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Sample records for madin-darby canine kidney

  1. Characterization of a Madin-Darby canine kidney cell line stably expressing TRPV5.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, E. den; Schoeber, J.P.H.; Topala, C.N.; Graaf, S.F.J. van de; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Bindels, R.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    To provide a cell model for studying specifically the regulation of Ca2+ entry by the epithelial calcium channel transient receptor potential-vanilloid-5 (TRPV5), green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged TRPV5 was expressed stably in Madin-Darby canine kidney type I (MDCK) cells. The localization of

  2. Cyclooxygenase expression in canine platelets and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay-Mugford, P A; Benn, S J; LaMarre, J; Conlon, P D

    2000-12-01

    To examine cyclooxygenase (COX) expression in canine platelets and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells in culture. Canine platelets and MDCK cells. Total RNA was recovered from isolated canine platelets and MDCK cells. Northern blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), using complementary DNA probes and primers designed from the human COX sequences, were used to determine COX-1 and -2 (cyclooxygenase isoforms 1 and 2) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. Following northern blot analysis, canine platelets were found to express only the 2.8-kb COX-1 transcript; COX-2 was not detected. Canine MDCK cells expressed the 4.5-kb COX-2 transcript, in addition to the 2.8-kb COX-1 transcript. A single DNA band of 270 base pairs was identified following gel electrophoresis of the product obtained from RT-PCR of mRNA from canine platelets. Sequencing revealed that this PCR product was 90% homologous to a portion of the human COX-1 gene (Genbank M59979). Detection of COX-1 by RT-PCR of RNA obtained from canine platelets is a novel finding. The 90% homology of the PCR product with the human sequence suggests strong conservation between the canine and human COX-1 gene. Cloning and sequencing of the canine gene will be required to fully characterize homologous regions. Because of the importance of COX in the inflammatory process and as a potential target of currently available nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), a better understanding of canine COX may improve our ability to use NSAID appropriately, achieve efficacy, and avoid potential adverse drug effects in dogs.

  3. Changes in ceramide metabolism are essential in Madin-Darby canine kidney cell differentiation.

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    Pescio, Lucila Gisele; Santacreu, Bruno Jaime; Lopez, Vanina Gisela; Paván, Carlos Humberto; Romero, Daniela Judith; Favale, Nicolás Octavio; Sterin-Speziale, Norma Beatriz

    2017-07-01

    Ceramides (Cers) and complex sphingolipids with defined acyl chain lengths play important roles in numerous cell processes. Six Cer synthase (CerS) isoenzymes (CerS1-6) are the key enzymes responsible for the production of the diversity of molecular species. In this study, we investigated the changes in sphingolipid metabolism during the differentiation of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. By MALDI TOF TOF MS, we analyzed the molecular species of Cer, glucosylceramide (GlcCer), lactosylceramide (LacCer), and SM in nondifferentiated and differentiated cells (cultured under hypertonicity). The molecular species detected were the same, but cells subjected to hypertonicity presented higher levels of C24:1 Cer, C24:1 GlcCer, C24:1 SM, and C16:0 LacCer. Consistently with the molecular species, MDCK cells expressed CerS2, CerS4, and CerS6, but with no differences during cell differentiation. We next evaluated the different synthesis pathways with sphingolipid inhibitors and found that cells subjected to hypertonicity in the presence of amitriptyline, an inhibitor of acid sphingomyelinase, showed decreased radiolabeled incorporation in LacCer and cells did not develop a mature apical membrane. These results suggest that hypertonicity induces the endolysosomal degradation of SM, generating the Cer used as substrate for the synthesis of specific molecular species of glycosphingolipids that are essential for MDCK cell differentiation. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Transepithelial transport of aliphatic carboxylic acids studied in Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, M.J.; Adson, A.; Kezdy, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    Transport of 14C-labeled acetic, propionic (PA), butyric, valeric, heptanoic (HA), and octanoic (OA) acids across the Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cell monolayer grown on a porous polycarbonate membrane was studied in Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS) at 37 degrees C in both apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical directions. At micromolar concentrations of solutes, metabolic decomposition was significant as evidenced by [14C]CO2 production during the OA transport. The apparent permeability (Pe) indicates that as lipophilicity increases, diffusion across the unstirred boundary layer becomes rate limiting. In support of this notion, transport of OA and HA was enhanced by agitation, showed an activation energy of 3.7 kcal/mol for OA, and resulted in identical Pe values for both transport directions. Analysis of Pe changes with varying alkyl chain length resulted in a delta G of -0.68 +/- 0.09 kcal/mol for -CH2-group transfer from an aqueous phase to the MDCK cells. When the intercellular tight junctions were opened by the divalent chelator EGTA in Ca2+/Mg2(+)-free HBSS, transport of the fluid-phase marker Lucifer yellow greatly increased because of paracellular leakage. PA transport also showed a significant increase, but OA transport was independent of EGTA. Although albumin also undergoes paracellular transport in the presence of EGTA and OA binds strongly to albumin, OA transport in EGTA solution was unchanged by albumin. These observations indicate that transmembrane transport is the major mechanism for lipophilic substances. The present study, together with earlier work on the transport of polar substances, shows that the MDCK cell monolayer is an excellent model of the transepithelial transport barrier

  5. Failure-to-thrive syndrome associated with tumor formation by Madin-Darby canine kidney cells in newborn nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinster, Lauren R; Omeir, Romelda L; Foseh, Gideon S; Macauley, Juliete N; Snoy, Philip J; Beren, Joel J; Teferedegne, Belete; Peden, Keith; Lewis, Andrew M

    2013-08-01

    Tumors that formed in newborn nude mice that were inoculated with 10(7) Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were associated with a failure-to-thrive (FTT) syndrome consisting of growth retardation, lethargy, weakness, and dehydration. Scoliosis developed in 41% of affected pups. Pups were symptomatic by week 2; severely affected pups became moribund and required euthanasia within 3 to 4 wk. Mice with FTT were classified into categories of mild, moderate, and severe disease by comparing their weight with that of age-matched normal nude mice. The MDCK-induced tumors were adenocarcinomas that invaded adjacent muscle, connective tissue, and bone; 6 of the 26 pups examined had lung metastases. The induction of FTT did not correlate with cell-line aggressiveness as estimated by histopathology or the efficiency of tumor formation (tumor-forming dose 50% endpoint range = 10(2.8) to 10(7.5)); however, tumor invasion of the paravertebral muscles likely contributed to the scoliosis noted. In contrast to the effect of MDCK cells, tumor formation observed in newborn mice inoculated with highly tumorigenic, human-tumor-derived cell lines was not associated with FTT development. We suggest that tumor formation and FTT are characteristics of these MDCK cell inocula and that FTT represents a new syndrome that may be similar to the cachexia that develops in humans with cancer or other diseases.

  6. Expression Profile of Drug and Nutrient Absorption Related Genes in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK Cells Grown under Differentiation Conditions

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    Balvinder S. Vig

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The expression levels of genes involved in drug and nutrient absorption were evaluated in the Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK in vitro drug absorption model. MDCK cells were grown on plastic surfaces (for 3 days or on Transwell® membranes (for 3, 5, 7, and 9 days. The expression profile of genes including ABC transporters, SLC transporters, and cytochrome P450 (CYP enzymes was determined using the Affymetrix® Canine GeneChip®. Expression of genes whose probe sets passed a stringent confirmation process was examined. Expression of a few transporter (MDR1, PEPT1 and PEPT2 genes in MDCK cells was confirmed by RT-PCR. The overall gene expression profile was strongly influenced by the type of support the cells were grown on. After 3 days of growth, expression of 28% of the genes was statistically different (1.5-fold cutoff, p < 0.05 between the cells grown on plastic and Transwell® membranes. When cells were differentiated on Transwell® membranes, large changes in gene expression profile were observed during the early stages, which then stabilized after 5–7 days. Only a small number of genes encoding drug absorption related SLC, ABC, and CYP were detected in MDCK cells, and most of them exhibited low hybridization signals. Results from this study provide valuable reference information on endogenous gene expression in MDCK cells that could assist in design of drug-transporter and/or drug-enzyme interaction studies, and help interpret the contributions of various transporters and metabolic enzymes in studies with MDCK cells.

  7. The Madin-Darby canine kidney cell culture derived influenza A/H5N1 vaccine: a phase I trial in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Sung-Ching; Kung, Hsiang-Chi; Kao, Tsui-Mai; Wu, Hsio; Dong, Shao-Xing; Hu, Mei-Hua; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Chong, Pele; Hsieh, Szu-Min; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2013-12-01

    Avian H5N1 influenza has caused human infections globally and has a high mortality rate. Rapid production of effective vaccines is needed. A phase 1, randomized, observer-blinded clinical trial was conducted to examine the safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated whole virion vaccine against the influenza A/H5N1 virus produced from the Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line. Participants were randomized to four groups and administered two intramuscular doses of vaccine containing 3 μg hemagglutinin (HA), 3 μg HA with 300 μg aluminum phosphate (AlPO4), 6 μg HA, and 6 μg HA with 300 μg AlPO4, respectively, at two visits, 21 days apart. Serum hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and neutralizing antibody levels were determined at baseline and on Days 21 and 42. Sixty healthy individuals were enrolled. The neutralization assay showed a significant immune response in the 6 μg with ALPO4 group on Day 42 compared to pre-vaccination levels (11.32±9.77 vs. 4.00±0, p=0.02). The adjuvant effect in neutralization assay was also significant on Day 42 in the 6 μg group (4.52±1.94 without adjuvant vs. 11.32±9.77 with adjuvant, p=0.02). HAI assay also showed an aluminum adjuvant-induced increasing trend in HAI geometric mean titer on Day 42 in the 3 μg and 6 μg groups (6.02 versus 8.20, p=0.05 and 5.74 versus 8.21, p=0.14). The most frequent adverse event was local pain (20% to 60%). There were no vaccine-related severe adverse effects. MDCK cell line-derived H5N1 vaccine was well tolerated. It is necessary to investigate further the immunogenicity of higher antigen doses and the role of aluminum adjuvant in augmenting the effect of the vaccine. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Alpha 1-adrenergic receptor-mediated phosphoinositide hydrolysis and prostaglandin E2 formation in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Possible parallel activation of phospholipase C and phospholipase A2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slivka, S.R.; Insel, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    alpha 1-Adrenergic receptors mediate two effects on phospholipid metabolism in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK-D1) cells: hydrolysis of phosphoinositides and arachidonic acid release with generation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The similarity in concentration dependence for the agonist (-)-epinephrine in eliciting these two responses implies that they are mediated by a single population of alpha 1-adrenergic receptors. However, we find that the kinetics of the two responses are quite different, PGE2 production occurring more rapidly and transiently than the hydrolysis of phosphoinositides. The antibiotic neomycin selectively decreases alpha 1-receptor-mediated phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolysis without decreasing alpha 1-receptor-mediated arachidonic acid release and PGE2 generation. In addition, receptor-mediated inositol trisphosphate formation is independent of extracellular calcium, whereas release of labeled arachidonic acid is largely calcium-dependent. Moreover, based on studies obtained with labeled arachidonic acid, receptor-mediated generation of arachidonic acid cannot be accounted for by breakdown of phosphatidylinositol monophosphate, phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate, or phosphatidic acid. Further studies indicate that epinephrine produces changes in formation or turnover of several classes of membrane phospholipids in MDCK cells. We conclude that alpha 1-adrenergic receptors in MDCK cells appear to regulate phospholipid metabolism by the parallel activation of phospholipase C and phospholipase A2. This parallel activation of phospholipases contrasts with models described in other systems which imply sequential activation of phospholipase C and diacylglycerol lipase or phospholipase A2

  9. Zinc supplementation protects against cadmium accumulation and cytotoxicity in Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells.

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    Ding Zhang

    Full Text Available Cadmium ions (Cd2+ have been reported to accumulate in bovine tissues, although Cd2+ cytotoxicity has not been investigated thoroughly in this species. Zinc ions (Zn2+ have been shown to antagonize the toxic effects of heavy metals such as Cd2+ in some systems. The present study investigated Cd2+ cytotoxicity in Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK epithelial cells, and explored whether this was modified by Zn2+. Exposure to Cd2+ led to a dose- and time-dependent increase in apoptotic cell death, with increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial damage. Zn2+ supplementation alleviated Cd2+-induced cytotoxicity and this protective effect was more obvious when cells were exposed to a lower concentration of Cd2+ (10 μM, as compared to 50 μM Cd2+. This indicated that high levels of Cd2+ accumulation might induce irreversible damage in bovine kidney cells. Metallothioneins (MTs are metal-binding proteins that play an essential role in heavy metal ion detoxification. We found that co-exposure to Zn2+ and Cd2+ synergistically enhanced RNA and protein expression of MT-1, MT-2, and the metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 in MDBK cells. Notably, addition of Zn2+ reduced the amounts of cytosolic Cd2+ detected following MDBK exposure to 10 μM Cd2+. These findings revealed a protective role of Zn2+ in counteracting Cd2+ uptake and toxicity in MDBK cells, indicating that this approach may provide a means to protect livestock from excessive Cd2+ accumulation.

  10. Analysis of microRNAs Expression Profiles in Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney Cells Infected With Caprine Parainfluenza Virus Type 3

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    Jizong Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Caprine parainfluenza virus type 3 (CPIV3 is a newly emerging pathogenic respiratory agent infecting both young and adult goats, and it was identified in eastern China in 2013. Cellular microRNAs (miRNAs have been reported to be important modulators of the intricate virus-host interactions. In order to elucidate the role of miRNAs in madin-darby bovine kidney (MDBK cells during CPIV3 infection. In this study, we performed high-throughput sequencing technology to analyze small RNA libraries in CPIV3-infected and mock-infected MDBK cells. The results showed that a total of 249 known and 152 novel candidate miRNAs were differentially expressed in MDBK cells after CPIV3 infection, and 22,981 and 22,572 target genes were predicted, respectively. In addition, RT-qPCR assay was used to further confirm the expression patterns of 13 of these differentially expressed miRNAs and their mRNA targets. Functional annotation analysis showed these up- and downregulated target genes were mainly involved in MAPK signaling pathway, Jak-STAT signaling pathway, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, p53 signaling pathway, focal adhesion, NF-kappa B signaling pathway, and apoptosis, et al. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the comparative expression of miRNAs in MDBK cells after CPIV3 infection. Our finding provides information concerning miRNAs expression profile in response to CPIV3 infection, and offers clues for identifying potential candidates for antiviral therapies against CPIV3.

  11. Opposing effects of cAMP and T259 phosphorylation on plasma membrane diffusion of the water channel aquaporin-5 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells

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    Koffman, Jennifer Skaarup; Christensen, Eva Arnspang; Marlar, Saw

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporin-5 (AQP5) facilitates passive water transport in glandular epithelia in response to secretory stimuli via intracellular pathways involving calcium release, cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA). In epithelial plasma membranes, AQP5 may be acutely regulated to facilitate water transport...... in the plasma membrane diffusion coefficient of AQP5. We aimed to test the short-term regulatory effects of the above pathways, by measuring lateral diffusion of AQP5 and an AQP5 phospho-mutant, T259A, using k-space Image Correlation Spectroscopy of quantum dot- and EGFP-labeled AQP5. Elevated cAMP and PKA...... inhibition significantly decreased lateral diffusion of AQP5, whereas T259A mutation showed opposing effects; slowing diffusion without stimulation and increasing diffusion to basal levels after cAMP elevation. Thus, lateral diffusion of AQP5 is significantly regulated by cAMP, PKA, and T259 phosphorylation...

  12. Metabolic flux profiling of MDCK cells during growth and canine adenovirus vector production

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno Carinhas; Daniel A. M. Pais; Alexey Koshkin; Paulo Fernandes; Ana S. Coroadinha; Manuel J. T. Carrondo; Paula M. Alves; Ana P. Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    Canine adenovirus vector type 2 (CAV2) represents an alternative to human adenovirus vectors for certain gene therapy applications, particularly neurodegenerative diseases. However, more efficient production processes, assisted by a greater understanding of the effect of infection on producer cells, are required. Combining [1,2-13C]glucose and [U-13C]glutamine, we apply for the first time 13C-Metabolic flux analysis (13C-MFA) to study E1-transformed Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells meta...

  13. First detection of canine parvovirus type 2b from diarrheic dogs in Himachal Pradesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Shalini; Dhar, Prasenjit; Thakur, Aneesh

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The present study was conducted to detect the presence of canine parvovirus (CPV) among diarrheic dogs in Himachal Pradesh and to identify the most prevalent antigenic variant of CPV based on molecular typing and sequence analysis of VP2 gene. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 102 fecal...... for the detection of CPV-2c. CPV-2b isolate was cultured on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell lines and sequenced using VP2 structural protein gene. Multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis was done using ClustalW and MEGA6 and inferred using the Neighbor-Joining method. RESULTS: No sample was found...

  14. Pretranslational regulation of Na-K-ATPase in cultured canine kidney cells by low K

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    Bowen, J.W.; McDonough, A.

    1987-02-01

    Long-term upregulation of the sodium pump (Na-K-adenosine triphosphatase (Na-K-ATPase)) entails an increase in the number of enzyme molecules. The authors incubated Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells in low K medium and studied the time course and magnitude of change in the relative abundance of the two Na-K-ATPase subunits ( and US ), in the synthesis rate of the subunits, and in the relative abundance of - and US -mRNA. When cells were incubated in medium containing 0.25 mM K , intracellular Na increased. The relative abundance of Na-K-ATPase subunits, measured with ( SVI)-labelled immunoblots of cell homogenates, increases such that after 24 h was 1.71 +/- 0.33 and US was 1.67 +/- 0.22 times control. After 8 h of K depletion, -synthesis rate, measured by immunoprecipitation of pulse-labelled cells, increased to 2.30 +/- 0.50 and beta increased to 2.07 +/- 0.42 times control. The - and US -subunit mRNA abundance, measured by hybridizing - and US -cDNA probes to total RNA, increased within 30 min to 1.93 +/- 0.24 and 2.29 +/- 0.64 times control, respectively. They conclude that regulatory adjustments of Na-K-ATPase abundance involve an increase in translation after a rapid and coordinate increase in the concentrations of - and US -subunit mRNA.

  15. Basement membrane and interstitial proteoglycans produced by MDCK cells correspond to those expressed in the kidney cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erickson, A C; Couchman, J R

    2001-01-01

    Multiple proteoglycans (PGs) are present in all basement membranes (BM) and may contribute to their structure and function, but their effects on cell behavior are not well understood. Their postulated functions include: a structural role in maintaining tissue histoarchitecture, or aid in selective...... filtration processes; sequestration of growth factors; and regulation of cellular differentiation. Furthermore, expression PGs has been found to vary in several disease states. In order to elucidate the role of PGs in the BM, a well-characterized model of polarized epithelium, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK...... core proteins or CS stubs generated by cABC treatment, revealed that both basement membrane and interstitial PGs are secreted by MDCK cells. HSPGs expressed by MDCK cells are perlecan, agrin, and collagen XVIII. Various CSPG core proteins are made by MDCK cells and have been identified as biglycan...

  16. [Adenovirus-mediated canine interferon-gamma expression and its antiviral activity against canine parvovirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kao; Jin, Huijun; Zhong, Fei; Li, Xiujin; Neng, Changai; Chen, Huihui; Li, Wenyan; Wen, Jiexia

    2012-11-04

    To construct recombinant adenovirus containing canine interferon-gamma (cIFN-gamma) gene and to investigate its antiviral activity against canine parvovirus in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK). [Methods] The cIFN-gamma gene was inserted into adenovirus shuttle plasmid to construct pShuttle3-cIFN-gamma expression vector, from which the cIFN-gamma expression cassette was transferred into the adenovirus genomic plasmid pAdeno-X by specific restriction sites to generate recombinant adenovirus genomic plasmid pAd-cIFN-gamma. The pAd-cIFN-gamma plasmid was linearized by digestion and transfected into human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells to generate the replication-defective cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus (Ad-cIFN-gamma). To analyze its anti-canine parvovirus activity, the MDCK cells were pre-infected by Ad-cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus, and then infected by canine parvovirus. The antiviral activity of the Ad-cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus against parvovirus was analyzed. The recombinant adenovirus containing cIFN-gamma gene was constructed by the ligation method. The recombinant adenovirus could mediates recombinant cIFN-gamma secretory expression in MDCK cells. The Ad-cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus could significantly inhibit canine parvovirus replication in MDCK cells pre-infected with the recombinant adenovirus. These results indicate that the Ad-cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus has the potent antiviral activity against canine parvovirus. The Ad-cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus was successfully constructed by the ligation method and possessed a powerful antiviral activity against canine parvovirus.

  17. Metabolic flux profiling of MDCK cells during growth and canine adenovirus vector production.

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    Carinhas, Nuno; Pais, Daniel A M; Koshkin, Alexey; Fernandes, Paulo; Coroadinha, Ana S; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Alves, Paula M; Teixeira, Ana P

    2016-03-23

    Canine adenovirus vector type 2 (CAV2) represents an alternative to human adenovirus vectors for certain gene therapy applications, particularly neurodegenerative diseases. However, more efficient production processes, assisted by a greater understanding of the effect of infection on producer cells, are required. Combining [1,2-(13)C]glucose and [U-(13)C]glutamine, we apply for the first time (13)C-Metabolic flux analysis ((13)C-MFA) to study E1-transformed Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells metabolism during growth and CAV2 production. MDCK cells displayed a marked glycolytic and ammoniagenic metabolism, and (13)C data revealed a large fraction of glutamine-derived labelling in TCA cycle intermediates, emphasizing the role of glutamine anaplerosis. (13)C-MFA demonstrated the importance of pyruvate cycling in balancing glycolytic and TCA cycle activities, as well as occurrence of reductive alphaketoglutarate (AKG) carboxylation. By turn, CAV2 infection significantly upregulated fluxes through most central metabolism, including glycolysis, pentose-phosphate pathway, glutamine anaplerosis and, more prominently, reductive AKG carboxylation and cytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A formation, suggestive of increased lipogenesis. Based on these results, we suggest culture supplementation strategies to stimulate nucleic acid and lipid biosynthesis for improved canine adenoviral vector production.

  18. Monoclonal Antibodies 13A4 and AC133 Do Not Recognize the Canine Ortholog of Mouse and Human Stem Cell Antigen Prominin-1 (CD133.

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    Kristina Thamm

    Full Text Available The pentaspan membrane glycoprotein prominin-1 (CD133 is widely used in medicine as a cell surface marker of stem and cancer stem cells. It has opened new avenues in stem cell-based regenerative therapy and oncology. This molecule is largely used with human samples or the mouse model, and consequently most biological tools including antibodies are directed against human and murine prominin-1. Although the general structure of prominin-1 including its membrane topology is conserved throughout the animal kingdom, its primary sequence is poorly conserved. Thus, it is unclear if anti-human and -mouse prominin-1 antibodies cross-react with their orthologs in other species, especially dog. Answering this issue is imperative in light of the growing number of studies using canine prominin-1 as an antigenic marker. Here, we address this issue by cloning the canine prominin-1 and use its overexpression as a green fluorescent protein fusion protein in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells to determine its immunoreactivity with antibodies against human or mouse prominin-1. We used immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry and immunoblotting techniques and surprisingly found no cross-species immunoreactivity. These results raise some caution in data interpretation when anti-prominin-1 antibodies are used in interspecies studies.

  19. Isolation of Canine parvovirus with a view to identify the prevalent serotype on the basis of partial sequence analysis

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    Gurpreet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to isolate Canine parvovirus (CPV from suspected dogs on madin darby canine kidney (MDCK cell line and its confirmation by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and nested PCR (NPCR. Further, VP2 gene of the CPV isolates was amplified and sequenced to determine prevailing antigenic type. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 rectal swabs were collected from dogs showing signs of gastroenteritis, processed and subjected to isolation in MDCK cell line. The samples showing cytopathic effects (CPE were confirmed by PCR and NPCR. These samples were subjected to PCR for amplification of VP2 gene of CPV, sequenced and analyzed to study the prevailing antigenic types of CPV. Results: Out of the 60 samples subjected to isolation in MDCK cell line five samples showed CPE in the form of rounding of cells, clumping of cells and finally detachment of the cells. When these samples and the two commercially available vaccines were subjected to PCR for amplification of VP2 gene, a 1710 bp product was amplified. The sequence analysis revealed that the vaccines belonged to the CPV-2 type and the samples were of CPV-2b type. Conclusion: It can be concluded from the present study that out of a total of 60 samples 5 samples exhibited CPE as observed in MDCK cell line. Sequence analysis of the VP2 gene among the samples and vaccine strains revealed that samples belonged to CPV-2b type and vaccines belonging to CPV-2.

  20. Isolation of Canine parvovirus with a view to identify the prevalent serotype on the basis of partial sequence analysis.

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    Kaur, Gurpreet; Chandra, Mudit; Dwivedi, P N; Sharma, N S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate Canine parvovirus (CPV) from suspected dogs on madin darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line and its confirmation by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nested PCR (NPCR). Further, VP2 gene of the CPV isolates was amplified and sequenced to determine prevailing antigenic type. A total of 60 rectal swabs were collected from dogs showing signs of gastroenteritis, processed and subjected to isolation in MDCK cell line. The samples showing cytopathic effects (CPE) were confirmed by PCR and NPCR. These samples were subjected to PCR for amplification of VP2 gene of CPV, sequenced and analyzed to study the prevailing antigenic types of CPV. Out of the 60 samples subjected to isolation in MDCK cell line five samples showed CPE in the form of rounding of cells, clumping of cells and finally detachment of the cells. When these samples and the two commercially available vaccines were subjected to PCR for amplification of VP2 gene, a 1710 bp product was amplified. The sequence analysis revealed that the vaccines belonged to the CPV-2 type and the samples were of CPV-2b type. It can be concluded from the present study that out of a total of 60 samples 5 samples exhibited CPE as observed in MDCK cell line. Sequence analysis of the VP2 gene among the samples and vaccine strains revealed that samples belonged to CPV-2b type and vaccines belonging to CPV-2.

  1. cfa-miR-143 Promotes Apoptosis via the p53 Pathway in Canine Influenza Virus H3N2-Infected Cells.

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    Zhou, Pei; Tu, Liqing; Lin, Xi; Hao, Xiangqi; Zheng, Qingxu; Zeng, Weijie; Zhang, Xin; Zheng, Yun; Wang, Lifang; Li, Shoujun

    2017-11-25

    MicroRNAs regulate multiple aspects of the host response to viral infection. This study verified that the expression of cfa-miR-143 was upregulated in vivo and in vitro by canine influenza virus (CIV) H3N2 infection. To understand the role of cfa-miR-143 in CIV-infected cells, the target gene of cfa-miR-143 was identified and assessed for correlations with proteins involved in the apoptosis pathway. A dual luciferase reporter assay showed that cfa-miR-143 targets insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 (Igfbp5). Furthermore, a miRNA agomir and antagomir of cfa-miR-143 caused the downregulation and upregulation of Igfbp5, respectively, in CIV-infected madin-darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. This study demonstrated that cfa-miR-143 stimulated p53 and caspase3 activation and induced apoptosis via the p53 pathway in CIV H3N2-infected cells. In conclusion, CIV H3N2 induced the upregulation of cfa-miR-143, which contributes to apoptosis via indirectly activating the p53-caspase3 pathway.

  2. VAMP7 modulates ciliary biogenesis in kidney cells.

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    Christina M Szalinski

    Full Text Available Epithelial cells elaborate specialized domains that have distinct protein and lipid compositions, including the apical and basolateral surfaces and primary cilia. Maintaining the identity of these domains is required for proper cell function, and requires the efficient and selective SNARE-mediated fusion of vesicles containing newly synthesized and recycling proteins with the proper target membrane. Multiple pathways exist to deliver newly synthesized proteins to the apical surface of kidney cells, and the post-Golgi SNAREs, or VAMPs, involved in these distinct pathways have not been identified. VAMP7 has been implicated in apical protein delivery in other cell types, and we hypothesized that this SNARE would have differential effects on the trafficking of apical proteins known to take distinct routes to the apical surface in kidney cells. VAMP7 expressed in polarized Madin Darby canine kidney cells colocalized primarily with LAMP2-positive compartments, and siRNA-mediated knockdown modulated lysosome size, consistent with the known function of VAMP7 in lysosomal delivery. Surprisingly, VAMP7 knockdown had no effect on apical delivery of numerous cargoes tested, but did decrease the length and frequency of primary cilia. Additionally, VAMP7 knockdown disrupted cystogenesis in cells grown in a three-dimensional basement membrane matrix. The effects of VAMP7 depletion on ciliogenesis and cystogenesis are not directly linked to the disruption of lysosomal function, as cilia lengths and cyst morphology were unaffected in an MDCK lysosomal storage disorder model. Together, our data suggest that VAMP7 plays an essential role in ciliogenesis and lumen formation. To our knowledge, this is the first study implicating an R-SNARE in ciliogenesis and cystogenesis.

  3. First detection of canine parvovirus type 2b from diarrheic dogs in Himachal Pradesh.

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    Sharma, Shalini; Dhar, Prasenjit; Thakur, Aneesh; Sharma, Vivek; Sharma, Mandeep

    2016-09-01

    The present study was conducted to detect the presence of canine parvovirus (CPV) among diarrheic dogs in Himachal Pradesh and to identify the most prevalent antigenic variant of CPV based on molecular typing and sequence analysis of VP2 gene. A total of 102 fecal samples were collected from clinical cases of diarrhea or hemorrhagic gastroenteritis from CPV vaccinated or non-vaccinated dogs. Samples were tested using CPV-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting VP2 gene, multiplex PCR for detection of CPV-2a and CPV-2b antigenic variants, and a PCR for the detection of CPV-2c. CPV-2b isolate was cultured on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell lines and sequenced using VP2 structural protein gene. Multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis was done using ClustalW and MEGA6 and inferred using the Neighbor-Joining method. No sample was found positive for the original CPV strain usually present in the vaccine. However, about 50% (52 out of 102) of the samples were found to be positive with CPV-2ab PCR assay that detects newer variants of CPV circulating in the field. In addition, multiplex PCR assay that identifies both CPV-2ab and CPV-2b revealed that CPV-2b was the major antigenic variant present in the affected dogs. A PCR positive isolate of CPV-2b was adapted to grow in MDCK cells and produced characteristic cytopathic effect after 5 th passage. Multiple sequence alignment of VP2 structural gene of CPV-2b isolate (Accession number HG004610) used in the study was found to be similar to other sequenced isolates in NCBI sequence database and showed 98-99% homology. This study reports the first detection of CPV-2b in dogs with hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in Himachal Pradesh and absence of other antigenic types of CPV. Further, CPV-specific PCR assay can be used for rapid confirmation of circulating virus strains under field conditions.

  4. Genomic Knockout of Endogenous Canine P-Glycoprotein in Wild-Type, Human P-Glycoprotein and Human BCRP Transfected MDCKII Cell Lines by Zinc Finger Nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartzke, Dominik; Delzer, Jürgen; Laplanche, Loic; Uchida, Yasuo; Hoshi, Yutaro; Tachikawa, Masanori; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Sydor, Jens; Fricker, Gert

    2015-06-01

    To investigate whether it is possible to specifically suppress the expression and function of endogenous canine P-glycoprotein (cPgp) in Madin-Darby canine kidney type II cells (MDCKII) transfected with hPGP and breast cancer resistance protein (hBCRP) by zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) producing sequence specific DNA double strand breaks. Wild-type, hPGP-transfected, and hBCRP-transfected MDCKII cells were transfected with ZFN targeting for cPgp. Net efflux ratios (NER) of Pgp and Bcrp substrates were determined by dividing efflux ratios (basal-to-apical / apical-to-basal) in over-expressing cell monolayers by those in wild-type ones. From ZFN-transfected cells, cell populations (ko-cells) showing knockout of cPgp were selected based on genotyping by PCR. qRT-PCR analysis showed the significant knock-downs of cPgp and interestingly also cMrp2 expressions. Specific knock-downs of protein expression for cPgp were shown by western blotting and quantitative targeted absolute proteomics. Endogenous canine Bcrp proteins were not detected. For PGP-transfected cells, NERs of 5 Pgp substrates in ko-cells were significantly greater than those in parental cells not transfected with ZFN. Similar result was obtained for BCRP-transfected cells with a dual Pgp and Bcrp substrate. Specific efflux mediated by hPGP or hBCRP can be determined with MDCKII cells where cPgp has been knocked out by ZFN.

  5. Recombinant canine adenovirus type-2 expressing TgROP16 provides partial protection against acute Toxoplasma gondii infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-Zhen; Lv, Lin; Zhang, Xu; Anchang, Kenneth Yongabi; Abdullahi, Auwalu Yusuf; Tu, Liqing; Wang, Xiaohu; Xia, Lijun; Zhang, Xiu-Xiang; Feng, Weili; Lu, Chunxia; Li, Shoujun; Yuan, Zi-Guo

    2016-11-01

    We previously demonstrated that the survival time of BALB/c mice challenged with Toxoplasma gondii RH strain was prolonged by immunising the mice with a eukaryotic vector expressing the protein ROP16 of T. gondii. Building upon previous findings, we are exploring improved vaccination strategies to enhance protection. In this work, a novel recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 expressing ROP16 (CAV-2-ROP16) of T. gondii was constructed and identified to express ROP16 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK) cells by western blot (WB) and indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) assays. Intramuscular immunisation of BALB/c mice with CAV-2-ROP16 was performed to evaluate the humoral and cellular immune responses. This vaccination triggered significant humoral and cellular responses, including ROP16-stimulated lymphoproliferation (P0.05), revealing that a predominant Th1-type response had developed. The cell-mediated cytotoxic activity with high levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α was significantly increased in both CD4 + and CD8 + T-cell compartments in the mice immunised with CAV-2-ROP16 (Pdays post infection compared with control mice that all died within seven days (Pvaccination until now. Our work presents the successful use of recombinant virus CAV-2-ROP16 in vaccination protocols to protect against intraperitoneal challenge with the virulent RH strain of T. gondii. This system was shown to be extremely efficient in eliciting humoral and cellular immune responses that led to a significant improvement in survival time in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Guanine nucleotide regulation of α1-adrenergic receptors of muscle and kidney eptihelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terman, B.I.; Hughes, R.J.; Slivka, S.R.; Insel, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have examined the effect of guanine nucleotides on the interaction of adrenergic agents with α 1 -adrenergic receptors of two cell lines, the Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) and BC3H-1 muscle cells. While gaunylylimidodiphosphoate (Gpp(NH)p) had no effect on the affinity or the total number of [ -3 H]prazosin binding sites in membranes prepared from these cells, the nucleotide decreased the apparent affinity of the agonist epinephrine in competing for [ 3 H]prazosin binding sites in both cell types. The EC 50 of Gpp(NH)p was ∼100 μM, and a maximal effect was seen at 500 μM. In contrast, 100 μM Gpp(NH)p yielding maximal shifts in binding of epinephrine to β-adrenergic receptors in BC3H-1 cell membranes. Guanine nucleotides were significantly more effective than adenine nucleotides in shifting agonist affinity for the α 1 -receptor and Mg ++ was required to observe a maximal effect. α 1 -receptor agonists activated phosphatidylinositol (PI) hydrolysis in both cell types, but have no direct effect on membrane adenylate cyclase activity. In intact BC3H-1 cells, α 1 -agonists inhibited β-adrenergic cAMP production, an effect which appears in preliminary studies not to result from enhanced phosphodieterase activity. These results show that agonist binding to α 1 -adrenergic receptors in mammalian kidney and muscle cells is regulated by guanine nucleotides. This regulation and inturn transmembrane signalling (PI hydrolysis) by these receptors appear to involve a guanine nucleotide binding (G) protein, which may be different than G/sub s/ and G/sub i/

  7. Altered dynamics of a lipid raft associated protein in a kidney model of Fabry disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labilloy, Anatália; Youker, Robert T; Bruns, Jennifer R; Kukic, Ira; Kiselyov, Kirill; Halfter, Willi; Finegold, David; do Monte, Semiramis Jamil Hadad; Weisz, Ora A

    2014-02-01

    Accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) and other neutral glycosphingolipids with galactosyl residues is the hallmark of Fabry disease, a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of the enzyme alpha-galactosidase A (α-gal A). These lipids are incorporated into the plasma membrane and intracellular membranes, with a preference for lipid rafts. Disruption of raft mediated cell processes is implicated in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, but little is known about the effects of the accumulation of glycosphingolipids on raft dynamics in the context of Fabry disease. Using siRNA technology, we have generated a polarized renal epithelial cell model of Fabry disease in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. These cells present increased levels of Gb3 and enlarged lysosomes, and progressively accumulate zebra bodies. The polarized delivery of both raft-associated and raft-independent proteins was unaffected by α-gal A knockdown, suggesting that accumulation of Gb3 does not disrupt biosynthetic trafficking pathways. To assess the effect of α-gal A silencing on lipid raft dynamics, we employed number and brightness (N&B) analysis to measure the oligomeric status and mobility of the model glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein GFP-GPI. We observed a significant increase in the oligomeric size of antibody-induced clusters of GFP-GPI at the plasma membrane of α-gal A silenced cells compared with control cells. Our results suggest that the interaction of GFP-GPI with lipid rafts may be altered in the presence of accumulated Gb3. The implications of our results with respect to the pathogenesis of Fabry disease are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Targeting of SNAP-23 and SNAP-25 in polarized epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Low, SH; Roche, PA; Anderson, HA; van Ijzendoorn, SCD; Zhang, M; Mostov, KE; Weimbs, T

    1998-01-01

    SNAP-23 is the ubiquitously expressed homologue of the neuronal SNAP-25, which functions in synaptic vesicle fusion, We have investigated the subcellular localization of SNAP-23 in polarized epithelial cells, In hepatocyte-derived HepG2 cells and in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, the

  9. A rapid method for immunotitration of influenza viruses using flow cytometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lonsdale, R.; Pau, M. G.; Oerlemans, M.; Ophorst, C.; Vooys, A.; Havenga, M.; Goudsmit, J.; Uytdehaag, F.; Marzio, G.

    2003-01-01

    Reliable assays for accurate titration of influenza virus in infectious samples are pivotal to both influenza research and vaccine development. A titration assay adopted commonly for this purpose is the plaque assay on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, despite it being time and labour

  10. First detection of canine parvovirus type 2b from diarrheic dogs in Himachal Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Sharma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to detect the presence of canine parvovirus (CPV among diarrheic dogs in Himachal Pradesh and to identify the most prevalent antigenic variant of CPV based on molecular typing and sequence analysis of VP2 gene. Materials and Methods: A total of 102 fecal samples were collected from clinical cases of diarrhea or hemorrhagic gastroenteritis from CPV vaccinated or non-vaccinated dogs. Samples were tested using CPV-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting VP2 gene, multiplex PCR for detection of CPV-2a and CPV-2b antigenic variants, and a PCR for the detection of CPV-2c. CPV-2b isolate was cultured on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cell lines and sequenced using VP2 structural protein gene. Multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis was done using ClustalW and MEGA6 and inferred using the Neighbor-Joining method. Results: No sample was found positive for the original CPV strain usually present in the vaccine. However, about 50% (52 out of 102 of the samples were found to be positive with CPV-2ab PCR assay that detects newer variants of CPV circulating in the field. In addition, multiplex PCR assay that identifies both CPV-2ab and CPV-2b revealed that CPV-2b was the major antigenic variant present in the affected dogs. A PCR positive isolate of CPV-2b was adapted to grow in MDCK cells and produced characteristic cytopathic effect after 5th passage. Multiple sequence alignment of VP2 structural gene of CPV-2b isolate (Accession number HG004610 used in the study was found to be similar to other sequenced isolates in NCBI sequence database and showed 98-99% homology. Conclusion: This study reports the first detection of CPV-2b in dogs with hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in Himachal Pradesh and absence of other antigenic types of CPV. Further, CPV-specific PCR assay can be used for rapid confirmation of circulating virus strains under field conditions.

  11. The Functional Effect of an Amphiregulin Autocrine Loop on Inflammatory Breast Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Darby canine kidney cells (15). Also, using targeted knockout mice, Luetteke et al. reported that specific loss of AR, but not EGF or TGF-a, severely...due to relocalization of E-cadherin in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (15). Our laboratory has also discovered that AR signaling differs from EGF...growth factor induction of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in osteosarcoma cells is modulated by the metastasis associated protein CAPL

  12. Compartmentalization of prostaglandins in the canine kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan-Boyd, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The kidney has been shown to synthesize all of the naturally occurring major prostaglandins which may be restricted to a discrete part of the kidney where their actions are physiologically important, such as the vascular compartment and the tubular compartment. In order to examine this concept of compartmentalization, the authors conducted a series of experiments to determine whether PGl 2 , measured as 6-keto-pGF/sub 1α/, produced in the kidney is restricted to the renal vascular compartment or whether it also has access to the tubular compartment. Experiments were performed in the pentobarbital-anesthetized dog. Increasing pre-glomerular levels of 6-keto-PFG/sub 1α/ caused marked increases in both the urinary excretion and the renal venous outflow to 6-keto-PGF/sub 1α/. When 3 H-6-keto-PGF/sub 1α/ was co-infused with inulin into the renal artery, 33% of the radioactivity and 23% of the inulin was recovered on first pass. With infusion of 3 H-PGl 2 and inulin, 20% of the radioactivity and 28% of the inulin reached the urine on first pass. Radioactive PGl 2 appeared to be less filterable at the glomeruli than either 3 H-6-keto-PGF/sub 1α/ or inulin. In the final set of experiments, in which dogs were prepared for a ureteral stopped-flow study, the PGE 2 /U/P/sub In/ ratio a peak was observed proximal to the Na + plateau but distal to the Na+ nadir. In light of the results from the stopped-flow study and the intrarenal infusion studies, they conclude that PGE 2 synthesized in the kidney enters both the renal and tubular compartments. In contrast, they find that 6-keto-PGF/sub 1α/ of renal origin enters only the renal origin enters only the renal vascular compartment and not the tubular compartment

  13. Eimeria tenella: in vitro development in irradiated bovine kidney cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, M.St.J.; Schmatz, D.M.; Stevens, S.; Habbersett, M.C.; Murray, P.K. (Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Labs., Rahway, NJ (USA))

    1984-06-01

    The initial infection and first-generation development of Eimeria tenella was quantified using a cloned MDBK (Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney) cell line, irradiated with gamma radiation prior to infection, as the host cell. Irradiated cell cultures were found to be more susceptible to infection and had a greater capacity to support parasite development than non-irradiated cultures. It was suggested that the larger proportion of cells in the G/sub 2/ phase of the cell cycle, the larger individual cell size and the inhibition of cell division in the irradiated cultures were all factors contributing to the increased susceptibility to infection and capacity to support parasite growth and development. The application of this technique (host cell irradiation) to the cultivation of other intracellular, protozoan parasites is discussed.

  14. Eimeria tenella: in vitro development in irradiated bovine kidney cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, M. St.J.; Schmatz, D.M.; Stevens, S.; Habbersett, M.C.; Murray, P.K.

    1984-01-01

    The initial infection and first-generation development of Eimeria tenella was quantified using a cloned MDBK (Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney) cell line, irradiated with gamma radiation prior to infection, as the host cell. Irradiated cell cultures were found to be more susceptible to infection and had a greater capacity to support parasite development than non-irradiated cultures. It was suggested that the larger proportion of cells in the G 2 phase of the cell cycle, the larger individual cell size and the inhibition of cell division in the irradiated cultures were all factors contributing to the increased susceptibility to infection and capacity to support parasite growth and development. The application of this technique (host cell irradiation) to the cultivation of other intracellular, protozoan parasites is discussed. (author)

  15. ABC transporters affect the elimination and toxicity of CdTe quantum dots in liver and kidney cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Mingli; Yin, Huancai; Bai, Pengli [CAS Key Lab of Bio-Medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215163 (China); Miao, Peng [CAS Key Lab of Bio-Medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215163 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Deng, Xudong [Department of Chemical Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4L7 (Canada); Xu, Yingxue [CAS Key Lab of Bio-Medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215163 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hu, Jun [CAS Key Lab of Bio-Medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215163 (China); Yin, Jian, E-mail: yinj@sibet.ac.cn [CAS Key Lab of Bio-Medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215163 (China)

    2016-07-15

    This paper aimed to investigate the role of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporters on the efflux and the toxicity of nanoparticles in liver and kidney cells. In this study, we synthesized CdTe quantum dots (QDs) that were monodispersed and emitted green fluorescence (maximum peak at 530 nm). Such QDs tended to accumulate in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2), human kidney cells 2 (HK-2), and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, and cause significant toxicity in all the three cell lines. Using specific inhibitors and inducers of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multidrug resistance associated proteins (Mrps), the cellular accumulation and subsequent toxicity of QDs in HepG2 and HK-2 cells were significantly affected, while only slight changes appeared in MDCK cells, corresponding well with the functional expressions of ABC transporters in cells. Moreover, treatment of QDs caused concentration- and time- dependent induction of ABC transporters in HepG2 and HK-2 cells, but such phenomenon was barely found in MDCK cells. Furthermore, the effects of CdTe QDs on ABC transporters were found to be greater than those of CdCl{sub 2} at equivalent concentrations of cadmium, indicating that the effects of QDs should be a combination of free Cd{sup 2+} and specific properties of QDs. Overall, these results indicated a strong dependence between the functional expressions of ABC transporters and the efflux of QDs, which could be an important reason for the modulation of QDs toxicity by ABC transporters. - Highlights: • ABC transporters contributed actively to the cellular efflux of CdTe quantum dots. • ABC transporters affected the cellular toxicity of CdTe quantum dots. • Treatment of CdTe quantum dots induced the gene expression of ABC transporters. • Free Cd{sup 2+} should be partially involved in the effects of QDs on ABC transporters. • Cellular efflux of quantum dots could be an important modulator for its toxicity.

  16. Drug-permeability and transporter assays in Caco-2 and MDCK cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Donna A

    2011-12-01

    The human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 and Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cell lines provide in vitro tools to assess a drug's permeability and transporter interactions during discovery and development. The cells, when cultured on semiporous filters, form confluent monolayers that model the intestinal epithelial barrier for permeability, transporter and drug-interaction assays. The applications of these assays in pharmaceutical research include qualitative prediction and ranking of absorption, determining mechanism(s) of permeability, formulation effects on drug permeability, and the potential for transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions. This review focuses on recent examples of Caco-2 and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells assays for drug permeability including transfected and knock-down cells, miniaturization and automation, and assay combinations to better understand and predict intestinal drug absorption.

  17. Replacement of the cytoplasmic domain alters sorting of a viral glycoprotein in polarized cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Puddington, L; Woodgett, C; Rose, J K

    1987-01-01

    The envelope glycoprotein (G protein) of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is transported to the basolateral plasma membrane of polarized epithelial cells, whereas the hemagglutinin glycoprotein (HA protein) of influenza virus is transported to the apical plasma membrane. To determine if the cytoplasmic domain of VSV G protein might be important in directing G protein to the basolateral membrane, we derived polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cell lines expressing G protein or G protein with i...

  18. Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of 3-(2-Aminoheterocycle-4-benzyloxyphenylbenzamide Derivatives as BACE-1 Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lushan Yu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Three series of 3-(2-aminoheterocycle-4-benzyloxyphenylbenzamide derivatives, 2-aminooxazoles, 2-aminothiazoles, and 2-amino-6H-1,3,4-thiadizines were designed, synthesized and evaluated as β-secretase (BACE-1 inhibitors. Preliminary structure-activity relationships revealed that the existence of a 2-amino-6H-1,3,4-thiadizine moiety and α-naphthyl group were favorable for BACE-1 inhibition. Among the synthesized compounds, 5e exhibited the most potent BACE-1 inhibitory activity, with an IC50 value of 9.9 μΜ and it exhibited high brain uptake potential in Madin-Darby anine kidney cell lines (MDCK and a Madin-Darby canine kidney-multidrug resistance 1 (MDCK-MDR1 model.

  19. Design, synthesis and evaluation of 3-(2-aminoheterocycle)-4-benzyloxyphenylbenzamide derivatives as BACE-1 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Shihao; Wang, Fei; Liao, Yong; Yu, Haiping; Li, Jia; Huang, Wenhai; Hu, Haihong; Yu, Lushan; Hu, Yongzhou; Sheng, Rong

    2013-03-20

    Three series of 3-(2-aminoheterocycle)-4-benzyloxyphenylbenzamide derivatives, 2-aminooxazoles, 2-aminothiazoles, and 2-amino-6H-1,3,4-thiadizines were designed, synthesized and evaluated as β-secretase (BACE-1) inhibitors. Preliminary structure-activity relationships revealed that the existence of a 2-amino-6H-1,3,4-thiadizine moiety and α-naphthyl group were favorable for BACE-1 inhibition. Among the synthesized compounds, 5e exhibited the most potent BACE-1 inhibitory activity, with an IC50 value of 9.9 μΜ and it exhibited high brain uptake potential in Madin-Darby anine kidney cell lines (MDCK) and a Madin-Darby canine kidney-multidrug resistance 1 (MDCK-MDR1) model.

  20. Echobiometrics kidney and renal artery triplex doppler of canine fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.R. Feliciano

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the sogographic parameters and biometry of canine fetal kidneys using the B mode, and to determinate the vascular index of the fetal renal arteries using the Doppler Triplex. Twenty four Shi-tzu and Pug, weighting between 4 and 10kg, aging between 4 and 6 years old were evaluated. The B mode, the fetal renal echobiometry and regularity of the renal surface, echotexture and cortex:medular ratio were evaluated during the 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th weeks of pregnancy. At the same time point of the B mode evaluation, the Doppler Triplex was carried out to assess the sistolic peak velocity (SPV, end diastolic velocity (EDV, vascular resistive (RI and pulsatility index (PI. B mode revealed no fetal renal abnormalities and echobiometry showed important measurements during fetal development (P0.05. B mode and Doppler Triplex were important tools for the assessment of fetal renal development, using echobiometry and renal arterial index in canie fetuses.

  1. The Use of Orthogonal Polarizations in Microwave Imagery of Isolated Canine Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, L. E.; Jacobi, J. H.

    1980-06-01

    A method of imaging biological targets using microwave radiation at a frequency of 4 GHz is presented. Linearly polarized radiation is transmitted through an isolated canine kidney and received with co-polarized and cross-polarized antennas. Images are displayed as the spatial variation of the magnitude of the transmission scattering parameter S21 for each mode of polarization. The relationship between the spatial variation of the magnitude of S21 and canine renal anatomy is discussed. It is shown that within the kidney the cross-polarized image tends to emphasize linear or piecewise linear structures, whereas the co-polarized image balances renal cortical lobulations.

  2. Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL as a biomarker for acute canine kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Ya-Jane

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomarkers for the early prediction of canine acute kidney injury (AKI are clinically important. Recently, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL was found to be a sensitive biomarker for the prediction of human AKI at a very early stage and the development of AKI after surgery. However, NGAL has not yet been studied with respect to dog kidney diseases. The application of NGAL canine AKI was investigated in this study. Results The canine NGAL gene was successfully cloned and expressed. Polyclonal antibodies against canine NGAL were generated and used to develop an ELISA for measuring NGAL protein in serum and urine samples that were collected from 39 dogs at different time points after surgery. AKI was defined by the standard method, namely a serum creatinine increase of greater than or equal to 26.5 μmol/L from baseline within 48 h. At 12 h after surgery, compared to the group without AKI (12 dogs, the NGAL level in the urine of seven dogs with AKI was significantly increased (median 178.4 pg/mL vs. 88.0 pg/mL, and this difference was sustained to 72 h. Conclusion As the increase in NGAL occurred much earlier than the increase in serum creatinine, urine NGAL seems to be able to serve as a sensitive and specific biomarker for the prediction of AKI in dogs.

  3. Histologic features of harvested canine kidneys preserved in four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endless efforts are required in the investigation of the best organ preservative. Normal Saline, 5% dextrose, Darrows and Ringers' Lactate were used as preservatives with the view to investigate the prospect of kidney survival in these solutions post harvest at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Ahmadu Bello University-Zaria.

  4. Attenuation changes of the normal and ischemic canine kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaschke, W.; Lipton, M.J.; Boyd, D.P.; Cann, C.; Strauss, L.; Sievers, R.S.; California Univ., San Francisco

    1985-01-01

    The potential of CT scanning to explore total and regional renal blood flow was evaluated in a dog model with unilateral renal artery stenosis (n=7, reduction of renal blood flow: 32-75% of base line flow). Attenuation versus time curves were generated for the renal cortex and medulla, as well as for the aorta and renal vein. A fast CT scanner was used which allowed for up to 24 scans/minute at the same level (slice thickness: 10 mm). A total of 10 ml contrast medim was injected into a peripheral vein for each scan series taken. During baseline conditions, the curve of the renal cortex and medulla demonstrated 2 peaks. The first peak was mainly related to early vascular enhancement, whereas the second peak corresponded mainly to the appearance of contrast medium in the distal convolutes and collecting ducts. Ischemia of the kidney resulted in a reduction of the first peak and a flattening of the leading edge slope. Transport of contrast medium through the extravascular compartments of the kidney was delayed during ischemia. Relative renal blood flow was obtained from the CT data by dividing peak enhancement by rise-time as assessed from the cortical curve. All measurements were related to baseline flow and validated by flow measurements using radioactive labeled microspheres (n=5). Correlation was found to be r=0.97. (orig.)

  5. Elastography of the normal canine liver, spleen and kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Andrew; Bradley, Kate; Birch, Sally; Browne, William J; Barberet, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    Elastography is a simple, expedient and noninvasive technique that may be used to assess the elasticity or stiffness of a tissue, in conjunction with traditional B-mode ultrasonography. Quantitative assessment of tissue stiffness can be made which involves measurement of the shear wave velocity within the tissue of interest. The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility of elastography for clinical use in the abdomen of conscious small animals and to investigate factors that affect shear wave velocity measurement. Elastography was performed on the liver, spleen, and kidneys of 15 dogs at predefined depths within the parenchyma. Breed, age, gender, neuter status, and weight were documented for each animal. Depth at which measurements were taken had a significant negative relationship with the shear wave velocity value obtained. Individual dog effects, such as weight and gender, also appeared to have a significant effect on the shear wave velocity measurement for specific organs; weight had a significant positive effect on the shear wave velocity for each of the organs examined, whereas the effect of gender was inconsistent between organs (having a positive effect for the liver and a negative effect for the spleen). It is hoped that these results may act as a baseline to guide further work into the field of elastography in companion animals. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  6. Functional and morphologic damage in the neonatally irradiated canine kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peneyra, R.S.; Jaenke, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    Perinatal irradiation of the developing kidney results in progressive glomerulosclerosis (PGS) and renal failure. This syndrome may result from direct radiation damage to mature deep cortical nephrons and/or nephron functional adaptations resulting from outer cortical nephron ablation. Beagle dogs received single, whole-body exposures (330 R) to 60 Co gamma radiation at 4 days of age (IR4) to study the combined effects of direct radiation damage and nephron loss, or at 30 days of age (IR30) to study the effects of renal irradiation alone. To study the effects of nephron loss alone, dogs underwent unilateral nephrectomy (UN4) or superficial hyperthermic renal ablation (HY4) at 4 days of age. Nephron loss due to irradiation (IR4) and partial renal ablation (UN4 and HY4) was associated with compensatory nephron hypertrophy and increased single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR), while irradiation at 30 days resulted in transitory decreased SNGFR. Similar degrees of PGS occurred in IR4 dogs which experienced both irradiation and loss of nephrons and UN4 and HY4 dogs which experienced only loss of nephrons. PGS of lesser severity also occurred in IR30 dogs. These findings indicate that PGS associated with perinatal renal irradiation results from direct radiation damage to deep cortical nephrons and compensatory functional changes occurring in response to loss of renal mass

  7. Antiviral activity of maca (Lepidium meyenii) against human influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Pumarola, Tomas; Alzamora Gonzales, Libertad; Valle Mendoza, Luis Javier del

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate antiviral activity of maca to reduce viral load in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells infected with influenza type A and B viruses (Flu-A and Flu-B, respectively). Methods Maca were extracted with methanol (1:2, v/v). The cell viability and toxicity of the extracts were evaluated on MDCK cells using method MTT assay. Antiviral activity of compounds against Flu-A and Flu-B viruses was assayed using a test for determining the inhibition of the cytopathic ...

  8. Membrane lipidome of an epithelial cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sampaio, Julio L; Gerl, Mathias J; Klose, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Tissue differentiation is an important process that involves major cellular membrane remodeling. We used Madin-Darby canine kidney cells as a model for epithelium formation and investigated the remodeling of the total cell membrane lipidome during the transition from a nonpolarized morphology...... to an epithelial morphology and vice versa. To achieve this, we developed a shotgun-based lipidomics workflow that enabled the absolute quantification of mammalian membrane lipidomes with minimal sample processing from low sample amounts. Epithelial morphogenesis was accompanied by a major shift from sphingomyelin...... to generate an apical membrane domain that serves as a protective barrier for the epithelial sheet....

  9. Antiviral potential of a diterpenoid compound sugiol from Metasequoia glyptostroboides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Vivek K; Kim, Na-Hyung; Kim, Kangmin; Kang, Sun Chul

    2016-05-01

    This research reports first time antiviral activity of sugiol, a diterpenoid isolated from Metasequoia glyptostroboides in terms of its ability to inhibit in vitro growth of H1N1 influenza virus. Antiviral potential of sugiol was evaluated through hcytopathogenic reduction assay using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line. Sugiol (500 μg/ml) was found to exhibit considerable anti-cytopathic effect on MDCK cell line confirming its antiviral efficacy against H1N1 influenza virus. These findings strongly reinforce the suggestion that sugiol could be a candidate of choice in combinational regimen with potential antiviral efficacy.

  10. AMP-activated protein kinase downregulates Kv7.1 cell surface expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin N; Krzystanek, Katarzyna; Jespersen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    in response to polarization of the epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line and that this was mediated by activation of protein kinase C (PKC). In this study, the pathway downstream of PKC, which leads to internalization of Kv7.1 upon cell polarization, is elucidated. We show by confocal...... microscopy that Kv7.1 is endocytosed upon initiation of the polarization process and sent for degradation by the lysosomal pathway. The internalization could be mimicked by pharmacological activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) using three different AMPK activators. We demonstrate...

  11. Transcutaneous glomerular filtration rate measurement in a canine animal model of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondritzki, Thomas; Steinbach, Sarah M L; Boehme, Philip; Hoffmann, Jessica; Kullmann, Maximilian; Schock-Kusch, Daniel; Vogel, Julia; Kolkhof, Peter; Sandner, Peter; Bischoff, Erwin; Hüser, Jörg; Dinh, Wilfried; Truebel, Hubert

    Quantitative assessment of renal function by measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is an important part of safety and efficacy evaluation in preclinical drug development. Existing methods are often time consuming, imprecise and associated with animal burden. Here we describe the comparison between GFR determinations with sinistrin (PS-GFR) and fluorescence-labelled sinistrin-application and its transcutaneous detection (TD-GFR) in a large animal model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). TD-GFR measurements compared to a standard method using i.v. sinistrin were performed in a canine model. Animals were treated with one-sided renal wrapping (RW) followed by renal artery occlusion (RO). Biomarker and remote hemodynamic measurements were performed. Plasma sinistrin in comparison to transcutaneous derived GFR data were determined during healthy conditions, after RW and RW+RO. RW alone did not led to any significant changes in renal function, neither with PS-GFR nor TD-GFR. Additional RO showed a rise in blood pressure (+68.0mmHg), plasma urea (+28.8mmol/l), creatinine (+224,4μmol/l) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA™; +12.6μg/dl). Plasma sinistrin derived data confirmed the expected drop (-44.7%, p<0.0001) in GFR. The calculated transcutaneous determined Fluorescein Isothiocyanate (FITC)-sinistrin GFR showed no differences to plasma sinistrin GFR at all times. Both methods were equaly sensitive to diagnose renal dysfunction in the affected animals. Renal function assessment using TD-GFR is a valid method to improve preclinical drug discovery and development. Furthermore, TD-GFR method offers advantages in terms of reduced need for blood sampling and thus decreasing animal burden compared to standard procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of Radiofrequency Ablation with Saturated Saline Preinjection and Renal Artery Occlusion: In Vivo Study in Canine Kidneys Preinjection and Renal Artery Occlusion: In Vivo Study in Canine Kidneys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Byung Seok; Ahn, Moon Sang [Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Mi Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Gyeong Sik [Dept. of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung Mo [Dept. of Surgery, Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ki Chang [Dept. of Veterinary Radiology, Chonbuk National University College of VeterinaryMedicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ho Jun [Dept. of Radiology, Konyang University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ohm, Joon Young [Dept. of Radiology, Bucheon St. Mary Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    To compare the ablation zone after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with saturated saline preinjection and renal artery occlusion in canine kidneys. RFA was induced in the kidneys of six mongrel dogs. A total of 24 ablation zones were induced using a 1-cm tip internally cooled needle electrode in three groups: RFA (Control group), RFA with 0.5 mL saturated saline preinjection (SS group), and RFA with renal artery occlusion by atraumatic vascular clamp (Occlusion group). Ablation zone diameters were measured along transverse and longitudinal sections of the needle axis, and volumes were calculated. Temperature, applied voltage, current, and impedance during RFA were recorded automatically. The RFA zone volume was the largest in the SS group (1.33 {+-} 0.34 cm{sup 3}), followed by the Occlusion group (1.07 {+-} 0.38 cm{sup 3}) and then the Control group (0.62 {+-} 0.09 cm{sup 3}). Volumes for the SS and Occlusion groups were significantly larger than those for the Control group (p = 0.001, p = 0.012). There was no significant difference in volumes between the SS and Occlusion groups (p = 0.178). Saturated saline preinjection is as effective as renal arterial occlusion for expanding the ablation zone. RFA with saturated saline preinjection could help to treat large renal tumors.

  13. Comparison of Radiofrequency Ablation with Saturated Saline Preinjection and Renal Artery Occlusion: In Vivo Study in Canine Kidneys Preinjection and Renal Artery Occlusion: In Vivo Study in Canine Kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Byung Seok; Ahn, Moon Sang; Park, Mi Hyun; Jeon, Gyeong Sik; Lee, Byung Mo; Lee, Ki Chang; Kim, Ho Jun; Ohm, Joon Young

    2012-01-01

    To compare the ablation zone after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with saturated saline preinjection and renal artery occlusion in canine kidneys. RFA was induced in the kidneys of six mongrel dogs. A total of 24 ablation zones were induced using a 1-cm tip internally cooled needle electrode in three groups: RFA (Control group), RFA with 0.5 mL saturated saline preinjection (SS group), and RFA with renal artery occlusion by atraumatic vascular clamp (Occlusion group). Ablation zone diameters were measured along transverse and longitudinal sections of the needle axis, and volumes were calculated. Temperature, applied voltage, current, and impedance during RFA were recorded automatically. The RFA zone volume was the largest in the SS group (1.33 ± 0.34 cm 3 ), followed by the Occlusion group (1.07 ± 0.38 cm 3 ) and then the Control group (0.62 ± 0.09 cm 3 ). Volumes for the SS and Occlusion groups were significantly larger than those for the Control group (p = 0.001, p = 0.012). There was no significant difference in volumes between the SS and Occlusion groups (p = 0.178). Saturated saline preinjection is as effective as renal arterial occlusion for expanding the ablation zone. RFA with saturated saline preinjection could help to treat large renal tumors.

  14. Overview of measles and mumps vaccine: origin, present, and future of vaccine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betáková, T; Svetlíková, D; Gocník, M

    2013-01-01

    Measles and mumps are common viral childhood diseases that can cause serious complications. Vaccination remains the most efficient way to control the spread of these viruses. The manufacturing capability for viral vaccines produced in embryonated hen eggs and conventional/classical cell substrates, such as chicken embryo fibroblast or primary dog kidney cell substrates, is no longer sufficient. This limitation can be overcome by utilizing other recognized cell substrates such as Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK), Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO), Vero (monkey origin) cells, MRC-5 (human diploid) or as an alternative, introducing new cell substrates of human or avian origin. A very important factor in vaccine production is the safety and immunogenicity of the final vaccine, where the proper choice of cell substrate used for virus propagation is made. All substrates used in vaccine production must be fully characterized to avoid the contamination of hidden unknown pathogens which is difficult to achieve in primary cell substrates.

  15. Molecular detection of Leptospira spp. from canine kidney tissues and its association with renal lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit R. Dash

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aimed to detect the prevalence of Leptospira spp. in kidney tissues collected during necropsy and to establish its association with renal lesions in dogs of Mumbai region. Materials and Methods: Kidney tissues from 40 dogs were collected during necropsy after gross examination and then fixed in neutral buffered formalin and Bouin's fluid for histopathology and histochemistry, respectively. Kidney tissues were also collected for the detection of Leptospira spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR in a sterile container and stored at -80°C until further processing. Results: Of 40 cases studied, 13 (32.5% cases showed lesions of nephritis of varying histotype and severity. Glomerulonephritis was reported as the most common type of nephritis in 9 (69.23% cases, and interstitial nephritis was recorded in 4 (30.76% cases. Chronic and acute interstitial nephritis was observed in two cases each. Renal failure as a cause of death was found in 7 (17.5% dogs. Of a total of 40 cases, 9 were found positive for pathogenic Leptospira spp. genome by PCR. However, of nine PCR-positive cases, only four cases showed lesions in kidneys as glomerulonephritis and interstitial nephritis in two cases each. The rest five cases positive for Leptospira spp. by PCR did not show any appreciable lesions in the kidneys. Conclusion: Leptospiral DNA was detected in 9 (22.5% cases by PCR. Of these nine cases, only four cases showed renal lesions. Other five cases which were positive for Leptospira spp. by PCR did not show any appreciable gross and microscopic lesions in the kidneys which might be carriers for Leptospira spp. Considering variable reports on types of nephritis in Leptospira spp. infection and also the prevalence of non-pathogenic Leptospira spp., it is important to conduct an extensive study on the prevalence of Leptospira spp. and its association with renal lesions involving batteries of tests.

  16. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin induced autophagy in a bovine kidney cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorito, Filomena; Ciarcia, Roberto; Granato, Giovanna Elvira; Marfe, Gabriella; Iovane, Valentina; Florio, Salvatore; De Martino, Luisa; Pagnini, Ugo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► TCDD induces cell proliferation in MDBK cells. ► TCDD provokes morphological cell death in MDBK cells. ► TCDD induces autophagy in MDBK cells. ► TCDD induces a down-regulation of telomerase activity, bTERT, c-Myc in MDBK cells. ► TCDD induces an up-regulation of p53 and p21 protein levels in MDBK cells. -- Abstract: The administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to a variety of cultured cells may alter their ability to proliferate and die. In a previous study we demonstrated that TCDD induced proliferation in Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells where no signs of apoptosis were observed, but herein, analysis of MDBK cell morphology, in a large number of exposed cells, revealed some alterations, as expanded cytoplasm, an increase of intercellular spaces and many pyknotic nuclei. Hence, the aim of the current study was to elucidate the influences of dioxin on cell proliferation and cell death. We found that dioxin increased proliferation, as well as, activated cell death with autophagy, as we detected by increased amount of LC3-II, an autophagosome marker. Furthermore, formation of acidic vesicular organelles was observed by fluorescence microscopy following staining with the lysosomotropic agent acridine orange. These results were accompanied by down-regulation of telomerase activity, bTERT and c-Myc. Key tumor-suppressor protein p53 and expression of cell cycle inhibitor p21Waf1/Cip1 were activated after TCDD exposure. These changes occurred with activation of ATM phosphorylation in the presence of a decrease in Mdm2 protein levels. Taken together, these results support the idea that TCDD in MDBK cells, may exert its action, in part, by enhancing cell proliferation, but also by modulating the incidence of induced cell death with autophagy.

  17. Protein kinase A stimulates Kv7.1 surface expression by regulating Nedd4-2-dependent endocytic trafficking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Nybo; Hefting, Louise Leth; Steffensen, Annette Buur

    2015-01-01

    The potassium channel Kv7.1 plays critical physiological roles in both heart and epithelial tissues. In heart, Kv7.1 and the accessory subunit KCNE1 forms the IKs current, which is enhanced by PKA mediated phosphorylation. The observed current increase requires both phosphorylation of Kv7.......1 and the presence of KCNE1. However, PKA also stimulates Kv7.1 currents in epithelial tissues, such as colon, where the channel does not co-assemble with KCNE1. Here, we demonstrate that PKA activity significantly impacts the subcellular localization of Kv7.1 in Madin Darby Canine Kidney cells. While PKA inhibition...... reduced the fraction of channels at the cell surface, PKA activation increased it. We show that PKA inhibition lead to intracellular accumulation of Kv7.1 in late endosomes/lysosomes. By mass spectroscopy we identified eight phosphorylated residues on Kv7.1, however, none appeared to play a role...

  18. Regulation of Kv1.4 potassium channels by PKC and AMPK kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Nybo; Skibsbye, Lasse; Saljic, Arnela

    2018-01-01

    around the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2. In the present study we examined whether Kv1.4, constituting the cardiac Ito,s current, is subject to similar regulation. In the epithelial Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line, which constitutes a highly reproducible model system for addressing membrane...... targeting, we find, by confocal microscopy, that Kv1.4 cell surface expression is downregulated by activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In contrast, manipulating the activities of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) and serum and glucocorticoid......-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) were without effect on channel localization. The PKC and AMPK-mediated downregulation of Kv1.4 membrane surface localization was confirmed by two-electrode voltage clamp in Xenopus laevis oocytes, where pharmacological activation of PKC and AMPK reduced Kv1.4 current levels. We further...

  19. Identification of reassortant pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in Korean pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jae Yeon; Park, Sung Jun; Kim, Hye Kwon; Rho, Semi; Nguyen, Giap Van; Song, Daesub; Kang, Bo Kyu; Moon, Hyung Jun; Yeom, Min Joo; Park, Bong Kyun

    2012-05-01

    Since the 2009 pandemic human H1N1 influenza A virus emerged in April 2009, novel reassortant strains have been identified throughout the world. This paper describes the detection and isolation of reassortant strains associated with human pandemic influenza H1N1 and swine influenza H1N2 (SIV) viruses in swine populations in South Korea. Two influenza H1N2 reassortants were detected, and subtyped by PCR. The strains were isolated using Madin- Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, and genetically characterized by phylogenetic analysis for genetic diversity. They consisted of human, avian, and swine virus genes that were originated from the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus and a neuraminidase (NA) gene from H1N2 SIV previously isolated in North America. This identification of reassortment events in swine farms raises concern that reassortant strains may continuously circulate within swine populations, calling for the further study and surveillance of pandemic H1N1 among swine.

  20. Cytoplasmic Dynein Regulation by Subunit Heterogeneity and Its Role in Apical Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Andrew W.; Chuang, Jen-Zen; Sung, Ching-Hwa

    2001-01-01

    Despite the existence of multiple subunit isoforms for the microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein, it has not yet been directly shown that dynein complexes with different compositions exhibit different properties. The 14-kD dynein light chain Tctex-1, but not its homologue RP3, binds directly to rhodopsin's cytoplasmic COOH-terminal tail, which encodes an apical targeting determinant in polarized epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. We demonstrate that Tctex-1 and RP3 compete for binding to dynein intermediate chain and that overexpressed RP3 displaces endogenous Tctex-1 from dynein complexes in MDCK cells. Furthermore, replacement of Tctex-1 by RP3 selectively disrupts the translocation of rhodopsin to the MDCK apical surface. These results directly show that cytoplasmic dynein function can be regulated by its subunit composition and that cytoplasmic dynein is essential for at least one mode of apical transport in polarized epithelia. PMID:11425878

  1. Kv7.1 surface expression is regulated by epithelial cell polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin N; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Rasmussen, Hanne Borger

    2011-01-01

    The potassium channel K(V)7.1 is expressed in the heart where it contributes to the repolarization of the cardiac action potential. In addition, K(V)7.1 is expressed in epithelial tissues where it plays a role in salt and water transport. Mutations in the kcnq1 gene can lead to long QT syndrome...... and deafness, and several mutations have been described as trafficking mutations. To learn more about the basic mechanisms that regulate K(V)7.1 surface expression, we have investigated the trafficking of K(V)7.1 during the polarization process of the epithelial cell line Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) using...... is regulated by signaling mechanisms involved in epithelial cell polarization in particular signaling cascades involving protein kinase C and PI3K....

  2. Trivalent MDCK cell culture-derived influenza vaccine Optaflu (Novartis Vaccines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshenko, Alexander; Halperin, Scott A

    2009-06-01

    Annual influenza epidemics continue to have a considerable impact in both developed and developing countries. Vaccination remains the principal measure to prevent seasonal influenza and reduce associated morbidity and mortality. The WHO recommends using established mammalian cell culture lines as an alternative to egg-based substrates in the manufacture of influenza vaccine. In June 2007, the EMEA approved Optaflu, a Madin Darby canine kidney cell culture-derived influenza vaccine manufactured by Novartis Vaccines. This review examines the advantages and disadvantages of cell culture-based technology for influenza vaccine production, compares immunogenicity and safety data for Optaflu with that of currently marketed conventional egg-based influenza vaccines, and considers the prospects for wider use of cell culture-based influenza vaccines.

  3. Interaction of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) with membrane-bound carboxypeptidase M (CPM) - a new function of ACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoou; Wiesner, Burkhard; Lorenz, Dorothea; Papsdorf, Gisela; Pankow, Kristin; Wang, Po; Dietrich, Nils; Siems, Wolf-Eberhard; Maul, Björn

    2008-12-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) demonstrates, besides its typical dipeptidyl-carboxypeptidase activity, several unusual functions. Here, we demonstrate with molecular, biochemical, and cellular techniques that the somatic wild-type murine ACE (mACE), stably transfected in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) or Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells, interacts with endogenous membranal co-localized carboxypeptidase M (CPM). CPM belongs to the group of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins. Here we report that ACE, completely independent of its known dipeptidase activities, has GPI-targeted properties. Our results indicate that the spatial proximity between mACE and the endogenous CPM enables an ACE-evoked release of CPM. These results are discussed with respect to the recently proposed GPI-ase activity and function of sperm-bound ACE.

  4. Increased release of norepinephrine and dopamine from canine kidney during bilateral carotid occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, T.; Hjemdahl, P.; DiBona, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    The renal overflow of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) to plasma from the innervated kidney was studied at rest and during sympathetic nervous system activation by bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCO) in vagotomized dogs under barbiturate or barbiturate/nitrous oxide anesthesia. BCO elevated arterial pressure and the arterial plasma concentration of NE, DA, and epinephrine (Epi). Renal vascular resistance (renal arterial pressure kept constant) increased by 15 +/- 7% and the net renal venous outflows (renal veno-arterial concentration difference x renal plasma flow) of NE and DA were enhanced. To obtain more correct estimates of the renal contribution to the renal venous catecholamine outflow, they corrected for the renal extraction of arterial catecholamines, assessed as the extractions of [ 3 H]NE, [ 3 H]DA, or endogenous Epi. The [ 3 H]NE corrected renal NE overflow to plasma increased from 144 +/- 40 to 243 +/- 64 pmol-min -1 during BCO, which, when compared with a previous study of the [ 3 H]NE corrected renal NE overflow to plasma evoked by electrical renal nerve stimulation, corresponds to a 40% increase in nerve impulse frequency from ∼ 0.6 Hz. If the renal catecholamine extraction was not taken into account the effect of BCO was underestimated. The renal DA overflow to plasma was about one-fifth of the NE overflow both at rest and during BCO, indicating that there was no preferential activation of noradrenergic or putative dopaminergic nerves by BCO

  5. Effect of imidazole and indomethacin on hemodynamics of the obstructed canine kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balint, P.; Laszlo, K.

    1985-01-01

    In the anesthetized dog renal blood flow (RBF) and its intrarenal distribution were investigated by the radioactive microsphere technique 24 hr after bilateral (BUL) and unilateral (UUL) ureteral ligation. In the control series indomethacin (IM) led to a decrease in RBF with outward shifting of zonal perfusions; imidazole (IA) did not cause significant changes in renal hemodynamics. In the BUL series there was a sharp drop in RBF with a proportional decrease in outer (OC) and inner (IC) cortical perfusion; IM treatment resulted in a further decrease in overall and zonal perfusions. IA, a selective inhibitor of thromboxane synthetase, relieved IC vasoconstriction. In the ligated kidney of the UUL preparations decrease in RBF was due to OC vasoconstriction, while IC perfusion equalled controls. IM led to an overall vasoconstriction in all cortical layers; IA did not influence either total RBF or its distribution. It was concluded that BUL ''unmasked'' TXA2 production in the IC layers, while IM treatment, by inhibiting the production of PGE2, PGI2, and TXA2, resulted in an overall vasoconstriction both in controls and the BUL and UUL preparations

  6. Short communication: the pharmacological peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonist WY-14,643 increases expression of novel organic cation transporter 2 and carnitine uptake in bovine kidney cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Wen, G; Ringseis, R; Eder, K

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in rodents demonstrated that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), a central regulator of energy homeostasis, is an important transcriptional regulator of the gene encoding the carnitine transporter novel organic cation transporter 2 (OCTN2). Less is known with regard to the regulation of OCTN2 by PPARα and its role for carnitine transport in cattle, even though PPARα activation physiologically occurs in the liver of high-producing cows during early lactation. To explore the role of PPARα for OCTN2 expression and carnitine transport in cattle, we studied the effect of the PPARα activator WY-14,643 on the expression of OCTN2 in the presence and absence of PPARα antagonists and on OCTN2-mediated carnitine transport in the Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cell line. The results show that WY-14,643 increases mRNA and protein levels of OCTN2, whereas co-treatment of MDBK cells with WY-14,643 and the PPARα antagonist GW6471 blocks the WY-14,643-induced increase in mRNA and protein levels of OCTN2 in bovine cells. In addition, treatment of MDBK cells with WY-14,643 stimulates specifically Na(+)-dependent carnitine uptake in MDBK cells, which is likely the consequence of the increased carnitine transport capacity of cells due to the elevated expression of OCTN2. In conclusion, our results indicate that OCTN2 expression and carnitine transport in cattle, as in rodents, are regulated by PPARα. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Primary structure of bovine calpactin I heavy chain (p36), a major cellular substrate for retroviral protein-tyrosine kinases: homology with the human phospholipase A2 inhibitor lipocortin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten; Sarin, C J; Hunter, T

    1986-01-01

    An amplified Okayama-Berg plasmid cDNA library was constructed from total poly(A)+ RNA isolated from the Madin-Darby bovine kidney cell line MDBK. This library was screened with a partial murine calpactin I heavy chain (p36) cDNA clone, the identification of which was based on bovine p36 tryptic ...

  8. Alpha-Tocopherol alters transcription activities that modulate tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-¿)-induced inflammatory response in bovine cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    To further investigate the potential role of '-tocopherol in maintaining immuno-homeostasis in bovine cells (Madin-Darby bovine kidney epithelial cell line), we undertook in vitro experiments using recombinant TNF-a as an immuno-stimulant to simulate inflammation response in cells with and without '...

  9. Attenuation changes of the normal and ischemic canine kidney. Dynamic CT scanning after intravenous contrast medium bolus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaschke, W.; Lipton, M.J.; Boyd, D.P.; Cann, C.; Strauss, L.; Sievers, R.S.

    The potential of CT scanning to explore total and regional renal blood flow was evaluated in a dog model with unilateral renal artery stenosis (n=7, reduction of renal blood flow: 32-75% of base line flow). Attenuation versus time curves were generated for the renal cortex and medulla, as well as for the aorta and renal vein. A fast CT scanner was used which allowed for up to 24 scans/minute at the same level (slice thickness: 10 mm). A total of 10 ml contrast medim was injected into a peripheral vein for each scan series taken. During baseline conditions, the curve of the renal cortex and medulla demonstrated 2 peaks. The first peak was mainly related to early vascular enhancement, whereas the second peak corresponded mainly to the appearance of contrast medium in the distal convolutes and collecting ducts. Ischemia of the kidney resulted in a reduction of the first peak and a flattening of the leading edge slope. Transport of contrast medium through the extravascular compartments of the kidney was delayed during ischemia. Relative renal blood flow was obtained from the CT data by dividing peak enhancement by rise-time as assessed from the cortical curve. All measurements were related to baseline flow and validated by flow measurements using radioactive labeled microspheres (n=5). Correlation was found to be r=0.97. (orig.).

  10. Inhibitory actions by ibandronate sodium, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, on calcium-activated potassium channels in Madin–Darby canine kidney cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Nan Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates used for management of the patients with osteoporosis were reported to influence the function of renal tubular cells. However, how nitrogen-containing bisphosphates exert any effects on ion currents remains controversial. The effects of ibandronate (Iban, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, on ionic channels, including two types of Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa channels, namely, large-conductance KCa (BKCa and intermediate-conductance KCa (IKCa channels, were investigated in Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells. In whole-cell current recordings, Iban suppressed the amplitude of voltage-gated K+ current elicited by long ramp pulse. Addition of Iban caused a reduction of BKCa channels accompanied by a right shift in the activation curve of BKCa channels, despite no change in single-channel conductance. Ca2+ sensitivity of these channels was modified in the presence of this compound; however, the magnitude of Iban-mediated decrease in BKCa-channel activity under membrane stretch with different negative pressure remained unchanged. Iban suppressed the probability of BKCa-channel openings linked primarily to a shortening in the slow component of mean open time in these channels. The dissociation constant needed for Iban-mediated suppression of mean open time in MDCK cells was 12.2 μM. Additionally, cell exposure to Iban suppressed the activity of IKCa channels, and DC-EBIO or 9-phenanthrol effectively reversed its suppression. Under current-clamp configuration, Iban depolarized the cells and DC-EBIO or PF573228 reversed its depolarizing effect. Taken together, the inhibitory action of Iban on KCa-channel activity may contribute to the underlying mechanism of pharmacological or toxicological actions of Iban and its structurally similar bisphosphonates on renal tubular cells occurring in vivo.

  11. Moderate plasma activated media suppresses proliferation and migration of MDCK epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohades, Soheila; Laroussi, Mounir; Maruthamuthu, Venkat

    2017-01-01

    Low-temperature plasma has been shown to have diverse biomedical uses, including its applications in cancer and wound healing. One recent approach in treating mammalian cells with plasma is through the use of plasma activated media (PAM), which is produced by exposing cell culture media to plasma. While the adverse effects of PAM treatment on cancerous epithelial cell lines have been recently studied, much less is known about the interaction of PAM with normal epithelial cells. In this paper, non-cancerous canine kidney MDCK (Madin-Darby Canine Kidney) epithelial cells were treated by PAM and time-lapse microscopy was used to directly monitor their proliferation and random migration upon treatment. While longer durations of PAM treatment led to cell death, we found that moderate levels of PAM treatment inhibited proliferation in these epithelial cells. We also found that PAM treatment reduced random cell migration within epithelial islands. Immunofluorescence staining showed that while there were no major changes in the actin/adhesion apparatus, there was a significant change in the nuclear localization of proliferation marker Ki-67, consistent with our time-lapse results. (paper)

  12. Canine adenovirus type 1 in a fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Won; Lee, Hyun-Kyoung; Kim, Seong-Hee; Kim, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Oem, Jae-Ku

    2014-12-01

    A 10-mo-old female fennec fox (Vulpes zerda) with drooling suddenly died and was examined postmortem. Histologic examination of different tissue samples was performed. Vacuolar degeneration and diffuse fatty change were observed in the liver. Several diagnostic methods were used to screen for canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus, canine influenza virus, canine coronavirus, canine parainfluenza virus, and canine adenovirus (CAdV). Only CAdV type 1 (CAdV-1) was detected in several organs (liver, lung, brain, kidney, spleen, and heart), and other viruses were not found. CAdV-1 was confirmed by virus isolation and nucleotide sequencing.

  13. Treatment with 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin ameliorated symptoms of Bartter syndrome type IV caused by mutated Bsnd in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Naohiro; Kamiya, Kazusaku; Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Yui, Naofumi; Chiga, Motoko; Sohara, Eisei; Rai, Tatemitu; Sakaki, Sei; Uchida, Shinich

    2013-11-22

    Mutations of BSND, which encodes barttin, cause Bartter syndrome type IV. This disease is characterized by salt and fluid loss, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and sensorineural hearing impairment. Barttin is the β-subunit of the ClC-K chloride channel, which recruits it to the plasma membranes, and the ClC-K/barttin complex contributes to transepithelial chloride transport in the kidney and inner ear. The retention of mutant forms of barttin in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is etiologically linked to Bartter syndrome type IV. Here, we report that treatment with 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), an Hsp90 inhibitor, enhanced the plasma membrane expression of mutant barttins (R8L and G47R) in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Administration of 17-AAG to Bsnd(R8L/R8L) knock-in mice elevated the plasma membrane expression of R8L in the kidney and inner ear, thereby mitigating hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and hearing loss. These results suggest that drugs that rescue ER-retained mutant barttin may be useful for treating patients with Bartter syndrome type IV. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Shedding of the immunodominant P20 surface antigen of Eimeria bovis sporozoites.

    OpenAIRE

    Speer, C A; Whitmire, W M

    1989-01-01

    P20 is an immunodominant surface antigen of Eimeria bovis sporozoites. As parasites underwent merogony within cultured bovine monocytes and Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells, P20 appeared to be shed gradually by meronts and was absent in type 1 and 2 first-generation merozoites. Meronts of E. bovis appeared to shed P20 into the parasitophorous vacuole of bovine monocytes, whereas MDBK cells evidently released P20 into the culture medium or destroyed its antigenic determinant.

  15. Amiloride interacts with renal α- and β-adrenergic receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, M.J.; Mullen, M.D.; Insel, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have used radioligand binding techniques to assess whether amiloride and certain analogues of amiloride (ethylisopropyl amiloride and benzamil) can bind to adrenergic receptors in the kidney. They found that amiloride could compete for [ 3 H]rauwolscine (α 2 -adrenergic receptors), [ 3 H]prazosin (α 1 -adrenergic receptors), and [ 125 I]iodocyanopindolol (β-adrenergic receptors) binding in rat renal cortical membranes with inhibitor constants of 13.6 /plus minus/ 5.7, 24.4 /plus minus/ 7.4, and 8.36 /plus minus/ 13.5 μM, respectively. Ethylisopropyl amiloride and benzamil were from 2- to 25-fold more potent than amiloride in competing for radioligand binding sites in studies with these membranes. In addition, amiloride and the two analogues competed for [ 3 H]prazosin sites on intact Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and amiloride blocked epinephrine-stimulated prostaglandin E 2 production in these cells. They conclude that amiloride competes for binding to several classes of renal adrenergic receptors with a rank order of potency of α 2 > α 1 > β. Binding to, and antagonism of, adrenergic receptors occurs at concentrations of amiloride that are lower than previously observed nonspecific interactions of this agent

  16. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK-3) influences epithelial barrier function by regulating Occludin, Claudin-1 and E-cadherin expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severson, Eric A.; Kwon, Mike; Hilgarth, Roland S.; Parkos, Charles A. [Epithelial Pathobiology Research Unit, Dept. of Pathology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Nusrat, Asma, E-mail: anusrat@emory.edu [Epithelial Pathobiology Research Unit, Dept. of Pathology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)

    2010-07-02

    The Apical Junctional Complex (AJC) encompassing the tight junction (TJ) and adherens junction (AJ) plays a pivotal role in regulating epithelial barrier function and epithelial cell proliferative processes through signaling events that remain poorly characterized. A potential regulator of AJC protein expression is Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3). GSK-3 is a constitutively active kinase that is repressed during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In the present study, we report that GSK-3 activity regulates the structure and function of the AJC in polarized model intestinal (SK-CO15) and kidney (Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK)) epithelial cells. Reduction of GSK-3 activity, either by small molecule inhibitors or siRNA targeting GSK-3 alpha and beta mRNA, resulted in increased permeability to both ions and bulk solutes. Immunofluorescence labeling and immunoblot analyses revealed that the barrier defects correlated with decreased protein expression of AJC transmembrane proteins Occludin, Claudin-1 and E-cadherin without influencing other TJ proteins, Zonula Occludens-1 (ZO-1) and Junctional Adhesion Molecule A (JAM-A). The decrease in Occludin and E-cadherin protein expression correlated with downregulation of the corresponding mRNA levels for these respective proteins following GSK-3 inhibition. These observations implicate an important role of GSK-3 in the regulation of the structure and function of the AJC that is mediated by differential modulation of mRNA transcription of key AJC proteins, Occludin, Claudin-1 and E-cadherin.

  17. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK-3) influences epithelial barrier function by regulating Occludin, Claudin-1 and E-cadherin expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severson, Eric A.; Kwon, Mike; Hilgarth, Roland S.; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma

    2010-01-01

    The Apical Junctional Complex (AJC) encompassing the tight junction (TJ) and adherens junction (AJ) plays a pivotal role in regulating epithelial barrier function and epithelial cell proliferative processes through signaling events that remain poorly characterized. A potential regulator of AJC protein expression is Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3). GSK-3 is a constitutively active kinase that is repressed during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In the present study, we report that GSK-3 activity regulates the structure and function of the AJC in polarized model intestinal (SK-CO15) and kidney (Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK)) epithelial cells. Reduction of GSK-3 activity, either by small molecule inhibitors or siRNA targeting GSK-3 alpha and beta mRNA, resulted in increased permeability to both ions and bulk solutes. Immunofluorescence labeling and immunoblot analyses revealed that the barrier defects correlated with decreased protein expression of AJC transmembrane proteins Occludin, Claudin-1 and E-cadherin without influencing other TJ proteins, Zonula Occludens-1 (ZO-1) and Junctional Adhesion Molecule A (JAM-A). The decrease in Occludin and E-cadherin protein expression correlated with downregulation of the corresponding mRNA levels for these respective proteins following GSK-3 inhibition. These observations implicate an important role of GSK-3 in the regulation of the structure and function of the AJC that is mediated by differential modulation of mRNA transcription of key AJC proteins, Occludin, Claudin-1 and E-cadherin.

  18. Functional characteristics of a renal H+/lipophilic cation antiport system in porcine LLC-PK1 cells and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Ryutaro; Hattori, Ryutaro; Usami, Youhei; Koyama, Masumi; Hirayama, Yuki; Matsuba, Emi; Hashimoto, Yukiya

    2018-02-01

    We have recently found an H + /quinidine (a lipophilic cation, QND) antiport system in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the H + /lipophilic cation antiport system is expressed in porcine LLC-PK 1 cells. That is, we investigated uptake and/or efflux of QND and another cation, bisoprolol, in LLC-PK 1 cells. In addition, we studied the renal clearance of bisoprolol in rats. Uptake of QND into LLC-PK 1 cells was decreased by acidification of the extracellular pH or alkalization of the intracellular pH. Cellular uptake of QND from the apical side was much greater than from the basolateral side. In addition, apical efflux of QND from LLC-PK 1 cells was increased by acidification of the extracellular pH. Furthermore, lipophilic cationic drugs significantly reduced uptake of bisoprolol in LLC-PK 1 cells. Renal clearance of bisoprolol in rats was approximately 7-fold higher than that of creatinine, and was markedly decreased by alkalization of the urine pH. The present study suggests that the H + /lipophilic cation antiport system is expressed in the apical membrane of LLC-PK 1 cells. Moreover, the H + /lipophilic cation antiport system may be responsible for renal tubular secretion of bisoprolol in rats. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. NHS-A isoform of the NHS gene is a novel interactor of ZO-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shiwani; Koh, Katrina S Y; Collin, Caitlin; Dave, Alpana; McMellon, Amy; Sugiyama, Yuki; McAvoy, John W; Voss, Anne K; Gécz, Jozef; Craig, Jamie E

    2009-08-15

    Mutations in the NHS (Nance-Horan Syndrome) gene lead to severe congenital cataracts, dental defects and sometimes mental retardation. NHS encodes two protein isoforms, NHS-A and -1A that display cell-type dependent differential expression and localization. Here we demonstrate that of these two isoforms, the NHS-A isoform associates with the cell membrane in the presence of intercellular contacts and it immunoprecipitates with the tight junction protein ZO-1 in MDCK (Madin Darby Canine Kidney) epithelial cells and in neonatal rat lens. The NHS-1A isoform however is a cytoplasmic protein. Both Nhs isoforms are expressed during mouse development. Immunolabelling of developing mouse with the anti-NHS antibody that detects both isoforms revealed the protein in the developing head including the eye and brain. It was primarily expressed in epithelium including neural epithelium and certain vascular endothelium but only weakly expressed in mesenchymal cells. In the epithelium and vascular endothelium the protein associated with the cell membrane and co-localized with ZO-1, which indirectly indicates expression of the Nhs-A isoform in these structures. Membrane localization of the protein in the lens vesicle similarly supports Nhs-A expression. In conclusion, the NHS-A isoform of NHS is a novel interactor of ZO-1 and may have a role at tight junctions. This isoform is important in mammalian development especially of the organs in the head.

  20. Interaction of Clostridium perfringens epsilon-toxin with biological and model membranes: A putative protein receptor in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manni, Marco M; Sot, Jesús; Goñi, Félix M

    2015-03-01

    Epsilon-toxin (ETX) is a powerful toxin produced by some strains of Clostridium perfringens (classified as types B and D) that is responsible for enterotoxemia in animals. ETX forms pores through the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells, consisting of a β-barrel of 14 amphipathic β-strands. ETX shows a high specificity for certain cell lines, of which Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) is the first sensitive cell line identified and the most studied one. The aim of this study was to establish the role of lipids in the toxicity caused by ETX and the correlation of its activity in model and biological membranes. In MDCK cells, using cell counting and confocal microscopy, we have observed that the toxin causes cell death mediated by toxin binding to plasma membrane. Moreover, ETX binds and permeabilizes the membranes of giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMV). However, little effect is observed on protein-free vesicles. The data suggest the essential role of a protein receptor for the toxin in cell membranes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Antiviral activity of maca (Lepidium meyenii) against human influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Pumarola, Tomàs; Gonzales, Libertad Alzamora; Del Valle, Luis J

    2014-09-01

    To investigate antiviral activity of maca to reduce viral load in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells infected with influenza type A and B viruses (Flu-A and Flu-B, respectively). Maca were extracted with methanol (1:2, v/v). The cell viability and toxicity of the extracts were evaluated on MDCK cells using method MTT assay. Antiviral activity of compounds against Flu-A and Flu-B viruses was assayed using a test for determining the inhibition of the cytopathic effect on cell culture and multiplex RT-PCR. The methanol extract of maca showed low cytotoxicity and inhibited influenza-induced cytopathic effect significantly, while viral load was reduced via inhibition of viral growth in MDCK infected cells. Maca contains potent inhibitors of Flu-A and Flu-B with a selectivity index [cytotoxic concentration 50%/IC50] of 157.4 and 110.5, respectively. In vitro assays demonstrated that maca has antiviral activity not only against Flu-A (like most antiviral agents) but also Flu-B viruses, providing remarkable therapeutic benefits. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiolabelling and PET brain imaging of the α1-adrenoceptor antagonist Lu AE43936

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risgaard, Rune; Ettrup, Anders; Balle, Thomas; Dyssegaard, Agnete; Hansen, Hanne Demant; Lehel, Szabolcs; Madsen, Jacob; Pedersen, Henrik; Püschl, Ask; Badolo, Lassina; Bang-Andersen, Benny; Knudsen, Gitte Moos; Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral α 1 -adrenoceptors are a common target for many antipsychotic drugs. Thus, access to positron emission tomography (PET) brain imaging of α 1 -adrenoceptors could make important contributions to the understanding of psychotic disorders as well as to the pharmacokinetics and occupancy of drugs targeting the α 1 -adrenoceptors. However, so far no suitable PET radioligand has been developed for brain imaging of α 1 -adrenoceptors. Here, we report the synthesis of both enantiomers of the desmethyl precursors of the high affinity α 1 -adrenoceptor ligand Lu AE43936 (). The two enantiomers of were subsequently [ 11 C] radiolabelled and evaluated for brain uptake and binding by PET imaging in Danish Landrace pigs. (S)-[ 11 C]- and (R)-[ 11 C]- showed very limited brain uptake. Pre-treatment with cyclosporine A (CsA) resulted in a large increase in brain uptake, indicating that (R)-[ 11 C]- is a substrate for active efflux-transporters. This was confirmed in Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells overexpressing permeability glycoprotein (Pgp). In conclusion, the limited brain uptake of both (S)-[ 11 C]- and (R)-[ 11 C]- in the pig brain necessitates the search for alternative radioligands for in vivo PET brain imaging of α 1 -adrenoceptors.

  3. AS160 associates with the Na+,K+-ATPase and mediates the adenosine monophosphate-stimulated protein kinase-dependent regulation of sodium pump surface expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Daiane S; Farr, Glen A; Seo-Mayer, Patricia; Caplan, Michael J

    2010-12-01

    The Na(+),K(+)-ATPase is the major active transport protein found in the plasma membranes of most epithelial cell types. The regulation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity involves a variety of mechanisms, including regulated endocytosis and recycling. Our efforts to identify novel Na(+),K(+)-ATPase binding partners revealed a direct association between the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and AS160, a Rab-GTPase-activating protein. In COS cells, coexpression of AS160 and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase led to the intracellular retention of the sodium pump. We find that AS160 interacts with the large cytoplasmic NP domain of the α-subunit of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. Inhibition of the activity of the adenosine monophosphate-stimulated protein kinase (AMPK) in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells through treatment with Compound C induces Na(+),K(+)-ATPase endocytosis. This effect of Compound C is prevented through the short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of AS160, demonstrating that AMPK and AS160 participate in a common pathway to modulate the cell surface expression of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase.

  4. Interactions of pharmacologically active snake venom sPLA2 with different cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumanov, Jordan; Mladenova, Kirilka; Aleksandrov, Radoslav; Danovski, Georgi; Petrova, Svetla

    2014-01-01

    Secreted Phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) represent a large family of structurally related enzymes, which target different tissues and organs and induce numerous pharmacological effects based on their catalytic specificity – hydrolysis of the sn-2 ester bond of glycerophospholipids. The neurotoxin vipoxin, isolated from the venom of Vipera ammodytes meriodionalis, is a heterodimeric postsynaptic ionic complex composed of two protein subunits – a basic and toxic His48 sPLA2 enzyme and an acidic, enzymatically inactive and non-toxic component. In this paper, for the first time, we demonstrate that vipoxin sPLA2 enzyme affects cell integrity and viability of four cell types and causes different cell responses. The most dramatic local tissue effects were observed with RPE-1 (retinal pigment epithelial) cells followed by A549 (adenocarcinomic human alveolar epithelial) cells and MDCK (Madin-Darby Canine Kidney epithelial) cells. Products of the enzymatic reaction, lysophospholipids and unsaturated free fatty acids, act as lipid mediators that can induce membrane damaging or can stimulate cell proliferation. Our preliminary results on the cytotoxic effect of vipoxin sPLA2 on A549 cells are promising in searching of its eventual anticancer potential. PMID:26019578

  5. A genetically encoded ratiometric sensor to measure extracellular pH in microdomains bounded by basolateral membranes of epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urra, Javier; Sandoval, Moisés; Cornejo, Isabel; Barros, L Felipe; Sepúlveda, Francisco V; Cid, L Pablo

    2008-10-01

    Extracellular pH, especially in relatively inaccessible microdomains between cells, affects transport membrane protein activity and might have an intercellular signaling role. We have developed a genetically encoded extracellular pH sensor capable of detecting pH changes in basolateral spaces of epithelial cells. It consists of a chimerical membrane protein displaying concatenated enhanced variants of cyan fluorescence protein (ECFP) and yellow fluorescence protein (EYFP) at the external aspect of the cell surface. The construct, termed pHCECSensor01, was targeted to basolateral membranes of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells by means of a sequence derived from the aquaporin AQP4. The fusion of pH-sensitive EYFP with pH-insensitive ECFP allows ratiometric pH measurements. The titration curve of pHCECSensor01 in vivo had a pK (a) value of 6.5 +/- 0.04. Only minor effects of extracellular chloride on pHCECSensor01 were observed around the physiological concentrations of this anion. In MDCK cells, the sensor was able to detect changes in pH secondary to H(+) efflux into the basolateral spaces elicited by an ammonium prepulse or lactate load. This genetically encoded sensor has the potential to serve as a noninvasive tool for monitoring changes in extracellular pH microdomains in epithelial and other tissues in vivo.

  6. Abcb1 in Pigs: Molecular cloning, tissues distribution, functional analysis, and its effect on pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tingting; Huang, Jinhu; Zhang, Hongyu; Dong, Lingling; Guo, Dawei; Guo, Li; He, Fang; Bhutto, Zohaib Ahmed; Wang, Liping

    2016-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is one of the best-known ATP-dependent efflux transporters, contributing to differences in pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interactions. Until now, studies on pig P-gp have been scarce. In our studies, the full-length porcine P-gp cDNA was cloned and expressed in a Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line. P-gp expression was then determined in tissues and its role in the pharmacokinetics of oral enrofloxacin in pigs was studied. The coding region of pig Abcb1 gene was 3,861 bp, encoding 1,286 amino acid residues (Mw = 141,966). Phylogenetic analysis indicated a close evolutionary relationship between porcine P-gp and those of cow and sheep. Pig P-gp was successfully stably overexpressed in MDCK cells and had efflux activity for rhodamine 123, a substrate of P-gp. Tissue distribution analysis indicated that P-gp was highly expressed in brain capillaries, small intestine, and liver. In MDCK-pAbcb1 cells, enrofloxacin was transported by P-gp with net efflux ratio of 2.48 and the efflux function was blocked by P-gp inhibitor verapamil. High expression of P-gp in the small intestine could modify the pharmacokinetics of orally administrated enrofloxacin by increasing the Cmax, AUC and Ka, which was demonstrated using verapamil, an inhibitor of P-gp. PMID:27572343

  7. High antiviral effects of hibiscus tea extract on the H5 subtypes of low and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baatartsogt, Tugsbaatar; Bui, Vuong N; Trinh, Dai Q; Yamaguchi, Emi; Gronsang, Dulyatad; Thampaisarn, Rapeewan; Ogawa, Haruko; Imai, Kunitoshi

    2016-10-01

    Viral neuraminidase inhibitors are widely used as synthetic anti-influenza drugs for the prevention and treatment of influenza. However, drug-resistant influenza A virus variants, including H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs), have been reported. Therefore, the discovery of novel and effective antiviral agents is warranted. We screened the antiviral effects of 11 herbal tea extracts (hibiscus, black tea, tencha, rosehip tea, burdock tea, green tea, jasmine tea, ginger tea, lavender tea, rose tea and oak tea) against the H5N1 HPAIV in vitro. Among the tested extracts, only the hibiscus extract and its fractionated extract (frHibis) highly and rapidly reduced the titers of all H5 HPAIVs and low pathogenic AIVs (LPAIVs) used in the pre-treatment tests of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells that were inoculated with a mixture of the virus and the extract. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that anti-H5 monoclonal antibodies could not bind to the deformed H5 virus particles pretreated with frHibis. In post-treatment tests of MDCK cells cultured in the presence of frHibis after infection with H5N1 HPAIV, the frHibis inhibited viral replication and the expression of viral antigens and genes. Among the plants tested, hibiscus showed the most prominent antiviral effects against both H5 HPAIV and LPAIV.

  8. Alteration of protein levels during influenza virus H1N1 infection in host cells: a proteomic survey of host and virus reveals differential dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susann Kummer

    Full Text Available We studied the dynamics of the proteome of influenza virus A/PR/8/34 (H1N1 infected Madin-Darby canine kidney cells up to 12 hours post infection by mass spectrometry based quantitative proteomics using the approach of stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC. We identified 1311 cell proteins and, apart from the proton channel M2, all major virus proteins. Based on their abundance two groups of virus proteins could be distinguished being in line with the function of the proteins in genesis and formation of new virions. Further, the data indicate a correlation between the amount of proteins synthesized and their previously determined copy number inside the viral particle. We employed bioinformatic approaches such as functional clustering, gene ontology, and pathway (KEGG enrichment tests to uncover co-regulated cellular protein sets, assigned the individual subsets to their biological function, and determined their interrelation within the progression of viral infection. For the first time we are able to describe dynamic changes of the cellular and, of note, the viral proteome in a time dependent manner simultaneously. Through cluster analysis, time dependent patterns of protein abundances revealed highly dynamic up- and/or down-regulation processes. Taken together our study provides strong evidence that virus infection has a major impact on the cell status at the protein level.

  9. Reduction in heat-induced gastrointestinal hyperpermeability in rats by bovine colostrum and goat milk powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, C; Stelwagen, K; Cummins, R; Guerin, P; Gill, N; Milne, C

    2004-02-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of three dietary groups [standard diet (Cont; n = 8), standard diet plus bovine colostrum powder (BColost 1.7 g/kg; n = 8), or goat milk powder (GMilk 1.7 g/kg; n = 8)] to determine the ability of these supplements to reduce gastrointestinal hyperpermeability induced by heat. Raising core body temperature of rats to 41.5 degrees C increased transfer of (51)Cr-EDTA from gut into blood 34-fold relative to the ambient temperature value (P transferred into the blood of rats in either the BColost (27% of Cont) or GMilk group (10% of Cont) after heating, showing that prior supplementation with either bovine colostrum or goat milk powder significantly reduced the impact of heat stress on gastrointestinal permeability. The changes in the BColost group were not significantly different than those of the GMilk group. The potential mechanism of the protective effect of bovine colostrum and goat milk powders may involve modulation of tight junction permeability, because both powders were able to maintain transepithelial resistance in Madin Darby canine kidney cells challenged with EGTA compared with cells maintained in media only. The results show that bovine colostrum powder can partially alleviate the effects of hyperthermia on gastrointestinal permeability in the intact animal. Moreover, goat milk powder was equally as effective as bovine colostrum powder, and both may be of benefit in other situations where gastrointestinal barrier function is compromised.

  10. Characterization of Seasonal Influenza Virus Type and Subtypes Isolated from Influenza Like Illness Cases of 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, B P; Ghimire, P; Tashiro, M; Banjara, M R

    Background Seasonal influenza is one of the increasing public health burdens in Nepal. Objective The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize the influenza virus type and subtypes of Nepal. Method A total of 1536 throat swab specimens were collected from January to December 2012. Total ribonucleic acid was extracted using Qiagen viral nucleic acid extraction kit and polymerase chain reaction assay was performed following the US; CDC Real-time PCR protocol. Ten percent of positive specimens were inoculated onto Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells. Isolates were characterized by using reference ferret antisera. Result Of the total specimens (n=1536), influenza virus type A was detected in 196 (22%) cases; of which 194 (99%) were influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 and 2 (1 %) were influenza A/H3 subtype. Influenza B was detected in 684 (76.9%) cases. Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09, A/H3 and influenza B virus were antigenically similar to the recommended influenza virus vaccine candidate of the year 2012. Although sporadic cases of influenza were observed throughout the year, peak was observed during July to November. Conclusion Similar to other tropical countries, A (H1N1) pdm09, A/H3 and influenza B viruses were co-circulated in Nepal.

  11. Genetic Characterization of Influenza A (H1N1) Pandemic 2009 Virus Isolates from Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohil, Devanshi; Kothari, Sweta; Shinde, Pramod; Meharunkar, Rhuta; Warke, Rajas; Chowdhary, Abhay; Deshmukh, Ranjana

    2017-08-01

    Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus was first detected in India in May 2009 which subsequently became endemic in many parts of the country. Influenza A viruses have the ability to evade the immune response through its ability of antigenic variations. The study aims to characterize influenza A (H1N1) pdm 09 viruses circulating in Mumbai during the pandemic and post-pandemic period. Nasopharyngeal swabs positive for influenza A (H1N1) pdm 09 viruses were inoculated on Madin-Darby canine kidney cell line for virus isolation. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of influenza A (H1N1) pdm 09 isolates was conducted to understand the evolution and genetic diversity of the strains. Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the HA gene of Mumbai isolates when compared to A/California/07/2009-vaccine strain revealed 14 specific amino acid differences located at the antigenic sites. Amino acid variations in HA and NA gene resulted in changes in the N-linked glycosylation motif which may lead to immune evasion. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolates revealed their evolutionary position with vaccine strain A/California/07/2009 but had undergone changes gradually. The findings in the present study confirm genetic variability of influenza viruses and highlight the importance of continuous surveillance during influenza outbreaks.

  12. The effect of isochoric freezing on mammalian cells in an extracellular phosphate buffered solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preciado, J; Rubinsky, B

    2018-04-20

    Isochoric (constant volume) freezing has been recently suggested as a new method for cell and organ preservation. As a first step in studying the effect of isochoric freezing on mammalian cells, Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells (MDCK), were frozen in an isochoric system, in a simple extracellular phosphate buffered solution to -10 °C (96.5 MPa), - 15 °C (162 MPa) and -20 °C (205 MPa) for 60 and 120 min. Cell membrane integrity and cell metabolism were studied with a Live/Dead cell vitality assay and flow cytometry. We found that cell survival decreases with an increase in pressure (lower temperatures) and time of exposure. For example, 60% of cells survived 60 min at - 10 °C and only 18% survived 120 min at this temperature. Negligible survival was measured at - 20 °C. This study may serve as the baseline towards further research on techniques to optimize the effects of isochoric freezing on living biological matter. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. The hypertonic environment differentially regulates wild-type CFTR and TNR-CFTR chloride channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassance-Soares, Roberta M; Cheng, Jie; Krasnov, Kristina; Cebotaru, Liudmila; Cutting, Garry R; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Morales, Marcelo M; Guggino, William B

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that the hypertonic environment of the renal medulla regulates the expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR) and its natural splice variant, TNR-CFTR. To accomplish this, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) stable cell lines expressing TNR-CFTR or CFTR were used. The cells were treated with hypertonic medium made with either NaCl or urea or sucrose (480 mOsm/kg or 560 mOsm/kg) to mimic the tonicity of the renal medulla environment. Western blot data showed that CFTR and TNR-CFTR total cell protein is increased by hypertonic medium, but using the surface biotinylation technique, only CFTR was found to be increased in cell plasma membrane. Confocal microscopy showed TNR-CFTR localization primarily at the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane. In conclusion, CFTR and TNR-CFTR have different patterns of distribution in MDCK cells and they are modulated by a hypertonic environment, suggesting their physiological importance in renal medulla. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Soybean extracts increase cell surface ZIP4 abundance and cellular zinc levels: a potential novel strategy to enhance zinc absorption by ZIP4 targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ayako; Ohkura, Katsuma; Takahashi, Masakazu; Kizu, Kumiko; Narita, Hiroshi; Enomoto, Shuichi; Miyamae, Yusaku; Masuda, Seiji; Nagao, Masaya; Irie, Kazuhiro; Ohigashi, Hajime; Andrews, Glen K; Kambe, Taiho

    2015-12-01

    Dietary zinc deficiency puts human health at risk, so we explored strategies for enhancing zinc absorption. In the small intestine, the zinc transporter ZIP4 functions as an essential component of zinc absorption. Overexpression of ZIP4 protein increases zinc uptake and thereby cellular zinc levels, suggesting that food components with the ability to increase ZIP4 could potentially enhance zinc absorption via the intestine. In the present study, we used mouse Hepa cells, which regulate mouse Zip4 (mZip4) in a manner indistinguishable from that in intestinal enterocytes, to screen for suitable food components that can increase the abundance of ZIP4. Using this ZIP4-targeting strategy, two such soybean extracts were identified that were specifically able to decrease mZip4 endocytosis in response to zinc. These soybean extracts also effectively increased the abundance of apically localized mZip4 in transfected polarized Caco2 and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and, moreover, two apically localized mZip4 acrodermatitis enteropathica mutants. Soybean components were purified from one extract and soyasaponin Bb was identified as an active component that increased both mZip4 protein abundance and zinc levels in Hepa cells. Finally, we confirmed that soyasaponin Bb is capable of enhancing cell surface endogenous human ZIP4 in human cells. Our results suggest that ZIP4 targeting may represent a new strategy to improve zinc absorption in humans. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  15. Cell membrane disruption stimulates cAMP and Ca2+ signaling to potentiate cell membrane resealing in neighboring cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuru Togo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Disruption of cellular plasma membranes is a common event in many animal tissues, and the membranes are usually rapidly resealed. Moreover, repeated membrane disruptions within a single cell reseal faster than the initial wound in a protein kinase A (PKA- and protein kinase C (PKC-dependent manner. In addition to wounded cells, recent studies have demonstrated that wounding of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells potentiates membrane resealing in neighboring cells in the short-term by purinergic signaling, and in the long-term by nitric oxide/protein kinase G signaling. In the present study, real-time imaging showed that cell membrane disruption stimulated cAMP synthesis and Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular stores by purinergic signaling in neighboring MDCK cells. Furthermore, inhibition of PKA and PKC suppressed the ATP-mediated short-term potentiation of membrane resealing in neighboring cells. These results suggest that cell membrane disruption stimulates PKA and PKC via purinergic signaling to potentiate cell membrane resealing in neighboring MDCK cells.

  16. Isotropic actomyosin dynamics promote organization of the apical cell cortex in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingner, Christoph; Cherian, Anoop V; Fels, Johannes; Diesinger, Philipp M; Aufschnaiter, Roland; Maghelli, Nicola; Keil, Thomas; Beck, Gisela; Tolić-Nørrelykke, Iva M; Bathe, Mark; Wedlich-Soldner, Roland

    2014-10-13

    Although cortical actin plays an important role in cellular mechanics and morphogenesis, there is surprisingly little information on cortex organization at the apical surface of cells. In this paper, we characterize organization and dynamics of microvilli (MV) and a previously unappreciated actomyosin network at the apical surface of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. In contrast to short and static MV in confluent cells, the apical surfaces of nonconfluent epithelial cells (ECs) form highly dynamic protrusions, which are often oriented along the plane of the membrane. These dynamic MV exhibit complex and spatially correlated reorganization, which is dependent on myosin II activity. Surprisingly, myosin II is organized into an extensive network of filaments spanning the entire apical membrane in nonconfluent ECs. Dynamic MV, myosin filaments, and their associated actin filaments form an interconnected, prestressed network. Interestingly, this network regulates lateral mobility of apical membrane probes such as integrins or epidermal growth factor receptors, suggesting that coordinated actomyosin dynamics contributes to apical cell membrane organization. © 2014 Klingner et al.

  17. Preparation of Single Cells for Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, E S; Fortson, S L; Kulp, K S; Checchi, K D; Wu, L; Felton, J S; Wu, K J

    2007-10-24

    Characterizing chemical changes within single cells is important for determining fundamental mechanisms of biological processes that will lead to new biological insights and improved disease understanding. Imaging biological systems with mass spectrometry (MS) has gained popularity in recent years as a method for creating precise chemical maps of biological samples. In order to obtain high-quality mass spectral images that provide relevant molecular information about individual cells, samples must be prepared so that salts and other cell-culture components are removed from the cell surface and the cell contents are rendered accessible to the desorption beam. We have designed a cellular preparation protocol for imaging MS that preserves the cellular contents for investigation and removes the majority of the interfering species from the extracellular matrix. Using this method, we obtain excellent imaging results and reproducibility in three diverse cell types: MCF7 human breast cancer cells, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, and NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblasts. This preparation technique allows routine imaging MS analysis of cultured cells, allowing for any number of experiments aimed at furthering scientific understanding of molecular processes within individual cells.

  18. Suspension culture process for H9N2 avian influenza virus (strain Re-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honglin; Guo, Suying; Li, Zhenguang; Xu, Xiaoqin; Shao, Zexiang; Song, Guicai

    2017-10-01

    H9N2 avian influenza virus has caused huge economic loss for the Chinese poultry industry since it was first identified. Vaccination is frequently used as a control method for the disease. Meanwhile suspension culture has become an important tool for the development of influenza vaccines. To optimize the suspension culture conditions for the avian influenza H9N2 virus (Re-2 strain) in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells, we studied the culture conditions for cell growth and proliferation parameters for H9N2 virus replication. MDCK cells were successfully cultured in suspension, from a small scale to industrial levels of production, with passage time and initial cell density being optimized. The influence of pH on the culture process in the reactor has been discussed and the process parameters for industrial production were explored via amplification of the 650L reactor. Subsequently, we cultivated cells at high cell density and harvested high amounts of virus, reaching 10log2 (1:1024). Furthermore an animal experiment was conducted to detect antibody. Compared to the chicken embryo virus vaccine, virus cultured from MDCK suspension cells can produce a higher amount of antibodies. The suspension culture process is simple and cost efficient, thus providing a solid foundation for the realization of large-scale avian influenza vaccine production.

  19. Investigate The Role Of Cells To Cell Adhesion During Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, D. R.; Rodriguez, A. J.; Uyoh, E.; Antwi, P.; Olusegun, S.; Murray, P.

    2017-12-01

    Improvements in wound healing can save living organism and cut misery in health care centers and on the military battlefield. Microscopic examination of how Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells respond to wounds under various treatments that block general calcium absorption and e-cadherin mechanics may yield novel wound treatment insights. We used MDCK cells as our tissue model for this experiment.Each tissue was grown on mattek dishes at high, middle, and low densities. Next, we incubated the tissue at 37 degrees celsius overnight. The next day, we wounded the MDCK tissue by scratching them with a 21G1 ½(38.1 mm) syringe needle. Before the scratch we took an image of the tissues. With the tissue wound we made a time-lapse movie of about 3 hours long with a interval of 1 min. Afterward, we compared each MDCK tissue by adding a calcium chelator named EGTA. As so, this will sequester calcium use as well to block e-cadherin mechanics. We then looked at the relationship between a wounded tissue and a healthy tissue. As such, wound dynamics can be observed. We asked ourselves, will EGTA prevent wound closure?

  20. Synthetic generation of influenza vaccine viruses for rapid response to pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormitzer, Philip R; Suphaphiphat, Pirada; Gibson, Daniel G; Wentworth, David E; Stockwell, Timothy B; Algire, Mikkel A; Alperovich, Nina; Barro, Mario; Brown, David M; Craig, Stewart; Dattilo, Brian M; Denisova, Evgeniya A; De Souza, Ivna; Eickmann, Markus; Dugan, Vivien G; Ferrari, Annette; Gomila, Raul C; Han, Liqun; Judge, Casey; Mane, Sarthak; Matrosovich, Mikhail; Merryman, Chuck; Palladino, Giuseppe; Palmer, Gene A; Spencer, Terika; Strecker, Thomas; Trusheim, Heidi; Uhlendorff, Jennifer; Wen, Yingxia; Yee, Anthony C; Zaveri, Jayshree; Zhou, Bin; Becker, Stephan; Donabedian, Armen; Mason, Peter W; Glass, John I; Rappuoli, Rino; Venter, J Craig

    2013-05-15

    During the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, vaccines for the virus became available in large quantities only after human infections peaked. To accelerate vaccine availability for future pandemics, we developed a synthetic approach that very rapidly generated vaccine viruses from sequence data. Beginning with hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene sequences, we combined an enzymatic, cell-free gene assembly technique with enzymatic error correction to allow rapid, accurate gene synthesis. We then used these synthetic HA and NA genes to transfect Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells that were qualified for vaccine manufacture with viral RNA expression constructs encoding HA and NA and plasmid DNAs encoding viral backbone genes. Viruses for use in vaccines were rescued from these MDCK cells. We performed this rescue with improved vaccine virus backbones, increasing the yield of the essential vaccine antigen, HA. Generation of synthetic vaccine seeds, together with more efficient vaccine release assays, would accelerate responses to influenza pandemics through a system of instantaneous electronic data exchange followed by real-time, geographically dispersed vaccine production.

  1. A Transporter of Ibuprofen is Upregulated in MDCK I Cells under Hyperosmotic Culture Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Rasmussen, Rune N; Mo, Junying

    2016-01-01

    Ibuprofen is a widely used drug. It has been identified as an inhibitor of several transporters, but it is not clear if ibuprofen is a substrate of any transporter itself. In the present work, we have characterized a transporter of ibuprofen, which is upregulated by hyperosmotic culture conditions...... in Madin-Darby canine kidney I (MDCK I) renal cells. [(3)H]-Ibuprofen uptake rate was measured in MDCK I cell cultured under normal (300 mOsm) and hyperosmotic (500 mOsm) conditions. Hyperosmotic conditions were obtained by supplementing urea, NaCl, mannitol, or raffinose to culture medium. The effect...... of increased osmolarity was investigated for different incubation times. [(3)H]-Ibuprofen uptake in MDCK I cells was upregulated by hyperosmotic culture condition, and was saturable with a Km value of 0.37 ± 0.08 μM and a Vmax of 233.1 ± 17.2 pmol· cm(-2)· min(-1). Racemic [(3)H]-ibuprofen uptake could...

  2. Poly(amido-amine)-based hydrogels with tailored mechanical properties and degradation rates for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martello, Federico; Tocchio, Alessandro; Tamplenizza, Margherita; Gerges, Irini; Pistis, Valentina; Recenti, Rossella; Bortolin, Monica; Del Fabbro, Massimo; Argentiere, Simona; Milani, Paolo; Lenardi, Cristina

    2014-03-01

    Poly(amido-amine) (PAA) hydrogels containing the 2,2-bisacrylamidoacetic acid-4-amminobutyl guanidine monomeric unit have a known ability to enhance cellular adhesion by interacting with the arginin-glycin-aspartic acid (RGD)-binding αVβ3 integrin, expressed by a wide number of cell types. Scientific interest in this class of materials has traditionally been hampered by their poor mechanical properties and restricted range of degradation rate. Here we present the design of novel biocompatible, RGD-mimic PAA-based hydrogels with wide and tunable degradation rates as well as improved mechanical and biological properties for biomedical applications. This is achieved by radical polymerization of acrylamide-terminated PAA oligomers in both the presence and absence of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate. The degradation rate is found to be precisely tunable by adjusting the PAA oligomer molecular weight and acrylic co-monomer concentration in the starting reaction mixture. Cell adhesion and proliferation tests on Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells show that PAA-based hydrogels have the capacity to promote cell adhesion up to 200% compared to the control. Mechanical tests show higher compressive strength of acrylic chain containing hydrogels compared to traditional PAA hydrogels. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Immune response to inactivated influenza virus vaccine: antibody reactivity with epidemic influenza B viruses of two highly distinct evolutionary lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyhälä, R; Kleemola, M; Kumpulainen, V; Vartiainen, E; Lappi, S; Pönkä, A; Cantell, K

    1992-01-01

    Vaccination of adults (healthy female employees potentially capable of transmitting influenza to high-risk persons; n = 104) in autumn 1990 with a trivalent influenza virus vaccine containing B/Yamagata/16/88 induced a low antibody response to B/Finland/150/90, a recent variant of B/Victoria/2/87-like viruses, as compared with the antibody response to B/Finland/172/91, a current variant in the lineage of B/Yamagata/16/88-like viruses. Up to the end of the epidemic season, the antibody status declined but was still significantly better than before the vaccination. The results suggest that the vaccine strain was appropriate for the outbreak of 1990 to 1991 in Finland, but may provide unsatisfactory protection against B/Victoria/2/87-like viruses. Evidence is given that use of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK)-grown virus as an antigen in the haemagglutination inhibition test (HI) may provide more reliable information about the protective antibodies than use of untreated or ether-treated egg-grown viruses. Significantly higher postvaccination and postepidemic antibody titres were recorded among subjects who exhibited the antibody before vaccination than among seronegative subjects. A significantly higher response rate among initially seronegative people than among seropositive people was recorded for antibody to B/Finland/150/90, but no clear evidence was obtained that the pre-existing antibody could have had a negative effect on the antibody production.

  4. A novel, colorimetric neutralization assay for measuring antibodies to influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtoranta, Liisa; Villberg, Anja; Santanen, Riitta; Ziegler, Thedi

    2009-08-01

    A colorimetric cell proliferation assay for measuring neutralizing antibodies to influenza viruses in human sera is described. Following a 90-min incubation, the serum-virus mixture was transferred to Madin-Darby canine kidney cells cultured in 96-well plates. After further incubation for three days, a tetrazolium salt was added to the wells. Cellular mitochondrial dehydrogenases cleave the tetrazolium salt to formazan, and the resulting color change is read by a spectrophotometer. The absorbance values correlate directly to the number of viable cells in the assay well and thus also to the neutralizing activity of influenza-specific antibodies present in the serum. With the few hands-on manipulations required, this assay allows simultaneous testing of a considerable number of sera, offers opportunities for automation, and is suitable for use under biosafety level-3 conditions. The test was used to study the antibody response after the administration of seasonal, inactivated, trivalent influenza vaccine. Antibody titers determined by the neutralization test in pre- and post-vaccination serum pairs were compared with those obtained by the hemagglutination inhibition assay. The neutralization test yielded higher pre- and post-vaccination titers and a larger number of significant increases in post-vaccination antibody titer than the hemagglutination inhibition test. This new test format could serve as a valuable laboratory tool for influenza vaccine studies.

  5. A quantitative risk assessment of exposure to adventitious agents in a cell culture-derived subunit influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Jens-Peter

    2008-06-19

    A risk-assessment model has demonstrated the ability of a new cell culture-based vaccine manufacturing process to reduce the level of any adventitious agent to a million-fold below infectious levels. The cell culture-derived subunit influenza vaccine (OPTAFLU), Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics) is produced using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells to propagate seasonal viral strains, as an alternative to embryonated chicken-eggs. As only a limited range of mammalian viruses can grow in MDCK cells, similar to embryonated eggs, MDCK cells can act as an effective filter for a wide range of adventitious agents that might be introduced during vaccine production. However, the introduction of an alternative cell substrate (for example, MDCK cells) into a vaccine manufacturing process requires thorough investigations to assess the potential for adventitious agent risk in the final product, in the unlikely event that contamination should occur. The risk assessment takes into account the entire manufacturing process, from initial influenza virus isolation, through to blending of the trivalent subunit vaccine and worst-case residual titres for the final vaccine formulation have been calculated for >20 viruses or virus families. Maximum residual titres for all viruses tested were in the range of 10(-6) to 10(-16) infectious units per vaccine dose. Thus, the new cell culture-based vaccine manufacturing process can reduce any adventitious agent to a level that is unable to cause infection.

  6. Effects of adenine nucleotide and sterol depletion on tight junction structure and function in MDCK cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladino, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    The antitumor agent Hadacidin (H), N-formyl-hydroxyamino-acetic acid, reversibly inhibited the multiplication of clone 4 Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells at a 4 mM concentration within 24-48 hours. Treated cells were arrested in the S phase of the cell cycle. Accompanying this action was a 16-fold increase in the area occupied b the cells and a refractoriness to trypsin treatment. To test whether this effect was due to an increase in tight junction integrity, electrical resistance (TER) was measured across H-treated monolayers. Addition of H at the onset of junction formation reversibly prevented the development of TER. ATP and cAMP levels were decreased by H, as well as the rate of [ 3 H]-leucine incorporation into protein. When 1 mM dibutyryl-cAMP (d.cAMP) and theophylline were added, H had no effect on cell division or protein synthesis, and TER was partially restored. The addition of 1 mM d.cAMP and 1 mM theophylline to control cultures decreased TER, indicating a biphasic effect on TER development/maintenance. In a separate study, the effect of sterol depletion on tight junctions formation/maintenance in wild-type MDCK cells was investigated

  7. Glycolysis is governed by growth regime and simple enzyme regulation in adherent MDCK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehberg, Markus; Ritter, Joachim B; Reichl, Udo

    2014-10-01

    Due to its vital importance in the supply of cellular pathways with energy and precursors, glycolysis has been studied for several decades regarding its capacity and regulation. For a systems-level understanding of the Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell metabolism, we couple a segregated cell growth model published earlier with a structured model of glycolysis, which is based on relatively simple kinetics for enzymatic reactions of glycolysis, to explain the pathway dynamics under various cultivation conditions. The structured model takes into account in vitro enzyme activities, and links glycolysis with pentose phosphate pathway and glycogenesis. Using a single parameterization, metabolite pool dynamics during cell cultivation, glucose limitation and glucose pulse experiments can be consistently reproduced by considering the cultivation history of the cells. Growth phase-dependent glucose uptake together with cell-specific volume changes generate high intracellular metabolite pools and flux rates to satisfy the cellular demand during growth. Under glucose limitation, the coordinated control of glycolytic enzymes re-adjusts the glycolytic flux to prevent the depletion of glycolytic intermediates. Finally, the model's predictive power supports the design of more efficient bioprocesses.

  8. Susceptibility of influenza viruses circulating in Western Saudi Arabia to neuraminidase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Tolah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the sensitivity of circulating influenza viruses in Western Saudi Arabia to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs; mainly, zanamivir and oseltamivir. Methods: Respiratory samples were collected from patients presenting with respiratory symptoms to King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA between September 2013 and October 2014. All samples were tested prospectively by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for influenza A and B viruses. Positive samples were then inoculated on Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK cells and isolated viruses were examined for their sensitivity to NAIs using fluorescent neuraminidase inhibition assay. Results: Out of 406 tested samples, 25 samples (6.2% were positive for influenza A/pdmH1N1 virus, one sample (0.25% was positive for influenza A/H3N2 virus, and 7 samples (1.7% were positive for influenza B Yamagata-like virus. Screening of isolated influenza A and B viruses (9 out of 33 for their sensitivity to NAIs showed no significant resistance to available NAIs. Conclusion: Our results show that circulating influenza viruses in Jeddah are still sensitive to NAIs.

  9. Bat lung epithelial cells show greater host species-specific innate resistance than MDCK cells to human and avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Tessa; Eckerle, Isabella; Chang, Kin-Chow

    2018-04-10

    With the recent discovery of novel H17N10 and H18N11 influenza viral RNA in bats and report on high frequency of avian H9 seroconversion in a species of free ranging bats, an important issue to address is the extent bats are susceptible to conventional avian and human influenza A viruses. To this end, three bat species (Eidolon helvum, Carollia perspicillata and Tadarida brasiliensis) of lung epithelial cells were separately infected with two avian and two human influenza viruses to determine their relative host innate immune resistance to infection. All three species of bat cells were more resistant than positive control Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells to all four influenza viruses. TB1-Lu cells lacked sialic acid α2,6-Gal receptors and were most resistant among the three bat species. Interestingly, avian viruses were relatively more replication permissive in all three bat species of cells than with the use of human viruses which suggest that bats could potentially play a role in the ecology of avian influenza viruses. Chemical inhibition of the JAK-STAT pathway in bat cells had no effect on virus production suggesting that type I interferon signalling is not a major factor in resisting influenza virus infection. Although all three species of bat cells are relatively more resistant to influenza virus infection than control MDCK cells, they are more permissive to avian than human viruses which suggest that bats could have a contributory role in the ecology of avian influenza viruses.

  10. Leader cells regulate collective cell migration via Rac activation in the downstream signaling of integrin β1 and PI3K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Naoya; Mizutani, Takeomi; Kawabata, Kazushige; Haga, Hisashi

    2015-01-07

    Collective cell migration plays a crucial role in several biological processes, such as embryonic development, wound healing, and cancer metastasis. Here, we focused on collectively migrating Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells that follow a leader cell on a collagen gel to clarify the mechanism of collective cell migration. First, we removed a leader cell from the migrating collective with a micromanipulator. This then caused disruption of the cohesive migration of cells that followed in movement, called "follower" cells, which showed the importance of leader cells. Next, we observed localization of active Rac, integrin β1, and PI3K. These molecules were clearly localized in the leading edge of leader cells, but not in follower cells. Live cell imaging using active Rac and active PI3K indicators was performed to elucidate the relationship between Rac, integrin β1, and PI3K. Finally, we demonstrated that the inhibition of these molecules resulted in the disruption of collective migration. Our findings not only demonstrated the significance of a leader cell in collective cell migration, but also showed that Rac, integrin β1, and PI3K are upregulated in leader cells and drive collective cell migration.

  11. AMP-activated protein kinase induces actin cytoskeleton reorganization in epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Lisa; Carpentier, Sarah; Platek, Anna; Hussain, Nusrat; Gueuning, Marie-Agnes; Vertommen, Didier; Ozkan, Yurda; Sid, Brice; Hue, Louis; Courtoy, Pierre J.; Rider, Mark H.; Horman, Sandrine

    2010-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a known regulator of cellular and systemic energy balance, is now recognized to control cell division, cell polarity and cell migration, all of which depend on the actin cytoskeleton. Here we report the effects of A769662, a pharmacological activator of AMPK, on cytoskeletal organization and signalling in epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. We show that AMPK activation induced shortening or radiation of stress fibers, uncoupling from paxillin and predominance of cortical F-actin. In parallel, Rho-kinase downstream targets, namely myosin regulatory light chain and cofilin, were phosphorylated. These effects resembled the morphological changes in MDCK cells exposed to hyperosmotic shock, which led to Ca 2+ -dependent AMPK activation via calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-β(CaMKKβ), a known upstream kinase of AMPK. Indeed, hypertonicity-induced AMPK activation was markedly reduced by the STO-609 CaMKKβ inhibitor, as was the increase in MLC and cofilin phosphorylation. We suggest that AMPK links osmotic stress to the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton.

  12. N-Glycosylation instead of cholesterol mediates oligomerization and apical sorting of GPI-APs in FRT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imjeti, Naga Salaija; Lebreton, Stéphanie; Paladino, Simona; de la Fuente, Erwin; Gonzalez, Alfonso; Zurzolo, Chiara

    2011-12-01

    Sorting of glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol--anchored proteins (GPI-APs) in polarized epithelial cells is not fully understood. Oligomerization in the Golgi complex has emerged as the crucial event driving apical segregation of GPI-APs in two different kind of epithelial cells, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and Fisher rat thyroid (FRT) cells, but whether the mechanism is conserved is unknown. In MDCK cells cholesterol promotes GPI-AP oligomerization, as well as apical sorting of GPI-APs. Here we show that FRT cells lack this cholesterol-driven oligomerization as apical sorting mechanism. In these cells both apical and basolateral GPI-APs display restricted diffusion in the Golgi likely due to a cholesterol-enriched membrane environment. It is striking that N-glycosylation is the critical event for oligomerization and apical sorting of GPI-APs in FRT cells but not in MDCK cells. Our data indicate that at least two mechanisms exist to determine oligomerization in the Golgi leading to apical sorting of GPI-APs. One depends on cholesterol, and the other depends on N-glycosylation and is insensitive to cholesterol addition or depletion.

  13. Receptor for advanced glycation end-products is a marker of type I lung alveolar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasawa, Madoka; Fujiwara, Naoyuki; Hirabayashi, Susumu; Ohno, Hideki; Iida, Junko; Makita, Koshi; Hata, Yutaka

    2004-02-01

    Lung alveolar epithelial cells are comprised of type I (ATI) and type II (ATII) cells. ATI cells are polarized, although they have very flat morphology. The identification of marker proteins for apical and basolateral membranes of ATI cells is important to investigate into the differentiation of ATI cells. In this paper, we characterized receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) as a marker for ATI cells. RAGE was localized on basolateral membranes of ATI cells in the immunoelectron microscopy and its expression was enhanced in a parallel manner to the differentiation of ATI cells in vivo and in primary cultures of ATII cells. RAGE and T1 alpha, a well-known ATI marker protein, were targeted to basolateral and apical membranes, respectively, when expressed in polarized Madine Darby canine kidney cells. Moreover, RAGE was expressed in ATI cells after T1 alpha in vivo and in ex in vivo organ cultures. In conclusion, RAGE is a marker for basolateral membranes of well-differentiated ATI cells. ATI cells require some signal provided by the in vivo environment to express RAGE.

  14. Effects of Hydrostatic Pressure on Carcinogenic Properties of Epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Shinsaku; Kim, Young Hak; Matsumoto, Hisako; Muro, Shigeo; Hirai, Toyohiro; Mishima, Michiaki; Furuse, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between chronic inflammation and cancer is well known. The inflammation increases the permeability of blood vessels and consequently elevates pressure in the interstitial tissues. However, there have been only a few reports on the effects of hydrostatic pressure on cultured cells, and the relationship between elevated hydrostatic pressure and cell properties related to malignant tumors is less well understood. Therefore, we investigated the effects of hydrostatic pressure on the cultured epithelial cells seeded on permeable filters. Surprisingly, hydrostatic pressure from basal to apical side induced epithelial stratification in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) I and Caco-2 cells, and cavities with microvilli and tight junctions around their surfaces were formed within the multi-layered epithelia. The hydrostatic pressure gradient also promoted cell proliferation, suppressed cell apoptosis, and increased transepithelial ion permeability. The inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) promoted epithelial stratification by the hydrostatic pressure whereas the activation of PKA led to suppressed epithelial stratification. These results indicate the role of the hydrostatic pressure gradient in the regulation of various epithelial cell functions. The findings in this study may provide clues for the development of a novel strategy for the treatment of the carcinoma.

  15. Structure-activity relationship in the passage of different pyrrolizidine alkaloids through the gastrointestinal barrier: ABCB1 excretes heliotrine and echimidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessel, Stefanie; Gottschalk, Christoph; Schumann, Dania; These, Anja; Preiss-Weigert, Angelika; Lampen, Alfonso

    2014-05-01

    1,2-Unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) are found in plants such as Asteraceae and Boraginaceae families. Acute PA poisoning via contaminated food or feed causes severe damage to liver depending on species-specific oral bioavailability. For assessing PA bioavailability, their passage across the intestinal barrier was investigated using Caco-2 cells. Differentiated Caco-2 cells were exposed in transport chambers to the PA heliotrine (Hn), echimidine (Em), senecionine (Sc), and senkirkine (Sk). Cell supernatants were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. PA pass Caco-2 monolayer from the apical into basolateral compartment depending on their chemical structure. Compared to the cyclic diesters Sc and Sk with a passage rate of 47% ± 4 and 40% ± 3, respectively, the transferred amount of the monoester Hn (32% ± 3) and open-chained diester Em (13% ± 2) was substantially lower. This suggested an active transport of Hn and Em. Using Madin-Darby canine kidney II/P-glycoprotein (ABCB1)-overexpressing cells, the active excretion of Hn and Em by ABCB1 from the gastrointestinal epithelium into the gut lumen was shown. PA cross the intestinal barrier structure-dependently. The passage of the noncyclic PA Hn and Em is reduced by an ABCB1-driven efflux into the gastrointestinal lumen resulting in a decreased oral bioavailability. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Searching for Multi-Targeting Neurotherapeutics against Alzheimer’s: Discovery of Potent AChE-MAO B Inhibitors through the Decoration of the 2H-Chromen-2-one Structural Motif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Pisani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The need for developing real disease-modifying drugs against neurodegenerative syndromes, particularly Alzheimer’s disease (AD, shifted research towards reliable drug discovery strategies to unveil clinical candidates with higher therapeutic efficacy than single-targeting drugs. By following the multi-target approach, we designed and synthesized a novel class of dual acetylcholinesterase (AChE-monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B inhibitors through the decoration of the 2H-chromen-2-one skeleton. Compounds bearing a propargylamine moiety at position 3 displayed the highest in vitro inhibitory activities against MAO-B. Within this series, derivative 3h emerged as the most interesting hit compound, being a moderate AChE inhibitor (IC50 = 8.99 µM and a potent and selective MAO-B inhibitor (IC50 = 2.8 nM. Preliminary studies in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell lines demonstrated its low cytotoxicity and disclosed a promising neuroprotective effect at low doses (0.1 µM under oxidative stress conditions promoted by two mitochondrial toxins (oligomycin-A and rotenone. In a Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCKII-MDR1 cell-based transport study, Compound 3h was able to permeate the BBB-mimicking monolayer and did not result in a glycoprotein-p (P-gp substrate, showing an efflux ratio = 0.96, close to that of diazepam.

  17. Antiviral Protein of Momordica charantia L. Inhibits Different Subtypes of Influenza A

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    Viroj Pongthanapisith

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The new antiviral activity of the protein extracted from Momordica charantia was determined with different subtypes of influenza A. The protein was purified from the seed of M. charantia using an anion exchanger and a Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography (FPLC system. At the concentration of 1.401 mg/mL, the protein did not exhibit cytotoxicity in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK but inhibited FFU influenza A/PR/8/34 H1N1 virus at 56.50%, 65.72%, and 100% inhibition by the protein treated before the virus (pretreated, the protein treated alongside with the virus (simultaneously treated, and the protein treated after the virus (posttreated during incubation, respectively. Using 5, 25, and 100 TCID50 of influenza A/New Caledonia/20/99 H1N1, A/Fujian/411/01 H3N2 and A/Thailand/1(KAN-1/2004 H5N1, the IC50 was calculated to be 100, 150, and 200; 75, 175, and 300; and 40, 75, and 200 μg/mL, respectively. Our present finding indicated that the plant protein inhibited not only H1N1 and H3N2 but also H5N1 subtype. As a result of the broad spectrum of its antiviral activity, this edible plant can be developed as an effective therapeutic agent against various and even new emerging subtypes of influenza A.

  18. Low Prevalence of Enzootic Equine Influenza Virus among Horses in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Sack

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Horses are critically important for Mongolian herders’ livelihoods, providing transportation and food products, and playing important cultural roles. Equine influenza virus (EIV epizootics have been frequent among Mongolia’s horses, with five occurring since 1970. We sought to estimate the prevalence for EIV infection among horses and Bactrian camels with influenza-like illness between national epizootics. In 2016–2017, active surveillance for EIV was periodically performed in four aimags (provinces. Nasal swabs were collected from 680 horses and 131 camels. Seven of the horse swabs were “positive” for qRT-PCR evidence of influenza A (Ct value ≤ 38. Two more were “suspect positive” (Ct value > 38 and ≤ 40. These nine specimens were collected from four aimags. None of the camel specimens had molecular evidence of infection. Despite serial blind passage in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells (MDCK cells, none of the nine horse specimens yielded an influenza A virus. None of the 131 herder households surveyed had recently vaccinated their horses against EIV. It seems likely that sporadic EIV is enzootic in multiple Mongolian aimags. This finding, the infrequent use of EIV vaccination, periodic prevalence of highly pathogenic avian influenza, and the mixing of domestic and wild equid herds suggest that Mongolia may be a hot spot for novel EIV emergence.

  19. MEMS-based dynamic cell-to-cell culture platforms using electrochemical surface modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jiyoung; Lin, Liwei; Yoon, Sang-Hee; Mofrad, Mohammad R K

    2011-01-01

    MEMS-based biological platforms with the capability of both spatial placements and time releases of living cells for cell-to-cell culture experiments have been designed and demonstrated utilizing electrochemical surface modification effects. The spatial placement is accomplished by electrochemical surface modification of substrate surfaces to be either adhesive or non-adhesive for living cells. The time control is achieved by the electrical activation of the selective indium tin oxide co-culture electrode to allow the migration of living cells onto the electrode to start the cell-to-cell culture studies. Prototype devices have a three-electrode design with an electrode size of 50 × 50 µm 2 and the separation gaps of 2 µm between them. An electrical voltage of −1.5 V has been used to activate the electrodes independently and sequentially to demonstrate the dynamic cell-to-cell culture experiments of NIH 3T3 fibroblast and Madin Darby canine kidney cells. As such, this MEMS platform could be a basic yet versatile tool to characterize transient cell-to-cell interactions

  20. Apical sorting of lysoGPI-anchored proteins occurs independent of association with detergent-resistant membranes but dependent on their N-glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillon, Guillaume Alain; Michon, Laetitia; Watanabe, Reika

    2013-06-01

    Most glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) are located at the apical surface of epithelial cells. The apical delivery of GPI-APs is believed to result from their association with lipid rafts. We find that overexpression of C-terminally tagged PGAP3 caused predominant production of lysoGPI-APs, an intermediate precursor in the GPI lipid remodeling process in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. In these cells, produced lysoGPI-APs are not incorporated into detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) but still are delivered apically, suggesting that GPI-AP association with DRMs is not necessary for apical targeting. In contrast, apical transport of both fully remodeled and lyso forms of GPI-APs is dependent on N-glycosylation, confirming a general role of N-glycans in apical protein transport. We also find that depletion of cholesterol causes apical-to-basolateral retargeting not only of fully remodeled GPI-APs, but also of lysoGPI-APs, as well as endogenous soluble and transmembrane proteins that would normally be targeted to the apical membrane. These findings confirm the essential role for cholesterol in the apical protein targeting and further demonstrate that the mechanism of cholesterol-dependent apical sorting is not related to DRM association of GPI-APs.

  1. Kidney transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... always take your medicine as directed. Alternative Names Renal transplant; Transplant - kidney Patient Instructions Kidney removal - discharge Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow Kidneys Kidney transplant - ...

  2. Canine gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Craig; Twedt, David C

    2003-09-01

    Gastritis--inflammation of the stomach--is a frequently cited differential yet rarely characterized diagnosis in cases of canine anorexia and vomiting. Although the list of rule-outs for acute or chronic gastritis is extensive, a review of the veterinary literature reveals fewer than 15 articles that have focused on clinical cases of canine gastritis over the last 25 years. The dog frequently appears in the human literature as an experimentally manipulated model for the study of endoscopic techniques or the effect of medications on gastric mucosa. In the veterinary patient, cases of acute gastritis are rarely pursued with the complete diagnostic armamentarium, and cases of chronic gastritis are rarely found to occur as an entity isolated from the rest of the gastrointestinal tract. This article focuses on those findings most clinically relevant to cases of canine gastritis in veterinary medicine.

  3. Steviol reduces MDCK Cyst formation and growth by inhibiting CFTR channel activity and promoting proteasome-mediated CFTR degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaowalit Yuajit

    Full Text Available Cyst enlargement in polycystic kidney disease (PKD involves cAMP-activated proliferation of cyst-lining epithelial cells and transepithelial fluid secretion into the cyst lumen via cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR chloride channel. This study aimed to investigate an inhibitory effect and detailed mechanisms of steviol and its derivatives on cyst growth using a cyst model in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells. Among 4 steviol-related compounds tested, steviol was found to be the most potent at inhibiting MDCK cyst growth. Steviol inhibition of cyst growth was dose-dependent; steviol (100 microM reversibly inhibited cyst formation and cyst growth by 72.53.6% and 38.2±8.5%, respectively. Steviol at doses up to 200 microM had no effect on MDCK cell viability, proliferation and apoptosis. However, steviol acutely inhibited forskolin-stimulated apical chloride current in MDCK epithelia, measured with the Ussing chamber technique, in a dose-dependent manner. Prolonged treatment (24 h with steviol (100 microM also strongly inhibited forskolin-stimulated apical chloride current, in part by reducing CFTR protein expression in MDCK cells. Interestingly, proteasome inhibitor, MG-132, abolished the effect of steviol on CFTR protein expression. Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that prolonged treatment (24 h with steviol (100 microM markedly reduced CFTR expression at the plasma membrane. Taken together, the data suggest that steviol retards MDCK cyst progression in two ways: first by directly inhibiting CFTR chloride channel activity and second by reducing CFTR expression, in part, by promoting proteasomal degradation of CFTR. Steviol and related compounds therefore represent drug candidates for treatment of polycystic kidney disease.

  4. Establishment of optimized MDCK cell lines for reliable efflux transport studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartzke, Dominik; Fricker, Gert

    2014-04-01

    Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells transfected with human MDR1 gene (MDCK-MDR1) encoding for P-glycoprotein (hPgp, ABCB1) are widely used for transport studies to identify drug candidates as substrates of this efflux protein. Therefore, it is necessary to rely on constant and comparable expression levels of Pgp to avoid false negative or positive results. We generated a cell line with homogenously high and stable expression of hPgp through sorting single clones from a MDCK-MDR1 cell pool using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). To obtain control cell lines for evaluation of cross-interactions with endogenous canine Pgp (cPgp) wild-type cells were sorted with a low expression pattern of cPgp in comparison with the MDCK-MDR1. Expression of other transporters was also characterized in both cell lines by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. Pgp function was investigated applying the Calcein-AM assay as well as bidirectional transport assays using (3) H-Digoxin, (3) H-Vinblastine, and (3) H-Quinidine as substrates. Generated MDCK-MDR1 cell lines showed high expression of hPgp. Control MDCK-WT cells were optimized in showing a comparable expression level of cPgp in comparison with MDCK-MDR1 cell lines. Generated cell lines showed higher and more selective Pgp transport compared with parental cells. Therefore, they provide a significant improvement in the performance of efflux studies yielding more reliable results. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  5. Synthetically derived bat influenza A-like viruses reveal a cell type- but not species-specific tropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Étori Aguiar; Locher, Samira; Kolesnikova, Larissa; Bolte, Hardin; Aydillo, Teresa; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Schwemmle, Martin; Zimmer, Gert

    2016-10-24

    Two novel influenza A-like viral genome sequences have recently been identified in Central and South American fruit bats and provisionally designated "HL17NL10" and "HL18NL11." All efforts to isolate infectious virus from bats or to generate these viruses by reverse genetics have failed to date. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) encoding the hemagglutinin-like envelope glycoproteins HL17 or HL18 in place of the VSV glycoprotein were generated to identify cell lines that are susceptible to bat influenza A-like virus entry. More than 30 cell lines derived from various species were screened but only a few cell lines were found to be susceptible, including Madin-Darby canine kidney type II (MDCK II) cells. The identification of cell lines susceptible to VSV chimeras allowed us to recover recombinant HL17NL10 and HL18NL11 viruses from synthetic DNA. Both influenza A-like viruses established a productive infection in MDCK II cells; however, HL18NL11 replicated more efficiently than HL17NL10 in this cell line. Unlike conventional influenza A viruses, bat influenza A-like viruses started the infection preferentially at the basolateral membrane of polarized MDCK II cells; however, similar to conventional influenza A viruses, bat influenza A-like viruses were released primarily from the apical site. The ability of HL18NL11 or HL17NL10 viruses to infect canine and human cells might reflect a zoonotic potential of these recently identified bat viruses.

  6. Development of a Vaccine Incorporating Killed Virus of Canine Origin for the Prevention of Canine Parvovirus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Povey, C.

    1982-01-01

    A parvovirus of canine origin, cultured in a feline kidney cell line, was inactivated with formalin. Three pilot serials were produced and three forms of finished vaccine (nonadjuvanted, single adjuvanted and double adjuvanted) were tested in vaccination and challenge trials. A comparison was also made with two inactivated feline panleukopenia virus vaccines, one of which has official approval for use in dogs. The inactivated canine vaccine in nonadjuvanted, adjuvanted or double adjuvanted fo...

  7. Acidosis-mediated regulation of the NHE1 isoform of the Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger in renal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odunewu, Ayodeji; Fliegel, Larry

    2013-08-01

    The mammalian Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) is a ubiquitous plasma membrane protein that regulates intracellular pH by removing a proton in exchange for extracellular sodium. Renal tissues are subject to metabolic and respiratory acidosis, and acidosis has been shown to acutely activate NHE1 activity in other cell types. We examined if NHE1 is activated by acute acidosis in HEK293 and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Acute sustained intracellular acidosis (SIA) activated NHE1 in both cell types. We expressed wild-type and mutant NHE1 cDNAs in MDCK cells. All the cDNAs had a L163F/G174S mutation, which conferred a 100-fold resistance to EMD87580, an NHE1-specific inhibitor. We assayed exogenous NHE1 activity while inhibiting endogenous activity with EMD87580 and while inhibiting the NHE3 isoform of the Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger using the isoform-specific inhibitor S3226. We examined the activation and phosphorylation of the wild-type and mutant NHE1 proteins in response to SIA. In MDCK cells we demonstrated that the amino acids Ser⁷⁷¹, Ser⁷⁷⁶, Thr⁷⁷⁹, and Ser⁷⁸⁵ are important for NHE1 phosphorylation and activation after acute SIA. SIA activated ERK-dependent pathways in MDCK cells, and this was blocked by treatment with the MEK inhibitor U0126. Treatment with U0126 also blocked activation of NHE1 by SIA. These results suggest that acute acidosis activates NHE1 in mammalian kidney cells and that in MDCK cells this activation occurs through an ERK-dependent pathway affecting phosphorylation of a distinct set of amino acids in the cytosolic regulatory tail of NHE1.

  8. Calcium oxalate crystals induces tight junction disruption in distal renal tubular epithelial cells by activating ROS/Akt/p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Gan, Xiuguo; Liu, Xukun; An, Ruihua

    2017-11-01

    Tight junction plays important roles in regulating paracellular transports and maintaining cell polarity. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals, the major crystalline composition of kidney stones, have been demonstrated to be able to cause tight junction disruption to accelerate renal cell injury. However, the cellular signaling involved in COM crystal-induced tight junction disruption remains largely to be investigated. In the present study, we proved that COM crystals induced tight junction disruption by activating ROS/Akt/p38 MAPK pathway. Treating Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells with COM crystals induced a substantial increasing of ROS generation and activation of Akt that triggered subsequential activation of ASK1 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Western blot revealed a significantly decreased expression of ZO-1 and occludin, two important structural proteins of tight junction. Besides, redistribution and dissociation of ZO-1 were observed by COM crystals treatment. Inhibition of ROS by N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) attenuated the activation of Akt, ASK1, p38 MAPK, and down-regulation of ZO-1 and occludin. The redistribution and dissociation of ZO-1 were also alleviated by NAC treatment. These results indicated that ROS were involved in the regulation of tight junction disruption induced by COM crystals. In addition, the down-regulation of ZO-1 and occludin, the phosphorylation of ASK1 and p38 MAPK were also attenuated by MK-2206, an inhibitor of Akt kinase, implying Akt was involved in the disruption of tight junction upstream of p38 MAPK. Thus, these results suggested that ROS-Akt-p38 MAPK signaling pathway was activated in COM crystal-induced disruption of tight junction in MDCK cells.

  9. Receptor-binding properties of modern human influenza viruses primarily isolated in Vero and MDCK cells and chicken embryonated eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochalova, Larisa; Gambaryan, Alexandra; Romanova, Julia; Tuzikov, Alexander; Chinarev, Alexander; Katinger, Dietmar; Katinger, Herman; Egorov, Andrej; Bovin, Nicolai

    2003-01-01

    To study the receptor specificity of modern human influenza H1N1 and H3N2 viruses, the analogs of natural receptors, namely sialyloligosaccharides conjugated with high molecular weight (about 1500 kDa) polyacrylamide as biotinylated and label-free probes, have been used. Viruses isolated from clinical specimens were grown in African green monkey kidney (Vero) or Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and chicken embryonated eggs. All Vero-derived viruses had hemagglutinin (HA) sequences indistinguishable from original viruses present in clinical samples, but HAs of three of seven tested MDCK-derived isolates had one or two amino acid substitutions. Despite these host-dependent mutations and differences in the structure of HA molecules of individual strains, all studied Vero- and MDCK-isolated viruses bound to Neu5Ac α2-6Galβ1-4GlcNAc (6'SLN) essentially stronger than to Neu5Acα2-6Galβ1-4Glc (6'SL). Such receptor-binding specificity has been typical for earlier isolated H1N1 human influenza viruses, but there is a new property of H3N2 viruses that has been circulating in the human population during recent years. Propagation of human viruses in chicken embryonated eggs resulted in a selection of variants with amino acid substitutions near the HA receptor-binding site, namely Gln226Arg or Asp225Gly for H1N1 viruses and Leu194Ile and Arg220Ser for H3N2 viruses. These HA mutations disturb the observed strict 6'SLN specificity of recent human influenza viruses

  10. Changes in the functional characteristics of tumor and normal cells after treatment with extracts of white dead-nettle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veleva, Ralitsa; Petkova, Bela; Moskova-Doumanova, Veselina; Doumanov, Jordan; Dimitrova, Milena; Koleva, Petya; Mladenova, Kirilka; Petrova, Svetla; Yordanova, Zhenya; Kapchina-Toteva, Veneta; Topouzova-Hristova, Tanya

    2015-01-02

    Lamium album L. is a perennial herb widely used in folk medicine. It possesses a wide spectrum of therapeutic activities (anti-inflammatory, astringent, antiseptic, antibiotic, antispasmodic, antioxidant and anti-proliferative). Preservation of medicinal plant could be done by in vitro propagation to avoid depletion from their natural habitat. It is important to know whether extracts from L. album plants grown in vitro possess similar properties as extracts from plants grown in vivo . For these reasons, it is important to examine changes in the composition of secondary metabolites during in vitro cultivation of the plant and how they affect the biological activity. We used A549 human cancer cell line and normal kidney epithelial cells MDCKII (Madin-Darby canine kidney cells II) as controls in assessing the anti-cancer effect of plant extracts. To elucidate changes in some key functional characteristics, adhesion test, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2-5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide), transepithelial resistance (TER), immunofluorescence staining and trypan blue exclusion test were performed. Methanol and chloroform extracts of in vivo and in vitro propagated plants affected differently cancerous and non-cancerous cells. The most pronounced differences were observed in the morphological analysis and in the cell adhesive properties. We also detected suppressed epithelial transmembrane electrical resistance of MDCK II cells, by treatment with plant extracts, compared to non-treated MDCK II cells. A549 cells did not polarize under the same conditions. Altered organization of actin filaments in both cell types were noticed suggesting that extracts from L. album L. change TER and actin filaments, and somehow may block cell mechanisms, leading to the polarization of MDCK II cells.

  11. Activation of ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase in human cells by the mycotoxin patulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.-S.; Yu, F.-Y.; Su, C.-C.; Kan, J.-C.; Chung, C.-P.; Liu, B.-H.

    2005-01-01

    Patulin (PAT), a mycotoxin produced by certain species of Penicillium and Aspergillus, is often detectable in moldy fruits and their derivative products. PAT led to a concentration-dependent and time-dependent increase in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Exposure of HEK293 cells to concentrations above 5 μM PAT for 30 min induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation; activation of ERK1/2 was also observed after 24 h incubation with 0.05 μM of PAT. Treatment of human PBMCs for 30 min with 30 μM PAT dramatically increased the phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels. Both MEK1/2 inhibitors, U0126 and PD98059, suppressed ERK1/2 activation in either HEK293 or MDCK cells. In HEK293 cells, U0126-mediated inhibition of PAT-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation resulted in a significant decrease in levels of DNA damage, expressed as tail moment values, in the single cell gel electrophoresis assay. Conversely, U0126 did not affect cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase release, and the DNA synthesis rate in PAT-treated cultures. Exposure of HEK293 cells for 90 min to 15 μM PAT elevated the levels of early growth response gene-1 (egr-1) mRNA, but not of c-fos, fosB, and junB mRNAs. These results indicate that in human cells, PAT causes a rapid and persistent activation of ERK1/2 and this signaling pathway plays an important role in mediating PAT-induced DNA damage and egr-1 gene expression

  12. Canine thymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronsohn, M.

    1985-01-01

    Thymoma is an uncommon canine neoplasm of thymic epithelial cells. It is seen in various breeds but may occur more frequently in German Shepherd Dogs. Middle-aged or older dogs can be affected and no sex predilection exists. A paraneoplastic syndrome of myasthenia gravis, nonthymic malignant tumors, and/or polymyositis occurs in a significant number of dogs with thymoma. Clinical signs are variable and are related to a space-occupying cranial mediastinal mass and/or manifestations of the paraneo-plastic syndrome. Dyspnea is the most common presenting clinical sign. Thoracic radiographs usually show a cranial mediastinal mass. Lymphoma is the main differential diagnosis. A definitive diagnosis may be made by closed biopsy but is more likely to be confirmed by thoracotomy. Thymomas may be completely contained within the thymic capsule or may spread by local invasion or metastasis. A staging system allows for an accurate prognosis and a therapeutic plan. Surgical removal of encapsulated thymomas may result in long-term survival or cure. Invasive or metastatic thymomas carry a guarded prognosis. Manifestations of the paraneoplastic syndrome complicate treatment. Adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy may be of value for advanced cases; however, adequate clinical trials have not been done in the dog

  13. Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Kidney Disease KidsHealth / For Teens / Kidney Disease What's in ... Coping With Kidney Conditions Print What Do the Kidneys Do? You might never think much about some ...

  14. Kidney Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Kidney Problems Basic Facts & Information The kidneys are two ... kidney (renal) diseases are called nephrologists . What are Kidney Diseases? For about one-third of older people, ...

  15. Deliberate reduction of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase expression of influenza virus leads to an ultraprotective live vaccine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Skiena, Steven; Futcher, Bruce; Mueller, Steffen; Wimmer, Eckard

    2013-06-04

    A long-held dogma posits that strong presentation to the immune system of the dominant influenza virus glycoprotein antigens neuraminidase (NA) and hemagglutinin (HA) is paramount for inducing protective immunity against influenza virus infection. We have deliberately violated this dogma by constructing a recombinant influenza virus strain of A/PR8/34 (H1N1) in which expression of NA and HA genes was suppressed. We down-regulated NA and HA expression by recoding the respective genes with suboptimal codon pair bias, thereby introducing hundreds of nucleotide changes while preserving their codon use and protein sequence. The variants PR8-NA(Min), PR8-HA(Min), and PR8-(NA+HA)(Min) (Min, minimal expression) were used to assess the contribution of reduced glycoprotein expression to growth in tissue culture and pathogenesis in BALB/c mice. All three variants proliferated in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells to nearly the degree as WT PR8. In mice, however, they expressed explicit attenuation phenotypes, as revealed by their LD50 values: PR8, 32 plaque-forming units (PFU); HA(Min), 1.7 × 10(3) PFU; NA(Min), 2.4 × 10(5) PFU; (NA+HA)(Min), ≥3.16 × 10(6) PFU. Remarkably, (NA+HA)(Min) was attenuated >100,000-fold, with NA(Min) the major contributor to attenuation. In vaccinated mice (NA+HA)(Min) was highly effective in providing long-lasting protective immunity against lethal WT challenge at a median protective dose (PD50) of 2.4 PFU. Moreover, at a PD50 of only 147 or 237, (NA+HA)(Min) conferred protection against heterologous lethal challenges with two mouse-adapted H3N2 viruses. We conclude that the suppression of HA and NA is a unique strategy in live vaccine development.

  16. Uptake and metabolism of 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) by cultured renal tubular epithelial cells (RTEC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, J.A.; Spector, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    To determine if 12-HETE, a lipoxygenase product that mediates inflammation and tissue injury, can interact with RTEC, confluent Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells were incubated for 2-16 hr with 1.0 μM [ 3 H]-12-HETE. Initial uptake of 12-HETE was rapid; at 16 hrs. 70% of the 12-HETE uptake was incorporated into phospholipids (PL). The distribution among the choline, ethanolamine, inositol, and serine PL was 36, 36, 20 and 8%, respectively. Incubation of MDCK cells with 0.5 to 5.0 μM [ 3 H]-12-HETE for 1 hr indicated linear uptake without evidence of saturation. Incubation with 1.0 μM 12-HETE and 0.25-10.0 μM arachidonic acid for 1 hr revealed no competition for uptake at the lower concentrations but a 40% reduction in 12-HETE uptake at 10.0 μM. Polarity of 12-HETE uptake was indicated by a preference of the basolateral surface over the apical surface by 1.4. After 2 hr, analysis of the medium by reverse phase HPLC revealed that 12-HETE was converted to three polar metabolites which eluted at 25.9, 29.4 and 31.3 min respectively; 12-HETE eluted at 37.5 min. The appearance of these polar metabolites was not prevented by ibuprofen (50 μM) nordihydroguaiaretic acid (30 μM), allopurinol (15 mM), or butylated hydroxytoluene (20 μM). These findings suggest that the lipoxygenase product 12-HETE may affect RTEC through incorporation into membrane PL and/or conversion to polar metabolites

  17. Relative bioefficacy of RRR-α-tocopherol versus all-rac-α-tocopherol in in vitro models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Baldi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro relative bioefficacy of RRR-α-tocopherol (RRR- α-T versus all-rac-α-tocopherol (all-rac-α-T in counteracting the cytotoxic effect induced by H2O2 in Bovine Mammary Epithelium – University of Vermont (BME-UV1 and Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK cells. The range of RRR- α-T and all-rac- α-T concentrations selected for the oxidative challenge experiments was 100µM - 1nM. To study the bioefficacy of RRR- α-T and all-rac- α-T, MTT and LDH tests were performed. Cells were pre-incubated for 3 h with  selected a-tocopherol concentrations and then exposed to increasing H2O2 concentrations ranging from 125 to 750µM for the following 24h. Concerning the cell viability, the pre-treatments with 100µM of RRR- α-T and 100µM all-rac-α-T were able to significantly (P<0.05 counteract the effect induced by 750 µM of H2O2 in BME-UV1. In MDCK the pre-treatment with 1nM of all-rac-α-T was able to significantly (P<0.05 reduce the effect of 125 and 150 mM H2O2. In MDCK cells, the pre-incubation with all-rac-α-T determines a significant reduction of the membrane damage, induced by 175 µM of H2O2. In conclusion, RRR-α-T and all-rac-α-T have shown the ability to counteract the oxidative effects of H2O2, however further investigation will help to better understand their specific mechanism of action in vitro.

  18. [In vitro early detection of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease by Pittsburgh compound B-modified magnetic nanoparticles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, J Q; Wu, J Q; Li, M H; Wang, P J

    2017-11-07

    Objective: To construct magnetic nanoparticles targeting β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques, the pathological biomarker of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to study their binding capability in vitro . Methods: Superparamagnetic nanoparticles Mn(0.6)Zn(0.4)Fe(2)O(4) (MZF) were coated with amphiphilic star-block copolymeric micelles and modified with Aβ-specific probe Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) to construct a novel magnetic nanoparticle MZF-PiB, which specifically targeted amyloid plaques. Transmission electron microscope was used to study the morphological features of MZF-PiB. Superparamagnetism of MZF-PiB was assessed by its r(2) relaxation rate by using 3.0 T MRI scanner. Cytotoxic test was applied to determine biosafety of MZF-PiB nanoparticles in differentiated human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK). In vitro binding tests were conducted via immunohistochemistry on 6-month old AD mice brain sections. Differences of cell viability between groups were compared with one-way analysis of variance. Results: MZF-PiB nanoparticles were successfully constructed. Transmission electron microscope images showed that the nanoparticles were about 100 nm in size. The r(2) relaxation rate was 163.11 mMS(-1). No differences were found in cell viability of SH-SY5Y and MDCK incubated with MZF-PiB suspension for 24 h or 48 h when compared with those of untreated cells ( F =2.336, 2.539, 0.293, 1.493, all P >0.05). In vitro binding tests indicated that the MZF-PiB were specifically bound to amyloid plaques. The smallest size of detected plaques was 27 μm. Conclusion: PiB-modified nanoparticles targeting Aβ are biologically safe and highly superparamagnetic, possessing the capability to detect amyloid plaques early in vitro and the potential for early diagnosis of AD.

  19. G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) forms a plasma membrane complex with membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs) and protein kinase A-anchoring protein 5 (AKAP5) that constitutively inhibits cAMP production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broselid, Stefan; Berg, Kelly A; Chavera, Teresa A; Kahn, Robin; Clarke, William P; Olde, Björn; Leeb-Lundberg, L M Fredrik

    2014-08-08

    GPR30, or G protein-coupled estrogen receptor, is a G protein-coupled receptor reported to bind 17β-estradiol (E2), couple to the G proteins Gs and Gi/o, and mediate non-genomic estrogenic responses. However, controversies exist regarding the receptor pharmacological profile, effector coupling, and subcellular localization. We addressed the role of the type I PDZ motif at the receptor C terminus in receptor trafficking and coupling to cAMP production in HEK293 cells and CHO cells ectopically expressing the receptor and in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells expressing the native receptor. GPR30 was localized both intracellularly and in the plasma membrane and subject to limited basal endocytosis. E2 and G-1, reported GPR30 agonists, neither stimulated nor inhibited cAMP production through GPR30, nor did they influence receptor localization. Instead, GPR30 constitutively inhibited cAMP production stimulated by a heterologous agonist independently of Gi/o. Moreover, siRNA knockdown of native GPR30 increased cAMP production. Deletion of the receptor PDZ motif interfered with inhibition of cAMP production and increased basal receptor endocytosis. GPR30 interacted with membrane-associated guanylate kinases, including SAP97 and PSD-95, and protein kinase A-anchoring protein (AKAP) 5 in the plasma membrane in a PDZ-dependent manner. Knockdown of AKAP5 or St-Ht31 treatment, to disrupt AKAP interaction with the PKA RIIβ regulatory subunit, decreased inhibition of cAMP production, and St-Ht31 increased basal receptor endocytosis. Therefore, GPR30 forms a plasma membrane complex with a membrane-associated guanylate kinase and AKAP5, which constitutively attenuates cAMP production in response to heterologous agonists independently of Gi/o and retains receptors in the plasma membrane. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. The Chemical Chaperone Phenylbutyrate Rescues MCT8 Mutations Associated With Milder Phenotypes in Patients With Allan-Herndon-Dudley Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Doreen; Schweizer, Ulrich

    2017-03-01

    Mutations in the thyroid hormone transporter monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) prevent appropriate entry of thyroid hormones into brain cells during development and cause severe mental retardation in affected patients. The current treatment options are thyromimetic compounds that enter the brain independently of MCT8. Some MCT8-deficient patients (e.g., those carrying MCT8delF501) will not be as severely affected as most others. We have shown that the MCT8delF501 protein has decreased protein stability but important residual function once it reaches the plasma membrane. We were able to rescue protein expression and the function of MCT8delF501 in a Madin-Darby canine kidney cell model by application of the chemical chaperone sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB), a drug that has been used to treat patients with cystic fibrosis and urea cycle defects for extended periods of time. In the present study, we have extended our previous study and report on the NaPB-dependent rescue of a series of other pathogenic MCT8 mutants associated with milder patient phenotypes. We show that NaPB can functionally rescue the expression and activities of Ser194Phe, Ser290Phe, Leu434Trp, Arg445Cys, Leu492Pro, and Leu568Pro mutations in MCT8 in a dose-dependent manner. The soy isoflavone genistein, a dietary supplement, which was effective in MCT8delF501, was also effective in increasing the expression and transport of these MCT8 mutants; however, the effect size differed among mutants. Kinetic analyses revealed that the Michaelis constants of the mutants toward the primary substrate 3,3',5-triiodothyronine were not much different from the wild-type value, suggesting that these mutants are not impaired in their interaction with substrate but rather destabilized by the mutation and degraded. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society.

  1. Expression of a single siRNA against a conserved region of NP gene strongly inhibits in vitro replication of different Influenza A virus strains of avian and swine origin.

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    Stoppani, Elena; Bassi, Ivan; Dotti, Silvia; Lizier, Michela; Ferrari, Maura; Lucchini, Franco

    2015-08-01

    Influenza A virus is the principal agent responsible of the respiratory tract's infections in humans. Every year, highly pathogenic and infectious strains with new antigenic assets appear, making ineffective vaccines so far developed. The discovery of RNA interference (RNAi) opened the way to the progress of new promising drugs against Influenza A virus and also to the introduction of disease resistance traits in genetically modified animals. In this paper, we show that Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line expressing short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) cassette, designed on a specific conserved region of the nucleoprotein (NP) viral genome, can strongly inhibit the viral replication of four viral strains sharing the target sequence, reducing the viral mRNA respectively to 2.5×10(-4), 7.5×10(-5), 1.7×10(-3), 1.9×10(-4) compared to the control, as assessed by real-time PCR. Moreover, we demonstrate that during the challenge with a viral strain bearing a single mismatch on the target sequence, although a weaker inhibition is observed, viral mRNA is still lowered down to 1.2×10(-3) folds in the shRNA-expressing clone compared to the control, indicating a broad potential use of this approach. In addition, we developed a highly predictive and fast screening test of siRNA sequences based on dual-luciferase assay, useful for the in vitro prediction of the potential effect of viral inhibition. In conclusion, these findings reveal new siRNA sequences able to inhibit Influenza A virus replication and provide a basis for the development of siRNAs as prophylaxis and therapy for influenza infection both in humans and animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Abolition of peroxiredoxin-5 mitochondrial targeting during canid evolution.

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    Valérie Van der Eecken

    Full Text Available In human, the subcellular targeting of peroxiredoxin-5 (PRDX5, a thioredoxin peroxidase, is dependent on the use of multiple alternative transcription start sites and two alternative in-frame translation initiation sites, which determine whether or not the region encoding a mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS is translated. In the present study, the abolition of PRDX5 mitochondrial targeting in dog is highlighted and the molecular mechanism underlying the loss of mitochondrial PRDX5 during evolution is examined. Here, we show that the absence of mitochondrial PRDX5 is generalized among the extant canids and that the first events leading to PRDX5 MTS abolition in canids involve a mutation in the more 5' translation initiation codon as well as the appearance of a STOP codon. Furthermore, we found that PRDX5 MTS functionality is maintained in giant panda and northern elephant seal, which are phylogenetically closely related to canids. Also, the functional consequences of the restoration of mitochondrial PRDX5 in dog Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells were investigated. The restoration of PRDX5 mitochondrial targeting in MDCK cells, instead of protecting, provokes deleterious effects following peroxide exposure independently of its peroxidase activity, indicating that mitochondrial PRDX5 gains cytotoxic properties under acute oxidative stress in MDCK cells. Altogether our results show that, although mitochondrial PRDX5 cytoprotective function against oxidative stress has been clearly demonstrated in human and rodents, PRDX5 targeting to mitochondria has been evolutionary lost in canids. Moreover, restoration of mitochondrial PRDX5 in dog MDCK cells, instead of conferring protection against peroxide exposure, makes them more vulnerable.

  3. Quantitative measurement of changes in adhesion force involving focal adhesion kinase during cell attachment, spread, and migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.-C.; Su, H.-W.; Lee, C.-C.; Tang, M.-J.; Su, F.-C.

    2005-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a critical protein for the regulation of integrin-mediated cellular functions and it can enhance cell motility in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) induction. We utilized optical trapping and cytodetachment techniques to measure the adhesion force between pico-Newton and nano-Newton (nN) for quantitatively investigating the effects of FAK on adhesion force during initial binding (5 s), beginning of spreading (30 min), spreadout (12 h), and migration (induced by HGF) in MDCK cells with overexpressed FAK (FAK-WT), FAK-related non-kinase (FRNK), as well as normal control cells. Optical tweezers was used to measure the initial binding force between a trapped cell and glass coverslide or between a trapped bead and a seeded cell. In cytodetachment, the commercial atomic force microscope probe with an appropriate spring constant was used as a cyto-detacher to evaluate the change of adhesion force between different FAK expression levels of cells in spreading, spreadout, and migrating status. The results demonstrated that FAK-WT significantly increased the adhesion forces as compared to FRNK cells throughout all the different stages of cell adhesion. For cells in HGF-induced migration, the adhesion force decreased to almost the same level (∼600 nN) regardless of FAK levels indicating that FAK facilitates cells to undergo migration by reducing the adhesion force. Our results suggest FAK plays a role of enhancing cell adhesive ability in the binding and spreading, but an appropriate level of adhesion force is required for HGF-induced cell migration

  4. High Glucose Concentration Stimulates NHE-1 Activity in Distal Nephron Cells: the Role of the Mek/Erk1/2/p90RSK and p38MAPK Signaling Pathways

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    Juliana Martins da Costa-Pessoa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In models of diabetes, distal nephron cells contribute to glucose uptake and oxidation. How these cells contribute to the use of glucose for the regulation of H+ extrusion remains unknown. We used Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK cells to investigate the effect of acute or chronic high glucose concentration on the abundance and activity of the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE-1. Methods: Using RT-PCR, we also evaluated the mRNA expression for sodium glucose co-transporters SGLT1 and SGLT2. Protein abundance was analyzed using immunoblotting, and intracellular pH (pHi recovery was evaluated using microscopy in conjunction with the fluorescent probe BCECF/AM. The Na+-dependent pHi recovery rate was monitored with HOE-694 (50 µM and/or S3226 (10 µM, specific NHE-1 and NHE-3 inhibitors. Results: MDCK cells did not express the mRNA for SGLT1 or SGLT2 but did express the GLUT2, NHE-1 and NHE-3 proteins. Under control conditions, we observed a greater contribution of NHE-1 to pHi recovery relative to the other H+ transporters. Acute high glucose treatment increased the HOE-694-sensitive pHi recovery rate and p-Erk1/2 and p90RSK abundance. These parameters were reduced by PD-98059, a Mek inhibitor (1 µM. Chronic high glucose treatment also increased the HOE-694-sensitive pHi recovery rate and p-p38MAPK abundance. Both parameters were reduced by SB-203580, a p38MAPK inhibitor (10 µM. Conclusion: These results suggested that extracellular high glucose stimulated NHE-1 acutely and chronically through Mek/Erk1/2/p90RSK and p38MAPK pathways, respectively.

  5. Flow cytometric monitoring of influenza A virus infection in MDCK cells during vaccine production

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    Reichl Udo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In cell culture-based influenza vaccine production the monitoring of virus titres and cell physiology during infection is of great importance for process characterisation and optimisation. While conventional virus quantification methods give only virus titres in the culture broth, data obtained by fluorescence labelling of intracellular virus proteins provide additional information on infection dynamics. Flow cytometry represents a valuable tool to investigate the influences of cultivation conditions and process variations on virus replication and virus yields. Results In this study, fluorescein-labelled monoclonal antibodies against influenza A virus matrix protein 1 and nucleoprotein were used for monitoring the infection status of adherent Madin-Darby canine kidney cells from bioreactor samples. Monoclonal antibody binding was shown for influenza A virus strains of different subtypes (H1N1, H1N2, H3N8 and host specificity (human, equine, swine. At high multiplicity of infection in a bioreactor, the onset of viral protein accumulation in adherent cells on microcarriers was detected at about 2 to 4 h post infection by flow cytometry. In contrast, a significant increase in titre by hemagglutination assay was detected at the earliest 4 to 6 h post infection. Conclusion It is shown that flow cytometry is a sensitive and robust method for the monitoring of viral infection in fixed cells from bioreactor samples. Therefore, it is a valuable addition to other detection methods of influenza virus infection such as immunotitration and RNA hybridisation. Thousands of individual cells are measured per sample. Thus, the presented method is believed to be quite independent of the concentration of infected cells (multiplicity of infection and total cell concentration in bioreactors. This allows to perform detailed studies on factors relevant for optimization of virus yields in cell cultures. The method could also be used for process

  6. Vaccine-induced anti-HA2 antibodies promote virus fusion and enhance influenza virus respiratory disease.

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    Khurana, Surender; Loving, Crystal L; Manischewitz, Jody; King, Lisa R; Gauger, Phillip C; Henningson, Jamie; Vincent, Amy L; Golding, Hana

    2013-08-28

    Vaccine-induced disease enhancement has been described in connection with several viral vaccines in animal models and in humans. We investigated a swine model to evaluate mismatched influenza vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) after pH1N1 infection. Vaccinating pigs with whole inactivated H1N2 (human-like) virus vaccine (WIV-H1N2) resulted in enhanced pneumonia and disease after pH1N1 infection. WIV-H1N2 immune sera contained high titers of cross-reactive anti-pH1N1 hemagglutinin (HA) antibodies that bound exclusively to the HA2 domain but not to the HA1 globular head. No hemagglutination inhibition titers against pH1N1 (challenge virus) were measured. Epitope mapping using phage display library identified the immunodominant epitope recognized by WIV-H1N2 immune sera as amino acids 32 to 77 of pH1N1-HA2 domain, close to the fusion peptide. These cross-reactive anti-HA2 antibodies enhanced pH1N1 infection of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells by promoting virus membrane fusion activity. The enhanced fusion activity correlated with lung pathology in pigs. This study suggests a role for fusion-enhancing anti-HA2 antibodies in VAERD, in the absence of receptor-blocking virus-neutralizing antibodies. These findings should be considered during the evaluation of universal influenza vaccines designed to elicit HA2 stem-targeting antibodies.

  7. Molecular Epidemiology and Antigenic Characterization of Seasonal Influenza Viruses Circulating in Nepal.

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    Upadhyay, B P; Ghimire, P; Tashiro, M; Banjara, M R

    2017-01-01

    Influenza is one of the public health burdens in Nepal and its epidemiology is not clearly understood. The objective of this study was to explore the molecular epidemiology and the antigenic characteristics of the circulating influenza viruses in Nepal. A total of 1495 throat swab specimens were collected from January to December, 2014. Real time PCR assay was used for identification of influenza virus types and subtypes. Ten percent of the positive specimens were randomly selected and inoculated onto Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Epithelial cells (MDCK) for influenza virus isolation. All viruses were characterized by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. Influenza viruses were detected in 421/1495 (28.2%) specimens. Among positive cases, influenza A virus was detected in 301/421 (71.5%); of which 120 (39.9%) were influenza A/H1N1 pdm09 and 181 (60.1%) were influenza A/H3 subtype. Influenza B viruses were detected in 119/421 (28.3%) specimens. Influenza A/H1N1 pdm09, A/H3 and B viruses isolated in Nepal were antigenically similar to the vaccine strain influenza A/California/07/2009(H1N1pdm09), A/Texas/50/2012(H3N2), A/New York/39/2012(H3N2) and B/Massachusetts/2/2012, respectively. Influenza viruses were reported year-round in different geographical regions of Nepal which was similar to other tropical countries. The circulating influenza virus type and subtypes of Nepal were similar to vaccine candidate virus which could be prevented by currently used influenza vaccine.

  8. Drug susceptibility of influenza A/H3N2 strains co-circulating during 2009 influenza pandemic: first report from Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohil, Devanshi J; Kothari, Sweta T; Shinde, Pramod S; Chintakrindi, Anand S; Meharunkar, Rhuta; Warke, Rajas V; Kanyalkar, Meena A; Chowdhary, Abhay S; Deshmukh, Ranjana A

    2015-01-01

    From its first instance in 1977, resistance to amantadine, a matrix (M2) inhibitor has been increasing among influenza A/H3N2, thus propelling the use of oseltamivir, a neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor as a next line drug. Information on drug susceptibility to amantadine and neuraminidase inhibitors for influenza A/H3N2 viruses in India is limited with no published data from Mumbai. This study aimed at examining the sensitivity to M2 and NA inhibitors of influenza A/H3N2 strains isolated from 2009 to 2011 in Mumbai. Nasopharyngeal swabs positive for influenza A/H3N2 virus were inoculated on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line for virus isolation. Molecular analysis of NA and M2 genes was used to detect known mutations contributing to resistance. Resistance to neuraminidase was assayed using a commercially available chemiluminescence based NA-Star assay kit. Genotypically, all isolates were observed to harbor mutations known to confer resistance to amantadine. However, no know mutations conferring resistance to NA inhibitors were detected. The mean IC50 value for oseltamivir was 0.25 nM. One strain with reduced susceptibility to the neuraminidase inhibitor (IC₅₀=4.08 nM) was isolated from a patient who had received oseltamivir treatment. Phylogenetic analysis postulate the emergence of amantadine resistance in Mumbai may be due to genetic reassortment with the strains circulating in Asia and North America. Surveillance of drug susceptibility helped us to identify an isolate with reduced sensitivity to oseltamivir. Therefore, we infer that such surveillance would help in understanding possible trends underlying the emergence of resistant variants in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the bioavailability of major withanolides of Withania somnifera using an in vitro absorption model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkar, Santosh T; Kandhare, Amit D; Sloley, Brian D; Jagtap, Suresh D; Lin, James; Tam, Yun K; Katyare, Surendra S; Bodhankar, Subhash L; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar V

    2015-01-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, shows several pharmacological properties which are attributed mainly to the withanolides present in the root. The efficacy of medicinally active withanolides constituents depends on the absorption and transportation through the intestinal epithelium. We examined these characteristics by employing the Sino-Veda Madin-Darby canine kidney cells culture system, which under in vitro condition shows the absorption characteristics similar to the human intestinal epithelium. Thus, the aim of the present investigation was to assess the bioavailability of individual withanolides. Withanolides were diluted in Hank's buffered saline at a concentration of 2 μg/ml were tested for permeability studies carried out for 1 h duration. Permeability was measured in terms of efflux pump (P eff) in cm/s. P eff values of withanolide A (WN A), withanone (WNN), 1,2-deoxywithastramonolide (1,2 DWM), withanolide B (WN B), withanoside IV-V (WS IV-V), and withaferin A were 4.05 × 10(-5), 2.06 × 10(-5), 1.97 × 10(-5), 1.80 × 10(-5), 3.19 × 10(-6), 3.03 × 10(-6) and 3.30 × 10(-7) respectively. In conclusion, the nonpolar and low molecular weight compounds (WN A, WNN, 1,2 DWM, and WN B) were highly permeable. As against this, the glycosylated and polar WS IV and WS V showed low permeability. Surprisingly and paradoxically, the highly biologically active withaferin A was completely impermeable, suggesting that further studies possibly using human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells may be needed to delineate the absorption characteristics of withanolides, especially withaferin A.

  10. Analysis of occludin trafficking, demonstrating continuous endocytosis, degradation, recycling and biosynthetic secretory trafficking.

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    Sarah J Fletcher

    Full Text Available Tight junctions (TJs link adjacent cells and are critical for maintenance of apical-basolateral polarity in epithelial monolayers. The TJ protein occludin functions in disparate processes, including wound healing and Hepatitis C Virus infection. Little is known about steady-state occludin trafficking into and out of the plasma membrane. Therefore, we determined the mechanisms responsible for occludin turnover in confluent Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK epithelial monolayers. Using various biotin-based trafficking assays we observed continuous and rapid endocytosis of plasma membrane localised occludin (the majority internalised within 30 minutes. By 120 minutes a significant reduction in internalised occludin was observed. Inhibition of lysosomal function attenuated the reduction in occludin signal post-endocytosis and promoted co-localisation with the late endocytic system. Using a similar method we demonstrated that ∼20% of internalised occludin was transported back to the cell surface. Consistent with these findings, significant co-localisation between internalised occludin and recycling endosomal compartments was observed. We then quantified the extent to which occludin synthesis and transport to the plasma membrane contributes to plasma membrane occludin homeostasis, identifying inhibition of protein synthesis led to decreased plasma membrane localised occludin. Significant co-localisation between occludin and the biosynthetic secretory pathway was demonstrated. Thus, under steady-state conditions occludin undergoes turnover via a continuous cycle of endocytosis, recycling and degradation, with degradation compensated for by biosynthetic exocytic trafficking. We developed a mathematical model to describe the endocytosis, recycling and degradation of occludin, utilising experimental data to provide quantitative estimates for the rates of these processes.

  11. Hedgehog Pathway Inhibitor HhAntag691 Is a Potent Inhibitor of ABCG2/BCRP and ABCB1/Pgp

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    Yimao Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available HhAntag691 (GDC-0449, a low-molecular weight inhibitor of the tumor-promoting hedgehog (Hh signaling pathway, has been used to treat medulloblastoma in animal models and has recently entered clinical trials for a variety of solid tumors. Here, we show that HhAntag691 inhibits multiple ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters. ATP-binding cassette transporters are within a family of membrane proteins, the overexpression of which is associated with multidrug resistance, a major impediment to successful cancer treatment. HhAntag691 is a potent inhibitor of two ABC transporters, ABCG2/BCRP and ABCB1/Pgp, and is a mild inhibitor of ABCC1/MRP1. In ABCG2-overexpressing HEK293 cells, HhAntag691 increased retention of the fluorescent ABCG2 substrate BODIPY-prazosin and resensitized these cells to mitoxantrone, an antineoplastic ABCG2 substrate. In Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells engineered to overexpress Pgp or MRP1, HhAntag691 increased the retention of calcein-AM and resensitized them to colchicine. HhAntag691 also resensitized human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells NCI-H460/par and NCI-H460/MX20, which overexpress ABCG2 in response to mitoxantrone, to mitoxantrone, and to topotecan or SN-38. The IC50 values of HhAntag691 for inhibition of ABCG2 and Pgp were ∼1.4 and ∼3.0 µM, respectively. Because ABC transporters are highly expressed at the blood-brain barrier and on many tumor cells, they contribute significantly to treatment failure of many types of cancer, particularly of those within the neuraxis. In addition to its effect on Hh signaling, the ability of HhAntag691 and related compounds to inhibit two key ABC transporters could contribute to their effectiveness in treating malignancies.

  12. Digitalis-like activity in human plasma: Relation to blood pressure and sodium balance

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    Goto, A.; Yamada, K.; Ishii, M.; Sugimoto, T. (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-10-01

    PURPOSE: On the assumption that renal tubular cells are more important as the target cells for a natriuretic factor than blood cells, we used a well-characterized cultured renal tubular cell line, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK), cells to monitor the circulating digitalis-like factor in human plasma and examine its role in the regulation of blood pressure and sodium balance. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We investigated the effects of plasma on binding of radioactive ouabain to monolayered MDCK cells in order to determine the level of a circulating digitalis-like factor. First, we measured specific 3H-ouabain binding to MDCK cells in the presence of plasma from 71 outpatients (34 normotensive subjects and 37 hypertensive patients) after incubation for 4 hours. Second, we measured specific 3H-ouabain binding after incubation of cells with plasma from 16 hospitalized subjects (eight normotensive subjects and eight hypertensive patients) receiving low and high sodium diets. RESULTS: In Study 1, ouabain binding was lower by 30% with plasma from hypertensive patients than with plasma from normotensive subjects (p less than 0.01). There was a significant negative correlation between individual subject's systolic or mean blood pressure and ouabain binding (r = -0.34, p less than 0.01 or r = -0.29, p less than 0.01). In Study 2, ouabain binding was also significantly reduced by 25% in the presence of plasma from hypertensive subjects as compared with plasma from normotensive subjects irrespective of sodium intake (p less than 0.01). A significant negative correlation was also found for all subjects between either systolic, diastolic, or mean blood pressure and ouabain binding (r = -0.58, p less than 0.01, r = -0.51, p less than 0.01, or r = -0.55, p less than 0.01, respectively).

  13. Lymphocytes accelerate epithelial tight junction assembly: role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK.

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    Xiao Xiao Tang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The tight junctions (TJs, characteristically located at the apicolateral borders of adjacent epithelial cells, are required for the proper formation of epithelial cell polarity as well as for sustaining the mucosal barrier to the external environment. The observation that lymphocytes are recruited by epithelial cells to the sites of infection [1] suggests that they may play a role in the modulation of epithelial barrier function and thus contribute to host defense. To test the ability of lymphocytes to modulate tight junction assembly in epithelial cells, we set up a lymphocyte-epithelial cell co-culture system, in which Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells, a well-established model cell line for studying epithelial TJ assembly [2], were co-cultured with mouse lymphocytes to mimic an infection state. In a typical calcium switch experiment, the TJ assembly in co-culture was found to be accelerated compared to that in MDCK cells alone. This accelaration was found to be mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK. AMPK activation was independent of changes in cellular ATP levels but it was found to be activated by the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha. Forced suppression of AMPK, either with a chemical inhibitor or by knockdown, abrogated the accelerating effect of lymphocytes on TJ formation. Similar results were also observed in a co-culture with lymphocytes and Calu-3 human airway epithelial cells, suggesting that the activation of AMPK may be a general mechanism underlying lymphocyte-accelerated TJ assembly in different epithelia. These results suggest that signals from lymphocytes, such as cytokines, facilitate TJ assembly in epithelial cells via the activation of AMPK.

  14. Genetic analysis of influenza B viruses isolated in Uganda during the 2009–2010 seasons

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    Byarugaba Denis K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza B viruses can cause morbidity and mortality in humans but due to the lack of an animal reservoir are not associated with pandemics. Because of this, there is relatively limited genetic sequences available for influenza B viruses, especially from developing countries. Complete genome analysis of one influenza B virus and several gene segments of other influenza B viruses isolated from Uganda from May 2009 through December 2010 was therefore undertaken in this study. Methods Samples were collected from patients showing influenza like illness and screened for influenza A and B by PCR. Influenza B viruses were isolated on Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells and selected isolates were subsequently sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. Findings Of the 2,089 samples collected during the period, 292 were positive by PCR for influenza A or B; 12.3% of the PCR positives were influenza B. Thirty influenza B viruses were recovered and of these 25 that grew well consistently on subculture were subjected to further analysis. All the isolates belonged to the B/Victoria-lineage as identified by hemagglutination inhibition assay and genetic analysis except one isolate that grouped with the B-Yamagata-lineage. The Ugandan B/Victoria-lineage isolates grouped in clade 1 which was defined by the N75K, N165K and S172P substitutions in hemagglutinin (HA protein clustered together with the B/Brisbane/60/2008 vaccine strain. The Yamagata-like Ugandan strain, B/Uganda/MUWRP-053/2009, clustered with clade 3 Yamagata viruses such as B/Bangladesh/3333/2007 which is characterized by S150I and N166Y substitutions in HA. Conclusion In general there was limited variation among the Ugandan isolates but they were interestingly closer to viruses from West and North Africa than from neighboring Kenya. Our isolates closely matched the World Health Organization recommended vaccines for the seasons.

  15. Caveolin-1 influences human influenza A virus (H1N1 multiplication in cell culture

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    Hemgård Gun-Viol

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The threat of recurring influenza pandemics caused by new viral strains and the occurrence of escape mutants necessitate the search for potent therapeutic targets. The dependence of viruses on cellular factors provides a weak-spot in the viral multiplication strategy and a means to interfere with viral multiplication. Results Using a motif-based search strategy for antiviral targets we identified caveolin-1 (Cav-1 as a putative cellular interaction partner of human influenza A viruses, including the pandemic influenza A virus (H1N1 strains of swine origin circulating from spring 2009 on. The influence of Cav-1 on human influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1 virus replication was determined in inhibition and competition experiments. RNAi-mediated Cav-1 knock-down as well as transfection of a dominant-negative Cav-1 mutant results in a decrease in virus titre in infected Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK, a cell line commonly used in basic influenza research as well as in virus vaccine production. To understand the molecular basis of the phenomenon we focussed on the putative caveolin-1 binding domain (CBD located in the lumenal, juxtamembranal portion of the M2 matrix protein which has been identified in the motif-based search. Pull-down assays and co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that caveolin-1 binds to M2. The data suggest, that Cav-1 modulates influenza virus A replication presumably based on M2/Cav-1 interaction. Conclusion As Cav-1 is involved in the human influenza A virus life cycle, the multifunctional protein and its interaction with M2 protein of human influenza A viruses represent a promising starting point for the search for antiviral agents.

  16. Production of cell culture (MDCK) derived live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in a fully disposable platform process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Meena; Farooq, Masiha; Dang, Thi; Cortes, Bernadette; Liu, Jonathan; Maranga, Luis

    2010-08-15

    The majority of influenza vaccines are manufactured using embryonated hens' eggs. The potential occurrence of a pandemic outbreak of avian influenza might reduce or even eliminate the supply of eggs, leaving the human population at risk. Also, the egg-based production technology is intrinsically cumbersome and not easily scalable to provide a rapid worldwide supply of vaccine. In this communication, the production of a cell culture (Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK)) derived live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in a fully disposable platform process using a novel Single Use Bioreactor (SUB) is presented. The cell culture and virus infection was maintained in a disposable stirred tank reactor with PID control of pH, DO, agitation, and temperature, similar to traditional glass or stainless steel bioreactors. The application of this technology was tested using MDCK cells grown on microcarriers in proprietary serum free medium and infection with 2006/2007 seasonal LAIV strains at 25-30 L scale. The MDCK cell growth was optimal at the agitation rate of 100 rpm. Optimization of this parameter allowed the cells to grow at a rate similar to that achieved in the conventional 3 L glass stirred tank bioreactors. Influenza vaccine virus strains, A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1 strain), A/Wisconsin/67/05 (H3N2 strain), and B/Malaysia/2506/04 (B strain) were all successfully produced in SUB with peak virus titers > or =8.6 log(10) FFU/mL. This result demonstrated that more than 1 million doses of vaccine can be produced through one single run of a small bioreactor at the scale of 30 L and thus provided an alternative to the current vaccine production platform with fast turn-around and low upfront facility investment, features that are particularly useful for emerging and developing countries and clinical trial material production.

  17. Evaluation of the immunogenicity and protective effects of a trivalent chimeric norovirus P particle immunogen displaying influenza HA2 from subtypes H1, H3 and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xin; Yin, He; Shi, Yuhua; He, Xiaoqiu; Yu, Yongjiao; Guan, Shanshan; Kuai, Ziyu; Haji, Nasteha M; Haji, Nafisa M; Kong, Wei; Shan, Yaming

    2016-05-25

    The ectodomain of the influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA) stem is highly conserved across strains and has shown promise as a universal influenza vaccine in a mouse model. In this study, potential B-cell epitopes were found through sequence alignment and epitope prediction in a stem fragment, HA2:90-105, which is highly conserved among virus subtypes H1, H3 and B. A norovirus (NoV) P particle platform was used to express the HA2:90-105 sequences from subtypes H1, H3 and B in loops 1, 2 and 3 of the protrusion (P) domain, respectively. Through mouse immunization and microneutralization assays, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the chimeric NoV P particle (trivalent HA2-PP) were tested against infection with three subtypes (H1N1, H3N2 and B) of IAV in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. The protective efficacy of the trivalent HA2-PP was also evaluated preliminarily in vivo by virus challenge in the mouse model. The trivalent HA2-PP immunogen induced significant IgG antibody responses, which could be enhanced by a virus booster vaccination. Moreover, the trivalent HA2-PP immunogen also demonstrated in vitro neutralization of the H3 and B viruses, and in vivo protection against the H3 virus. Our results support the notion that a broadly protective vaccine approach using an HA2-based NoV P particle platform can provide cross-protection against challenge viruses of different IAV subtypes. The efficacy of the immunogen should be further enhanced for practicality, and a better understanding of the protective immune mechanism will be critical for the development of HA2-based multivalent vaccines.

  18. Safety and immunogenicity of a trivalent, inactivated, mammalian cell culture-derived influenza vaccine in healthy adults, seniors, and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Scott A; Smith, Bruce; Mabrouk, Taoufik; Germain, Marc; Trépanier, Pierre; Hassell, Thomas; Treanor, John; Gauthier, Richard; Mills, Elaine L

    2002-01-15

    We performed randomized, double-blind, controlled trials to assess the safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated, Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK)-derived cell line produced influenza vaccine in healthy adults (19-50 years), children (3-12 years) and the elderly (> or =65 years). We studied three lots of cell culture-derived vaccine and one lot of licensed egg-derived vaccine in healthy adults (n=462), two lots of cell culture-derived vaccine and one lot of egg-derived vaccine in seniors (n=269), and one lot of each vaccine in children (n=209). Adverse events were collected during the first 3 days post-immunization; serum was collected before and 1 month after immunization. Rates of local and systemic adverse reactions were similar with both vaccines. An injection site adverse event rated at least moderate severity was reported by 21.9% of children who received the egg-derived vaccine and 25.0% of those who received the cell culture-derived vaccine. In healthy adults the proportions were 12.1 and 15.3%, respectively and 6.7 and 6.3%, respectively in seniors. Systemic events of at least moderate severity were 12.4 and 12.5% in children, 19.8 and 13.6% in healthy adults, and 14.1 and 9.7% in seniors; none of these differences were statistically significant. The antibody response against all three viruses was similar between the two vaccines. From 83 to 100% of children, healthy adults and seniors achieved hemagglutination inhibition titers in excess of 40 post-immunization. We conclude that the cell culture-derived vaccine was safe and immunogenic in children, healthy adults and seniors.

  19. Thyroid Hormones Are Transport Substrates and Transcriptional Regulators of Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 2B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer Zu Schwabedissen, Henriette E; Ferreira, Celio; Schaefer, Anima M; Oufir, Mouhssin; Seibert, Isabell; Hamburger, Matthias; Tirona, Rommel G

    2018-07-01

    Levothyroxine replacement therapy forms the cornerstone of hypothyroidism management. Variability in levothyroxine oral absorption may contribute to the well-recognized large interpatient differences in required dose. Moreover, levothyroxine-drug pharmacokinetic interactions are thought to be caused by altered oral bioavailability. Interestingly, little is known regarding the mechanisms contributing to levothyroxine absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we aimed to determine whether the intestinal drug uptake transporter organic anion transporting polypeptide 2B1 (OATP2B1) may be involved in facilitating intestinal absorption of thyroid hormones. We also explored whether thyroid hormones regulate OATP2B1 gene expression. In cultured Madin-Darby Canine Kidney II/OATP2B1 cells and in OATP2B1-transfected Caco-2 cells, thyroid hormones were found to inhibit OATP2B1-mediated uptake of estrone-3-sulfate. Competitive counter-flow experiments evaluating the influence on the cellular accumulation of estrone-3-sulfate in the steady state indicated that thyroid hormones were substrates of OATP2B1. Additional evidence that thyroid hormones were OATP2B1 substrates was provided by OATP2B1-dependent stimulation of thyroid hormone receptor activation in cell-based reporter assays. Bidirectional transport studies in intestinal Caco-2 cells showed net absorptive flux of thyroid hormones, which was attenuated by the presence of the OATP2B1 inhibitor, atorvastatin. In intestinal Caco-2 and LS180 cells, but not in liver Huh-7 or HepG2 cells, OATP2B1 expression was induced by treatment with thyroid hormones. Reporter gene assays revealed thyroid hormone receptor α -mediated transactivation of the SLCO2B1 1b and the SLCO2B1 1e promoters. We conclude that thyroid hormones are substrates and transcriptional regulators of OATP2B1. These insights provide a potential mechanistic basis for oral levothyroxine dose variability and drug interactions. Copyright © 2018 by The American

  20. Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli, strain LF82 disrupts apical junctional complexes in polarized epithelia

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    Ossa Juan C

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although bacteria are implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD, mechanisms of intestinal injury and immune activation remain unclear. Identification of adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC strains in IBD patients offers an opportunity to characterize the pathogenesis of microbial-induced intestinal inflammation in IBD. Previous studies have focused on the invasive phenotype of AIEC and the ability to replicate and survive in phagocytes. However, the precise mechanisms by which these newly identified microbes penetrate the epithelial lining remain to be clarified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to delineate the effects of AIEC, strain LF82 (serotype O83:H1 on model polarized epithelial monolayers as a contributor to intestinal injury in IBD. Results Infection of T84 and Madin-Darby Canine Kidney-I polarized epithelial cell monolayers with AIEC, strain LF82 led to a reduction in transepithelial electrical resistance and increased macromolecular (10 kilodalton dextran flux. Basolateral AIEC infection resulted in more severe disruption of the epithelial barrier. Increased permeability was accompanied by a redistribution of the tight junction adaptor protein, zonula occludens-1, demonstrated by confocal microscopy and formation of gaps between cells, as shown by transmission electron microscopy. After 4 h of infection of intestine 407 cells, bacteria replicated in the cell cytoplasm and were enclosed in membrane-bound vesicles positive for the late endosomal marker, LAMP1. Conclusion These findings indicate that AIEC, strain LF82 disrupts the integrity of the polarized epithelial cell barrier. This disruption enables bacteria to penetrate into the epithelium and replicate in the host cell cytoplasm. These findings provide important links between microbes related to IBD, the intestinal epithelial cell barrier and disease pathogenesis.

  1. Functional assessment of sodium chloride cotransporter NCC mutants in polarized mammalian epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaek, Lena L; Rizzo, Federica; MacAulay, Nanna; Staub, Olivier; Fenton, Robert A

    2017-08-01

    The thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter NCC is important for maintaining serum sodium (Na + ) and, indirectly, serum potassium (K + ) levels. Functional studies on NCC have used cell lines with native NCC expression, transiently transfected nonpolarized cell lines, or Xenopus laevis oocytes. Here, we developed the use of polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney type I (MDCKI) mammalian epithelial cell lines with tetracycline-inducible human NCC expression to study NCC activity and membrane abundance in the same system. In radiotracer assays, induced cells grown on filters had robust thiazide-sensitive and chloride dependent sodium-22 ( 22 Na) uptake from the apical side. To minimize cost and maximize throughput, assays were modified to use cells grown on plastic. On plastic, cells had similar thiazide-sensitive 22 Na uptakes that increased following preincubation of cells in chloride-free solutions. NCC was detected in the plasma membrane, and both membrane abundance and phosphorylation of NCC were increased by incubation in chloride-free solutions. Furthermore, in cells exposed for 15 min to low or high extracellular K + , the levels of phosphorylated NCC increased and decreased, respectively. To demonstrate that the system allows rapid and systematic assessment of mutated NCC, three phosphorylation sites in NCC were mutated, and NCC activity was examined. 22 Na fluxes in phosphorylation-deficient mutants were reduced to baseline levels, whereas phosphorylation-mimicking mutants were constitutively active, even without chloride-free stimulation. In conclusion, this system allows the activity, cellular localization, and abundance of wild-type or mutant NCC to be examined in the same polarized mammalian expression system in a rapid, easy, and low-cost fashion. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Zinc ions regulate opening of tight junction favouring efflux of macromolecules via the GSK3β/snail-mediated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ruyue; Yuan, Lan; He, Weijiang; Yang, Xiaoda

    2018-01-24

    Zinc is an essential trace element presenting in particularly high concentration in the brain. In some regions, e.g. lateral amygdala, subiculum and hippocampus, rapidly-exchangeable zinc may transiently reach even up to 600 μM. To explore the possible roles of high-concentration Zn 2+ in regulating the blood-brain barrier (BBB), we investigated the effects of Zn 2+ on the functions and structures of the tight junction (TJ) with an in vitro model of a Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell monolayer. The experimental results indicated that high concentrations (>200 μM) of Zn 2+ can affect the TJ integrity in a polarized manner. Basolateral addition of Zn 2+ led to reversible TJ opening with pore paths of r ∼ 2 nm or more depending on Zn 2+ concentration. The efflux/influx ratios of different sized probes were found to be ∼4.6 for FD4 (M W 4000) and ∼1.8 for Eu-DTPA (M W 560), suggesting that the Zn 2+ -induced paracelluar channels favour efflux especially for macromolecules. Further mechanistic studies revealed that the elevated intracellular Zn 2+ taken from the basolateral side can increase phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3β, primarily due to the inhibition of calcineurin (CaN), thus resulting in the elevation of the snail transcriptional repressors. Subsequently, Zn 2+ can cause the down-regulation of claudin-1, breakage of occludin and ZO-1 rings, and collapse of basolateral F-actin structures. These overall factors result in the formation of a trumpet-like paracellular channel, which allows asymmetric solute permeation. The ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 pathways may also be involved in the Zn 2+ -induced TJ opening process, while the activation of matrix metalloproteinase was not observed. Our results may suggest a potential role of zinc in regulation of BBB permeability associated with brain clearance of metabolites through the glymphatic system.

  3. Claudin-2 knockout by TALEN-mediated gene targeting in MDCK cells: claudin-2 independently determines the leaky property of tight junctions in MDCK cells.

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    Shinsaku Tokuda

    Full Text Available Tight junctions (TJs regulate the movements of substances through the paracellular pathway, and claudins are major determinants of TJ permeability. Claudin-2 forms high conductive cation pores in TJs. The suppression of claudin-2 expression by RNA interference in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK II cells (a low-resistance strain of MDCK cells was shown to induce a three-fold increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER, which, however, was still lower than in high-resistance strains of MDCK cells. Because RNA interference-mediated knockdown is not complete and only reduces gene function, we considered the possibility that the remaining claudin-2 expression in the knockdown study caused the lower TER in claudin-2 knockdown cells. Therefore, we investigated the effects of claudin-2 knockout in MDCK II cells by establishing claudin-2 knockout clones using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs, a recently developed genome editing method for gene knockout. Surprisingly, claudin-2 knockout increased TER by more than 50-fold in MDCK II cells, and TER values in these cells (3000-4000 Ω·cm2 were comparable to those in the high-resistance strains of MDCK cells. Claudin-2 re-expression restored the TER of claudin-2 knockout cells dependent upon claudin-2 protein levels. In addition, we investigated the localization of claudin-1, -2, -3, -4, and -7 at TJs between control MDCK cells and their respective knockout cells using their TALENs. Claudin-2 and -7 were less efficiently localized at TJs between control and their knockout cells. Our results indicate that claudin-2 independently determines the 'leaky' property of TJs in MDCK II cells and suggest the importance of knockout analysis in cultured cells.

  4. Tracking cholesterol/sphingomyelin-rich membrane domains with the ostreolysin A-mCherry protein.

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    Matej Skočaj

    Full Text Available Ostreolysin A (OlyA is an ∼15-kDa protein that has been shown to bind selectively to membranes rich in cholesterol and sphingomyelin. In this study, we investigated whether OlyA fluorescently tagged at the C-terminal with mCherry (OlyA-mCherry labels cholesterol/sphingomyelin domains in artificial membrane systems and in membranes of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK epithelial cells. OlyA-mCherry showed similar lipid binding characteristics to non-tagged OlyA. OlyA-mCherry also stained cholesterol/sphingomyelin domains in the plasma membranes of both fixed and living MDCK cells, and in the living cells, this staining was abolished by pretreatment with either methyl-β-cyclodextrin or sphingomyelinase. Double labelling of MDCK cells with OlyA-mCherry and the sphingomyelin-specific markers equinatoxin II-Alexa488 and GST-lysenin, the cholera toxin B subunit as a probe that binds to the ganglioside GM1, or the cholesterol-specific D4 domain of perfringolysin O fused with EGFP, showed different patterns of binding and distribution of OlyA-mCherry in comparison with these other proteins. Furthermore, we show that OlyA-mCherry is internalised in living MDCK cells, and within 90 min it reaches the juxtanuclear region via caveolin-1-positive structures. No binding to membranes could be seen when OlyA-mCherry was expressed in MDCK cells. Altogether, these data clearly indicate that OlyA-mCherry is a promising tool for labelling a distinct pool of cholesterol/sphingomyelin membrane domains in living and fixed cells, and for following these domains when they are apparently internalised by the cell.

  5. Vectorial transport of bile salts across MDCK cells expressing both rat Na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and rat bile salt export pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Sachiko; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Akita, Hidetaka; Stieger, Bruno; Meier, Peter J; Hofmann, Alan F; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2005-01-01

    Bile salts are predominantly taken up by hepatocytes via the basolateral Na(+)-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP/SLC10A1) and secreted into the bile by the bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11). In the present study, we transfected rat Ntcp and rat Bsep into polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and characterized the transport properties of these cells for eight bile salts. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that Ntcp was expressed at the basolateral domains, whereas Bsep was expressed at the apical domains. Basal-to-apical transport of taurocholate across the monolayer expressing only Ntcp and that coexpressing Ntcp/Bsep was observed, whereas the flux across the monolayer of control and Bsep-expressing cells was symmetrical. Basal-to-apical transport of taurocholate across Ntcp/Bsep-coexpressing monolayers was significantly higher than that across monolayers expressing only Ntcp. Kinetic analysis of this vectorial transport of taurocholate gave an apparent K(m) value of 13.9 +/- 4.7 microM for cells expressing Ntcp alone, which is comparable with 22.2 +/- 4.5 microM for cells expressing both Ntcp and Bsep and V(max) values of 15.8 +/- 4.2 and 60.8 +/- 9.0 pmol.min(-1).mg protein(-1) for Ntcp alone and Ntcp and Bsep-coexpressing cells, respectively. Transcellular transport of cholate, glycocholate, taurochenodeoxycholate, chenodeoxycholate, glycochenodeoxycholate, tauroursodeoxycholate, ursodeoxycholate, and glycoursodeoxycholate, but not that of lithocholate was also observed across the double transfectant. This double-expressing system can be used as a model to clarify vectorial transport of bile salts across hepatocytes under physiological conditions.

  6. Chrysin-piperazine conjugates as antioxidant and anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rahul V; Mistry, Bhupendra; Syed, Riyaz; Rathi, Anuj K; Lee, Yoo-Jung; Sung, Jung-Suk; Shinf, Han-Seung; Keum, Young-Soo

    2016-06-10

    Synthesis of 7-(4-bromobutoxy)-5-hydroxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one intermediate treating chrysin with 1,4-dibromobutane facilitated combination of chrysin with a wide range of piperazine moieties which were equipped via reacting the corresponding amines with bis(2-chloroethyl)amine hydrochloride in diethylene glycol monomethyl ether solvent. Free radical scavenging potential of prepared products was analyzed in vitro adopting DPPH and ABTS bioassay in addition to the evaluation of in vitro anticancer efficacies against cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa and CaSki) and an ovarian cancer cell line SK-OV-3 using SRB assay. Bearable toxicity of 7a-w was examined employing Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line. In addition, cytotoxic nature of the presented compounds was inspected utilizing Human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs). Overall, 7a-w indicated remarkable antioxidant power in scavenging DPPH(·) and ABTS(·+), particularly analogs 7f, 7j, 7k, 7l, 7n, 7q, 7v, 7w have shown promising free radical scavenging activity. Analogs 7j and 7o are identified to be highly active candidates against HeLa and CaSki cell lines, whereas 7h and 7l along with 7j proved to be very sensitive towards ovarian cancer cell line SKOV-3. None of the newly prepared scaffolds showed cytotoxic nature toward hBM-MSCs cells. From the structure-activity point of view, nature and position of the electron withdrawing and electron donating functional groups on the piperazine core may contribute to the anticipated antioxidant and anticancer action. Different spectroscopic techniques (FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, Mass) and elemental analysis (CHN) were utilized to confirm the desired structure of final compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A cell culture-derived whole virus influenza A vaccine based on magnetic sulfated cellulose particles confers protection in mice against lethal influenza A virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieler, Michael M; Frentzel, Sarah; Bruder, Dunja; Wolff, Michael W; Reichl, Udo

    2016-12-07

    Downstream processing and formulation of viral vaccines employs a large number of different unit operations to achieve the desired product qualities. The complexity of individual process steps involved, the need for time consuming studies towards the optimization of virus yields, and very high requirements regarding potency and safety of vaccines results typically in long lead times for the establishment of new processes. To overcome such obstacles, to enable fast screening of potential vaccine candidates, and to explore options for production of low cost veterinary vaccines a new platform for whole virus particle purification and formulation based on magnetic particles has been established. Proof of concept was carried out with influenza A virus particles produced in suspension Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. The clarified, inactivated, concentrated, and diafiltered virus particles were bound to magnetic sulfated cellulose particles (MSCP), and directly injected into mice for immunization including positive and negative controls. We show here, that in contrast to the mock-immunized group, vaccination of mice with antigen-loaded MSCP (aMSCP) resulted in high anti-influenza A antibody responses and full protection against a lethal challenge with replication competent influenza A virus. Antiviral protection correlated with a 400-fold reduced number of influenza nucleoprotein gene copies in the lungs of aMSCP immunized mice compared to mock-treated animals, indicating the efficient induction of antiviral immunity by this novel approach. Thus, our data proved the use of MSCP for purification and formulation of the influenza vaccine to be fast and efficient, and to confer protection of mice against influenza A virus infection. Furthermore, the method proposed has the potential for fast purification of virus particles directly from bioreactor harvests with a minimum number of process steps towards formulation of low-cost veterinary vaccines, and for screening

  8. Severe canine distemper outbreak in unvaccinated dogs in Mozambique

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    Julieta Zacarias

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Although significant animal suffering caused by preventable diseases is frequently seen in developing countries, reports of this are scarce. This report describes avoidable animal suffering owing to a suspected canine distemper (CD outbreak in unvaccinated dogs owned by low-income families in Mozambique that killed approximately 200 animals. Affected dogs exhibited clinical signs, and gross and microscopic lesions compatible with CD. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of canine distemper virus (CDV in the kidney of one dog from the cohort. This brief communication again illustrates that large outbreaks of CDV in unvaccinated dogs occur and that large-scale avoidable suffering and threats to the health of dogs and wild canines continue. Mass vaccination supported by government and non-government organisations is recommended. Keywords: Canine distemper; dogs; outbreak; animal welfare; Mozambique

  9. Kidney biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the kidney (in rare cases, may require a blood transfusion) Bleeding into the muscle, which might cause soreness Infection (small risk) Alternative Names Renal biopsy; Biopsy - kidney Images Kidney anatomy ...

  10. Simple Kidney Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Solitary Kidney Your Kidneys & How They Work Simple Kidney Cysts What are simple kidney cysts? Simple kidney cysts are abnormal, fluid-filled ... that form in the kidneys. What are the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are ...

  11. Development of a Vaccine Incorporating Killed Virus of Canine Origin for the Prevention of Canine Parvovirus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povey, C.

    1982-01-01

    A parvovirus of canine origin, cultured in a feline kidney cell line, was inactivated with formalin. Three pilot serials were produced and three forms of finished vaccine (nonadjuvanted, single adjuvanted and double adjuvanted) were tested in vaccination and challenge trials. A comparison was also made with two inactivated feline panleukopenia virus vaccines, one of which has official approval for use in dogs. The inactivated canine vaccine in nonadjuvanted, adjuvanted or double adjuvanted form was immunogenic in 20 of 20 vaccinated dogs. The double adjuvanted vaccine is selected as the one of choice on the basis of best and most persistent seriological response. PMID:7039811

  12. Antiviral effect of lithium chloride on infection of cells by canine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pei; Fu, Xinliang; Yan, Zhongshan; Fang, Bo; Huang, San; Fu, Cheng; Hong, Malin; Li, Shoujun

    2015-11-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 causes significant viral disease in dogs, with high morbidity, high infectivity, and high mortality. Lithium chloride is a potential antiviral drug for viruses. We determined the antiviral effect of Lithium Chloride on canine parvovirus type 2 in feline kidney cells. The viral DNA and proteins of canine parvovirus were suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by lithium chloride. Further investigation verified that viral entry into cells was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by lithium chloride. These results indicated that lithium chloride could be a potential antiviral drug for curing dogs with canine parvovirus infection. The specific steps of canine parvovirus entry into cells that are affected by lithium chloride and its antiviral effect in vivo should be explored in future studies.

  13. Severe canine distemper outbreak in unvaccinated dogs in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarias, Julieta; Dimande, Alberto; Achá, Sara; Dias, Paula T; Leonel, Elisa M; Messa, Aurora; Macucule, Baltazar; Júnior, José L; Bila, Custódio G

    2016-07-15

    Although significant animal suffering caused by preventable diseases is frequently seen in developing countries, reports of this are scarce. This report describes avoidable animal suffering owing to a suspected canine distemper (CD) outbreak in unvaccinated dogs owned by low-income families in Mozambique that killed approximately 200 animals. Affected dogs exhibited clinical signs, and gross and microscopic lesions compatible with CD. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of canine distemper virus (CDV) in the kidney of one dog from the cohort. This brief communication again illustrates that large outbreaks of CDV in unvaccinated dogs occur and that large-scale avoidable suffering and threats to the health of dogs and wild canines continue. Mass vaccination supported by government and non-government organisations is recommended.

  14. Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kind of kidney cancer called Wilms' tumor. The incidence of kidney cancer seems to be increasing. One ... doesn't go away Loss of appetite Unexplained weight loss Tiredness Fever, which usually comes and goes ( ...

  15. Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy kidneys clean your blood by removing excess fluid, minerals, and wastes. They also make hormones that keep your ... strong and your blood healthy. But if the kidneys are damaged, they don't work properly. Harmful ...

  16. A compendium of canine normal tissue gene expression.

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    Joseph Briggs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our understanding of disease is increasingly informed by changes in gene expression between normal and abnormal tissues. The release of the canine genome sequence in 2005 provided an opportunity to better understand human health and disease using the dog as clinically relevant model. Accordingly, we now present the first genome-wide, canine normal tissue gene expression compendium with corresponding human cross-species analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Affymetrix platform was utilized to catalogue gene expression signatures of 10 normal canine tissues including: liver, kidney, heart, lung, cerebrum, lymph node, spleen, jejunum, pancreas and skeletal muscle. The quality of the database was assessed in several ways. Organ defining gene sets were identified for each tissue and functional enrichment analysis revealed themes consistent with known physio-anatomic functions for each organ. In addition, a comparison of orthologous gene expression between matched canine and human normal tissues uncovered remarkable similarity. To demonstrate the utility of this dataset, novel canine gene annotations were established based on comparative analysis of dog and human tissue selective gene expression and manual curation of canine probeset mapping. Public access, using infrastructure identical to that currently in use for human normal tissues, has been established and allows for additional comparisons across species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data advance our understanding of the canine genome through a comprehensive analysis of gene expression in a diverse set of tissues, contributing to improved functional annotation that has been lacking. Importantly, it will be used to inform future studies of disease in the dog as a model for human translational research and provides a novel resource to the community at large.

  17. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

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    Faeze Foroughi-Parvar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now.

  18. Canine Parvovirus: Current Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nandi, S.; Kumar, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) has been considered to be an important pathogen of domestic and wild canids and has spread worldwide since its emergence in 1978. It has been reported from Asia, Australia, New Zealand, the Americas and Europe. Two distinct parvoviruses are now known to infect dogs—the pathogenic CPV-2 and CPV-1 or the minute virus of canine (MVC). CPV-2, the causative agent of acute hemorrhagic enteritis and myocarditis in dogs, is one of the most important pathogenic viruses with...

  19. Peeping into human renal calcium oxalate stone matrix: characterization of novel proteins involved in the intricate mechanism of urolithiasis.

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    Kanu Priya Aggarwal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increasing number of patients suffering from urolithiasis represents one of the major challenges which nephrologists face worldwide today. For enhancing therapeutic outcomes of this disease, the pathogenic basis for the formation of renal stones is the need of hour. Proteins are found as major component in human renal stone matrix and are considered to have a potential role in crystal-membrane interaction, crystal growth and stone formation but their role in urolithiasis still remains obscure. METHODS: Proteins were isolated from the matrix of human CaOx containing kidney stones. Proteins having MW>3 kDa were subjected to anion exchange chromatography followed by molecular-sieve chromatography. The effect of these purified proteins was tested against CaOx nucleation and growth and on oxalate injured Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK renal epithelial cells for their activity. Proteins were identified by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF MS followed by database search with MASCOT server. In silico molecular interaction studies with CaOx crystals were also investigated. RESULTS: Five proteins were identified from the matrix of calcium oxalate kidney stones by MALDI-TOF MS followed by database search with MASCOT server with the competence to control the stone formation process. Out of which two proteins were promoters, two were inhibitors and one protein had a dual activity of both inhibition and promotion towards CaOx nucleation and growth. Further molecular modelling calculations revealed the mode of interaction of these proteins with CaOx at the molecular level. CONCLUSIONS: We identified and characterized Ethanolamine-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, Ras GTPase-activating-like protein, UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 2, RIMS-binding protein 3A, Macrophage-capping protein as novel proteins from the matrix of human calcium oxalate stone which play a critical role in kidney stone

  20. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis

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    Clarisa B. Palatnik-De-Sousa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global-warming, co-infection with immunosuppressive diseases and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans

  1. Kidney Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ...

  2. Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have two kidneys. They are fist-sized organs on either side of your backbone above your waist. The tubes inside filter and ... blood, taking out waste products and making urine. Kidney cancer forms in the lining of tiny tubes ...

  3. Canine parvovirus: current perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S; Kumar, Manoj

    2010-06-01

    Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) has been considered to be an important pathogen of domestic and wild canids and has spread worldwide since its emergence in 1978. It has been reported from Asia, Australia, New Zealand, the Americas and Europe. Two distinct parvoviruses are now known to infect dogs-the pathogenic CPV-2 and CPV-1 or the minute virus of canine (MVC). CPV-2, the causative agent of acute hemorrhagic enteritis and myocarditis in dogs, is one of the most important pathogenic viruses with high morbidity (100%) and frequent mortality up to 10% in adult dogs and 91% in pups. The disease condition has been complicated further due to emergence of a number of variants namely CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c over the years and involvement of domestic and wild canines. There are a number of different serological and molecular tests available for prompt, specific and accurate diagnosis of the disease. Further, both live attenuated and inactivated vaccines are available to control the disease in animals. Besides, new generation vaccines namely recombinant vaccine, peptide vaccine and DNA vaccine are in different stages of development and offer hope for better management of the disease in canines. However, new generation vaccines have not been issued license to be used in the field condition. Again, the presence of maternal antibodies often interferes with the active immunization with live attenuated vaccine and there always exists a window of susceptibility in spite of following proper immunization regimen. Lastly, judicious use of the vaccines in pet dogs, stray dogs and wild canids keeping in mind the new variants of the CPV-2 along with the proper sanitation and disinfection practices must be implemented for the successful control the disease.

  4. American Canine Hepatozoonosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, S. A.; Panciera, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    American canine hepatozoonosis (ACH) is a tick-borne disease that is spreading in the southeastern and south-central United States. Characterized by marked leukocytosis and periosteal bone proliferation, ACH is very debilitating and often fatal. Dogs acquire infection by ingesting nymphal or adult Gulf Coast ticks (Amblyomma maculatum) that, in a previous life stage, ingested the parasite in a blood meal taken from some vertebrate intermediate host. ACH is caused by the apicomplexan Hepatozoon americanum and has been differentiated from Old World canine hepatozoonosis caused by H. canis. Unlike H. canis, which is transmitted by the ubiquitous brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus), H. americanum is essentially an accidental parasite of dogs, for which Gulf Coast ticks are not favored hosts. The geographic portrait of the disease parallels the known distribution of the Gulf Coast tick, which has expanded in recent years. Thus, the endemic cycle of H. americanum involves A. maculatum as definitive host and some vertebrate intermediate host(s) yet to be identified. Although coyotes (Canis latrans) are known to be infected, it is not known how important this host is in maintaining the endemic cycle. This review covers the biology of the parasite and of the tick that transmits it and contrasts ACH with classical canine hepatozoonosis. Clinical aspects of the disease are discussed, including diagnosis and treatment, and puzzling epidemiologic issues are examined. Brief consideration is given to the potential for ACH to be used as a model for study of angiogenesis and of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. PMID:14557294

  5. Injury - kidney and ureter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney; Ureteral injury; Pre-renal failure - injury, Post-renal failure - injury; Kidney obstruction - injury Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Molitoris BA. Acute kidney injury. In: Goldman ...

  6. Chronic Kidney Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Chronic Kidney Diseases KidsHealth / For Kids / Chronic Kidney Diseases What's ... re talking about your kidneys. What Are the Kidneys? Your kidneys are tucked under your lower ribs ...

  7. Bilateral supernumerary primary maxillary canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Mukhopadhyay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Supernumerary teeth are more common in the permanent than in primary dentition. In the primary dentition, the anomaly is most frequently observed in the maxillary lateral incisor region, followed by the maxillary midline where they are termed as mesiodens. Supernumerary teeth in the primary canine region are rare. This paper describes a rare case of nonsyndromic supernumerary primary maxillary canine distributed bilaterally in a 4-year-old boy. Both the supernumeraries resembled size and shape of normal primary canine. The right supplemental canine is high labially placed, whereas the left one is seen normally aligned in the dental arch distal to lateral incisor. One of the most significant sequelae of primary supernumerary teeth is their duplication in the permanent series. Radiographic examination of supernumerary primary canine did not indicate any such anomaly in the permanent dentition. The patient was kept under observation.

  8. Dual function of active constituents from bark of Ficus racemosa L in wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopage, Nisansala Swarnamali; Kamal Bandara Gunaherath, G M; Jayawardena, Kithsiri Hector; Wijeyaratne, Sushila Chandrani; Abeysekera, Ajita Mahendra; Somaratne, Seneviratne

    2018-01-25

    Different parts including the latex of Ficus racemosa L. has been used as a medicine for wound healing in the Ayurveda and in the indigenous system of medicine in Sri Lanka. This plant has been evaluated for its wound healing potential using animal models. The aim of this study was to obtain an insight into the wound healing process and identify the potential wound healing active substance/s present in F. racemosa L. bark using scratch wound assay (SWA) as the in-vitro assay method. Stem bark extracts of F. racemosa were evaluated using scratch wound assay (SWA) on Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK 21) and Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell lines and Kirby Bauer disc diffusion assay on common bacteria and fungi for cell migration enhancing ability and antimicrobial activity respectively. Dichloromethane and hexanes extracts which showed cell migration enhancement activity on SWA were subjected to bioactivity directed fractionation using column chromatography followed by preparative thin layer chromatography to identify the compounds responsible for the cell migration enhancement activity. Dichloromethane and hexanes extracts showed cell migration enhancement activity on both cell lines, while EtOAc and MeOH extracts showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus and Bacillus species and antifungal activity against Saccharomyces spp. and Candida albicans. Lupeol (1) and β-sitosterol (2) were isolated as the potential wound healing active compounds which exhibited significant cell migration enhancement activity on BHK 21 and MDCK cell lines (> 80%) in par with the positive control, asiaticoside at a concentration of 25 μM. The optimum concentration of each compound required for the maximum wound healing has been determined as 30 μM and 35 μM for 1 and 2 respectively on both cell lines. It is also established that lupeol acetate (3) isolated from the hexanes extract act as a pro-drug by undergoing hydrolysis into lupeol in the vicinity of cells. Different

  9. IND-2, a pyrimido[1″,2″:1,5]pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline derivative, circumvents multi-drug resistance and causes apoptosis in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Chandrabose; Lee, Crystal; Moore, Joshua; Mittal, Roopali; Suswam, Esther A; Abbott, Kodye L; Pondugula, Satyanarayana R; Manne, Upender; Narayanan, Narayanan K; Trivedi, Piyush; Tiwari, Amit K

    2015-02-01

    Naturally occurring condensed quinolines have anticancer properties. In efforts to find active analogues, we designed and synthesized eight polycyclic heterocycles with a pyrimido[1″,2″:1,5]pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline framework (IND series). The compounds were evaluated for activity against colon (HCT-116 and S1-MI-80), prostate (PC3 and DU-145), breast (MCF-7 and MDAMB-231), ovarian (ov2008 and A2780), and hepatocellular (HepG2) cancer cells and against non-cancerous Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK), mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3), and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293). IND-2, a 4-chloro-2-methyl pyrimido[1″,2″:1,5]pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline, exhibited more than ten-fold selectivity and potent cytotoxic activity against colon cancer cells relative to the other cancer and non-cancer cells. With five additional colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, LS-180, LS-174, and LoVo), IND-2 had similar cytotoxicity and selectivity, and sub-micromolar concentrations caused changes in the morphology of HCT-116 and HCT-15 cells. IND-2 did not activate the transactivating function of the pregnane X receptor (PXR), indicating that it does not induce PXR-regulated ABCB1 or ABCG2 transporters. Indeed, IND-2 was not a substrate of ABCB1 or ABCG2, and it induced cytotoxicity in HEK293 cells overexpressing ABCB1 or ABCG2 to the same extent as in normal HEK293 cells. IND-2 was cytotoxic to resistant colon carcinoma S1-MI-80 cells, approximately three- and five-fold more than SN-38 and topotecan, respectively. In HCT-116 colon cancer cells, IND-2 produced concentration-dependent changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, leading to apoptosis, and sub-micromolar concentrations caused chromosomal DNA fragmentation. These findings suggest that, by increasing apoptosis, IND-2 has potential therapeutic efficacy for colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Kidney Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cares Peers Support Ask the Doctor My Food Coach Nutrition Dialysis Patient & Family Resources Emergency Resources A ... State Charity Registration Disclosures © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc., 30 East 33rd Street, New York, NY 10016, ...

  11. Kidney Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that links the kidney to the bladder — is connected to your bladder. After the procedure After your ... three to eight weeks after transplant. No lifting objects weighing more than 10 pounds or exercise other ...

  12. Kidney School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... but food is a major focus of family life and social events. Learn how to balance your food intake so you can eat the foods ... Getting Adequate Dialysis Healthy kidneys work 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. ...

  13. Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common cancers in the United States. Cancer Home Kidney Cancer Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Anatomy of the male urinary system (left panel) and ...

  14. Kidney Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Institute Veterans Administration Special thanks to our corporate sponsor for supporting excellence in transplant education: Learn more about the UNOS Kidney Transplant Learning Center Patient brochures What Every Patient Needs to ...

  15. Kidney Dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whose mothers used certain prescription medications or illegal drugs during pregnancy What are the signs of kidney dysplasia? Many ... the use of certain prescription medications or illegal drugs during pregnancy. Pregnant women should talk with their health care ...

  16. Kidney Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know FAQ Living donation What is living donation? Organs Types Being a living donor First steps Being ... treatment option for kidney failure or disease through organ donation from a healthy, living person who is a ...

  17. Canine obesity: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossellin, J; Wren, J A; Sunderland, S J

    2007-08-01

    Canine patients are generally regarded as being clinically obese when their body weight is at least 15% above ideal. The incidence of obesity in dogs is thought to be in the range of 20-40% of the general population and, since obesity is known to predispose or exacerbate a range of serious medical conditions, its importance cannot be overstated. Management of obesity through dietary restriction and increased exercise is often difficult to achieve and dependent upon owner compliance. Until recently there has been no authorized therapeutic medication available for weight reduction in dogs, and drugs used in people have proved unsuitable. However, with the development of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitors for canine use, such as dirlotapide, the veterinarian has a novel method with which to augment traditional weight control programmes. This approach has the additional advantage that weight loss is achieved without dietary restriction or change in exercise regimen, providing encouragement for the owner to comply with subsequent dietary and exercise recommendations, thereby increasing the likelihood for long-term success.

  18. Peracute Infectious Canine Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Cheema*, I. Ahmed, G. Mustafa and A. Aslam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Peracute infectious canine hepatitis (ICH was diagnosed in two young male dogs out of 56 dead canines presented for necropsy examination during the period of April 2009 to June 2010. These dogs were purebred, one- month old Alsatian and 5-month old Labrador. None of the dogs had received any vaccination or deworming treatment; both had died after illness lasting for six hours and twenty four hours respectively. The dogs had shown signs of depression, anorexia and fever. At necropsy, lymph nodes were swollen, edematous and congested; livers were enlarged, bright red and mottled with numerous small white foci. Petechial hemorrhages were seen in the mucosa. Excessive serosanguinous fluid was present in the abdominal cavities. Histologically, the most significant lesion was necrohemorrhagic hepatitis with single cell necrosis of hepatocytes, lacunose dilation of sinusoids filled with blood and numerous large, solid intranuclear inclusion bodies (IIBs in the hepatocytes and macrophages. Both eosinophilic and basophilic (amphophilic inclusions were seen. It has been observed that ICH is re-emerging in some endemic countries. Pet dogs should be regularly protected by effective vaccination.

  19. Radioresistant canine hematopoietic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, T.G.; Shimizu, J.; Rosenblatt, L.S.; Goldman, M.

    1987-01-01

    Survival of dogs that are continuously exposed to a moderate dose-rate of gamma radiation (10 cGy/day) is dependent on the age of the dog at the time of exposure. Most dogs exposed postpartum to gamma radiation suffered from suppressed hematopoiesis and died of aplasia. On the other hand, none of the in utero-exposed dogs suffered from suppressed hematopoiesis and most became long-term survivors, tolerating 10-fold greater total dose, but dying of myeloproliferative disease (MPD). Using acute gamma irradiation of hematopoietic cells and colony forming unit cell assay (CFU), they observed that a canine hematopoietic cell line established from a myeloid leukemic dog that was a long-term survivor of continuous irradiation was approximately 4-fold more radioresistant than a hematopoietic cell line established from a dog with nonradiation-induced myeloid leukemia or hematopoietic cells from normal canine bone marrow. In utero dogs that are long-term survivors of continuous irradiation have radioresistant hematopoietic cells, and radioresistance that is a constitutive property of the cells

  20. Root Length and Anatomy of Impacted Maxillary Canines in Patients with Unilateral Maxillary Canine Impaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostfa Shahabi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Canine impaction is a common occurrence. In this study, we sought to investigate the root anatomy and length of impacted canines and lateral incisor adjacent to impacted maxillary canine. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, three-dimensional tomographic imaging was performed on 26 patients with unilateral maxillary canine impaction. In this study, we evaluated root length and anatomy of impacted canines, in terms of resorption intensity and curvature, with Planmeca Romexis Viewer 4.0. Furthermore, crown shape as well as root length and anatomy of the lateral incisors adjacent to impacted canines were investigated and compared with the other side on the dental arch, where canine eruption was normal. Results: Root length of impacted canines was significantly lower than that of normal canines (P=0.011. There were no significant differences between root length of lateral incisors adjacent to impacted canines and root length of lateral incisors adjacent to normal canines (P=0.221. Moreover, the resorption intensity of the adjacent lateral incisors was higher than that of the impacted canines. No significant differences were noted in root resorption intensity between the lateral incisors adjacent to the imacted canines and the lateral incisors adjacent to normal canines (P=0.36. In addition, resorption intensity was significantly higher in impacted canines than in normal canines (P=0.024. Root anatomy of impacted canines was not significantly different from that of normal canines (P=0.055. The crown shape of the lateral incisors adjacent to impacted canines was not significantly different from that of the lateral incisors adjacent to normal canines (P=0.052. Conclusion: Impaction can probably affect root length and canine resorption severity. However, root and crown shape of lateral incisors cannot always be associated with canine impaction.

  1. Nephrectomy (Kidney Removal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nephrectomy is needed because of other kidney diseases. Kidney function Most people have two kidneys — fist-sized ... and the disease that prompted the surgery? Monitoring kidney function Most people can function well with only ...

  2. Kidney Stones (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Kidney Stones KidsHealth / For Parents / Kidney Stones What's in ... other treatments to help remove the stones. How Kidney Stones Form It's the kidneys' job to remove ...

  3. Production of inactivated influenza H5N1 vaccines from MDCK cells in serum-free medium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Yung-Chih Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Highly pathogenic influenza viruses pose a constant threat which could lead to a global pandemic. Vaccination remains the principal measure to reduce morbidity and mortality from such pandemics. The availability and surging demand for pandemic vaccines needs to be addressed in the preparedness plans. This study presents an improved high-yield manufacturing process for the inactivated influenza H5N1 vaccines using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells grown in a serum-free (SF medium microcarrier cell culture system. PRINCIPAL FINDING: The current study has evaluated the performance of cell adaptation switched from serum-containing (SC medium to several commercial SF media. The selected SF medium was further evaluated in various bioreactor culture systems for process scale-up evaluation. No significant difference was found in the cell growth in different sizes of bioreactors studied. In the 7.5 L bioreactor runs, the cell concentration reached to 2.3 × 10(6 cells/mL after 5 days. The maximum virus titers of 1024 Hemagglutinin (HA units/50 µL and 7.1 ± 0.3 × 10(8 pfu/mL were obtained after 3 days infection. The concentration of HA antigen as determined by SRID was found to be 14.1 µg/mL which was higher than those obtained from the SC medium. A mouse immunogenicity study showed that the formalin-inactivated purified SF vaccine candidate formulated with alum adjuvant could induce protective level of virus neutralization titers similar to those obtained from the SC medium. In addition, the H5N1 viruses produced from either SC or SF media showed the same antigenic reactivity with the NIBRG14 standard antisera. CONCLUSIONS: The advantages of this SF cell-based manufacturing process could reduce the animal serum contamination, the cost and lot-to-lot variation of SC medium production. This study provides useful information to manufacturers that are planning to use SF medium for cell-based influenza vaccine production.

  4. Assessment of Anti-Influenza Activity and Hemagglutination Inhibition of Plumbago indica and Allium sativum Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Rahul Dilip; Shinde, Pramod; Girkar, Kaustubh; Madage, Rajendra; Chowdhary, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    Human influenza is a seasonal disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Anti-flu ayurvedic/herbal medicines have played a significant role in fighting the virus pandemic. Plumbagin and allicin are commonly used ingredients in many therapeutic remedies, either alone or in conjunction with other natural substances. Evidence suggests that these extracts are associated with a variety of pharmacological activities. To evaluate anti-influenza activity from Plumbago indica and Allium sativum extract against Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09. Different extraction procedures were used to isolate the active ingredient in the solvent system, and quantitative HPLTC confirms the presence of plumbagin and allicin. The cytotoxicity was carried out on Madin-Darby Canine kidney cells, and the 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) values were below 20 mg/mL for both plant extracts. To assess the anti-influenza activity, two assays were employed, simultaneous and posttreatment assay. A. sativum methanolic and ethanolic extracts showed only 14% reduction in hemagglutination in contrast to P. indica which exhibited 100% reduction in both simultaneous and posttreatment assay at concentrations of 10 mg/mL, 5 mg/mL, and 1 mg/mL. Our results suggest that P. indica extracts are good candidates for anti-influenza therapy and should be used in medical treatment after further research. The search for natural antiviral compounds from plants is a promising approach in the development of new therapeutic agents. In the past century, several scientific efforts have been directed toward identifying phytochemicals capable of inhibiting virus. Knowledge of ethnopharmacology can lead to new bioactive plant compounds suitable for drug discovery and development. Macromolecular docking studies provides most detailed possible view of drug-receptor interaction where the structure of drug is designed based on its fit to three dimensional structures of receptor site rather than by analogy to other

  5. Involvement of Lgl and Mahjong/VprBP in cell competition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichiro Tamori

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available During the initial stages of carcinogenesis, transformation events occur in a single cell within an epithelial monolayer. However, it remains unknown what happens at the interface between normal and transformed epithelial cells during this process. In Drosophila, it has been recently shown that normal and transformed cells compete with each other for survival in an epithelial tissue; however the molecular mechanisms whereby "loser cells" undergo apoptosis are not clearly understood. Lgl (lethal giant larvae is a tumor suppressor protein and plays a crucial role in oncogenesis in flies and mammals. Here we have examined the involvement of Lgl in cell competition and shown that a novel Lgl-binding protein is involved in Lgl-mediated cell competition. Using biochemical immunoprecipitation methods, we first identified Mahjong as a novel binding partner of Lgl in both flies and mammals. In Drosophila, Mahjong is an essential gene, but zygotic mahjong mutants (mahj(-/- do not have obvious patterning defects during embryonic or larval development. However, mahj(-/- cells undergo apoptosis when surrounded by wild-type cells in the wing disc epithelium. Importantly, comparable phenomena also occur in Mahjong-knockdown mammalian cells; Mahjong-knockdown Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells undergo apoptosis, only when surrounded by non-transformed cells. Similarly, apoptosis of lgl(-/- cells is induced when they are surrounded by wild-type cells in Drosophila wing discs. Phosphorylation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK is increased in mahj(-/- or lgl(-/- mutant cells, and expression of Puckered (Puc, an inhibitor of the JNK pathway, suppresses apoptosis of these mutant cells surrounded by wild-type cells, suggesting that the JNK pathway is involved in mahj- or lgl-mediated cell competition. Finally, we have shown that overexpression of Mahj in lgl(-/- cells strongly suppresses JNK activation and blocks apoptosis of lgl(-/- cells in the wild

  6. Sol-gel TiO2 colloidal suspensions and nanostructured thin films: structural and biological assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartapelle Procopio, Elsa; Colombo, Valentina; Santo, Nadia; Sironi, Angelo; Lenardi, Cristina; Maggioni, Daniela

    2018-02-01

    The role of substrate topography in phenotype expression of in vitro cultured cells has been widely assessed. However, the production of the nanostructured interface via the deposition of sol-gel synthesized nanoparticles (NPs) has not yet been fully exploited. This is also evidenced by the limited number of studies correlating the morphological, structural and chemical properties of the grown thin films with those of the sol-gel ‘brick’ within the framework of the bottom-up approach. Our work intends to go beyond this drawback presenting an accurate investigation of sol-gel TiO2 NPs shaped as spheres and rods. They have been fully characterized by complementary analytical techniques both suspended in apolar solvents, by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and after deposition on substrates (solid state configuration) by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD). In the case of suspended anisotropic rods, the experimental DLS data, analyzed by the Tirado-Garcia de la Torre model, present the following ranges of dimensions: 4-5 nm diameter (∅) and 11-15 nm length (L). These results are in good agreement with that obtained by the two solid state techniques, namely 3.8(9) nm ∅ and 13.8(2.5) nm L from TEM and 5.6(1) ∅ and 13.3(1) nm L from PXRD data. To prove the suitability of the supported sol-gel NPs for biological issues, spheres and rods have been separately deposited on coverslips. The cell response has been ascertained by evaluating the adhesion of the epithelial cell line Madin-Darby canine kidney. The cellular analysis showed that titania films promote cell adhesion as well clustering organization, which is a distinguishing feature of this type of cell line. Thus, the use of nanostructured substrates via sol-gel could be considered a good candidate for cell culture with the further advantages of likely scalability and interfaceability with many different materials usable as supports.

  7. Sol-gel TiO2 colloidal suspensions and nanostructured thin films: structural and biological assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopio, Elsa Quartapelle; Colombo, Valentina; Santo, Nadia; Sironi, Angelo; Lenardi, Cristina; Maggioni, Daniela

    2018-02-02

    The role of substrate topography in phenotype expression of in vitro cultured cells has been widely assessed. However, the production of the nanostructured interface via the deposition of sol-gel synthesized nanoparticles (NPs) has not yet been fully exploited. This is also evidenced by the limited number of studies correlating the morphological, structural and chemical properties of the grown thin films with those of the sol-gel 'brick' within the framework of the bottom-up approach. Our work intends to go beyond this drawback presenting an accurate investigation of sol-gel TiO 2 NPs shaped as spheres and rods. They have been fully characterized by complementary analytical techniques both suspended in apolar solvents, by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and after deposition on substrates (solid state configuration) by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD). In the case of suspended anisotropic rods, the experimental DLS data, analyzed by the Tirado-Garcia de la Torre model, present the following ranges of dimensions: 4-5 nm diameter (∅) and 11-15 nm length (L). These results are in good agreement with that obtained by the two solid state techniques, namely 3.8(9) nm ∅ and 13.8(2.5) nm L from TEM and 5.6(1) ∅ and 13.3(1) nm L from PXRD data. To prove the suitability of the supported sol-gel NPs for biological issues, spheres and rods have been separately deposited on coverslips. The cell response has been ascertained by evaluating the adhesion of the epithelial cell line Madin-Darby canine kidney. The cellular analysis showed that titania films promote cell adhesion as well clustering organization, which is a distinguishing feature of this type of cell line. Thus, the use of nanostructured substrates via sol-gel could be considered a good candidate for cell culture with the further advantages of likely scalability and interfaceability with many different materials usable as supports.

  8. Preparation, characterization, and in vitro and in vivo investigation of chitosan-coated poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles for intestinal delivery of exendin-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang M

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mengshu Wang,1* Yong Zhang,1* Jiao Feng,1 Tiejun Gu,1 Qingguang Dong,1 Xu Yang,2 Yanan Sun,1 Yongge Wu,1 Yan Chen,1 Wei Kong1 1National Engineering Laboratory for AIDS Vaccine, College of Life Science, Jilin University, Changchun, People’s Republic of China; 2BCHT Biopharm Co, Ltd, Changchun, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Exendin-4 is an incretin mimetic agent approved for type 2 diabetes treatment. However, the required frequent injections restrict its clinical application. Here, the potential use of chitosan-coated poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide (CS-PLGA nanoparticles was investigated for intestinal delivery of exendin-4.Methods and results: Nanoparticles were prepared using a modified water–oil–water (w/o/w emulsion solvent-evaporation method, followed by coating with chitosan. The physical properties, particle size, and cell toxicity of the nanoparticles were examined. The cellular uptake mechanism and transmembrane permeability were performed in Madin-Darby canine kidney-cell monolayers. Furthermore, in vivo intraduodenal administration of exendin-4-loaded nanoparticles was carried out in rats. The PLGA nanoparticle coating with chitosan led to a significant change in zeta potential, from negative to positive, accompanied by an increase in particle size of ~30 nm. Increases in both the molecular weight and degree of deacetylation of chitosan resulted in an observable increase in zeta potential but no apparent change in the particle size of ~300 nm. Both unmodified PLGA and chitosan-coated nanoparticles showed only slight cytotoxicity. Use of different temperatures and energy depletion suggested that the cellular uptake of both types of nanoparticles was energy-dependent. Further investigation revealed that the uptake of PLGA nanoparticles occurred via caveolin-mediated endocytosis and that of CS-PLGA nanoparticles involved both macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis

  9. Carnosine inhibits carbonic anhydrase IX-mediated extracellular acidosis and suppresses growth of HeLa tumor xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditte, Zuzana; Ditte, Peter; Labudova, Martina; Simko, Veronika; Iuliano, Filippo; Zatovicova, Miriam; Csaderova, Lucia; Pastorekova, Silvia; Pastorek, Jaromir

    2014-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a transmembrane enzyme that is present in many types of solid tumors. Expression of CA IX is driven predominantly by the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway and helps to maintain intracellular pH homeostasis under hypoxic conditions, resulting in acidification of the tumor microenvironment. Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is an anti-tumorigenic agent that inhibits the proliferation of cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the role of CA IX in carnosine-mediated antitumor activity and whether the underlying mechanism involves transcriptional and translational modulation of HIF-1α and CA IX and/or altered CA IX function. The effect of carnosine was studied using two-dimensional cell monolayers of several cell lines with endogenous CA IX expression as well as Madin Darby canine kidney transfectants, three-dimensional HeLa spheroids, and an in vivo model of HeLa xenografts in nude mice. mRNA and protein expression and protein localization were analyzed by real-time PCR, western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. Cell viability was measured by a flow cytometric assay. Expression of HIF-1α and CA IX in tumors was assessed by immunohistochemical staining. Real-time measurement of pH was performed using a sensor dish reader. Binding of CA IX to specific antibodies and metabolon partners was investigated by competitive ELISA and proximity ligation assays, respectively. Carnosine increased the expression levels of HIF-1α and HIF targets and increased the extracellular pH, suggesting an inhibitory effect on CA IX-mediated acidosis. Moreover, carnosine significantly inhibited the growth of three-dimensional spheroids and tumor xenografts compared with untreated controls. Competitive ELISA showed that carnosine disrupted binding between CA IX and antibodies specific for its catalytic domain. This finding was supported by reduced formation of the functional metabolon of CA IX and anion exchanger 2 in the

  10. Preparation, characterization, and in vitro and in vivo investigation of chitosan-coated poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles for intestinal delivery of exendin-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengshu; Zhang, Yong; Feng, Jiao; Gu, Tiejun; Dong, Qingguang; Yang, Xu; Sun, Yanan; Wu, Yongge; Chen, Yan; Kong, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background Exendin-4 is an incretin mimetic agent approved for type 2 diabetes treatment. However, the required frequent injections restrict its clinical application. Here, the potential use of chitosan-coated poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (CS-PLGA) nanoparticles was investigated for intestinal delivery of exendin-4. Methods and results Nanoparticles were prepared using a modified water–oil–water (w/o/w) emulsion solvent-evaporation method, followed by coating with chitosan. The physical properties, particle size, and cell toxicity of the nanoparticles were examined. The cellular uptake mechanism and transmembrane permeability were performed in Madin-Darby canine kidney-cell monolayers. Furthermore, in vivo intraduodenal administration of exendin-4-loaded nanoparticles was carried out in rats. The PLGA nanoparticle coating with chitosan led to a significant change in zeta potential, from negative to positive, accompanied by an increase in particle size of ~30 nm. Increases in both the molecular weight and degree of deacetylation of chitosan resulted in an observable increase in zeta potential but no apparent change in the particle size of ~300 nm. Both unmodified PLGA and chitosan-coated nanoparticles showed only slight cytotoxicity. Use of different temperatures and energy depletion suggested that the cellular uptake of both types of nanoparticles was energy-dependent. Further investigation revealed that the uptake of PLGA nanoparticles occurred via caveolin-mediated endocytosis and that of CS-PLGA nanoparticles involved both macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis, as evidenced by using endocytic inhibitors. However, under all conditions, CS-PLGA nanoparticles showed a greater potential to be transported into cells, as shown by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Transmembrane permeability analysis showed that unmodified and modified PLGA nanoparticles could improve the transport of exendin-4 by up to 8.9- and 16.5-fold, respectively

  11. Potential role of sodium-proton exchangers in the low concentration arsenic trioxide-increased intracellular pH and cell proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Aravena

    Full Text Available Arsenic main inorganic compound is arsenic trioxide (ATO presented in solution mainly as arsenite. ATO increases intracellular pH (pHi, cell proliferation and tumor growth. Sodium-proton exchangers (NHEs modulate the pHi, with NHE1 playing significant roles. Whether ATO-increased cell proliferation results from altered NHEs expression and activity is unknown. We hypothesize that ATO increases cell proliferation by altering pHi due to increased NHEs-like transport activity. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells grown in 5 mmol/L D-glucose-containing DMEM were exposed to ATO (0.05, 0.5 or 5 µmol/L, 0-48 hours in the absence or presence of 5-N,N-hexamethylene amiloride (HMA, 5-100 µmol/L, NHEs inhibitor, PD-98059 (30 µmol/L, MAPK1/2 inhibitor, Gö6976 (10 µmol/L, PKCα, βI and μ inhibitor, or Schering 28080 (10 µmol/L, H(+/K(+ATPase inhibitor plus concanamycin (0.1 µmol/L, V type ATPases inhibitor. Incorporation of [(3H]thymidine was used to estimate cell proliferation, and counting cells with a hemocytometer to determine the cell number. The pHi was measured by fluorometry in 2,7-bicarboxyethyl-5,6-carboxyfluorescein loaded cells. The Na(+-dependent HMA-sensitive NHEs-like mediated proton transport kinetics, NHE1 protein abundance in the total, cytoplasm and plasma membrane protein fractions, and phosphorylated and total p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p42/44(mapk were also determined. Lowest ATO (0.05 µmol/L, ~0.01 ppm used in this study increased cell proliferation, pHi, NHEs-like transport and plasma membrane NHE1 protein abundance, effects blocked by HMA, PD-98059 or Gö6976. Cell-buffering capacity did not change by ATO. The results show that a low ATO concentration increases MDCK cells proliferation by NHEs (probably NHE1-like transport dependent-increased pHi requiring p42/44(mapk and PKCα, βI and/or μ activity. This finding could be crucial in diseases where uncontrolled cell growth occurs, such as tumor growth, and

  12. Decoupling internalization, acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion during phagocytosis of InlA coated beads in epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig D Blanchette

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phagocytosis has been extensively examined in 'professional' phagocytic cells using pH sensitive dyes. However, in many of the previous studies, a separation between the end of internalization, beginning of acidification and completion of phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion was not clearly established. In addition, very little work has been done to systematically examine phagosomal maturation in 'non-professional' phagocytic cells. Therefore, in this study, we developed a simple method to measure and decouple particle internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK and Caco-2 epithelial cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our method was developed using a pathogen mimetic system consisting of polystyrene beads coated with Internalin A (InlA, a membrane surface protein from Listeria monocytogenes known to trigger receptor-mediated phagocytosis. We were able to independently measure the rates of internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion in epithelial cells by combining the InlA-coated beads (InlA-beads with antibody quenching, a pH sensitive dye and an endosomal/lysosomal dye. By performing these independent measurements under identical experimental conditions, we were able to decouple the three processes and establish time scales for each. In a separate set of experiments, we exploited the phagosomal acidification process to demonstrate an additional, real-time method for tracking bead binding, internalization and phagosomal acidification. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using this method, we found that the time scales for internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion ranged from 23-32 min, 3-4 min and 74-120 min, respectively, for MDCK and Caco-2 epithelial cells. Both the static and real-time methods developed here are expected to be readily and broadly applicable, as they simply

  13. [Effect and mechanism of Mahuang Tang against influenza A/H1N1 virus in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wen-Yang; Wan, Hai-Tong; Yu, Li; Lu, Yi-Yu; He, Yu

    2018-02-01

    To study the effect and underlying mechanism of Mahuang Tang against influenza A virus in vitro , the influenza virus-infected Madin-Darby canine kidney(MDCK) cells were used as the carrier in this study to detect the median tissue culture-infective dose(TCID₅₀) of influenza A virus strains(A/PR8/34) on MDCK cells with cytopathic effect(CPE) assay. Blocking influenza virus invading host cells and anti-influenza virus biosynthesis were used as two different administration methods, and then the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium(MTT) assay was utilized to determine the antiviral effective rate(ER), median efficacious concentration(EC₅₀) and therapeutic index(TI) of Mahuang Tang. The quantitative Real-time polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) was used to measure virus load and the mRNA expression levels of TLR4, TLR7, MyD88 and TRAF6 in MDCK cells at 24, 48 h after the treatment. The experiment results indicated that TCID₅₀ of A/PR8/34 for MDCK cells was 1×10-4.32/mL. The EC₅₀ values of two different treatment methods were 4.92,1.59 g·L⁻¹ respectively, the TI values were 12.53, 38.78 respectively, and when the concentration of Mahuang Tang was 5.00 g·L⁻¹, ER values were 50.21%, 98.41% respectively, showing that Mahuang Tang can block influenza virus into the host cells and significantly inhibit their biosynthesis. Meanwhile, as compared with the virus group, the virus load was significantly inhibited in Mahuang Tang groups, and Mahuang Tang high and middle doses had the significant effect on decreasing the mRNA expression of TLR4, TLR7,MyD88 and TRAF6 at 24, 48 h after the treatment. It can be demonstrated that the mechanisms of Mahuang Tang against influenza A virus are related to the inhibition of influenza virus replication and the mRNA expression of correlative genes in TLR4 and TLR7 signaling pathways. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. Safety and immunogenicity in man of a cell culture derived trivalent live attenuated seasonal influenza vaccine: a Phase I dose escalating study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldens, Jacco; Hulskotte, Ellen; Voeten, Theo; Breedveld, Belinda; Verweij, Pierre; van Duijnhoven, Wilbert; Rudenko, Larissa; van Damme, Pierre; van den Bosch, Han

    2014-09-03

    Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) offers the promise of inducing a variety of immune responses thereby conferring protection to circulating field strains. LAIVs are based on cold adapted and temperature sensitive phenotypes of master donor viruses (MDVs) containing the surface glycoprotein genes of seasonal influenza strains. Two types of MDV lineages have been described, the Ann Arbor lineages and the A/Leningrad/17 and B/USSR/60 lineages. Here the safety and immunogenicity of a Madin Darby Canine Kidney - cell culture based, intranasal LAIV derived from A/Leningrad/17 and B/USSR, was evaluated in healthy influenza non-naive volunteers 18-50 years of age. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled design, single escalating doses of 1×10(5), 1×10(6), or 1×10(7) tissue culture infectious dose 50% (TCID50) of vaccine containing each of the three influenza virus re-assortants recommended by the World Health Organization for the 2008-2009 season were administered intranasally. A statistically significant geometric mean increase in hemagglutination inhibition titer was reached for influenza strain A/H3N2 after immunization with all doses of LAIV. For the A/H1N1 and B strains, the GMI in HI titer did not increase for any of the doses. Virus neutralization antibody titers showed a similar response pattern. A dose-response effect could not be demonstrated for any of the strains, neither for the HI antibody nor for the VN antibody responses. No influenza like symptoms, no nasal congestions, no rhinorrhea, or other influenza related upper respiratory tract symptoms were observed. In addition, no difference in the incidence or nature of adverse events was found between vaccine and placebo treated subjects. Overall, the results indicated that the LAIV for nasal administration is immunogenic (i.e. able to provoke an immune response) and safe both from the perspective of the attenuated virus and the MDCK cell line from which it was derived, and it warrants

  15. Construction of Eukaryotic Expression Vector with mBD1-mBD3 Fusion Genes and Exploring Its Activity against Influenza A Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanyi Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Influenza (flu pandemics have exhibited a great threat to human health throughout history. With the emergence of drug-resistant strains of influenza A virus (IAV, it is necessary to look for new agents for treatment and transmission prevention of the flu. Defensins are small (2–6 kDa cationic peptides known for their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Beta-defensins (β-defensins are mainly produced by barrier epithelial cells and play an important role in attacking microbe invasion by epithelium. In this study, we focused on the anti-influenza A virus activity of mouse β-defensin 1 (mBD1 and β defensin-3 (mBD3 by synthesizing their fusion peptide with standard recombinant methods. The eukaryotic expression vectors pcDNA3.1(+/mBD1-mBD3 were constructed successfully by overlap-PCR and transfected into Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells. The MDCK cells transfected by pcDNA3.1(+/mBD1-mBD3 were obtained by G418 screening, and the mBD1-mBD3 stable expression pattern was confirmed in MDCK cells by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence assay. The acquired stable transfected MDCK cells were infected with IAV (A/PR/8/34, H1N1, 0.1 MOI subsequently and the virus titers in cell culture supernatants were analyzed by TCID50 72 h later. The TCID50 titer of the experimental group was clearly lower than that of the control group (p < 0.001. Furthermore, BALB/C mice were injected with liposome-encapsulated pcDNA3.1(+/mBD1-mBD3 through muscle and then challenged with the A/PR/8/34 virus. Results showed the survival rate of 100% and lung index inhibitory rate of 32.6% in pcDNA3.1(+/mBD1-mBD3group; the TCID50 titer of lung homogenates was clearly lower than that of the control group (p < 0.001. This study demonstrates that mBD1-mBD3 expressed by the recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1(+/mBD1-mBD3 could inhibit influenza A virus replication both in vitro and in vivo. These observations suggested that the recombinant mBD1-mBD3 might be developed into an agent for

  16. Regulatory, biosafety and safety challenges for novel cells as substrates for human vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Ralf D; Weber, Friedemann; Watson, Keith; Schmitt, Siegfried

    2012-04-05

    In the development of novel substrates used for production of human vaccines there has been significant progress made in recent years. Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases like the recent porcine Influenza A virus (H1N1) pandemic necessitated the availability of unprecedented amounts of vaccines. In addition, the high demand for vaccines in the industrialised countries has also been paralleled by a steep increase in demand in developing countries. The manufacturing capability for viral vaccines produced in embryonated hen eggs and conventional/classical cell substrates, such as chicken embryo fibroblasts, has now reached its capacity limit. This constraint may be overcome by utilising other recognised cell substrates such as Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) (dog origin), Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) (hamster cells) or Vero cells (monkey origin) or as an alternative, introduce new cell substrates of human or avian origin. Using new cell substrates may prove to be a highly replication-proficient way of producing live viral vaccines such as Influenza A viruses. Despite some advantages, cell substrates may pose a small residual risk to humans since some of them are known to be tumourigenic in immunosuppressed animals. However, this residual risk should be considered acceptable by regulators. Safety testing requirements for cell substrates used in the manufacture of vaccines is mandated by published guidance from organisations such as World Health Organization (WHO), United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Medicines Agency (EMA) and International Conferences on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human use (ICH) as well as requirements laid down in compendial monographs (Ph. Eur. and USP). This paper considers the guidance contained in these regulatory documents. In addition, the safety challenges and almost arbitrary risk-based classification of cell substrates used in the production of human

  17. pH-Dependent solubility and permeability criteria for provisional biopharmaceutics classification (BCS and BDDCS) in early drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Manthena V; Gardner, Iain; Steyn, Stefanus J; Nkansah, Paul; Rotter, Charles J; Whitney-Pickett, Carrie; Zhang, Hui; Di, Li; Cram, Michael; Fenner, Katherine S; El-Kattan, Ayman F

    2012-05-07

    The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) is a scientific framework that provides a basis for predicting the oral absorption of drugs. These concepts have been extended in the Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) to explain the potential mechanism of drug clearance and understand the effects of uptake and efflux transporters on absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination. The objective of present work is to establish criteria for provisional biopharmaceutics classification using pH-dependent passive permeability and aqueous solubility data generated from high throughput screening methodologies in drug discovery settings. The apparent permeability across monolayers of clonal cell line of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, selected for low endogenous efflux transporter expression, was measured for a set of 105 drugs, with known BCS and BDDCS class. The permeability at apical pH 6.5 for acidic drugs and at pH 7.4 for nonacidic drugs showed a good correlation with the fraction absorbed in human (Fa). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was utilized to define the permeability class boundary. At permeability ≥ 5 × 10(-6) cm/s, the accuracy of predicting Fa of ≥ 0.90 was 87%. Also, this cutoff showed more than 80% sensitivity and specificity in predicting the literature permeability classes (BCS), and the metabolism classes (BDDCS). The equilibrium solubility of a subset of 49 drugs was measured in pH 1.2 medium, pH 6.5 phosphate buffer, and in FaSSIF medium (pH 6.5). Although dose was not considered, good concordance of the measured solubility with BCS and BDDCS solubility class was achieved, when solubility at pH 1.2 was used for acidic compounds and FaSSIF solubility was used for basic, neutral, and zwitterionic compounds. Using a cutoff of 200 μg/mL, the data set suggested a 93% sensitivity and 86% specificity in predicting both the BCS and BDDCS solubility classes. In conclusion, this study identified

  18. Podoplanin Expression in Canine Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Honma, Ryusuke; Kaneko, Mika K.; Fujii, Yuki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2016-01-01

    A type I transmembrane protein, podoplanin (PDPN), is expressed in several normal cells such as lymphatic endothelial cells or pulmonary type I alveolar cells. We recently demonstrated that anticanine PDPN monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, recognizes canine PDPN of squamous cell carcinomas, but does not react with lymphatic endothelial cells. Herein, we investigated whether PMab-38 reacts with canine melanoma. PMab-38 reacted with 90% of melanoma cells (9/10 cases) using immunohistochemistr...

  19. Infection of Parainfluenza type 3 (PI-3 as one of the causative agent of pneumonia in sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Sendow

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Serological survey was conducted to obtain the prevalence of Parainfluenza type 3 (PI-3 reactor as one of the causative agent of pneumonia in sheep and goats in abatoir at Jakarta and some small holder farms in Indonesia. Serological test using serum neutralization from 724 goat sera and 109 sheep sera indicated that only 1% of goats were serologically reactors and none of sheep sera had antibodies against PI-3 virus. Isolation of the virus from 56 bronchus and trachea swab and 345 lungs indicated that only one sampel from lung showed cythopathic effect (CPE in Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK cell lines identification of the virus using serum neutralization test indicated that the virus neutralized reference PI-3 antisera. The isolate came from one lung (7% of 24 that showed histopathologically pneumonia intertitialis that usually caused by viral infection.

  20. Adherence of Moraxella bovis to cell cultures of bovine origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annuar, B O; Wilcox, G E

    1985-09-01

    The adherence of five strains of Moraxella bovis to cell cultures was investigated. M bovis adhered to cultures of bovine corneal epithelial and Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells but not to cell types of non-bovine origin. Both piliated and unpiliated strains adhered but piliated strains adhered to a greater extent than unpiliated strains. Antiserum against pili of one strain inhibited adherence of piliated strains but caused only slight inhibition of adherence to the unpiliated strains. Treatment of bacteria with magnesium chloride caused detachment of pili from the bacterial cell and markedly inhibited adherence of piliated strains but caused only slight inhibition of adherence by the unpiliated strains. The results suggested that adhesion of piliated strains to cell cultures was mediated via pili but that adhesins other than pili may be involved in the attachment of unpiliated strains of M bovis to cells.

  1. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Nucleolus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amrutlal K.Patel; Doug Olson; Suresh K. Tikoo

    2010-01-01

    Nucleolus is the most prominent subnuclear structure, which performs a wide variety of functions in the eu-karyotic cellular processes. In order to understand the structural and functional role of the nucleoli in bovine cells,we analyzed the proteomie composition of the bovine nueleoli. The nucleoli were isolated from Madin Darby bo-vine kidney cells and subjected to proteomie analysis by LC-MS/MS after fractionation by SDS-PAGE and strongcation exchange chromatography. Analysis of the data using the Mascot database search and the GPM databasesearch identified 311 proteins in the bovine nucleoli, which contained 22 proteins previously not identified in theproteomic analysis of human nucleoli. Analysis of the identified proteins using the GoMiner software suggestedthat the bovine nueleoli contained proteins involved in ribosomal biogenesis, cell cycle control, transcriptional,translational and post-translational regulation, transport, and structural organization.

  2. Hobi-like pestivirus: both biotypes isolated from a diseased animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Mari, Viviana; Pinto, Pierfrancesco; Lucente, Maria Stella; Sciarretta, Rossana; Cirone, Francesco; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Elia, Gabriella; Thiel, Heinz-Jürgen; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2012-09-01

    A Hobi-like pestivirus pair consisting of cytopathogenic (cp) and non-cytopathogenic (noncp) strains, Italy 83/10cp and Italy 83/10ncp, was isolated from the lung of a heifer that died of respiratory disease. The noncp and cp viruses were isolated on Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells and separated by plaque purification and end point dilution. Analysis of the nearly full-length genomes revealed that the two viruses were very closely related to each other and to the noncp Hobi-like strain Italy 1/10-1, which had been isolated a few weeks earlier from the same herd. One major difference between noncp and cp viruses concerned the presence of a cellular Jiv sequence in the 3' domain of the NS2-encoding region of the cp strain. This is the first study, to our knowledge, reporting the isolation and molecular characterization of a Hobi-like virus pair.

  3. Kidney pain (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in a kidney. Kidney stones may be the size of sand or ... A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in a kidney. Kidney stones may be the ...

  4. Long-term effectiveness of canine-to-canine bonded flexible spiral wire lingual retainers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, Anne-Marie; Renkema, Alianne; Bronkhorst, Ewald; Katsaros, Christos

    Introduction: The flexible spiral wire (FSW) canine-to-canine lingual retainer bonded to all 6 anterior teeth is a frequently used type of mandibular fixed retainer. This study aimed to assess the long-term effectiveness of FSW canine-to-canine lingual retainers in maintaining the alignment of the

  5. Long-term effectiveness of canine-to-canine bonded flexible spiral wire lingual retainers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, A.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Katsaros, C.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The flexible spiral wire (FSW) canine-to-canine lingual retainer bonded to all 6 anterior teeth is a frequently used type of mandibular fixed retainer. This study aimed to assess the long-term effectiveness of FSW canine-to-canine lingual retainers in maintaining the alignment of the

  6. Root Length and Anatomy of Impacted Maxillary Canines in Patients with Unilateral Maxillary Canine Impaction

    OpenAIRE

    Mostfa Shahabi; Maryam Omidkhoda; Seyedeh Haniyeh Omidi; Seyed Hosein Hoseini Zarch

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Canine impaction is a common occurrence. In this study, we sought to investigate the root anatomy and length of impacted canines and lateral incisor adjacent to impacted maxillary canine. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, three-dimensional tomographic imaging was performed on 26 patients with unilateral maxillary canine impaction. In this study, we evaluated root length and anatomy of impacted canines, in terms of resorption intensity and curvature, with Planme...

  7. The kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, L.M.; Lutzker, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    It has unfortunately remained true that radionuclide renal imaging studies have not been so widely accepted as other types of scintigraphy, despite improvements in radiopharmaceuticals and imaging techniques. Perhaps this is because of the variety of established radiologic techniques available for the study of the kidneys and the addition of new modalities such as CT scanning and ultrasound. Clinicians may have become confused by the multiplicity of options, which has obscured the distinction between renal scintigraphy and all other methods of imaging the kidney, i.e., that renal scintigraphy provides functional information in an easily quantifiable form. It is interesting that pediatric practitioners have more easily recognized the functional importance of this modality than have the practitioners of adult medicine, who more often prefer anatomic modalities, either traditional or new

  8. Canine oral melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Philip J

    2007-05-01

    Melanoma is the most common oral malignancy in the dog. Oral and/or mucosal melanoma has been routinely considered an extremely malignant tumor with a high degree of local invasiveness and high metastatic propensity. Primary tumor size has been found to be extremely prognostic. The World Health Organization staging scheme for dogs with oral melanoma is based on size, with stage I = or = 4cm tumor and/or lymph node metastasis, and stage IV = distant metastasis. Median survival times for dogs with oral melanoma treated with surgery are approximately 17 to 18, 5 to 6, and 3 months with stage I, II, and III disease, respectively. Significant negative prognostic factors include stage, size, evidence of metastasis, and a variety of histologic criteria. Standardized treatments such as surgery, coarse-fractionation radiation therapy, and chemotherapy have afforded minimal to modest stage-dependent clinical benefits and death is usually due to systemic metastasis. Numerous immunotherapeutic strategies have been employed to date with limited clinical efficacy; however, the use of xenogeneic DNA vaccines may represent a leap forward in clinical efficacy. Oral melanoma is a spontaneous syngeneic cancer occurring in outbred, immunocompetent dogs and appears to be a more clinically faithful therapeutic model for human melanoma; further use of canine melanoma as a therapeutic model for human melanoma is strongly encouraged. In addition, the development of an expanded but clinically relevant staging system incorporating the aforementioned prognostic factors is also strongly encouraged.

  9. A rapid method for establishment of a reverse genetics system for canine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongle; Su, Jun; Wang, Jigui; Xi, Ji; Mao, Yaping; Hou, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaomei; Liu, Weiquan

    2017-12-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is an important and highly prevalent pathogen of dogs that causes acute hemorrhagic enteritis disease. Here, we describe a rapid method for the construction and characterization of a full-length infectious clone (rCPV) of CPV. Feline kidney (F81) cells were transfected with rCPV incorporating an engineered EcoR I site that served as a genetic marker. The rescued virus was indistinguishable from that of wild-type virus in its biological properties.

  10. Podoplanin Expression in Canine Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Honma, Ryusuke; Kaneko, Mika K; Fujii, Yuki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2016-12-01

    A type I transmembrane protein, podoplanin (PDPN), is expressed in several normal cells such as lymphatic endothelial cells or pulmonary type I alveolar cells. We recently demonstrated that anticanine PDPN monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, recognizes canine PDPN of squamous cell carcinomas, but does not react with lymphatic endothelial cells. Herein, we investigated whether PMab-38 reacts with canine melanoma. PMab-38 reacted with 90% of melanoma cells (9/10 cases) using immunohistochemistry. Of interest, PMab-38 stained the lymphatic endothelial cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts in melanoma tissues, although it did not stain any lymphatic endothelial cells in normal tissues. PMab-38 could be useful for uncovering the function of PDPN in canine melanomas.

  11. Approaches to canine health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Dan G; Church, David B; McGreevy, Paul D; Thomson, Peter C; Brodbelt, Dave C

    2014-01-01

    Effective canine health surveillance systems can be used to monitor disease in the general population, prioritise disorders for strategic control and focus clinical research, and to evaluate the success of these measures. The key attributes for optimal data collection systems that support canine disease surveillance are representativeness of the general population, validity of disorder data and sustainability. Limitations in these areas present as selection bias, misclassification bias and discontinuation of the system respectively. Canine health data sources are reviewed to identify their strengths and weaknesses for supporting effective canine health surveillance. Insurance data benefit from large and well-defined denominator populations but are limited by selection bias relating to the clinical events claimed and animals covered. Veterinary referral clinical data offer good reliability for diagnoses but are limited by referral bias for the disorders and animals included. Primary-care practice data have the advantage of excellent representation of the general dog population and recording at the point of care by veterinary professionals but may encounter misclassification problems and technical difficulties related to management and analysis of large datasets. Questionnaire surveys offer speed and low cost but may suffer from low response rates, poor data validation, recall bias and ill-defined denominator population information. Canine health scheme data benefit from well-characterised disorder and animal data but reflect selection bias during the voluntary submissions process. Formal UK passive surveillance systems are limited by chronic under-reporting and selection bias. It is concluded that active collection systems using secondary health data provide the optimal resource for canine health surveillance.

  12. Canine and feline colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastant-Maillard, S; Aggouni, C; Albaret, A; Fournier, A; Mila, H

    2017-04-01

    Puppy and kitten survival over the first weeks is particularly dependent on colostrum, a specific secretion of the mammary gland produced during the first 2 days post-partum. Colostrum is a source of nutrients and immunoglobulins. It also contributes to the digestive tract maturation. Colostrum differentiates from milk mainly based on its concentration in immunoglobulins G: 20-30 g/L in dog colostrum, 40-50 g/L in cats' vs <1 g/L in milk. IgG concentration rapidly drops after parturition (-50% in 24 hr). Immune quality of colostrum is highly variable between bitches, with no relationship with maternal blood IgG level, dam's age, breed size or litter size. In addition to systemic immune protection, colostrum also plays a major role for local digestive protection, due to IgA, lysozyme, lactoferrin, white blood cells and various cytokines. Energetic concentration of canine and feline colostrum is not superior to that of mature milk. It depends on colostrum fat concentration and is affected by breed size (higher in breeds <10 kg adult body weight). As puppies and kittens are almost agammaglobulinemic at birth, transfer of IgG from their digestive tract into their bloodstream is crucial for their survival, IgG absorption ending at 12-16 hr after birth. Energetic supply over the two first days of life, as evidenced by growth rate over the two first days of life, also affects risk of neonatal mortality. Early and sufficient suckling of colostrum is thus the very first care to be provided to newborns for their later health and survival. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Acute kidney failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute Images Kidney anatomy References Devarajan P. Biomarkers for assessment of renal function during acute kidney injury. In: Alpern RJ, Moe OW, Caplan M, ...

  14. Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have two kidneys, each about the size of your fist. Their main job is to filter your blood. They remove wastes and ... help control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged ...

  15. Diabetic Kidney Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too high. Over time, this can damage your kidneys. Your kidneys clean your blood. If they are damaged, waste ... in your blood instead of leaving your body. Kidney damage from diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. It ...

  16. Medullary Sponge Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... UTI removing any kidney stones Curing an Existing Urinary Tract Infection To treat a UTI , the health care provider ... UTIs and kidney stones. Medications to Prevent Future Urinary Tract Infections and Kidney Stones Health care providers may prescribe ...

  17. Cadmium and the kidney.

    OpenAIRE

    Friberg, L

    1984-01-01

    The paper is a review of certain aspects of importance of cadmium and the kidney regarding the assessment of risks and understanding of mechanisms of action. The review discusses the following topics: history and etiology of cadmium-induced kidney dysfunction and related disorders; cadmium metabolism, metallothionein and kidney dysfunction; cadmium in urine as indicator of body burden, exposure and kidney dysfunction; cadmium levels in kidney and liver as indicators of kidney dysfunction; cha...

  18. Surgical innovations in canine gonadectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Goethem, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis some recent technological developments in human surgery are evaluated for their potential use in veterinary medicine by introducing them as surgical innovations for canine gonadectomy. Barbed sutures achieve wound apposition without surgical knot tying and thus avoid knot-associated

  19. Immunohistochemical Characterization of Canine Lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana CORA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lymphomas occur by clonal expansion of lymphoid cells and have distinctive morphological and immunophenotypic features. Determination of canine lymphoma immunophenotype is useful for accurate prognosis and further therapy. In the suggested study, we performed an immunohistochemical evaluation of some cases with canine lymphoma diagnosed in the Department of Pathology (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, in order to characterize them. The investigation included 39 dogs diagnosed with different anatomical forms of lymphoma, following necropsy analysis or assessment of biopsies. The diagnosis of lymphoma was confirmed by necropsy and histopathology (Hematoxylin-eosin stain examinations. The collected specimens were analyzed by immunohistochemistry technique (automatic method using the following antibodies: CD3, CD20, CD21 and CD79a. The analyzed neoplasms were characterized as follows: about 64.10% of cases were diagnosed as B-cell lymphomas, 33.34% of cases as T-cell lymphomas, whereas 2.56% of cases were null cell type lymphomas (neither B nor T. Most of multicentric (80%, mediastinal (60% and primary central nervous system lymphomas (100% had B immunophenotype, while the majority of cutaneous (80% and digestive (100% lymphomas had T immunophenotype. Immunohistochemical description of canine lymphomas can deliver some major details concerning their behavior and malignancy. Additionally, vital prognosis and efficacy of some therapeutic protocols are relying on the immunohistochemical features of canine lymphoma.

  20. Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... death rates limited life expectancy. Some patients were lucky enough to get a kidney transplant, which greatly ... epidemic rates. Through the 1980s and 1990s, the number of patients developing end-stage kidney failure nearly ...

  1. Ontogeny of canine dimorphism in extant hominoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, G T; Dean, C

    2001-07-01

    Many behavioral and ecological factors influence the degree of expression of canine dimorphism for different reasons. Regardless of its socioecological importance, we know virtually nothing about the processes responsible for the development of canine dimorphism. Our aim here is to describe the developmental process(es) regulating canine dimorphism in extant hominoids, using histological markers of tooth growth. Teeth preserve a permanent record of their ontogeny in the form of short- and long-period incremental markings in both enamel and dentine. We selected 52 histological sections of sexed hominoid canine teeth from a total sample of 115, from which we calculated the time and rate of cuspal enamel formation and the rate at which ameloblasts differentiate along the future enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) to the end of crown formation. Thus, we were able to reconstruct longitudinal growth curves for height attainment in male and female hominoid canines. Male hominoids consistently take longer to form canine crowns than do females (although not significantly so for our sample of Homo). Male orangutans and gorillas occasionally take up to twice as long as females to complete enamel formation. The mean ranges of female canine crown formation times are similar in Pan, Gorilla, and Pongo. Interspecific differences between female Pan canine crown heights and those of Gorilla and Pongo, which are taller, result from differences in rates of growth. Differences in canine crown heights between male Pan and the taller, more dimorphic male Gorilla and Pongo canines result both from differences in total time taken to form enamel and from faster rates of growth in Gorilla and Pongo. Although modern human canines do not emerge as significantly dimorphic in this study, it is well-known that sexual dimorphism in canine crown height exists. Larger samples of sexed modern human canines are therefore needed to identify clearly what underlies this. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. One-step triplex PCR/RT-PCR to detect canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus, and canine kobuvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dafei; Liu, Fei; Guo, Dongchun; Hu, Xiaoliang; Li, Zhijie; Li, Zhigang; Ma, Jianzhang; Liu, Chunguo

    2018-01-23

    To rapidly distinguish Canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), and canine kobuvirus (CaKoV) in practice, a one-step multiplex PCR/RT-PCR assay was developed, with detection limits of 10 2.1 TCID 50 for CDV, 10 1.9 TCID 50 for CPV and 10 3 copies for CaKoV. This method did not amplify nonspecific DNA or RNA from other canine viruses. Therefore, the assay provides a sensitive tool for the rapid clinical detection and epidemiological surveillance of CDV, CPV and CaKoV in dogs.

  3. Genetics of Human and Canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan Simpson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in both humans and dogs. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM accounts for a large number of these cases, reported to be the third most common form of cardiac disease in humans and the second most common in dogs. In human studies of DCM there are more than 50 genetic loci associated with the disease. Despite canine DCM having similar disease progression to human DCM studies into the genetic basis of canine DCM lag far behind those of human DCM. In this review the aetiology, epidemiology, and clinical characteristics of canine DCM are examined, along with highlighting possible different subtypes of canine DCM and their potential relevance to human DCM. Finally the current position of genetic research into canine and human DCM, including the genetic loci, is identified and the reasons many studies may have failed to find a genetic association with canine DCM are reviewed.

  4. Genetics of Human and Canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Siobhan; Edwards, Jennifer; Ferguson-Mignan, Thomas F N; Cobb, Malcolm; Mongan, Nigel P; Rutland, Catrin S

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in both humans and dogs. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) accounts for a large number of these cases, reported to be the third most common form of cardiac disease in humans and the second most common in dogs. In human studies of DCM there are more than 50 genetic loci associated with the disease. Despite canine DCM having similar disease progression to human DCM studies into the genetic basis of canine DCM lag far behind those of human DCM. In this review the aetiology, epidemiology, and clinical characteristics of canine DCM are examined, along with highlighting possible different subtypes of canine DCM and their potential relevance to human DCM. Finally the current position of genetic research into canine and human DCM, including the genetic loci, is identified and the reasons many studies may have failed to find a genetic association with canine DCM are reviewed.

  5. Detection of intracellular canine distemper virus antigen in mink inoculated with an attenuated or a virulent strain of canine distemper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blixenkrone-Møller, M

    1989-09-01

    Using an indirect immunofluorescence technique, the distribution of viral antigen in various tissues and blood mononuclear leukocytes was studied in wild mink, either vaccinated with an attenuated vaccine strain of canine distemper virus (CDV) or experimentally inoculated with the virulent Snyder-Hill strain of CDV. Viral antigen was detected in cells of the lymphoid system 6 to 12 days after vaccination. From 2 to 3 days after inoculation with the virulent strain, CDV antigen was demonstrated in cells of the lymphoid system and, during the incubation period, the antigen had spread to the epithelia and brain at days 6 and 12, respectively. In clinical cases of acute fatal canine distemper, the viral antigen was detected in a wide variety of tissues, including the cells of the lymphoid system, epithelial cells of skin, mucous membranes, lung, kidney, and cells of the CNS. The diagnostic importance of CDV antigen detection is discussed on the basis of these findings.

  6. Kidneys and Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Kidneys and Urinary Tract KidsHealth / For Teens / Kidneys and Urinary Tract What's ... a sign of diabetes . What the Kidneys and Urinary Tract Do Although the two kidneys work together to ...

  7. [Acute kidney injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, D.; Kooman, J.P.; Lance, M.D.; van Heurn, L.W.; Snoeijs, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    - 'Acute kidney injury' is modern terminology for a sudden decline in kidney function, and is defined by the RIFLE classification (RIFLE is an acronym for Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage kidney disease).- Acute kidney injury occurs as a result of the combination of reduced perfusion in the

  8. Ultrasonography of the Kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindskov Hansen, Kristoffer; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Ewertsen, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography of the kidneys is essential in the diagnosis and management of kidney-related diseases. The kidneys are easily examined, and most pathological changes in the kidneys are distinguishable with ultrasound. In this pictorial review, the most common findings in renal ultrasound...

  9. Cloning and characterization of DNA complementary to the canine distemper virus mRNA encoding matrix, phosphoprotein, and nucleocapsid protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenblatt, S.; Eizenberg, O.; Englund, G.; Bellini, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Double-stranded cDNA synthesized from total polyadenylate-containing mRNA, extracted from monkey kidney cells infected with canine distemper virus (CDV), has been cloned into the PstI site of Escherichia coli plasmid pBR322. Clones containing canine distemper virus DNA were identified by hybridization to a canine distemper virus-specific, 32 P-labeled cDNA. Four specific clones containing different classes of sequences have been identified. The cloned plasmids contain inserts of 800 (clone 44-80), 960 (clone 74-16), 1700 (clone 364), and 950 (clone 40-9) base pairs. The sizes of the mRNA species complementary to these inserts are 1500, 1850, 1850 and 2500 nucleotides, respectively, as determined by the Northern technique. Three of the cloned DNA fragments were further identified as the reverse transcripts of the mRNA coding for the matrix, phosphoprotein, and nucleocapsid protein of CDV

  10. Cloning and characterization of DNA complementary to the canine distemper virus mRNA encoding matrix, phosphoprotein, and nucleocapsid protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozenblatt, S.; Eizenberg, O.; Englund, G.; Bellini, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    Double-stranded cDNA synthesized from total polyadenylate-containing mRNA, extracted from monkey kidney cells infected with canine distemper virus (CDV), has been cloned into the PstI site of Escherichia coli plasmid pBR322. Clones containing canine distemper virus DNA were identified by hybridization to a canine distemper virus-specific, /sup 32/P-labeled cDNA. Four specific clones containing different classes of sequences have been identified. The cloned plasmids contain inserts of 800 (clone 44-80), 960 (clone 74-16), 1700 (clone 364), and 950 (clone 40-9) base pairs. The sizes of the mRNA species complementary to these inserts are 1500, 1850, 1850 and 2500 nucleotides, respectively, as determined by the Northern technique. Three of the cloned DNA fragments were further identified as the reverse transcripts of the mRNA coding for the matrix, phosphoprotein, and nucleocapsid protein of CDV.

  11. Cryopreservation of microencapsulated canine sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shambhu; Otsuki, Tsubasa; Fujimura, Chika; Yamamoto, Naoki; Yamashita, Yasuhisa; Higaki, Shogo; Hishinuma, Mitsugu

    2011-03-01

    The objective was to develop a method for cryopreserving microencapsulated canine sperm. Pooled ejaculates from three beagle dogs were extended in egg yolk tris extender and encapsulated using alginate and poly-L-lysine at room temperature. The microcapsules were cooled at 4 °C, immersed in pre-cooled extender (equivalent in volume to the microcapsules) to reach final concentration of 7% (v/v) glycerol and 0.75% (v/v) Equex STM paste, and equilibrated for 5, 30 and 60 min at 4 °C. Thereafter, microcapsules were loaded into 0.5 mL plastic straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen. In Experiment 1, characteristics of microencapsulated canine sperm were evaluated after glycerol addition at 4 °C. Glycerol exposure for 5, 30 and 60 min did not significantly affect progressive motility, viability, or acrosomal integrity of microencapsulated sperm compared with pre-cooled unencapsulated sperm (control). In Experiment 2, characteristics of frozen-thawed canine microencapsulated sperm were evaluated at 0, 3, 6, and 9 h of culture at 38.5 °C. Pre-freeze glycerol exposure for 5, 30, and 60 min at 4 °C did not influence post-thaw quality in unencapsulated sperm. Post-thaw motility and acrosomal integrity of microencapsulated sperm decreased more than those of unencapsulated sperm (P < 0.05) following glycerol exposure for 5 min. However, motility, viability and acrosomal integrity of microencapsulated sperm after 30 and 60 min glycerol exposure were higher than unencapsulated sperm cultured for 6 or 9 h (P < 0.05). In conclusion, since microencapsulated canine sperm were successfully cryopreserved, this could be a viable alternative to convention sperm cryopreservation in this species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Surgical innovations in canine gonadectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Van Goethem, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis some recent technological developments in human surgery are evaluated for their potential use in veterinary medicine by introducing them as surgical innovations for canine gonadectomy. Barbed sutures achieve wound apposition without surgical knot tying and thus avoid knot-associated negative consequences (lengthy placement, impaired wound healing around bulky knots, and the effect of unsightly knots on cosmetics). A study in 9 dogs found that celiotomy closure was easily achiev...

  13. Canine distemper virus infection in fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Jho, Yeon-Sook; Bak, Eun-Jung

    2010-08-01

    Fifteen 8-month-old fennec foxes imported from Sudan showed fever, mucopurulent ocular discharge, diarrhea, severe emaciation, seizures, and generalized ataxia, and died. Three of the 15 animals were presented for diagnostic investigation. Severe dehydration, brain congestion, and gastric ulcers were observed in all animals. In one animal, the lungs had failed to collapse and were multifocally dark red in appearance. Histopathologically, there were lymphohistiocytic meningoencephalitis with malacia, mild interstitial pneumonia, lymphoid depletion of lymphoid tissues and organs, and intestinal villous atrophy with intralesional coccidia. There were many intracytoplasmic and/or intranuclear inclusion bodies in the epithelial cells of the medullary velum, lungs, liver, kidneys, trachea, pancreas, stomach, gall bladder, urinary bladder, and ureters, and in macrophages of malacia foci and lymphocytes and macrophages of lymphoid organs. Additionally, intestinal coccidia were confirmed to be Isospora species by a fecal test. To our knowledge, this is the first report of canine distemper with intestinal coccidiosis in fennec fox.

  14. MREIT conductivity imaging of the postmortem canine abdomen using CoReHA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Kiwan; Lee, Chang-Ock; Minhas, Atul S; Kim, Young Tae; Jeong, Woo Chul; Kim, Hyung Joong; Woo, Eung Je; Kang, Byeong Teck; Park, Hee Myung; Seo, Jin Keun

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is a new bio-imaging modality providing cross-sectional conductivity images from measurements of internal magnetic flux densities produced by externally injected currents. Recent experimental results of postmortem and in vivo imaging of the canine brain demonstrated its feasibility by showing conductivity images with meaningful contrast among different brain tissues. MREIT image reconstructions involve a series of data processing steps such as k-space data handling, phase unwrapping, image segmentation, meshing, modelling, finite element computation, denoising and so on. To facilitate experimental studies, we need a software tool that automates these data processing steps. In this paper, we summarize such an MREIT software package called CoReHA (conductivity reconstructor using harmonic algorithms). Performing imaging experiments of the postmortem canine abdomen, we demonstrate how CoReHA can be utilized in MREIT. The abdomen with a relatively large field of view and various organs imposes new technical challenges when it is chosen as an imaging domain. Summarizing a few improvements in the experimental MREIT technique, we report our first conductivity images of the postmortem canine abdomen. Illustrating reconstructed conductivity images, we discuss how they discern different organs including the kidney, spleen, stomach and small intestine. We elaborate, as an example, that conductivity images of the kidney show clear contrast among cortex, internal medulla, renal pelvis and urethra. We end this paper with a brief discussion on future work using different animal models

  15. 9 CFR 113.306 - Canine Distemper Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine. 113.306... Virus Vaccines § 113.306 Canine Distemper Vaccine. Canine Distemper Vaccine shall be prepared from virus... distemper virus, each of five canine distemper susceptible ferrets shall be injected with a sample of the...

  16. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Distemper Vaccine... canine distemper susceptible dogs (20 vaccinates and 5 controls) shall be used as test animals. Blood...

  17. Canine scent detection of canine cancer: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorman DC

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available David C Dorman,1 Melanie L Foster,2 Katherine E Fernhoff,1 Paul R Hess2 1Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, 2Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA Abstract: The scent detection prowess of dogs has prompted interest in their ability to detect cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dogs could use olfactory cues to discriminate urine samples collected from dogs that did or did not have urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC, at a rate greater than chance. Dogs with previous scent training (n=4 were initially trained to distinguish between a single control and a single TCC-positive urine sample. All dogs acquired this task (mean =15±7.9 sessions; 20 trials/session. The next training phase used four additional control urine samples (n=5 while maintaining the one original TCC-positive urine sample. All dogs quickly acquired this task (mean =5.3±1.5 sessions. The last training phase used multiple control (n=4 and TCC-positive (n=6 urine samples to promote categorical training by the dogs. Only one dog was able to correctly distinguish multiple combinations of TCC-positive and control urine samples suggesting that it mastered categorical learning. The final study phase evaluated whether this dog would generalize this behavior to novel urine samples. However, during double-blind tests using two novel TCC-positive and six novel TCC-negative urine samples, this dog did not indicate canine TCC-positive cancer samples more frequently than expected by chance. Our study illustrates the need to consider canine olfactory memory and the use of double-blind methods to avoid erroneous conclusions regarding the ability of dogs to alert on specimens from canine cancer patients. Our results also suggest that sample storage, confounding odors, and other factors need to be considered in the design of future studies that evaluate the detection of

  18. New and emerging pathogens in canine infectious respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestnall, S L; Mitchell, J A; Walker, C A; Erles, K; Brownlie, J

    2014-03-01

    Canine infectious respiratory disease is a common, worldwide disease syndrome of multifactorial etiology. This review presents a summary of 6 viruses (canine respiratory coronavirus, canine pneumovirus, canine influenza virus, pantropic canine coronavirus, canine bocavirus, and canine hepacivirus) and 2 bacteria (Streptococcus zooepidemicus and Mycoplasma cynos) that have been associated with respiratory disease in dogs. For some pathogens a causal role is clear, whereas for others, ongoing research aims to uncover their pathogenesis and contribution to this complex syndrome. Etiology, clinical disease, pathogenesis, and epidemiology are described for each pathogen, with an emphasis on recent discoveries or novel findings.

  19. At Risk for Kidney Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder Causes of Chronic Kidney Disease Diabetes and high blood pressure are the most ... blood vessels in your kidneys. Other causes of kidney disease Other causes of kidney disease include a genetic ...

  20. Kidney function tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney function tests are common lab tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working. Such tests include: ... Oh MS, Briefel G. Evaluation of renal function, water, electrolytes ... and Management by Laboratory Methods . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, ...

  1. Pregnancy and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who has a kidney transplant have a baby? Yes. If you have a kidney transplant, you are likely to have regular menstrual periods and good general health. Therefore, getting pregnant and having a child is possible. But ...

  2. Concomitant canine distemper, infectious canine hepatitis, canine parvoviral enteritis, canine infectious tracheobronchitis, and toxoplasmosis in a puppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Fritzen, Juliana Torres Tomazi; Garcia, João Luis; Weissenböck, Herbert; da Silva, Ana Paula; Bodnar, Livia; Okano, Werner; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    The concomitant infections of Canine distemper virus (CDV), Canine adenovirus A types 1 (CAdV-1) and 2 (CAdV-2), Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), and Toxoplasma gondii are described in a 43-day-old mixed-breed puppy. Clinically, there were convulsions and blindness with spontaneous death; 14 siblings of this puppy, born to a 10-month-old dam, which was seropositive (titer: 1,024) for T. gondii, also died. Necropsy revealed unilateral corneal edema (blue eye), depletion of intestinal lymphoid tissue, non-collapsible lungs, congestion of meningeal vessels, and a pale area in the myocardium. Histopathology demonstrated necrotizing myocarditis associated with intralesional apicomplexan protozoa; necrotizing and chronic hepatitis associated with rare intranuclear inclusion bodies within hepatocytes; necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis; interstitial pneumonia associated with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies within epithelial cells; atrophy and fusion of intestinal villi with cryptal necrosis; and white matter demyelination of the cerebrum and cerebellum associated with intranuclear inclusion bodies within astrocytes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified the partial fragments (bp) of the CDV N gene (290 bp), CPV-2c VP2 capsid protein gene (583 bp), and CAdV-1 (508 bp) and CAdV-2 (1,030 bp) E gene from urine and tissue samples. The PCR assays demonstrated that the apicomplexan protozoa observed within several organs contained DNA specific for T. gondii; genotyping revealed T. gondii type III. The findings support the characterization of concomitant infections of CDV, CAdV-1, CAdV-2, CPV-2, and T. gondii in this puppy. Further, seroreactivity to T. gondii of the dam in association with the systemic disease observed in the puppy described herein is suggestive of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  3. Hydronephrosis of one kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydronephrosis; Chronic hydronephrosis; Acute hydronephrosis; Urinary obstruction; Unilateral hydronephrosis; Nephrolithiasis - hydronephrosis; Kidney stone - hydronephrosis; Renal calculi - hydronephrosis; ...

  4. The senile kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisova Т.Р.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The given work summarizes external data and self-obtained results on development and diagnostic of kidney involution modifications. Article discusses definition of "senile kidney" as a clinical and pathomorphological term. Major statements on pathophysiological causes of age-associated renal disorders and their prognosis, specifics of chronic kidney disease in elderly and senile patients have been reviewed. Phenomenon of renal "multimorbidity" in eldely maximizes worsening risk of unmodifiable kidney function.

  5. Alpha-1-antitrypsin studies: canine serum and canine surfactant protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, W.C.; Slauson, D.O.; Dahlstrom, M.; Gorman, C.

    1974-01-01

    Canine serum alpha-1-antitrypsin was isolated by gel filtration and affinity chromatography and characterized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis. Measurement of the trypsin inhibitory capacity of the separated protein indicated a ninefold concentration of functional trypsin inhibitor during the isolation procedure. Electrophoresis demonstrated the presence of a single protein with alpha-globulin mobility and a molecular weight near that of human alpha-1-antitrypsin. The trypsin inhibitory capacity of pulmonary surfactant protein from five Beagle dogs was measured, related to total surfactant protein concentration, and compared with similar measurements on whole serum from the same animals. Results indicated a variable concentration of trypsin inhibitor in the canine pulmonary surfactant protein. However, the concentration in the surfactant protein was always significantly higher than that in the corresponding serum sample. Preliminary experiments designed to separate the trypsin inhibitory fraction(s) from the other surfactant proteins by gel filtration chromatography indicated that the trypsin inhibitor was probably a single protein with a molecular weight near that of alpha-1-antitrypsin. (U.S.)

  6. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. Reduced blood flow through the renal artery can hurt kidney function. ... need include: Duplex Doppler ultrasound exam of the renal arteries to test blood flow MRI of the kidney arteries, which can show ...

  7. Diabetes and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... et.al. Clinical manifestations of kidney disease among US adults with diabetes. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2016;316( ... of Washington, Associate Director, Kidney Research Institute ... The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Health Information Center ...

  8. Clinical and serological response of wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) to vaccination against canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and rabies

    OpenAIRE

    J. Van Heerden; J. Bingham; M. Van Vuuren; R.E.J. Burroughs; E. Stylianides

    2002-01-01

    Wild dogs Lycaon pictus (n = 8) were vaccinated 4 times against canine distemper (n = 8) (initially with inactivated and subsequently with live attenuated strains of canine distemper) and canine parvovirus infection (n = 8) over a period of 360 days. Four of the wild dogs were also vaccinated 3 times against rabies using a live oral vaccine and 4 with an inactivated parenteral vaccine. Commercially-available canine distemper, canine parvovirus and parenteral rabies vaccines, intended for use ...

  9. Characterization of the canine urinary proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Laura E; Ehrhart, E J; Scherman, Hataichanok; Olver, Christine S; Bohn, Andrea A; Prenni, Jessica E

    2014-06-01

    Urine is an attractive biofluid for biomarker discovery as it is easy and minimally invasive to obtain. While numerous studies have focused on the characterization of human urine, much less research has focused on canine urine. The objectives of this study were to characterize the universal canine urinary proteome (both soluble and exosomal), to determine the overlap between the canine proteome and a representative human urinary proteome study, to generate a resource for future canine studies, and to determine the suitability of the dog as a large animal model for human diseases. The soluble and exosomal fractions of normal canine urine were characterized using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Biological Networks Gene Ontology (BiNGO) software was utilized to assign the canine urinary proteome to respective Gene Ontology categories, such as Cellular Component, Molecular Function, and Biological Process. Over 500 proteins were confidently identified in normal canine urine. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that exosomal proteins were largely derived from an intracellular location, while soluble proteins included both extracellular and membrane proteins. Exosome proteins were assigned to metabolic processes and localization, while soluble proteins were primarily annotated to specific localization processes. Several proteins identified in normal canine urine have previously been identified in human urine where these proteins are related to various extrarenal and renal diseases. The results of this study illustrate the potential of the dog as an animal model for human disease states and provide the framework for future studies of canine renal diseases. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  10. Radioimmunoassay of canine growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eigenmann, J.E.; Eigenmann, R.Y.

    1981-01-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) for canine growth hormone (GH) was developed. Antibodies were elicited in rhesus monkeys. One antiserum exhibited a working titer at a dilution of 1:500 000. Radioiodination was performed enzymatically employing lactoperoxidase. Logit-log transformation and least squares fitting resulted in straight line fitting of the standard curve between 0.39 and 50 ng/ml. Formation of large-molecular [ 125 I]GH during storage caused diminished assay sensitivity. Therefore [ 125 I]GH was re-purified by gel chromatography. Using this procedure, high and reproducible assay sensitivity was obtained. Tracer preparations were used for as long as 3 months after iodination. Diluted plasma from normal and acromegalic dogs resulted in a dose-response curve parallel to the standard curve. Canine prolactin exhibited a cross-reactivity of 2%. The within-assay coefficient of variation (CV) was 3.8 and the between-assay CV was 7.2%. Mean plasma GH concentration in normal dogs was 1.92 +- 0.14 ng/ml (mean +- SEM.) GH levels in acromegalic dogs were appreciably higher. Insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, arginine and ornithine administration resulted in inconsistent and sluggish GH increment. A better response was obtained by injecting a low dose of clonidine. Clonidine administration to hypopituitary dogs resulted in absent or poor GH increment. (author)

  11. Extrusion processing : effects on dry canine diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Q.D.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Extrusion, Canine diet, Protein, Lysine, Starch gelatinization, Palatability, Drying.

    Extrusion cooking is a useful and economical tool for processing animal feed. This high temperature, short time processing technology causes chemical and physical changes that alter the

  12. Varied clinico-radiological presentations of transmigrated canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine is one of the most commonly impacted teeth in the dental arch. An unerupted permanent canine crossing the midline is called transmigration and is an unusual event. We report nine cases of impacted canine transmigration. Maxillary canine transmigration, bilateral transmigration, and transmigration associated with odontoma are rare presentations. This article discusses the varied clinico-radiologic presentations, etiology, and treatment options of transmigration. It also emphasizes the importance of panoramic radiographs for evaluation of over-retained deciduous canines or missing permanent canines.

  13. Canine babesiosis: from molecular taxonomy to control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwin Peter J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine babesiosis is a clinically significant emerging vector-borne disease caused by protozoan haemoparasites. This review article considers recent literature pertaining to the taxonomic classification of Babesia and Theileria species affecting dogs and the geographical distribution of these parasites. The diagnosis of canine babesiosis by traditional, molecular and serological methods is reviewed, together with recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of piroplasmosis, and of the treatment and prevention of this disease.

  14. [Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of an invaginated canine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Guerrero, F; Miñana Laliga, R; Bullon Fernandez, P

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of a maxillary canine with a dens invaginatus treated successfully. The patient had pain, swelling and a sinus tract coming from the inmature apex of the canine. The canals were enlarged and cleaned and the main canal was filled with Calcium Hydroxide to allow the root development. Seven months later, the patient was asymptomatic and the tooth was obturated with guttapercha. One year later it was confirm the success in the treatment.

  15. Treatment modalities of palatal impacted canines

    OpenAIRE

    Dimova, Cena; Papakoca, Kiro; Ristoska, Sonja; Kovacevska, Ivona

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The orthodontic treatment of impacted maxillary canine remains a challenge to today’s clinicians. The treatment of this clinical entity usually involves surgical exposure of the impacted tooth, followed by orthodontic traction to guide and align it into the dental arch. The impacted palatal canine requires a combination of both treatment modalities: orthodontic management and oral surgical treatment. Two types of approach are commonly used: simple exposure, or exposure with brac...

  16. Orthodontic Traction of Impacted Canine Using Cantilever

    OpenAIRE

    Nakandakari, Cláudia; Gonçalves, João Roberto; Cassano, Daniel Serra; Raveli, Taísa Boamorte; Bianchi, Jonas; Raveli, Dirceu Barnabé

    2016-01-01

    The impaction of the maxillary canines causes relevant aesthetic and functional problems. The multidisciplinary approach to the proper planning and execution of orthodontic traction of the element in question is essential. Many strategies are cited in the literature; among them is the good biomechanical control in order to avoid possible side effects. The aim of this paper is to present a case report in which a superior canine impacted by palatine was pulled out with the aid of the cantilever...

  17. A new method for rapid Canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Khavari A

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis method (Do in bone lengthening and rapid midpalatal expansion have shown the great ability of osteognic tissues for rapid bone formation under distraction force and special protocol with optimum rate of one millimeter per day. Periodontal membrane of teeth (PDM is the extension of periostium in the alveolar socked. Orthodontic force distracts PDM fibers in the tension side and then bone formation will begin.Objects: Rapid retraction of canine tooth into extraction space of first premolar by DO protocol in order to show the ability of the PDM in rapid bone formation. The other objective was reducing total orthodontic treatment time of extraction cases.Patients and Methods: Tweleve maxillary canines in six patients were retracted rapidly in three weeks by a custom-made tooth-born appliance. Radiographic records were taken to evaluate the effects of heavy applied force on canine and anchorage teeth.Results: Average retraction was 7.05 mm in three weeks (2.35 mm/week. Canines rotated distal- in by mean 3.5 degrees.Anchorage loss was from 0 to 0.8 mm with average of 0.3 mm.Root resorption of canines was negligible, and was not significant clinically. Periodontium was normal after rapid retraction. No hazard for pulp vitality was observed.Discussion: PDM responded well to heavy distraction force by Do protocol. Rapid canine retraction seems to be a safe method and can considerabely reduce orthodontic time.

  18. Platelets Inhibit Migration of Canine Osteosarcoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, S C; Badial, P R; Silva, R C; Lunsford, K; Bulla, C

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between platelets and tumour cells is important for tumour growth and metastasis. Thrombocytopenia or antiplatelet treatment negatively impact on cancer metastasis, demonstrating potentially important roles for platelets in tumour progression. To our knowledge, there is no information regarding the role of platelets in cancer progression in dogs. This study was designed to test whether canine platelets affected the migratory behaviour of three canine osteosarcoma cell lines and to give insights of molecular mechanisms. Intact platelets, platelet lysate and platelet releasate inhibited the migration of canine osteosarcoma cell lines. Addition of blood leucocytes to the platelet samples did not alter the inhibitory effect on migration. Platelet treatment also significantly downregulated the transcriptional levels of SNAI2 and TWIST1 genes. The interaction between canine platelets or molecules released during platelet activation and these tumour cell lines inhibits their migration, which suggests that canine platelets might antagonize metastasis of canine osteosarcoma. This effect is probably due to, at least in part, downregulation of genes related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Clinical and Statistical Study on Canine Impaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina-Simona Coșarcă

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to perform a clinical and statistical research on permanent impacted canine patients among those with dental impaction referred to and treated at the Oral and Maxillo-Facial Surgery Clinic of Tîrgu Mureș, over a four years period (2009-2012. Materials and methods: The study included 858 patients having dental impaction, and upon clinical records, different parameters, like frequency, gender, age, quadrant involvement, patient residence, associated complications, referring specialist and type of treatment, related to canine impaction, were assessed. Results: The study revealed: about 10% frequency of canine impaction among dental impactions; more frequent in women, in the first quadrant (tooth 13; most cases diagnosed between the age of 10-19 years; patients under 20 were referred by an orthodontist, those over 20 by a dentist; surgical exposure was more often performed than odontectomy. Conclusions: Canine impaction is the second-most frequent dental impaction in dental arch after third molars; it occurs especially in women. Due to its important role, canine recovery within dental arch is a goal to be achieved, whenever possible. Therefore, diagnose and treatment of canine impaction requires an interdisciplinary approach (surgical and orthodontic

  20. CANINE: a robotic mine dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancil, Brian A.; Hyams, Jeffrey; Shelley, Jordan; Babu, Kartik; Badino, Hernán.; Bansal, Aayush; Huber, Daniel; Batavia, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Neya Systems, LLC competed in the CANINE program sponsored by the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) which culminated in a competition held at Fort Benning as part of the 2012 Robotics Rodeo. As part of this program, we developed a robot with the capability to learn and recognize the appearance of target objects, conduct an area search amid distractor objects and obstacles, and relocate the target object in the same way that Mine dogs and Sentry dogs are used within military contexts for exploration and threat detection. Neya teamed with the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University to develop vision-based solutions for probabilistic target learning and recognition. In addition, we used a Mission Planning and Management System (MPMS) to orchestrate complex search and retrieval tasks using a general set of modular autonomous services relating to robot mobility, perception and grasping.

  1. Ultrasonography of the canine pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Avante

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the ultrasonographic techniques currently used in the evaluation of the canine pancreas. Ultrasonography was the first method to enable direct visualization of the pancreas in humans and it has been subsequently applied to animals. Currently, it is the method of choice for pancreatic evaluation and is essential as a diagnostic tool in the detection of abnormalities, especially tumors. Innovative equipment technology has led to the emergence of techniques complementary to B-mode ultrasound; such as Doppler, elastography, and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, which have enabled more accurate diagnosis. Doppler provides information on vascular architecture and the hemodynamic aspect of blood vessels in multiple organs. ARFI elastography provides detailed images of the alterations detected by conventional examination (qualitative method and assists in differentiating between benign and malignant processes (quantitative method. Microbubble contrast agents determine parameters related to homogeneous and heterogeneous filling of organs with microbubbles, mainly nodular areas, thus defining high and low intensity patterns.

  2. Ultrasonography of polycystic kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seung Chul; Cho, Seung Gi; Lee, Kwan Seh; Kim, Kun Sang

    1980-01-01

    Polycystic disease is defined as a heritable disorder with diffuse involvement of both kidneys. The term 'Polycystic disease' comprises at least two separate, genetically different disease-one with an onset typically in childhood (infantile polycystic disease) and the other with an onset typically in adulthood (adult polycystic disease). Adult polycystic kidney disease is the most common form of cystic kidney disease in humans. Ultrasonography is a very useful noninvasive diagnostic modality in the patient with clinically suspected renal diseases as well as screening test. 14 cases of ultrasonography in patient with polycystic kidney were reviewed. All cases show unilateral or bilateral enlarged kidneys. 7 cases reveal kidneys and liver replaced by multiple cysts of varing size. Screening ultrasonography for a familial tree is reported

  3. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine...

  4. Role of canine circovirus in dogs with acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, A; Hartmann, K; Leutenegger, C M; Proksch, A L; Mueller, R S; Unterer, S

    2017-06-03

    Canine circovirus (CanineCV) has been detected in some dogs with severe haemorrhagic diarrhoea, but its pathogenic role is unclear. This study evaluated a suspected association between the presence of CanineCV and acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome (AHDS) in dogs. The prevalence of CanineCV in dogs with AHDS was compared with that in healthy dogs and those infected with canine parvovirus (CPV). Additionally, time to recovery and mortality rate were compared between CanineCV-positive and CanineCV-negative dogs. Faecal samples of dogs with AHDS (n=55), healthy dogs (n=66) and dogs infected with CPV (n=54) were examined by two real-time TaqMan PCR assays targeting the replicase and capsid genes of CanineCV. CanineCV was detected in faecal samples of two dogs with AHDS, three healthy controls and seven dogs infected with CPV. Among the three groups, there was no significant difference in prevalence of CanineCV. CPV-infected animals that were coinfected with CanineCV had a significantly higher mortality rate compared with those negative for CanineCV. CanineCV does not appear to be the primary causative agent of AHDS in dogs, but might play a role as a negative co-factor in disease outcome in dogs with CPV infection. British Veterinary Association.

  5. Epigenetics of kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Nicola; Bechtel-Walz, Wibke

    2017-07-01

    DNA methylation and histone modifications determine renal programming and the development and progression of renal disease. The identification of the way in which the renal cell epigenome is altered by environmental modifiers driving the onset and progression of renal diseases has extended our understanding of the pathophysiology of kidney disease progression. In this review, we focus on current knowledge concerning the implications of epigenetic modifications during renal disease from early development to chronic kidney disease progression including renal fibrosis, diabetic nephropathy and the translational potential of identifying new biomarkers and treatments for the prevention and therapy of chronic kidney disease and end-stage kidney disease.

  6. Evaluation of post-vaccination immunity to canine distemper and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-20

    Aug 20, 2007 ... Key words: Immunoblot ELISA, post-vaccination immunity, canine distemper, parvoviruses. INTRODUCTION. Canine ..... NGOs and other government agencies to fund and intensify ... Vaccination Programs for Dogs. In: recent ...

  7. Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRee, Anna; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Dawson, Jessica; Parry, Roger; Foggin, Chris; Adams, Hayley; Odoi, Agricola; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2014-09-05

    Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV), which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV). These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34%) had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84%) had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13%) dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission.

  8. Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna McRee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV and canine distemper virus (CDV, which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV. These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34% had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84% had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13% dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission.

  9. End-stage kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stage; Kidney failure - end stage; ESRD; ESKD Images Kidney anatomy References Fogarty DG, Taal MW. A stepped care approach to the management of chronic kidney disease. In: Skorecki K, Chertow GM, Marsden PA, ...

  10. Extraintestinal Complications: Kidney Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the ureters, bladder, and urethra for the passage, storage, and voiding of urine. Serious kidney complications associated with IBD are rare, ... Proteinuria, an elevated level of protein in the urine, is one sign of amyloidosis. A biopsy (tissue sample) of the kidney can confirm the diagnosis. Various ...

  11. Complicated Horseshoe Kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. S.; Kim, S. R.; Cha, K. S.; Park, S. S. [Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Horseshoe kidney is an important urological anomaly when it is complicated or accompanied by other diseases. Recently we have experienced four cases of horseshoe kidney which were complicated with hydronephrosis, renal stone and adrenal pheochromocytoma. With review of literatures, we emphasize the importance of detection of these complications.

  12. Complicated Horseshoe Kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. S.; Kim, S. R.; Cha, K. S.; Park, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    Horseshoe kidney is an important urological anomaly when it is complicated or accompanied by other diseases. Recently we have experienced four cases of horseshoe kidney which were complicated with hydronephrosis, renal stone and adrenal pheochromocytoma. With review of literatures, we emphasize the importance of detection of these complications.

  13. Kidney removal - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100069.htm Kidney removal (nephrectomy) - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 5 Go to slide 2 out of ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The kidneys are paired organs that lie posterior to the ...

  14. Kidney Stones in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ...

  15. Kidney Infection (Pyelonephritis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ...

  16. Kidney Disease Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease, you can continue to live a productive life, work, spend time with friends and family, stay physically active, and do other things you enjoy. You may need to change what you eat and add healthy ... active, and enjoy life. Will my kidneys get better? Kidney disease is ...

  17. 9 CFR 113.317 - Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). 113.317... Virus Vaccines § 113.317 Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine recommended for use in dogs... from each dog shall be individually tested for neutralizing antibody against canine parvovirus to...

  18. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine... antibody against canine parvovirus to determine susceptibility. A constant virus-varying serum... vaccinates and the controls shall be challenged with virulent canine parvovirus furnished or approved by...

  19. Development of the canine tooth in the beagle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amimoto, A.; Iwamoto, S.; Hachimura, H.; Miyamoto, T.; Murata, T.; Taura, Y.; Nakama, S.; Hayashi, K.

    1993-01-01

    The growth of the crown and root in the canine tooth of beagle dogs were observed macroscopically and radiographically, and changes of occlusion with age were investigated. Completion of growth in the crown of the canine tooth was observed in both mandible and maxilla, and its eruption was accompanied by development of the dental root. The permanent canine erupted on the lingual side of deciduous canine in the mandible, and on the mesial side of the deciduous canine in the maxilla. Movement of the permanent canine to normal occlusal position(buccal direction in mandibular canine, and distal direction in maxillary canine)was followed by the loss of the deciduous canine. Coexistence of the permanent and deciduous canines occurred for about 2.4 weeks in the maxilla and about 1.4 weeks in the mandible, on average. Macroscopically, the growth of the permanent canine was completed by 33 weeks of age in the mandible and about 34 weeks of age in the maxilla. The mature root of the permanent canine was recognized radiographically at about 43 weeks of age in the mandible and 47 weeks of age in the maxilla

  20. Canine hypothyroidism. A diagnostic challenge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boretti, Felicitos; Reusch, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrinopathies in dogs. Clinical symptoms and hematological and biochemical parameters lead to a first suspicion. To confirm diagnosis can be challenging, however. Determination of total serum T4 concentration is accepted as the primary screening test for the disease, and low serum T4 concentrations are intuitively suggestive of hypothyroidism. However it is well known that low T4 concentrations are frequently encountered in euthyroid dogs with various nonthyroidal diseases and in dogs receiving certain pharmacologic agents. Since assessment of endogenous TSH (canine TSH) using current canine TSH assays shows normal values in a high percentage of hypothyroid dogs (up to 40%), its diagnostic value is only limited. The TSH-stimulation test can still be recognized as the gold standard for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism in dogs. Determination of circulating T4 concentration before and 6 hours after the administration of exogenous TSH (recombinant human TSH, Thyrogen registered ) provides an assessment of the functional reserve capacity of the thyroid gland with minimal change in post-TSH T4 concentration, compared with the basal concentration, expected in dogs with hypothyroidism. Also this test can be influenced by nonthyroidal illness and by medications known to affect thyroid function. This suppressing influence seems to be less pronounced using a higher dose of TSH. Therefore, to improve the discriminatory power of the TSH stimulation test to differentiate between euthyroid-sick and primary hypothyroidism, the higher dose should be used in cases in which testing cannot be delayed. More recently, ultrasonography and scintigraphy have been used for the diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism. Using ultrasonography, a sensitivity of 98% was reported if size and echogenicity of the gland were combined. However, specificity was as low as 77%. and care must be taken when measuring the gland because of a relatively high

  1. Obesity and kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity has been pointed out as an important cause of kidney diseases. Due to its close association with diabetes and hypertension, excess weight and obesity are important risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD. Obesity influences CKD development, among other factors, because it predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. Excess weight and obesity are associated with hemodynamic, structural and histological renal changes, in addition to metabolic and biochemical alterations that lead to kidney disease. Adipose tissue is dynamic and it is involved in the production of "adipokines", such as leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, transforming growth factor-β and angiotensin-II. A series of events is triggered by obesity, including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis and hypertension. There is evidence that obesity itself can lead to kidney disease development. Further studies are required to better understand the association between obesity and kidney disease.

  2. Antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type-1 in adult household dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2011-09-01

    Serum antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1) were investigated in 1031 healthy adult household dogs (2 to 18 years old) given an annual inoculation in the previous 11 to 13 months. The number of dogs retaining significant titers of antibodies against CPV-2, CDV, and CAV-1 were 888 (86%), 744 (72%), and 732 (71%), respectively. There were no differences between males and females in antibody titers against the 3 viruses. Antibody titer for CPV-2 was significantly higher in younger dogs than in older dogs, CDV antibody was significantly higher in older dogs than in younger dogs, and CAV titer was not associated with age.

  3. Booster effect of canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and infectious canine hepatitis combination vaccine in domesticated adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Tsuchiya, Ryo; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2012-08-01

    Domesticated adult dogs with antibody titer classified as below 'high' to one or more of canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAdV-1) were then given an additional inoculation, and the effectiveness of this booster evaluated 2 months later. Consequently, CDV and CAdV-1 antibody titer experienced a significant increase, but the same effect was not observed in the antibody titer of CPV-2. These findings suggest that with additional inoculation, a booster effect may be expected in increasing antibody titers for CDV and CAdV-1, but it is unlikely to give an increase in CPV-2 antibody titer. © 2012 The Societies and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Orthodontic Traction of Impacted Canine Using Cantilever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Nakandakari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impaction of the maxillary canines causes relevant aesthetic and functional problems. The multidisciplinary approach to the proper planning and execution of orthodontic traction of the element in question is essential. Many strategies are cited in the literature; among them is the good biomechanical control in order to avoid possible side effects. The aim of this paper is to present a case report in which a superior canine impacted by palatine was pulled out with the aid of the cantilever on the Segmented Arch Technique (SAT concept. A 14.7-year-old female patient appeared at clinic complaining about the absence of the upper right permanent canine. The proposed treatment prioritized the traction of the upper right canine without changing the occlusion and aesthetics. For this, it only installed the upper fixed appliance (Roth with slot 0.018, opting for SAT in order to minimize unwanted side effects. The use of cantilever to the traction of the upper right canine has enabled an efficient and predictable outcome, because it is of statically determined mechanics.

  5. Transmigration of mandibular canine – case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruszka, Katarzyna; Różyło, T. Katarzyna; Różyło-Kalinowska, Ingrid; Denkiewicz, Katarzyna; Masłowska, Klaudia

    2014-01-01

    Transmigration is a phenomenon of movement of an unerupted tooth in the bone across the midline. This anomaly is not often found. Transmigration is more prevalent in females than in males, and more often encountered in the mandible than maxilla, it affects mostly canines. The aim of this study was to present a case report of a mandibular canine transmigration in a patient aged 12. Intraoral examination determined hypodontia of right second premolar and delayed eruption of left second premolar in maxilla, as well as persistent deciduous teeth: right second molar, left canine and second molar. The patient was referred for a Cone-Beam CT examination, which allowed precise visualization of the transmigrating canine as well as ruled out resorption of roots of mandibular incisors. The treatment with a maxillary fixed orthodontic appliance was finished after obtaining a satisfactory result. Proper alignment of the incisors in the anterior-posterior plane and correct midline position were accepted by the patient. Transmigrating canine after consultation with the surgeon was designed to further radiological observation

  6. Dog kidney: anatomical relationships between intrarenal arteries and kidney collecting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Sampaio, Beatriz P S; Pereira-Sampaio, Marco A; Henry, Robert W; Favorito, Luciano A; Sampaio, Francisco J B

    2007-08-01

    The detailed findings of canine intrarenal anatomy (collecting system and arteries) are presented. Ninety-five three-dimensional endocasts of the kidney collecting system together with the intrarenal arteries were prepared using standard injection-corrosion techniques and were studied. A single renal artery was observed in 88.4% of the casts. The renal artery divided into a dorsal and a ventral branch. Using the branching pattern of the ventral and dorsal divisions of the renal artery, the vessels were classified in type I or type II. Type I presented a cranial and a caudal artery, whereas type II presented a mesorenal and a caudal artery. Cranial branches of dorsal and ventral arteries supplied the cranial pole in 90.5% of the specimens. Caudal branches of the dorsal and the ventral divisions of the renal artery irrigated both the caudal pole and the mid-zone of the kidney in 95.8% and 98.9% of the cases, respectively. In all casts, caudal branches of both dorsal and ventral arteries supplied the caudal pole. Therefore, the caudal branches of the ventral and dorsal divisions of the renal artery are of utmost importance in the kidney arterial supply. Although many results of renal and intrarenal anatomy in dogs may not be completely transposed to humans, the anatomical relationship between arteries and the collecting system in the cranial pole of the dog kidney is similar to those in man. This fact supports the use of the dog as an animal model for urologic procedures at the cranial pole. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Ultrasonographic description of canine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasch, Katja; Wehrend, Axel; Bostedt, Hartwig

    2007-01-01

    Ultrasonographic images were acquired of the mammary glands of 40 bitches with physiologically lactating (n = 20) or inflamed glands (n = 20). Echogenicity, structure, homogeneity, thickness, and distinguishability of each tissue layer were assessed. Additionally, overall echogenicity was noted. In the normal lactating gland, different tissues could be differentiated easily. The parenchyma was, without exception, separated from adjacent tissues and was visible as medium echogenic tissue with a coarse-grained structure. The tissue always had some echogenic lines and anechoic areas and was slightly heterogeneous. The loss of distinct layering of the tissue was characteristic of an inflamed mammary gland and inflamed regions had reduced echogenicity. Additionally in five bitches with mastitis, the ultrasound examination was repeated five times for documentation of the progress of the illness and associated changes, supplemented with a color Doppler sonogram to assess changes in blood vessel density. Information from the examinations carried out via B-mode did not allow treatment success to be predicted. Two bitches with reduced blood vessel density centrally had a poor outcome whereas three bitches with increased blood vessel density had a good outcome. Thus, Doppler sonography might be a useful tool to obtain information of the prognosis in acute canine mastitis.

  8. Canine Intracranial Meningioma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Gomes de Carvalho

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Carvalho J.R.G., Vasconcellos C.H.C., Bastos I. P.B., Trajano F.L.C., Costa T.S. & Fernandes J.I [Canine Intracranial Meningioma: Case report.] Meningioma intracraniano canino: Relato de caso. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(supl. 3:1- 7, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23.897-000, Brasil, E-mail: vetjulio@yahoo.com.br Intracranial neoplasms usually show their signals in a moderate way, revealing a long background of nonspecific signs, making the diagnosis more difficult. The meningioma is the most common intracranial neoplasm in dogs and cats. Along the years, the Veterinary Medicine has experienced important technological improvements, making it possible the diagnosis of a lot of diseases. Therefore, diseases considered not common in the past, started being diagnosed more frequently, for instance, brain lesions. The objective of this research is to report a case of intracranial meningioma in a Boxer dog that arrived at the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, highlighting its clinical improvement, diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Systemic acanthamoebiasis associated with canine distemper in dogs in the semiarid region of Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T.S. Frade

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Infections by free-living amoebae can cause systemic disease in animals and humans. We describe the epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of disseminated acanthamoebiasis associated with canine distemper in three dogs of the semiarid region of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Affected dogs developed progressive neurological and respiratory signs that progressed to death within in two to 20 days. Gross lesions were irregular and with yellow-reddish nodules randomly distributed in the lungs, heart, kidneys, spleen, lymph nodes, adrenals, and intestine. One dog had foci of malacia in the parietal cortex and another one in nucleus of brain basis. Histologically, pyogranulomas with areas of necrosis and hemorrhage in all organs affected were observed, associated with myriads of intralesional amoebic trophozoites. All three cases were concomitant canine distemper, that possibly triggered immunosuppression in the dogs. The diagnosis was performed through microscopic findings of infection by free-living amoebae and confirmed Acanthamoeba sp. by immunohistochemistry

  10. Canine treatment with SnET2 for photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Donita L.; Milligan, Andrew J.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Morgan, Alan R.; Overholt, Bergein F.

    1990-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a treatment technique that utilizes the photoactived species of a drug to destroy tumor tissue. To be successful, the drug must localize in tumor tissue preferentially over normal tissue and must be activated by light of a specific wavelength. Currently the only drug to be approved for clinical use is Heinatoporphyrin Derivative (HpD) although a series of new drugs are being developed for use in the near future. One of the drugs belongs to a class called purpurins which display absorp-' tions between 630-711 nm. Along with several other investigators, we are currently exploring the characteristics of a specific purpurin (SnET2) in normal and tumorous canine tissue. The use of this compound has demonstrated increased tumor control rates in spontaneous dog tumors. Preliminary pharmacokinetic studies have been performed on 6 normal beagle dogs. SnET2 (2 mg/kg) was injected intravenously over 10 minutes and blood was collected at 5, 15, 30, 45 minutes and at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours following administration for determination of drug concentration and calculation of pharinacokinetic parameters. Skin biopsies were collected at 1, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours. Dogs were euthanized at 24 hours and tissues (liver, kidney muscle, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileura, colon, adrenal gland, thyroid, heart, lung, urinary bladder, prostate, pancreas, eye, brain) were collected for drug raeasurement. Drug was shown to persist in liver and kidney for a prolonged period of time coiapared to other tissues. Knowledge of the pharmacokinetic properties of the drug will greatly add to the ability to treat patients with effective protocols.

  11. Overexpression of vimentin in canine prostatic carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, M M P; Rema, A; Gärtner, F

    2011-01-01

    Canine prostatic tumours exhibit similarities to those of man and may represent a useful model system to explore the mechanisms of cancer progression. Tumour progression to malignancy requires a change from an epithelial phenotype to a fibroblastic or mesenchymal phenotype. Vimentin expression...... is associated with the invasive phenotype of human prostate cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to characterize immunohistochemically the expression of vimentin by canine prostatic carcinomas. Primary carcinomas and metastatic tumour foci both showed vimentin expression. This finding suggests...... that the acquisition of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype in canine prostatic carcinoma may be characterized by the presence of mesenchymal intermediate filament (vimentin) that could lead to a higher likelihood of metastasis....

  12. Kidney Transplantation: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as They Affect Physical Fitness: A Physical Therapist's Point of View (National Kidney Foundation) Solitary Kidney (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases) Travel Tips: A Guide for Kidney Patients (National Kidney ...

  13. Genetics of Human and Canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Siobhan Simpson; Jennifer Edwards; Thomas F. N. Ferguson-Mignan; Malcolm Cobb; Nigel P. Mongan; Catrin S. Rutland

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in both humans and dogs. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) accounts for a large number of these cases, reported to be the third most common form of cardiac disease in humans and the second most common in dogs. In human studies of DCM there are more than 50 genetic loci associated with the disease. Despite canine DCM having similar disease progression to human DCM studies into the genetic basis of canine DCM lag far behind those of human DCM. In th...

  14. Tooth fractures in canine clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capik, I.; Ledecky, V.; Sevcik, A.

    2001-01-01

    Tooth fractures constitute a considerable fraction of all tooth diseases. Out of the 5,370 dogs treated during four years, 492 were presented with dental problems and 28.3 % of the latter were treated for tooth fractures. Canines were the most frequently affected teeth (38.8 %), followed by premolars (33.1 %), incisors (25.9 %), and molars (2.2 %), 55.4 % of the patients with canine and incisor fractures being large breed dogs. Fractures of premolars (mostly of 108, 208) were divided evenly irrespective of breed or body size. Nonsurgical endodontic treatment yielded good therapeutic results in most cases, but repeated treatment was necessary in some patients

  15. Reliability of mandibular canines as indicators for sexual dichotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosmani, Jagadish V; Nayak, Ramakant S; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S; S, Pradeep; Babji, Deepa

    2013-02-01

    Amongst the various calcified structures in the human body, teeth have gained lot of popularity in estimating the sex of an individual as they are highly resistant to destruction and decomposition. Using permanent mandibular canines many researchers have predicted a high level of accuracy in identifying the sex correctly. The purpose of our study was to gauge the effectiveness of mandibular canines in discerning sex. Fifty dental casts each of males and females were utilized for the study. Mesio-distal dimension and inter-canine distance of mandibular right and left canine was recorded using digital vernier caliper and mandibular canine index was calculated. The mean value of mesio-distal dimensions of right and left mandibular canine was slightly greater in males compared to females. The mandibular canine index was equal in both sexes. Inter-canine distance was marginally higher in males compared to females. Despite of higher values in males none of the parameters were statistically significant. The results herein bolster contemporary studies that mesio-distal dimensions of mandibular canines and mandibular canine index do not reflect sexual dimorphism and that its application should be discontinued in sex prediction among Indian populations. How to cite this article: Hosmani J V, Nayak R S, Kotrashetti V S, Pradeep S, Babji D. Reliability of Mandibular Canines as Indicators for Sexual Dichotomy. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):1-7.

  16. [Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge Adad, S; Estevão Barbosa, M; Fácio Luíz, J M; Furlan Rodrigues, M C; Iwamoto, S

    1996-01-01

    A 48-year-old male had autosomic dominant polycystic kidneys with dimensions, to the best of our knowledge, never previously reported; the right kidney weighed 15,100 g and measured 53 x 33 x 9cm and the left one 10.200 g and 46 x 21 x 7cm, with cysts measuring up to 14cm in diameter. Nephrectomy was done to control persistent hematuria and to relief disconfort caused by the large kidneys. The renal function is stable four years after transplantation.

  17. Canine visceral leishmaniasis as a systemic fibrotic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lucelia C; Castro, Rodrigo S; Figueiredo, Maria M; Michalick, Marilene S M; Tafuri, Washington L; Tafuri, Wagner L

    2013-01-01

    We propose that canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a systemic fibrotic disease, as evidenced by the wide distribution of fibrosis that we have found in the dogs suffering from chronic condition. The inflammatory cells apparently direct fibrosis formation. Twenty-four cases (symptomatic dogs) were identified from a total of one hundred and five cases that had been naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi and had been documented during an epidemiological survey of CVL carried out by the metropolitan area of the municipality of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. The histological criterion was intralobular liver fibrosis, as has been described previously in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis. In addition to the findings in the liver, here we describe and quantify conspicuous and systemic deposition of collagen in other organs, including spleen, cervical lymph nodes, lung and kidney of all the infected symptomatic dogs. Thus we report that there is a systematic fibrotic picture in these animals, where inflammatory cells appear to direct fibrosis in all organs that have been studied. Therefore we propose that CVL is a systemic fibrotic disease. PMID:23419132

  18. Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cysts Solitary Kidney Your Kidneys & How They Work Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease What is anemia? Anemia is a condition in which the body ... function as well as they should. How is anemia related to chronic kidney disease? Anemia commonly occurs ...

  19. Military Working Dogs and Canine Ehrlichiosis (Tropical Canine Pancytopenia) in the Vietnam War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-05

    anemia, dermatitis, edema of the limbs and scrotum, and petechial hemorrhages on the penis (116). Hematologic findings included a leucopenia with...idiopathic hemorrhagic disease, and canine hemorrhagic fever (116). Attempts to identity the cause of tropical canine pancytopenia continued in 1969...Following inoculation with infective blood, signs of acute disease appear within 7-10 days and consfst of fever , serous nasal and ocular discharges

  20. Expression of platelet-derived growth factor BB, erythropoietin and erythropoietin receptor in canine and feline osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F R L; Steinborn, R; Grausgruber, H; Wolfesberger, B; Walter, I

    2015-10-01

    The discovery of expression of the erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R) on neoplastic cells has led to concerns about the safety of treating anaemic cancer patients with EPO. In addition to its endocrine function, the receptor may play a role in tumour progression through an autocrine mechanism. In this study, the expression of EPO, EPO-R and platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) was analysed in five feline and 13 canine osteosarcomas using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). EPO expression was positive in all tumours by IHC, but EPO mRNA was only detected in 38% of the canine and 40% of the feline samples. EPO-R was expressed in all samples by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) and IHC. EPO-R mRNA was expressed at higher levels in all feline tumours, tumour cell lines, and kidney when compared to canine tissues. PDGF-BB expression was variable by IHC, but mRNA was detected in all samples. To assess the functionality of the EPO-R on tumour cells, the proliferation of canine and feline osteosarcoma cell lines was evaluated after EPO administration using an alamarBlue assay and Ki67 immunostaining. All primary cell lines responded to EPO treatment in at least one of the performed assays, but the effect on proliferation was very low indicating only a weak responsiveness of EPO-R. In conclusion, since EPO and its receptor are expressed by canine and feline osteosarcomas, an autocrine or paracrine tumour progression mechanism cannot be excluded, although in vitro data suggest a minimal role of EPO-R in osteosarcoma cell proliferation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Images in kidney trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Jose Luis; Rodriguez, Sonia Pilar; Manzano, Ana Cristina

    2007-01-01

    A case of a 3 years old female patient, who suffered blunt lumbar trauma (horse kick) with secondary kidney trauma, is reported. Imaging findings are described. Renal trauma classification and imaging findings are reviewed

  2. About Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... detect CKD: blood pressure, urine albumin and serum creatinine. What causes CKD? The two main causes of chronic kidney disease are diabetes and high blood pressure , which are responsible for up to ...

  3. Polycystic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... don't have other diseases may be good candidates for a kidney transplant. Possible Complications Health problems ... www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. ...

  4. Kidney removal - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Schwartz MJ, Rais-Bahrami S, Kavoussi LR. Laparoscopic and robotic surgery of the kidney. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi ... Urology, West Bloomfield, MI. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, ...

  5. Kidney Cancer Risk Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NCI Cancer Information A to Z Treatment Roles Cancer Types Bladder Brain/Spine Breast Cervical Colorectal Esophageal Gallbladder Head/Neck Kidney Leukemia Liver Lung Lymphoma Multiple Myeloma Ovarian Pancreatic ...

  6. American Kidney Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that you see in the box: Spam Control Text: Please leave this field empty Submit Change ... a kidney health educator Clinical Scientist in Nephrology program Online continuing education Search clinical ...

  7. National Kidney Foundation Newsroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 11/2018 Using a Home Test Kit and Smartphone to Test for Kidney Disease - 04/10/2018 ... of millions of Americans at risk. The Better Business Bureau Wise Giving Alliance Charity Seal provides the ...

  8. Kidney compartment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullberg, G.T.

    1976-09-01

    A multiparameter kidney compartment model which quantitates the amount of iodohippurate concentration as a function of time in the blood, tissue, kidneys and bladder is developed from a system of differential equations which represent first order kinetics. The kinetic data are obtained using a gamma camera and an HP5407 computer system which allows one to delineate areas of interest for the blood and tissue, kidneys, and bladder thus separating the data into four data sets. The estimated tubular transit times have a high ratio of the signal to the variance whereas the estimates of the amount of iodohippurate in the blood, tissue and kidneys have a low ratio of the signal to the variance. Application of this model to patient data requires better statistics than available with conventional 131 I-hippurate doses; thus a true test of the efficacy awaits availability of 123 I-hippurate

  9. Testing for Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mean for you. If you have kidney disease, measuring the albumin in your urine helps your provider ... Staff Directory Budget & Legislative Information Advisory & Coordinating Committees Strategic Plans & Reports Research Areas FAQs Jobs at NIDDK ...

  10. Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including diabetes, high blood pressure, glomerulonephritis, and cys tic kidney diseases. Participants in clinical trials can play ... Life Options Rehabilitation Resource Center c/o Medical Education Institute, Inc. 414 D’Onofrio Drive, Suite 200 ...

  11. [Chronic kidney disease and kidney transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuret, R; Timsit, M O; Kleinclauss, F

    2016-11-01

    To report epidemiology and characteristics of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients and renal transplant candidates, and to evaluate access to waiting list and results of renal transplantation. An exhaustive systematic review of the scientific literature was performed in the Medline database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) and Embase (http://www.embase.com) using different associations of the following keywords: "chronic kidney disease, epidemiology, kidney transplantation, cost, survival, graft, brain death, cardiac arrest, access, allocation". French legal documents have been reviewed using the government portal (http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr). Articles were selected according to methods, language of publication and relevance. The reference lists were used to identify additional historical studies of interest. Both prospective and retrospective series, in French and English, as well as review articles and recommendations were selected. In addition, French national transplant and health agencies (http://www.agence-biomedecine.fr and http://www.has-sante.fr) databases were screened using identical keywords. A total of 3234 articles, 6 official reports and 3 newspaper articles were identified; after careful selection 99 publications were eligible for our review. The increasing prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) leads to worsen organ shortage. Renal transplantation remains the best treatment option for ESRD, providing recipients with an increased survival and quality of life, at lower costs than other renal replacement therapies. The never-ending lengthening of the waiting list raises issues regarding treatment strategies and candidates' selection, and underlines the limits of organ sharing without additional source of kidneys available for transplantation. Allocation policies aim to reduce medical or geographical disparities regarding enrollment on a waiting list or access to an allotransplant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. [Paired kidneys in transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regueiro López, Juan C; Leva Vallejo, Manuel; Prieto Castro, Rafael; Anglada Curado, Francisco; Vela Jiménez, Francisco; Ruiz García, Jesús

    2009-02-01

    Many factors affect the graft and patient survival on the renal transplant outcome. These factors depend so much of the recipient and donor. We accomplished a study trying to circumvent factors that depend on the donor. We checked the paired kidneys originating of a same donor cadaver. We examined the risk factors in the evolution and follow-up in 278 couples of kidney transplant. We describe their differences, significance, the graft and patient survival, their functionality in 3 and 5 years and the risk factors implicated in their function. We study immunogenic and no immunogenic variables, trying to explain the inferior results in the grafts that are established secondly. We regroup the paired kidneys in those that they did not show paired initial function within the same couple. The results yield a discreet deterioration in the graft and patient survival for second group establish, superior creatinina concentration, without obtaining statistical significance. The Cox regression study establishes the early rejection (inferior to three months) and DR incompatibility values like risk factors. This model of paired kidneys would be able to get close to best-suited form for risk factors analysis in kidney transplant from cadaver donors, if more patients examine themselves in the same way. The paired kidneys originating from the same donor do not show the same function in spite of sharing the same conditions of the donor and perioperative management.

  13. Cardiac involvement in canine babesiosis : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Lobetti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac dysfunction in canine babesiosis has traditionally been regarded as a rare complication, with the majority of lesions reported as incidental findings at post-mortem examination. Recent studies have, however, demonstrated cardiac lesions in canine babesiosis. Cardiac troponins, especially troponin I, are sensitive markers of myocardial injury in canine babesiosis, and the magnitude of elevation of plasma troponin I concentrations appears to be proportional to the severity of the disease. ECG changes in babesiosis are similar to the pattern described for myocarditis and myocardial ischaemia and together with histopathological findings indicate that the heart suffers from the same pathological processes described in other organs in canine babesiosis, namely inflammation and hypoxia. The clinical application of the ECG appears to be limited and thus cardiovascular assessment should be based on functional monitoring rather than an ECG tracing. On cardiac histopathology from dogs that succumbed to babesiosis, haemorrhage, necrosis, inflammation and fibrin microthrombi in the myocardium were documented, all of which would have resulted in ECG changes and elevations in cardiac troponin. Myocardial damage causes left ventricular failure, which will result in hypotension and an expansion of the plasma volume due to homeostatic mechanisms.

  14. Canine distemper outbreak in rhesus monkeys, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang; Hu, Rongliang

    2011-08-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People's Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%-60% disease incidence); 5%-30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain.

  15. Canine trypanosomosis: Clinical observations and morphological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical and pathological aspects of canine trypanosomosis were determined in naturally infected dogs presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, at different times between 2012 and 2013. The breeds, sexes, ages and body weights of the dogs were recorded. Clinical signs ...

  16. Molecular Epidemiology of Canine Parvovirus, Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desario, Costantina; Addie, Diane D.; Martella, Vito; Vieira, Maria João; Elia, Gabriella; Zicola, Angelique; Davis, Christopher; Thompson, Gertrude; Thiry, Ethienne; Truyen, Uwe; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2007-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV), which causes hemorrhagic enteritis in dogs, has 3 antigenic variants: types 2a, 2b, and 2c. Molecular method assessment of the distribution of the CPV variants in Europe showed that the new variant CPV-2c is widespread in Europe and that the viruses are distributed in different countries. PMID:17953097

  17. Prostate histotripsy for BPH: initial canine results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, William W.; Hall, Timothy L.; Hempel, Christopher R.; Cain, Charles A.

    2009-02-01

    Histotripsy is an extracorporeal ablative technology that utilizes microsecond pulses of intense ultrasound (< 1% duty cycle) to produce nonthermal, mechanical fractionation of targeted tissue. We have previously demonstrated the feasibility of histotripsy prostate ablation. In this study we sought to assess the chronic tissue response, tolerability and safety of histotripsy in a chronic in vivo canine model. Five acute and thirteen chronic canine subjects were anesthetized and treated with histotripsy targeting the prostate. Pulses consisted of 3 cycle bursts of 750 kHz ultrasound at a repetition rate of 300 Hz delivered transabdominally from a highly focused 15 cm aperture array. Transrectal ultrasound imaging provided accurate targeting and real-time monitoring of histotripsy treatment. Prostates were harvested at 0, 7, 28, or 56 days after treatment. Consistent mechanical tissue fractionation and debulking of prostate tissue was seen acutely and at delayed time points without collateral injury. Urothelialization of the treatment cavity was apparent 28 days after treatment. Canine subjects tolerated histotripsy with minimal hematuria or discomfort. Only mild transient lab abnormalities were noted. Histotripsy is a promising non-invasive therapy for prostate tissue fractionation and debulking that appears safe and well tolerated without systemic side effects in the canine model.

  18. Canine specific ELISA for coagulation factor VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Tom; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Tranholm, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    available to date. In this study, a canine specific ELISA for measurement of FVII:Ag in plasma was developed and validated. The FVII:Ag ELISA correctly diagnosed homozygous and heterozygous hereditary FVII deficiency. Together with activity based assays, such as FVII:C, the FVII:Ag ELISA should be valuable...

  19. Canine Distemper Outbreak in Rhesus Monkeys, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang

    2011-01-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People’s Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%–60% disease incidence); 5%–30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain. PMID:21801646

  20. A novel bocavirus in canine liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Linlin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bocaviruses are classified as a genus within the Parvoviridae family of single-stranded DNA viruses and are pathogenic in some mammalian species. Two species have been previously reported in dogs, minute virus of canines (MVC, associated with neonatal diseases and fertility disorders; and Canine bocavirus (CBoV, associated with respiratory disease. Findings In this study using deep sequencing of enriched viral particles from the liver of a dog with severe hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, necrotizing vasculitis, granulomatous lymphadenitis and anuric renal failure, we identified and characterized a novel bocavirus we named Canine bocavirus 3 (CnBoV3. The three major ORFs of CnBoV3 (NS1, NP1 and VP1 shared less than 60% aa identity with those of other bocaviruses qualifying it as a novel species based on ICTV criteria. Inverse PCR showed the presence of concatemerized or circular forms of the genome in liver. Conclusions We genetically characterized a bocavirus in a dog liver that is highly distinct from prior canine bocaviruses found in respiratory and fecal samples. Its role in this animal’s complex disease remains to be determined.

  1. Duration of serological response to canine parvovirus-type 2, canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus type 1 and canine parainfluenza virus in client-owned dogs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, S A; Zwijnenberg, R J; Huang, J; Hodge, A; Day, M J

    2012-12-01

    To determine whether client-owned dogs in Australia, last vaccinated with Canvac(®) vaccines containing canine parvovirus-type 2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) ± canine parainfluenza virus (CPiV) at least 18 months ago, were seropositive or responded serologically to revaccination. A total of 235 dogs were recruited from 23 veterinary clinics, representing a variety of breeds, ages and time since last vaccination (TSLV: range 1.5-9 years, mean 2.8 years). Dogs had a blood sample taken and were revaccinated on day 0. A second blood sample was taken 7-14 days later. Blood samples were assessed for antibody titres to CPV-2 (by haemagglutination inhibition) and CDV, CAV type 1 (CAV-1) and CPiV (by virus neutralisation). Dogs with a day 0 titre >10 or a four-fold increase in titre following revaccination were considered to be serological responders. The overall percentage of dogs classified as serological responders was 98.7% for CPV-2, 96.6% for CDV, 99.6% for CAV-1 and 90.3% for CPiV. These results suggest that the duration of serological response induced by modified-live vaccines against CPV-2, CDV, CAV-1 and CPiV, including Canvac(®) vaccines, is beyond 18 months and may extend up to 9 years. Accordingly, these vaccines may be considered for use in extended revaccination interval protocols as recommended by current canine vaccine guidelines. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.

  2. Angiogenesis and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, tumour necrosis factor-α and hypoxia inducible factor-1α in canine renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yhee, J Y; Yu, C H; Kim, J H; Im, K S; Kim, N H; Brodersen, B W; Doster, A R; Sur, J-H

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution and characteristics of microvessels in various histological types of canine renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The study compared microvessel density (MVD) and distribution of blood vessels according to histological type and evaluated the presence of angiogenesis-related proteins. Nine archival samples of canine RCC were studied. MVD was calculated as the mean number of blood vessels per mm(2). The diameter of blood vessels was calculated by determining either the length of the long axis of blood vessels (diameter(max)) or the mean distance from the centre of each blood vessel to the tunica adventia (diameter(mean)). A significant difference in MVD was evident between RCCs and normal kidneys (46.6 ± 28.0 versus 8.4 ± 2.2 microvessels/mm(2)). Diameter(max) in canine RCCs (34.1 ± 14.7 μm) was also significantly different from normal canine kidney (23.2 ± 3.4 μm). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was expressed by tumour cells and vascular endothelial cells and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression was observed in vascular endothelial cells in both neoplastic and normal kidney. Although VEGF is involved in angiogenesis and correlates with tumour stage of development, no correlation was found between VEGF expression and MVD. Tumour-associated macrophages expressing TNF-α and hypoxia inducible factor 1α were identified in peritumoural tissue and may play an important role in angiogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Kidney and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Hui; Zhang, Yu-Gen

    2017-03-01

    Innate immune system is an important modulator of the inflammatory response during infection and tissue injury/repair. The kidney as a vital organ with high energy demand plays a key role in regulating the disease related metabolic process. Increasing research interest has focused on the immune pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. However, innate immune cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, NK cells and a few innate lymphocytes, as well as the complement system are essential for renal immune homeostasis and ensure a coordinated balance between tissue injury and regeneration. The innate immune response provides the first line of host defense initiated by several classes of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as membrane-bound Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), together with inflammasomes responsible for early innate immune response. Although the innate immune system is well studied, the research on the detailed relationship between innate immunity and kidney is still very limited. In this review, we will focus on the innate immune sensing system in renal immune homeostasis, as well as the corresponding pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. The pivotal roles of innate immunity in renal injury and regeneration with special emphasis on kidney disease related immunoregulatory mechanism are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Diabetic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Merlin C; Brownlee, Michael; Susztak, Katalin; Sharma, Kumar; Jandeleit-Dahm, Karin A M; Zoungas, Sophia; Rossing, Peter; Groop, Per-Henrik; Cooper, Mark E

    2015-07-30

    The kidney is arguably the most important target of microvascular damage in diabetes. A substantial proportion of individuals with diabetes will develop kidney disease owing to their disease and/or other co-morbidity, including hypertension and ageing-related nephron loss. The presence and severity of chronic kidney disease (CKD) identify individuals who are at increased risk of adverse health outcomes and premature mortality. Consequently, preventing and managing CKD in patients with diabetes is now a key aim of their overall management. Intensive management of patients with diabetes includes controlling blood glucose levels and blood pressure as well as blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; these approaches will reduce the incidence of diabetic kidney disease and slow its progression. Indeed, the major decline in the incidence of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) over the past 30 years and improved patient prognosis are largely attributable to improved diabetes care. However, there remains an unmet need for innovative treatment strategies to prevent, arrest, treat and reverse DKD. In this Primer, we summarize what is now known about the molecular pathogenesis of CKD in patients with diabetes and the key pathways and targets implicated in its progression. In addition, we discuss the current evidence for the prevention and management of DKD as well as the many controversies. Finally, we explore the opportunities to develop new interventions through urgently needed investment in dedicated and focused research. For an illustrated summary of this Primer, visit: http://go.nature.com/NKHDzg.

  5. [Living kidney donation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timsit, M-O; Kleinclauss, F; Mamzer Bruneel, M F; Thuret, R

    2016-11-01

    To review ethical, legal and technical aspects of living kidney donor surgery. An exhaustive systematic review of the scientific literature was performed in the Medline database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) and Embase (http://www.embase.com) using different associations of the following keywords: Donor nephrectomy; Kidney paired donation; Kidney transplantation; Laparoscopic nephrectomy; Living donor; Organs trafficking; Robotic assisted nephrectomy; Vaginal extraction. French legal documents have been reviewed using the government portal (http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr). Articles were selected according to methods, language of publication and relevance. A total of 6421 articles were identified; after careful selection, 161 publications were considered of interest and were eligible for our review. The ethical debate focuses on organ shortage, financial incentive, organ trafficking and the recent data suggesting a small but significant increase risk for late renal disease in donor population. Legal decisions aim to increase the number of kidneys available for donation, such as kidney-paired donation that faces several obstacles in France. Laparoscopic approach became widely used, while robotic-assisted donor nephrectomy failed to demonstrate improved outcome as compared with other minimal invasive techniques. Minimally invasive living donor nephrectomy aims to limit side effects in the donor without increasing the morbidity in this specific population of healthy persons; long term surveillance to prevent the onset of renal disease in mandatory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Low Temperature Plasma for the Treatment of Epithelial Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohades, Soheila

    leading to their activation. The effectiveness of PAM against SCaBER cells is the highest when it is used immediately after preparation. It is found that the killing effect of PAM decreases gradually over time, depending on the dose of plasma exposure. Hydrogen peroxide is known as one of the most stable and impactful ROS in biological systems. Measurements show that the plasma pencil generates a significant amount of hydrogen peroxide in PAM. Interestingly, the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in PAM decreases gradually over time, which correlates well with the decrease of PAM effectiveness with storage time. While the effects of PAM treatment on cancerous epithelial cell lines have been studied, much less is known about the interaction of PAM with normal epithelial cells. Effects of PAM on non-cancerous Madin-Darby Canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells indicates that MDCK cells are much more robust than SCaBER cells against PAM treatment. The dose of PAM, which causes a widespread death in SCaBER cells, does not significantly impact viability and morphology of MDCK cells. Time-lapse imaging of normal cells shows that PAM treatment inhibits cell proliferation and random migration. In addition, immunofluorescence staining shows that PAM treatment causes a significant reduction in the nuclear localization of proliferation marker, Ki-67, without any damage to the morphological properties of cells including adhesions and cytoskeleton function. This dissertation clearly demonstrates the capability of PAM treatment in inducing death in cancerous cells that can be important for cancer therapy. Hydrogen peroxide is identified as an important ROS responsible for the anti-tumor properties of PAM, although much additional work remains to comprehensively understand all the involved ROS/RNS and their role in PAM treatment.

  7. The temperature-sensitive and attenuation phenotypes conferred by mutations in the influenza virus PB2, PB1, and NP genes are influenced by the species of origin of the PB2 gene in reassortant viruses derived from influenza A/California/07/2009 and A/WSN/33 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Andrew J; Santos, Celia P; Godbout, Rachel A; Subbarao, Kanta

    2014-11-01

    Live attenuated influenza vaccines in the United States are derived from a human virus that is temperature sensitive (ts), characterized by restricted (≥ 100-fold) replication at 39 °C. The ts genetic signature (ts sig) has been mapped to 5 loci in 3 genes: PB1 (391 E, 581 G, and 661 T), PB2 (265 S), and NP (34 G). However, when transferred into avian and swine influenza viruses, only partial ts and attenuation phenotypes occur. To investigate the reason for this, we introduced the ts sig into the human origin virus A/WSN/33 (WSN), the avian-origin virus A/Vietnam/1203/04 (VN04), and the swine origin triple-reassortant 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus A/California/07/2009 (CA07), which contains gene segments from human, avian, and swine viruses. The VN04(ts sig) and CA07(ts sig) viruses replicated efficiently in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells at 39 °C, but the replication of WSN(ts sig) was restricted ≥ 100-fold compared to that at 33 °C. Reassortant CA07(ts sig) viruses were generated with individual polymerase gene segments from WSN, and vice versa. Only ts sig viruses with a PB2 gene segment derived from WSN were restricted in replication ≥ 100-fold at 39 °C. In ferrets, the CA07(ts sig) virus replicated in the upper and lower respiratory tract, but the replication of a reassortant CA07(ts sig) virus with a WSN PB2 gene was severely restricted in the lungs. Taken together, these data suggest that the origin of the PB2 gene segment influences the ts phenotype in vitro and attenuation in vivo. This could have implications for the design of novel live vaccines against animal origin influenza viruses. Live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) on temperature-sensitive (ts) backbones derived from animal origin influenza viruses are being sought for use in the poultry and swine industries and to protect people against animal origin influenza. However, inserting the ts genetic signature from a licensed LAIV backbone fails to fully attenuate these viruses. Our

  8. Decoupling Internalization, Acidification and Phagosmal-Endosomal/Iysosomal Phagocytosis of Internalin A coated Beads in epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchette, C D; Woo, Y; Thomas, C; Shen, N; Sulchek, T A; Hiddessen, A L

    2008-12-22

    Phagocytosis has been extensively examined in 'professional' phagocytic cells using pH sensitive dyes. However, in many of the previous studies, a separation between the end of internalization, beginning of acidification and completion of phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion was not clearly established, and in several cases, it was treated as a one-step process. In addition, very little work has been done to systematically examine phagosomal maturation in 'non-professional' phagocytic cells, such as epithelial cells. Therefore, in this study, we developed a simple and novel method to decouple and accurately measure particle internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) and Caco-2 epithelial cells. Our method was developed using a pathogen mimetic system consisting of polystyrene beads coated with Internalin A (InlA), a membrane surface protein from Listeria monocytogenes known to trigger receptor-mediated internalization. We achieved independent measurements of the rates of internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion in epithelial cells by combining the InlA-coated beads (InlA-beads) with antibody quenching, pH sensitive dyes and endosomal/lysosomal dyes, as follows: the rate of InlA bead internalization was measured via antibody quenching of a pH independent dye (Alexa488) conjugated to InlA-beads, the rate at which phagosomes containing internalized InlA beads became acidified was measured using a pH dependent dye (FITC) conjugated to the beads and the rate of phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion was measured using a combination of unlabeled InlA-beads and an endosomal/lysosomal dye. By performing these independent measurements under identical experimental conditions, we were able to decouple the three processes and establish time scales for each. In a separate set of experiments, we also exploited the phagosomal acidification

  9. Novel canine circovirus strains from Thailand: Evidence for genetic recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piewbang, Chutchai; Jo, Wendy K; Puff, Christina; van der Vries, Erhard; Kesdangsakonwut, Sawang; Rungsipipat, Anudep; Kruppa, Jochen; Jung, Klaus; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Techangamsuwan, Somporn; Ludlow, Martin; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2018-05-14

    Canine circoviruses (CanineCV's), belonging to the genus Circovirus of the Circoviridae family, were detected by next generation sequencing in samples from Thai dogs with respiratory symptoms. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of nearly complete CanineCV genomes suggested that natural recombination had occurred among different lineages of CanineCV's. Similarity plot and bootscaning analyses indicated that American and Chinese viruses had served as major and minor parental viruses, respectively. Positions of recombination breakpoints were estimated using maximum-likelihood frameworks with statistical significant testing. The putative recombination event was located in the Replicase gene, intersecting with open reading frame-3. Analysis of nucleotide changes confirmed the origin of the recombination event. This is the first description of naturally occurring recombinant CanineCV's that have resulted in the circulation of newly emerging CanineCV lineages.

  10. Survivin inhibition via EZN-3042 in canine lymphoma and osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoeneman, J K; Ehrhart, E J; Charles, J B; Thamm, D H

    2016-06-01

    Canine lymphoma (LSA) and osteosarcoma (OS) have high mortality rates and remain in need of more effective therapeutic approaches. Survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family member protein that inhibits apoptosis and drives cell proliferation, is commonly elevated in human and canine cancer. Survivin expression is a negative prognostic factor in dogs with LSA and OS, and canine LSA and OS cell lines express high levels of survivin. In this study, we demonstrate that survivin downregulation in canine LSA and OS cells using a clinically applicable locked nucleic acid antisense oligonucleotide (EZN-3042, Enzon Pharmaceuticals, Piscataway Township, NJ, USA) inhibits growth, induces apoptosis and enhances chemosensitivity in vitro, and inhibits survivin transcription and protein production in orthotopic canine OS xenografts. Our findings strongly suggest that survivin-directed therapies might be effective in treatment of canine LSA and OS and support evaluation of EZN-3042 in dogs with cancer. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Kidney recipients experiences before during and after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte

    Background Kidney transplantation is considered to be the best treatment for terminal renal insufficiency. Kidney transplant patients report higher quality of life because they avoid regular dialysis treatment that causes side effects, complications, restrictions and limitations in their daily...... and after the kidney transplant, through outpatient visits and during possible hospitalization, which can occur due to complications or disease progression. Objective To explore the coherence of the kidney transplant process in order to explain the lived experiences of kidney recipients before, during...... and after kidney transplantation. Method Participant observation and semi-structured individual interviews was conducted with kidney recipients before, during and after kidney transplantation. Data analysis is inspired by Ricoeur's interpretation theory on three levels: Naive reading; structural analysis...

  12. Connexins and the kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanner, Fiona; Sørensen, Charlotte Mehlin; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Connexins (Cxs) are widely-expressed proteins that form gap junctions in most organs, including the kidney. In the renal vasculature, Cx37, Cx40, Cx43, and Cx45 are expressed, with predominant expression of Cx40 in the endothelial cells and Cx45 in the vascular smooth muscle cells. In the tubules......, the major function of Cxs in the kidney appears to be intercellular communication, although they may also form hemichannels that allow cellular secretion of large signaling molecules. Renal Cxs facilitate vascular conduction, juxtaglomerular apparatus calcium signaling, and tubular purinergic signaling....... Accordingly, current evidence points to roles for these Cxs in several important regulatory mechanisms in the kidney, including the renin angiotensin system, tubuloglomerular feedback, and salt and water reabsorption. At the systemic level, renal Cxs may help regulate blood pressure and may be involved...

  13. European canine lymphoma network consensus recommendations for reporting flow cytometry in canine hematopoietic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comazzi, S; Avery, P R; Garden, O A; Riondato, F; Rütgen, B; Vernau, W

    2017-09-01

    Flow cytometry (FC) is assuming increasing importance in diagnosis in veterinary oncology. The European Canine Lymphoma Network (ECLN) is an international cooperation of different institutions working on canine lymphoma diagnosis and therapy. The ECLN panel of experts on FC has defined the issue of reporting FC on canine lymphoma and leukemia as their first hot topic, since a standardized report that includes all the important information is still lacking in veterinary medicine. The flow cytometry panel of the ECLN started a consensus initiative using the Delphi approach. Clinicians were considered the main target of FC reports. A panel of experts in FC was interrogated about the important information needed from a report. Using the feedback from clinicians and subsequent discussion, a list of information to be included in the report was made, with four different levels of recommendation. The final report should include both a quantitative part and a qualitative or descriptive part with interpretation of the salient results. Other items discussed included the necessity of reporting data regarding the quality of samples, use of absolute numbers of positive cells, cutoff values, the intensity of fluorescence, and possible aberrant patterns of antigen expression useful from a clinical point of view. The consensus initiative is a first step toward standardization of diagnostic approach to canine hematopoietic neoplasms among different institutions and countries. This harmonization will improve communication and patient care and also facilitate the multicenter studies necessary to further our knowledge of canine hematopoietic neoplasms. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  14. Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Angela C; Nagler, Evi V; Morton, Rachael L; Masson, Philip

    2017-03-25

    The definition and classification of chronic kidney disease (CKD) have evolved over time, but current international guidelines define this condition as decreased kidney function shown by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 60 mL/min per 1·73 m 2 , or markers of kidney damage, or both, of at least 3 months duration, regardless of the underlying cause. Diabetes and hypertension are the main causes of CKD in all high-income and middle-income countries, and also in many low-income countries. Incidence, prevalence, and progression of CKD also vary within countries by ethnicity and social determinants of health, possibly through epigenetic influence. Many people are asymptomatic or have non-specific symptoms such as lethargy, itch, or loss of appetite. Diagnosis is commonly made after chance findings from screening tests (urinary dipstick or blood tests), or when symptoms become severe. The best available indicator of overall kidney function is GFR, which is measured either via exogenous markers (eg, DTPA, iohexol), or estimated using equations. Presence of proteinuria is associated with increased risk of progression of CKD and death. Kidney biopsy samples can show definitive evidence of CKD, through common changes such as glomerular sclerosis, tubular atrophy, and interstitial fibrosis. Complications include anaemia due to reduced production of erythropoietin by the kidney; reduced red blood cell survival and iron deficiency; and mineral bone disease caused by disturbed vitamin D, calcium, and phosphate metabolism. People with CKD are five to ten times more likely to die prematurely than they are to progress to end stage kidney disease. This increased risk of death rises exponentially as kidney function worsens and is largely attributable to death from cardiovascular disease, although cancer incidence and mortality are also increased. Health-related quality of life is substantially lower for people with CKD than for the general population, and falls as GFR

  15. Development and Characterization of Canine Distemper Virus Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuxiu; Hao, Liying; Li, Xiangdong; Wang, Linxiao; Zhang, Jianpo; Deng, Junhua; Tian, Kegong

    2017-06-01

    Five canine distemper virus monoclonal antibodies were developed by immunizing BALB/c mice with a traditional vaccine strain Snyder Hill. Among these monoclonal antibodies, four antibodies recognized both field and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus without neutralizing ability. One monoclonal antibody, 1A4, against hemagglutinin protein of canine distemper virus was found to react only with vaccine strain virus but not field isolates, and showed neutralizing activity to vaccine strain virus. These monoclonal antibodies could be very useful tools in the study of the pathogenesis of canine distemper virus and the development of diagnostic reagents.

  16. Canine Detection of Illict Drugs: Sensory Apparatus Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Edward

    2000-01-01

    This report describes basic anatomical and physiological observations of the peripheral canine olfactory system, provided by means of investigations into its structural and molecular characteristics...

  17. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPr) promotes EMT, growth, and invasion in canine prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafae, Said M; Hassan, Bardes B; Supsavhad, Wachiraphan; Dirksen, Wessel P; Camiener, Rachael Y; Ding, Haiming; Tweedle, Michael F; Rosol, Thomas J

    2016-06-01

    The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPr) is upregulated in early and late-stage human prostate cancer (PCa) and other solid tumors of the mammary gland, lung, head and neck, colon, uterus, ovary, and kidney. However, little is known about its role in prostate cancer. This study examined the effects of a heterologous GRPr agonist, bombesin (BBN), on growth, motility, morphology, gene expression, and tumor phenotype of an osteoblastic canine prostate cancer cell line (Ace-1) in vitro and in vivo. The Ace-1 cells were stably transfected with the human GRPr and tumor cells were grown in vitro and as subcutaneous and intratibial tumors in nude mice. The effect of BBN was measured on cell proliferation, cell migration, tumor growth (using bioluminescence), tumor cell morphology, bone tumor phenotype, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis gene expression (quantitative RT-PCR). GRPr mRNA expression was measured in primary canine prostate cancers and normal prostate glands. Bombesin (BBN) increased tumor cell proliferation and migration in vitro and tumor growth and invasion in vivo. BBN upregulated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers (TWIST, SNAIL, and SLUG mRNA) and downregulated epithelial markers (E-cadherin and β-catenin mRNA), and modified tumor cell morphology to a spindle cell phenotype. Blockade of GRPr upregulated E-cadherin and downregulated VIMENTIN and SNAIL mRNA. BBN altered the in vivo tumor phenotype in bone from an osteoblastic to osteolytic phenotype. Primary canine prostate cancers had increased GRPr mRNA expression compared to normal prostates. These data demonstrated that the GRPr is important in prostate cancer growth and progression and targeting GRPr may be a promising strategy for treatment of prostate cancer. Prostate 76:796-809, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) . This recommendation ...

  19. Environmental pollution and kidney diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Nie, Sheng; Ding, Hanying; Hou, Fan Fan

    2018-05-01

    The burden of disease and death attributable to environmental pollution is becoming a public health challenge worldwide, especially in developing countries. The kidney is vulnerable to environmental pollutants because most environmental toxins are concentrated by the kidney during filtration. Given the high mortality and morbidity of kidney disease, environmental risk factors and their effect on kidney disease need to be identified. In this Review, we highlight epidemiological evidence for the association between kidney disease and environmental pollutants, including air pollution, heavy metal pollution and other environmental risk factors. We discuss the potential biological mechanisms that link exposure to environmental pollutants to kidney damage and emphasize the contribution of environmental pollution to kidney disease. Regulatory efforts should be made to control environmental pollution and limit individual exposure to preventable or avoidable environmental risk. Population studies with accurate quantification of environmental exposure in polluted regions, particularly in developing countries, might aid our understanding of the dose-response relationship between pollutants and kidney diseases.

  20. National Kidney Disease Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living Tips About WIN NIDDK Information Clearinghouses National Kidney Disease Education Program Improving the understanding, detection, and ... Group Learn more about Working Groups Learn about Kidney Disease Find information for people with or at ...

  1. Kidney stones - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... self-care; Nephrolithiasis and self-care; Stones and kidney - self-care; Calcium stones and self-care; Oxalate ... provider or the hospital because you have a kidney stone. You will need to take self-care ...

  2. Mechanisms of cell death in canine parvovirus-infected cells provide intuitive insights to developing nanotools for medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonna Nykky

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Jonna Nykky, Jenni E Tuusa, Sanna Kirjavainen, Matti Vuento, Leona GilbertNanoscience Center and Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, FinlandAbstract: Viruses have great potential as nanotools in medicine for gene transfer, targeted gene delivery, and oncolytic cancer virotherapy. Here we have studied cell death mechanisms of canine parvovirus (CPV to increase the knowledge on the CPV life cycle in order to facilitate the development of better parvovirus vectors. Morphological studies of CPV-infected Norden laboratory feline kidney (NLFK cells and canine fibroma cells (A72 displayed characteristic apoptotic events. Apoptosis was further confirmed by activation of caspases and cellular DNA damage. However, results from annexin V-propidium iodide (PI labeling and membrane polarization assays indicated disruption of the plasma membrane uncommon to apoptosis. These results provide evidence that secondary necrosis followed apoptosis. In addition, two human cancer cell lines were found to be infected by CPV. This necrotic event over apoptotic cell death and infection in human cells provide insightful information when developing CPV as a nanotool for cancer treatments.Keywords: canine parvovirus, apoptosis, necrosis, nanoparticle, virotherapy

  3. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizak, B. [National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy (Poland); Plucienniczak, A. [Polish Academy ofd Sciences. Microbiology and Virology Center, Lodz (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs.

  4. Coryneform bacteria associated with canine otitis externa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalbæk, Bent; Bemis, David A.; Schjærff, Mette

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the occurrence of coryneform bacteria in canine otitis externa. A combined case series and case-control study was carried out to improve the current knowledge on frequency and clinical significance of coryneform bacteria in samples from canine otitis externa. A total...... of 16 cases of otitis externa with involvement of coryneform bacteria were recorded at two referral veterinary hospitals in Denmark and the US, respectively. Coryneform bacteria were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Corynebacterium auriscanis was the most common coryneform species (10...... cases). Small colony variants of this species were also observed. Other coryneform isolates were identified as Corynebacterium amycolatum (3 cases), Corynebacterium freneyi (2 cases) and an Arcanobacterium-like species (1 case). The coryneform bacteria were in all cases isolated together with other...

  5. Nonsurgical, nonextraction management of impacted maxillary canine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasneet Singh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available NS, a 12 year 2 months old female patient, presented with the chief complaint of irregular teeth. Diagnosis revealed skeletal Class II jaw base relation, with average (toward vertical growth pattern, dentoalveolar angles Class I molar relationship with severe crowding in upper and moderate crowding in the lower arch, normally positioned maxillary incisors but proclined lower incisors, “V” shape constricted maxillary arch with first premolar in crossbite, overretained deciduous molar and a high placed buccoversion canine in the first quadrant and an impacted canine in the second quadrant, constricted mandibular arch with first premolar blocked out in the third quadrant. Treatment with a nonsurgical, nonextraction treatment plan by expansion of the upper arch and taking advantage of natural eruptive forces of the tooth was planned. The final outcome solved the patient's complaints and achieved an esthetically pleasing and functionally adequate occlusal result.

  6. Impacted canines: Etiology, diagnosis, and orthodontic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjit Manne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaction of maxillary and mandibular canines is a frequently encountered clinical problem, the treatment of which usually requires an interdisciplinary approach. Surgical exposure of the impacted tooth and the complex orthodontic mechanisms that are applied to align the tooth into the arch may lead to varying amounts of damage to the supporting structures of the tooth, not to mention the long treatment duration and the financial burden to the patient. Hence, it seems worthwhile to focus on the means of early diagnosis and interception of this clinical situation. In the present article, an overview of the incidence and sequelae, as well as the surgical, periodontal, and orthodontic considerations in the management of impacted canines is presented.

  7. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizak, B.; Plucienniczak, A.

    1995-01-01

    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs

  8. Expression of nociceptive ligands in canine osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, S; Fadl-Alla, B A; Pondenis, H C; Zhang, X; Wycislo, K L; Lezmi, S; Fan, T M

    2015-01-01

    Canine osteosarcoma (OS) is associated with localized pain as a result of tissue injury from tumor infiltration and peritumoral inflammation. Malignant bone pain is caused by stimulation of peripheral pain receptors, termed nociceptors, which reside in the localized tumor microenvironment, including the periosteal and intramedullary bone cavities. Several nociceptive ligands have been determined to participate directly or indirectly in generating bone pain associated with diverse skeletal abnormalities. Canine OS cells actively produce nociceptive ligands with the capacity to directly or indirectly activate peripheral pain receptors residing in the bone tumor microenvironment. Ten dogs with appendicular OS. Expression of nerve growth factor, endothelin-1, and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 was characterized in OS cell lines and naturally occurring OS samples. In 10 dogs with OS, circulating concentrations of nociceptive ligands were quantified and correlated with subjective pain scores and tumor volume in patients treated with standardized palliative therapies. Canine OS cells express and secrete nerve growth factor, endothelin-1, and prostaglandin E2. Naturally occurring OS samples uniformly express nociceptive ligands. In a subset of OS-bearing dogs, circulating nociceptive ligand concentrations were detectable but failed to correlate with pain status. Localized foci of nerve terminal proliferation were identified in a minority of primary bone tumor samples. Canine OS cells express nociceptive ligands, potentially permitting active participation of OS cells in the generation of malignant bone pain. Specific inhibitors of nociceptive ligand signaling pathways might improve pain control in dogs with OS. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. Radiation, chemotherapy and surgery for canine osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, B.E.; Withrow, S.J.; La Rue, S.M.; Straw, R.C.; Gillette, E.L.

    1987-01-01

    Spontaneous canine osteosarcomas is an excellent model for of human osterosarcoma. Twenty dogs with obsteorsarcoma were treated with intravenous or intraarterial cisplatin with or without radiation therapy. This treatment was given 3 weeks prior to limb sparing surgery involving excision of the tumor and allograft replacement. The excised tumor specimen was examined for complete removal and percentage of necrotic tumor measured by planimetry. Intraveneous and intraarterial cisplatin and radiation methods were compared. Data discussing rate of disease development and recurrences is given

  10. Leishmania (infantum) chagasi in canine urinary sediment

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, Ivete Lopes de; Batista, Joilson Ferreira; Alves, Leucio Camara

    2015-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is difficult to diagnosis, mainly due to the presence of asymptomatic animals, the diversity of clinical symptoms and the difficulty in obtaining diagnostic evidence of high sensitivity and specificity. The purpose of this study was to diagnose CVL in urinary sediment of 70 dogs of different breeds, sexes and ages from the veterinary hospital of the Federal University of Piauí and Zoonosis Control Center of Teresina, Brazil. The serological tests were TR DP...

  11. Remote detection of explosives using trained canines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.C.

    1983-03-01

    Use of dogs is a search method which combines high probability of detection, speed of search, and low cost. It was concluded that the canine could be used for explosive screening of personnel, but that it was imperative that the dog be in a position remote from employees and employee traffic. A study was made of the design of booths and air flow for this purpose. Results of tests and conclusions are given and discussed

  12. Power Doppler Imaging in Acute Renal Vein Occlusion and Recanalization: a Canine Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, So-Young; Kim, In-One; Kim, Young-Il; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Min Woo; Youn, Byung Jae; Kim, Woo Sun; Yeon, Kyung Mo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Objective : To evaluate the dynamic changes of the power Doppler (PD) in acute renal vein occlusion and recanalization in a canine model. Materials and Methods : We performed a PD of the kidney during graded renal vein occlusion and recanalization induced by balloon inflation and deflation in nine dogs. The PD images were transferred to a personal computer, and the PD signals were quantified. Result : We observed the temporal change of the PD signal during renal vein occlusion and recanalization, with a decrease in the PD signal during occlusion and an increase during recanalization. The mean PD signal decreased gradually as the renal vein was occluded, and conversely increased gradually with sequential relief of occlusion. The sequential change of the mean value of the PD signal was statistically significant. Conclusion : The PD can detect a change in renal blood flow during acute renal vein occlusion and recanalization in a canine model. The PD may be used as a helpful tool for the early detection of acute renal vein thrombosis and the monitoring of renal perfusion.

  13. Tumor-promoting phorbol esters effect alkalinization of canine renal proximal tubular cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellas, J.; Hammerman, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    We have demonstrated the presence of specific receptors for tumor-promoting phorbol esters in the plasma membrane of the canine renal proximal tubular cell. These compounds affect proximal tubular metabolism in vitro. For example, we have shown that they inhibit gluconeogenesis in canine renal proximal tubular segments. Tumor-promoting phorbol esters have been shown to effect alkalinization of non-renal cells, by enhancing Na + -H + exchange across the plasma membrane. To determine whether the actions of tumor-promoting phorbol esters in proximal tubular segments might be mediated by a similar process, we incubated suspensions of segments from dog kidney with these compounds and measured changes in intracellular pH using [ 14 C]-5,5-dimethoxazoladine-2-4-dione (DMO) and flow dialysis. Incubation of segments with phorbol 12,13 dibutyrate, but not inactive phorbol ester, 4 γ phorbol, effected alkalinization of cells within the segments in a concentration-dependent manner. Alkalinization was dependent upon the presence of extracellular [Na + ] > intracellular [Na + ], was prevented by amiloride and was demonstrable in the presence of SITS. Our findings suggest that tumor-promoting esters stimulate the Na + -H + exchanger known to be present in the brush border membrane of the renal proximal tubular cell. It is possible that the stimulation reflects a mechanism by which phorbol esters affect metabolic processes in these cells

  14. Genotyping and pathobiologic characterization of canine parvovirus circulating in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanbing; Lin, Yan; Zeng, Xujian; Lu, Chengping; Hou, Jiafa

    2013-08-29

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is an important pathogen that causes acute enteric disease in dogs. It has mutated and spread throughout the world in dog populations. We provide an update on the molecular characterization of CPV that circulated in Nanjing, a provincial capital in China between 2009 and 2012. Seventy rectal swab samples were collected from the dogs diagnosed with CPV infection in 8 animal hospitals of Nanjing. Sequence analysis of VP2 genes of 31 samples revealed that 29 viral strains belonged to CPV-2a subtype, while other two strains were classified into CPV-2b. To investigate the pathogenicity of the prevalent virus, we isolated CPV-2a and performed the animal experiment. Nine beagles were inoculated with 105.86 of 50% tissue culture infectious doses (TCID50) of the virus. All the experimentally infected beagles exhibited mild to moderate mucoid or watery diarrhea on day 4 post-infection (p.i.). On day 9 p.i., characteristic histopathological lesions were clearly observed in multiple organs of infected dogs, including liver, spleen, kidney, brain and all segments of the small and large intestines, while viral DNA and antigen staining could be detected in the sampled tissues. It is notable that canine parvovirus was isolated in one from two brain samples processed. Our results indicated that CPV-2a is the predominant subtype in Nanjing of China. And this virus caused extensive lesions in a variety of tissues, including the brain.

  15. Renal capsule for augmentation cystoplasty in canine model: a favorable biomaterial?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Salehipour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate effectiveness of canine renal capsule for augmentation cystoplasty. Materials and Methods: Ten adult dogs participated in this study. After induction of anesthesia each animal underwent bed side urodynamic study, bladder capacity and bladder pressure was recorded. Then via mid line incision abdominal cavity was entered, right kidney was identified and its capsule was dissected. Bladder augmentation was done by anastomosing the renal capsule to the bladder. After 6 months bed side urodynamic study was performed again and changes in bladder volume and pressure were recorded. Then the animals were sacrificed and the augmented bladders were sent for histopathology evaluation. Results: Mean maximum anatomic bladder capacity before cystoplasty was 334.00±11.40cc which increased to 488.00±14.83cc post-operatively (p=0.039. Mean anatomic bladder pressure before cystoplasty was 19.00±1.58cmH2O which decreased to 12.60±1.14cmH2O post-operatively (p=0.039. Histopathology evaluation revealed epithelialization of the renal capsule with urothelium without evidence of fibrosis, collagen deposits or contracture. Conclusions: Our data shows that renal capsule is a favorable biomaterial for bladder augmentation in a canine model.

  16. Production and purification of non replicative canine adenovirus type 2 derived vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelechowski, Marion; Bergeron, Corinne; Gonzalez-Dunia, Daniel; Klonjkowski, Bernard

    2013-12-03

    Adenovirus (Ad) derived vectors have been widely used for short or long-term gene transfer, both for gene therapy and vaccine applications. Because of the frequent pre-existing immunity against the classically used human adenovirus type 5, canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV2) has been proposed as an alternative vector for human gene transfer. The well-characterized biology of CAV2, together with its ease of genetic manipulation, offer major advantages, notably for gene transfer into the central nervous system, or for inducing a wide range of protective immune responses, from humoral to cellular immunity. Nowadays, CAV2 represents one of the most appealing nonhuman adenovirus for use as a vaccine vector. This protocol describes a simple method to construct, produce and titer recombinant CAV2 vectors. After cloning the expression cassette of the gene of interest into a shuttle plasmid, the recombinant genomic plasmid is obtained by homologous recombination in the E. coli BJ5183 bacterial strain. The resulting genomic plasmid is then transfected into canine kidney cells expressing the complementing CAV2-E1 genes (DK-E1). A viral amplification enables the production of a large viral stock, which is purified by ultracentrifugation through cesium chloride gradients and desalted by dialysis. The resulting viral suspension routinely has a titer of over 10(10) infectious particles per ml and can be directly administrated in vivo.

  17. Power Doppler Imaging in Acute Renal Vein Occlusion and Recanalization: a Canine Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, So-Young; Kim, In-One; Kim, Young-Il; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Min Woo; Youn, Byung Jae; Kim, Woo Sun; Yeon, Kyung Mo

    2008-01-01

    Objective : To evaluate the dynamic changes of the power Doppler (PD) in acute renal vein occlusion and recanalization in a canine model. Materials and Methods : We performed a PD of the kidney during graded renal vein occlusion and recanalization induced by balloon inflation and deflation in nine dogs. The PD images were transferred to a personal computer, and the PD signals were quantified. Result : We observed the temporal change of the PD signal during renal vein occlusion and recanalization, with a decrease in the PD signal during occlusion and an increase during recanalization. The mean PD signal decreased gradually as the renal vein was occluded, and conversely increased gradually with sequential relief of occlusion. The sequential change of the mean value of the PD signal was statistically significant. Conclusion : The PD can detect a change in renal blood flow during acute renal vein occlusion and recanalization in a canine model. The PD may be used as a helpful tool for the early detection of acute renal vein thrombosis and the monitoring of renal perfusion

  18. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the canine shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, C D; Nyland, T G

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the normal ultrasonographic anatomy of the canine shoulder. Fourteen shoulders from 7 clinically normal mid-sized dogs were radiographed and imaged using high frequency ultrasound. Each shoulder was isolated postmortem, and the ultrasonographic and gross anatomy was studied during dissection. The ultrasonographic appearance of the shoulder specimens was similar to that found in the live dogs. Twenty-four shoulders isolated postmortem from 12 variably sized dogs were also used to characterize the normal ultrasound anatomy over a range of sizes. Important anatomic structures that could be consistently evaluated were the biceps tendon and bursa, the bicipital groove surface, the supraspinatous tendon, the infraspinatous tendon, the teres minor tendon, and the caudal aspect of the humeral head. Results of ultrasonographic examination of 4 dogs with shoulder lameness are described to illustrate some applications of canine shoulder ultrasonography in the evaluation of the canine shoulder. In these dogs, ultrasound was a valuable tool to evaluate effusion and synovial proliferation within the bicipital bursa, supraspinatous and biceps tendinitis, biceps tendon strain, and dystrophic calcification.

  19. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Major

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73 and rainfall (r2 0.39, >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25 or rainy days (r2 0.38. Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%, pulmonary (76.7%, hepatic (26.0%, and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%, leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%. Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3. Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species.

  20. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy in the canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, D T; Chari, R S; Neighbors, J D; Eubanks, S; Schuessler, W W; Preminger, G M

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of performing laparoscopic radical prostatectomy in a canine model. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy was performed on six adult male canines. A new endoscopic needle driver was used to construct a secure vesicourethral anastomosis. Average operative time required to complete the procedure was 304 min (range 270-345 min). Dissection of the prostate gland took an average of 67 min (range 35-90 min), and construction of the vesicourethral anastomosis took 154 min (rage 80-240 min). There were no intraoperative complications and only one postoperative complication (anastomotic leak). Five of the six animals recovered uneventfully from the procedure, and their foley catheters were removed 10-14 days postoperatively after a retrograde cystourethrogram demonstrated an intact vesicourethral anastomosis. Four (80%) of the surviving animals were clinically continent within 10 days after catheter removal. Post mortem examination confirmed that the vesicourethral anastomosis was intact with no evidence of urine extravasation. These data demonstrate the feasibility of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy in a canine model, and suggest that additional work with this technique should be continued to develop its potential clinical application.

  1. Molecular characterization of the canine HMGB1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murua Escobar, H; Meyer, B; Richter, A; Becker, K; Flohr, A M; Bullerdiek, J; Nolte, I

    2003-01-01

    Due to the close similarities of numerous canine diseases to their human counterparts, the dog could join the mouse as the species of choice to unravel the genetic background of complex diseases as e.g. cancer and metabolic diseases. Accordingly, the role of the dog as a model for therapeutic approaches is strongly increasing. However, prerequisite for such studies is the characterization of the corresponding canine genes. Recently, the human high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) has attracted considerable interest of oncologists because of what is called its "double life". Besides its function as an architectural transcription factor HMGB1 can also be secreted by certain cells and then acts as a ligand for the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). The binding of HMGB1 to RAGE can activate key cell signaling pathways, such as p38(MAPK), JNK, and p42/p44(MAPK) emphasizing the important role of HMGB1 in inflammation and tumor metastasis. These results make HMGB1 a very interesting target for therapeutic studies done in model organisms like the dog. In this study we characterized the molecular structure of the canine HMGB1 gene on genomic and cDNA levels, its predicted protein, the gene locus and a basic expression pattern. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... artérielle Heart Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease What is anemia? Anemia is a condition in ... as they should. How is anemia related to chronic kidney disease? Anemia commonly occurs in people with chronic kidney ...

  3. Urological Complications in Kidney Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.K.B. Slagt (Inez)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The kidney is an essential organ that plays an crucial role in acid-base balance, sodium and potassium balance, calcium metabolism, regulation of blood pressure, red blood cell synthesis and excretion of metabolites. Kidney diseases may result in kidney

  4. Chapter 12. Kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyrac, R.; Sulman, C.

    1975-01-01

    The isotopic kidney check-up consists of the isotopic nephrogram with simultaneous clearance measurement. For clinicians it supplies a set of data which no other method can provide so quickly. This check-up offers many advantages. The examination is simple: after intraveinous injection of hippuran 131 I the radioactivity is followed for 20 minutes in the kidney, heart and bladder by external counting. A blood sample is taken between the 10th and 20th minutes and the urine collected at the 20th minute. The glomerular clearance may be calculated by injecting 125 I hypaque at the same time. The examination is fast: the process lasts half an hour altogether. The only preparation is an adequate hydration of the patient before the test. The examination is absolutely harmless: internal irradiation of the patient is negligible. Numerous data are obtained: pathological changes in the nephrogram: reduced affinity of a kidney for hippuran, heterogeneity of the nephrons, slowing down of transit times, intraparenchyme stases; blood concentration of hippuran and hypaque at the 10th or 20th minute, elimination in the urine at the 20th minute; total blood purification and glomerular and tubular excretion clearances, clearance of each kidney separately. No other method as simple, fast and harmless can yield such a complete set of data. Very often the nephrograms are obtained from gamma-camera recording on the dynamic mode, which allows a morphological study to be carried out at the same time [fr

  5. Drugs and the kidney

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occasionally, strategies to prevent acute kidney insufficiency cause irreversible CKD, ... heart failure (acute or chronic), pulmonary ... wide range of pathological and physiological effects. ... and indomethacin have short half-lives, ... Tissue injury .... changed. Maintenance doses or the dosing interval may have to be adjusted.

  6. Kidneys and urinary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, G

    1993-12-31

    Nuclear medicine studies, through primarily concerned with the functional aspects of the organ, can also provide useful information about the anatomy. An understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the kidneys and urinary system greatly helps in the interpretation of data from radionuclide studies 9 figs, 3 tabs

  7. Kidney transplantation and hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Vetchinnikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful kidney transplantation eliminates endocrine and metabolic disorders that predispose to the development of hyperparathyroidism, the complication typical for the chronic kidney disease; but the process of recovery from mineral and bone disorders is slowed down. The highest incidence of post-transplant hyperparathyroidism is recorded in the first postoperative year. The risk factors for its development or persistence include the high blood levels of parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphorus, and/or alkaline phosphatase, a prolonged dialysis therapy, severe hyperparathyroidism in the preoperative period, vitamin D deficiency, a suboptimal transplanted kidney function, and also the recipient's previous history of subtotal or incomplete parathyroidectomy. The characteristic clinical and laboratory signs of posttransplant hyperparathyroidism are bone lesions, kidney graft abnormalities, hypercalcemia, and hypophosphatemia. The diagnostic algorithm includes monitoring the markers of mineral and bone metabolism, determining the bone mineral density, and imaging of thyroid glands. Correction of post-transplant hyperparathyroidism is performed surgically or pharmacologically. The article specifies the indications to, the extent and timing of parathyroidectomy, discusses the use of native vitamin D formulations, its analogues, and calcimimetics.

  8. Hypertension after kidney transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobrowolski, L.C.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension increases the cardiovascular risk in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). In chapter 2 we found that hypertension was highly prevalent in adult (77.2%), paediatric (62.7%) and young adult (86.4%) KTRs. Transition from the paediatric to adult care did not affect hypertension and there

  9. Kidneys and urinary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, G.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear medicine studies, through primarily concerned with the functional aspects of the organ, can also provide useful information about the anatomy. An understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the kidneys and urinary system greatly helps in the interpretation of data from radionuclide studies

  10. Kidney injury in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Krag, Aleksander; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent in patients with cirrhosis. AKI and hyponatraemia are major determinants of the poor prognosis in advanced cirrhosis. The hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) denotes a functional and potential reversible impairment of renal function. Type 1 HRS, a special type of AKI...

  11. Characterization of an Isolated Kidney's Vasculature for Use in Bio-Thermal Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Allison H.; Parker, Dennis L.; Moellmer, Jeff; Roemer, Robert B.; Clifford, Sarah

    2007-05-01

    Accurate bio-thermal modeling requires site-specific modeling of discrete vascular anatomy. Presented herewith are several steps that have been developed to describe the vessel network of isolated canine and bovine kidneys. These perfused, isolated kidneys provide an environment to repeatedly test and improve acquisition methods to visualize the vascular anatomy, as well as providing a method to experimentally validate discrete vasculature thermal models. The organs are preserved using a previously developed methodology that keeps the vasculature intact, allowing for the organ to be perfused. It also allows for the repeated fixation and re-hydration of the same organ, permitting the comparison of various methods and models. The organ extraction, alcohol preservation, and perfusion of the organ are described. The vessel locations were obtained through a high-resolution time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) technique. Sequential improvements of both the experimental setup used for this acquisition, as well as MR sequence development are presented. The improvements in MR acquisition and experimental setup improved the number of vessels seen in both the raw data and segmented images by 50%. An automatic vessel centerline extraction algorithm describes both vessel location and genealogy. Centerline descriptions also allows for vessel diameter and flow rate determination, providing valuable input parameters for the discrete vascular thermal model. Characterized vessels networks of both canine and bovine kidneys are presented. While these tools have been developed in an ex vivo environment, all steps can be applied to in vivo applications.

  12. Two potential recombinant rabies vaccines expressing canine parvovirus virion protein 2 induce immunogenicity to canine parvovirus and rabies virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun; Shi, Hehe; Tan, Yeping; Niu, Xuefeng; Long, Teng; Zhao, Jing; Tian, Qin; Wang, Yifei; Chen, Hao; Guo, Xiaofeng

    2016-08-17

    Both rabies virus (RABV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) cause lethal diseases in dogs. In this study, both high egg passage Flury (HEP-Flury) strains of RABV and recombinant RABV carrying double RABV glycoprotein (G) gene were used to express the CPV virion protein 2 (VP2) gene, and were designated rHEP-VP2 and, rHEP-dG-VP2 respectively. The two recombinant RABVs maintained optimal virus titration according to their viral growth kinetics assay compared with the parental strain HEP-Flury. Western blotting indicated that G protein and VP2 were expressed in vitro. The expression of VP2 in Crandell feline kidney cells post-infection by rHEP-VP2 and rHEP-dG-VP2 was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assay with antibody against VP2. Immunogenicity of recombinant rabies viruses was tested in Kunming mice. Both rHEP-VP2 and rHEP-dG-VP2 induced high levels of rabies antibody compared with HEP-Flury. Mice immunized with rHEP-VP2 and rHEP-dG-VP2 both had a high level of antibodies against VP2, which can protect against CPV infection. A challenge experiment indicated that more than 80% mice immunized with recombinant RABVs survived after infection of challenge virus standard 24 (CVS-24). Together, this study showed that recombinant RABVs expressing VP2 induced protective immune responses to RABV and CPV. Therefore, rHEP-VP2 and rHEP-dG-VP2 might be potential combined vaccines for RABV and CPV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Canine tooth size and fitness in male mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Steven R; Setchell, Joanna M; Charpentier, Marie; Knapp, Leslie A; Wickings, E Jean

    2008-07-01

    Sexual selection theory explains the evolution of exaggerated male morphologies and weaponry, but the fitness consequences of developmental and age-related changes in these features remain poorly understood. This long-term study of mandrill monkeys (Mandrillus sphinx) demonstrates how age-related changes in canine tooth weaponry and adult canine size correlate closely with male lifetime reproductive success. Combining long-term demographic and morphometric data reveals that male fitness covaries simply and directly with canine ontogeny, adult maximum size, and wear. However, fitness is largely independent of other somatometrics. Male mandrills sire offspring almost exclusively when their canines exceed approximately 30 mm, or two-thirds of average adult value (45 mm). Moreover, sires have larger canines than nonsires. The tooth diminishes through wear as animals age, corresponding with, and perhaps influencing, reproductive senescence. These factors combine to constrain male reproductive opportunities to a brief timespan, defined by the period of maximum canine length. Sexually-selected weaponry, especially when it is nonrenewable like the primate canine tooth, is intimately tied to the male life course. Our analyses of this extremely dimorphic species indicate that sexual selection is closely intertwined with growth, development, and aging, pointing to new directions for sexual selection theory. Moreover, the primate canine tooth has potential as a simple mammalian system for testing genetically-based models of aging. Finally, the tooth may record details of life histories in fossil primates, especially when sexual selection has played a role in the evolution of dimorphism.

  14. Vaccine-induced canine distemper in a lesser panda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, M; Montali, R J; Brownstein, D; James, A E; Appel, M J

    1976-11-01

    A fatal disease occurred in a lesser panda (Ailurus fulgens) 2 weeks after vaccination with modified live distemper vaccine. The disease clinically resembled canine distemper. Pathologically there was giant cell pneumonia, with canine distemper viral inclusion bodies in pulmonary and digestive tract epithelium. Viral isolates were indicative of an attenuated strain rather than virulent types.

  15. Glucosamine and chondroitin use in canines for osteoarthritis: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osteoarthritis is a slowly progressive and debilitating disease that affects canines of all breeds. Pain and decreased mobility resulting from osteoarthritis often have a negative impact on the affected canine's quality of life, level of comfort, daily functioning, activity, behaviour, and client-pet companionship. Despite limited and ...

  16. Management of an impacted and transposed maxillary canine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary canine-lateral incisor transposition is a relatively rare anomaly, with both dental and facial esthetic implications. This is a case report of a maxillary canine-lateral incisor transposition that was successfully treated by surgical-orthodontic treatment followed by esthetic reshaping of the involved teeth.

  17. The Ondersteport Canine distemper virus strain and measles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three groups of dogs aged three months each were used in an experiment to assess efficacy of imported Canine distemper vaccine (Ondersteport strain) and measles vaccine in protecting Nigerian dogs against local isolates of Canine distemper virus. Each group consisted of four randomly selected puppies. One group ...

  18. Evaluation of Temporal Changes in Urine-based Metabolomic and Kidney Injury Markers to Detect Compound Induced Acute Kidney Tubular Toxicity in Beagle Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, M P; Yang, Y; McDuffie, J E; Klapczynski, M; Buck, W; Cheatham, L; Eisinger, D; Sace, F; Lynch, K M; Sonee, M; Ma, J-Y; Chen, Y; Marshall, K; Damour, M; Stephen, L; Dragan, Y P; Fikes, J; Snook, S; Kinter, L B

    2017-01-01

    Urinary protein biomarkers and metabolomic markers have been leveraged to detect acute Drug Induced Kidney Injury (DIKI) in rats; however, the utility of these indicators to enable early detection of DIKI in canine models has not been well documented. Therefore, we evaluated temporal changes in biomarkers and metabolites in urine from male and female beagle dogs. Gentamicin- induced kidney lesions in male dogs were characterized by moderate to severe tubular epithelial cell degeneration/necrosis, epithelial cell regeneration and dilation; and a unique urinebased metabolomic fingerprint. These metabolite changes included time and treatment-dependent increases in lactate, taurine, glucose, lactate, alanine, and citrate as well as 9 other known metabolites. As early as 3 days post dose, gentamicin induced increases in urinary albumin, clusterin, neutrophil gelatinase associated protein (NGAL) and total protein concentrations. Urinary albumin, clusterin, and NGAL showed earlier and more robust elevations than traditional kidney safety biomarkers, blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine. Elevations in urinary kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) were less reliable for detection of gentamicin nephrotoxicity in dogs based on values generated utilizing multiple first-generation, canine-specific KIM-1 immunoassays. The metabolic fingerprint was further evaluated in male and female dogs that received Compound A which induced slightly reversible renal tubular alterations characterized as degeneration/necrosis and concurrent significant increases in urinary taurine amongst other markers. These data support further investigations to demonstrate the value of urinary metabolites, albumin, clusterin, NGAL and taurine as promising markers to enable early detection of DIKI in dogs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Surgical considerations and management of bilateral labially impacted canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Canines are among the most commonly impacted teeth. When a canine is positioned labially, the untoward soft-tissue responses following surgical exposure may cause unfavorable esthetic outcomes. Therefore, decision making as to the choice of a proper surgical technique to uncover labially impacted teeth is critical. This case presentation describes two different surgical approaches for two maxillary impacted canines in a 12-year-old girl. A sequential approach included a first stage of surgical exposure using apically positioned flaps and orthodontic extrusion of both impacted teeth. A successive laterally positioned flap was used for the left maxillary canine to achieve a harmonious soft-tissue contour. In this case, close monitoring and cooperation during the various treatment phases led to proper canine positioning and a successful esthetic result, with good periodontal health and functional occlusion.

  20. Recombinant canine distemper virus serves as bivalent live vaccine against rabies and canine distemper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xijun; Feng, Na; Ge, Jinying; Shuai, Lei; Peng, Liyan; Gao, Yuwei; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu; Bu, Zhigao

    2012-07-20

    Effective, safe, and affordable rabies vaccines are still being sought. Attenuated live vaccine has been widely used to protect carnivores from canine distemper. In this study, we generated a recombinant canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine strain, rCDV-RVG, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG) by using reverse genetics. The recombinant virus rCDV-RVG retained growth properties similar to those of vector CDV in Vero cell culture. Animal studies demonstrated that rCDV-RVG was safe in mice and dogs. Mice inoculated intracerebrally or intramuscularly with rCDV-RVG showed no apparent signs of disease and developed a strong rabies virus (RABV) neutralizing antibody response, which completely protected mice from challenge with a lethal dose of street virus. Canine studies showed that vaccination with rCDV-RVG induced strong and long-lasting virus neutralizing antibody responses to RABV and CDV. This is the first study demonstrating that recombinant CDV has the potential to serve as bivalent live vaccine against rabies and canine distemper in animals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of xenogeneic anti-canine distemper virus antibodies in treatment of canine distemper puppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P C; Chen, C A; Chen, C M; Yen, C H; Lee, M H; Chuang, C K; Tu, C F; Su, B L

    2016-11-01

    The clinical feasibility of passive immunotherapy has not been demonstrated in dogs naturally infected with canine distemper. In this study, porcine anti-canine distemper virus IgG and F(ab') 2 antibody fragments were used to treat infected puppies. A total of 41 naturally infected puppies (age Äsix months) exhibiting severe respiratory signs, but lacking neurological signs, were enrolled in the study. Twenty-five puppies were treated with a combination of IgG or F(ab') 2 antibody fragments (Group 1) and supportive therapy and 16 puppies received routine supportive care only (Group 2). The survival rate of dogs in Group 1 (19/25; 76%) was significantly higher than that in Group 2 (5/16; 31·3%) (Pdistemper virus antibodies improved survival in puppies affected with canine distemper with minimal adverse effects. Therefore, this therapy could be considered for treatment of endangered animal species infected with canine distemper virus. © 2016 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  2. Rhabdomyosarcoma of the kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Samkari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcoma is considered the most common soft tissue sarcoma arising in patients younger than 15 years old, accounting for 5%–10% of childhood solid tumors. Sarcoma of the kidney represents 1% of all primary renal malignancies. Primary renal rhabdomyosarcoma is a very rare entity with limited number of cases reported in the literature. In this paper we present two cases of primary renal rhabdomyosarcoma in pediatric patients. The two tumors involved the renal parenchyma and occurred in 2-year-old girl and 6-year-old boy, respectively. Histopathology examination and immunohistochemistry studies confirm the diagnosis of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma with pleomorphic component, and pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma, respectively. Both cases are treated with chemotherapy and show a good response with no evidence of recurrence or metastasis. The aim of this paper is to expand the differential diagnosis of primary mesenchymal kidney tumors in pediatric age group. Keywords: Rhabdomyosarcoma, Renal neoplasm, Pediatric, Oncology

  3. Surgical Procedures and Clinical Considerations for Impacted Canines: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Torkzaban

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Impaction of canine teeth is a clinical problem whose treatment usually requires an interdisciplinary approach. After the maxillary third molar, the maxillary canine is the second-most commonly impacted tooth, with an incidence of 1% - 2.5%. Maxillary canines are more common in females than males. This study reviews the surgical treatments and orthodontic considerations for impacted canines exposure reported in previous studies. The clinician should be aware of variations in the surgical management of labially and palatally impacted canines, as well as the most common methods of canine in orthodontic application, and the implications of canine extraction. The different factors that affect these decisions are discussed.

  4. Orthodontic-surgical treatment of four impacted canines in an adult patient: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlović, Jasna; Tabaković, Saša Z; Simić, Sanja; Vujačić, Amila; Vukićević, Vladanka

    2016-07-01

    Full impaction of canines, in both jaws, is a rare phenomenon. It is usually coupled with the persistence of deciduous canines, or any other irregularity in the dental arch. Panoramic radiograph of a 24-year-old female patient showed bilateral canine impaction in both jaws. Due to vestibular, apical and medial position of canines in the upper jaw, the surgical approach implied the apically positioned flap technique. The position of impacted mandibular canines was vertical with more coronal position relative to the upper canines, thus requiring a closed eruption technique. Inadequate position of impacted canines in the bone fully justifies the use of orthodontic-surgical treatment.

  5. Simultaneous canine distemper encephalitis and canine parvovirus infection with distemper-associated cardiac necrosis in a pup

    OpenAIRE

    Headley,Selwyn Arlington; Saito,Taís Berelli

    2003-01-01

    Simultaneous infection of canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus associated with distemper myocardial degeneration and necrosis is described in a pup. The dog demonstrated myoclonus, nystagmus, enamel hypoplasia, abdominal pustules, and bilateral corneal ulceration clinically. Demyelinating encephalitis, myocardial degeneration and necrosis with mineralization, and necrosis, hemorrhage and fusion of intestinal villi were observed. The lesions observed in this dog are characteristic of a...

  6. Kidney Transplantation in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Behzad Einollahi

    2010-01-01

    Kidney transplantation in patients with end stage renal diseaseis preferred to dialysis because transplantation provides a betterquality of life and improved survival. However, the gapbetween the supply and demand for a renal allograft is wideningand the waiting time is increasing. Iranian protocol, a controlledtransplant program supported by the government forliving unrelated donors, was initiated for solving the problemof organ shortage. Although this system might experiencechallenges, clea...

  7. Pediatric Acute Kidney Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragasso, Tiziana; Ricci, Zaccaria; Goldstein, Stuart L

    2018-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) in children is a serious condition with an important impact on morbidity and mortality. Onset can be insidious and it is frequently unrecognized in the early phase when the therapeutic opportunities are theoretically more effective. The present review focuses on the most recent epidemiology studies and the progress in pediatric AKI (pAKI) research. Standardization of definition (presented in the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) and novel biomarkers have been developed to help clinicians recognize kidney injury in a timely manner, both in adult and pediatric populations. Strengths and weaknesses of these diagnostic tools are discussed and the clinical scoring system (Renal Angina Index), which aims to provide a rational context for biomarker utilization, is also presented. Even if effective treatments are not currently available for established AKI, specific preventive approaches and some promising pharmacological treatments will be detailed. Renal replacement therapy is currently considered the most effective way to manage fluid balance when severe AKI occurs. Key Messages: Great efforts in pAKI research have today led to new strategies for early AKI detection and prevention strategies. Further studies have to be conducted in the next future in order to definitely improve the outcomes of pediatric patients experiencing this deadly syndrome. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Three-year duration of immunity in dogs following vaccination against canine adenovirus type-1, canine parvovirus, and canine distemper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Thomas C; Lakshmanan, Nallakannu; Duncan, Karen L; Coyne, Michael J; Lum, Melissa A; Sterner, Frank J

    2005-01-01

    A challenge-of-immunity study was conducted to demonstrate immunity in dogs 3 years after their second vaccination with a new multivalent, modified-live vaccine containing canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), canine parvovirus (CPV), and canine distemper virus (CDV). Twenty-three seronegative pups were vaccinated at 7 and 11 weeks of age. Eighteen seronegative pups, randomized into groups of six dogs, served as challenge controls. Dogs were kept in strict isolation for 3 years following the vaccination and then challenged sequentially with virulent canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1), CPV, and CDV. For each viral challenge, a separate group of six control dogs was also challenged. Clinical signs of CAV-1, CPV, and CDV infections were prevented in 100% of vaccinated dogs, demonstrating that the multivalent, modified-live test vaccine provided protection against virulent CAV-1, CPV, and CDV challenge in dogs 7 weeks of age or older for a minimum of 3 years following second vaccination.

  9. Validation of commercially available automated canine-specific immunoturbidimetric method for measuring canine C-reactive protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillström, Anna; Hagman, Ragnvi; Tvedten, Harold

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP) is used for diagnosing and monitoring systemic inflammatory disease in canine patients. An automated human immunoturbidimetric assay has been validated for measuring canine CRP, but cross-reactivity with canine CRP is unpredictable. OBJECTIVE......: The purpose of the study was to validate a new automated canine-specific immunoturbidimetric CRP method (Gentian cCRP). METHODS: Studies of imprecision, accuracy, prozone effect, interference, limit of quantification, and stability under different storage conditions were performed. The new method was compared...... with a human CRP assay previously validated for canine CRP determination. Samples from 40 healthy dogs were analyzed to establish a reference interval. RESULTS: Total imprecision was

  10. Extraglandular and intraglandular vascularization of canine prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, Miroslav

    2004-03-01

    The literature on the vascularization of the canine prostate is reviewed and the clinical significance of prostate morphology is described. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), combined with improved corrosion casting methods, reveal new morphological details that promise better diagnostics and treatment but also require expansion of clinical nomenclature. A proposal is made for including two previously unnamed veins in Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (NAV). The canine prostate has two lobes with independent vascularization. Each lobe is supplied through the left and right a. prostatica, respectively. The a. prostatica sprouts three small vessels (cranial, middle, and caudal) towards the prostate gland. A. prostatica is a small-size artery whose wall structure is similar to the arteries of the muscular type. V. prostatica is a small-size valved vein. The canine prostate has capsular, parenchymal, and urethral vascular zones. The surface vessels of the capsule are predominantly veins and the diameter of arterial vessels is larger than that of the veins. The trabecular vessels are of two types: direct and branched. The prostate parenchyma is supplied by branches of the trabecular vessels. The periacinary capillaries are fenestrated and form a net in a circular pattern. The processes of the myoepithelial cells embrace both the acins and the periacinar capillaries. In the prostate ductal system. there are spermatozoa. The prostatic part of the urethra is supplied by an independent branch of a. prostatica. The prostatic urethral part is drained by v. prostatica, the vein of the urethral bulb and the ventral prostate veins. M. urethralis begins as early as the urethral prostatic part. The greater part of the white muscle fibers in m. urethralis suggest an enhanced anaerobic metabolism. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Comment: Kidney exchange to overcome financial barriers to kidney transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Baines, L.S.; Jindal, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Rees et al. have shown the feasibility of global kidney exchange (GKE) to overcome financial cost and address the current shortage of organs for transplantation. Wiseman and Gill, question their interpretation of definition of "financial incompatibility". The authors1 do not factor in the well documented cognitive and emotional aspects of kidney transplantation. Particularly, relevant to kidney transplantation is how patients calculate risk and the emotional turmoil characterised by anxiety a...

  12. Normal blood supply of the canine patella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, P.E.; Wilson, J.W.; Robbins, T.A.; Ribble, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    The normal blood supply of the canine patella was evaluated, using microangiography and correlated histology. Arterioles entered the cortex of the patella at multiple sites along the medial, lateral, and dorsal aspects. The body of the patella was vascularized uniformly, with many arterioles that branched and anastomosed extensively throughout the patella. The patella was not dependent on a single nutrient artery for its afferent supply, but had an extensive interior vascular network. These factors should ensure rapid revascularization and healing of patellar fractures, provided appropriate fracture fixation is achieved

  13. Definition, Classification, and Pathophysiology of Canine Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzirani, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Glaucoma is a common ocular condition in humans and dogs leading to optic nerve degeneration and irreversible blindness. Primary glaucoma is a group of spontaneous heterogeneous diseases. Multiple factors are involved in its pathogenesis and these factors vary across human ethnic groups and canine breeds, so the clinical phenotypes are numerous and their classification can be challenging and remain superficial. Aging and oxidative stress are major triggers for the manifestation of disease. Multiple, intertwined inflammatory and biochemical cascades eventually alter cellular and extracellular physiology in the optic nerve and trabecular meshwork and lead to vision loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Canine distemper virus-associated hypocalcemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbrode, S E; Krakowka, S

    1979-01-01

    A retrospective study was done to correlate serum calcium concentrations and parathyroid gland ultrastructure to clinical, immunologic, and pathologic changes experimentally induced in gnotobiotic dogs by canine distemper virus (CDV). Dogs infected with CDV had significantly reduced serum calcium concentrations associated with ultrastructural evidence of parathyroid gland inactivity, degeneration, and viral inclusions. Although CDV-infected dogs exhibited neurologic signs, minimal lesions were present in the central nervous system. It is suggested that viral-induced parathyroid dysfunction may contribute to neutrologic disturbance of CDV infection.

  15. Canine parvovirus in asymptomatic feline carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, S R; Coyne, K P; Dawson, S; Spibey, N; Gaskell, R M; Radford, A D

    2012-05-25

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) and feline panleukopaenia virus (FPLV) are two closely related viruses, which are known to cause severe disease in younger unvaccinated animals. As well as causing disease in their respective hosts, CPV has recently acquired the feline host range, allowing it to infect both cats and dogs. As well as causing disease in dogs, there is evidence that under some circumstances CPV may also cause disease in cats. This study has investigated the prevalence of parvoviruses in the faeces of clinically healthy cats and dogs in two rescue shelters. Canine parvovirus was demonstrated in 32.5% (13/50) of faecal samples in a cross sectional study of 50 cats from a feline only shelter, and 33.9% (61/180) of faecal samples in a longitudinal study of 74 cats at a mixed canine and feline shelter. Virus was isolated in cell cultures of both canine and feline origin from all PCR-positive samples suggesting they contained viable, infectious virus. In contrast to the high CPV prevalence in cats, no FPLV was found, and none of 122 faecal samples from dogs, or 160 samples collected from the kennel environment, tested positive for parvovirus by PCR. Sequence analysis of major capsid VP2 gene from all positive samples, as well as the non-structural gene from 18 randomly selected positive samples, showed that all positive cats were shedding CPV2a or 2b, rather than FPLV. Longitudinally sampling in one shelter showed that all cats appeared to shed the same virus sequence type at each date they were positive (up to six weeks), despite a lack of clinical signs. Fifty percent of the sequences obtained here were shown to be similar to those recently obtained in a study of sick dogs in the UK (Clegg et al., 2011). These results suggest that in some circumstances, clinically normal cats may be able to shed CPV for prolonged periods of time, and raises the possibility that such cats may be important reservoirs for the maintenance of infection in both the cat and the dog

  16. Triple bone labeling of canine mandibles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Kwon, P H

    1990-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy was used for evaluation of new bone formation in 16 canine mandibles augmented with hydroxylapatite (HA) granules. Three fluorochromes were injected at different time intervals during therapeutic radiation treatment. Oxytetracycline, DCAF, and alizarin-complexone were given...... intravenously to mark the bone level at these times, respectively. Oxytetracycline, which defined the baseline of bone at implantation of HA, was detectable in 42% of animals that were irradiated and in no animal of the nonirradiated control group. The marker DCAF, designating levels of bone at the start...

  17. Embolus radiolabelling in a new canine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, H.H.; Huchton, J.D.; Woo, J.; Cannon, D.C.; Anderson, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Embolus radiolabelling with 131 I fibrinogen was studied in a canine model of internal carotid artery embolization. The dog was chosen as the experimental animal because of its maxillocarotid artery which permits collateral flow round the occlusion and helps to prevent strokes. Clot was prepared by incubating blood at room temperature to inactivate plasminogen activators and then refrigerating it to promote clot retraction. Emboli persisting 48 hours were seen in 80% of animals. Major strokes were not seen when 0.25 to 0.30 cm 3 were used. Autoradiography and well counting revealed uptake of isotope. The test, when refined, should provide a tool for the investigation of thromboemboli. (author)

  18. Functional Characterization of Canine Interferon-Lambda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenhui; Xu, Lei; Ren, Liqian; Qu, Hongren; Li, Jing; Liang, Jingjing; Liu, Wenjun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we provide the first comprehensive annotation of canine interferon-λ (CaIFN-λ, type III IFN). Phylogenetic analysis based on genomic sequences indicated that CaIFN-λ is located in the same branch with Swine IFN-λ1 (SwIFN-λ), Bat IFN-λ1 (BaIFN-λ), and human IFN-λ1 (HuIFN-λ1). CaIFN-λ was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified to further investigate the biological activity in vitro. The recombinant CaIFN-λ (rCaIFN-λ) displayed potent antiviral activity on both homologous and heterologous animal cells in terms of inhibiting the replication of the New Jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), canine parvovirus, and influenza virus A/WSN/33 (H1N1), respectively. In addition, we also found that rCaIFN-λ exhibits a significant antiproliferative response against A72 canine tumor cells and MDCK cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, CaIFN-λ activated the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. To evaluate the expression of CaIFN-λ induced by virus and the expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) induced by rCaIFN-λ in the MDCK cells, we measured the relative mRNA level of CaIFN-λ and ISGs (ISG15, Mx1, and 2′5′-OAS) by quantitative real-time PCR and found that the mRNA level of CaIFN-λ and the ISGs significantly increased after treating the MDCK cells with viruses and rCaIFN-λ protein, respectively. Finally, to evaluate the binding activity of rCaIFN-λ to its receptor, we expressed the extracellular domain of the canine IFN-λ receptor 1 (CaIFN-λR1-EC) and determined the binding activity via ELISA. Our results demonstrated that rCaIFN-λ bound tightly to recombinant CaIFN-λR1-EC (rCaIFN-λR1-EC). PMID:24950142

  19. Esthetic orthodontic correction of a canine crossbite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyun; Kim, Tae Weon

    2010-01-01

    Serial Aligners are fabricated from the working cast at certain intervals during treatment. It offers flexibility to change the treatment plan at any stage throughout the course of treatment. The tooth movement is very efficient and the patient feels comfortable because Clear Aligner comes in three different thicknesses of plastic sheets. It enables the patient to receive necessary dental treatments during the aligner treatment. The treatment can also be restarted easily even when the patient has not worn the aligners for a period of time. This article reports a patient with canine crossbite combined with moderate crowding that was successfully treated using Serial Aligners.

  20. The Genetics of Canine Skull Shape Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenebeck, Jeffrey J.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2013-01-01

    A dog’s craniofacial diversity is the result of continual human intervention in natural selection, a process that began tens of thousands of years ago. To date, we know little of the genetic underpinnings and developmental mechanisms that make dog skulls so morphologically plastic. In this Perspectives, we discuss the origins of dog skull shapes in terms of history and biology and highlight recent advances in understanding the genetics of canine skull shapes. Of particular interest are those molecular genetic changes that are associated with the development of distinct breeds. PMID:23396475

  1. Comparison of epithelial and fibroblastic cell behavior on nano/micro-topographic PCL membranes produced by crystallinity control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe; Kaya, F Betül; Beşkardeş, Işıl Gerçek

    2011-06-15

    In this study, the relationship between the cellular morphology and the material surface topography was investigated. Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) membranes were prepared in a wide range of surface wettabilities by means of crystallinity-controlled solvent casting process. Membrane surfaces were characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and static/dynamic water contact angle measurements. It was found that solvent evaporation and non-solvent (methanol) addition to the solvent (THF) are the most decisive parameters to change the surface topography. The non-solvent addition and the decrease in solvent evaporation temperature from room temperature to -20 °C caused increased polymeric chain mobility and crystallization time. Such changes in crystallization parameters led to the formation of micro/nano-sized features on the membrane. Cell culture studies indicated that in contrast to Madin Darby kidney (MDBK) epithelial cells, L929 mouse fibroblast preferred rough and porous surfaces. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ergopeptines bromocriptine and ergovaline and the dopamine type-2 receptor inhibitor domperidone inhibit bovine equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1-like activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Edwena D; Xue, Yan; Strickland, James R; Boling, James A; Matthews, James C

    2011-09-14

    Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected tall fescue contains ergopeptines. Except for interactions with biogenic amine receptors (e.g., dopamine type-2 receptor, D2R), little is known about how ergopeptines affect animal metabolism. The effect of ergopeptines on bovine nucleoside transporters (NT) was evaluated using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells. Equilibrative NT1 (ENT1)-like activity accounted for 94% of total NT activity. Inhibitory competition (IC(50)) experiments found that this activity was inhibited by both bromocriptine (a synthetic model ergopeptine and D2R agonist) and ergovaline (a predominant ergopeptine of tall fescue). Kinetic inhibition analysis indicated that bromocriptine inhibited ENT1-like activity through a competitive and noncompetitive mechanism. Domperidone (a D2R antagonist) inhibited ENT1 activity more in the presence than in the absence of bromocriptine and displayed an IC(50) value lower than that of bromocriptine or ergovaline, suggesting that inhibition was not through D2R-mediated events. These novel mechanistic findings imply that cattle consuming endophyte-infected tall fescue have reduced ENT1 activity and, thus, impaired nucleoside metabolism.

  3. Studies on the in vitro cultivation of coccidia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmatz, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    New approaches to the in vitro cultivation of coccidian parasites are described here, specifically for avian coccidia of the genus Eimeria. Firstly, an improved method of purifying the infectious stage of these parasites, known as sporozoites, over a DEAE-52 cellulose anion exchange column to eliminate toxic debris generated during excystation is described. The cultured cells used to support the intracellular development of these parasites, Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney Cells (MDBK), were cloned and it was demonstrated that some clones were more susceptible than others to infection with sporozoites. The use of sub-lethal doses of gamma radiation to pre-treat host cell monolayers prior to infecting has been found to prevent host cell overgrowth and subsequent peeling of the monolayers while not interfering with parasite development. Utilizing in vitro culture techniques developed here in conjunction with radiolabeling studies, an assay has been development using the parasite-specific incorporation of 3 H-uracil to assess the intracellular development of E. tenella and E. acervulina in vitro. As shown by both scintillation counts and autoradiography, 3 H-uracil was incorporated specifically into the intracellular parasites from the onset of infection and continued throughout the development of the first generation schizonts. Based on these findings, a semi-automated microscale incorporation assay was developed to determine parasite viability. The assay system is used in this study to investigate the effects of known anticoccidials, sporozoite antiserum, and varying the composition of the cell culture medium on parasite development

  4. Generation of a persistently infected MDBK cell line with natural bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongseob Tark

    Full Text Available Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE is a zoonotic transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE thought to be caused by the same prion strain as variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD. Unlike scrapie and chronic wasting disease there is no cell culture model allowing the replication of proteinase K resistant BSE (PrPBSE and the further in vitro study of this disease. We have generated a cell line based on the Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK cell line over-expressing the bovine prion protein. After exposure to naturally BSE-infected bovine brain homogenate this cell line has shown to replicate and accumulate PrPBSE and maintain infection up to passage 83 after initial challenge. Collectively, we demonstrate, for the first time, that the BSE agent can infect cell lines over-expressing the bovine prion protein similar to other prion diseases. These BSE infected cells will provide a useful tool to facilitate the study of potential therapeutic agents and the diagnosis of BSE.

  5. Antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities of some flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Didem Deliorman; Ozçelik, Berrin; Ozgen, Selda; Ergun, Fatma

    2010-08-20

    Antibacterial and antifungal activities of six plant-derived flavonoids representing two different structural groups were evaluated against standard strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis and their drug-resistant isolates, as well as fungi (Candida albicans, C. krusei) using the microdilution broth method. Herpes simplex virus Type-1 and Parainfluenza-3 virus were employed for antiviral assessment of the flavonoids using Madin-Darby bovine kidney and Vero cell lines. Ampicillin, gentamycin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, fluconazole, ketoconazole, acyclovir, and oseltamivir were used as the control agents. All tested compounds (32-128 microg/ml) showed strong antimicrobial and antifungal activities against isolated strains of P. aeruginosa, A. baumanni, S. aureus, and C. krusei. Rutin, 5,7-dimethoxyflavanone-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and 5,7,3'-trihydroxy-flavanone-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (0.2-0.05 microg/ml) were active against PI-3, while 5,7-dimethoxyflavanone-4'-O-[2''-O-(5'''-O-trans-cinnamoyl)-beta-D-apiofuranosyl]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (0.16-0.2 microg/ml) inhibited potently HSV-1. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. On-Chip Method to Measure Mechanical Characteristics of a Single Cell by Using Moiré Fringe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Sugiura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method to characterize the mechanical properties of cells using a robot-integrated microfluidic chip (robochip and microscopy. The microfluidic chip is designed to apply the specified deformations to a single detached cell using an on-chip actuator probe. The reaction force is simultaneously measured using an on-chip force sensor composed of a hollow folded beam and probe structure. In order to measure the cellular characteristics in further detail, a sub-pixel level of resolution of probe position is required. Therefore, we utilize the phase detection of moiré fringe. Using this method, the experimental resolution of the probe position reaches 42 nm. This is approximately ten times smaller than the optical wavelength, which is the limit of sharp imaging with a microscope. Calibration of the force sensor is also important in accurately measuring cellular reaction forces. We calibrated the spring constant from the frequency response, by the proposed sensing method of the probe position. As a representative of mechanical characteristics, we measured the elastic modulus of Madin-Darby Cannie Kidney (MDCK cells. In spite of the rigid spring constant, the resolution and sensitivity were twice that achieved in our previous study. Unique cellular characteristics can be elucidated by the improvements in sensing resolution and accuracy.

  7. ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Karoline; Titlestad, Kjell; Baudier, Francois

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Kidney transplantation is the optimal treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Due to shortage of donor kidneys in Denmark, there is a need to expand the possibilities for donation. At the Odense University Hospital (OUH), we have introduced ABO......-incompatible kidney transplantation. We used antigenspecific immunoadsorptions to remove blood group antibodies and anti-CD20 antibody (rituximab) to inhibit the antibody production. The aim of introducing the ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation at the OUH was to increase the rate of living donor kidney...... transplantation without increasing rejection or mortality rates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective evaluation. Eleven patients received ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation. The patients were followed for 3-26 months. RESULTS: One patient had an antibody-mediated rejection, one patient suffered T...

  8. Skeletal maturity assessment using mandibular canine calcification stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vildana Džemidžić

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aims of this study were: to investigate the relationship between mandibular canine calcification stages and skeletal maturity; and to evaluate whether the mandibular canine calcification stages may be used as a reliable diagnostic tool for skeletal maturity assessment. Materials and methods. This study included 151 subjects: 81 females and 70 males, with ages ranging from 9 to 16 years (mean age: 12.29±1.86 years. The inclusion criteria for subjects were as follows: age between 9 and 16 years; good general health without any hormonal, nutritional, growth or dental development problems. Subjects who were undergoing or had previously received orthodontic treatment were not included in this study. The calcification stages of the left permanent mandibular canine were assessed according to the method of Demirjian, on panoramic radiographs. Assessment of skeletal maturity was carried out using the cervical vertebral maturation index (CVMI, as proposed by the Hassel-Farman method, on lateral cephalograms. The correlation between the calcification stages of mandibular canine and skeletal maturity was estimated separately for male and female subjects. Results. Correlation coefficients between calcification stages of mandibular canine and skeletal maturity were 0.895 for male and 0.701 for female subjects. Conclusions. A significant correlation was found between the calcification stages of the mandibular canine and skeletal maturity. The calcification stages of the mandibular canine show a satisfactory diagnostic performance only for assessment of pre-pubertal growth phase.

  9. Stem Cell-Associated Marker Expression in Canine Hair Follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhards, Nora M; Sayar, Beyza S; Origgi, Francesco C; Galichet, Arnaud; Müller, Eliane J; Welle, Monika M; Wiener, Dominique J

    2016-03-01

    Functional hair follicle (HF) stem cells (SCs) are crucial to maintain the constant recurring growth of hair. In mice and humans, SC subpopulations with different biomarker expression profiles have been identified in discrete anatomic compartments of the HF. The rare studies investigating canine HF SCs have shown similarities in biomarker expression profiles to that of mouse and human SCs. The aim of our study was to broaden the current repertoire of SC-associated markers and their expression patterns in the dog. We combined analyses on the expression levels of CD34, K15, Sox9, CD200, Nestin, LGR5 and LGR6 in canine skin using RT-qPCR, the corresponding proteins in dog skin lysates, and their expression patterns in canine HFs using immunohistochemistry. Using validated antibodies, we were able to define the location of CD34, Sox9, Keratin15, LGR5 and Nestin in canine HFs and confirm that all tested biomarkers are expressed in canine skin. Our results show similarities between the expression profile of canine, human and mouse HF SC markers. This repertoire of biomarkers will allow us to conduct functional studies and investigate alterations in the canine SC compartment of different diseases, like alopecia or skin cancer with the possibility to extend relevant findings to human patients. © 2016 The Histochemical Society.

  10. Cone beam computed tomography findings of impacted upper canines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva Santos, Ludmilla Mota [Dept. of Endodontics, Aracatuba Dental School, Paulista State University, Aracatuba(Brazil); Bastos, Luana Costa; Da Silva, Silvio Jose Albergaria; Campos, Paulo Sergio Flores [School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador (Brazil); Oliveira Santos, Christiano [Dept. of Stomatology, Oral Public Health, and Forensic Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Neves, Frederico Sampaio [Dept. of Oral Diagnosis, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Piracicaba (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    To describe the features of impacted upper canines and their relationship with adjacent structures through three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Using the CBCT scans of 79 upper impacted canines, we evaluated the following parameters: gender, unilateral/bilateral occurrence, location, presence and degree of root resorption of adjacent teeth (mild, moderate, or severe), root dilaceration, dental follicle width, and presence of other associated local conditions. Most of the impacted canines were observed in females (56 cases), unilaterally (51 cases), and at a palatine location (53 cases). Root resorption in adjacent teeth and root dilaceration were observed in 55 and 47 impacted canines, respectively. In most of the cases, the width of the dental follicle of the canine was normal; it was abnormally wide in 20 cases. A statistically significant association was observed for all variables, except for root dilaceration (p=0.115) and the side of impaction (p=0.260). Root resorption of adjacent teeth was present in most cases of canine impaction, mostly affecting adjacent lateral incisors to a mild degree. A wide dental follicle of impacted canines was not associated with a higher incidence of external root resorption of adjacent teeth.

  11. Evaluation of P16 expression in canine appendicular osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, B G; Mok, M Y; York, D; Rebhun, R; Woolard, K D; Hillman, C; Dickinson, P; Skorupski, K

    2017-06-20

    Osteosarcoma (OSA) is a common malignant bone tumor of large breed dogs that occurs at predictable anatomic sites. At the time of initial diagnosis, most affected dogs have occult pulmonary metastases. Even with aggressive surgical treatment combined with chemotherapy, the majority of dogs diagnosed with OSA live less than 1 year from the time of diagnosis. The ability to identify canine OSA cases most responsive to treatment is needed. In humans, OSA is also an aggressive tumor that is histologically and molecularly similar to canine OSA. The expression of the tumor suppressor gene product P16 by human OSA tissue has been linked to a favorable response to chemotherapy. We identified an antibody that binds canine P16 and developed a canine OSA tissue microarray in order to test the hypothesis that P16 expression by canine OSA tissue is predictive of clinical outcome following amputation and chemotherapy. Although statistical significance was not reached, a trend was identified between the lack of canine OSA P16 expression and a shorter disease free interval. The identification of a molecular marker for canine OSA is an important goal and the results reported here justify a larger study.

  12. Upper canine inclination influences the aesthetics of a smile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothung, C; Fischer, K; Schiffer, H; Springer, I; Wolfart, S

    2015-02-01

    This current study investigated which angle of canine inclination (angle between canine tooth axis (CA-line) and the line between the lateral canthus and the ipsilateral labial angle (EM-line)) is perceived to be most attractive in a smile. The second objective was to determine whether laymen and dental experts share the same opinion. A Q-sort assessment was performed with 48 posed smile photographs to obtain two models of neutral facial attractiveness. Two sets of images (1 male model set, 1 female model set), each containing seven images with incrementally altered canine and posterior teeth inclinations, were generated. The images were ranked for attractiveness by three groups (61 laymen, 59 orthodontists, 60 dentists). The images with 0° inclination, that is CA-line (maxillary canine axis) parallel to EM-line (the line formed by the lateral canthus and the ipsilateral corner of the mouth) (male model set: 54·4%; female model set: 38·9%), or -5° (inward) inclination (male model set: 20%; female model set: 29·4%) were perceived to be most attractive within each set. Images showing inward canine inclinations were regarded to be more attractive than those with outward inclinations. Dental experts and laymen were in accordance with the aesthetics. Smiles were perceived to be most attractive when the upper canine tooth axis was parallel to the EM-line. In reconstructive or orthodontic therapy, it is thus important to incline canines more inwardly than outwardly. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Cone beam computed tomography findings of impacted upper canines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva Santos, Ludmilla Mota; Bastos, Luana Costa; Da Silva, Silvio Jose Albergaria; Campos, Paulo Sergio Flores; Oliveira Santos, Christiano; Neves, Frederico Sampaio

    2014-01-01

    To describe the features of impacted upper canines and their relationship with adjacent structures through three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Using the CBCT scans of 79 upper impacted canines, we evaluated the following parameters: gender, unilateral/bilateral occurrence, location, presence and degree of root resorption of adjacent teeth (mild, moderate, or severe), root dilaceration, dental follicle width, and presence of other associated local conditions. Most of the impacted canines were observed in females (56 cases), unilaterally (51 cases), and at a palatine location (53 cases). Root resorption in adjacent teeth and root dilaceration were observed in 55 and 47 impacted canines, respectively. In most of the cases, the width of the dental follicle of the canine was normal; it was abnormally wide in 20 cases. A statistically significant association was observed for all variables, except for root dilaceration (p=0.115) and the side of impaction (p=0.260). Root resorption of adjacent teeth was present in most cases of canine impaction, mostly affecting adjacent lateral incisors to a mild degree. A wide dental follicle of impacted canines was not associated with a higher incidence of external root resorption of adjacent teeth.

  14. Chronic kidney disease and anticoagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sciascia, Savino; Radin, Massimo; Schreiber, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Anticoagulation in patients with impaired kidney function can be challenging since drugs' pharmacokinetics and bioavailability are altered in this setting. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) treated with conventional anticoagulant agents [vitamin K antagonist (VKA), low-molecular weight...... are eliminated via the kidneys pose additional challenges. More recently, two classes of direct oral anticoagulant agents (DOACs) have been investigated for the prevention and management of venous thromboembolic events: the direct factor Xa inhibitors rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban, and the direct thrombin...

  15. Rate of retraction of anterior teeth after canine distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litesh Singla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Orthodontists have always strived to develop a new technique to reduce the treatment time with minimal patient cooperation. Canine distraction was introduced as an alternative technique for canine retraction in a minimum possible period of 3 weeks, thus avoiding taxing the anchorage by molars since the canines are retracted within the lag phase of molars. It has been proved by numerous studies that the bone mesial to canine after rapid canine distraction through the extraction socket is a new and immature. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the rate of retraction of anterior teeth, the time taken, and anchorage loss during the retraction of anterior teeth into this newly organized bone. Methods: Six orthodontic patients who required first premolar extractions were selected. Undermining of the interseptal bone distal to the canine was done, and canines were retracted into the extraction space of the first premolar, using a custom-made tooth borne intraoral distraction screw, following which the incisors were retracted into the newly formed bone using closing loops. The patients were called at weekly intervals to measure the amount of space left between canine and lateral incisor, and the rate of retraction was calculated after space was closed. Results: The present study showed that the rate of retraction of mandibular and maxillary teeth was 0.74 ± 0.39 mm and 0.73 ± 0.15 mm/week, respectively. The anchorage loss was found to be 1.83 ± 0.29 mm and 2.08 ± 0.38 mm in mandibular and maxillary arches, respectively. The time taken to retract the incisors was found to be 40.3 ± 1.5 and 41.7 ± 0.6 days for mandibular and maxillary arches, respectively. Interpretation and Conclusion: Retraction of incisors is faster in both maxillary and mandibular arches when the incisors are retracted immediately into the immature bone created after canine distraction.

  16. Immune System and Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Badri Man

    2017-01-01

    The immune system recognises a transplanted kidney as foreign body and mounts immune response through cellular and humoral mechanisms leading to acute or chronic rejection, which ultimately results in graft loss. Over the last five decades, there have been significant advances in the understanding of the immune responses to transplanted organs in both experimental and clinical transplant settings. Modulation of the immune response by using immunosuppressive agents has led to successful outcomes after kidney transplantation. The paper provides an overview of the general organisation and function of human immune system, immune response to kidney transplantation, and the current practice of immunosuppressive therapy in kidney transplantation in the United Kingdom.

  17. Canine neosporosis: perspectives on pathogenesis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva RC

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rodrigo C Silva,1 Gustavo P Machado2 1Department of Pathobiology and Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS, USA; 2Department of Internal Medicine and Surgery of Small Animals, Dr Munhoz Veterinary Hospital, Itápolis, Brazil Abstract: Canine neosporosis is a worldwide disease caused by the obligate intracellular parasite protozoan Neospora caninum, manifesting mainly neurological symptoms. N. caninum has a heteroxenous life cycle and affects a wide range of warm-blooded animals. The domestic and wild canids are the definitive host of the parasite. They shed oocysts after ingestion of tissue cysts from infected intermediate hosts (ovine, equine, bovine, canine, and many other species, containing bradyzoites, or oocyst-contaminated water and food. The presence of dogs in farms is considered a risk factor for production animals. A wide range of diagnostic methods are currently available, but the most used is serology, ie, indirect fluorescent antibody test specific to the antibody detection in blood serum samples. No vaccine is available, but control strategies should be focused on the vertical and horizontal transmission of the parasite, ie, avoid feeding dogs with raw or undercooked meat, and taking care with water for human and animal consumption. No medicines to control the transplacental transmission are available yet. Keywords: neosporosis, Neospora caninum, pathogenesis, management, dogs

  18. Seroepidemiology of Canine parvovirus infection in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Sendow

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus is an acute and fatal viral disease in dogs. A total of 209 local, cross breed and breed dogs sera from Kodya Bogor, Kabupaten Bogor, Sukabumi, and Jakarta, had been tested using Haemagglutination Inhibition Test (HI with pig red blood cells. A total of 64 breed and cross breed dogs from Sukabumi and Kodya Bogor, were used as a sentinel dogs to study the epidemiology of Canine parvovirus (CPV infection and its immunological responses caused by vaccination. The results indicated that 78% (95 breed and cross bred dogs and 59% (51 local dogs had antibody to CPV. Sentinel dogs results indicated that dogs had been vaccinated showed antibody response with the varied titre dependant upon prevaccination titre. Low prevaccinated titre gave better response than protective level titre. From 19 puppies observed, Maternal antibodi were still detected until 5 weeks old puppies. First vaccination given at less than 3 months old, should be boosted after 3 months old puppied. Antibodi titre produced by natural infection will keep untill 2 years. These data concluded that the dog condition and time of vaccination will affect the optimum antibody response.

  19. Intracellular Route of Canine Parvovirus Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihinen-Ranta, Maija; Kalela, Anne; Mäkinen, Päivi; Kakkola, Laura; Marjomäki, Varpu; Vuento, Matti

    1998-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the endocytic pathway involved in canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. Reduced temperature (18°C) or the microtubule-depolymerizing drug nocodazole was found to inhibit productive infection of canine A72 cells by CPV and caused CPV to be retained in cytoplasmic vesicles as indicated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Consistent with previously published results, these data indicate that CPV enters a host cell via an endocytic route and further suggest that microtubule-dependent delivery of CPV to late endosomes is required for productive infection. Cytoplasmic microinjection of CPV particles was used to circumvent the endocytosis and membrane fusion steps in the entry process. Microinjection experiments showed that CPV particles which were injected directly into the cytoplasm, thus avoiding the endocytic pathway, were unable to initiate progeny virus production. CPV treated at pH 5.0 prior to microinjection was unable to initiate virus production, showing that factors of the endocytic route other than low pH are necessary for the initiation of infection by CPV. PMID:9420290

  20. Expression of Bcl-2 in canine osteosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, F.; Leonardi, L.

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignancy of bone. It is responsible for 80-85% of the primary bone tumors affecting dogs and it is characterized by aggressive and invasive behavior, with a high metastatic potential. Several studies on cancer and related tumorigenesis, show an involvement of the mechanisms of programmed cell death and cell survival. Many signals seem to be involved in the related mechanism of autophagy and in particular, our interest is focused on the expression of a family of Bcl-2 that seems to be involved either in the control of biomolecular mechanisms like autophagy and apoptosis. In this study we investigated the expression of Bcl-2 in different cases of spontaneous canine osteosarcoma and the related preliminary results are described. We found Bcl-2 activity was increased in OS tissue compared to normal bone tissue. These results suggested that Bcl-2 activity may play an important role in the formation of OS and as a diagnostic for neoplastic activity. However, further research is needed to confirm the role of Bcl-2 activity in OS in canines. PMID:26623359

  1. Expression of Bcl-2 in canine osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Piro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma (OS is the most common primary malignancy of bone. It is responsible for 80-85% of the primary bone tumors affecting dogs and it is characterized by aggressive and invasive behavior, with a high metastatic potential. Several studies on cancer and related tumorigenesis, show an involvement of the mechanisms of programmed cell death and cell survival. Many signals seem to be involved in the related mechanism of autophagy and in particular, our interest is focused on the expression of a family of Bcl-2 that seems to be involved either in the control of biomolecular mechanisms like autophagy and apoptosis. In this study we investigated the expression of Bcl-2 in different cases of spontaneous canine osteosarcoma and the related preliminary results are described. We found Bcl-2 activity was increased in OS tissue compared to normal bone tissue. These results suggested that Bcl-2 activity may play an important role in the formation of OS and as a diagnostic for neoplastic activity. However, further research is needed to confirm the role of Bcl-2 activity in OS in canines.

  2. Marginal kidney donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Gopalakrishnan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for a medically eligible patient with end stage renal disease. The number of renal transplants has increased rapidly over the last two decades. However, the demand for organs has increased even more. This disparity between the availability of organs and waitlisted patients for transplants has forced many transplant centers across the world to use marginal kidneys and donors. We performed a Medline search to establish the current status of marginal kidney donors in the world. Transplant programs using marginal deceased renal grafts is well established. The focus is now on efforts to improve their results. Utilization of non-heart-beating donors is still in a plateau phase and comprises a minor percentage of deceased donations. The main concern is primary non-function of the renal graft apart from legal and ethical issues. Transplants with living donors outnumbered cadaveric transplants at many centers in the last decade. There has been an increased use of marginal living kidney donors with some acceptable medical risks. Our primary concern is the safety of the living donor. There is not enough scientific data available to quantify the risks involved for such donation. The definition of marginal living donor is still not clear and there are no uniform recommendations. The decision must be tailored to each donor who in turn should be actively involved at all levels of the decision-making process. In the current circumstances, our responsibility is very crucial in making decisions for either accepting or rejecting a marginal living donor.

  3. Case-Control Study of Risk Factors Associated with Feline and Canine Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Bartlett

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An age-matched case-control study was initiated to determine the major risk factors associated with CKD in cats and dogs and to determine what clinical signs cat and dog owners observed before their veterinarian diagnosed their pet with CKD. When compared to controls, the feline cases were more likely to have had polydipsia and polyuria in the year before the owners' cats were diagnosed with CKD. In the dogs, increased water intake, increased urination, small size and a recent history of weight loss and bad breath were noticed by the dog owners before veterinary CKD diagnosis. Dog owners recognized abnormal drinking and urination behavior over half a year before their pet's veterinary diagnosis with CKD, and they recognized weight loss almost 4 months before CKD diagnosis. Bad breath was noticed 1.2 years before recognition of CKD by a veterinarian. Given that earlier CKD diagnosis should have been possible in most cases, clinical trials should proceed to measure the efficacy of early interventions.

  4. Orthodontic treatment of a complete transposed impacted maxillary canine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Huei Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tooth transposition is a positional interchange of two adjacent teeth. Transposition most often occurs at maxillary canine. Moving transposed teeth to their normal positions is challenging because this requires bodily movement and translation of one tooth to pass another. This procedure may cause damage to the teeth or supporting structures. We report a case of complete transposition of maxillary canine and lateral incisor. Transposed teeth were successfully moved orthodontically to their normal positions. Multiple mechanics were meticulously applied to achieve complete correction of the tooth positions and to minimize root resorption and/or periodontal defects of canine and lateral incisors. Factors concerning treatment planning for transposed teeth are discussed.

  5. Intranasal vaccine trial for canine infectious tracheobronchitis (kennel cough).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickman, L T; Appel, M J

    1981-08-01

    Two field trials were conducted during periods of endemic (summer) and epizootic (winter) canine infectious tracheobronchitis activity to evaluate the efficacy of three intranasal vaccines in a closed commercial beagle breeding kennel. A trivalent vaccine containing Bordetella bronchiseptica, canine parainfluenza, and canine adenovirus-2 was administered at 3 weeks of age. The vaccine was 71.2% and 81.8% effective in decreasing the incidence of coughing during the winter and summer trials, respectively. The number of deaths was lower in each of the vaccine groups than in the placebo groups. No adverse reactions were observed with any of the intranasal vaccines.

  6. Models of experimental saccular aneurysms of carotid arteries in canine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haixia; Cheng Yingsheng; Li Minghua

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the availability by making experimental saccular aneurysm models of carotid arteries in canine similar to human intracranial aneurysms. Methods: Twenty healthy canines with experimental saccular side-wall aneurysms of carotid arteries were created successfully by surgery. Results: Forty experimental saccular side-wall aneurysms of carotid arteries were created successfully with 36 aneurysms and parent arteries maintaining patency with each other and four spontaneously occluded confirmed by angiography. Model successful rate reached 90%. Conclusions: Experimental saccular side-wall aneurysms of carotid arteries in canines were one of best models created for simulating human intracranial aneurysms. (authors)

  7. Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Wild Canines (Fox, Jackal, and Wolf in Northeastern Iran Using Parasitological, Serological, and Molecular Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mohebali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although many studies had been conducted on various aspects of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL in domestic dogs in the endemic areas of Iran, investigations on CVL in wild canines are rare.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2012 to 2013 in northeast of Iran where human VL is endemic. Wild canines were trapped around the areas where human VL cases had been previously identified. Wild canines were collected and examined both clinically and serologically using direct agglutination test (DAT. Microscopically examinations were performed in all the seropositive wild canines for the presence of the amastigote form of Leishmania spp. Some Leishmania sp. which had been isolated from the spleens of wild canines, were examined analyzed by conventional PCR and sequencing techniques using α-tubulin and GAPDH genes.Results: Altogether, 84 wild canines including foxes (Vulpes vulpes, n=21, Jackals (Canis aureus, n=60 and wolves (Canis lupus, n=3 were collected. Four foxes and seven jackals showed anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies with titers of 1:320–1:20480 in DAT. Furthermore, one fox and one jackal were parasitologically (microscopy and culture positive and L. infantum was confirmed by sequence analysis.Conclusion: The present study showed that sylvatic cycle of L. infantum had been established in the studied endemic areas of VL in northeastern Iran.

  8. Kinetics of canine dental calculus crystallization: an in vitro study on the influence of inorganic components of canine saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Ballav M; Halter, Timothy J; Xie, Baoquan; Henneman, Zachary J; Siudzinski, Thomas R; Harris, Stephen; Elliott, Matthew; Nancollas, George H

    2014-07-01

    This work identifies carbonated hydroxyapatite (CAP) as the primary component of canine dental calculus, and corrects the long held belief that canine dental calculus is primarily CaCO3 (calcite). CAP is known to be the principal crystalline component of human dental calculus, suggesting that there are previously unknown similarities in the calcification that occurs in these two unique oral environments. In vitro kinetic experiments mimicking the inorganic components of canine saliva have examined the mechanisms of dental calculus formation. The solutions were prepared so as to mimic the inorganic components of canine saliva; phosphate, carbonate, and magnesium ion concentrations were varied individually to investigate the roll of these ions in controlling the nature of the phases that is nucleated. To date, the inorganic components of the canine oral systems have not been investigated at concentrations that mimic those in vivo. The mineral composition of the synthetic calculi grown under these conditions closely resembled samples excised from canines. This finding adds new information about calculus formation in humans and canines, and their sensitivity to chemicals used to treat these conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Transplantation of Kidneys From Donors With Acute Kidney Injury: Friend or Foe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffa, C.; van de Leemkolk, F.; Curnow, E.; Homan van der Heide, J.; Gilbert, J.; Sharples, E.; Ploeg, R. J.

    2017-01-01

    The gap between supply and demand in kidney transplantation has led to increased use of marginal kidneys; however, kidneys with acute kidney injury are often declined/discarded. To determine whether this policy is justified, we analyzed outcomes of donor kidneys with acute kidney injury (AKI) in a

  10. Kidney Exchange to Overcome Financial Barriers to Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, M A; Dunn, T B; Kuhr, C S; Marsh, C L; Rogers, J; Rees, S E; Cicero, A; Reece, L J; Roth, A E; Ekwenna, O; Fumo, D E; Krawiec, K D; Kopke, J E; Jain, S; Tan, M; Paloyo, S R

    2017-03-01

    Organ shortage is the major limitation to kidney transplantation in the developed world. Conversely, millions of patients in the developing world with end-stage renal disease die because they cannot afford renal replacement therapy-even when willing living kidney donors exist. This juxtaposition between countries with funds but no available kidneys and those with available kidneys but no funds prompts us to propose an exchange program using each nation's unique assets. Our proposal leverages the cost savings achieved through earlier transplantation over dialysis to fund the cost of kidney exchange between developed-world patient-donor pairs with immunological barriers and developing-world patient-donor pairs with financial barriers. By making developed-world health care available to impoverished patients in the developing world, we replace unethical transplant tourism with global kidney exchange-a modality equally benefitting rich and poor. We report the 1-year experience of an initial Filipino pair, whose recipient was transplanted in the United states with an American donor's kidney at no cost to him. The Filipino donor donated to an American in the United States through a kidney exchange chain. Follow-up care and medications in the Philippines were supported by funds from the United States. We show that the logistical obstacles in this approach, although considerable, are surmountable. © 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  11. Clinical and serological response of wild dogs (Lycaon pictus to vaccination against canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Van Heerden

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Wild dogs Lycaon pictus (n = 8 were vaccinated 4 times against canine distemper (n = 8 (initially with inactivated and subsequently with live attenuated strains of canine distemper and canine parvovirus infection (n = 8 over a period of 360 days. Four of the wild dogs were also vaccinated 3 times against rabies using a live oral vaccine and 4 with an inactivated parenteral vaccine. Commercially-available canine distemper, canine parvovirus and parenteral rabies vaccines, intended for use in domestic dogs, were used. None of the vaccinated dogs showed any untoward clinical signs. The inactivated canine distemper vaccine did not result in seroconversion whereas the attenuated live vaccine resulted in seroconversion in all wild dogs. Presumably protective concentrations of antibodies to canine distemper virus were present in all wild dogs for at least 451 days. Canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres were present in all wild dogs prior to the administration of vaccine and protective concentrations persisted for at least 451 days. Vaccination against parvovirus infection resulted in a temporary increase in canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres in most dogs. Administration of both inactivated parenteral and live oral rabies vaccine initially resulted in seroconversion in 7 of 8 dogs. These titres, however, dropped to very low concentrations within 100 days. Booster administrations resulted in increased antibody concentrations in all dogs. It was concluded that the vaccines were safe to use in healthy subadult wild dogs and that a vaccination protocol in free-ranging wild dogs should at least incorporate booster vaccinations against rabies 3-6 months after the first inoculation.

  12. Clinical and serological response of wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) to vaccination against canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heerden, J; Bingham, J; van Vuuren, M; Burroughs, R E J; Stylianides, E

    2002-03-01

    Wild dogs Lycaon pictuis (n = 8) were vaccinated 4 times against canine distemper (n = 8) (initially with inactivated and subsequently with live attenuated strains of canine distemper) and canine parvovirus infection (n = 8) over a period of 360 days. Four of the wild dogs were also vaccinated 3 times against rabies using a live oral vaccine and 4 with an inactivated parenteral vaccine. Commercially-available canine distemper, canine parvovirus and parenteral rabies vaccines, intended for use in domestic dogs, were used. None of the vaccinated dogs showed any untoward clinical signs. The inactivated canine distemper vaccine did not result in seroconversion whereas the attenuated live vaccine resulted in seroconversion in all wild dogs. Presumably protective concentrations of antibodies to canine distemper virus were present in all wild dogs for at least 451 days. Canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres were present in all wild dogs prior to the administration of vaccine and protective concentrations persisted for at least 451 days. Vaccination against parvovirus infection resulted in a temporary increase in canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres in most dogs. Administration of both inactivated parenteral and live oral rabies vaccine initially resulted in seroconversion in 7 of 8 dogs. These titres, however, dropped to very low concentrations within 100 days. Booster administrations resulted in increased antibody concentrations in all dogs. It was concluded that the vaccines were safe to use in healthy subadult wild dogs and that a vaccination protocol in free-ranging wild dogs should at least incorporate booster vaccinations against rabies 3-6 months after the first inoculation.

  13. Obesity and kidney protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Aravind; Biersmith, Michael; Tolouian, Ramin

    2014-07-01

    Obesity, both directly and indirectly, increases the risk for a variety of disease conditions including diabetes, hypertension, liver disease, and certain cancers, which in turn, decreases the overall lifespan in both men and women. Though the cardiovascular risks of obesity are widely acknowledged, less often identified is the relationship between obesity and renal function. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, PubMed, EBSCO and Web of Science has been searched. The concept of the "Metabolic Syndrome" helps us to understand this close link between obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and renal dysfunction. An elevated body mass index has shown to be one of the major determinants of glomerular hyperfiltration that lead to the development of chronic kidney disease. Interestingly, weight loss can lead to attenuation of hyperfiltration in severely obese patients suggesting a possible therapeutic option to combat obesity-related hyperfiltration. Various treatment strategies had been suggested to decrease impact of obesity on kidneys. These are blood pressure controling, inhibition of the renin-angiotensinaldosterone axis, improving glycemic control, improving dyslipidemia, improving protein uriaand lifestyle modifications. Regardless of the numerous pharmacotherapies, the focus should be on the root cause: obesity.

  14. Mineral & Bone Disorder in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical trials that are currently open and are recruiting can be viewed at www.ClinicalTrials.gov . This ... about Kidney Failure and How it’s Treated Treatment Methods for Kidney Failure: Hemodialysis Treatment Methods for Kidney ...

  15. Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment Past Issues / Winter ... called a "urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio." Treating Kidney Disease Kidney disease is usually a progressive disease, ...

  16. Kidney Stones in Children and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Kidney Stones in Children and Teens Page Content Article ... teen girls having the highest incidence. Types of Kidney Stones There are many different types of kidney ...

  17. Kidney Tests: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Total protein (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Kidney Tests updates ... hour volume Show More Show Less Related Health Topics Kidney Cancer Kidney Diseases National Institutes of Health ...

  18. Kidneys and How They Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Anemia High Blood Pressure Heart Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder Diabetes Inspidus Glomerular Diseases Goodpasture Syndrome Henoch- ... The kidneys are important because they keep the composition, or makeup, of the blood ... blood cells bones stay strong How do the kidneys work? The ...

  19. Cancer rates after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Ulrik; Bistrup, Claus; Marckmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated a 3-5-fold increased cancer risk in kidney allograft recipients compared with the general population. Our aim was to estimate cancer frequencies among kidney allograft recipients who were transplanted in 1997-2000 and who were immunosuppressed according to a more...

  20. Management of an Unusual Ectopic Eruption of Maxillary Canine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aileni, Kaladhar Reddy; Rachala, Madhukar Reddy; Prathima, Chintakunta Reddy; Naveen, Pitalla Kumar; Soujanya, Donthula

    2017-05-01

    Transposition of teeth is a rare condition, with a prevalence of 0.3-0.4% in general population. They are more commonly observed in females, and may occur unilaterally/bilaterally with greater frequency of left side occurrence in unilateral transposition cases. A 17-year-old female patient reported with the chief complaint of unaesthetic smile. On clinical examination the patient was diagnosed with Angle's class I malocclusion with an ectopically erupted maxillary left canine labial to the left central incisor with retained deciduous canine. The treatment plan decided was to extract the retained deciduous canine, level and align the ectopic canine using an R-loop. The treatment for the patient was finished in 14 months and was retained using a fixed lingual retainer in the upper and lower arches.

  1. Molecular characterization of canine distemper vi- rus circulating in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2OIE Collaborating Centre for Diseases at Animal and Human Interface, FAO Reference Centre for Rabies, Viale ... Asia-1 lineage canine distemper virus is circulating in outbreak. .... jected to cell culture on Vero cell lines for virus isolation.

  2. The Comparative Diagnostic Features of Canine and Human Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis M. Seelig

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs are a heterogeneous family of lymphoid malignancies that are among the most common neoplasms of both dogs and humans. Owing to shared molecular, signaling, incidence, and pathologic features, there is a strong framework supporting the utilization of canine lymphoma as a comparative, large animal model of human NHL. In alignment with the biologic similarities, the current approach towards the diagnosis and classification of canine lymphoma is based upon the human World Health Organization guidelines. While this approach has contributed to an increasing appreciation of the potential biological scope of canine lymphoma, it has also become apparent that the most appropriate diagnostic philosophy must be multimodal, namely by requiring knowledge of microscopic, immunophenotypic, and clinical features before establishing a final disease diagnosis. This review seeks to illustrate the comparative similarities and differences in the diagnosis of canine lymphoma through the presentation of the microscopic and immunophenotypic features of its most common forms.

  3. Death of a wild wolf from canine parvovirus enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Kurtz, H.J.; Goyal, S.

    1997-01-01

    A 9-mo-old female wolf (Canis lupus) in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota (USA) died from a canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. This is the first direct evidence that this infection effects free-ranging wild wolves.

  4. Canine index – A tool for sex determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar M. Bakkannavar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Teeth are most useful tools in victim identification in the living as well as the dead in the field of forensic investigations. Their ability to survive in situations like mass disasters makes them constructive devices. Many authors have measured crowns of teeth in both males and females and found certain variations. Canines, reported to survive in air crash and hurricane disasters, are perhaps the most stable teeth in the oral cavity because of the labiolingual thickness of the crown and the root anchorage in the alveolar process of jaws. Measurement of mesiodistal width of the mandibular canines and inter-canine distance of the mandible provides good evidence of sex identification due to dimorphism. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of canine index (CI in the determination of sex.

  5. The Comparative Diagnostic Features of Canine and Human Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelig, Davis M; Avery, Anne C; Ehrhart, E J; Linden, Michael A

    2016-06-01

    The non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) are a heterogeneous family of lymphoid malignancies that are among the most common neoplasms of both dogs and humans. Owing to shared molecular, signaling, incidence, and pathologic features, there is a strong framework supporting the utilization of canine lymphoma as a comparative, large animal model of human NHL. In alignment with the biologic similarities, the current approach towards the diagnosis and classification of canine lymphoma is based upon the human World Health Organization guidelines. While this approach has contributed to an increasing appreciation of the potential biological scope of canine lymphoma, it has also become apparent that the most appropriate diagnostic philosophy must be multimodal, namely by requiring knowledge of microscopic, immunophenotypic, and clinical features before establishing a final disease diagnosis. This review seeks to illustrate the comparative similarities and differences in the diagnosis of canine lymphoma through the presentation of the microscopic and immunophenotypic features of its most common forms.

  6. Difficulties in estimating the human burden of canine rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Louise H; Hampson, Katie; Fahrion, Anna; Abela-Ridder, Bernadette; Nel, Louis H

    2017-01-01

    Current passive surveillance data for canine rabies, particularly for the regions where the burden is highest, are inadequate for appropriate decision making on control efforts. Poor enforcement of existing legislation and poor implementation of international guidance reduce the effectiveness of surveillance systems, but another set of problems relates to the fact that canine rabies is an untreatable condition which affects very poor sectors of society. This results in an unknown, but potentially large proportion of rabies victims dying outside the health system, deaths that are unlikely to be recorded by surveillance systems based on health center records. This article critically evaluates the potential sources of information on the number of human deaths attributable to canine rabies, and how we might improve the estimates required to move towards the goal of global canine rabies elimination. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dentigerous Cyst Associated with Ectopic Canine and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ankylosis, cystic or neoplastic lesion or trauma may be the local factors ... After clinical and radiographic examination, a provisional diagnosis of ... bone along with the impacted teeth (permanent ectopic canine ... [7] Panoramic radiograph and ...

  8. Emerging perspectives on hereditary glomerulopathies in canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littman MP

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Meryl P LittmanDepartment of Clinical Studies – Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Familial glomerulopathies have been described in more than two dozen dog breeds. These canine spontaneous cases of glomerular disease are good models for their human counterparts. The dogs present clinically with protein-losing nephropathy and variable signs of hypertension, thromboembolic events, edema/effusions/nephrotic syndrome, or eventually with signs of renal disease such as anorexia, vomiting, weight loss, and/or polyuria/polydipsia. Laboratory changes include proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hypercholesterolemia, and eventually azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, anemia, and isosthenuria. Renal biopsies examined with transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and thin section light microscopy may show ultrastructural glomerular basement membrane abnormalities, glomerulosclerosis, amyloidosis, non-amyloid fibrillary deposition, or breed-associated predispositions for immune-complex glomerulonephritis. Genome-wide association studies and fine sequencing of candidate genes have led to the discovery of variant alleles associated with disease in some breeds; eg, 1 glomerular basement membrane ultrastructural abnormalities due to defective collagen type IV, caused by different premature stop codons in each of four breeds; ie, in COL4A5 in Samoyeds and Navasota mix breed dogs (X-linked, and in COL4A4 in English Cocker Spaniels and English Springer Spaniels (autosomal recessive; and 2 glomerulosclerosis-related podocytopathy with slit diaphragm protein anomalies of both nephrin and Neph3/filtrin due to non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in conserved regions of their encoding genes, NPHS1 and KIRREL2, in Soft Coated Wheaten Terriers and Airedale Terriers, with a complex mode of inheritance. Age at onset and progression to end-stage renal disease vary depending on the model. Genetic

  9. Transmigration of Mandibular Canine: Report of Four Cases and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmigration of canine is a rare phenomenon. The prevalence of transmigration of mandibular canine has been found to be only 0.14%–0.31%. The treatment of impacted transmigrated canine is very complicated if it is diagnosed at a later stage. We report 4 cases of transmigration of mandibular canine and review the literature regarding the etiology and treatment. Panoramic radiograph should be taken during the mixed dentition period if the mandibular canine has not erupted from more than one year from its normal chronological age of eruption as intraoral periapical radiograph examination will not always detect an impacted or transmigrated canine.

  10. Genomic instability and telomere fusion of canine osteosarcoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Maeda

    Full Text Available Canine osteosarcoma (OSA is known to present with highly variable and chaotic karyotypes, including hypodiploidy, hyperdiploidy, and increased numbers of metacentric chromosomes. The spectrum of genomic instabilities in canine OSA has significantly augmented the difficulty in clearly defining the biological and clinical significance of the observed cytogenetic abnormalities. In this study, eight canine OSA cell lines were used to investigate telomere fusions by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH using a peptide nucleotide acid probe. We characterized each cell line by classical cytogenetic studies and cellular phenotypes including telomere associated factors and then evaluated correlations from this data. All eight canine OSA cell lines displayed increased abnormal metacentric chromosomes and exhibited numerous telomere fusions and interstitial telomeric signals. Also, as evidence of unstable telomeres, colocalization of γ-H2AX and telomere signals in interphase cells was observed. Each cell line was characterized by a combination of data representing cellular doubling time, DNA content, chromosome number, metacentric chromosome frequency, telomere signal level, cellular radiosensitivity, and DNA-PKcs protein expression level. We have also studied primary cultures from 10 spontaneous canine OSAs. Based on the observation of telomere aberrations in those primary cell cultures, we are reasonably certain that our observations in cell lines are not an artifact of prolonged culture. A correlation between telomere fusions and the other characteristics analyzed in our study could not be identified. However, it is important to note that all of the canine OSA samples exhibiting telomere fusion utilized in our study were telomerase positive. Pending further research regarding telomerase negative canine OSA cell lines, our findings may suggest telomere fusions can potentially serve as a novel marker for canine OSA.

  11. Asymmetry in development (mineralisation of permanent mandibular canine roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burić Mirjana V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The development of the teeth is closely associated with the proper and unobstructed physical and psychological development of the child. Aim. To determine the existence of asymmetry in the development of the roots of the lower permanent canine teeth in different age groups of children of both sexes. Material and methods. The study was conducted on 523 ortopantomograms (253 boys and 270 girls of orthodontic patients aged 6 to 14 years of the Dental Clinic in Niš. We analyzed the development of asymmetry in the lower permanent canine root, using the method of Gleiser and Hunt, or the modification by Tijanić (1981. Results. It was found that asymmetry in the development of the root in both sexes of the lower canine teeth was present in 20 patients (3.82%, 10 boys (3.95% and 10 girls (3.70%. The difference is in the range of one stage. Asymmetric development of the roots of the lower incisors in girls and boys usually present in the 7th and 8th stages (60% in girls and in 50% in boys. In 90% of girls in developing asymmetry the root of the lower canine is present in a single stage, and in 10% of girls it presents within three stages. Asymmetric development of the root of the lower canine is the most common in the 7th and 8th stages of development (55%. Conclusion. Asymmetric root development of permanent lower canines was found in 3.82% of patients. More than half of respondents (55% had asymmetrical canine root development stage in half and three quarters of the total root length. The results of this study indicate that the canine is the tooth with very little variations in its development.

  12. Successful experimental challenge of dogs with canine parvovirus-2.

    OpenAIRE

    Carman, S; Povey, C

    1982-01-01

    Withholding food from dogs for 24 hours prior to, and for 48 hours following oral challenge with a gut mucosal homogenate of canine parvovirus-2, was a successful means of reproducing gastroenteric signs of canine parvovirus-2 infection. Twenty-one of 24 dogs, which had previously received various vaccine preparations of mink enteritis virus or were unvaccinated, and which were starved at challenge, developed soft or liquid feces with large or without large clots of mucus. Altered feces were ...

  13. Orthodontic-surgical treatment of bilateral maxillary canine impaction

    OpenAIRE

    Sumitra

    2012-01-01

    A 13-year-old female patient reported with the chief complaint of irregular front teeth. She had a skeletal Class III and Angle's Class I malocclusion with hyperdivergent growth pattern and bilateral impaction of maxillary canines. Surgical exposure of the impacted teeth and orthodontic alignment was planned. The surgical exposure was done by a minimally invasive modified window technique. Orthodontic treatment of impacted canines without causing significant morbidity to the adjacent teeth an...

  14. Bilateral Second Premolars Agenesia Together with a Unilateral Canine Radiculomegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemoli, Arthur Musakulu; Junior, Thomas Munyao

    2017-01-01

    Congenitally missing teeth is a common feature for the third molars. However, missing teeth, macrodontia and radiculomegaly occurring in a single patient is very rare. This article describes a case of agenesis of mandibular second premolars, radiculomegaly with dilacerations of a canine tooth together with elongated roots of other canines. All these features had been discerned through diagnostic radiographs taken during a routine treatment planning.

  15. Bilateral second premolars agenesia together with a unilateral canine radiculomegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Musakulu Kemoli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenitally missing teeth is a common feature for the third molars. However, missing teeth, macrodontia and radiculomegaly occurring in a single patient is very rare. This article describes a case of agenesis of mandibular second premolars, radiculomegaly with dilacerations of a canine tooth together with elongated roots of other canines. All these features had been discerned through diagnostic radiographs taken during a routine treatment planning.

  16. Three-year serologic immunity against canine parvovirus type 2 and canine adenovirus type 2 in dogs vaccinated with a canine combination vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, L J; Schultz, R D

    2007-01-01

    A group of client-owned dogs and a group of dogs at a commercial kennel were evaluated for duration of antibody responses against canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) and canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1) after receiving a combination vaccine containing recombinant canarypox-vectored canine distemper virus (CDV) and modified-live CPV-2, CAV-2, and canine parainfluenza virus, with (C6) or without (C4) two serovars of Leptospira (Recombitek C4 or C6, Merial). Duration of antibody, which correlates with protective immunity, was found to be at least 36 months in both groups. Recombitek combination vaccines can confidently be given every 3 years with assurance of protection in immunocompetent dogs against CPV-2 and CAV-1 as well as CDV. This allows this combination vaccine, like other, similar modified- live virus combination products containing CDV, CAV-2, and CPV-2, to be administered in accordance with the recommendations of the American Animal Hospital Association Canine Vaccine Task Force.

  17. Consequences of crown shortening canine teeth in Greenland sled dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortegaard, H E; Anthony Knudsen, T; Dahl, S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the consequences of crown shortening, focusing on the prevalence of pulp exposure and periapical pathology in Greenland sled dogs that had had their canine crowns shortened at an early age. METHODS: Five cadaver heads and 54 sled dogs underwent an oral examination for dental...... fractures and pulp exposure of canines. All canines were radiographed and evaluated for periapical pathology. RESULTS: The prevalence of canine pulp exposure in 12 (5 heads and 7 dogs) crown shortened dogs was 91 · 7%, and 21 · 3% in 47 not-crown shortened dogs. A significant (P pulp...... exposure of the canines in the crown shortened group compared to the not-crown shortened group was seen with a relative risk of 4 · 3 on a dog basis and a relative risk of 12 · 2 on a tooth basis. In dogs with pulp exposure of canines (n = 51) the prevalence of periapical pathology was 82 · 4%, but only 0...

  18. Current practices and research updates on diabetes mellitus in canine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes has evidence in ancient literatures, though recently is being considered as one amongst the most emerging disease condition in both human and companion animals. Diabetes mellitus is one of the common endocrinopathy of dog characterized by hyperglycemia, glycosuria and weight loss. Reports suggests high fraction of canine population suffer with diabetes world over. Studies in different veterinary hospitals of United States suggest increase in cases of canine diabetes and decrease in case fatality rate over time. Increase in cases of canine diabetes worldwide is attributed to awareness amongst pet owners, better veterinary health facilities, breed preferences by dog owners, increase dependence on commercial feeds, obesity, etc. Diabetes in most dogs is immune mediated and insulin dependent. Breed predisposition in canine is attributed to dog leukocyte antigen gene pool encoding form major histocompatibility complex-II molecules, however research is still underway. Diagnosis of diabetes still relies on blood sugar evaluation for screening of canine population, though many other diagnostic methods have shown promising benefits including measurement of fructosamine and glycated haemoglobin. Management of diabetes in dog is based on insulin therapy, diet modification and exercise. Use of oral anti-diabetics drugs in canine is limited though experimental studies have shown promising results. Alternative therapies have been explored, but only a few approaches have shown promise for clinical application.

  19. Chlamydia in canine or feline coronary arteriosclerotic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sostaric-Zuckermann, Ivan C; Borel, Nicole; Kaiser, Carmen; Grabarevic, Zeljko; Pospischil, Andreas

    2011-09-09

    There are numerous reports linking Chlamydia infection to human coronary atherosclerosis. However, there is a lack of data regarding this correlation in dogs and cats, and there are no reports investigating coronary arteriosclerosis and Chlamydia in these species. The aim of the present study was to examine whether there is a correlation between canine and feline spontaneous atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. Archived histopathological samples of dogs (n = 16) and cats (n = 13) with findings of atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis in heart tissue were examined for the presence of Chlamydiaceae using real-time PCR, ArrayTube Microarray and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, arteriosclerotic lesions of all cases were histologically classified and graded. Both canine atherosclerotic cases, and all 14 canine arteriosclerotic cases were negative for Chlamydia. Only one of the 13 arteriosclerotic feline cases was positive for Chlamydia by real-time PCR, revealing C. abortus by ArrayTube Microarray. To our knowledge, this is the first description of C. abortus in a cat. Overall, the type and grade of canine and feline arteriosclerotic lesions revealed similarities, and were predominantly moderate and hyperplastic. These findings suggest that there is no obvious correlation between canine and feline coronary arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. In order to draw final conclusions about the correlation between Chlamydia and canine atherosclerosis, examination of more samples is required.

  20. Efficient adenovector CD40 ligand immunotherapy of canine malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Euler, Henrik; Sadeghi, Arian; Carlsson, Björn; Rivera, Patricio; Loskog, Angelica; Segall, Thomas; Korsgren, Olle; Tötterman, Thomas H

    2008-05-01

    Cutaneous canine melanomas are usually benign in contrast to human malignant melanoma. However, the canine oropharyngeal, uveal, and mucocutaneous neoplasms are aggressive and have metastatic potential. Surgery and to a lesser extent radiotherapy and chemotherapy are widely adopted treatments but are seldom curative in advanced stages. The similarities between human and canine melanoma make spontaneous canine melanoma an excellent disease model for exploring novel therapies. Herein, we report the first 2 adenovector CD40L immunogene (AdCD40L) treatments of aggressive canine malignant melanoma. Case no. 1 was an advanced stage III oral melanoma that was cured from malignant melanoma with 2 intratumor AdCD40L injections before cytoreductive surgery. After treatment, the tumor tissue was infiltrated with T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes suggesting immune activation. This dog survived 401 days after the first round of gene therapy and was free of melanoma at autopsy. Case no. 2 had a conjunctival malignant melanoma with a rapid progression. This case was treated with 6 AdCD40L injections over 60 days. One hundred and twenty days after start of gene therapy and 60 days after the last injection, the tumor had regressed dramatically, and the dog had a minimal tumor mass and no signs of progression or metastasis. Our results indicate that AdCD40L immunogene therapy is beneficial in canine malignant melanoma and could be considered for human malignant melanoma as well.

  1. Chlamydia in canine or feline coronary arteriosclerotic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabarevic Zeljko

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are numerous reports linking Chlamydia infection to human coronary atherosclerosis. However, there is a lack of data regarding this correlation in dogs and cats, and there are no reports investigating coronary arteriosclerosis and Chlamydia in these species. The aim of the present study was to examine whether there is a correlation between canine and feline spontaneous atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. Archived histopathological samples of dogs (n = 16 and cats (n = 13 with findings of atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis in heart tissue were examined for the presence of Chlamydiaceae using real-time PCR, ArrayTube Microarray and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, arteriosclerotic lesions of all cases were histologically classified and graded. Results Both canine atherosclerotic cases, and all 14 canine arteriosclerotic cases were negative for Chlamydia. Only one of the 13 arteriosclerotic feline cases was positive for Chlamydia by real-time PCR, revealing C. abortus by ArrayTube Microarray. To our knowledge, this is the first description of C. abortus in a cat. Overall, the type and grade of canine and feline arteriosclerotic lesions revealed similarities, and were predominantly moderate and hyperplastic. Conclusions These findings suggest that there is no obvious correlation between canine and feline coronary arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. In order to draw final conclusions about the correlation between Chlamydia and canine atherosclerosis, examination of more samples is required.

  2. Eruption of the maxillary canines in relation to skeletal maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; De Lisa, Simona; Giuntini, Veronica

    2008-05-01

    Our aim in this study was to assess the relationship between the eruption of the permanent maxillary canines and skeletal maturity in subjects with different skeletal relationships in the sagittal and vertical planes. A sample of 152 subjects (63 boys, 89 girls) with erupting permanent maxillary canines was analyzed. On the lateral cephalograms, the stage of cervical vertebral maturation was assessed. Then the subjects were divided into prepeak (before the pubertal growth spurt, cervical stage [CS]1 and CS2), peak (during the pubertal growth spurt, CS3 and CS4), and postpeak (after the pubertal growth spurt, CS5 and CS6) groups. Skeletal relationships in the sagittal and vertical planes were evaluated, and relationships to timing of canine eruption were tested statistically. The prepeak group comprised 86 subjects, the peak group 66 subjects, and the postpeak group 0 subjects. The differences in prevalence rates between either the prepeak or peak groups and the postpeak group were statistically significant (P < 0.001). The prevalence rate for hyperdivergent subjects showing eruption of the permanent maxillary canine in the prepeak group (37.2%) was significantly higher than in the reference orthodontic population (21%). The eruption of the permanent maxillary canine can occur at any stage in skeletal maturation before the end the pubertal growth spurt (CS1-CS4), with hyperdivergent subjects more frequently having prepubertal canine eruption.

  3. Canine distemper in endangered Ethiopian wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Christopher H; Banyard, Ashley C; Hussein, Alo; Laurenson, M Karen; Malcolm, James R; Marino, Jorgelina; Regassa, Fekede; Stewart, Anne-Marie E; Fooks, Anthony R; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio

    2015-05-01

    The Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) is the world's rarest canid; ≈500 wolves remain. The largest population is found within the Bale Mountains National Park (BMNP) in southeastern Ethiopia, where conservation efforts have demonstrated the negative effect of rabies virus on wolf populations. We describe previously unreported infections with canine distemper virus (CDV) among these wolves during 2005-2006 and 2010. Death rates ranged from 43% to 68% in affected subpopulations and were higher for subadult than adult wolves (83%-87% vs. 34%-39%). The 2010 CDV outbreak started 20 months after a rabies outbreak, before the population had fully recovered, and led to the eradication of several focal packs in BMNP's Web Valley. The combined effect of rabies and CDV increases the chance of pack extinction, exacerbating the typically slow recovery of wolf populations, and represents a key extinction threat to populations of this highly endangered carnivore.

  4. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2008-01-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi), bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis), and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum) that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance) of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies. PMID:18691408

  5. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantas-Torres Filipe

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi, bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis, and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies.

  6. European Surveillance for Pantropic Canine Coronavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordonnier, Nathalie; Demeter, Zoltan; Egberink, Herman; Elia, Gabriella; Grellet, Aurélien; Le Poder, Sophie; Mari, Viviana; Martella, Vito; Ntafis, Vasileios; von Reitzenstein, Marcela; Rottier, Peter J.; Rusvai, Miklos; Shields, Shelly; Xylouri, Eftychia; Xu, Zach; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2013-01-01

    Highly virulent pantropic canine coronavirus (CCoV) strains belonging to subtype IIa were recently identified in dogs. To assess the distribution of such strains in Europe, tissue samples were collected from 354 dogs that had died after displaying systemic disease in France (n = 92), Hungary (n = 75), Italy (n = 69), Greece (n = 87), The Netherlands (n = 27), Belgium (n = 4), and Bulgaria (n = 1). A total of 124 animals tested positive for CCoV, with 33 of them displaying the virus in extraintestinal tissues. Twenty-four CCoV strains (19.35% of the CCoV-positive dogs) detected in internal organs were characterized as subtype IIa and consequently assumed to be pantropic CCoVs. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the 5′ end of the spike protein gene showed that pantropic CCoV strains are closely related to each other, with the exception of two divergent French viruses that clustered with enteric strains. PMID:23100349

  7. Relationship between analytic values and canine obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, C; Suárez, L; Bautista, I; Montoya, J A; Juste, M C

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between canine body condition and metabolic parameters like serum lipids, blood glucose and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations. We selected 127 dogs (42 males and 85 females) that were taken to our veterinary medicine service during routine visits. The mean age was 6.67 +/- 5.24 years. Body condition (BC) was measured by Laflamme scale and dogs were considered as obese when BC score was over 6. The following variables were collected: total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, basal glucose and ALT. 66.1% of the dog cohort were obese. Total cholesterol and triglycerides were found to be higher (p obese dogs with respect to normal weight dogs. In conclusion, obesity in dogs is associated with higher serum lipid levels.

  8. Evaluation of the efficacy and duration of immunity of a canine combination vaccine against virulent parvovirus, infectious canine hepatitis virus, and distemper virus experimental challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmagid, Omar Y; Larson, Laurie; Payne, Laurie; Tubbs, Anna; Wasmoen, Terri; Schultz, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    The results of this study confirmed that dogs vaccinated subcutaneously with a commercially available multivalent vaccine containing modified-live canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus type 2, canine parvovirus type 2b, and canine parainfluenza virus antigens were protected against sequential experimental challenge 55 to 57 months after initial vaccination given at 7 to 8 weeks of age. All 10 vaccinates were protected against clinical diseases and mortality following parvovirus and infectious canine hepatitis experimental infections. All vaccinates were protected against mortality and 90% against clinical disease following distemper challenge. These data support at least a 4-year duration of immunity for these three "core" fractions in the combination vaccine.

  9. Genetic diversity of canine olfactory receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitte Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolution has resulted in large repertoires of olfactory receptor (OR genes, forming the largest gene families in mammalian genomes. Knowledge of the genetic diversity of olfactory receptors is essential if we are to understand the differences in olfactory sensory capability between individuals. Canine breeds constitute an attractive model system for such investigations. Results We sequenced 109 OR genes considered representative of the whole OR canine repertoire, which consists of more than 800 genes, in a cohort of 48 dogs of six different breeds. SNP frequency showed the overall level of polymorphism to be high. However, the distribution of SNP was highly heterogeneous among OR genes. More than 50% of OR genes were found to harbour a large number of SNP, whereas the rest were devoid of SNP or only slightly polymorphic. Heterogeneity was also observed across breeds, with 25% of the SNP breed-specific. Linkage disequilibrium within OR genes and OR clusters suggested a gene conversion process, consistent with a mean level of polymorphism higher than that observed for introns and intergenic sequences. A large proportion (47% of SNP induced amino-acid changes and the Ka/Ks ratio calculated for all alleles with a complete ORF indicated a low selective constraint with respect to the high level of redundancy of the olfactory combinatory code and an ongoing pseudogenisation process, which affects dog breeds differently. Conclusion Our demonstration of a high overall level of polymorphism, likely to modify the ligand-binding capacity of receptors distributed differently within the six breeds tested, is the first step towards understanding why Labrador Retrievers and German Shepherd Dogs have a much greater potential for use as sniffer dogs than Pekingese dogs or Greyhounds. Furthermore, the heterogeneity in OR polymorphism observed raises questions as to why, in a context in which most OR genes are highly polymorphic, a subset of

  10. Osteocalcin and Osteonectin Expression in Canine Osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrle-Martinez, A S; Dittmer, K E; Aberdein, D; Thompson, K G

    2016-07-01

    Osteosarcoma (OSA) is a malignant heterogeneous primary bone tumor responsible for up to 90% of all primary bone tumors in dogs. In this study, osteocalcin (OC) and osteonectin (ON) immunoreactivity was evaluated in 23 canine OSAs, 4 chondrosarcomas, 4 fibrosarcomas, 2 hemangiosarcomas, and 4 histiocytic sarcomas. The effects of three different decalcification agents (ethylenediaminetetraetic acid [EDTA], formic acid and hydrochloric acid [HCl]) on the immunoreactivity for OC and ON was also assessed. Immunoreactivity to OC was present in 19/23 (83%) cases of OSA and all cases of chondrosarcoma. In three OSAs the extracellular matrix showed immunoreactivity to OC. None of the fibrosarcomas, histiocytic sarcomas or hemangiosarcomas showed immunoreactivity to OC. The sensitivity and specificity for OC in canine OSA in this study was 83% and 71% respectively. For ON, 100% of both OSAs (23/23) and non-OSAs (14/14) showed cytoplasmic immunoreactivity to this antibody, giving a sensitivity of 100% but a complete lack of specificity. There were no significant differences in immunoreactivity for OC and ON between the different decalcification agents used. In conclusion, OC showed high sensitivity for identifying OSA but it failed to distinguish between OSA and chondrosarcoma, and the osteoid produced by neoplastic cells in most cases did not show immunoreactivity to OC. These factors may limit the practical utility of OC in the diagnosis of OSA in dogs when chondrosarcoma is a differential diagnosis. ON showed no specificity in detecting OSA and has little practical application for the diagnosis of OSA in dogs. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Nuclear Glycogen Inclusions in Canine Parietal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, S; Lepri, E; Dall'Aglio, C; Marchesi, M C; Vitellozzi, G

    2017-05-01

    Nuclear glycogen inclusions occur infrequently in pathologic conditions but also in normal human and animal tissues. Their function or significance is unclear. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no reports of nuclear glycogen inclusions in canine parietal cells exist. After initial observations of nuclear inclusions/pseudoinclusions during routine histopathology, the authors retrospectively examined samples of gastric mucosa from dogs presenting with gastrointestinal signs for the presence of intranuclear inclusions/pseudoinclusions and determined their composition using histologic and electron-microscopic methods. In 24 of 108 cases (22%), the authors observed various numbers of intranuclear inclusions/pseudoinclusions within scattered parietal cells. Nuclei were characterized by marked karyomegaly and chromatin margination around a central optically empty or slightly eosinophilic area. The intranuclear inclusions/pseudoinclusions stained positive with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and were diastase sensitive, consistent with glycogen. Several PAS-positive/diastase-sensitive sections were further examined by transmission electron microscopy, also using periodic acid-thiocarbohydrazide-silver proteinate (PA-TCH-SP) staining to identify polysaccharides. Ultrastructurally, the nuclear inclusions were composed of electron-dense particles that were not membrane bound, without evidence of nuclear membrane invaginations or cytoplasmic organelles in the nuclei, and positive staining with PA-TCH-SP, confirming a glycogen composition. No cytoplasmic glycogen deposits were observed, suggesting that the intranuclear glycogen inclusions were probably synthesized in loco. Nuclear glycogen inclusions were not associated with gastritis or colonization by Helicobacter-like organisms ( P > .05). Our findings suggest that nuclear glycogen inclusions in canine parietal cells could be an incidental finding. Nevertheless, since nuclear glycogen is present in several pathologic

  12. Epidemiology of Kidney Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pascual

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Some tumors are known to have a definite cause-effect etiology, but renal cell carcinoma (RCC is not one of them precisely. With regard to RCC we can only try to identify some clinical and occupational factors as well as substances related to tumorigenesis. Smoking, chemical carcinogens like asbestos or organic solvents are some of these factors that increase the risk of the RCC. Viral infections and radiation therapy have also been described as risk factors. Some drugs can increase the incidence of RCC as well as other neoplasms. Of course, genetics plays an outstanding role in the development of some cases of kidney cancer. Chronic renal failure, hypertension, and dialysis need to be considered as special situations. Diet, obesity, lifestyle, and habits can also increase the risk of RCC. The aim of this review is to summarize the well-defined causes of renal cell carcinoma.

  13. Keep Your Kidneys Healthy: Catch Kidney Disease Early

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your blood. Each kidney contains about a million tiny filters that can process around 40 gallons of fluid every day—about enough to fill a house’s hot water heater. When blood passes through the ...

  14. Diagnosis of diabetic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Frederik; Rossing, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Approximately 20% to 40% of patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus develop diabetic kidney disease. This is a clinical syndrome characterized by persistent albuminuria (> 300 mg/24 h, or > 300 mg/g creatinine), a relentless decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), raised arterial...... sign of diabetic nephropathy, the first symptom is usually peripheral edema, which occurs at a very late stage. Regular, systematic screening for diabetic kidney disease is needed in order to identify patients at risk of or with presymptomatic diabetic kidney disease. Annual monitoring of urinary...

  15. Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney cancer can develop in adults and children. The main types of kidney cancer are renal cell cancer, transitional cell cancer, and Wilms tumor. Certain inherited conditions increase the risk of kidney cancer. Start here to find information on kidney cancer treatment, research, and statistics.

  16. IQGAP1 is an oncogenic target in canine melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky H Lee

    Full Text Available Canine oral mucosal melanoma is an aggressive malignant neoplasm and is characterized by local infiltration and a high metastatic potential. The disease progression is similar to that of human oral melanomas. Whereas human cutaneous melanoma is primarily driven by activating mutations in Braf (60% or Nras (20%, human mucosal melanoma harbors these mutations much less frequently. This makes therapeutic targeting and research modeling of the oral form potentially different from that of the cutaneous form in humans. Similarly, research has found only rare Nras mutations and no activating Braf mutations in canine oral melanomas, but they are still reliant on MAPK signaling. IQGAP1 is a signaling scaffold that regulates oncogenic ERK1/2 MAPK signaling in human Ras- and Raf- driven cancers, including melanomas. To investigate whether IQGAP1 is a potential target in canine melanoma, we examined the expression and localization of IQGAP1 in primary canine melanomas and canine oral melanoma cell lines obtained from the University of California-Davis. Using CRISPR/Cas9 knockout of IQGAP1, we examined effects on downstream ERK1/2 pathway activity and assayed proliferation of cell lines when treated with a peptide that blocks the interaction between IQGAP1 and ERK1/2. We observed that canine IQGAP1 is expressed and localizes to a similar extent in both human and canine melanoma by qPCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. Deletion of IQGAP1 reduces MAPK pathway activation in cell lines, similar to effects seen in human BrafV600E cell lines. Additionally, we demonstrated reduced proliferation when these cells are treated with a blocking peptide in vitro.

  17. Canine detection of free-ranging brown treesnakes on Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savidge, J.A.; Stanford, J.W.; Reed, R.N.; Haddock, G.R.; Adams, A.A.Y.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated canine teams (dogs and their handlers) on Guam as a potential tool for finding invasive brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) in the wild. Canine teams searched a 40 ?? 40 m forested area for a snake that had consumed a dead mouse containing a radio-transmitter. To avoid tainting the target or target area with human scent, no snake was handled or closely approached prior to searches. Trials were conducted during the morning when these nocturnal snakes were usually hidden in refugia. A radiotracker knew the snake's location, but dog handlers and search navigators did not. Of 85 trials conducted over four months, the two canine teams had an average success rate of 35% of correctly defining an area ??? 5 ?? 5 m that contained the transmittered snake; the team with more experience prior to the trials had a success rate of 44% compared with 26% for the less experienced team. Canine teams also found 11 shed skins from wild snakes. Although dogs alerted outside the vicinity of transmittered snakes, only one wild, non-transmittered snake was found during the trials, possibly reflecting the difficulty humans have in locating non-transmittered brown treesnakes in refugia. We evaluated success at finding snakes as a function of canine team, number of prior trials (i.e. experience gained during the trials), recent canine success at finding a target snake, various environmental conditions, snake perch height, and snake characteristics (snout-vent length and sex). Success rate increased over the course of the trials. Canine team success also increased with increasing average humidity and decreased with increasing average wind speed. Our results suggest dogs could be useful at detecting brown treesnakes in refugia, particularly when compared to daytime visual searches by humans, but techniques are needed to help humans find and extract snakes once a dog has alerted. ?? New Zealand Ecological Society.

  18. The anti-canine distemper virus activities of ex vivo-expanded canine natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Yun; Shin, Dong-Jun; Lee, Soo-Hyeon; Lee, Je-Jung; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Cho, Duck; Kim, Sang-Ki

    2015-04-17

    Natural killer (NK) cells play critical roles in induction of antiviral effects against various viruses of humans and animals. However, few data on NK cell activities during canine distemper virus (CDV) infections are available. Recently, we established a culture system allowing activation and expansion of canine non-B, non-T, large granular NK lymphocytes from PBMCs of normal dogs. In the present study, we explored the ability of such expanded NK cells to inhibit CDV infection in vitro. Cultured CD3-CD5-CD21- NK cells produced large amounts of IFN-γ, exhibited highly upregulated expression of mRNAs encoding NK-cell-associated receptors, and demonstrated strong natural killing activity against canine tumor cells. Although the expanded NK cells were dose-dependently cytotoxic to both normal and CDV-infected Vero cells, CDV infection rendered Vero cells more susceptible to NK cells. Pretreatment with anti-CDV serum from hyperimmunized dogs enhanced the antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) of NK cells against CDV-infected Vero cells. The culture supernatants of NK cells, added before or after infection, dose-dependently inhibited both CDV replication and development of CDV-induced cytopathic effects (CPEs) in Vero cells. Anti-IFN-γ antibody neutralized the inhibitory effects of NK cell culture supernatants on CDV replication and CPE induction in Vero cells. Such results emphasize the potential significance of NK cells in controlling CDV infection, and indicate that NK cells may play roles both during CDV infection and in combating such infections, under certain conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Flu Season and Your Kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

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  20. Compensative hypertrophy of the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynaud, C.

    1976-01-01

    Several measurement methods are available to practitioners to reveal a compensative hypertrophy. Mensuration of the kidney has the advantage of simplicity but is in fact an unreliable and inaccurate method. Separate clearances in their traditional form have never entered into routine use because of the disadvantages of ureteral catheterism. The use of radioactive tracers avoids this drawback, but clearances calculated in this way are only valid in the absence of obstructive urinary disorders. Solutions have been proposed, but the values obtained are no longer identical with the clearances. The Hg uptake test quantifies quite accurately the function of each kidney. From the results obtained a complete compensative hypertrophy developed on a healthy kidney and an incomplete compensative hypertrophy developed on the diseased kidney have been described. In each of these situations the degree to which compensative hypertrophy develops seems to be fixed at a given level peculiar to each patient [fr