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Sample records for mads box transcription

  1. MADS-box gene evolution - structure and transcription patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Bo; Pedersen, Louise Buchholt; Skipper, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Mads-box genes, ABC model, Evolution, Phylogeny, Transcription patterns, Gene structure, Conserved motifs......Mads-box genes, ABC model, Evolution, Phylogeny, Transcription patterns, Gene structure, Conserved motifs...

  2. Arabidopsis MADS-Box Transcription Factor AGL21 Acts as Environmental Surveillance of Seed Germination by Regulating ABI5 Expression.

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    Yu, Lin-Hui; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Zi-Sheng; Miao, Zi-Qing; Zhao, Ping-Xia; Wang, Zhen; Xiang, Cheng-Bin

    2017-06-05

    Seed germination is a crucial checkpoint for plant survival under unfavorable environmental conditions. Abscisic acid (ABA) signaling plays a vital role in integrating environmental information to regulate seed germination. It has been well known that MCM1/AGAMOUS/DEFICIENS/SRF (MADS)-box transcription factors are key regulators of seed and flower development in Arabidopsis. However, little is known about their functions in seed germination. Here we report that MADS-box transcription factor AGL21 is a negative regulator of seed germination and post-germination growth by controlling the expression of ABA-INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) in Arabidopsis. The AGL21-overexpressing plants were hypersensitive to ABA, salt, and osmotic stresses during seed germination and early post-germination growth, whereas agl21 mutants were less sensitive. We found that AGL21 positively regulated ABI5 expression in seeds. Consistently, genetic analyses showed that AGL21 is epistatic to ABI5 in controlling seed germination. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further demonstrated that AGL21 could directly bind to the ABI5 promoter in plant cells. Moreover, we found that AGL21 responded to multiple environmental stresses and plant hormones during seed germination. Taken together, our results suggest that AGL21 acts as a surveillance integrator that incorporates environmental cues and endogenous hormonal signals into ABA signaling to regulate seed germination and early post-germination growth. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The MADS-box transcription factor FgMcm1 regulates cell identity and fungal development in Fusarium graminearum.

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    Yang, Cui; Liu, Huiquan; Li, Guotian; Liu, Meigang; Yun, Yingzi; Wang, Chenfang; Ma, Zhonghua; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2015-08-01

    In eukaryotic cells, MADS-box genes are known to play major regulatory roles in various biological processes by combinatorial interactions with other transcription factors. In this study, we functionally characterized the FgMCM1 MADS-box gene in Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of wheat and barley head blight. Deletion of FgMCM1 resulted in the loss of perithecium production and phialide formation. The Fgmcm1 mutant was significantly reduced in virulence, deoxynivalenol biosynthesis and conidiation. In yeast two-hybrid assays, FgMcm1 interacted with Mat1-1-1 and Fst12, two transcription factors important for sexual reproduction. Whereas Fgmcm1 mutants were unstable and produced stunted subcultures, Fgmcm1 mat1-1-1 but not Fgmcm1 fst12 double mutants were stable. Furthermore, spontaneous suppressor mutations occurred frequently in stunted subcultures to recover growth rate. Ribonucleic acid sequencing analysis indicated that a number of sexual reproduction-related genes were upregulated in stunted subcultures compared with the Fgmcm1 mutant, which was downregulated in the expression of genes involved in pathogenesis, secondary metabolism and conidiation. We also showed that culture instability was not observed in the Fvmcm1 mutants of the heterothallic Fusarium verticillioides. Overall, our data indicate that FgMcm1 plays a critical role in the regulation of cell identity, sexual and asexual reproduction, secondary metabolism and pathogenesis in F. graminearum. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Physical interactions among plant MADS-box transcription factors and their biological relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nougalli Tonaco, I.A.

    2008-01-01

    The biological interpretation of the genome starts from transcription, and many different signaling pathways are integrated at this level. Transcription factors play a central role in the transcription process, because they select the down-stream genes and determine their spatial and temporal

  5. MADS goes genomic in conifers: towards determining the ancestral set of MADS-box genes in seed plants.

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    Gramzow, Lydia; Weilandt, Lisa; Theißen, Günter

    2014-11-01

    MADS-box genes comprise a gene family coding for transcription factors. This gene family expanded greatly during land plant evolution such that the number of MADS-box genes ranges from one or two in green algae to around 100 in angiosperms. Given the crucial functions of MADS-box genes for nearly all aspects of plant development, the expansion of this gene family probably contributed to the increasing complexity of plants. However, the expansion of MADS-box genes during one important step of land plant evolution, namely the origin of seed plants, remains poorly understood due to the previous lack of whole-genome data for gymnosperms. The newly available genome sequences of Picea abies, Picea glauca and Pinus taeda were used to identify the complete set of MADS-box genes in these conifers. In addition, MADS-box genes were identified in the growing number of transcriptomes available for gymnosperms. With these datasets, phylogenies were constructed to determine the ancestral set of MADS-box genes of seed plants and to infer the ancestral functions of these genes. Type I MADS-box genes are under-represented in gymnosperms and only a minimum of two Type I MADS-box genes have been present in the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of seed plants. In contrast, a large number of Type II MADS-box genes were found in gymnosperms. The MRCA of extant seed plants probably possessed at least 11-14 Type II MADS-box genes. In gymnosperms two duplications of Type II MADS-box genes were found, such that the MRCA of extant gymnosperms had at least 14-16 Type II MADS-box genes. The implied ancestral set of MADS-box genes for seed plants shows simplicity for Type I MADS-box genes and remarkable complexity for Type II MADS-box genes in terms of phylogeny and putative functions. The analysis of transcriptome data reveals that gymnosperm MADS-box genes are expressed in a great variety of tissues, indicating diverse roles of MADS-box genes for the development of gymnosperms. This study is

  6. A Novel Sucrose-Regulatory MADS-Box Transcription Factor GmNMHC5 Promotes Root Development and Nodulation in Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.

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    Wei Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The MADS-box protein family includes many transcription factors that have a conserved DNA-binding MADS-box domain. The proteins in this family were originally recognized to play prominent roles in floral development. Recent findings, especially with regard to the regulatory roles of the AGL17 subfamily in root development, have greatly broadened their known functions. In this study, a gene from soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr., GmNMHC5, was cloned from the Zigongdongdou cultivar and identified as a member of the AGL17 subfamily. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis showed that GmNMHC5 was expressed at much higher levels in roots and nodules than in other organs. The activation of expression was first examined in leaves and roots, followed by shoot apexes. GmNMHC5 expression levels rose sharply when the plants were treated under short-day conditions (SD and started to pod, whereas low levels were maintained in non-podding plants under long-day conditions (LD. Furthermore, overexpression of GmNMHC5 in transgenic soybean significantly promoted lateral root development and nodule building. Moreover, GmNMHC5 is upregulated by exogenous sucrose. These results indicate that GmNMHC5 can sense the sucrose signal and plays significant roles in lateral root development and nodule building.

  7. Cloning and Functional Analysis of the MADS-box CiMADS9 Gene from Carya illinoinensis

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    Zhang Jiyu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A MADS-box gene, CiMADS9, was cloned from the male flowers of Carya illinoinensis by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The gene was 1 077 bp with a 768 bp open reading frame encoding 255 amino acids. Multiple sequence comparisons revealed that CiMADS9 is a typical MIKC-type MADS-box gene with a MADS-box domain and a K semi-conserved region. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CiMADS9 belongs to the AGL15 group of the MADS-box gene family. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that the expression levels in reproductive organs (i.e., flowers and young fruits were considerably higher than in vegetative tissues (i.e., leaves and branches. The highest expression levels were observed in male flowers. An overexpression vector for CiMADS9 was constructed and the gene was inserted into the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. CiMADS9 expression was confirmed in all transgenic lines. Compared with wild-type plants, transgenic A. thaliana plants overexpressing CiMADS9 exhibited delayed flowering and an increased number of leaves.

  8. Cloning and analysis of two Ceratopteris thalictroides MADS-box genes

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    XU Daolan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available MADS-box transcription factors,as a large gene family,play an important role in plant growth and development,especially act as key regulators in controlling the identities of floral organs in flowering plants.They are also significant in the evolutionary revelation.In order to understand MADS-box genes,we need more information of MADS-box genes in non flowering plant.MADS-box genes of Ceratopteris thalictroides were selected to clone and analysis by using RACE method.Two MADS-box genes,designated CtMADS1 and CtMADS2 in C. thalictroides,were cloned.Analysis indicates that CtMADS1 is belonged to MIKC*-clade,while CtMADS2 is belonged to MIKCc-clade.Phylogeny suggests that these two MADS-box genes of C. thalictroides have a close relationship with flowering plants,the data indicates that at least two different MADS-box genes are homologous to floral homeotic genes existed in the last common ancestor of contemporary vascular plants.

  9. The regulatory mechanism of fruit ripening revealed by analyses of direct targets of the tomato MADS-box transcription factor RIPENING INHIBITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Masaki; Ito, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    The developmental process of ripening is unique to fleshy fruits and a key factor in fruit quality. The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) MADS-box transcription factor RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN), one of the earliest-acting ripening regulators, is required for broad aspects of ripening, including ethylene-dependent and -independent pathways. However, our knowledge of direct RIN target genes has been limited, considering the broad effects of RIN on ripening. In a recent work published in The Plant Cell, we identified 241 direct RIN target genes by chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with DNA microarray (ChIP-chip) and transcriptome analysis. Functional classification of the targets revealed that RIN participates in the regulation of many biological processes including well-known ripening processes such as climacteric ethylene production and lycopene accumulation. In addition, we found that ethylene is required for the full expression of RIN and several RIN-targeting transcription factor genes at the ripening stage. Here, based on our recently published findings and additional data, we discuss the ripening processes regulated by RIN and the interplay between RIN and ethylene. PMID:23518588

  10. Digital gene expression analysis of male and female bud transition in Metasequoia reveals high activity of MADS-box transcription factors and hormone-mediated sugar pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Liang, Haiying; Li, Lan; Tang, Sha; Han, Xiao; Wang, Congpeng; Xia, Xinli; Yin, Weilun

    2015-01-01

    Metasequoia glyptostroboides is a famous redwood tree of ecological and economic importance, and requires more than 20 years of juvenile-to-adult transition before producing female and male cones. Previously, we induced reproductive buds using a hormone solution in juvenile Metasequoia trees as young as 5-to-7 years old. In the current study, hormone-treated shoots found in female and male buds were used to identify candidate genes involved in reproductive bud transition in Metasequoia. Samples from hormone-treated cone reproductive shoots and naturally occurring non-cone setting shoots were analyzed using 24 digital gene expression (DGE) tag profiles using Illumina, generating a total of 69,520 putative transcripts. Next, 32 differentially and specifically expressed transcripts were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, including the upregulation of MADS-box transcription factors involved in male bud transition and flowering time control proteins involved in female bud transition. These differentially expressed transcripts were associated with 243 KEGG pathways. Among the significantly changed pathways, sugar pathways were mediated by hormone signals during the vegetative-to-reproductive phase transition, including glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and sucrose and starch metabolism pathways. Key enzymes were identified in these pathways, including alcohol dehydrogenase (NAD) and glutathione dehydrogenase for the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway, and glucanphosphorylase for sucrose and starch metabolism pathways. Our results increase our understanding of the reproductive bud transition in gymnosperms. In addition, these studies on hormone-mediated sugar pathways increase our understanding of the relationship between sugar and hormone signaling during female and male bud initiation in Metasequoia.

  11. Digital gene expression analysis of male and female bud transition in Metasequoia reveals high activity of MADS-box transcription factors and hormone-mediated sugar pathways

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    Ying eZhao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metasequoiaglyptostroboidies is a famous redwood tree of ecological and economic importance, and requires more than 20 years of juvenile-to-adult transition before producing female and male cones. Previously, we induced reproductive buds using a hormone solution in juvenile Metasequoia trees as young as5-to-7years old. In the current study, hormone-treated shoots found in female and male buds were used to identify candidate genes involved in reproductive bud transition in Metasequoia. Samples from hormone-treated cone reproductive shoots and naturally occurring non-cone setting shoots were analyzed using 24 digital gene expression (DGE tag profiles using Illumina, generating a total of 69,520 putative transcripts. Next, 32 differentially and specifically expressed transcripts were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, including the upregulation of MADS-box transcription factors involved in male bud transition and flowering time control proteins involved in female bud transition. These differentially expressed transcripts were associated with 243 KEGG pathways. Among the significantly changed pathways, sugar pathways were mediated by hormone signals during the vegetative-to-reproductive phase transition, including glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and sucrose and starch metabolism pathways. Key enzymes were identified in these pathways, including alcohol dehydrogenase (NAD and glutathione dehydrogenase for the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway, and glucanphosphorylase for sucrose and starch metabolism pathways. Our results increase our understanding of the reproductive bud transition in gymnosperms. In addition, these studies on hormone-mediated sugar pathways increase our understanding of the relationship between sugar and hormone signaling during female and male bud initiation in Metasequoia.

  12. TrMADS3, a new MADS-box gene, from a perennial species Taihangia rupestris (Rosaceae) is upregulated by cold and experiences seasonal fluctuation in expression level.

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    Du, Xiaoqiu; Xiao, Qiying; Zhao, Ran; Wu, Feng; Xu, Qijiang; Chong, Kang; Meng, Zheng

    2008-06-01

    In many temperate perennial plants, floral transition is initiated in the first growth season but the development of flower is arrested during the winter to ensure production of mature flowers in the next spring. The molecular mechanisms of the process remain poorly understood with few well-characterized regulatory genes. Here, a MADS-box gene, named as TrMADS3, was isolated from the overwintering inflorescences of Taihangia rupestris, a temperate perennial in the rose family. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that TrMADS3 is more closely related to the homologs of the FLOWERING LOCUS C lineage than to any of the other MIKC-type MADS-box lineages known from Arabidopsis. The TrMADS3 transcripts are extensively distributed in inflorescences, roots, and leaves during the winter. In controlled conditions, the TrMADS3 expression level is upregulated by a chilling exposure for 1 to 2 weeks and remains high for a longer period of time in warm conditions after cold treatment. In situ hybridization reveals that TrMADS3 is predominantly expressed in the vegetative and reproductive meristems. Ectopic expression of TrMADS3 in Arabidopsis promotes seed germination on the media containing relatively high NaCl or mannitol concentrations. These data indicate that TrMADS3 in a perennial species might have its role in both vegetative and reproductive meristems in response to cold.

  13. Characterization of an AGAMOUS-like MADS Box Protein, a Probable Constituent of Flowering and Fruit Ripening Regulatory System in Banana

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    Roy Choudhury, Swarup; Roy, Sujit; Nag, Anish; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Sengupta, Dibyendu N.

    2012-01-01

    The MADS-box family of genes has been shown to play a significant role in the development of reproductive organs, including dry and fleshy fruits. In this study, the molecular properties of an AGAMOUS like MADS box transcription factor in banana cultivar Giant governor (Musa sp, AAA group, subgroup Cavendish) has been elucidated. We have detected a CArG-box sequence binding AGAMOUS MADS-box protein in banana flower and fruit nuclear extracts in DNA-protein interaction assays. The protein fraction in the DNA-protein complex was analyzed by mass spectrometry and using this information we have obtained the full length cDNA of the corresponding protein. The deduced protein sequence showed ∼95% amino acid sequence homology with MA-MADS5, a MADS-box protein described previously from banana. We have characterized the domains of the identified AGAMOUS MADS-box protein involved in DNA binding and homodimer formation in vitro using full-length and truncated versions of affinity purified recombinant proteins. Furthermore, in order to gain insight about how DNA bending is achieved by this MADS-box factor, we performed circular permutation and phasing analysis using the wild type recombinant protein. The AGAMOUS MADS-box protein identified in this study has been found to predominantly accumulate in the climacteric fruit pulp and also in female flower ovary. In vivo and in vitro assays have revealed specific binding of the identified AGAMOUS MADS-box protein to CArG-box sequence in the promoters of major ripening genes in banana fruit. Overall, the expression patterns of this MADS-box protein in banana female flower ovary and during various phases of fruit ripening along with the interaction of the protein to the CArG-box sequence in the promoters of major ripening genes lead to interesting assumption about the possible involvement of this AGAMOUS MADS-box factor in banana fruit ripening and floral reproductive organ development. PMID:22984496

  14. Analysis of MADS-Box Gene Family Reveals Conservation in Floral Organ ABCDE Model of Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis

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    Zhanchao Cheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mini chromosome maintenance 1, agamous, deficiens, and serum response factor (MADS-box genes are transcription factors which play fundamental roles in flower development and regulation of floral organ identity. However, till date, identification and functions of MADS-box genes remain largely unclear in Phyllostachys edulis. In view of this, we performed a whole-genome survey and identified 34 MADS-box genes in P. edulis, and based on phylogeny, they were classified as MIKCC, MIKC∗, Mα, and Mβ. The detailed analysis about gene structure and motifs, phylogenetic classification, comparison of gene divergence and duplication are provided. Interestingly, expression patterns for most genes were found similar to those of Arabidopsis and rice, indicating that the well-established ABCDE model can be applied to P. edulis. Moreover, we overexpressed PheMADS15, an AP1-like gene, in Arabidopsis, and found that the transgenic plants have early flowering phenotype, suggesting that PheMADS15 might be a regulator of flowering transition in P. edulis. Taken together, this study provides not only insightful comprehension but also useful information for understanding the functions of MADS-box genes in P. edulis.

  15. Genome-wide identification, characterisation and expression analysis of the MADS-box gene family in Prunus mume.

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    Xu, Zongda; Zhang, Qixiang; Sun, Lidan; Du, Dongliang; Cheng, Tangren; Pan, Huitang; Yang, Weiru; Wang, Jia

    2014-10-01

    MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that play crucial roles in plant development, especially in flower and fruit development. To gain insight into this gene family in Prunus mume, an important ornamental and fruit plant in East Asia, and to elucidate their roles in flower organ determination and fruit development, we performed a genome-wide identification, characterisation and expression analysis of MADS-box genes in this Rosaceae tree. In this study, 80 MADS-box genes were identified in P. mume and categorised into MIKC, Mα, Mβ, Mγ and Mδ groups based on gene structures and phylogenetic relationships. The MIKC group could be further classified into 12 subfamilies. The FLC subfamily was absent in P. mume and the six tandemly arranged DAM genes might experience a species-specific evolution process in P. mume. The MADS-box gene family might experience an evolution process from MIKC genes to Mδ genes to Mα, Mβ and Mγ genes. The expression analysis suggests that P. mume MADS-box genes have diverse functions in P. mume development and the functions of duplicated genes diverged after the duplication events. In addition to its involvement in the development of female gametophytes, type I genes also play roles in male gametophytes development. In conclusion, this study adds to our understanding of the roles that the MADS-box genes played in flower and fruit development and lays a foundation for selecting candidate genes for functional studies in P. mume and other species. Furthermore, this study also provides a basis to study the evolution of the MADS-box family.

  16. Genome-wide characterization of the MADS-box gene family in radish (Raphanus sativus L. and assessment of its roles in flowering and floral organogenesis

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    Chao Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The MADS-box gene family is an important transcription factor (TF family that is involved in various aspects of plant growth and development, especially flowering time and floral organogenesis. Although it has been reported in many plant species, the systematic identification and characterization of MADS-box TF family is still limited in radish (Raphanus sativus L.. In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of MADS-box genes was performed, and a total of 144 MADS-box family members were identified from the whole radish genome. Meanwhile, a detailed list of MADS-box genes from other 28 plant species was also investigated. Through the phylogenetic analysis between radish and Arabidopsis thaliana, all the RsMADS genes were classified into two groups including 68 type I (31 Mα, 12 Mβ and 25Mγ and 76 type II (70 MIKCC and 6 MIKC*. Among them, 41 (28.47% RsMADS genes were located in nine linkage groups of radish from R1 to R9. Moreover, the homologous MADS-box gene pairs were identified among radish, A. thaliana, Chinese cabbage and rice. Additionally, the expression profiles of RsMADS genes were systematically investigated in different tissues and growth stages. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was employed to validate expression patterns of some crucial RsMADS genes. These results could provide a valuable resource to explore the potential functions of RsMADS genes in radish, and facilitate dissecting MADS-box gene-mediated molecular mechanisms underlying flowering and floral organogenesis in root vegetable crops.

  17. MADS box genes expressed in developing inflorescences of rice and sorghum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greco, R.; Stagi, L.; Colombo, L.; Angenent, G.C.; Sari-Gorla, M.; Pé, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    With the aim of elucidating the complex genetic system controlling flower morphogenesis in cereals, we have characterized two rice and two sorghum MADS box genes isolated from cDNA libraries made from developing inflorescences. The rice clones OsMADS24 and OsMADS45, which share high homology with

  18. MADS interactomics : towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of plant MADS-domain transcription factor function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smaczniak, C.D.

    2013-01-01

    Protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions are essential for the molecular action of transcription factors. By combinatorial binding to target gene promoters, transcription factors are able to up- or down-regulate the expression of these genes. MADS-domain proteins comprise a large family of

  19. Patterns of MADS-box gene expression mark flower-type development in Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae

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    Teeri Teemu H

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inflorescence of the cut-flower crop Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae consists of two principal flower types, ray and disc, which form a tightly packed head, or capitulum. Despite great interest in plant morphological evolution and the tractability of the gerbera system, very little is known regarding genetic mechanisms involved in flower type specification. Here, we provide comparative staging of ray and disc flower development and microarray screening for differentially expressed genes, accomplished via microdissection of hundreds of coordinately developing flower primordia. Results Using a 9K gerbera cDNA microarray we identified a number of genes with putative specificity to individual flower types. Intrestingly, several of these encode homologs of MADS-box transcription factors otherwise known to regulate flower organ development. From these and previously obtained data, we hypothesize the functions and protein-protein interactions of several gerbera MADS-box factors. Conclusion Our RNA expression results suggest that flower-type specific MADS protein complexes may play a central role in differential development of ray and disc flowers across the gerbera capitulum, and that some commonality is shared with known protein functions in floral organ determination. These findings support the intriguing conjecture that the gerbera flowering head is more than a mere floral analog at the level of gene regulation.

  20. Molecular cloning, identification, and chromosomal localization of two MADS box genes in peach (Prunus persica).

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    Zhang, Lin; Xu, Yong; Ma, Rongcai

    2008-06-01

    MADS box proteins play an important role in floral development. To find genes involved in the floral transition of Prunus species, cDNAs for two MADS box genes, PpMADS1 and PpMADS10, were cloned using degenerate primers and 5'- and 3'-RACE based on the sequence database of P. persica and P. dulcis. The full length of PpMADS1 cDNA is 1,071 bp containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 717 bp and coding for a polypeptide of 238 amino acid residues. The full length of PpMADS10 cDNA is 937 bp containing an ORF of 633 bp and coding for a polypeptide of 210 amino acid residues. Sequence comparison revealed that PpMADS1 and PpMADS10 were highly homologous to genes AP1 and PI in Arabidopsis, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PpMADS1 belongs to the euAP1 clade of class A, and PpMADS10 is a member of GLO/PI clade of class B. RT-PCR analysis showed that PpMADS1 was expressed in sepal, petal, carpel, and fruit, which was slightly different from the expression pattern of AP1; PpMADS10 was expressed in petal and stamen, which shared the same expression pattern as PI. Using selective mapping strategy, PpMADS1 was assigned onto the Bin1:50 on the G1 linkage group between the markers MCO44 and TSA2, and PpMADS10 onto the Bin1:73 on the same linkage group between the markers Lap-1 and FGA8. Our results provided the basis for further dissection of the two MADS box gene function.

  1. A MADS box protein interacts with a mating-type protein and is required for fruiting body development in the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

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    Nolting, Nicole; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2006-07-01

    MADS box transcription factors control diverse developmental processes in plants, metazoans, and fungi. To analyze the involvement of MADS box proteins in fruiting body development of filamentous ascomycetes, we isolated the mcm1 gene from the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora, which encodes a putative homologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MADS box protein Mcm1p. Deletion of the S. macrospora mcm1 gene resulted in reduced biomass, increased hyphal branching, and reduced hyphal compartment length during vegetative growth. Furthermore, the S. macrospora Deltamcm1 strain was unable to produce fruiting bodies or ascospores during sexual development. A yeast two-hybrid analysis in conjugation with in vitro analyses demonstrated that the S. macrospora MCM1 protein can interact with the putative transcription factor SMTA-1, encoded by the S. macrospora mating-type locus. These results suggest that the S. macrospora MCM1 protein is involved in the transcriptional regulation of mating-type-specific genes as well as in fruiting body development.

  2. Divergence of recently duplicated M{gamma}-type MADS-box genes in Petunia.

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    Bemer, Marian; Gordon, Jonathan; Weterings, Koen; Angenent, Gerco C

    2010-02-01

    The MADS-box transcription factor family has expanded considerably in plants via gene and genome duplications and can be subdivided into type I and MIKC-type genes. The two gene classes show a different evolutionary history. Whereas the MIKC-type genes originated during ancient genome duplications, as well as during more recent events, the type I loci appear to experience high turnover with many recent duplications. This different mode of origin also suggests a different fate for the type I duplicates, which are thought to have a higher chance to become silenced or lost from the genome. To get more insight into the evolution of the type I MADS-box genes, we isolated nine type I genes from Petunia, which belong to the Mgamma subclass, and investigated the divergence of their coding and regulatory regions. The isolated genes could be subdivided into two categories: two genes were highly similar to Arabidopsis Mgamma-type genes, whereas the other seven genes showed less similarity to Arabidopsis genes and originated more recently. Two of the recently duplicated genes were found to contain deleterious mutations in their coding regions, and expression analysis revealed that a third paralog was silenced by mutations in its regulatory region. However, in addition to the three genes that were subjected to nonfunctionalization, we also found evidence for neofunctionalization of one of the Petunia Mgamma-type genes. Our study shows a rapid divergence of recently duplicated Mgamma-type MADS-box genes and suggests that redundancy among type I paralogs may be less common than expected.

  3. The regulation of MADS-box gene expression during ripening of banana and their regulatory interation with ethylene

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    MADS-box genes (MaMADS1-6), potential components of the developmental control of ripening have been cloned from Grand Nain banana cultivar. Similarity of these genes to tomato LeRIN is very low and neither MaMADS2 nor MaMADS1 complement the tomato rin mutation. Nevertheless, the expression patterns...

  4. Overexpression of a novel MADS-box gene SlFYFL delays senescence, fruit ripening and abscission in tomato

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    Xie, Qiaoli; Hu, Zongli; Zhu, Zhiguo; Dong, Tingting; Zhao, Zhiping; Cui, Baolu; Chen, Guoping

    2014-03-01

    MADS-domain proteins are important transcription factors involved in many biological processes of plants. In our study, a tomato MADS-box gene, SlFYFL, was isolated. SlFYFL is expressed in all tissues of tomato and significantly higher in mature leave, fruit of different stages, AZ (abscission zone) and sepal. Delayed leaf senescence and fruit ripening, increased storability and longer sepals were observed in 35S:FYFL tomato. The accumulation of carotenoid was reduced, and ethylene content, ethylene biosynthetic and responsive genes were down-regulated in 35S:FYFL fruits. Abscission zone (AZ) did not form normally and abscission zone development related genes were declined in AZs of 35S:FYFL plants. Yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that SlFYFL protein could interact with SlMADS-RIN, SlMADS1 and SlJOINTLESS, respectively. These results suggest that overexpression of SlFYFL regulate fruit ripening and development of AZ via interactions with the ripening and abscission zone-related MADS box proteins.

  5. Overexpression of the class D MADS-box gene Sl-AGL11 impacts fleshy tissue differentiation and structure in tomato fruits

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    MADS-box transcription factors are key elements of the genetic networks controlling flower and fruit development. Among these, the class D clade are involved in seed, ovule, and funiculus development. The tomato genome comprises two class D genes, Sl-AGL11 and Sl-MBP3, both displaying high expressio...

  6. The regulation of MADS-box gene expression during ripening of banana and their regulatory interaction with ethylene.

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    Elitzur, Tomer; Vrebalov, Julia; Giovannoni, James J; Goldschmidt, Eliezer E; Friedman, Haya

    2010-03-01

    Six MaMADS-box genes have been cloned from the banana fruit cultivar Grand Nain. The similarity of these genes to tomato LeRIN is low and neither MaMADS2 nor MaMADS1 complement the tomato rin mutation. Nevertheless, the expression patterns, specifically in fruit and the induction during ripening and in response to ethylene and 1-MCP, suggest that some of these genes may participate in ripening. MaMADS1, 2, and 3, are highly expressed in fruit only, while the others are expressed in fruit as well as in other organs. Moreover, the suites of MaMADS-box genes and their temporal expression differ in peel and pulp during ripening. In the pulp, the increase in MaMADS2, 3, 4, and 5 expression preceded an increase in ethylene production, but coincides with the CO(2) peak. However, MaMADS1 expression in pulp coincided with ethylene production, but a massive increase in its expression occurred late during ripening, together with a second wave in the expression of MaMADS2, 3, and 4. In the peel, on the other hand, an increase in expression of MaMADS1, 3, and to a lesser degree also of MaMADS4 and 2 coincided with an increase in ethylene production. Except MaMADS3, which was induced by ethylene in pulp and peel, only MaMADS4, and 5 in pulp and MaMADS1 in peel were induced by ethylene. 1-MCP applied at the onset of the increase in ethylene production, increased the levels of MaMADS4 and MaMADS1 in pulp, while it decreased MaMADS1, 3, 4, and 5 in peel, suggesting that MaMADS4 and MaMADS1 are negatively controlled by ethylene at the onset of ethylene production only in pulp. Only MaMADS2 is neither induced by ethylene nor by 1-MCP, and it is expressed mainly in pulp. Our results suggest that two independent ripening programs are employed in pulp and peel which involve the activation of mainly MaMADS2, 4, and 5 and later on also MaMADS1 in pulp, and mainly MaMADS1, and 3 in peel. Hence, our results are consistent with MaMADS2, a SEP3 homologue, acting in the pulp upstream of the

  7. Changes in ethylene signaling and MADS box gene expression are associated with banana finger drop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, O; Piral, G; Galas, C; Baurens, F-C; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, D

    2014-06-01

    Banana finger drop was examined in ripening banana harvested at immature (iMG), early (eMG) and late mature green (lMG) stages, with contrasting ripening rates and ethylene sensitivities. Concomitantly, 11 ethylene signal transduction components (ESTC) and 6 MADS box gene expressions were comparatively studied in median (control zone, CZ) and pedicel rupture (drop zone DZ) areas in peel tissue. iMG fruit did not ripen or develop finger drop while eMG and lMG fruits displayed a similar finger drop pattern. Several ESTC and MADS box gene mRNAs were differentially induced in DZ and CZ and sequentially in eMG and lMG fruits. MaESR2, 3 and MaEIL1, MaMADS2 and MaMADS5 had a higher mRNA level in eMG and acted earlier, whereas MaERS1, MaCTR1, MaEIL3/AB266319, MaEIL4/AB266320 and MaEIL5/AB266321, MaMADS4 and to a lesser extent MaMADS2 and 5 acted later in lMG. In this fruit, MaERS1 and 3, MaCTR1, MaEIL3, 4 and MaEIL5/AB266321, and MaMADS4 were enhanced by finger drop, suggesting their specific involvement in this process. MaEIL1, MaMADS1 and 3, induced at comparable levels in DZ and CZ, are probably related to the overall fruit ripening process. These findings led us to consider that developmental cues are the predominant finger drop regulation factor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hubungan Metilasi DNA dengan Ekspresi Gen MADS-box pada Buah Mantel Tanaman Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

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    Maharani Anischan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The presence of mantled fruit on large-scale clonal production of oil palm had trully decreased the oil productivity. Mantled phenotype is likely to be that of an epigenetic change involving DNA methylation and the MADS-box transcription factor gene which encoded floral organ homeotic transformation. The objectives of this research were to quantify the degree of methylation which determined fruit abnormality through Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC and to study its correlation with the MADS-box EgAGL6, EgAG2, and EgAGA genes expressed on mantled fruit derived from oil palm clonal plants which have been quantified using Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qPCR. This research was arranged in two replications for each gene and cDNA. The expression of the target genes were compared to EF1-α1 as the reference gene. Through the Least Significant Difference (LSD Test at 95% confidence level of qPCR result, EgAGL6 expression was significantly lower in mantled fruit which decreased from 1.88 fold in Abn m to 0.46 fold in Abn. EgAG2 expression was increased non-significantly from 0.91 fold in Abn m to 1.13 fold in Abn, while EgAGA expression was higher in mantled which increased significantly from 1.48 fold in Abn m to 1.71 fold  in Abn. Nuclease S1 digestion and UPLC revealed the genome-wide increase in DNA methylation on mantled fruit (18.33-19.55% compared to its normal counterparts (5.67%. This increased in global DNA methylation was showed by the significant decreased in EgAGL6 transcript level of mantled fruit. This gene assumed to be involved in the development of mantled fruit. Keywords: DNA-methylation, MADS-box genes, Mantled fruit, Quantitative Real-Time PCR

  9. Genome-wide analysis of the MADS-box gene family in polyploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and in its diploid parental species (Gossypium arboreum and Gossypium raimondii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardeli, Sarah Muniz; Artico, Sinara; Aoyagi, Gustavo Mitsunori; de Moura, Stéfanie Menezes; da Franca Silva, Tatiane; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima; Romanel, Elisson; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio

    2018-06-01

    The MADS-box gene family encodes transcription factors that share a highly conserved domain known to bind to DNA. Members of this family control various processes of development in plants, from root formation to fruit ripening. In this work, a survey of diploid (Gossypium raimondii and Gossypium arboreum) and tetraploid (Gossypium hirsutum) cotton genomes found a total of 147, 133 and 207 MADS-box genes, respectively, distributed in the MIKC, Mα, Mβ, Mγ, and Mδ subclades. A comparative phylogenetic analysis among cotton species, Arabidopsis, poplar and grapevine MADS-box homologous genes allowed us to evaluate the evolution of each MADS-box lineage in cotton plants and identify sequences within well-established subfamilies. Chromosomal localization and phylogenetic analysis revealed that G. raimondii and G. arboreum showed a conserved evolution of the MIKC subclade and a distinct pattern of duplication events in the Mα, Mγ and Mδ subclades. Additionally, G. hirsutum showed a combination of its parental subgenomes followed by a distinct evolutionary history including gene gain and loss in each subclade. qPCR analysis revealed the expression patterns of putative homologs in the AP1, AP3, AGL6, SEP4, AGL15, AG, AGL17, TM8, SVP, SOC and TT16 subfamilies of G. hirsutum. The identification of putative cotton orthologs is discussed in the light of evolution and gene expression data from other plants. This analysis of the MADS-box genes in Gossypium species opens an avenue to understanding the origin and evolution of each gene subfamily within diploid and polyploid species and paves the way for functional studies in cotton species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. The pineapple AcMADS1 promoter confers high level expression in tomato and arabidopsis flowering and fruiting tissues, but AcMADS1 does not complement the tomato LeMADS-RIN (rin) mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    A previous EST study identified a MADS box transcription factor coding sequence, AcMADS1, that is strongly induced during non-climacteric pineapple fruit ripening. Phylogenetic analyses place the AcMADS1 protein in the same superclade as LeMADS-RIN, a master regulator of fruit ripening upstream of e...

  11. Cloning, Structural Characterization, and Phylogenetic Analysis of Flower MADS-Box Genes from Crocus (Crocus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios S. Tsaftaris

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Crocus (Crocus sativus L. is a crop species cultivated for its flowers and, more specifically, for its red stigmas. The flower of crocus is bisexual and sterile, since crocus is a triploid species. Its perianth consists of six petaloid tepals: three tepals in whorl 1 (outer tepals and three tepals in whorl 2 (inner tepals. The androecium consists of three distinct stamens and the gynoecium consists of a single compound pistil with three carpels, a single three-branched style, and an inferior ovary. The dry form of the stigmas constitutes the commercial saffron used as a food additive, in the coloring industry, and in medicine. In order to uncover and understand the molecular mechanisms controlling flower development in cultivated crocus and its relative wild progenitor species, and characterize a number of crocus flower mutants, we have cloned and characterized different, full-length, cDNA sequences encoding MADS-box transcription factor proteins involved in flower formation.

  12. Identification and Characterization of the MADS-Box Genes and Their Contribution to Flower Organ in Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoni; Wang, Qijian; Yang, Shaozong; Lin, Shengnan; Bao, Manzhu; Bendahmane, Mohammed; Wu, Quanshu; Wang, Caiyun; Fu, Xiaopeng

    2018-04-04

    Dianthus is a large genus containing many species with high ornamental economic value. Extensive breeding strategies permitted an exploration of an improvement in the quality of cultivated carnation, particularly in flowers. However, little is known on the molecular mechanisms of flower development in carnation. Here, we report the identification and description of MADS-box genes in carnation ( DcaMADS ) with a focus on those involved in flower development and organ identity determination. In this study, 39 MADS-box genes were identified from the carnation genome and transcriptome by the phylogenetic analysis. These genes were categorized into four subgroups (30 MIKC c , two MIKC*, two Mα, and five Mγ). The MADS-box domain, gene structure, and conserved motif compositions of the carnation MADS genes were analysed. Meanwhile, the expression of DcaMADS genes were significantly different in stems, leaves, and flower buds. Further studies were carried out for exploring the expression of DcaMADS genes in individual flower organs, and some crucial DcaMADS genes correlated with their putative function were validated. Finally, a new expression pattern of DcaMADS genes in flower organs of carnation was provided: sepal (three class E genes and two class A genes), petal (two class B genes, two class E genes, and one SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE ( SVP )), stamen (two class B genes, two class E genes, and two class C), styles (two class E genes and two class C), and ovary (two class E genes, two class C, one AGAMOUS-LIKE 6 ( AGL6 ), one SEEDSTICK ( STK ), one B sister , one SVP , and one Mα ). This result proposes a model in floral organ identity of carnation and it may be helpful to further explore the molecular mechanism of flower organ identity in carnation.

  13. Identification and Characterization of the MADS-Box Genes and Their Contribution to Flower Organ in Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoni Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dianthus is a large genus containing many species with high ornamental economic value. Extensive breeding strategies permitted an exploration of an improvement in the quality of cultivated carnation, particularly in flowers. However, little is known on the molecular mechanisms of flower development in carnation. Here, we report the identification and description of MADS-box genes in carnation (DcaMADS with a focus on those involved in flower development and organ identity determination. In this study, 39 MADS-box genes were identified from the carnation genome and transcriptome by the phylogenetic analysis. These genes were categorized into four subgroups (30 MIKCc, two MIKC*, two Mα, and five Mγ. The MADS-box domain, gene structure, and conserved motif compositions of the carnation MADS genes were analysed. Meanwhile, the expression of DcaMADS genes were significantly different in stems, leaves, and flower buds. Further studies were carried out for exploring the expression of DcaMADS genes in individual flower organs, and some crucial DcaMADS genes correlated with their putative function were validated. Finally, a new expression pattern of DcaMADS genes in flower organs of carnation was provided: sepal (three class E genes and two class A genes, petal (two class B genes, two class E genes, and one SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP, stamen (two class B genes, two class E genes, and two class C, styles (two class E genes and two class C, and ovary (two class E genes, two class C, one AGAMOUS-LIKE 6 (AGL6, one SEEDSTICK (STK, one B sister, one SVP, and one Mα. This result proposes a model in floral organ identity of carnation and it may be helpful to further explore the molecular mechanism of flower organ identity in carnation.

  14. Dormancy-Associated MADS-Box (DAM) and the Abscisic Acid Pathway Regulate Pear Endodormancy Through a Feedback Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Bai, Songling; Saito, Takanori; Ito, Akiko; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2017-08-01

    In the pear 'Kosui' (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai), the dormancy-associated MADS-box (PpDAM1 = PpMADS13-1) gene has been reported to play an essential role in bud endodormancy. Here, we found that PpDAM1 up-regulated expression of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (PpNCED3), which is a rate-limiting gene for ABA biosynthesis. Transient assays with a dual luciferase reporter system (LUC assay) and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that PpDAM1 activated PpNCED3 expression by binding to the CArG motif in the PpNCED3 promoter. PpNCED3 expression was increased toward endodormancy release in lateral flower buds of 'Kosui', which is consistent with the induced levels of ABA, its catabolism (ABA 8'-hydroxylase) and signaling genes (type 2C protein phosphatase genes and SNF1-related protein kinase 2 genes). In addition, we found that an ABA response element (ABRE)-binding transcription factor, PpAREB1, exhibiting high expression concomitant with endodormancy release, bound to three ABRE motifs in the promoter region of PpDAM1 and negatively regulated its activity. Taken together, our results suggested a feedback regulation between PpDAM1 and the ABA metabolism and signaling pathway during endodormancy of pear. This first evidence of an interaction between a DAM and ABA biosynthesis in vitro will provide further insights into bud endodormancy regulatory mechanisms of deciduous trees including pear. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. A STE12 homologue of the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora interacts with the MADS box protein MCM1 and is required for ascosporogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolting, Nicole; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2006-11-01

    The MADS box protein MCM1 controls diverse developmental processes and is essential for fruiting body formation in the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. MADS box proteins derive their regulatory specificity from a wide range of different protein interactions. We have recently shown that the S. macrospora MCM1 is able to interact with the alpha-domain mating-type protein SMTA-1. To further evaluate the functional roles of MCM1, we used the yeast two-hybrid approach to identify MCM1-interacting proteins. From this screen, we isolated a protein with a putative N-terminal homeodomain and C-terminal C2/H2-Zn2+ finger domains. The protein is a member of the highly conserved fungal STE12 transcription factor family of proteins and was therefore termed STE12. Furthermore, we demonstrate by means of two-hybrid and far western analysis that in addition to MCM1, the S. macrospora STE12 protein is able to interact with the mating-type protein SMTA-1. Unlike the situation in the closely related heterothallic ascomycete Neurospora crassa, deletion (Delta) of the ste12 gene in S. macrospora neither affects vegetative growth nor fruiting body formation. However, ascus and ascospore development are highly impaired by the Deltaste12 mutation. Our data provide another example of the functional divergence within the fungal STE12 transcription factor family.

  16. Sequence motifs in MADS transcription factors responsible for specificity and diversification of protein-protein interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aalt D J van Dijk

    Full Text Available Protein sequences encompass tertiary structures and contain information about specific molecular interactions, which in turn determine biological functions of proteins. Knowledge about how protein sequences define interaction specificity is largely missing, in particular for paralogous protein families with high sequence similarity, such as the plant MADS domain transcription factor family. In comparison to the situation in mammalian species, this important family of transcription regulators has expanded enormously in plant species and contains over 100 members in the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we provide insight into the mechanisms that determine protein-protein interaction specificity for the Arabidopsis MADS domain transcription factor family, using an integrated computational and experimental approach. Plant MADS proteins have highly similar amino acid sequences, but their dimerization patterns vary substantially. Our computational analysis uncovered small sequence regions that explain observed differences in dimerization patterns with reasonable accuracy. Furthermore, we show the usefulness of the method for prediction of MADS domain transcription factor interaction networks in other plant species. Introduction of mutations in the predicted interaction motifs demonstrated that single amino acid mutations can have a large effect and lead to loss or gain of specific interactions. In addition, various performed bioinformatics analyses shed light on the way evolution has shaped MADS domain transcription factor interaction specificity. Identified protein-protein interaction motifs appeared to be strongly conserved among orthologs, indicating their evolutionary importance. We also provide evidence that mutations in these motifs can be a source for sub- or neo-functionalization. The analyses presented here take us a step forward in understanding protein-protein interactions and the interplay between protein sequences and

  17. Genetic and epigenetic alteration among three homoeologous genes of a class E MADS box gene in hexaploid wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitsukawa, Naoki; Tahira, Chikako; Kassai, Ken-Ichiro; Hirabayashi, Chizuru; Shimizu, Tomoaki; Takumi, Shigeo; Mochida, Keiichi; Kawaura, Kanako; Ogihara, Yasunari; Murai, Koji

    2007-06-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a hexaploid species with A, B, and D ancestral genomes. Most bread wheat genes are present in the genome as triplicated homoeologous genes (homoeologs) derived from the ancestral species. Here, we report that both genetic and epigenetic alterations have occurred in the homoeologs of a wheat class E MADS box gene. Two class E genes are identified in wheat, wheat SEPALLATA (WSEP) and wheat LEAFY HULL STERILE1 (WLHS1), which are homologs of Os MADS45 and Os MADS1 in rice (Oryza sativa), respectively. The three wheat homoeologs of WSEP showed similar genomic structures and expression profiles. By contrast, the three homoeologs of WLHS1 showed genetic and epigenetic alterations. The A genome WLHS1 homoeolog (WLHS1-A) had a structural alteration that contained a large novel sequence in place of the K domain sequence. A yeast two-hybrid analysis and a transgenic experiment indicated that the WLHS1-A protein had no apparent function. The B and D genome homoeologs, WLHS1-B and WLHS1-D, respectively, had an intact MADS box gene structure, but WLHS1-B was predominantly silenced by cytosine methylation. Consequently, of the three WLHS1 homoeologs, only WLHS1-D functions in hexaploid wheat. This is a situation where three homoeologs are differentially regulated by genetic and epigenetic mechanisms.

  18. Perspectives on MADS-box expression during orchid flower evolution and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondragón-Palomino, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    The diverse morphology of orchid flowers and their complex, often deceptive strategies to become pollinated have fascinated researchers for a long time. However, it was not until the 20th century that the ontogeny of orchid flowers, the genetic basis of their morphology and the complex phylogeny of Orchidaceae were investigated. In parallel, the improvement of techniques for in vitro seed germination and tissue culture, together with studies on biochemistry, physiology, and cytology supported the progress of what is now a highly productive industry of orchid breeding and propagation. In the present century both basic research in orchid flower evo-devo and the interest for generating novel horticultural varieties have driven the characterization of many members of the MADS-box family encoding key regulators of flower development. This perspective summarizes the picture emerging from these studies and discusses the advantages and limitations of the comparative strategy employed so far. I address the growing role of natural and horticultural mutants in these studies and the emergence of several model species in orchid evo-devo and genomics. In this context, I make a plea for an increasingly integrative approach.

  19. Perspectives on MADS-box expression during orchid flower evolution and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana eMondragón Palomino

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The diverse morphology of orchid flowers and their complex, often deceptive strategies to become pollinated have fascinated researchers for a long time. However, it was not until the 20th century that the ontogeny of orchid flowers, the genetic basis of their morphology and the complex phylogeny of Orchidaceae were investigated. In parallel, the improvement of techniques for in vitro seed germination and tissue culture, together with studies on biochemistry, physiology and cytology supported the progress of what is now a highly productive industry of orchid breeding and propagation. In the present century both basic research in orchid flower evo-devo and the interest for generating novel horticultural varieties have driven the characterization of many members of the MADS-box family encoding key regulators of flower development. This perspective summarizes the picture emerging from these studies and discusses the advantages and limitations of the comparative strategy employed so far. I address the growing role of natural and horticultural mutants in these studies and the emergence of several model species in orchid evo-devo and genomics. In this context, I make a plea for an increasingly integrative approach.

  20. Expression of paralogous SEP-, FUL-, AG- and STK-like MADS-box genes in wild-type and peloric Phalaenopsis flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acri-Nunes-Miranda, Roberta; Mondragón-Palomino, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    transcriptional divergence was found in the stage investigated. Gene expression suggests a developmental regulatory system based on the combined activity of duplicate MADS-box genes. We discuss its feasibility based on documented protein interactions and patterns of expression.

  1. Proteomics and SSH analyses of ALA-promoted fruit coloration and evidence for the involvement of a MADS-box gene, MdMADS1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Feng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Skin color is a key quality attribute of fruits and how to improve fruit coloration has long been a major concern. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA, a natural plant growth regulator, can significantly increase anthocyanin accumulation in fruit skin and therefore effectively improve coloration of many fruits, including apple. However, the molecular mechanism how ALA stimulates anthocyanin accumulation in fruit skin remains unknown. Here, we investigated the impact of ALA on apple skin at the protein and mRNA levels. A total of 85 differentially expressed proteins in apple skins between ALA and water treatment (control were identified by complementary gel-based and gel-freeseparation techniques. Most of these differentially expressed proteins were up-regulated by ALA. Function analysis suggested that 87.06% of the ALA-responsive proteins were associated with fruit ripening. To further screen ALA-responsive regulators, we constructed a subtracted cDNA library (tester: ALA treatment; driver: control and obtained 104 differentially expressed unigenes, of which 38 unigenes were indicators for the fruit ripening-related gene. The differentially changed proteins and transcripts did not correspond well at an individual level, but showed similar regulated direction in function at the pathway level. Among the identified fruit ripening-related genes, the expression of MdMADS1, a developmental transcription regulator of fruit ripening, was positively correlated with expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes (MdCHS, MdDFR, MdLDOX and MdUFGT in apple skin under ALA treatment. Moreover, overexpression of MdMADS1 enhanced anthocyanin content in transformed apple calli, which was further enhanced by ALA. The anthocyanin content in MdMADS1-silenced calli was less than that in the control with ALA treatment, but higher than that without ALA treatment. These results indicated that MdMADS1 is involved in ALA-induced anthocyanin accumulation. In addition, anthocyanin

  2. Constitutive expression of the K-domain of a Vaccinium corymbosum SOC1-like (VcSOC1-K) MADS-box gene is sufficient to promote flowering in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guo-qing; Walworth, Aaron; Zhao, Dongyan; Hildebrandt, Britton; Leasia, Michael

    2013-11-01

    The K-domain of a blueberry-derived SOC1 -like gene promotes flowering in tobacco without negatively impacting yield, demonstrating potential for manipulation of flowering time in horticultural crops. The SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) and SOC1-likes, belonging to the MIKC(c) (type II) MADS-box gene subfamily, are major floral activators and integrators of plant flowering. Both MADS-domains and K (Keratin)-domains are highly conserved in MIKC(c)-type MADS proteins. While there are many reports on overexpression of intact MIKC(c)-type MADS-box genes, few studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of the K-domains. In this report, a 474-bp K-domain of Vaccinium SOC1-like (VcSOC1-K) was cloned from the cDNA library of the northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.). Functional analysis of the VcSOC1-K was conducted by ectopically expressing of 35S:VcSOC1-K in tobacco. Reverse transcription PCR confirmed expression of the VcSOC1-K in T0 plants. Phenotypically, T1 transgenic plants (10 T1 plants/event) flowered sooner after seeding, and were shorter with fewer leaves at the time of flowering, than nontransgenic plants; but seed pod production of transgenic plants was not significantly affected. These results demonstrate that overexpression of the K-domain of a MIKC(c)-type MADS-box gene alone is sufficient to promote early flowering and more importantly without affecting seed production.

  3. The DAL10 gene from Norway spruce (Picea abies) belongs to a potentially gymnosperm-specific subclass of MADS-box genes and is specifically active in seed cones and pollen cones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsbecker, Annelie; Sundström, Jens; Tandre, Karolina; Englund, Marie; Kvarnheden, Anders; Johanson, Urban; Engström, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Transcription factors encoded by different members of the MADS-box gene family have evolved central roles in the regulation of reproductive organ development in the flowering plants, the angiosperms. Development of the stamens and carpels, the pollen- and seed-bearing organs, involves the B- and C-organ-identity MADS-box genes. B- and C-type gene orthologs with activities specifically in developing pollen- and seed-bearing organs are also present in the distantly related gymnosperms: the conifers and the gnetophytes. We now report on the characterization of DAL10, a novel MADS-box gene from the conifer Norway spruce, which unlike the B- and C-type conifer genes shows no distinct orthology relationship to any angiosperm gene or clade in phylogenetic analyses. Like the B- and C-type genes, it is active specifically in developing pollen cones and seed cones. In situ RNA localization experiments show DAL10 to be expressed in the cone axis, which carry the microsporophylls of the young pollen cone. In contrast, in the seed cone it is expressed both in the cone axis and in the bracts, which subtend the ovuliferous scales. Expression data and the phenotype of transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing DAL10 suggest that the gene may act upstream to or in concert with the B- and C-type genes in the establishment of reproductive identity of developing cones.

  4. pikelet MADS develo S-box opmen genes nt and m maize

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    ze plant. (B) M e spikelet. Late e floret of female in female ens in the up elet bearing efore, unisex ... e plant MADS members of a ..... and their role in the development and evolution of flowering plants. Mol. .... Classification and phylogeny of.

  5. Identification and quantification of expression levels of three FRUITFULL-like MADS-box genes from the orchid Dendrobium thyrsiflorum (Reichb. f.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skipper, Martin; Pedersen, Kim B.; Johansen, Louise Buchholt

    2005-01-01

    Orchids serve as useful model plants for the discovery and study of genes involved in novel processes in floral development because of their highly modified flowers. In this study three different FRUITFULL (FUL)-like MADS-box genes, DthyrFL1, -2, and -3 have been isolated from the orchid Dendrobium...

  6. Conifer reproductive development involves B-type MADS-box genes with distinct and different activities in male organ primordia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström, Jens; Engström, Peter

    2002-07-01

    The Norway spruce MADS-box genes DAL11, DAL12 and DAL13 are phylogenetically related to the angiosperm B-function MADS-box genes: genes that act together with A-function genes in specifying petal identity and with C-function genes in specifying stamen identity to floral organs. In this report we present evidence to suggest that the B-gene function in the specification of identity of the pollen-bearing organs has been conserved between conifers and angiosperms. Expression of DAL11 or DAL12 in transgenic Arabidopsis causes phenotypic changes which partly resemble those caused by ectopic expression of the endogenous B-genes. In similar experiments, flowers of Arabidopsis plants expressing DAL13 showed a different homeotic change in that they formed ectopic anthers in whorls one, two or four. We also demonstrate the capacity of the spruce gene products to form homodimers, and that DAL11 and DAL13 may form heterodimers with each other and with the Arabidopsis B-protein AP3, but not with PI, the second B-gene product in Arabidopsis. In situ hybridization experiments show that the conifer B-like genes are expressed specifically in developing pollen cones, but differ in both temporal and spatial distribution patterns. These results suggest that the B-function in conifers is dual and is separated into a meristem identity and an organ identity function, the latter function possibly being independent of an interaction with the C-function. Thus, even though an ancestral B-function may have acted in combination with C to specify micro- and megasporangia, the B-function has evolved differently in conifers and angiosperms.

  7. Comprehensive Cloning of Prunus mume Dormancy Associated MADS-Box Genes and Their Response in Flower Bud Development and Dormancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dormancy Associated MADS-box genes are SVP/MADs-box members and supposed to play crucial roles in plant dormancy of perennial species. In Prunus mume, PmDAM6 has been previously identified to induce plant dormancy. In the current study, six PmDAMs were cloned in P. mume and functionally analyzed in yeast and tobacco to detect the roles of the genes paralogous to PmDAM6. The expression patterns together with sequence similarities indicate that PmDAMs are divided into two sub-clades within SVP group. Moreover, PmDAMs are verified to take part in the development of different plant organs, specifically the flower buds, in some intricate patterns. Furthermore, the PmDAM proteins are found to have special functions by forming corresponding protein complex during the development of flower bud and induction of dormancy. In particular, when PmDAM1 dominating in flower bud in the warm months, the protein complexes are consisted of PmDAM1 itself or with PmDAM2. With the decrease temperatures in the following months, PmDAM6 was found to be highly expressed and gradually changed the complex structure to PmDAM6-protein complex due to strong binding tendencies with PmDAM1 and PmDAM3. Finally, the homodimers of PmDAM6 prevailed to induce the dormancy. The results obtained in the current study highlight the functions of PmDAMs in the tissue development and dormancy, which provide available suggestions for further explorations of protein-complex functions in association with bud growth and dormancy.

  8. Morphological "primary homology" and expression of AG-subfamily MADS-box genes in pines, podocarps, and yews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Marie; Carlsbecker, Annelie; Engström, Peter; Vergara-Silva, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    The morphological variation among reproductive organs of extant gymnosperms is remarkable, especially among conifers. Several hypotheses concerning morphological homology between various conifer reproductive organs have been put forward, in particular in relation to the pine ovuliferous scale. Here, we use the expression patterns of orthologs of the ABC-model MADS-box gene AGAMOUS (AG) for testing morphological homology hypotheses related to organs of the conifer female cone. To this end, we first developed a tailored 3'RACE procedure that allows reliable amplification of partial sequences highly similar to gymnosperm-derived members of the AG-subfamily of MADS-box genes. Expression patterns of two novel conifer AG orthologs cloned with this procedure-namely PodAG and TgAG, obtained from the podocarp Podocarpus reichei and the yew Taxus globosa, respectively-are then further characterized in the morphologically divergent female cones of these species. The expression patterns of PodAG and TgAG are compared with those of DAL2, a previously discovered Picea abies (Pinaceae) AG ortholog. By treating the expression patterns of DAL2, PodAG, and TgAG as character states mapped onto currently accepted cladogram topologies, we suggest that the epimatium-that is, the podocarp female cone organ previously postulated as a "modified" ovuliferous scale-and the canonical Pinaceae ovuliferous scale can be legitimally conceptualized as "primary homologs." Character state mapping for TgAG suggests in turn that the aril of Taxaceae should be considered as a different type of organ. This work demonstrates how the interaction between developmental-genetic data and formal cladistic theory could fruitfully contribute to gymnosperm systematics. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Functional and evolutionary analysis of the AP1/SEP/AGL6 superclade of MADS-box genes in the basal eudicot Epimedium sagittatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Huang, Wenjun; Li, Zhineng; Song, Chi; Liu, Di; Liu, Yongliang; Hayward, Alice; Liu, Yifei; Huang, Hongwen; Wang, Ying

    2014-03-01

    MADS-box transcriptional regulators play important roles during plant development. Based on phylogenetic reconstruction, the AP1/SEP/AGL6 superclade of floral MADS-box genes underwent one or two duplication events in the common ancestor of the core eudicots. However, the functional evolution of the AP1/SEP/AGL6 superclade in basal eudicots remains uncharacterized. Epimedium sagittatum is a basal eudicot species valued for its medicinal properties and showing unique floral morphology. In this study, structural and functional variation of FUL-like (AP1 subfamily), SEP-like and AGL6-like genes in this species was investigated to further our understanding of flower evolution in angiosperms. Detailed investigations into the microsynteny and evolutionary history of the floral A and E class MADS-box genes in eudicots were undertaken and used to trace their genomic rearrangements. One AP1-like gene, two SEP-like genes and one AGL6-like gene were cloned from E. sagittatum. Their expression patterns were examined using quantitative RT-PCR in different vegetative and reproductive organs at two developmental stages. Yeast two-hybrid assays were carried out among AP1/SEP/AGL6 superclade, AP3/PI and AGAMOUS subfamily members for elucidation of dimerization patterns. In addition, possible formation of a ternary complex involving B class proteins with the A class protein EsFUL-like, the E class SEP-like protein EsAGL2-1 or the AGL6-class protein EsAGL6 were detected using yeast three-hybrid assays. Transgenic Arabidopsis or tobacco plants expressing EsFUL-like, EsAGL2-1 and EsAGL6-like under the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter were generated and analysed. Genomic studies of AP1 syntenic regions in arabidopsis, columbine, strawberry, papaya, peach, grapevine and tomato were conducted for microsyntenic analyses. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed that EsFUL-like is a member of the AP1 (A class) subfamily, EsAGL2-1 and EsAGL2-2 belong to the SEP-like (E class

  10. Live and let die - the B(sister MADS-box gene OsMADS29 controls the degeneration of cells in maternal tissues during seed development of rice (Oryza sativa.

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    Xuelian Yang

    Full Text Available B(sister genes have been identified as the closest relatives of class B floral homeotic genes. Previous studies have shown that B(sister genes from eudicots are involved in cell differentiation during ovule and seed development. However, the complete function of B(sister genes in eudicots is masked by redundancy with other genes and little is known about the function of B(sister genes in monocots, and about the evolution of B(sister gene functions. Here we characterize OsMADS29, one of three MADS-box B(sister genes in rice. Our analyses show that OsMADS29 is expressed in female reproductive organs including the ovule, ovule vasculature, and the whole seed except for the outer layer cells of the pericarp. Knock-down of OsMADS29 by double-stranded RNA-mediated interference (RNAi results in shriveled and/or aborted seeds. Histological analyses of the abnormal seeds at 7 days after pollination (DAP indicate that the symplastic continuity, including the ovular vascular trace and the nucellar projection, which is the nutrient source for the filial tissue at early development stages, is affected. Moreover, degeneration of all the maternal tissues in the transgenic seeds, including the pericarp, ovular vascular trace, integuments, nucellar epidermis and nucellar projection, is blocked as compared to control plants. Our results suggest that OsMADS29 has important functions in seed development of rice by regulating cell degeneration of maternal tissues. Our findings provide important insights into the ancestral function of B(sister genes.

  11. Variations on a theme in fruit development: the PLE lineage of MADS-box genes in tomato (TAGL1) and other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garceau, Danielle C; Batson, Megan K; Pan, Irvin L

    2017-08-01

    This article focuses on the role of TOMATO AGAMOUS-LIKE 1 (TAGL1) on a wide range of ripening functions in tomato. We also examine orthologs of this gene in related species that produce different fruit types and discuss some evolutionary implications. TOMATO AGAMOUS-LIKE 1 (TAGL1) is a MADS-box transcription factor gene that belongs to the PLENA (PLE) lineage within the AGAMOUS (AG) clade. The most well-studied genes in this lineage are the SHATTERPROOF (SHP) genes in Arabidopsis, known to be involved in dehiscence zone formation during silique development. In tomato, TAGL1 has been shown to control several aspects of tomato fruit ripening. Most notably, carotenoid synthesis seems to be controlled by TAGL1, likely via the ethylene synthesis and signaling pathway and in combination with RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN). In addition, TAGL1 regulates genes involved in cell cycle regulation, flavonoid and lignin biosynthesis, and cuticle development. We discuss many of the genes in these different pathways that are likely controlled by TAGL1, directly or indirectly. We also examine the relationship of TAGL1 with known and putative interaction partners. PLE lineage genes have also been examined in other species such as Antirrhinum, Petunia, and Nicotiana and provide an interesting example of conservation and diversification of function in species that produce very different types of fleshy and dry fruits. The control of lignification may be a common mechanism for this group of genes. Lastly, we discuss future work needed to elucidate the TAGL1 regulatory pathway in tomato and to help better understand the functional diversification of genes in this lineage in related species.

  12. Cloning and Functional Analysis of MADS-box Genes, TaAG-A and TaAG-B, from a Wheat K-type Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line

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    Wenlong Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is a major crop worldwide. The utilization of heterosis is a promising approach to improve the yield and quality of wheat. Although there have been many studies on wheat cytoplasmic male sterility, its mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we identified two MADS-box genes from a wheat K-type cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS line using homology-based cloning. These genes were localized on wheat chromosomes 3A and 3B and named TaAG-A and TaAG-B, respectively. Analysis of TaAG-A and TaAG-B expression patterns in leaves, spikes, roots, and stems of Chinese Spring wheat determined using quantitative RT-PCR revealed different expression levels in different tissues. TaAG-A had relatively high expression levels in leaves and spikes, but low levels in roots, while TaAG-B had relatively high expression levels in spikes and lower expression in roots, stems, and leaves. Both genes showed downregulation during the mononucleate to trinucleate stages of pollen development in the maintainer line. In contrast, upregulation of TaAG-B was observed in the CMS line. The transcript levels of the two genes were clearly higher in the CMS line compared to the maintainer line at the trinucleate stage. Overexpression of TaAG-A and TaAG-B in Arabidopsis resulted in phenotypes with earlier reproductive development, premature mortality, and abnormal buds, stamens, and stigmas. Overexpression of TaAG-A and TaAG-B gives rise to mutants with many deformities. Silencing TaAG-A and TaAG-B in a fertile wheat line using the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS method resulted in plants with green and yellow striped leaves, emaciated spikes, and decreased selfing seed set rates. These results demonstrate that TaAG-A and TaAG-B may play a role in male sterility in the wheat CMS line.

  13. Characterization and Functional Analysis of Five MADS-Box B Class Genes Related to Floral Organ Identification in Tagetes erecta.

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    Ye Ai

    Full Text Available According to the floral organ development ABC model, B class genes specify petal and stamen identification. In order to study the function of B class genes in flower development of Tagetes erecta, five MADS-box B class genes were identified and their expression and putative functions were studied. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that there were one PI-like gene-TePI, two euAP3-like genes-TeAP3-1 and TeAP3-2, and two TM6-like genes-TeTM6-1 and TeTM6-2 in T. erecta. Strong expression levels of these genes were detected in stamens of the disk florets, but little or no expression was detected in bracts, receptacles or vegetative organs. Yeast hybrid experiments of the B class proteins showed that TePI protein could form a homodimer and heterodimers with all the other four B class proteins TeAP3-1, TeAP3-2, TeTM6-1 and TeTM6-2. No homodimer or interaction was observed between the euAP3 and TM6 clade members. Over-expression of five B class genes of T. erecta in Nicotiana rotundifolia showed that only the transgenic plants of 35S::TePI showed altered floral morphology compared with the non-transgenic line. This study could contribute to the understanding of the function of B class genes in flower development of T. erecta, and provide a theoretical basis for further research to change floral organ structures and create new materials for plant breeding.

  14. A novel MADS-box gene subfamily with a sister-group relationship to class B floral homeotic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, A; Kaufmann, K; Freialdenhoven, A; Vincent, C; Li, M-A; Saedler, H; Theissen, G

    2002-02-01

    Class B floral homeotic genes specify the identity of petals and stamens during the development of angiosperm flowers. Recently, putative orthologs of these genes have been identified in different gymnosperms. Together, these genes constitute a clade, termed B genes. Here we report that diverse seed plants also contain members of a hitherto unknown sister clade of the B genes, termed B(sister) (B(s)) genes. We have isolated members of the B(s) clade from the gymnosperm Gnetum gnemon, the monocotyledonous angiosperm Zea mays and the eudicots Arabidopsis thaliana and Antirrhinum majus. In addition, MADS-box genes from the basal angiosperm Asarum europaeum and the eudicot Petunia hybrida were identified as B(s) genes. Comprehensive expression studies revealed that B(s) genes are mainly transcribed in female reproductive organs (ovules and carpel walls). This is in clear contrast to the B genes, which are predominantly expressed in male reproductive organs (and in angiosperm petals). Our data suggest that the B(s) genes played an important role during the evolution of the reproductive structures in seed plants. The establishment of distinct B and B(s) gene lineages after duplication of an ancestral gene may have accompanied the evolution of male microsporophylls and female megasporophylls 400-300 million years ago. During flower evolution, expression of B(s) genes diversified, but the focus of expression remained in female reproductive organs. Our findings imply that a clade of highly conserved close relatives of class B floral homeotic genes has been completely overlooked until recently and awaits further evaluation of its developmental and evolutionary importance. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer Link server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00438-001-0615-8.

  15. Banana MaMADS transcription factors are necessary for fruit ripening and molecular tools to promote shelf-life and food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic solutions to postharvest crop loss can reduce cost and energy inputs while increasing food security, especially for banana (Musa acuminata), which is a significant component of worldwide food commerce. We have functionally characterized two banana E class (SEPALLATA3 [SEP3]) MADS box genes, ...

  16. Expression of paralogous SEP-, FUL-, AG- and STK-like MADS-box genes in wild-type and peloric Phalaenopsis flowers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta eAcri-Nunes-Miranda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The diverse flowers of Orchidaceae are the result of several major morphological transitions, among them the most studied is the differentiation of the inner median tepal into the labellum, a perianth organ key in pollinator attraction. Type A peloria lacking stamens and with ectopic labella in place of inner lateral tepals are useful for testing models on the genes specifying these organs by comparing their patterns of expression between wild-type and peloric flowers. Previous studies focused on DEFICIENS and GLOBOSA-like MADS-box genes because of their conserved role in perianth and stamen development. The ‘orchid code’ model summarizes this work and shows in Orchidaceae there are four paralogous lineages of DEFICIENS/AP3-like genes differentially expressed in each floral whorl. Experimental tests of this model showed the conserved, higher expression of genes from two specific DEF-like gene lineages is associated with labellum development. The present study tests whether eight MADS-box candidate SEP-, FUL-, AG- and STK-like genes have been specifically duplicated in the Orchidaceae and are also differentially expressed in association with the distinct flower organs of Phalaenopsis hyb. Athens. The gene trees indicate orchid-specific duplications. In a way analogous to what is observed in labellum-specific DEF-like genes, a two-fold increase in the expression of SEP3-like gene PhaMADS7 was measured in the labellum-like inner lateral tepals of peloric flowers. The overlap between SEP3-like and DEF-like genes suggests both are associated with labellum specification and similar positional cues determine their domains of expression. In contrast, the uniform messenger levels of FUL-like genes suggest they are involved in the development of all organs and their expression in the ovary suggests cell differentiation starts before pollination. As previously reported AG-like and STK-like are exclusively expressed in gynostemium and ovary, however no

  17. An Atlas of Type I MADS Box Gene Expression during Female Gametophyte and Seed Development in Arabidopsis[W].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemer, M.; Heijmans, K.; Airoldi, C.A.; Davies, B.; Angenent, G.C.

    2010-01-01

    Members of the plant type I MADS domain subfamily have been reported to be involved in reproductive development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, from the 61 type I genes in the Arabidopsis genome, only PHERES1, AGAMOUS-LIKE80 (AGL80), DIANA, AGL62, and AGL23 have been functionally

  18. Nuclear factor ETF specifically stimulates transcription from promoters without a TATA box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, R; Merlino, G T; Pastan, I

    1989-09-15

    Transcription factor ETF stimulates the expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene which does not have a TATA box in the promoter region. Here, we show that ETF recognizes various GC-rich sequences including stretches of deoxycytidine or deoxyguanosine residues and GC boxes with similar affinities. ETF also binds to TATA boxes but with a lower affinity. ETF stimulated in vitro transcription from several promoters without TATA boxes but had little or no effect on TATA box-containing promoters even though they had strong ETF-binding sites. These inactive ETF-binding sites became functional when placed upstream of the EGFR promoter whose own ETF-binding sites were removed. Furthermore, when a TATA box was introduced into the EGFR promoter, the responsiveness to ETF was abolished. These results indicate that ETF is a specific transcription factor for promoters which do not contain TATA elements.

  19. Flower Development of Lilium longiflorum: Characterization of MADS-box transcription factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedito, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    Lily (Liliumspp.) is among the most traditional and beloved ornamental flowers worldwide. The genus Lilium comprises almost one hundred species, among which is the primary subject of our research, described in this thesis, the species Lilium

  20. Direct modulation of T-box riboswitch-controlled transcription by protein synthesis inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatopoulou, Vassiliki; Apostolidi, Maria; Li, Shuang; Lamprinou, Katerina; Papakyriakou, Athanasios; Zhang, Jinwei; Stathopoulos, Constantinos

    2017-09-29

    Recently, it was discovered that exposure to mainstream antibiotics activate numerous bacterial riboregulators that control antibiotic resistance genes including metabolite-binding riboswitches and other transcription attenuators. However, the effects of commonly used antibiotics, many of which exhibit RNA-binding properties, on the widespread T-box riboswitches, remain unknown. In Staphylococcus aureus, a species-specific glyS T-box controls the supply of glycine for both ribosomal translation and cell wall synthesis, making it a promising target for next-generation antimicrobials. Here, we report that specific protein synthesis inhibitors could either significantly increase T-box-mediated transcription antitermination, while other compounds could suppress it, both in vitro and in vivo. In-line probing of the full-length T-box combined with molecular modelling and docking analyses suggest that the antibiotics that promote transcription antitermination stabilize the T-box:tRNA complex through binding specific positions on stem I and the Staphylococcal-specific stem Sa. By contrast, the antibiotics that attenuate T-box transcription bind to other positions on stem I and do not interact with stem Sa. Taken together, our results reveal that the transcription of essential genes controlled by T-box riboswitches can be directly modulated by commonly used protein synthesis inhibitors. These findings accentuate the regulatory complexities of bacterial response to antimicrobials that involve multiple riboregulators. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. Forkhead box transcription factors in embryonic heart development and congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic heart development is a very complicated process regulated precisely by a network composed of many genes and signaling pathways in time and space. Forkhead box (Fox, FOX) proteins are a family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of an evolutionary conserved "forkhead"or "winged-helix" DNA-binding domain and able to organize temporal and spatial gene expression during development. They are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes, such as cell cycle progression, proliferation, differentiation, migration, metabolism and DNA damage response. An abundance of studies in model organisms and systems has established that Foxa2, Foxc1/c2, Foxh1 and Foxm1, Foxos and Foxps are important components of the signaling pathways that instruct cardiogenesis and embryonic heart development, playing paramount roles in heart development. The previous studies also have demonstrated that mutations in some of the forkhead box genes and the aberrant expression of forkhead box gene are heavily implicated in the congenital heart disease (CHD) of humans. This review primarily focuses on the current understanding of heart development regulated by forkhead box transcription factors and molecular genetic mechanisms by which forkhead box factors modulate heart development during embryogenesis and organogenesis. This review also summarizes human CHD related mutations in forkhead box genes as well as the abnormal expression of forkhead box gene, and discusses additional possible regulatory mechanisms of the forkhead box genes during embryonic heart development that warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Posttranslational modifications of Forkhead box O transcription factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, Aart Arno van der

    2006-01-01

    FOXO transcription factors play an important role in essential biological processes such as differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, DNA repair, metabolism and stress resistance. Phosphorylation is the modification that was first found on FOXOs and much of the subsequent studies focused on this

  3. Forkhead-box transcription factors and their role in the immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffer, PJ; Burgering, BMT

    2004-01-01

    It is more than a decade since the discovery of the first forkhead-box (FOX) transcription factor in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In the intervening time, there has been an explosion in the identification and characterization of members of this family of proteins. Importantly, in the past

  4. Isolation of the three grape sub-lineages of B-class MADS-box TM6, PISTILLATA and APETALA3 genes which are differentially expressed during flower and fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupin, María Josefina; Federici, Fernán; Medina, Consuelo; Matus, José Tomás; Timmermann, Tania; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2007-12-01

    The B class of MADS-box floral homeotic genes specifies petal and stamen identity in angiosperms. While this group is one of the most studied in herbaceous plant species, it has remained largely uncharacterized in woody species such as grapevine. Although the B class PI/GLO and AP3/DEF clades have been extensively characterized in model species, the role of the TM6 subgroup within the AP3 clade is not completely understood, since it is absent in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, the coding regions of VvTM6 and VvAP3 and the genomic sequence of VvPI, were cloned. VvPI and AtPI were confirmed to be functional homologues by means of complementation of the pi Arabidopsis mutant. Expression analysis revealed that VvPI and VvAP3 transcripts are restricted almost exclusively to inflorescences, although VvPI was detected at low levels in leaves and roots. VvTM6 expresses throughout the plant, with higher levels in flowers and berries. A detailed chronological study of grape flower progression by light microscopy and temporal expression analysis throughout early and late developmental stages, revealed that VvPI expression increases during pollen maturation and decreases between the events of pollination and fertilization, before the cap fall. On the other hand, VvTM6 is expressed in the last stage of anther development. Specific expression of VvAP3 and VvPI was detected in petals and stamens within the flower, while VvTM6 was also expressed in carpels. Moreover, this work provides the first evidence for expression of a TM6-like gene throughout fruit growth and ripening. Even if these genes belong to the same genetic class they could act in different periods and/or tissues during reproductive organ development.

  5. Functional conservation and divergence of four ginger AP1/AGL9 MADS-box genes revealed by analysis of their expression and protein-protein interaction, and ectopic expression of AhFUL gene in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiumei Li

    Full Text Available Alpinia genus are known generally as ginger-lilies for showy flowers in the ginger family, Zingiberaceae, and their floral morphology diverges from typical monocotyledon flowers. However, little is known about the functions of ginger MADS-box genes in floral identity. In this study, four AP1/AGL9 MADS-box genes were cloned from Alpinia hainanensis, and protein-protein interactions (PPIs and roles of the four genes in floral homeotic conversion and in floral evolution are surveyed for the first time. AhFUL is clustered to the AP1 lineage, AhSEP4 and AhSEP3b to the SEP lineage, and AhAGL6-like to the AGL6 lineage. The four genes showed conserved and divergent expression patterns, and their encoded proteins were localized in the nucleus. Seven combinations of PPI (AhFUL-AhSEP4, AhFUL-AhAGL6-like, AhFUL-AhSEP3b, AhSEP4-AhAGL6-like, AhSEP4-AhSEP3b, AhAGL6-like-AhSEP3b, and AhSEP3b-AhSEP3b were detected, and the PPI patterns in the AP1/AGL9 lineage revealed that five of the 10 possible combinations are conserved and three are variable, while conclusions cannot yet be made regarding the other two. Ectopic expression of AhFUL in Arabidopsis thaliana led to early flowering and floral organ homeotic conversion to sepal-like or leaf-like. Therefore, we conclude that the four A. hainanensis AP1/AGL9 genes show functional conservation and divergence in the floral identity from other MADS-box genes.

  6. Mad Cow Disease

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    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Mad Cow Disease KidsHealth / For Teens / Mad Cow Disease What's ... are people to get it? What Is Mad Cow Disease? Mad cow disease is an incurable, fatal ...

  7. Translational control by the DEAD Box RNA helicase belle regulates ecdysone-triggered transcriptional cascades.

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    Robert J Ihry

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones act, through their respective nuclear receptors, to regulate target gene expression. Despite their critical role in development, physiology, and disease, however, it is still unclear how these systemic cues are refined into tissue-specific responses. We identified a mutation in the evolutionarily conserved DEAD box RNA helicase belle/DDX3 that disrupts a subset of responses to the steroid hormone ecdysone during Drosophila melanogaster metamorphosis. We demonstrate that belle directly regulates translation of E74A, an ets transcription factor and critical component of the ecdysone-induced transcriptional cascade. Although E74A mRNA accumulates to abnormally high levels in belle mutant tissues, no E74A protein is detectable, resulting in misregulation of E74A-dependent ecdysone response genes. The accumulation of E74A mRNA in belle mutant salivary glands is a result of auto-regulation, fulfilling a prediction made by Ashburner nearly 40 years ago. In this model, Ashburner postulates that, in addition to regulating secondary response genes, protein products of primary response genes like E74A also inhibit their own ecdysone-induced transcription. Moreover, although ecdysone-triggered transcription of E74A appears to be ubiquitous during metamorphosis, belle-dependent translation of E74A mRNA is spatially restricted. These results demonstrate that translational control plays a critical, and previously unknown, role in refining transcriptional responses to the steroid hormone ecdysone.

  8. Novel functions of prototype foamy virus Gag glycine- arginine-rich boxes in reverse transcription and particle morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllers, Erik; Uhlig, Tobias; Stirnnagel, Kristin; Fiebig, Uwe; Zentgraf, Hanswalter; Lindemann, Dirk

    2011-02-01

    Prototype foamy virus (PFV) Gag lacks the characteristic orthoretroviral Cys-His motifs that are essential for various steps of the orthoretroviral replication cycle, such as RNA packaging, reverse transcription, infectivity, integration, and viral assembly. Instead, it contains three glycine-arginine-rich boxes (GR boxes) in its C terminus that putatively represent a functional equivalent. We used a four-plasmid replication-deficient PFV vector system, with uncoupled RNA genome packaging and structural protein translation, to analyze the effects of deletion and various substitution mutations within each GR box on particle release, particle-associated protein composition, RNA packaging, DNA content, infectivity, particle morphology, and intracellular localization. The degree of viral particle release by all mutants was similar to that of the wild type. Only minimal effects on Pol encapsidation, exogenous reverse transcriptase (RT) activity, and genomic viral RNA packaging were observed. In contrast, particle-associated DNA content and infectivity were drastically reduced for all deletion mutants and were undetectable for all alanine substitution mutants. Furthermore, GR box I mutants had significant changes in particle morphology, and GR box II mutants lacked the typical nuclear localization pattern of PFV Gag. Finally, it could be shown that GR boxes I and III, but not GR box II, can functionally complement each other. It therefore appears that, similar to the orthoretroviral Cys-His motifs, the PFV Gag GR boxes are important for RNA encapsidation, genome reverse transcription, and virion infectivity as well as for particle morphogenesis.

  9. The MADS Box Genes ABS, SHP1, and SHP2 Are Essential for the Coordination of Cell Divisions in Ovule and Seed Coat Development and for Endosperm Formation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Katrin; Bhide, Amey S; Tekleyohans, Dawit G; Wittkop, Benjamin; Snowdon, Rod J; Becker, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Seed formation is a pivotal process in plant reproduction and dispersal. It begins with megagametophyte development in the ovule, followed by fertilization and subsequently coordinated development of embryo, endosperm, and maternal seed coat. Two closely related MADS-box genes, SHATTERPROOF 1 and 2 (SHP1 and SHP2) are involved in specifying ovule integument identity in Arabidopsis thaliana. The MADS box gene ARABIDOPSIS BSISTER (ABS or TT16) is required, together with SEEDSTICK (STK) for the formation of endothelium, part of the seed coat and innermost tissue layer formed by the maternal plant. Little is known about the genetic interaction of SHP1 and SHP2 with ABS and the coordination of endosperm and seed coat development. In this work, mutant and expression analysis shed light on this aspect of concerted development. Triple tt16 shp1 shp2 mutants produce malformed seedlings, seed coat formation defects, fewer seeds, and mucilage reduction. While shp1 shp2 mutants fail to coordinate the timely development of ovules, tt16 mutants show less peripheral endosperm after fertilization. Failure in coordinated division of the innermost integument layer in early ovule stages leads to inner seed coat defects in tt16 and tt16 shp1 shp2 triple mutant seeds. An antagonistic action of ABS and SHP1/SHP2 is observed in inner seed coat layer formation. Expression analysis also indicates that ABS represses SHP1, SHP2, and FRUITFUL expression. Our work shows that the evolutionary conserved Bsister genes are required not only for endothelium but also for endosperm development and genetically interact with SHP1 and SHP2 in a partially antagonistic manner.

  10. The MADS Box Genes ABS, SHP1, and SHP2 Are Essential for the Coordination of Cell Divisions in Ovule and Seed Coat Development and for Endosperm Formation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Ehlers

    Full Text Available Seed formation is a pivotal process in plant reproduction and dispersal. It begins with megagametophyte development in the ovule, followed by fertilization and subsequently coordinated development of embryo, endosperm, and maternal seed coat. Two closely related MADS-box genes, SHATTERPROOF 1 and 2 (SHP1 and SHP2 are involved in specifying ovule integument identity in Arabidopsis thaliana. The MADS box gene ARABIDOPSIS BSISTER (ABS or TT16 is required, together with SEEDSTICK (STK for the formation of endothelium, part of the seed coat and innermost tissue layer formed by the maternal plant. Little is known about the genetic interaction of SHP1 and SHP2 with ABS and the coordination of endosperm and seed coat development. In this work, mutant and expression analysis shed light on this aspect of concerted development. Triple tt16 shp1 shp2 mutants produce malformed seedlings, seed coat formation defects, fewer seeds, and mucilage reduction. While shp1 shp2 mutants fail to coordinate the timely development of ovules, tt16 mutants show less peripheral endosperm after fertilization. Failure in coordinated division of the innermost integument layer in early ovule stages leads to inner seed coat defects in tt16 and tt16 shp1 shp2 triple mutant seeds. An antagonistic action of ABS and SHP1/SHP2 is observed in inner seed coat layer formation. Expression analysis also indicates that ABS represses SHP1, SHP2, and FRUITFUL expression. Our work shows that the evolutionary conserved Bsister genes are required not only for endothelium but also for endosperm development and genetically interact with SHP1 and SHP2 in a partially antagonistic manner.

  11. Agave tequilana MADS genes show novel expression patterns in meristems, developing bulbils and floral organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Sandoval, Silvia del Carmen; Abraham Juárez, María Jazmín; Simpson, June

    2012-03-01

    Agave tequilana is a monocarpic perennial species that flowers after 5-8 years of vegetative growth signaling the end of the plant's life cycle. When fertilization is unsuccessful, vegetative bulbils are induced on the umbels of the inflorescence near the bracteoles from newly formed meristems. Although the regulation of inflorescence and flower development has been described in detail for monocarpic annuals and polycarpic species, little is known at the molecular level for these processes in monocarpic perennials, and few studies have been carried out on bulbils. Histological samples revealed the early induction of umbel meristems soon after the initiation of the vegetative to inflorescence transition in A. tequilana. To identify candidate genes involved in the regulation of floral induction, a search for MADS-box transcription factor ESTs was conducted using an A. tequilana transcriptome database. Seven different MIKC MADS genes classified into 6 different types were identified based on previously characterized A. thaliana and O. sativa MADS genes and sequences from non-grass monocotyledons. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the seven candidate MADS genes in vegetative, inflorescence, bulbil and floral tissues uncovered novel patterns of expression for some of the genes in comparison with orthologous genes characterized in other species. In situ hybridization studies using two different genes showed expression in specific tissues of vegetative meristems and floral buds. Distinct MADS gene regulatory patterns in A. tequilana may be related to the specific reproductive strategies employed by this species.

  12. Trans meets cis in MADS science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folter, de S.; Angenent, G.C.

    2006-01-01

    The interaction between a transcription factor and its binding site at the DNA is an integral part of transcriptional regulatory networks, which is fundamental for an understanding of biological processes. An example is the family of MADS domain transcription factors, which represent key regulators

  13. [Madness in Foucault: art and madness, madness and unreason].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Providello, Guilherme Gonzaga Duarte; Yasui, Silvio

    2013-10-01

    After presenting the ideas on madness and its interface with art as expressed in the writings of Michel Foucault, Peter Pál Pelbart, and Gilles Deleuze, the article explores how these authors question the relationship between art and madness. It begins with the notion that madness does not tell the truth about art, and vice versa, but that there are links between both that must be delved into if we are to engage in deeper reflection on the topic. The text problematizes the statement that madness is the absence of an oeuvre and examines how this impacts the possibility of achieving an artistic oeuvre. It further problematizes the idea of madness as excluded language, that is, the idea that madness implies not only the exclusion of the body but also the disqualification of discourse.

  14. Forkhead box O transcription factors as possible mediators in the development of major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haitao; Quirion, Rémi; Little, Peter J; Cheng, Yufang; Feng, Zhong-Ping; Sun, Hong-Shuo; Xu, Jiangping; Zheng, Wenhua

    2015-12-01

    Forkhead box O (FoxO) transcription factors play important roles in cellular physiology and biology. Recent findings indicate that FoxOs are also involved in the development of major depressive disorder. Alterations in the upstream molecules of FoxOs, such as brain derived neurotrophic factor or protein kinase B, have been linked to depression. Antidepressants, such as imipramine and venlafaxine, modify the FoxOs phosphorylation. Furthermore, FoxOs could be regulated by serotonin and norepinephrine receptor signaling as well as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, all of which are involved in the pathogenesis of depression. FoxOs also regulate neuronal morphology, synaptogenesis and adult hippocampal neurogenesis, which are viewed as candidate mechanisms for the etiology of depression. In this review, we emphasize the possible roles of FoxOs during the development of depression and make some strategic recommendations for future research. We propose that FoxOs and its signaling pathways may constitute potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mad Cow Disease (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Mad Cow Disease KidsHealth / For Parents / Mad Cow Disease What's ... Is Being Done About It Print About Mad Cow Disease Mad cow disease has been in the ...

  16. MADS specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourik, van Hilda

    2017-01-01

    Encrypted in the DNA lays most information needed for the development of an organism. The transcription of this information into precise patterns of gene activity results in the development of different cell types, organs, and developmental structures. Moreover, transcriptional regulation enables

  17. SRY-box-containing Gene 2 Regulation of Nuclear Receptor Tailless (Tlx) Transcription in Adult Neural Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shimozaki, Koji; Zhang, Chun-Li; Suh, Hoonkyo; Denli, Ahmet M.; Evans, Ronald M.; Gage, Fred H.

    2012-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis is maintained by self-renewable neural stem cells (NSCs). Their activity is regulated by multiple signaling pathways and key transcription factors. However, it has been unclear whether these factors interplay with each other at the molecular level. Here we show that SRY-box-containing gene 2 (Sox2) and nuclear receptor tailless (TLX) form a molecular network in adult NSCs. We observed that both Sox2 and TLX proteins bind to the upstream region of Tlx gene. Sox2 positively r...

  18. Leaf-Like Sepals Induced by Ectopic Expression of a SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP)-Like MADS-Box Gene from the Basal Eudicot Epimedium sagittatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhineng; Zeng, Shaohua; Li, Yanbang; Li, Mingyang; Souer, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Epimedium L. (Berberidaceae, Ranales), a perennial traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has become a new popular landscape plant for ground cover and pot culture in many countries based on its excellent ornamental characteristics and, distinctive and diverse floral morphology. However, little is known about the molecular genetics of flower development in Epimedium sagittatum. Here, we describe the characterization of EsSVP that encodes a protein sharing 68, 54, and 35% similarity with SVP, AGAMOUS-like 24 (AGL24) and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) in Arabidopsis, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) indicated that EsSVP transcripts were principally found in petiole and leaf tissues, with little expression in roots and flowers and no in fruits. The highest EsSVP expression was observed in leaves. The flowering time of 35S::EsSVP in most Arabidopsis thaliana and in all petunia plants was not affected in both photoperiod conditions, but 35S::EsSVP 5# and 35S::EsSVP 1# Arabidopsis lines induced late and early flowering under long day (LD, 14 h light/10 h dark) and short day (SD, 10 h light/14 h dark) conditions, respectively. The 35S::EsSVP Arabidopsis produced extra secondary inflorescence or floral meristems in the axils of the leaf-like sepals with excrescent trichomes, and leaf-like sepals not able to enclose the inner three whorls completely. Moreover, almost all transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed persistent sepals around the completely matured fruits. Upon ectopic expression of 35S::EsSVP in Petunia W115, sepals were enlarged, sometimes to the size of leaves; corollas were greenish and did not fully open. These results suggest that EsSVP is involved in inflorescence meristem identity and flowering time regulation in some conditions. Although, the SVP homologs might have suffered functional diversification among diverse species between core and basal eudicots, the protein functions are conserved between Arabidopsis/Petunia and Epimedium

  19. Leaf-like sepals induced by ectopic expression of a SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP-like MADS-box gene from the basal eudicot Epimedium sagittatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhineng Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Epimedium L. (Berberidaceae, Ranales, a perennial traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has become a new popular landscape plant for ground cover and pot culture in many countries based on its excellent ornamental characteristics and, distinctive and diverse floral morphology. However, little is known about the molecular genetics of flower development in Epimedium sagittatum. Here, we describe the characterization of EsSVP that encodes a protein sharing 68%, 54% and 35% similarity with SVP, AGAMOUS-like 24 (AGL24 and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1 in Arabidopsis, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR indicated that EsSVP transcripts were principally found in petiole and leaf tissues, with little expression in roots and flowers and no in fruits. The highest EsSVP expression was observed in leaves. The flowering time of 35S::EsSVP in most Arabidopsis thaliana and in all petunia plants was not affected in both photoperiod conditions, but 35S::EsSVP 5# and 35S::EsSVP 1# Arabidopsis lines induced late and early flowering under long day (LD, 14 hr light/10 hr dark and short day (SD, 10 hr light/14 hr dark conditions, respectively. The 35S::EsSVP Arabidopsis produced extra secondary inflorescence or floral meristems in the axils of the leaf-like sepals with excrescent trichomes, and leaf-like sepals not able to enclose the inner three whorls completely. Moreover, almost all transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed persistent sepals around the completely matured fruits. Upon ectopic expression of 35S::EsSVP in Petunia W115, sepals were enlarged, sometimes to the size of leaves; corollas were greenish and did not fully open. These results suggest that EsSVP is involved in inflorescence meristem identity and flowering time regulation in some conditions. Although the SVP homologs might have suffered functional diversification among diverse species between core and basal eudicots, the protein functions are conserved between Arabidopsis

  20. SRY-box-containing gene 2 regulation of nuclear receptor tailless (Tlx) transcription in adult neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimozaki, Koji; Zhang, Chun-Li; Suh, Hoonkyo; Denli, Ahmet M; Evans, Ronald M; Gage, Fred H

    2012-02-17

    Adult neurogenesis is maintained by self-renewable neural stem cells (NSCs). Their activity is regulated by multiple signaling pathways and key transcription factors. However, it has been unclear whether these factors interplay with each other at the molecular level. Here we show that SRY-box-containing gene 2 (Sox2) and nuclear receptor tailless (TLX) form a molecular network in adult NSCs. We observed that both Sox2 and TLX proteins bind to the upstream region of Tlx gene. Sox2 positively regulates Tlx expression, whereas the binding of TLX to its own promoter suppresses its transcriptional activity in luciferase reporter assays. Such TLX-mediated suppression can be antagonized by overexpressing wild-type Sox2 but not a mutant lacking the transcriptional activation domain. Furthermore, through regions involved in DNA-binding activity, Sox2 and TLX physically interact to form a complex on DNAs that contain a consensus binding site for TLX. Finally, depletion of Sox2 revealed the potential negative feedback loop of TLX expression that is antagonized by Sox2 in adult NSCs. These data suggest that Sox2 plays an important role in Tlx transcription in cultured adult NSCs.

  1. SRY-box-containing Gene 2 Regulation of Nuclear Receptor Tailless (Tlx) Transcription in Adult Neural Stem Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimozaki, Koji; Zhang, Chun-Li; Suh, Hoonkyo; Denli, Ahmet M.; Evans, Ronald M.; Gage, Fred H.

    2012-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis is maintained by self-renewable neural stem cells (NSCs). Their activity is regulated by multiple signaling pathways and key transcription factors. However, it has been unclear whether these factors interplay with each other at the molecular level. Here we show that SRY-box-containing gene 2 (Sox2) and nuclear receptor tailless (TLX) form a molecular network in adult NSCs. We observed that both Sox2 and TLX proteins bind to the upstream region of Tlx gene. Sox2 positively regulates Tlx expression, whereas the binding of TLX to its own promoter suppresses its transcriptional activity in luciferase reporter assays. Such TLX-mediated suppression can be antagonized by overexpressing wild-type Sox2 but not a mutant lacking the transcriptional activation domain. Furthermore, through regions involved in DNA-binding activity, Sox2 and TLX physically interact to form a complex on DNAs that contain a consensus binding site for TLX. Finally, depletion of Sox2 revealed the potential negative feedback loop of TLX expression that is antagonized by Sox2 in adult NSCs. These data suggest that Sox2 plays an important role in Tlx transcription in cultured adult NSCs. PMID:22194602

  2. Rundt om Mad Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen gør rede for Mad Mens tilblivelse, dens populærkulturelle efterdønninger, multimediale forgreninger og værkæstetiske karakteristika. "Story Matters Here" lyder AMCs motto, men Mad Men tilbyder et bredspektret engagement, der går langt ud over at følge med i en vedkommende fortælling...

  3. Optimizations of siRNA design for the activation of gene transcription by targeting the TATA-box motif.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaomiao Fan

    Full Text Available Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs are widely used to repress gene expression by targeting mRNAs. Some reports reveal that siRNAs can also activate or inhibit gene expression through targeting the gene promoters. Our group has found that microRNAs (miRNAs could activate gene transcription via interaction with the TATA-box motif in gene promoters. To investigate whether siRNA targeting the same region could upregulate the promoter activity, we test the activating efficiency of siRNAs targeting the TATA-box motif of 16 genes and perform a systematic analysis to identify the common features of the functional siRNAs for effective activation of gene promoters. Further, we try various modifications to improve the activating efficiency of siRNAs and find that it is quite useful to design the promoter-targeting activating siRNA by following several rules such as (a complementary to the TATA-box-centered region; (b UA usage at the first two bases of the antisense strand; (c twenty-three nucleotides (nts in length; (d 2'-O-Methyl (2'-OMe modification at the 3' terminus of the antisense strand; (e avoiding mismatches at the 3' end of the antisense strand. The optimized activating siRNAs potently enhance the expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2 gene in human and mouse primary CD4+ T cells with a long-time effect. Taken together, our study provides a guideline for rational design the promoter-targeting siRNA to sequence-specifically enhance gene expression.

  4. Human HMG box transcription factor HBP1: a role in hCD2 LCR function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuma, T; Tyrrell, R; Sekkali, B; Skavdis, G; Saveliev, A; Tolaini, M; Roderick, K; Norton, T; Smerdon, S; Sedgwick, S; Festenstein, R; Kioussis, D

    1999-01-01

    The locus control region (LCR) of the human CD2 gene (hCD2) confers T cell-specific, copy-dependent and position-independent gene expression in transgenic mice. This LCR consists of a strong T cell-specific enhancer and an element without enhancer activity (designated HSS3), which is required for prevention of position effect variegation (PEV) in transgenic mice. Here, we identified the HMG box containing protein-1 (HBP1) as a factor binding to HSS3 of the hCD2 LCR. Within the LCR, HBP1 binds to a novel TTCATTCATTCA sequence that is higher in affinity than other recently reported HBP1-binding sites. Mice transgenic for a hCD2 LCR construct carrying a deletion of the HBP1-binding sequences show a propensity for PEV if the transgene integrates in a heterochromatic region of the chromosome such as the centromere or telomere. We propose that HBP1 plays an important role in chromatin opening and remodelling activities by binding to and bending the DNA, thus allowing DNA-protein and/or protein-protein interactions, which increase the probability of establishing an active locus. PMID:10562551

  5. Mad Cow Disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mad Cow Disease, or bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is one of ... humoral immunity is developed against such infections. ... Most infecti ve agents, ranging from the more complex protozoans to bacteri(! and viruses, contain nucleic.

  6. Suppressed Expression of T-Box Transcription Factors is Involved in Senescence in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acquaah-Mensah, George; Malhotra, Deepti; Vulimiri, Madhulika; McDermott, Jason E.; Biswal, Shyam

    2012-06-19

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global health problem. The etiology of COPD has been associated with apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. However, understanding of the molecular interactions that modulate COPD pathogenesis remains only partly resolved. We conducted an exploratory study on COPD etiology to identify the key molecular participants. We used information-theoretic algorithms including Context Likelihood of Relatedness (CLR), Algorithm for the Reconstruction of Accurate Cellular Networks (ARACNE), and Inferelator. We captured direct functional associations among genes, given a compendium of gene expression profiles of human lung epithelial cells. A set of genes differentially expressed in COPD, as reported in a previous study were superposed with the resulting transcriptional regulatory networks. After factoring in the properties of the networks, an established COPD susceptibility locus and domain-domain interactions involving protein products of genes in the generated networks, several molecular candidates were predicted to be involved in the etiology of COPD. These include COL4A3, CFLAR, GULP1, PDCD1, CASP10, PAX3, BOK, HSPD1, PITX2, and PML. Furthermore, T-box (TBX) genes and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A), which are in a direct transcriptional regulatory relationship, emerged as preeminent participants in the etiology of COPD by means of senescence. Contrary to observations in neoplasms, our study reveals that the expression of genes and proteins in the lung samples from patients with COPD indicate an increased tendency towards cellular senescence. The expression of the anti-senescence mediators TBX transcription factors, chromatin modifiers histone deacetylases, and sirtuins was suppressed; while the expression of TBX-regulated cellular senescence markers such as CDKN2A, CDKN1A, and CAV1 was elevated in the peripheral lung tissue samples from patients with COPD. The critical balance between senescence

  7. MADS Users' Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerder, Daniel D.

    2014-01-01

    MADS (Minimization Assistant for Dynamical Systems) is a trajectory optimization code in which a user-specified performance measure is directly minimized, subject to constraints placed on a low-order discretization of user-supplied plant ordinary differential equations. This document describes the mathematical formulation of the set of trajectory optimization problems for which MADS is suitable, and describes the user interface. Usage examples are provided.

  8. Digital gene expression analysis of male and female bud transition in Metasequoia reveals high activity of MADS-box transcription factors and hormone-mediated sugar pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Ying; Liang, Haiying; Li, Lan; Tang, Sha; Han, Xiao; Wang, Congpeng; Xia, Xinli; Yin, Weilun

    2015-01-01

    Metasequoia glyptostroboides is a famous redwood tree of ecological and economic importance, and requires more than 20 years of juvenile-to-adult transition before producing female and male cones. Previously, we induced reproductive buds using a hormone solution in juvenile Metasequoia trees as young as 5-to-7 years old. In the current study, hormone-treated shoots found in female and male buds were used to identify candidate genes involved in reproductive bud transition in Metasequoia. Sampl...

  9. The Aspergillus niger MADS-box transcription factor RlmA is required for cell wall reinforcement in response to cell wall stress.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damveld, R.A.; Arentshorst, M.; Franken, A.; Vankuyk, P.A.; Klis, F.M.; van den Hondel, C.A.; Ram, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    In Aspergillus niger, the genes coding for glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (gfaA) and ¿-1,3-glucan synthase (agsA) are induced in response to cell wall stress. In silico analysis of the promoter region of the two genes revealed the presence of putative DNA binding sites for

  10. A human Polycomb isoform lacking the Pc box does not participate to PRC1 complexes but forms protein assemblies and represses transcription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völkel, Pamela; Le Faou, Perrine; Vandamme, Julien

    2012-01-01

    site for the PRC1 protein complex. Drosophila core PRC1 is composed of four subunits: Polycomb (Pc), Posterior sex combs (Psc), Polyhomeotic (Ph) and Sex combs extra (Sce). Each of these proteins has multiple orthologs in vertebrates, thus generating an enormous scope for potential combinatorial...... diversity. In particular, mammalian genomes encode five Pc family members: CBX2, CBX4, CBX6, CBX7 and CBX8. To complicate matters further, distinct isoforms might arise from single genes. Here, we address the functional role of the two human CBX2 isoforms. Owing to different polyadenylation sites...... and alternative splicing events, the human CBX2 locus produces two transcripts: a 5-exon transcript that encodes the 532-amino acid CBX2-1 isoform that contains the conserved chromodomain and Pc box and a 4-exon transcript encoding a shorter isoform, CBX2-2, lacking the Pc box but still possessing a chromodomain...

  11. Roles of Forkhead-box Transcription Factors in Controlling Development, Pathogenicity, and Stress Response in Magnaporthe oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaejin Park

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although multiple transcription factors (TFs have been characterized via mutagenesis to understand their roles in controlling pathogenicity and infection-related development in Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of rice blast, if and how forkhead-box (FOX TFs contribute to these processes remain to be characterized. Four putative FOX TF genes were identified in the genome of M. oryzae, and phylogenetic analysis suggested that two of them (MoFKH1 and MoHCM1 correspond to Ascomycota-specific members of the FOX TF family while the others (MoFOX1 and MoFOX2 are Pezizomycotina-specific members. Deletion of MoFKH1 (ΔMofkh1 resulted in reduced mycelial growth and conidial germination, abnormal septation and stress response, and reduced virulence. Similarly, ΔMohcm1 exhibited reduced mycelial growth and conidial germination. Conidia of ΔMofkh1 and ΔMohcm1 were more sensitive to one or both of the cell cycle inhibitors hydroxyurea and benomyl, suggesting their role in cell cycle control. On the other hand, loss of MoFOX1 (ΔMofox1 did not show any noticeable changes in development, pathogenicity, and stress response. Deletion of MoFOX2 was not successful even after repeated attempts. Taken together, these results suggested that MoFKH1 and Mo-HCM1 are important in fungal development and that MoFKH1 is further implicated in pathogenicity and stress response in M. oryzae.

  12. MAD Phasing with Krypton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Phasing of two proteins, the 17 kDa Fe protein myoglobin from sperm whale (P. catodon) and an 18 kDa protein (SP18) from green abalone (H. fulgens), using Kr-edge MAD with frozen crystals demonstrates the feasibility of this technique as a routine method for structure determination

  13. MadEvent: automatic event generation with MadGraph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltoni, Fabio; Stelzer, Tim

    2003-01-01

    We present a new multi-channel integration method and its implementation in the multi-purpose event generator MadEvent, which is based on MadGraph. Given a process, MadGraph automatically identifies all the relevant subprocesses, generates both the amplitudes and the mappings needed for an efficient integration over the phase space, and passes them to MadEvent. As a result, a process-specific, stand-alone code is produced that allows the user to calculate cross sections and produce unweighted events in a standard output format. Several examples are given for processes that are relevant for physics studies at present and forthcoming colliders. (author)

  14. A human Polycomb isoform lacking the Pc box does not participate to PRC1 complexes but forms protein assemblies and represses transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völkel, Pamela; Le Faou, Perrine; Vandamme, Julien; Pira, Dorcas; Angrand, Pierre-Olivier

    2012-05-01

    Polycomb repression controls the expression of hundreds of genes involved in development and is mediated by essentially two classes of chromatin-associated protein complexes. The Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) trimethylates histone H3 at lysine 27, an epigenetic mark that serves as a docking site for the PRC1 protein complex. Drosophila core PRC1 is composed of four subunits: Polycomb (Pc), Posterior sex combs (Psc), Polyhomeotic (Ph) and Sex combs extra (Sce). Each of these proteins has multiple orthologs in vertebrates, thus generating an enormous scope for potential combinatorial diversity. In particular, mammalian genomes encode five Pc family members: CBX2, CBX4, CBX6, CBX7 and CBX8. To complicate matters further, distinct isoforms might arise from single genes. Here, we address the functional role of the two human CBX2 isoforms. Owing to different polyadenylation sites and alternative splicing events, the human CBX2 locus produces two transcripts: a 5-exon transcript that encodes the 532-amino acid CBX2-1 isoform that contains the conserved chromodomain and Pc box and a 4-exon transcript encoding a shorter isoform, CBX2-2, lacking the Pc box but still possessing a chromodomain. Using biochemical approaches and a novel in vivo imaging assay, we show that the short CBX2-2 isoform lacking the Pc box, does not participate in PRC1 protein complexes, but self-associates in vivo and forms complexes of high molecular weight. Furthermore, the CBX2 short isoform is still able to repress transcription, suggesting that Polycomb repression might occur in the absence of PRC1 formation.

  15. Madness as disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Sander L

    2014-12-01

    How does society imagine mental illness? Does this shift radically over time and with different social attitudes as well as scientific discoveries about the origins and meanings of mental illness? What happens when we begin to think about mental illness as madness, as a malleable concept constantly shifting its meaning? We thus look at the meanings associated with 'general paralysis of the insane' in the nineteenth century and autism today in regard to disability. In this case study we examine the claims by scholars such as the anthropologist Emily Martin and the psychiatrist Kay Jamison as to the relationship between mental illness, disability and creativity. Today, the health sciences have become concerned with mental illness as a form of disability. How does this change the meaning of madness for practitioners and patients? © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Madness in Shakespeare's Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Borja-Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins with an introduction where the aims are explained: a psychopathological analysis of a Shakespearean character - Othello – followed by the discussion of the English dramatist’s importance in helping us understand madness in the emergent world of Renaissance. The main characteristics of Othello’s personality, which allowed the development of his jealousy delusion, are described. Finally, the conclusions underline the overlap of the symptoms developed by the character with the DSM-IV classification.

  17. [Surrealism and madness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, Κ

    2017-01-01

    This article attempts an approach of madness by surrealism, as reflected in the pathway of the surrealist movement. In the light of enlargement of the concept of mental illness and the experience of madness, an approach is being attempted regarding the early surrealist views as they precursory appear e.g. from the case of Hieronymus Bosch to the meeting of the dominant psychiatry and the surrealist movement in the 19th and 20th century. Then, the paper attempts to present the main positions of representatives of the movement, such as Breton, Dali and Kalas. These three surrealists were chosen among others, for this brief report, as the representatives of three remarkable moments in the surrealistic route. Breton introduces the element of fiction and hyper-reality while he questions the distinction between normal and abnormal element. Dali with his paranoid critical method reconciles actual representations with mythical and symbolic elements, breaking through the limits between objectivity and subjectivity. Kalas puts forward the social origin of insanity along with the fundamental surrealist notions of individual freedom and will. For a more complete understanding of this attempt, it was considered useful to include elements of the main views on madness from the standpoint of a critical approach in psychiatry and psychology. The surrealistic view seems to be close to this critical approach which is likely to have been affected by it on the level in which the movements and scientific fields meet and interact. The relationship between surrealism, the notion and expression of madness and the absurd seems to be inherent to the very development of the movement through its core and individual pursuits. In conclusion, the relationship between surrealism and the notion and expression of the madness and the absurd seems to be inherent to the very birth of the movement through its main positions and pursuits. The question of so-called reality, its overshoot and the vision of

  18. Global MYCN transcription factor binding analysis in neuroblastoma reveals association with distinct E-box motifs and regions of DNA hypermethylation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Derek M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma, a cancer derived from precursor cells of the sympathetic nervous system, is a major cause of childhood cancer related deaths. The single most important prognostic indicator of poor clinical outcome in this disease is genomic amplification of MYCN, a member of a family of oncogenic transcription factors. METHODOLOGY: We applied MYCN chromatin immunoprecipitation to microarrays (ChIP-chip) using MYCN amplified\\/non-amplified cell lines as well as a conditional knockdown cell line to determine the distribution of MYCN binding sites within all annotated promoter regions. CONCLUSION: Assessment of E-box usage within consistently positive MYCN binding sites revealed a predominance for the CATGTG motif (p<0.0016), with significant enrichment of additional motifs CATTTG, CATCTG, CAACTG in the MYCN amplified state. For cell lines over-expressing MYCN, gene ontology analysis revealed enrichment for the binding of MYCN at promoter regions of numerous molecular functional groups including DNA helicases and mRNA transcriptional regulation. In order to evaluate MYCN binding with respect to other genomic features, we determined the methylation status of all annotated CpG islands and promoter sequences using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP). The integration of MYCN ChIP-chip and MeDIP data revealed a highly significant positive correlation between MYCN binding and DNA hypermethylation. This association was also detected in regions of hemizygous loss, indicating that the observed association occurs on the same homologue. In summary, these findings suggest that MYCN binding occurs more commonly at CATGTG as opposed to the classic CACGTG E-box motif, and that disease associated over expression of MYCN leads to aberrant binding to additional weaker affinity E-box motifs in neuroblastoma. The co-localization of MYCN binding and DNA hypermethylation further supports the dual role of MYCN, namely that of a classical transcription factor affecting the

  19. MAD parsing and conversion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhov, Dmitri N.

    2000-01-01

    The authors describe design and implementation issues while developing an embeddable MAD language parser. Two working applications of the parser are also described, namely, MAD-> C++ converter and C++ factory. The report contains some relevant details about the parser and examples of converted code. It also describes some of the problems that were encountered and the solutions found for them

  20. MAD data collection - current trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dementieva, I.; Evans, G.; Joachimiak, A.; Sanishvili, R.; Walsh, M. A.

    1999-01-01

    The multi-wavelength anomalous diffraction, or MAD, method of determining protein structure is becoming routine in protein crystallography. An increase in the number of tuneable synchrotrons beamlines coupled with the widespread availability position-sensitive X-ray detectors based on charged-coupled devices and having fast readout raised MAD structure determination to a new and exciting level. Ultra-fast MAD data collection is now possible. Recognition of the value of selenium for phasing protein structures and improvement of methods for incorporating selenium into proteins in the form of selenomethionine have attracted greater interest in the MAD method. Recent developments in crystallographic software are complimenting the above advances, paving the way for rapid protein structure determination. An overview of a typical MAD experiment is described here, with emphasis on the rates and quality of data acquisition now achievable at beamlines developed at third-generation synchrotrons sources

  1. [Travelers, mad, wandering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaschetto, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the notion of "wandering" through the use of some phenomena enrolled at the dawn of modernity such as the Rousseau dromomanie's philosopher and writer, the origin of the first mad traveler (Albert Dadas), epidemics of mad travelers Europe and romantic tourism (with renewed acquires significance in the "beat generation" of the twentieth century). These historical facts are "mounting" as play contemporary manifestations such as loss, disorientation, to lose one's way, and wandering without reducing them only to clinical psychosis. Readings of classic psychiatrists such as Régis, Foville, Sérieux and Capgras, Tissié, go hand in hand with the current readings of the philosopher Ian Hacking and critics of pop culture as S. Reynolds and D. Diederichsen, illustrating how the travel's phenomenon can make different subjective configurations depending on historical times. In conclusion it is noted that not only psychosis exposes the wandering soul of suffering but there are also subject positions (as will be exemplified in a clinical case) and go no further nesting wandering into human existence.

  2. MadGraph/MadEvent. The new web generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwall, J.

    2007-01-01

    The new web-based version of the automatized process and event generator MadGraph/MadEvent is now available. Recent developments are: New models, notably MSSM, 2HDM and a framework for addition of user-defined models, inclusive sample generation and on-line hadronization and detector simulation. Event generation can be done on-line on any of our clusters. (author)

  3. Virulence factor NSs of rift valley fever virus recruits the F-box protein FBXO3 to degrade subunit p62 of general transcription factor TFIIH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainulainen, Markus; Habjan, Matthias; Hubel, Philipp; Busch, Laura; Lau, Simone; Colinge, Jacques; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Pichlmair, Andreas; Weber, Friedemann

    2014-03-01

    The nonstructural protein NSs is the main virulence factor of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV; family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus), a serious pathogen of livestock and humans in Africa. RVFV NSs blocks transcriptional upregulation of antiviral type I interferons (IFN) and destroys the general transcription factor TFIIH subunit p62 via the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. Here, we identified a subunit of E3 ubiquitin ligases, F-box protein FBXO3, as a host cell interactor of NSs. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated depletion of FBXO3 rescued p62 protein levels in RVFV-infected cells and elevated IFN transcription by 1 order of magnitude. NSs interacts with the full-length FBXO3 protein as well as with a truncated isoform that lacks the C-terminal acidic and poly(R)-rich domains. These isoforms are present in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. NSs exclusively removes the nuclear pool of full-length FBXO3, likely due to consumption during the degradation process. F-box proteins form the variable substrate recognition subunit of the so-called SCF ubiquitin ligases, which also contain the constant components Skp1, cullin 1 (or cullin 7), and Rbx1. siRNA knockdown of Skp1 also protected p62 from degradation, suggesting involvement in NSs action. However, knockdown of cullin 1, cullin 7, or Rbx1 could not rescue p62 degradation by NSs. Our data show that the enzymatic removal of p62 via the host cell factor FBXO3 is a major mechanism of IFN suppression by RVFV. Rift Valley fever virus is a serious emerging pathogen of animals and humans. Its main virulence factor, NSs, enables unhindered virus replication by suppressing the antiviral innate immune system. We identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase FBXO3 as a novel host cell interactor of NSs. NSs recruits FBXO3 to destroy the general host cell transcription factor TFIIH-p62, resulting in suppression of the transcriptional upregulation of innate immunity.

  4. Hoxa5 overexpression correlates with IGFBP1 upregulation and postnatal dwarfism: evidence for an interaction between Hoxa5 and Forkhead box transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucher, Isabelle; Volovitch, Michel; Frain, Monique; Kim, J Julie; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Gan, Lixia; Unterman, Terry G; Prochiantz, Alain; Trembleau, Alain

    2002-09-01

    Transgenic mice expressing the homeobox gene Hoxa5 under the control of Hoxb2 regulatory elements present a growth arrest during weeks two and three of postnatal development, resulting in proportionate dwarfism. These mice present a liver phenotype illustrated by a 12-fold increase in liver insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) mRNA and a 50% decrease in liver insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) mRNA correlated with a 50% decrease in circulating IGF1. We show that the Hoxa5 transgene is expressed in the liver of these mice, leading to an overexpression of total (endogenous plus transgene) Hoxa5 mRNA in this tissue. We have used several cell lines to investigate a possible physiological interaction of Hoxa5 with the main regulator of IGFBP1 promoter activity, the Forkhead box transcription factor FKHR. In HepG2 cells, Hoxa5 has little effect by itself but inhibits the FKHR-dependent activation of the IGFBP1 promoter. In HuF cells, Hoxa5 cooperates with FKHR to dramatically enhance IGFBP1 promoter activity. This context-dependent physiological interaction probably corresponds to the existence of a direct interaction between Hoxa5 and FKHR and FoxA2/HNF3beta, as demonstrated by pull-down experiments achieved either in vitro or after cellular co-expression. In conclusion, we propose that the impaired growth observed in this transgenic line relates to a liver phenotype best explained by a direct interaction between Hoxa5 and liver-specific Forkhead box transcription factors, in particular FKHR but also Foxa2/HNF3beta. Because Hoxa5 and homeogenes of the same paralog group are normally expressed in the liver, the present results raise the possibility that homeoproteins, in addition to their established role during early development, regulate systemic physiological functions.

  5. The integrated endoplasmic reticulum stress response in Leishmania amazonensis macrophage infection: the role of X-box binding protein 1 transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias-Teixeira, Karina Luiza; Calegari-Silva, Teresa Cristina; dos Santos, Guilherme R R M; Vitorino Dos Santos, José; Lima, Carolina; Medina, Jorge Mansur; Aktas, Bertal Huseyin; Lopes, Ulisses G

    2016-04-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress triggers the integrated ER-stress response (IERSR) that ensures cellular survival of ER stress and represents a primordial form of innate immunity. We investigated the role of IERSR duringLeishmania amazonensisinfection. Treatment of RAW 264.7 infected macrophages with the ER stress-inducing agent thapsigargin (TG; 1 μM) increasedL. amazonensisinfectivity in an IFN1-α receptor (IFNAR)-dependent manner. In Western blot assays, we showed thatL. amazonensisactivates the inositol-requiring enzyme (IRE1)/ X-box binding protein (XBP)-1-splicing arms of the IERSR in host cells. In chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, we showed an increased occupancy of enhancer and promoter sequences for theIfnbgene by XBP1 in infected RAW 264.7 cells. Knocking down XBP1 expression by transducing RAW 264.7 cells with the short hairpin XBP1 lentiviral vector significantly reduced the parasite proliferation associated with impaired translocation of phosphorylated IFN regulatory transcription factor (IRF)-3 to the nucleus and a decrease in IFN1-β expression. Knocking down XBP1 expression also increased NO concentration, as determined by Griess reaction and reduced the expression of antioxidant genes, such as heme oxygenase (HO)-1, that protect parasites from oxidative stress. We conclude thatL. amazonensisactivation of XBP1 plays a critical role in infection by protecting the parasites from oxidative stress and increasing IFN1-β expression.-Dias-Teixeira, K. L., Calegari-Silva, T. C., Dos Santos, G. R. R. M., Vitorino dos Santos, J., Lima, C., Medina, J. M., Aktas, B. H., Lopes, U. G. The integrated endoplasmic reticulum stress response inLeishmania amazonensismacrophage infection: the role of X-box binding protein 1 transcription factor. © FASEB.

  6. A direct role of Mad1 in the spindle assembly checkpoint beyond Mad2 kinetochore recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Thomas; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo; Sedgwick, Garry G

    2014-01-01

    in the SAC beyond recruitment of C-Mad2 to kinetochores has not yet been addressed. Here, we show that Mad1 is required for mitotic arrest even when C-Mad2 is artificially recruited to kinetochores, indicating that it has indeed an additional function in promoting the checkpoint. The C-terminal globular...... domain of Mad1 and conserved residues in this region are required for this unexpected function of Mad1........ The conversion of O-Mad2 into C-Mad2 at unattached kinetochores is thought to be a key step in activating the SAC. The "template model" proposes that this is achieved by the recruitment of soluble O-Mad2 to C-Mad2 bound at kinetochores through its interaction with Mad1. Whether Mad1 has additional roles...

  7. Mad Honey Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu Broscaru

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A 46-years old woman presented with acute onset of nausea, vomiting and prostration in the ER. She appeared ill and was poorly responsive to verbal stimuli. The physical examination showed a systolic blood pressure of 60 mmHg and a pulse of 40 bpm. ECG was notable for slight ST-elevations in the inferior leads. Right ventricular myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock and bradycardia was suspected. Supportive therapy with catecholamines was initiated and a emergency coronary angiography was arranged. However, lab results showed normal troponin levels and a subsequent echocardiogram showed the absence of abnormal wall motions. By thorough history taking with the spouse it turned out that the patient had consumed a Turkish honey approximately an hour before the beginning of the symptoms. The patient made a full recovery within 24 hours with only supportive therapy. In retrospect the clinical presentation was highly indicative of poisoning with Grayanotoxins from a plant, Rhododendron, which is found as contaminant in some sorts of honey in the Black Sea area. A pollen analysis confirmed the presence of Rhododendron in a honey sample.  Historically this poisoning is mentioned over the millennia as mad honey disease. The ST-elevations in the ECG were a sign of early repolarization, a non-pathological finding.

  8. The role of Forkhead-box Class O (FoxO) transcription factors in cancer: A target for the management of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reagan-Shaw, Shannon; Ahmad, Nihal

    2007-01-01

    Human Forkhead-Box Class O (FoxO) transcription factors are primarily regulated through the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3k)-Akt pathway via phosphorylation and nuclear exclusion. Acetylation and ubiquitination represent another level of regulation for FoxO proteins and FoxO-regulated gene expression. FoxO factors can act as tumor suppressors; however, the loss of FoxO function leads to increased cellular survival and a predisposition to neoplasia, especially of epithelial cancers. Based on the critical role of FoxO signaling, this family of transcription factors appears to be a promising target for future drug discovery for epithelial cancers. This review describes mechanism of the regulation of FoxO proteins and their role in epithelial cancers. Based on the current knowledge and studies in the past decade, we suggest that the development of novel agents which specifically activate FoxO members could be useful in the prevention as well as treatment of cancer in general and epithelial cancers in particular

  9. In silico transcriptional regulatory networks involved in tomato fruit ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stilianos Arhondakis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTTomato fruit ripening is a complex developmental programme partly mediated by transcriptional regulatory networks. Several transcription factors (TFs which are members of gene families such as MADS-box and ERF were shown to play a significant role in ripening through interconnections into an intricate network. The accumulation of large datasets of expression profiles corresponding to different stages of tomato fruit ripening and the availability of bioinformatics tools for their analysis provide an opportunity to identify TFs which might regulate gene clusters with similar co-expression patterns. We identified two TFs, a SlWRKY22-like and a SlER24 transcriptional activator which were shown to regulate modules by using the LeMoNe algorithm for the analysis of our microarray datasets representing four stages of fruit ripening, breaker, turning, pink and red ripe. The WRKY22-like module comprised a subgroup of six various calcium sensing transcripts with similar to the TF expression patterns according to real time PCR validation. A promoter motif search identified a cis acting element, the W-box, recognized by WRKY TFs that was present in the promoter region of all six calcium sensing genes. Moreover, publicly available microarray datasets of similar ripening stages were also analyzed with LeMoNe resulting in TFs such as SlERF.E1, SlERF.C1, SlERF.B2, SLERF.A2, SlWRKY24, SLWRKY37 and MADS-box/TM29 which might also play an important role in regulation of ripening. These results suggest that the SlWRKY22-like might be involved in the coordinated regulation of expression of the six calcium sensing genes. Conclusively the LeMoNe tool might lead to the identification of putative TF targets for further physiological analysis as regulators of tomato fruit ripening.

  10. A balance of Mad and Myc expression dictates larval cell apoptosis and adult stem cell development during Xenopus intestinal metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Morihiro; Miller, Thomas C; Wen, Luan; Shi, Yun-Bo

    2017-05-11

    The Myc/Mad/Max network has long been shown to be an important factor in regulating cell proliferation, death and differentiation in diverse cell types. In general, Myc-Max heterodimers activate target gene expression to promote cell proliferation, although excess of c-Myc can also induce apoptosis. In contrast, Mad competes against Myc to form Mad-Max heterodimers that bind to the same target genes to repress their expression and promote differentiation. The role of the Myc/Mad/Max network during vertebrate development, especially, the so-called postembryonic development, a period around birth in mammals, is unclear. Using thyroid hormone (T3)-dependent Xenopus metamorphosis as a model, we show here that Mad1 is induced by T3 in the intestine during metamorphosis when larval epithelial cell death and adult epithelial stem cell development take place. More importantly, we demonstrate that Mad1 is expressed in the larval cells undergoing apoptosis, whereas c-Myc is expressed in the proliferating adult stem cells during intestinal metamorphosis, suggesting that Mad1 may have a role in cell death during development. By using transcription activator-like effector nuclease-mediated gene-editing technology, we have generated Mad1 knockout Xenopus animals. This has revealed that Mad1 is not essential for embryogenesis or metamorphosis. On the other hand, consistent with its spatiotemporal expression profile, Mad1 knockout leads to reduced larval epithelial apoptosis but surprisingly also results in increased adult stem cell proliferation. These findings not only reveal a novel role of Mad1 in regulating developmental cell death but also suggest that a balance of Mad and Myc controls cell fate determination during adult organ development.

  11. Expression of SRY-related HMG Box Transcription Factors (Sox) 2 and 9 in Craniopharyngioma Subtypes and Surrounding Brain Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimsen, Vivian; John, Nora; Buchfelder, Michael; Flitsch, Jörg; Fahlbusch, Rudolf; Stefanits, Harald; Knosp, Engelbert; Losa, Marco; Buslei, Rolf; Hölsken, Annett

    2017-11-20

    Stem cells have been discovered as key players in the genesis of different neoplasms including craniopharyngioma (CP), a rare tumour entity in the sellar region. Sox2 and Sox9 are well-known stem cell markers involved in pituitary development. In this study we analysed the expression of both transcription factors using immunohistochemistry in a large cohort of 64 adamantinomatous (aCP) and 9 papillary CP (pCP) and quantitative PCR in 26 aCP and 7 pCP. Whereas immunohistochemically Sox2+ cells were verifiable in only five aCP (7.8%) and in 39.1% of the respective surrounding cerebral tissue, pCP specimens appeared always negative. In contrast, Sox9 was detectable in all tumours with a significantly higher expression in aCP compared to pCP (protein, p < 0.0001; mRNA p = 0.0484) This was also true for the respective tumour adjacent CNS where 63 aCP (98.4%) and six pCP (66.7%) showed Sox9+ cells. We further confirmed absence of Sox9 expression in nuclear β-catenin accumulating cells of aCP. Our results point to the conclusion that Sox2 and Sox9, seem to play essential roles not only in the specific formation of aCP, but also in processes involving the cerebral tumour environment, which needs to be illuminated in the future.

  12. Madness in Sartre's "The Room"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, E.C.S.

    2009-01-01

    In "The Room," part of his short story collection, The Wall (1938), Jean-Paul Sartre investigates madness as an alternative way of bourgeois life and thus takes a stand in the contemporary debate on the existential status of mental illness. "The Room" is a case-study of a "limit situation," as well

  13. The T-box transcription factor Brachyury regulates epithelial–mesenchymal transition in association with cancer stem-like cells in adenoid cystic carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoda, Miyuki; Sugiura, Tsuyoshi; Imajyo, Ikumi; Ishii, Kotaro; Chigita, Satomi; Seki, Katsuhiro; Kobayashi, Yousuke; Shirasuna, Kanemitsu

    2012-01-01

    The high frequencies of recurrence and distant metastasis of adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) emphasize the need to better understand the biological factors associated with these outcomes. To analyze the mechanisms of AdCC metastasis, we established the green fluorescence protein (GFP)-transfected subline ACCS-GFP from the AdCC parental cell line and the metastatic ACCS-M GFP line from an in vivo metastasis model. Using these cell lines, we investigated the involvement of the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cell (CSCs) in AdCC metastasis by real-time RT-PCR for EMT related genes and stem cell markers. Characteristics of CSCs were also analyzed by sphere-forming ability and tumorigenicity. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) silencing of target gene was also performed. ACCS-M GFP demonstrated characteristics of EMT and additionally displayed sphere-forming ability and high expression of EMT-related genes (Snail, Twist1, Twist2, Slug, zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 and 2 [Zeb1 and Zeb2], glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta [Gsk3β and transforming growth factor beta 2 [Tgf-β2]), stem cell markers (Nodal, Lefty, Oct-4, Pax6, Rex1, and Nanog), and differentiation markers (sex determining region Y [Sox2], Brachyury, and alpha fetoprotein [Afp]). These observations suggest that ACCS-M GFP shows the characteristics of CSCs and CSCs may be involved in the EMT of AdCC. Surprisingly, shRNA silencing of the T-box transcription factor Brachyury (also a differentiation marker) resulted in downregulation of the EMT and stem cell markers. In addition, sphere-forming ability, EMT characteristics, and tumorigenicity were simultaneously lost. Brachyury expression in clinical samples of AdCC was extremely high and closely related to EMT. This finding suggests that regulation of EMT by Brachyury in clinical AdCC may parallel that observed in vitro in this study. The use of a single cell line is a limitation of this study. However, parallel data from in vitro and

  14. Cell differentiation by interaction of two HMG-box proteins: Mat1-Mc activates M cell-specific genes in S.pombe by recruiting the ubiquitous transcription factor Ste11 to weak binding sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaerulff, S; Dooijes, D; Clevers, H

    1997-01-01

    The Schizosaccharomyces pombe mfm1 gene is expressed in an M cell-specific fashion. This regulation requires two HMG-box proteins: the ubiquitous Ste11 transcription factor and the M cell-controlling protein Mat1-Mc. Here we report that the mfm1 promoter contains a single, weak Stell-binding site...... where we could not detect Mat1-Mc in the resulting protein-DNA complex. When we changed a single base in the mfm1 TR-box, such that it resembled those boxes found in ubiquitously expressed genes, Ste11 binding was enhanced, and in vivo the mfm1 gene also became expressed in P cells where Mat1-Mc...

  15. Abject Magic: Reasoning Madness in Justine Larbalestier's "Magic or Madness" Trilogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Troy

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the representation of magic and madness in Justine Larbalestier's "Magic or Madness" trilogy (2005-2007). Throughout the series, magic is constructed as an abject and disabling force that threatens to disable magic-wielders, either through madness or death. Despite being represented as a ubiquitous force, the…

  16. Virtual Box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Hilary; Skov, Mikael B.; Stougaard, Malthe

    2007-01-01

    . This paper reports on the design, implementation and initial evaluation of Virtual Box. Virtual Box attempts to create a physical and engaging context in order to support reciprocal interactions with expressive content. An implemented version of Virtual Box is evaluated in a location-aware environment...

  17. Elizabethan madness: on London's stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, J T

    1997-12-01

    During the reign of Elizabeth I (1558-1603) a renaissance of both literary and political history occurred. The stage was transformed from primitive echoes of the morality plays to a vibrant and diverse exploration of human endeavor and man's place in the universe. The titanic literary figure of Shakespeare today veils a group of friends and challengers whose pens strove for the same goal. The depiction of madness was ubiquitous during plays of this time and reflection on the views of this group of men gives us a more reliable insight into mental illness then and today.

  18. Madness Decolonized?: Madness as Transnational Identity in Gail Hornstein's Agnes's Jacket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gavin

    2017-02-13

    The US psychologist Gail Hornstein's monograph, Agnes's Jacket: A Psychologist's Search for the Meanings of Madness (2009), is an important intervention in the identity politics of the mad movement. Hornstein offers a resignified vision of mad identity that embroiders the central trope of an "anti-colonial" struggle to reclaim the experiential world "colonized" by psychiatry. A series of literal and figurative appeals makes recourse to the inner world and (corresponding) cultural world of the mad as well as to the ethno-symbolic cultural materials of dormant nationhood. This rhetoric is augmented by a model in which the mad comprise a diaspora without an origin, coalescing into a single transnational community. The mad are also depicted as persons displaced from their metaphorical homeland, the "inner" world "colonized" by the psychiatric regime. There are a number of difficulties with Hornstein's rhetoric, however. Her "ethnicity-and-rights" response to the oppression of the mad is symptomatic of Western parochialism, while her proposed transmutation of putative psychopathology from limit upon identity to parameter of successful identity is open to contestation. Moreover, unless one accepts Hornstein's porous vision of mad identity, her self-ascribed insider status in relation to the mad community may present a problematic "re-colonization" of mad experience.

  19. Bento Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasio, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Bento boxes are common objects in Japanese culture, designed to hold enough lunch for one person. They have individual compartments and sometimes multiple tiers for rice, vegetables, and other side dishes. They are made of materials ranging from wood, cloth, aluminum, or plastic. In general, the greater the number of foods, the better the box is…

  20. Relationship with BSE (Mad Cow Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease (CWD) Prion Diseases Relationship with BSE (Mad Cow Disease) Evidence Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... macaque monkeys inoculated with brain tissue obtained from cattle with BSE had clinical and neuropathological features strikingly ...

  1. Turned Back: Mad Men as Intermedial Melodrama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Rooney

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay draws on definitions of gesture (Giorgio Agamben and Peter Brooks and catachresis (Peter Brooks, Jacques Derrida to examine the primacy of non-verbal signifiers as communicators of meaning in AMC’s Mad Men. Beginning with an analysis of Mad Men’s credit sequence, it draws attention to Mad Men’s use of gesture and catachresis in relation to melodrama’s privileging of non-verbal and naturalistic expression and its persistence as an intermedial mode that has moved back and forth between various media (theatre, novel, cinema, television and now digital formats. It argues that Mad Men’s melodramatic aesthetic is one that obliquely, and via a gestural and rhetorical ‘turned back’, communicates its relation to the past and the present.

  2. MAD-X Training Course – 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    MAD-X 2016 is a annual course series at CERN, within the framework of the 2016 Technical Training Programme on the MAD-X tool used around the world for designing, studying and simulating beam physics for particle accelerators. The lecturer is Laurent Deniau from BE-APB, who has led the MAD team since 2011.    Two courses are available: Methodical Accelerator Design MAD-X: Beginners Session: 1-2 March (half day: mornings)   Methodical Accelerator Design MAD-X: Intermediate Session: 10-11 March (half day: mornings) Target audience: Designed for those needing to become familiar with and acquire some practical experience of particle accelerator design with MAD-X. Pre-requirements: The course requires some prior knowledge of accelerators and beam physics (e.g. optics) as the theory is not detailed. The series will be composed of 4 half-day lectures, given in English with questions and answers also possible in French. Participation in all lectures ...

  3. DELLA-induced early transcriptional changes during etiolated development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Gallego-Bartolomé

    Full Text Available The hormones gibberellins (GAs control a wide variety of processes in plants, including stress and developmental responses. This task largely relies on the activity of the DELLA proteins, nuclear-localized transcriptional regulators that do not seem to have DNA binding capacity. The identification of early target genes of DELLA action is key not only to understand how GAs regulate physiological responses, but also to get clues about the molecular mechanisms by which DELLAs regulate gene expression. Here, we have investigated the global, early transcriptional response triggered by the Arabidopsis DELLA protein GAI during skotomorphogenesis, a developmental program tightly regulated by GAs. Our results show that the induction of GAI activity has an almost immediate effect on gene expression. Although this transcriptional regulation is largely mediated by the PIFs and HY5 transcription factors based on target meta-analysis, additional evidence points to other transcription factors that would be directly involved in DELLA regulation of gene expression. First, we have identified cis elements recognized by Dofs and type-B ARRs among the sequences enriched in the promoters of GAI targets; and second, an enrichment in additional cis elements appeared when this analysis was extended to a dataset of early targets of the DELLA protein RGA: CArG boxes, bound by MADS-box proteins, and the E-box CACATG that links the activity of DELLAs to circadian transcriptional regulation. Finally, Gene Ontology analysis highlights the impact of DELLA regulation upon the homeostasis of the GA, auxin, and ethylene pathways, as well as upon pre-existing transcriptional networks.

  4. GLASS BOX

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curtis, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The goals of this effort were to develop Glass Box capabilities to allow for the capturing of analyst activities and the associated data resources, track and log the results of automated processing...

  5. Identification of a Sgo2-Dependent but Mad2-Independent Pathway Controlling Anaphase Onset in Fission Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Meadows

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The onset of anaphase is triggered by activation of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C following silencing of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC. APC/C triggers ubiquitination of Securin and Cyclin B, which leads to loss of sister chromatid cohesion and inactivation of Cyclin B/Cdk1, respectively. This promotes relocalization of Aurora B kinase and other components of the chromosome passenger complex (CPC from centromeres to the spindle midzone. In fission yeast, this is mediated by Clp1 phosphatase-dependent interaction of CPC with Klp9/MKLP2 (kinesin-6. When this interaction is disrupted, kinetochores bi-orient normally, but APC/C activation is delayed via a mechanism that requires Sgo2 and some (Bub1, Mph1/Mps1, and Mad3, but not all (Mad1 and Mad2, components of the SAC and the first, but not second, lysine, glutamic acid, glutamine (KEN box in Mad3. These data indicate that interaction of CPC with Klp9 terminates a Sgo2-dependent, but Mad2-independent, APC/C-inhibitory pathway that is distinct from the canonical SAC.

  6. Regulatory role of OsMADS34 in the determination of glumes fate, grain yield and quality in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyong Ren

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Grasses produce seeds on spikelets, a unique type of inflorescence. Despite the importance of grass crops for food, the genetic mechanisms that control spikelet development remain poorly understood. In this study, we used m34-z, a new mutant allele of the rice (Oryza sativa E-class gene OsMADS34, to examine OsMADS34 function in determining the identities of glumes (rudimentary glume and sterile lemma and grain size. In the m34-z mutant, both the rudimentary glume and sterile lemma were homeotically converted to the lemma-like organs and acquired the lemma identity, suggesting that OsMADS34 plays important roles in the development of glumes. In the m34-z mutant, most of the grains from the secondary panicle branches were decreased in size, compared with grains from wild type, but no differences were observed in the grains from the primary panicle branches. The amylose content and gel consistency, and a seed-setting rate from the secondary panicle branches were reduced in the m34-z mutant. Interesting, transcriptional activity analysis revealed that OsMADS34 protein was a transcription repressor and it may influence grain yield by suppressing the expressions of BG1, GW8, GW2 and GL7 in the m34-z mutant. These findings revealed that OsMADS34 largely affects grain yield by affecting the size of grains from the secondary branches.

  7. Channel box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Akira.

    1993-01-01

    In a channel box of a BWR type reactor, protruding pads are disposed in axial position on the lateral side of a channel box opposing to a control rod and facing the outer side portion of the control rod in a reactor core loaded state. In the initial loading stage of fuel assemblies, channel fasteners and spacer pads are abutted against each other in the upper portion between the channel boxes sandwiching the control rod therebetween. Further, in the lower portion, a gap as a channel for the movement of the control rod is ensured by the support of fuel support metals. If the channel box is bent toward the control rod along with reactor operation, the pads are abutted against each other to always ensure the gap through which the control rod can move easily. Further, when the pads are brought into contact with each other, the bending deformation of the channel box is corrected by urging to each other. Thus, the control rod can always be moved smoothly to attain reactor safety operation. (N.H.)

  8. KERNEL MAD ALGORITHM FOR RELATIVE RADIOMETRIC NORMALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The multivariate alteration detection (MAD algorithm is commonly used in relative radiometric normalization. This algorithm is based on linear canonical correlation analysis (CCA which can analyze only linear relationships among bands. Therefore, we first introduce a new version of MAD in this study based on the established method known as kernel canonical correlation analysis (KCCA. The proposed method effectively extracts the non-linear and complex relationships among variables. We then conduct relative radiometric normalization experiments on both the linear CCA and KCCA version of the MAD algorithm with the use of Landsat-8 data of Beijing, China, and Gaofen-1(GF-1 data derived from South China. Finally, we analyze the difference between the two methods. Results show that the KCCA-based MAD can be satisfactorily applied to relative radiometric normalization, this algorithm can well describe the nonlinear relationship between multi-temporal images. This work is the first attempt to apply a KCCA-based MAD algorithm to relative radiometric normalization.

  9. Arg156 in the AP2-domain exhibits the highest binding activity among the 20 individuals to the GCC box in BnaERF-B3-hy15, a mutant ERF transcription factor from Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhuang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To develop mutants of the ERF factor with more binding activities to the GCC box, we performed in vitro directed evolution by using DNA shuffling and screened mutants through yeast one-hybrid assay. Here, a series of mutants were obtained and used to reveal key amino acids that induce changes in the DNA binding activity of the BnaERF-B3 protein. With the BnaERF-B3-hy15 as the template, we produced 12 mutants which host individual mutation of potential key residues. We found that amino acid 156 is the key site, and the other 18 mutants host the 18 corresponding individual amino acid residues at site 156. Among the 20 individuals comprising WT (Gly156, Mu3 (Arg156, and 18 mutants with other 18 amino acid residues, Arg156 in the AP2-domain is the amino acid residue with the highest binding activity to the GCC box. The structure of the α-helix in the AP2-domain affects the binding activity. Other residues within AP2-domain modulated binding activity of ERF protein, suggesting that these positions are important for binding activity. Comparison of the mutant and wild-type transcription factors revealed the relationship of protein function and sequence modification. Our result provides a potential useful resource for understanding the trans-activation of ERF proteins.

  10. Exit Planning at Anette's Mad APS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nellemann, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    This is a Danish version. The 60-year old Anette Hansen established her catering firm Anette's Mad in 2012. She wants to sell her company within 7 years but so far hasn't thought a lot about ownership transfer. Anette's Mad employs 5 people and has a yearly turnover of about DKK200,000. The company...... benefits from Anette's strong, local network. At this point, Anette has invested DKK1.5 million in her business which she hopes to get back once she sells the company. The question is how Anette can prepare her business for sale so that it may sell at the price that she aims at....

  11. Glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Atsushi

    1990-01-01

    Wire rope earthquake proof supports having sufficient vibration transmitting and attenuating property are disposed between a fixed floor and the bottom of a glove box in order to improve earthquake proofness of the glove box. The vertical weight of the glove box is supported by support legs slidable on the surface of the fixed floor. The wire rope earthquake-proof supports when undergoing a load, cause stretching and rolling against the external force such as earthquakes, and provide flexible spring support and cause a great damping due to friction with strands. Further, the vertical weight is always supported by the support legs and, when a horizontal weight is applied, the glove box slides on the fixed floor freely with slidable members. In this way, stress concentration generated at joint portions of columns and beams can be moderated greatly and earthquake proofness can be improved. Further, quality control and maintenance for the device is almost unnecessary owing to excellent fatigue-resistant characteristics of the wire rope earthquake proof supports. (N.H.)

  12. Mad2 binding to Mad1 and Cdc20, rather than oligomerization, is required for the spindle checkpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sironi, L; Melixetian, M; Faretta, M

    2001-01-01

    Mad2 is a key component of the spindle checkpoint, a device that controls the fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis. The ability of Mad2 to form oligomers in vitro has been correlated with its ability to block the cell cycle upon injection into Xenopus embryos. Here we show that Mad2 forms...

  13. miR156-Targeted SBP-Box Transcription Factors Interact with DWARF53 to Regulate TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 and BARREN STALK1 Expression in Bread Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Cheng, Xiliu; Liu, Pan; Sun, Jiaqiang

    2017-07-01

    Genetic and environmental factors affect bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) plant architecture, which determines grain yield. In this study, we demonstrate that miR156 controls bread wheat plant architecture. We show that overexpression of tae-miR156 in bread wheat cultivar Kenong199 leads to increased tiller number and severe defects in spikelet formation, probably due to the tae-miR156-mediated repression of a group of SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE ( SPL ) genes. Furthermore, we found that the expression of two genes TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 ( TaTB1 ) and BARREN STALK1 ( TaBA1 ), whose orthologous genes in diverse plant species play conserved roles in regulating plant architecture, is markedly reduced in the tae-miR156-OE bread wheat plants. Significantly, we demonstrate that the strigolactone (SL) signaling repressor DWARF53 (TaD53), which physically associates with the transcriptional corepressor TOPLESS, can directly interact with the N-terminal domains of miR156-controlled TaSPL3/17. Most importantly, TaSPL3/17-mediated transcriptional activation of TaBA1 and TaTB1 can be largely repressed by TaD53 in the transient expression system. Our results reveal potential association between miR156-TaSPLs and SL signaling pathways during bread wheat tillering and spikelet development. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Cultural Mediators Seduced by Mad Men:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard; Hellman, Heikki; Riegert, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Based on theories about the role of cultural mediators in cultural production and using the TV series Mad Men as a case, this article investigates how cultural journalists in the Nordic countries have contributed to legitimizing “quality TV series” as a worthy field of aesthetic consumption. Key...

  15. Glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisert, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    An arrangement for effecting access for performing work within a glove box comprises an elongate arm-length impermeable flexible sleeve, a fitting having an aperture therethrough, adapted to be secured in sealing relation in a port, in a wall of the glove box, the fitting including an outwardly extending lip having at least one continuous groove extending around its outer periphery, one end of the sleeve extending through the aperture in fitting and being folded back against the outer periphery of the lip, a resilient fastening ring securing the sleeve in sealing engagement in the groove, clamping means securing the sleeves to the lip and a glove secured in sealing relation via a bushing to the other end of the sleeve. (author)

  16. HIV-1 Tat affects the programming and functionality of human CD8⁺ T cells by modulating the expression of T-box transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforza, Fabio; Nicoli, Francesco; Gallerani, Eleonora; Finessi, Valentina; Reali, Eva; Cafaro, Aurelio; Caputo, Antonella; Ensoli, Barbara; Gavioli, Riccardo

    2014-07-31

    HIV infection is characterized by several immune dysfunctions of both CD8⁺ and CD4⁺ T cells as hyperactivation, impairment of functionality and expansion of memory T cells. CD8⁺ T-cell dysfunctions have been associated with increased expression of T-bet, Eomesdermin and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and with down-regulation of CD127. The HIV-1 trans-activator of transcription (Tat) protein, which is released by infected cells and detected in tissues of HIV-positive individuals, is known to contribute to the dysregulation of CD4⁺ T cells; however, its effects on CD8⁺ T cells have not been investigated. Thus, in this study, we sought to address whether Tat may affect CD8⁺ T-cell functionality and programming. CD8⁺ T cells were activated by T-cell receptor engagement in the presence or absence of Tat. Cytokine production, killing capacity, surface phenotype and expression of transcription factors important for T-cell programming were evaluated. Tat favors the secretion of interleukin-2, interferon-γ and granzyme B in CD8⁺ T cells. Behind this functional modulation we observed that Tat increases the expression of T-bet, Eomesdermin, Blimp-1, Bcl-6 and Bcl-2 in activated but not in unstimulated CD8⁺ T lymphocytes. This effect is associated with the down-regulation of CD127 and the up-regulation of CD27. Tat deeply alters the programming and functionality of CD8⁺ T lymphocytes.

  17. Boxing clever

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanbury, Kate

    1999-09-10

    The outages caused by storms bringing down trees on power transmission lines on Boxing Day 1998 in Scotland, Northern Ireland and Northern England forced ScottishPower to modify its pylon policy. The results of the analysis of pylons requiring work by the Rural Care Team at ScottishPower are summarised, and the identification of the problems caused by the Sitk spruce is reported. The selection of the relocation and clearance remediation option, the policy of replacing one tree with two, the approach to landowners, and the need to consider environmental concerns during the planning of networks are discussed. (UK)

  18. The expression of the T-box selector gene midline in the leg imaginal disc is controlled by both transcriptional regulation and cell lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia C. Svendsen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Drosophila Tbx20 homologs midline and H15 act as selector genes for ventral fate in Drosophila legs. midline and H15 expression defines the ventral domain of the leg and the two genes are necessary and sufficient for the development of ventral fate. Ventral-specific expression of midline and H15 is activated by Wingless (Wg and repressed by Decapentaplegic (Dpp. Here we identify VLE, a 5 kb enhancer that drives ventral specific expression in the leg disc that is very similar to midline expression. Subdivision of VLE identifies two regions that mediate both activation and repression and third region that only mediates repression. Loss- and gain-of-function genetic mosaic analysis shows that the activating and repressing regions respond to Wg and Dpp signaling respectively. All three repression regions depend on the activity of Mothers-against-decapentaplegic, a Drosophila r-Smad that mediates Dpp signaling, and respond to ectopic expression of the Dpp target genes optomoter-blind and Dorsocross 3. However, only one repression region is responsive to loss of schnurri, a co-repressor required for direct repression by Dpp-signaling. Thus, Dpp signaling restricts midline expression through both direct repression and through the activation of downstream repressors. We also find that midline and H15 expression are both subject to cross-repression and feedback inhibition. Finally, a lineage analysis indicates that ventral midline-expressing cells and dorsal omb-expressing cells do not mix during development. Together this data indicates that the ventral-specific expression of midline results from both transcriptional regulation and from a lack of cell-mixing between dorsal and ventral cells.

  19. MAD-X progress and future plans

    CERN Document Server

    Deniau, L

    2012-01-01

    The design efforts for the High Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) will require significant extensions of the MAD-X code widely used for designing and simulating particles accelerators. These changes are framed into a global redesign of the MADX architecture meant to consolidate its structure, increase its robustness and flexibility, and improve its performance. Some examples of recent extensions to MAD-X like the RF-Multipole element will be presented. Improvement for models and algorithms selection providing better consistency of the results and a wider range of use will be discussed. The computation efficiency will also be addressed to profit better of modern technologies. In this paper, we will describe the last improvements and the future plans of the project.

  20. California and Irony in Mad Men

    OpenAIRE

    Taveira, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    The combination of melodramatic and art cinematic techniques and influences in AMC’s television series Mad Men (2007¬–) reveals how a melodramatic televisuality can image novel modes of social and intimate relations and an alternative to the archetypal American narrative of the self-made man. Set in 1960s’ America, the series uses a contemporaneous and cosmopolitan California to triangulate the formal and narrative insistence of the past on the present. This triangulation is played out by Don...

  1. The Drosophila T-box transcription factor Midline functions within the Notch–Delta signaling pathway to specify sensory organ precursor cell fates and regulates cell survival within the eye imaginal disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudeshna; Chen, Q. Brent; Saucier, Joseph D.; Drescher, Brandon; Zong, Yan; Morgan, Sarah; Forstall, John; Meriwether, Andrew; Toranzo, Randy; Leal, Sandra M.

    2014-01-01

    We report that the T-box transcription factor Midline (Mid), an evolutionary conserved homolog of the vertebrate Tbx20 protein, functions within the Notch–Delta signaling pathway essential for specifying the fates of sensory organ precursor cells. This complements an established history of research showing that Mid regulates the cell-fate specification of diverse cell types within the developing heart, epidermis and central nervous system. Tbx20 has been detected in diverse neuronal and epithelial cells of embryonic eye tissues in both mice and humans. However, the mechanisms by which either Mid or Tbx20 function to regulate cell-fate specification or other critical aspects of eye development including cell survival have not yet been elucidated. We have also gathered preliminary evidence suggesting that Mid may play an indirect, but vital role in selecting SOP cells within the third-instar larval eye disc by regulating the expression of the proneural gene atonal. During subsequent pupal stages, Mid specifies SOP cell fates as a member of the Notch–Delta signaling hierarchy and is essential for maintaining cell viability within by inhibiting apoptotic pathways. We present several new hypotheses that seek to understand the role of Mid in regulating developmental processes downstream of the Notch receptor that are critical for specifying unique cell fates, patterning the adult eye and maintaining cellular homeostasis during eye disc morphogenesis. PMID:23962751

  2. The Drosophila T-box transcription factor Midline functions within the Notch-Delta signaling pathway to specify sensory organ precursor cell fates and regulates cell survival within the eye imaginal disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudeshna; Chen, Q Brent; Saucier, Joseph D; Drescher, Brandon; Zong, Yan; Morgan, Sarah; Forstall, John; Meriwether, Andrew; Toranzo, Randy; Leal, Sandra M

    2013-01-01

    We report that the T-box transcription factor Midline (Mid), an evolutionary conserved homolog of the vertebrate Tbx20 protein, functions within the Notch-Delta signaling pathway essential for specifying the fates of sensory organ precursor (SOP) cells. These findings complement an established history of research showing that Mid regulates the cell-fate specification of diverse cell types within the developing heart, epidermis and central nervous system. Tbx20 has been detected in unique neuronal and epithelial cells of embryonic eye tissues in both mice and humans. However, the mechanisms by which either Mid or Tbx20 function to regulate cell-fate specification or other critical aspects of eye development including cell survival have not yet been elucidated. We have also gathered preliminary evidence suggesting that Mid may play an indirect, but vital role in selecting SOP cells within the third-instar larval eye disc by regulating the expression of the proneural gene atonal. During subsequent pupal stages, Mid specifies SOP cell fates as a member of the Notch-Delta signaling hierarchy and is essential for maintaining cell viability by inhibiting apoptotic pathways. We present several new hypotheses that seek to understand the role of Mid in regulating developmental processes downstream of the Notch receptor that are critical for specifying unique cell fates, patterning the adult eye and maintaining cellular homeostasis during eye disc morphogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Automated MAD and MIR structure solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Berendzen, Joel

    1999-01-01

    A fully automated procedure for solving MIR and MAD structures has been developed using a scoring scheme to convert the structure-solution process into an optimization problem. Obtaining an electron-density map from X-ray diffraction data can be difficult and time-consuming even after the data have been collected, largely because MIR and MAD structure determinations currently require many subjective evaluations of the qualities of trial heavy-atom partial structures before a correct heavy-atom solution is obtained. A set of criteria for evaluating the quality of heavy-atom partial solutions in macromolecular crystallography have been developed. These have allowed the conversion of the crystal structure-solution process into an optimization problem and have allowed its automation. The SOLVE software has been used to solve MAD data sets with as many as 52 selenium sites in the asymmetric unit. The automated structure-solution process developed is a major step towards the fully automated structure-determination, model-building and refinement procedure which is needed for genomic scale structure determinations

  4. MadR1, a Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell cycle stress response protein that is a member of a widely conserved protein class of prokaryotic, eukaryotic and archeal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crew, Rebecca; Ramirez, Melissa V; England, Kathleen; Slayden, Richard A

    2015-05-01

    Stress-induced molecular programs designed to stall division progression are nearly ubiquitous in bacteria, with one well-known example being the participation of the SulA septum inhibiting protein in the SOS DNA damage repair response. Mycobacteria similarly demonstrate stress-altered growth kinetics, however no such regulators have been found in these organisms. We therefore set out to identify SulA-like regulatory proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A bioinformatics modeling-based approach led to the identification of rv2216 as encoding for a protein with weak similarity to SulA, further analysis distinguished this protein as belonging to a group of uncharacterized growth promoting proteins. We have named the mycobacterial protein encoded by rv2216 morphology altering division regulator protein 1, MadR1. Overexpression of madR1 modulated cell length while maintaining growth kinetics similar to wild-type, and increased the proportion of bent or V-form cells in the population. The presence of MadR1-GFP at regions of cellular elongation (poles) and morphological differentiation (V-form) suggests MadR1 involvement in phenotypic heterogeneity and longitudinal cellular growth. Global transcriptional analysis indicated that MadR1 functionality is linked to lipid editing programs required for growth and persistence. This is the first report to differentiate the larger class of these conserved proteins from SulA proteins and characterizes MadR1 effects on the mycobacterial cell. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A case of acute hepatitis following mad honey ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Sari Dogan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute hepatitis is characterized by liver inflammation and liver cell necrosis. The most frequently observed underlying cause thereof is viruses, but various other causes, such as alcohol, medication, or toxins may also lead thereto.In this paper, a case of acute hepatitis presenting with bradycardia, hypotension, and a prominent increase in liver enzymes following mad honey ingestion is discussed. Since there are only few cases of acute hepatitis following mad honey ingestion in the literature, we want to present this subject matter. Keywords: Mad honey poisoning, Mad honey intoxication, Bradycardia, Hypotension, Acute hepatitis

  6. Transcript Analysis and Regulative Events during Flower Development in Olive (Olea europaea L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiammetta Alagna

    Full Text Available The identification and characterization of transcripts involved in flower organ development, plant reproduction and metabolism represent key steps in plant phenotypic and physiological pathways, and may generate high-quality transcript variants useful for the development of functional markers. This study was aimed at obtaining an extensive characterization of the olive flower transcripts, by providing sound information on the candidate MADS-box genes related to the ABC model of flower development and on the putative genetic and molecular determinants of ovary abortion and pollen-pistil interaction. The overall sequence data, obtained by pyrosequencing of four cDNA libraries from flowers at different developmental stages of three olive varieties with distinct reproductive features (Leccino, Frantoio and Dolce Agogia, included approximately 465,000 ESTs, which gave rise to more than 14,600 contigs and approximately 92,000 singletons. As many as 56,700 unigenes were successfully annotated and provided gene ontology insights into the structural organization and putative molecular function of sequenced transcripts and deduced proteins in the context of their corresponding biological processes. Differentially expressed genes with potential regulatory roles in biosynthetic pathways and metabolic networks during flower development were identified. The gene expression studies allowed us to select the candidate genes that play well-known molecular functions in a number of biosynthetic pathways and specific biological processes that affect olive reproduction. A sound understanding of gene functions and regulatory networks that characterize the olive flower is provided.

  7. Transcript Analysis and Regulative Events during Flower Development in Olive (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagna, Fiammetta; Cirilli, Marco; Galla, Giulio; Carbone, Fabrizio; Daddiego, Loretta; Facella, Paolo; Lopez, Loredana; Colao, Chiara; Mariotti, Roberto; Cultrera, Nicolò; Rossi, Martina; Barcaccia, Gianni; Baldoni, Luciana; Muleo, Rosario; Perrotta, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    The identification and characterization of transcripts involved in flower organ development, plant reproduction and metabolism represent key steps in plant phenotypic and physiological pathways, and may generate high-quality transcript variants useful for the development of functional markers. This study was aimed at obtaining an extensive characterization of the olive flower transcripts, by providing sound information on the candidate MADS-box genes related to the ABC model of flower development and on the putative genetic and molecular determinants of ovary abortion and pollen-pistil interaction. The overall sequence data, obtained by pyrosequencing of four cDNA libraries from flowers at different developmental stages of three olive varieties with distinct reproductive features (Leccino, Frantoio and Dolce Agogia), included approximately 465,000 ESTs, which gave rise to more than 14,600 contigs and approximately 92,000 singletons. As many as 56,700 unigenes were successfully annotated and provided gene ontology insights into the structural organization and putative molecular function of sequenced transcripts and deduced proteins in the context of their corresponding biological processes. Differentially expressed genes with potential regulatory roles in biosynthetic pathways and metabolic networks during flower development were identified. The gene expression studies allowed us to select the candidate genes that play well-known molecular functions in a number of biosynthetic pathways and specific biological processes that affect olive reproduction. A sound understanding of gene functions and regulatory networks that characterize the olive flower is provided.

  8. Box Integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Crandall, Richard E.

    2006-06-01

    By a "box integral" we mean here an expectation $\\langle|\\vec r - \\vec q|^s \\rangle$ where $\\vec r$runs over the unit $n$-cube,with $\\vec q$ and $s$ fixed, explicitly:\\begin eqnarray*&&\\int_01 \\cdots \\int_01 \\left((r_1 - q_1)2 + \\dots+(r_n-q_n)2\\right)^ s/2 \\ dr_1 \\cdots dr_n.\\end eqnarray* The study ofbox integrals leads one naturally into several disparate fields ofanalysis. While previous studies have focused upon symbolic evaluationand asymptotic analysis of special cases (notably $s = 1$), we workherein more generally--in interdisciplinary fashion--developing resultssuch as: (1) analytic continuation (in complex $s$), (2) relevantcombinatorial identities, (3) rapidly converging series, (4) statisticalinferences, (5) connections to mathematical physics, and (6)extreme-precision quadrature techniques appropriate for these integrals.These intuitions and results open up avenues of experimental mathematics,with a view to new conjectures and theorems on integrals of thistype.

  9. Interdisciplinary Critical Inquiry: Teaching about the Social Construction of Madness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor-Greene, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    Theories and treatments of mental illness reflect the social, philosophical, and historical context in which they developed. This article describes ways to invite students to grapple with complex questions about "madness" from an interdisciplinary perspective. Looking at the construct of madness through multiple lenses (e.g., literature,…

  10. Structural and Functional Insights into WRKY3 and WRKY4 Transcription Factors to Unravel the WRKY–DNA (W-Box Complex Interaction in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.. A Computational Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Aamir

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The WRKY transcription factors (TFs, play crucial role in plant defense response against various abiotic and biotic stresses. The role of WRKY3 and WRKY4 genes in plant defense response against necrotrophic pathogens is well-reported. However, their functional annotation in tomato is largely unknown. In the present work, we have characterized the structural and functional attributes of the two identified tomato WRKY transcription factors, WRKY3 (SlWRKY3, and WRKY4 (SlWRKY4 using computational approaches. Arabidopsis WRKY3 (AtWRKY3: NP_178433 and WRKY4 (AtWRKY4: NP_172849 protein sequences were retrieved from TAIR database and protein BLAST was done for finding their sequential homologs in tomato. Sequence alignment, phylogenetic classification, and motif composition analysis revealed the remarkable sequential variation between, these two WRKYs. The tomato WRKY3 and WRKY4 clusters with Solanum pennellii showing the monophyletic origin and evolution from their wild homolog. The functional domain region responsible for sequence specific DNA-binding occupied in both proteins were modeled [using AtWRKY4 (PDB ID:1WJ2 and AtWRKY1 (PDBID:2AYD as template protein structures] through homology modeling using Discovery Studio 3.0. The generated models were further evaluated for their accuracy and reliability based on qualitative and quantitative parameters. The modeled proteins were found to satisfy all the crucial energy parameters and showed acceptable Ramachandran statistics when compared to the experimentally resolved NMR solution structures and/or X-Ray diffracted crystal structures (templates. The superimposition of the functional WRKY domains from SlWRKY3 and SlWRKY4 revealed remarkable structural similarity. The sequence specific DNA binding for two WRKYs was explored through DNA-protein interaction using Hex Docking server. The interaction studies found that SlWRKY4 binds with the W-box DNA through WRKYGQK with Tyr408, Arg409, and Lys419 with the

  11. Structural and Functional Insights into WRKY3 and WRKY4 Transcription Factors to Unravel the WRKY–DNA (W-Box) Complex Interaction in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). A Computational Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamir, Mohd; Singh, Vinay K.; Meena, Mukesh; Upadhyay, Ram S.; Gupta, Vijai K.; Singh, Surendra

    2017-01-01

    The WRKY transcription factors (TFs), play crucial role in plant defense response against various abiotic and biotic stresses. The role of WRKY3 and WRKY4 genes in plant defense response against necrotrophic pathogens is well-reported. However, their functional annotation in tomato is largely unknown. In the present work, we have characterized the structural and functional attributes of the two identified tomato WRKY transcription factors, WRKY3 (SlWRKY3), and WRKY4 (SlWRKY4) using computational approaches. Arabidopsis WRKY3 (AtWRKY3: NP_178433) and WRKY4 (AtWRKY4: NP_172849) protein sequences were retrieved from TAIR database and protein BLAST was done for finding their sequential homologs in tomato. Sequence alignment, phylogenetic classification, and motif composition analysis revealed the remarkable sequential variation between, these two WRKYs. The tomato WRKY3 and WRKY4 clusters with Solanum pennellii showing the monophyletic origin and evolution from their wild homolog. The functional domain region responsible for sequence specific DNA-binding occupied in both proteins were modeled [using AtWRKY4 (PDB ID:1WJ2) and AtWRKY1 (PDBID:2AYD) as template protein structures] through homology modeling using Discovery Studio 3.0. The generated models were further evaluated for their accuracy and reliability based on qualitative and quantitative parameters. The modeled proteins were found to satisfy all the crucial energy parameters and showed acceptable Ramachandran statistics when compared to the experimentally resolved NMR solution structures and/or X-Ray diffracted crystal structures (templates). The superimposition of the functional WRKY domains from SlWRKY3 and SlWRKY4 revealed remarkable structural similarity. The sequence specific DNA binding for two WRKYs was explored through DNA-protein interaction using Hex Docking server. The interaction studies found that SlWRKY4 binds with the W-box DNA through WRKYGQK with Tyr408, Arg409, and Lys419 with the initial

  12. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, Mad Cow Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Bruckner

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Mad Cow Disease or BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy became a household name internationally and also in South Africa. International hysteria resulted following reports of a possible link between a disease diagnosed in cattle in Britain and a variant of the disease diagnosed in humans after the presumed ingestion or contact with meat from infected cattle. The European Union instituted a ban on the importation of beef from the United Kingdom during March 1996 that had a severe effect on the beef industry in the UK and also resulted in a world wide consumer resistance against beef consumption.

  13. Web life: The Evil Mad Scientist Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    What is it? Have you ever tried to electrocute a hot dog? Wondered how to make a robot out of a toothbrush, watch battery and phone-pager motor? Seen a cantaloupe melon and thought, "Hmm, I could make this look like the Death Star from the original Star Wars films"? If you have not, but you would like to - preferably as soon as you can find a pager motor - then this is the site for you. The Evil Mad Scientist Project (EMSP) blog is packed full of ideas for unusual, silly and frequently physics-related creations that bring science out of the laboratory and into kitchens, backyards and tool sheds.

  14. Fag Men: Mad Men, Homosexuality and Televisual Style

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Among the many retro-fittings achieved by Mad Men—Matthew Weinerʼs still unfurling television series set in the advertising world of the early 1960s—is the representation of the homosexual closet as a thing of the past. This essay approaches Mad Men’s account of the homophobic past in order to think about sexuality and televisual style. A landmark programme coterminous with American television transferring from analogue to digital signal, Mad Men allegorizes another moment in television histo...

  15. 'The verses of madness': schizophrenia and poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankir, Ahmed Khaldoon; Holloway, David; Agius, Mark; Zaman, Rashid

    2012-12-20

    In the early 19th century, Lombroso introduced the concept of hereditary taint to describe the coexistence of 'madness' and creativity. In a recent investigation, Rust et al reported a study designed to test the traditionally assumed relationship between creativity and schizophrenia. They uncovered an association between creative originality and the positive cognitive aspects of schizotypal thinking. Poetry is not only the 'product' of psychopathology but it can also be utilised as a form of therapy: "My name is David Holloway, I am a 33 year old poet/blogger with paranoid schizophrenia. A poet called Charles Bukowski has described poetry as the 'ultimate psychiatrist', and I am a firm believer in this. The strongest part of my personality is my belief in the power of love. My recovery has relied heavily on medication, diet and exercise. However it is the power of poetry that has been my true inspiration."

  16. Recent developments in MAD version 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, H.; Iselin, F.C.

    1990-01-01

    In view of experience with the language decoder and memory manager, large parts of MAD have been rewritten recently. The dynamic memory manager is replaced by the CERN-written ZEBRA package which has been used successfully in more than 100 other programs for HEP data analysis. A new dynamic table handler keeps large tables in memory as long as they fit; it dumps them on disk or to the Cray SSD (solid-state storage device) if necessary. Tables are accessed by simple subroutine calls in a manner transparent to the user. The input language has been extended to use a more object-oriented approach. Accelerator elements are described in terms of classes of objects, providing easy selection of single elements in a large machine. A powerful mechanism has been implemented for writting tables of selected optical functions and/or element parameters in selected positions of the machine. These tables are generated and written under control of the table handler, and can be read directly by the LEP control system. MAD contains a plot module with various options to plot data from internal tables. The tables can also be fed into a stand-alone plot program. At present the following program modulus are complete: Command Decoder; Optical Functions Calculation; Closed-Orbit Correction; Harmon (chromaticity calculation); Plotting. It is foreseen that by the end of 1989 the following other modules will be ready: Matching, including some new features; Lie Algebraic Analysis: Tracking by TRANSPORT and Lie Algebraic Methods; Electron Beam Parameters; Polarization. (orig.)

  17. Air tight electrical box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pringle, C.G.

    1990-08-14

    An air-impervious electrical box to facilitate air sealing a house comprises an integral, rigid box body having a continuous flange, integral with the body, circumscribing and outwardly extending from the sides of the body. This flange is rearwardly positioned behind the front edges of the sides of the body a predetermined distance so that the electrical box may be secured to framing by nailing through the flange. Drywall is then secured to the frame on top of and adjecent to the flange. Such box eliminates the necessity for solid backing and minimizes passage of air through the box and space between the drywall and the box.

  18. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the CDC Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... spongiform encephalopathy) is a progressive neurological disorder of cattle that results from infection by an unusual transmissible ...

  19. Generalized Majority Logic Criterion to Analyze the Statistical Strength of S-Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Iqtadar; Shah, Tariq; Gondal, Muhammad Asif; Mahmood, Hasan

    2012-05-01

    The majority logic criterion is applicable in the evaluation process of substitution boxes used in the advanced encryption standard (AES). The performance of modified or advanced substitution boxes is predicted by processing the results of statistical analysis by the majority logic criteria. In this paper, we use the majority logic criteria to analyze some popular and prevailing substitution boxes used in encryption processes. In particular, the majority logic criterion is applied to AES, affine power affine (APA), Gray, Lui J, residue prime, S8 AES, Skipjack, and Xyi substitution boxes. The majority logic criterion is further extended into a generalized majority logic criterion which has a broader spectrum of analyzing the effectiveness of substitution boxes in image encryption applications. The integral components of the statistical analyses used for the generalized majority logic criterion are derived from results of entropy analysis, contrast analysis, correlation analysis, homogeneity analysis, energy analysis, and mean of absolute deviation (MAD) analysis.

  20. VLT-MAD Observations of Trumpler 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochau, B.; Brandner, W.; Stolte, A.; Henning, T.; da Rio, N.; Gennaro, M.; Hormuth, F.; Marchetti, E.; Amico, P.

    We present H and KS observations of the young massive cluster Trumpler 14 obtained with the MCAO system VLT-MAD which provides homogeneous Strehl ratios over a large field of view. We derived maximum Strehl ratios of 9.8% and 12.6% with mean Strehl ratios of 6.0% and 5.9% with in H and K_S, respectively, revealing significant improvement of the spatial PSF stability compared to SCAO systems. We detected 2-3 times more sources than comparable seeing-limited observations, and comparison of the colour-magnitude diagram with isochrones reveals a very young cluster that originated in a starburst-like event 1 ± 0.5 Myr ago. We also tentatively detect hints for an older population of 3 Myr. The mass function between 0.25 Msun and 3.2 Msun appears as a broken power law with a change of the power law slope at m_c ˜ 0.53+0.12-0.10 Msun. Shallow power law slopes are found to be Gamma_{PD,PMS1} = ˜ 0.48 ± 0.11 above m_c and Gamma_{PD,PMS2} = 0.68 ± 0.30 below m_c.

  1. California and Irony in Mad Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Taveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The combination of melodramatic and art cinematic techniques and influences in AMC’s television series Mad Men (2007¬– reveals how a melodramatic televisuality can image novel modes of social and intimate relations and an alternative to the archetypal American narrative of the self-made man. Set in 1960s’ America, the series uses a contemporaneous and cosmopolitan California to triangulate the formal and narrative insistence of the past on the present. This triangulation is played out by Don Draper’s relations with his family, women, and his former identities and by the representation of homosexuality throughout the series. The application of Lee Edelman’s concept of “sinthomosexuality” and Richard Rorty’s “liberal ironist” reveal a queer, visual rhetoric to the show’s narrative and formal structures, forming a queer irony that allows the show to straddle the aesthetic extremes of “quality TV” (Jane Feuer and soap opera, which, in turn, queers the exemplary American heterosexuality of Don Draper.

  2. The design of the MAD Design Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederer, J.

    1992-01-01

    The study of long term stability in particle accelerators has long been served by a group of widely circulated computer programs. The progress in these programs has mirrored the growth and versatility in accelerator size, complexity, and purpose, as well as evolving technologies in computing software and hardware. A number of large accelerator projects during the last decade were designed with the aid of physics programs either written for, or tailored for the project at hand, each invariably benefiting from contributions of previous workers. This paper outlines the recent history of of expample of an accelerator lattice model tool kit, the Methodical Accelerator Design (MAD) Program, which has tried to knit together this collective wisdom of the accelerator community, The ideas behind the software design of the program itself are traced here; the accelerator physics contents and origins are thoroughly documented elsewhere. These informal notes have a Brookhaven flavor, in part because of early BNL efforts to generalize the ways that technical problems are organized and presented to computers. Some recent BNL applications not covered in the extensive CERN documentation are also included

  3. Perspectives on MADS-box expression during orchid flower evolution and development

    OpenAIRE

    Mondrag?n-Palomino, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    The diverse morphology of orchid flowers and their complex, often deceptive strategies to become pollinated have fascinated researchers for a long time. However, it was not until the 20th century that the ontogeny of orchid flowers, the genetic basis of their morphology and the complex phylogeny of Orchidaceae were investigated. In parallel, the improvement of techniques for in vitro seed germination and tissue culture, together with studies on biochemistry, physiology, and cytology supported...

  4. Cloning and expression analysis of an E-class MADS-box gene from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... A phylogenetic tree was generated using the neigh- bor-joining method of MEGA ver. 3.1 (Kumar et al., 2004) based on the p-distance amino acid substitution model and the tree was tested using the bootstrap method with 1,000 replicates. Relative–quantitative real-time PCR. Total RNA was extracted from ...

  5. Mapping bipolar worlds: lived geographies of 'madness' in autobiographical accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Vera

    2012-03-01

    This article aims to advance our understanding of women's and men's experiences of negotiating bipolar 'madness' in society and space. It addresses gaps in the clinical literature on life with bipolar and geographic accounts of 'madness' and psycho-emotional distress by considering altered ways of being in place that bipolar 'madness' entails and how narrative sense is made of these. Conceptually, I build on Cosgrove's (2000) approach to psycho-emotional distress and geographic insights about being 'mad' in place. Methodologically and empirically, I draw on thematic narrative analysis of autobiographies of living with bipolar. Key findings include altered paradoxically (dis)embodied ways of being-in-place, 'fractured' or 'whole' senses of self and ways of relating to people/places, 'straddling' 'real' and 'delusional' worlds and bipolar ways of negotiating places are not straightforwardly 'irrational'. While narrative accounts most often invoke dominant discourses about bipolar, sometimes these are challenged through 'rescripting' and 'revaluing mad' identities and ways of being in place. In conclusion, key findings and avenues for future geographical research are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Madness in the German cinema (1913-1933].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulas, J J

    1980-01-01

    During these twenty years, from 1913 to 1933, of the history of the German cinema, the cinematographic representation of madness varies according to the fluctuations of the social and economical background. The political and ideological chaos of the immediate post-war years was symbolized in the allegorical imagery of unreason in the expressionist cinema. The same equivalence, the same symbolization can be found in the cinema of the thirties when the crash of Wall-Street foretells a crisis like the former. On the contrary in the course of the so-called "relative stabilization" (1924-1929) the meaning of the representation of madness is totally different from the representation of the previous period. At this period of economical restoration, madness which could henceforth be cured on the psychoanalyst's couch (acc. G. W. Pabst's film: "Geheimnisse einer Seele") became the symbol of the absolute power rediscovered by Germany.

  7. 33 CFR 147.839 - Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.839 Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone. (a) Description. Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform, Green Canyon 782 (GC 782), located at position...

  8. [The representation of madness in William Shakespeare's characters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stompe, Thomas; Ritter, Kristina; Friedmann, Alexander

    2006-08-01

    Shakespeare is one of the great creators of human characters of the 16(th) century. Like for many of his contemporaries madness was a central topic of his work. The first part of this paper discusses the sociocultural environment and the semantic field of madness in the Elizabethan age, which forms the background for Shakespeare's characters. In the second part we try to analyze the clinical pictures of the fictive characters of Othello, Hamlet, Lear and Macbeth. While we find melancholy, delusions and hallucinations, other diseases such as schizophrenia are missing entirely. Schizophrenia only appears in the literature more than two hundred years later, in the beginning of modern age.

  9. Don, Betty and Jackie Kennedy: On Mad Men and Periodisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudence Black

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Why is it that we watch Mad Men and think it represents a period? Flashes of patterned wallpaper, whiskey neat, babies born that are never mentioned, contact lining for kitchen drawers, Ayn Rand, polaroids, skinny ties, Hilton hotels, Walter Cronkite, and a time when Don Draper can ask ‘What do women want?’ and dry old Roger Sterling can reply ‘Who Cares?’ This essay explores the embrace of period detail in Mad Men finding it to be both loving and fetishistic, and belonging, like all period film, to the politics of the present.

  10. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data...

  11. Math in the Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeYoung, Mary J.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to make an origami paper box and explores the algebra, geometry, and other mathematics that unfolds. A set of origami steps that transforms the paper into an open box can hold mathematical surprises for both students and teachers. An origami lesson can engage students in an open-ended exploration of the relationship…

  12. ALUMINUM BOX BUNDLING PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In municipal solid waste, aluminum is the main nonferrous metal, approximately 80- 85% of the total nonferrous metals. The income per ton gained from aluminum recuperation is 20 times higher than from glass, steel boxes or paper recuperation. The object of this paper is the design of a 300 kN press for aluminum box bundling.

  13. Cassandra in the Classroom: Teaching and Moral Madness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Doris A.

    2017-01-01

    Moral madness is a symptom of the moral violence experienced by teachers who are expected to exercise responsibility for their students and their work, but whose moral voice is misrecognized as self-interest and whose moral agency is suppressed. I conduct a feminist ethical analysis of the figure of Cassandra to examine the ways in which teachers…

  14. Reviewing the Link between Creativity and Madness: A Postmodern Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    Researchers on creativity and psychology have long been fascinated with the high incidence of psychotic behavior amongst geniuses and individuals of exceptional creativity. The aims of this paper are first, to review the existing findings for a better insight into the socio-contextual factors underpinning the mad genius conundrum, and secondly, to…

  15. [The madness of Herakles in Euripides and Sophocles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    In the ancient Greek world madness was conceived as a punishment sent by the gods to men found guilty of various sins. Heralkes, who kills his wife Megara and their sons, is the best example of Greek literature offers of the tragic consequences of mental disease. The article conducts a medical observation of Sophocles' and Euripides' descriptions of Herakles' insanity.

  16. Cloning and transcription analysis of an AGAMOUS- and SEEDSTICK ortholog in the orchid Dendrobium thyrsiflorum (Reichb. f.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skipper, Martin; Johansen, Louise Buchholt; Pedersen, Kim B.

    2006-01-01

    Studies have shown that several plant species posses AGAMOUS (AG) and SEEDSTICK (STK) orthologs. These genes are part of the so-called C- and D MADS-box gene lineages and play key roles in ovule development in Arabidopsis thaliana. We have cloned an AG- and STK ortholog in the orchid Dendrobium...

  17. Pion in a box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bietenholz, W.; Rakow, P.E.L.; Schierholz, G.; Regensburg Univ.

    2010-02-01

    The residual mass of the pion in a finite spatial box at vanishing quark masses is computed with two flavors of dynamical clover fermions. The result is compared with predictions of chiral perturbation theory in the δ regime. (orig.)

  18. Infectious disease and boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Osric S

    2009-10-01

    There are no unique boxing diseases but certain factors contributing to the spread of illnesses apply strongly to the boxer, coach, and the training facility. This article examines the nature of the sport of boxing and its surrounding environment, and the likelihood of spread of infection through airborne, contact, or blood-borne routes of transmission. Evidence from other sports such as running, wrestling, and martial arts is included to help elucidate the pathophysiologic elements that could be identified in boxers.

  19. [Boxing: traumatology and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanis, Emmanuel-Alain; Iba-Zizen, Marie-Thérèse; Perez, Georges; Senegas, Xavier; Furgoni, Julien; Pineau, Jean-Claude; Louquet, Jean-Louis; Henrion, Roger

    2010-10-01

    In 1986, a surgeon who, as an amateur boxer himself was concerned with boxers' health, approached a pioneering Parisian neuroimaging unit. Thus began a study in close cooperation with the French Boxing Federation, spanning 25 years. In a first series of 52 volunteer boxers (13 amateurs and 39 professionals), during which MRI gradually replaced computed tomography, ten risk factors were identified, which notably included boxing style: only one of 40 "stylists" with a good boxing technique had cortical atrophy (4.5 %), compared to 15 % of "sloggers". Changes to the French Boxing Federation rules placed the accent on medical prevention. The second series, of 247 boxers (81 amateurs and 266 professionals), showed a clear improvement, as lesions were suspected in 14 individuals, of which only 4 (1.35 %) were probably due to boxing. The third and fourth series were part of a protocol called "Brain-Boxing-Ageing", which included 76 boxers (11 having suffered KOs) and 120 MRI scans, with reproducible CT and MRI acquisitions (9 sequences with 1.5 T then 3 T, and CT). MRI anomalies secondary to boxing were found in 11 % of amateurs and 38 % of professionals (atrophy, high vascular T2 signal areas, 2 cases of post-KO subdural bleeding). CT revealed sinus damage in 13 % of the amateurs and 19 % of the professionals. The risk of acute and chronic facial and brain damage was underline, along with detailed precautionary measures (organization of bouts, role of the referee and ringside doctor, and application of French Boxing Federation rules).

  20. Nonneurologic emergencies in boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta, Domenic F

    2009-10-01

    Professional boxing has done an admirable job in promoting safety standards in its particular sport. However, injuries occur during the normal course of competition and, unfortunately, an occasional life-threatening emergency may arise. Although most common medical emergencies in boxing are injuries from closed head trauma, in this article those infrequent but potentially catastrophic nonneurologic conditions are reviewed along with some less serious emergencies that the physician must be prepared to address.

  1. Music, madness and the body: symptom and cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Dolly

    2006-03-01

    Building on Sander L. Gilman's exemplary work on images of madness and the body, this article examines images of music, madness and the body by discussing the persistent cultural beliefs stemming from Classical Antiquity that underpin music as medicinal. These images reflect the body engaged in therapeutic musical activities, as well as musical sounds forming part of the evidence of the mental diagnostic state of a patient in case records. The historiography of music as medicinal has been overlooked in the history of psychiatry. This article provides a brief background to the cultural beliefs that underlie examples of music as both symptom and cure in 19th- and 20th-century asylum records in Australia, Britain, Europe and North America.

  2. The world of Mad Men: power, surface and passion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Mary-Joan

    2011-12-01

    Mad Men is disturbing to post-millennium viewers, particularly those of a "certain" age, on three counts. First, it invokes a particular historical context of gender oppression; second it captures the prevailing post-War injunction that emotional distress is unseemly and distasteful; and third, it captures the zeitgeist's celebration of surface over substance in relationship. However, just as disturbing as these historically situated interpersonal premises is the niggling question that each relationship pairing and each episode leaves with the viewer. To wit: How much of the disconnection and the unrequited longings are reflective of a particular historical era, and to what degree do they reflect timeless aspects of character and relationship? Thus Mad Men provides an exquisitely rendered sociocultural tableau in which the viewer struggles, however articulated or not, with one of the essential knots of psychoanalytic as well as couples treatment: the complicated interpenetration of culture and character, of time and timelessness.

  3. Extensions of MAD Version 8 to Include Beam Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raubenheimer, Tor O

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe modifications to MAD version 8.23 to include linear accelerator cavities and beam acceleration. An additional energy variable has been added which is modified as the beam passes through LCAV elements (linear accelerator cavities) and can be used as a constraint in matching commands. The calculation of the beta functions and phase advance is consistent with that in other codes that treat acceleration such as TRANSPORT or DIMAD. These modifications allow this version of MAD to be used for the design and modeling of linacs and the authors present examples from the Next Linear Collider design as well as a muon acceleration complex. The code is available from CERN or SLAC

  4. The BOXES Methodology Black Box Dynamic Control

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, David W

    2012-01-01

    Robust control mechanisms customarily require knowledge of the system’s describing equations which may be of the high order differential type.  In order to produce these equations, mathematical models can often be derived and correlated with measured dynamic behavior.  There are two flaws in this approach one is the level of inexactness introduced by linearizations and the other when no model is apparent.  Several years ago a new genre of control systems came to light that are much less dependent on differential models such as fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms. Both of these soft computing solutions require quite considerable a priori system knowledge to create a control scheme and sometimes complicated training program before they can be implemented in a real world dynamic system. Michie and Chambers’ BOXES methodology created a black box system that was designed to control a mechanically unstable system with very little a priori system knowledge, linearization or approximation.  All the method need...

  5. Slow ventricular response atrial fibrillation related to mad honey poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osken, A.; Yaylacı, S.; Aydın, E.; Kocayigit, İ; Cakar, M.A.; Tamer, A.; Gündüz, H.

    2012-01-01

    Mad honey poisoning which is induced by Grayanotoxin (Andromedotoxin), is also known to have adverse effects in the cardiovascular system leading to different clinical entities. This toxin is produced by a member of the Rhododendron genus of plants of two R. Luteum and R. Panticum. In this article, we presented a case of slow ventricular response atrial fibrillation complaints with nausea, vomiting, dizziness and chest pain about an hour after eating honey produced in the Black Sea Region. PMID:22923947

  6. Slow ventricular response atrial fibrillation related to mad honey poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Osken, A.; Yaylacı, S.; Aydın, E.; Kocayigit, İ; Cakar, M.A.; Tamer, A.; Gündüz, H.

    2012-01-01

    Mad honey poisoning which is induced by Grayanotoxin (Andromedotoxin), is also known to have adverse effects in the cardiovascular system leading to different clinical entities. This toxin is produced by a member of the Rhododendron genus of plants of two R. Luteum and R. Panticum. In this article, we presented a case of slow ventricular response atrial fibrillation complaints with nausea, vomiting, dizziness and chest pain about an hour after eating honey produced in the Black Sea Region.

  7. Fag Men: Mad Men, Homosexuality and Televisual Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Wallace

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the many retro-fittings achieved by Mad Men—Matthew Weinerʼs still unfurling television series set in the advertising world of the early 1960s—is the representation of the homosexual closet as a thing of the past. This essay approaches Mad Men’s account of the homophobic past in order to think about sexuality and televisual style. A landmark programme coterminous with American television transferring from analogue to digital signal, Mad Men allegorizes another moment in television history when the medium was defined not by convergence and time-shifting but by liveness, scheduling flow, mass-market demographics and synchronous viewing. Though it confines its gay content to minor characters and narrative arcs that phase in and out in relation to open-ended long-form needs, the programme’s representation of homophobia as a thing of the past provides a useful lens on the complex temporal co-ordinates of contemporary television.

  8. Prognosis End-Time: Madness and Prophecy in Melancholia and Take Shelter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briohny Doyle

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses two films released in 2011, Lars Von Trier's Melancholia and Jeff Nichols Take Shelter in the context of the history of dominant conceptions of madness as laid out in Foucault's History of Madness. I argue that these films allegorise protagonists' experiences of depression and schizophrenia in order to critique the present moment in North America as well as to restore a poetic link between madness, prophecy and apocalypse in the popular imagination.

  9. Eye trauma in boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Gustavo; Curreri, Anthony

    2009-10-01

    In boxing, along with a few other sports, trauma is inherent to the nature of the sport; therefore it is considered a high-risk sport for ocular injuries. The long-term morbidity of ocular injuries suffered by boxers is difficult to estimate due to the lack of structured long-term follow-up of these athletes. Complications of blunt ocular trauma may develop years after the athlete has retired from the ring and is no longer considered to be at risk for boxing-related injuries. This article describes the wide range of eye injuries a boxer can sustain, and their immediate and long-term clinical management.

  10. Opto-Box

    CERN Document Server

    Bertsche, David; The ATLAS collaboration; Welch, Steven; Smith, Dale Shane; Che, Siinn; Gan, K.K.; Boyd, George Russell Jr

    2015-01-01

    The opto-box is a custom mini-crate for housing optical modules, which process and transfer optoelectronic data. The system tightly integrates electrical, mechanical, and thermal functionality into a small package of size 35x10x8 cm^3. Special attention was given to ensure proper shielding, grounding, cooling, high reliability, and environmental tolerance. The custom modules, which incorporate Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), were developed through a cycle of rigorous testing and redesign. In total, fourteen opto-boxes have been installed and loaded with modules on the ATLAS detector. They are currently in operation as part of the LHC run 2 data read-out chain.

  11. The vocabulary of madness from Homer to Hippocrates. Part 1: the verbal group of mualphaiotanuomicronmualphaiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdicoyianni-Paléologou, Hélène

    2009-09-01

    In Part 1 of this two-part paper, I examine the evolution of the concept of madness expressed by the various forms--verbal and nominal, simple and compound--of the verbal group of mualphaiotanuomicronmualphaiota in the archaic and classical periods. I point out how the divine madness is contrasted to pathological madness considered as a psychic and mental disease and foreseeable by doctors as well as curable by medications. This new procedure highlights rational knowledge of the Greeks about the cause and the medical care of madness.

  12. Teaching with Box Tops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiser, Lynne; D'Zamko, Mary Elizabeth

    1984-01-01

    Using environmental materials (such as the phone book and placemats from fast food restaurants) can be a motivating way to teach learning disabled students skills and concepts, as shown in an approach to reading, math, science and nutrition, and social studies instruction using a JELL-O brand gelatin box. (CL)

  13. Glove box posting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntosh, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    A system for posting objects into closed containers, such as glove boxes, is described in which the bag used, preferably made of plastic, does not have to be fitted and sealed by the operator during each posting operation. (U.K.)

  14. Mystery Box Marvels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Joel; Centurio, Tina

    2012-01-01

    What happens in the first week of school could very well set the stage for the rest of the school year. Setting high standards for science activities based in inquiry can start on the first day of science class and develop as the year unfolds. With the use of simple, readily available, inexpensive materials, an efficient mystery box lesson can be…

  15. Ocular complications of boxing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, M; Vaiano, A; Colella, F; Coccimiglio, F; Moscetti, M; Palmieri, V; Focosi, F; Zeppilli, P; Vinger, P

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of ocular injuries in a large population of boxers over a period of 16 years, in particular, the most severe lesions that may be vision threatening. Methods: Clinical records of the medical archive of the Italian Boxing Federation were analysed. A total of 1032 boxers were examined from February 1982 to October 1998. A complete ophthalmological history was available for 956, who formed the study population (a total of 10 697 examinations). The following data were collected: age when started boxing; duration of competitive boxing career (from the date of the first bout); weight category; a thorough ocular history. The following investigations were carried out: measurement of visual acuity and visual fields, anterior segment inspection, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, and examination of ocular fundus. Eighty age matched healthy subjects, who had never boxed, formed the control group. Results: Of the 956 boxers examined, 428 were amateur (44.8%) and 528 professional (55.2%). The median age at first examination was 23.1 (4.3) years (range 15–36). The prevalence of conjunctival, corneal, lenticular, vitreal, ocular papilla, and retinal alterations in the study population was 40.9% compared with 3.1% in the control group (p⩽0.0001). The prevalence of serious ocular findings (angle, lens, macula, and peripheral retina alterations) was 5.6% in boxers and 3.1% in controls (NS). Conclusions: Boxing does not result in a higher prevalence of severe ocular lesions than in the general population. However, the prevalence of milder lesions (in particular with regard to the conjunctiva and cornea) is noteworthy, justifying the need for adequate ophthalmological surveillance. PMID:15665199

  16. Expression of transcription factors after short-term exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures to hypergravity and simulated microgravity (2-D/3-D clinorotation, magnetic levitation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbick, M.; Dijkstra, C.; Larkin, O. J.; Anthony, P.; Davey, M. R.; Power, J. B.; Lowe, K. C.; Cogoli-Greuter, M.; Hampp, R.

    Gravity is an important environmental factor that controls plant growth and development. Studies have shown that the perception of gravity is not only a property of specialized cells, but can also be performed by undifferentiated cultured cells. In this investigation, callus of Arabidopsis thaliana cv. Columbia was used to investigate the initial steps of gravity-related signalling cascades, through altered expression of transcription factors (TFs). TFs are families of small proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific promoter sequences. Based on microarray studies, members of the gene families WRKY, MADS-box, MYB, and AP2/EREBP were selected for investigation, as well as members of signalling chains, namely IAA 19 and phosphoinositol-4-kinase. Using qRT-PCR, transcripts were quantified within a period of 30 min in response to hypergravity (8 g), clinorotation [2-D clinostat and 3-D random positioning machine (RPM)] and magnetic levitation (ML). The data indicated that (1) changes in gravity induced stress-related signalling, and (2) exposure in the RPM induced changes in gene expression which resemble those of magnetic levitation. Two dimensional clinorotation resulted in responses similar to those caused by hypergravity. It is suggested that RPM and ML are preferable to simulate microgravity than clinorotation.

  17. Protonation Effect of Tyrosine in a Segment of the SRF Transcription Factor: A Combined Optical Spectroscopy, Molecular Dynamics, and Density Functional Theory Calculation Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Profantová, B.; Profant, V.; Zíma, V.; Kopecký, V. Jr.; Bednárová, Lucie; Zentz, Ch.; Baumruk, V.; Turpin, P. Y.; Štěpánek, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 50 (2013), s. 16086-16095 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/0193 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : MADS box * protein secondary structure * tyrosine * pHtransition * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.377, year: 2013

  18. Decommissioning a small glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, R.D.; McSherry, K.

    1985-11-01

    An account is given of dismantling a fuel fabrication glove box using simple tooling. The fissile content of the box was first measured by several non-destructive techniques. After cleaning, the box was dismantled using hand tools and finally packed for disposal. A record of operator radiation doses, the time taken for each stage of the operation and packing information is given. (author)

  19. Opto-Box

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00377159; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The opto-box is a custom mini-crate for housing optical modules, which process and transfer optoelectronic data. Many novel solutions were developed for the custom design and manufacturing. The system tightly integrates electrical, mechanical, and thermal functionality into a small package of size 35x10x8 cm$^{3}$. Special attention was given to ensure proper shielding, grounding, cooling, high reliability, and environmental tolerance. The custom modules, which incorporate Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), were developed through a cycle of rigorous testing and redesign. In total, fourteen opto-boxes have been installed and loaded with modules on the ATLAS detector. They are currently in operation as part of the LHC run 2 data read-out chain.

  20. Number 13 / Part I. Music. 3. Mad Scenes: A Warning against Overwhelming Passions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisi Rossella

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on mad scenes in poetry and musical theatre, stressing that, according to Aristotle’s theory on catharsis and the Affektenlehre, they had a pedagogical role on the audience. Some mad scenes by J.S. Bach, Handel and Mozart are briefly analyzed, highlighting their most relevant textual and musical characteristics.

  1. Boxed Permutation Pattern Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amit, Mika; Bille, Philip; Cording, Patrick Hagge

    2016-01-01

    the goal is to only find the boxed subsequences of T that are order-isomorphic to P. This problem was introduced by Bruner and Lackner who showed that it can be solved in O(n3) time. Cho et al. [CPM 2015] gave an O(n2m) time algorithm and improved it to O(n2 logm). In this paper we present a solution...

  2. The Box Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    The velocity level in a room ventilated by jet ventilation is strongly influenced by the supply conditions. The momentum flow in the supply jets controls the air movement in the room and, therefore, it is very important that the inlet conditions and the numerical method can generate a satisfactor...... description of this momentum flow. The Box Method is a practical method for the description of an Air Terminal Device which will save grid points and ensure the right level of the momentum flow....

  3. Designing and recasting LHC analyses with MadAnalysis 5

    CERN Document Server

    Conte, Eric; Fuks, Benjamin; Wymant, Chris

    2014-01-01

    We present an extension of the expert mode of the MadAnalysis 5 program dedicated to the design or reinterpretation of high-energy physics collider analyses. We detail the predefined classes, functions and methods available to the user and emphasize the most recent developments. The latter include the possible definition of multiple sub-analyses and a novel user-friendly treatment for the selection criteria. We illustrate this approach by two concrete examples: a CMS search for supersymmetric partners of the top quark and a phenomenological analysis targeting hadronically decaying monotop systems.

  4. Status of MAD (version 8.5) and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iselin, F.C.

    1993-01-01

    The MAD computer code project was started in 1981 at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) to provide a flexible framework for particle optical computations. From the beginning various features were considered important. Open-ended and modular design of the program would allow easy addition of new features. Format-free input language would facilitate data preparation. Later the requirement was added that the language should be understood by a variety of other programs. When moving data to other programs this would avoid extensive translations of the data with the corresponding danger of making errors. The internal data structure would describe the machine in a flexible manner and access to this structure should be simple. The program should be easy to maintain. Canonical variables should be used throughout the computations. All these features should not hamper the computational efficiency. This article describes the features of the MAD code. This is followed by two sections giving a general description of the ''standard input language'' and extensions to this language. Finally the data structures introduced and future plans are summarized. (Author)

  5. Outside the box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichon, Max

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Queensland-based Hydrasyst wants to take its motto of 'Do more with less' into the greywater sector with a new water recycling and energy recovery technology launched in November, called The Grey Box. The company is initially targeting large industrial laundries as they are major generators of greywater and heavy energy users, but it has ambitions well beyond that. The average commercial laundry consumes 1-5ML of water a week, using about 16 litres for every 1kg of clothing washed. Hydrasyst director Stephen Balemi said The Grey Box can slash the volume by 80 per cent. While he was reluctant to disclose too much technical detail, he claimed it is the only technology serving the $1 billion a year laundry sector that combines microfiltration / ultrafiltration membrane technology and energy reduction components. The heart of the system is a ceramic hollow fibre membrane. Balemi said it produces higher filtrate quality than competitors, meaning the recycled water can be reused more often, and can process feed water of up to 70°C compared to typical ultrafiltration membranes that cap out at about 38°C. This means the recycled water can be reused at higher temperatures, with the heat in it recovered by a precise steam heater built into The Grey Box. “As an overall measure, it saves 80 per cent of the water that is processed and saves 20 per cent of the energy,” Balemi said. Four systems have already been installed, with one going into a large commercial laundry in south Queensland and another to AMP's state-of-the-art 6 Green Star building in Brisbane. “We can modify them slightly to suit the industry, depending on the quality of raw water they are trying to recycle and also depending on the size of the project,,” said Balemi. Where many organisations build systems to specification, The Grey Box is offered in three standard sizes: the HY20 (20kL per day, based on a 10 hour day), HY80 (80kL per day) and HY130 (130kL per day). They can be used

  6. Involvement of CNOT3 in mitotic progression through inhibition of MAD1 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Akinori [Division of Oncology, Department of Cancer Biology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Kikuguchi, Chisato [Cell Signal Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Kunigami, Okinawa 904-0412 (Japan); Morita, Masahiro; Shimodaira, Tetsuhiro; Tokai-Nishizumi, Noriko; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Ohsugi, Miho; Suzuki, Toru [Division of Oncology, Department of Cancer Biology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Yamamoto, Tadashi, E-mail: tyamamot@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Division of Oncology, Department of Cancer Biology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Cell Signal Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Kunigami, Okinawa 904-0412 (Japan)

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CNOT3 depletion increases the mitotic index. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CNOT3 inhibits the expression of MAD1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CNOT3 destabilizes the MAD1 mRNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAD1 knockdown attenuates the CNOT3 depletion-induced mitotic arrest. -- Abstract: The stability of mRNA influences the dynamics of gene expression. The CCR4-NOT complex, the major deadenylase in mammalian cells, shortens the mRNA poly(A) tail and contributes to the destabilization of mRNAs. The CCR4-NOT complex plays pivotal roles in various physiological functions, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Here, we show that CNOT3, a subunit of the CCR4-NOT complex, is involved in the regulation of the spindle assembly checkpoint, suggesting that the CCR4-NOT complex also plays a part in the regulation of mitosis. CNOT3 depletion increases the population of mitotic-arrested cells and specifically increases the expression of MAD1 mRNA and its protein product that plays a part in the spindle assembly checkpoint. We showed that CNOT3 depletion stabilizes the MAD1 mRNA, and that MAD1 knockdown attenuates the CNOT3 depletion-induced increase of the mitotic index. Basing on these observations, we propose that CNOT3 is involved in the regulation of the spindle assembly checkpoint through its ability to regulate the stability of MAD1 mRNA.

  7. Involvement of CNOT3 in mitotic progression through inhibition of MAD1 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Akinori; Kikuguchi, Chisato; Morita, Masahiro; Shimodaira, Tetsuhiro; Tokai-Nishizumi, Noriko; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Ohsugi, Miho; Suzuki, Toru; Yamamoto, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CNOT3 depletion increases the mitotic index. ► CNOT3 inhibits the expression of MAD1. ► CNOT3 destabilizes the MAD1 mRNA. ► MAD1 knockdown attenuates the CNOT3 depletion-induced mitotic arrest. -- Abstract: The stability of mRNA influences the dynamics of gene expression. The CCR4–NOT complex, the major deadenylase in mammalian cells, shortens the mRNA poly(A) tail and contributes to the destabilization of mRNAs. The CCR4–NOT complex plays pivotal roles in various physiological functions, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Here, we show that CNOT3, a subunit of the CCR4–NOT complex, is involved in the regulation of the spindle assembly checkpoint, suggesting that the CCR4–NOT complex also plays a part in the regulation of mitosis. CNOT3 depletion increases the population of mitotic-arrested cells and specifically increases the expression of MAD1 mRNA and its protein product that plays a part in the spindle assembly checkpoint. We showed that CNOT3 depletion stabilizes the MAD1 mRNA, and that MAD1 knockdown attenuates the CNOT3 depletion-induced increase of the mitotic index. Basing on these observations, we propose that CNOT3 is involved in the regulation of the spindle assembly checkpoint through its ability to regulate the stability of MAD1 mRNA.

  8. Microclimate boxes for panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The use of microclimate boxes to protect vulnerable panel paintings is, therefore, not a new phenomenon of the past two or three decades. Rather, it has been a concern for conservators and curators to protect these objects of art at home and in transit since the end of the nineteenth century....... The increased number of travelling exhibitions in recent years has heightened the need to protect paintings during circulation (Thomson 1961; Mecklenburg 1991). The use and design of microclimate boxes have been evolving since 1892. These boxes may be divided into three broad groups: those using an active...... buffer material to stabilize the internal RH, a more recent box containing no added buffer material, and, in recent times, boxes with an altered gas content. Another concern is the appearance (aesthetics) of the box....

  9. Box-particle intensity filter

    OpenAIRE

    Schikora, Marek; Gning, Amadou; Mihaylova, Lyudmila; Cremers, Daniel; Koch, Wofgang; Streit, Roy

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a novel approach for multi-target tracking, called box-particle intensity filter (box-iFilter). The approach is able to cope with unknown clutter, false alarms and estimates the unknown number of targets. Furthermore, it is capable of dealing with three sources of uncertainty: stochastic, set-theoretic and data association uncertainty. The box-iFilter reduces the number of particles significantly, which improves the runtime considerably. The low particle number enables thi...

  10. SMRT has tissue-specific isoform profiles that include a form containing one CoRNR box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, Stephen; Malartre, Marianne; Sharpe, Colin

    2005-01-01

    SMRT acts as a corepressor for a range of transcription factors. The amino-terminal part of the protein includes domains that mainly mediate transcriptional repression whilst the carboxy-terminal part includes domains that interact with nuclear receptors using up to three motifs called CoRNR boxes. The region of the SMRT primary transcript encoding the interaction domains is subject to alternative splicing that varies the inclusion of the third CoRNR box. The profile in mice includes an abundant, novel SMRT isoform that possesses just one CoRNR box. Mouse tissues therefore express SMRT isoforms containing one, two or three CoRNR boxes. In frogs, the SMRT isoform profile is tissue-specific. The mouse also shows distinct profiles generated by differential expression levels of the SMRT transcript isoforms. The formation of multiple SMRT isoforms and their tissue-specific regulation indicates a mechanism, whereby cells can define the repertoire of transcription factors regulated by SMRT

  11. The horror of madness in Estrella distante and Nocturno de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Rocco

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the thematic dimension of madness present in the novels Estrella distante and Nocturno de Chile by Roberto Bolaño in order to determine the various ways by which the narrator subjectivity develops a critical consciousness of madness from the traumatic experience of the Chilean dictatorship. Also, this dimension evidences the articulation of a language of madness as literary aesthetics of artistic experience of limits: the horror. Accordingly, a preliminary analysis of contemporary history as a meeting place between violent media versus artistic media that account for the chiaroscuro of Latin American modernity is offered.

  12. GENDERED DOLLARS: Pin Money, Mad Money, and Changing Notions of a Woman’s Proper Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Traflet

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the evolution in the meaning and usage of two types of special currencies: pin money and mad money. At the start of the twentieth century, both currencies were considered a woman’s money. By the end of the century, however, both pin money and mad money had lost a large measure of their original gendered connotations. By situating the evolving meanings of these currencies alongside concepts of domesticity, virtuous womanhood, and a woman’s proper place, this essay strives to illuminate the rise and fall of pin money and mad money as uniquely “women’s dollars." 

  13. The Classroom Animal: Box Turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David C.

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic information on the anatomy, physiology, behaviors, and distribution patterns of the box turtle. Offers suggestions for the turtle's care and maintenance in a classroom environment. (ML)

  14. Boxing-related head injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarao, Mayur; Chin, Lawrence S; Cantu, Robert C

    2010-10-01

    Fatalities in boxing are most often due to traumatic brain injury that occurs in the ring. In the past 30 years, significant improvements in ringside and medical equipment, safety, and regulations have resulted in a dramatic reduction in the fatality rate. Nonetheless, the rate of boxing-related head injuries, particularly concussions, remains unknown, due in large part to its variability in clinical presentation. Furthermore, the significance of repeat concussions sustained when boxing is just now being understood. In this article, we identify the clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, and management of boxing-related head injuries, and discuss preventive strategies to reduce head injuries sustained by boxers.

  15. Mad Men’s Deceptive (Critique Of Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Robert

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses Mad Men’s relationship to creativity. Considering popular, industry-specific and scholarly understandings, it uses close readings of the show and its narratological techniques to demonstrate how these potentially contradictory concepts and practices of creativity overlap in the show’s fourth season. The points at which these understandings collide become sources of tension between characters and are marked by narrative gaps that conceal deceptive creativity. The conflicts centre on three primary debates: a the role of alcohol in the creative process, b industry-specific norms of creativity, and c the popular perception that creativity is about expression. Consequently, this article approaches questions about creativity using the show’s own partially elided debates and undermines widely-held romantic beliefs about the creative ‘type’ and the what exactly it means to sell creativity in a corporate setting.

  16. Acsys in a box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briegel, C.; Finstrom, D.; Hendricks, B.; King, C.; Lackey, S.; Neswold, R.; Nicklaus, D.; Patrick, J.; Petrov, A.; Rechenmacher, R.; Schumann, C.; Smedinghoff, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Accelerator Control System (ACSYS) at Fermilab has evolved to enable this relatively large control system to be encapsulated into a 'box' such as a laptop. The goal was to provide a platform isolated from the 'online' control system. This platform can be used internally for making major upgrades and modifications without impacting operations. It also provides a stand-alone environment for research and development including a turnkey control system for collaborators. Over time, the code base running on Scientific Linux has enabled all the salient features of the Fermilab's control system to be captured in an off-the-shelf laptop. The anticipated additional benefits of packaging the system include improved maintenance, reliability, documentation, and future enhancements. (authors)

  17. Boxing with Bell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    When Protech Mining moved onto a greenfields site near Ermelo in mid-November last year to start work on the establishment of a box cut for an underground bituminous coal and anthracite mine for Delta Colliery, the company could not have foreseen the difficulties it was to encounter from the unusually high rainfall which fell, almost without abatement, from the time the first sod was turned. Production at the so called Mooiplants mine will commence in March 2001. Mining will take place at a maximum depth of 47 m and coal will be extracted from underground by two conveyor belts and stockpiled. Bell B40 CM mining trucks and an 18 Bell B20 articulated dump truck will be in the haulage fleet. 3 photos.

  18. Sanctified madness: the God-intoxicated saints of Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinis, A

    1985-01-01

    The saintly madman is a familiar character in South Asia. To outer appearances he is no different from a lunatic, but the mad saint comes to be revered because his idiocy is popularly believed to arise from a different cause than ordinary madness. The common psychopath neglects social conventions because his consciousness is dimmed by incapacity; the saintly madman also breaches convention, but does so because his heightened consciousness has liberated him from the bonds of convention that entrap ordinary people. In the terms of Hinduism, he has tasted the divine nectar of God-realization and has returned to the human realm intoxicated by the experience. In this paper two popular God intoxicated saints of Bengal are discussed. The question is posed whether 'God intoxication' can be considered a culture-bound syndrome of Bengal. The concept of 'culture bound syndrome' is found to be too narrow to encompass the most significant issues to arise from reflection on the characteristics of the God intoxicated. These larger issues have to do with the relationship between cultural practices and models and mental states (whether deviant, as implied by the term 'syndrome' although deviance does not always carry the negative connotation implicit in 'syndrome', or normal). It is suggested that all cultures culture a limited range of mental states and thus the questions posed by the notion of culture bound syndromes are subsumed by larger questions about the relationship of all mind-states to the socio-cultural environment which conditions them. The conclusion is that God intoxication is indeed a uniquely Bengali mental condition, with variants throughout South Asia and kinship to other mystical states, but that the concept of 'syndrome' is not useful.

  19. What Makes a Better Box?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Every morning, many Americans start their day with a bowl of cereal. Some spend time while they eat breakfast reading the back of the cereal box, but few consider its size, shape, and construction, or realize that it was designed by an engineer. This article describes a lesson in which students design, build, and critique cereal boxes. The lesson…

  20. Spirit Boxes: Expressions of Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMuro, Ted

    1984-01-01

    After studying the culture and art of the ancient civilizations of South America, Mesopotamia, Greece, and Egypt, secondary level art students made spirit boxes as expressions of the various cultures. How to make the boxes and how to prepare the face molds are described. (RM)

  1. Relativistic particle in a box

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto, P.; Fiolhais, Carlos; Gil, Victor

    1996-01-01

    The problem of a relativistic spin 1/2 particle confined to a one-dimensional box is solved in a way that resembles closely the solution of the well known quantum-mechanical textbook problem of a non-relativistic particle in a box. The energy levels and probability density are computed and compared with the non-relativistic case

  2. Emotional and deliberative reactions to a public crisis: Mad Cow disease in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaceur, Marwan; Heath, Chip; Cole, Steve

    2005-03-01

    Although most theories of choice are cognitive, recent research has emphasized the role of emotions. We used a novel context--the Mad Cow crisis in France--to investigate how emotions alter choice even when consequences are held constant. A field study showed that individuals reduced beef consumption in months after many newspaper articles featured the emotional label "Mad Cow," but beef consumption was unaffected after articles featured scientific labels for the same disease. The reverse pattern held for the disease-related actions of a government bureaucracy. A lab study showed that the Mad Cow label induces people to make choices based solely on emotional reactions, whereas scientific labels induce people to consider their own probability judgments. Although the Mad Cow label produces less rational behavior than scientific labels, it is two to four times more common in the environment.

  3. Channel box dimension measuring method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Hirotake; Jo, Hiroto.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for measuring the entire length of a channel box of a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor. Namely, four sensors are used as one set that generate ultrasonic waves from oblique upper portion, oblique lower portion, upper portion and lower portion of the channel box respectively. The distances between the four sensors and each of the portions of the channel box are measured respectively for both of a reference member and a member to be measured. The entire length of the channel box is measured by calculating the measured values and the angles of the obliquely disposed sensors according to a predetermined formula. According to the method of the present invention, the inclination of the channel box to be measured can be corrected. In addition, accuracy of the measurement is improved and the measuring time is saved as well as the measuring device and operation can be simplified. (I.S.)

  4. A new set of ESTs from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. embryo reveals two novel F-box genes, CarF-box_PP2 and CarF-box_LysM, with potential roles in seed development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shefali Gupta

    Full Text Available Considering the economic importance of chickpea (C. arietinum L. seeds, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying seed development for which a cDNA library was constructed from 6 day old chickpea embryos. A total of 8,186 ESTs were obtained from which 4,048 high quality ESTs were assembled into 1,480 unigenes that majorly encoded genes involved in various metabolic and regulatory pathways. Of these, 95 ESTs were found to be involved in ubiquitination related protein degradation pathways and 12 ESTs coded specifically for putative F-box proteins. Differential transcript accumulation of these putative F-box genes was observed in chickpea tissues as evidenced by quantitative real-time PCR. Further, to explore the role of F-box proteins in chickpea seed development, two F-box genes were selected for molecular characterization. These were named as CarF-box_PP2 and CarF-box_LysM depending on their C-terminal domains, PP2 and LysM, respectively. Their highly conserved structures led us to predict their target substrates. Subcellular localization experiment revealed that CarF-box_PP2 was localized in the cytoplasm and CarF-box_LysM was localized in the nucleus. We demonstrated their physical interactions with SKP1 protein, which validated that they function as F-box proteins in the formation of SCF complexes. Sequence analysis of their promoter regions revealed certain seed specific cis-acting elements that may be regulating their preferential transcript accumulation in the seed. Overall, the study helped in expanding the EST database of chickpea, which was further used to identify two novel F-box genes having a potential role in seed development.

  5. A new set of ESTs from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) embryo reveals two novel F-box genes, CarF-box_PP2 and CarF-box_LysM, with potential roles in seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shefali; Garg, Vanika; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2015-01-01

    Considering the economic importance of chickpea (C. arietinum L.) seeds, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying seed development for which a cDNA library was constructed from 6 day old chickpea embryos. A total of 8,186 ESTs were obtained from which 4,048 high quality ESTs were assembled into 1,480 unigenes that majorly encoded genes involved in various metabolic and regulatory pathways. Of these, 95 ESTs were found to be involved in ubiquitination related protein degradation pathways and 12 ESTs coded specifically for putative F-box proteins. Differential transcript accumulation of these putative F-box genes was observed in chickpea tissues as evidenced by quantitative real-time PCR. Further, to explore the role of F-box proteins in chickpea seed development, two F-box genes were selected for molecular characterization. These were named as CarF-box_PP2 and CarF-box_LysM depending on their C-terminal domains, PP2 and LysM, respectively. Their highly conserved structures led us to predict their target substrates. Subcellular localization experiment revealed that CarF-box_PP2 was localized in the cytoplasm and CarF-box_LysM was localized in the nucleus. We demonstrated their physical interactions with SKP1 protein, which validated that they function as F-box proteins in the formation of SCF complexes. Sequence analysis of their promoter regions revealed certain seed specific cis-acting elements that may be regulating their preferential transcript accumulation in the seed. Overall, the study helped in expanding the EST database of chickpea, which was further used to identify two novel F-box genes having a potential role in seed development.

  6. A novel F-box protein CaF-box is involved in responses to plant hormones and abiotic stress in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rugang; Guo, Weili; Yin, Yanxu; Gong, Zhen-Hui

    2014-02-10

    The F-box protein family is characterized by an F-box motif that has been shown to play an important role in regulating various developmental processes and stress responses. In this study, a novel F-box-containing gene was isolated from leaves of pepper cultivar P70 (Capsicum annuum L.) and designated CaF-box. The full-length cDNA is 2088 bp and contains an open reading frame of 1914 bp encoding a putative polypeptide of 638 amino acids with a mass of 67.8 kDa. CaF-box was expressed predominantly in stems and seeds, and the transcript was markedly upregulated in response to cold stress, abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) treatment, and downregulated under osmotic and heavy metal stress. CaF-box expression was dramatically affected by salt stress, and was rapidly increased for the first hour, then sharply decreased thereafter. In order to further assess the role of CaF-box in the defense response to abiotic stress, a loss-of-function experiment in pepper plants was performed using a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technique. Measurement of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and electrolyte leakage revealed stronger lipid peroxidation and cell death in the CaF-box-silenced plants than in control plants, suggesting CaF-box plays an important role in regulating the defense response to abiotic stress resistance in pepper plants.

  7. Floral organ MADS-box genes in Cercidiphyllum japonicum (Cercidiphyllaceae: Implications for systematic evolution and bracts definition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yupei Jin

    Full Text Available The dioecious relic Cercidiphyllum japonicum is one of two species of the sole genus Cercidiphyllum, with a tight inflorescence lacking an apparent perianth structure. In addition, its systematic place has been much debated and, so far researches have mainly focused on its morphology and chloroplast genes. In our investigation, we identified 10 floral organ identity genes, including four A-class, three B-class, two C-class and one D-class. Phylogenetic analyses showed that all ten genes are grouped with Saxifragales plants, which confirmed the phylogenetic place of C. japonicum. Expression patterns of those genes were examined by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, with some variations that did not completely coincide with the ABCDE model, suggesting some subfunctionalization. As well, our research supported the idea that thebract actually is perianth according to our morphological and molecular analyses in Cercidiphyllum japonicum.

  8. Floral organ MADS-box genes in Cercidiphyllum japonicum (Cercidiphyllaceae): Implications for systematic evolution and bracts definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yupei; Wang, Yubing; Zhang, Dechun; Shen, Xiangling; Liu, Wen; Chen, Faju

    2017-01-01

    The dioecious relic Cercidiphyllum japonicum is one of two species of the sole genus Cercidiphyllum, with a tight inflorescence lacking an apparent perianth structure. In addition, its systematic place has been much debated and, so far researches have mainly focused on its morphology and chloroplast genes. In our investigation, we identified 10 floral organ identity genes, including four A-class, three B-class, two C-class and one D-class. Phylogenetic analyses showed that all ten genes are grouped with Saxifragales plants, which confirmed the phylogenetic place of C. japonicum. Expression patterns of those genes were examined by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, with some variations that did not completely coincide with the ABCDE model, suggesting some subfunctionalization. As well, our research supported the idea that thebract actually is perianth according to our morphological and molecular analyses in Cercidiphyllum japonicum.

  9. Thinking Inside the Box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeheim, Charles T.

    2007-01-01

    In early 2007, SLAC was faced with a shortage of both electrical power and cooling in the main computer building, at the same time that the BaBar collaboration needed a new cluster of 250 batch machines installed. A number of different options were explored for the expansion. Provision of additional electrical power to the building was estimated to take one to two years, and cost several million dollars; additional cooling was even worse. Space in a Silicon Valley co-location facilities was reasonable on a one-year timescale, but broke even in costs by the end of three years, and were more expensive after that. There were also unresolved questions about the affects of additional latency from an offsite compute cluster to the onsite disk servers. The option of converting existing experimental hall space into computer space was estimated at one year, with uncertain availability. An option to aggressively replace several existing clusters with more power-efficient equipment was studied closely, but was disruptive to continued operations, expensive, and didn't provide any additional headroom. Finally, the installation of a Sun Project Blackbox (PBB) unit was selected as providing the capacity on a timescale of six months for a reasonable cost with minimal disruption to service. SLAC obtained and installed a beta unit and have been running it in production since September 2007. The experiences described are with the Early Access version of the PBB. The production version of the box has engineering changes based in part on our experiences

  10. Gender, Madness, Religion, and Iranian-American Identity: Observations on a 2006 Murder Trial in Williamsport, Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camron Michael Amin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Using participant observation, oral history interviews, and a study of court transcripts, Internet chats, and press coverage of a 2006 murder trial of an Iranian-American man in Williamsport, Pennsylvania, we can better appreciate the dynamic intersection of ethnicity, religion, and gender in constructing the social identity of Iranian-Americans. Brian Hosayn Yasipour, who immigrated to the United States in 1969, was convicted of murder in the third degree for killing his four-year-old daughter in 2001 during a custody dispute with his estranged, Iranian-born wife. He managed to avoid the death penalty. Debates about his guilt in America hinged on assessments of his mental state at the time of the crime and this, in turn, hinged on debates about how normative his actions would have been in Iran. Until his arrest, Brian had led a highly mobile life—moving back and forth between America, where he lived as a Christian, and Iran, where he visited as a Muslim. Was he a calculating Iranian-Islamic patriarch, outraged at the defiance of his wife and the attitudes of American courts toward his paternal rights? Or was he, per the court transcripts, a “white Christian” and survivor of childhood rape back in Iran, who lapsed into madness under the strain of his second divorce? Brian actively blurred these issues in court appearances before and after the murder—often expressing his agency in terms of preserving his imaginary and physical mobility.

  11. The Roles of T-Box Genes in Vertebrate Limb Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeba, C J; Logan, M P O

    2017-01-01

    Members of the T-box gene family have diverse roles during embryogenesis and many play critical roles in the developing limb. This is exemplified by the fact that, in humans, mutations in T-box genes are associated with several congenital syndromes that include limb defects as part of their characteristic spectrum of abnormalities. T-box genes encode for evolutionary conserved transcription factors that include both transcriptional activators and repressors. The hallmark of T-box gene members is the presence of the eponymous DNA-binding T-box domain. There are 17 mammalian T-box genes, which based on the sequence homology of the T-box domain, are grouped into five subfamilies, namely, T, Tbx1, Tbx2, Tbx6, and Tbr1. At least nine T-box genes are expressed during limb development with distinct and dynamic expression patterns. All four members of Tbx2 subfamily (Tbx2, Tbx3, Tbx4, Tbx5) and three members of Tbx1 (Tbx1, Tbx15, Tbx18), Brachyury (T) and Eomes (Tbr2) are expressed in the developing limb. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The encounter with God in myth and madness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, Otto; Velásquez, Oscar

    2007-07-03

    It is well known how often psychiatric patients report religious experiences. These are especially frequent in schizophrenic and epileptic patients as the subject of their delusions. The question we pose is: are there differences between this kind of religious experiences and those we find in religious texts or in the mythological tradition? An overview on famous mythological narratives, such as The Aeneid, allows us to establish that the divinities become recognizable to the human being at the moment of their departure. Thus, Aeneas does not recognise his mother, Venus, when she appears to him in the middle of the forest at the coast of Africa. A dialogue between the two takes place, and only at the end of the encounter, when she is going away and already with her back to Aeneas, she shows her son the signs of her divinity: the rose-flush emanating from her neck, her hair perfume and the majesty of her gait. Something analogous can be observed in the encounter of Moses with Yahweh on Mount Sinai. Moses asks God: "Show me your glory, I beg you". And God replies, among other things: "you shall see the back of me, but my face is not to be seen". In the same sense, the Emmaus disciples do not recognise Jesus till the moment of his disappearance ("but he had vanished from their sight"), and Saul of Tars falls off his horse just in the moment when he feels the divine presence. In short, the direct encounter with the divinity seems not to occur in the realm of myth or in religious tradition. The realm of madness is exactly the opposite. Our research on religious experiences in schizophrenic and epileptic patients leads us to conclude that God appears to them face to face, and the patient describes God the father, Jesus or the Virgin Mary in intimate detail, always in an everyday setting. So, the divinity is seen in the garden, or in the bedroom, or maybe above the wardrobe, without any of its majesty. The nearness to God also tends to be so extreme that even an

  13. Mad, terroir og tv: Smag på Danmark!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorthe Refslund Christensen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Mad fylder mere i medierne, men hvordan underholder fx et madprogram på tv? Med afsæt i de 13 afsnit af Claus Meyer-serien Smag på Danmark! undersøger vi, hvordan serien er konstrueret og fortalt. Især ser vi på, hvilken rolle de 13 forskellige steder, som serien foregår på, har. Vi diskuterer begreber som terroir og mytologisering. Serien etablerer dobbeltheder og relationer, og i tråd med dette forlenes sted som terroir både med al og med ingen betydning. Mad knyttes som et tegn, med Barthes in mente, til stedet, men på en måde, der leverer rum for seerens eget forestillingsarbejde. Serien demonstrerer for seerne, hvordan smagsdomme kan foregå med Meyer som seerens stedfortræder i et ferie- og fritidsunivers. Den nydelse, som serien konstant etablerer, demonstrerer og anticiperer, kan seeren deltage i med sit eget fantasiarbejde: Det er god underholdning, fordi så meget er overladt til seernes forestillingsarbejde. Food, Terroir, and Television: Taste Denmark! Food has become more dominant in the media landscape, but how does a food programme on television entertain us? We analyse how the 13 episodes of the Claus Meyer series Smag på Danmark (Taste Denmark!are constructed and narrated. We pay particular attention to the different locations of the episodes and discuss the terms terroir and mythologization. The series establishes ambiguities and relations, and in this connection the location understood as terroir means everything – and at the same time means nothing at all. With reference to Barthes, the series links food as a sign to location, but in such a way that room is left for the viewer’s own imagination. The series demonstrates to the viewers how judgements of taste can be made in a time of leisure and a universe of holidays, with Meyer acting as the viewer’s proxy. The series is constantly establishing, demonstrating and anticipating a pleasure in which the viewer can participate in his or her own imagination

  14. The encounter with God in myth and madness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doerr Otto

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known how often psychiatric patients report religious experiences. These are especially frequent in schizophrenic and epileptic patients as the subject of their delusions. The question we pose is: are there differences between this kind of religious experiences and those we find in religious texts or in the mythological tradition? Results An overview on famous mythological narratives, such as The Aeneid, allows us to establish that the divinities become recognizable to the human being at the moment of their departure. Thus, Aeneas does not recognise his mother, Venus, when she appears to him in the middle of the forest at the coast of Africa. A dialogue between the two takes place, and only at the end of the encounter, when she is going away and already with her back to Aeneas, she shows her son the signs of her divinity: the rose-flush emanating from her neck, her hair perfume and the majesty of her gait. Something analogous can be observed in the encounter of Moses with Yahweh on Mount Sinai. Moses asks God: "Show me your glory, I beg you". And God replies, among other things: "you shall see the back of me, but my face is not to be seen". In the same sense, the Emmaus disciples do not recognise Jesus till the moment of his disappearance ("but he had vanished from their sight", and Saul of Tars falls off his horse just in the moment when he feels the divine presence. In short, the direct encounter with the divinity seems not to occur in the realm of myth or in religious tradition. The realm of madness is exactly the opposite. Our research on religious experiences in schizophrenic and epileptic patients leads us to conclude that God appears to them face to face, and the patient describes God the father, Jesus or the Virgin Mary in intimate detail, always in an everyday setting. So, the divinity is seen in the garden, or in the bedroom, or maybe above the wardrobe, without any of its majesty. The nearness to God

  15. User's guide to program MAD: a computer program for the organization and manipulation of magnetic tape directories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, W.H.

    1979-05-01

    MAD is a computer program for the organization and manipulation of the information contained in magnetic tape directories. Program MAD creates, updates, and interrogates a set of four random access files collectively called the MAD unified data base. Although program MAD was originally intended as an information compression mechanism, it has evolved into an organization system with the added feature of an approximately 60% reduction in the space required to store the data. This program is easy to use, relatively fast, efficient in its use of disk space, and available to all users of the Fusion Energy Division DECsystem-10

  16. Casein kinase II is required for the spindle assembly checkpoint by regulating Mad2p in fission yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Midori; Yamamoto, Ayumu; Murakami-Tonami, Yuko; Nakanishi, Makoto; Yoshida, Takashi; Aiba, Hirofumi; Murakami, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    The spindle checkpoint is a surveillance mechanism that ensures the fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis. Here we show that fission yeast casein kinase II (CK2) is required for this checkpoint function. In the CK2 mutants mitosis occurs in the presence of a spindle defect, and the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2p fails to localize to unattached kinetochores. The CK2 mutants are sensitive to the microtubule depolymerising drug thiabendazole, which is counteracted by ectopic expression of mad2 + . The level of Mad2p is low in the CK2 mutants. These results suggest that CK2 has a role in the spindle checkpoint by regulating Mad2p.

  17. Restoring Madness to History in J.M. Coetzee’s In the Heart of the Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Collins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article interrogates the curious dismissal of madness from the critical landscape surrounding J. M. Coetzee’s In the Heart of the Country, and makes suggestions concerning how madness works in the novel and why—given certain critical and historical pressures—it has been persistently sidelined. An analysis of the novel in light of Coetzee’s scholarship on Samuel Beckett suggests that Magda’s discourse, like those of many Beckettian narrators, follows patterns of affirmation and auto-negation, constituting a fiction of what Coetzee calls “net zero.” In particular, Magda extends this pattern to the taking on and casting off of identities, perhaps in the style of the hermit crab she puts forward as an image of herself. An intertextual examination of the semantic and rhetorical range of madness as it appears in Coetzee’s other fiction and scholarship reveals that madness, for Coetzee, consistently denotes: on the one hand, a contagious force moving throughout a social body, and on the other hand, the labor of writing under the threat of illegibility—a threat conditioned in large part by the madness of the social body. By infecting the writer who might record its workings in history and thereby inhibiting or distorting that record, madness likewise appears in historical record as “net zero.” Thus, rather than simply being mad, Magda’s relationship with madness is emblematic of the (disappearance of madness in and from history.

  18. The transcriptional activator GAL4-VP16 regulates the intra ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Activator also reduced the TBP dimer levels both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting the dimer may be a direct target of transcriptional activators. The transcriptional activator facilitated the dimer to monomer transition and activated monomers further to help TBP bind even the weaker TATA boxes stably. The overall stimulatory ...

  19. Fuel element box inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortmayer, R.M.; Pick, W.

    1985-01-01

    The invention concerns a device for inspecting the outer geometry of a long fuel element box by measuring the surface contours over its longitudinal crossection and along its length by sensors. These are kept in a sledge which can be moved along the fuel element guide in a slot guide. The measurement signals reach an evaluation device outside the longitudinal box. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Black holes in a box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witek, Helvi; Cardoso, Vitor; Nerozzi, Andrea; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Herdeiro, Carlos; Zilhao, Miguel; Sperhake, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of BHs in 'confining boxes' is interesting for a number of reasons, particularly because it mimics some aspects of anti-de Sitter spacetimes. These admit no Cauchy surface and are a simple example of a non-globally hyperbolic spacetime. We are here interested in the potential role that boundary conditions play in the evolution of a BH system. For that, we imprison a binary BH in a box, at which boundary we set mirror-like boundary conditions.

  1. Madness in blaise cendrars' novels: moravagine and company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2013-01-01

    The literary work of Blaise Cendrars (1887-1961), né Frédéric Sauser, one of the major French-speaking authors of the 20th century, is imbued with references to neuropsychiatry. This theme is a constant presence in his writing as a result of his involvement of the First World War and his personal experiences, which were punctuated with neurologic and psychiatric events. Cendrars' own particular ideas on the genesis of mental disorders went against the more traditional views on psychiatry. He remained skeptical about hysteria and did not subscribe to psychoanalysis. His ideas were enriched by his experience with the war-related neuropsychiatric problems developed by soldiers. He thus proposed the notion of 'pathological fear' surrounding these disorders. There are a number of characters suffering from 'borderline' mental disorders in Cendrars' work, including two shocking, mad murderers, Moravagine and Fébronio. The character Moravagine, a neurology patient suffering from a brain tumor, enabled Cendrars to delve into the grey areas that can exist between neurologic and psychiatric diseases. Fébronio, a real psychotic, enabled Cendrars to explore ethnopsychiatry. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. The lithium vapor box divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, R J; Schwartz, J; Myers, R

    2016-01-01

    It has long been recognized that volumetric dissipation of the plasma heat flux from a fusion power system is preferable to its localized impingement on a material surface. Volumetric dissipation mitigates both the anticipated very high heat flux and intense particle-induced damage due to sputtering. Recent projections to a tokamak demonstration power plant suggest an immense upstream parallel heat flux, of order 20 GW m −2 , implying that fully detached operation may be a requirement for the success of fusion power. Building on pioneering work on the use of lithium by Nagayama et al and by Ono et al as well as earlier work on the gas box divertor by Watkins and Rebut, we present here a concept for a lithium vapor box divertor, in which lithium vapor extracts momentum and energy from a fusion-power-plant divertor plasma, using fully volumetric processes. At the high powers and pressures that are projected this requires a high density of lithium vapor, which must be isolated from the main plasma in order to avoid lithium build-up on the chamber walls or in the plasma. Isolation is achieved through a powerful multi-box differential pumping scheme available only for condensable vapors. The preliminary box-wise calculations are encouraging, but much more work is required to demonstrate the practical viability of this scheme, taking into account at least 2D plasma and vapor flows within and between the vapor boxes and out of the vapor boxes to the main plasma. (paper)

  3. Genome-wide analysis of the SBP-box gene family in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hua-Wei; Song, Xiao-Ming; Duan, Wei-Ke; Wang, Yan; Hou, Xi-Lin

    2015-11-01

    The SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN (SBP)-box gene family contains highly conserved plant-specific transcription factors that play an important role in plant development, especially in flowering. Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) is a leafy vegetable grown worldwide and is used as a model crop for research in genome duplication. The present study aimed to characterize the SBP-box transcription factor genes in Chinese cabbage. Twenty-nine SBP-box genes were identified in the Chinese cabbage genome and classified into six groups. We identified 23 orthologous and 5 co-orthologous SBP-box gene pairs between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. An interaction network among these genes was constructed. Sixteen SBP-box genes were expressed more abundantly in flowers than in other tissues, suggesting their involvement in flowering. We show that the MiR156/157 family members may regulate the coding regions or 3'-UTR regions of Chinese cabbage SBP-box genes. As SBP-box genes were found to potentially participate in some plant development pathways, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was performed and showed that Chinese cabbage SBP-box genes were also sensitive to the exogenous hormones methyl jasmonic acid and salicylic acid. The SBP-box genes have undergone gene duplication and loss, evolving a more refined regulation for diverse stimulation in plant tissues. Our comprehensive genome-wide analysis provides insights into the SBP-box gene family of Chinese cabbage.

  4. Derrida, Foucault and “Madness, the Absence of an Œuvre”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seferin James

    Full Text Available This article argues that Foucault's 1964 paper “La folie, l'absence d'œuvre” ought to be understood as a response to Derrida's 1963 paper “Cogito et histoire de la folie”. I clarify the chronology of the exchange between these two thinkers and follow commentators Bennington and Flynn in emphasising themes other than the status of madness in Descartes. I undertake a thematic investigation of Foucault's 1961 characterisation of madness as the absence of an œuvre and the role of this characterisation in Derrida's 1963 paper. Then I turn to an investigation of Foucault's substantial change in position on these key themes with his 1964 paper. I argue that Foucault seeks to minimise the initial importance he attributed to his characterisation of madness as the absence of an œuvre, altering his understanding of the relation between madness and language as well as shifting the event that silences madness from Descartes to Freud. Derrida's reconsideration of Foucault's Folie et déraison in 1991 treats Freud as the new locus of the exchange. This is an implicit recognition by Derrida of Foucault's “La folie, l'absence d'œuvre” and confirmation of its place within the exchange.

  5. Plate forming and break down pizza box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantisano, Frank; Devine, Scott M.

    1992-01-01

    A standard corrugated paper pizza box is provided with slit cuts cut through the top panel of the pizza box in a shape to form four circular serving plates with a beveled raised edge and cross slit cuts through the bottom panel of the pizza box separating the box into four essentially equal portions for easy disposal.

  6. Injury risk in professional boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Gregory H; Li, Guohu; Levy, Fred

    2005-10-01

    Although a popular endeavor, boxing has fallen under increased scrutiny because of its association with traumatic brain injury. However, few studies have investigated the overall epidemiology of boxing injuries from representative samples, and no study has ever documented the incidence of injuries in female boxers. This study is a review of professional boxing data from the state of Nevada from September 2001 through March 2003. Medical and outcome data for all professional boxing matches occurring in Nevada between September 2001 and March 2003 (n = 524 matches) were analyzed on the basis of a pair-matched, case-control design. Cases were boxers who received an injury during the boxing matches. Boxers who were not injured served as control subjects. Both conditional and unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess risk factors for injury. The overall incidence rate of injury was 17.1 per 100 boxer-matches, or 3.4 per 100 boxer-rounds. Facial laceration accounted for 51% of all injuries, followed by hand injury (17%), eye injury (14%), and nose injury (5%). Male boxers were significantly more likely than female boxers to receive injuries (3.6 versus 1.2 per 100 boxer-rounds, P = 0.01). Male boxing matches also ended in knockouts and technical knockouts more often than did female matches (P boxing matches is high, particularly among male boxers. Superficial facial lacerations are the most common injury reported. Male boxers have a higher rate of knockout and technical knockouts than female boxers. Further research is necessary to determine the outcomes of injury, particularly the long-term neurologic outcome differences between sexes.

  7. Hydraulic analysis, Mad River at State Highway 41, Springfield, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Ronald I.

    1977-01-01

    A hydraulic analysis of the lad River in a reach at Springfield, Ohio was made to determine the effects of relocating State Highway 41 in 1S76. The main channel was cleaned by dredging in the vicinity cf the new highway bridge and at the Detroit, Toledo and Ironton Railway bridge upstream. The new highway was placed on a high fill with relief structures for flood plain drainage consisting of a 12-foot corrugated metal pipe culvert and a bridge opening to accommodate the Detroit, Toledo and Ironton Railway and a property access road. The effect of the new highway embankment on drainage from the flood plain was requested. Also requested was the effect that might be expected on the elevation of flood waters above the new highway embankment if the access road through the new highway embankment were raised.The study indicates that the improvement in the capacity of the main channel to carry water was such that, up to a discharge equivalent to a 25-year frequency flood, the water-surface elevation in the reach upstream from the Detroit, Toledo and Ironton Railway bridge would be about 0.6 foot lower than under conditions prior to the construction on State Highway 41. Diversion through the Mad River left bank levee break above the Detroit, Toledo and Ironton Railway bridge to the flood Flain would be decreased about one-half in terms of rate of discharge in cubic feet per second. The maximum difference in elevation cf the flood water between the upstream and downstream side of the new State Highway 41 embankment would be about 0.2 foot, with an additional 0.4 foot to be expected if the access road were raised 1.5 feet.

  8. Box graphs and resolutions I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas P. Braun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Box graphs succinctly and comprehensively characterize singular fibers of elliptic fibrations in codimension two and three, as well as flop transitions connecting these, in terms of representation theoretic data. We develop a framework that provides a systematic map between a box graph and a crepant algebraic resolution of the singular elliptic fibration, thus allowing an explicit construction of the fibers from a singular Weierstrass or Tate model. The key tool is what we call a fiber face diagram, which shows the relevant information of a (partial toric triangulation and allows the inclusion of more general algebraic blowups. We shown that each such diagram defines a sequence of weighted algebraic blowups, thus providing a realization of the fiber defined by the box graph in terms of an explicit resolution. We show this correspondence explicitly for the case of SU(5 by providing a map between box graphs and fiber faces, and thereby a sequence of algebraic resolutions of the Tate model, which realizes each of the box graphs.

  9. Decontamination of TRU glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, J.H.

    1978-03-01

    Two glove boxes that had been used for work with transuranic nuclides (TRU) for about 12 years were decontaminated in a test program to collect data for developing a decontamination facility for large equipment highly contaminated with alpha emitters. A simple chemical technique consisting of a cycle of water flushes and alkaline permanganate and oxalic acid washes was used for both boxes. The test showed that glove boxes and similar equipment that are grossly contaminated with transuranic nuclides can be decontaminated to the current DIE nonretrievable disposal guide of <10 nCi TRU/g with a moderate amount of decontamination solution and manpower. Decontamination of the first box from an estimated 1.3 Ci to about 5 mCi (6 nCi/g) required 1.3 gallons of decontamination solution and 0.03 man-hour of work for each square foot of surface area. The second box was decontaminated from an estimated 3.4 Ci to about 2.8 mCi (4.2 nCi/g) using 0.9 gallon of decontamination solution and 0.02 man-hour for each square foot of surface area. Further reductions in contamination were achieved by repetitive decontamination cycles, but the effectiveness of the technique decreased sharply after the initial cycle

  10. First-aid boxes - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    With a view to ensuring optimum use of the first-aid boxes on the CERN site, we should like to remind you of various changes introduced in March 2009: The TSO of the buildings concerned is responsible for the first-aid boxes, including checking their contents.   First-aid boxes may be restocked ONLY at the CERN stores (SCEM No. 54.99.80). This is no longer possible at the Infirmary. The associated cost is charged to the Departments.   First-aid boxes should be used only for mild injuries. All other cases should be referred to the Medical Service Infirmary (Bldg. 57 – ground-floor, tel. 73802) between 8.00 a.m. and 5.30 p.m. or to the Fire and Rescue Service (tel. 74444). N.B.: This information does not apply to the red emergency first-aid boxes in the underground areas or to the emergency kits for use in the event of being splashed with hydrofluoric acid.

  11. Regulating the ethylene response of a plant by modulation of F-box proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongwei [Beijing, CN; Ecker, Joseph R [Carlsbad, CA

    2014-01-07

    The relationship between F-box proteins and proteins invovled in the ethylene response in plants is described. In particular, F-box proteins may bind to proteins involved in the ethylene response and target them for degradation by the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. The transcription factor EIN3 is a key transcription factor mediating ethylne-regulated gene expression and morphological responses. EIN3 is degraded through a ubiquitin/proteasome pathway mediated by F-box proteins EBF1 and EBF2. The link between F-box proteins and the ethylene response is a key step in modulating or regulating the response of a plant to ethylene. Described herein are transgenic plants having an altered sensitivity to ethylene, and methods for making transgenic plant haing an althered sensitivity to ethylene by modulating the level of activity of F-box proteins. Methods of altering the ethylene response in a plant by modulating the activity or expression of an F-box protein are described. Also described are methods of identifying compounds that modulate the ethylene response in plants by modulating the level of F-box protein expression or activity.

  12. Multivariate Alteration Detection (MAD) and MAF Postprocessing in Multispectral, Bitemporal Image Data: New Approaches to Change Detection Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Simpson, James J.

    1998-01-01

    type analyses of simple difference images. Case studies with AHVRR and Landsat MSS data using simple linear stretching and masking of the change images show the usefulness of the new MAD and MAF/MAD change detection schemes. Ground truth observations confirm the detected changes. A simple simulation...

  13. Medical and Safety Reforms in Boxing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Barry D.

    1988-01-01

    The continued existence of boxing as an accepted sport in civilized society has been long debated. The position of the American Medical Association (AMA) has evolved from promoting increased safety and medical reform to recommending total abolition of both amateur and professional boxing. In response to the AMA opposition to boxing, the boxing community has attempted to increase the safeguards in amateur and professional boxing. The United States of America Amateur Boxing Federation, which is the national regulatory agency for all amateur boxing in the United States, has taken several actions to prevent the occurrence of acute brain injury and is currently conducting epidemiologic studies to assess the long-term neuropsychologic consequences of amateur boxing. In professional boxing, state regulatory agencies such as the New York State Athletic Commission have introduced several medical interventions to prevent and reduce neurologic injury. The lack of a national regulatory agency to govern professional boxing has stimulated the formation of the Association of Boxing Commissions and potential legislation for the federal regulation of professional boxing by a federally chartered organization called the United States Boxing Commission. The AMA's opposition to boxing and the medical and safety reforms implemented by the proponents of boxing are discussed. PMID:3385788

  14. Characterization of a Smad motif similar to Drosophila mad in the mouse Msx 1 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Martinez, Cristina E; Binato, Renata; Gonzalez, Sayonara; Pereira, Monica; Robert, Benoit; Abdelhay, Eliana

    2002-03-01

    Mouse Msx 1 gene, orthologous of the Drosophila msh, is involved in several developmental processes. BMP family members are major proteins in the regulation of Msx 1 expression. BMP signaling activates Smad 1/5/8 proteins, which associate to Smad 4 before translocating to the nucleus. Analysis of Msx 1 promoter revealed the presence of three elements similar to the consensus established for Mad, the Smad 1 Drosophila counterpart. Notably, such an element was identified in an enhancer important for Msx 1 regulation. Gel shift analysis demonstrated that proteins from 13.5 dpc embryo associate to this enhancer. Remarkably, supershift assays showed that Smad proteins are present in the complex. Purified Smad 1 and 4 also bind to this fragment. We demonstrate that functional binding sites in this enhancer are confined to the Mad motif and flanking region. Our data suggest that this Mad motif may be functional in response to BMP signaling. ©2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  15. madSTORM: a superresolution technique for large-scale multiplexing at single-molecule accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jason; Manna, Asit; Barr, Valarie A.; Hong, Jennifer; Neuman, Keir C.; Samelson, Lawrence E.

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of heterogeneous cellular structures using single-molecule localization microscopy has been limited by poorly defined localization accuracy and inadequate multiplexing capacity. Using fluorescent nanodiamonds as fiducial markers, we define and achieve localization precision required for single-molecule accuracy in dSTORM images. Coupled with this advance, our new multiplexing strategy, madSTORM, allows accurate targeting of multiple molecules using sequential binding and elution of fluorescent antibodies. madSTORM is used on an activated T-cell to localize 25 epitopes, 14 of which are on components of the same multimolecular T-cell receptor complex. We obtain an average localization precision of 2.6 nm, alignment error of 2.0 nm, and molecules within structures. Probing the molecular topology of complex signaling cascades and other heterogeneous networks is feasible with madSTORM. PMID:27708141

  16. Generating QCD amplitudes in the color-flow basis with MadGraph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Kaoru; Takaesu, Yoshitaro

    2011-01-01

    We propose to make use of the off-shell recursive relations with the color-flow decomposition in the calculation of QCD amplitudes on MadGraph. We introduce colored quarks and their interactions with nine gluons in the color-flow basis plus an Abelian gluon on MadGraph, such that it generates helicity amplitudes in the color-flow basis with off-shell recursive formulae for multi-gluon sub-amplitudes. We demonstrate calculations of up to 5-jet processes such as gg→5g, u anti u→5g and uu→uuggg. Although our demonstration is limited, it paves the way to evaluate amplitudes with more quark lines and gluons with MadGraph. (orig.)

  17. The Regularized Iteratively Reweighted MAD Method for Change Detection in Multi- and Hyperspectral Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes new extensions to the previously published multivariate alteration detection (MAD) method for change detection in bi-temporal, multi- and hypervariate data such as remote sensing imagery. Much like boosting methods often applied in data mining work, the iteratively reweighted...... to observations that show little change, i.e., for which the sum of squared, standardized MAD variates is small, and small weights are assigned to observations for which the sum is large. Like the original MAD method, the iterative extension is invariant to linear (affine) transformations of the original...... an agricultural region in Kenya, and hyperspectral airborne HyMap data from a small rural area in southeastern Germany are given. The latter case demonstrates the need for regularization....

  18. Menti opache. Mad Men e la rappresentazione dell’interiorità nelle serie TV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Rossini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most visible features of Mad Men is the opposition between the lavish visual surface and the lack of depth in the description of characters. It's very difficult to empathise with Don Draper and many other Mad Men's characters, because their psychology often seems completely inaccessible or unexpressed, contrary to what happens in most contemporary TV series. The aim of this essay is to show how and why the authorial agency conveys an 'opacity effect' that clouds the spectator's understanding of the thoughts and feelings of the characters. In doing this, I will place Mad Men inside a tradition of TV series centred on the psychology and emotions of characters. The analysis will be carried out within two theoretical frameworks: James Phelan's rethorical theory of narrative and Celestino Deleyto's model of film narrative.

  19. Identifying competencies of boxing coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Tasiopoulos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out the management skills required by boxing coaches to administrate their clubs. For the purposes of this study a scale was constructed which was answered by 98 boxing coaches. Explanatory factor analysis revealed seven factors: Communication-public relations (5 items, event management (4 items, management techniques (4 items, new technologies (4 items, prevention-safety (2 items, sport (5 items and sports facilities (2 items. The Cronbach of the scale was 0.85. The five competencies that rated by the coaches were: Supervisors of the area of training, maintaining excellent communication with athletes, using new technologies (e-mail, internet, handling disciplinary matters, accidents, complaints and reports on some sporting games and promoted harmony among athletes. We concluded that boxing coaches understand that the competencies required for meeting their obligations, were related to sports, prevention, safety and communications-public relations.

  20. Neurochemical aftermath of amateur boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetterberg, Henrik; Hietala, M Albert; Jonsson, Michael; Andreasen, Niels; Styrud, Ewa; Karlsson, Ingvar; Edman, Ake; Popa, Cornel; Rasulzada, Abdullah; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Mehta, Pankaj D; Rosengren, Lars; Blennow, Kaj; Wallin, Anders

    2006-09-01

    Little solid information is available on the possible risks for neuronal injury in amateur boxing. To determine whether amateur boxing and severity of hits are associated with elevated levels of biochemical markers for neuronal injury in cerebrospinal fluid. Longitudinal study. Referral center specializing in evaluation of neurodegenerative disorders. Fourteen amateur boxers (11 men and 3 women) and 10 healthy male nonathletic control subjects. The boxers underwent lumbar puncture 7 to 10 days and 3 months after a bout. The control subjects underwent LP once. Neurofilament light protein, total tau, glial fibrillary acidic protein, phosphorylated tau, and beta-amyloid protein 1-40 (Abeta([1-40])) and 1-42 (Abeta([1-42])) concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid were measured. Increased levels after a bout compared with after 3 months of rest from boxing were found for 2 markers for neuronal and axonal injury, neurofilament light protein (mean +/- SD, 845 +/- 1140 ng/L vs 208 +/- 108 ng/L; P = .008) and total tau (mean +/- SD, 449 +/- 176 ng/L vs 306 +/- 78 ng/L; P = .006), and for the astroglial injury marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (mean +/- SD, 541 +/- 199 ng/L vs 405 +/- 138 ng/L; P = .003). The increase was significantly higher among boxers who had received many hits (>15) or high-impact hits to the head compared with boxers who reported few hits. In the boxers, concentrations of neurofilament light protein and glial fibrillary acidic protein, but not total tau, were significantly elevated after a bout compared with the nonathletic control subjects. With the exception of neurofilament light protein, there were no significant differences between boxers after 3 months of rest from boxing and the nonathletic control subjects. Amateur boxing is associated with acute neuronal and astroglial injury. If verified in longitudinal studies with extensive follow-up regarding the clinical outcome, analyses of cerebrospinal fluid may provide a scientific basis for

  1. A "His Story" of Insanity: Madness and Masculinity in Twentieth-Century American Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Bumeistere, Lilita

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is an interdisciplinary study of the largely neglected relationship between madness and masculinity based on three American literary works written during different periods of the twentieth century. The study utilizes literary, social, and medical research in order to provide a holistic view of madness and masculinity as two social constructs that interact with and are contingent on each other. In Sherwood Anderson’s “Hands,” Ken Kesey’s One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest, and David F...

  2. The secular and the supernatural: madness and psychiatry in the short stories of Muriel Spark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, A W

    2015-01-01

    Edinburgh-born Muriel Spark is one of modern Scotland's greatest writers. Examination of her work reveals that the subjects of madness and psychiatry are recurrent themes in her writing. She herself had a mental breakdown when she was a young woman and she took an interest in the world of psychiatry and psychoanalysis. In her short stories, Spark approaches the subject of madness in a variety of ways: she relates it to the supernatural; to writing fiction; and to religion. She frequently juxtaposes secular and supernatural explanations of mental disturbance. Spark adopts a sceptical and, at times, mocking view of psychiatrists and psychiatric treatment. Both psychoanalysis and pills are seen as problematic.

  3. GENDERED DOLLARS: Pin Money, Mad Money, and Changing Notions of a Woman’s Proper Place

    OpenAIRE

    Janice Traflet

    2008-01-01

    This essay examines the evolution in the meaning and usage of two types of special currencies: pin money and mad money. At the start of the twentieth century, both currencies were considered a woman’s money. By the end of the century, however, both pin money and mad money had lost a large measure of their original gendered connotations. By situating the evolving meanings of these currencies alongside concepts of domesticity, virtuous womanhood, and a woman’s proper place, this essay strives t...

  4. A rare case of Kounis syndrome provoked by mad honey poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Alsancak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Kounis syndrome, resulting in acute coronary syndromes, as a result of allergic or hypersensitivity reaction is triggered by several factors. Vasospasm which is mediated by mediators released after mast cell activation, is the responsible mechanism for comprising of type 2-myocardial infarction. Mad honey containing grayanotoxin is previously shown to be associated with gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiac disorders. In this case report, we presented a Kounis syndrome that has occurred after the mad honey intake and treated successfully, previously not mentioned in the literature.

  5. 46 CFR 111.81-1 - Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... fixture, wiring device, or similar item, including each separately installed connection and junction box... used. (d) As appropriate, each outlet-box or junction-box installation must meet the following...

  6. [Existence, Absence and Power of Madness: A Critical Review of Michel Foucault's Writings on the History and Philosophy of Madness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Burkhart; Iwer, Lukas; Thoma, Samuel

    2017-03-01

    This article discusses Michel Foucault's main writings on "madness and psychiatry" from his early works up to the 1970s. On the one hand, we reconstruct the overall theoretical and methodological development of his positions over the course of the different periods in his oeuvre. On the other hand, we also take a closer look at Foucault's philosophical considerations regarding the subjects of his investigations. After an initial introduction of our conceptual approach, we draw on the most recent research on Foucault to show to what extent the phenomenological description of the topic at hand and the historical-critical perspective that are reflected in his early writings of 1954 (the Introduction to Binswanger's Dream and Existence and Mental Illness and Personality) laid the ground for his later work. Moving on to Foucault's work during the 1960s, we look at the core features and methodological bases of his 1961 classic Folie et déraison (History of Madness). His propositions regarding the "absence of madness" in modernity are conceptualized as an inherently contradictory attempt to liberate the topic under study from the common assumptions at that time. We then situate his 1973/74 lectures on Psychiatric Power in the context of his shift towards analyzing the dynamics of power and highlight the renewed shift of focus in his statements on the "productivity" of madness as an effect of power. Finally, we sum up our critique by taking into account the history of the reception of Foucault's writings and ask about their potential significance for the contemporary philosophy and history of psychiatry.

  7. On the Dirichlet's Box Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kin-Keung; Shiu, Wai-Chee

    2008-01-01

    In this note, we will focus on several applications on the Dirichlet's box principle in Discrete Mathematics lesson and number theory lesson. In addition, the main result is an innovative game on a triangular board developed by the authors. The game has been used in teaching and learning mathematics in Discrete Mathematics and some high schools in…

  8. Glove boxes and similar containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    According to the present invention a glove box or similar containment is provided with an exhaust system including a vortex amplifier venting into the system, the vortex amplifier also having its main inlet in fluid flow connection with the containment and a control inlet in fluid flow connection with the atmosphere outside the containment. (U.S.)

  9. Innovations in Los Alamos alpha box design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, J.M.; Dowler, K.E.; Cook, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Destructive examinations of irradiated fuel pins containing plutonium fuel must be performed in shielded hot cells with strict provisions for containing the plutonium. Alpha boxes provide containment for the plutonium, toxic fission products, and other hazardous highly radioactive materials. The alpha box contains windows for viewing and a variety of transfer systems specially designed to allow transfers in and out of the alpha box without spread of the hazardous materials that are contained in the box. Alpha boxes have been in use in the Wing 9 hot cells at Los Alamos National Laboratory for more than 20 years. Features of the newly designed alpha boxes are presented

  10. Computational and molecular dissection of an X-box cis-Regulatory module

    OpenAIRE

    Warrington, Timothy Burton

    2015-01-01

    Ciliopathies are a class of human diseases marked by dysfunction of the cellular organelle, cilia. While many of the molecular components that make up cilia have been identified and studied, comparatively little is understood about the transcriptional regulation of genes encoding these components. The conserved transcription factor Regulatory Factor X (RFX)/DAF-19, which acts through binding to the cis-regulatory motif known as X-box, has been shown to regulate ciliary genes in many animals f...

  11. Dynamics of TBP binding to the TATA box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluesche, Peter; Heiss, Gregor; Meisterernst, Michael; Lamb, Don C.

    2008-02-01

    Gene expression is highly controlled and regulated in living cells. One of the first steps in gene transcription is recognition of the promoter site by the TATA box Binding Protein (TBP). TBP recruits other transcriptions factors and eventually the RNA polymerase II to transcribe the DNA in mRNA. We developed a single pair Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (spFRET) assay to investigate the mechanism of gene regulation. Here, we apply this assay to investigate the initial binding process of TBP to the adenovirus major late (AdML) promoter site. From the spFRET measurements, we were able to identify two conformations of the TBP-DNA complex that correspond to TBP bound in the correct and the opposite orientation. Increased incubation times or the presence of the transcription factor TFIIA improved the alignment of TBP on the promoter site. Binding of TBP to the TATA box shows a rich dynamics with abrupt transitions between multiple FRET states. A frame-wise histogram analysis revealed the presence of at least six discrete states, showing that TBP binding is more complicated than previously thought. Hence, the spFRET assay is very sensitive to the conformation of the TBP-DNA complex and is very promising tool for investigating the pathway of TBP binding in detail.

  12. Conformation-specific anti-Mad2 monoclonal antibodies for the dissection of checkpoint signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Garry G; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo; Lischetti, Tiziana

    2016-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) ensures accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis by delaying the activation of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) in response to unattached kinetochores. The Mad2 protein is essential for a functional checkpoint because it binds directly t...

  13. The contaminated Western Hero and other madness during the Atomic Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, Rudolph

    2012-01-01

    The book on mad activities during the Atomic Age includes the following topics: The second most hazardous invention in all time; the red bomb; the story on the tactic nuclear war; the contaminated Western hero or how the bomb came to Alaska; swords into plowshares; the apocalypse machine; flying reactors; how safe is safe?; atomic Australia; nuclear medicine on wrong ways; broken arrows.

  14. An Act of Methodology: A Document in Madness--Writing Ophelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinnes, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to stage some questions concerning methodology and education, inspired by Ophelia in Shakespeare's "Hamlet" and by Jacques Derrida's poetic philosophical oeuvres. What are at stake are the long traditions of preferences of sanity over madness, friend over enemy, male over female and of clean, unambiguous univocal language…

  15. Automatic Radiometric Normalization of Multitemporal Satellite Imagery with the Iteratively Re-weighted MAD Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canty, Morton John; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2008-01-01

    A recently proposed method for automatic radiometric normalization of multi- and hyper-spectral imagery based on the invariance property of the Multivariate Alteration Detection (MAD) transformation and orthogonal linear regression is extended by using an iterative re-weighting scheme involving no...

  16. MAD about the Large Magellanic Cloud Preparing for the era of Extremely Large Telescopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiorentino, G.; Tolstoy, E.; Diolaiti, E.; Valenti, E.; Cignoni, M.; Mackey, A. D.

    We present J, H, K-s photometry from the the Multi conjugate Adaptive optics Demonstrator (MAD), a visitor instrument at the VLT, of a resolved stellar population in a small crowded field in the bar of the Large Magellanic Cloud near the globular cluster NGC 1928. In a total exposure time of 6, 36

  17. Eesti parima lühifilmi tegi Madli Lääne

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Pimedate Ööde filmifestivali tudengi- ja lühifilmide alafestivali Sleepwalkers parimaks tunnistati Poola tudengi Jan Wagneri lühimängufilm "Porno". Eesti võistluse võitis Madli Lääne dokfilm "Tähelepanu, start!". Parim mängufilm oli Rootsi "Korterikaaslased" (režii Magnus Mork) ja animafilm USA "Erinevad asjaolud"

  18. The Sad, the Mad and the Bad: Co-Existing Discourses of Girlhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Three significant, prevailing and overlapping narratives of teenage girls have dominated North American popular consciousness since the early 1990s: the sad girl, victimized by male privilege and misogyny of adolescence and beyond; the mad grrrls who rejected this vulnerability through music and media; and the bad girls of much current popular…

  19. Light Therapy Boxes for Seasonal Affective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal affective disorder treatment: Choosing a light therapy box Light therapy boxes can offer an effective treatment for seasonal affective disorder. Features such as light intensity, safety, cost and ...

  20. Box-particle probability hypothesis density filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Schikora, M.; Gning, A.; Mihaylova, L.; Cremers, D.; Koch, W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a novel approach for multitarget tracking, called box-particle probability hypothesis density filter (box-PHD filter). The approach is able to track multiple targets and estimates the unknown number of targets. Furthermore, it is capable of dealing with three sources of uncertainty: stochastic, set-theoretic, and data association uncertainty. The box-PHD filter reduces the number of particles significantly, which improves the runtime considerably. The small number of box-p...

  1. The Heuristic Interpretation of Box Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Box plots are frequently used, but are often misinterpreted by students. Especially the area of the box in box plots is often misinterpreted as representing number or proportion of observations, while it actually represents their density. In a first study, reaction time evidence was used to test whether heuristic reasoning underlies this…

  2. Water box for steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, Robert; Viaud, Michel.

    1975-01-01

    This invention relates to a water box for connecting an assembly composed of a vertical steam generator and a vertical pump to the vessel of the nuclear reactor, the assembly forming the primary cooling system of a pressurised water reactor. This invention makes it easy to dismantle the pump on the water box without significant loss of water in the primary cooling system of the reactor and particularly without it being necessary to drain the water contained in the steam generator beforehand. It makes it possible to shorten the time required for dismantling the primary pump in order to service or repair it and makes dismantling safer in that the dismantling does not involve draining the steam generator and therefore the critical storage of a large amount of cooling water that has been in contact with the fuel assemblies of the nuclear reactor core [fr

  3. Broken links and black boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindbæk, Søren Michael

    2013-01-01

    Long-distance communication has emerged as a particular focus for archaeological exploration using network theory, analysis, and modelling. Initial attempts to adapt methods from social network analysis to archaeological data have, however, struggled to produce decisive results. This paper argues...... observable distributions and patterns of association in the archaeological record. In formal terms this is not a problem of network analysis, but network synthesis: the classic problem of cracking codes or reconstructing black-box circuits....

  4. Invariant box-parameterization of neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiler, Thomas J.; Wagner, DJ

    1998-01-01

    The model-independent 'box' parameterization of neutrino oscillations is examined. The invariant boxes are the classical amplitudes of the individual oscillating terms. Being observables, the boxes are independent of the choice of parameterization of the mixing matrix. Emphasis is placed on the relations among the box parameters due to mixing-matrix unitarity, and on the reduction of the number of boxes to the minimum basis set. Using the box algebra, we show that CP-violation may be inferred from measurements of neutrino flavor mixing even when the oscillatory factors have averaged. General analyses of neutrino oscillations among n≥3 flavors can readily determine the boxes, which can then be manipulated to yield magnitudes of mixing matrix elements

  5. Invariant box parameterization of neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiler, T.J.; Wagner, D.

    1998-01-01

    The model-independent 'box' parameterization of neutrino oscillations is examined. The invariant boxes are the classical amplitudes of the individual oscillating terms. Being observables, the boxes are independent of the choice of parameterization of the mixing matrix. Emphasis is placed on the relations among the box parameters due to mixing matrix unitarity, and on the reduction of the number of boxes to the minimum basis set. Using the box algebra, we show that CP-violation may be inferred from measurements of neutrino flavor mixing even when the oscillatory factors have averaged. General analyses of neutrino oscillations among n≥3 flavors can readily determine the boxes, which can then be manipulated to yield magnitudes of mixing matrix elements. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  6. Multivariate alteration detection (MAD) in multispectral, bi-temporal image data: A new approach to change detction studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut

    This paper introduces a new orthogonal transformation, the multivariate alteration detection (MAD) transformation, based on an established multivariate statistical technique canonical correlation analysis. The theory for canonical correlation analysis is sketched and a result necessary...... for the definition of the MAD transformation is proven. As opposed to traditional univariate change detection schemes our scheme transforms two sets of multivariate observations (e.g. two multispectral satellite images covering the same geographical area acquired at different points in time) into a difference...... between two linear combinations of the original variables explaining maximal change (i.e. the difference explaining maximal variance) in all variables simultaneously. The MAD transformation is invariant to linear scaling. The MAD transformation can be used iteratively. First, it can be used to detect...

  7. Casein kinase II is required for the spindle assembly checkpoint by regulating Mad2p in fission yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Midori [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Yamamoto, Ayumu [Department of Chemistry, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Sizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Murakami-Tonami, Yuko; Nakanishi, Makoto; Yoshida, Takashi [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Aiba, Hirofumi [Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, School of Agriculture, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Murakami, Hiroshi, E-mail: hmura@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan)

    2009-10-23

    The spindle checkpoint is a surveillance mechanism that ensures the fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis. Here we show that fission yeast casein kinase II (CK2) is required for this checkpoint function. In the CK2 mutants mitosis occurs in the presence of a spindle defect, and the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2p fails to localize to unattached kinetochores. The CK2 mutants are sensitive to the microtubule depolymerising drug thiabendazole, which is counteracted by ectopic expression of mad2{sup +}. The level of Mad2p is low in the CK2 mutants. These results suggest that CK2 has a role in the spindle checkpoint by regulating Mad2p.

  8. Voronoi Diagrams Without Bounding Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, E. T. K.

    2015-10-01

    We present a technique for presenting geographic data in Voronoi diagrams without having to specify a bounding box. The method restricts Voronoi cells to points within a user-defined distance of the data points. The mathematical foundation of the approach is presented as well. The cell clipping method is particularly useful for presenting geographic data that is spread in an irregular way over a map, as for example the Dutch dialect data displayed in Figure 2. The automatic generation of reasonable cell boundaries also makes redundant a frequently used solution to this problem that requires data owners to specify region boundaries, as in Goebl (2010) and Nerbonne et al (2011).

  9. MADNESS AND METHOD: THE SYSTEM OF DOCTOR TARR AND PROFESSOR FETHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Alves Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to discuss the theme of madness, comparing the narrator’s perspective in “The System of Doctor Tarr and Professor Fether” (1845 and another short stories by Edgar Allan Poe. The analysis illustrates that science in the 19th century aims to remove the fear of the unknown, dominating the natural world and its laws; and that fiction, the presumptive opposite, represents an extension of the same logic under another name. Some writers denied any obligation of loyalty to scientific rationalism and tried to decipher this problem through the dream and the supernatural. Fantastic works of Gothic fiction – Hoffmann’s novels and some of Poe’s stories – illuminate these points. Poe reinterprets the Gothic in the Victorian Age, with an unnamed and often unreliable narrator that insists on his rationality. The comic and grotesque horror result of the psychology of his characters often descended into madness

  10. VISITING THE MUSEUM OF MADNESS: THE EXPERIENCE OF LEARNING ABOUT THE PSYCHIATRIC REFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Cristiane Lappann Botti

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Museum of Madness in the landscape of the Minas Gerais State is a place where art, history and memory disclose the differences about the Psychiatry approach since the beginning of the last century till nowadays. A qualitative study with 39 nursing undergraduate students was developed, aiming to identify the meaning of the visit to the Museum of Madness. The methodological referential was the Collective Subject Discourse and the theoretical the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform. The data shows the meaning of the visit as potential experience of learning of the dimensions of the Psychiatric Reform when leads the student to question the practice and to know of Psychiatry in the asylum perspective. KEY WORDS: Nursing Education; Mental Health; Health Care Reform.

  11. Mediations on Emergent Occasions: Mad Men, Donald Draper and Frank O’Hara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Lilley

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Frank O’Hara’s 1957 poetry collection, Meditations in an Emergency, features in Season Two of Mad Men (2008 as a talismanic phrase and object. Pressed into service as Matthew Weiner’s valentine to his returning viewers, the circulation and citation of the book across the season, through different diegetic and extradiegetic levels, aligns poetry, advertising and quality serial television drama as textual modes intent, above all, on creating attachment through feeling. O’Hara’s book is a crucial link in a series of metonymic relays, chain effects and affects, which underwrite Mad Men’s citational poetics to assert its own cultural authority, and the mediating power of television.

  12. Mad og måltider bidrager til dannelse og læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    Vi lever i en kultur der på mange måder knytter vores identitet til mad, fx i forhold til hvad vi poster på sociale medier, om vi køber økologi, stenaldermad, er tykke eller tynde, om vi går op i dyrevelfærd, miljø, osv. Elementer der er med til at skabe vores identitet gennem de valg vi træffer...

  13. Reason and madness in the structure of the Cartesian cogito. Three interpretations of Rene Descartes' Meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karachevtseva Larysа Mykolaivna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the polemics between Michel Foucault and Jacques Derrida that took place in the sixties of the 20th century. This polemics was dedicated to the elucidation of the role of reason and madness within Cartesian radical doubt – that thought experiment maintained the formula ego cogito ergo sum. The article also examines Emmanuel Levinas's interpretation of Descartes' idea of the infinite. It is shown that the idea of the infinite constitutes cogito.

  14. Evaluation of torque loss value of MAD/MAM zirconia abutments with prefabricated titanium abutments

    OpenAIRE

    Marzieh Alikhasi; Roshanak Baghaie; Nasim khosronejad

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims: In response to esthetic demand of patients, ceramic abutments have been developed. Despite esthetic of zirconia abutments, machining accuracy of these abutments has always been a question. Any misfit in the abutment-implant interface connection can lead to detorque and screw loosening. The aim of this study was to compare torque loss value of manually aided design/manually aided manufacture (MAD/MAM) zirconia abutments with prefabricated titanium abutments. Materials and ...

  15. Der Sinn des Wahns : Der Mad Scientist und die unmögliche Wissenschaft

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Felix

    2004-01-01

    Der Text untersucht die Herkunft des verrückten Wissenschaftlers, des Mad Scientist, so wie er in den populären Kultur zelebriert wird. Es wird die Auffassung vertreten, dass der Ursprung der Figur im romantischen Mythos des Genies liegt. Doch wie und weshalb ist es dann zu dieser seltsamen Mutation zum verrückten Wissenschaftler gekommen? Und was berichtet diese Figur über die Wahrnehmung von Wissenschaft?

  16. For a minor art: resonances between art, clinical practice and madness nowadays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Maria Freire de Araújo Lima

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the changes that were brought about in Brazil in the 20th century related to the acceptance of works of art produced in clinics or, in any way, other than those conventionally accepted by the artistic community. The enlargement of this field, now including dissenting works of art, seems to indicate a change in contemporary sensibility therefore shifting the relationships between art, clinical practice and madness itself.

  17. A MAD Explanation for the Correlation between Bulk Lorentz Factor and Minimum Variability Timescale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Ronning, Nicole; Lei, Wei-hua; Xie, Wei

    2018-04-01

    We offer an explanation for the anti-correlation between the minimum variability timescale (MTS) in the prompt emission light curve of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and the estimated bulk Lorentz factor of these GRBs, in the context of a magnetically arrested disk (MAD) model. In particular, we show that previously derived limits on the maximum available energy per baryon in a Blandford-Znajek jet leads to a relationship between the characteristic MAD timescale in GRBs and the maximum bulk Lorentz factor: tMAD∝Γ-6, somewhat steeper than (although within the error bars of) the fitted relationship found in the GRB data. Similarly, the MAD model also naturally accounts for the observed anti-correlation between MTS and gamma-ray luminosity L in the GRB data, and we estimate the accretion rates of the GRB disk (given these luminosities) in the context of this model. Both of these correlations (MTS - Γ and MTS - L) are also observed in the AGN data, and we discuss the implications of our results in the context of both GRB and blazar systems.

  18. FlyMAD: rapid thermogenetic control of neuronal activity in freely walking Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Daniel E; Stowers, John R; Hörmann, Dorothea; Poehlmann, Andreas; Dickson, Barry J; Straw, Andrew D

    2014-07-01

    Rapidly and selectively modulating the activity of defined neurons in unrestrained animals is a powerful approach in investigating the circuit mechanisms that shape behavior. In Drosophila melanogaster, temperature-sensitive silencers and activators are widely used to control the activities of genetically defined neuronal cell types. A limitation of these thermogenetic approaches, however, has been their poor temporal resolution. Here we introduce FlyMAD (the fly mind-altering device), which allows thermogenetic silencing or activation within seconds or even fractions of a second. Using computer vision, FlyMAD targets an infrared laser to freely walking flies. As a proof of principle, we demonstrated the rapid silencing and activation of neurons involved in locomotion, vision and courtship. The spatial resolution of the focused beam enabled preferential targeting of neurons in the brain or ventral nerve cord. Moreover, the high temporal resolution of FlyMAD allowed us to discover distinct timing relationships for two neuronal cell types previously linked to courtship song.

  19. ["I am but mad north-north-west"--Hamlet's portrayed delusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte Herbrüggen, H

    1996-01-01

    Whereas science refers to the real world existing independently and conditioned by cause and effect, the world of literature is fictitious, created by the artist in our imagination by means of language, an artefact conditioned by aesthetic laws, a world sui generis. Accordingly, Hamlet is no person, but a literary figure, doing, saying, thinking and feeling only what the poet dictated him word for word. The essential difference between the two worlds is often overlooked. That "blind spot" has a long-standing tradition in European intellectual history and goes back i.a. to the German "Hamlet experience" in the eighteenth, the "Hamlet fever" and the felt spiritual kinship (Seelenverwandtschaft) in the nineteenth century. Teleological literary criticism, centering around Hamlet's "character" and isolating his psychologically evaluated monologues (e.g. Bradley), refrained from Hamlet's fictionality and role-play and led to blurring beyond recognition the boundaries between real person and literary figure (e.g. Freud, Jones) and assisted in reducing a dramatic role to a medical case history. Speaking of Hamlet, one has to start from Shakespeare's text, our subject matter. A dramatic play being a plot turned into dialogue, the poet's vocabulary used (but indirectly also the vocabulary not used) is particularly informative. When referring to Hamlet's "antic disposition", Shakespeare uses a wide range of over 20 different terms, the most frequented being mad/madness (44 times). Evidence of primary importance are the five occasions after the apparition of his father's ghost, when Hamlet speaks of hist "madness" as an assumed role. In Act I "madness occurs first as a mere possibility when Hamlet informs his friends, he might "put an antic disposition on"; in Act II vis-a-vis Rosencrantz and Guildenstern ("I am but mad north-north-west") it is his deliberate action under certain conditions; in Act III it occurs thrice, first in his declaration of intent ("They are coming to

  20. Evaluation of torque loss value of MAD/MAM zirconia abutments with prefabricated titanium abutments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Alikhasi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: In response to esthetic demand of patients, ceramic abutments have been developed. Despite esthetic of zirconia abutments, machining accuracy of these abutments has always been a question. Any misfit in the abutment-implant interface connection can lead to detorque and screw loosening. The aim of this study was to compare torque loss value of manually aided design/manually aided manufacture (MAD/MAM zirconia abutments with prefabricated titanium abutments. Materials and Methods: Seven titanium abutments (Branemark RP, Easy abutment and seven copy milled abutments which were duplicated from the prefabricated Zirkonzhan (ZirkonZahn, Sand in Taufers, Italy were prepared. After sintering process of zirconia abutment, all abutments were fastened with a torque screw under 35 Ncm. Detorque measurements were performed per group pushing the reverse button of the Torque controller soon after screw tightening with values registered. The mean torque loss were calculated and compared using Student's t test. Results: The mean of torque loss was 12.71 Ncm with standard deviation of 1.70 for prefabricated titanium abutments and 15.50 Ncm with standard deviation of 4.67 for MAD-MAM abutments. The difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (P=0.23. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, MAD-MAM ceramic abutments could maintain the applied torque comparing to the prefabricated abutments.

  1. Dual personality of Mad1: regulation of nuclear import by a spindle assembly checkpoint protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairo, Lucas V; Ptak, Christopher; Wozniak, Richard W

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear transport is a dynamic process that can be modulated in response to changes in cellular physiology. We recently reported that the transport activity of yeast nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) is altered in response to kinetochore-microtubule (KT-MT) interaction defects. Specifically, KT detachment from MTs activates a signaling pathway that prevents the nuclear import of cargos by the nuclear transport factor Kap121p. This loss of Kap121p-mediated import is thought to influence the nuclear environment, including the phosphorylation state of nuclear proteins. A key regulator of this process is the spindle assembly checkpoint protein Mad1p. In response to unattached KTs, Mad1p dynamically cycles between NPCs and KTs. This cycling appears to induce NPC molecular rearrangements that prevent the nuclear import of Kap121p-cargo complexes. Here, we discuss the underlying mechanisms and the physiological relevance of Mad1p cycling and the inhibition of Kap121p-mediated nuclear import, focusing on outstanding questions within the pathway.

  2. The social structure of the medical model of madness and the physician's role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, G

    1981-08-01

    In this paper the origins of the medical model of madness are traced in the sociohistorical context of institutional and professional development. The paper establishes the emergence of the three primary conditions necessary for the medical model to exist: (a) the view that madness is a separate ontological reality which can be differentiated from the insane person; (b) the concept that insane people do not have a completely free will and therefore cannot be held responsible for their actions; and (c) the creation of specific criteria to classify the disease into empirically derived nosologies. These conditions and their acceptance as an explanatory paradigm of insanity result from the political economy of the late Middle Ages and are reflected in the institutional arrangement for insane persons of the 17th and 18th centuries. Finally, the role of the physician-psychiatrist is explained in terms of an ability to (a) serve as a technician for the new political forces, and (b) dislodge the moral entrepreneurs and become the only profession able to offer a proper scientific and secular treatment of madness. The psychiatrist is presented as a by-product of the dominance of the medical model rather than as the agent who created it.

  3. The Duty of the ANARAP-MAD for the Development of Radiation Protection in Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratovonjanahary, F.

    2010-01-01

    Association NAtionale de Radio Protection-MADagascar (ANARAP-MAD), to develop the radiation protection in Madagascar; to promote the radiation protection in Madagascar; to set up links with international institutions dealing with the same objectives (I.A.E.A., W.H.O., etc...); to care for the enforcement of the regulation in radiation protection; to propose improvements and amendments; to find solutions to problems relevant to the enforcement of the regulation; to inform and to train in the field of radiation protection; to contribute in the development of the science, all activities carried out by the association are based on the existing legislation in the country. Despite the insufficiency of financial support, the ANARAP-MAD had always made an effort to carry out activities for the development of radiation protection infrastructure in Madagascar. The main problem is also that the regulatory Authority is not yet operational. However, the ANARAP-MAD, with the support of the Madagascar-INSTN, has the challenge to effectively promoting radiation protection in Madagascar

  4. Introduction to the Box Particle Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Gning, Amadou; Ristic, B; Mihaylova, Lyudmila; Abdallah, F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for solving nonlinear filtering problems. This approach is particularly appealing in practical situations involving imprecise stochastic measurements, thus resulting in very broad posterior densities. It relies on the concept of a box particle, which occupies a small and controllable rectangular region having a non-zero volume in the state space. Key advantages of the box particle filter (Box-PF) against the standard particle filter (PF) are in its reduced c...

  5. Two particle states in an asymmetric box

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xin; Liu, Chuan

    2004-01-01

    The exact two-particle energy eigenstates in an asymmetric rectangular box with periodic boundary conditions in all three directions are studied. Their relation with the elastic scattering phases of the two particles in the continuum are obtained. These results can be viewed as a generalization of the corresponding formulae in a cubic box obtained by L\\"uscher before. In particular, the s-wave scattering length is related to the energy shift in the finite box. Possible applications of these f...

  6. WRKY transcription factor superfamily: Structure, origin and functions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    terminal ends contain the WRKYGQR amino acid sequence and a zinc-finger motif. WRKY transcription factors can regulate the expression of target genes that contain the W-box elements (C/T)TGAC(C/T) in the promoter regions by specifically ...

  7. The three-box paradox revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravon, Tamar; Vaidman, Lev

    2007-01-01

    The classical three-box paradox of Kirkpatrick (2003 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 36 4891) is compared to the original quantum three-box paradox of Aharonov and Vaidman (1991 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 24 2315). It is argued that the quantum three-box experiment is a 'quantum paradox' in the sense that it is an example of a classical task which cannot be accomplished using classical means, but can be accomplished using quantum devices. It is shown that Kirkpatrick's card game is analogous to a different game with a particle in three boxes which does not contain paradoxical features

  8. Dimension measuring method for channel box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Hiroto.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention concerns detection of a channel box for spent fuel assemblies of a BWR type reactor, which measures a cross sectional shape and dimension of the channel box to check deformation amount such as expansion. That is, a customary fuel exchanger and a dimension measuring device are used. The lower end of the channel box is measured by a distance sensor of the dimension measuring device when it is aligned with a position of the distance sensor. The channel box is lowered at the same time while detecting axial position data of the fuel exchanger. The position of the channel box in an axial direction is detected based on axial position data of the fuel exchanger. The lower end of the channel box can accurately be recognized by the detection of both of them. Subsequent deformation measurement for the channel box at accurate axial positions is enabled. In addition, since the axial position data of the fuel exchanger per se are detected, an axial profile of the channel box can be measured even if a lifting speed of the channel box is varied on every region. (I.S.)

  9. Repackaging SRS Black Box TRU Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swale, D. J.; Stone, K.A.; Milner, T. N.

    2006-01-01

    Historically, large items of TRU Waste, which were too large to be packaged in drums for disposal have been packaged in various sizes of custom made plywood boxes at the Savannah River Site (SRS), for many years. These boxes were subsequently packaged into large steel ''Black Boxes'' for storage at SRS, pending availability of Characterization and Certification capability, to facilitate disposal of larger items of TRU Waste. There are approximately 107 Black Boxes in inventory at SRS, each measuring some 18' x 12' x 7', and weighing up to 45,000 lbs. These Black Boxes have been stored since the early 1980s. The project to repackage this waste into Standard Large Boxes (SLBs), Standard Waste Boxes (SWB) and Ten Drum Overpacks (TDOP), for subsequent characterization and WIPP disposal, commenced in FY04. To date, 10 Black Boxes have been repackaged, resulting in 40 SLB-2's, and 37 B25 overpack boxes, these B25's will be overpacked in SLB-2's prior to shipping to WIPP. This paper will describe experience to date from this project

  10. VO₂ requirements of boxing exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arseneau, Eric; Mekary, Saïd; Léger, Luc A

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the physiological requirements of various boxing exercises such as sparring, pad work, and punching bag. Because it was not possible to measure the oxygen uptake (VO₂) of "true" sparring with a collecting gas valve in the face, we developed and validated a method to measure VO₂ of "true" sparring based on "postexercise" measurements. Nine experienced male amateur boxers (Mean ± SD: age = 22.0 ± 3.5 years, height = 176.0 ± 8.0 cm, weight = 71.4 ± 10.9 kg, number of fights = 13.0 ± 9.5) of regional and provincial level volunteered to participate in 3 testing sessions: (a) maximal treadmill test in the LAB, (b) standardized boxing training in the GYM, and (c) standardized boxing exercises in the LAB. Measures of VO₂, heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration [LA], rated perceived exertion level, and punching frequencies were collected. VO₂ values of 43.4 ± 5.9, 41.1 ± 5.1, 24.7 ± 6.1, 30.4 ± 5.8, and 38.3 ± 6.5 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹ were obtained, which represent 69.7 ± 8.0, 66.1 ± 8.0, 39.8 ± 10.4, 48.8 ± 8.5, and 61.7 ± 10.3%VO₂peak for sparring, pad work, and punching bag at 60, 120, and 180 b·min⁻¹, respectively. Except for lower VO₂ values for punching the bag at 60 and 120 b·min⁻¹ (p < 0.05), there was no VO₂ difference between exercises. Similar pattern was obtained for %HRmax with respective values of 85.5 ± 5.9, 83.6 ± 6.3, 67.5 ± 3.5, 74.8 ± 5.9, and 83.0 ± 6.0. Finally, sparring %HRmax and [LA] were slightly higher in the GYM (91.7 ± 4.3 and 9.4 ± 2.2 mmol·L⁻¹) vs. LAB (85.5 ± 5.9 and 6.1 ± 2.3 mmol·L⁻¹). Thus, in this study simulated LAB sparring and pad work required similar VO₂ (43-41 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, respectively), which corresponds to ~70%VO₂peak. These results underline the importance of a minimum of aerobic fitness for boxers and draw some guidelines for the intensity of training.

  11. IMPROVED, FAVORABLE FOR ENVIRONMENT POLYURETHANE COLD-BOX-PROCESS (COLD BOX «HUTTENES-ALBERTUS» .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sergini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the laboratory and industrial investigations, the purpose of which is improvement of the classical Cold-box-process, i.e. the process of the slugs hardening in cold boxes, are presented.

  12. Clinical and laboratory findings in mad honey poisoning: a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaylaci, S; Kocayigit, I; Aydin, E; Osken, A; Genc, A B; Cakar, M A; Tamer, A

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed at analyzing the demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as the hematological-biochemical parameters of patients who admitted to the hospital with the diagnosis of mad honey poisoning. A total of 16 patients who were admitted with mad honey intoxication symptoms and treated in Emergency Department of Sakarya Education and Research Hospital between January 2009 and December 2012 were included in the study. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients and hematological, biochemical parameters were obtained from hospital records. Heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure on admission and at discharge were obtained retrospectively. Sixteen patients (10 males and 6 females, mean age 58.5 ± 10 years, range between 41 and 79) were included in our study. Heart rate was 42 ± 6 beats/min, systolic blood pressure was 73 ± 19 mmHg, and diastolic blood pressure was 45 ± 17 mmHg on admission. In the evaluation of the patients' heart rhythms on admission to the emergency room, nine (56.3%) patients had sinus bradycardia, three (18.8%) patients had nodal rhythm, two (12.5%) patients had first degree atrioventricular block, and two (12.5%) patients had atrial fibrillation. Atropine 1.1 ± 0.4 mg and saline 1125 ± 465 ml were used to treat patients. Patients were discharged with a stable condition after an average 27.7 ± 7.2 h of follow-up. Heart rate was 75 ± 8 beats/min, systolic blood pressure was 132 ± 7 mmHg, and diastolic blood pressure was 82 ± 6 mmHg at discharge. Mortality was not observed. Hematological and biochemical parameters measured at the time of admission were within normal ranges. Mad honey poisoning should be considered in previously healthy patients with unexplained symptoms of bradycardia, hypotension, and cardiac dysrhythmias. Therefore, diet history should carefully be obtained from the patients admitted with bradycardia and hypotension, and mad honey intoxication should also be considered in the

  13. VORONOI DIAGRAMS WITHOUT BOUNDING BOXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. K. Sang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a technique for presenting geographic data in Voronoi diagrams without having to specify a bounding box. The method restricts Voronoi cells to points within a user-defined distance of the data points. The mathematical foundation of the approach is presented as well. The cell clipping method is particularly useful for presenting geographic data that is spread in an irregular way over a map, as for example the Dutch dialect data displayed in Figure 2. The automatic generation of reasonable cell boundaries also makes redundant a frequently used solution to this problem that requires data owners to specify region boundaries, as in Goebl (2010 and Nerbonne et al (2011.

  14. A Modular GIS-Based Software Architecture for Model Parameter Estimation using the Method of Anchored Distributions (MAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, D. P.; Osorio-Murillo, C.; Over, M. W.; Rubin, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The Method of Anchored Distributions (MAD) is an inverse modeling technique that is well-suited for estimation of spatially varying parameter fields using limited observations and Bayesian methods. This presentation will discuss the design, development, and testing of a free software implementation of the MAD technique using the open source DotSpatial geographic information system (GIS) framework, R statistical software, and the MODFLOW groundwater model. This new tool, dubbed MAD-GIS, is built using a modular architecture that supports the integration of external analytical tools and models for key computational processes including a forward model (e.g. MODFLOW, HYDRUS) and geostatistical analysis (e.g. R, GSLIB). The GIS-based graphical user interface provides a relatively simple way for new users of the technique to prepare the spatial domain, to identify observation and anchor points, to perform the MAD analysis using a selected forward model, and to view results. MAD-GIS uses the Managed Extensibility Framework (MEF) provided by the Microsoft .NET programming platform to support integration of different modeling and analytical tools at run-time through a custom "driver." Each driver establishes a connection with external programs through a programming interface, which provides the elements for communicating with core MAD software. This presentation gives an example of adapting the MODFLOW to serve as the external forward model in MAD-GIS for inferring the distribution functions of key MODFLOW parameters. Additional drivers for other models are being developed and it is expected that the open source nature of the project will engender the development of additional model drivers by 3rd party scientists.

  15. Genomic structure and cloning of two transcript isoforms of human Sp8.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Milona (Maria-athina); J.E. Gough (Julie); A.J. Edgar (Alasdair)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The Specificity proteins (Sp) are a family of transcription factors that have three highly conserved zinc-fingers located towards the carboxy-terminal that bind GC-boxes and assist in the initiation of gene transcription. Human Sp1-7 genes have been

  16. Cisplatin- and UV-damaged DNA lure the basal transcription factor TFIID/TBP.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Vichi; F. Coin (Frédéric); J-P. Renaud (Jean-Paul); W. Vermeulen (Wim); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); D. Moras; J-M. Egly (Jean-Marc)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractA connection between transcription and DNA repair was demonstrated previously through the characterization of TFIIH. Using filter binding as well as in vitro transcription challenge competition assays, we now show that the promoter recognition factor TATA box-binding protein (TBP)/TFIID

  17. TAF(II)250: a transcription toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassarman, D A; Sauer, F

    2001-08-01

    Activation of RNA-polymerase-II-dependent transcription involves conversion of signals provided by gene-specific activator proteins into the synthesis of messenger RNA. This conversion requires dynamic structural changes in chromatin and assembly of general transcription factors (GTFs) and RNA polymerase II at core promoter sequence elements surrounding the transcription start site of genes. One hallmark of transcriptional activation is the interaction of DNA-bound activators with coactivators such as the TATA-box binding protein (TBP)-associated factors (TAF(II)s) within the GTF TFIID. TAF(II)250 possesses a variety of activities that are likely to contribute to the initial steps of RNA polymerase II transcription. TAF(II)250 is a scaffold for assembly of other TAF(II)s and TBP into TFIID, TAF(II)250 binds activators to recruit TFIID to particular promoters, TAF(II)250 regulates binding of TBP to DNA, TAF(II)250 binds core promoter initiator elements, TAF(II)250 binds acetylated lysine residues in core histones, and TAF(II)250 possesses protein kinase, ubiquitin-activating/conjugating and acetylase activities that modify histones and GTFs. We speculate that these activities achieve two goals--(1) they aid in positioning and stabilizing TFIID at particular promoters, and (2) they alter chromatin structure at the promoter to allow assembly of GTFs--and we propose a model for how TAF(II)250 converts activation signals into active transcription.

  18. Electrical requirements for unshielded glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    The specification relates to the general design and installation of electrical services required in unshielded glove boxes in which atmospheres of air, argon or nitrogen etc. may exist either temporarily or permanently. The specification does not apply to electrical services for glove boxes with flammable explosive atmospheres. (author)

  19. British Box Business: A History of OCL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, René Taudal

    2018-01-01

    Book review of British Box Business: A History of OCL / edited by A. Bott SCARA, Goldaming, 2009, £17 (hb) 288 pages, illustrations, bibliography, index iSBn 139780955922701......Book review of British Box Business: A History of OCL / edited by A. Bott SCARA, Goldaming, 2009, £17 (hb) 288 pages, illustrations, bibliography, index iSBn 139780955922701...

  20. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge…

  1. Opportunities in white-box cryptography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michiels, W.

    White-box cryptography is the discipline of implementing a cryptographic algorithm in software such that an adversary will have difficulty extracting the cryptographic key. This approach assumes that the adversary has full access to and full control over the implementation's execution. White-box

  2. Modern biotechnology Panacea or new Pandora's box?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tramper, J.; Yang Zhu, Yang

    2011-01-01

    According to Greek mythology Pandora was sent down to earth upon the orders of Zeus. She was given a mysterious box which she was not allowed to open. However, Pandora was very curious and when she arrived on earth she couldn?t help taking a peek inside the box. She saw that it was filled with gifts

  3. DISTORTION ANALYSIS OF TILL -WALLED BOX GIRDERS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    bridges, buildings, motor vehicles, ships and aircrafts. Due to thinness of the box walls, generalized loads applied to this structure give rise to warping and distortion of ..... Recommendation for Design of. Intermediate Diaphragms in Box. Girders, Transactions of Japanese. Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 14,1984, pp 121-126.

  4. Magnetorotational Dynamo Action in the Shearing Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Justin; Boldyrev, Stanislav

    2017-10-01

    Magnetic dynamo action caused by the magnetorotational instability is studied in the shearing-box approximation with no imposed net magnetic flux. Consistent with recent studies, the dynamo action is found to be sensitive to the aspect ratio of the box: it is much easier to obtain in tall boxes (stretched in the direction normal to the disk plane) than in long boxes (stretched in the radial direction). Our direct numerical simulations indicate that the dynamo is possible in both cases, given a large enough magnetic Reynolds number. To explain the relatively larger effort required to obtain the dynamo action in a long box, we propose that the turbulent eddies caused by the instability most efficiently fold and mix the magnetic field lines in the radial direction. As a result, in the long box the scale of the generated strong azimuthal (stream-wise directed) magnetic field is always comparable to the scale of the turbulent eddies. In contrast, in the tall box the azimuthal magnetic flux spreads in the vertical direction over a distance exceeding the scale of the turbulent eddies. As a result, different vertical sections of the tall box are permeated by large-scale nonzero azimuthal magnetic fluxes, facilitating the instability. NSF AGS-1261659, Vilas Associates Award, NSF-Teragrid Project TG-PHY110016.

  5. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? A A A | Print | Share Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and ankle ... extreme and imprudent as it may sound, the cosmetic surgery craze is not just for faces anymore— ...

  6. Boxing Injuries from an Instructional Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Michael J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the safeguards as well as the injury pattern of the boxing program at the US Military Academy at West Point from 1983 to 1985. About 2,100 cadets received boxing instruction during this period with an injury rate of less than four percent. (Author/MT)

  7. Boxing against drones : Drones in sports education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, S.G.; Barakova, E.I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how drones could be integrated into the context of sports, boxing in particular. The goal of this project is to design a drone application that allows direct and embodied interaction. The sport of boxing provides a very interesting setting, because the intimidating and

  8. Genomic Organization, Phylogenetic Comparison and Differential Expression of the SBP-Box Family Genes in Grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Hongmin; Li, Jun; Gao, Min; Singer, Stacy D.; Wang, Hao; Mao, Linyong; Fei, Zhangjun; Wang, Xiping

    2013-01-01

    Background The SBP-box gene family is specific to plants and encodes a class of zinc finger-containing transcription factors with a broad range of functions. Although SBP-box genes have been identified in numerous plants including green algae, moss, silver birch, snapdragon, Arabidopsis, rice and maize, there is little information concerning SBP-box genes, or the corresponding miR156/157, function in grapevine. Methodology/Principal Findings Eighteen SBP-box gene family members were identified in Vitis vinifera, twelve of which bore sequences that were complementary to miRNA156/157. Phylogenetic reconstruction demonstrated that plant SBP-domain proteins could be classified into seven subgroups, with the V. vinifera SBP-domain proteins being more closely related to SBP-domain proteins from dicotyledonous angiosperms than those from monocotyledonous angiosperms. In addition, synteny analysis between grape and Arabidopsis demonstrated that homologs of several grape SBP genes were found in corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis. Expression analysis of the grape SBP-box genes in various organs and at different stages of fruit development in V. quinquangularis ‘Shang-24’ revealed distinct spatiotemporal patterns. While the majority of the grape SBP-box genes lacking a miR156/157 target site were expressed ubiquitously and constitutively, most genes bearing a miR156/157 target site exhibited distinct expression patterns, possibly due to the inhibitory role of the microRNA. Furthermore, microarray data mining and quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis identified several grape SBP-box genes that are potentially involved in the defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. Conclusion The results presented here provide a further understanding of SBP-box gene function in plants, and yields additional insights into the mechanism of stress management in grape, which may have important implications for the future success of this crop. PMID:23527172

  9. Arabidopsis AtbHLH112 regulates the expression of genes involved in abiotic stress tolerance by binding to their E-box and GCG-box motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yujia; Ji, Xiaoyu; Nie, Xianguang; Qu, Min; Zheng, Lei; Tan, Zilong; Zhao, Huimin; Huo, Lin; Liu, Shengnan; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Yucheng

    2015-08-01

    Plant basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors play essential roles in abiotic stress tolerance. However, most bHLHs have not been functionally characterized. Here, we characterized the functional role of a bHLH transcription factor from Arabidopsis, AtbHLH112, in response to abiotic stress. AtbHLH112 is a nuclear-localized protein, and its nuclear localization is induced by salt, drought and abscisic acid (ABA). In addition, AtbHLH112 serves as a transcriptional activator, with the activation domain located at its N-terminus. In addition to binding to the E-box motifs of stress-responsive genes, AtbHLH112 binds to a novel motif with the sequence 'GG[GT]CC[GT][GA][TA]C' (GCG-box). Gain- and loss-of-function analyses showed that the transcript level of AtbHLH112 is positively correlated with salt and drought tolerance. AtbHLH112 mediates stress tolerance by increasing the expression of P5CS genes and reducing the expression of P5CDH and ProDH genes to increase proline levels. AtbHLH112 also increases the expression of POD and SOD genes to improve reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging ability. We present a model suggesting that AtbHLH112 is a transcriptional activator that regulates the expression of genes via binding to their GCG- or E-boxes to mediate physiological responses, including proline biosynthesis and ROS scavenging pathways, to enhance stress tolerance. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. 49 CFR 178.515 - Standards for reconstituted wood boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... wood boxes. (a) The identification code for a reconstituted wood box is 4F. (b) Construction requirements for reconstituted wood boxes are as follows: (1) The walls of boxes must be made of water... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. 178.515...

  11. North American box turtles: A natural history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    Once a familiar backyard visitor in many parts of the United States and Mexico, the box turtle is losing the battle against extinction. In North American Box Turtles, C. Kenneth Dodd, Jr., has written the first book-length natural history of the twelve species and subspecies of this endangered animal. This volume includes comprehensive information on the species’ evolution, behavior, courtship and reproduction, habitat use, diet, population structure, systematics, and disease. Special features include color photos of all species, subspecies, and their habitats; a simple identification guide to both living and fossil species; and a summary of information on fossil Terrapene and Native uses of box turtles. End-of-chapter sections highlight future research directions, including the need for long-term monitoring and observation of box turtles within their natural habitat and conservation applications. A glossary and a bibliography of literature on box turtles accompany the text.

  12. Dustproof cooling of the electrical box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemec Patrik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In present are electrical boxes cooled by air through the intake hole on the bottom electrical box to the box space with electrotechnical elements and exhaust through the hole at the top to the surrounding by natural convection. This cooling method is effective but operate with the risk of contamination electrotechnical elements by dust sucking from surrounding air. The goal of this work is solution of the dustproof cooling of the electrical box by natural convection. The work deal with design of the device with the heat transfer by the phase change of the working fluid and experimental measuring its thermal performance at the cooling electrotechnical elements loaded by heat 1 200 W in the dustproof electrical box.

  13. Novel Mad2-targeting miR-493-3p controls mitotic fidelity and cancer cells' sensitivity to paclitaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambe, Mahesh; Pruikkonen, Sofia; Mäki-Jouppila, Jenni; Chen, Ping; Elgaaen, Bente Vilming; Straume, Anne Hege; Huhtinen, Kaisa; Cárpen, Olli; Lønning, Per Eystein; Davidson, Ben; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Kallio, Marko J

    2016-03-15

    The molecular pathways that contribute to the proliferation and drug response of cancer cells are highly complex and currently insufficiently characterized. We have identified a previously unknown microRNA-based mechanism that provides cancer cells means to stimulate tumorigenesis via increased genomic instability and, at the same time, evade the action of clinically utilized microtubule drugs. We demonstrate miR-493-3p to be a novel negative regulator of mitotic arrest deficient-2 (MAD2), an essential component of the spindle assembly checkpoint that monitors the fidelity of chromosome segregation. The microRNA targets the 3' UTR of Mad2 mRNA thereby preventing translation of the Mad2 protein. In cancer cells, overexpression of miR-493-3p induced a premature mitotic exit that led to increased frequency of aneuploidy and cellular senescence in the progeny cells. Importantly, excess of the miR-493-3p conferred resistance of cancer cells to microtubule drugs. In human neoplasms, miR-493-3p and Mad2 expression alterations correlated with advanced ovarian cancer forms and high miR-493-3p levels were associated with reduced survival of ovarian and breast cancer patients with aggressive tumors, especially in the paclitaxel therapy arm. Our results suggest that intratumoral profiling of miR-493-3p and Mad2 levels can have diagnostic value in predicting the efficacy of taxane chemotherapy.

  14. ¿Qué Teoría? La Teoría en Mad Money | What Theory? The Theory in Mad Money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan STRANGE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mad Money (Manchester University Press, 1998 es la versión completamente reescrita y actualizada de Casino Capitalism (Blackwells, 1986. Se ha sugerido —de ambos volúmenes— que no había en ellos una teoría subyacente en la discusión de Strange sobre el sistema financiero internacional. Esto, argumenta Strange en este working paper, no es en absoluto el caso. Los dos volúmenes se sustentan, siempre implícitamente y a veces explícitamente, en los temas dominantes del trabajo de Strange desde la publicación de "International Relations and International Economics: A Case of Mutual Neglect", International Affairs, 46, (2, 1970. Se trata de tres temas: primero, una necesidad de privilegiar las políticas del sistema financiero internacional en el estudio de las relaciones internacionales; una disciplina miope desde hace mucho, concentrada en el conflicto violento y en la guerra entre estados, a expensas de todo el resto. Segundo, una necesidad de ir más alla de la teoría política y económica liberal y de reconocer el significado del "poder estructural" en el sistema internacional. Tercero, una necesidad de reconocer que las "áreas de ignorancia significativa" dentro de nuestra comprensión del rol del sistema financiero internacional en una era de revolución tecnológica y globalización son cada vez mayores. Para Strange, el poder estructural del capital no es constante y, por ende, no puede acomodarse en la lógica de la economía liberal. Así, usando la definición de "loco" del diccionario —comportamiento errático, impredecible e irracional que daña no solo a quien lo sufre sino también a otros—, tenemos, como ella dice, un "dinero loco"."Mad Money" (Manchester University Press, 1998 is the completely rewritten and updated version of "Casino Capitalism" (Blackwells, 1986. It has been suggested —of both volumes— that there was no theory underlying Strange's discussion of the international financial system in them

  15. The transcriptional landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The application of new and less biased methods to study the transcriptional output from genomes, such as tiling arrays and deep sequencing, has revealed that most of the genome is transcribed and that there is substantial overlap of transcripts derived from the two strands of DNA. In protein coding...... regions, the map of transcripts is very complex due to small transcripts from the flanking ends of the transcription unit, the use of multiple start and stop sites for the main transcript, production of multiple functional RNA molecules from the same primary transcript, and RNA molecules made...... by independent transcription from within the unit. In genomic regions separating those that encode proteins or highly abundant RNA molecules with known function, transcripts are generally of low abundance and short-lived. In most of these cases, it is unclear to what extent a function is related to transcription...

  16. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of a possible transcription factor encoded by the mimivirus L544 gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciaccafava, Alexandre; Lartigue, Audrey; Mansuelle, Pascal; Jeudy, Sandra; Abergel, Chantal

    2011-01-01

    The mimivirus L544 gene product was expressed in E. coli and crystallized; preliminary phasing of a MAD data set was performed using the selenium signal present in a crystal of recombinant selenomethionine-substituted protein. Mimivirus is the prototype of a new family (the Mimiviridae) of nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs), which already include the Poxviridae, Iridoviridae, Phycodnaviridae and Asfarviridae. Mimivirus specifically replicates in cells from the genus Acanthamoeba. Proteomic analysis of purified mimivirus particles revealed the presence of many subunits of the DNA-directed RNA polymerase II complex. A fully functional pre-transcriptional complex appears to be loaded in the virions, allowing mimivirus to initiate transcription within the host cytoplasm immediately upon infection independently of the host nuclear apparatus. To fully understand this process, a systematic study of mimivirus proteins that are predicted (by bioinformatics) or suspected (by proteomic analysis) to be involved in transcription was initiated by cloning and expressing them in Escherichia coli in order to determine their three-dimensional structures. Here, preliminary crystallographic analysis of the recombinant L544 protein is reported. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group C222 1 with one monomer per asymmetric unit. A MAD data set was used for preliminary phasing using the selenium signal present in a selenomethionine-substituted protein crystal

  17. The ocular complications of boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovinazzo, V J; Yannuzzi, L A; Sorenson, J A; Delrowe, D J; Cambell, E A

    1987-06-01

    In cooperation with the New York State Athletic Commission, 74 boxers applying for a new or yearly renewal license were sequentially referred over a 2-year period for a complete dilated ocular examination at the Sports Vision Institute of the Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital. At least one ocular injury was found in 66% of boxers. Vision-threatening injuries, defined as significant damage to the angle, lens, macula, or peripheral retina occurred in 58% of boxers. Nineteen percent of boxers had angle abnormalities. Nineteen percent of boxers had pathologic cataracts, over 70% of these were posterior subcapsular. Six boxers had macular lesions. A total of 24% of boxers had retinal tears. Standardized photographs were used to distinguish pathologic cataracts from congenital opacities and pathologic retinal tears from atrophic holes. Attempts were made to identify risk factors in boxing that might be predictive for ocular injury. Variables included age, weight division, left- or right-handedness, total number of losses, and total number of bouts. Significant correlations were found between the total number of bouts and the total number of losses, and the presence of retinal tears. College varsity athletes were selected as controls. Significant differences were found between boxers and controls for the total number of injuries, total vision-threatening injuries, and the number of retinal tears. A series of recommendations are proposed to aide in the early detection and prevention of serious ocular injuries.

  18. Escherichia coli MltA : MAD phasing and refinement of a tetartohedrally twinned protein crystal structure (vol D61, pg 613, 2005)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barends, Thomas R.M.; Jong, René M. de; Straaten, Karin E. van; Thunnissen, Andy-Mark W.H.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    Crystals were grown of a mutant form of the bacterial cell-wall maintenance protein MltA that diffracted to 2.15 Å resolution. When phasing with molecular replacement using the native structure failed, selenium MAD was used to obtain initial phases. However, after MAD phasing the crystals were found

  19. Design report for shielded glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, J. H.; Lee, J. C.; Seo, K. S.; Bang, K. S.; Lee, D. W.; Kim, J. H.; Min, D. K.; Park, S. W.

    1999-05-01

    For the examination of spent fuels and high radioactive specimens using a specially equipped scanning electron microscope, a shielded glove box was designed and constructed at PIE facility of KAERI. This glove box consisted of shielding walls, containment box, lead glasses, manipulators, gloves, ventilation systems, doors, hot-cell specimen cask adapter, etc. It was emphasized that both the easy operation and radiation safety are important factors in the shielded glove box were installed also considered as a important factor to build the basic concept of the assembling. Two sliding doors and one hinge-type door were installed for the easy installation, operation and maintenance of scanning electron microscope. Containment box which confines the radioactive material into the box consisted of reinforced transparent glasses, aluminum frames and stainless steel plate liner. Therefore everything beyond the containment box can be seen through the lead glass which installed at the front shielding wall. All shielding walls and doors were introduced separately into the room and assembled by bolting. (author). 3 refs., 5 tabs., 18 figs

  20. From MAD to SAD: The Italian experience for the low-frequency aperture array of SKA1-LOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolli, P.; Pupillo, G.; Virone, G.; Farooqui, M. Z.; Lingua, A.; Mattana, A.; Monari, J.; Murgia, M.; Naldi, G.; Paonessa, F.; Perini, F.; Pluchino, S.; Rusticelli, S.; Schiaffino, M.; Schillirò, F.; Tartarini, G.; Tibaldi, A.

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes two small aperture array demonstrators called Medicina and Sardinia Array Demonstrators (MAD and SAD, respectively). The objectives of these instruments are to acquire experience and test new technologies for a possible application to the low-frequency aperture array of the low-frequency telescope of the Square Kilometer Array phase 1 (SKA1-LOW). The MAD experience was concluded in 2014, and it turned out to be an important test bench for implementing calibration techniques based on an artificial source mounted in an aerial vehicle. SAD is based on 128 dual-polarized Vivaldi antennas and is 1 order of magnitude larger than MAD. The architecture and the station size of SAD, which is along the construction phase, are more similar to those under evaluation for SKA1-LOW, and therefore, SAD is expected to provide useful hints for SKA1-LOW.

  1. [Foucault, Derrida, and the history of madness: notes on a controversy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Neto, A F

    1998-01-01

    The publication of the book Folie et Déraison. Histoire de la Folie à l'Age Classique (1961), by Michel Foucault, sparked a debate between the author and philosopher Jacques Derrida during the 1960s and 70s. Derrida criticized the methodological proposal and organization of the History of Madness presented by Foucault in the foreword to the first edition. The controversy appears to have motivated the author to withdraw this same foreword from the second edition. The purpose of this article is to analyze some current points in this controversy. It also presents a research agenda for an understanding of the reasons leading Foucault to take this stance.

  2. The Killer Will Remain Free: On Pat Parker and the Poetics of Madness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Kazim

    2015-01-01

    Poet and scholar Kazim Ali reads Pat Parker's Movement in Black intimately, one poet to another, uncovering the shadow-fact of the lives of most people of color: not only the anger that is somehow sublimated into every part of our lives but also the issue that carrying this feeling around has on our mental health itself-that "anger" and "madness" might have sources in one another. Ali concludes that Parker offers a brutal and clear-eyed and ultimately hopeful assessment of the conditions that were faced at the time, and even now, by communities of color.

  3. Automatic change detection in RapidEye data using the combined MAD and kernel MAF methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Hecheltjen, Antje; Thonfeld, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The IR-MAD components show changes for a large part of the entire subset. Especially phenological changes in the agricultural fields surrounding the open pit are predominant. As opposed to this, kMAF components focus more on changes in the open-cast mine (and changes due to the two clouds...... and their shadows, not visible in the zoom). Ground data were available from bucket-wheel excavators on the extraction side (to the northwest in the open pit) in terms of elevation data for both dates. No ground data were available for changes due to backfill (southeastern part of the open pit) or changes due...

  4. Low MAD2 expression levels associate with reduced progression-free survival in patients with high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Furlong, Fiona

    2012-04-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has an innate susceptibility to become chemoresistant. Up to 30% of patients do not respond to conventional chemotherapy [paclitaxel (Taxol®) in combination with carboplatin] and, of those who have an initial response, many patients relapse. Therefore, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate cellular chemotherapeutic responses in EOC cells has the potential to impact significantly on patient outcome. The mitotic arrest deficiency protein 2 (MAD2), is a centrally important mediator of the cellular response to paclitaxel. MAD2 immunohistochemical analysis was performed on 82 high-grade serous EOC samples. A multivariate Cox regression analysis of nuclear MAD2 IHC intensity adjusting for stage, tumour grade and optimum surgical debulking revealed that low MAD2 IHC staining intensity was significantly associated with reduced progression-free survival (PFS) (p = 0.0003), with a hazard ratio of 4.689. The in vitro analyses of five ovarian cancer cell lines demonstrated that cells with low MAD2 expression were less sensitive to paclitaxel. Furthermore, paclitaxel-induced activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and apoptotic cell death was abrogated in cells transfected with MAD2 siRNA. In silico analysis identified a miR-433 binding domain in the MAD2 3\\' UTR, which was verified in a series of experiments. Firstly, MAD2 protein expression levels were down-regulated in pre-miR-433 transfected A2780 cells. Secondly, pre-miR-433 suppressed the activity of a reporter construct containing the 3\\'-UTR of MAD2. Thirdly, blocking miR-433 binding to the MAD2 3\\' UTR protected MAD2 from miR-433 induced protein down-regulation. Importantly, reduced MAD2 protein expression in pre-miR-433-transfected A2780 cells rendered these cells less sensitive to paclitaxel. In conclusion, loss of MAD2 protein expression results in increased resistance to paclitaxel in EOC cells. Measuring MAD2 IHC staining intensity may predict

  5. Metformin Protects Neurons against Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation/Reoxygenation -Induced Injury by Down-Regulating MAD2B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xianfang; Chu, Guangpin; Yang, Zhihua; Qiu, Ping; Hu, Yue; Chen, Xiaohe; Peng, Wenpeng; Ye, Chen; He, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Metformin, the common medication for type II diabetes, has protective effects on cerebral ischemia. However, the molecular mechanisms are far from clear. Mitotic arrest deficient 2-like protein 2 (MAD2B), an inhibitor of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), is widely expressed in hippocampal and cortical neurons and plays an important role in mediating high glucose-induced neurotoxicity. The present study investigated whether metformin modifies the expression of MAD2B and to exert its neuroprotective effects in primary cultured cortical neurons during oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R), a widely used in vitro model of ischemia/reperfusion. Primary cortical neurons were cultured, deprived of oxygen-glucose for 1 h, and then recovered with oxygen-glucose for 12 h and 24 h. Cell viability was measured by detecting the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in culture medium. The levels of MAD2B, cyclin B and p-histone 3 were measured by Western blot. Cell viability of neurons was reduced under oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R). The expression of MAD2B was increased under OGD/R. The levels of cyclin B1, which is a substrate of APC, were also increased. Moreover, OGD/R up-regulated the phosphorylation levels of histone 3, which is the induction of aberrant re-entry of post-mitotic neurons. However, pretreatment of neurons with metformin alleviated OGD/R-induced injury. Metformin further decreased the expression of MAD2B, cyclin B1 and phosphorylation levels of histone 3. Metformin exerts its neuroprotective effect through regulating the expression of MAD2B in neurons under OGD/R. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Two particle states in an asymmetric box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xin; Liu Chuan

    2004-01-01

    The exact two-particle energy eigenstates in an asymmetric rectangular box with periodic boundary conditions in all three directions are studied. Their relation with the elastic scattering phases of the two particles in the continuum are obtained. These results can be viewed as a generalization of the corresponding formulae in a cubic box obtained by Luescher before. In particular, the s-wave scattering length is related to the energy shift in the finite box. Possible applications of these formulae are also discussed

  7. Pharmacology and psychiatry at the origins of Greek medicine: The myth of Melampus and the madness of the Proetides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, Matteo F; Marzari, Francesca; Kesel, Andreas J; Bonalume, Laura; Saettini, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Melampus is a seer-healer of Greek myth attributed with having healed the young princesses of Argos of madness. Analysis of this legend and its sources sheds light on the early stages of the "medicalizing" shift in the history of ancient Greek medicine. Retrospective psychological diagnosis suggests that the descriptions of the youths' madness rose from actual observation of behavioral and mental disorders. Melampus is credited with having healed them by administering hellebore. Pharmacological analysis of botanical specimens proves that Helleborus niger features actual neurological properties effective in the treatment of mental disorders. The discussion aims at examining the rational aspects of the treatment of mental conditions in Greco-Roman antiquity.

  8. Validation of Cut-Points for Evaluating the Intensity of Physical Activity with Accelerometry-Based Mean Amplitude Deviation (MAD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Vähä-Ypyä

    Full Text Available Our recent study of three accelerometer brands in various ambulatory activities showed that the mean amplitude deviation (MAD of the resultant acceleration signal performed best in separating different intensity levels and provided excellent agreement between the three devices. The objective of this study was to derive a regression model that estimates oxygen consumption (VO2 from MAD values and validate the MAD-based cut-points for light, moderate and vigorous locomotion against VO2 within a wide range of speeds.29 participants performed a pace-conducted non-stop test on a 200 m long indoor track. The initial speed was 0.6 m/s and it was increased by 0.4 m/s every 2.5 minutes until volitional exhaustion. The participants could freely decide whether they preferred to walk or run. During the test they carried a hip-mounted tri-axial accelerometer and mobile metabolic analyzer. The MAD was calculated from the raw acceleration data and compared to directly measured incident VO2. Cut-point between light and moderate activity was set to 3.0 metabolic equivalent (MET, 1 MET = 3.5 ml · kg-1 · min-1 and between moderate and vigorous activity to 6.0 MET as per standard use.The MAD and VO2 showed a very strong association. Within individuals, the range of r values was from 0.927 to 0.991 providing the mean r = 0.969. The optimal MAD cut-point for 3.0 MET was 91 mg (milligravity and 414 mg for 6.0 MET.The present study showed that the MAD is a valid method in terms of the VO2 within a wide range of ambulatory activities from slow walking to fast running. Being a device-independent trait, the MAD facilitates directly comparable, accurate results on the intensity of physical activity with all accelerometers providing tri-axial raw data.

  9. T box riboswitches in Actinobacteria: Translational regulation via novel tRNA interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Anna V.; Grundy, Frank J.; Henkin, Tina M.

    2015-01-01

    The T box riboswitch regulates many amino acid-related genes in Gram-positive bacteria. T box riboswitch-mediated gene regulation was shown previously to occur at the level of transcription attenuation via structural rearrangements in the 5′ untranslated (leader) region of the mRNA in response to binding of a specific uncharged tRNA. In this study, a novel group of isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase gene (ileS) T box leader sequences found in organisms of the phylum Actinobacteria was investigated. The Stem I domains of these RNAs lack several highly conserved elements that are essential for interaction with the tRNA ligand in other T box RNAs. Many of these RNAs were predicted to regulate gene expression at the level of translation initiation through tRNA-dependent stabilization of a helix that sequesters a sequence complementary to the Shine–Dalgarno (SD) sequence, thus freeing the SD sequence for ribosome binding and translation initiation. We demonstrated specific binding to the cognate tRNAIle and tRNAIle-dependent structural rearrangements consistent with regulation at the level of translation initiation, providing the first biochemical demonstration, to our knowledge, of translational regulation in a T box riboswitch. PMID:25583497

  10. Packing a cake into a box

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    Given a triangular cake and a box in the shape of its mirror image, how can the cake be cut into a minimal number of pieces so that it can be put into the box? The cake has icing, so we are not allowed to put it into the box upside down. V. G. Boltyansky asked this question in 1977 and showed that three pieces always suffice. In this paper we provide examples of cakes that cannot be cut into two pieces to be put into the box. This shows that three is the answer to Boltyansky's question. We also give examples of cakes which can be cut into two pieces. © THE MATHEMATICAL ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA.

  11. A Lithium Vapor Box Divertor Similarity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Robert A.; Emdee, Eric D.; Goldston, Robert J.; Jaworski, Michael A.; Schwartz, Jacob A.

    2017-10-01

    A lithium vapor box divertor offers an alternate means of managing the extreme power density of divertor plasmas by leveraging gaseous lithium to volumetrically extract power. The vapor box divertor is a baffled slot with liquid lithium coated walls held at temperatures which increase toward the divertor floor. The resulting vapor pressure differential drives gaseous lithium from hotter chambers into cooler ones, where the lithium condenses and returns. A similarity experiment was devised to investigate the advantages offered by a vapor box divertor design. We discuss the design, construction, and early findings of the vapor box divertor experiment including vapor can construction, power transfer calculations, joint integrity tests, and thermocouple data logging. Heat redistribution of an incident plasma-based heat flux from a typical linear plasma device is also presented. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 and The Princeton Environmental Institute.

  12. Glove boxes. Dimensions and requirements. Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    The standard is to be applied to work done in glove-boxes, whereby either the personnel need to be protected from the damaging effects of the materials being handled, or the materials from the effects of the environment. It is to be applied to glove-boxes in which substances are handled which emit ionising radiation (radioactive substances). This norm is not restricted to glove-boxes in which processes are carried out on a technique scale. In accordance with this norm, only those pressures and temperatures are allowed to be present in the glove-boxes, that do not offer significantly from the work areas. Alongside the stipulations of this standard regard is also always to be taken of the regulations in the radiation protection ordinance. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Grey Box Modelling of Hydrological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thordarson, Fannar Ørn

    of two papers where the stochastic differential equation based model is used for sewer runoff from a drainage system. A simple model is used to describe a complex rainfall-runoff process in a catchment, but the stochastic part of the system is formulated to include the increasing uncertainty when...... rainwater flows through the system, as well as describe the lower limit of the uncertainty when the flow approaches zero. The first paper demonstrates in detail the grey box model and all related transformations required to obtain a feasible model for the sewer runoff. In the last paper this model is used......The main topic of the thesis is grey box modelling of hydrologic systems, as well as formulation and assessment of their embedded uncertainties. Grey box model is a combination of a white box model, a physically-based model that is traditionally formulated using deterministic ordinary differential...

  14. EPA EcoBox Tools by Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  15. Packing a cake into a box

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-05-01

    Given a triangular cake and a box in the shape of its mirror image, how can the cake be cut into a minimal number of pieces so that it can be put into the box? The cake has icing, so we are not allowed to put it into the box upside down. V. G. Boltyansky asked this question in 1977 and showed that three pieces always suffice. In this paper we provide examples of cakes that cannot be cut into two pieces to be put into the box. This shows that three is the answer to Boltyansky\\'s question. We also give examples of cakes which can be cut into two pieces. © THE MATHEMATICAL ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA.

  16. Spacer for supporting fuel element boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, E.

    1979-01-01

    A spacer plate unit arranged externally on each side and at a predetermined level of a polygonal fuel element box for mutually supporting, with respect to one another, a plurality of the fuel element boxes forming a fuel element bundle, is formed of a first and a second spacer plate part each having the same length and the same width and being constituted of unlike first and second materials, respectively. The first and second spacer plate parts of the several spacer plate units situated at the predetermined level are arranged in an alternating continuous series when viewed in the peripheral direction of the fuel element box, so that any two spacer plate units belonging to face-to-face oriented sides of two adjoining fuel element boxes in the fuel element bundle define interfaces of unlike materials

  17. Black-Box Search by Unbiased Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehre, Per Kristian; Witt, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    The complexity theory for black-box algorithms, introduced by Droste, Jansen, and Wegener (Theory Comput. Syst. 39:525–544, 2006), describes common limits on the efficiency of a broad class of randomised search heuristics. There is an obvious trade-off between the generality of the black-box model...... and the strength of the bounds that can be proven in such a model. In particular, the original black-box model provides for well-known benchmark problems relatively small lower bounds, which seem unrealistic in certain cases and are typically not met by popular search heuristics.In this paper, we introduce a more...... restricted black-box model for optimisation of pseudo-Boolean functions which we claim captures the working principles of many randomised search heuristics including simulated annealing, evolutionary algorithms, randomised local search, and others. The key concept worked out is an unbiased variation operator...

  18. Study on structural integrity in box structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Masayuki; Ueta, Masahiro; Kanaoka, Tadashi; Ikeuchi, Toshiaki; Kodama, Tetsuhiro.

    1991-01-01

    This study was carried out to give an experimental foundation to the structural integrity of a box structure. Crack growth tests were performed on the reduced scale models, simulating typical portions of the box structure, in air at room temperature. The results show that the amount of crack growth is too small to injure the structural integrity of the models for the postulated loading cycle, and make clear the effective structure against crack growth. (author)

  19. Random Young diagrams in a Rectangular Box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Dan; Boutillier, Cédric; Enriquez, Nathanaël

    We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape.......We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape....

  20. The Rhetoric of Madness in Kathy Acker’s Don Quixote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the rhetorical experimentation of Don Quixote by Kathy Acker, starting from a theoretical concept central in the author’s thought: her search for a “language of the body”. A brief introduction to Kathy Acker’s plagiaristic poetics frames her narrative strategies between postmodern rewriting and pastiche. It shows the way in which her Don Quixote transposes the representative scheme of the chivalric quest into the contemporary value system with the aim of questioning Cervantes’ text as one of the canonical works of the Western literary tradition. The following section deepens three focal concepts of Acker’s theoretical works – body, madness, and norm – illuminating the connections between her rhetorical experimentation and the works by Luce Irigaray and Judith Butler. Finally, the paper will demonstrate how these concepts in Acker's rewriting of Don Quixote are strictly related to paradox, which she uses in order to actualize a “language of the body”: in the passage from the former novel to the postmodern work, madness has become the device which, from the semantic level to the rhetorical one, expresses Acker’s idea of language of the body, as an alternative and in contrast to the canonical language of the logos.

  1. MadAnalysis Recast Code for Dark Matter Production in Association with Bottom Quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, Diptaparna

    The CMS-B2G-15-007 analysis was carried out to investigate the $pp\\rightarrow bb+DM$ process, which is a candidate process of direct Dark Matter production. In this particular work, this process is simulated and analyzed for 13 TeV LHC experiment using MadGraph, Pythia 8 and MadAnalysis C++ API. The recast code is written to reproduce the results obtained by the experimentalists in CMS-B2G-15-007 analysis. The result is interpreted within simplified scalar model in terms of the coupling between the mediator and the DM candidate and evaluated based on the MET distribution. CMS-B2G-15-007 uses a dataset of $2.17fb^{-1}$ of data collected by the CMS experiment in $\\sqrt{s}=13TeV$ proton-proton collisions at LHC. This analysis is sensitive also to DM production processes in association with top quarks. Results are reported as upper limits on the cross section for the b quark and top quark associated production independently, and interpreted within simplified models in terms of the coupling between the mediator an...

  2. TRIP13 is a protein-remodeling AAA+ ATPase that catalyzes MAD2 conformation switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qiaozhen; Rosenberg, Scott C; Moeller, Arne; Speir, Jeffrey A; Su, Tiffany Y; Corbett, Kevin D

    2015-04-28

    The AAA+ family ATPase TRIP13 is a key regulator of meiotic recombination and the spindle assembly checkpoint, acting on signaling proteins of the conserved HORMA domain family. Here we present the structure of the Caenorhabditis elegans TRIP13 ortholog PCH-2, revealing a new family of AAA+ ATPase protein remodelers. PCH-2 possesses a substrate-recognition domain related to those of the protein remodelers NSF and p97, while its overall hexameric architecture and likely structural mechanism bear close similarities to the bacterial protein unfoldase ClpX. We find that TRIP13, aided by the adapter protein p31(comet), converts the HORMA-family spindle checkpoint protein MAD2 from a signaling-active 'closed' conformer to an inactive 'open' conformer. We propose that TRIP13 and p31(comet) collaborate to inactivate the spindle assembly checkpoint through MAD2 conformational conversion and disassembly of mitotic checkpoint complexes. A parallel HORMA protein disassembly activity likely underlies TRIP13's critical regulatory functions in meiotic chromosome structure and recombination.

  3. TRIP13 is a protein-remodeling AAA+ ATPase that catalyzes MAD2 conformation switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Qiaozhen [Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, San Diego Branch, La Jolla, United States; Rosenberg, Scott C. [Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, San Diego Branch, La Jolla, United States; Moeller, Arne [National Resource for Automated Molecular Microscopy, Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, United States; Speir, Jeffrey A. [National Resource for Automated Molecular Microscopy, Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, United States; Su, Tiffany Y. [Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, San Diego Branch, La Jolla, United States; Corbett, Kevin D. [Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, San Diego Branch, La Jolla, United States; Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, United States

    2015-04-28

    The AAA+ family ATPase TRIP13 is a key regulator of meiotic recombination and the spindle assembly checkpoint, acting on signaling proteins of the conserved HORMA domain family. Here we present the structure of the Caenorhabditis elegans TRIP13 ortholog PCH-2, revealing a new family of AAA+ ATPase protein remodelers. PCH-2 possesses a substrate-recognition domain related to those of the protein remodelers NSF and p97, while its overall hexameric architecture and likely structural mechanism bear close similarities to the bacterial protein unfoldase ClpX. We find that TRIP13, aided by the adapter protein p31(comet), converts the HORMA-family spindle checkpoint protein MAD2 from a signaling-active ‘closed’ conformer to an inactive ‘open’ conformer. We propose that TRIP13 and p31(comet) collaborate to inactivate the spindle assembly checkpoint through MAD2 conformational conversion and disassembly of mitotic checkpoint complexes. A parallel HORMA protein disassembly activity likely underlies TRIP13's critical regulatory functions in meiotic chromosome structure and recombination.

  4. Proceedings of the fourth High-Energy Physics International Conference HEP-MAD 09

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narison, S.

    2009-01-01

    This is the 4th of the series of HEP-MAD conference organized regularly every 2 or 3 years in Madagascar, in alternance to the traditional series of QCD-conference held in Montpellier (France) on July. The conference is expected to involve few numbers of physicists from abroad and equal numbers of experimental and theoretical high-energy physicists.Unlike the QCD conference which is a specialized meeting, HEP-MAD aims to have a wide view of physics: from High-Energy to Astro Physics. National contributions cover Nuclear and Environment Physics and the new form of energies (solar,...). This conference is a compromise between a standard one where specialized topics are presented and an introductory school to each subjects.It gives the opportunuity for high-energy physicists to promote the field of high-energy physics (theory and experiments)in Madagascar. In the same time, the meeting will permit to the participants to discover the country (well-known about its bio-diversity and rare animal and plant species) and its tradition and population from different origins.The theoretical and experimental talks cover different aspects of high-energy physics which are in the form of introductional reviews to the field, short contributions and posters. These talks are complemented by other national talks in other areas of physics. The Conference is expected to be published on-line by SLAC in a eConf-proceedings.

  5. Box-Cox transformation for QTL mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Runqing; Yi, Nengjun; Xu, Shizhong

    2006-01-01

    The maximum likelihood method of QTL mapping assumes that the phenotypic values of a quantitative trait follow a normal distribution. If the assumption is violated, some forms of transformation should be taken to make the assumption approximately true. The Box-Cox transformation is a general transformation method which can be applied to many different types of data. The flexibility of the Box-Cox transformation is due to a variable, called transformation factor, appearing in the Box-Cox formula. We developed a maximum likelihood method that treats the transformation factor as an unknown parameter, which is estimated from the data simultaneously along with the QTL parameters. The method makes an objective choice of data transformation and thus can be applied to QTL analysis for many different types of data. Simulation studies show that (1) Box-Cox transformation can substantially increase the power of QTL detection; (2) Box-Cox transformation can replace some specialized transformation methods that are commonly used in QTL mapping; and (3) applying the Box-Cox transformation to data already normally distributed does not harm the result.

  6. Sport medicine and the ethics of boxing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, S.; Herrera, C. D.

    1999-01-01

    In the light of medical evidence of the health risks associated with boxing, a watchful agnostic position among sport physicians is no longer justifiable. The normal activity in a boxing match places the athletes at risk of head injury, some of which may be difficult to detect and impossible to repair. This suggests that sport physicians and others expert in the prevention and diagnosis of such injuries should take a public stand against boxing, as other medical associations have. Although there is a need for continuing research into the health risks, doctors can in the interim take steps to increase public awareness of these risks. Sport physicians in particular can make a strong public statement by also ending their professional involvement with boxing. This need not be interpreted as paternalism; doctors are qualified neither to make laws nor to restrict private behaviour. Sport physicians are, however, well equipped to advise those who do make laws and those who choose to engage in boxing. In the end, because this stance against boxing will probably reduce the number of brain injuries in certain athletes, autonomy will be preserved, rather than restricted. 


 PMID:10597855

  7. Amateur boxing: physical and physiological attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabène, Helmi; Tabben, Montassar; Mkaouer, Bessem; Franchini, Emerson; Negra, Yassine; Hammami, Mehrez; Amara, Samiha; Chaabène, Raja Bouguezzi; Hachana, Younés

    2015-03-01

    Boxing is one of the oldest combat sports. The aim of the current review is to critically analyze the amateur boxer's physical and physiological characteristics and to provide practical recommendations for training as well as new areas of scientific research. High-level male and female boxers show a propensity for low body fat levels. Although studies on boxer somatotypes are limited, the available information shows that elite-level male boxers are characterized by a higher proportion of mesomorphy with a well-developed muscle mass and a low body fat level. To help support the overall metabolic demands of a boxing match and to accelerate the recovery process between rounds, athletes of both sexes require a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness. International boxers show a high peak and mean anaerobic power output. Muscle strength in both the upper and lower limbs is paramount for a fighter's victory and is one of the keys to success in boxing. As boxing punches are brief actions and very dynamic, high-level boxing performance requires well-developed muscle power in both the upper and lower limbs. Albeit limited, the available studies reveal that isometric strength is linked to high-level boxing performance. Future investigations into the physical and physiological attributes of boxers are required to enrich the current data set and to help create a suitable training program.

  8. A flexible system to capture sample vials in a storage box - the box vial scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Steven E; Kressin, Kenneth R; Deick, Steven D

    2009-01-01

    Tracking sample vials in a research environment is a critical task and doing so efficiently can have a large impact on productivity, especially in high volume laboratories. There are several challenges to automating the capture process, including the variety of containers used to store samples. We developed a fast and robust system to capture the location of sample vials being placed in storage that allows the laboratories the flexibility to use sample containers of varying dimensions. With a single scan, this device captures the box identifier, the vial identifier and the location of each vial within a freezer storage box. The sample vials are tracked through a barcode label affixed to the cap while the boxes are tracked by a barcode label on the side of the box. Scanning units are placed at the point of use and forward data to a sever application for processing the scanned data. Scanning units consist of an industrial barcode reader mounted in a fixture positioning the box for scanning and providing lighting during the scan. The server application transforms the scan data into a list of storage locations holding vial identifiers. The list is then transferred to the laboratory database. The box vial scanner captures the IDs and location information for an entire box of sample vials into the laboratory database in a single scan. The system accommodates a wide variety of vials sizes by inserting risers under the sample box and a variety of storage box layouts are supported via the processing algorithm on the server.

  9. Ethylene and pollination decrease transcript abundance of an ethylene receptor gene in Dendrobium petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongkum, Monthathip; Burns, Parichart; Bhunchoth, Anjana; Warin, Nuchnard; Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan; van Doorn, Wouter G

    2015-03-15

    We studied the expression of a gene encoding an ethylene receptor, called Ethylene Response Sensor 1 (Den-ERS1), in the petals of Dendrobium orchid flowers. Transcripts accumulated during the young floral bud stage and declined by the time the flowers had been open for several days. Pollination or exposure to exogenous ethylene resulted in earlier flower senescence, an increase in ethylene production and a lower Den-ERS1 transcript abundance. Treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an inhibitor of the ethylene receptor, decreased ethylene production and resulted in high transcript abundance. The literature indicates two kinds of ethylene receptor genes with regard to the effects of ethylene. One group shows ethylene-induced down-regulated transcription, while the other has ethylene-induced up-regulation. The present gene is an example of the first group. The 5' flanking region showed binding sites for Myb and myb-like, homeodomain, MADS domain, NAC, TCP, bHLH and EIN3-like transcription factors. The binding site for the EIN3-like factor might explain the ethylene effect on transcription. A few other transcription factors (RAV1 and NAC) seem also related to ethylene effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Transcriptional regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wels, C.

    2010-01-01

    The downregulation of epithelial markers followed by upregulation of mesenchymal characteristics is an important step in melanoma development. This process goes along with gains in cell proliferation and motility, depolarization and detachment from neighbouring cells, finally enabling melanoma cells to leave the primary site of tumor growth and to circulate through the blood or lymphatic system. The entirety of these events is referred to as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Changes during EMT are accomplished by a set of transcription factors which share the same DNA binding site called E-box. These E-box binding transcription factors are subsumed as epithelial-mesenchymal transitions regulators (EMTRs). In this thesis, I studied the interplay of the zinc-finger transcription factors Slug and ZEB1 and the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Twist during melanoma progression. I demonstrate for the first time the direct and specific transcriptional upregulation of one EMTR, ZEB1, by another, Slug, using gene silencing and overexpression studies together with mobility shift and luciferase assays. The two transcription factors cooperate in repressing the epithelial adhesion molecule E-cadherin which is supposed to be a crucial step during early EMT. Further, they show additive effects in promoting detachment from neighbouring cells and cell migration. Conceptually, Slug and ZEB1 are supported by Twist, a transcription factor that might be less pivotal for E-cadherin repression but rather for inducing the expression of the mesenchymal marker N-cadherin, enabling adhesion to mesenchymal cells, thereby promoting migration and invasion of melanoma cells.Taken together, I provide a model of a hierarchical organization of EMT transcription factors, with Slug as a transcriptional activator of ZEB1, leading to cooperative effects on detachment and migration and, together with Twist, leading to EMT in melanoma. (author) [de

  11. Towards an ESL design framework for adaptive and fault-tolerant MPSoCs: MADNESS or not?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cannella, E.; Di Gregorioi, L.; Fiorin, L.; Lindwer, M.; Meloni, P.; Neugebauer, O.; Pimentel, A.

    2011-01-01

    The MADNESS project aims at the definition of innovative system-level design methodologies for embedded MP-SoCs, extending the classic concept of design space exploration in multi-application domains to cope with high heterogeneity, technology scaling and system reliability. The main goal of the

  12. The contaminated Western Hero and other madness during the Atomic Age; Der verstrahlte Westernheld und anderer Irrsinn aus dem Atomzeitalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, Rudolph

    2012-11-01

    The book on mad activities during the Atomic Age includes the following topics: The second most hazardous invention in all time; the red bomb; the story on the tactic nuclear war; the contaminated Western hero or how the bomb came to Alaska; swords into plowshares; the apocalypse machine; flying reactors; how safe is safe?; atomic Australia; nuclear medicine on wrong ways; broken arrows.

  13. Exergaming boxing versus heavy-bag boxing: are these equipotent for individuals with spinal cord injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Rosly, Maziah; Mat Rosly, Hadi; Hasnan, Nazirah; Davis, Glen M; Husain, Ruby

    2017-08-01

    Current strategies for increased physical activity and exercise in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) face many challenges with regards to maintaining their continuity of participation. Barriers cited often include problems with accessing facilities, mundane, monotonous or boring exercises and expensive equipment that is often not adapted for wheelchair users. To compare the physiological responses and user preferences between conventional heavy-bag boxing against a novel form of video game boxing, known as exergaming boxing. Cross-sectional study. Exercise laboratory setting in a university medical center. Seventeen participants with SCI were recruited, of which sixteen were male and only one female. Their mean age was 35.6±10.2 years. All of them performed a 15-minute physical exercise session of exergaming and heavy-bag boxing in a sitting position. The study assessed physiological responses in terms of oxygen consumption, metabolic equivalent (MET) and energy expenditure between exergaming and heavy-bag boxing derived from open-circuit spirometry. Participants also rated their perceived exertion using Borg's category-ratio ratings of perceived exertion. Both exergaming (MET: 4.3±1.0) and heavy-bag boxing (MET: 4.4±1.0) achieved moderate exercise intensities in these participants with SCI. Paired t-test revealed no significant differences (P>0.05, Cohen's d: 0.02-0.49) in the physiological or perceived exertional responses between the two modalities of boxing. Post session user survey reported all the participants found exergaming boxing more enjoyable. Exergaming boxing, was able to produce equipotent physiological responses as conventional heavy-bag boxing. The intensity of both exercise modalities achieved recommended intensities for health and fitness benefits. Exergaming boxing have the potential to provide an enjoyable, self-competitive environment for moderate-vigorous exercise even at the comfort of their homes.

  14. Complementarity in the Einstein-Bohr photon box

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieks, D.G.B.J.; Lam, S

    2008-01-01

    The Bohr-Einstein photon box thought experiment is a forerunner of the EPR experiment: a packet of radiation escapes from a box, and the box-plus-radiation state remains entangled. Hence, a measurement on the box makes a difference for the state of the far-away radiation long after its escape. This

  15. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not more...

  16. 49 CFR 178.517 - Standards for plastic boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for plastic boxes. 178.517 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.517 Standards for plastic boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic boxes: (1) 4H1 for an expanded plastic box; and (2) 4H2 for a...

  17. A single, specific thymine mutation in the ComK-Binding site severely decreases binding and transcription activation by the competence transcription factor ComK of Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanna, Kim A.; Mironczuk, Aleksandra M.; Smits, Wiep Klaas; Hamoen, Leendert W.; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    The competence transcription factor ComK plays a central role in competence development in Bacillus subtilis by activating the transcription of the K regulon. ComK-activated genes are characterized by the presence of a specific sequence to which ComK binds, a K-box, in their upstream DNA region.

  18. Plutonium glove boxes - metrology and operational states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyer, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The main objective was to undertake a literature review in support of NII's ongoing work in improving safety in the nuclear industry to help define suitable standards of cleanliness for plutonium glove boxes. This is to cover the following areas: existing or proposed national/international standards relating to plutonium glove box cleanliness management; practicable metrology options for assessing the plutonium content of glove boxes; any available dose information relating to the operation of modern and 'old design'; current contamination levels of specific significance (i.e. any accepted level in decommissioning/waste terms, typical criticality limits (if available), any box plutonium loadings that are documented with corresponding operator doses etc.); and, techniques for the decontamination of plutonium glove boxes and their relative effectiveness. This should then form the basis of any further development work undertaken by the UK nuclear industry. Main recommendations are as follows: 1) No information could be found in open literature on acceptable levels of contamination in boxes and action levels for cleanup. If these are not available in closed publications the 2) Where possible, the decontamination methods identified should be tested and dose information recorded against each method to allow informed decisions on which is the optimum technique for a particular form of contamination. 3) Consideration should be given to utilisation of metrology options which have the lowest potential for exposure of operators. Preferred options, may be detection from the outside of boxes using hand-held or permanently located radiation detectors, or semi-intrusive methods such as air-ionisation readings which would require one-off installation of detectors in ductwork

  19. An upstream activation element exerting differential transcriptional activation on an archaeal promoter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Nan; Xia, Qiu; Chen, Zhengjun

    2009-01-01

    S gene encoding an arabinose binding protein was characterized using an Sulfolobus islandicus reporter gene system. The minimal active araS promoter (P(araS)) was found to be 59 nucleotides long and harboured four promoter elements: an ara-box, an upstream transcription factor B-responsive element (BRE......), a TATA-box and a proximal promoter element, each of which contained important nucleotides that either greatly decreased or completely abolished promoter activity upon mutagenesis. The basal araS promoter was virtually inactive due to intrinsically weak BRE element, and the upstream activating sequence...... (UAS) ara-box activated the basal promoter by recruiting transcription factor B to its BRE. While this UAS ensured a general expression from an inactive or weak basal promoter in the presence of other tested carbon resources, it exhibited a strong arabinose-responsive transcriptional activation. To our...

  20. Silvicultural madness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basnyat, Bijendra; Treue, Thorsten; Pokharel, R.K.

    2018-01-01

    Following a case study approach, this paper explains how scientific forest management plans were developed and implemented in community forests of a mid-hill district in Nepal. Field observations were carried over a period of two years (December 2014 to December 2016) in two community forests. User...... guidelines with little reference to the actual site quality, management objectives, and forest stand conditions. Apart from harvesting of trees, users hardly implemented the plans‘ silvicultural prescriptions and forest restoration activities. Moreover forest officials administratively reduced the number...... of trees that users could harvest to around half of what the plans allow. Accordingly, forest user groups face a paradoxical forest administration that promotes timber harvesting according to so-called scientific principles, which it then brushes aside to satisfy bureaucratic demands. The study concludes...

  1. Mascot Madness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    For institutions around the world, mascots serve many purposes, such as raising school spirit and energizing sports teams. But mascots also can breed discord. In recent decades, some schools have been challenged to replace controversial Native American mascots while others have encountered resistance when introducing different mascot designs.…

  2. Transcriptional networks in epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Venkov

    Full Text Available Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT changes polarized epithelial cells into migratory phenotypes associated with loss of cell-cell adhesion molecules and cytoskeletal rearrangements. This form of plasticity is seen in mesodermal development, fibroblast formation, and cancer metastasis.Here we identify prominent transcriptional networks active during three time points of this transitional process, as epithelial cells become fibroblasts. DNA microarray in cultured epithelia undergoing EMT, validated in vivo, were used to detect various patterns of gene expression. In particular, the promoter sequences of differentially expressed genes and their transcription factors were analyzed to identify potential binding sites and partners. The four most frequent cis-regulatory elements (CREs in up-regulated genes were SRY, FTS-1, Evi-1, and GC-Box, and RNA inhibition of the four transcription factors, Atf2, Klf10, Sox11, and SP1, most frequently binding these CREs, establish their importance in the initiation and propagation of EMT. Oligonucleotides that block the most frequent CREs restrain EMT at early and intermediate stages through apoptosis of the cells.Our results identify new transcriptional interactions with high frequency CREs that modulate the stability of cellular plasticity, and may serve as targets for modulating these transitional states in fibroblasts.

  3. El concepto de locura en la obra de Jacques Lacan The Concept Of Madness In The Jacques Lacan Work's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo D. Muñoz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde sus primeros escritos Lacan distingue el concepto de locura del de psicosis, contradiciendo el uso común que los toma como equivalentes. Esta confusión produce efectos en la clínica psicoanalítica, por lo cual conviene aclarar y mantener su diferencia. Si bien los comentadores de su obra han reconocido esa distinción, no se ha destacado todo lo necesario la transformación que sufre el concepto de locura al final de la misma, ni se ha establecido con precisión su índole, sus alcances y consecuencias. Para hacerlo se propone explorar las diferencias entre locura y psicosis con el recurso de la teoría de nudos que Lacan emplea en dicho período, donde la psicosis es formalizada como una forma particular de anudamiento de los registros distinto del de la neurosis y la locura como su desanudamiento. En este trabajo se realiza un recorrido que enlaza las primeras referencias de Lacan sobre la locura con las recién mencionadas.First Lacan writings differentiates the "madness" concept from the other one of "psychosis", contradicting therefore the common use in language that takes them equivalent. This confusion can carry adverse effects in the psychoanalytic clinic. Thus is better to clarify and maintain its difference. Although Lacan comentators have recognized that distinction is not enough outstanded the transformation of the concept of "madness" at the his latest works, nor has settled down its nature, its reaches and consequences. In order to do it, we will explore the differences between "madness" and "psychosis" with his knots theory support, where the psychosis and neurosis like particular different form of knotting, and also defines "madness" like a registers untied. In this work is carried out a journey that connects the first references of Lacan about the madness with the last ones mentioned.

  4. Fuel assembly and fuel channel box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, Toraki; Hirakawa, Hiromasa; Ishizaki, Hideaki; Nakajima, Junjiro; Aizawa, Yasuhiro.

    1992-01-01

    A fuel channel box has a square cylindrical shape and, in the transversal cross sectional shape, the wall thickness of a corner portion is greater than that of a central portion of the side wall except for an upper portion thereof. The upper portion of the channel box includes a region to be in contact with an upper lattice plate and a region to attach a channel spacer. Then, the wall thickness of these regions is uniform in the transversal cross section and they have the same wall thickness with that of the corner portion which has the increased wall thickness. With such a constitution, the upper portion of the channel box receives a counter force applied from the upper lattice plate upon occurrence of earthquakes and moderate it to reduce local stresses and deformation. Further, a similar region with increased wall thickness is disposed also to the lower portion of the channel box, thereby enabling to suppress the amount of coolants leaked from a portion between the lower portion and a lower tie plate, and improve the mechanical integrity of the channel box. (I.N.)

  5. Accurate Numerical Simulations Of Chemical Phenomena Involved in Energy Production and Storage with MADNESS and MPQC: ALCF-2 Early Science Program Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vzquez-Mayagoitia, Alvaro [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hammond, Jeff R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-09-16

    In order to solve the electronic structure of large molecular systems on petascale computers using MADNESS, a numerical tool kit, are required fast and accurate implementations for linear algebra. MADNESS uses multiresolution analysis and low separation rank which translates high dimensional functions in tensor products using Legendre polynomial. The multiple tensor products make to the singular value decomposition and matrix multiplication the most intense operations in MADNESS. This work discusses the interfacing of Eigen3 as a C++ substitute of LAPACK and introduces Elemental for the diagonalization of large matrices. Furthermore, the present paper shows the performance these libraries on Blue Gene/ Q.

  6. Changes in position and quality of preferred nest box: effects on nest box use by laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Nielsen, Birte L.

    2013-01-01

    Using laying hens, we investigated whether position of a nest box, both within the pen and relative to other nest boxes, influenced the preference for a nest box, and how a sudden and marked change to the preferred box influenced the use of nest boxes by the hens. Groups (n=12) of 15 Isa Warren...... hens were housed in pens, each with five identical nest boxes in different positions: Two single (in a corner or not) and a triplet of nest boxes (one of which in a corner). The use of nest boxes was determined by the number of eggs laid daily in each box. Three experiments, each lasting 10 days, were...... carried out. First, the undisturbed use of each of the nest box types was investigated, and a strong preference (Peggs laid there. Second, each of the hen groups was moved to another pen allocated at random, and where...

  7. The transcription factor DREAM represses A20 and mediates inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Tiruppathi, Chinnaswamy; Soni, Dheeraj; Wang, Dong-Mei; Xue, Jiaping; Singh, Vandana; Thippegowda, Prabhakar B.; Cheppudira, Bopaiah P.; Mishra, Rakesh K.; DebRoy, Auditi; Qian, Zhijian; Bachmaier, Kurt; Zhao, Youyang; Christman, John W.; Vogel, Stephen M.; Ma, Averil

    2014-01-01

    Here we show that the transcription-repressor DREAM binds to the A20 promoter to repress the expression of A20, the deubiquitinase suppressing inflammatory NF-κB signaling. DREAM-deficient (Dream−/− ) mice displayed persistent and unchecked A20 expression in response to endotoxin. DREAM functioned by transcriptionally repressing A20 through binding to downstream regulatory elements (DREs). In contrast, USF1 binding to the DRE-associated E-box domain activated A20 expression in response to inf...

  8. Reassessment of the nonlocality of correlation boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, A.P.; Parisio, Fernando, E-mail: parisio@df.ufpe.br

    2017-01-15

    Correlation boxes are hypothetical systems usually designed to produce the maximal algebraic violation of a Bell inequality, beyond the quantum bound and without superluminal signalling. The fact that these systems show stronger correlations than those presented by maximally entangled quantum states, as the spin singlet, has been regarded as a demonstration that the former are more nonlocal than the latter. By applying an alternative, consistent measure of nonlocality to a family of correlation boxes, we show that this conclusion is not necessarily true. Complementarily, we define a class of systems displaying subquantum correlations which, nevertheless, are more nonlocal than the singlet state, showing that the extent of the numeric violation of an inequality may have little to do with the degree of nonlocality, especially in the case of correlation boxes.

  9. Lévy flights in a box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iomin, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •A quantum Lévy process in a box involves topological constraints in space. •The eigenvalue problem is formulated for the Lévy process in the box. •The path integral formalism with the Lévy measure is constructed. •The evolution operator is obtained in the path integral presentation. -- Abstract: It is shown that a quantum Lévy process in a box leads to a problem involving topological constraints in space, and its treatment in the framework of the path integral formalism with the Lévy measure is suggested. The eigenvalue problem for the infinite potential well is properly defined and solved. An analytical expression for the evolution operator is obtained in the path integral presentation, and the path integral takes the correct limit of the local quantum mechanics with topological constraints. An example of the Lévy process in oscillating walls is also considered in the adiabatic approximation

  10. Design and Development of Smart Medicine Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Ekbal; Husaini, Yusnira

    2018-03-01

    The Smart Medicine Box is successfully designed in helping the introvert patients taking their medicine without help of others. This project is to develop a robotic device that can assist patient to take medicine alone by implementing an IOT apps system for controlling the Smart Medicine Box where it will overcome an emotional disturbance experience by the introvert patients. There are four sensors such as PIR, IR, temperature and ultrasonic sensors use for the project. The purpose of PIR sensor is to detect hand movement near the device, while IR sensor is to detect the line follower on the floor. The LM 35 acts as the detection of the temperature inside the box and the ultrasonic acts as the detection of the obstacle in front of the device. The MIT Apps Invention 2 is used to develop an apps and collect the data from sensors through Arduino microcontroller. A proof of concept design has implemented and demonstrated successfully.

  11. A perspective of Middle-Atmosphere Dynamics (MAD) studies at the New International Equatorial Observatory (NIEO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, M. D.; Fukao, S.

    1989-01-01

    The equatorial region has attracted many MAD studies mainly based on data of limited locations and resolutions. Established at NIEO are: (1) Climatology of the equatorial middle atmosphere (all of the mean zonal flow, the meridional and/or east-west circulations and the planetary/gravity waves are described based on massive, reliable data statistics); (2) Troposphere-stratosphere coupling at the equator (the candidate location of NIEO is just at the stratospheric fountain area where the tracers and waves are pumped up into the middle atmosphere); and (3) Mesosphere-thermosphere coupling at the equator; thermospheric superrotation, which may be caused either by ion drag or by tidal breaking, is examined in detail by observations covering a wide altitude range from the mesosphere through the thermosphere.

  12. MADNESS applied to density functional theory in chemistry and nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fann, G I; Harrison, R J; Beylkin, G; Jia, J; Hartman-Baker, R; Shelton, W A; Sugiki, S

    2007-01-01

    We describe some recent mathematical results in constructing computational methods that lead to the development of fast and accurate multiresolution numerical methods for solving quantum chemistry and nuclear physics problems based on Density Functional Theory (DFT). Using low separation rank representations of functions and operators in conjunction with representations in multiwavelet bases, we developed a multiscale solution method for integral and differential equations and integral transforms. The Poisson equation, the Schrodinger equation, and the projector on the divergence free functions provide important examples with a wide range of applications in computational chemistry, nuclear physics, computational electromagnetic and fluid dynamics. We have implemented this approach along with adaptive representations of operators and functions in the multiwavelet basis and low separation rank (LSR) approximation of operators and functions. These methods have been realized and implemented in a software package called Multiresolution Adaptive Numerical Evaluation for Scientific Simulation (MADNESS)

  13. Mad Colonial Narrators in Anglo-Irish Literature: Lemuel Gulliver and Freddie Montgomery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Jones

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The following discussion highlights parallels between the narrators, Lemuel Gulliver of Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels (1726 and Freddie Montgomery of John Banville’s The Book of Evidence (1989. The argument calls on post-colonialism, Foucaultian theory of “will to truth” and the narrative theory of Shlomith Rimmon-Kenan to emphasize similarities in the rendering of mental degeneration in Gulliver and Montgomery. The colonial-induced mental breakdown of both narrators can be said to unravel, not so much in the tale these narrators think they are relating, but instead between the lines of their stories in narratives which continually focus attention back onto themselves. Despite the 260 years separating these works, the madness of both Gulliver and Montgomery can be interpreted as a reluctance on their respective parts to shed established colonial identities once the colonial stage has receded.

  14. Portfolio optimization using Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD and Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Pelegrin da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper investigates the efficiency of traditional portfolio optimization models when the returns of financial assets are highly volatile, e.g., in financial crises periods. We also develop alternative optimization models that combine the mean absolute deviation (MAD and the conditional value at risk (CVaR, attempting to mitigate inefficient, low return and/or high-risk, portfolios. Three methodologies for estimating the probability of the asset’s historical returns are also compared. By using historical data on the Brazilian stock market between 2004 and 2013, we analyze the efficiency of the proposed approaches. Our results show that the traditional models provide portfolios with higher returns, but our propose model are able to generate lower risk portfolios, which might be more attractive in volatile markets. In addition, we find that models that do not use equiprobable scenarios produce better results in terms of return and risk.

  15. From morality to madness: a reappraisal of the asylum movement in psychiatry 1800-1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosky, R

    1986-06-01

    This essay outlines the history of the asylum movement in psychiatry, but from a somewhat different angle than usual. It attempts to delineate the historical interactions between perceptions of morality and of madness. Changes in these interactions relate to the rise of the asylum movement, around 1800, and its demise, just after World War II. I argue that, whilst insanity was defined against the rational, secular morality of the eighteenth century, it could be separated from immorality and put aside into its asylum. Once mechanistic science and medical scientism began, during the nineteenth century, to include immorality in the systems of disease, the distinction could not hold. The asylums became flooded with the immoral, and management became custodial and nihilistic. This nexus was broken when the asylums were defined, by a few revolutionary superintendents, as instruments of social control. Nevertheless, intellectual paradigms derived from asylum psychiatry persist.

  16. The Overestimation Phenomenon in a Skill-Based Gaming Context: The Case of March Madness Pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Dae Hee

    2016-03-01

    Over 100 million people are estimated to take part in the NCAA Men's Basketball Tournament Championship bracket contests. However, relatively little is known about consumer behavior in skill-based gaming situations (e.g., sports betting). In two studies, we investigated the overestimation phenomenon in the "March Madness" context. In Study 1 (N = 81), we found that individuals who were allowed to make their own predictions were significantly more optimistic about their performance than individuals who did not make their own selections. In Study 2 (N = 197), all subjects participated in a mock competitive bracket pool. In line with the illusion of control theory, results showed that higher self-ratings of probability of winning significantly increased maximum willingness to wager but did not improve actual performance. Lastly, perceptions of high probability of winning significantly contributed to consumers' enjoyment and willingness to participate in a bracket pool in the future.

  17. From "Downton Abbey" to "Mad Men": TV series as the privileged format for transition eras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Maillos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available On each side of the Atlantic, the Downton Abbey and Mad Men shows have contributed to the transformation of the period drama genre on television: instead of being set in a single precise era, they take place over periods of historical transition, genuine intervals that are full of contrasts and confrontations and even propel the narrative forward. This new approach to time periods results as much from the TV series format as from its mass medium nature: on the one hand, these shows use the apparent invariability required by the serial form to reveal by contrast the transition at work and provide the narrative with the necessary conflict; on the other hand, through their depictions of transitional eras, they offer a commentary on our contemporary period, a characteristic device of television series. Therefore, both shows, notwithstanding their differences in themes, locations and craftmanship, play a part in making the transition period drama become a serial genre in its own right.

  18. New features of MadAnalysis 5 for analysis design and reinterpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Conte, Eric; Fuks, Benjamin; Schmitt, Thibaut

    2015-01-01

    We present MadAnalysis 5, an analysis package dedicated to phenomenological studies of simulated collisions occurring in high-energy physics experiments. Within this framework, users are invited, through a user-friendly Python interpreter, to implement physics analyses in a very simple manner. A C++ code is then automatically generated, compiled and executed. Very recently, the expert mode of the program has been extended so that analyses with multiple signal/control regions can be handled. Additional observables have also been included, and an interface to several fast detector simulation packages has been developed, one of them being a tune of the Delphes 3 software. As a result, a recasting of existing ATLAS and CMS analyses can be achieved straightforwardly.

  19. Women at Home and Women in the Workplace in Matthew Weiner´s "Mad Men"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Sánchez Renieblas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Matthew Weiner´s successful American TV series, Mad Men (2007, set in the 1960s in New York, unmasks the private and the public spaces of the home and the office. In these spaces, not only do the masculine protagonists interact, but also several feminine characters do as well. The three female characters (Betty, Peggy and Joan, who will be analyzed, represent the female stereotypes of this period: the idyllic housewife, the Sandra Dee prototype and the bombshell Marilyn Monroe archetype. In comparing the private and public spaces of the home and the office, these women´s sexuality and submission will be affected and influenced by the spaces they inhabit.

  20. Mad Speculation and Absolute Inhumanism: Lovecraft, Ligotti, and the Weirding of Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Woodard

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available I want to propose, as a trajectory into the philosophically weird, an absurd theoretical claim and pursue it, or perhaps more accurately, construct it as I point to it, collecting the ground work behind me like the Perpetual Train from China Mieville's Iron Council which puts down track as it moves reclaiming it along the way. The strange trajectory is the following: Kant's critical philosophy and much of continental philosophy which has followed, has been a defense against horror and madness. Kant's prohibition on speculative metaphysics such as dogmatic metaphysics and transcendental realism, on thinking beyond the imposition of transcendental and moral constraints, has been challenged by numerous figures proceeding him.

  1. A Novel WRKY transcription factor is required for induction of PR-1a gene expression by salicylic acid and bacterial elicitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Verk, Marcel C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/327618671; Pappaioannou, Dimitri; Neeleman, Lyda; Bol, John F; Linthorst, Huub J M

    PR-1a is a salicylic acid-inducible defense gene of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). One-hybrid screens identified a novel tobacco WRKY transcription factor (NtWRKY12) with specific binding sites in the PR-1a promoter at positions -564 (box WK(1)) and -859 (box WK(2)). NtWRKY12 belongs to the class of

  2. Transcriptional regulation by competing transcription factor modules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutger Hermsen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Gene regulatory networks lie at the heart of cellular computation. In these networks, intracellular and extracellular signals are integrated by transcription factors, which control the expression of transcription units by binding to cis-regulatory regions on the DNA. The designs of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cis-regulatory regions are usually highly complex. They frequently consist of both repetitive and overlapping transcription factor binding sites. To unravel the design principles of these promoter architectures, we have designed in silico prokaryotic transcriptional logic gates with predefined input-output relations using an evolutionary algorithm. The resulting cis-regulatory designs are often composed of modules that consist of tandem arrays of binding sites to which the transcription factors bind cooperatively. Moreover, these modules often overlap with each other, leading to competition between them. Our analysis thus identifies a new signal integration motif that is based upon the interplay between intramodular cooperativity and intermodular competition. We show that this signal integration mechanism drastically enhances the capacity of cis-regulatory domains to integrate signals. Our results provide a possible explanation for the complexity of promoter architectures and could be used for the rational design of synthetic gene circuits.

  3. Fire test of DOT 7A Boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.D.

    1979-05-01

    The primary objective of conducting the full-scale fire tests of the DOT (Department of Transportation) 7A FRP Boxes was to provide information to assist in quantifying the fire hazard of the storage located at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC), and to learn if changing the storage array will decrease the fire risk. Also, the level of fire fighting and fire protection required to maintain the risk at the RWMC within acceptable DOE guidelines was investigated. Two full-scale fire tests were conducted at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in June 1978, using the DOE 7A FRP Plywood Storage Containers. The fire tests showed that when subjected to a substantial ignition source, the boxes will propagate fire as long as no fire-suppression measures are taken. Fire will breach the boxes and spread the radioactive contaminated waste if it is not extinguished. As the fire progresses, additional boxes will become involved, and eventually the entire storage array will ignite. It is recommended that the use of DOT 7A Boxes be discontinued and replaced with noncombustible storage containers. In the event this is not practicable, guidance recommendations are presented to minimize the large fire loss potential. It is also recommended that an investigation be conducted into the number of boxes that can be destroyed and still maintain a safe environment for employees and the public. This investigation should include how far radioactive contamination will spread, what cleanup will be required, anticipated exposure of the people within the area, and the public impact of such a fire

  4. SEPALLATA1/2-suppressed mature apples have low ethylene, high auxin and reduced transcription of ripening-related genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Robert J.; Ireland, Hilary S.; Ross, John J.; Ling, Toby J.; David, Karine M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Fruit ripening is an important developmental trait in fleshy fruits, making the fruit palatable for seed dispersers. In some fruit species, there is a strong association between auxin concentrations and fruit ripening. We investigated the relationship between auxin concentrations and the onset of ethylene-related ripening in Malus × domestica (apples) at both the hormone and transcriptome levels. Methodology Transgenic apples suppressed for the SEPALLATA1/2 (SEP1/2) class of gene (MADS8/9) that showed severely reduced ripening were compared with untransformed control apples. In each apple type, free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) concentrations were measured during early ripening. The changes observed in auxin were assessed in light of global changes in gene expression. Principal results It was found that mature MADS8/9-suppressed apples had a higher concentration of free IAA. This was associated with increased expression of the auxin biosynthetic genes in the indole-3-acetamide pathway. Additionally, in the MADS8/9-suppressed apples, there was less expression of the GH3 auxin-conjugating enzymes. A number of genes involved in the auxin-regulated transcription (AUX/IAA and ARF classes of genes) were also observed to change in expression, suggesting a mechanism for signal transduction at the start of ripening. Conclusions The delay in ripening observed in MADS8/9-suppressed apples may be partly due to high auxin concentrations. We propose that, to achieve low auxin associated with fruit maturation, the auxin homeostasis is controlled in a two-pronged manner: (i) by the reduction in biosynthesis and (ii) by an increase in auxin conjugation. This is associated with the change in expression of auxin-signalling genes and the up-regulation of ripening-related genes. PMID:23346344

  5. Philippe Pinel's "Memoir on Madness" of December 11, 1794: a fundamental text of modern psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, D B

    1992-06-01

    Philippe Pinel's "Memoir on Madness" can now be precisely dated. It was read to the Society for Natural History in Paris on Dec. 11, 1794, soon after the fall of the Jacobin dictatorship. It is thus a political document, an appeal to the Revolutionary government to build asylums where the mentally ill could be decently treated. It is translated here for the first time. Philippe Pinel (1745-1826) served as "physician of the infirmaries" at Bicêtre, the public hospice for men near Paris, from 1793 to 1795. In the "Memoir on Madness" he explains his "psychologic treatment," the principles of the humane method that made him the founder of psychiatry in France. Pinel states that mental illness is often curable. To arrive at a diagnosis, the physician must carefully observe a patient's behavior, interview him, listen carefully, and take notes. He must understand the natural history of the disease and the precipitating event and write an accurate case history. Diagnosis and prognosis can then be made. Periodic patterns of mental illness can be helpful for therapy. Usually only one faculty is affected. Patients with delusions may be malicious or murderous. They may have to be restrained; it was Pinel's assistant, Jean Baptiste Pussin, who removed the chains from the insane men at Bicêtre Hospice in 1797 and replaced them with strait-jackets. Pinel followed suit at the Salpêtrière, the public hospice for women, 3 years later. Pinel here states that one must "dominate agitated madmen while respecting human rights."

  6. 5' diversity of human hepatic PXR (NR1I2) transcripts and identification of the major transcription initiation site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurose, Kouichi; Koyano, Satoru; Ikeda, Shinobu; Tohkin, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Ryuichi; Sawada, Jun-Ichi

    2005-05-01

    The human pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a crucial regulator of the genes encoding several major cytochrome P450 enzymes and transporters, such as CYP3A4 and MDR1, but its own transcriptional regulation remains unclear. To elucidate the transcriptional mechanisms of human PXR gene, we first endeavored to identify the transcription initiation site of human PXR using 5'-RACE. Five types of 5'-variable transcripts (a, b, c, d, and e) with common exon 2 sequence were found, and comparison of these sequences with the genomic sequence suggested that their 5' diversity is derived from initiation by alternative promoters and alternative splicing. None of the exons found in our study contain any new in-frame coding regions. Newly identified introns IVS-a and IVS-b were found to have CT-AC splice sites that do not follow the GT-AG rule of conventional donor and acceptor splice sites. Of the five types of 5' variable transcripts identified, RT-PCR showed that type-a was the major transcript type. Four transcription initiation sites (A-D) for type-a transcript were identified by 5'-RACE using GeneRacer RACE Ready cDNA (human liver) constructed by the oligo-capping method. Putative TATA boxes were located approximately 30 bp upstream from the transcriptional start sites of the major transcript (C) and the longest minor transcript (A) expressed in the human liver. These results indicate that the initiation of transcription of human PXR is more complex than previously reported.

  7. CASAS: A Smart Home in a Box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Diane J; Crandall, Aaron S; Thomas, Brian L; Krishnan, Narayanan C

    2013-07-01

    While the potential benefits of smart home technology are widely recognized, a lightweight design is needed for the benefits to be realized at a large scale. We introduce the CASAS "smart home in a box", a lightweight smart home design that is easy to install and provides smart home capabilities out of the box with no customization or training. We discuss types of data analysis that have been performed by the CASAS group and can be pursued in the future by using this approach to designing and implementing smart home technologies.

  8. Experimental realization of the quantum box problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resch, K.J.; Lundeen, J.S.; Steinberg, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The three-box problem is a gedankenexperiment designed to elucidate some interesting features of quantum measurement and locality. A particle is prepared in a particular superposition of three boxes, and later found in a different (but nonorthogonal) superposition. It was predicted that appropriate 'weak' measurements of particle position in the interval between preparation and post-selection would find the particle in two different places, each with certainty. We verify these predictions in an optical experiment and address the issues of locality and of negative probability

  9. La locura y sus versiones en la obra de J. Lacan II: locura y psicosis The madness and his versions in the J. Lacan work's II: madness and psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo D. Muñoz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta parte de las conclusiones del proyecto de investigación UBACyT P601: "Variaciones del concepto de locura en la obra de J. Lacan. Su incidencia en el diagnóstico diferencial neurosis-psicosis", aprobado y financiado para el período 2008-2010. Se aborda especialmente la cuestión problemática de su delimitación conceptual en la obra de Lacan, en la cual el término locura es empleado de diversos modos. Esta variedad se plasma en su articulación con distintos conceptos y con problemas clínicos de diversa índole. La presentación conjunta de estos usos permite obtener una visión bastante amplia de las ventajas que trae servirse de alguna de las versiones de la locura que se presentan en la obra de Lacan. En este trabajo se aplican a la articulación locura-psicosis, abordando no sólo la problemática conceptual en juego en lo atinente a alcanzar una definición más precisa de "locura", sino sobre todo el agudo problema clínico que presentan lo que podríamos designar "psicosis enloquecidas".This paper presents some of the conclusions of the research project UBACyT P601: "Variations of the concept of madness in the work of J. Lacan. Its incidence in the differential diagnosis neurosis psychosis ", approved and funded for the period 2008-2010. It especially addresses the problematic issue of its conceptual delimitation in the Lacan work, in which the term "madness" is used in several senses. This variety is reflected in its theoretical concept articulation and several clinical issues. The whole presentation of these work allows a wider vision of the benefits that brings to use any of the versions of "madness" concept that arise in the work of Lacan. This work apply to the madness-psychosis articulation, addressing not only the conceptual issues, but also achieving a more precise definition of "madness"; and above of all it takes the big clinical problem in what we might call "mad psychosis".

  10. La locura y sus versiones en la obra de J. Lacan: I: locura y neurosis The madness and his versions in the J. Lacan work's: I: madness and neurosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo D. Muñoz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta parte de las conclusiones del proyecto de investigación UBACyT P601: "Variaciones del concepto de locura en la obra de J. Lacan. Su incidencia en el diagnóstico diferencial neurosis-psicosis", aprobado y financiado para el período 2008-2010. Se aborda especialmente la cuestión problemática de su delimitación conceptual en la obra de Lacan, en la cual el término locura es empleado de diversos modos. Esta variedad se plasma en su articulación con distintos conceptos y con problemas clínicos de diversa índole. La presentación conjunta de estos usos permite obtener una visión bastante amplia de las ventajas que trae servirse de alguna de las versiones de la locura que se presentan en la obra de Lacan. En este trabajo se aplican a la articulación locura-neurosis, abordando no sólo la problemática conceptual en juego en lo atinente a alcanzar una definición más precisa de "locura", sino sobre todo el agudo problema clínico que presentan lo que podríamos designar "neurosis enloquecidas".This paper presents some of the conclusions of the research project UBACyT P601: "Variations of the concept of madness in the work of J. Lacan. Its incidence in the differential diagnosis neurosis psychosis ", approved and funded for the period 2008-2010. It especially addresses the problematic issue of its conceptual delimitation in the Lacan work, in which the term "madness" is used in several senses. This variety is reflected in its theoretical concept articulation and several clinical issues. The whole presentation of these work allows a wider vision of the benefits that brings to use any of the versions of "madness" concept that arise in the work of Lacan. This work apply to the madness-neurosis articulation, addressing not only the conceptual issues, but also achieving a more precise definition of "madness"; and above of all it takes the big clinical problem in what we might call "mad neurosis".

  11. WRKY transcription factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Madhunita; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators found exclusively in plants. They have diverse biological functions in plant disease resistance, abiotic stress responses, nutrient deprivation, senescence, seed and trichome development, embryogenesis, as well as additional developmental and hormone-controlled processes. WRKYs can act as transcriptional activators or repressors, in various homo- and heterodimer combinations. Here we review recent progress on the function of WRKY transcription factors in Arabidopsis and other plant species such as rice, potato, and parsley, with a special focus on abiotic, developmental, and hormone-regulated processes. PMID:24492469

  12. Discrimination of solvent from protein regions in native Fouriers as a means of evaluating heavy-atom solutions in the MIR and MAD methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Berendzen, Joel

    1999-01-01

    The presence of distinct regions of high and low density variation in electron-density maps is found to be a good indicator of the correctness of a heavy-atom solution in the MIR and MAD methods. An automated examination of the native Fourier is tested as a means of evaluation of a heavy-atom solution in MAD and MIR methods for macromolecular crystallography. It is found that the presence of distinct regions of high and low density variation in electron-density maps is a good indicator of the correctness of a heavy-atom solution in the MIR and MAD methods. The method can be used to evaluate heavy-atom solutions during MAD and MIR structure solutions and to determine the handedness of the structure if anomalous data have been measured

  13. Piracy and Box Office Movie Revenues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peukert, Christian; Claussen, Jörg; Kretschmer, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the heterogeneous effects of online copyright enforcement. We ask whether the unexpected shutdown of the popular file hosting platform Megaupload had a differential effect on box office revenues of wide-release vs. niche movies. Identification comes from a comparison...

  14. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri

    2012-01-01

    The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. Also, it lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in depth. The activity introduces a wide range of topics. They include graphic…

  15. PVC posting bags for glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    This specification covers the materials, measurements and manufacture of unpigmented PVC posting bags for use on glove boxes, together with methods of testing the materials. These bags are used in the handling of radioactive and toxic materials of a hazardous nature and therefore must be of the highest standard of mechanical strength, leak tightness and general finish. (author)

  16. Box and block test in Beninese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natta, Ditouah Didier Niama; Alagnidé, Etienne; Kpadonou, Toussaint Godonou; Detrembleur, Christine; Lejeune, Thierry M; Stoquart, Gaëtan G

    2015-11-01

    To determine the Box and Block Test norm in a sub-Saharan population and to compare these data with published norms for North American adults. A total of 692 healthy Beninese people, age range 20-85 years, were recruited. These subjects were asked to perform the Box and Block Test with both hands. Box and Block Test scores (mean and standard deviation (SD)) for women and men were, respectively, 81.3 (15.4) and 79 (16.6) for the dominant hand and 73.2 (13.7) and 72 (14.8) for the non-dominant hand. Mean Box and Block Test scores ranged from 89.1 (12.7) for people under the age of 25 years to 55.23 (10.5) for people over the age of 74 years. Manual dexterity was better for women than men, for dominant hand than non-dominant hand, and for younger subjects. In comparison with published results for US subjects, Beninese subjects had better dexterity below the age of 50 years in both sexes for the right hand and worse dexterity over 64 years of age in both sexes for the right hand. Developing and validating outcome scales in Africa will help to improve functional assessment of African populations in clinical practice and research.

  17. Hadron scattering in an asymmetric box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xin; Chen Ying; Meng Guozhan; Feng Xu; Gong Ming; He Song; Li Gang; Liu Chuan; Liu Yubin; Ma Jianping; Meng Xiangfei; Shen Yan; Zhang Jianbo

    2007-01-01

    We propose to study hadron-hadron scattering using lattice QCD in an asymmetric box which allows one to access more non-degenerate low-momentum modes for a given volume. The conventional Luescher's formula applicable in a symmetric box is modified accordingly. To illustrate the feasibility of this approach, pion-pion elastic scattering phase shifts in the I = 2, J = 0 channel are calculated within quenched approximation using improved gauge and Wilson fermion actions on anisotropic lattices in an asymmetric box. After the chiral and continuum extrapolation, we find that our quenched results for the scattering phase shifts in this channel are consistent with the experimental data when the three-momentum of the pion is below 300MeV. Agreement is also found when compared with previous theoretical results from lattice and other means. Moreover, with the usage of asymmetric volume, we are able to compute the scattering phases in the low-momentum range (pion three momentum less than about 350MeV in the center of mass frame) for over a dozen values of the pion three-momenta, much more than using the conventional symmetric box with comparable volume

  18. Safety evaluation for packaging CPC metal boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, T.

    1995-01-01

    This Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) provides authorization for the use of Container Products Corporation (CPC) metal boxes, as described in this document, for the interarea shipment of radioactive contaminated equipment and debris for storage in the Central Waste Complex (CWC) or T Plant located in the 200 West Area. Authorization is granted until November 30, 1995. The CPC boxes included in this SEP were originally procured as US Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 7A Type A boxes. A review of the documentation provided by the manufacturer revealed the documentation did not adequately demonstrate compliance to the 4 ft drop test requirement of 49 CFR 173.465(c). Preparation of a SEP is necessary to document the equivalent safety of the onsite shipment in lieu of meeting DOT packaging requirements until adequate documentation is received. The equivalent safety of the shipment is based on the fact that the radioactive contents consist of contaminated equipment and debris which are not dispersible. Each piece is wrapped in two layers of no less than 4 mil plastic prior to being placed in the box which has an additional 10 mil liner. Pointed objects and sharp edges are padded to prevent puncture of the plastic liner and wrapping

  19. Nondestructive assay of boxed radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilles, W.P.; Roberts, R.J.; Jasen, W.G.

    1992-12-01

    This paper describes the problems related to the nondestructive assay (NDA) of boxed radioactive waste at the Hanford Site and how Westinghouse Hanford company (WHC) is solving the problems. The waste form and radionuclide content are described. The characteristics of the combined neutron and gamma-based measurement system are described

  20. Study of WATCH GRB error boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorosabel, J.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Lund, Niels

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the first WATCH GRB Catalogue ofγ-ray Bursts in order to find correlations between WATCH GRB error boxes and a great variety of celestial objects present in 33 different catalogues. No particular class of objects has been found to be significantly correlated with the WATCH GRBs....

  1. Reflective Cracking between Precast Prestressed Box Girders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    The adjacent precast prestressed concrete box-beam bridge is the bridge of choice for short and short-to-medium span bridges. This choice is because of the ease of construction, favorable span-to-depth ratios, aesthetic appeal, and high torsional sti...

  2. “You can’t be a man. Be a woman, it’s a powerful business when done correctly”:women and work in Mad Men

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen, M. (Maria)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The topic of this thesis pertains to how female characters are portrayed in the American period drama TV series Mad Men (2007–2015) that is set in the 1960s, and the main focus is on Margaret ‘Peggy’ Olson, who works as a copywriter at the fictional advertising agency Sterling Cooper. This thesis focuses on three main themes through which Peggy Olson’s journey in Mad Men are analyzed: appearance, obstacles in the w...

  3. Myocardin-related transcription factors are required for cardiac development and function

    OpenAIRE

    Mokalled, Mayssa H.; Carroll, Kelli J.; Cenik, Bercin K.; Chen, Beibei; Liu, Ning; Olson, Eric N.; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda

    2015-01-01

    Myocardin-Related Transcription Factors A and B (MRTF-A and MRTF-B) are highly homologous proteins that function as powerful coactivators of serum response factor (SRF), a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor essential for cardiac development. The SRF/MRTF complex binds to CArG boxes found in the control regions of genes that regulate cytoskeletal dynamics and muscle contraction, among other processes. While SRF is required for heart development and function, the role of MRTFs in the d...

  4. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. N. Doyle

    2002-02-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), approximately 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The site is located within the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (R-MAD) compound and consists of Building 3126, two outdoor decontamination pads, and surrounding areas within an existing fenced area measuring approximately 50 x 37 meters (160 x 120 feet). The site was used from the early 1960s to the early 1970s as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station program to decontaminate test-car hardware and tooling. The site was reactivated in the early 1980s to decontaminate a radiologically contaminated military tank. This Closure Report (CR) describes the closure activities performed to allow un-restricted release of the R-MAD Decontamination Facility.

  5. MAdCAM-1 is needed for diabetes development mediated by the T cell clone, BDC-2·5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jenny M; Haskins, Kathryn; Cooke, Anne

    2005-01-01

    The NOD-derived islet-reactive CD4+ T cell clone, BDC-2·5, is able to transfer diabetes to neonatal non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice but is unable to transfer disease to either adult NOD or NOD scid recipients. Transfer of diabetes to adult recipients by BDC-2·5 is only accomplished by cotransfer of CD8+ T cells from a diabetic donor. To understand why this CD4+ T cell clone is able to mediate diabetes in neonatal but not the adult recipients we examined the ability of the clone to traffic in the different recipients. Our studies showed that MAdCAM-1 has a very different expression pattern in the neonatal and adult pancreas. Blockade of this addressin prevents the clone from transferring diabetes to neonatal mice, suggesting that the differential pancreatic expression of MAdCAM-1 in neonatal and adult pancreas provides an explanation of the differences in diabetes development. PMID:16313366

  6. Transcription initiation complex structures elucidate DNA opening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaschka, C; Hantsche, M; Dienemann, C; Burzinski, C; Plitzko, J; Cramer, P

    2016-05-19

    Transcription of eukaryotic protein-coding genes begins with assembly of the RNA polymerase (Pol) II initiation complex and promoter DNA opening. Here we report cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of yeast initiation complexes containing closed and open DNA at resolutions of 8.8 Å and 3.6 Å, respectively. DNA is positioned and retained over the Pol II cleft by a network of interactions between the TATA-box-binding protein TBP and transcription factors TFIIA, TFIIB, TFIIE, and TFIIF. DNA opening occurs around the tip of the Pol II clamp and the TFIIE 'extended winged helix' domain, and can occur in the absence of TFIIH. Loading of the DNA template strand into the active centre may be facilitated by movements of obstructing protein elements triggered by allosteric binding of the TFIIE 'E-ribbon' domain. The results suggest a unified model for transcription initiation with a key event, the trapping of open promoter DNA by extended protein-protein and protein-DNA contacts.

  7. Constructed identities A Chronotopic reading of The Great Gatsby, The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit, and Mad Men

    OpenAIRE

    Yndestad, Ingrid Rivedal

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims to explore how the past figures in F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby (1925), Sloan Wilson's The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit (1955), and in the AMC series Mad Men (2007-2015), written by Matthew Weiner. Focusing on the main protagonists in these works, namely Jay Gatsby, Thomas Rath, and Donald Draper, this thesis examines how the past makes itself valid in these characters' present lives and how it arguably affects their future lives. In do...

  8. Oncogenes Activate an Autonomous Transcriptional Regulatory Circuit That Drives Glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh K. Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to identify and target glioblastoma (GBM drivers have primarily focused on receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs. Clinical benefits, however, have been elusive. Here, we identify an SRY-related box 2 (SOX2 transcriptional regulatory network that is independent of upstream RTKs and capable of driving glioma-initiating cells. We identified oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 (OLIG2 and zinc-finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1, which are frequently co-expressed irrespective of driver mutations, as potential SOX2 targets. In murine glioma models, we show that different combinations of tumor suppressor and oncogene mutations can activate Sox2, Olig2, and Zeb1 expression. We demonstrate that ectopic co-expression of the three transcription factors can transform tumor-suppressor-deficient astrocytes into glioma-initiating cells in the absence of an upstream RTK oncogene. Finally, we demonstrate that the transcriptional inhibitor mithramycin downregulates SOX2 and its target genes, resulting in markedly reduced proliferation of GBM cells in vivo.

  9. Ballast system for maintaining constant pressure in a glove box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlichta, Paul J.

    1989-09-01

    A ballast system is disclosed for a glove box including a fixed platform on which is mounted an inflatable bag on top of which resides a cover and a weight. The variable gas volume of the inflatable bag communicates with that of the glove box via a valved tube. The weight and the gas volume are selected to maintain a relatively constant pressure in the glove box despite variations in the glove box volume while avoiding the use of complicated valving apparatus.

  10. 49 CFR 178.514 - Standards for plywood boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... identification code for a plywood box is 4D. (b) Construction requirements for plywood boxes are as follows: (1..., commercially dry and free from defects that would materially lessen the strength of the box. The strength of the material used and the method of construction must be appropriate to the capacity and intended use...

  11. 49 CFR 230.103 - Tender roller bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender roller bearing journal boxes. 230.103... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.103 Tender roller bearing journal boxes. Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition. ...

  12. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and bearing...

  13. Using Origami Boxes to Explore Concepts of Geometry and Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wares, Arsalan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this classroom note is to provide an example of how a simple origami box can be used to explore important concepts of geometry and calculus. This article describes how an origami box can be folded, then it goes on to describe how its volume and surface area can be calculated. Finally, it describes how the box could be folded to…

  14. 47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... remains on for a period in excess of three minutes. The automatic cutoff system must be designed so the... Public Safety Pool for highway call box systems subject to the following requirements: (1) Call box... effective radiated power (ERP). (3) The height of a call box antenna may not exceed 6.1 meters (20 feet...

  15. 30 CFR 18.49 - Connection boxes on machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connection boxes on machines. 18.49 Section 18..., AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.49 Connection boxes on machines. Connection boxes used to facilitate replacement...

  16. Water-cooled target-box design at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, D.; Lambert, J.

    1983-01-01

    The target boxes in the main experimental beam line (Line A) at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) have operated since 1976. A program of replacing the boxes is underway. This paper will present past history, design considerations, calculational results and the final box design

  17. Grey-Box Modelling of Pharmacokinetic /Pharmacodynamic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornøe, Christoffer Wenzel; Jacobsen, Judith L.; Pedersen, Oluf

    2004-01-01

    Grey-box pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling is presented as a promising way of modelling PK/PD systems. The concept behind grey-box modelling is based on combining physiological knowledge along with information from data in the estimation of model parameters. Grey-box modelling...

  18. Box of ideal gas in free fall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kothawala, Dawood, E-mail: dawood@physics.iitm.ac.in [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, E3B 5A3 (Canada)

    2013-03-26

    We study the quantum partition function of non-relativistic, ideal gas in a (non-cubical) box falling freely in arbitrary curved spacetime with center 4-velocity u{sup a}. When perturbed energy eigenvalues are properly taken into account, we find that corrections to various thermodynamic quantities include a very specific, sub-dominant term which is independent of kinematic details such as box dimensions and mass of particles. This term is characterized by the dimensionless quantity, Ξ=R{sub 0{sup ^}0{sup ^}}Λ{sup 2}, where R{sub 0{sup ^}0{sup ^}}=R{sub ab}u{sup a}u{sup b} and Λ=βℏc, and, quite intriguingly, produces Euler relation of homogeneity two between entropy and energy – a relation familiar from black hole thermodynamics.

  19. A white box perspective on behavioural adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    We present a white-box conceptual framework for adaptation developed in the context of the EU Project ASCENS coordinated by Martin Wirsing. We called it CoDA, for Control Data Adaptation, since it is based on the notion of control data. CoDA promotes a neat separation between application and adap......We present a white-box conceptual framework for adaptation developed in the context of the EU Project ASCENS coordinated by Martin Wirsing. We called it CoDA, for Control Data Adaptation, since it is based on the notion of control data. CoDA promotes a neat separation between application...... and adaptation logic through a clear identification of the set of data that is relevant for the latter. The framework provides an original perspective from which we survey a representative set of approaches to adaptation, ranging from programming languages and paradigms to computational models and architectural...

  20. The Central Nervous System of Box Jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Ekström, Peter

    2008-01-01

    of behaviors in the box jellyfish such as obstacle avoidance and navigation. The need to process the visual information and turn it into the appropriate behavior puts strong demands on the nervous system of box jellyfish, which appears more elaborate than in other cnidarians. Here, the central part...... of this nervous system is described. Each rhopalium holds a separate part of the CNS with 1,000 nerve cells and a large amount of neuropil. The rhopalial nervous system has several subsystems defined by the anatomy, location, and immunocytochemistry of the cells. Most of the subsystems connect to one or more...... of the eye types, and it is likely that the rhopalial nervous system accounts for most of the visual processing. The major part of the CNS is made up of a ring nerve encircling the bell shaped body. The ring nerve holds around 10,000 cells and is directly connected to all four rhopalial nervous systems...

  1. Fatal exit the automotive black box debate

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalick, Tom

    2005-01-01

    "Fatal Exit: The Automotive Black Box Debate cuts through thirty years of political wrangling and institutional biases to provide an argument for the Motor Vehicle Event Data Recorder (MVEDR). This automotive equivalent of an airplane's flight recorder or black box is intended to solve the mysteries of car crashes and improve the safety of our roads. The reader is taken inside the automotive industry and the government highway safety establishment to foster an understanding of the politics and the positions on all sides of this safety debate. The author takes an unbiased approach, chronologically presenting each argument and uncovering the agendas and mandates of each of the stakeholders." "This publication is essential reading for all consumers who need to have their voices heard on this critical issue, as well as for attorneys, public safety advocates, public policy administrators, engineers, automotive professionals, journalists, and insurance executives."--Jacket.

  2. The 'Falling Box' method in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladush, V.D.

    1998-01-01

    The problems of justification, generalization, and applicability of the 'falling box' method to obtained some exact solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations are investigated. The 'physical' inference of the Reissner-Nordstrom-de Sitter and Kerr metrics is shown. Explanation is given for the well-known relativistic phenomenon which consists in that gravity is created by the double density of the electrical field energy

  3. Dry boxes and inert atmosphere techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartak, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Practitioners need to conduct experiments with molten salts in an inert atmosphere owing to the chemical reactivity of these media. Most fused salt solvent systems show reactivity to water and/or oxygen, which results in significant chemical changes in the properties of these solvents. Although several studies on the nature of an oxygen/oxide electrode in this melt have been reported, the reactions have not been fully understood because of apparent water contamination in many cases. Nitrate melt systems are also hygroscopic; for example, the LiNO 3 -KNO 3 eutectic (177 0 C) absorbs water to at least 0.2% by weight. The result is that the electrochemistry of heavier, electropositive metal ions has been significantly altered. In addition, trace amounts of water have been shown to significantly affect the oxygen-oxide redox chemistry in NaNO 3 -KNO 3 melts (250 0 C). The haloaluminates, which include AlCl 3 -NaCl (175 0 C), as well as AlCl 3 -organic salt binaries are particularly sensitive to the presence of both oxygen and moisture. Oxygen is a strong oxidant in the fused hydroxide systems with formation of superoxide ion from either oxide or water. This chapter describes general, inert atmosphere techniques which can be used by the molten salt experimentalist. Because of the limitations of volatility, vacuum manipulations are not considered. Rather, the use of glove boxes, glove bags, and inert bench-top techniques are discussed. The areas covered are: glove box and bag equipment, operation and maintenance of glove boxes and glove bags, and common operations conducted inside glove boxes

  4. PCB-Based Break-Out Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Break-out boxes (BOBs) are necessary for all electrical integration/cable checkouts and troubleshooting. Because the price of a BOB is high, and no work can be done without one, often the procedure stops, simply waiting for a BOB. A less expensive BOB would take less time in the integration, testing, and troubleshooting process. The PCB-based BOB works and looks the same as a standard JPL BOB, called Gold Boxes. The only differences between the old BOB and the new PCB-based BOB is that the new one has 80 percent of its circuitry in a printed circuit board. This process reduces the time for fabrication, thus making the BOBs less expensive. Moreover, because of its unique design, the new BOBs can be easily assembled and fixed. About 80 percent of the new PCB-based BOB is in a $22 (at the time of this reporting) custom-designed, yet commercially available PCB. This device has been used successfully to verify that BOB cables were properly made. Also, upon completion, the BOB was beeped out via a multimeter to ensure that all sockets on the connectors were properly connected to the respective banana jack. When compared to the Gold Box BOBs, the new BOB has many advantages. It is much more cost efficient, it delivers equal usability at substantially lower cost of the BOB, and the Gold Box is much heavier when compared to the new BOB. The new BOB is also a bit longer and much more versatile in that connectors are easily changeable and if a banana jack is broken, it can be replaced instead of throwing away an entire BOB.

  5. Removable glove for a glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The glove includes one part forming a cuff and another part forming the glove. These two parts are joined in a leak-tight manner by a rigid ring. The glove part is interchangeable without breaking the seal through two neighbouring grooves formed on the ring to receive a bead made on the open end of the glove. The grooves are visible when the glove is placed outside the glove box, thereby enabling the glove part to be changed in this position [fr

  6. The future of grey-box fuzzing

    OpenAIRE

    Hjelt, Isak

    2017-01-01

    Society are becoming more dependent on software, and more artifacts are being connected to the Internet each day [31]. This makes the work of tracking down vulnerabilities in software a moral obligation for software developers. Since manual testing is expensive [7], automated bug finding techniques are attractive within the quality assurance field, since it can save companies a lot of money. This thesis summarizes the research of an automated bug finding technique called grey-box fuzzing, wit...

  7. Monitoring Instrument for X-Ray Box

    CERN Document Server

    Cifuentes Ospina, Alberto; Kuehn, Susanne; Schaepe, Steffen; CERN. Geneva. EP Department

    2017-01-01

    A humidity and temperature readout instrument has been designed and implemented in order to monitor the X-Ray Box used for testing the silicon detectors prototypes of the ITk. The sensors are connected to an Arduino Mega board equipped with 16 analog inputs and a serial port to a computer. A user-friendly software has been also designed in order to give an easy access to all measurements.

  8. Cardiovascular issues in boxing and contact sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Stephen A

    2009-10-01

    Despite the inherent risks associated with exercise in general and boxing in particular, the sport has had a limited number of catastrophic cardiovascular events. Screening should be based on risks involved and become more extensive with the advancement of the athlete. Anatomic and electrophysiologic risks need to be assessed and may preclude participation with resultant life style and economic complications. There should be adequate preparation for the rare potential cardiovascular complication at all events, with the ability to rapidly assess and treat arrhythmias.

  9. Acute subdural hematoma because of boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushi, Hidehiko; Saito, Takeshi; Sakagami, Yuichiro; Ohtsuki, Jyoji; Tanjoh, Katsuhisa

    2009-02-01

    To identify factors determining the clinical characteristics and prognosis of acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) arising from boxing injuries by comparing with ASDH due to any nonboxing cause. Two groups were selected for this study: 10 patients with ASDH because of boxing injuries and 26 patients with nonboxer ASDH. All of the patients underwent neurologic examination by neurosurgeons. Primary resuscitation and stabilization as well as operative therapy were performed to all patients according to the European Brain Injury Consortium Guidelines. Two groups were compared in terms of age, the Glasgow Coma Scale at admission, neurologic findings, craniogram and brain computed tomography scan findings, operative findings, and prognosis. As potential prognostic indicators for boxers, the time interval until surgery, the Glasgow Outcome Scale, hematoma thickness, midline shift, and the site of bleeding were analyzed. The characteristics of patients because of boxing injuries are that patients were younger, had lucid interval, and had no cerebral contusion or contralateral brain injury. There was no significant difference in initial Glasgow Coma Scale, hematoma thickness, midline shift, and their prognosis. The most peculiar clinical presentation of boxers' ASDH was that all bleedings were limited from "bridging veins" or "cortical veins." The prognosis of boxers was most closely correlated with the site of bleeding (r2 = 0.81; p = 0.0001) and the midline shift (r2 = 0.67; p = 0.007). Our study shows that ASDH because of boxing is characterized by bleeding from bridging or cortical veins, and that the site of bleeding is a significant determinant of their prognosis.

  10. Sox4 mediates Tbx3 transcriptional regulation of the gap junction protein Cx43

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, C.J.; Wong, L.Y.; van den Boogaard, M.; Bakker, M.A.J.; Tessadori, F.; Bakkers, J.; 't Hoen, P.A.C.; Moorman, A.F.; Christoffels, V.M.; Barnett, P.

    2011-01-01

    Tbx3, a T-box transcription factor, regulates key steps in development of the heart and other organ systems. Here, we identify Sox4 as an interacting partner of Tbx3. Pull-down and nuclear retention assays verify this interaction and in situ hybridization reveals Tbx3 and Sox4 to co-localize

  11. Cover gas box for handling sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuenstler, K.; Betzl, K.

    1978-01-01

    An inert atmosphere box has been developed to work with sodium experimentally and analytically. The volumen of the box is 0.6 m 3 . A blower mounted inside the work chamber constantly circulates the argon from the work chamber through a gas purification system (nickel-catalyst 6525 and molecular sieve 4A). The flow rate is 450 l/h. The box is equipped with neoprene gloves. The glove ports can be closed with interior flanges. The work chamber is constantly kept to a low superpressure of 25 mm water gange. In a bypass the oxygen concentration is measured with the OXYLYT-electrolyte cell and the water vapour concentration with the KEIDEL-electrolytic hygrometer. During long-term operation oxygen levels of 35 vpm and water vapour levels of 50 vpm can be hold even when the gloves are not covered. By means of putting a vessel with liquid sodium in the work chamber oxygen levels of 8 vpm and water vapour levels of 20 vpm can be attained for short times. The inert atmosphere purity can be improved by means of increasing the gas flow rate. (author)

  12. Protein-protein interactions in the regulation of WRKY transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yingjun; Yang, Yan; Zhou, Yuan; Zhou, Jie; Fan, Baofang; Yu, Jing-Quan; Chen, Zhixiang

    2013-03-01

    It has been almost 20 years since the first report of a WRKY transcription factor, SPF1, from sweet potato. Great progress has been made since then in establishing the diverse biological roles of WRKY transcription factors in plant growth, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stress. Despite the functional diversity, almost all analyzed WRKY proteins recognize the TTGACC/T W-box sequences and, therefore, mechanisms other than mere recognition of the core W-box promoter elements are necessary to achieve the regulatory specificity of WRKY transcription factors. Research over the past several years has revealed that WRKY transcription factors physically interact with a wide range of proteins with roles in signaling, transcription, and chromatin remodeling. Studies of WRKY-interacting proteins have provided important insights into the regulation and mode of action of members of the important family of transcription factors. It has also emerged that the slightly varied WRKY domains and other protein motifs conserved within each of the seven WRKY subfamilies participate in protein-protein interactions and mediate complex functional interactions between WRKY proteins and between WRKY and other regulatory proteins in the modulation of important biological processes. In this review, we summarize studies of protein-protein interactions for WRKY transcription factors and discuss how the interacting partners contribute, at different levels, to the establishment of the complex regulatory and functional network of WRKY transcription factors.

  13. Forkhead Box C1 Regulates Human Primary Keratinocyte Terminal Differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianghua Bin

    Full Text Available The epidermis serves as a critical protective barrier between the internal and external environment of the human body. Its remarkable barrier function is established through the keratinocyte (KC terminal differentiation program. The transcription factors specifically regulating terminal differentiation remain largely unknown. Using a RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq profiling approach, we found that forkhead box c 1 (FOXC1 was significantly up-regulated in human normal primary KC during the course of differentiation. This observation was validated in human normal primary KC from several different donors and human skin biopsies. Silencing FOXC1 in human normal primary KC undergoing differentiation led to significant down-regulation of late terminal differentiation genes markers including epidermal differentiation complex genes, keratinization genes, sphingolipid/ceramide metabolic process genes and epidermal specific cell-cell adhesion genes. We further demonstrated that FOXC1 works down-stream of ZNF750 and KLF4, and upstream of GRHL3. Thus, this study defines FOXC1 as a regulator specific for KC terminal differentiation and establishes its potential position in the genetic regulatory network.

  14. Novel complex MAD phasing and RNase H structural insights using selenium oligonucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdur, Rob; Gerlits, Oksana O.; Gan, Jianhua; Jiang, Jiansheng; Salon, Jozef; Kovalevsky, Andrey Y.; Chumanevich, Alexander A.; Weber, Irene T.; Huang, Zhen, E-mail: huang@gsu.edu [Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Selenium-derivatized oligonucleotides may facilitate phase determination and high-resolution structure determination for protein–nucleic acid crystallography. The Se atom-specific mutagenesis (SAM) strategy may also enhance the study of nuclease catalysis. The crystal structures of protein–nucleic acid complexes are commonly determined using selenium-derivatized proteins via MAD or SAD phasing. Here, the first protein–nucleic acid complex structure determined using selenium-derivatized nucleic acids is reported. The RNase H–RNA/DNA complex is used as an example to demonstrate the proof of principle. The high-resolution crystal structure indicates that this selenium replacement results in a local subtle unwinding of the RNA/DNA substrate duplex, thereby shifting the RNA scissile phosphate closer to the transition state of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction. It was also observed that the scissile phosphate forms a hydrogen bond to the water nucleophile and helps to position the water molecule in the structure. Consistently, it was discovered that the substitution of a single O atom by a Se atom in a guide DNA sequence can largely accelerate RNase H catalysis. These structural and catalytic studies shed new light on the guide-dependent RNA cleavage.

  15. Mad Cows and CJD A Physicist's View of Prion Brain Diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Douglas Robert Ogston

    1997-01-01

    The research of Carleton Gajdusek on a stone-age tribe in Papua New Guinea, who suffered from a mysterious disease, kuru, spread by cannibalism, is described and short extracts from his films will be shown. Some deaths from kuru are still occuring after 45 years. This disease is believed to be caused by an entirely new mechanism, not a virus or bacteria, but by a small molecule known as a prion that occurs naturally in many living forms. The Prion Only hypothesis of Stan Prusiner is discussed critically. It has been calculated that 900,000 cows in Britain had the Mad Cow disease, BSE, but most were slaughtered before symptoms were recognised. This epidemic started with 10 cases in the first year, and finally 160,000 were officially classified as having BSE; it is now slowly dying out. The human epidemic, caused by a new version of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, nvCJD, affects mainly young people, has just begun with 10 cases in the first year. The average incubation time may be about 14 years then death follows i...

  16. Method and Madness: An Analysis of Edgar Allan Poe's “The Bells”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Marie Engemann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, U. Marie Engemann has tried to indicate the method and internal cohesion of “The Bells”: a poem by Edgar Allan Poe, regardless of its apparent madness. This poem consists of four stanzas each of which is a symbol of a stage in the human's life for which a specific bell has been dedicated to. This poem follows trochaic meter in which the poet ingeniously has used catalexis in order to imitate the chime of bells. Throughout the poem, he has used different sound devices such as rhyme, sound patterning, alliteration, and onomatopoeia to create parallelism, and accordingly, he has conformed the chime of the bells to the dominant feature of each stage of life; thus, a meaningful cohesion has been created. This article can show how a poet may use different sound devices of his own language to create a parallelism between sound symbolism and meaning. The structure of the article has been changed a little by inserting the figures and the tables in the appendices into its straight text in translation so that it becomes easier for the readers to make a link between discussions and the data presented in each figure or table.

  17. Effectiveness of box trainers in laparoscopic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhariwal Anender

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale and Objectives: Various devices are used to aid in the education of laparoscopic skills ranging from simple box trainers to sophisticated virtual reality trainers. Virtual reality system is an advanced and effective training method, however it is yet to be adopted in India due to its cost and the advanced technology required for it. Therefore, box trainers are being used to train laparoscopic skills. Hence this study was undertaken to assess the overall effectiveness of the box-training course. Study Procedure: The study was conducted during six-day laparoscopic skills training workshops held during 2006. Twenty five surgeons; age range of 26 to 45 years, of either sex, who had not performed laparoscopic surgery before; attending the workshop were evaluated. Each participant was given a list of tasks to perform before beginning the box-training course on day one and was evaluated quantitatively by rating the successful completion of each test. Evaluation began when the subject placed the first tool into the cannula and ended with task completion. Two evaluation methods used to score the subject, including a global rating scale and a task-specific checklist. After the subject completed all sessions of the workshop, they were asked to perform the same tasks and were evaluated in the same manner. For each task completed by the subjects, the difference in the scores between the second and first runs were calculated and interpreted as an improvement as a percentage of the initial score. Statistical Analysis: Wilcoxon matched-paired signed-ranks test was applied to find out the statistical significance of the results obtained. Results: The mean percentage improvement in scores for both the tasks, using global rating scale, was 44.5% + 6.930 (Mean + SD. For task 1, using the global rating scale mean percentage improvement was 49.4% + 7.948 (Mean + SD. For task 2, mean percentage improvement using global rating scale was 39.6% + 10.4 (Mean

  18. Sp1 is an important transcriptional regulation factor for forkhead box ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DONG JIE ZHANG

    2018-02-08

    Feb 8, 2018 ... luciferase gene in the plasmid pGL3-Basic. The accuracy of the insert fragment .... processes such as cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis and carcinogenesis. ... Technology Planning Project of 12th Five-Year in rural areas.

  19. Prohibiting Headgear for Safety in Amateur Boxing? Opinion of the Canadian Boxing Community: an Online Poll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Philip; Rempel, Philip

    In 2013, the Amateur International Boxing Association (AIBA) introduced a rule banning headgear for male-senior open class boxers during competition. The AIBA has defended the rule change as motivated by safety and supported by internal unpublished studies. As a result, in 2018, the AIBA plans to universally prohibit headgear in competition: for all competitors (male and female), all ages and all levels. Within Canada, this ruling has generated controversy in the boxing community, yet there has been no overall measure of opinion. To address this, we instituted a voluntary, anonymous, online open-access poll to allow members of the boxing community to express their stance on headgear use in competition. In total, 636 responses were received. A total of 71.5 % of Canadian respondents believed headgear should be mandatory at all levels. Only 5.8 % agreed that headgear should be prohibited, as planned for 2018. Estimating results on a representative breakdown of boxing membership in Canada, a similar pattern emerged, whereby 68.2 % concurred with mandatory headgear while only 4.95 % supported its prohibition. Parents of boxers were almost unanimously against banning headgear, stating they would change sports as a result. Similarly, only 1.7 % of women believed headgear should be prohibited. The consensus of the Canadian boxing community largely opposes the rule changes that the AIBA has implemented. The results highlight risks posed to the long-term viability of the sport, if significant grassroots safety concerns are disregarded.

  20. Clinical Value of High Mobility Group Box 1 and the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products in Head and Neck Cancer: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen, Austin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction High mobility group box 1 is a versatile protein involved in gene transcription, extracellular signaling, and response to inflammation. Extracellularly, high mobility group box 1 binds to several receptors, notably the receptor for advanced glycation end-products. Expression of high mobility group box 1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products has been described in many cancers. Objectives To systematically review the available literature using PubMed and Web of Science to evaluate the clinical value of high mobility group box 1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Data synthesis A total of eleven studies were included in this review. High mobility group box 1 overexpression is associated with poor prognosis and many clinical and pathological characteristics of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas patients. Additionally, the receptor for advanced glycation end-products demonstrates potential value as a clinical indicator of tumor angiogenesis and advanced staging. In diagnosis, high mobility group box 1 demonstrates low sensitivity. Conclusion High mobility group box 1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products are associated with clinical and pathological characteristics of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Further investigation of the prognostic and diagnostic value of these molecules is warranted.

  1. Basal transcription of APOBEC3G is regulated by USF1 gene in hepatocyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Yanli [Department of Infectious Diseases, Zhengzhou University People' s Hospital (Henan Provincial People' s Hospital), Zhengzhou, 450003 (China); Li, Hui [The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College Huazhong University of Science Technology, Wuhan, 430000 (China); Zhang, Xiaoju [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Zhengzhou University People' s Hospital (Henan Provincial People' s Hospital), Zhengzhou, 450003 (China); Shang, Jia [Department of Infectious Diseases, Zhengzhou University People' s Hospital (Henan Provincial People' s Hospital), Zhengzhou, 450003 (China); Kang, Yi, E-mail: kykangyi@163.com [Department of Infectious Diseases, Zhengzhou University People' s Hospital (Henan Provincial People' s Hospital), Zhengzhou, 450003 (China)

    2016-01-29

    Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G, A3G) exert antiviral defense as an important factor of innate immunity. A variety of cytokines such as IFN-γ,IL2,IL15,IL7 could induce the transcription of A3G. However, the regulation of other nuclear factor on the transcription of A3G have not been reported at the present. To gain new insights into the transcriptional regulation of this restriction factor, we cloned and characterized the promoter region of A3G and investigate the modulation of USF1 gene on the transcription of A3G. We identified a 232 bp region that was sufficient to regulate the activity of full promoter. Transcriptional start sites (TSS) were identified by the luciferase reporter assays of plasmids containing full or shorter fragments of the A3G promoter. The results demonstrated that the core promoter of A3G is located within the region -159/-84 relative to the TSS. Transcriptional activity of A3G core promoter regulated by USF1 was dependent on an E-box (located at position -91/-86 relative to the major TSS) and was abolished after mutation of this DNA element. USF1 gene can take part in basal transcription regulation of the human A3G gene in hepatocyte, and the identified E-box represented a binding site for the USF1. - Highlights: • The core promoter of A3G is located within the region −159/−84 relative to the TSS. • Transcriptional activity of A3G core promoter regulated by USF1 was dependent on an E-box (located at position −91/−86 relative to the major TSS). • USF1 gene can take part in basal transcription regulation of the human A3G gene in hepatocyte.

  2. Basal transcription of APOBEC3G is regulated by USF1 gene in hepatocyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Yanli; Li, Hui; Zhang, Xiaoju; Shang, Jia; Kang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G, A3G) exert antiviral defense as an important factor of innate immunity. A variety of cytokines such as IFN-γ,IL2,IL15,IL7 could induce the transcription of A3G. However, the regulation of other nuclear factor on the transcription of A3G have not been reported at the present. To gain new insights into the transcriptional regulation of this restriction factor, we cloned and characterized the promoter region of A3G and investigate the modulation of USF1 gene on the transcription of A3G. We identified a 232 bp region that was sufficient to regulate the activity of full promoter. Transcriptional start sites (TSS) were identified by the luciferase reporter assays of plasmids containing full or shorter fragments of the A3G promoter. The results demonstrated that the core promoter of A3G is located within the region -159/-84 relative to the TSS. Transcriptional activity of A3G core promoter regulated by USF1 was dependent on an E-box (located at position -91/-86 relative to the major TSS) and was abolished after mutation of this DNA element. USF1 gene can take part in basal transcription regulation of the human A3G gene in hepatocyte, and the identified E-box represented a binding site for the USF1. - Highlights: • The core promoter of A3G is located within the region −159/−84 relative to the TSS. • Transcriptional activity of A3G core promoter regulated by USF1 was dependent on an E-box (located at position −91/−86 relative to the major TSS). • USF1 gene can take part in basal transcription regulation of the human A3G gene in hepatocyte.

  3. Policy statement—Boxing participation by children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Laura; LeBlanc, Claire M A

    2011-09-01

    Thousands of boys and girls younger than 19 years participate in boxing in North America. Although boxing provides benefits for participants, including exercise, self-discipline, and self-confidence, the sport of boxing encourages and rewards deliberate blows to the head and face. Participants in boxing are at risk of head, face, and neck injuries, including chronic and even fatal neurologic injuries. Concussions are one of the most common injuries that occur with boxing. Because of the risk of head and facial injuries, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Canadian Paediatric Society oppose boxing as a sport for children and adolescents. These organizations recommend that physicians vigorously oppose boxing in youth and encourage patients to participate in alternative sports in which intentional head blows are not central to the sport.

  4. Implementation of T-box/T/sup -1/-box based AES design on latest xilinx fpga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundi, D.E.; Aziz, A.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents an efficient implementation of the AES (Advance Encryption Standard) based on Tbox/T-1-box design for both the encryption and decryption on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). The proposed architecture not only make efficient use of full capacity of dedicated 32 Kb BRAM (Block RAM) of latest Xilinx FPGAs (Virtex-5, Virtex-6 and 7 Series) but also saves considerable amount of BRAM and logical resources by using multiple accesses from single BRAM in one cycle of system clock as compared to conventional LUT (Look-Up-Table) techniques. The proposed T-box/T-1-box based AES design for both the encryption and decryption fits into just 4 BRAMs on FPGA and results in good efficiency TPS (Throughput per Slice) with less power consumption. (author)

  5. Reconciling White-Box and Black-Box Perspectives on Behavioral Self-adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes to reconcile two perspectives on behavioral adaptation commonly taken at different stages of the engineering of autonomic computing systems. Requirements engineering activities often take a black-box perspective: A system is considered to be adaptive with respect to an environ......This paper proposes to reconcile two perspectives on behavioral adaptation commonly taken at different stages of the engineering of autonomic computing systems. Requirements engineering activities often take a black-box perspective: A system is considered to be adaptive with respect...... to an environment whenever the system is able to satisfy its goals irrespectively of the environment perturbations. Modeling and programming engineering activities often take a white-box perspective: A system is equipped with suitable adaptation mechanisms and its behavior is classified as adaptive depending...

  6. DFBX boxes -- electrical and cryogenic distribution boxes for the superconducting magnets in the LHC straight sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbasnik, Jon P.; Corradi, Carol A.; Gourlay, S.A.; Green, MichaelA.; Hafalia, Aurelio Q.; Kajiyama, Yoichi Jr.; Knolls, Michael J.; LaMantia, Roberto F.; Rasson, Joseph E.; Reavill, Dulie; Turner, William C.

    2002-01-01

    DFBX distribution boxes provide cryogenic and electrical services to superconducting quadrupoles and to a superconducting dipole at either end of four of the long straight sections in the LHC. The DFBX boxes also provide instrumentation and quench protection to the magnets. Current for the quadrupole and the dipole magnet is delivered through leads that combine HTS and gas cooled leads. Current for the 600 A and 120 A correction magnets is provided by pure gas-cooled leads. The bus bars from the leads to the magnets pass through low leak-rate lambda plugs between 1.8 K and 4.4 K. The heat leak into the 1.9 K region from the liquid helium tank is determined by the design of the lambda plugs. This paper describes the DFBX boxes and their function of delivering current and instrumentation signals to the magnets

  7. Identification of DNA-binding sites for the activator involved in late transcription of the temperate lactococcal phage TP901-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Margit; Kilstrup, Mogens; Hammer, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Alt, encoded by the lactococcal phage TP901-1, is needed for late transcription. We identify Alt as a DNA-binding protein, and footprint analysis shows that Alt binds to a region containing four imperfect direct repeats (ALT boxes) located -76 to -32 relative to the P-late transcriptional start...... site. The importance of the ALT boxes was confirmed by deletion of one or two ALT boxes and by introducing mutations in ALT boxes 1 and 4. Alt is proposed to act as a tetramer or higher multimer activating transcription of TP901-1 late genes by binding to the four ALT boxes, and bending of the DNA may...... be important for transcriptional activation of P-late. Furthermore, our results suggest that DNA replication may be required for late transcription in TP901-1. Additionally, we identify gp28 of the related lactococcal phage Tuc2009 as an activator and show that the activators required for late transcription...

  8. 49 CFR 178.512 - Standards for steel or aluminum boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for steel or aluminum boxes. 178.512... aluminum boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for steel or aluminum boxes: (1) 4A for a steel box; and (2) 4B for an aluminum box. (b) Construction requirements for steel or aluminum boxes are as...

  9. Proyecciones Vintage: Mad Men y Cuéntame cómo pasó / Vintage Projections: Mad Men and Cuéntame cómo pasó

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura García Pousa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Las series de televisión han puesto a prueba la capacitación del drama mediante la construcción de un discurso propio y diferenciado, que las convierte en uno de los referentes artísticos contemporáneos de mayor expansión. En este artículo acudimos a su estudio específico como nuevos artefactos culturales que trabajan con múltiples realidades y niveles narrativos creando ficciones capaces de aglutinar éxito comercial y nuevas parcelas audiovisuales que generan reflexiones sobre la representación de la memoria histórica. Aunque distantes en su concepción, desarrollo, producción y tratamiento, nos centramos en Mad Men (AMC: 2007- y en Cuéntame cómo pasó (Grupo Ganga: 2001- por su importante trabajo de contextualización dramática donde la cultura popular, la visión mediatizada y los mitos se convierten en constantes de sus narraciones. El estudio comparativo de dos nudos dramáticos como son el asesinato de John F. Kennedy en Mad Men y el atentado contra Carrero Blanco en Cuéntame cómo pasó nos permitirá iniciar y profundizar en las formas argumentales, discursivas y estéticas de ambas producciones dentro de su desarrollo en continuidad como obras de ficción de largo recorrido.Palabras clave: series de televisión, ficción, memoria, historia, representación, Mad Men, Cuéntame cómo pasó, cultura popular, identidad.AbstractTelevision series have challenged the drama by constructing a personal and differentiated discourse, turning it into one of the contemporary artistic genres experiencing the greatest expansion at the moment. In this article, we’ve undertaken the study of such series as new cultural artifacts that work with multiple realities and narrative levels, creating fictions that garner commercial success, and new audiovisual parcels that generate reflections on the representations of historical memory. Although distinct in their conception, development, production and material, we will focus on the series Mad

  10. Hegelian Phenomenology of Spirit and Boxing Fight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosiewicz Jerzy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the presented text the author points out to anthropological as well as axiological foundations of the boxing fight from the viewpoint of Hegel’s philosophy. In the genial idealist’s views it is possible to perceive the appreciation of the body, which constitutes a necessary basis for the man’s physical activity, for his work oriented towards the self-transformation and the transformation of the external world, as well as for rivalry and the hand-to-hand fight. While focusing our attention on the issue of rivalry and on the situation of the fight - and regarding it from the viewpoint of the master - slave theory (included in the phenomenology of spirit, it is possible to proclaim that even a conventionalised boxing fight - that is, restricted by cultural and sports rules of the game - has features of the fight to the death between two Hegelian forms of selfknowledge striving for self-affirmation and self-realisation. In the boxing fight, similarly as in the above mentioned Hegelian theory, a problem of work and of the development of the human individual (that is, of the subject, self-knowledge, the participant of the fight appears. There appears also a prospect of death as a possible end of merciless rivalry. The fight revalues the human way in an important way, whereas the prospect for death, the awareness of its proximity, the feeling that its close and possible, saturates the life with additional values. It places the boxer, just like every subject fighting in a similar or a different way, on the path towards absolute abstraction - that is, it brings him closer to his self-fulfilment in the Absolute, to the absolute synthesis. The Hegelian viewpoint enables also to appreciate the boxing fight as a manifestation of low culture (being in contrast with high culture, to turn attention to the relations which - according to Hegel - take place between the Absolute and the man, as well as to show which place is occupied by the subject both in

  11. Extensive Mutagenesis of the Conserved Box E Motif in Duck Hepatitis B Virus P Protein Reveals Multiple Functions in Replication and a Common Structure with the Primer Grip in HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yong-Xiang; Luo, Cheng; Zhao, Dan; Beck, Jürgen; Nassal, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Hepadnaviruses, including the pathogenic hepatitis B virus (HBV), replicate their small DNA genomes through protein-primed reverse transcription, mediated by the terminal protein (TP) domain in their P proteins and an RNA stem-loop, ϵ, on the pregenomic RNA (pgRNA). No direct structural data are available for P proteins, but their reverse transcriptase (RT) domains contain motifs that are conserved in all RTs (box A to box G), implying a similar architecture; however, experimental support for...

  12. Adaptation of Black-Box Software Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Andreas Rasenack

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the software market leads to crucial problems for software companies. More competition between software companies arises and leads to the force on companies to develop ever newer software products in ever shortened time interval. Therefore the time to market for software systems is shortened and obviously the product life cycle is shortened too. Thus software companies shortened the time interval for research and development. Due to the fact of competition between software companies software products have to develop low-priced and this leads to a smaller return on investment. A big challenge for software companies is the use of an effective research and development process to have these problems under control. A way to control these problems can be the reuse of existing software components and adapt those software components to new functionality or accommodate mismatched interfaces. Complete redevelopment of software products is more expensive and time consuming than to develop software components. The approach introduced here presents novel technique together with a supportive environment that enables developers to cope with the adaptability of black-box software components. A supportive environment will be designed that checks the compatibility of black-box software components with the assistance of their specifications. Generated adapter software components can take over the part of adaptation and advance the functionality. Besides, a pool of software components can be used to compose an application to satisfy customer needs. Certainly this pool of software components consists of black-box software components and adapter software components which can be connected on demand.

  13. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion and boxing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Jason C; Hirscher, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Boxing is a sport that consists of multiple high-intensity bouts separated by minimal recovery time and may benefit from a pre-exercise alkalotic state. The purpose of this study was to observe the ergogenic potential of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on boxing performance. Ten amateur boxers volunteered to participate in 2 competitive sparring bouts. The boxers were prematched for weight and boxing ability and consumed either 0.3 g.kg(-1) body weight (BW) of NaHCO3 (BICARB) or 0.045 g.kg(-1) BW of NaCl placebo (PLAC) mixed in diluted low calorie-flavored cordial. The sparring bouts consisted of four 3-minute rounds, each separated by 1-minute seated recovery. Blood acid-base (pH, bicarbonate [HCO3(-)], base excess [BE]), and performance (rates of perceived exertion [RPE], heart rate [HR] [HR(ave) and HR(max)], total punches landed successfully) profiles were analyzed before (where applicable) and after sparring. The results indicated a significant interaction effect for HCO3(-) (p < or = 0.001) and BE (p < 0.001), but not for pH (p = 0.48). Post hoc analysis revealed higher presparring HCO3(-) and BE for the BICARB condition, but no differences between the BICARB and PLAC conditions postsparring. There was a significant increase in punches landed during the BICARB condition (p < 0.001); however, no significant interaction effects for HRave (p = 0.15), HRmax (p = 0.32), or RPE (p = 0.38). The metabolic alkalosis induced by the NaHCO3 loading elevated before and after sparring blood buffering capacity. In practical application, the findings suggest that a standard NaHCO3 loading dose (0.3 g.kg(-1)) improves punch efficacy during 4 rounds of sparring performance.

  14. Boxing headguard performance in punch machine tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Andrew S; Patton, Declan A

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents a novel laboratory method for assessing boxing headguard impact performance. The method is applied to examine the effects of headguards on head impact dynamics and injury risk. A linear impactor was developed, and a range of impacts was delivered to an instrumented Hybrid III head and neck system both with and without an AIBA (Association Internationale de Boxe Amateur)-approved headguard. Impacts at selected speeds between 4.1 and 8.3 m/s were undertaken. The impactor mass was approximately 4 kg and an interface comprising a semirigid 'fist' with a glove was used. The peak contact forces were in the range 1.9-5.9 kN. Differences in head impact responses between the Top Ten AIBA-approved headguard and bare headform in the lateral and forehead tests were large and/or significant. In the 8.3 m/s fist-glove impacts, the mean peak resultant headform accelerations for bare headform tests was approximately 130 g compared with approximately 85 g in the forehead impacts. In the 6.85 m/s bare headform impacts, mean peak resultant angular head accelerations were in the range of 5200-5600 rad/s(2) and almost halved by the headguard. Linear and angular accelerations in 45° forehead and 60° jaw impacts were reduced by the headguard. The data support the opinion that current AIBA headguards can play an important role in reducing the risk of concussion and superficial injury in boxing competition and training. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Keller-box method and its application

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Kerehalli V

    2014-01-01

    Most of the problems arising in science and engineering are nonlinear. They are inherently difficult to solve. Traditional analytical approximations are valid only for weakly nonlinear problems, and often break down for problems with strong nonlinearity. This book presents the current theoretical developments and applications of Keller-Box method to nonlinear problems. The first half of the bookaddresses basic concepts to understand the theoretical framework for the method. In the second half of the book, the authorsgive a number of examples of coupled nonlinear problems that have been solved

  16. Test procedure for boxed waste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, J.

    1994-01-01

    This document, prepared by Los Alamos National Laboratory's NMT-4 group, details the test methodology and requirements for Acceptance/Qualification testing of a Boxed Waste Assay System (BWAS) designed and constructed by Pajarito Scientific Corporation. Testing of the BWAS at the Plutonium Facility (TA55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory will be performed to ascertain system adherence to procurement specification requirements. The test program shall include demonstration of conveyor handling capabilities, gamma ray energy analysis, and imaging passive/active neutron accuracy and sensitivity. Integral to these functions is the system's embedded operating and data reduction software

  17. CASAS: A Smart Home in a Box

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Diane J.; Crandall, Aaron S.; Thomas, Brian L.; Krishnan, Narayanan C.

    2012-01-01

    While the potential benefits of smart home technology are widely recognized, a lightweight design is needed for the benefits to be realized at a large scale. We introduce the CASAS “smart home in a box”, a lightweight smart home design that is easy to install and provides smart home capabilities out of the box with no customization or training. We discuss types of data analysis that have been performed by the CASAS group and can be pursued in the future by using this approach to designing and...

  18. Smart Distribution Boxes, Complete Energy Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platise, Uros

    2010-09-15

    Present households demand side management implementations are turning conventional appliances into smart ones to support auto demand (AutoDR) response function. Present concept features a direct link between the power meters and appliances. In this paper new concept and example of implementation of a so-called Smart Distribution Box (SmartDB) is represented for complete energy and power management. SmartDBs, as an intermediate layer, are extending smart grid power meter functionality to support AutoDR with fast and guaranteed response times, distributed power sources, and besides provide full control over energy management and extra safety functions to the consumers.

  19. Seismic stability of a standalone glove box structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraswat, A., E-mail: anupams@barc.gov.in [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Reddy, G.R. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Ghosh, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India); Ghosh, A.K.; Kumar, Arun [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Glove box is a leak tight, safety related structure used for handling radiotoxic materials. • To study the seismic performance of a freestanding glove box, extensive shake table testing has been carried out. • Glove box maintained structural integrity and leak tightness up to design basis earthquake loading. • Detailed three-dimensional finite element model of the structure is developed and analyzed by using direct time integration methods. • Simplified numerical method is proposed and successfully applied, to quickly estimate sliding displacement and determine upper bounds for it. - Abstract: In a nuclear fuel cycle facility, radiotoxic materials are being handled in freestanding leak tight enclosures called glove boxes (GBs). These glove boxes act as a primary confinement for the radiotoxic materials. Glove boxes are designed as per codal requirements for class I component. They are designed to withstand extreme level of earthquake loading with a return period of 10,000 years. To evaluate seismic performance of the glove box, there is a need to check the stability (sliding and overturning), structural integrity (stresses and strains) and leak tightness under earthquake loading. Extensive shake table experiments were conducted on a single standalone glove box. Actual laboratory conditions were simulated during testing to check the response. After extensive shake table testing, glove box structure was also analyzed using finite element (FE) software. Detailed three-dimensional model of glove box structure was developed and analyzed using nonlinear time history method. It was observed that finite element methods could be utilized to accurately predict dynamic response of glove box structure. This paper discusses the details and results of shake table testing and methodology used for modelling and analysing freestanding glove box structure under seismic loading. In addition, simplified numerical procedure, developed using energy conservation

  20. Seismic stability of a standalone glove box structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraswat, A.; Reddy, G.R.; Ghosh, S.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kumar, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Glove box is a leak tight, safety related structure used for handling radiotoxic materials. • To study the seismic performance of a freestanding glove box, extensive shake table testing has been carried out. • Glove box maintained structural integrity and leak tightness up to design basis earthquake loading. • Detailed three-dimensional finite element model of the structure is developed and analyzed by using direct time integration methods. • Simplified numerical method is proposed and successfully applied, to quickly estimate sliding displacement and determine upper bounds for it. - Abstract: In a nuclear fuel cycle facility, radiotoxic materials are being handled in freestanding leak tight enclosures called glove boxes (GBs). These glove boxes act as a primary confinement for the radiotoxic materials. Glove boxes are designed as per codal requirements for class I component. They are designed to withstand extreme level of earthquake loading with a return period of 10,000 years. To evaluate seismic performance of the glove box, there is a need to check the stability (sliding and overturning), structural integrity (stresses and strains) and leak tightness under earthquake loading. Extensive shake table experiments were conducted on a single standalone glove box. Actual laboratory conditions were simulated during testing to check the response. After extensive shake table testing, glove box structure was also analyzed using finite element (FE) software. Detailed three-dimensional model of glove box structure was developed and analyzed using nonlinear time history method. It was observed that finite element methods could be utilized to accurately predict dynamic response of glove box structure. This paper discusses the details and results of shake table testing and methodology used for modelling and analysing freestanding glove box structure under seismic loading. In addition, simplified numerical procedure, developed using energy conservation

  1. The Transcription Factor Encyclopedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yusuf, Dimas; Butland, Stefanie L; Swanson, Magdalena I

    2012-01-01

    mini review articles on pertinent human, mouse and rat TFs. Notable features of the TFe website include a high-quality PDF generator and web API for programmatic data retrieval. TFe aims to rapidly educate scientists about the TFs they encounter through the delivery of succinct summaries written......ABSTRACT: Here we present the Transcription Factor Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription factors (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130...

  2. GGRNA: an ultrafast, transcript-oriented search engine for genes and transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Yuki; Bono, Hidemasa

    2012-07-01

    GGRNA (http://GGRNA.dbcls.jp/) is a Google-like, ultrafast search engine for genes and transcripts. The web server accepts arbitrary words and phrases, such as gene names, IDs, gene descriptions, annotations of gene and even nucleotide/amino acid sequences through one simple search box, and quickly returns relevant RefSeq transcripts. A typical search takes just a few seconds, which dramatically enhances the usability of routine searching. In particular, GGRNA can search sequences as short as 10 nt or 4 amino acids, which cannot be handled easily by popular sequence analysis tools. Nucleotide sequences can be searched allowing up to three mismatches, or the query sequences may contain degenerate nucleotide codes (e.g. N, R, Y, S). Furthermore, Gene Ontology annotations, Enzyme Commission numbers and probe sequences of catalog microarrays are also incorporated into GGRNA, which may help users to conduct searches by various types of keywords. GGRNA web server will provide a simple and powerful interface for finding genes and transcripts for a wide range of users. All services at GGRNA are provided free of charge to all users.

  3. Seasonal and spatial variations in fish and macrocrustacean assemblage structure in Mad Island Marsh estuary, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, S.; Winemiller, K. O.; Gelwick, F. P.

    2003-05-01

    Fish and macrocrustacean assemblage structure was analyzed along an estuarine gradient at Mad Island Marsh (MIM), Matagorda Bay, TX, during March 1998-August 1999. Eight estuarine-dependent fish species accounted for 94% of the individual fishes collected, and three species accounted for 96% of macrocrustacean abundance. Consistent with evidence from other Gulf of Mexico estuarine studies, species richness and abundance were highest during late spring and summer, and lowest during winter and early spring. Sites near the bay supported the most individuals and species. Associations between fish abundance and environmental variables were examined with canonical correspondence analysis. The dominant gradient was associated with water depth and distance from the bay. The secondary gradient reflected seasonal variation and was associated with temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and vegetation cover. At the scales examined, estuarine biota responded to seasonal variation more than spatial variation. Estuarine-dependent species dominated the fauna and were common throughout the open waters of the shallow lake during winter-early spring when water temperature and salinity were low and dissolved oxygen high. During summer-early fall, sub-optimal environmental conditions (high temperature, low DO) in upper reaches accounted for strong spatial variation in assemblage composition. Small estuarine-resident fishes and the blue crab ( Callinectes sapidus) were common in warm, shallow, vegetated inland sites during summer-fall. Estuarine-dependent species were common at deeper, more saline locations near the bay during this period. During summer, freshwater species, such as gizzard shad ( Dorosoma cepedianum) and gars ( Lepisosteus spp.), were positively associated with water depth and proximity to the bay. The distribution and abundance of fishes in MIM appear to result from the combined effects of endogenous, seasonal patterns of reproduction and migration operating on large

  4. Mad scientists, compassionate healers, and greedy egotists: the portrayal of physicians in the movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Glenn

    2002-07-01

    Cinematic depictions of physicians potentially can affect public expectations and the patient-physician relationship, but little attention has been devoted to portrayals of physicians in movies. The objective of the study was the analysis of cinematic depictions of physicians to determine common demographic attributes of movie physicians, major themes, and whether portrayals have changed over time. All movies released on videotape with physicians as main characters and readily available to the public were viewed in their entirety. Data were collected on physician characteristics, diagnoses, and medical accuracy, and dialogue concerning physicians was transcribed. The results showed that in the 131 films, movie physicians were significantly more likely to be male (p film physicians has declined steadily in recent decades. Movie physicians are most commonly surgeons (33%), psychiatrists (26%), and family practitioners (18%). Physicians were portrayed negatively in 44% of movies, and since the 1960s positive portrayals declined while negative portrayals increased. Physicians frequently are depicted as greedy, egotistical, uncaring, and unethical, especially in recent films. Medical inaccuracies occurred in 27% of films. Compassion and idealism were common in early physician movies but are increasingly scarce in recent decades. A recurrent theme is the "mad scientist," the physician-researcher that values research more than patients' welfare. Portrayals of physicians as egotistical and materialistic have increased, whereas sexism and racism have waned. Movies from the past two decades have explored critical issues surrounding medical ethics and managed care. We conclude that negative cinematic portrayals of physicians are on the rise, which may adversely affect patient expectations and the patient-physician relationship. Nevertheless, films about physicians can serve as useful gauges of public opinion about the medical profession, as tools for medical education, and as

  5. Sequence-specific DNA binding by MYC/MAX to low-affinity non-E-box motifs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Allevato

    Full Text Available The MYC oncoprotein regulates transcription of a large fraction of the genome as an obligatory heterodimer with the transcription factor MAX. The MYC:MAX heterodimer and MAX:MAX homodimer (hereafter MYC/MAX bind Enhancer box (E-box DNA elements (CANNTG and have the greatest affinity for the canonical MYC E-box (CME CACGTG. However, MYC:MAX also recognizes E-box variants and was reported to bind DNA in a "non-specific" fashion in vitro and in vivo. Here, in order to identify potential additional non-canonical binding sites for MYC/MAX, we employed high throughput in vitro protein-binding microarrays, along with electrophoretic mobility-shift assays and bioinformatic analyses of MYC-bound genomic loci in vivo. We identified all hexameric motifs preferentially bound by MYC/MAX in vitro, which include the low-affinity non-E-box sequence AACGTT, and found that the vast majority (87% of MYC-bound genomic sites in a human B cell line contain at least one of the top 21 motifs bound by MYC:MAX in vitro. We further show that high MYC/MAX concentrations are needed for specific binding to the low-affinity sequence AACGTT in vitro and that elevated MYC levels in vivo more markedly increase the occupancy of AACGTT sites relative to CME sites, especially at distal intergenic and intragenic loci. Hence, MYC binds diverse DNA motifs with a broad range of affinities in a sequence-specific and dose-dependent manner, suggesting that MYC overexpression has more selective effects on the tumor transcriptome than previously thought.

  6. Nucleotide sequences of cDNAs for human papillomavirus type 18 transcripts in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Yutaka; Tsunokawa, Youko; Takebe, Naoko; Terada, Masaaki; Sugimura, Takashi; Nawa, Hiroyuki; Nakanishi, Shigetada

    1988-01-01

    HeLa cells expressed 3.4- and 1.6-kilobase (kb) transcripts of the integrated human papillomavirus (HPV) type 18 genome. Two types of cDNA clones representing each size of HPV type 18 transcript were isolated. Sequence analysis of these two types of cDNA clones revealed that the 3.4-kb transcript contained E6, E7, the 5' portion of E1, and human sequence and that the 1.6-kb transcript contained spliced and frameshifted E6 (E6 * ), E7, and human sequence. There was a common human sequence containing a poly(A) addition signal in the 3' end portions of both transcripts, indicating that they were transcribed from the HPV genome at the same integration site with different splicing. Furthermore, the 1.6-kb transcript contained both of the two viral TATA boxes upstream of E6, strongly indicating that a cellular promoter was used for its transcription

  7. Comunicación en sistemas de múltiples robots desde la metodología MAD-Smart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovani Alberto Jiménez Builes

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo demuestra la importancia de la comunicación en sistemas de múltiples robots enmarcado desde la me-todología MAD-Smart. La metodología está compuesta por las fases de conceptuación, análisis y diseño de equipos de múltiples robots mediante la definición de un conjunto de actividades. El propósito de MAD-Smart es ayudar al desarrollador a entender mejor el problema a resolver, las características finales que deberá tener el sistema y el papel que cada agente juega en la solución del problema. La metodología se ha validado mediante la implemen-tación de los proyectos Smart (Sistema multiagente robótico, robótica educativa: máquinas inteligentes en educa-ción y modelo de sensórica y percepción en agentes robóticos para la identificación de materiales. MAD-Smart ha demostrado que es más relevante el manejo de roles, que los agentes mismos para el modelo de comunicación. Lo anterior obedece al grado de abstracción buscado en la metodología, ya que un rol como una representación abs-tracta de un comportamiento de alto nivel permite generalizar de mejor manera los escenarios posibles que se pue-den encontrar en un sistema determinado.

  8. Effect on oxidative stress, hepatic chemical metabolizing parameters, and genotoxic damage of mad honey intake in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraslan, G; Kanbur, M; Karabacak, M; Arslan, K; Siliğ, Y; Soyer Sarica, Z; Tekeli, M Y; Taş, A

    2017-01-01

    A total of 66 male Wistar rats were used and six groups (control: 10 animals and experimental: 12 animals) were formed. While a separate control group was established for each study period, mad honey application to the animals in the experimental group was carried out with a single dose (12.5 g kg -1 body weight (b.w.); acute stage), at a dose of 7.5 g kg -1 b.w. for 21 days (subacute stage), and at a dose of 5 g kg -1 b.w. for 60 days (chronic stage). Tissue and blood oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione (GSH) peroxidase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), hepatic chemical metabolizing parameters in the liver (cytochrome P450 2E1, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-cytochrome b5 reductase, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-cytochrome c reductase (CYTC), GSH S-transferase (GST), and GSH), and micronucleus and comet test in some samples were examined. Findings from the study showed that single and repeated doses given over the period increased MDA, NO, and HNE levels while decreasing/increasing tissue and blood antioxidant enzyme activities. From hepatic chemical metabolizing parameters, GST activity increased in the subacute and chronic stages and CYTC activity increased in the acute period, whereas GSH level decreased in the subacute stage. Changes in tail and head intensities were found in most of the comet results. Mad honey caused oxidative stresses for each exposure period and made some significant changes on the comet test in certain periods for some samples obtained. In other words, according to the available research results obtained, careless consumption of mad honey for different medical purposes is not appropriate.

  9. Hairy black holes in a box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Pallab [International Center for Theoretical Sciences,IISc Campus, Bangalore 560012 (India); Krishnan, Chethan; Subramanian, P.N. Bala [Center for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2016-11-08

    We do a systematic study of the phases of gravity coupled to an electromagnetic field and charged scalar in flat space, with box boundary conditions. The scalar-less box has previously been investigated by Braden, Brown, Whiting and York (and others) before AdS/CFT and we elaborate and extend their results in a language more familiar from holography. The phase diagram of the system is analogous to that of AdS black holes, but we emphasize the differences and explain their origin. Once the scalar is added, we show that the system admits both boson stars as well as hairy black holes as solutions, providing yet another way to evade flat space no-hair theorems. Furthermore both these solutions can exist as stable phases in regions of the phase diagram. The final picture of the phases that emerges is strikingly similar to that found recently for holographic superconductors in global AdS, http://arxiv.org/abs/1602.07211. Our construction lays bare certain previously unnoticed subtleties associated to the definition quasi-local charges for gravitating scalar fields in finite regions.

  10. Glove box operations for transplutonium element production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauer, J.B.; Alexander, C.W.; Wiggins, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    Glove boxes are used in the Transuranium Processing Plant (TRU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for (1) completing the final chemical processing steps to isolate and purify the transplutonium elements, (2) packaging transplutonium elements for shipment, (3) preirradiation and postirradiation processing of samples used to produce special transplutonium isotopes in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), and (4) conducting special projects, which include providing highly purified transplutonium products in special chemical forms and/or in experimental devices as requested by researchers. During 20 years of operation, the quantities of transplutonium elements produced, and thus the amount of radioactivity handled, have continually increased. At the same time, substantial effort has been expended to reduce personnel radiation exposures. Equipment and techniques have been developed to maintain the desired operational capabilities in the glove boxes while keeping radiation exposures to operating personnel as low as reasonably achievable. Developments have included the design and fabrication of product handling and collection devices, product storage containers, and laminated exterior shields of lead glass, lead acrylic, acrylic sheets, polyethylene, and lead

  11. Hairy black holes in a box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Pallab; Krishnan, Chethan; Subramanian, P.N. Bala

    2016-01-01

    We do a systematic study of the phases of gravity coupled to an electromagnetic field and charged scalar in flat space, with box boundary conditions. The scalar-less box has previously been investigated by Braden, Brown, Whiting and York (and others) before AdS/CFT and we elaborate and extend their results in a language more familiar from holography. The phase diagram of the system is analogous to that of AdS black holes, but we emphasize the differences and explain their origin. Once the scalar is added, we show that the system admits both boson stars as well as hairy black holes as solutions, providing yet another way to evade flat space no-hair theorems. Furthermore both these solutions can exist as stable phases in regions of the phase diagram. The final picture of the phases that emerges is strikingly similar to that found recently for holographic superconductors in global AdS, http://arxiv.org/abs/1602.07211. Our construction lays bare certain previously unnoticed subtleties associated to the definition quasi-local charges for gravitating scalar fields in finite regions.

  12. Injuries in competitive boxing. A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewe, J; Rudat, J; Zarghooni, K; Sobottke, R; Eysel, P; Herren, C; Knöll, P; Illgner, U; Michael, J

    2015-03-01

    Boxing remains a subject of controversy and is often classified as dangerous. But the discussion is based mostly on retrospective studies. This survey was conducted as a prospective study. From October 2012 to September 2013, 44 competitive boxers were asked to report their injuries once a month. The questionnaire collected general information (training, competition) and recorded the number of bouts fought, injuries and resulting lost days. A total of 192 injuries were recorded, 133 of which resulted in interruption of training or competition. Each boxer sustained 3 injuries per year on average. The injury rate was 12.8 injuries per 1 000 h of training. Boxers fighting more than 3 bouts per year sustain more injuries (p=0.0075). The injury rate does is not a function of age (age≤19 vs. > 19a, p=0.53). Injuries to the head and the upper limbs occur most frequently. The most common injuries are soft tissue lacerations and contusions. Head injuries with neurological symptoms rarely occur (4.2%). Boxing has a high injury rate that is comparable with other contact sports, but most injuries are minor. Injury frequency is not a function of whether the boxer competes in the junior or adult category. Athletes fighting many bouts per year have a greater risk of injury. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Buying Blood Diamonds and Altering Global Capitalism. Mads Brügger as Unruly Artivist in The Ambassador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reestorff, Camilla Møhring

    2013-01-01

    challenges global inequality in relation to finance and mobility. This critique of global inequality is staged through a peculiar ‘‘unruly artivist’’ provocation. Mads Brügger fictionalises his character and over-identifies with the corrupt diplomat seeking to buy and trade blood diamonds. The film is unruly...... because it rejects any explicit ethical claims and norms of participation, thus reproducing the self-same patterns of inequality that it seeks to document. This article studies the film as an unruly documentary that applies satire, cartoon aesthetics, and culture jamming as its artivist strategy...

  14. PRELIMINARY METHODOLOGICAL PROPOSAL FOR ESTIMATING ENVIRONMENTAL FLOWS IN PROJECTS APPROVED BY THE MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (MADS, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A. Pinilla Agudelo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A methodological proposal for estimating environmental flows in large projects approved by Agencia Nacional de Licencias Ambientales (ANLA in Colombian rivers was developed. The project is the result of an agreement between the MADS and the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá (UNC. The proposed method begins with an evaluation of hydrological criteria,continues with a hydraulic and water quality validation, and follows with the determination of habitat integrity. This is an iterative process that compares conditions before and after the project construction and allows to obtain the magnitude of a monthly flow that, besides preserving the ecological functions of the river, guarantees the water uses downstream. Regarding to the biotic component, the proposal includes the establishment and monitoring of biotic integrity indices for four aquatic communities (periphyton, macroinvertebrates, riparian vegetation, and fish. The effects that flow reduction may produce in the medium and long term can be assessed by these indices. We present the results of applying the methodology to several projects licensed by the MADS. RESUMEN Se presenta una propuesta metodológica para estimar los caudales ambientales en grandes proyectos licenciados por la Agencia Nacional de Licencias Ambientales (ANLA de Colombia, resultado de un convenio interadministrativo suscrito entre el ahora Ministerio de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sostenible (MADS de Colombia y la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá (UNC. El método propuesto parte de garantizar criterios hidrológicos, continúa con una validación hidráulica y de calidad del agua, sigue con la determinación de la integridad del hábitat, en un proceso iterativo que requiere evaluación para las condiciones antes y después de la construcción del proyecto y que permite establecer un caudal que, además de conservar las funciones ecológicas del río, garantiza los usos del recurso aguas abajo. Espec

  15. The influence of media communication on risk perception and behavior related to mad cow disease in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jee-Eun; Sohn, Aeree

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the influence of media communication on risk behavior related to mad cow disease (MCD). Mothers of elementary school students in Seoul were recruited as the survey participants of this study. Media reports affected risk behavior related to MCD. Also, knowledge and attitude toward MCD affects risk behavior. Risk-related information provided by the media should maintain consistency and objectivity. For effective risk communication, there should be an open communication between the government and public, experts, and related industries, who should all collaborate.

  16. Software sensors based on the grey-box modelling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, J.; Harremoës, P.; Strube, Rune

    1996-01-01

    In recent years the grey-box modelling approach has been applied to wastewater transportation and treatment Grey-box models are characterized by the combination of deterministic and stochastic terms to form a model where all the parameters are statistically identifiable from the on......-box model for the specific dynamics is identified. Similarly, an on-line software sensor for detecting the occurrence of backwater phenomena can be developed by comparing the dynamics of a flow measurement with a nearby level measurement. For treatment plants it is found that grey-box models applied to on......-line measurements. With respect to the development of software sensors, the grey-box models possess two important features. Firstly, the on-line measurements can be filtered according to the grey-box model in order to remove noise deriving from the measuring equipment and controlling devices. Secondly, the grey...

  17. A Group Action Method for Construction of Strong Substitution Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Sajjad Shaukat; Shah, Tariq; Attaullah, Atta

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, the method to develop cryptographically strong substitution box is presented which can be used in multimedia security and data hiding techniques. The algorithm of construction depends on the action of a projective general linear group over the set of units of the finite commutative ring. The strength of substitution box and ability to create confusion is assessed with different available analyses. Moreover, the ability of resistance against malicious attacks is also evaluated. The substitution box is examined by bit independent criterion, strict avalanche criterion, nonlinearity test, linear approximation probability test and differential approximation probability test. This substitution box is equated with well-recognized substitution boxes such as AES, Gray, APA, S8, prime of residue, Xyi and Skipjack. The comparison shows encouraging results about the strength of the proposed box. The majority logic criterion is also calculated to analyze the strength and its practical implementation.

  18. Basal transcription machinery

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2007-03-29

    Mar 29, 2007 ... The holoenzyme of prokaryotic RNA polymerase consists of the core enzyme, made of two , , ' and subunits, which lacks promoter selectivity and a sigma () subunit which enables the core enzyme to initiate transcription in a promoter dependent fashion. A stress sigma factor s, in prokaryotes ...

  19. Machine Dictation and Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Evelyn; And Others

    This instructional package contains both an instructor's manual and a student's manual for a course in machine dictation and transcription. The instructor's manual contains an overview with tips on teaching the course, letters for dictation, and a key to the letters. The student's manual contains an overview of the course and of the skills needed…

  20. Transcriptional Regulation in Haematopoiesis:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Felicia K B

    with the capacity to both self-renew and differentiate. This thesis is built upon two studies, which investigate two different aspects of the haematopoietic system; heterogeneity within the HSC compartment (presented in manuscript I), and the interplay between transcription factors controlling granulocyte/ monocyte...