bilirubin levels using colorimetry. Results: Out of total 1676 deliveries (439 were caesarean, 13 were assisted and rest were normal during winter season and 1475 deliveries (399 were Cesarean, 14 were assisted and rest were normal during summer season, 500 male newborn and 500 female newborn were analysed, divided equally in both seasons. Serum bilirubin was higher in males in summers and mainly comprised unconjugated bilirubin while direct bilirubin was higher in females in winters. Raised indirect bilirubin was more common in males born in summer than those born in winters (P = 041. In winters raised direct bilirubin was more common in females as compared to males (P = 0.019. Among female neonates total and indirect bilirubin was significantly raised in those born in summers (P = < 0.001 and <0.001, respectively while direct was raised in those born in winters (P = 0.003. Conclusion: Physiological and pathologic phenomena associated with male gender must be integrated in the frame of understanding of both susceptibility and protection of the male newborn which has not been available for adequate investigation in the past. The higher temperature during the summer, with a greater influence of higher breastfeeding

  17. Physiological implications of seasonal variation in membrane-associated calcium in red spruce mesophyll cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.H. DeHayes; P.G. Schaberg; G.J. Hawley; C.H. Borer; J.R. Cumming; J.R. Strimbeck

    1997-01-01

    We examined the pattern of seasonal variation in total foliar calcium (Ca) pools and plasma membrane-associated Ca (mCa) in mesophyll cells of current-year and 1-year-old needles of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and the relationship between mCa and total foliar Ca on an individual plant and seasonal basis. Foliar samples were collected from...

  18. Characteristics and seasonal variations of precipitation phenomena at Syowa Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Konishi

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-term observations of precipitating clouds were carried out by a vertical pointing radar, PPI radar and a 37 GHz microwave radiometer at Syowa Station (69°00′S, 39°35′E, Antarctica in 1989. It is concluded from the observations that precipitation near Syowa Station, Antarctica is mainly brought by cloud vortices associated with extratropical cyclones which advance to high latitude while developing to a mature stage. The seasonal variations of clouds and precipitation were analyzed corresponding to the seasonal changes of air temperature and sea ice area. The occurrence frequencies of cloud vortices which brought snowfall to Syowa Station increased in the fall and spring seasons corresponding to activity of the circumpolar trough. However, the activities of cloud systems that bring precipitation weaken in spring when the sea ice area expands to low latitudes, because of less supply of heat and vapor. In 1989,the amount of precipitation in spring brought by a few snowfall events was as large as the amount of precipitation in fall brought by frequent snowfall events. Radar observations revealed that there were three abundant snowfall seasons at Syowa Station and the amount of snowfall was uniform in all seasons except summer. The amounts of precipitation in fall, winter and spring were 74,74 and 53mm respectively.

  19. What Controls Seasonal Variation of Phytoplankton Growth in the East China Sea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K.; Chao, S.; Lee, H.; Gong, G.; Teng, Y.

    2009-05-01

    The seasonal variation of phytoplankton growth in the East China Sea (ECS) is simulated with a three- dimensional coupled physical-biogeochemical model, which includes discharges from Changjiang (aka the Yangtze River). The purpose is to determine the main control on the seasonality of primary productivity in the ECS shelf, which nurtures rich biological resources. The model has a horizontal resolution of 1/6 degree in the domain from 23N to 41N and from 116E to 134E, excluding the Japan/East Sea, and 33 layers in the vertical. The nitrogen-based biogeochemical model has four compartments: dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), phytoplankton, zooplankton and detritus. The chlorophyll to phytoplankton ratio depends on light and DIN availability. The model is driven by monthly climatological winds with the sea surface temperature, salinity and DIN relaxed towards the climatological mean values. It successfully reproduces the observed seasonal variation of phytoplankton growth over the ECS shelf with a strong peak in later spring and summer. The modeled annual mean primary production over the entire ECS shelf is 439 mg C m-2 d-1, which falls within the reported range of 390-529 mg C m-2 d-1. It also reproduces the marked gradient of DIN across the shelf decreasing away from the Changjiang River plume. An alternative model run, Free-N, which deviates from the standard run by essentially removing nudging on DIN, generates the same seasonal pattern of primary productivity but somewhat reduced productivity. In yet another alternative run, Fix-PAR, which deviates from Free-N by removing the seasonal cycle of photosynthetically active radiation, the seasonality of primary productivity almost vanishes. These model results demonstrate that light availability is the major control on the seasonality of primary productivity. However, nutrient supply from vertical nutrient pumping and from Changjiang discharges is still important. It is the insufficient nutrient pumping that leads

  20. Seasonal variations of U.S. mortality rates: Roles of solar ultraviolet-B doses, vitamin D, gene exp ression, and infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, William B; Bhattoa, Harjit Pal; Boucher, Barbara J

    2017-10-01

    Death rates in the U.S. show a pronounced seasonality. The broad seasonal variation shows about 25% higher death rates in winter than in summer with an additional few percent increase associated with the Christmas and New Year's holidays. A pronounced increase in death rates also starts in mid-September, shortly after the school year begins. The causes of death with large contributions to the observed seasonality include diseases of the circulatory system; the respiratory system; the digestive system; and endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases. Researchers have identified several factors showing seasonal variation that could possibly explain the seasonal variations in mortality rate. These factors include seasonal variations in solar ultraviolet-B(UVB) doses and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations, gene expression, ambient temperature and humidity, UVB effects on environmental pathogen load, environmental pollutants and allergens, and photoperiod (or length of day). The factors with the strongest support in this analysis are seasonal variations in solar UVB doses and 25(OH)D concentrations. In the U.S., population mean 25(OH)D concentrations range from 21ng/mL in March to 28ng/mL in August. Measures to ensure that all people had 25(OH)D concentrations >36ng/mL year round would probably reduce death rates significantly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Seasonal variations of solar neutrino rates in lithium detector

    OpenAIRE

    Kopylov, Anatoly; Petukhov, Valery

    2002-01-01

    The presence of two monochromatic lines of approximately equal intensity: $^{7}$Be- and pep-neutrinos in the sensitivity plot of lithium detector makes the pattern of the seasonal variations of the effect from solar neutrinos very characteristic in case if the long-wave vacuum oscillations are realized. This can give the very high accuracy in the measurement of the parameters of neutrino oscillations especially if combined with the results obtained by the detector sensitive mainly to $^{7}$Be...

  2. Determinants, reproducibility, and seasonal variation of ergosterol levels in house dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, H K; Nevalainen, A; Vepsäläinen, A; Roponen, M; Täubel, M; Laine, O; Rantakokko, P; von Mutius, E; Pekkanen, J; Hyvärinen, A

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to clarify the determinants that affect the concentrations of ergosterol and viable fungi in house dust and to examine the seasonal variation and reproducibility of ergosterol concentrations indoors. In studying the determinants, dust samples from living room floors and vacuum cleaner dust bags were collected from 107 farming and 105 non-farming homes. Ergosterol levels were determined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry,and the dust bag dust was cultivated for enumeration of fungal genera. Lifestyle and environmental factors, for example using of the fireplace, and visible mold observations in homes, explained 20–26% of the variation of fungal concentrations. For the reproducibility study, samples were collected from five urban homes in four different seasons. The reproducibility of ergosterol determinations within a sample was excellent (ICC = 89.8) for floor dust and moderate (ICC = 63.8) for dust bag dust, but poor when sampling the same home throughout a year (ICC = 31.3 and 12.6, respectively) due to large temporal variation in ergosterol concentrations. In conclusion, environmental characteristics only partially predicted the variation of fungal concentrations. Based on these studies, we recommend repeated sampling of dust over time if one seeks to adequately describe overall fungal levels and exposure in a home. This study shows that levels of ergosterol and viable fungi in house dust are related to visible mold observations. Only 20% of the variation in fungal levels can be explained with questionnaires, and therefore, environmental samples need to be taken in addition. Reproducibility of ergosterol determination was excellent for floor dust, and thus, ergosterol measurements from floor dust samples could be suitable for assessing the fungal load in building investigations. The temporal variation needs to be taken into account when describing the ergosterol concentration of urban homes.

  3. Seasonal variation of wind direction fluctuations vs Pasquill stabilities in complex terrain

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.; Murthy, K.P.R.V.

    The authors have studied the seasonal variation of sigma theta (the standard deviation of wind direction fluctuations) vs Pasquill stabilities over complex terrain. It is found that the values of sigma theta are quite high in the month of April...

  4. Methyl farnesoate couples environmental changes to testicular development in the crab Carcinus maenas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraju, G P C; Borst, D W

    2008-09-01

    Carcinus maenas males have two major color phases. Green-phase males molt frequently and tend to live in brackish estuaries during the summer. After becoming red-phase males, they molt infrequently, have higher mating success, and live in cooler, deeper water. We found profound differences between these two phases in the way salinity and temperature affect hemolymph levels of methyl farnesoate (MF), a hormone that affects crustacean reproduction. Few green-phase males (salinity. MF levels of green-phase males were increased by injecting MF, by ESA, or by exposure to 5 ppt SW at 18 degrees C. The testicular index of these treated animals nearly doubled after two weeks. Our results strongly suggest that environmental conditions such as temperature and salinity, affect testicular development in this crab by changing its MF levels.

  5. Latitudinal range influences the seasonal variation in the foraging behavior of marine top predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Villegas-Amtmann

    Full Text Available Non-migratory resident species should be capable of modifying their foraging behavior to accommodate changes in prey abundance and availability associated with a changing environment. Populations that are better adapted to change will have higher foraging success and greater potential for survival in the face of climate change. We studied two species of resident central place foragers from temperate and equatorial regions with differing population trends and prey availability associated to season, the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus (CSL whose population is increasing and the endangered Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki (GSL whose population is declining. To determine their response to environmental change, we studied and compared their diving behavior using time-depth recorders and satellite location tags and their diet by measuring C and N isotope ratios during a warm and a cold season. Based on latitudinal differences in oceanographic productivity, we hypothesized that the seasonal variation in foraging behavior would differ for these two species. CSL exhibited greater seasonal variability in their foraging behavior as seen in changes to their diving behavior, foraging areas and diet between seasons. Conversely, GSL did not change their diving behavior between seasons, presenting three foraging strategies (shallow, deep and bottom divers during both. GSL exhibited greater dive and foraging effort than CSL. We suggest that during the warm and less productive season a greater range of foraging behaviors in CSL was associated with greater competition for prey, which relaxed during the cold season when resource availability was greater. GSL foraging specialization suggests that resources are limited throughout the year due to lower primary production and lower seasonal variation in productivity compared to CSL. These latitudinal differences influence their foraging success, pup survival and population growth reflected in

  6. Prediction of seasonal climate-induced variations in global food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizumi, Toshichika; Sakuma, Hirofumi; Yokozawa, Masayuki; Luo, Jing-Jia; Challinor, Andrew J.; Brown, Molly E.; Sakurai, Gen; Yamagata, Toshio

    2013-10-01

    Consumers, including the poor in many countries, are increasingly dependent on food imports and are thus exposed to variations in yields, production and export prices in the major food-producing regions of the world. National governments and commercial entities are therefore paying increased attention to the cropping forecasts of important food-exporting countries as well as to their own domestic food production. Given the increased volatility of food markets and the rising incidence of climatic extremes affecting food production, food price spikes may increase in prevalence in future years. Here we present a global assessment of the reliability of crop failure hindcasts for major crops at two lead times derived by linking ensemble seasonal climatic forecasts with statistical crop models. We found that moderate-to-marked yield loss over a substantial percentage (26-33%) of the harvested area of these crops is reliably predictable if climatic forecasts are near perfect. However, only rice and wheat production are reliably predictable at three months before the harvest using within-season hindcasts. The reliabilities of estimates varied substantially by crop--rice and wheat yields were the most predictable, followed by soybean and maize. The reasons for variation in the reliability of the estimates included the differences in crop sensitivity to the climate and the technology used by the crop-producing regions. Our findings reveal that the use of seasonal climatic forecasts to predict crop failures will be useful for monitoring global food production and will encourage the adaptation of food systems toclimatic extremes.

  7. Seasonal variation of the flow in the strait of Bah al Mandab

    OpenAIRE

    Smeed, D

    1997-01-01

    There is a strong seasonal variation in the exchange flow through the strait of Bah al Mandab connecting the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aden (Thompson, 1939). In the winter a two-layer flow is observed in the strait. Dense intermediate water from the Red Sea flows into the Gulf of Aden and warmer fresher surface water flows into the Red Sea. In the summer season the direction of the surface flow is reversed and a third layer, of density between that of the surface layer and that of the intermedia...

  8. Community shelter use in response to two benthic decapod predators in the Long Island Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Hudson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate community shelter effects of two invasive decapod species, Hemigrapsus sanguineus and Carcinus maenas, in the Long Island Sound (LIS, we deployed artificial shelters in the intertidal and immediate subtidal zones. These consisted of five groups during the summer: a control, a resident H. sanguineus male or female group, and a resident C. maenas male or female group. We quantified utilization of the shelters at 24 h by counting crabs and fish present. We found significant avoidance of H. sanguineus in the field by benthic hermit crabs (Pagurus spp. and significant avoidance of C. maenas by the seaboard goby (Gobiosoma ginsburgi. The grubby (Myoxocephalus aenaeus avoided neither treatment, probably since it tends to be a predator of invertebrates. H. sanguineus avoided C. maenas treatments, whereas C. maenas did not avoid any treatment. Seasonal deployments in the subtidal indicated cohabitation of a number of benthic species in the LIS, with peak shelter use corresponding with increased predation and likely reproductive activity in spring and summer for green crabs (C. maenas, hermit crabs (Pagurus spp., seaboard gobies (G. ginsburgi, and grubbies (Myoxocephalus aenaeus.

  9. Seasonal variation of air kerma in the 'Vulcano Porto' area (Aeolian Islands, Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellia, S.; Basile, S.; Brai, M.; Hauser, S.; Puccio, P.; Rizzo, S.

    2001-01-01

    Air kerma was measured in the 'Vulcano Porto' area of the Vulcano Island, belonging to the Aeolian Islands, in the Mediterranean Sea. Measurements were carried out using thermoluminescence dosimeters. The relationship between observed dose values and source lithology has been assessed. Data show a seasonal variation due to weather conditions but also probably related to features of the soils, making the variation more evident

  10. Seasonal variation of air kerma in the "Vulcano Porto" area (Aeolian Islands, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellia, S; Basile, S; Brai, M; Hauser, S; Puccio, P; Rizzo, S

    2001-04-01

    Air kerma was measured in the "Vulcano Porto" area of the Vulcano Island, belonging to the Aeolian Islands, in the Mediterranean Sea. Measurements were carried out using thermoluminescence dosimeters. The relationship between observed dose values and source lithology has been assessed. Data show a seasonal variation due to weather conditions but also probably related to features of the soils, making the variation more evident.

  11. Variations of streambed vertical hydraulic conductivity before and after a flood season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guangdong; Shu, Longcang; Lu, Chengpeng; Chen, Xunhong; Zhang, Xiao; Appiah-Adjei, Emmanuel K.; Zhu, Jingsi

    2015-11-01

    The change of vertical hydraulic conductivity ( K v) before and after a flood season is crucial in understanding the long-term temporal variation of streambed permeability. Therefore, in this study, a detailed K v field investigation was conducted at an in-channel site within the Dawen River, China, before and after a flood season. In-situ falling-head permeameter tests were performed for the determination of K v. The tests were conducted using a 10 × 10 grid, at five different depths. In total, 871 valid K v values from layers 1-5 were obtained. The Kruskal-Wallis test on these K v values before and after the flood season shows they belonged to different populations. The sediments before the flood season primarily consisted of sand and gravel, whereas after the flood season, patchy distribution of silt/clay occurred in the sandy streambed and silt/clay content increased with the increasing depth; under the losing condition during flooding, downward movement of water brought fine particles into the coarse sediments, partially silting the pores. Accordingly, the K v values after the flood season had a smaller mean and median, and a higher level of heterogeneity, compared to those before the flood season. Additionally, the distribution pattern in K v across the stream differed before and after flood season; after the flood season, there was an increasing trend in K v from the south bank to the north bank. Overall, the contrasts of K v before and after the flood season were predominantly subject to the infiltration of fine particles.

  12. Global and regional seasonal variations of the geoid detected by GRACE

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kostelecký, J.; Bezděk, Aleš; Klokočník, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2013), s. 285-291 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-36843S Grant - others:EU(XE) NTIS CZ1.05/1.1.00/02.0090 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : GRACE mission * seasonal variations * geoid Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2013

  13. Seasonal mortality variations of cardiovascular, respiratory and malignant diseases in the City of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanišić-Stojić Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to examine seasonal variations in mortality resulting from cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases and cancer, as well as to provide a review of environmental factors underlying such phenomenon. The herein presented study was conducted on the territory of Belgrade based on the data on daily mortality rates obtained from the Institute of Public Health in Belgrade for the period 2009-2014, as well as the data on annual mortality rates provided by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia for the period 2000-2014. The analysis of mortality variations was performed by the use of Theil-Sen method, smooth trend method and cubic spline interpolation, whereas desriptive tools, such as winter/summer ratio and dissimilarity index, were used to examine the seasonal pattern. According to the Institute of Public Health, over 113430 deaths were registered in Belgrade area for the period 2009-2014, out of which 53.25% is attributed to cardiovascular diseases, 4.01% to respiratory diseases and 27.50% to cancer. The annual mortality rates caused by cardiovascular diseases and cancer on the territory of Belgrade are among the highest ranking in Europe. The leading causes of death in the observed period included: cardiomyopathy, heart attack and stroke with accompanying complications, breast cancer in women, prostate and colorectal cancer in men, lung and bronchus cancer for both genders, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cardiovascular and respiratory mortality rates are significantly higher among people aged 65 and over, whereas more than one third of deaths caused by cancer is observed among younger people aged between 45 and 64 years. Research results show that seasonal variations were most pronounced in mortality resulting from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, with highest mortality rates recorded in February and March and lowest during the summer season. Also, the number of deaths due to

  14. Seasonal variations in dissolved neodymium isotope composition in the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhaojie; Colin, Christophe; Meynadier, Laure; Douville, Eric; Dapoigny, Arnaud; Reverdin, Gilles; Wu, Qiong; Wan, Shiming; Song, Lina; Xu, Zhaokai; Bassinot, Frank

    2017-12-01

    Constraining the dissolved neodymium (Nd) cycle in the ocean is paramount for using Nd isotopic composition (εNd) as a tracer to reconstruct deep-sea paleocirculations or continental weathering on different time scales. Dissolved εNd has been measured in seawater samples from six hydrological stations collected along ∼89°E North-South transect in the Bay of Bengal (BoB) in order to assess the impact of seasonal freshwater and sediment discharges from the continental river systems. Seawater samples collected in this study during June 2012 reveal more radiogenic εNd (a difference of ∼2 Epsilon units for the upper 2000 m, and ∼0.5 Epsilon unit below 2000 m) and ∼3-8 pmol/kg lower Nd concentrations than the reported values of nearby seawater samples collected in November 2008. These observations are most plausibly explained by a seasonal variations in dissolved Nd concentrations and εNd in the BoB, induced by seasonal variations in the freshwater and sediment discharges from the Ganges-Brahmaputra (G-B) river system. However, we cannot entirely exclude the possibility of spatial differences given that the water stations collected in this study are not exactly the same positions collected in November 2008. A two-box model suggests, (1) the particulate Nd inputs from the G-B river system mainly control the seasonal shift of εNd observed in the BoB seawater, and (2) a very rapid Nd exchange exists between lithogenic particles and seawater (at least on the scale of a few months). Seasonal changes in seawater εNd may also occur in other marginal seas and in the outflows of major rivers, and these need to be taken into account when using the εNd proxy in the ocean.

  15. Effect of seasonal variation on the composition and properties of raw milk destined for processing in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Biye; Lewis, Michael J; Grandison, Alistair S

    2014-09-01

    The composition and physical properties of raw milk from a commercial herd were studied over a 1 year period in order to understand how best to utilise milk for processing throughout the year. Protein and fat levels demonstrated seasonal trends, while minerals and many physical properties displayed considerable variations, which were apparently unrelated to season. However, rennet clotting time, ethanol stability and foaming ability were subject to seasonal variation. Many significant interrelationships in physico-chemical properties were found. It is clear that the milk supply may be more suited to the manufacture of different products at different times of the year or even on a day to day basis. Subsequent studies will report on variation in production and quality of products manufactured from the same milk samples described in the current study and will thus highlight potential advantages of seasonal processing of raw milk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of seasonal variations on thermoregulation of ostrich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basuony, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Twelve ostrich aged 7 months old were used during summer and winter from the breeding flock of the ostrich farm, at the Nuclear Research Center in Inshas, of Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. In the study all birds were exposed to ambient temperatures in summer and winter, and the birds were fed grower ration ad libitum (19% protein and 2450 K cal ME /Kg).The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of temperature variation during summer and winter seasons and diurnal effect on changes in some physiological and blood chemical parameters, the daily feed consumption (g/bird/day) and water consumption (ml/bird/day) these parameters were measured during 7 days in each season. Cloacal temperatures was measured and blood samples were taken twice, one in the morning at 7 am and once in the afternoon at 3 pm during a representative 7 hot days of June (40±2 degree C) (summer) and the 7 cold days of January (18±2 degree C) (winter). Red blood cell (RBCs) counts and total white blood cell (WBCs) counts, hemoglobin concentration (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) were determined. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations (MCHC) were calculated. Serum, total protein (TP), albumen (A) and globulin (G) concentrations were measured. Furthermore, serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), glucose and triglycerides concentrations were determined. Also, serum triiodothyronine (T 3 ), and aldosterone levels were estimated. Also, the amount of total body water was determined by the antipyren method. Finally, serum protein profile it was conducted by Native-PAGE method (Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) on vertical slab gel to determine protein profiles in blood proteins of ostrich. Results indicated that feed consumption unlike water consumption was significantly increased during winter than in summer season. Moreover, body temperature increased significantly during the

  17. Seasonal variations of the high-latitude geomagnetic field intensity in the northern hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivin, Yu.R.; Chkhaidze, Z.Sh.

    1994-01-01

    Seasonal variation of the geomagnetic field three components is investigated using the data of the USA observatories chain separately for polar region, auroral zone and middle latitudes beginning from 1950. The variation consists of an annual and half-yearly waves. main attention is paid to time variability of the annual wave phase in the auroral zone, that is connected with superposition of waves of western and eastern jets

  18. Seasonal Variations of Oceanographic Variables and Eastern Little Tuna (Euthynnus affinis) Catches in the North Indramayu Waters Java Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamsuddin, Mega; Sunarto; Yuliadi, Lintang

    2018-02-01

    The remotely derived oceanographic variables included sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and Eastern Little Tuna (Euthynnus affinis) catches are used as a combined dataset to understand the seasonal variation of oceanographic variables and Eastern Little Tuna catches in the north Indramayu waters, Java Sea. The fish catches and remotely sensed data were analysed for the 5 years datasets from 2010-2014. This study has shown the effect of monsoon inducing oceanographic condition in the study area. Seasonal change features were dominant for all the selected oceanographic parameters of SST and Chl-a, and also Eastern Little Tuna catches, respectively. The Eastern Little Tuna catch rates have the peak season from September to December (700 to 1000) ton that corresponded with the value of SST ranging from 29 °C to 30 °C following the decreasing of Chl-a concentrations in September to November (0.4 to 0.5) mg m-3. The monsoonal system plays a great role in determining the variability of oceanographic conditions and catch in the north Indramayu waters, Java Sea. The catches seemed higher during the northwest monsoon than in the southeast monsoon for all year observations except in 2010. The wavelet spectrum analysis results confirmed that Eastern Little Tuna catches had seasonal and inter-annual variations during 2012-2014. The SST had seasonal variations during 2010-2014. The Chl-a also showed seasonal variations during 2010-2011 and interannual variations during 2011-2014. Our results would benefit the fishermen and policy makers to have better management for sustainable catch in the study area.

  19. Seasonal variation of seismic ambient noise level at King Sejong Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W.; Sheen, D.; Seo, K.; Yun, S.

    2009-12-01

    The generation of the secondary- or double-frequency (DF) microseisms with dominant frequencies between 0.1 and 0.5 Hz has been explained by nonlinear second-order pressure perturbations on the ocean bottom due to the interference of two ocean waves of equal wavelengths traveling in opposite directions. Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI) has been operating a broadband seismic station (KSJ1) at King George Island (KGI), Antarctica, since 2001. Examining the ambient seismic noise level for the period from 2006 to 2008 at KSJ1, we found a significant seasonal variation in the frequency range 0.1-0.5 Hz. Correlation of the DF peaks with significant ocean wave height and peak wave period models indicates that the oceanic infragravity waves in the Drake Passage is a possible source to excite the DF microseisms at KGI. Location of King Sejong Station, Antarctica Seasonal variations of DF peak, significant wave height, and peak wave period

  20. Seasonal Variation in the Emergency Department Prevalence Of Sepsis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNevin, C

    2018-05-01

    The incidence and mortality of sepsis and severe sepsis in hospitalised patients is seasonal and consistently highest during the winter. The primary aim of this study was to measure the seasonal variation in the prevalence of emergency department (ED) patients with sepsis. This cross-sectional study was performed over two four-week periods in the summer and in the winter, respectively. The clinical records of all patients presenting to the ED during the study periods were retrospectively screened to determine if they met the criteria for “uncomplicated” sepsis and severe sepsis or septic shock. The prevalence of “uncomplicated” sepsis was higher in the winter (43.9 per 1000) compared to the summer (30.7 per 1000). The prevalence of severe sepsis or septic shock was also higher in the winter (17.7 per 1000) compared to the summer (11.7 per 1000). This quantitatively demonstrates the increased ED burden of sepsis in the winter that can be used to inform healthcare planning and resource allocation.

  1. Spatial and seasonal variations of the contamination within water body of the Grand Canal, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.L.; Han, Jingyi; Xu, L.G.; Zhang, Q.

    2010-01-01

    To delineate the character of contaminations in the Grand Canal, China, a three-year study (2004-2006) was conducted to investigate variations the water quality in the canal. Results showed that the variation of water quality within the Grand Canal was of there is remarkable spatial and seasonal

  2. Impacts of Land Cover and Seasonal Variation on Maximum Air Temperature Estimation Using MODIS Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Cai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Daily maximum surface air temperature (Tamax is a crucial factor for understanding complex land surface processes under rapid climate change. Remote detection of Tamax has widely relied on the empirical relationship between air temperature and land surface temperature (LST, a product derived from remote sensing. However, little is known about how such a relationship is affected by the high heterogeneity in landscapes and dynamics in seasonality. This study aims to advance our understanding of the roles of land cover and seasonal variation in the estimation of Tamax using the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer LST product. We developed statistical models to link Tamax and LST in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China for five major land-cover types (i.e., forest, shrub, water, impervious surface, cropland, and grassland and two seasons (i.e., growing season and non-growing season. Results show that the performance of modeling the Tamax-LST relationship was highly dependent on land cover and seasonal variation. Estimating Tamax over grasslands and water bodies achieved superior performance; while uncertainties were high over forested lands that contained extensive heterogeneity in species types, plant structure, and topography. We further found that all the land-cover specific models developed for the plant non-growing season outperformed the corresponding models developed for the growing season. Discrepancies in model performance mainly occurred in the vegetated areas (forest, cropland, and shrub, suggesting an important role of plant phenology in defining the statistical relationship between Tamax and LST. For impervious surfaces, the challenge of capturing the high spatial heterogeneity in urban settings using the low-resolution MODIS data made Tamax estimation a difficult task, which was especially true in the growing season.

  3. Seasonal variation in accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in an Arctic marine benthic food web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evenset, A., E-mail: anita.evenset@akvaplan.niva.no [Akvaplan-niva. Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); University of Tromsø, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø (Norway); Hallanger, I.G. [University of Tromsø, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø (Norway); Tessmann, M. [Akvaplan-niva. Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); Institute for Hydrobiology and Fisheries Research, University of Hamburg (Germany); Warner, N. [Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); Ruus, A. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo (Norway); Borgå, K. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo (Norway); Department of Biosciences, P.O. Box 1066, Blindern 0316, Oslo (Norway); Gabrielsen, G.W. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); Christensen, G. [Akvaplan-niva. Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); Renaud, P.E. [Akvaplan-niva. Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); University Centre in Svalbard, Longyearbyen (Norway)

    2016-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate seasonal variation in persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations, as well as food-web biomagnification, in an Arctic, benthic marine community. Macrozoobenthos, demersal fish and common eiders were collected both inside and outside of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, during May, July and October 2007. The samples were analysed for a selection of legacy chlorinated POPs. Overall, low levels of POPs were measured in all samples. Although POP levels and accumulation patterns showed some seasonal variation, the magnitude and direction of change was not consistent among species. Overall, seasonality in bioaccumulation in benthic biota was less pronounced than in the pelagic system in Kongsfjorden. In addition, the results indicate that δ{sup 15}N is not a good predictor for POP-levels in benthic food chains. Other factors, such as feeding strategy (omnivory, necrophagy versus herbivory), degree of contact with the sediment, and a high dependence on particulate organic matter (POM), with low POP-levels and high δ{sup 15}N-values (due to bacterial isotope enrichment), seem to govern the uptake of the different POPs and result in loads deviating from what would be expected consulting the trophic position alone. - Highlights: • Seasonal variation in POP biomagnification was investigated in a benthic food web. • Levels of POPs are generally low in benthic species from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. • POP-concentrations varied with season, but direction of change varied among taxa. • No POP-biomagnification, except for cis-nonachlor, was detected in this study. • δ{sup 15}N-values does not seem to be a good proxy for trophic level in macrozoobenthos.

  4. Seasonal variation in accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in an Arctic marine benthic food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evenset, A.; Hallanger, I.G.; Tessmann, M.; Warner, N.; Ruus, A.; Borgå, K.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Christensen, G.; Renaud, P.E.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate seasonal variation in persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations, as well as food-web biomagnification, in an Arctic, benthic marine community. Macrozoobenthos, demersal fish and common eiders were collected both inside and outside of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, during May, July and October 2007. The samples were analysed for a selection of legacy chlorinated POPs. Overall, low levels of POPs were measured in all samples. Although POP levels and accumulation patterns showed some seasonal variation, the magnitude and direction of change was not consistent among species. Overall, seasonality in bioaccumulation in benthic biota was less pronounced than in the pelagic system in Kongsfjorden. In addition, the results indicate that δ"1"5N is not a good predictor for POP-levels in benthic food chains. Other factors, such as feeding strategy (omnivory, necrophagy versus herbivory), degree of contact with the sediment, and a high dependence on particulate organic matter (POM), with low POP-levels and high δ"1"5N-values (due to bacterial isotope enrichment), seem to govern the uptake of the different POPs and result in loads deviating from what would be expected consulting the trophic position alone. - Highlights: • Seasonal variation in POP biomagnification was investigated in a benthic food web. • Levels of POPs are generally low in benthic species from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. • POP-concentrations varied with season, but direction of change varied among taxa. • No POP-biomagnification, except for cis-nonachlor, was detected in this study. • δ"1"5N-values does not seem to be a good proxy for trophic level in macrozoobenthos.

  5. [Seasonal variations in estrus behavior and ovulatory activity in Chios and Serres ewes in Greece].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdi, M; Driancourt, M A; Chemineau, P

    1993-01-01

    Sheep are seasonal breeders, but a lower seasonality has been reported for sheep breeds from the Mediterranean countries enabling spring matings. To further substantiate this, the present study compared seasonal variation in oestrus behaviour and ovulation in two Greek breeds (Chios and Serres) maintained in the same environment. In 27 adult ewes of each breed, oestrus behaviour, the occurrence of ovulation and ovulation rate were monitored during 2 successive years by daily inspection by rams, weekly progesterone assay in circulating blood plasma and monthly ovarian laparoscopy. The periods of anoestrus (109 +/- 8 (wk) vs 178 +/- 5 d) and anovulation (63 +/- 8 vs 149 +/- 6 d) were significantly shorter (P duration of oestrus was also longer in Chios ewes (1.8 +/- 0.05 vs 1.5 +/- 0.06 d; P = 0.002). There were significant correlations between the duration of anovulatory periods of the 2 successive years in Chios (r = 0.43) but not Serres ewes. Ovulation rate was positively related to the onset of the sexual season in Serres but not in Chios ewes. The present data suggest that: i) the efficiency of Serres but not in Chios ewes. The present data suggest that: i) the efficiency of spring mating in these breeds is suboptimal since it is a period when the percentage of ewes exhibiting oestrus and ovulation as well as ovulation rate are limited, ii) owing to the large variation in seasonality within Chios ewes and to the good between year correlation in features of seasonality, selection against seasonality in Chios ewes could be worthwhile.

  6. Carbonate system and nutrients in the Pearl River estuary, China: Seasonal and inter-annual variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X.

    2017-12-01

    Located in southern China and surrounded by several metropolis, the Pearl River estuary is a large subtropical estuary under significant human perturbation. We examined the impact of sewage treatment rate on the water environmental factors. Carbonate system parameters (Dissolved inorganic carbon or DIC, Total alkalinity or TA, and pH), and nutrients were surveyed in the Pearl River estuary from 2000 to 2015. Spatially, concentrations of nutrients were high at low salinity and decreased with salinity in both wet and dry seasons although seasonal variation occurred. However, distribution patterns of DIC and TA differed in wet and dry seasons. In wet season, both DIC and TA were low at low salinity (600-1500 umol kg-1) and increased with salinity, but in dry season they were high at low salinity (3000-3500 umol kg-1) and decreased with salinity. Compared with the years before 2010, both values and distribution patterns of DIC, TA and pH were similar among the years in wet season, but they were conspicuously different in the upper estuary in dry season. Both DIC and TA were more than 1000 umol kg-1 lower than those in the years before 2010. For nutrients at low salinity, the ammonia concentration was much lower in the years after 2010 (200 vs. 400 umol kg-1 in wet season and 400 vs. 800 umol kg-1 in dry season), but nitrate concentration was slightly higher (180 vs 120 mmol kg-1 in wet season and 200 vs 180 mmol kg-1 in dry season). As a reference, carbonate system parameters and nutrients were stable among the 16 years in the adjacent northern South China Sea. The variations in biogeochemical processes induced by nutrients concentration and structure as a result of sewage discharge will be discussed in detail. The decrease in DIC, TA and nutrients in the upper Pearl River estuary after 2010 was due mainly to the improvement of sewage treatment rate and capacity.

  7. The influence of thermal inertia on Mars' seasonal pressure variation and the effect of the weather component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, S. E.; Paige, D. A.

    Using a Leighton-Murray type diurnal and seasonal Mars thermal model, we found that it is possible to reproduce the seasonal variation in daily-averaged pressures (approximately 680-890 Pa) measured by Viking Lander 1 (VL1), during years without global dust storms, with a standard deviation of less than 5 Pa. In this simple model, surface CO2, frost condensation, and sublimation rates at each latitude are determined by the net effects of radiation, latent heat, and heat conduction in subsurface soil layers. An inherent assumption of our model is that the seasonal pressure variation is due entirely to the exchange of mass between the atmosphere and polar caps. However, the results of recent Mars GCM modeling have made it clear that there is a significant dynamical contribution to the seasonal pressure variation. This 'weather' component is primarily due to large-scale changes in atmospheric circulation, and its magnitude depends somewhat on the dust content of the atmosphere. The overall form of the theoretical weather component at the location of VL1, as calculated by the AMES GCM, remains the same over the typical range of Mars dust opacities.

  8. Recent changes in seasonal variations of climate within the range of northern caribou populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H. Whitfield

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is one region where it is expected that the impacts of a globally changing climate will be readily observed. We present results that indicate that climate derivatives of potential significance to caribou changed during the past 50 years. Many temperature derivatives reflect the increasing overall temperature in the Arctic such as decreases in the number of days with low temperatures, increases in the number of days with thaw, and days with extremely warm temperatures. Other derivatives reflect changes in the precipitation regime such as days with heavy precipitation and number of days when rain fell on snow. Our results indicate that specific caribou herds from across the Arctic were subjected to different variations of these derivatives in different seasons in the recent past. Examination of temperature and precipitation at finer time-steps than annual or monthly means, shows that climatic variations in the region are neither consistent through the seasons nor across space. Decadal changes in seasonal patterns of temperature and precipitation are shown for selected herds. A process for assessing caribou-focused climate derivatives is proposed.

  9. SU-E-T-136: Assessment of Seasonal Linear Accelerator Output Variations and Associated Impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolac, S; Letourneau, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Application of process control theory in quality assurance programs promises to allow earlier identification of problems and potentially better quality in delivery than traditional paradigms based primarily on tolerances and action levels. The purpose of this project was to characterize underlying seasonal variations in linear accelerator output that can be used to improve performance or trigger preemptive maintenance. Methods: Review of runtime plots of daily (6 MV) output data acquired using in house ion chamber based devices over three years and for fifteen linear accelerators of varying make and model were evaluated. Shifts in output due to known interventions with the machines were subtracted from the data to model an uncorrected scenario for each linear accelerator. Observable linear trends were also removed from the data prior to evaluation of periodic variations. Results: Runtime plots of output revealed sinusoidal, seasonal variations that were consistent across all units, irrespective of manufacturer, model or age of machine. The average amplitude of the variation was on the order of 1%. Peak and minimum variations were found to correspond to early April and September, respectively. Approximately 48% of output adjustments made over the period examined were potentially avoidable if baseline levels had corresponded to the mean output, rather than to points near a peak or valley. Linear trends were observed for three of the fifteen units, with annual increases in output ranging from 2–3%. Conclusion: Characterization of cyclical seasonal trends allows for better separation of potentially innate accelerator behaviour from other behaviours (e.g. linear trends) that may be better described as true out of control states (i.e. non-stochastic deviations from otherwise expected behavior) and could indicate service requirements. Results also pointed to an optimal setpoint for accelerators such that output of machines is maintained within set tolerances

  10. SU-E-T-136: Assessment of Seasonal Linear Accelerator Output Variations and Associated Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolac, S; Letourneau, D [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Application of process control theory in quality assurance programs promises to allow earlier identification of problems and potentially better quality in delivery than traditional paradigms based primarily on tolerances and action levels. The purpose of this project was to characterize underlying seasonal variations in linear accelerator output that can be used to improve performance or trigger preemptive maintenance. Methods: Review of runtime plots of daily (6 MV) output data acquired using in house ion chamber based devices over three years and for fifteen linear accelerators of varying make and model were evaluated. Shifts in output due to known interventions with the machines were subtracted from the data to model an uncorrected scenario for each linear accelerator. Observable linear trends were also removed from the data prior to evaluation of periodic variations. Results: Runtime plots of output revealed sinusoidal, seasonal variations that were consistent across all units, irrespective of manufacturer, model or age of machine. The average amplitude of the variation was on the order of 1%. Peak and minimum variations were found to correspond to early April and September, respectively. Approximately 48% of output adjustments made over the period examined were potentially avoidable if baseline levels had corresponded to the mean output, rather than to points near a peak or valley. Linear trends were observed for three of the fifteen units, with annual increases in output ranging from 2–3%. Conclusion: Characterization of cyclical seasonal trends allows for better separation of potentially innate accelerator behaviour from other behaviours (e.g. linear trends) that may be better described as true out of control states (i.e. non-stochastic deviations from otherwise expected behavior) and could indicate service requirements. Results also pointed to an optimal setpoint for accelerators such that output of machines is maintained within set tolerances

  11. Seasonal Variation in Blood Pressure in 162,135 Patients With Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Julia M; Rosenbauer, Joachim; Dost, Axel; Steigleder-Schweiger, Claudia; Kiess, Wieland; Schöfl, Christof; Holl, Reinhard W

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal variation in blood pressure (BP) has been observed in different populations. However, only few studies have focused on BP seasonality in diabetic patients. This study examined the seasonal patterns in BP in 62,589 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and in 99,546 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) from the German/Austrian Diabetes Follow-up Registry. Adjusted mean BP values revealed seasonal cycles of 12 months, with higher BP in colder months. Using harmonic regression models, the estimated systolic BP difference throughout the year was 2.28/2.48 mm Hg in T1DM/T2DM (both P1). Interestingly, seasonal variation in diastolic BP was larger in T1DM than in T2DM (1.24/0.64 mm Hg, P1). A sex difference was observed in T1DM only, while age differences occurred in both types of diabetes. Correlations between BP and potentially related factors such as outdoor temperature indicated that reasons underlying BP seasonality are likely to be complex and vary by subgroup. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Daily and seasonal variations of outdoor alpha-activity concentration in Salzburg city/Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettner, H.; Hubmer, A.K.; Rolle, R.; Winkler, R.; Steinhaeusler, F.

    1996-01-01

    Long-term continuous measurements of the atmospheric outdoor alpha-activity concentration have been performed by using a radioaerosol-monitor, roof-mounted 20 m above ground. The alpha-activity concentration was identified to be predominantly attributed to radon progeny. The total alpha-activity covers a range of two orders of magnitude. Three different components of variations could be identified with regard to temporal variations: Short-term diurnal component (daily variation), mid-term component (days to weeks) and long-term component (seasonal variation). Continuous measurements have been recorded since the end of 1993. The results of continuous measurements of the outdoor alpha-activity concentration over a time span from January 1994 to June 1995 are presented. (author)

  13. Seasonal variations in the fouling diatom community structure from a monsoon influenced tropical estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mitbavkar, S.; Anil, A.C.

    Seasonal variations in the fouling diatom community from a monsoon influenced tropical estuary were investigated. The community composition did not differ significantly between stainless steel and polystyrene substrata due to dominance by Navicula...

  14. The seasonal variation of water vapor and ozone in the upper mesosphere - Implications for vertical transport and ozone photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Richard M.; Summers, Michael E.; Strobel, Darrell F.; Olivero, John J.; Allen, Mark

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the data base supplied by ground-based microwave measurements of water vapor in the mesosphere obtained in three separate experiments over an eight-year period. These measurements indicate that the seasonal variation of water vapor in the mesosphere is dominated by an annual component with low values in winter and high values in summer, suggesting that the seasonal variation of water vapor in the mesosphere (below 80 km) is controlled by advective rather than diffusive processes. Both the seasonal variation and the absolute magnitude of the water vapor mixing ratios obtained in microwave measurements were corroborated by measurements obtained in the Spacelab GRILLE and ATMOS experiments, and were found to be consistent with several recent mesospheric dynamics studies.

  15. Seasonal variations of radon concentrations in single-family houses with different sub-structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majborn, B.

    1992-01-01

    Seasonal variations of indoor radon concentrations have been studied in 70 single-family houses selected according to the type of sub-structure and the type of soil underneath the house. Five categories of sub-structure were included - slab-on-grade, crawl space, basement, and combinations...... of basement with slab-on-grade or crawl space. Half of the houses are located on clayey till and the other half on glaciofluvial gravel. In each house radon was measured in a living room and a bedroom, in the basement if present, and in the crawl space if present and accessible. The measurements were made...... with track detectors on a quarterly basis throughout a year. For living rooms and bedrooms the seasonal variations range from being highly significant for the slab-on-grade houses to being insignificant for the crawl space houses. For basements and crawl spaces the geometric mean radon concentrations do...

  16. Seasonal variations of intensity of muons and electrons of decay in points of probe measurements of cosmic radiation in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurguzova, A.I.; Charakhch'yan, T.N.

    1983-01-01

    Altitude-dependent intensities of muon and electron decay are calculated for the summer and winter seasons in the regions of Murmansk, Moscow, Alma-Ata and Mirnyj (the Antarctica). Values of the calculated temperature coefficients of muonf and electron decay for three levels (50, 500 and 1000 g/cm 2 ) are given. Seasonal variations of the muone and electron intensities are practically the same for all the points at depths X > 300 g/cm 2 (approximately 5% for muons and approximately 1% for electrons); at depths X 2 in Mirnyj the variations are considerably higher than in other points. Seasonal variations of the cosmic ray intensity on the surface of the Earth make up approximately 4%, in the low atmosphere (X=500 g/cm 2 ) they make up approximately 2%. In Mirnyj the seasonal variations of cosmic rays in the stratosphere (X=50 g/cm 2 ) also make up approximately 2%

  17. Seasonal and Daily Variations of Subsurface Velocity Revealed by the Air-gun Source in Binchuan, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Y.; Yang, H.; Wang, B.

    2017-12-01

    We derive temporal variations of subsurface structure using a large-volume air-gun source excited in Binchuan, Yunnan, southwest China, the first transmitting seismic station that can generate high-quality repeating waveforms. The data were collected between January 2013 and December 2015 that were recorded by 40 stations within 150 km, including permanent and newly deployed air-gun array stations. Firstly, we conduct cluster analysis using the waveforms at the nearest station and find the clustering result is not only governed by the water level of the reservoir, but also has seasonal variations. Furthermore, we use the records of the nearest station to approximate the source time functions and then retrieve empirical Green's functions (EGF) by deconvolution. Then we obtain travel time difference by comparing the EGF. The travel time difference exhibits clear seasonal variation, and the pattern correlates the best with surface air temperature. The increasing temperature coincides with increasing delay time i.e. decreasing seismic velocity. We interpret the observed seasonal variation of subsurface velocity is partly caused by thermo-elastic strain. However, our calculated thermo-elastic strain is only half in amplitude of the observed strain, indicating other factors such as precipitation and ground water level may play a role in the subsurface changes. Moreover, we derive the daily variation of subsurface velocity in December 2015 when air-gun shots were made in every hour. The delay time clearly correlates with the barometric pressure change and the tidal strain. Here we demonstrate that both long-term (seasonal) and short-term (daily) structural variations can be derived using the newly constructed active source, which is a powerful tool to advance our understanding of rheological properties of the crust as well as well processes associated with earthquakes and other natural hazards.

  18. Seasonal variations of radon and the radiation exposure levels in Nerja cave, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duenas, C.; Fernandez, M.C.; Canete, S.; Perez, M.; Gordo, E.

    2011-01-01

    222 Rn concentrations in the air in Nerja cave (Spain) (3 o 52'35''W 36 o 43'50''N) were measured by continuous monitoring using Alpha-Guard, Genitron instrument equipment. The 222 Rn measurements were carried out for a complete annual cycle in the different halls: Vestibule hall from July 2003 to June 2004, Ballet hall from July 2004 to June 2005 and Mirador hall from July 2005 to June 2006. Starting from the entrance of the cave we successively find the Vestibule hall, the Ballet hall and the Mirador hall. The range of 222 Rn levels were of 8-627 Bq m -3 for the Vestibule hall, 28-575 Bq m -3 for the Ballet hall and 38-578 Bq m -3 for the Mirador. The aim of this study was to detect seasonal variation patterns of 222 Rn concentrations. The seasonal variations of 222 Rn concentrations are discussed in relation to various meteorological factors measured inside and outside the cave. The radiation exposure levels for workers and tourists with different equilibrium factors have been evaluated. The radiation exposure levels for workers and tourists only represent a low percentage of the exposure guides for the general population. - Highlights: → The aim of the study was to detect seasonal variation of 222 Rn concentrations. → 222 Rn concentrations in the air-cave were measured by continuous monitoring. → The 222 Rn measurements were carried out in the different halls of the cave. → The radiation exposure levels for workers and tourists have been evaluated.

  19. Seasonal Variations in Physical Fitness and Performance Indices of Elite Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoav Meckel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate seasonal variations in fitness and performance indices of professional male soccer players. Eighteen professional male soccer players (age range 22–32 years completed three similar sets of tests at three stages of the season: before preseason; after preseason and the middle of the competitive in-season. A significant decrease in body mass and percent fat was found during the preseason. A significant improvement (p < 0.05 was found in the vertical jump (preseason: 37.0 ± 5.3, post-preseason: 39.0 ± 4.8, mid-season: 40.3 ± 5.5 cm, the 4 × 10-m agility test (preseason: 8.1 ± 0.2, post-preseason: 7.9 ± 0.2, mid-season: 8.1 ± 0.3 s, flexibility (preseason: 45.2 ± 8.8, post-preseason: 48.2 ± 7.0, mid-season: 49.9 ± 6.9 cm and aerobic capacity (preseason: 52.7 ± 6.6, post-preseason: 56.4 ± 6.0, mid-season: 57.4 ± 5.4 mL/kg/min during preseason, with no further change during mid-season. Repeated sprint test (RST (6 × 30-m performance indices showed significant deterioration (p < 0.05 in ideal sprint time (IS; preseason: 21.8 ± 1.0, post-preseason: 23.0 ± 0.8, mid-season: 23.2 ± 0.8 s and total sprint time (TS; preseason: 22.5 ± 0.7, post-preseason: 23.5 ± 0.6, mid-season: 23.8 ± 0.6 s during preseason, with no further changes during mid-season. However, performance decrement (PD significantly decreased during the preseason with no change during mid-season. The findings suggest that while power training was probably responsible for the anaerobic fitness improvement, the high-volume training led to improvement in aerobic fitness during the preseason. However, the low-intensity aerobic-type training, coupled with the high total training load, may have led to fatigue and decreases in IS and TS during the preseason.

  20. Seasonal Variations in Mercury's Dayside Calcium Exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Matthew H.; Killen, Rosemary M.; McClintock, William E.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Cassidy, Timothy A.; Sarantos, Menelaos

    2014-01-01

    The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer on the MESSENGER spacecraft has observed calcium emission in Mercury's exosphere on a near-daily basis since March 2011. During MESSENGER's primary and first extended missions (March 2011 - March 2013) the dayside calcium exosphere was measured over eight Mercury years. We have simulated these data with a Monte Carlo model of exospheric source processes to show that (a) there is a persistent source of energetic calcium located in the dawn equatorial region, (b) there is a seasonal dependence in the calcium source rate, and (c) there are no obvious year-to-year variations in the near-surface dayside calcium exosphere. Although the precise mechanism responsible for ejecting the calcium has not yet been determined, the most likely process is the dissociation of Ca-bearing molecules produced in micrometeoroid impact plumes to form energetic, escaping calcium atoms.

  1. Seasonal variation in the growth responses of some chlorophytic algal flora of the Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Ali Ansari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variation in growth responses and antioxidant activities of four chlorophytic algal species, namely Ulva lactuca, Enteromorpha flexuoca, Cladophora prolifera, Chaetomorpha linum was investigated. Seasonal variation in the physico-chemical characteristics of water at the study site of the Red Sea was also determined. A significant variation was observed in water quality parameters in different seasons. All the algal species show higher accumulation of photosynthetic and accessory pigments in July and October and a significant decrease in January. Higher NPK content in all the four algal species was recorded in July, however, the contents were low in other months. Total protein contents were higher in July and October. Total carbohydrates in U. lactuca and E. flexuoca were significantly higher in July but in the other two species, C. prolifera and C. linum, maximum accumulation was observed in October. Antioxidant activities in all the species were most significant in January as compared to the other months. All the chlorphytic algae show prominent growth responses and antioxidant activities and are better adapted to changing climatic conditions. Due to their prompt responses even to minor changes in aquatic environment, they can be used as ecological indicators in coastal marine ecosystems.

  2. A vegetation control on seasonal variations in global atmospheric mercury concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiskra, Martin; Sonke, Jeroen E.; Obrist, Daniel; Bieser, Johannes; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Myhre, Cathrine Lund; Pfaffhuber, Katrine Aspmo; Wängberg, Ingvar; Kyllönen, Katriina; Worthy, Doug; Martin, Lynwill G.; Labuschagne, Casper; Mkololo, Thumeka; Ramonet, Michel; Magand, Olivier; Dommergue, Aurélien

    2018-04-01

    Anthropogenic mercury emissions are transported through the atmosphere as gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(0)) before they are deposited to Earth's surface. Strong seasonality in atmospheric Hg(0) concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere has been explained by two factors: anthropogenic Hg(0) emissions are thought to peak in winter due to higher energy consumption, and atmospheric oxidation rates of Hg(0) are faster in summer. Oxidation-driven Hg(0) seasonality should be equally pronounced in the Southern Hemisphere, which is inconsistent with observations of constant year-round Hg(0) levels. Here, we assess the role of Hg(0) uptake by vegetation as an alternative mechanism for driving Hg(0) seasonality. We find that at terrestrial sites in the Northern Hemisphere, Hg(0) co-varies with CO2, which is known to exhibit a minimum in summer when CO2 is assimilated by vegetation. The amplitude of seasonal oscillations in the atmospheric Hg(0) concentration increases with latitude and is larger at inland terrestrial sites than coastal sites. Using satellite data, we find that the photosynthetic activity of vegetation correlates with Hg(0) levels at individual sites and across continents. We suggest that terrestrial vegetation acts as a global Hg(0) pump, which can contribute to seasonal variations of atmospheric Hg(0), and that decreasing Hg(0) levels in the Northern Hemisphere over the past 20 years can be partly attributed to increased terrestrial net primary production.

  3. Effects of seasonal variation of photosynthetic capacity on the carbon fluxes of a temperate deciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Medvigy; Su-Jong Jeong; Kenneth L. Clark; Nicholas S. Skowronski; Karina V. R. Schäfer

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal variation in photosynthetic capacity is an important part of the overall seasonal variability of temperate deciduous forests. However, it has only recently been introduced in a few terrestrial biosphere models, and many models still do not include it. The biases that result from this omission are not well understood. In this study, we use the Ecosystem...

  4. Reconciling deep calibration and demographic history: bayesian inference of post glacial colonization patterns in Carcinus aestuarii (Nardo, 1847 and C. maenas (Linnaeus, 1758.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria A M Marino

    Full Text Available A precise inference of past demographic histories including dating of demographic events using bayesian methods can only be achieved with the use of appropriate molecular rates and evolutionary models. Using a set of 596 mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI sequences of two sister species of European green crabs of the genus Carcinus (C. maenas and C. aestuarii, our study shows how chronologies of past evolutionary events change significantly with the application of revised molecular rates that incorporate biogeographic events for calibration and appropriate demographic priors. A clear signal of demographic expansion was found for both species, dated between 10,000 and 20,000 years ago, which places the expansions events in a time frame following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM. In the case of C. aestuarii, a population expansion was only inferred for the Adriatic-Ionian, suggestive of a colonization event following the flooding of the Adriatic Sea (18,000 years ago. For C. maenas, the demographic expansion inferred for the continental populations of West and North Europe might result from a northward recolonization from a southern refugium when the ice sheet retreated after the LGM. Collectively, our results highlight the importance of using adequate calibrations and demographic priors in order to avoid considerable overestimates of evolutionary time scales.

  5. Seasonal and clonal variation in cellulose microfibril orientation during cell wall formation of tracheids in Cryptomeria japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyske, Tuula; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Kuroda, Katsushi; Iki, Taiichi; Zhang, Chunhua; Jyske, Tuomas K; Abe, Hisashi

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the biological mechanism by which trees control the changes in microfibril (MF) orientation among secondary cell wall layers of conifer tracheids, we studied seasonal variation in the orientation of newly deposited MFs during tracheid cell wall development in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) trees growing in Central Japan (36°36'N, 140°39'E). Sample blocks were repeatedly collected from four 16-year-old clones of different origins during the growing season of 2010 to investigate the hypotheses that changes in cellulose MF orientation between wall layers exhibited seasonal and clonal differences. The progressive change in the orientation of newly deposited MFs on the primary and secondary cell wall layers of tracheids was detected by field-emission-scanning electron microscopy. Tracheid production and differentiation was studied by light microscopy. We observed a decreasing trend in the orientation of deposited MFs from earlywood to latewood in the S2 and S1 layers, where MFs appeared in a Z-helix. In contrast, no seasonal pattern in the orientation of the MFs in the S-helix was observed. Minor clonal variation was observed in the phenology of tracheid production and differentiation. We concluded that a seasonal decreasing trend in the orientation of the MFs in the Z-helix in S1 and S2 was present, whereas the MFs in other layers exhibited minor random variations. Thus, the orientation of the MFs in S2 was affected by seasonal factors, whereas the MFs in other layers were more intrinsically controlled. The within-ring variations in the MF orientation and thus the resulting average MF angle might also be related to genotypic differences in the tracheid production and differentiation rate. However, our results do not exclude other intrinsic and environmental regulations in the change in MF orientation, which remains a topic for future studies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  6. Seasonal variation of carbon fluxes in a sparse savanna in semi arid Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardö, Jonas; Mölder, Meelis; El-Tahir, Bashir Awad; Elkhidir, Hatim Abdalla Mohammed

    2008-12-01

    2005. The small sink during the dry season is surprising and similar dry season sinks have not to our knowledge been reported from other similar savanna ecosystems and could have potential management implications for agroforestry. A strong response of NEE versus small changes in plant available soil water content was found. Collection and analysis of flux data for several consecutive years including variations in precipitation, available soil moisture and labile soil carbon are needed for understanding the year to year variation of the carbon budget of this grass land/sparse savanna site in semi arid Sudan.

  7. Seasonal variation of carbon fluxes in a sparse savanna in semi arid Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Tahir Bashir

    2008-12-01

    was a sink of carbon both during the dry and wet season 2005. The small sink during the dry season is surprising and similar dry season sinks have not to our knowledge been reported from other similar savanna ecosystems and could have potential management implications for agroforestry. A strong response of NEE versus small changes in plant available soil water content was found. Collection and analysis of flux data for several consecutive years including variations in precipitation, available soil moisture and labile soil carbon are needed for understanding the year to year variation of the carbon budget of this grass land/sparse savanna site in semi arid Sudan.

  8. Seasonal variation and sources of atmospheric gravity waves in the Antarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Sato

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last recent ten years, our knowledge of gravity waves in the Antarctic has been significantly improved through numerous studies using balloon and satellite observations and high-resolution model simulations. In this report, we introduce results from two studies which were performed as a part of the NIPR project "Integrated analysis of the material circulation in the Antarctic atmosphere-cryosphere-ocean" (2004-2009, i.e., Yoshiki et al. (2004 and Sato and Yoshiki (2008. These two studies focused on the seasonal variation and sources of the gravity waves in the Antarctic, because horizontal wavelengths and phase velocities depend largely on the wave sources. The former study used original high-resolution data from operational radiosonde observations at Syowa Station. In the lowermost stratosphere, gravity waves do not exhibit characteristic seasonal variation; instead, the wave energy is intensified when lower latitude air intrudes into the area near Syowa Station in the upper troposphere. This intrusion is associated with blocking events or developed synoptic-scale waves. In the lower and middle stratosphere, the gravity wave energy is maximized in spring and particularly intensified when the axis of the polar night jet approaches Syowa Station. The latter study is based on intensive radiosonde observation campaigns that were performed in 2002 at Syowa Station as an activity of JARE-43. Gravity wave propagation was statistically examined using two dimensional (i.e., vertical wavenumber versus frequency spectra in each season. It was shown that the gravity waves are radiated upward and downward from an unbalanced region of the polar night jet. This feature is consistent with the gravity-wave resolving GCM simulation.

  9. Seasonal variation of physicochemical factor and fecal pollution in the Hansan-Geojeman area, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Young Cheol Park; Poong Ho Kim; Yeoun Joong Jung; Ka Jeong Lee; Min Seon Kim; Kyeong Ri Go; Sang Gi Park; Soon Jae Kwon; Ji Hye Yang; Jong Soo Mok

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The seasonal variation of fecal coliforms (FCs) and physicochemical factors was determined in seawaters of the Hansan-Geojeman area, including a designated area for oyster, and in inland pollution sources of its drainage basin. The mean daily loads of FCs in inland pollution sources ranged from 1.2 × 109 to 3.1 × 1011 most probable number (MPN)/day; however, the pollutants could not be reached at the designated area. FC concentrations of seawaters were closely related to season, rain...

  10. Seasonal variation of sperm quality and the relationship between spermatocrit and sperm concentration in yamú Brycon amazonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.; Medina-Robles, Víctor M.; Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.

    2007-01-01

    and sperm concentration were examined over two reproductive seasons. Activation time, spermatocrit, and sperm concentration were significantly higher in 2003 than in 2004. Spermatocrit and sperm concentration showed a significant positive relationship (r2=0.79). During the 2004 reproductive season......, a significant variation was observed for spermatocrit and sperm concentration between the initial period (February 15th to March 14th) and the middle and final periods (March 15th to April 14th and April 15th to May 14th, respectively). Neither the ion concentrations nor the glucose and cholesterol...... concentrations varied between any periods of the reproductive season. Osmolality and triglyceride concentrations showed significant variations between periods during the reproductive season....

  11. Seasonal and Milking-to-Milking Variations in Cow Milk Fat, Protein and Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Raluca PAVEL

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The first objective of this study was to examine milking-to-milking variations in milk fat, protein and SCC (somatic cell count. The second objective of this study was to examine variations of milk components (fat, protein and SCC over a period of six months (April-September 2010 at Agricultural Research Development Station Simnic. A total of 128 milk samples (64 morning milking and 64 evening milking ones from milk bulk tank commingled from 904 Holstein cows, were collected and analyzed for fat, protein and SCC. Data suggested that milking period effects milk fat, making the fat percentage lower in the morning compared with the evening milking period, effect which was not similar in protein content. Seasonal differences in milk fat and protein were also investigated. The season of year had influenced SCC, fat and protein: SCC increased, while fat and protein decreased. The period of the day when milking took place and the season influenced fat, protein and SCC, but the composition of milk, as well as its hygienic quality, fell within the aplicabile standards for raw milk.

  12. Seasonal and geographical variation in heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noakes, Matthew J; Wolf, Blair O; McKechnie, Andrew E

    2016-03-01

    Intraspecific variation in avian thermoregulatory responses to heat stress has received little attention, despite increasing evidence that endothermic animals show considerable physiological variation among populations. We investigated seasonal (summer versus winter) variation in heat tolerance and evaporative cooling in an Afrotropical ploceid passerine, the white-browed sparrow-weaver (Plocepasser mahali; ∼ 47 g) at three sites along a climatic gradient with more than 10 °C variation in mid-summer maximum air temperature (Ta). We measured resting metabolic rate (RMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) using open flow-through respirometry, and core body temperature (Tb) using passive integrated transponder tags. Sparrow-weavers were exposed to a ramped profile of progressively higher Ta between 30 and 52 °C to elicit maximum evaporative cooling capacity (N=10 per site per season); the maximum Ta birds tolerated before the onset of severe hyperthermia (Tb ≈ 44 °C) was considered to be their hyperthermia threshold Ta (Ta,HT). Our data reveal significant seasonal acclimatisation of heat tolerance, with a desert population of sparrow-weavers reaching significantly higher Ta in summer (49.5 ± 1.4 °C, i.e. higher Ta,HT) than in winter (46.8 ± 0.9 °C), reflecting enhanced evaporative cooling during summer. Moreover, desert sparrow-weavers had significantly higher heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity during summer compared with populations from more mesic sites (Ta,HT=47.3 ± 1.5 and 47.6 ± 1.3 °C). A better understanding of the contributions of local adaptation versus phenotypic plasticity to intraspecific variation in avian heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity is needed for modelling species' responses to changing climates. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Circadian and seasonal variation of migraine attacks in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriani, Stefano; Fiumana, Elisa; Manfredini, Roberto; Boari, Benedetta; Battistella, Pier Antonio; Canetta, Elisabetta; Pedretti, Stefania; Borgna-Pignatti, Caterina

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the rhythmicity of migraine episodes without aura in a pediatric population. Time of occurrence of 2517 migraine attacks in 115 children was recorded, by means of a diary, both by hourly and monthly intervals. A significant circadian variation, characterized by a peak in the afternoon (P < .001) and one in the early morning (P= .002) was found. A seasonal peak was also observed between November and January, while a nadir was observed in July. The clustering of attacks in the morning and midday and in autumn-winter, with a minimum frequency in July, suggests that school activities may represent an important cause of migraine.

  14. Spatial Variation in Seasonal Water Poverty Index for Laos: An Application of Geographically Weighted Principal Component Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kallio, Marko; Guillaume, Joseph; Kummu, Matti; Virrantaus, Kirsi-Kanerva

    2017-01-01

    Water poverty, defined as insufficient water of adequate quality to cover basic needs, is an issue that may manifest itself in multiple ways. Extreme seasonal variation in water availability, such as in Laos, located in Monsoon Asia, results in large differences in water poverty conditions between dry and wet seasons. In this study, seasonal Water Poverty Indices (WPI) are developed for 8215 villages in Laos. WPI is a multidimensional composite index integrating five dimensions of water: reso...

  15. Frequency of typhoid fever and its association with seasonal variations in Taxila, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Bukhari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyse seropositivity rates of salmonella with seasonal variations in the population of Taxila and the surrounding rural areas. Methods: The study was conducted among 760 suspected patients with symptoms of fever, headache, nausea and decreased white blood cells count screened for the typhoid fever. Blood samples collected from the suspected patients were tested for seropositivity by slide agglutination (Widal test and Immunochromatographic test, i.e. Typhidot. Results: From overall 760 suspected patients of typhoid fever only 192 (25.26% samples were positive for Widal and Typhidot test. The peak seropositivity rates were identified during the months of April–June, while decreased cases were observed from January to March. Age wise distribution of typhoid fever reflected that age groups of 10–15 years and 25–35 years were at higher risks of developing enteric fever with respect to age groups of 5–10 years and 61–70 years, respectively. On gender basis evaluation, females (24.49% were slightly at low risks of developing typhoid fever than males (25.9%. Conclusions: The present study highlights a higher burden of typhoid fever in Taxila and the surrounding areas population that directly reflects the poor hygienic condition and contamination of drinking water. The frequency of typhoid fever fluctuates with seasonal variations as higher rates found during the summer as compared to winter season.

  16. Seasonal variation of Legionella in Taiwan's reservoir and its relationships with environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Po-Min; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Chang, Tien-Yu; Hsu, Tsui-Kang; Tzeng, Kai-Jiun; Huang, Yu-Li

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the presence of Legionella in major water reservoirs of Taiwan was examined with respect to seasonal variation, geographical variation, and water quality parameters using TaqMan real-time qPCR. Water samples were collected quarterly at 19 reservoirs in Taiwan between November 2012 and August 2013. The detection rate for Legionella was 35.5% (27/76), and Legionella was detected in all seasons. The Legionella concentration was relatively high in spring and summer, reaching 3.86 × 10(8) and 7.35 × 10(8) cells/L, respectively. By sampling the area, Legionella was detected at a higher proportion in reservoirs in the northern and southern areas, and the difference was consistent in all seasons. Significant association was found between detection of Legionella and various water quality parameters, including conductivity, chlorophyll a, and dissolved oxygen (Mann-Whitney U test, P Legionella detection with pH (P = 0.030, R = -0.497) and dissolved oxygen (P = 0.007, R = -0.596) in fall and positive correlation with Carlson's trophic state index (P = 0.049, R = 0.457) in spring. The identified species included Legionella pneumophila and Legionella drancourtii. The detection of Legionella in reservoirs was indicative of a potential public health risk and should be further evaluated.

  17. Seasonal variation of air kerma in the 'Vulcano Porto' area (Aeolian Islands, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellia, S.; Basile, S.; Brai, M. E-mail: mbrai@unipa.it; Hauser, S.; Puccio, P.; Rizzo, S

    2001-02-01

    Air kerma was measured in the 'Vulcano Porto' area of the Vulcano Island, belonging to the Aeolian Islands, in the Mediterranean Sea. Measurements were carried out using thermoluminescence dosimeters. The relationship between observed dose values and source lithology has been assessed. Data show a seasonal variation due to weather conditions but also probably related to features of the soils, making the variation more evident.

  18. MODIS derived fire characteristics and aerosol optical depth variations during the agricultural residue burning season, north India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Ellicott, Evan; Badarinath, K.V.S.; Vermote, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural residue burning is one of the major causes of greenhouse gas emissions and aerosols in the Indo-Ganges region. In this study, we characterize the fire intensity, seasonality, variability, fire radiative energy (FRE) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) variations during the agricultural residue burning season using MODIS data. Fire counts exhibited significant bi-modal activity, with peak occurrences during April-May and October-November corresponding to wheat and rice residue burning episodes. The FRE variations coincided with the amount of residues burnt. The mean AOD (2003-2008) was 0.60 with 0.87 (+1σ) and 0.32 (-1σ). The increased AOD during the winter coincided well with the fire counts during rice residue burning season. In contrast, the AOD-fire signal was weak during the summer wheat residue burning and attributed to dust and fossil fuel combustion. Our results highlight the need for 'full accounting of GHG's and aerosols', for addressing the air quality in the study area. - Highlights: → MODIS data could capture rice and wheat residue burning events. → The total FRP was high during the rice burning season than the wheat. → MODIS AOD variations coincided well with rice burning events than wheat. → AOD values exceeding one suggested intense air pollution. - This research work highlights the satellite derived fire products and their potential in characterizing the agricultural residue burning events and air pollution.

  19. Seasonal variation of Martian pick-up ions: Evidence of breathing exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, M.; Hara, T.; Lundin, R.; Dubinin, E.; Fedorov, A.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Frahm, R. A.; Ramstad, R.; Futaana, Y.; Holmstrom, M.; Barabash, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Mars Express (MEX) Ion Mass Analyser (IMA) found that the detection rate of the ring-like distribution of protons in the solar wind outside of the bow shock to be quite different between Mars orbital summer (around perihelion) and orbital winter (around aphelion) for four Martian years, while the north-south asymmetry is much smaller than the perihelion-aphelion difference. Further analyses using eight years of MEX/IMA solar wind data between 2005 and 2012 has revealed that the detection frequency of the pick-up ions originating from newly ionized exospheric hydrogen with certain flux strongly correlates with the Sun-Mars distance, which changes approximately every two years. Variation due to the solar cycle phase is not distinguishable partly because this effect is masked by the seasonal variation under the MEX capability of plasma measurements. This finding indicates that the variation in solar UV has a major effect on the formation of the pick-up ions, but this is not the only controlling factor.

  20. Seasonal variation in the composition and concentration of butyltin compounds in marine fish of Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, C.D.; Chen, C.W.; Liu, L.L.

    2004-01-01

    For the first time, strong evidence is presented to demonstrate that the accumulations of butyltin compounds (BTs) exhibit seasonal variations with respect to their compositions and concentrations in marine fishes. Measurements were made on the benthic ponyfish Leiogenathus splendens and lizardfish Trachinocephalus myops inhabiting the west coast of Taiwan. In the whole body samples of the ponyfish, BT concentrations ranged from 236 to 2501 ng/g wet wt, with those in winter considerably higher than in the other seasons (p summer > spring (p<0.05). Meanwhile, TBT (41%) was predominant in spring, whereas DBT (50 and 68%) was most heavily concentrated in summer and autumn (p<0.001). Seasonally mediated physiological changes, such as dilution due to growth and metabolic compensation, may play important roles in forming different BT accumulation patterns among seasons and organisms

  1. Seasonal variation of prices of sugar cane, ethanol and electric power; Variacao estacional dos precos da cana-de-acucar, alcool combustivel e energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Carmem Ozana de; Silva, Gerson Henrique da; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Francisco Beltrao, PR (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the seasonal price of sugar cane, fuel alcohol (hydrated and anhydrous) and electricity tariffs as a way of aiding tool for optimization of energy generation, using biomass originating from cane sugar. Using the method of moving average centered was concluded that cane and electricity rates were close to seasonal average, with low range of prices, suggesting the non-occurrence of seasonal variation in prices. Unlike the seasonal indices of ethanol showed seasonal variation of prices with greater amplitude of seasonal index. Thus, the results suggest that the utilization of by-products of sugar cane to produce electrical power points to the prospect of reducing risks associated with variations in the price of ethanol, thereby contributing to greater stability and possibility to those involved in planning alcohol sector. (author)

  2. Seasonal variation among tuberculosis suspects in four countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabaera, Biggie; Naranbat, Nymadawa; Katamba, Achilles

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze monthly trends across a calendar year in tuberculosis suspects and sputum smear-positive cases based on nationally representative samples of tuberculosis laboratory registers from Moldova, Mongolia, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Out of the 47 140 suspects registered...... in the tuberculosis laboratory registers, 13.4% (6312) were cases. The proportion varied from country to country, Moldova having the lowest (9%) and Uganda the highest (21%). From the monthly proportion of suspects and cases among total suspects and cases, seasonal variations were most marked in Mongolia which, among...... attendance to diagnostic laboratory services, evidenced by the contrasting findings of Mongolia (extreme continental northern climate) compared to Uganda (equatorial climate). A combination of external and possibly endogenous factors seems to determine whether tuberculosis suspects and cases present...

  3. N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity in feral Carcinus maenas exposed to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, Sofia Raquel; Ergen, Şeyda Fikirdeşici; Rodrigues, Aurélie Pinto; Oliva-Teles, M. Teresa; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Guimarães, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of Cd on NAGase activity of crabs from low impacted and polluted sites. • Inhibition of epidermal NAGase by Cd in crabs from both sites. • Inhibition of NAGase in digestive gland only in crabs from low impacted site. • Glutathione role in enhanced tolerance to Cd of crabs from polluted site. - Abstract: Cadmium is a priority hazardous substance, persistent in the aquatic environment, with the capacity to interfere with crustacean moulting. Moulting is a vital process dictating crustacean growth, reproduction and metamorphosis. However, for many organisms, moult disruption is difficult to evaluate in the short term, what limits its inclusion in monitoring programmes. N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) is an enzyme acting in the final steps of the endocrine-regulated moulting cascade, allowing for the cast off of the old exoskeleton, with potential interest as a biomarker of moult disruption. This study investigated responses to waterborne cadmium of NAGase activity of Carcinus maenas originating from estuaries with different histories of anthropogenic contamination: a low impacted and a moderately polluted one. Crabs from both sites were individually exposed for seven days to cadmium concentrations ranging from 1.3 to 2000 μg/L. At the end of the assays, NAGase activity was assessed in the epidermis and digestive gland. Detoxification, antioxidant, energy production, and oxidative stress biomarkers implicated in cadmium metabolism and tolerance were also assessed to better understand differential NAGase responses: activity of glutathione S-transferases (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) glutathione reductase (GR), levels of total glutathiones (TG), lipid peroxidation (LPO), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and NADP + -dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH). Animals from the moderately polluted estuary had lower NAGase activity both in the epidermis and digestive gland than in the low impacted site. NAGase activity in the epidermis

  4. N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity in feral Carcinus maenas exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Sofia Raquel, E-mail: smesquita@ciimar.up.pt [Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); ICBAS – Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, University of Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Ergen, Şeyda Fikirdeşici [Faculty of Science, Ankara University, Department of Biology, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Rodrigues, Aurélie Pinto [Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); ICBAS – Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, University of Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Oliva-Teles, M. Teresa; Delerue-Matos, Cristina [REQUIMTE, School of Engineering, Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida 431, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Guimarães, Laura, E-mail: lguimaraes@ciimar.up.pt [Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Effects of Cd on NAGase activity of crabs from low impacted and polluted sites. • Inhibition of epidermal NAGase by Cd in crabs from both sites. • Inhibition of NAGase in digestive gland only in crabs from low impacted site. • Glutathione role in enhanced tolerance to Cd of crabs from polluted site. - Abstract: Cadmium is a priority hazardous substance, persistent in the aquatic environment, with the capacity to interfere with crustacean moulting. Moulting is a vital process dictating crustacean growth, reproduction and metamorphosis. However, for many organisms, moult disruption is difficult to evaluate in the short term, what limits its inclusion in monitoring programmes. N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) is an enzyme acting in the final steps of the endocrine-regulated moulting cascade, allowing for the cast off of the old exoskeleton, with potential interest as a biomarker of moult disruption. This study investigated responses to waterborne cadmium of NAGase activity of Carcinus maenas originating from estuaries with different histories of anthropogenic contamination: a low impacted and a moderately polluted one. Crabs from both sites were individually exposed for seven days to cadmium concentrations ranging from 1.3 to 2000 μg/L. At the end of the assays, NAGase activity was assessed in the epidermis and digestive gland. Detoxification, antioxidant, energy production, and oxidative stress biomarkers implicated in cadmium metabolism and tolerance were also assessed to better understand differential NAGase responses: activity of glutathione S-transferases (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) glutathione reductase (GR), levels of total glutathiones (TG), lipid peroxidation (LPO), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and NADP{sup +}-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH). Animals from the moderately polluted estuary had lower NAGase activity both in the epidermis and digestive gland than in the low impacted site. NAGase activity in the

  5. Impact of seasonal variation, age and smoking status on human semen parameters: The Massachusetts General Hospital experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zuying; Godfrey-Bailey, Linda; Schiff, Isaac; Hauser, Russ

    2004-01-01

    Background To investigate the relationship of human semen parameters with season, age and smoking status. Methods The present study used data from subjects recruited into an ongoing cross-sectional study on the relationship between environmental agents and semen characteristics. Our population consisted of 306 patients who presented to the Vincent Memorial Andrology Laboratory of Massachusetts General Hospital for semen evaluation. Sperm concentration and motility were measured with computer aided sperm analysis (CASA). Sperm morphology was scored using Tygerberg Kruger strict criteria. Regression analyses were used to investigate the relationships between semen parameters and season, age and smoking status, adjusting for abstinence interval. Results Sperm concentration in the spring was significantly higher than in winter, fall and summer (p seasons. There were no statistically significant relationships between semen parameters and smoking status, though current smokers tended to have lower sperm concentration. We also did not find a statistically significant relationship between age and semen parameters. Conclusions We found seasonal variations in sperm concentration and suggestive evidence of seasonal variation in sperm motility and percent sperm with normal morphology. Although smoking status was not a significant predictor of semen parameters, this may have been due to the small number of current smokers in the study. PMID:15507127

  6. Seasonal variations in larval biomass and biochemical composition of brown shrimp, Crangon crangon (Decapoda, Caridea), at hatching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzúa, Ángel; Anger, Klaus

    2013-06-01

    The "brown shrimp", Crangon crangon (Linnaeus 1758), is a benthic key species in the North Sea ecosystem, supporting an intense commercial fishery. Its reproductive pattern is characterized by a continuous spawning season from mid-winter to early autumn. During this extended period, C. crangon shows significant seasonal variations in egg size and embryonic biomass, which may influence larval quality at hatching. In the present study, we quantified seasonal changes in dry weight (W) and chemical composition (CHN, protein and lipid) of newly hatched larvae of C. crangon. Our data revealed significant variations, with maximum biomass values at the beginning of the hatching season (February-March), a decrease throughout spring (April-May) and a minimum in summer (June-September). While all absolute values of biomass and biochemical constituents per larva showed highly significant differences between months ( P larvae" hatching from larger "winter eggs" showed higher initial values of biomass compared to "summer larvae" originating from smaller "summer eggs". This indicates carry-over effects persisting from the embryonic to the larval phase. Since "winter larvae" are more likely exposed to poor nutritional conditions, intraspecific variability in larval biomass at hatching is interpreted as part of an adaptive reproductive strategy compensating for strong seasonality in plankton production and transitory periods of larval food limitation.

  7. The specificity of host-bat fly interaction networks across vegetation and seasonal variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarazúa-Carbajal, Mariana; Saldaña-Vázquez, Romeo A; Sandoval-Ruiz, César A; Stoner, Kathryn E; Benitez-Malvido, Julieta

    2016-10-01

    Vegetation type and seasonality promote changes in the species composition and abundance of parasite hosts. However, it is poorly known how these variables affect host-parasite interaction networks. This information is important to understand the dynamics of parasite-host relationships according to biotic and abiotic changes. We compared the specialization of host-bat fly interaction networks, as well as bat fly and host species composition between upland dry forest and riparian forest and between dry and rainy seasons in a tropical dry forest in Jalisco, Mexico. Bat flies were surveyed by direct collection from bats. Our results showed that host-bat fly interaction networks were more specialized in upland dry forest compared to riparian forest. Bat fly species composition was different between the dry and rainy seasons, while host species composition was different between upland dry forest and riparian forest. The higher specialization in upland dry forest could be related to the differences in bat host species composition and their respective roosting habits. Variation in the composition of bat fly species between dry and rainy seasons coincides with the seasonal shifts in their species richness. Our study confirms the high specialization of host-bat fly interactions and shows the importance of biotic and abiotic factors to understand the dynamics of parasite-host interactions.

  8. Anthropometric measurements of adolescents from two Amazonian ecosystems: variations according to seasonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Hilton P; Veiga, Gloria V; Kac, Gilberto; Pereira, Rosangela A

    2010-03-01

    This paper aims to describe the nutritional status of Caboclo adolescents living in two areas of the Amazon Basin. Two cross-sectional studies, the first in the dry and the second in the wet season, were carried out in two Amazonian ecosystems: the forest and black water ecosystem, and the floodplain and white water ecosystem. Measurements of weight, stature, arm circumference and triceps, subscapular and suprailiac skinfolds were performed on 247 adolescents (10-19 years of age). Nutritional status was classified using body mass index according to international criteria and the prevalence of underweight and overweight was estimated. Linear mixed effects models were used with the anthropometric measurements as dependent variables and time interval, place of residence, sex, age and stature variation as independent variables. During the wet season, the prevalence of overweight among girls was higher in the forest (42%) than in the floodplain (9%). Longitudinal linear regression models showed that the arm circumference measurement was influenced both by seasonality and location, revealing that the increment between dry and wet seasons was less pronounced in the floodplain. At the time of the study, overweight already constituted a major public health concern among girls living in the forest area. In order to develop adequate public health policies for this important segment of the Amazon population further studies are necessary to investigate the role of environment and seasonality on the growth and nutritional status of adolescents.

  9. Sources of variation and genetic profile of spontaneous, out-of-season ovulatory activity in the Chios sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouttos Athanasios

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Organising the breeding plan of a seasonally breeding species, such as sheep, presents a challenge to farmers and the industry as a whole, since both economical and biological considerations need to be carefully balanced. Understanding the breeding activity of individual animals becomes a prerequisite for a successful breeding program. This study set out to investigate the sources of variation and the genetic profile of the spontaneous, out-of-season ovulatory activity of ewes of the Chios dairy sheep breed in Greece. The definition of the trait was based on blood progesterone levels, measured before exposing the ewes to rams, which marks the onset of the usual breeding season. Data were 707 records, taken over two consecutive years, of 435 ewes kept at the Agricultural Research Station of Chalkidiki in northern Greece. When all available pedigree was included, the total number of animals involved was 1068. On average, 29% of all ewes exhibited spontaneous, out-of-season ovulatory activity, with no substantial variation between the years. Significant sources of systematic variation were the ewe age and live weight, and the month of previous lambing. Older, heavier ewes, that had lambed early the previous autumn, exhibited more frequent activity. Heritability estimates were 0.216 (± 0.084 with a linear and 0.291 with a threshold model. The latter better accounts for the categorical nature of the trait. The linear model repeatability was 0.230 (± 0.095. The results obtained in this study support the notion that spontaneous out-of-season ovulatory activity can be considered in the development of a breeding plan for the Chios sheep breed.

  10. Seasonal variations of indoor microbial exposures and their relation to temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Mika; Bekö, Gabriel; Timm, Michael; Gustavsen, Sine; Hansen, Erik Wind; Madsen, Anne Mette

    2012-12-01

    Indoor microbial exposure has been related to adverse pulmonary health effects. Exposure assessment is not standardized, and various factors may affect the measured exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal variation of selected microbial exposures and their associations with temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates in Danish homes. Airborne inhalable dust was sampled in five Danish homes throughout the four seasons of 1 year (indoors, n = 127; outdoors, n = 37). Measurements included culturable fungi and bacteria, endotoxin, N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase, total inflammatory potential, particles (0.75 to 15 μm), temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates. Significant seasonal variation was found for all indoor microbial exposures, excluding endotoxin. Indoor fungi peaked in summer (median, 235 CFU/m(3)) and were lowest in winter (median, 26 CFU/m(3)). Indoor bacteria peaked in spring (median, 2,165 CFU/m(3)) and were lowest in summer (median, 240 CFU/m(3)). Concentrations of fungi were predominately higher outdoors than indoors, whereas bacteria, endotoxin, and inhalable dust concentrations were highest indoors. Bacteria and endotoxin correlated with the mass of inhalable dust and number of particles. Temperature and air exchange rates were positively associated with fungi and N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase and negatively with bacteria and the total inflammatory potential. Although temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates were significantly associated with several indoor microbial exposures, they could not fully explain the observed seasonal variations when tested in a mixed statistical model. In conclusion, the season significantly affects indoor microbial exposures, which are influenced by temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates.

  11. Epsodic paroxysmal hemicrania with seasonal variation: case report and the EPH-cluster headache continuum hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veloso Germany Gonçalves

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Episodic paroxysmal hemicrania (EPH is a rare disorder characterized by frequent, daily attacks of short-lived, unilateral headache with accompanying ipsilateral autonomic features. EPH has attack periods which last weeks to months separated by remission intervals lasting months to years, however, a seasonal variation has never been reported in EPH. We report a new case of EPH with a clear seasonal pattern: a 32-year-old woman with a right-sided headache for 17 years. Pain occurred with a seasonal variation, with bouts lasting one month (usually in the first months of the year and remission periods lasting around 11 months. During these periods she had headache from three to five times per day, lasting from 15 to 30 minutes, without any particular period preference. There were no precipitating or aggravating factors. Tearing and conjunctival injection accompanied ipsilaterally the pain. Previous treatments provided no pain relief. She completely responded to indomethacin 75 mg daily. After three years, the pain recurred with longer attack duration and was just relieved with prednisone. We also propose a new hypothesis: the EPH-cluster headache continuum.

  12. Seasonal and Milking-to-Milking Variations in Cow Milk Fat, Protein and Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Raluca PAVEL

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The first objective of this study was to examine milking-to-milking variations in milk fat, protein and SCC (somatic cell count. The second objective of this study was to examine variations of milk components (fat, protein and SCC over a period of six months (April-September 2010 at Agricultural Research Development Station Simnic. A total of 128 milk samples (64 morning milking and 64 evening milking ones from milk bulk tank commingled from 90�4 Holstein cows, were collected and analyzed for fat, protein and SCC. Data suggested that milking period effects milk fat, making the fat percentage lower in the morning compared with the evening milking period, effect which was not similar in protein content. Seasonal differences in milk fat and protein were also investigated. The season of year had influenced SCC, fat and protein: SCC increased, while fat and protein decreased. The period of the day when milking took place and the season influenced fat, protein and SCC, but the composition of milk, as well as its hygienic quality, fell within the aplicabile standards for raw milk.

  13. 489 SEASONAL VARIATION IN PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    higher concentration during the wet season than in the dry season in all the Groups, except for BOD, sulphate and iron. ... availability and quality of groundwater due to waste and ... using 1 litre plastic containers that were treated with 3-4ml of ...

  14. Evolution of Mars’ Northern Polar Seasonal CO2 deposits: variations in surface brightness and bulk density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Christopher P.; Titus, Timothy N.

    2015-01-01

    Small scale variations of seasonal ice are explored at different geomorphic units on the Northern Polar Seasonal Cap (NPSC). We use seasonal rock shadow measurements, combined with visible and thermal observations, to calculate density over time. The coupling of volume density and albedo allows us to determine the microphysical state of the seasonal CO2 ice. We find two distinct endmembers across the NPSC: 1) Snow deposits may anneal to form an overlying slab layer that fractures. These low density deposits maintain relatively constant densities over springtime. 2) Porous slab deposits likely anneal rapidly in early spring and fracture in late spring. These high density deposits dramatically increase in density over time. The endmembers appear to be correlated with latitude.

  15. Changes in cardiac activity, oxygen uptake and perfusion indices in Carcinus maenas (L. ) exposed to crude oil and dispersant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depledge, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    Cardiac activity and oxygen consumption increased when C. maenas were exposed to a 20% solution of the water-soluble fraction of Fortes crude oil, a 10% solution of the dispersant BP1100WD or a combination of both. Normal feeding behaviour was disrupted. Perfusion indices (Q/VO2) decreased as locomotor activity increased following exposure to crude oil. However, exposure to dispersant or dispersant + crude oil resulted in elevation of perfusion index despite crabs becoming active. All test animals survived for at least 6 weeks following exposure to the pollutants. The acute, sublethal effects of dispersant and dispersant + crude oil were more severe than the effects of crude oil alone.

  16. Seasonal variation in the intensity of movements by the estuarine dolphin, Sotalia guianensis (Cetacea: Delphinidae, in the North Bay, Santa Catarina Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Simões-Lopes

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The resident population of estuarine dolphins (Sotalia guianensis in the North Bay, Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil, was studied from September 2001 until July 2003 through periodical boat surveys. Using focal-group and sequential sampling, information such as geographical position and behavioral patterns were registered at 5-minute intervals. All the information collected was insert in a GIS database of the study area. Since patterns of seasonal variation concerning home range and behavior had been established in previous work, we aimed at evaluating the existence of seasonal intensity of movements, therefore strengthening the proposed hypothesis of higher spatial requirements when food resources are low. The daily mean speed of the dolphin’s group was used as an index of the intensity of movements, and its seasonal variation throughout the study period was analyzed. We found a statistically significant seasonal variation in the intensity of movement. The dolphins tended to move more in the cold seasons, in contrast with the hot seasons when the dolphins tended to move less. Thus, previous studies are corroborated, supporting the hypothesis og higher spatial requirements when there are fewer food resources.

  17. Variation of respiratory syncytial virus and the relation with meteorological factors in different winter seasons.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerhoff, T.J.; Paget, W.J.; Kimpen, J.L.; Schellevis, F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important viral agent causing severe respiratory disease in infants and children. In temperate climates, RSV activity typically peaks during winter. We have described the seasonal variation in RSV activity and investigated which

  18. Seasonal and spatial variations in fish and macrocrustacean assemblage structure in Mad Island Marsh estuary, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, S.; Winemiller, K. O.; Gelwick, F. P.

    2003-05-01

    Fish and macrocrustacean assemblage structure was analyzed along an estuarine gradient at Mad Island Marsh (MIM), Matagorda Bay, TX, during March 1998-August 1999. Eight estuarine-dependent fish species accounted for 94% of the individual fishes collected, and three species accounted for 96% of macrocrustacean abundance. Consistent with evidence from other Gulf of Mexico estuarine studies, species richness and abundance were highest during late spring and summer, and lowest during winter and early spring. Sites near the bay supported the most individuals and species. Associations between fish abundance and environmental variables were examined with canonical correspondence analysis. The dominant gradient was associated with water depth and distance from the bay. The secondary gradient reflected seasonal variation and was associated with temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and vegetation cover. At the scales examined, estuarine biota responded to seasonal variation more than spatial variation. Estuarine-dependent species dominated the fauna and were common throughout the open waters of the shallow lake during winter-early spring when water temperature and salinity were low and dissolved oxygen high. During summer-early fall, sub-optimal environmental conditions (high temperature, low DO) in upper reaches accounted for strong spatial variation in assemblage composition. Small estuarine-resident fishes and the blue crab ( Callinectes sapidus) were common in warm, shallow, vegetated inland sites during summer-fall. Estuarine-dependent species were common at deeper, more saline locations near the bay during this period. During summer, freshwater species, such as gizzard shad ( Dorosoma cepedianum) and gars ( Lepisosteus spp.), were positively associated with water depth and proximity to the bay. The distribution and abundance of fishes in MIM appear to result from the combined effects of endogenous, seasonal patterns of reproduction and migration operating on large

  19. Seasonal variations of cadmium and zinc in Arrhenatherum elatius, a perennial grass species from highly contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deram, Annabelle; Denayer, Franck-Olivier; Petit, Daniel; Van Haluwyn, Chantal

    2006-01-01

    There is interest in studying bioaccumulation in plants because they form the base of the food chain as well as their potential use in phytoextraction. From this viewpoint, our study deals with the seasonal variation, from January to July, of Cd and Zn bioaccumulation in three metallicolous populations of Arrhenatherum elatius, a perennial grass with a high biomass production. In heavily polluted soils, while Zn bioaccumulation is weak, A. elatius accumulates more Cd than reported gramineous plants, with concentration of up to 100 μg g -1 . Our results also showed seasonal variations of bioaccumulation, underlying the necessity for in situ studies to specify the date of sampling and also the phenology of the collected plant sample. In our experimental conditions, accumulation is lower in June, leading us to the hypothesis of restriction in heavy metals translocation from roots to aerial parts during seed production. - Cd and Zn bioaccumulation varies seasonally in a perennial grass

  20. Seasonal variations of cadmium and zinc in Arrhenatherum elatius, a perennial grass species from highly contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deram, Annabelle [Institut Lillois d' Ingenierie de la Sante, Universite Droit et Sante de Lille, EA 2690, 42 rue Ambroise Pare, 59120 Loos (France)]. E-mail: aderam@ilis.univ-lille2.fr; Denayer, Franck-Olivier [Institut Lillois d' Ingenierie de la Sante, Universite Droit et Sante de Lille, EA 2690, 42 rue Ambroise Pare, 59120 Loos (France); Petit, Daniel [Laboratoire de Genetique et Evolution des Populations Vegetales, UPRESA-CNRS 8016, Bat SN2, Universite des Sciences et Techniques de Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq, F59655 France (France); Van Haluwyn, Chantal [Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Departement de Botanique, Universite Droit et Sante de Lille, EA 2690, B.P. 83, 59006 Lille Cedex (France)

    2006-03-15

    There is interest in studying bioaccumulation in plants because they form the base of the food chain as well as their potential use in phytoextraction. From this viewpoint, our study deals with the seasonal variation, from January to July, of Cd and Zn bioaccumulation in three metallicolous populations of Arrhenatherum elatius, a perennial grass with a high biomass production. In heavily polluted soils, while Zn bioaccumulation is weak, A. elatius accumulates more Cd than reported gramineous plants, with concentration of up to 100 {mu}g g{sup -1}. Our results also showed seasonal variations of bioaccumulation, underlying the necessity for in situ studies to specify the date of sampling and also the phenology of the collected plant sample. In our experimental conditions, accumulation is lower in June, leading us to the hypothesis of restriction in heavy metals translocation from roots to aerial parts during seed production. - Cd and Zn bioaccumulation varies seasonally in a perennial grass.

  1. Seasonal Changes in Atmospheric Noise Levels and the Annual Variation in Pigeon Homing Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrum, J. T.; McIsaac, H. P.; Drob, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    The remarkable navigational ability of homing pigeons (Columba livia) is influenced by a number of factors, an unknown one of which causes the "Wintereffekt"1 or annual variation in homing performance. Minima in homeward orientation and return speeds have been observed in winter, with maxima in summer, during repetitive pigeon releases from single sites near experimental lofts in Wilhelmshaven, Göttingen, and Munich, Germany, and near Pisa, Italy1-4. Overall the annual variation is more pronounced in northern Germany than Italy4, and both mature and juvenile cohorts respond to this seasonal factor. Older, more experienced pigeons are better at compensating for its effects than naïve ones, but are still affected after numerous releases. The narrow low-frequency band of atmospheric background noise (microbaroms; 0.1-0.3 Hz) also varies with an annual cycle that generally has higher amplitudes in winter than in summer depending on location5. In addition, homing pigeons, and possibly other birds, apparently use infrasonic signals of similar frequency as navigational cues6, and a seasonal variation in background noise levels could cause corresponding changes in signal-to-noise ratios and thus in homing performance. The annual variation in homing performance, however, was not observed during long-term pigeon releases at two sites in eastern North America. The annual and geographic variability in homing performance in the northern hemisphere can be explained to a first order by seasonal changes in infrasonic noise sources related to ocean storm activity, and to the direction and intensity of stratospheric winds. In addition, increased dispersion in departure bearings of individual birds for some North American releases were likely caused by additional infrasonic noise associated with severe weather events during tornado and Atlantic hurricane seasons. 1Kramer, G. & von Saint Paul, U., J. Ornithol. 97, 353-370 (1956); 2Wallraff, H. G., Z. Tierpsychol. 17, 82-113 (1960

  2. Local time, seasonal, and solar cycle dependency of longitudinal variations of TEC along the crest of EIA over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunda, Surendra; Vyas, B. M.

    2013-10-01

    global wave number 4 structure in the Indian longitudinal region spanning from ~70 to 95°E forming the upward slope of the peak in the total electron content (TEC) are reported along the crest of equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA). The continuous and simultaneous measurements from five GPS stations of GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) network are used in this study. The long-term database (2004-2012) is utilized for examining the local time, seasonal, and solar cycle dependency on the longitudinal variations of TEC. Our results confirm the existence of longitudinal variations of TEC in accordance with wave number 4 longitudinal structure including its strength. The results suggest that these variations, in general, start to develop at ~09 LT, achieve maximum strength at 12-15 LT, and decay thereafter, the decay rate depending on the season. They are more pronounced in equinoctial season followed by summer and winter. The longitudinal variations persist beyond midnight in equinox seasons, whereas in winter, they are conspicuously absent. Interestingly, they also exhibit significant solar cycle dependence in the solstices, whereas in the equinoxes, they are independent of solar activity. The comparison of crest-to-trough ratio (CTR) in the eastern (92°E) and western (72°E) extreme longitudes reveals higher CTR on the eastern side than over the western extreme, suggesting the role of nonmigrating tides in modulating the ExB vertical drift and the consequential EIA crest formation.

  3. Seasonal Variation in Monthly Average Air Change Rates Using Passive Tracer Gas Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marie; Bergsøe, Niels Christian; Kolarik, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    in five dwellings in Greater Copenhagen, Denmark. A passive tracer gas technique (Perfluorocarbon) was used to measure ACR in a seven-month period. Considerable differences were observed between the dwellings with monthly ACRs ranging from 0.21 to 1.75 h-1. Only smaller seasonal variations, generally less...... driving forces for natural ventilation is partially compensated by changed occupant behaviour....

  4. Seasonal variations in the biochemical composition of some common seaweed species from the coast of Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Khairy, Hanan M.; El-Shafay, Shimaa M.

    2013-01-01

    Variations in protein, carbohydrate, lipid, ash, moisture, fatty acid and aminoacid contents of the seaweeds Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta),Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J.V. Lamouroux and Pterocladia capillacea (S.G. Gmelin) Bornet(Rhodophyta) were studied seasonally from spring to autumn 2010. The seaweeds were collected from a rocky site near Boughaz El-Maadya on the coast of Abu Qir Bay east of Alexandria, Egypt. Remarkable seasonal variations were recorded in the levels of the studied pa...

  5. Estimating seasonal variations in cloud droplet number concentration over the boreal forest from satellite observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Kabat, P.; Kulmala, M.; Nieminen, T.; Roebeling, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal variations in cloud droplet number concentration (NCD) in low-level stratiform clouds over the boreal forest are estimated from MODIS observations of cloud optical and microphysical properties, using a sub-adiabatic cloud model to interpret vertical profiles of cloud properties. An

  6. Length-Weight Realtionship and Seasonal Distrubition of Magalaspis cordyla (Linnaeus 1758 fish Size frequency Variation from Karachi Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quratulan AHMED

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of seasonal variation in distribution of 167 fishes of magalaspis cordyla from the Karachi fish harbour collected seasonally (pre-monsoon, mon-soon, post-monsoon between September 2011-August 2012. The highest catch of fish (68 was recorded in pre-monsoon season and the lowest catch of fish (47 was recorded in monsoon season. The highest mean length (38.6+ 0.746 and weight (288+ 21.90 was measured during pre-monsoon season and lowest mean length (22.5+ 0.671 and weight (120.5+ 2.73 was measured during mon-soon season. The highest mean condition factor (1.192+ 0.817 and minimum (0.500+ 0.038 was recorded in pre-monsoon season. Fish estimated negative and positive allometric growth because b values larger and less then 3 in pre-monsoon and monsoon season but post-monsoon season showed positive allometric growth because b value larger then 3 in all size classes

  7. Seasonal variation and chemical characterization of PM2.5 in northwestern Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagtasa, Gerry; Cayetano, Mylene G.; Yuan, Chung-Shin

    2018-04-01

    The seasonal and chemical characteristics of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were investigated in Burgos, Ilocos Norte, located at the northwestern edge of the Philippines. Each 24 h sample of fine aerosol was collected for four seasons. Fine particulate in the region shows strong seasonal variation in both concentration and composition. Highest mass concentration was seen during the boreal spring season with a mean mass concentration of 21.6 ± 6.6 µg m-3, and lowest was in fall with a mean concentration of 8.4 ± 2.3 µg m-3. Three-day wind back trajectory analysis of air mass reveals the influence of the northwestern Pacific monsoon regimes on PM2.5 concentration. During southwest monsoon, sea salt was the dominant component of fine aerosols carried by moist air from the South China Sea. During northeast monsoon, on the other hand, both wind and receptor model analysis showed that higher particulate concentration was due to the long-range transport (LRT) of anthropogenic emissions from northern East Asia. Overall, sea salt and soil comprise 33 % of total PM2.5 concentration, while local biomass burning makes up 33 %. LRT of industrial emission, solid waste burning and secondary sulfate from East Asia have a mean contribution of 34 % to the total fine particulate for the whole sampling period.

  8. Seasonal variation in Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle) calyx phytochemical profile, soluble solids and α-glucosidase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifie, Idolo; Ifie, Beatrice E; Ibitoye, Dorcas O; Marshall, Lisa J; Williamson, Gary

    2018-09-30

    Seasonal variations in crops can alter the profile and amount of constituent compounds and consequentially any biological activity. Differences in phytochemical profile, total phenolic content and inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase (maltase) of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces grown in South Western Nigeria were determined over wet and dry seasons. The phenolic profile, organic acids and sugars were analysed using HPLC, while inhibition of rat intestinal maltase was measured enzymically. There was a significant increase (1.4-fold; p ≤ 0.05) in total anthocyanin content in the dry compared to wet planting seasons, and maltase inhibition from the dry season was slightly more potent (1.15-fold, p ≤ 0.05). Fructose (1.8-fold), glucose (1.8-fold) and malic acid (3.7-fold) were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) but citric acid was lower (62-fold, p ≤ 0.008) in the dry season. Environmental conditions provoke metabolic responses in Hibiscus sabdariffa affecting constituent phytochemicals and nutritional value. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative seasonal variations of spectral signatures of broad-leaved and coniferous stands from Landsat data. Comparison with other perennial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaume, R.; Combeau, A.

    1984-01-01

    Spectral signatures of two distinct forest test areas were identified from digital data including 15 LANDSAT scenes covering the same geographical area: a broad-leaved forest (oak and beech) and a coniferous forest (scotch pine). Seasonal variations of the signatures were examined and were expressed in terms of various data: date, solar height and phenological state of vegetation cover. Results were compared to these obtained from other perennial surface conditions (grassland, bare soils) . Range of the seasonal variations of radiance is noted, as well as evolutionary peculiarities on each band and between themes. Rationing of spectral bands (particularly MSS 5 and 7) and their variation with time are specified [fr

  10. Study of Seasonal Variation in Groundwater Quality of Sagar City (India by Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Pathak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is one of the major resources of the drinking water in Sagar city (India.. In this study 15 sampling station were selected for the investigations on 14 chemical parameters. The work was carried out during different months of the pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons in June 2009 to June 2010. The multivariate statistics such as principal component and cluster analysis were applied to the datasets to investigate seasonal variations in groundwater quality. Principal axis factoring has been used to observe the mode of association of parameters and their interrelationships, for evaluating water quality. Average value of BOD, COD, ammonia and iron was high during entire study period. Elevated values of BOD and ammonia in monsoon, slightly more value of BOD in post-monsoon, BOD, ammonia and iron in pre-monsoon period reflected contribution on temporal effect on groundwater. Results of principal component analysis evinced that all the parameters equally and significantly contribute to groundwater quality variations. Factor 1 and factor 2 analysis revealed the DO value deteriorate due to organic load (BOD/Ammonia in different seasons. Hierarchical cluster analysis grouped 15 stations into four clusters in monsoon, five clusters in post-monsoon and five clusters in pre-monsoon with similar water quality features. Clustered group at monsoon, post-monsoon and pre-monsoon consisted one station exhibiting significant spatial variation in physicochemical composition. The anthropogenic nitrogenous species, as fallout from modernization activities. The study indicated that the groundwater sufficiently well oxygenated and nutrient-rich in study places.

  11. Seasonal variation of the underground cosmic muon flux observed at Daya Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, F. P.; Balantekin, A. B.; Band, H. R.; Bishai, M.; Blyth, S.; Cao, D.; Cao, G. F.; Cao, J.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, J. F.; Chang, Y.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, Q. Y.; Chen, S. M.; Chen, Y. X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, J.; Cheng, Z. K.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, M. C.; Chukanov, A.; Cummings, J. P.; Ding, Y. Y.; Diwan, M. V.; Dolgareva, M.; Dove, J.; Dwyer, D. A.; Edwards, W. R.; Gill, R.; Gonchar, M.; Gong, G. H.; Gong, H.; Grassi, M.; Gu, W. Q.; Guo, L.; Guo, X. H.; Guo, Y. H.; Guo, Z.; Hackenburg, R. W.; Hans, S.; He, M.; Heeger, K. M.; Heng, Y. K.; Higuera, A.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hu, B. Z.; Hu, T.; Huang, E. C.; Huang, H. X.; Huang, X. T.; Huber, P.; Huo, W.; Hussain, G.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jen, K. L.; Jetter, S.; Ji, X. P.; Ji, X. L.; Jiao, J. B.; Johnson, R. A.; Jones, D.; Kang, L.; Kettell, S. H.; Khan, A.; Kohn, S.; Kramer, M.; Kwan, K. K.; Kwok, M. W.; Kwok, T.; Langford, T. J.; Lau, K.; Lebanowski, L.; Lee, J.; Lee, J. H. C.; Lei, R. T.; Leitner, R.; Li, C.; Li, D. J.; Li, F.; Li, G. S.; Li, Q. J.; Li, S.; Li, S. C.; Li, W. D.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. F.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Lin, C. J.; Lin, G. L.; Lin, S.; Lin, S. K.; Lin, Y.-C.; Ling, J. J.; Link, J. M.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Liu, J. L.; Liu, J. C.; Loh, C. W.; Lu, C.; Lu, H. Q.; Lu, J. S.; Luk, K. B.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, X. B.; Ma, Y. Q.; Malyshkin, Y.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McDonald, K. T.; McKeown, R. D.; Mitchell, I.; Nakajima, Y.; Napolitano, J.; Naumov, D.; Naumova, E.; Ngai, H. Y.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Olshevskiy, A.; Pan, H.-R.; Park, J.; Patton, S.; Pec, V.; Peng, J. C.; Pinsky, L.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, F. Z.; Qi, M.; Qian, X.; Qiu, R. M.; Raper, N.; Ren, J.; Rosero, R.; Roskovec, B.; Ruan, X. C.; Sebastiani, C.; Steiner, H.; Sun, J. L.; Tang, W.; Taychenachev, D.; Treskov, K.; Tsang, K. V.; Tull, C. E.; Viaux, N.; Viren, B.; Vorobel, V.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M.; Wang, N. Y.; Wang, R. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. M.; Wei, H. Y.; Wen, L. J.; Whisnant, K.; White, C. G.; Whitehead, L.; Wise, T.; Wong, H. L. H.; Wong, S. C. F.; Worcester, E.; Wu, C.-H.; Wu, Q.; Wu, W. J.; Xia, D. M.; Xia, J. K.; Xing, Z. Z.; Xu, J. L.; Xu, Y.; Xue, T.; Yang, C. G.; Yang, H.; Yang, L.; Yang, M. S.; Yang, M. T.; Yang, Y. Z.; Ye, M.; Ye, Z.; Yeh, M.; Young, B. L.; Yu, Z. Y.; Zeng, S.; Zhan, L.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, Q. M.; Zhang, X. T.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Y. X.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, J.; Zhou, L.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zou, J. H.

    2018-01-01

    The Daya Bay Experiment consists of eight identically designed detectors located in three underground experimental halls named as EH1, EH2, EH3, with 250, 265 and 860 meters of water equivalent vertical overburden, respectively. Cosmic muon events have been recorded over a two-year period. The underground muon rate is observed to be positively correlated with the effective atmospheric temperature and to follow a seasonal modulation pattern. The correlation coefficient α, describing how a variation in the muon rate relates to a variation in the effective atmospheric temperature, is found to be αEH1 = 0.362±0.031, αEH2 = 0.433±0.038 and αEH3 = 0.641±0.057 for each experimental hall.

  12. Seasonal variation in soil seed bank size and species composition of selected habitat types in Maputaland, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. S. Kellerman

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variation in seed bank size and species composition of five selected habitat types within the Tembe Elephant Park. South Africa, was investigated. At three-month intervals, soil samples were randomly collected from five different habitat types: a, Licuati forest; b, Licuati thicket; c, a bare or sparsely vegetated zone surrounding the forest edge, referred to as the forest/grassland ecotone; d, grassland; and e, open woodland. Most species in the seed bank flora were either grasses, sedges, or forbs, with hardly any evidence of woody species. The Licuati forest and thicket soils produced the lowest seed densities in all seasons.  Licuati forest and grassland seed banks showed a two-fold seasonal variation in size, those of the Licuati thicket and woodland a three-fold variation in size, whereas the forest/grassland ecotone maintained a relatively large seed bank all year round. The woodland seed bank had the highest species richness, whereas the Licuati forest and thicket soils were poor in species. Generally, it was found that the greatest correspondence in species composition was between the Licuati forest and thicket, as well as the forest/grassland ecotone and grassland seed bank floras.

  13. Seasonal Variation of Total Mercury Burden in the American Alligator (Alligator Mississippiensis) at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR), Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Frances M.; Dorsey, Jonathan E.; Long, Stephen E.; Schock, Tracey B.; Bowden, John A.; Lowers, Russell H.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal variation of mercury (Hg) is not well studied in free-ranging wildlife. Atmospheric deposition patterns of Hg have been studied in detail and have been modeled for both global and specific locations with great accuracy and correlates to environment impact. However, monitoring these trends in wildlife is complicated due to local environmental parameters (e.g., rainfall, humidity, pH, bacterial composition) that can affect the transformation of atmospheric Hg to the biologically available forms. Here, we utilized an abundant and healthy population of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR), FL, and assessed Hg burden in whole blood samples over a span of 7 years (2007 2014; n 174) in an effort to assess seasonal variation of total [Hg]. While the majority of this population is assumed healthy, 18 individuals with low body mass indices (BMI, defined in this study) were captured throughout the 7 year sampling period. These individual alligators exhibited [Hg] that were not consistent with the observed overall seasonal [Hg] variation, and were statistically different from the healthy population of alligators. The alligators with low BMI had elevated concentrations of Hg compared to their age/sex/season matched counterparts with normal BMI. Statistically significant differences were found between the winter and spring seasons for animals with normal BMI. The data in this report supports the conclusion that organismal total [Hg] do fluctuate directly with seasonal deposition rates as well as other seasonal environmental parameters, such as average rainfall and prevailing wind direction. This study highlights the unique environment of MINWR to permit annual assessment of apex predators, such as the American alligator, to determine detailed environmental impact of contaminants of concern.

  14. Seasonal variation of air pollution in Warsaw conurbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Rozbicka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Long term research shows many substances in the atmosphere are in concentration dangerous for human health and welfare and even for human life. The work presents time and spatial variation of tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations. Analysis was carried out on the base of hourly values of mentioned pollutants (O3 and NO2 concentrations. Data used in the analysis comes from atmospheric monitoring stations situated in various parts of Warsaw and concerns the period 2008–2011. The influence of meteorological elements on concentration of analyzed pollutants was stated by the use of correlation and multiple regression analysis for months and seasonal periods. On this base results of statistical analysis strong correlation between tropospheric ozone, nitrogen dioxide concentration and meteorological elements is stated. In case of ozone and nitrogen dioxide the relationships with air temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation are most significant.

  15. Seasonal variations in the aragonite saturation state in the upper open-ocean waters of the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Park, Geun-Ha; Kim, Dongseon; Lee, Kitack; Feely, Richard A.; Millero, Frank J.

    2015-06-01

    Seasonal variability of the aragonite saturation state (ΩAR) in the upper (50 m and 100 m depths) North Pacific Ocean (NPO) was investigated using multiple linear regression (MLR). The MLR algorithm derived from a high-quality carbon data set accurately predicted the ΩAR of evaluation data sets (three time series stations and P02 section) with acceptable uncertainty (<0.1 ΩAR). The algorithm was combined with seasonal climatology data, and the estimated ΩAR varied in the range of 0.4-0.6 in the midlatitude western NPO, with the largest variation found for the tropical eastern NPO. These marked variations were largely controlled by seasonal changes in vertical mixing and thermocline depth, both of which determine the degree of entrainment of CO2-rich corrosive waters from deeper depths. Our MLR-based subsurface ΩAR climatology is complementary to surface climatology based on pCO2 measurements.

  16. Meridional distribution and seasonal variation of stable oxygen isotope ratio of precipitation in the Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayo Nakamura

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The stable oxygen isotope ratio(δ^O in precipitation is known to have important meridional and seasonal variations, but there are almost no measurements of δ^O in precipitation over polar oceans. The present research took advantage of 4 opportunities for in situ observations in summer and winter at high latitudes in the Southern Ocean. In addition, we analyzed samples of precipitation at Syowa Station in 2008 to obtain year-round data. Based on these data, we consider the meridional and seasonal variations of δ^O in precipitation over the Southern Ocean. In general, δ^O decreases with increasing latitude, and is lower in winter than in summer. The latitude gradient is stronger in winter. At 60°S, δ^O is -5.4‰ and -11.3‰ in summer and winter, respectively, while the corresponding figures at 66°S are -10.5‰ and -20.8‰. These results will help us understand the mechanisms of the salinity distribution and its variation in the Antarctic Ocean.

  17. Melanopsin Gene Variations Interact With Season to Predict Sleep Onset and Chronotype

    OpenAIRE

    Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Wong, Patricia M.; Franzen, Peter L.; Hasler, Brant P.; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.; Miller, Megan A.; Kepreos, Kyle M.; Ferrell, Robert E.; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2012-01-01

    The human melanopsin gene has been reported to mediate risk for seasonal affective disorder (SAD), which is hypothesized to be caused by decreased photic input during winter when light levels fall below threshold, resulting in differences in circadian phase and/or sleep. However, it is unclear if melanopsin increases risk of SAD by causing differences in sleep or circadian phase, or if those differences are symptoms of the mood disorder. To determine if melanopsin sequence variations are asso...

  18. [Seasonal variation of soil respiration and its components in tropical rain forest and rubber plantation in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hua-Zheng; Sha, Li-Qing; Wang, Jun; Hu, Wen-Yan; Wu, Bing-Xia

    2009-10-01

    By using trenching method and infrared gas analyzer, this paper studied the seasonal variation of soil respiration (SR), including root respiration (RR) and heterotrophic respiration (HR), in tropical seasonal rain forest (RF) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantation (RP) in Xishuangbanna of Yunnan, China. The results showed that the SR and HR rates were significantly higher in RF than in RP (P dry-hot season > foggy season, but the RR rate was rainy season > foggy season > dry-hot season in RF, and foggy season > rainy season > dry-hot season in RP. The contribution of RR to SR in RF (29%) was much lower than that in RP (42%, P < 0.01), while the contribution of HR to SR was 71% in RF and 58% in RP. When the soil temperature at 5 cm depth varied from 12 degrees C to 32 degrees C, the Q10 values for SR, HR, and RR rates were higher in RF than in RP. HR had the highest Q10 value, while RR had the lowest one.

  19. Recruitment patterns, low cannibalism and reduced interspecific predation contribute to high invasion success of two Pacific crabs in northwestern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geburzi, Jonas C.; Brandis, Dirk; Buschbaum, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Life-history traits and interactions with native species play an important role for the successful establishment of non-native species in new habitats. We investigated the recent successful invasion of the Pacific crabs Hemigrapsus takanoi and H. sanguineus to the southeastern North Sea coast with respect to their recruitment patterns, as well as interactions of juvenile with sub-adult individuals among the Pacific crabs and with native shore crabs Carcinus maenas. A field survey of juvenile native and introduced crab abundances (carapace width 1.4-10 mm) was conducted in the northern Wadden Sea, spanning 24 months from 2014 to 2016. The survey revealed different seasonal recruitment patterns of native C. maenas and both introduced Hemigrapsus species. Native shore crabs showed a single recruitment peak from June to July, while Hemigrapsus spp. mainly recruited from August to early September, but recruits occurred in low densities throughout the winter until the end of the following spring season. Field experiments on the effects of larger crabs on the recruitment intensity showed that recruitment of H. takanoi was enhanced by the presence of larger congeners, but remained unaffected by larger C. maenas. Recruitment of juvenile C. maenas, by contrast, was reduced by the presence of larger Hemigrapsus spp. Additional laboratory experiments revealed high rates of cannibalism on newly recruited C. maenas by subadult conspecifics as well as strong predation by larger Hemigrapsus spp. In contrast, newly recruited Hemigrapsus spp. had a much lower risk of being preyed on by subadult conspecifics and native shore crabs. Our results suggest that the timing of recruitment in combination with low intraspecific competition and reduced predation pressure by native shore crabs are crucial for the rapid and ongoing establishment of Hemigrapsus spp. in the Wadden Sea.

  20. Seasonal and Sexual Variation in Metabolism, Thermoregulation, and Hormones in the Big Brown Bat (Eptesicus fuscus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Christopher S; Heeren, Tim; Kunz, Thomas H

    In response to seasonal variation in energy availability and thermal environment, physiological and endocrine mechanisms have evolved in temperate zone animals. Seasonal changes in hormone activity affect metabolism, body temperature, and reproductive activity. We examined the seasonal regulatory role of hormones on basal metabolic rate (BMR) and regulatory nonshivering thermogenesis (RNST) in 98 female and 17 male adult Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat). We measured BMR, RNST, and plasma levels of thyroid hormone (T 3 ), leptin, and cortisol in bats captured in maternity colonies in eastern Massachusetts from May to August (from arousal from the hibernation phase to the prehibernation phase). We hypothesized that all three hormones are seasonally primarily metabolic hormones and secondarily thermogenic hormones. In males, only BMR significantly changed seasonally. In females, all five variables significantly changed seasonally. The seasonal pattern of plasma leptin and cortisol levels correlated with the seasonal pattern of BMR, with an initial increase followed by a decrease, suggesting that leptin and cortisol are primarily metabolic hormones. The seasonal pattern of plasma T 3 levels generally paralleled the basic seasonal pattern of RNST, with both increasing at the second half of the season, suggesting that T 3 is primarily a thermogenic hormone. The observed decrease in plasma leptin levels may be necessary to allow for the observed seasonal decrease in BMR, with the similar cortisol pattern important for leptin regulation. While T 3 is needed to maintain BMR, it may play a more critical role in the seasonal regulation of RNST than of BMR.

  1. Diurnal and Seasonal Variations in Mid-Latitude Geomagnetic Field During International Quiet Days: BOH Magnetometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junga Hwang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute researchers have installed and operated magnetometers at Bohyunsan Observatory to measure the Earth's magnetic field variations in South Korea. In 2007, we installed a fluxgate magnetometer (RFP-523C to measure H, D, and Z components of the geomagnetic field. In addition, in 2009, we installed a Overhauser proton sensor to measure the absolute total magnetic field F and a three-axis magneto-impedance sensor for spectrum analysis. Currently three types of magnetometer data have been accumulated. In this paper, we use the H, D, Z components of fluxgate magnetometer data to investigate the characteristics of mid-latitude geomagnetic field variation. To remove the temporary changes in Earth’s geomagnetic filed by space weather, we use the international quiet days’ data only. In other words, we performed a superposed epoch analysis using five days per each month during 2008-2011. We find that daily variations of H, D, and Z shows similar tendency compared to previous results using all days. That is, H, D, Z all three components’ quiet intervals terminate near the sunrise and shows maximum 2-3 hours after the culmination and the quiet interval start from near the sunset. Seasonal variations show similar dependences to the Sun. As it becomes hot season, the geomagnetic field variation’s amplitude becomes large and the quiet interval becomes shortened. It is well-known that these variations are effects of Sq current system in the Earth’s atmosphere. We confirm that the typical mid-latitude geomagnetic field variations due to the Sq current system by excluding all possible association with the space weather.

  2. Seasonal variation in standardized litter decomposition and effects of elevation and land use at Mount Kilimanjaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Joscha; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2017-04-01

    Decomposition is one of most important ecological steps in organic matter and nutrient cycles, but studies and reliable data from tropical regions in Africa are still scarce. At the global scale, litter decomposition and recycling is controlled by climatic factors and land-use intensity. These factors can be linked to specific ecosystem characteristics along the unique elevation gradient of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Our objectives were to assess the effects of climatic conditions (i.e. elevation) and land-use intensity on C turnover and stabilization and investigated the seasonal variations. Tea-bag Index (see www.teatime4science.org) was used to measure decomposition of a standardized litter substrate by microorganisms and mesofauna coffee plantations or cloud forest (S=0.11) respectively and strongly increased again to a maximum of S=0.41 in the alpine helichrysum ecosystem. During all seasons, we found the highest decomposition rates at mid elevation. However, during both warm seasons the peak is shifted upslope. Savanna experienced the strongest seasonal variation, with 23 times higher S-values in dry- compared to rainy season. Mean annual k-values increased for about 30% with increasing land-use intensity. C stabilization in Mt. Kilimanjaro ecosystems is strongly dependent on seasonal moisture limitation (lower slope) and perennial temperature limitation (alpine zone). Ecosystems at mid elevation (around 1920 & 2120m) represent the interception zone of optimal moisture and temperature conditions. High input and fast turnover drive the C sequestration in these ecosystems, while restrains on decomposition control the C turnover in lower and higher elevation zones. Land-use intensification decreases stabilization from new C inputs in transition zones from savanna to maize monocultures and from traditional homegardens to large-scale coffee plantations.

  3. Multivariate analysis of seasonal variation in the composition and thermal properties of butterfat with an emphasis on authenticity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaszewska-Gras, J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the seasonal variation in the composition and thermal properties of butterfat (BF) in order to evaluate the applicability of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for the authenticity assessment of butter. The composition of fatty acids (FA) and triacylglycerols (TAG) and the thermal properties of genuine BF purchased in the summer and in the winter from six producers were determined. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to recognize variation and as a result, all BF samples were classified into two groups: one composed of mixed samples from the summer and winter and the other comprising only summer BF samples. DSC and GC analysis revealed that the group of only summer BF samples was characterized by lower melting temperatures and peak heights of low- and medium melting fractions and the highest proportions of unsaturated FAs (ΣC18:1, ΣC18:2, ΣC18:3). The results indicated that most of the variation in the composition and thermal properties was affected by summer BF samples, which may result from the alternative animal feeding systems employed in the summer season, i.e., pasture vs. indoor. Therefore, seasonal variation should be taken into consideration during the elaboration of the analytical method of authenticity assessment. [es

  4. Seasonal Variation of Submesoscale Flow Features in a Mesoscale Eddy-dominant Region in the East Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yeon S.; Choi, Byoung-Ju; Park, Young-Gyu

    2018-03-01

    Seasonal changes in the distribution of submesoscale (SM) flow features were examined using a fine-resolution numerical simulation. The SM flows are expected to be strong where mesoscale (MS) eddies actively develop and also when the mixed layer depth (MLD) is deep due to enhanced baroclinic instability. In the East Sea (ES), MS eddies more actively develop in summer while the MLD is deeper in winter, which provided the motivation to conduct this study to test the effects of MLD and MS eddies on the SM activity in this region. Finite-scale Liapunov exponents and the vertical velocity components were employed to analyze the SM activities. It was found that the SM intensity was marked by seasonality: it is stronger in winter when the mixed layer is deep but weaker in summer - despite the greater eddy kinetic energy. This is because in summer the mixed layer is so thin that there is not enough available potential energy. When the SM activity was quantified based on parameterization, (MLD × density gradient), it was determined that the seasonal variation of MLD plays a more important role than the lateral density gradient variation on SM flow motion in the ES.

  5. Seasonal variation of residence time in spring and groundwater evaluated by CFCs and numerical simulation in mountainous headwater catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Maki; Watanabe, Yasuto; Ikeda, Koichi; Yano, Shinjiro; Abe, Yutaka

    2016-04-01

    Headwater catchments in mountainous region are the most important recharge area for surface and subsurface waters, additionally time information of the water is principal to understand hydrological processes in the catchments. However, there have been few researches to evaluate variation of residence time of subsurface water in time and space at the mountainous headwaters especially with steep slope. We investigated the temporal variation of the residence time of the spring and groundwater with tracing of hydrological flow processes in mountainous catchments underlain by granite, Yamanashi Prefecture, central Japan. We conducted intensive hydrological monitoring and water sampling of spring, stream and ground waters in high-flow and low-flow seasons from 2008 through 2013 in River Jingu Watershed underlain by granite, with an area of approximately 15 km2 and elevation ranging from 950 m to 2000 m. The CFCs, stable isotopic ratios of oxygen-18 and deuterium, inorganic solute constituent concentrations were determined on all water samples. Also, a numerical simulation was conducted to reproduce of the average residence times of the spring and groundwater. The residence time of the spring water estimated by the CFCs concentration ranged from 10 years to 60 years in space within the watershed, and it was higher (older) during the low flow season and lower (younger) during the high flow season. We tried to reproduce the seasonal change of the residence time in the spring water by numerical simulation, and the calculated residence time of the spring water and discharge of the stream agreed well with the observed values. The groundwater level was higher during the high flow season and the groundwater dominantly flowed through the weathered granite with higher permeability, whereas that was lower during the low flow season and that flowed dominantly through the fresh granite with lower permeability. This caused the seasonal variation of the residence time of the spring

  6. Variation in Admission Rates of Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients in Coronary Care Unit According to Different Seasons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashari, M. N.; Soomro, K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Environmental stresses, especially extreme cold and hot weathers, have tendency to have more admissions for acute coronary syndromes. Due to scarcity of local data, we studied the variation in patient admission rates with acute coronary syndrome according to different seasons. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Coronary Care Unit, Civil Hospital and Pakistan Steel Hospital, Karachi, from January 2011 to December 2011. Methodology: The study group comprised consecutive patients with acute coronary syndrome (unstable angina, Non ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI), ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) admitted to the coronary care unit. Patients with stable angina and valvular heart disease were excluded. Data was analyzed for admission according to different seasons, (winter, spring, summer and autumn). Results: The mean age of the 428 cases was 48.5 ± 10.4 years (range 27 to 73 years). Among the study group, 261 (61%) and 167 (39%) cases were male and female respectively. ST-elevation myocardial infarction, non ST-elevation myocardial infarction and unstable angina were present in 206 (48%), 128 (30%) and 94 (22%) respectively. Among the 428 patients, 184 (43%) cases had hypertension, 133 (31%) cases were smokers, 103 (24%) cases had dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus and 08 (2%) cases had history of premature coronary artery disease. The number of patients admissions with acute coronary syndrome tended to change with sudden change in season. It increased in Winter 158 (36.9%) and Summer 130 (30.3%) in comparison to Spring 80 (18.69%) and Autumn 60 (14.02%) season. Conclusion: It was found variation in admission rates of acute coronary syndrome patients according to different seasons. The number of admissions not only increased in the cold season (winter) but also in hot season (summer) with sudden changes in temperature. (author)

  7. Seasonal variations in PM composition from Beijing, China drive liver oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, M.; Rudich, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Air pollution can cause oxidative stress, inflammation and adverse health effects, but the underlying biological mechanisms are not completely understood. In order to understand how seasonal and chemical variations drive health impacts, we investigated the oxidative stress and inflammation in mice exposed to extracts (water and DCM) from urban PM collected in Beijing (China). Higher levels of pollution components were detected in the heating season (HS, winter) than in the non-heating season (NHS, summer). Higher concentrations of PM were measured in the heating season, mostly from coal and wood burning used for domestic heating. This was accompanied by increased levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the DCM extracts. An increased inflammatory response was detected in the lung and liver with DCM extracts compared to the water extracts, and mostly in the winter aerosol. Reduced antioxidant response was observed in the lung, whereas it was activated in the liver. Gene expression of the Nrf2 transcription factor (A master regulator of stress response that controls the basal oxidative capacity and induces the expression of antioxidant response) and its related genes were induced. In the liver, higher levels of lipid peroxidation adducts were measured, correlated with histologic analysis that revealed morphologic features of damage/proliferation in the liver, indicating oxidative and toxic damage. Altogether, our study suggests that the acute effects of PM can vary by the season with the largest effect observed in winter than summer in Beijing, and that some secondary organs may be susceptible for exposure damage. This suggests that the liver is a potential organ to be influenced from PM especially by PAHs

  8. Marked seasonal variation in the wild mouse gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, Corinne F; Knowles, Sarah C L; Ladau, Joshua; Pollard, Katherine S; Fenton, Andy; Pedersen, Amy B; Turnbaugh, Peter J

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have provided an unprecedented view of the microbial communities colonizing captive mice; yet the host and environmental factors that shape the rodent gut microbiota in their natural habitat remain largely unexplored. Here, we present results from a 2-year 16 S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing-based survey of wild wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) in two nearby woodlands. Similar to other mammals, wild mice were colonized by 10 bacterial phyla and dominated by the Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. Within the Firmicutes, the Lactobacillus genus was most abundant. Putative bacterial pathogens were widespread and often abundant members of the wild mouse gut microbiota. Among a suite of extrinsic (environmental) and intrinsic (host-related) factors examined, seasonal changes dominated in driving qualitative and quantitative differences in the gut microbiota. In both years examined, we observed a strong seasonal shift in gut microbial community structure, potentially due to the transition from an insect- to a seed-based diet. This involved decreased levels of Lactobacillus, and increased levels of Alistipes (Bacteroidetes phylum) and Helicobacter. We also detected more subtle but statistically significant associations between the gut microbiota and biogeography, sex, reproductive status and co-colonization with enteric nematodes. These results suggest that environmental factors have a major role in shaping temporal variations in microbial community structure within natural populations.

  9. Seasonal variations in 228Ra/226Ra ratio within coastal waters of the Sea of Japan: implications for water circulation patterns in coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, M.; Tanaka, K.; Watanabe, S.; Kofuji, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Komura, K.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, low-background γ-spectrometry was used to determine the 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ratio of 131 coastal water samples from various environments around Honshu Island, Japan (mainly around Noto Peninsula) at 1-3 month intervals from April 2003 until September 2005. Spatial variation in 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ratios was also assessed by analyzing 34 coastal water samples from five areas within the Sea of Japan during May and June 2004. The 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ratio of coastal water from all sites around Noto Peninsula shows seasonal variation, with minimum values during summer ( 228 Ra/ 226 Ra = 0.7) and maximum values during autumn-winter ( 228 Ra/ 226 Ra = 1.7-2). This seasonal variation is similar to that recorded for coastal water between Tsushima Strait and Noto Peninsula. The measured lateral variation in 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ratios within coastal water between Tsushima Strait and Noto Peninsula is only minor (0.5-0.7; May-June 2004). Coastal waters from two other sites (Pacific shore and Tsugaru Strait, north Honshu) show no clear seasonal variation in 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ratio. These measured variations in 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ratio, especially the temporal variations, have important implications for seasonal changes in patterns of coastal water circulation within the Sea of Japan

  10. Seasonal variations in shallow Alaska seismicity and stress modulation from GRACE derived hydrological loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. W.; Fu, Y.; Burgmann, R.

    2017-12-01

    Shallow (≤50 km), low magnitude (M≥2.0) seismicity in southern Alaska is examined for seasonal variations during the annual hydrological cycle. The seismicity is declustered with a spatio-temporal epidemic type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model. The removal of aftershock sequences allows detailed investigation of seismicity rate changes, as water and ice loads modulate crustal stresses throughout the year. The GRACE surface loads are obtained from the JPL mass concentration blocks (mascons) global land and ocean solutions. The data product is smoothed with a 9˚ Gaussian filter and interpolated on a 25 km grid. To inform the surface loading model, the global solutions are limited to the region from -160˚ to -120˚ and 50˚ to 70˚. The stress changes are calculated using a 1D spherical layered earth model at depth intervals of 10 km from 10 - 50 km in the study region. To evaluate the induced seasonal stresses, we use >30 years of earthquake focal mechanisms to constrain the background stress field orientation and assess the stress change with respect to the principal stress orientation. The background stress field is assumed to control the preferred orientation of faulting, and stress field perturbations are expected to increase or decrease seismicity. The number of excess earthquakes is calculated with respect to the background seismicity rates. Here, we present preliminary results for the shallow seismicity variations and quantify the seasonal stresses associated with changes in hydrological loading.

  11. Seasonal Variation of Eutrophication in Some Lakes of Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Liliana; Török, Zsolt; Carstea, Elfrida M; Savastru, Dan

    2017-01-01

      To understand the trophic state of lakes, this study aims to determine the dynamics of phytoplankton assemblages and the main factors that influence their seasonal variation. Sampling campaigns were carried out in three lakes from the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve. Spectral analysis of specific phytoplankton pigments was applied as a diagnostic marker to establish the distribution and composition of phytoplankton taxonomic groups. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to quantify changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM). The relative contribution of the main phytoplankton groups to the total phytoplankton biomass and the trend of development during succession of the seasons showed that cyanobacteria could raise potential ecological or human health problems. Moreover, fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that Cryptophyta and cyanobacteria were the main contributors to the protein-like components of DOM. It was concluded that fluorescence could be used to provide a qualitative evaluation of the eutrophication degree in Danube Delta lakes.

  12. Seasonal variation in month of diagnosis in children with type 1 diabetes registered in 23 European centers during 1989-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patterson, C C; Gyürüs, E; Rosenbauer, J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The month of diagnosis in childhood type 1 diabetes shows seasonal variation. OBJECTIVE: We describe the pattern and investigate if year-to-year irregularities are associated with meteorological factors using data from 50 000 children diagnosed under the age of 15 yr in 23 population......-based European registries during 1989-2008. METHODS: Tests for seasonal variation in monthly counts aggregated over the 20 yr period were performed. Time series regression was used to investigate if sunshine hour and average temperature data were predictive of the 240 monthly diagnosis counts after taking...

  13. Characterization of road runoff with regard to seasonal variations, particle size distribution and the correlation of fine particles and pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliges, R; Endres, M; Tiffert, A; Brenner, E; Marks, T

    2017-03-01

    Urban runoff is known to transport a significant pollutant load consisting of e.g. heavy metals, salts and hydrocarbons. Interactions between solid and dissolved compounds, proper understanding of particle size distribution, dissolved pollutant fractions and seasonal variations is crucial for the selection and development of appropriate road runoff treatment devices. Road runoff at an arterial road in Augsburg, Germany, has been studied for 3.5 years. A strong seasonal variation was observed, with increased heavy metal concentrations with doubled and tripled median concentrations for heavy metals during the cold season. Correlation analysis showed that de-icing salt is not the only factor responsible for increased pollutant concentrations in winter. During the cold period, the fraction of dissolved metals was lower compared to the warm season. In road dust, the highest metal concentrations were measured for fine particles. Metals in road runoff were found to show a significant correlation to fine particles SS63 (removal rates.

  14. Seasonal variation in the populations of Polyphagotarsonemus latus and Tetranychus bastosi in physic nut (Jatropha curcas) plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Jander F; Picanço, Marcelo C; Sarmento, Renato A; da Silva, Ricardo Siqueira; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; Carvalho, Marcos Alberto; Erasmo, Eduardo A L; Silva, Laila Cristina Rezende

    2015-07-01

    Studies on the seasonal variation of agricultural pest species are important for the establishment of integrated pest control programs. The seasonality of pest attacks on crops is affected by biotic and abiotic factors, for example, climate and natural enemies. Besides that, characteristics of the host plant, crop management, location and the pests' bioecology also affect this seasonality. The mites Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Prostigmata: Tarsonemidae) and Tetranychus bastosi (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) are the most important pests in the cultivation of physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae). All parts of J. curcas can be used for a wide range of purposes. In addition many researchers have studied its potential for use as neat oil, as transesterified oil (biodiesel), or as a blend with diesel. However studies about physic nut pests have been little known. The objective of this study was to assess the seasonal variation of P. latus and T. bastosi in physic nut. This study was conducted at three sites in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. We monitored climatic elements and the densities of the two mite species and of their natural enemies for a period of 2 years. Attack by P. latus occurred during rainy seasons, when the photoperiod was short and the physic nut had new leaves. In contrast, attack by T. bastosi occurred during warmer seasons with longer photoperiods and stronger winds. Populations of both mites and their natural enemies were greater in sites with greater plant diversity adjacent to the plantations. The predators found in association with P. latus and T. bastosi were Euseius concordis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), spiders, Stethorus sp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Chrysoperla sp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

  15. Seasonal variation in physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep in a sample of UK adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Sophie E; Griffiths, Paula L; Clemes, Stacy A

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB), sleep and diet have all been associated with increased risk for chronic disease. Seasonality is often overlooked as a determinant of these behaviours in adults. Currently, no study has simultaneously monitored these behaviours in UK adults to assess seasonal variation. The present study investigated whether PA, SB, sleep and diet differed over season in UK adults. Forty-six adults (72% female; age = 41.7 ± 14.4 years, BMI = 24.9 ± 4.4 kg/m(2)) completed four 7-day monitoring periods; one during each season of the year. The ActiGraph GT1M was used to monitor PA and SB. Daily sleep diaries monitored time spent in bed (TIB) and total sleep time (TST). The European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC) food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) assessed diet. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to identify seasonal differences in behaviours. Light-intensity PA was significantly higher in summer and spring (p diet (p > 0.05). Findings support the concept that health promotion campaigns need to encourage year-round participation in light intensity PA, whilst limiting SB, particularly during the winter months.

  16. Latitudinal and seasonal variations of lower atmospheric inertial gravity wave energy revealed by US radiosonde data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S.D.; Yi, F. [Wuhan Univ., Hubei (China). School of Electronic Information; Ministry of Education, Wuhan, Hubei (China). Key Lab. of Geospace Environment and Geodesy; State Observatory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing, Wuhan (China); Huang, C.M. [Wuhan Univ., Hubei (China). School of Electronic Information; Ministry of Education, Wuhan, Hubei (China). Key Lab. of Geospace Environment and Geodesy; State Observatory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing, Wuhan (China); Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States). Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept.; Zhou, Q. [Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States). Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept.

    2010-07-01

    The latitudinal and seasonal variations of gravity wave (GW) potential energy density (E{sub P}), kinetic energy density (E{sub K}), and total energy density (E{sub T}), i.e, the sum of potential and kinetic energy densities in the tropospheric (typically 2-10 km) and lower stratospheric (typically 18- 25 km) segments have been derived from 10 years (1998- 2007) of radiosonde observations over 92 United States stations in the Northern Hemisphere. The latitudinal variation of E{sub P} in the lower stratosphere is in good agreement with satellite observations. However, E{sub K} and E{sub T} in the lower stratosphere are different from satellite observations and the difference is believed to be linked with the latitudinal dependence of GW sources. Our analysis reveals that GW energy properties exhibit distinctive latitudinal and seasonal variations. The upward-propagating GW energy in the troposphere is larger than that in the lower stratosphere at low latitudes but the opposite holds true at high latitudes. The transition latitude, where the upward- propagating energies in the two altitude regions are the same, occurs at 35 N throughout the year. So striking differences between GW activity in the troposphere and lower stratosphere are not likely explained only by the background wind Doppler shifting due to strong tropospheric jets. Our analysis indicates that the region around tropopause, roughly from 10 km to 18 km, is an important source region, especially at latitudes below 35 N. Our studies strongly suggest that in order to fully understand the global GW activity in the lower atmosphere, the GW kinetic energy and its geographical and seasonal variations should be included, and more attention should be given to GWs in the troposphere and GW sources within the intermediate region, especially the upper troposphere. (orig.)

  17. Latitudinal and seasonal variations of lower atmospheric inertial gravity wave energy revealed by US radiosonde data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The latitudinal and seasonal variations of gravity wave (GW potential energy density (EP, kinetic energy density (EK, and total energy density (ET, i.e, the sum of potential and kinetic energy densities in the tropospheric (typically 2–10 km and lower stratospheric (typically 18–25 km segments have been derived from 10 years (1998–2007 of radiosonde observations over 92 United States stations in the Northern Hemisphere. The latitudinal variation of EP in the lower stratosphere is in good agreement with satellite observations. However, EK and ET in the lower stratosphere are different from satellite observations and the difference is believed to be linked with the latitudinal dependence of GW sources. Our analysis reveals that GW energy properties exhibit distinctive latitudinal and seasonal variations. The upward-propagating GW energy in the troposphere is larger than that in the lower stratosphere at low latitudes but the opposite holds true at high latitudes. The transition latitude, where the upward- propagating energies in the two altitude regions are the same, occurs at 35° N throughout the year. So striking differences between GW activity in the troposphere and lower stratosphere are not likely explained only by the background wind Doppler shifting due to strong tropospheric jets. Our analysis indicates that the region around tropopause, roughly from 10 km to 18 km, is an important source region, especially at latitudes below 35° N. Our studies strongly suggest that in order to fully understand the global GW activity in the lower atmosphere, the GW kinetic energy and its geographical and seasonal variations should be included, and more attention should be given to GWs in the troposphere and GW sources within the intermediate region, especially the upper troposphere.

  18. Predicting seasonal variations in coastal seabird habitats in the English Channel and the Bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgili, A.; Lambert, C.; Pettex, E.; Dorémus, G.; Van Canneyt, O.; Ridoux, V.

    2017-07-01

    Seabirds, like all animals, have to live in suitable habitats to fulfil their energetic needs for both somatic and reproductive growth and maintenance. Apart from migration trips, all coastal seabirds are linked to the coast, because they need to return daily to land for resting or breeding. Their use of marine habitats strongly depends on their biology, but also on environmental conditions, and can be described using habitat models. This study aimed to: (1) identify the processes that mostly influence seabird distributions along the coasts of the English Channel and the Bay of Biscay; (2) determine seasonal variations of these processes, (3) provide prediction maps that describe the species distributions. We collected data of coastal seabird sightings from aerial surveys carried out in the English Channel and the eastern North Atlantic in the winter 2011-2012 and summer 2012. We classified seabirds into morphological groups and described their habitats using physiographic and oceanographic variables in Generalised Additive Models (GAMs). Finally, we produced maps of predicted distributions by season for each group. The distributions of coastal seabirds were essentially determined by the distance to the nearest coast, with a weaker influence of oceanographic variables. The nature of the substrate, sand or rock, combined with the timing of reproduction, also contributed to determine seasonal at-sea distributions for some species. The highest densities were predicted near the coast, particularly in bays and estuaries for strictly coastal species with possible variations depending on the season. From this study, we were able to predict the seasonal distribution of the studied species according to varying environmental parameters that changed over time, allowing us to understand better their behaviour and ecology.

  19. Seasonal variations of CO2 and 222Rn in a mediterranean sinkhole - spring (Causse d’Aumelas, SE France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batiot-Guilhe Christelle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide and 222Rn monitoring of the atmosphere of a Mediterranean sink hole - spring (SE France during two hydrological cycles (from September 2004 to September 2006 showed seasonal variations with very high concentrations during summer (greater than 6% and 20 000 Bq/m3, respectively. Gas dynamics in caves often show seasonal variations.Meteorological parameters (barometric pressure and temperature mainly, cave geometry and fracture networks control exchanges between the cavity and outside atmosphere. Carbon dioxide and 222Rn may have different sources (atmosphere, soil, bedrock, deep gas diffusion, in situ oxidation of organic matter and, in some caves, the key role of swift underground streams.For a CO2 origin, 13C measurements on water and gas samples taken into the cavity suggest a superficial origin. Radon-222 appears to be locally produced and transported by biogenic CO2. Further investigations will be carried out in order to study the relationship of gas-level variations with barometric pressure variations and piezometric level fluctuations within the aquifer.

  20. Seasonal variation of physicochemical factor and fecal pollution in the Hansan-Geojeman area, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Cheol Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The seasonal variation of fecal coliforms (FCs and physicochemical factors was determined in seawaters of the Hansan-Geojeman area, including a designated area for oyster, and in inland pollution sources of its drainage basin. The mean daily loads of FCs in inland pollution sources ranged from 1.2 × 109 to 3.1 × 1011 most probable number (MPN/day; however, the pollutants could not be reached at the designated area. FC concentrations of seawaters were closely related to season, rainfall, and inland contaminants, however, within the regulation limit of various countries for shellfish. The highest concentrations for chemical oxygen demand (COD and chlorophyll-a in seawaters were shown in the surface layer during August with high rainfall, whereas the lowest for dissolved oxygen (DO in the bottom layer of the same month. Therefore, it indicates that the concentrations of FC, COD, DO, and chlorophyll-a of seawaters were closely related to season and rainfall.

  1. Theory of planned behaviour variables and objective walking behaviour do not show seasonal variation in a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stefanie L; French, David P

    2014-02-05

    Longitudinal studies have shown that objectively measured walking behaviour is subject to seasonal variation, with people walking more in summer compared to winter. Seasonality therefore may have the potential to bias the results of randomised controlled trials if there are not adequate statistical or design controls. Despite this there are no studies that assess the impact of seasonality on walking behaviour in a randomised controlled trial, to quantify the extent of such bias. Further there have been no studies assessing how season impacts on the psychological predictors of walking behaviour to date. The aim of the present study was to assess seasonal differences in a) objective walking behaviour and b) Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) variables during a randomised controlled trial of an intervention to promote walking. 315 patients were recruited to a two-arm cluster randomised controlled trial of an intervention to promote walking in primary care. A series of repeated measures ANCOVAs were conducted to examine the effect of season on pedometer measures of walking behaviour and TPB measures, assessed immediately post-intervention and six months later. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to assess whether season moderated the prediction of intention and behaviour by TPB measures. There were no significant differences in time spent walking in spring/summer compared to autumn/winter. There was no significant seasonal variation in most TPB variables, although the belief that there will be good weather was significantly higher in spring/summer (F = 19.46, p behaviour, or moderate the effects of TPB variables on intention or behaviour. Seasonality does not influence objectively measured walking behaviour or psychological variables during a randomised controlled trial. Consequently physical activity behaviour outcomes in trials will not be biased by the season in which they are measured. Previous studies may have overestimated the extent of

  2. The Effect of Seasonal Weather Variation on the Dynamics of the Plague Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigobert C. Ngeleja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plague is a historic disease which is also known to be the most devastating disease that ever occurred in human history, caused by gram-negative bacteria known as Yersinia pestis. The disease is mostly affected by variations of weather conditions as it disturbs the normal behavior of main plague disease transmission agents, namely, human beings, rodents, fleas, and pathogens, in the environment. This in turn changes the way they interact with each other and ultimately leads to a periodic transmission of plague disease. In this paper, we formulate a periodic epidemic model system by incorporating seasonal transmission rate in order to study the effect of seasonal weather variation on the dynamics of plague disease. We compute the basic reproduction number of a proposed model. We then use numerical simulation to illustrate the effect of different weather dependent parameters on the basic reproduction number. We are able to deduce that infection rate, progression rates from primary forms of plague disease to more severe forms of plague disease, and the infectious flea abundance affect, to a large extent, the number of bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic plague infective agents. We recommend that it is more reasonable to consider these factors that have been shown to have a significant effect on RT for effective control strategies.

  3. Seasonal variation in carbon dioxide exchange over a Mediterranean annual grassland in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, L; Baldocchi, D

    2004-05-01

    Understanding how environmental variables affect the processes that regulate the carbon flux over grassland is critical for large-scale modeling research, since grasslands comprise almost one-third of the earth's natural vegetation. To address this issue, fluxes of CO{sub 2} (F{sub c}, flux toward the surface is negative) were measured over a Mediterranean, annual grassland in California, USA for 2 years with the eddy covariance method. To interpret the biotic and abiotic factors that modulate F{sub c} over the course of a year we decomposed net ecosystem CO{sub 2} exchange into its constituent components, ecosystem respiration (R{sub eco}) and gross primary production (GPP). Daytime R{sub eco} was extrapolated from the relationship between temperature and nighttime F{sub c} under high turbulent conditions. Then, GPP was estimated by subtracting daytime values of F{sub c} from daytime estimates of R{sub eco}. Results show that most of carbon exchange, both photosynthesis and respiration, was limited to the wet season (typically from October to mid-May). Seasonal variations in GPP followed closely to changes in leaf area index, which in turn was governed by soil moisture, available sunlight and the timing of the last frost. In general, R{sub eco} was an exponential function of soil temperature, but with season-dependent values of Q{sub 10}. The temperature-dependent respiration model failed immediately after rain events, when large pulses of R{sub eco} were observed. Respiration pulses were especially notable during the dry season when the grass was dead and were the consequence of quickly stimulated microbial activity. Integrated values of GPP, R{sub eco}, and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) were 867, 735, and -132g C m{sup -2}, respectively, for the 2000-2001 season, and 729, 758, and 29g C m{sup -2} for the 2001-2002 season. Thus, the grassland was a moderate carbon sink during the first season and a weak carbon source during the second season. In contrast to a

  4. Seasonal Variation of Harbor Seal's Diet from the Wadden Sea in Relation to Prey Availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille de la Vega

    Full Text Available The Wadden Sea has an important role for marine mammals in terms of resting, nursing and foraging. Harbor seal is the most abundant marine mammal species in this area. The use of the food resources of the Wadden Sea by seals is not clear, and previous studies showed that this species can travel kilometers away from their haul-outs to forage in the North Sea. In this study, we analyzed the stable isotopes of vibrissae from 23 dead harbor seals found on the island of Sylt to investigate their diet. The predator´s carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions were compared to the compositions of different potential prey items from the Sylt-Rømø Bight and from the North Sea in order to study seasonal pattern in the diet and in the foraging location. In parallel, seasonal variation of abundance and biomass of the potential prey items from the Sylt-Rømø Bight were studied and compare to their contribution to the seal´s diet. The results revealed a change in the seal´s diet from pelagic sources in spring to a benthic based diet in summer, and an increasing use of the North Sea resources in fall and winter in accordance with the seasonal variation of the availability of prey in the Sylt-Rømø Bight.

  5. Seasonal variation of spherical aerosols distribution in East Asia based on ground and space Lidar observation and a Chemical transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Y.; Yumimoto, K.; Uno, I.; Shimizu, A.; Sugimoto, N.; Ohara, T.

    2009-12-01

    The anthropogenic aerosols largely impact on not only human health but also global climate system, therefore air pollution in East Asia due to a rapid economic growth has been recognized as a significant environmental problem. Several international field campaigns had been conducted to elucidate pollutant gases, aerosols characteristics and radiative forcing in East Asia. (e.g., ACE-Asia, TRACE-P, ADEC, EAREX 2005). However, these experiments were mainly conducted in springtime, therefore seasonal variation of aerosols distribution has not been clarified well yet. National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) has been constructing a lidar networks by automated dual wavelength / polarization Mie-lidar systems to observe the atmospheric environment in Asian region since 2001. Furthermore, from June 2006, space-borne backscatter lidar, Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), onboard NASA/CALIPSO satellite, measures continuous global aerosol and cloud vertical distribution with very high spatial resolution. In this paper, we will show the seasonal variation of aerosols distribution in East Asia based on the NIES lidar network observation, Community Multi-scale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ) chemical transport model simulation and CALIOP observation over the period from July 2006 to December 2008. We found that CMAQ result explains the typical seasonal aerosol characteristics by lidar observations. For example, CMAQ and ground lidar showed a summertime peak of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at Beijing, an autumn AOT peak at Guangzhou and summertime AOT trough at Hedo, Okinawa. These characteristics are mainly controlled by seasonal variations of Asian summer/winter monsoon system. We also examined the CMAQ seasonal average aerosol extinction profiles with ground lidar and CALIOP extinction data. These comparisons clarified that the CMAQ reproduced the observed aerosol layer depth well in the downwind region. Ground lidar and CALIOP seasonal

  6. Diel and seasonal variation in food habits of Atlantic salmon parr in a small stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grader, M.; Letcher, B.H.

    2006-01-01

    The diel and seasonal food habits of young-of-year (YOY) and post-young-of-year (PYOY) Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr were assayed over the course of 11 months in the West Brook, Massachusetts USA. Gut fullness of YOY salmon did not vary significantly among months. PYOY salmon exhibited significant seasonal differences in gut fullness, with peak fullness occurring in the spring and late fall. Significant diel differences in PYOY gut fullness occurred in June and April, with peak fullness always occurring at dawn. Prey composition varied substantially among months. Dominant prey items of PYOY salmon were baetid mayflies in June, July, and August, limnephilid caddisflies in October and November, and ephemerellid mayflies in February and April. Few differences in prey composition between PYOY and YOY salmon were observed. Fish growth was unrelated to prey availability, but gut fullness explained up to 97% of growth variation across seasons. Results suggest that spring and fall are critical periods of feeding for PYOY salmon and that diel feeding intensity shifts seasonally.

  7. Assessment of Sulphate and Iron Contamination and Seasonal Variations in the Water Resources of a Damodar Valley Coalfield, India: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashwani Kumar; De Maio, Marina

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the sulphate [Formula: see text] and iron (Fe) contamination and seasonal variations in the water resources (groundwater, surface water, and mine water) of the West Bokaro coalfield region, India. One hundred and twenty-four water resources samples were collected from the coalfield during the post- and pre-monsoon seasons. The concentrations of [Formula: see text] were determined using ion chromatography and Fe concentrations were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A statistical analysis was used to easily understand the seasonal variations of the elements in the water resources of the area. The concentrations of [Formula: see text] and Fe in the water resources were higher in the pre-monsoon season than in the post-monsoon season, irrespective of location. The water resources of the coalfield were contaminated with high concentrations of [Formula: see text] and Fe, and would require suitable treatment before drinking, domestic and industrial uses.

  8. Seasonal variation in mercury and food web biomagnification in Lake Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Liang; Campbell, Linda M.; Johnson, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal variation in mercury (Hg) concentrations and food web structure was assessed for eastern Lake Ontario. Hg concentrations, measured in 6 species of invertebrates and 8 species of fishes, tended to be highest in the spring and lowest in the summer for most biota. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) exhibited significant ontogenetic shifts in diet and Hg, although such patterns were not evident for other species. Food web structure, as indicated by stable isotope values (δ 15 N, δ 13 C) was not static. Log-transformed Hg data were strongly and consistently correlated with δ 15 N values for the whole food web in each of the three seasons (slopes, 0.17–0.24) and across the entire year (slope, 0.2). While significantly different between seasons, the regression slope values are still consistent with published global Hg biomagnification rates. Our results indicate that the assessment of Hg trends in Great Lakes must take into account seasonal patterns and time of sampling. - Graphical abstract: Total mercury concentrations and trophic level (δ 15 N) regressions for organisms from the littoral Lake Ontario food web of Waupoos in 2009. Filled circles represent invertebrates while open circles represent fish. Dashed lines represents the regression between δ 15 N and THg of “whole” food web (log-Hg-δ 15 N regression equations in the upper left hand corner in each plot), and solid lines represents the regression between δ 15 N and THg of “fish-only” food web (log-Hg-δ 15 N regression equations in the lower right hand corner of each plot). Note that the y-axis is untransformed Hg concentrations plotted along a logarithmic scale, while the equations are based on log-transformed Hg values. Highlights: ► Most fish in littoral Lake Ontario had higher Hg concentrations in spring and lower Hg in summer. ► Log Hg consistently biomagnified throughout the food web in each season and for the year. ► Biomagnification rates (e.g., log Hg-δ 15 N slopes) vary

  9. Seasonal and diurnal variation in concentrations of gaseous and particulate phase endosulfan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingbo; Wang, Xianyu; Song, Jing; Sui, Hongqi; Huang, Lei; Li, Lu

    2012-12-01

    Successive 52-week air monitoring of α-endosulfan (α-E), β-endosulfan (β-E) and endosulfan sulfate (E.S) in the gaseous and particulate phases was conducted in Dalian city, northeast China by using an active high-volume sampler. Significant seasonal and diurnal variations in endosulfan concentrations were observed. It was found that the concentration of gaseous-phase α-E peaked in the summer and the concentration of particulate phase α-E peaked in the winter. For E.S, both gaseous and particulate phase concentrations peaked in the summer. α-E was distributed predominantly in the gas phase in the summer but was distributed mainly in the particulate phase in the winter. β-E was distributed mainly in the gas phase in the summer and in the particulate phase at other times of the year. E.S was distributed mainly in the particulate phase throughout the year. Elevated temperatures facilitated the volatilization of α-E from particle surfaces but exerted little effect on β-E and had almost no effect on E.S. Trajectory-based analysis indicates that the seasonal variation in atmospheric concentrations of endosulfan in Dalian city was influenced strongly by the land and sea air masses. In addition, differences in endosulfan concentrations in the particulate phase between day and night were likely due to the circulation of sea/land breezes. The 'cold-condensation' effect occurring during the night may result in the attachment of endosulfan to the particulate phase.

  10. Seasonal variations in hospital admissions for mania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medici, Clara Reece; Vestergaard, Claus Høstrup; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan

    2016-01-01

    in summer. Higher admission rates were associated with more sunshine, more ultraviolet radiation, higher temperature and less snow but were unassociated with rainfall. We did not find a secular trend in the seasonal pattern. Finally, neither gender nor admission status impacted on the overall seasonal...

  11. Effects of substrate type on growth and mortality of blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis ) exposed to the predator Carcinus maenas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rikke; Dolmer, Per

    2002-01-01

    Structure and complexity of the substrate are important habitat characteristics for benthic epifauna. The specific growth and mortality rates and inducible defence characters on medium- sized blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) exposed to shore crabs (Carcinus maenas L.) were examined on three...... different substrate types in combined field and laboratory experiments. The experiments showed that complexity of the substrate increased blue mussel survival significantly, through a decrease in predation pressure. However, increased intraspecific competition for food on the complex substrate resulted...... in significantly lower growth rates of the mussels. Inducible defence characters were also influenced by substrate type. Blue mussels were more affected by predators on the structurally simple substrate, where they developed thicker shells and a larger posterior adductor muscle....

  12. Seasonal Temperature Variations controlling Cave Ventilation Processes in Cueva Larga, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, A.; Vieten, R.; Warken, S. F.; Schrӧder-Ritzrau, A.; Miller, T. E.; Scholz, D.

    2016-12-01

    Two years of monthly monitoring result in much better understanding of ventilation processes in caves. Cueva Larga, a tropical cave in Puerto Rico is 1440 m long with a large main passage (about 116,000 m3). Cave air pCO2 in the main passage varied seasonally, between 600 ppm in winter and 1800 ppm in summer. The seasonal variability in cave pCO2 made it possible to estimate a cave air exchange time of 36±5 days and a winter ventilation rate of 3,200±800 m3/day for the main cave passage. Calculations of virtual temperature and differences between cave and surface temperature show that the seasonal temperature cycle is the main driver of the alternation between a well-ventilated winter mode and a near-stagnant summer mode. The winter mode is characterized by a positive buoyancy contrast at night leading to maximal cave ventilation, while during summer ventilation is at a minimum. Between winter and summer, a transitional mode of partial cave ventilation is observed. On shorter time scales (diurnal to weekly), cave pCO2 is also influenced by atmospheric pressure but this variation is one order of magnitude lower than the seasonal pCO2 change. The cave morphology of Cueva Larga including its large volume, tubular shape and the obstructed cave entrance geometry are important boundary conditions for the observed ventilation patterns. Our findings emphasize that cave systems with varying morphology have to be studied individually in order to correctly describe ventilation processes.

  13. Methodology of satellite microwave diagnostics of latitudinal-zonal and seasonal variations of frozen soil and sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Melentiev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of the work we have had investigated the utility of 6.9GHz dual polarization passive microwave data from the sensor AMSR-E for quantitative assessment of spatial and temporal variations of permafrost, seasonally frozen grounds and sea ice properties along the transect 70° E in 2005–2008 years. Analysis of the factors which could be detected with using study of the spatial-temporal variations of the microwave emissivity (brightness temperatures of the system «Earth-atmosphere» was carried out with using in situ data obtained from meteorological stations situated along the investigated transect of the Western Siberia and geocryologic station Marre-Sale (Yamal Peninsula. A new method of visualization of the brightness temperatures in spatial-temporal dimensions was suggested and practical applied. Eight latitudinal zones with intrinsic peculiarities of the spatial and seasonal variability of the brightness temperatures were revealed and investigated in many details. Comparison of the location of these zones with geographic distribution of biomes in Western Siberia was provided and it shows that satellite passive microwave information can be used for classification of the territories inside biomes. In frame of this study the annual brightness temperatures course for tundra zone area has been strictly divided into four periods (seasons characterized by different types of microwave emissivity variations. For boreal needle-leaved forest zone these seasons are manifested weaker. Comprehensive analysis of the satellite microwave survey data and corresponding the in situ data has shown satisfactory correlation between the brightness temperatures of the tundra areas on the Yamal Peninsula and their thermodynamic ground-trough temperatures at the square of geocryologic station Marre-Sale during winter period of stable frozen conditions and vegetation period. In these periods one-channel satellite microwave survey could be applied for the

  14. The role of an ancestral hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated K+ channel in branchial acid-base regulation in the green crab, Carcinus maenas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehsenfeld, Sandra; Weihrauch, Dirk

    2016-03-01

    Numerous electrophysiological studies on branchial K(+) transport in brachyuran crabs have established an important role for potassium channels in osmoregulatory ion uptake and ammonia excretion in the gill epithelium of decapod crustaceans. However, hardly anything is known of the actual nature of these channels in crustaceans. In the present study, the identification of a hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated potassium channel (HCN) in the transcriptome of the green crab Carcinus maenas and subsequent performance of quantitative real-time PCR revealed the ubiquitous expression of this channel in this species. Even though mRNA expression levels in the cerebral ganglion were found to be approximately 10 times higher compared with all other tissues, posterior gills still expressed significant levels of HCN, indicating an important role for this transporter in branchial ion regulation. The relatively unspecific K(+)-channel inhibitor Ba(2+), as well as the HCN-specific blocker ZD7288, as applied in gill perfusion experiments and electrophysiological studies employing the split gill lamellae revealed the presence of at least two different K(+)/NH4(+)-transporting structures in the branchial epithelium of C. maenas. Furthermore, HCN mRNA levels in posterior gill 7 decreased significantly in response to the respiratory or metabolic acidosis that was induced by acclimation of green crabs to high environmental PCO2 and ammonia, respectively. Consequently, the present study provides first evidence that HCN-promoted NH4(+) epithelial transport is involved in both branchial acid-base and ammonia regulation in an invertebrate. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Effect of land use on the seasonal variation of streamwater quality in the Wei River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S.; Xu, Z.; Wu, W.; Zuo, D.

    2015-05-01

    The temporal effect of land use on streamwater quality needs to be addressed for a better understanding of the complex relationship between land use and streamwater quality. In this study, GIS and Pearson correlation analysis were used to determine whether there were correlations of land-use types with streamwater quality at the sub-basin scale in the Wei River basin, China, during dry and rainy seasons in 2012. Temporal variation of these relations was observed, indicating that relationships between water quality variables and proportions of different land uses were weaker in the rainy season than that in the dry season. Comparing with other land uses, agriculture and urban lands had a stronger relationship with water quality variables in both the rainy and dry seasons. These results suggest that the aspect of temporal effects should be taken into account for better land-use management.

  16. Uranium and rare earth elements in the seine estuary as a consequence of phosphogypsum discharge. Detection using the shore crab Carcinus maenas as a bio-indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chassard-Bouchaud, C.

    1997-01-01

    Phosphogypsum containing uranium and rare earth elements has been released into French northern coastal waters. As a consequence marine organisms, such as the crab Carcinus maenas, were contaminated. This bio-indicator organism was investigated using two microanalytical methods: X ray spectrometry associated with electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) connected to an image processing system. The main tissue targets of bioaccumulation were shown to be the exoskeleton and the gills in which the target organelles were sphero-crystals and lysosomes. (author)

  17. Seasonal variation in child mortality in rural Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Bibi Uhre; Byberg, Stine; Aaby, Peter; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Benn, Christine Stabell; Fisker, Ane Baerent

    2017-07-01

    In many African countries, child mortality is higher in the rainy season than in the dry season. We investigated the effect of season on child mortality by time periods, sex and age in rural Guinea-Bissau. Bandim health project follows children under-five in a health and demographic surveillance system in rural Guinea-Bissau. We compared the mortality in the rainy season (June to November) between 1990 and 2013 with the mortality in the dry season (December to May) in Cox proportional hazards models providing rainy vs. dry season mortality rate ratios (r/d-mrr). Seasonal effects were estimated in strata defined by time periods with different frequency of vaccination campaigns, sex and age (<1 month, 1-11 months, 12-59 months). Verbal autopsies were interpreted using InterVa-4 software. From 1990 to 2013, overall mortality was declined by almost two-thirds among 81 292 children (10 588 deaths). Mortality was 51% (95% ci: 45-58%) higher in the rainy season than in the dry season throughout the study period. The seasonal difference increased significantly with age, the r/d-mrr being 0.94 (0.86-1.03) among neonates, 1.57 (1.46-1.69) in post-neonatal infants and 1.83 (1.72-1.95) in under-five children (P for same effect <0.001). According to the InterVa, malaria deaths were the main reason for the seasonal mortality difference, causing 50% of all deaths in the rainy season, but only if the InterVa included season of death, making the argument self-confirmatory. The mortality declined throughout the study, yet rainy season continued to be associated with 51% higher overall mortality. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Possible daily and seasonal variations in quantum interference induced by Chern-Simons gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawara, Hiroki; Yamada, Kei; Asada, Hideki

    2012-12-07

    Possible effects of Chern-Simons (CS) gravity on a quantum interferometer turn out to be dependent on the latitude and direction of the interferometer on Earth in orbital motion around the Sun. Daily and seasonal variations in phase shifts are predicted with an estimate of the size of the effects, wherefore neutron interferometry with ~5 m arm length and ~10(-4) phase measurement accuracy would place a bound on a CS parameter comparable to the Gravity Probe B satellite.

  19. Spartial and seasonal variations in concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and sediment of Kisumu City bay of Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria-Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwach, Bowa O; Lalah, Joseph O; Shem, Wandiga O

    2009-11-01

    Seasonal and offshore concentration variations for selected sixteen priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments and water of Car Wash and Kisat areas of Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria, have been investigated. PAHs concentrations in sediments and water range from 0.4 to 31.95 microg/g dry weight and 3.32 to 55.8 microg/L, respectively. Statistical analysis of the PAHs concentrations showed that the most contaminated samples are found during rainy season (April, 2006), 5 m offshore for sediments and 10 m offshore for water. Dry season (October, 2005) generally recorded lower concentrations. The variations showed significant difference (p < or = 0.05) with season and distance of sampling from the shore.

  20. Coupled effects of natural and anthropogenic controls on seasonal and spatial variations of river water quality during baseflow in a coastal watershed of Southeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinliang Huang

    Full Text Available Surface water samples of baseflow were collected from 20 headwater sub-watersheds which were classified into three types of watersheds (natural, urban and agricultural in the flood, dry and transition seasons during three consecutive years (2010-2012 within a coastal watershed of Southeast China. Integrating spatial statistics with multivariate statistical techniques, river water quality variations and their interactions with natural and anthropogenic controls were examined to identify the causal factors and underlying mechanisms governing spatiotemporal patterns of water quality. Anthropogenic input related to industrial effluents and domestic wastewater, agricultural activities associated with the precipitation-induced surface runoff, and natural weathering process were identified as the potential important factors to drive the seasonal variations in stream water quality for the transition, flood and dry seasons, respectively. All water quality indicators except SRP had the highest mean concentrations in the dry and transition seasons. Anthropogenic activities and watershed characteristics led to the spatial variations in stream water quality in three types of watersheds. Concentrations of NH(4(+-N, SRP, K(+, COD(Mn, and Cl- were generally highest in urban watersheds. NO3(-N Concentration was generally highest in agricultural watersheds. Mg(2+ concentration in natural watersheds was significantly higher than that in agricultural watersheds. Spatial autocorrelations analysis showed similar levels of water pollution between the neighboring sub-watersheds exhibited in the dry and transition seasons while non-point source pollution contributed to the significant variations in water quality between neighboring sub-watersheds. Spatial regression analysis showed anthropogenic controls played critical roles in variations of water quality in the JRW. Management implications were further discussed for water resource management. This research

  1. Isotopic composition of water in precipitation due to seasonal variation and variation in intensity of rain fall at a place

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.P.

    2015-01-01

    An attempt has been made to analyze the data to find the original precipitate on GMWL, when there is seasonal variation and variations in intensity of rain fall at the same longitude, latitude and altitude. This has been done using the data as available for each month, weighted average of month and individual year for δ 2 H and δ 18 O for a 10-year periods. Correlation equations between δ 2 H and δ 18 O are available giving slopes and intercepts on the δ 2 H axis for 10-year periods. The data of slope versus intercept for each month, weighted monthly average value and individual year are plotted to arrive at isotope composition of meteoric water δ 18 O and δ 2 H, the method suggested by (Singh B.P. 2013, Isotopic composition of water in precipitation in a region or place, Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol. 75, pp. 22–25; Singh B.P. 2014, Isotopic composition of river water across a continent, Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol. 85, pp. 14–18). The results of the original meteoric isotopic composition of water are within the experimental errors as analyzed on a yearly basis, the average of each month of yearly basis and on the basis of each month and also some different amounts of precipitation giving the same value of δ 18 O=−16.72 and δ 2 H=−129.86 on GMWL. - Highlights: • New pattern, plot of slope versus intercept between δ 18 O and δ 2 H at the same location for seasons and rainfall are given. • These patterns are analyzed to arrive at the original isotopic composition to be on GMWL. • It is found that the original isotopic composition is same for different seasons and amount of rainfall

  2. Distribution and seasonal variation in hypothalamic RF-amide peptides in a semi-desert rodent, the jerboa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janati, A; Talbi, R; Klosen, P

    2013-01-01

    , kisspeptin (Kp) and RF-amide-related peptide (RFRP)-3, displays seasonal variation in jerboa. Kp and/or RFRP-3 immunoreactivity was investigated in the hypothalamus of jerboas captured in the field of the Middle Atlas mountain (Morocco), either in the spring or autumn. As in other rodents, the Kp...

  3. Seasonal variations of natural ventilation and radon-222 exhalation in a slightly rising dead-end tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Frédéric; Richon, Patrick; Gautam, Umesh; Tiwari, Dilli Ram; Shrestha, Prithvi; Sapkota, Soma Nath

    2007-01-01

    The concentration activity of radon-222 has been monitored, with some interruptions, from 1997 to 2005 in the end section of a slightly rising, dead-end, 38-m long tunnel located in the Phulchoki hill, near Kathmandu, Nepal. While a high concentration varying from 6 x 10(3) Bq m(-3) to 10 x 10(3) Bq m(-3) is observed from May to September (rainy summer season), the concentration remains at a low level of about 200 Bq m(-3) from October to March (dry winter season). This reduction of radon concentration is associated with natural ventilation of the tunnel, which, contrary to expectations for a rising tunnel, takes place mainly from October to March when the outside air temperature drops below the average tunnel temperature. This interpretation is supported by temperature measurements in the atmosphere of the tunnel, a few meters away from the entrance. The temporal variations of the diurnal amplitude of this temperature indeed follow the ventilation rate deduced from the radon measurements. In the absence of significant ventilation (summer season), the radon exhalation flux at the rock surface into the tunnel atmosphere can be inferred; it exhibits a yearly variation with additional transient reductions associated with heavy rainfall, likely to be due to water infiltration. No effect of atmospheric pressure variations on the radon concentration is observed in this tunnel. This experiment illustrates how small differences in the location and geometry of a tunnel can lead to vastly different behaviours of the radon concentration versus time. This observation has consequences for the estimation of the dose rate and the practicability of radon monitoring for tectonic purposes in underground environments.

  4. Seasonal and Spatial Variations of Heavy Metals in Two Typical Chinese Rivers: Concentrations, Environmental Risks, and Possible Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Qian, Xin; Gao, Hailong; Wang, Yulei; Xia, Bisheng

    2014-01-01

    Ten metals were analyzed in samples collected in three seasons (the dry season, the early rainy season, and the late rainy season) from two rivers in China. No observed toxic effect concentrations were used to estimate the risks. The possible sources of the metals in each season, and the dominant source(s) at each site, were assessed using principal components analysis. The metal concentrations in the area studied were found, using t-tests, to vary both seasonally and spatially (P = 0.05). The potential risks in different seasons decreased in the order: early rainy season > dry season > late rainy season, and Cd was the dominant contributor to the total risks associated with heavy metal pollution in the two rivers. The high population and industrial site densities in the Taihu basin have had negative influences on the two rivers. The river that is used as a source of drinking water (the Taipu River) had a low average level of risks caused by the metals. Metals accumulated in environmental media were the main possible sources in the dry season, and emissions from mechanical manufacturing enterprises were the main possible sources in the rainy season. The river in the industrial area (the Wusong River) had a moderate level of risk caused by the metals, and the main sources were industrial emissions. The seasonal and spatial distributions of the heavy metals mean that risk prevention and mitigation measures should be targeted taking these variations into account. PMID:25407421

  5. Seasonal and Spatial Variations of Heavy Metals in Two Typical Chinese Rivers: Concentrations, Environmental Risks, and Possible Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ten metals were analyzed in samples collected in three seasons (the dry season, the early rainy season, and the late rainy season from two rivers in China. No observed toxic effect concentrations were used to estimate the risks. The possible sources of the metals in each season, and the dominant source(s at each site, were assessed using principal components analysis. The metal concentrations in the area studied were found, using t-tests, to vary both seasonally and spatially (P = 0.05. The potential risks in different seasons decreased in the order: early rainy season > dry season > late rainy season, and Cd was the dominant contributor to the total risks associated with heavy metal pollution in the two rivers. The high population and industrial site densities in the Taihu basin have had negative influences on the two rivers. The river that is used as a source of drinking water (the Taipu River had a low average level of risks caused by the metals. Metals accumulated in environmental media were the main possible sources in the dry season, and emissions from mechanical manufacturing enterprises were the main possible sources in the rainy season. The river in the industrial area (the Wusong River had a moderate level of risk caused by the metals, and the main sources were industrial emissions. The seasonal and spatial distributions of the heavy metals mean that risk prevention and mitigation measures should be targeted taking these variations into account.

  6. An in situ postexposure feeding assay with Carcinus maenas for estuarine sediment-overlying water toxicity evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Susana M; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Guilhermino, Lúcia; Ribeiro, Rui

    2006-01-01

    This study developed and evaluated a short-term sublethal in situ toxicity assay for estuarine sediment-overlying waters, with the crab Carcinus maenas (L.) based on postexposure feeding. It consisted of a 48-h in situ exposure period followed by a short postexposure feeding period (30 min). A precise method for quantifying feeding, using the Polychaeta Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor Müller as food source, was first developed. The sensitivity of the postexposure feeding response was verified by comparing it to that of lethality, upon cadmium exposure. The influence of environmental conditions prevailing during exposure (salinity, temperature, substrate, light regime, and food availability) on postexposure feeding was also addressed. The potential of this in situ assay was then investigated by deploying organisms at ten sites, located in reference and contaminated Portuguese estuaries. Organism recovery ranged between 90% and 100% and a significant postexposure feeding depression (16.3-72.7%) was observed at all contaminated sites relatively to references.

  7. An in situ postexposure feeding assay with Carcinus maenas for estuarine sediment-overlying water toxicity evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Susana M.; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Guilhermino, Lucia; Ribeiro, Rui

    2006-01-01

    This study developed and evaluated a short-term sublethal in situ toxicity assay for estuarine sediment-overlying waters, with the crab Carcinus maenas (L.) based on postexposure feeding. It consisted of a 48-h in situ exposure period followed by a short postexposure feeding period (30 min). A precise method for quantifying feeding, using the Polychaeta Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor Mueller as food source, was first developed. The sensitivity of the postexposure feeding response was verified by comparing it to that of lethality, upon cadmium exposure. The influence of environmental conditions prevailing during exposure (salinity, temperature, substrate, light regime, and food availability) on postexposure feeding was also addressed. The potential of this in situ assay was then investigated by deploying organisms at ten sites, located in reference and contaminated Portuguese estuaries. Organism recovery ranged between 90% and 100% and a significant postexposure feeding depression (16.3-72.7%) was observed at all contaminated sites relatively to references. - A new sub-lethal toxicity assay is presented for marine invertebrates

  8. Seasonal variation in hormonal responses of timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) to reproductive and environmental stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutterschmidt, William I; Lutterschmidt, Deborah I; Mason, Robert T; Reinert, Howard K

    2009-08-01

    Data addressing adrenocortical modulation across taxonomic groups are limited, especially with regard to how female reproductive condition influences the sensitivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. We investigated seasonal and reproductive variation in basal and stress-induced hormone profiles in a population of free-ranging timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) in north-central Pennsylvania during spring (i.e., May), summer (i.e., July), and early fall (i.e., September). Baseline corticosterone concentrations varied seasonally and were significantly lower during the summer sampling period in July. We observed a significant negative relationship between baseline corticosterone and testosterone in male snakes, while baseline corticosterone and estradiol tended to be positively correlated in females. Treatment of snakes with 1 h of capture stress significantly increased corticosterone across all seasons. However, there was a significant interaction between corticosterone responses to capture stress and season, suggesting that adrenocortical function is modulated seasonally. Because elevated corticosterone may be associated with reproduction, we asked whether hormonal stress responses vary with female reproductive condition. Although sample sizes are low, reproductive snakes had significantly higher baseline and stress-induced corticosterone concentrations than non-reproductive or post-parturient females. Further, despite similar baseline corticosterone concentrations between non-reproductive and post-parturient rattlesnakes, post-parturient females responded to capture stress with a significantly higher increase in corticosterone. Collectively, these data suggest that the sensitivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis varies both seasonally and with changing reproductive states.

  9. Colour change and camouflage in juvenile shore crabs Carcinus maenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eStevens

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Camouflage is perhaps the most widespread anti-predator defense in nature, with many different types thought to exist. Of these, resembling the general color and pattern of the background (background matching is likely to be the most common. Background matching can be achieved by adaptation of individual appearance to different habitats or substrates, behavioral choice, and color change. Although the ability to change coloration for camouflage over a period of hours or days is likely to be widely found among animals, few studies have quantified this against different backgrounds. Here, we test whether juvenile shore crabs (Carcinus maenas are capable of color change for camouflage by placing them on either black or white (experiment 1 or red and green (experiment 2 backgrounds. We find that crabs are capable of significant changes in brightness, becoming lighter on white backgrounds and darker on black backgrounds. Using models of predator (avian vision, we show that these differences are large enough in many individuals to lead to perceptible changes in appearance. Furthermore, comparisons of crabs with the backgrounds show that changes are likely to lead to significant improvements in camouflage and potentially reduced detection probabilities. Crabs underwent some changes on the red and green backgrounds, but visual modeling indicated that these changes were very small and unlikely to be detectable. Our experiment shows that crabs are able to adjust their camouflage by changes in brightness over a period of hours, and that this could influence detection probability by predators.

  10. Seasonal modeling of hand, foot, and mouth disease as a function of meteorological variations in Chongqing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pin; Zhao, Han; You, Fangxin; Zhou, Hailong; Goggins, William B.

    2017-08-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an enterovirus-induced infectious disease, mainly affecting children under 5 years old. Outbreaks of HFMD in recent years indicate the disease interacts with both the weather and season. This study aimed to investigate the seasonal association between HFMD and weather variation in Chongqing, China. Generalized additive models and distributed lag non-linear models based on a maximum lag of 14 days, with negative binomial distribution assumed to account for overdispersion, were constructed to model the association between reporting HFMD cases from 2009 to 2014 and daily mean temperature, relative humidity, total rainfall and sun duration, adjusting for trend, season, and day of the week. The year-round temperature and relative humidity, rainfall in summer, and sun duration in winter were all significantly associated with HFMD. An inverted-U relationship was found between mean temperature and HFMD above 19 °C in summer, with a maximum morbidity at 27 °C, while the risk increased linearly with the temperature in winter. A hockey-stick association was found for relative humidity in summer with increasing risks over 60%. Heavy rainfall, relative to no rain, was found to be associated with reduced HFMD risk in summer and 2 h of sunshine could decrease the risk by 21% in winter. The present study showed meteorological variables were differentially associated with HFMD incidence in two seasons. Short-term weather variation surveillance and forecasting could be employed as an early indicator for potential HFMD outbreaks.

  11. Seasonal variation in the number of captures of Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae in the upper strata of an Atlantic Forest remnant in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Carvalho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the occurrence of seasonal variations in the number of captures of Artibeus lituratus and Sturnira lilium in the upper strata of an Atlantic Forest remnant in southern Brazil. It was conducted in the town of Pedras Grandes, in the southern end of Santa Catarina. The chiropterans were captured with mist nets installed in the canopy and subcanopy. To check whether there were differences in the number of captures between seasons, we used the chi-square test (χ2, with a significance level of 0.05, and, whenever needed, partial χ2 tests. Artibeus lituratus showed significant differences between seasons, and the largest number of captures occurs in autumn. For S. lilium we did not observe statistically significant differences. The seasonal variation found out for A. lituratus may be related to its diet, which is based on fruits whose availability has seasonal variations. For S. lilium, besides the diet, mainly based on plants that do not have seasonal variations with regard to fruit availability, the altitude of the study area and its variations in temperature also seem to explain the absence of seasonal variation.

  12. Seasonal Variation in the Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Volatile Oils of Three Species of Leptospermum (Myrtaceae Grown in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lelis Pinheiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the seasonal variation of three species of Leptospermum (Myrtaceae grown in Brazil. The chemical composition of the volatile oils of L. flavescens and L. petersonii did not show any significant seasonal variation in the major components, while for Leptospermum madidum subsp. sativum the levels of major constituents of the volatile oils varied with the harvest season. Major fluctuations in the composition of L. madidum subsp. sativum oil included α-pinene (0–15.2%, β-pinene (0.3–18.5%, α-humulene (0.8–30%, 1,8-cineole (0.4–7.1% and E-caryophyllene (0.4–11.9%. Levels of β-pinene (0.3–5.6%, terpinen-4-ol (4.7–7.2% and nerolidol (55.1–67.6% fluctuated seasonally in the L. flavescens oil. In L. petersonii, changes were noted for geranial (29.8–32.8%, citronellal (26.5–33.9% and neral (22.7–23.5%. The activity of the volatile oils against the tested bacteria differed, depending on season the oils were obtained. In general, the volatile oils were more active against Gram-positive bacteria.

  13. Seasonal variation of serum biochemical values of Amazonian snakes (Boa constrictor constrictor kept in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis José da Silva Lima

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In northern Brazil, the seasons are not well defined compared to the South and Southeast regions, due to a hot and humid equatorial climate with a rainy season, known as the Amazonian winter, and a period with less rain, known as the Amazonian summer. The goal of this study was to evaluate the biochemical variation of serum from the Amazon Boa constrictor by correlating the values with the seasons of the region. A biochemical analysis of the serum was performed (AST, ALT, LDH, ALP, calcium, uric acid, phosphorus, total protein, albumin and globulin using 31 individuals of Boa constrictor constrictor, which were kept in captivity. It was observed that eight of the ten parameters were higher in the winter compared to the summer (total protein, albumin, globulin, ALT, AST, ALP, LDH and calcium. The ALT, AST and calcium values had statistically significant differences for the summer and winter, while the other parameters appear to be influenced by seasonality. This was the first study of snakes kept in captivity that analyzed the serum chemistry profile of Boa constrictor constrictor from the state of Pará, Brazil.

  14. Seasonal variation in plasma lipids and lipases in young healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambras, Trinitat; Baena-Fustegueras, Juan A; Pardina, Eva; Ricart-Jané, David; Rossell, Joana; Díez-Noguera, Antoni; Peinado-Onsurbe, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Although intermediate metabolism is known to follow circadian rhythms, little information is available on the variation in lipase activities (lipoprotein and hepatic lipase, LPL and HL, respectively) and lipids throughout the year. In a cross-sectional study, we collected and analysed blood from 245 healthy students (110 men and 135 women) between 18 and 25 years old from the University of Barcelona throughout the annual campaign (March, May, October and December) of the blood bank. All subjects gave their written informed consent to participate. All blood samples were taken after breakfast at 8:00 and 11:00 am. Plasma glucose, total plasma protein, triacylglycerides (TAG), free fatty acids (FFA), free cholesterol and esterified cholesterol (FC and TC, respectively), cholesterol in low-density lipoproteins (cLDL), cholesterol in high-density lipoproteins (cHDL), phospholipids (PL) and lipase activities (LPL and HL) were determined. Cosinor analysis was used to evaluate the presence (significance of fit cosine curve to data and variance explained by rhythm) and characteristics of possible 12-month rhythms (acrophase, MESOR and amplitude). Statistically significant seasonal rhythms were detected for all the variables studied except proteins, with most of them peaking in the winter season. The lowest value for cLDL and the HL occurs in summer, while for cHDL and the LPL it is in winter. These findings demonstrate for the first time that in physiological conditions, plasma LPL and HL activities and lipids follow seasonal rhythms. The metabolic significance of this pattern is discussed.

  15. Uranium and rare earth elements in the seine estuary as a consequence of phosphogypsum discharge. Detection using the shore crab Carcinus maenas as a bio-indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassard-Bouchaud, C. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    Phosphogypsum containing uranium and rare earth elements has been released into French northern coastal waters. As a consequence marine organisms, such as the crab Carcinus maenas, were contaminated. This bio-indicator organism was investigated using two microanalytical methods: X ray spectrometry associated with electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) connected to an image processing system. The main tissue targets of bioaccumulation were shown to be the exoskeleton and the gills in which the target organelles were sphero-crystals and lysosomes. (author) 4 refs.

  16. The activity of glutathione S-transferase in hepatopancreas of Procambarus clarkii: seasonal variations and the influence of environmental pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nies, E; Almar, M M; Hermenegildo, C; Monsalve, E; Romero, F J

    1991-01-01

    1. The glutathione S-transferase activity in hepatopancreas of the American red crayfish Procambarus clarkii after 15 days' acclimatization in tap water aquaria was measured in specimens collected monthly for a whole year, and shows seasonal variation. 2. Previous data on the environmental pollution of Lake Albufera suggest a possible correlation with the activity tested in the different seasons of the year considering the results of non-acclimatized animals.

  17. Observed Seasonal Variations of the Upper Ocean Structure and Air-Sea Interactions in the Andaman Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanliang; Li, Kuiping; Ning, Chunlin; Yang, Yang; Wang, Haiyuan; Liu, Jianjun; Skhokiattiwong, Somkiat; Yu, Weidong

    2018-02-01

    The Andaman Sea (AS) is a poorly observed basin, where even the fundamental physical characteristics have not been fully documented. Here the seasonal variations of the upper ocean structure and the air-sea interactions in the central AS were studied using a moored surface buoy. The seasonal double-peak pattern of the sea surface temperature (SST) was identified with the corresponding mixed layer variations. Compared with the buoys in the Bay of Bengal (BOB), the thermal stratification in the central AS was much stronger in the winter to spring, when a shallower isothermal layer and a thinner barrier layer were sustained. The temperature inversion was strongest from June to July because of substantial surface heat loss and subsurface prewarming. The heat budget analysis of the mixed layer showed that the net surface heat fluxes dominated the seasonal SST cycle. Vertical entrainment was significant from April to July. It had a strong cooling effect from April to May and a striking warming effect from June to July. A sensitivity experiment highlighted the importance of salinity. The AS warmer surface water in the winter was associated with weak heat loss caused by weaker longwave radiation and latent heat losses. However, the AS latent heat loss was larger than the BOB in summer due to its lower relative humidity.

  18. Seasonal variations of the upper ocean salinity stratification in the Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Christophe; O'Kane, Terence J.

    2014-03-01

    In comparison to the deep ocean, the upper mixed layer is a region typically characterized by substantial vertical gradients in water properties. Within the Tropics, the rich variability in the vertical shapes and forms that these structures can assume through variation in the atmospheric forcing results in a differential effect in terms of the temperature and salinity stratification. Rather than focusing on the strong halocline above the thermocline, commonly referred to as the salinity barrier layer, the present study takes into account the respective thermal and saline dependencies in the Brunt-Väisälä frequency (N2) in order to isolate the specific role of the salinity stratification in the layers above the main pycnocline. We examine daily vertical profiles of temperature and salinity from an ocean reanalysis over the period 2001-2007. We find significant seasonal variations in the Brunt-Väisälä frequency profiles are limited to the upper 300 m depth. Based on this, we determine the ocean salinity stratification (OSS) to be defined as the stabilizing effect (positive values) due to the haline part of N2 averaged over the upper 300 m. In many regions of the tropics, the OSS contributes 40-50% to N2 as compared to the thermal stratification and, in some specific regions, exceeds it for a few months of the seasonal cycle. Away from the tropics, for example, near the centers of action of the subtropical gyres, there are regions characterized by the permanent absence of OSS. In other regions previously characterized with salinity barrier layers, the OSS obviously shares some common variations; however, we show that where temperature and salinity are mixed over the same depth, the salinity stratification can be significant. In addition, relationships between the OSS and the sea surface salinity are shown to be well defined and quasilinear in the tropics, providing some indication that in the future, analyses that consider both satellite surface salinity

  19. Seasonal and Interannual Variation in Energy Balance in the Semiarid Grassland Area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun’ou Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Near surface energy budget changes have been proved to be induced by the land cover conversion through changing the surface physical properties, which can further impact the regional climate change. This study applies the DLS model to simulate the land cover under the business as usual (BAU scenario and then analyses the seasonal and interannual variation of energy balance in the semiarid grassland area of China based on the simulated land cover with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. The results indicate that the grassland will show a growing trend under the BAU scenario. Downward long wave radiation and downward short wave radiation will all have small-scale increase with time going by, while the surface net radiation will decrease from 2030 to 2050. However, there is obvious seasonal variation. Summer has the highest downward long wave radiation and downward short wave radiation, followed by spring and autumn. The lowest are in winter. As for the net surface radiation, there is obvious decrease in southeast of study area due to returning cropland to grassland. Those research conclusions can offer valuable information for the land use planning and relieving the effects of land cover change on climate change at the semiarid grassland area.

  20. 20th-Century Climate Change over Africa: Seasonal Variation in Hydroclimate Trends and Sahara Desert Extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, S.; Thomas, N. P.

    2017-12-01

    Twentieth-century trends in seasonal temperature and precipitation over the African continent are analyzed from observational data sets and historical climate simulations. Given the agricultural economy of the continent, a seasonal perspective is adopted as it is more pertinent than an annual-average one which can mask off-setting but agriculturally-sensitive seasonal hydroclimate variations. Examination of linear trends in seasonal surface air temperature (SAT) shows that heat stress has increased in several regions, including Sudan and Northern Africa where largest SAT trends occur in the warm season. Broadly speaking, the northern continent has warmed more than the southern one in all seasons. Precipitation trends are varied but notable declining trends are found in the countries along the Gulf of Guinea, especially in the source region of Niger river in West Africa, and in the Congo river basin. Rainfall over the African Great Lakes - one of the largest freshwater repositories - has however increased. We show that the Sahara Desert has expanded significantly over the 20th century - by 12-20% depending on the season. The desert expanded southward in summer, reflecting retreat of the northern edge of the Sahel rainfall belt; and to the north in winter, indicating potential impact of the widening of the Tropics. Specific mechanisms driving the expansion in each season are investigated. Finally, this observational analysis is used to evaluate the state-of-the-art climate models from a comparison of the 20th-century hydroclimate trends with those manifest in historical climate simulations. The evaluation shows that modeling regional hydroclimate change over the Africa continent remains challenging.

  1. Changing Seasonality and the Role of the Shoulder Season - Evidence from Denamrk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2009-01-01

    the issue of the shoulder season in a time series framework. Departing from a discussion of the nature of types of seasonal variation, a test is set up in order to examine the impact of the shoulder season. The test examines the impact on the mean share of hotel nights in the shoulder season months in two...

  2. Seasonal variation in soil and plant water potentials in a Bolivian tropical moist and dry forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markesteijn, L.; Iraipi, J.; Bongers, F.; Poorter, L.

    2010-01-01

    We determined seasonal variation in soil matric potentials (¿soil) along a topographical gradient and with soil depth in a Bolivian tropical dry (1160 mm y-1 rain) and moist forest (1580 mm y-1). In each forest we analysed the effect of drought on predawn leaf water potentials (¿pd) and drought

  3. Seasonal and spatial variations in heterotrophic nanoflagellate and bacteria abundances in sediments of a freshwater littoral zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starink, Mathieu; Bär-Gilissen, M.J.; Cappenberg, T.E.

    1996-01-01

    We studied seasonal variation in heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNAN) and bacterial, densities at different depths in the sediment of two freshwater littoral stations. Station 1 was in a reed bed of Phragmites australis; station 2 was outside the reed zone in open water. Benthic HNAN abundances

  4. Seasonal variation in the occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in a wastewater treatment plant in Xiamen, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Qian; Lv, Min; Hu, Anyi; Yang, Xiaoyong; Yu, Chang-Ping, E-mail: cpyu@iue.ac.cn

    2014-07-30

    Highlights: • The occurrence and removal of 50 PPCPs in a WWTP were investigated over one year. • 39 PPCPs were detected in the influent, 14 PPCPs could be removed >50% in WWTP. • Most PPCPs showed higher concentrations in cold seasons in the influent and effluent. • Temperature and HRT may contribute to the seasonal variation of PPCP removal. - Abstract: The occurrence and seasonal variation of 50 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Xiamen, China was investigated over a period of one year. Among the targets, 39 PPCPs were detected in the influent. The highest concentration was observed for acetaminophen, with the average concentration in the influent of 2963.5 ng/L. The seasonal variation of PPCPs in the influent was observed. For most pharmaceuticals, highest concentrations were in March 2013, followed by December 2012, while the concentrations were lower in August 2012 and May 2013. Among the detected PPCPs, 14 targets could be removed more than 50% in the WWTP. The activated sludge treatment process contributed to most of PPCP removal, while the adsorption to the particles in the primary treatment and the transformation under UV radiation in the disinfection treatment also contributed to the PPCP removal. Among the detected PPCPs in the influent, 36 PPCPs could be detected in the final effluent of the WWTP. Significantly higher concentrations of PPCPs were observed in effluent samples collected in March 2013 compared to other seasons, suggesting higher concentrations of PPCPs could be discharged into the surrounding seawater during this period.

  5. Seasonal variation in the occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in a wastewater treatment plant in Xiamen, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Qian; Lv, Min; Hu, Anyi; Yang, Xiaoyong; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The occurrence and removal of 50 PPCPs in a WWTP were investigated over one year. • 39 PPCPs were detected in the influent, 14 PPCPs could be removed >50% in WWTP. • Most PPCPs showed higher concentrations in cold seasons in the influent and effluent. • Temperature and HRT may contribute to the seasonal variation of PPCP removal. - Abstract: The occurrence and seasonal variation of 50 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Xiamen, China was investigated over a period of one year. Among the targets, 39 PPCPs were detected in the influent. The highest concentration was observed for acetaminophen, with the average concentration in the influent of 2963.5 ng/L. The seasonal variation of PPCPs in the influent was observed. For most pharmaceuticals, highest concentrations were in March 2013, followed by December 2012, while the concentrations were lower in August 2012 and May 2013. Among the detected PPCPs, 14 targets could be removed more than 50% in the WWTP. The activated sludge treatment process contributed to most of PPCP removal, while the adsorption to the particles in the primary treatment and the transformation under UV radiation in the disinfection treatment also contributed to the PPCP removal. Among the detected PPCPs in the influent, 36 PPCPs could be detected in the final effluent of the WWTP. Significantly higher concentrations of PPCPs were observed in effluent samples collected in March 2013 compared to other seasons, suggesting higher concentrations of PPCPs could be discharged into the surrounding seawater during this period

  6. Seasonal variation and light absorption property of carbonaceous aerosol in a typical glacier region of the southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hewen; Kang, Shichang; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Rudong; Lu, Xixi; Qian, Yun; Paudyal, Rukumesh; Wang, Shijin; Shi, Xiaofei; Yan, Xingguo

    2018-05-01

    Deposition and accumulation of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosol on glacier surfaces can alter the energy balance of glaciers. In this study, 2 years (December 2014 to December 2016) of continuous observations of carbonaceous aerosols in the glacierized region of the Mt. Yulong and Ganhaizi (GHZ) basin are analyzed. The average elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations were 1.51±0.93 and 2.57±1.32 µg m-3, respectively. Although the annual mean OC / EC ratio was 2.45±1.96, monthly mean EC concentrations during the post-monsoon season were even higher than OC in the high altitudes (approximately 5000 m a. s. l. ) of Mt. Yulong. Strong photochemical reactions and local tourism activities were likely the main factors inducing high OC / EC ratios in the Mt. Yulong region during the monsoon season. The mean mass absorption efficiency (MAE) of EC, measured for the first time in Mt. Yulong, at 632 nm with a thermal-optical carbon analyzer using the filter-based method, was 6.82±0.73 m2 g-1, comparable with the results from other studies. Strong seasonal and spatial variations of EC MAE were largely related to the OC abundance. Source attribution analysis using a global aerosol-climate model, equipped with a black carbon (BC) source tagging technique, suggests that East Asia emissions, including local sources, have the dominant contribution (over 50 %) to annual mean near-surface BC in the Mt. Yulong area. There is also a strong seasonal variation in the regional source apportionment. South Asia has the largest contribution to near-surface BC during the pre-monsoon season, while East Asia dominates the monsoon season and post-monsoon season. Results in this study have great implications for accurately evaluating the influences of carbonaceous matter on glacial melting and water resource supply in glacierization areas.

  7. Occurrence, distribution and seasonal variation of organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers in urban surface water in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yali; Gao, Lihong; Li, Wenhui; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Jiemin; Cai, Yaqi

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence, spatial distribution and seasonal variation of 14 organophosphate esters (OPEs) were investigated in urban surface water (river and lake water) from July 2013 to June 2014 in Beijing, China. Sewage influent and effluent samples, as well as rainwater and road runoff samples were also analyzed as the potential sources of OPEs in surface water. Tris(2-chloro-1-methylethyl) phosphate (TCPP) and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) were the most abundant OPEs with the average concentrations of 291 ng L"−"1 and 219 ng L"−"1, respectively. Relatively high concentrations of OPEs were detected in rivers located at southern and eastern urban of Beijing, which was probably attributed to the treated and untreated sewage discharge. Besides, higher levels of OPEs were observed in urban surface water in the summer, and the wet deposition (rainfall) was confirmed to be an important factor for this observation. Risk assessment showed low or medium risk of OPEs for the organisms (algae, crustacean and fish). - Highlights: • High levels of OPEs were detected in urban surface water of Beijing, China. • Seasonal variation revealed higher levels of OPEs in the summer. • Wastewater, rainwater and road runoff samples were analyzed as sources of OPEs. • The risks of OPEs to the organisms (algae, crustacean and fish) were assessed. - The occurrence, spatial distribution and seasonal variation of OPEs in urban surface water were investigated from densely populated big city (Beijing, China).

  8. Seasonal variations in health-related human physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas; Peiser, Benny

    2006-01-01

    There are profound fluctuations in climate that occur within the annual cycle of seasonal changes. The severity of these changes depends on latitude of location and prevailing topography. Living creatures have evolved means of coping with seasonal extremes. Endogenous circannual cycles, at least in humans, appear to have been masked by mechanisms employed to cope with environmental changes. Physical activity levels tend to be lower in winter than in summer, mediating effects on health-related fitness. In athletes, seasonal changes are dictated by requirements of the annual programme of competitive engagements rather than an inherent circannual rhythm. Injury rates are influenced by seasonal environmental factors, notably in field sports. Season of birth has been related to susceptibility to selected morbidities, including mental ill-health. In age-restricted sports, there is a date-of-birth bias favouring those individuals born early in the competitive year. Trainers and selectors should acknowledge this trend if they are to avoid omitting gifted individuals, born later in the year, from talent development programmes.

  9. Seasonal variations in the characteristics of superficial sediments in a macrotidal estuary (the Seine inlet, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesourd, S.; Lesueur, P.; Brun-Cottan, J. C.; Garnaud, S.; Poupinet, N.

    2003-09-01

    Seasonal variations in the sedimentary regime in the mouth of the Seine river, a macrotidal estuary, are described for a 3-year period. The aim of this study is to characterize and to understand the main governing mechanisms, using data from more than a thousand of superficial sediment grab samples or box cores gathered throughout the study period. Analyses of lithofacies and rheological properties were carried out. The distribution of sediments is governed by seasonal meteorological variations. The surface covered by mud reaches a maximum (40% of the total mouth area) during winter. After the winter, the soft mud deposits are progressively redistributed throughout the whole estuary area and onto the shelf. During the lowest freshwater flow at the end of summer, the fine-grained sediments cover less than 20% of the river mouth area. These seasonal variations mainly depend on the river discharge intensity, but are also linked to wave activity. In the study area, the amount of fine-grained deposits after high river flow periods depends on (1) volume of mud erodable within the estuary, (2) the duration of the flood tidal influx, and (3) the duration preceding the particular annual high river flow. During the last decades, filling of the estuary upstream from Honfleur has led to a downstream shift of the fine-grained sediment deposition area; following this, the present-day mud deposition area is in the open part of the estuary, in the subtidal shallow area. Subsequently, fresh mud deposits undergo intense hydrodynamical and meteorological effects, and are partly reworked by waves and tidal currents effects. In this study, it is shown that the behaviour of suspended matter and of superficial sediments is strongly influenced by short but intense events including high river flows and gales.

  10. Seasonal variation, flux estimation, and source analysis of dissolved emerging organic contaminants in the Yangtze Estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Heng; Cao, Zhen; Liu, Xue; Zhan, Yi; Zhang, Jing; Xiao, Xi; Yang, Yi; Zhou, Junliang; Xu, Jiang

    2017-12-15

    The occurrence and seasonal variation of 24 dissolved emerging organic contaminants in the Yangtze Estuary were studied, including 12 non-antibiotic pharmaceuticals, seven sulfonamides, two macrolides and three chloramphenicols. Sulfadiazine, erythromycin, thiamphenicol and paracetamol were the primary contaminants in sulfonamides, macrolides, chloramphenicols and non-antibiotic pharmaceutical groups, respectively. Compared to the concentrations at Datong, chloramphenicols at Xuliujing were significantly higher in autumn and winter, while macrolides were lower in spring. Based on the flux estimation, approximately 37.1 tons of sulfonamides, 17.4 tons of macrolides, 79.2 tons of chloramphenicols and 14.1 tons of non-antibiotic pharmaceuticals were discharged into the Yangtze Estuary from June 2013 to May 2014. However, the total flux from the Huangpu River only represented 5% of the total. The pharmaceutical sources were speculated on by analyzing the seasonal variations in pharmaceutical concentrations and fluxes at various sites. Both environmental and social factors might affect the fluxes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Seasonal variation of cesium 134 and cesium 137 in semidomestic reindeer in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikelmann, I.M.H.; Bye, K.; Sletten, H.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident had a great impact on the semidomestic reindeer husbandry in central Norway. Seasonal differences in habitat and diet resulted in large variations in observed radiocesium concentrations in reindeer after the Chernobyl accident. In three areas with high values of cesium-134 and cesium-137 in lichens, the main feed for reindeer in winter, reindeer were sampled every second month to monitor the seasonal variation and the decrease rate of the radioactivity. The results are based on measurements of cesium-134 and cesium-137 content in meat and blood and by whole-body monitoring of live animals. In 1987 the increase of radiocesium content in reindeer in Vågå were 4x from August to January. The mean reductions in radiocesium content from the winter 1986/87 to the winter 1987/88 were 32%, 50% and 43% in the areas of Vågå, Østre-Namdal and Lom respectively

  12. Severity of infection and seasonal variation of non-typhoid Salmonelle occurence in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; Dethlefsen, Claus; Schønheyder, H.C.

    2007-01-01

    Non-typhoid Salmonella infections may present as severe gastroenteritis necessitatinghospitalization and some patients become septic with bacteraemia. We hypothesized that theseasonal variation of non-typhoid Salmonella occurrence in humans diminishes with increasedseverity of infection. We...... examined the seasonal variation of non-typhoid Salmonella infections inthree patient groups with differing severity of infection: outpatients treated for gastroenteritis(n=1490); in-patients treated for gastroenteritis (n=492); and in-patients treated for bacteraemia(n=113). The study was population......-based and included all non-typhoid Salmonella patients ina Danish county from 1994 to 2003. A periodic regression model was used to compute thepeak-to-trough ratio for the three patient groups. The peak-to-trough ratios were 4·3 [95%confidence interval (CI) 3·6–5.0] for outpatients with gastroenteritis, 3·2 (95% CI...

  13. Chemical composition and seasonal variation of the volatile oils from Trembleya phlogiformis leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. Fernandes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Trembleya phlogiformis DC., Melastomataceae, is a shrub whose leaves are used as a dye for dyeing wool and cotton. The present article aimed to carry out the morphological description of the species, to study the chemical composition of volatile oils from the leaves and flowers and the seasonal variability from the leaves during a year. Macroscopic characterization was carried out with the naked eye and with a stereoscopic microscope. Volatile oils were isolated by hydrodistillation in Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The major components of the volatile oil of T. phlogiformis flowers were: n-heneicosane (33.5%, phytol (12.3%, n-tricosane (8.4% and linoleic acid (6.1%. It was verified the existence of a large chemical variability of the volatile oils from the leaves of T. phlogiformis over the months, with the majority compound (oleic alcohol, ranging from 5.7 to 26.8% present in all samples. A combination of Cluster Analysis and Principal Component Analysis showed the existence of three main clusters, probably related to the seasons. The results suggested that the volatile oils of T. phlogiformis leaves possess high chemical variability, probably related to variation associated with rainfall and the variation in the behavior of specimens throughout the year. This research provides insights for future studies on the volatile oils obtained from the T. phlogiformis leaves and flowers, mainly related to biological markers of applications monitored in the leaves and flowers of this species.

  14. Longitudinal, seasonal and solar cycle variation in lunar tide influence on the equatorial electrojet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yizengaw, Endawoke; Carter, Brett A.

    2017-01-01

    It has been well documented that the lunar tidal waves can modulate the ionospheric electrodynamics and create a visible influence on the equatorial electrojet (EEJ). The lunar tide influence gets intensified around noon, primarily during new and full Moon periods. However, the longitudinal, seasonal and solar cycle variability in the lunar tide influence on ionospheric current systems is not well understood yet. In order to investigate this, 17 years (1998-2014) of extensive magnetometer observations at four longitudinal sectors (western American, western and eastern African, and Asian) have been analyzed. All observations performed during magnetically active periods (K p >3) have been excluded for this study to eliminate storm contributions to the geomagnetic field variation at the geomagnetic equator. This study's quantitative analysis revealed significant longitudinal, seasonal and solar cycle dependence of the lunar tide influence on the equatorial electrojet.

  15. Longitudinal, seasonal and solar cycle variation in lunar tide influence on the equatorial electrojet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yizengaw, Endawoke [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States). Inst. for Scientific Research; Carter, Brett A. [RMIT Univ., Melbourne, VIC (Australia). SPACE Research Centre

    2017-07-01

    It has been well documented that the lunar tidal waves can modulate the ionospheric electrodynamics and create a visible influence on the equatorial electrojet (EEJ). The lunar tide influence gets intensified around noon, primarily during new and full Moon periods. However, the longitudinal, seasonal and solar cycle variability in the lunar tide influence on ionospheric current systems is not well understood yet. In order to investigate this, 17 years (1998-2014) of extensive magnetometer observations at four longitudinal sectors (western American, western and eastern African, and Asian) have been analyzed. All observations performed during magnetically active periods (K{sub p}>3) have been excluded for this study to eliminate storm contributions to the geomagnetic field variation at the geomagnetic equator. This study's quantitative analysis revealed significant longitudinal, seasonal and solar cycle dependence of the lunar tide influence on the equatorial electrojet.

  16. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in response to temperature elevation shows seasonal variation in the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Jennifer A; Keshwani, Sarah S; Abou-Hanna, Jacob J

    2015-04-01

    Global climate change is affecting ectothermic species, and a variety of studies are needed on thermal tolerances, especially from cellular and physiological perspectives. This study utilized AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key regulator of cellular energy levels, to examine the effects of high water temperatures on zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) physiology. During heating, AMPK activity increased as water temperature increased to a point, and maximum AMPK activity was detected at high, but sublethal, water temperatures. This pattern varied with season, suggesting that cellular mechanisms of seasonal thermal acclimatization affect basic metabolic processes during sublethal heat stress. There was a greater seasonal variation in the water temperature at which maximum AMPK activity was measured than in lethal water temperature. Furthermore, baseline AMPK activity varied significantly across seasons, most likely reflecting altered metabolic states during times of growth and reproduction. In addition, when summer-collected mussels were lab-acclimated to winter and spring water temperatures, patterns of heat stress mirrored those of field-collected animals. These data suggest that water temperature is the main driver of the seasonal variation in physiology. This study concluded that AMPK activity, which reflects changes in energy supply and demand during heat stress, can serve as a sensitive and early indicator of temperature stress in mussels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Seasonal variations of trace elements in precipitation at the largest city in Tibet, Lhasa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junming; Kang, Shichang; Huang, Jie; Zhang, Qianggong; Tripathee, Lekhendra; Sillanpää, Mika

    2015-02-01

    Precipitation samples were collected from March 2010 to August 2012 at an urban site in Lhasa, the capital and largest city of Tibet. The volume weighted mean (VWM) concentrations of 17 trace elements in precipitation were higher during the non-monsoon season than in the monsoon season, but inverse seasonal variations occurred for wet deposition fluxes of most of the trace elements. Concentrations for most of trace elements were negatively correlated with precipitation amount, indicating that below-cloud scavenging of trace elements was an important mechanism contributing to wet deposition of these elements. The elements Al, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Mn, Ni, and U displayed low crustal enrichment factors (EFs), whereas Co, Cu, Zn, As, Cd Sn, Pb, and Bi showed high EF values in precipitation, suggesting that anthropogenic activities might be important contributors of these elements at Lhasa. However, this present work indicates a much lower anthropogenic emission at Lhasa than in seriously polluted regions. Our study will not only provide insights for assessing the current status of the atmospheric environment in Lhasa but also enhance our understanding for updating the baseline for environmental protection over the Tibetan Plateau.

  18. Seasonal and latitudinal variations of surface fluxes at two Arctic terrestrial sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grachev, Andrey A.; Persson, P. Ola G.; Uttal, Taneil; Akish, Elena A.; Cox, Christopher J.; Morris, Sara M.; Fairall, Christopher W.; Stone, Robert S.; Lesins, Glen; Makshtas, Alexander P.; Repina, Irina A.

    2017-11-01

    This observational study compares seasonal variations of surface fluxes (turbulent, radiative, and soil heat) and other ancillary atmospheric/surface/permafrost data based on in-situ measurements made at terrestrial research observatories located near the coast of the Arctic Ocean. Hourly-averaged multiyear data sets collected at Eureka (Nunavut, Canada) and Tiksi (East Siberia, Russia) are analyzed in more detail to elucidate similarities and differences in the seasonal cycles at these two Arctic stations, which are situated at significantly different latitudes (80.0°N and 71.6°N, respectively). While significant gross similarities exist in the annual cycles of various meteorological parameters and fluxes, the differences in latitude, local topography, cloud cover, snowfall, and soil characteristics produce noticeable differences in fluxes and in the structures of the atmospheric boundary layer and upper soil temperature profiles. An important factor is that even though higher latitude sites (in this case Eureka) generally receive less annual incoming solar radiation but more total daily incoming solar radiation throughout the summer months than lower latitude sites (in this case Tiksi). This leads to a counter-intuitive state where the average active layer (or thaw line) is deeper and the topsoil temperature in midsummer are higher in Eureka which is located almost 10° north of Tiksi. The study further highlights the differences in the seasonal and latitudinal variations of the incoming shortwave and net radiation as well as the moderating cloudiness effects that lead to temporal and spatial differences in the structure of the atmospheric boundary layer and the uppermost ground layer. Specifically the warm season (Arctic summer) is shorter and mid-summer amplitude of the surface fluxes near solar noon is generally less in Eureka than in Tiksi. During the dark Polar night and cold seasons (Arctic winter) when the ground is covered with snow and air temperatures

  19. Seasonal variations in active microwave signatures of sea ice in the Greenland Sea during 1992 and 1993

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bjørn Bavnehøj; Skriver, Henning; Pedersen, Leif Toudal

    1995-01-01

    into the research of other statistical features of the sea ice than the mean value and also their seasonal variations. This paper investigates the backscatter coefficient and texture of different sea ice types and water by using calibrated precision images (PRI) acquired by the synthetic aperture radar (SAR...

  20. ATHENS SEASONAL VARIATION OF GROUND RESISTANCE PREDICTION USING NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Anbazhagan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective in ground resistance is to attain the most minimal ground safety esteem conceivable that bodes well monetarily and physically. An application of artificial neural networks (ANN to presage and relegation has been growing rapidly due to sundry unique characteristics of ANN models. A decent forecast is able to capture the dubiousness associated with those ground resistance. A portion of the key instabilities are soil composition, moisture content, temperature, ground electrodes and spacing of the electrodes. Propelled by this need, this paper endeavors to develop a generalized regression neural network (GRNN to predict the ground resistance. The GRNN has a single design parameter and expeditious learning and efficacious modeling for nonlinear time series. The precision of the forecast is applied to the Athens seasonal variation of ground resistance that shows the efficacy of the proposed approach.

  1. Seasonal variation in the composition and concentration of butyltin compounds in marine fish of Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, C.D.; Chen, C.W.; Liu, L.L

    2004-10-01

    For the first time, strong evidence is presented to demonstrate that the accumulations of butyltin compounds (BTs) exhibit seasonal variations with respect to their compositions and concentrations in marine fishes. Measurements were made on the benthic ponyfish Leiogenathus splendens and lizardfish Trachinocephalus myops inhabiting the west coast of Taiwan. In the whole body samples of the ponyfish, BT concentrations ranged from 236 to 2501 ng/g wet wt, with those in winter considerably higher than in the other seasons (p<0.05). In a similar vein, proportions of mono- (MBT), di- (DBT) and tributyltin (TBT) differed significantly (p<0.001) depending upon the season, with TBT (75 and 50%) dominant in winter and spring and DBT (37 and 57%) and MBT (42 and 24%) dominant in summer and autumn, respectively. In the lizardfish, the concentrations of BTs were one to two orders of magnitude higher in the liver than in the muscle, i.e. 3058-11,473 vs. 36-159 ng/g wet wt, respectively. Concentrations of MBT, DBT and TBT in the muscle ranged, respectively, from 5 to 14, 8 to 35 and 23 to 110 ng/g wet wt, with the major compound being TBT (57-69%) in all seasons. However, in the liver, DBT concentrations, ranging from 992 to 7797 ng/g wet wt, differed seasonally with a descending order of autumn > summer > spring (p<0.05). Meanwhile, TBT (41%) was predominant in spring, whereas DBT (50 and 68%) was most heavily concentrated in summer and autumn (p<0.001). Seasonally mediated physiological changes, such as dilution due to growth and metabolic compensation, may play important roles in forming different BT accumulation patterns among seasons and organisms.

  2. seasonal variation of intestinal parasitic infections among hiv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abrham

    CONCLUSION: Cryptosporidium species and Strongyloides stercoralis were the only parasitic agents that were associated with rainy season. Keywords: Season, Intestinal Parasites, HIV. INTRODUCTION. Despite the worldwide efforts at controlling the menace of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (AIDS), the number ...

  3. Variations of annual and seasonal runoff in Guangdong Province, south China: spatiotemporal patterns and possible causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Xiao, Mingzhong; Singh, Vijay P.; Xu, Chong-Yu; Li, Jianfeng

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we thoroughly analyzed spatial and temporal distributions of runoff and their relation with precipitation changes based on monthly runoff dataset at 25 hydrological stations and monthly precipitation at 127 stations in Guangdong Province, south China. Trends of the runoff and precipitation are detected using Mann-Kendall trend test technique. Correlations between runoff and precipitation are tested using Spearman's and Pearson's correlation coefficients. The results indicate that: (1) annual maximum monthly runoff is mainly in decreasing tendency and significant increasing annual minimum monthly runoff is observed in the northern and eastern Guangdong Province. In addition, annual mean runoff is observed to be increasing at the stations located in the West and North Rivers and the coastal region; (2) analysis of seasonal runoff variations indicates increasing runoff in spring, autumn and winter. Wherein, significant increase of runoff is found at 8 stations and only 3 stations are dominated by decreasing runoff in winter; (3) runoff changes of the Guangdong Province are mainly the results of precipitation changes. The Guangdong Province is wetter in winter, spring and autumn. Summer is coming to be drier as reflected by decreasing runoff in the season; (4) both precipitation change and water reservoirs also play important roles in the increasing of annual minimum monthly streamflow. Seasonal shifts of runoff variations may pose new challenges for the water resources management under the influences of climate changes and intensifying human activities.

  4. Localization and expression of molt-inhibiting hormone and nitric oxide synthase in the central nervous system of the green shore crab, Carcinus maenas, and the blackback land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Natalie L; Mykles, Donald L

    2017-01-01

    In decapod crustaceans, molting is controlled by the pulsatile release of molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) from neurosecretory cells in the X-organ/sinus gland (XO/SG) complex in the eyestalk ganglia (ESG). A drop in MIH release triggers molting by activating the molting gland or Y-organ (YO). Post-transcriptional mechanisms ultimately control MIH levels in the hemolymph. Neurotransmitter-mediated electrical activity controls Ca 2+ -dependent vesicular release of MIH from the SG axon terminals, which may be modulated by nitric oxide (NO). In green shore crab, Carcinus maenas, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) protein and NO are present in the SG. Moreover, C. maenas are refractory to eyestalk ablation (ESA), suggesting other regions of the nervous system secrete sufficient amounts of MIH to prevent molting. By contrast, ESA induces molting in the blackback land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis. Double-label immunofluorescence microscopy and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used to localize and quantify MIH and NOS proteins and transcripts, respectively, in the ESG, brain, and thoracic ganglion (TG) of C. maenas and G. lateralis. In ESG, MIH- and NOS-immunopositive cells were closely associated in the SG of both species; confocal microscopy showed that NOS was localized in cells adjacent to MIH-positive axon terminals. In brain, MIH-positive cells were located in a small number of cells in the olfactory lobe; no NOS immunofluorescence was detected. In TG, MIH and NOS were localized in cell clusters between the segmental nerves. In G. lateralis, Gl-MIH and Gl-crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) mRNA levels were ~10 5 -fold higher in ESG than in brain or TG of intermolt animals, indicating that the ESG is the primary source of these neuropeptides. Gl-NOS and Gl-elongation factor (EF2) mRNA levels were also higher in the ESG. Molt stage had little or no effect on CHH, NOS, NOS-interacting protein (NOS-IP), membrane Guanylyl Cyclase-II (GC-II), and NO-independent GC

  5. Impact of seasonal variation on Escherichia coli concentrations in the riverbed sediments in the Apies River, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abia, ALK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available quality of riverbed sediments in the Apies River, Gauteng Province, South Africa, using Escherichia coli as a faecal indicator organism and to investigate the impact of seasonal variation on its abundance. Weekly samples were collected at 10 sampling sites...

  6. Periodic seasonal variation of magnets level of the STB ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Shigenobu

    2003-01-01

    The Stretcher-Booster (STB) ring, a 1.2 GeV electron synchrotron, was completed in December, 1997 at the Laboratory of Nuclear Sciences (LNS), Tohoku University. The total weight more than 400 tons were placed near the STB ring, such as concrete blocks for radiation shielding and a spectrometer magnet for nuclear physics experiments after the completion of the STB ring. Re-surveying of magnets alignment was started after 2000. Very recently a new building of an experimental hall was constructed close to the building of the STB ring for use of high energy γ-ray from the electron beam. The building will give rise the changes of magnet levels due to its seasonal distortion. The measurements of the magnet level after construction are continued as well as an expected change of the closed orbit distortion (COD) in the STB ring. The serious influence of the variation of the magnet level may be a change of the beam orbit of extracted beam in the stretcher operation. Difference of the orbit distortion reaches more than 5 mm. Correlation between the COD and the seasonal change of the magnet position is not clear at the moment. However, the machine operation and the beam diagnostics are getting better recently. Continuous surveying of the magnet level will be a useful data for a feed forward correction of the beam orbit. Future subjects and prospects are discussed on surveying. (Y. Tanaka)

  7. Seasonal variation in child mortality in rural Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bibi Uhre; Byberg, Stine; Aaby, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: In many African countries, child mortality is higher in the rainy season than in the dry season. We investigated the effect of season on child mortality by time periods, sex and age in rural Guinea-Bissau. Methods: Bandim health project follows children under-five in a health...

  8. Seasonal Variations of Some Physico-Chemical Properties of River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of seasonal changes on the properties of water from Ethiope River at Abraka was investigated. Composite samples from six different sampling points were collected and assessed for both dry and wet seasons. The sampling points represent the villages within Abraka clan along the river. The seasonal ...

  9. Variation in testosterone and corticosterone in amphibians and reptiles: relationships with latitude, elevation, and breeding season length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenaar, Cas; Husak, Jerry; Escallón, Camilo; Moore, Ignacio T

    2012-11-01

    Latitudinal variation in life-history traits has been the focus of numerous investigations, but underlying hormonal mechanisms have received much less attention. Steroid hormones play a central role in vertebrate reproduction and may be associated with life-history trade-offs. Consequently, circulating concentrations of these hormones vary tremendously across vertebrates, yet interspecific geographic variation in male hormone concentrations has been studied in detail only in birds. We here report on such variation in amphibians and reptiles, confirming patterns observed in birds. Using phylogenetic comparative analyses, we found that in amphibians, but not in reptiles, testosterone and baseline corticosterone were positively related to latitude. Baseline corticosterone was negatively related to elevation in amphibians but not in reptiles. For both groups, testosterone concentrations were negatively related to breeding-season length. In addition, testosterone concentrations were positively correlated with baseline corticosterone in both groups. Our findings may best be explained by the hypothesis that shorter breeding seasons increase male-male competition, which may favor increased testosterone concentrations that modulate secondary sexual traits. Elevated energetic demands resulting from greater reproductive intensity may require higher baseline corticosterone. Thus, the positive relationship between testosterone and corticosterone in both groups suggests an energetic demand for testosterone-regulated behavior that is met with increased baseline glucocorticoid concentrations.

  10. Radiation balance at the surface in the city of São Paulo, Brazil: diurnal and seasonal variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, M.J.; Oliveira, de A.P.; Soares, J.; Codato, G.; Wilde Barbaro, E.; Escobedo, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this work is to describe the diurnal and seasonal variations of the radiation balance components at the surface in the city of São Paulo based on observations carried out during 2004. Monthly average hourly values indicate that the amplitudes of the diurnal cycles of net radiation

  11. Seasonal and diurnal variations in potential alpha energy concentrations at a location in tropical Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintarelli, F.; Akber, R.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Atmospheric concentrations of radon progeny activity were measured at two locations in tropical Australia during the time period 1992 - 1994. Meteorological parameters including atmospheric pressure, temperature and humidity were also recorded. The data were analysed for seasonal and diurnal variations, in order to establish correlations and associations amongst radon progeny concentrations and meteorological parameters. The paper describes the findings, including the attachment behaviour of radon progeny to ambient aerosol

  12. Seasonal and altitudinal variation in roe deer (Capreolus pygargus tianschanicus diet on Jeju Island, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Adhikari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the feeding ecology and dietary differences of roe deer (Capreolus pygargus tianschanicus in different seasons and altitudes, this study was carried out at three altitudinal sites (Songdang 250–270 m above sea level (ASL, Aradong 330–370 m ASL, Mt. Hallasan 1100 m ASL on Jeju Island, South Korea. Altogether, 205 plants taxa of six categories of foods (forbs-climbers, graminoids, trees, shrubs, conifers, and ferns were identified using morphological and molecular analyses. The highest number of dietary plants was found in summer (93 taxa and at Aradong (124 taxa and lowest at Songdang (71 taxa and in winter (51 taxa. Food categories were significantly different among the seasons (F = 15.646, p < 0.05 and altitudinal sites (F = 3.941, p < 0.05. This study revealed that dietary selectivity of roe deer shifted with seasonal and altitudinal variations and preferred to the nutritive and low fibers food.

  13. Seasonal variation in the acute effect of particulate air pollution on mortality in the China Air Pollution and Health Effects Study (CAPES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Renjie; Peng, Roger D.; Meng, Xia; Zhou, Zhijun; Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological findings concerning the seasonal variation in the acute effect of particulate matter (PM) are inconsistent. We investigated the seasonality in the association between PM with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 μm (PM10) and daily mortality in 17 Chinese cities. We fitted the “main” time-series model after adjustment for time-varying confounders using smooth functions with natural splines. We established a “seasonal” model to obtain the season-specific effect estimates of PM10, and a “harmonic” model to show the seasonal pattern that allows PM10 effects to vary smoothly with the day in a year. At the national level, a 10 μg/m3 increase in the two-day moving average concentrations (lag 01) of PM10 was associated with 0.45% [95% posterior interval (PI), 0.15% to 0.76%], 0.17% (95% PI, −0.09% to 0.43%), 0.55% (95% PI, 0.15% to 0.96%) and 0.25% (95%PI, −0.05% to 0.56%) increases in total mortality for winter, spring, summer and fall, respectively. For the smoothly-varying plots of seasonality, we identified a two-peak pattern in winter and summer. The observed seasonal pattern was generally insensitive to model specifications. Our analyses suggest that the acute effect of particulate air pollution could vary by seasons with the largest effect in winter and summer in China. To our knowledge, this is the first multicity study in developing countries to analyze the seasonal variations of PM-related health effects. PMID:23500824

  14. Seasonality of Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jong-Min; Okusaga, Olaoluwa; Postolache, Teodor T.

    2012-01-01

    A seasonal suicide peak in spring is highly replicated, but its specific cause is unknown. We reviewed the literature on suicide risk factors which can be associated with seasonal variation of suicide rates, assessing published articles from 1979 to 2011. Such risk factors include environmental determinants, including physical, chemical, and biological factors. We also summarized the influence of potential demographic and clinical characteristics such as age, gender, month of birth, socioeconomic status, methods of prior suicide attempt, and comorbid psychiatric and medical diseases. Comprehensive evaluation of risk factors which could be linked to the seasonal variation in suicide is important, not only to identify the major driving force for the seasonality of suicide, but also could lead to better suicide prevention in general. PMID:22470308

  15. Seasonal and spatial variation of arsenic in groundwater in a rhyolithic volcanic area of Lesvos Island, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zkeri, Eirini; Aloupi, Maria; Gaganis, Petros

    2017-12-23

    A survey conducted in water wells located in the rhyolithic volcanic area of Mandamados, Lesvos Island, Greece, indicated that significant seasonal variation of arsenic concentration in groundwater exists mainly in wells near the coastal zone. However, there were differences among those coastal wells with regard to the processes and factors responsible for the observed seasonal variability of the element, although they are all located in a small homogeneous area. These processes and factors include (a) a higher rate of silicate weathering and ion exchange during the dry period followed by the dilution by the recharge water during the wet period, (b) enhanced desorption promoted by higher pH in summer and subsequent dilution of As by rainwater infiltration during the wet period, and (c) reductive dissolution of Mn during the wet period and by desorption under high pH values during the dry period. On the other hand, in wells located in higher-relief regions, the concentration of As in groundwater followed a fairly constant pattern throughout the year, which is probably related to the faster flow of groundwater in this part of the area due to a higher hydraulic gradient. In general, seasonal variation of As in groundwater in the study area was found to be related to geology, recharge rate, topography-distance from coast, and well depth.

  16. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Danish organic pig farms: seasonal and age-related variation in prevalence, infection intensity and species/genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Jianmin, Wang; Katakam, Kiran K.

    2015-01-01

    Although pigs are commonly infected with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis, including potentially zoonotic species or genotypes, little is known about age-related infection levels, seasonal differences and genetic variation in naturally infected pigs raised in organic management systems....... Therefore, the current study was conducted to assess seasonal and age-related variations in prevalence and infection intensity of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, evaluate zoonotic potential and uncover correlations between species/genotypes, infection intensity and faecal consistency. Shedding of oocysts...... and cysts ((oo-) cysts) was monitored at quarterly intervals (September 2011 to June 2012) in piglets (n=152), starter pigs (n=234), fatteners (n=230) and sows (n=240) from three organic farms in Denmark. (Oo-) cysts were quantified by immunofluorescence microscopy; and 56/75 subsamples from Cryptosporidium...

  17. Longitudinal, seasonal and solar cycle variation in lunar tide influence on the equatorial electrojet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yizengaw

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been well documented that the lunar tidal waves can modulate the ionospheric electrodynamics and create a visible influence on the equatorial electrojet (EEJ. The lunar tide influence gets intensified around noon, primarily during new and full Moon periods. However, the longitudinal, seasonal and solar cycle variability in the lunar tide influence on ionospheric current systems is not well understood yet. In order to investigate this, 17 years (1998–2014 of extensive magnetometer observations at four longitudinal sectors (western American, western and eastern African, and Asian have been analyzed. All observations performed during magnetically active periods (Kp>3 have been excluded for this study to eliminate storm contributions to the geomagnetic field variation at the geomagnetic equator. This study's quantitative analysis revealed significant longitudinal, seasonal and solar cycle dependence of the lunar tide influence on the equatorial electrojet.

  18. THE EVALUATION OF FREQUENCY AND SEASONAL VARIATIONS OF ACID PEPTIC DISEASE: A SEVEN YEARS STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Iftikhar Haider

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Acid peptic disease (APD is a worldwide health problem. It includes a variety of inflammatory and ulcerative lesions involving esophagus, stomach and duodenum. The disease condition may persist with multiple symptoms, one of them being dyspepsia. The object of the present study was to determine the frequency and seasonal variations of APD in patients presenting with dyspeptic symptoms. This observational study was carried out at the endoscopy unit in Baqai Medical University from December 2003 to December 2010, over a period of seven years. The evolution of APD frequency remained equivocal throughout the study period. However, a decline was noted in the frequency of peptic ulcer disease (PUD especially for gastric and duodenal ulcer cases but a rise during autumn and winter seasons was also noted in duodenal ulcer cases.

  19. MDA and GSH-Px activity in transition dairy cows under seasonal variations and their relationship with reproductive performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colakoglu Hatice Esra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the blood glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and malondialdehyde (MDA levels under seasonal variations in dairy cows during transition period, and to assess the relationship between chosen reproductive parameters, GSH-Px, and MDA.

  20. Defining microbial community composition and seasonal variation in a sewage treatment plant in India using a down-flow hanging sponge reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Naoki; Hatamoto, Masashi; Hirakata, Yuga; Ali, Muntjeer; Jayaswal, Komal; Iguchi, Akinori; Okubo, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Masanobu; Kubota, Kengo; Tagawa, Tadashi; Uemura, Shigeki; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Harada, Hideki

    2018-05-01

    The characteristics of the microbial community in a practical-scale down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor, high in organic matter and sulfate ion concentration, and the seasonal variation of the microbial community composition were investigated. Microorganisms related to sulfur oxidation and reduction (2-27%), as well as Leucobacter (7.50%), were abundant in the reactor. Anaerobic bacteria (27-38% in the first layer) were also in abundance and were found to contribute to the removal of organic matter from the sewage in the reactor. By comparing the Simpson index, the abundance-based coverage estimator (ACE) index, and the species composition of the microbial community across seasons (summer/dry, summer/rainy, autumn/dry, and winter/dry), the microbial community was found to change in composition only during the winter season. In addition to the estimation of seasonal variation, the difference in the microbial community composition along the axes of the DHS reactor was investigated for the first time. Although the abundance of each bacterial species differed along both axes of the reactor, the change of the community composition in the reactor was found to be greater along the vertical axis than the horizontal axis of the DHS reactor.

  1. Spatial and Seasonal Variation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in Irish streams: importance of soil and topography characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Xu, Xianli; McGoff, Nicola M; Eaton, James M; Leahy, Paul; Foley, Nelius; Kiely, Gerard

    2014-05-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations have increased in many sites in Europe and North America in recent decades. High DOC concentrations can damage the structure and functions of aquatic ecosystems by influencing water chemistry. This study investigated the spatial and seasonal variation of DOC concentrations in Irish streams across 55 sites at seven time occasions over 1 year (2006/2007). The DOC concentrations ranged from 0.9 to 25.9 mg/L with a mean value of 6.8 and a median value of 5.7 mg/L and varied significantly over the course of the year. The DOC concentrations from late winter (February: 5.2 ± 3.0 mg/L across 55 sites) and early spring (April: 4.5 ± 3.5 mg/L) had significantly lower DOC concentrations than autumn (October: mean 8.3 ± 5.6 mg/L) and early winter (December: 8.3 ± 5.1 mg/L). The DOC production sources (e.g., litterfall) or the accumulation of DOC over dry periods might be the driving factor of seasonal change in Irish stream DOC concentrations. Analysis of data using stepwise multiple linear regression techniques identified the topographic index (TI, an indication of saturation-excess runoff potential) and soil conditions (organic carbon content and soil drainage characteristics) as key factors in controlling DOC spatial variation in different seasons. The TI and soil carbon content (e.g., soil organic carbon; peat occurrence) are positively related to DOC concentrations, while well-drained soils are negatively related to DOC concentrations. The knowledge of spatial and seasonal variation of DOC concentrations in streams and their drivers are essential for optimum riverine water resources management.

  2. Physiological and Molecular Response of Ostrich to the Seasonal and Diurnal Variations in Egyptian conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, M.H.; Khalifa, H.H; Elaroussi, M.A.; Elsayed, M.A.; Basuony, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Twelve immature ostrich›s birds, 7 months old were used to evaluate the effect of ambient temperature variation and diurnal effect on response changes of some physiological and chemical parameters. All birds were reared out doors and exposed to daily ambient temperatures fluctuations during summer and winter. Blood samples were taken twice, one in the morning at 7 Am and once in the afternoon at 3 Pm during a representative 7 hot days of June (summer) (40±2ºC) and the 7 cold days of January (winter) (18±2ºC). Serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, sodium, potassium, uric acid concentrations and aldosterone level were determined. The amount of total body water (TBW) and serum heat shock proteins (HSP) were estimated. Serum calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium concentrations in ostrich were significantly decreased, while uric acid concentration and aldosterone hormone level were significantly increased in summer as compared in winter during both at morning and at afternoon periods. Concerning the diurnal variation, serum calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium concentrations and aldosterone hormone level in ostrich were significantly increased, while uric acid concentration was significantly decreased at morning as compared at afternoon during both summer and winter seasons. TBW was significantly higher in summer season by 15.04% than winter season. It is concluded from the present study that heat or cold stress has a negative effect on most of the parameters studied and we recommend must be supplement diet with some nutrients like vitamins C, and E, sodium bicarbonate or yeast to overcome the negative effect and to better perform under such conditions

  3. Seasonal variation and trends in stroke hospitalizations and mortality in a South American community hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Alejandro; Gerschcovich, Eliana Roldan; Díaz, Adriana A; Antía, Fabiana; Gonorazky, Sergio

    2013-10-01

    Numerous studies have reported the presence of temporal variations in biological processes. Seasonal variation (SV) in stroke has been widely studied, but little data have been published on this phenomenon in the Southern Hemisphere, and there have been no studies reported from Argentina. The goals of the present study were to describe the SV of admissions and deaths for stroke and examine trends in stroke morbidity and mortality over a 3-year period in a community hospital in Argentina. Hospital discharge reports from the electronic database of vital statistics between 1999 and 2001 were examined retrospectively. Patients who had a main discharge diagnosis of stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic) or cerebrovascular accident (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes 431, 432, 434, and 436) were selected. The study sample included 1382 hospitalizations by stroke (3.5% of all admissions). In-hospital mortality demonstrated a winter peak (25.5% vs 17% in summer; P = .001). The crude seasonal stroke attack rate (ischemic and hemorrhagic) was highest in winter (164 per 100,000 population; 95% CI, 159-169 per 100,000) and lowest in summer (124 per 100,000; 95% CI, 120-127 per 100,000; P = .008). Stroke admissions followed a seasonal pattern, with a winter-spring predominance (P = .008). Our data indicate a clear SV in stroke deaths and admissions in this region of Argentina. The existence of SV in stroke raises a different hypothesis about the rationale of HF admissions and provides information for the organization of care and resource allocation. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Seasonal variation in the input of atmospheric selenium to northwestern Greenland snow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Khanghyun; Hong, Sang-Bum [Korea Polar Research Institute, 26 Songdomirae-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 406–840 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeonghoon [Department of Science Education, Ewha womans University, 52 Ewhayeodae-gil, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jiwoong; Hur, Soon-Do [Korea Polar Research Institute, 26 Songdomirae-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 406–840 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sungmin, E-mail: smhong@inha.ac.kr [Department of Ocean Sciences, Inha University, 100 Inharo, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-01

    Oxygen isotope ratio (δ{sup 18}O) and concentrations of Al, Na{sup +}, methanesulfonic acid (MSA), SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, and selenium (Se) in a continuous series of 70 snow samples from a 3.2-m snow pit at a site in northwestern Greenland were determined using ultraclean procedures. Well-defined depth profiles of δ{sup 18}O, Al, and sea-salt-Na{sup +} allowed the determination of chronology of the snow pit that spanned approximately 6 years from spring 2003 to summer 2009. Se concentrations were at a low pg/g level, ranging from 7.2 to 45 pg/g, and exhibited high variability with generally higher values during winter and spring and lower values during summer and fall. Very high crustal enrichment factors (EF{sub c}) of Se averaging approximately 26,600 for the entire time period indicate a small contribution from crust dust. High Se/MSA ratios are generally observed in the winter and spring snow layers, in which the Se concentrations were relatively high (> 20 pg/g). This suggests that a significant component of the Se present in the snow layers is of anthropogenic origin. During the summer season, however, high EF{sub c} values are accompanied with low Se/MSA, indicating an increased contribution of marine biogenic sources. Significant correlations between Se, Al, and non-sea-salt SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} highlight that significant inputs of Se to the snow are likely controlled by the seasonality in the transport efficiency of anthropogenic Se from the source regions to the site. Based on the seasonal changes in Se concentrations, Se/MSA, and Se/S ratios observed in the samples, the input of anthropogenic Se to the site appears to be governed by the long-range transportation of Se emitted from coal combustion in East Asian countries, especially in China. - Highlights: • The first comprehensive seasonal variation of Se in Greenland snow is presented. • Data exhibit pronounced seasonality in the fallout of Se to Greenland. • High Se/MSA ratios indicate a

  5. Seasonal variation in the input of atmospheric selenium to northwestern Greenland snow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Khanghyun; Hong, Sang-Bum; Lee, Jeonghoon; Chung, Jiwoong; Hur, Soon-Do; Hong, Sungmin

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen isotope ratio (δ 18 O) and concentrations of Al, Na + , methanesulfonic acid (MSA), SO 4 2− , and selenium (Se) in a continuous series of 70 snow samples from a 3.2-m snow pit at a site in northwestern Greenland were determined using ultraclean procedures. Well-defined depth profiles of δ 18 O, Al, and sea-salt-Na + allowed the determination of chronology of the snow pit that spanned approximately 6 years from spring 2003 to summer 2009. Se concentrations were at a low pg/g level, ranging from 7.2 to 45 pg/g, and exhibited high variability with generally higher values during winter and spring and lower values during summer and fall. Very high crustal enrichment factors (EF c ) of Se averaging approximately 26,600 for the entire time period indicate a small contribution from crust dust. High Se/MSA ratios are generally observed in the winter and spring snow layers, in which the Se concentrations were relatively high (> 20 pg/g). This suggests that a significant component of the Se present in the snow layers is of anthropogenic origin. During the summer season, however, high EF c values are accompanied with low Se/MSA, indicating an increased contribution of marine biogenic sources. Significant correlations between Se, Al, and non-sea-salt SO 4 2− highlight that significant inputs of Se to the snow are likely controlled by the seasonality in the transport efficiency of anthropogenic Se from the source regions to the site. Based on the seasonal changes in Se concentrations, Se/MSA, and Se/S ratios observed in the samples, the input of anthropogenic Se to the site appears to be governed by the long-range transportation of Se emitted from coal combustion in East Asian countries, especially in China. - Highlights: • The first comprehensive seasonal variation of Se in Greenland snow is presented. • Data exhibit pronounced seasonality in the fallout of Se to Greenland. • High Se/MSA ratios indicate a significant contribution from anthropogenic sources.

  6. SEASONAL VARIATION IN OVULATORY ACTIVITY OF NUBIAN, ALPINE AND NUBIAN X CREOLE DOES UNDER TROPICAL PHOTOPERIOD (22° N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Urrutia Morales

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, seasonal variation in ovulatory activity of Nubian, Alpine and Criollox Nubian goats in the semiarid region of central-northern Mexico (22° 14’ N was examined. The study was conducted under natural photoperiod and climate conditions during a whole year. Eight female goats per breed were grouped separately and exposed to visual, olfactory and audible signals of bucks. Blood samples were obtained twice per week and serum progesterone concentrations were determined. All goats presented a clear pattern of seasonal ovulatory activity based on serum progesterone profiles. Length of the ovulatory activity period did not differ between genotypes (P >0.10, and had an average duration of 4.3 months. Nevertheless Criollo x Nubian goats presented greater individual variation in dates of onset and end as well as length of this period (P <0.05. Results indicate that female goats of genotypes which differ in latitude of origin, express a similar restricted pattern of seasonal ovulatory activity when subjected to small annual changes in phtoperiod, adequate nutrition and incomplete socio-sexual stimulus.

  7. Seasonal and diel variation in xylem CO2 concentration and sap pH in sub-Mediterranean oak stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomón, Roberto; Valbuena-Carabaña, María; Teskey, Robert; McGuire, Mary Anne; Aubrey, Doug; González-Doncel, Inés; Gil, Luis; Rodríguez-Calcerrada, Jesús

    2016-04-01

    Since a substantial portion of respired CO2 remains within the stem, diel and seasonal trends in stem CO2 concentration ([CO2]) are of major interest in plant respiration and carbon budget research. However, continuous long-term stem [CO2] studies are scarce, and generally absent in Mediterranean climates. In this study, stem [CO2] was monitored every 15min together with stem and air temperature, sap flow, and soil water storage during a growing season in 16 stems of Quercus pyrenaica to elucidate the main drivers of stem [CO2] at different temporal scales. Fluctuations in sap pH were also assessed during two growing seasons to evaluate potential errors in estimates of the concentration of CO2 dissolved in xylem sap ([CO2*]) calculated using Henry's law. Stem temperature was the best predictor of stem [CO2] and explained more than 90% and 50% of the variability in stem [CO2] at diel and seasonal scales, respectively. Under dry conditions, soil water storage was the main driver of stem [CO2]. Likewise, the first rains after summer drought caused intense stem [CO2] pulses, suggesting enhanced stem and root respiration and increased resistance to radial CO2 diffusion. Sap flow played a secondary role in controlling stem [CO2] variations. We observed night-time sap pH acidification and progressive seasonal alkalinization. Thus, if the annual mean value of sap pH (measured at midday) was assumed to be constant, night-time sap [CO2*] was substantially overestimated (40%), and spring and autumn sap [CO2*] were misestimated by 25%. This work highlights that diel and seasonal variations in temperature, tree water availability, and sap pH substantially affect xylem [CO2] and sap [CO2*]. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Seasonal variation and light absorption property of carbonaceous aerosol in a typical glacieri region of the southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Hewen; Kang, Shichang; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Rudong; Lu, Xixi; Qian, Yun; Paudyal, Rukumesh; Wang, Shijin; Shi, Xiaofei; Yan, Xingguo

    2018-05-07

    Deposition and accumulation of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosol on glacier surfaces can alter the energy balance of glaciers. In this study, 2 years (December 2014 to December 2016) of continuous observations of carbonaceous aerosols in the glacierized region of the Mt. Yulong and Ganhaizi (GHZ) basin are analyzed. The average elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations were 1.51±0.93 and 2.57±1.32 µg m−3, respectively. Although the annual mean OC ∕ EC ratio was 2.45±1.96, monthly mean EC concentrations during the post-monsoon season were even higher than OC in the high altitudes (approximately 5000 m a. s. l. ) of Mt. Yulong. Strong photochemical reactions and local tourism activities were likely the main factors inducing high OC ∕ EC ratios in the Mt. Yulong region during the monsoon season. The mean mass absorption efficiency (MAE) of EC, measured for the first time in Mt. Yulong, at 632 nm with a thermal-optical carbon analyzer using the filter-based method, was 6.82±0.73 m2 g−1, comparable with the results from other studies. Strong seasonal and spatial variations of EC MAE were largely related to the OC abundance. Source attribution analysis using a global aerosol–climate model, equipped with a black carbon (BC) source tagging technique, suggests that East Asia emissions, including local sources, have the dominant contribution (over 50 %) to annual mean near-surface BC in the Mt. Yulong area. There is also a strong seasonal variation in the regional source apportionment. South Asia has the largest contribution to near-surface BC during the pre-monsoon season, while East Asia dominates the monsoon season and post-monsoon season. Results in this study have great implications for accurately evaluating the influences of carbonaceous matter on glacial melting and water resource supply in glacierization areas.

  9. Seasonal variation and light absorption property of carbonaceous aerosol in a typical glacier region of the southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Niu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Deposition and accumulation of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosol on glacier surfaces can alter the energy balance of glaciers. In this study, 2 years (December 2014 to December 2016 of continuous observations of carbonaceous aerosols in the glacierized region of the Mt. Yulong and Ganhaizi (GHZ basin are analyzed. The average elemental carbon (EC and organic carbon (OC concentrations were 1.51±0.93 and 2.57±1.32 µg m−3, respectively. Although the annual mean OC ∕ EC ratio was 2.45±1.96, monthly mean EC concentrations during the post-monsoon season were even higher than OC in the high altitudes (approximately 5000 m a. s. l.  of Mt. Yulong. Strong photochemical reactions and local tourism activities were likely the main factors inducing high OC ∕ EC ratios in the Mt. Yulong region during the monsoon season. The mean mass absorption efficiency (MAE of EC, measured for the first time in Mt. Yulong, at 632 nm with a thermal-optical carbon analyzer using the filter-based method, was 6.82±0.73 m2 g−1, comparable with the results from other studies. Strong seasonal and spatial variations of EC MAE were largely related to the OC abundance. Source attribution analysis using a global aerosol–climate model, equipped with a black carbon (BC source tagging technique, suggests that East Asia emissions, including local sources, have the dominant contribution (over 50 % to annual mean near-surface BC in the Mt. Yulong area. There is also a strong seasonal variation in the regional source apportionment. South Asia has the largest contribution to near-surface BC during the pre-monsoon season, while East Asia dominates the monsoon season and post-monsoon season. Results in this study have great implications for accurately evaluating the influences of carbonaceous matter on glacial melting and water resource supply in glacierization areas.

  10. Seasonal variation of technetium-99 in Fucus vesiculosus and its application as an oceanographic tracer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Keliang; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of 99Tc was determined in archived time series seaweed samples collected at Klint (Denmark). The results demonstrate a significantly seasonal variation of 99Tc concentrations in Fucus vesiculosus with maximum values in winter and minimum values in summer. The mechanism driving t...... of (1.9 0.5) 105 L/kg, were obtained. This indicates that F. vesiculosus can be used as a reliable bioindicator to monitor 99Tc concentration in seawater....

  11. Seasonal variation of upper mesospheric temperatures from the OH and O2 nightglow over King Sejong Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.-H.; Kim, Y. H.; Moon, B.-K.; Chung, J.-K.; Won, Y.-I.

    A spectral airglow temperature imager SATI was operated at King Sejong Station 62 22 r S 301 2 r E Korea Antarctic Research Station during a period of 2002 - 2005 Rotational temperatures from the OH 6-2 and O 2 0-1 band airglow were obtained for more than 600 nights during the 4 year operation Both the OH and O 2 temperatures show similar seasonal variations which change significantly year by year A maximum temperature occurred early May in 2003 and 2004 whereas two maxima appeared in April and August in 2002 The 2005 data show only a broad and weak maximum during months of April and May The data also show oscillations with periods of hours that seem to relate to tides and gravity waves and fluctuations with timescales of days that could be due to planetary waves Detailed analysis will be performed to the data set to identify major atmospheric oscillations or variation over hours days and seasons

  12. The effect of seasonal variation on biomethane production from seaweed and on application as a gaseous transport biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Muhammad Rizwan; Xia, Ao; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-06-01

    Biomethane produced from seaweed may be used as a transport biofuel. Seasonal variation will have an effect on this industry. Laminaria digitata, a typical Irish brown seaweed species, shows significant seasonal variation both in proximate, ultimate and biochemical composition. The characteristics in August were optimal with the lowest level of ash (20% of volatile solids), a C:N ratio of 32 and the highest specific methane yield measured at 327LCH4kgVS(-1), which was 72% of theoretical yield. The highest yield per mass collected of 53m(3)CH4t(-1) was achieved in August, which is 4.5 times higher than the lowest value, obtained in December. A seaweed cultivation area of 11,800ha would be required to satisfy the 2020 target for advanced biofuels in Ireland, of 1.25% renewable energy supply in transport (RES-T) based on the optimal gross energy yield obtained in August (200GJha(-1)yr(-1)). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Seasonal and Non-Seasonal Generalized Pareto Distribution to Estimate Extreme Significant Wave Height in The Banda Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursamsiah; Nugroho Sugianto, Denny; Suprijanto, Jusup; Munasik; Yulianto, Bambang

    2018-02-01

    The information of extreme wave height return level was required for maritime planning and management. The recommendation methods in analyzing extreme wave were better distributed by Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD). Seasonal variation was often considered in the extreme wave model. This research aims to identify the best model of GPD by considering a seasonal variation of the extreme wave. By using percentile 95 % as the threshold of extreme significant wave height, the seasonal GPD and non-seasonal GPD fitted. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied to identify the goodness of fit of the GPD model. The return value from seasonal and non-seasonal GPD was compared with the definition of return value as criteria. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test result shows that GPD fits data very well both seasonal and non-seasonal model. The seasonal return value gives better information about the wave height characteristics.

  14. Seasonal variation of ground spiders in a Brazilian Savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Farcic Mineo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Savanna Ecoregion (Cerrado is one of the richest biomes in the world, with a characteristic highly seasonal climate a dry season between May and September and a rainy season from October through April. Ground-dwelling spiders from three Cerrado phytophysiognomies, "campo cerrado", "cerrado" and "cerrad��o", were sampled using pitfall traps during two years, totaling 111 species and 3,529 individuals. The abundance of individuals and species richness was higher during the wet season. Fifty-eight species were captured exclusively during that period, whereas only nineteen were restricted to the dry season. Only two species were found in all samples. The number of juveniles was higher than the number of adults in all phytophysiognomies and in all species during both seasons. The highest abundance was registered in October and the lowest in April. Overall sex ratio was male-biased in all vegetation types sampled. Distinct climate variables affected the abundance of spiders depending on sex, age and vegetal physiognomy where they were sampled. This study involved the longest sampling of spider abundance and diversity on the ground of a Brazilian Savanna.

  15. Seasonal and spatial variations of macro- and megabenthic community characteristics in two sections of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Li, Xinzheng; Ma, Lin; Dong, Dong; Kou, Qi; Sui, Jixing; Gan, Zhibin; Wang, Hongfa

    2017-09-01

    In spring and summer 2011, the macro- and megabenthic fauna in two sections of the East China Sea were investigated using an Agassiz net trawl to detect the seasonal and spatial variations of benthic community characteristics and the relation to environmental variables. The total number of species increased slightly from spring (131 species) to summer (133) whereas the percentage of Mollusca decreased significantly. The index of relative importance (IRI) indicated that the top five important species changed completely from spring to summer. Species number, abundance and biomass in summer were significantly higher than in spring, but no significant difference was observed among areas (coastal, transitional and oceanic areas, divided basically from inshore to offshore). Species richness ( d), diversity ( H') and evenness ( J') showed no significant seasonal or spatial variations. Cluster analysis and nMDS ordination identified three benthic communities from inshore to offshore, corresponding to the three areas. Analysis of Similarity (ANOSIM) indicated the overall significant difference in community structure between seasons and among areas. K-dominance curves revealed the high intrinsic diversity in the offshore area. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that the coastal community was positively correlated to total nitrogen and total organic carbon in spring, but negatively in summer; oceanic community was positively correlated to total nitrogen and total organic carbon in both seasons. Species such as Coelorhynchus multispinulosus, Neobythites sivicola, Lepidotrigla alata, Solenocera melantho, Parapenaeus fissuroides, Oratosquilla gonypetes and Spiropagurus spiriger occurred exclusively in the offshore oceanic area and their presence may reflect the influence of the offshore Kuroshio Current.

  16. Analyzing Seasonal Variations in Suicide With Fourier Poisson Time-Series Regression: A Registry-Based Study From Norway, 1969-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramness, Jørgen G; Walby, Fredrik A; Morken, Gunnar; Røislien, Jo

    2015-08-01

    Seasonal variation in the number of suicides has long been acknowledged. It has been suggested that this seasonality has declined in recent years, but studies have generally used statistical methods incapable of confirming this. We examined all suicides occurring in Norway during 1969-2007 (more than 20,000 suicides in total) to establish whether seasonality decreased over time. Fitting of additive Fourier Poisson time-series regression models allowed for formal testing of a possible linear decrease in seasonality, or a reduction at a specific point in time, while adjusting for a possible smooth nonlinear long-term change without having to categorize time into discrete yearly units. The models were compared using Akaike's Information Criterion and analysis of variance. A model with a seasonal pattern was significantly superior to a model without one. There was a reduction in seasonality during the period. Both the model assuming a linear decrease in seasonality and the model assuming a change at a specific point in time were both superior to a model assuming constant seasonality, thus confirming by formal statistical testing that the magnitude of the seasonality in suicides has diminished. The additive Fourier Poisson time-series regression model would also be useful for studying other temporal phenomena with seasonal components. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Seasonal and spatial variation in broadleaf forest model parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenendijk, M.; van der Molen, M. K.; Dolman, A. J.

    2009-04-01

    Process based, coupled ecosystem carbon, energy and water cycle models are used with the ultimate goal to project the effect of future climate change on the terrestrial carbon cycle. A typical dilemma in such exercises is how much detail the model must be given to describe the observations reasonably realistic while also be general. We use a simple vegetation model (5PM) with five model parameters to study the variability of the parameters. These parameters are derived from the observed carbon and water fluxes from the FLUXNET database. For 15 broadleaf forests the model parameters were derived for different time resolutions. It appears that in general for all forests, the correlation coefficient between observed and simulated carbon and water fluxes improves with a higher parameter time resolution. The quality of the simulations is thus always better when a higher time resolution is used. These results show that annual parameters are not capable of properly describing weather effects on ecosystem fluxes, and that two day time resolution yields the best results. A first indication of the climate constraints can be found by the seasonal variation of the covariance between Jm, which describes the maximum electron transport for photosynthesis, and climate variables. A general seasonality we found is that during winter the covariance with all climate variables is zero. Jm increases rapidly after initial spring warming, resulting in a large covariance with air temperature and global radiation. During summer Jm is less variable, but co-varies negatively with air temperature and vapour pressure deficit and positively with soil water content. A temperature response appears during spring and autumn for broadleaf forests. This shows that an annual model parameter cannot be representative for the entire year. And relations with mean annual temperature are not possible. During summer the photosynthesis parameters are constrained by water availability, soil water content and

  18. A study on the seasonal variation of the essential oil composition from Plectranthus hadiensis and its antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripathi, Raju; Jayagopal, Dharani; Ravi, Subban

    2018-04-01

    The chemical composition and seasonal variation of the essential oil from the aerial parts of Plectranthus hadiensis grown during the rainy and summer seasons in the Western Ghats of India was analysed by GC-MS technique. The analysis of rainy season oil led to the identification of 31 compounds, representing 96.4% of the essential oil and the winter season oil led to 25 compounds, representing 95.1% of the oil. Most of the compounds were sesquiterpenes and oxygenated monoterpenes. The major components of the rainy season oil were L-fenchone (30.42%), β-farnesene (11.87%), copaene(11.10%), 2,3-dimethyl hydroquinone (10.78%), α-caryophyllene(8.41%) and piperitone oxide (3.94%) and of the summer season oil are L-fenchone (31.55%), copaene(11.93%), β-farnesene (10.45%), 1,8-naphthalenedione, 8a-ethylperhydro (10.06%), α-caryophyllene(6.36%), piperitone oxide (5.79%) and limonene(4.63%). Antibacterial activity of the essential oil of P. hadiensis was tested using zone of inhibition and minimum inhibition concentration methods. Both the oils inhibited the organisms and showed the zone of inhibition in the range of 20-35 mm with MIC values between 32 and 64 mg/dL.

  19. Seasonal variations in TSH serum levels in athyreotic patients under L-thyroxine replacement monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullo, Damiano; Latina, Adele; Frasca, Francesco; Squatrito, Sebastiano; Belfiore, Antonino; Vigneri, Riccardo

    2017-08-01

    Whether serum TSH undergoes seasonal fluctuations in euthyroid and hypothyroid residents of temperate climates is controversial. Monthly TSH and thyroid hormone levels were cross-sectionally analysed in a large cohort of euthyroid subjects (n=11 806) and L-thyroxine (L-T4)-treated athyreotic patients (n=3 934). Moreover, in a small group (n=119) of athyreotic patients treated with an unchanged dosage of L-T4 monotherapy, hormones were measured both in the coldest and in the hottest seasons of the same year (longitudinal study). No seasonal hormone change was observed in the euthyroid subjects except for a small FT3 increase in winter (+2.9%, P<.001). In contrast, the L-T4-treated athyreotic patients had significantly higher serum TSH values in the cold season when the FT4 values were significantly lower. The differences were more notable in the longitudinal series (TSH, 0.80 vs. 0.20 mU/L and FT4, 16.3 vs. 17.8 pmol/L in December-March vs. June-September, respectively). In these patients also serum FT3 values significantly decreased in winter (in the longitudinal series, 3.80 in winter vs 4.07 pmol/L in summer). Regression analysis showed that in athyreotic subjects, a greater FT4 change is required to obtain a TSH change similar to that of euthyroid controls and that this effect is more pronounced in the summer. Athyreotic patients undergoing L-T4 monotherapy have abnormal seasonal variations in TSH. These changes are secondary to the FT4 and FT3 serum decreases in winter, which occur in spite of the constant treatment. The underlying mechanisms are unclear, but in some cases, these changes may be clinically relevant. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Seasonal variations of 222Rn concentrations in the air of a tunnel located in Nagano City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, H.; Tashiro, Y.; Hasegawa, N.; Misawa, C.; Minami, M.

    2000-01-01

    The survey of 222 Rn concentrations in the air of tunnels constructed during World War II at Nagano City has been performed using a solid-state nuclear track detector technique. Concentrations of several thousands Bq m -3 were observed at inner most areas of the tunnel. A seasonal variation was clearly observed; in summer, several times higher concentrations than in winter were observed, which may be due to a stack effect induced by the temperature difference between the tunnel air and the outside air in each season. The concentrations of radon in the tunnel air decrease exponentially towards the openings of the tunnel, which indicates that the radon concentration in the tunnel is basically governed by diffusion and mixing of radon gas with air. (author)

  1. Occurrence, seasonal variation and risk assessment of antibiotics in the reservoirs in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Zhang, Xinbo; Wu, Wei; Zhao, Xinhua

    2014-09-01

    The occurrence and seasonal variability of five groups (tetracycline, quinolone, chloramphenicol, macrolide and sulfonamide) of antibiotics were investigated in the surface water of four reservoirs. The dissolved concentrations of 29 antibiotics were in the ngL(-1) level. Trace levels of all target antibiotics were analyzed using solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. All of the antibiotics were detected at all sampling sites, indicating widespread occurrence of antibiotics in the study area. The detection of florfenicol, josamycin, kitasamycin, spiramycin and sulfameter is the first report of these compounds in reservoir samples. The results showed an association between the presence of some antibiotics at Panjiakou reservoir and cage culture of fish. Twenty-three types of antibiotics showed significant seasonal variations (prisk assessment showed that all antibiotics detected could cause very low risk to algae, daphnid and fish. Further health risk need to be investigated because these reservoirs are drinking water sources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of pH and seasonal temperature variation on simultaneous partial nitrification and anammox in free-water surface wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuling; Tao, Wendong; Wang, Ziyuan; Shayya, Walid

    2012-11-15

    Design considerations to enhance simultaneous partial nitrification and anammox in constructed wetlands are largely unknown. This study examined the effects of pH and seasonal temperature variation on simultaneous partial nitrification and anammox in two free-water surface wetlands. In order to enhance partial nitrification and inhibit nitrite oxidation, furnace slag was placed on the rooting substrate to maintain different pH levels in the wetland water. The wetlands were batch operated for dairy wastewater treatment under oxygen-limited conditions at a cycle time of 7 d. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis found that aerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria and anammox bacteria accounted for 42-73% of the bacterial populations in the wetlands, which was the highest relative abundance of ammonium oxidizing and anammox bacteria in constructed wetlands enhancing simultaneous partial nitrification and anammox. The two wetlands removed total inorganic nitrogen efficiently, 3.36-3.38 g/m(2)/d in the warm season with water temperatures at 18.9-24.9 °C and 1.09-1.50 g/m(2)/d in the cool season at 13.8-18.9 °C. Plant uptake contributed 2-45% to the total inorganic nitrogen removal in the growing season. A seasonal temperature variation of more than 6 °C would affect simultaneous partial nitrification and anammox significantly. Significant pH effects were identified only when the temperatures were below 18.9 °C. Anammox was the limiting stage of simultaneous partial nitrification and anammox in the wetlands. Water pH should be controlled along with influent ammonium concentration and temperature to avoid toxicity of free ammonia to anammox bacteria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Melanopsin-Mediated Acute Light Responses Measured in Winter and in Summer: Seasonal Variations in Adults with and without Cataracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Münch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal adaptation is a ubiquitous behavior seen in many species on both global hemispheres and is conveyed by changing photoperiods. In humans this seasonal adaptation is less apparent, in part because changes in daylength are masked by the use of electrical lighting at night. On the other hand, cataracts which reduce light transmission, may compound seasonal changes related to the reduced daylength of winter. To better understand the effects of different photoperiod lengths in healthy adults without and with cataracts, we tested their melanopsin-mediated light responses in summer vs. winter. Fifty-two participants (mean age 67.4 years; 30 with bilateral cataracts and 22 age-matched controls with clear lenses; pseudophakes were tested twice, once in summer and once in winter. At each test session we assessed the electroretinogram and pupil responses during daytime and we determined melatonin suppression, subjective sleepiness and mood in response to light exposure in the evening. Circadian rest-activity cycles and sleep from activity recordings were also analyzed for both seasons. Both groups had similar visual function. There were no seasonal differences in the electroretinogram. For the pupil responses to bright blue light, the post-illumination pupil response (PIPR was greater in winter than summer in pseudophakes, but not in cataract participants, whereas melatonin suppression to acute light exposure showed no differences between both groups and seasons. Overall, intra-daily variability of rest-activity was worse in winter but participants felt sleepier and reported worse mood at the laboratory in evening time in the summer. Those with cataracts had poorer sleep quality with lower sleep efficiency, and higher activity during sleep in winter than summer. In this study, the PIPR showed a seasonal variation in which a larger response was found during winter. This variation was only detected in participants with a clear intraocular lens. In

  4. Understanding the Response of Photosynthetic Metabolism in Tropical Forests to Seasonal Climate Variations. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dye, Dennis [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Ivanov, Valeriy [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Saleska, Scott [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Huete, Alfredo [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Univ. of Technology, Sydney NSW (Australia)

    2017-03-31

    This U.S-Brazil collaboration for GOAmazon has investigated a deceptively simple question: what controls the response of photosynthesis in Amazon tropical forests to seasonal variations in climate? In the past this question has been difficult to answer with modern earth system process models. We hypothesized that observed dry season increases in photosynthetic capacity are controlled by the phenology of leaf flush and litter fall, from which the seasonal pattern of LAI emerges. Our results confirm this hypothesis (Wu et al., 2016). Synthesis of data collected throughout the 3-year project period continues through December 31, 2017 under no-cost extensions granted to the project teams at University of Michigan and University of Arizona (Award 2). The USGS component (Award 1) ceased on the final date of the project performance period, December 31, 2016. This report summarizes the overall activities and achievements of the project, and constitutes the final project report for the USGS component. The University of Michigan will submit a separate final report that includes additional results and deliverables achieved during the period of their and the University of Arizona’s no-cost extension, which will end on December 31, 2017.

  5. Seasonal variation of macromedusae (Cnidaria at North Bay, Florianópolis, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodeli Nogueira Júnior

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variation of large medusae abundance and biomass was studied in the North Bay, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil (27°30'S, 48° 32'W, from February to December 2005. Collecting was conducted seasonally with the help of fishing bottom trawl in 30-minute sections (12 in summer, 18 in each of the remaining seasons in six stations, totaling 66 samples. Eight species were found: the hydrozoans Aequorea sp., Olindias sambaquiensis Müller, 1861, and Rhacostoma atlantica L. Agassiz, 1850; the cubozoans Chiropsalmus quadrumanus (Müller, 1859 and Tamoya haplonema Müller, 1859, and the scyphozoans Aurelia sp., Chrysaora lactea Eschscholtz, 1829 and Lychnorhiza lucerna Haeckel, 1880. Capture rates were low, up to 38 indiv. ha-1, and only ~47% of the samples were positive for jellyfish, comprising 206 individuals. Medusae abundance and species richness clearly changed from one season to another, but did not vary between the sites. Higher species richness (7 out of 8 and greater abundances were recorded during the fall (~60% and 72% of all medusae individuals and biomass respectively. Specific frequency of capture varied from 1.5 to 29% and C. lactea was the only species found in more than 25% of the samples. The three most common species dominated in different periods of the year: C. lactea during fall (78% of individuals and 60% of biomass, R. atlantica during winter (90% of individuals and 17% of biomass, and O. sambaquiensis in spring (78% of individuals and 40% of biomass. Only two individuals were caught during summer, one C. lactea and one R. atlantica. The results offer a general picture of the distribution of the macromedusae in the North Bay, but a continuous monitoring is desirable for a more detailed knowledge on the jellyfish dynamics in the Brazilian coastal waters.

  6. Seasonal variation of Brazilian red propolis: Antibacterial activity, synergistic effect and phytochemical screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regueira, M S; Tintino, Saulo Relison; da Silva, Ana Raquel Pereira; Costa, Maria do Socorro; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Matias, Edinardo F F; de Queiroz Balbino, Valdir; Menezes, Irwin R A; Melo Coutinho, Henrique Douglas

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the dry and rainy season on the antibacterial activity and chemical composition of the Brazilian red propolis. The samples were collected in rainy (RP-PER) and dry (RP-PED) seasons and analyzed by HPLC-DAD. The extracts were tested alone and in association with antibiotics against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The HPLC analysis identified luteolin and quercetin as the main compounds. Seasonal variation was observed according to concentrations of the compounds. The MIC values against E. coli ranged from 128 μg/mL to 512 μg/mL (EC 06 and EC ATCC). The red propolis showed MIC values of 512 μg/mL against both strains of P. aeruginosa used in our study (PA03 and PA24) and against strains of Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus the MICs ranged from 64 μg/mL to ≥1024 μg/mL (SA10). A synergistic effect was observed when we combined the RP-PED with gentamicin against all the strains tested. When we combined the RP-PED with Imipenem, we only observed synergistic effect against P. aeruginosa. According to our synergistic activity results, the utilization of red propolis collected in the drier periods can be used as an adjuvant against multiresistant bacterial infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dominant role of winds near Sri Lanka in driving seasonal sea level variations along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, I.; Vialard, J.; Izumo, T.; Lengaigne, M.; Han, W.; Mc; Muraleedharan, P.M.

    version: Geophys. Res. Lett.: 43(13); 2016; 7028-7035 Dominant role of winds near Sri Lanka in driving seasonal sea-level variations along the west coast of India I. Suresh1, J. Vialard2, T. Izumo2,3, M. Lengaigne,2,3, W. Han4, J. McCreary5, P... as manifested both in sea level and surface circulation of the North Indian Ocean (NIO) [e.g., Schott and McCreary, 2001]. The sea level along the west coast of India (WCI), in particular, is dominated by the seasonal cycle. Figure 1a, which shows...

  8. Spatial and seasonal variations of leaf area index (LAI) in subtropical secondary forests related to floristic composition and stand characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenjuan; Xiang, Wenhua; Pan, Qiong; Zeng, Yelin; Ouyang, Shuai; Lei, Pifeng; Deng, Xiangwen; Fang, Xi; Peng, Changhui

    2016-07-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important parameter related to carbon, water, and energy exchange between canopy and atmosphere and is widely applied in process models that simulate production and hydrological cycles in forest ecosystems. However, fine-scale spatial heterogeneity of LAI and its controlling factors have yet to be fully understood in Chinese subtropical forests. We used hemispherical photography to measure LAI values in three subtropical forests (Pinus massoniana-Lithocarpus glaber coniferous and evergreen broadleaved mixed forests, Choerospondias axillaris deciduous broadleaved forests, and L. glaber-Cyclobalanopsis glauca evergreen broadleaved forests) from April 2014 to January 2015. Spatial heterogeneity of LAI and its controlling factors were analysed using geostatistical methods and the generalised additive models (GAMs) respectively. Our results showed that LAI values differed greatly in the three forests and their seasonal variations were consistent with plant phenology. LAI values exhibited strong spatial autocorrelation for the three forests measured in January and for the L. glaber-C. glauca forest in April, July, and October. Obvious patch distribution pattern of LAI values occurred in three forests during the non-growing period and this pattern gradually dwindled in the growing season. Stem number, crown coverage, proportion of evergreen conifer species on basal area basis, proportion of deciduous species on basal area basis, and forest types affected the spatial variations in LAI values in January, while stem number and proportion of deciduous species on basal area basis affected the spatial variations in LAI values in July. Floristic composition, spatial heterogeneity, and seasonal variations should be considered for sampling strategy in indirect LAI measurement and application of LAI to simulate functional processes in subtropical forests.

  9. Seasonal variations in the biochemical composition of some common seaweed species from the coast of Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan M. Khairy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Variations in protein, carbohydrate, lipid, ash, moisture, fatty acid and aminoacid contents of the seaweeds Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta,Jania rubens (Linnaeus J.V. Lamouroux and Pterocladia capillacea (S.G. Gmelin Bornet(Rhodophyta were studied seasonally from spring to autumn 2010. The seaweeds were collected from a rocky site near Boughaz El-Maadya on the coast of Abu Qir Bay east of Alexandria, Egypt. Remarkable seasonal variations were recorded in the levels of the studied parameters in the three species. Pterocladia capillacea was characterized by the highest protein andcarbohydrate content throughout the different seasons, whereas Ulva lactuca contained more lipids (4.09 ± 0.2% than J. rubens and P. capillacea. The highest total fatty acids were recorded in J. rubens during the three seasons, while saturated fatty acids were predominant in P. capillacea during spring. This is due mainly to the presence of palmitic acid(C16:0, which made up 74.3% of the saturated fatty acids. The highest level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in these algae was measured in J. rubens; DHA (22:6ω3 was the main acid, making up 26.4% of the total fatty acids especiallyduring summer. Proline was the major component of the amino acids in the three algal species, with maximum amounts in U. lactuca.

  10. Seasonal variations of thermocline circulation and ventilation in the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yuzhu

    1997-05-01

    Two seasonal hydrographic data sets, including temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and nutrients, are used in a mixing model which combines cluster analysis with optimum multiparameter analysis to determine the spreading and mixing of the thermocline waters in the Indian Ocean. The mixing model comprises a system of four major source water masses, which were identified in the thermocline through cluster analysis. They are Indian Central Water (ICW), North Indian Central Water (NICW) interpreted as aged ICW, Australasian Mediterranean Water (AAMW), and Red Sea Water (RSW)/Persian Gulf Water (PGW). The mixing ratios of these water masses are quantified and mapped on four isopycnal surfaces which span the thermocline from 150 to 600 m in the northern Indian Ocean, on two meridional sections along 60°E and 90°E, and on two zonal sections along 10°S and 6°N. The mixing ratios and pathways of the thermocline water masses show large seasonal variations, particularly in the upper 400-500 m of the thermocline. The most prominent signal of seasonal variation occurs in the Somali Current, the western boundary current, which appears only during the SW (summer) monsoon. The northward spreading of ICW into the equatorial and northern Indian Ocean is by way of the Somali Current centered at 300-400 m on the σθ=26.7 isopycnal surface during the summer monsoon and of the Equatorial Countercurrent during the NE (winter) monsoon. More ICW carried into the northern Indian Ocean during the summer monsoon is seen clearly in the zonal section along 6°N. NICW spreads southward through the western Indian Ocean and is stronger during the winter monsoon. AAMW appears in both seasons but is slightly stronger during the summer in the upper thermocline. The westward flow of AAMW is by way of the South Equatorial Current and slightly bends to the north on the σθ=26.7 isopycnal surface during the summer monsoon, indicative of its contribution to the western boundary current. Outflow

  11. Tidal and seasonal variation in particulate and dissolved organic carbon in the western dutch Wadden Sea and Marsdiep tidal inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadée, G. C.

    Seasonal variation in POC and DOC was measured in the Marsdiep tidal inlet of the Wadden Sea from March 1978 to June 1981, and compared with tidal variation. A POC peak was coincident with the phytoplankton peak (except for 1981), whereas a DOC peak occurred about one month later indicating autolysis and degradation of phytoplankton rather than excretion as the main source of this DOC. DOC production calculated from the spring increase amounted to 4.2 mg C·1 -1 or about 40% of the annual phytoplankton primary production in the area. This means that a large part of the phytoplankton production is not used directly by primary consumers but is converted into DOC. Tidal variation in DOC was correlated with salinity, pointing to a fresh water source for the bulk of it. POC was correlated with suspended matter content and phaeopigment, and slightly less with chlorophyll. Compared with the seasonal variation, tidal variation in chlorophyll and temperature was relatively small, but large in POC, DOC, suspended matter and salinity. Although import of POC and export of DOC through the Marsdiep inlet is large on an annual base, the transport cannot be measured directly because of the variability and precision limits of the measurements and as differences in content between ebb and flood current are only 15 and 5% of the POC and DOC content, respectively.

  12. Seasonal variation of malaria cases in children aged less than 5 years old following weather change in Zomba district, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajison, Precious L; Mwakikunga, Bonex W; Mathanga, Don P; Feresu, Shingairai A

    2017-07-03

    Malaria is seasonal and this may influence the number of children being treated as outpatients in hospitals. The objective of this study was to investigate the degree of seasonality in malaria in lakeshore and highland areas of Zomba district Malawi, and influence of climatic factors on incidence of malaria. Secondary data on malaria surveillance numbers and dates of treatment of children malaria epidemic over explanatory variable (rainfall, temperature and humidity). Malaria cases of children malaria in highland compared to lakeshore in Zomba district. This study also found that an increase in average temperature and relative humidity was associated of malaria incidence in children malaria incidence of children malaria seasonality, regardless of strong rainfall seasonality, and marginal drop of malaria incidence in Zomba can be explained by weather variation. Implementation of seasonal chemoprevention of malaria in Zomba could be questionable due to reduced seasonality of malaria. The lower diurnal temperature range contributed to high malaria incidence and this must be further investigated.

  13. Seasonal variation, sources and gas/particle partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yunyun; Guo, Pengran; Zhang, Qian; Li, Deliang; Zhao, Lan; Mu, Dehai

    2010-01-01

    Air samples were collected weekly at an urban site and a suburban site in Guangzhou City, China, from April 2005 to March 2006, to measure the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the ambient air and study their seasonal variations, gas/particle partitioning, origins and sources. The concentrations of Σ 16-PAHs (particle + gas) were 129.9 ± 73.1 ng m -3 at the urban site and 120.4 ± 48.5 ng m -3 at the suburban site, respectively. It was found that there was no significant difference in PAH concentrations between the urban and suburban sites. Seasonal variations of PAH concentrations at the two sampling sites were similar, with higher levels in the winter that gradually decreased to the lowest levels in the summer. The average concentrations of Σ 16-PAHs in the winter samples were approximately three times higher than those of the summer samples because in the summer local emissions dominated, and in the winter the contribution from outside sources or transported PAHs is increased. The plot of logK p versus logP L 0 for the data sets of summer and winter season samples had significantly different slopes at both sampling sites. The slopes for the winter samples were steeper than those for the summer samples. It was also observed that gas/particle partitioning of PAHs showed different characteristics depending on air parcel trajectories. Steeper slopes were obtained for an air parcel that traveled across the continent to the sampling site from the northern or northeastern sector, whereas shallower slopes were obtained for air masses that traveled across the sea from the southern or eastern sector. Diagnostic ratio analytical results imply that the origins of PAHs were mainly from petroleum combustion and coal/biomass burning. The anthracene/phenanthrene and benzo[a]anthracene/chrysene ratios in the winter were significantly lower than those in the summer, which indicate that there might be long-range transported PAH input to Guangzhou in

  14. Seasonal variations of nitrogen and phosphorus retention in an agricultural drainage river in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dingjiang; Lu, Jun; Wang, Hailong; Shen, Yena; Kimberley, Mark O

    2010-02-01

    Riverine retention decreases loads of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in running water. It is an important process in nutrient cycling in watersheds. However, temporal riverine nutrient retention capacity varies due to changes in hydrological, ecological, and nutrient inputs into the watershed. Quantitative information of seasonal riverine N and P retention is critical for developing strategies to combat diffuse source pollution and eutrophication in riverine and coastal systems. This study examined seasonal variation of riverine total N (TN) and total P (TP) retention in the ChangLe River, an agricultural drainage river in east China. Water quality, hydrological parameters, and hydrophyte coverage were monitored along the ChangLe River monthly during 2004-2006. Nutrient export loads (including chemical fertilizer, livestock, and domestic sources) entering the river from the catchment area were computed using an export coefficient model based on estimated nutrient sources. Riverine TN and TP retention loads (RNRL and RPRL) were estimated using mass balance calculations. Temporal variations in riverine nutrient retention were analyzed statistically. Estimated annual riverine retention loads ranged from 1,538 to 2,127 t year(-1) for RNRL and from 79.4 to 90.4 t year(-1) for RPRL. Monthly retention loads varied from 6.4 to 300.8 t month(-1) for RNRL and from 1.4 to 15.3 t month(-1) for RPRL. Both RNRL and RPRL increased with river flow, water temperature, hydrophyte coverage, monthly sunshine hours, and total TN and TP inputs. Dissolved oxygen concentration and the pH level of the river water decreased with RNRL and RPRL. Riverine nutrient retention ratios (retention as a percentage of total input) were only related to hydrophyte coverage and monthly sunshine hours. Monthly variations in RNRL and RPRL were functions of TN and TP loads. Riverine nutrient retention capacity varied with environmental conditions. Annual RNRL and RPRL accounted for 30.3-48.3% and 52

  15. Seasonal variations of Zn, Cu, As and Mo in arsenic-rich stream at the Mokrsko gold deposit, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drahota, P.; Mihaljevič, M.; Grygar, Tomáš; Rohovec, Jan; Pertold, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 2 (2011), s. 429-441 ISSN 1866-6280 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : trace element * stream * seasonal variations * sorption * Mn redox reactions Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 1.059, year: 2011

  16. Seasonal variations in terrestrial gamma radiation along river Ganges and implications to public health risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, P.; Meher, P.K.; Mishra, K.P.

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of exposure to terrestrial gamma radiation dose and determination of associated health hazard at river bank is of major importance due to the increasing tourism, bathing festivals and mythological beliefs. Present study was focused on measurement of absorbed dose rates as function of seasonal variation at designated locations along Ganges river in India. Portable dosimeter (plastic scintillation counter) was used for the measurement of absorbed dose rates. Subsequently, annual effective dose (AED) and excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) were calculated by the standard procedure. Results showed absorbed dose rates for Pre-monsoon ranged from 89.7 ± 4.03 to 115.0 ± 7.81 nSv/h with an average of 105.54 nSv/h. Post-monsoon measurements yielded values from 81.0 ± 7.00 to 105.6 ± 5.75 nSv/h with an average value of 90.8 nSv/h. Calculated average AED for Pre-monsoon period was found to be 0.13 mSv/y. Whereas, 0.11 mSv/y was the AED for the post-monsoon period. Furthermore, the calculated average ELCR values for pre-monsoon and post-monsoon were found to be 0.488 × 10 -3 and 0.418 × 10 -3 , respectively. This study reports significant seasonal variations in the terrestrial gamma radiation doses along the long stretch of Ganges river. (author)

  17. Ecophysiological response to seasonal variations in water availability in the arborescent, endemic plant Vellozia gigantea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Melanie; Garcia, Queila S; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2015-03-01

    The physiological response of plants growing in their natural habitat is strongly determined by seasonal variations in environmental conditions and the interaction of abiotic and biotic stresses. Here, leaf water and nutrient contents, changes in cellular redox state and endogenous levels of stress-related phytohormones (abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid and jasmonates) were examined during the rainy and dry season in Vellozia gigantea, an endemic species growing at high elevations in the rupestrian fields of the Espinhaço Range in Brazil. Enhanced stomatal closure and increased ABA levels during the dry season were associated with an efficient control of leaf water content. Moreover, reductions in 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) levels during the dry season were observed, while levels of other jasmonates, such as jasmonic acid and jasmonoyl-isoleucine, were not affected. Changes in ABA and OPDA levels correlated with endogenous concentrations of iron and silicon, hydrogen peroxide, and vitamin E, thus indicating complex interactions between water and nutrient contents, changes in cellular redox state and endogenous hormone concentrations. Results also suggested crosstalk between activation of mechanisms for drought stress tolerance (as mediated by ABA) and biotic stress resistance (mediated by jasmonates), in which vitamin E levels may serve as a control point. It is concluded that, aside from a tight ABA-associated regulation of stomatal closure during the dry season, crosstalk between activation of abiotic and biotic defences, and nutrient accumulation in leaves may be important modulators of plant stress responses in plants growing in their natural habitat. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Study of the seasonal variation in the exchanges of food labelled with 198Au from a worker bee to a queen (Apis mellifica ligustica S.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain, Janine; Roger, Bernard; Douault, Philippe

    1975-01-01

    Food exchanges from a worker giver to a queen receiver were quantified throughout the year. 4 days old workers distribute great amounts of food to queens, about 74% in average, but variations are low. On the other hand workers of unknown age distribute amounts that are less high and varying in terms of the season. A parallelism exists between percentage variations of food shared by workers of unknown age and the seasonal cycle of the 9-oxodec-2-enoic acid content of queens [fr

  19. Seasonal variations of neuromotor development by 14 months of age: Hamamatsu Birth Cohort for mothers and children (HBC Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji J Tsuchiya

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at investigating whether neuromotor development, from birth to 14 months of age, shows seasonal, cyclic patterns in association with months of birth. Study participants were 742 infants enrolled in the Hamamatsu Birth Cohort (HBC Study and followed-up from birth to the 14th month of age. Gross motor skills were assessed at the ages of 6, 10, and 14 months, using Mullen Scales of Early Learning. The score at each assessment was regressed onto a trigonometric function of months of birth, with an adjustment for potential confounders. Gross motor scores at the 6th and 10th months showed significant 1-year-cycle variations, peaking among March- and April-born infants, and among February-born infants, respectively. Changes in gross motor scores between the 10th and 14th months also showed a cyclic variation, peaking among July- and August-born infants. Due to this complementary effect, gross motor scores at the 14th month did not show seasonality. Neuromotor development showed cyclic seasonality during the first year of life. The effects brought about by month of birth disappeared around 1 year of age, and warmer months seemed to accelerate the neuromotor development.

  20. Seasonal variation in diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Ørby, Pia Viuf; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas

    2014-01-01

    the time of day when peak concentrations are most likely to occur using seasonally averaged diurnal profiles. Atmospheric pollen loads are highly dependent upon emissions, and different species of grass are known to flower and emit pollen at different times of the day and during different periods......In this study, the diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profile within the Danish city of Aarhus was shown to change in a systematic manner as the pollen season progressed. Although diurnal grass pollen profiles can differ greatly from day-to-day, it is common practice to establish...... of the pollen season. Pollen concentrations are also influenced by meteorological factors - directly through those parameters that govern pollen dispersion and transport, and indirectly through the weather-driven flowering process. We found that three different profiles dominated the grass pollen season...

  1. Causes of seasonal variations of Cs-134/137 activity concentrations in surface air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1993-01-01

    In winter months maxima of Cs-134/137 activity concentrations in air are observed at several locations in Europe. To clarify this phenomenon, from October 1991 to November 1992 we performed a program for aerosol collection on a short-term scale based on collecting intervals of 48-72 hours. The local meteorological parameters were determined simultaneously. Statistical analysis of these observations reveiled a highly significant positive correlation between Cs-137 activity concentration and the so-called 'Stagnationsindex'. Based on this relationship the seasonal variations of Cs-134/137 concentrations in ground-level air can be explained by atmospheric inversion conditions frequently occurring during fall- and wintermonths. (orig.) [de

  2. Seasonal variation of 228Ra/226Ra ratio in seaweed: implications for water circulation patterns in coastal areas of the Noto Peninsula, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, M.; Kofuji, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Komura, K.

    2005-01-01

    To examine water circulation patterns of coastal water, 72 seaweed (Sargasso) samples and 27 coastal water samples were collected from coastal areas of the Noto Peninsula, Japan, during the period from December 1998 to June 2002. The 228 Ra and 226 Ra activities of those samples were measured by low-background γ-ray spectrometry. There was a wide range of activities of 228 Ra (0.5-2 Bq/kg-fresh) and 226 Ra (0.5-1.2 Bq/kg-fresh) in the Sargasso samples. The 228 Ra/ 226 Ra activity ratio of Sargasso samples exhibited seasonal variation with minimum values in June ( 228 Ra/ 226 Ra = ∼1) and maximum values in December (1.5-2.5), which was mainly governed by changes in 228 Ra activity. It is also notable that the seasonal variation of the 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ratio of Sargasso is in approximate agreement with that of the ambient coastal water. Sargasso samples appear to have retained the 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ratio of the ambient coastal waters, and the temporal variations in that ratio provide insight into seasonal changes in water circulation in the Noto Peninsula coastal area

  3. Chlorophyll fluorescence tracks seasonal variations of photosynthesis from leaf to canopy in a temperate forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hualei; Yang, Xi; Zhang, Yongguang; Heskel, Mary A; Lu, Xiaoliang; Munger, J William; Sun, Shucun; Tang, Jianwu

    2017-07-01

    Accurate estimation of terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) remains a challenge despite its importance in the global carbon cycle. Chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) has been recently adopted to understand photosynthesis and its response to the environment, particularly with remote sensing data. However, it remains unclear how ChlF and photosynthesis are linked at different spatial scales across the growing season. We examined seasonal relationships between ChlF and photosynthesis at the leaf, canopy, and ecosystem scales and explored how leaf-level ChlF was linked with canopy-scale solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) in a temperate deciduous forest at Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, USA. Our results show that ChlF captured the seasonal variations of photosynthesis with significant linear relationships between ChlF and photosynthesis across the growing season over different spatial scales (R 2  = 0.73, 0.77, and 0.86 at leaf, canopy, and satellite scales, respectively; P chlorophyll content (R 2  = 0.65 for canopy GPP SIF and chlorophyll content; P < 0.0001), leaf area index (LAI) (R 2  = 0.35 for canopy GPP SIF and LAI; P < 0.0001), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) (R 2  = 0.36 for canopy GPP SIF and NDVI; P < 0.0001). Our results suggest that ChlF can be a powerful tool to track photosynthetic rates at leaf, canopy, and ecosystem scales. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Annual and seasonal variations In the gamma activities in Sava river sediments upstream and downstream of NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stipe, Lulic

    2006-01-01

    Results of the five years monitoring of artificial and natural occurring radionuclides in the Sava river sediments are presented. Measurements were conducted as a part of the regular Krsko Nuclear Power Plant radioactivity control and the independent supervisions of the input of radionuclides into larger environment (immission). In order to estimate seasonal variations samples were taken from seven locations (one upstream and five downstream of the Krsko NPP) during four sampling period (seasonal) in each year. Selected radionuclides in the sediment fraction less than 0.5 mm were determined with gamma spectrometer equipped with BE3830 model High Purity Ge detector with 30% relative efficiency. (authors)

  5. Annual and seasonal variations In the gamma activities in Sava river sediments upstream and downstream of NPP Krsko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stipe, Lulic [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Lab. for radioecology, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-07-01

    Results of the five years monitoring of artificial and natural occurring radionuclides in the Sava river sediments are presented. Measurements were conducted as a part of the regular Krsko Nuclear Power Plant radioactivity control and the independent supervisions of the input of radionuclides into larger environment (immission). In order to estimate seasonal variations samples were taken from seven locations (one upstream and five downstream of the Krsko NPP) during four sampling period (seasonal) in each year. Selected radionuclides in the sediment fractiess than 0.5 mm were determined with gamma spectrometer equipped with BE3830 model High Purity Ge detector with 30% relative efficiency. (authors)

  6. Diversity and seasonal variation of zooplankton of Lake Hlan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-06-30

    Jun 30, 2016 ... The taxonomic composition and the species ... Keywords: Biodiversity; Community structure; Hydrological season; Zooplankton .... Table 1: Seasonal change in recorded environmental parameters ..... reproduction, growth and life duration (Fernandez de .... Spatial temporal patterns and relationships with.

  7. Impacts of meteorological parameters and emissions on decadal, interannual, and seasonal variations of atmospheric black carbon in the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hao Mao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We quantified the impacts of variations in meteorological parameters and emissions on decadal, interannual, and seasonal variations of atmospheric black carbon (BC in the Tibetan Plateau for 1980–2010 using a global 3-dimensional chemical transport model driven by the Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA meteorological fields. From 1980 to 2010, simulated surface BC concentrations and all-sky direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere due to atmospheric BC increased by 0.15 μg m−3 (63% and by 0.23 W m−2 (62%, respectively, averaged over the Tibetan Plateau (75–105°E, 25–40°N. Simulated annual mean surface BC concentrations were in the range of 0.24–0.40 μg m−3 averaged over the plateau for 1980–2010, with the decadal trends of 0.13 μg m−3 per decade in the 1980s and 0.08 in the 2000s. The interannual variations were −5.4% to 7.0% for deviation from the mean, 0.0062 μg m−3 for mean absolute deviation, and 2.5% for absolute percent departure from the mean. Model sensitivity simulations indicated that the decadal trends of surface BC concentrations were mainly driven by changes in emissions, while the interannual variations were dependent on variations of both meteorological parameters and emissions. Meteorological parameters played a crucial role in driving the interannual variations of BC especially in the monsoon season.

  8. Seasonal and Spatial Variation of Surface Urban Heat Island Intensity in a Small Urban Agglomerate in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Dener Lima Alves

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, SUHIs (surface urban heat islands have been greatly emphasized in urban climate studies, since it is one of the climate phenomena most influenced by human action. In this study, temporal and spatial variations of SUHIs in the cities of Ceres and Rialma (Brazil were investigated; satellite Landsat 8 TIRS/OLI images from 2013 to 2016 were used for this purpose. The results showed that in all seasons, two relationships were observed, one positive and one negative. An N D V I (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index of 0.2 is the divider of this relationship: up to this value, the relationship is positive, that is, the higher the N D V I value, the higher the surface temperature, while the relationship is negative at an N D V I greater than 0.2. There was high seasonal variation in the SUHIs, with the highest intensities recorded in the spring and summer (±12 °C, and the lowest in the winter. These temporal variations were attributed to the annual cycle of precipitation, which directly involves the robustness of the Cerrado vegetation. SUHIs occupied, on average, an area three times larger than the area of SUCIs (surface urban cool islands. The highest values of SUCIs were observed in water bodies and in valley bottoms. Overall, SUHIs showed high intensities; however, a more intense core area, such as in large cities, was not observed.

  9. Impact of seasonal variation on Escherichia coli concentrations in the riverbed sediments in the Apies River, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abia, Akebe Luther King; Ubomba-Jaswa, Eunice; Momba, Maggy Ndombo Benteke

    2015-12-15

    Many South Africans living in resource-poor settings with little or no access to pipe-borne water still rely on rivers as alternative water sources for drinking and other purposes. The poor microbial quality of such water bodies calls for appropriate monitoring. However, routine monitoring only takes into consideration the microbial quality of the water column, and does not include monitoring of the riverbed sediments for microbial pollution. This study sought to investigate the microbial quality of riverbed sediments in the Apies River, Gauteng Province, South Africa, using Escherichia coli as a faecal indicator organism and to investigate the impact of seasonal variation on its abundance. Weekly samples were collected at 10 sampling sites on the Apies River between May and August 2013 (dry season) and between January and February 2014 (wet season). E. coli was enumerated using the Colilert®-18 Quanti-Tray® 2000 system. All sites tested positive for E. coli. Wastewater treatment work effluents had the highest negative impact on the river water quality. Seasonal variations had an impact on the concentration of E. coli both in water and sediments with concentrations increasing during the wet season. A strong positive correlation was observed between temperature and the E. coli concentrations. We therefore conclude that the sediments of the Apies River are heavily polluted with faecal indicator bacteria and could also harbour other microorganisms including pathogens. The release of such pathogens into the water column as a result of the resuspension of sediments due to extreme events like floods or human activities could increase the health risk of the populations using the untreated river water for recreation and other household purposes. There is therefore an urgent need to reconsider and review the current South African guidelines for water quality monitoring to include sediments, so as to protect human health and other aquatic lives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  10. Seasonal variations of agar extracted from different life stages of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonality in yield, physical and chemical properties of the native agar from different life stages of Gracilaria cliftonii was investigated over a period of six seasons (autumn 2008–winter 2009). Agar yield and its properties varied as a function of seasons and life stages but there was no significant correlation between ...

  11. Identification of a potential toxic hot spot associated with AVS spatial and seasonal variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, O; Rodríguez, A; Blasco, J

    2009-04-01

    In risk assessment of aquatic sediments, much attention is paid to the difference between acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEMs) as indicators of metal availability. Ten representative sampling sites were selected along the estuary of the Guadalete River. Surficial sediments were sampled in winter and summer to better understand SEM and AVS spatial and seasonal distributions and to establish priority risk areas. Total SEM concentration (SigmaSEM) ranged from 0.3 to 4.7 micromol g(-1). It was not significantly different between seasons, however, it showed a significant difference between sampling stations. AVS concentrations were much more variable, showing significant spatial and temporal variations. The values ranged from 0.8 to 22.4 micromol g(-1). The SEM/AVS ratio was found to be <1 at all except one station located near the mouth of the estuary. The results provided information on a potential pollution source near the mouth of the estuary, probably associated with vessel-related activities carried out in a local harbor area located near the station.

  12. Seasonal variation in diversity and abundance of understorey birds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our findings suggest that in a situation where there is no natural forest, an exotic plantation with suitable indigenous understorey cover can help in protection of birds, including endemic and near-endemic species. Keywords: birds, conservation, Eastern Arc Mountains, plantation, seasonal altitudinal migration, seasons, ...

  13. Geospatial approach for assessment of biophysical vulnerability to agricultural drought and its intra-seasonal variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Vinay Kumar; Dhakar, Rajkumar

    2016-03-01

    The study presents a methodology to assess and map agricultural drought vulnerability during main kharif crop season at local scale and compare its intra-seasonal variations. A conceptual model of vulnerability based on variables of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity was adopted, and spatial datasets of key biophysical factors contributing to vulnerability were generated using remote sensing and GIS for Rajasthan State of India. Hazard exposure was based on frequency and intensity of gridded standardized precipitation index (SPI). Agricultural sensitivity was based on soil water holding capacity as well as on frequency and intensity of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)-derived trend adjusted vegetation condition index (VCITadj). Percent irrigated area was used as a measure of adaptive capacity. Agricultural drought vulnerability was derived separately for early, mid, late, and whole kharif seasons by composting rating of factors using linear weighting scheme and pairwise comparison of multi-criteria evaluation. The regions showing very low to extreme rating of hazard exposure, drought sensitivity, and agricultural vulnerability were identified at all four time scales. The results indicate that high to extreme vulnerability occurs in more than 50% of net sown area in the state and such areas mostly occur in western, central, and southern parts. The higher vulnerability is on account of non-irrigated croplands, moderate to low water holding capacity of sandy soils, resulting in higher sensitivity, and located in regions with high probability of rainfall deficiency. The mid and late season vulnerability has been found to be much higher than that during early and whole season. Significant correlation of vulnerability rating with food grain productivity, drought recurrence period, crop area damaged in year 2009 and socioeconomic indicator of human development index (HDI) proves the general soundness of methodology. Replication of this methodology

  14. Optimizing Photosynthetic and Respiratory Parameters Based on the Seasonal Variation Pattern in Regional Net Ecosystem Productivity Obtained from Atmospheric Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z.; Chen, J.; Zheng, X.; Jiang, F.; Zhang, S.; Ju, W.; Yuan, W.; Mo, G.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we explore the feasibility of optimizing ecosystem photosynthetic and respiratory parameters from the seasonal variation pattern of the net carbon flux. An optimization scheme is proposed to estimate two key parameters (Vcmax and Q10) by exploiting the seasonal variation in the net ecosystem carbon flux retrieved by an atmospheric inversion system. This scheme is implemented to estimate Vcmax and Q10 of the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) to improve its NEP simulation in the Boreal North America (BNA) region. Simultaneously, in-situ NEE observations at six eddy covariance sites are used to evaluate the NEE simulations. The results show that the performance of the optimized BEPS is superior to that of the BEPS with the default parameter values. These results have the implication on using atmospheric CO2 data for optimizing ecosystem parameters through atmospheric inversion or data assimilation techniques.

  15. Seasonal variation of bacterial endophytes in urban trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Yi eShen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial endophytes, non-pathogenic bacteria residing within plants, contribute to the growth and development of plants and their ability to adapt to adverse conditions. In order to fully exploit the capabilities of these bacteria, it is necessary to understand the extent to which endophytic communities vary between species and over time. The endophytes of Acer negundo, Ulmus pumila and Ulmus parvifolia were sampled over three seasons and analyzed using culture dependent and independent methods (culture on two media, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, and tagged pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal amplicons. The majority of culturable endophytes isolated were Actinobacteria, and all the samples harbored Bacillus, Curtobacterium, Frigoribacterium, Methylobacterium, Paenibacilllus and Sphingomonas species. Regardless of culture medium used, only the culturable communities obtained in the winter for A. negundo could be distinguished from those of Ulmus spp.. In contrast, the nonculturable communities were dominated by Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, particularly Erwinia, Ralstonia and Sanguibacter spp.. The presence and abundance of various bacterial classes and phyla changed with the changing seasons. Multivariate analysis on the culture independent data revealed significant community differences between the endophytic communities of A. negundo and Ulmus spp., but overall season was the main determinant of endophytic community structure. This study suggests investigations of the studies ofendophytic populations of urban trees should expect to find significant seasonal and species-specific community differences and sampling should proceed accordingly.

  16. Multivariate analysis of effects of diurnal temperature and seasonal humidity variations by tropical savanna climate on the emissions of anthropogenic volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chih-Chung; Chen, Wei-Hsiang; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Lin, Chitsan

    2014-02-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particularly those from anthropogenic sources, have been of substantial concern. In this study, the influences of diurnal temperature and seasonal humidity variations by tropical savanna climate on the distributions of VOCs from stationary industrial sources were investigated by analyzing the concentrations during the daytime and nighttime in the dry and wet seasons and assessing the results by principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. Kaohsiung City in Southern Taiwan, known for its severe VOC pollution, was chosen as the location to be examined. In the results, the VOC concentrations were lower during the daytime and in the wet season, possibly attributed to the stronger photochemical reactions and increasing inhibition of VOC emissions and transports by elevating humidity levels. Certain compounds became appreciably more important at higher humidity, as these compounds were saturated hydrocarbons with relatively low molecular weights. The influence of diurnal temperature variation on VOC distribution behaviors seemed to be less important than and interacted with that of seasonal humidity variation. Heavier aromatic hydrocarbons with more complex structures and some aliphatic compounds were found to be the main species accounting for the maximum variances of the data observed at high humidity, and the distinct grouping of compounds implied a pronounced inherent characteristic of each cluster in the observed VOC distributions. Under the influence of diurnal temperature variation, selected VOCs that may have stronger photochemical resistances and/or longer lifetimes in the atmosphere were clustered with each other in the cluster analysis, whereas the other groups might consist of compounds with different levels of vulnerability to sunlight or high temperatures. These findings prove the complications in the current knowledge regarding the VOC contaminations and providing insight for managing the adverse impacts of

  17. Seasonal variation of aerosol size distributions in the free troposphere and residual layer at the puy de Dôme station, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Venzac

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Particle number concentration and size distribution are important variables needed to constrain the role of atmospheric particles in the Earth radiation budget, both directly and indirectly through CCN activation. They are also linked to regulated variables such as particle mass (PM and therefore of interest to air quality studies. However, data on their long-term variability are scarce, in particular at high altitudes. In this paper, we investigate the diurnal and seasonal variability of the aerosol total number concentration and size distribution at the puy de Dôme research station (France, 1465 m a.s.l.. We report a variability of aerosol particle total number concentration measured over a five-year (2003–2007 period for particles larger than 10 nm and aerosol size distributions between 10 and 500 nm over a two-year period (January 2006 to December 2007. Concentrations show a strong seasonality with maxima during summer and minima during winter. A diurnal variation is also observed with maxima between 12:00 and 18:00 UTC. At night (00:00–06:00 UTC, the median hourly total concentration varies from 600 to 800 cm−3 during winter and from 1700 to 2200 cm−3 during summer. During the day (08:00–18:00 UTC, the concentration is in the range of 700 to 1400 cm−3 during winter and of 2500 to 3500 cm−3 during summer. An averaged size distribution of particles (10–500 nm was calculated for each season. The total aerosol number concentrations are dominated by the Aitken mode integral concentrations, which drive most of the winter to summer total concentrations increase. The night to day increase in dominated by the nucleation mode integral number concentration. Because the site is located in the free troposphere only a fraction of the time, in particular at night and during the winter season, we have subsequently analyzed the variability for nighttime and free tropospheric (FT/residual layer (RL

  18. Melanopsin gene variations interact with season to predict sleep onset and chronotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roecklein, Kathryn A; Wong, Patricia M; Franzen, Peter L; Hasler, Brant P; Wood-Vasey, W Michael; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L; Miller, Megan A; Kepreos, Kyle M; Ferrell, Robert E; Manuck, Stephen B

    2012-10-01

    The human melanopsin gene has been reported to mediate risk for seasonal affective disorder (SAD), which is hypothesized to be caused by decreased photic input during winter when light levels fall below threshold, resulting in differences in circadian phase and/or sleep. However, it is unclear if melanopsin increases risk of SAD by causing differences in sleep or circadian phase, or if those differences are symptoms of the mood disorder. To determine if melanopsin sequence variations are associated with differences in sleep-wake behavior among those not suffering from a mood disorder, the authors tested associations between melanopsin gene polymorphisms and self-reported sleep timing (sleep onset and wake time) in a community sample (N = 234) of non-Hispanic Caucasian participants (age 30-54 yrs) with no history of psychological, neurological, or sleep disorders. The authors also tested the effect of melanopsin variations on differences in preferred sleep and activity timing (i.e., chronotype), which may reflect differences in circadian phase, sleep homeostasis, or both. Daylength on the day of assessment was measured and included in analyses. DNA samples were genotyped for melanopsin gene polymorphisms using fluorescence polarization. P10L genotype interacted with daylength to predict self-reported sleep onset (interaction p sleep onset among those with the TT genotype was later in the day when individuals were assessed on longer days and earlier in the day on shorter days, whereas individuals in the other genotype groups (i.e., CC and CT) did not show this interaction effect. P10L genotype also interacted in an analogous way with daylength to predict self-reported morningness (interaction p sleep onset and chronotype as a function of daylength, whereas other genotypes at P10L do not seem to have effects that vary by daylength. A better understanding of how melanopsin confers heightened responsivity to daylength may improve our understanding of a broad range of

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions from the mineralisation process in a Sludge Treatment Reed Bed system: Seasonal variation and environmental impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Julie Dam; Nielsen, Steen; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emission data from the mineralisation process in Sludge Treatment Reed Bed systems (STRB) are scarce. The aim of this study was to quantify the emission rates of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) and to investigate seasonal variations in order to estimate ...

  20. Longitudinal and Seasonal Variations of the Electron Temperature and Density in the Low-Latitude Topside Ionosphere Observed by KOMPSAT-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heejun Kim

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The electron density and temperature in the topside ionosphere are observed by the Ionosphere Measurement Sensor (IMS onboard the KOMPSAT-1, which has the sun-synchronous orbit of the altitude of 685 km and the orbital inclination of 98deg with a descending node at 22:50LT. Observations have been analyzed to determine the seasonal variations of the electron density and temperature in the low-latitude region. Only the night-time (22:50LT behavior on magnetically quiet days (Kp < 4 has been examined. Observations show a strong longitudinal and seasonal variation. Generally, in the dip equator the density increases and the temperature decreases. In equinox the latitudinal distributions of the electron density and temperature are quite symmetric about the dip equator. However, the local maximum of the density and the local minimum of the temperature shift toward the Northern hemisphere in summer solstice but the Southern hemisphere in winter solstice. Such variations are due to the influences of field-aligned plasma transport induced by F region neutral wind. Compared with the IRI95 model, the observed electron density and temperature show significant differences from those predicted by the IRI95 model.

  1. Seasonal variation in family member perceptions of physician competence in the intensive care unit: findings from one academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jennifer P; Kachniarz, Bart; O'Reilly, Kristin; Howell, Michael D

    2015-04-01

    Researchers have found mixed results about the risk to patient safety in July, when newly minted physicians enter U.S. hospitals to begin their clinical training, the so-called "July effect." However, patient and family satisfaction and perception of physician competence during summer months remain unknown. The authors conducted a retrospective observational cohort study of 815 family members of adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients who completed the Family Satisfaction with Care in the Intensive Care Unit instrument from eight ICUs at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, between April 2008 and June 2011. The association of ICU care in the summer months (July-September) versus other seasons and family perception of physician competence was examined in univariable and multivariable analyses. A greater proportion of family members described physicians as competent in summer months as compared with winter months (odds ratio [OR] 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-3.0; P = .003). After adjustment for patient and proxy demographics, severity of illness, comorbidities, and features of the admission in a multivariable model, seasonal variation of family perception of physician competence persisted (summer versus winter, OR of judging physicians competent 2.4; 95% CI 1.3-4.4; P = .004). Seasonal variation exists in family perception of physician competence in the ICU, but opposite to the "July effect." The reasons for this variation are not well understood. Further research is necessary to explore the role of senior provider involvement, trainee factors, system factors such as handoffs, or other possible contributors.

  2. Seasonal variations in the fatty acid composition of Greek wild rabbit meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadomichelakis, G; Zoidis, E; Pappas, A C; Hadjigeorgiou, I

    2017-12-01

    The fatty acid (FA) profile of the Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle (LL) was used to investigate seasonal variation (September, November and March) in wild rabbits from Lemnos Island (Greece). The n-3 FA were particularly high during early March in comparison (P<0.05) with late September and late November. Thrombogenicity index (TI) values were lower in March (P<0.05) compared to the other periods. High concentrations of odd- and branched-chain FA were found in the meat of wild rabbits; however, they were not different among the considered periods of the year. The present results showed that wild rabbit meat has a desirable FA profile, particularly during early spring, and it could be a good source of bioactive FA in human nutrition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Water chemistry in Kuji river. Its spatial and seasonal variations in major ions and organic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niina, Toshiaki; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Amano, Hikaru

    1996-02-01

    As a basic research with a aim to clarify the migration behavior of radionuclides in rivers, the characteristics of dissolved ions and organic substances in river water, which characteristics may affect the behavior, was investigated. The investigation was carried out for the Kuji river in the northern Kanto district (Japan) comprising four sampling campaigns in 1994 for 10 locations from the upstream to the downstream. Concentrations of major ions, iron and manganese species and organic substances were analyzed in laboratory. Values of temperature of the water, pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen were measured in the field. This investigation was conducted mainly under low water flow conditions of the river, while a limited number of campaigns were under high flow conditions due to precipitation events. The concentrations of major inorganic ions increased steadily toward the down-stream, resulting in approximately two times increase for the traveling distance of 100 km. They showed a seasonal variation that they were highest in the spring and lowest in the autumn when there were most concentrated precipitation events in a year. The constituents were mainly Na + , Ca 2+ , SO 4 2- and HCO 3 - , and were similar for every sampling locations and seasons. Concentrations of dissolved organic substances (carbon compounds) were lowest in the upstream and increased about twice in the downstream as well as major inorganic ions. Their level was 1-3 mg/l, which can be ranked as relatively lower in general values for fresh water environments. They were highest in the spring (average over the locations: 2.2 mg/l) and lowest in the autumn (1.3 mg/l) and also in the winter (1.3 mg/l). These results will be useful as a basic understanding of spatial and seasonal variations of river water chemistry, especially related to the organic substances which can bind with radionuclides to make a mobile complex. (author)

  4. Wet-dry seasonal and vertical geochemical variations in soil water and their driving forces under different land covers in southwest China karst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Hu, Bill X.; Wu, Chuanhao; Xu, Kai

    2017-04-01

    Karst aquifers supply drinking water for 25% of the world's population, and they are, however, vulnerable to climate change. Bimonthly hydrochemical data in karst soil water samples from July 2010 to July 2011 were obtained to reveal the seasonal and vertical geochemical variations in soil water under five vegetation types in Qingmuguan, a small karst catchment in southwest China. Soil water chemistry was dominated by Ca2+, HCO3-, and SO42- because of the dissolution of limestone, dolomite, and gypsum minerals in the strata. The predominant hydrochemical types in soil water were Ca2+-HCO3-, Ca2+-SO42-, and mixed Ca2+-HCO3-SO42-. Ca2+ and HCO3- concentrations ranked in the following order: shrub land > dry land > afforestation farmland > bamboo land > grassland. In warm and wet seasons, the main ion concentrations in soil water from grasslands were low. Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3-, SO42-, and Cl- concentrations in soil water from other lands were high. An opposite trend was observed in cold and dry seasons. Marked seasonal variations were observed in Ca2+, HCO3-, and NO3- in soil water from dry land. The main ion concentrations in soil water from bamboo lands decreased as soil depth increased. By contrast, the chemistry of soil water from other lands increased as soil depth increased. Their ions were accumulated in depth. A consistent high and low variation between the main ions in soil water and the contents of carbonate and CO2 was found in the soil. Hydrochemical changes in soil water were regulated by the effects of dilution and soil CO2.

  5. Spatial and seasonal variations of fish assemblages in mangrove creek systems in Zanzibar (Tanzania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwandya, Augustine W.; Gullström, Martin; Andersson, Mathias H.; Öhman, Marcus C.; Mgaya, Yunus D.; Bryceson, Ian

    2010-11-01

    Spatial and seasonal variations of fish assemblage composition were studied in three non-estuarine mangrove creeks of Zanzibar (Tanzania). Fish were collected monthly for one year at three sites (lower, intermediate and upper reaches) in each creek using a seine net (each haul covering 170 m 2). Density, species number and diversity of fish were all higher at sites with dense cover of macrophytes (seagrass and macroalgae) than over unvegetated sandy sites. In general, fish assemblages mainly comprised juveniles of a few abundant taxa, e.g. Mugil cephalus, Mugilidae spp. and Leiognathus equulus at sites with mud substratum and Gerres oyena, Lethrinus harak and Sillago sihama at sites dominated by macrophytes. Multivariate analyses revealed significant separations in fish assemblage composition within the two creeks where the bottom substratum differed among sites. Overall, season seemed to have little effect on density, species number, diversity index ( H') and assemblage structure of fish. Water condition variables were also relatively stable across the season, although a short-term fluctuation primarily induced by decreased salinity, occurred during the heavy rains in April and May. Fish assemblage structure was not significantly affected by any of the abiotic factors tested. However, significant regressions were found between the other fish variables and environmental variables, but since these associations were mostly species-specific and generally inconsistent, we suggest that the overall distribution patterns of fish were mainly an effect of particular substrate preferences of fish species rather than contemporary water conditions.

  6. Variations in Growing-Season NDVI and Its Response to Permafrost Degradation in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinting Guo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Permafrost is extremely sensitive to climate change. The degradation of permafrost has strong and profound effects on vegetation. The permafrost zone of northeastern China is the second largest region of permafrost in China and lies on the south edge of the Eurasian cryolithozone. This study analyzed the spatiotemporal variations of the growing-season Normalization Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI in the permafrost zone of northeastern China and analyzed the correlation between NDVI and ground surface temperatures (GST during the years 1981–2014. Mean growing-season NDVI (MGS-NDVI experienced a marked increase of 0.003 year−1 across the entire permafrost zone. The spatial dynamics of vegetation cover had a high degree of heterogeneity on a per pixel scale. The MGS-NDVI value increased significantly (5% significance level in 80.57%, and this increase was mostly distributed in permafrost zone except for the western steppe region. Only 7.72% experienced a significant decrease in NDVI, mainly in the cultivated and steppe portions. In addition, MGS-NDVI increased significantly with increasing growing-season mean ground surface temperature (GS-MGST. Our results suggest that a warming of GS-MGST (permafrost degradation in the permafrost region of northeastern China played a positive role in increasing plant growth and activities. Although increasing ground surface temperature resulted in increased vegetation cover and growth in the short time of permafrost degradation, from the long term point of view, permafrost degradation or disappearance may weaken or even hinder vegetation activities.

  7. Seasonal variation and predictors of epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkey, Matthew R; Seeskin, Zachary; Chandra, Rakesh

    2014-09-01

    To examine the incidence of epistaxis as a function of season and age and to determine predictors of episodes within the epistaxis patient population presenting to a tertiary hospital system. Retrospective cohort study. Electronic medical record charts of patients presenting to the Northwestern Emergency Department, admitted to an inpatient ward, or seen in an outpatient setting between 2008 and 2012 were reviewed and selected for an International Classifications of Disease-Ninth Revision epistaxis code of 784.7. Season of presentation, demographic factors (age, race, gender, insurance status), medication use (including anticoagulants and topical nasal steroid administration), and several comorbidities were analyzed as potential predictors of episodes. A total of 2,405 patients were identified with a total of 3,666 individual epistaxis episodes over 5 years. Multivariate analysis identified allergic rhinitis (AR), chronic sinusitis (CRS), coagulopathy, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), hematologic malignancy, and hypertension (HTN) as predictors of a higher number of cases. Epistaxis occurred more frequently during colder months and in older patients. Epistaxis occurs more commonly during the winter and in older patients. AR, CRS, coagulopathy, HHT, hematologic malignancy, and HTN are associated with increased epistaxis incidence. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. Latitudinal variation in seasonal activity and mortality in ratsnakes (Elaphe obsoleta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Jinelle H; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel; Carfagno, Gerardo L F; Weatherhead, Patrick J

    2010-06-01

    The ecology of ectotherms should be particularly affected by latitude because so much of their biology is temperature dependent. Current latitudinal patterns should also be informative about how ectotherms will have to modify their behavior in response to climate change. We used data from a total of 175 adult black ratsnakes (Elaphe obsoleta) radio-tracked in Ontario, Illinois, and Texas, a latitudinal distance of >1500 km, to test predictions about how seasonal patterns of activity and mortality should vary with latitude. Despite pronounced differences in temperatures among study locations, and despite ratsnakes in Texas not hibernating and switching from diurnal to nocturnal activity in the summer, seasonal patterns of snake activity were remarkably similar during the months that snakes in all populations were active. Rather than being a function of temperature, activity may be driven by the timing of reproduction, which appears similar among populations. Contrary to the prediction that mortality should be highest in the most active population, overall mortality did not follow a clinal pattern. Winter mortality did increase with latitude, however, consistent with temperature limiting the northern distribution of ratsnakes. This result was opposite that found in the only previous study of latitudinal variation in winter mortality in reptiles, which may be a consequence of whether or not the animals exhibit true hibernation. Collectively, these results suggest that, at least in the northern part of their range, ratsnakes should be able to adjust easily to, and may benefit from, a warmer climate, although climate-based changes to the snakes' prey or habitat, for example, could alter that prediction.

  9. Diurnal and seasonal variations of greenhouse gas emissions from a naturally ventilated dairy barn in a cold region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dandan; Guo, Huiqing

    2018-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions were quantified for a naturally ventilated free-stall dairy barn in the Canadian Prairies climate through continuous measurements for a year from February 2015 to January 2016, with ventilation rate estimated by a CO2 mass balance method. The results were categorized into seasonal emission profiles with monthly data measured on a typical day, and diurnal profiles in cold (January), warm (July), and mild seasons (October) of all three gases. Seasonal CO2, CH4, and N2O concentrations greatly fluctuated within ranges of 593-2433 ppm, 15-152 ppm, and 0.32-0.40 ppm, respectively, with obviously higher concentrations in the cold season. Emission factors of the three gases were summarized: seasonal N2O emission varied between 0.5 and 10 μg s-1 AU-1 with lower emission in the cold season, while seasonal CO2 and CH4 emissions were within narrow ranges of 112-119 mg s-1 AU-1 and 2.5-3.5 mg s-1 AU-1. The result suggested a lower enteric CH4 emission for dairy cows than that estimated by Environment Canada (2014). Significant diurnal effects (P 0.05), but obvious diurnal variations in all seasons. In comparison with previous studies, it was found that the dairy barn in a cold region climate with smaller vent openings had relatively higher indoor CO2 and CH4 concentrations, but comparable CO2 and CH4 emissions to most previous studies. Besides, ventilation rate, temperature, and relative humidity all significantly affected the three gas concentrations with the outdoor temperature being the most relevant factor (P < 0.01); however, they showed less or no statistical relations to emissions.

  10. Algal grazing by the planktonic copepods Centropages hamatus and Pseudocalanus sp.: Diurnal and seasonal variation during the spring phytoplankton bloom in the Øresund Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne; Møhlenberg, Flemming; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Seasonal and diel variation in rate of algal grazing were estimated from measurements of gut content (plant pigments) and gut turnover in the copepods C. hamatus and Pseudocalanus sp. during spring (Jan.-May) in the Oresund. Both species exhibited significant diel variation in gut content...

  11. Seasonal variation of sea surface temperature in the Bay of Bengal during 1992 as derived from NOAA-AVHRR SST data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, V.S.N.; Subrahmanyam, B.; Rao, L.V.G.; Reddy, G.V.

    . The spatial variation of Standard Deviation of SST bias was particularly high (less than 0.7) in the western Bay when compared to other parts of the Bay of Bengal. The monthly maps of AVHRR SST clearly depicted the seasonal cycle of SST showing the well known...

  12. Seasonal Variations in Surface Metabolite Composition of Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus from the Baltic Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Rickert

    Full Text Available Perennial macroalgae within the genus Fucus are known to exude metabolites through their outer thallus surface. Some of these metabolites have pro- and/or antifouling properties. Seasonal fluctuations of natural fouling pressure and chemical fouling control strength against micro- and macrofoulers have previously been observed in Fucus, suggesting that control strength varies with threat. To date, a study on the seasonal composition of surface associated metabolites, responsible for much of the fouling control, has not been done. We sampled individuals of the two co-occurring species F. vesiculosus and F. serratus at monthly intervals (six per species and month during a one-year field study. We analysed the chemical composition of surface associated metabolites of both Fucus species by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS to describe temporal patterns in chemical surface composition. Additionally, we correlated abiotic and biotic parameters recorded monthly within the sampled habitat with the variation in the chemical surface landscape of Fucus. Our study revealed that the chemical surface composition of both Fucus species exhibits substantial seasonal differences between spring/summer and autumn/winter months. Light and temperature explained most of the seasonal variability in surface metabolite composition of both Fucus species. A strong summerly up-regulation of eighteen saccharides and two hydroxy acids in F. vesiculosus as well as of four fatty acids and two saccharides in F. serratus was observed. We discuss how these up-regulated molecules may have a complex effect on associated microfoulers, both promoting or decreasing fouling depending on metabolite and bacterial identity. These seasonal shifts in the surface metabolome seem to exert a compound control of density and composition of the Fucus associated biofilm.

  13. Measuring the potential utility of seasonal climate predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippett, Michael K.; Kleeman, Richard; Tang, Youmin

    2004-11-01

    Variation of sea surface temperature (SST) on seasonal-to-interannual time-scales leads to changes in seasonal weather statistics and seasonal climate anomalies. Relative entropy, an information theory measure of utility, is used to quantify the impact of SST variations on seasonal precipitation compared to natural variability. An ensemble of general circulation model (GCM) simulations is used to estimate this quantity in three regions where tropical SST has a large impact on precipitation: South Florida, the Nordeste of Brazil and Kenya. We find the yearly variation of relative entropy is strongly correlated with shifts in ensemble mean precipitation and weakly correlated with ensemble variance. Relative entropy is also found to be related to measures of the ability of the GCM to reproduce observations.

  14. Regional, Seasonal, and Temporal Variations in the Prevalence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolated from Pigs at Slaughter in Denmark (1997-2005)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abatih, E. N.; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze and discuss regional, seasonal, and temporal trends in the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from pigs at slaughter in Denmark between 1997 and 2005. Data on antimicrobial-resistant E. coli were obtained from the Danish Integrated...... Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Programme database. The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to detect the presence and evaluate the significance of regional, seasonal, and annual trends in the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli for four drugs. Associations between resistance...... of resistant E. coli as compared to the other seasons of the year. Our study provides evidence of statistically significant regional, seasonal, and temporal variations for ampicillin- and streptomycin-resistant E. coli isolated from pigs at slaughter in Denmark between 1997 and 2005....

  15. Seasonal variations of the composition of microbial biofilms in sandy tidal flats: Focus of fatty acids, pigments and exopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passarelli, Claire; Meziane, Tarik; Thiney, Najet; Boeuf, Dominique; Jesus, Bruno; Ruivo, Mickael; Jeanthon, Christian; Hubas, Cédric

    2015-02-01

    Biofilms, or microbial mats, are common associations of microorganisms in tidal flats; they generally consist of a large diversity of organisms embedded in a matrix of Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS). These molecules are mainly composed of carbohydrates and proteins, but their detailed monomer compositions and seasonal variations are currently unknown. Yet this composition determines the numerous roles of biofilms in these systems. This study investigated the changes in composition of carbohydrates in intertidal microbial mats over a year to decipher seasonal variations in biofilms and in varying hydrodynamic conditions. This work also aimed to assess how these compositions are related to microbial assemblages. In this context, natural biofilms whose development was influenced or not by artificial structures mimicking polychaete tubes were sampled monthly for over a year in intertidal flats of the Chausey archipelago. Biofilms were compared through the analysis of their fatty acid and pigment contents, and the monosaccharide composition of their EPS carbohydrates. Carbohydrates from both colloidal and bound EPS contained mainly glucose and, to a lower extent, galactose and mannose but they showed significant differences in their detailed monosaccharide compositions. These two fractions displayed different seasonal evolution, even if glucose accumulated in both fractions in summer; bound EPS only were affected by artificial biogenic structures. Sediment composition in fatty acids and pigments showed that microbial communities were dominated by diatoms and heterotrophic bacteria. Their relative proportions, as well as those of other groups like cryptophytes, changed between times and treatments. The changes in EPS composition were not fully explained by modifications of microbial assemblages but also depended on the processes taking place in sediments and on environmental conditions. These variations of EPS compositions are likely to alter different

  16. Prevalence of antibiotic residues in commercial milk and its variation by season and thermal processing methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathollah Aalipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In this study, the prevalence of antibiotic residues in pasteurized and sterilized commercial milk available in Shahre-kourd, Iran, was investigated. In addition, the influence of seasonal temperature changes on the prevalence of contamination was studied. Materials and Methods: Commercial milk samples of 187, including 154 pasteurized and 33 sterilized, milk samples were collected from the market between early January 2012 and late July of the same year. The presence of antibiotic residues was detected using the microbiological detection test kit, Eclipse 100, as a semi-quantitative method. Results: The results showed that 37 of the samples (19.8% have contained antibiotic residues above the European Union Maximum Residues Limits (EU-MRLs, of which 28 samples (14.97% were found to be contaminated but at the concentrations below the EU-MRLs. There was no significant difference between the contamination rate of pasteurized and Ultra High Temperature (UHT-sterilized samples. Similarly, variation of weather temperature with seasons had no effect on the contamination prevalence of milk samples ( P > 0.05. Conclusion: Based on the result of this study, antibiotics residues were present in the majority of milk samples. Neither the season nor the type of thermal processing of the commercial milks had noticeable impact on the prevalence level of the milk samples. However, an increasing trend of prevalence level for antibiotic residues was observed with increasing the temperature through the warm season.

  17. Seasonal variation in the environmental background level of cosmic ray produced 22Na

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuyama, Hideki; Igarashi, Shuichi

    1998-01-01

    22 Na (half life 2.6 year) is produced by cosmic rays, nuclear test and reactor. 7 Be (half life 53.3 day) is produced in atmosphere by reaction. 7 Be/ 22 Na activity ratio is good factor to observe the mixing process between stratosphere and troposphere atmosphere. The seasonal variation of 7 Be and 22 Na deposition, the ratio and the background level of 22 Na deposition were observed in Fukui city and reported in this paper. Very large reasonable change of 22 Na deposition was observed, especially the largest peak in winter. Because the concentration of cosmic-ray-produced nuclear in precipitation and the amount of precipitation were large in winter. 22 Na produced by the previous nuclear test was attenuated. The present 22 Na is only produced by cosmic rays, indicating the background level. 22 Na deposition at Fukui was 0.42Bq m -2 y -1 , one ten-thousandth of 7 Be deposition. 7 Be/ 22 Na activity ratio was changed in season and the largest peak was shown in autumn. In this reason, atmosphere showed relatively short residence time in the lower part of stratosphere, Mixture and exchange of atmosphere between stratosphere and troposphere were the most active in autumn. (S.Y.)

  18. Seasonal variations in behaviour of thermoregulation in juveniles and adults Liolaemus lutzae (Squamata, Liolaemidae) in a remnant of Brazilian restinga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia-Carneiro, Thiago; Rocha, Carlos Frederico Duarte

    2013-11-01

    Adaptations of lizards inhabiting hot arid environments should include mechanisms of behavioural thermoregulation. In contrast, in environments with lower temperatures lizards tend to behave as thermoconformers. Herein we aim to infer thermoregulatory behaviours exhibited by Liolaemus lutzae (a lizard species endemic to restingas in the coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) in two different seasonal thermal environments. In the dry season, the body temperatures (Tb) of the lizards were higher than air temperature (Ta) and similar to substrate temperature (Ts), suggesting thermoconformer thermoregulatory behaviour using Ts. During the rainy season, the higher percentage of negative values of ΔTs (=Tb-Ts) and ΔTa (=Tb-Ta) and the tendency for lower Tb compared to Ts suggest a more active behavioural thermoregulation in that season. The ΔTs was higher for juveniles in the rainy season, suggesting that youngest lizards tended to thermoregulate more actively regarding to Ts than adults. L. lutzae probably survives under high Ts due to the behaviour of the individuals sheltering inside burrows or under detritus and burying themselves into the sand. This behavioural flexibility may potentially reduce variations in Tb of active lizards in changing thermal environments both during the daily cycle and between seasons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Seasonal variation of solar radiation and underwater irradiance in the Seto inland sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, T.; Matsuda, O.; Imabayashi, H.

    1983-01-01

    The recent rapid eutrophication of the coastal seas of Japan has had a remarkable effect on the turbidity and transparency of the sea water, hence on the attenuation of underwater irradiance, which in turn influences the phytoplankton communities and primary productivity of the area. The present study deals with the continuous three years observation of the total short-wave radiation, direct short-wave radiation, diffused short-wave radiation and photosynthetically active radiation of tlle Seto Inland Sea. Along with these observations, reflected short-wave radiation from the sea and transmitted short-wave radiation into the sea were determined. The availability of solar radiation for primary production, vertical distribution of spectral irradiance and attenuation coefficient were also discussed in relation to the optical water type of the region. 1. A typical seasonal variation in the monthly mean daily solar radiation (total short-wave radiation) was observed, with a maximal value of 17.0 MJ 2 in July and minimal values of 7.4 to 7.5 MJ 2 through November to January. 2. Seasonal variation of direct short-wave radiation was nearly identical to that of total short-wave radiation, with 9.3 MJ 2 at maximum and 4.1MJ 2 at minimum. Diffused short-wave radiation increased in June and decreased in January. The ratio of diffused short-wave radiation to total short-wave radiation ranged from 394000 62% with an average of 49%.0 3. Seasonal variation of photosynthetically active radiation was very similar to that of direct short-wave radiation, with values of 7.3 MJ 2 in July and of 3.3 MJ 2 in December 4. The albedo at the sea surface changed according to the incidence angle and surface conditions. Average daily values ranged from 2.9% on a fine summer day to 10% on an overcasted day in winter. 5. Underwater irradiance at a depth of 50cm varied widely according to such parameters as turbidity and the surface condition of the water. Observation revealed a remarkable decrease

  20. Seasonal and spatial variations of atmospheric trace elemental deposition in the Aliaga industrial region, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Melik; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Altiok, Hasan; Elbir, Tolga; Odabasi, Mustafa; Bayram, Abdurrahman

    2014-11-01

    Atmospheric bulk deposition (wet + dry deposition) samples (n = 40) were collected concurrently at ten sites in four seasons between June 2009 and April 2010 in the Aliaga heavily industrialized region, Turkey, containing a number of significant air pollutant sources. Analyses of trace elements were carried out using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). While there were significant differences in the particulate matter (PM) deposition fluxes among the sampling sites, seasonal variations were not statistically significant (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.05). Both PM deposition and elemental fluxes were increased at the sampling sites in the vicinity of industrial activities. The crustal elements (i.e., Ca, Mg) and some anthropogenic elements (such as Fe, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cu, and Cr) were high, and the highest fluxes were mostly measured in summer and winter seasons. The enrichment factor (EF) and principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the data to determine the possible sources in the study area. High EF values were obtained for the anthropogenic elements such as Ag, Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu and Sb. The possible sources were identified as anthropogenic sources (i.e., iron-steel production) (45.4%), crustal and re-suspended dust (27.1%), marine aerosol (7.9%), and coal and wood combustion (8.2%). Thus, the iron-steel production and its related activities were found to be the main pollutant sources for this region.

  1. Comparison of circadian, weekly, and seasonal variations of electrical storms and single events of ventricular fibrillation in patients with Brugada syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyasu Aizawa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In patients with Brugada syndrome (BS, VF occurred predominantly during the nocturnal period. Some patients also developed ESs. In addition to the circadian rhythm, patients showed weekly and seasonal patterns. The patients with ESs had peak episodes of VF on Saturday and in the winter and spring, while episodes of VF in patients with single VF events occurred most often on Monday with smaller seasonal variation. Except for age, there was no difference in the clinical or ECG characteristics between the patients with ESs and those with single VF episodes.

  2. Crude fucoidan content in two North Atlantic kelp species, Saccharina latissima and Laminaria digitata - seasonal variation and impact of environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Annette; Janicek, Tina; Manns, Dirk Martin

    2017-01-01

    , the biochemical composition of brown algae displays a seasonal fluctuation driven by environmental factors and endogenous rhythms. To cultivate and harvest kelps with high yields of fucoidans, knowledge is needed on seasonal variation and impact of environmental conditions on the fucoidan content of brown algae....... The relations between the fucoidan content and key environmental factors (irradiance, nutrient availability, salinity and exposure) were examined by sampling natural populations of the common North Atlantic kelps, Saccharina latissima and Laminaria digitata, over a full year at Hanstholm in the North Sea...

  3. Primer and short-range releaser pheromone properties of premolt female urine from the shore crab Carcinus maenas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekerholm, Mattias; Hallberg, Eric

    2005-08-01

    The European shore crab Carcinus maenas is considered to rely on a female pheromone when mating. Evidence, however, is scarce on how the urine pheromone in itself affects males. We investigated male primer and releaser responses to female pheromones with methods that minimized effects from females, delivering female urine either as a pump-generated plume or deposited on a polyurethane sponge. We delivered the pheromone at different concentrations in far, near, and close/contact range to get a picture of how distance affects behavioral response. Our results show that substances in premolt female urine (PMU) function as primer and potent short-range releaser pheromones. Based on the olfactometer and sponge tests, we conclude that PMU stimulus in itself is sufficient to elicit increased search and mating-specific behaviors such as posing, posing search, cradle carrying, and stroking. Pheromone concentrations do not seem to be important for attenuating search and posing as long as the level is above a certain threshold concentration. Instead, pheromone levels seem to play a role in male acceptance of females, recruiting more males to respond, and generating better responses with increasing concentration.

  4. Seasonal variations of Saanen goat milk composition and the impact of climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kljajevic, Nemanja V; Tomasevic, Igor B; Miloradovic, Zorana N; Nedeljkovic, Aleksandar; Miocinovic, Jelena B; Jovanovic, Snezana T

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of climatic conditions and their impact on seasonal variations of physico-chemical characteristics of Saanen goat milk produced over a period of 4 years. Lactation period (early, mid and late) and year were considered as factors that influence physico-chemical composition of milk. Pearson's coefficient of correlation was calculated between the physico-chemical characteristics of milk (fat, proteins, lactose, non-fat dry matter, density, freezing point, pH, titrable acidity) and climatic condition parameters (air temperature, temperature humidity index-THI, solar radiation duration, relative humidity). Results showed that all physico-chemical characteristics of Saanen goat milk varied significantly throughout the lactation period and years. The decrease of fat, protein, non-fat dry matter and lactose content in goat milk during the mid-lactation period was more pronounced than was previously reported in the literature. The highest values for these characteristics were recorded in the late lactation period. Observed variations were explained by negative correlation between THI and the physico-chemical characteristics of Saanen goat milk. This indicated that Saanen goats were very prone to heat stress, which implied the decrease of physico-chemical characteristics during hot summers.

  5. Spatiotemporal Variation and the Role of Wildlife in Seasonal Water Quality Declines in the Chobe River, Botswana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Tyler Fox

    Full Text Available Sustainable management of dryland river systems is often complicated by extreme variability of precipitation in time and space, especially across large catchment areas. Understanding regional water quality changes in southern African dryland rivers and wetland systems is especially important because of their high subsistence value and provision of ecosystem services essential to both public and animal health. We quantified seasonal variation of Escherichia coli (E. coli and Total Suspended Solids (TSS in the Chobe River using spatiotemporal and geostatistical modeling of water quality time series data collected along a transect spanning a mosaic of protected, urban, and developing urban land use. We found significant relationships in the dry season between E. coli concentrations and protected land use (p = 0.0009, floodplain habitat (p = 0.016, and fecal counts from elephant (p = 0.017 and other wildlife (p = 0.001. Dry season fecal loading by both elephant (p = 0.029 and other wildlife (p = 0.006 was also an important predictor of early wet season E. coli concentrations. Locations of high E. coli concentrations likewise showed close spatial agreement with estimates of wildlife biomass derived from aerial survey data. In contrast to the dry season, wet season bacterial water quality patterns were associated only with TSS (p<0.0001, suggesting storm water and sediment runoff significantly influence E. coli loads. Our data suggest that wildlife populations, and elephants in particular, can significantly modify river water quality patterns. Loss of habitat and limitation of wildlife access to perennial rivers and floodplains in water-restricted regions may increase the impact of species on surface water resources. Our findings have important implications to land use planning in southern Africa's dryland river ecosystems.

  6. Characterization and tropical seasonal variation of leachate: results from landfill lysimeter studied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafizul, Islam M; Alamgir, Muhammed

    2012-11-01

    This study aims to characterize the leachate and to investigate the tropical climatic influence on leachate characteristics of lysimeter studies under different seasonal variations at KUET campus, Bangladesh. Three different situations of landfill were considered here as well as both the open dump lysimeter-A having a base liner and sanitary landfill lysimeter-B and C at two different types of cap liner were simulated. The leachate characteristics, leachate generation and climatic influence parameter had been continually monitored since June 2008 to May 2010, these periods cover both the dry and rainy season. The leachate generation had followed the rainfall pattern and the open dump lysimeter-A without top cover was recorded to have highest leachate generation. Moreover, the open dump lysimeter-A had lower total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ammonia nitrogen (NH(4)-N) and TKN load, while both the COD concentration and load was higher compared with sanitary landfill lysimeter-B and C. In addition, sanitary landfill lysimeter-B, not only had lowest leachate generation, but also produces reasonable low COD concentration and load compared with open dump lysimeter-A. Result reveals that lysimeter operational mode had direct effect on leachate quality. Finally, it can be concluded that the knowledge of leachate quality will be useful in planning and providing remedial measures of proper liner system in sanitary landfill design and leachate treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Seasonal Variations of Indoor Microbial Exposures and Their Relation to Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Air Exchange Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Mika; Bekö, Gabriel; Timm, Michael

    2012-01-01

    with temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates in Danish homes. Airborne inhalable dust was sampled in five Danish homes throughout the four seasons of 1 year (indoors, n = 127; outdoors, n = 37). Measurements included culturable fungi and bacteria, endotoxin, N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase, total...... inflammatory potential, particles (0.75 to 15 μm), temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates. Significant seasonal variation was found for all indoor microbial exposures, excluding endotoxin. Indoor fungi peaked in summer (median, 235 CFU/m3) and were lowest in winter (median, 26 CFU/m3). Indoor...... of inhalable dust and number of particles. Temperature and air exchange rates were positively associated with fungi and N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase and negatively with bacteria and the total inflammatory potential. Although temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates were significantly...

  8. Seasonal variation in composition and abundance of harmful dinoflagellates in Yemeni waters, southern Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkawri, Abdulsalam

    2016-11-15

    General abundance and species composition of a dinoflagellate community in Yemeni coastal waters of Al Salif (southern Red Sea) were studied with a view to understand the annual variations in particular the toxic species. Dinoflagellates were more abundant among phytoplankton. Thirty five dinoflagellate taxa were identified, among which 12 were reported as potentially toxic species. A significant change in seasonal abundance was recorded with the maximum (2.27∗10 6 cellsl -1 ) in May, and the minimum (2.50∗10 2 cellsl -1 ) recorded in January. Kryptoperidinium foliaceum, which was reported for the first time from the Red Sea, was the most abundant species with a maximum in May 2013 (2.26∗10 6 cellsl -1 ). Spearman's rank correlation analysis indicates that, total harmful dinoflagellate cells, K. foliaceum, Prorocentrum gracile and Prorocentrum micans were significantly correlated with temperature. This study suggests that Yemeni waters should be monitored to investigate harmful species and to identify areas and seasons at higher risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Seasonal and spatial variations of marine litter on the south-eastern Black Sea coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Yahya; Seyhan, Kadir

    2017-07-15

    The south-eastern Black Sea coast in Turkey was evaluated for marine litter composition and density covering nine beaches during four seasons. The marine litter (>2cm in size), was collected from the coast and categorized into material and usage categories. The data analysis showed that plastic was the most abundant litter (≥61.65%) by count and weight followed by styrofoam and fabric. The marine litter density ranged from 0.03 to 0.58 with a mean (±SD) of 0.16±0.02 items/m 2 by count. Based on weight, it varied between 0.44 and 14.74g/m 2 with 3.35±1.63. The east side had a higher marine litter density than the west side with significant differences between beaches. The variations due to different seasons were not significant for any beach. The results of this study should provide baseline information about the coastal marine pollution and will assist the mitigation strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Advising caution in studying seasonal oscillations in crime rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Dong

    Full Text Available Most types of crime are known to exhibit seasonal oscillations, yet the annual variations in the amplitude of this seasonality and their causes are still uncertain. Using a large collection of data from the Houston and Los Angeles Metropolitan areas, we extract and study the seasonal variations in aggravated assault, break in and theft from vehicles, burglary, grand theft auto, rape, robbery, theft, and vandalism for many years from the raw daily data. Our approach allows us to see various long term and seasonal trends and aberrations in crime rates that have not been reported before. We then apply an ecologically motivated stochastic differential equation to reproduce the data. Our model relies only on social interaction terms, and not on any exigent factors, to reproduce both the seasonality, and the seasonal aberrations observed in our data set. Furthermore, the stochasticity in the system is sufficient to reproduce the variations seen in the seasonal oscillations from year to year. Researchers should be very careful about trying to correlate these oscillations with external factors.

  11. Seasonal variation in marine C:N:P stoichiometry: can the composition of seston explain stable Redfield ratios?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Frigstad

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Seston is suspended particulate organic matter, comprising a mixture of autotrophic, heterotrophic and detrital material. Despite variable proportions of these components, marine seston often exhibits relatively small deviations from the Redfield ratio (C:N:P = 106:16:1. Two time-series from the Norwegian shelf in Skagerrak are used to identify drivers of the seasonal variation in seston elemental ratios. An ordination identified water mass characteristics and bloom dynamics as the most important drivers for determining C:N, while changes in nutrient concentrations and biomass were most important for the C:P and N:P relationships. There is no standardized method for determining the functional composition of seston and the fractions of POC, PON and PP associated with phytoplankton, therefore any such information has to be obtained by indirect means. In this study, a generalized linear model was used to differentiate between the live autotrophic and non-autotrophic sestonic fractions, and for both stations the non-autotrophic fractions dominated with respective annual means of 76 and 55%. This regression model approach builds on assumptions (e.g. constant POC:Chl-a ratio and the robustness of the estimates were explored with a bootstrap analysis. In addition the autotrophic percentage calculated from the statistical model was compared with estimated phytoplankton carbon, and the two independent estimates of autotrophic percentage were comparable with similar seasonal cycles. The estimated C:nutrient ratios of live autotrophs were, in general, lower than Redfield, while the non-autotrophic C:nutrient ratios were higher than the live autotrophic ratios and above, or close to, the Redfield ratio. This is due to preferential remineralization of nutrients, and the P content mainly governed the difference between the sestonic fractions. Despite the seasonal variability in seston composition and the generally low contribution of autotrophic

  12. Mangrove study examining seasonal and spatial variation in fish taxonomic composition and diversity in North Atlantic Ocean from 1998-08-17 to 2016-08-20 (NCEI Accession 0159580)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data contains seasonal and spatial variation in fish taxonomic composition and diversity as well as variation in the frequency of occurrence, density and size...

  13. Variation in root activity with season and soil moisture in coconut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, Vandana; Balachandran, P.V.

    2007-01-01

    An experiment was conducted at the College of Horticulture, Vellanikkara to study the effect of season and soil moisture regime on the physiological activity of roots in coconut. The experiment has been laid out in CRD with two replications at two different depths (20 and 75 cm) and moisture regimes (irrigated and rain fed) round the year. The 32 P uptake was higher during wet season as compared to dry season in monocrop of coconut. The absorption was more from the surface layers during wet season and roots explored deeper soil layers during dry season. Irrigation in general improved absorption of 32 P in coconut and resulted in higher uptake from the surface soil compared to that under rainfed condition. (author)

  14. Seasonal Variations and Sources of Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Chengdu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Yang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the air of Chengdu, a southwest city of China, were determined from March 2015 to February 2016. Here, two diagnostic ratios (DR were determined and a principal component analysis/multiple linear regression (PCA/MLR analysis was performed to identify the sources of PAHs during the four seasons. The gaseous and particle phase samples were analyzed separately. The sampled air had a gas-to particle ratio of 4.21, and between 18.7% and 31.3% of the total detected PAHs were found in the particulate phase. The total concentration of all 16-PAHs combined (gas + particles varied from 176.94 in summer to 458.95 ng·m−3 in winter, with a mean of 300.35 ± 176.6 ng·m−3. In the gas phase, phenanthrene(Phe was found at the highest concentrations in all four seasons, while benzo[b]fluoranthene(BbF and (in winter chrysene(Chr were the highest in the particle phase. The DR of Fluroanthene (Flua/(Flua + Pyrene (Pyr was higher in the gas phase than in the particle phase, while the Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene(IcdP/(IcdP + Benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiP ratio was more variable in the gas than that in the particle phase. The main sources for both phases were a mixture of liquid fossil fuel combustion and the burning of biomass and coal, with clear seasonal variation. Principal Component Analysis/Multiple Linear Regression (PCA/MLR analysis identified the main PAH sources as coal burning (52% with motor vehicle exhaust and coke (48% in spring; coal (52%, coke (21%, and motor vehicle exhaust (27% in summer; coal (47%, vehicle exhaust (34%, and coke (19% in autumn; and coal (58% and vehicle exhaust (42% in winter.

  15. Seasonal and Non-Seasonal Variations of Jupiter's Atmosphere from Observations of Thermal Emission, 1994-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, G.; Fletcher, L.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Greathouse, T.; Fisher, B.; Greco, J.; Wakefield, L.; Snead, E.; Boydstun, K.; Simon-Miller, A.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed mid-infrared images of Jupiter's thermal emission, covering approx.1.5 Jovian years, acquired in discrete filters between 7.8 and 24.5 microns. The behavior of stratospheric (approx.10-mbar) and tropospheric (approx.100-400 mbar) temperatures is generally consistent with predictions of seasonal variability, with differences between 100-mbar temperatures +/-50-60deg from the equator on the order of +/-2. Removing this effect, there appear to be long-term quasi-periodic variability of tropospheric temperatures, whose amplitude, phase and period depend on latitude. The behavior of temperatures in the Equatorial Zone (EZ) suggests a approx.4-6-year period with amplitude of about +/-1-1.5 K in temperature. At mid-latitudes, the periodicity is more distinct with amplitudes around +/-1.5-2.5 K and 4-8 year periods. The 4.2-year variation of stratospheric temperatures known as the quasiquadrennial oscillation or "QQO" (Leovy et al. 1991, Nature 354, 380) continued during this period. There were no variations of zonal mean temperatures associated with any of the "global upheaval" events that have produced dramatic changes of jupiter's visible appearance and cloud cover, although there are colder discrete regions associated with updrafts, e.g. the early stages of the re-darkening ("revival") of the South Equatorial Belt (SEB) in late 2010. On the other hand increases in the visible albedos ("fades") of belts are accompanied by increases in the thickness of a 700-mbar cloud layer (most likely NH3 ice) and clouds at higher pressures, together with the mixing ratio of NH3 gas near 400 mbar (above its condensation level). These quantities decrease during re-darkening ("revival") episodes, during which we note discrete features that are exceptions to the general correlation between dark albedos and minimal cloudiness. In contrast to all these changes, the meridional distribution of the 240-mbar para-H2 fraction appears to be invariant in time.

  16. Seasonal variation in aragonite saturation in surface waters of Puget Sound – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Pelletier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A pilot study of sampling, using monthly marine flights over spatially distributed stations, was conducted with the aim to characterize the carbonate system in Puget Sound over a full year-long period. Surface waters of Puget Sound were found to be under-saturated with respect to aragonite during October–March, and super-saturated during April–September. Highest pCO2 and lowest pH occurred during the corrosive October–March period. Lowest pCO2 and highest pH occurred during the super-saturated April–September period. The monthly variations in pCO2 , pH, and aragonite saturation state closely followed the variations in monthly average chlorophyll a. Super-saturated conditions during April–September are likely strongly influenced by photosynthetic uptake of CO2 during the phytoplankton growing season. The relationship between phytoplankton production, the carbonate system, and aragonite saturation state suggests that long-term trends in eutrophication processes may contribute to trends in ocean acidification in Puget Sound

  17. An evaluation of seasonal variations in footwear worn by adults with inflammatory arthritis: a cross-sectional observational study using a web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenton-Rule, Angela; Hendry, Gordon J; Barr, Georgina; Rome, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Foot problems are common in adults with inflammatory arthritis and therapeutic footwear can be effective in managing arthritic foot problems. Accessing appropriate footwear has been identified as a major barrier, resulting in poor adherence to treatment plans involving footwear. Indeed, previous New Zealand based studies found that many people with rheumatoid arthritis and gout wore inappropriate footwear. However, these studies were conducted in a single teaching hospital during the New Zealand summer therefore the findings may not be representative of footwear styles worn elsewhere in New Zealand, or reflect the potential influence of seasonal climate changes. The aim of the study was to evaluate seasonal variations in footwear habits of people with inflammatory arthritic conditions in New Zealand. A cross-sectional study design using a web-based survey. The survey questions were designed to elicit demographic and clinical information, features of importance when choosing footwear and seasonal footwear habits, including questions related to the provision of therapeutic footwear/orthoses and footwear experiences. One-hundred and ninety-seven participants responded who were predominantly women of European descent, aged between 46-65 years old, from the North Island of New Zealand. The majority of participants identified with having either rheumatoid arthritis (35%) and/or osteoarthritis (57%) and 68% reported established disease (>5 years duration). 18% of participants had been issued with therapeutic footwear. Walking and athletic shoes were the most frequently reported footwear type worn regardless of the time of year. In the summer, 42% reported wearing sandals most often. Comfort, fit and support were reported most frequently as the footwear features of greatest importance. Many participants reported difficulties with footwear (63%), getting hot feet in the summer (63%) and the need for a sandal which could accommodate a supportive insole (73%). Athletic and

  18. The seasonal variation in skin hydration, sebum, scaliness, brightness and elasticity in Korean females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, G W; Baek, J H; Koh, J S; Hwang, J-K

    2015-02-01

    Age, gender, regional, and ethnic differences influence skin conditions. The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of environments, especially the air temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, duration of sunshine, and precipitation on skin, and the seasonal variation in skin hydration, sebum, scales, brightness, and elasticity in Korean females. The study included 89 Korean subjects, aged 29.7 ± 6.2 years. The five skin biophysical parameters (skin hydration, sebum, scales, brightness, and elasticity) were measured at six sites: forehead, under the eye, frontal cheek, crow's foot, lateral cheek, and inner forearm. Skin hydration was measured using the Corneometer® CM 825. Skin sebum was measured with Sebumeter® SM 815. Skin scaliness was measured with Visioscan® VC 98. Skin brightness (L* value) was measured by using Spectrophotometer. A suction chamber device, Cutometer® MPA 580, was used to measure the skin elasticity. The measurements were performed every month for 13 months, from April 2007 to April 2008. There were significantly seasonal variations in environmental factors. The air temperature was the lowest in January (-1.7°C), and the highest in August (26.5°C). The relative humidity was the lowest in February (46%), and the highest in July and August (75%). There was a negative correlation between skin scaliness and three environmental factors such as air temperature, relative humidity, and highest precipitation. There was a positive correlation between skin scaliness and two environmental factors such as air pressure and duration of sunshine. Elasticity was correlated with air temperature positively and with air pressure negatively. The correlations shown between the skin biophysical parameters and environmental factors demonstrate that the skin biophysical parameters are affected by environmental factors. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A passive heat tracer experiment to determine the seasonal variation in residence times in a managed aquifer recharge system with DTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    des Tombe, B.F.; Bakker, M.; Schaars, F; van der Made, KJ; Calje, R; Borst, L.

    2016-01-01

    Targeted provisional session N°8.01 The seasonal variation in residence times is determined in a managed aquifer recharge system using a passive heat tracer test. The managed aquifer recharge system consists of a sequence of alternating elongated recharge basins and rows of recovery wells. The

  20. Morbidity Profile and Seasonal Variation of Diseases in a Primary Health Center in Kanpur District: A Tool for the Health Planners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjeeta Kumari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the morbidity profile of patients being treated at the Primary Health Center, their distribution according to gender, and the seasonal trend of diseases. Materials and Methods: The study was done retrospectively using secondary data, over a period of 1 year from June 2007 to July 2008, at the OPD of the Primary Health Center at Patara in Kanpur District, India. The study was aimed to study the pattern of diseases according to the classification provided by the Government of India. The data were collected from the OPD registers of the consultant medical officer, and the diagnosis was classified into communicable diseases, nutritional and metabolic disorders, infectious diseases, obstetric complications, and other diseases including injuries. Results: A total of 6838 patients had been treated at the OPD, which included 2707 males and 4131 females. It was observed that, while communicable diseases constituted about half of the total burden of the diseases with skin infections being the commonest; the non-communicable diseases constituted about one-fifth of the total disease burden. Significant gender differences were evident in the prevalence of certain diseases such as worm infestation, acute respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection, reproductive tract infection, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, gastritis, arthritis/gout, falls/injuries/fractures, anemia, pyrexia of unknown origin, and snake bite. Most of the diseases were observed to have a seasonal variation, with the communicable and infectious diseases peaking in the monsoon months. Surprisingly, the non-communicable diseases such as gastritis and falls and injuries also showed a seasonal variation. Conclusion: Many diseases have a seasonal variation and the burden of these diseases could be reduced if we devise measures to detect the changes in their trend through the implementation of surveillance programs in this part

  1. Seasonal variations in chromium concentration in urban atmospheric aerosol in the city of Radom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molik Artur

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents seasonal variations in the occurrence of chromium in urban particulate matter (PM. Radom is an interesting area for this type of research due to its typical antiquated heating infrastructure. PM samples of two particulate fractions PM2.5 (particulates ≤ 2.5 µm and PM10 (particulates ≤ 10 µm were collected using a Copley cascade impactor Hi-Flow MOUDI Model 130. Chromium was determined in the samples using the GF-AAS technique. The concentration of chromium in PM2.5 was in the range of 0.38 to 3.2 ng/m3, whereas in PM10 it ranged from 0.43 to 4.1 ng/m3.

  2. Seasonal variation in the photo-physiology of homogeneous and heterogeneous Symbiodinium consortia in two scleractinian corals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulstrup, Karin Elizabeth; Hill, R.; Van Oppen, M. J. H.

    2008-01-01

    Seasonal variation in the composition of the algal endosymbiont community and photo-physiology was determined in the corals Pocillopora damicornis, which show high local fidelity to one symbiont type (Symbiodinium C1), and Acropora valida, with a mixed Symbiodinium symbiont community, comprising...... members of both clades A and C. The relative abundances of Symbiodinium types varied over time. A significant decline in symbiont densities in both coral species during the summer of 2005 coincided with a NOAA ‘hotspot' warning for Heron Island. This also coincided with a relative increase in the presence...

  3. Seasonal and spatial variations in rare earth elements and yttrium of dissolved load in the middle, lower reaches and estuary of the Minjiang River, southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuxu; Gao, Aiguo; Lin, Jianjie; Jian, Xing; Yang, Yufeng; Zhang, Yanpo; Hou, Yuting; Gong, Songbai

    2017-09-01

    With the aim of elucidating the spatial and seasonal behaviors of rare earth elements (REEs), we investigated the dissolved REE concentrations of surface water collected during four seasons from middle, lower reaches and estuary of the Minjiang River, southeastern China. The results display that the REE abundances in Minjiang River, ranging from 3.3-785.9 ng/L, were higher than those of many of the major global rivers. The total REE concentrations (ΣREE) were seasonally variable, averaging in 5 937.30, 863.79, 825.65 and 1 065.75 ng/L during second highest flow (SHF), normal flow (NF), low flow (LF) and high flow (HF) season, respectively. The R (L/M) and R (H/M) ratios reveal the spatial and temporal variations of REE patterns, and particularly vary apparently in the maximum turbidity zone and estuary. REE patterns of dissolved loads are characterized by progressing weaker LREEs-enrichment and stronger HREEs-enrichment downstream from middle reaches to estuary during all four seasons. Comparing with NF and LF seasons, in which REE patterns are relatively flat, samples of SHF season have more LREE-enriched and HREE-depleted patterns that close to parent rocks, while samples of HF season are more LREEs-depleted and HREE-enriched. REE fractionations from the middle to lower reaches are stronger in the SHF and HF seasons than those in NF and LF seasons. Generally, spatial and seasonal variations in REE abundance and pattern are presumably due to several factors, such as chemical weathering, mixture with rainfall and groundwater, estuarine mixing, runoff, biological production and mountain river characters, such as strong hydrodynamic forces and steep slopes. The highest Gd/Gd* always occurs at north ports during all four seasons, where most of the large hospitals are located. This suggests Gd anomalies are depended on the density of modern medical facilities. Y/Ho ratios fluctuate and positively correlate to salinity in estuary, probably because of the geochemical

  4. Metabolic fingerprinting of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata liver to track interactions between dietary factors and seasonal temperature variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomé S. Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Farmed gilthead seabream is sometimes affected by a metabolic syndrome, known as the “winter disease”, which has a significant economic impact in the Mediterranean region. It is caused, among other factors, by the thermal variations that occur during colder months and there are signs that an improved nutritional status can mitigate the effects of this thermal stress. For this reason, a trial was undertaken where we assessed the effect of two different diets on gilthead seabream physiology and nutritional state, through metabolic fingerprinting of hepatic tissue. For this trial, four groups of 25 adult gilthead seabream were reared for 8 months, being fed either with a control diet (CTRL, low-cost commercial formulation or with a diet called “Winter Feed” (WF, high-cost improved formulation. Fish were sampled at two time-points (at the end of winter and at the end of spring, with liver tissue being taken for FT-IR spectroscopy. Results have shown that seasonal temperature variations constitute a metabolic challenge for gilthead seabream, with hepatic carbohydrate stores being consumed over the course of the inter-sampling period. Regarding the WF diet, results point towards a positive effect in terms of performance and improved nutritional status. This diet seems to have a mitigating effect on the deleterious impact of thermal shifts, confirming the hypothesis that nutritional factors can affect the capacity of gilthead seabream to cope with seasonal thermal variations and possibly contribute to prevent the onset of “winter disease”.

  5. TNFα and IL-6 Responses to Particulate Matter in Vitro: Variation According to PM Size, Season, and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon and Soil Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano-León, Natalia; Serrano-Lomelin, Jesús; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Quintana-Belmares, Raúl; Vega, Elizabeth; Vázquez-López, Inés; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; López-Villegas, Maria Tania; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Perez, Irma Rosas; O’Neill, Marie S.; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Observed seasonal differences in particulate matter (PM) associations with human health may be due to their composition and to toxicity-related seasonal interactions. Objectives: We assessed seasonality in PM composition and in vitro PM pro-inflammatory potential using multiple PM samples. Methods: We collected 90 weekly PM10 and PM2.5 samples during the rainy-warm and dry-cold seasons in five urban areas with different pollution sources. The elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and endotoxins identified in the samples were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA). We tested the potential of the PM to induce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) secretion in cultured human monocytes (THP-1), and we modeled pro-inflammatory responses using the component scores. Results: PM composition varied by size and by season. PCA identified two main components that varied by season. Combustion-related constituents (e.g., vanadium, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene) mainly comprised component 1 (C1). Soil-related constituents (e.g., endotoxins, silicon, aluminum) mainly comprised component 2 (C2). PM from the rainy-warm season was high in C2. PM (particularly PM2.5) from the dry-cold season was rich in C1. Elevated levels of cytokine production were associated with PM10 and C2 (rainy-warm season), whereas reduced levels of cytokine production were associated with PM2.5 and C1 (dry-cold season). TNFα secretion was increased following exposure to PM with high (vs. low) C2 content, but TNFα secretion in response to PM was decreased following exposure to samples containing ≥ 0.1% of C1-related PAHs, regardless of C2 content. The results of the IL-6 assays suggested more complex interactions between PM components and particle size. Conclusions: Variations in PM soil and PAH content underlie seasonal and PM size–related patterns in TNFα secretion. These results suggest that the mixture of components in PM explains some

  6. Using stable isotopes to determine seasonal variations in water uptake of summer maize under different fertilization treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ying, E-mail: maying@igsnrr.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100101 Beijing (China); State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 210008 Nanjing (China); Song, Xianfang [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100101 Beijing (China)

    2016-04-15

    Fertilization and water both affect root water uptake in the nutrient and water cycle of the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere-Continuum (SPAC). In this study, dual stable isotopes (D and {sup 18}O) were used to determine seasonal variations in water uptake patterns of summer maize under different fertilization treatments in Beijing, China during 2013–2014. The contributions of soil water at different depths to water uptake were quantified by the MixSIAR Bayesian mixing model. Water uptake was mainly sourced from soil water in the 0–20 cm depth at the seeding (67.7%), jointing (60.5%), tasseling (47.5%), dough (41.4%), and harvest (43.9%) stages, and the 20–50 cm depth at the milk stage (32.8%). Different levels of fertilization application led to considerable differences in the proportional contribution of soil water at 0–20 cm (6.0–58.5%) and 20–50 cm (6.1–26.3%). There was little difference of contributions in the deep layers (50–200 cm) among treatments in 2013, whereas differences were observed in 50–90 cm at the milk stage and 50–200 cm at the dough stage during 2014. The main water uptake depth was concentrated in the upper soil layers (0–50 cm) during the wet season (2013), whereas a seasonal drought in 2014 promoted the contribution of soil water in deep layers. The contribution of soil water was significantly and positively correlated with the proportions of root length (r = 0.753, p < 0.01). The changes of soil water distribution were consistent with the seasonal variation in water uptake patterns. The present study identified water sources for summer maize under varying fertilization treatments and provided scientific implications for fertilization and irrigation management. - Highlights: • Dual stable isotopes and MixSIAR were coupled to quantify water uptake of maize. • Maize mainly used soil water in 20–50 cm at milk stage and 0–20 cm at other stages. • Fertilization treatments led to distinct water uptake pattern at 0–50 cm

  7. Using stable isotopes to determine seasonal variations in water uptake of summer maize under different fertilization treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Ying; Song, Xianfang

    2016-01-01

    Fertilization and water both affect root water uptake in the nutrient and water cycle of the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere-Continuum (SPAC). In this study, dual stable isotopes (D and "1"8O) were used to determine seasonal variations in water uptake patterns of summer maize under different fertilization treatments in Beijing, China during 2013–2014. The contributions of soil water at different depths to water uptake were quantified by the MixSIAR Bayesian mixing model. Water uptake was mainly sourced from soil water in the 0–20 cm depth at the seeding (67.7%), jointing (60.5%), tasseling (47.5%), dough (41.4%), and harvest (43.9%) stages, and the 20–50 cm depth at the milk stage (32.8%). Different levels of fertilization application led to considerable differences in the proportional contribution of soil water at 0–20 cm (6.0–58.5%) and 20–50 cm (6.1–26.3%). There was little difference of contributions in the deep layers (50–200 cm) among treatments in 2013, whereas differences were observed in 50–90 cm at the milk stage and 50–200 cm at the dough stage during 2014. The main water uptake depth was concentrated in the upper soil layers (0–50 cm) during the wet season (2013), whereas a seasonal drought in 2014 promoted the contribution of soil water in deep layers. The contribution of soil water was significantly and positively correlated with the proportions of root length (r = 0.753, p < 0.01). The changes of soil water distribution were consistent with the seasonal variation in water uptake patterns. The present study identified water sources for summer maize under varying fertilization treatments and provided scientific implications for fertilization and irrigation management. - Highlights: • Dual stable isotopes and MixSIAR were coupled to quantify water uptake of maize. • Maize mainly used soil water in 20–50 cm at milk stage and 0–20 cm at other stages. • Fertilization treatments led to distinct water uptake pattern at 0–50 cm depth

  8. Water chemistry in Kuji river. Its spatial and seasonal variations in major ions and organic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niina, Toshiaki; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Amano, Hikaru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-02-01

    As a basic research with a aim to clarify the migration behavior of radionuclides in rivers, the characteristics of dissolved ions and organic substances in river water, which characteristics may affect the behavior, was investigated. The investigation was carried out for the Kuji river in the northern Kanto district (Japan) comprising four sampling campaigns in 1994 for 10 locations from the upstream to the downstream. Concentrations of major ions, iron and manganese species and organic substances were analyzed in laboratory. Values of temperature of the water, pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen were measured in the field. This investigation was conducted mainly under low water flow conditions of the river, while a limited number of campaigns were under high flow conditions due to precipitation events. The concentrations of major inorganic ions increased steadily toward the down-stream, resulting in approximately two times increase for the traveling distance of 100 km. They showed a seasonal variation that they were highest in the spring and lowest in the autumn when there were most concentrated precipitation events in a year. The constituents were mainly Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, and were similar for every sampling locations and seasons. Concentrations of dissolved organic substances (carbon compounds) were lowest in the upstream and increased about twice in the downstream as well as major inorganic ions. Their level was 1-3 mg/l, which can be ranked as relatively lower in general values for fresh water environments. They were highest in the spring (average over the locations: 2.2 mg/l) and lowest in the autumn (1.3 mg/l) and also in the winter (1.3 mg/l). These results will be useful as a basic understanding of spatial and seasonal variations of river water chemistry, especially related to the organic substances which can bind with radionuclides to make a mobile complex. (author).

  9. Regional seasonal warming anomalies and land-surface feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffel, E.; Horton, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Significant seasonal variations in warming are projected in some regions, especially central Europe, the southeastern U.S., and central South America. Europe in particular may experience up to 2°C more warming during June, July, and August than in the annual mean, enhancing the risk of extreme summertime heat. Previous research has shown that heat waves in Europe and other regions are tied to seasonal soil moisture variations, and that in general land-surface feedbacks have a strong effect on seasonal temperature anomalies. In this study, we show that the seasonal anomalies in warming are also due in part to land-surface feedbacks. We find that in regions with amplified warming during the hot season, surface soil moisture levels generally decline and Bowen ratios increase as a result of a preferential partitioning of incoming energy into sensible vs. latent. The CMIP5 model suite shows significant variability in the strength of land-atmosphere coupling and in projections of future precipitation and soil moisture. Due to the dependence of seasonal warming on land-surface processes, these inter-model variations influence the projected summertime warming amplification and contribute to the uncertainty in projections of future extreme heat.

  10. ANNUAL AND SEASONAL-VARIATION IN THE FOOD-SUPPLY HARVESTABLE BY KNOT CALIDRIS-CANUTUS STAGING IN THE WADDEN SEA IN LATE SUMMER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZWARTS, L; BLOMERT, AM; WANINK, JH

    The biomass of the macrobenthic animals living in intertidal flats of the Wadden Sea varies annually and seasonally. However, the variation in prey biomass harvestable by wading birds such as knot Calidris canutus, which feed mainly on the middle range of their prey size classes, is even larger. The

  11. Seasonal and inter-annual variation in the chlorophyll content of three co-existing Sphagnum species exceeds the effect of solar UV reduction in a subarctic peatland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyyryläinen, Anna; Rautio, Pasi; Turunen, Minna; Huttunen, Satu

    2015-01-01

    We measured chlorophyll (chl) concentration and chl a/b ratio in Sphagnum balticum, S. jensenii, and S. lindbergii, sampled after 7 and 8 years of ultraviolet-B (UVB) and temperature manipulation in an open field experiment in Finnish Lapland (68°N). We used plastic filters with different transmittance of UVB radiation to manipulate the environmental conditions. The plants were exposed to (1) attenuated UVB and increased temperature, (2) ambient UVB and increased temperature and (3) ambient conditions. Chlorophyll was extracted from the capitula of the mosses and the content and a/b ratio were measured spectrophotometrically. Seasonal variation of chlorophyll concentration in the mosses was species specific. Temperature increase to 0.5-1 °C and/or attenuation of solar UVB radiation to ca. one fifth of the ambient (on average 12 vs. 59 uW/cm(2)) had little effect on the chlorophyll concentration or its seasonal variation. In the dominant S. lindbergii, UVB attenuation under increased temperature led to a transient decrease in chlorophyll concentration. Altogether, species-specific patterns of seasonal chlorophyll variation in the studied Sphagna were more pronounced than temperature and UVB treatment effects.

  12. Volatile Transport in Pluto's Super Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Alissa M.; Binzel, Richard; Young, Leslie; Stern, S. Alan; Olkin, Catherine B.; Ennico, Kimberly; Moore, Jeffrey M.; Weaver, Harold A.; NASA New Horizons Composition Team, The NASA New Horizons GGI Team

    2016-10-01

    The data returned from NASA's New Horizons' reconnaissance of the Pluto system shows striking albedo variations from polar to equatorial latitudes as well as sharp boundaries for longitudinal variations. Pluto has a high obliquity (currently around 119 degrees) which varies by more than 23 degrees (between roughly 103 and 127 degrees) over a period of less than 3 million years. These obliquity properties, combined with Pluto's orbital regression in longitude of perihelion (360 degrees over 3.7 million years), create epochs of "Super Seasons" on Pluto. A "Super Season" occurs, for example, when Pluto happens to be pole-on towards the Sun at the same time as perihelion. In such a case, one pole experiences a short, intense summer (relative to its long-term average) followed by a longer than average period of winter darkness. By complement, the other pole experiences a much longer, but less intense summer and short winter season. We explore the relationship between albedo variations and volatile transport for the current epoch as well as historical epochs during which Pluto experienced these "Super Seasons". Our investigation suggests Pluto's orbit creates the potential for runaway albedo variations, particularly in the equatorial region, which would create and support stark longitudinal contrasts like the ones we see between the informally named Tombaugh and Cthulhu Regios.This work was supported by the NASA New Horizons mission.

  13. Seasonal variation in reproductive traits of the oriental shrimp Palaemon macrodactylus (Crustacea: Caridea: Palaemonidae) in a non-native population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M. Guadalupe; Bas, Claudia C.; Spivak, Eduardo D.

    2013-12-01

    The magnitude of variations in reproductive traits of Palaemon macrodactylus females throughout a breeding season was studied in a non-native population at Mar del Plata harbor, Argentina. Fecundity, egg size, reproductive output, weight and elemental composition of eggs, and larvae were analyzed in females collected at the beginning, in the mid point, and near the end of a reproductive season and designated as early, middle season, and late females. The highest reproductive output was observed in early females, while the highest fecundity and egg volume occurred in middle season females. Eggs and larvae showed larger body mass in early than in late females. Embryos from early females contained and consumed more carbon during development than embryos from late females, and they also used part of the available nitrogen. Differences in reproduction were observed among the three groups of females. On the one hand, late females matured early but had a poor first reproduction, with few embryos and high egg loss; however, they had longer reproductive life and an enhanced reproductive output in the following season when they became early females. On the other hand, females collected at the midpoint in the reproductive season matured later and had the highest fecundity and egg volume. In addition, larvae with different characteristics resulted from each type of female and were presumably well adapted to the conditions prevailing at the moment they hatched. The extended reproductive period and the diversity of embryos and larvae produced may favor the invading ability of the species.

  14. Worldwide variation in atmospheric noise intensities with sunspot number: an in-depth look at the 20 to 24 hour seasonal time block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joglekar, P.J.; Sathiamurthy, T.S.

    1975-01-01

    Comparisons of the variation of atmospheric radio noise intensities for 20 to 24 hr to sunspot numbers have been completed. Statistical dependence between the noise intensities and sunspot numbers was found for different seasons at a number of frequencies for many locations in the global network of ARN-2 noise recorders. The noise intensities generally tended to decrease with sunspot number in the range from 50 kHz to 5 MHz, which is presumed to be due to increases in residual ionospheric absorption during nighttime. At frequencies greater than 5 MHz, noise intensities increased with sunspot number in many cases, which would be expected from our present knowledge of ionospheric behavior in the HF range. By convention, CCIR treats year-to-year variation in the noise intensities as random and includes them in the prediction uncertainty sigma /sub Fam/ (for which one value is given at a frequency for a seasonal time block for all locations) in system performance evaluation. An error analysis on a global basis shows that a large portion of the year-to-year variability is due to sunspot variation. This suggests the possibility of improved noise estimates. (auth)

  15. Quantifying seasonal variation of leaf area index using near-infrared digital camera in a rice paddy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Y.; Ryu, Y.; Kim, J.

    2017-12-01

    Digital camera has been widely used to quantify leaf area index (LAI). Numerous simple and automatic methods have been proposed to improve the digital camera based LAI estimates. However, most studies in rice paddy relied on arbitrary thresholds or complex radiative transfer models to make binary images. Moreover, only a few study reported continuous, automatic observation of LAI over the season in rice paddy. The objective of this study is to quantify seasonal variations of LAI using raw near-infrared (NIR) images coupled with a histogram shape-based algorithm in a rice paddy. As vegetation highly reflects the NIR light, we installed NIR digital camera 1.8 m above the ground surface and acquired unsaturated raw format images at one-hour intervals between 15 to 80 º solar zenith angles over the entire growing season in 2016 (from May to September). We applied a sub-pixel classification combined with light scattering correction method. Finally, to confirm the accuracy of the quantified LAI, we also conducted direct (destructive sampling) and indirect (LAI-2200) manual observations of LAI once per ten days on average. Preliminary results show that NIR derived LAI agreed well with in-situ observations but divergence tended to appear once rice canopy is fully developed. The continuous monitoring of LAI in rice paddy will help to understand carbon and water fluxes better and evaluate satellite based LAI products.

  16. Seasonal variation of wave activities near the mesopause region observed at King Sejong Station (62.22°S, 58.78°W), Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changsup; Kim, Yong Ha; Kim, Jeong-Han; Jee, Geonhwa; Won, Young-In; Wu, Dong L.

    2013-12-01

    We analyzed the neutral wind data at altitudes of 80-100 km obtained from a VHF meteor radar at King Sejong Station (KSS, 62.22°S, 58.78°W), a key location to study wave activities above the stratospheric vortex near the Antarctic Peninsula. The seasonal behavior of the semidiurnal tides is generally consistent with the prediction of Global Scale Wave Model (GSWM02) except in the altitude region above ~96 km. Gravity wave (GW) activities inferred from the neutral wind variances show a seasonal variation very similar to the semidiurnal tide amplitudes, suggesting a strong interaction between gravity waves and the tide. Despite the consistent seasonal variations of the GW wind variances observed at the adjacent Rothera station, the magnitudes of the wind variance obtained at KSS are much larger than those at Rothera, especially during May-September. The enhanced GW activity at KSS is also observed by Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) from space in its temperature variance. The observed large wind variances at KSS imply that the Antarctic vortex in the stratosphere may act as an effective filter and source for the GWs in the upper atmosphere.

  17. Seasonal Variations in Mood and Behavior in Romanian Postgraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J. Soriano

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To our knowledge, this paper is the first to estimate seasonality of mood in a predominantly Caucasian sample, living in areas with hot summers and a relative unavailability of air conditioning. As a summer pattern of seasonal depression was previously associated with a vulnerability to heat exposure, we hypothesized that those with access to air conditioners would have a lower rate of summer seasonal affective disorder (SAD compared to those without air conditioning. A convenience sample of 476 Romanian postgraduate students completed the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ, which was used to calculate a global seasonality score (GSS and to estimate the rates of winter- and summer-type SAD. The ratio of summer- vs. winter-type SAD was compared using multinomial probability distribution tests. We also compared the ratio of summer SAD in individuals with vs. without air conditioners. Winter SAD and winter subsyndromal SAD (S-SAD were significantly more prevalent than summer SAD and summer S-SAD. Those with access to air conditioners had a higher, rather than a lower, rate of summer SAD. Our results are consistent with prior studies that reported a lower prevalence of summer than winter SAD in Caucasian populations. Finding an increased rate of summer SAD in the minority of those with access to air conditioners was surprising and deserves replication.

  18. Seasonal variation of infiltration capacities of soils in western Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Johnson; Robert L. Beschta

    1981-01-01

    Infiltration capacities were 50 percent greater during fall than during summer for forest soils of western Oregon. These results contrast with those measured in other studies. In forested areas, investigators should be aware of potentially large seasonal changes in infiltration capacities. Such seasonal changes may exceed effects due to applied treatments (logging,...

  19. Seasonal variation of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resende Marcelo Carvalho de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Between October, 1997 and September, 1999 in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais a study of seasonal variation of Lutzomyia longipalpis was carried out in three distinct areas of the municipality. Sand flies were sampled at 15-day intervals in three residences, in each of which two CDC light traps were installed, one indoors and the other in the peridomi