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Sample records for macula lutea

  1. Abnormal retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and macula lutea in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, LiYan; Liu, Ying; Li, XiaoHong; Bai, QuanHao; Liu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    We investigated possible abnormalities in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macula lutea of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and tested for any correlation with the severity of dementia. A total of 72 subjects, comprising 25 AD patients, 26 MCI patients and 21 healthy individuals (controls) were enrolled in this study. The thickness of the RNFL and volume of the macula lutea was determined using optical coherence tomography (OCT). When compared with controls, we found statistically significant thinning of the RNFL in AD patients at all clock-hour positions except 12:00, and nasal quadrant, 2:00, 3:00 and 4:00. After adjusting several risk factors, the average thickness of the RNFL was reduced in MCI patients compared to AD patients, with specific reductions at inferior quadrant, 5:00 and 6:00. Compared to controls, MCI patients showed a significant decrease in RNFL thickness only in the temporal quadrant, 8:00, 9:00 and 10:00. We found significant reduction in the volume of the macula lutea both in AD and MCI patients. Finally, we could not establish any correlation between patient Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores (an estimation of the severity of cognitive impairment) and any OCT parameter. Retinal degeneration in AD and MCI patients results in decreased thickness of the RNFL, and reduced macular volume in AD and MCI patients. However, there seems to be no correlation between these changes and the severity of dementia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical research on intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in the treatment of macula lutea and retinal edema of ocular fundus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Wang, Tao; Cao, Jing; Wang, Meng; Li, Fenghua

    2015-07-01

    This paper aimed to explore clinically curative effect of intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in the treatment of macula lutea and retinal edema of ocular fundus disease. The number of 300 patients (390 eyes) with ocular fundus diseases including retinal vein occlusion (RVO), diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), choridal new vessel (CNV) received and cured in the hospital from February 2010 to February 2014 were given intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (1.5mg) with once per month and a total of 2-3 times. Results of patients' vision and fluorescence fundus angiography (FFA), optical coherence tomography (OCT) before and after treatment were compared and curative effects were evaluated. Vision of 349 eyes (89.49%) improved obviously with the average of more than 2 lines, patient's intraocular pressure (IOP) was normal and all indexes were clearly better; vision of 26 eyes (6.67%) was stable before the treatment and without any changes after the treatment, the situation of fundus got better without increased IOP; vision of 15 eyes (3.85%) decreased to some extent, and the symptoms eased slightly after symptomatic treatment. In the 1st day after intravitreal injection, best-corrected visual acuity increased to 0.239±0.175, best-corrected visual acuity in 1 m was 0.315±0.182, in 3m continuously climbed to 0.350±0.270, and in 6 m was 0.362±0.282. Compared with vision before injection, t value was t=3.184, t=7.213, t=9.274 and t=9.970 (P=0.002, P=0.000, P=0.000 and P=0.000) respectively, and all P were less than 0.01. Furthermore, the difference was significant if a=0.01, which could confirm that 1m best corrected visual acuity of patients after intravitreal injection improved clearly in combination with before injection and 3m and 6 m visions enhanced constantly after injection. To sum up, intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in treating ocular fundus disease improves patient's vision

  3. Uses of the word "macula" in written English, 1400-present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stephen G; Leffler, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    We compiled uses of the word "macula" in written English by searching multiple databases, including the Early English Books Online Text Creation Partnership, America's Historical Newspapers, the Gale Cengage Collections, and others. "Macula" has been used: as a non-medical "spot" or "stain", literal or figurative, including in astronomy and in Shakespeare; as a medical skin lesion, occasionally with a following descriptive adjective, such as a color (macula alba); as a corneal lesion, including the earliest identified use in English, circa 1400; and to describe the center of the retina. Francesco Buzzi described a yellow color in the posterior pole ("retina tinta di un color giallo") in 1782, but did not use the word "macula". "Macula lutea" was published by Samuel Thomas von Sömmering by 1799, and subsequently used in 1818 by James Wardrop, which appears to be the first known use in English. The Google n-gram database shows a marked increase in the frequencies of both "macula" and "macula lutea" following the introduction of the ophthalmoscope in 1850. "Macula" has been used in multiple contexts in written English. Modern databases provide powerful tools to explore historical uses of this word, which may be underappreciated by contemporary ophthalmologists. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. New triterpenoids from Gentiana lutea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriumi, Yoshitaka; Kakuda, Rie; Kikuchi, Masafumi; Yaoita, Yasunori; Kikuchi, Masao

    2003-01-01

    Three new triterpenoids, 2,3-seco-3-oxours-12-en-2-oic acid, 2,3-seco-3-oxoolean-12-en-2-oic acid, and betulin 3-O-palmitate, have been isolated from the rhizomes and roots of Gentiana lutea, together with five known ones. The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectral and chemical methods.

  5. Radial retinotomy in the macula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovino, J A; Marcus, D F

    1984-01-01

    Radial retinotomy is an operative procedure usually performed in the peripheral or equatorial retina. To facilitate retinal attachment, the authors used intraocular scissors to perform radial retinotomy in the macula of two patients during vitrectomy surgery. In the first patient, a retinal detachment complicated by periretinal proliferation and macula hole formation was successfully reoperated with the aid of three radial cuts in the retina at the edges of the macular hole. In the second patient, an intraoperative retinal tear in the macula during diabetic vitrectomy was also successfully repaired with the aid of radial retinotomy. In both patients, retinotomy in the macula was required because epiretinal membranes, which could not be easily delaminated, were hindering retinal reattachment.

  6. Macula on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This image of Europa, an icy satellite of Jupiter about the size of the Earth's Moon, was obtained from a range of 7415 miles (11933 kilometers) by the Galileo spacecraft during its fourth orbit around Jupiter and its first close pass of Europa. The image spans 30 miles by 57 miles (48 km by 91 km) and shows features as small as 800 feet (240 meters) across. The large circular feature centered in the upper middle of the image is called a macula, and could be the scar of a large meteorite impact. The surface of Europa is composed mostly of water ice, so large impact craters on Europa could look different from large bowl-shaped depressions formed by impact into rock, such as on the Moon. On Europa's icy surface, the original impact crater has been modified into a central zone of rugged topography surrounded by circular fractures which reflect adjustments to stress in the surrounding icy crust.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the Galileo mission home page on the World Wide Web at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  7. Is there a hybridization barrier between Gentiana lutea color morphs?

    OpenAIRE

    Losada, Mar?a; Veiga, Tania; Guiti?n, Javier; Guiti?n, Jos?; Guiti?n, Pablo; Sobral, Mar

    2015-01-01

    In Gentiana lutea two varieties are described: G. lutea var. aurantiaca with orange corolla colors and G. lutea var. lutea with yellow corolla colors. Both color varieties co-occur in NW Spain, and pollinators select flower color in this species. It is not known whether a hybridization barrier exists between these G. lutea color varieties. We aim to test the compatibility between flower color varieties in G. lutea and its dependence on pollen vectors. Within a sympatric population containing ...

  8. Glaucomatous damage of the macula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Donald C; Raza, Ali S; de Moraes, Carlos Gustavo V; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Ritch, Robert

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that early glaucomatous damage involves the macula. The anatomical basis of this damage can be studied using frequency domain optical coherence tomography (fdOCT), by which the local thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and local retinal ganglion cell plus inner plexiform (RGC+) layer can be measured. Based upon averaged fdOCT results from healthy controls and patients, we show that: 1. For healthy controls, the average RGC+ layer thickness closely matches human histological data; 2. For glaucoma patients and suspects, the average RGC+ layer shows greater glaucomatous thinning in the inferior retina (superior visual field (VF)); and 3. The central test points of the 6° VF grid (24-2 test pattern) miss the region of greatest RGC+ thinning. Based upon fdOCT results from individual patients, we have learned that: 1. Local RGC+ loss is associated with local VF sensitivity loss as long as the displacement of RGCs from the foveal center is taken into consideration; and 2. Macular damage is typically arcuate in nature and often associated with local RNFL thinning in a narrow region of the disc, which we call the macular vulnerability zone (MVZ). According to our schematic model of macular damage, most of the inferior region of the macula projects to the MVZ, which is located largely in the inferior quadrant of the disc, a region that is particularly susceptible to glaucomatous damage. A small (cecocentral) region of the inferior macula, and all of the superior macula (inferior VF), project to the temporal quadrant, a region that is less susceptible to damage. The overall message is clear; clinicians need to be aware that glaucomatous damage to the macula is common, can occur early in the disease, and can be missed and/or underestimated with standard VF tests that use a 6° grid, such as the 24-2 VF test. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [The vitreous and the macula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Shoji

    2015-03-01

    The macula is a site where various vitreoretinal disorders occur. In 1983 we started to observe the retinal surface of postmortem eyes with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). We investigated the anatomy of the vitreous in postmortem eyes by slit lamp biomicroscopy. The novel anatomy of the premacular vitreous led us to conduct a clinical study of vitreomacular interface diseases. In 1997, time domain optical coherence tomography(OCT) became available which facilitated visualization of the vitreoretinal interface. Swept source OCT which was introduced in 2012 can depict liquefied lacunae in the vitreous. It enabled us to elucidate the mechanism of vitreoretinal diseases. I. SEM revealed the remnants of vitreous cortex at fovea with high incidence (44%), which suggests strong vitreoretinal attachment at the fovea and vitreous cortex origin of the epiretinal membrane. II. We studied the anatomy of the vitreous in postmortem eyes. The vitreous of bisected eye balls was stained by fluorescein and immersed in water and observed by slit-lamp biomicroscopy. We discovered a "posterior precortical vitreous pocket (PPVP)" in adult eyes without posterior vitreous detachment (PVD). III. We performed clinical study in various vitreoretinal diseases based on the novel vitreous anatomy and explained their mechanism. 1. In diabetic retinopathy, ring shaped fibrovascular tissue surrounding the macula is formed along the outer margin of the PPVP. Although PVD progresses outside the PPVP, its posterior wall remains attached to the retina, which causes macular traction or cystoid macular edema. 2. In eyes with idiopathic epimacular membrane (IEM), detached vitreous cortex had an oval defect corresponding to the IEM. Posterior wall of the PPVP that is premacular vitreous cortex appeared to be the framework of IEM. 3. During vitrectomy for macular hole, premacular round defect appears when PVD is created. The residual cortex on the macula is fibrous membrane with elasticity. The

  10. Type 1 neovascularization with polypoidal lesions complicating dome shaped macula

    OpenAIRE

    Naysan, Jonathan; Dansingani, Kunal K; Balaratnasingam, Chandrakumar; Freund, K Bailey

    2015-01-01

    Dome-shaped macula is described as an inward bulge of the macula within a posterior staphyloma in highly myopic eyes. Choroidal neovascularization is a known complication that can cause visual loss in dome-shaped macula. Herein, we describe a patient who presented with features of polypoidal choroidal neovascularization that developed on a background of high myopia with dome-shaped macula.

  11. Iridoids from seeds of Gentiana lutea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Armandodoriano; Ramunno, Alessia; Melchioni, Cristiana

    2003-08-01

    In the seeds of Gentiana lutea L. there were also detected, in addition to the known sweroside and getiopicroside, loganic acid 3 and trifloroside 4 that is present as main glycosidic component. The structures of 3 and 4 were established by spectroscopic studies.

  12. PECULIARITIES FOR AGRICULTURAL TECHONOLGY OF GENTIANA LUTEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia SAVA SAND

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The increased demand for the pharmaceutical market puts pressure on the wild species which on the other hand need to be protected. Collecting the wild plant species for pharmaceutical purpose may became a threat for the conservation of rare species such as Gentiana lutea which was declared as protected species for Romania since 1977. The purpose of this article was to develop a technology for the cultivation of this species as a crop plant. The starting material may be either seeds either seedlings, each of them involving different negative or positive aspects. The produced rhizomes morphometrically characterized and production were calculated. The entire technological chain is described and it may be considered that Gentiana lutea may become a valuable crop species for producers as well as for the pharmaceutical industry.

  13. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors from Gentiana lutea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Yasumasa; Kabbash, Amal; Fujioka, Toshihiro; Ishizu, Takashi; Yagi, Akira

    2004-08-01

    Three monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors were isolated from Gentiana lutea. Their structures were elucidated to be 3-3''linked-(2'-hydroxy-4-O-isoprenylchalcone)-(2'''-hydroxy-4''-O-isoprenyldihydrochalcone) (1), 2-methoxy-3-(1,1'-dimethylallyl)-6a,10a-dihydrobenzo(1,2-c)chroman-6-one and 5-hydroxyflavanone. These compounds, and the hydrolysis product of 1, displayed competitive inhibitory properties against MAO-B which was more effective than MAO-A.

  14. Gastroprotective effects of leaf extracts of Carpolobia lutea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethyl acetate extract (770 mg/kg) consistently and effectively reduced the ulcer index significantly (p<0.01 - 0.001) than the ethanol, chloroform and nhexane extracts of C. lutea in all the experimentally induced ulcer models studied. C. lutea could be exploited in the treatment of peptic ulcer in man justifying its ...

  15. Is there a hybridization barrier between Gentiana lutea color morphs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada, María; Veiga, Tania; Guitián, Javier; Guitián, José; Guitián, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    In Gentiana lutea two varieties are described: G. lutea var. aurantiaca with orange corolla colors and G. lutea var. lutea with yellow corolla colors. Both color varieties co-occur in NW Spain, and pollinators select flower color in this species. It is not known whether a hybridization barrier exists between these G. lutea color varieties. We aim to test the compatibility between flower color varieties in G. lutea and its dependence on pollen vectors. Within a sympatric population containing both flower color morphs, we analyzed differences in reproductive success (number, weight, viability and germinability of seeds) depending on fertilization treatments (autogamy and xenogamy within variety and among varieties). We found a 93% reduction in number of seeds and a 37% reduction in seed weight respectively of autogamy treatments compared to xenogamy crossings. Additionally, reproductive success is higher within color varieties than among varieties, due to a 45% seed viability reduction on hybrids from different varieties. Our results show that G. lutea reproductive success is strongly dependent on pollinators and that a partial hybridization barrier exists between G. lutea varieties. PMID:26528404

  16. Is there a hybridization barrier between Gentiana lutea color morphs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Losada

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In Gentiana lutea two varieties are described: G. lutea var. aurantiaca with orange corolla colors and G. lutea var. lutea with yellow corolla colors. Both color varieties co-occur in NW Spain, and pollinators select flower color in this species. It is not known whether a hybridization barrier exists between these G. lutea color varieties. We aim to test the compatibility between flower color varieties in G. lutea and its dependence on pollen vectors. Within a sympatric population containing both flower color morphs, we analyzed differences in reproductive success (number, weight, viability and germinability of seeds depending on fertilization treatments (autogamy and xenogamy within variety and among varieties. We found a 93% reduction in number of seeds and a 37% reduction in seed weight respectively of autogamy treatments compared to xenogamy crossings. Additionally, reproductive success is higher within color varieties than among varieties, due to a 45% seed viability reduction on hybrids from different varieties. Our results show that G. lutea reproductive success is strongly dependent on pollinators and that a partial hybridization barrier exists between G. lutea varieties.

  17. Gastroprotective effects of leaf extracts of Carpolobia lutea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-05

    Jan 5, 2009 ... INTRODUCTION. Carpolobia lutea G.Don (family: polygalaceae) occurred .... nary profile of antiulcer effects of C. lutea leaf (Andreo et al., 2006). The antiulcer assays ..... (John and Onabanjo, 1990; Nwafor et al., 1996). Flav- onoids have ... Cytoprotection (Robert et al., 1979) in rats as evidenced by the ...

  18. Is there a hybridization barrier between Gentiana lutea color morphs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada, María; Veiga, Tania; Guitián, Javier; Guitián, José; Guitián, Pablo; Sobral, Mar

    2015-01-01

    In Gentiana lutea two varieties are described: G. lutea var. aurantiaca with orange corolla colors and G. lutea var. lutea with yellow corolla colors. Both color varieties co-occur in NW Spain, and pollinators select flower color in this species. It is not known whether a hybridization barrier exists between these G. lutea color varieties. We aim to test the compatibility between flower color varieties in G. lutea and its dependence on pollen vectors. Within a sympatric population containing both flower color morphs, we analyzed differences in reproductive success (number, weight, viability and germinability of seeds) depending on fertilization treatments (autogamy and xenogamy within variety and among varieties). We found a 93% reduction in number of seeds and a 37% reduction in seed weight respectively of autogamy treatments compared to xenogamy crossings. Additionally, reproductive success is higher within color varieties than among varieties, due to a 45% seed viability reduction on hybrids from different varieties. Our results show that G. lutea reproductive success is strongly dependent on pollinators and that a partial hybridization barrier exists between G. lutea varieties.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of Gentiana lutea L. extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savikin, Katarina; Menković, Nebojsa; Zdunić, Gordana; Stević, Tatjana; Radanović, Dragoja; Janković, Teodora

    2009-01-01

    Methanolic extracts of flowers and leaves of Gentiana lutea L., together with the isolated compounds mangiferin, isogentisin and gentiopicrin, were used to investigate the antimicrobial activity of the plant. A variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as the yeast Candida albicans has been included in this study. Both extracts and isolated compounds showed antimicrobial activity with MIC values ranging from 0.12-0.31 mg/ml. Our study indicated that the synergistic activity of the pure compounds may be responsible for the good antimicrobial effect of the extracts. Quantification of the secondary metabolites was performed using HPLC.

  20. Pink line syndrome (PLS) in the scleractinian coral Porites lutea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran, J.; Raghukumar, C.

    Reef sites Pink line syndrome (PLS) in the scleractinian coral Porites lutea Accepted: 10 May 2002 / Published online: 5 July 2002 C211 Springer-Verlag 2002 We describe here an unreport- ed diseased state of Porites lutea (Milne-Edwards and Haime...)ontheKavarattireefof the Lakshadweep group of is- lands (11C176 N; 71C176E). Pink line syndrome (PLS) causes partial mortality of the coral P. lutea around Kavaratti Island (Fig. 1), and about 10% of colonies were found to be af- fected by PLS. The dead patches were colonized by a...

  1. [Macula structure and function in retinopathy of prematurity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogoleva, L V; Katargina, L A; Rydnitskaia, Ia L

    2011-01-01

    Macula structure and function were studied in 64 patients with retinopathy of prematurity (RP) stage I-III aged 8-17 years old using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and electroretinography. Absence of foveolar depression associated with preservation of fovea layers and normal electroretinography indices were showed to be the evidence of differentiation damage and macula underdevelopment due to immaturity and to have no effect on visual acuity. Preserved or pathologic foveolar depression associated with abnormal OCT findings and central retina electrogenesis damage indicate dysfunction and morphological changes of macula due to not macula underdevelopment because of immaturity only but RP either that can lead to depression, visual function.

  2. [Influence of Gentiana lutea L extract on blood coagulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakuridze, A D; Nikolaev, S M; Tsagarenshvili, N T; Kurdiani, N G; Mikaia, G A

    2009-01-01

    The dry extract from the terrestrial parts of Gentiana Lutea was received in accordance to the developed by us general technological scheme. Study of the pharmacological influence of obtained extract on the coagulating properties of blood revealed that after its per os instillation into experimental animals the time of the formation of active thromboplastin reliably increases, while the time of thrombin and fibrinous cluster formation is shortened in comparison with those indices in the animals, that did not receive phyto-preparation, at the same time morphological appearance of the peripheral blood remains unchanged. Dry extract of terrestrial parts of Gentiana Lutea prepared in accordance to the technology recommended by us, together with widely known pharmacological effects, is characterized with new activity - influence on haemostasis. Obtained preliminary data concerning influence of the extract on coagulation of the blood request further deep studies of its mechanism. Revealed new activity of the terrestrial parts of Gentiana Lutea and the studies of the mechanism of its activity will serve in future as a basis for the recommendation of its use in new nosology. Terrestrial parts of Gentiana lutea L. are proposed as an alternative of the underground parts of the plant. Alongside with that, it is expedient to continue the studies devoted to the development of the haemostatic remedies of plant origin with systemic and local action (sponges, films, skin glues) from terrestrial parts of Gentiana lutea L.

  3. Inhibition of aldose reductase by Gentiana lutea extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akileshwari, Chandrasekhar; Muthenna, Puppala; Nastasijević, Branislav; Joksić, Gordana; Petrash, J Mark; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash

    2012-01-01

    Accumulation of intracellular sorbitol due to increased aldose reductase (ALR2) activity has been implicated in the development of various secondary complications of diabetes. Thus, ALR2 inhibition could be an effective strategy in the prevention or delay of certain diabetic complications. Gentiana lutea grows naturally in the central and southern areas of Europe. Its roots are commonly consumed as a beverage in some European countries and are also known to have medicinal properties. The water, ethanol, methanol, and ether extracts of the roots of G. lutea were subjected to in vitro bioassay to evaluate their inhibitory activity on the ALR2. While the ether and methanol extracts showed greater inhibitory activities against both rat lens and human ALR2, the water and ethanol extracts showed moderate inhibitory activities. Moreover, the ether and methanol extracts of G. lutea roots significantly and dose-dependently inhibited sorbitol accumulation in human erythrocytes under high glucose conditions. Molecular docking studies with the constituents commonly present in the roots of G. lutea indicate that a secoiridoid glycoside, amarogentin, may be a potential inhibitor of ALR2. This is the first paper that shows G. lutea extracts exhibit inhibitory activity towards ALR2 and these results suggest that Gentiana or its constituents might be useful to prevent or treat diabetic complications.

  4. Inhibition of Aldose Reductase by Gentiana lutea Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekhar Akileshwari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of intracellular sorbitol due to increased aldose reductase (ALR2 activity has been implicated in the development of various secondary complications of diabetes. Thus, ALR2 inhibition could be an effective strategy in the prevention or delay of certain diabetic complications. Gentiana lutea grows naturally in the central and southern areas of Europe. Its roots are commonly consumed as a beverage in some European countries and are also known to have medicinal properties. The water, ethanol, methanol, and ether extracts of the roots of G. lutea were subjected to in vitro bioassay to evaluate their inhibitory activity on the ALR2. While the ether and methanol extracts showed greater inhibitory activities against both rat lens and human ALR2, the water and ethanol extracts showed moderate inhibitory activities. Moreover, the ether and methanol extracts of G. lutea roots significantly and dose-dependently inhibited sorbitol accumulation in human erythrocytes under high glucose conditions. Molecular docking studies with the constituents commonly present in the roots of G. lutea indicate that a secoiridoid glycoside, amarogentin, may be a potential inhibitor of ALR2. This is the first paper that shows G. lutea extracts exhibit inhibitory activity towards ALR2 and these results suggest that Gentiana or its constituents might be useful to prevent or treat diabetic complications.

  5. Flower color preferences of insects and livestock: effects on Gentiana lutea reproductive success

    OpenAIRE

    Sobral, Mar; Losada, Mar?a; Veiga, Tania; Guiti?n, Javier; Guiti?n, Jos?; Guiti?n, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Angiosperms diversification was primarily driven by pollinator agents, but non-pollinator agents also promoted floral evolution. Gentiana lutea shows pollinator driven flower color variation in NW Spain. We test whether insect herbivores and livestock, which frequently feed in G.lutea, play a role in G. lutea flower color variation, by answering the following questions: (i) Do insect herbivores and grazing livestock show flower color preferences when feeding on G. lutea? (ii) Do mutualists (p...

  6. Insight into high myopia and the macula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Atul; Chawla, Rohan; Kumawat, Devesh; Pillay, Ganesh

    2017-02-01

    The incidence of myopia is constantly on the rise. Patients of high myopia and pathological myopia are young and can lose vision due to a number of degenerative changes occurring at the macula. With the emergence of new technologies such as swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography, our understanding of macular pathology in myopia has improved significantly. New conditions such as myopic traction maculopathy have been defined. Early, noninvasive detection of myopic choroidal neovascularization and its differentiation from lacquer cracks is possible with a greater degree of certainty. We discuss the impact of these new exciting and promising technologies and management of macular pathology in myopia. Incorporation of OCT in the microscope has also improved macular surgery. New concepts such as fovea-sparing internal limiting membrane peeling have emerged. A review of literature and our experience in managing all these conditions are discussed.

  7. The suprastructure of the saccular macula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Muriel D.; Komorowski, Thomas E.; Donovan, Kathleen M.; Pote, Kenneth G.

    1987-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the rat's macular end organ was examined. Primary fixatives containing 4 or 8 percent tannic acid (with 1 hr fixation time) were found to be optimal for preserving the macular suprastructure from the macular surface to the otoconia. In agreement with observations of other workers, the suprastructure of the macular end organ showed two kinds of filamentous material of different organization: the material which supports the otoconia, the 'otoconial membrane', and the filamentous material, the 'supramacular substance'. However, in contrast to earlier reports, the fluid-filled channels around the stereociliary tufts and a slitlike space immediately above the macula were found to be artefacts of tissue preparation. The results were confirmed in decalcified samples.

  8. Macula-On Versus Macula-Off Pseudophakic Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Following Primary 23-Gauge Vitrectomy Plus Endotamponade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezar, Sandra; Sacu, Stefan; Blum, Robert; Eibenberger, Katharina; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Georgopoulos, Michael

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate anatomical and functional outcomes of macula-on and macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) after 23-gauge vitrectomy and gas endotamponade, in eyes after successful cataract surgery. Forty-six pseudophakic eyes of 46 consecutive patients who underwent surgery for RRD repair were included. Based on the severity degree and extension of the RRD, diluted C3F8, SF6 or C2F6 gases were used for endotamponade. Patients were followed 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months after surgery. Main outcome variables were functional and anatomic outcomes till 12 months after surgery. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy of grade B or C was observed in 43%. C3F8 was used in 59%, SF6 in 28% and C2F6 in 13%. Reattachment after the first intervention was achieved in 89%. Preoperatively, 63% of patients presented with fovea-off retinal detachment. No intraoperative complications were registered. Preoperatively, eyes with macula-on RRD had a logMar BCVA of 0.3 ± 0.6 compared with 1.2 ± 0.7 in the macula-off group (p = 0.01). The mean visual acuity significantly improved to 0.06 ± 0.1 logMar in macula-on eyes and to 0.2 ± 0.3 logMar in macula-off eyes at 12 months (p = 0.01 compared to baseline and p = 0.04 between both the groups). The mean final postoperative CRT was 318 ± 48 µm in the macula-on group compared with 305 ± 71 µm in the macula-off group (p = 0.5). Even morphological improvement after 23-gauge vitrectomy and gas endotamponade was comparable between macula-on and macula-off eyes, macula-off RRDs showed delayed visual rehabilitation. Both groups showed significant visual acuity improvement until 12 months, however, macula-on RRDs showed significantly more improvement than macula-off RRDs.

  9. Characterization of the macula densa stimulus for renin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, J N; Weihprecht, H; Schnermann, J

    1990-01-01

    These studies utilize the isolated perfused rabbit juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) to study the macula densa signal for renin secretion in the absence of the confounding influences of intravascular pressure and renal nerve activity. In the first experimental series, JGAs were perfused alternately...... and decreases in macula densa NaCl concentration, and these changes are rapid and largely reversible, 2) the full renin response occurs within the concentration range normally occurring at the macula densa, i.e., below 80 mM Na+ and 61 mM Cl-, and 3) RSR responds with a larger change to alterations in Na...

  10. Contrast Sensitivity after Pars Plana Vitrectomy: Comparison between Macula-On and Macula-Off Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Hajime; Fujikawa, Masato; Sawada, Osamu; Sawada, Tomoko; Saishin, Yoshitsugu; Ohji, Masahito

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the contrast sensitivity (CS) of eyes successfully repaired by vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) with or without preoperative macular involvement. In this retrospective, consecutive, interventional case series, 109 eyes received primary vitrectomy for RRD, of which 36 with at least 12 months of follow-up and a best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ≥1 at 12 months postoperatively were investigated. The main outcome measurements were BCVA and CS at 12 months postoperatively. Patients with macula-on RRD preoperatively were included in the macula-on group, and patients with macula-off RRD preoperatively were included in the macula-off group. The between-group difference in CS under evening vision conditions was measured with a Takagi glare tester CGT-2000 at 6 visual angles and 13 contrast levels with and without glare. CS was significantly lower in the macula-off group for targets with visual angles of 1.6, 1.0, and 0.64° with glare (p macula-off RRD patients with good postoperative BCVA compared to macula-on RRD patients with good postoperative BCVA. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Fungi in Porites lutea: Association with healthy and diseased corals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran, J.; Raghukumar, C.; Raghukumar, S.

    It is found that fungi to occur regularly in healthy, partially dead, bleached and pink-line syndrome (PLS)-affected scleractinian coral, Porites lutea, in the reefs of Lakshadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea. Mostly terrestrial species of fungi were isolated...

  12. A New Flavone C-Glycoside from Gentiana lutea

    OpenAIRE

    Sachiko, Yamada; Rie, Kakuda; Yasunori, Yaoita; Masao, Kikuchi; Tohoku Pharmaceutical University; Tohoku Pharmaceutical University; Tohoku Pharmaceutical University; Tohoku Pharmaceutical University

    2005-01-01

    A new flavone C-glycoside, 6"-O-β-D-xylopyranosylisosaponarin (1), was isolated, together with four known compounds from the rhizomes and roots of Gentiana lutea. The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of spectral data.

  13. Inhibition of myeloperoxidase and antioxidative activity of Gentiana lutea extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasijević, Branislav; Lazarević-Pašti, Tamara; Dimitrijević-Branković, Suzana; Pašti, Igor; Vujačić, Ana; Joksić, Gordana; Vasić, Vesna

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory activity of Gentiana lutea extracts on the enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO), as well as the antioxidant activity of these extracts and their correlation with the total polyphenol content. Extracts were prepared using methanol (100%), water and ethanol aqueous solutions (96, 75, 50 and 25%v/v) as solvents for extraction. Also, isovitexin, amarogentin and gentiopicroside, pharmacologically active constituents of G. lutea were tested as potential inhibitors of MPO. Antioxidant activity of extracts was determined using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging test and also using cyclic voltammetry (CV). Among all extracts, the antioxidant capacity of 50% ethanol aqueous extract was the highest, both when measured using the DPPH test, with IC(50)=20.6 μg/ml, and when using CV. Also, 50% ethanol extract, showed the best inhibition of MPO activity in comparison with other extracts. In the group of the selected G. lutea constituents, gentiopicroside has proved to be the strongest inhibitor of MPO, with IC(50)=0.8 μg/ml. Also, the concentration of G. lutea constituents were determined in all extracts, using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Combining ability for grain yield, agronomic traits and Striga lutea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    2Department of Crop Production, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. ... General combining ability (gca) effects for striga syndrome ratings were generally low with .... farmer's field because of S. lutea infestation at Temidire in Ibarapa ... fertilizer dosage (50kg/ha NPK 20-10-10) was applied by broadcast ..... Graffing B (1956).

  15. Dome-shaped macula associated with Best vitelliform macular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia Parodi, Maurizio; Zucchiatti, Ilaria; Fasce, Francesco; Cascavilla, Maria Lucia; Cicinelli, Maria Vittoria; Bandello, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Dome-shaped macula (DSM) has been described recently as an inward convexity of the macula typical of myopic eyes detectable on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). The authors describe a case of monolateral DSM associated with Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (VMD). Case report. A 60-year-old man already diagnosed with VMD in vitelliruptive stage underwent SD-OCT that revealed the typical vitelliform material accumulation associated in the left eye with a convex elevation of the macula. No change was registered over a 1-year follow-up. This is the first report describing a monolateral DSM associated with VMD. Dome-shaped macula could be considered as a nonspecific scleral alteration, probably due to increased scleral thickness, which can accompany many retinal disorders.

  16. Macula-Sparing rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: Is emergent surgery necessary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Mahmoudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The status of the macula is a significant factor in determining final visual outcomes in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD and should be considered in the timing of surgical repair. Several studies have shown that macula-involving RRDs attain similar visual and anatomic outcomes when surgery is performed within seven days as compared to emergent surgery (within 24 hours. In contrast, surgery prior to macular detachment in macula-sparing RRDs generally yields the best visual outcomes. In the case of macula-sparing RRDs, it is not clear how long the macula may remain attached, therefore, standard practice dictates emergent surgery. Timing of presentation, examination findings, case complexity, co-existing medical conditions, surgeon expertise, and timing and quality of access to operating facilities and staff, however, should all be considered in determining whether a macula-sparing RRD requires immediate intervention or if equivalent visual and possibly better overall outcomes can be achieved with scheduled surgery within an appropriate time frame.

  17. Radiotherapy in age-related macula degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gripp, Stephan; Stammen, Johannes; Petersen, Claudia; Hartmann, Axel; Willers, Reinhart; Althaus, Christoph

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To ascertain the benefit from radiotherapy in age-related macula degeneration in a single-arm longitudinal study. Methods and Materials: From 1997 to 1998, 39 patients with occult and 33 patients with classic choroidal neovascularization (CNV) were irradiated with 16 Gy. Fluorescein angiography and measurements of visual acuity were performed before and 3, 6, and 12 months after irradiation. Results: Complete follow-up data for 1 year were available from 69 patients. The mean patient age was 72 years (range 49-92). Vision decreased in 43, was stable in 18, and improved in 8 cases. The mean vision deteriorated significantly (p=0.02, Wilcoxon test), particularly within the first 3 months. Patients with occult CNV did significantly better than did those with classic CNV (p=0.03). The proportion of patients retaining vision ≥0.2 fell from 65% to 42% (p <0.01), for classic and occult CNV from 50% to 23%, and for occult CNV from 77% to 56% (p<0.02), respectively. CNV size increased in 30 patients and was stable in 38. Neither age (p=0.17) nor gender (p=0.21, chi-square test) influenced prognosis. Four patients reported transitional complaints. Conclusion: Low-dose fractionated radiotherapy with 16 Gy is well tolerated. However, vision and reading ability were not preserved in most patients

  18. Thera and Thrace Macula on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This image of Europa's southern hemisphere was obtained by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on board NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its sixth orbit of Jupiter. The upper left portion of the image shows the southern extent of the 'wedges' region, an area that has undergone extensive disruption. South of the wedges, the eastern extent of Agenor Linea (nearly 1000 kilometers in length) is also visible. Thera and Thrace Macula are the dark irregular features southeast of Agenor Linea. This image can be used by scientists to build a global map of Europa by tying such Galileo images together with images from 1979 during NASA's Voyager mission. Such lower resolution images also provide the context needed to interpret the higher resolution images taken by the Galileo during both its nominal mission and the upcoming Europa mission. North is to the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from the right. The image, centered at -40 latitude and 180 longitude, covers an area approximately 675 by 675 kilometers. The finest details that can be discerned in this picture are about 3.3 kilometers across. The images were taken on Feb 20, 1997 at 12 hours, 55 minutes, 34 seconds Universal Time when the spacecraft was at a range of 81,707 kilometers.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  19. Flower color preferences of insects and livestock: effects on Gentiana lutea reproductive success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada, María; Veiga, Tania; Guitián, Javier; Guitián, José; Guitián, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Angiosperms diversification was primarily driven by pollinator agents, but non-pollinator agents also promoted floral evolution. Gentiana lutea shows pollinator driven flower color variation in NW Spain. We test whether insect herbivores and livestock, which frequently feed in G.lutea, play a role in G. lutea flower color variation, by answering the following questions: (i) Do insect herbivores and grazing livestock show flower color preferences when feeding on G. lutea? (ii) Do mutualists (pollinators) and antagonists (seed predators, insect herbivores and livestock) jointly affect G. lutea reproductive success? Insect herbivores fed more often on yellow flowering individuals but they did not affect seed production, whereas livestock affected seed production but did not show clear color preferences. Our data indicate that flower color variation of G. lutea is not affected by insect herbivores or grazing livestock. PMID:27014509

  20. Flower color preferences of insects and livestock: effects on Gentiana lutea reproductive success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Sobral

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Angiosperms diversification was primarily driven by pollinator agents, but non-pollinator agents also promoted floral evolution. Gentiana lutea shows pollinator driven flower color variation in NW Spain. We test whether insect herbivores and livestock, which frequently feed in G.lutea, play a role in G. lutea flower color variation, by answering the following questions: (i Do insect herbivores and grazing livestock show flower color preferences when feeding on G. lutea? (ii Do mutualists (pollinators and antagonists (seed predators, insect herbivores and livestock jointly affect G. lutea reproductive success? Insect herbivores fed more often on yellow flowering individuals but they did not affect seed production, whereas livestock affected seed production but did not show clear color preferences. Our data indicate that flower color variation of G. lutea is not affected by insect herbivores or grazing livestock.

  1. Flower color preferences of insects and livestock: effects on Gentiana lutea reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, Mar; Losada, María; Veiga, Tania; Guitián, Javier; Guitián, José; Guitián, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Angiosperms diversification was primarily driven by pollinator agents, but non-pollinator agents also promoted floral evolution. Gentiana lutea shows pollinator driven flower color variation in NW Spain. We test whether insect herbivores and livestock, which frequently feed in G.lutea, play a role in G. lutea flower color variation, by answering the following questions: (i) Do insect herbivores and grazing livestock show flower color preferences when feeding on G. lutea? (ii) Do mutualists (pollinators) and antagonists (seed predators, insect herbivores and livestock) jointly affect G. lutea reproductive success? Insect herbivores fed more often on yellow flowering individuals but they did not affect seed production, whereas livestock affected seed production but did not show clear color preferences. Our data indicate that flower color variation of G. lutea is not affected by insect herbivores or grazing livestock.

  2. Radioprotective activity of Gentiana lutea extract and mangiferin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkovic, Nebojsa; Juranic, Zorica; Stanojkovic, Tatjana; Raonic-Stevanovic, Tatjana; Savikin, Katarina; Zdunić, Gordana; Borojevic, Nenad

    2010-11-01

    Radioprotective/sensitizing actions of Gentiana lutea aqueous-ethanol extract and mangiferin on radiation-induced effects on different types of cells were investigated. The study focused on the decreasing survival of normal human immunocompetent cells, the survival of the malignant cells in vitro, and the survival of ex vivo irradiated cells before and after consumption of the extract by healthy volunteers. The in vitro experiments showed that mangiferin could inhibit cytotoxic action of ionizing irradiation (doses of 6 and 8 Gy) only on normal resting human PBMC, not stimulated for proliferation. Orally consumed G. lutea extract showed the potential to reduce the cytotoxic effect of x-ray irradiation on normal human immunocompetent cells PBMC of some healthy people, without changing the susceptibility of malignant cells to be destroyed by irradiation. Since the radioprotective effect was individually dependent, further clinical studies are needed. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Risk of progression in macula-on rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callizo, Josep; Pfeiffer, Sebastian; Lahme, Eva; van Oterendorp, Christian; Khattab, Mohammed; Bemme, Sebastian; Kulanga, Miroslav; Hoerauf, Hans; Feltgen, Nicolas

    2017-08-01

    To identify factors that may lead to a rapid progression in macula-on rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD), in particular, those that may lead to macular involvement. Observational, prospective, single-center study. Patients referred for surgery due to primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with the macula on between 2009 and 2013 were included. Relevant factors analyzed included age, time delay until surgery, lens status, myopia, the detachment's location and configuration as well as number, size and type of retinal breaks. Eyes underwent optical coherence tomography to detect macular detachment. A multivariate analysis was performed to investigate the effect of several factors in the progression of retinal detachment. A total of 116 eyes of 116 patients were included. Mean time delay between admission and surgery was 1.8 ± 1.4 days. Progression was observed in 19.8% of the eyes. Of those, 47.8% presented macular detachment. Ten of the 11 (90.9%) eyes presenting progression involving the macula also exhibited a bullous configuration, which was the only parameter that correlated significantly with detachment progression in patients with (p = 0.0036) and without (p = 0.0014) macular involvement. For the first time in a prospective trial, a bullous configuration was found to be a highly significant predictor for progression in macula-on detachments. Our data support prompt surgery in patients diagnosed with bullous macula-on RRD.

  4. Choleretic activity of Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, N; Herekman-Demir, T; Oztürk, Y; Bozan, B; Başer, K H

    1998-08-01

    Effects of an ethanolic extract prepared from G. lutea ssp. symphyandra roots on the bile production and liver in rats were investigated. Bile flows of rats which were treated by a single i.p. dose of CCl(4) 24 h prior to experiments were measured after the cannulation of bile duct under urethane anaesthesia. After an equilibration period of 1 h, the lyophilized extract were administered intraduodenally (500 mg/kg i.p.), while control animals received physiological saline only. To monitor the effect of multiple dose therapy, rats received the same dose of G. lutea ssp. symphyandra extract for 3 days (2 days prior to CCl(4) administration) and their bile flows were measured after the cannulation. In all groups, bile samples were collected for 3 h with 15 min intervals. After the completion of bile flow experiment, rat livers were removed and put in neutral formaldehyde solution (10%) for the histological examination. According to results obtained, multiple dose treatment of rats with the plant extract normalized the decreased bile flow due CCl(4), whereas single dose therapy was ineffective on the impaired bile flow. These data indicate that the extract prepared from Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra roots has a hepatoprotective activity. Copyright © 1998 Gustav Fischer Verlag. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  5. Direct demonstration of macula densa-mediated renin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, O; Briggs, J P

    1987-01-01

    An in vitro method has been used to examine whether secretion of renin from the juxtaglomerular apparatus is affected by changes in the sodium chloride concentration of the tubular fluid at the macula densa. Single juxtaglomerular apparatuses were microdissected from rabbits and the tubule segmen...

  6. Stereological study of postnatal development in the mouse utricular macula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Mette; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the morphometric changes taking place in the utricular macula of mice with ages in geometric progression from 1 to 512 days after birth. By using design-based stereological methods, the total volume and surface area of the sensory epithelium as well the total number of the ha...

  7. Dome-shaped macula: a compensatory mechanism in myopic anisometropia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Pearse A; Mitra, Arijit; Khan, Imran J; Quhill, Fahd; Elsherbiny, Samer M

    2012-05-31

    The purpose of this article was to describe a patient with dome-shaped macula in the setting of mild myopic anisometropia and to speculate regarding the role of this feature as a compensatory mechanism in ocular development. The clinical records of a 49-year-old woman with this condition were reviewed. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomographic images revealed evidence of a dome-shaped macula. B-scan ultrasonography measured axial lengths of 23.8 mm in the right eye and 22.8 mm in the left eye. Spherical equivalents were -1.375 and +0.375 in the right and left eyes, respectively. Examination of the left eye was unremarkable. Dome-shaped macula has previously only been described in patients with high myopia. These findings support the hypothesis that myopic anisometropia, rather than absolute refractive status, is central to the development of dome-shaped macula and that this feature represents a protective mechanism aimed at reducing the effects of anisometropia. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Screening of Antioxidant Activity of Gentian Lutea Root and Its Application in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Aini Mohd Azman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gentiana Lutea root (G. Lutea is a medicinal herb, traditionally used as a bitter tonic in gastrointestinal ailments for improving the digestive system. The active principles of G. Lutea were found to be secoiridoid bitter compounds as well as many other active compounds causing the pharmacological effects. No study to date has yet determined the potential of G. Lutea antioxidant activity on lipid oxidation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an extract of G. Lutea on lipid oxidation during storage of an emulsion. G. Lutea extracts showed excellent antioxidant activity measured by DPPH scavenging assay and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC assays. An amount of 0.5% w/w G. Lutea lyophilise was able to inhibit lipid oxidation throughout storage (p < 0.05. A mixture of G. Lutea with 0.1% (w/w BSA showed a good synergic effect and better antioxidant activity in the emulsion. Quantitative results of HPLC showed that G. Lutea contained secoiridoid-glycosides (gentiopiocroside and sweroside and post column analysis displayed radical scavenging activity of G. Lutea extract towards the ABTS radical. The results from this study highlight the potential of G. Lutea as a food ingredient in the design of healthier food commodities.

  9. Screening of Antioxidant Activity of Gentian Lutea Root and Its Application in Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Nurul Aini Mohd; Segovia, Francisco; Martínez-Farré, Xavier; Gil, Emilio; Almajano, María Pilar

    2014-06-19

    Gentiana Lutea root (G. Lutea) is a medicinal herb, traditionally used as a bitter tonic in gastrointestinal ailments for improving the digestive system. The active principles of G. Lutea were found to be secoiridoid bitter compounds as well as many other active compounds causing the pharmacological effects. No study to date has yet determined the potential of G. Lutea antioxidant activity on lipid oxidation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an extract of G. Lutea on lipid oxidation during storage of an emulsion. G. Lutea extracts showed excellent antioxidant activity measured by DPPH scavenging assay and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. An amount of 0.5% w/w G. Lutea lyophilise was able to inhibit lipid oxidation throughout storage (p Lutea with 0.1% (w/w) BSA showed a good synergic effect and better antioxidant activity in the emulsion. Quantitative results of HPLC showed that G. Lutea contained secoiridoid-glycosides (gentiopiocroside and sweroside) and post column analysis displayed radical scavenging activity of G. Lutea extract towards the ABTS radical. The results from this study highlight the potential of G. Lutea as a food ingredient in the design of healthier food commodities.

  10. Use of lyophilised and powdered Gentiana lutea root in fresh beef patties stored under different atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Nurul A M; Gordon, Michael H; Skowyra, Monika; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano, María Pilar

    2015-07-01

    Gentiana lutea root is a medicinal herb that contains many active compounds which contribute to physiological effects, and it has recently attracted much attention as a natural source of antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on the colour, pH, microbial activities, sensory quality and resistance to lipid oxidation (through the thiobarbituric acid method) during storage of beef patties containing different concentrations of G. lutea. Fresh beef patties were formulated with 0-5 g kg(-1) of G. lutea and 0 or 0.5 g kg(-1) of ascorbic acid and packed in two different atmospheres, Modified Atmosphere 1 (MAP1) and Modified Atmosphere 2 (MAP2), and stored at 4 ± 1 °C for 10 days. MAP1 contained 20:80 (v/v) O2:CO2 and MAP2 contained 80:20 (v/v) O2:CO2. G. lutea extracts possessed antioxidant activity measured by the ferric reducing antioxidant power and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assays. Beef patties containing 2 g kg(-1) of lyophilised G. lutea were stable towards lipid oxidation in both atmospheres (P lutea and 0.5 g kg(-1) ascorbic acid showed significantly reduced changes in colour and in lipid oxidation (P lutea as a food ingredient in the design of healthier meat commodities. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Diversity and distribution of Actinobacteria associated with reef coral Porites lutea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Weiqi; Li, Jie; Zhang, Si; Long, Lijuan

    2015-01-01

    Actinobacteria is a ubiquitous major group in coral holobiont. The diversity and spatial and temporal distribution of actinobacteria have been rarely documented. In this study, diversity of actinobacteria associated with mucus, tissue and skeleton of Porites lutea and in the surrounding seawater were examined every 3 months for 1 year on Luhuitou fringing reef. The population structures of the P. lutea-associated actinobacteria were analyzed using phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, which demonstrated highly diverse actinobacteria profiles in P. lutea. A total of 25 described families and 10 unnamed families were determined in the populations, and 12 genera were firstly detected in corals. The Actinobacteria diversity was significantly different between the P. lutea and the surrounding seawater. Only 10 OTUs were shared by the seawater and coral samples. Redundancy and hierarchical cluster analyses were performed to analyze the correlation between the variations of actinobacteria population within the divergent compartments of P. lutea, seasonal changes, and environmental factors. The actinobacteria communities in the same coral compartment tended to cluster together. Even so, an extremely small fraction of OTUs was common in all three P. lutea compartments. Analysis of the relationship between actinobacteria assemblages and the environmental parameters showed that several genera were closely related to specific environmental factors. This study highlights that coral-associated actinobacteria populations are highly diverse, and spatially structured within P. lutea, and they are distinct from which in the ambient seawater. PMID:26539166

  12. Structural and functional assessment of macula to diagnose glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, H L; Hussain, R S M; Januwada, M; Pillutla, L N; Begum, V U; Chaitanya, A; Senthil, S; Garudadri, C S

    2017-04-01

    PurposeTo compare the diagnostic abilities of structural (ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thickness measured using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT)) and functional (visual sensitivities measured using standard automated perimetry (SAP) and microperimetry (MP)) assessments of macula in glaucoma.MethodsIn a prospective study, 46 control eyes (28 subjects) and 61 glaucoma eyes (46 patients) underwent visual sensitivity estimation at macula (central 10°) by SAP and MP, and GCIPL thickness measurement at macula by SDOCT. Glaucoma was diagnosed by experts based on the optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer changes. Area under the receiver-operating characteristic (AUC) curves and sensitivities at 95% specificity were used to assess the diagnostic ability of visual sensitivity and GCIPL measurements at various macular sectors.ResultsAUCs of GCIPL parameters ranged between 0.58 and 0.79. AUCs of SAP and MP sensitivities ranged between 0.59 and 0.71, and 0.59 and 0.72, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the AUCs of corresponding sector measurements (P>0.10 for all comparisons). Sensitivities at 95% specificities ranged from 31-59% for GCIPL parameters, 16-34% for SAP, and 8-38% for MP parameters. Sensitivities were significantly better with GCIPL compared with SAP and MP parameters in diagnosing glaucoma. Inferotemporal, inferior, and superotemporal sector measurements of GCIPL and visual sensitivity showed the best abilities to diagnose glaucoma.ConclusionsComparing the diagnostic abilities of structural and functional tests at macula in glaucoma, GCIPL thickness measurements with SDOCT performed better than the visual sensitivity measurements by SAP and MP.

  13. Morphological evidence for parallel processing of information in rat macula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M. D.

    1988-01-01

    Study of montages, tracings and reconstructions prepared from a series of 570 consecutive ultrathin sections shows that rat maculas are morphologically organized for parallel processing of linear acceleratory information. Type II cells of one terminal field distribute information to neighboring terminals as well. The findings are examined in light of physiological data which indicate that macular receptor fields have a preferred directional vector, and are interpreted by analogy to a computer technology known as an information network.

  14. Effects of GA3 Pregerminative Treatment on Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca Germination and Seedlings Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    González-López, Óscar; Casquero, Pedro A.

    2014-01-01

    Gentiana lutea L. is widely used in bitter beverages and in medicine; Gentianae Radix is the pharmaceutical name of the root of G. lutea. These uses have generated a high demand. The wild populations of Gentiana lutea var. aurantiaca (M. Laínz) M. Laínz have been decimated; it is necessary to establish guidelines for its cultivation. Gentian as most alpine species has dormant seeds. Dormancy can be removed by cold and by means of a gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment. However, cold treatments pr...

  15. MACULA: Fast Modeling of Rotational Modulations of Spotty Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipping, David

    2015-08-01

    Rotational modulations are frequently observed on stars observed by photometry surveys such as Kepler, with periodicities ranging from days to months and amplitudes of sub-parts-per-million to several percent. These variations may be studied to reveal important stellar properties such as rotational periods, inclinations and gradients of differential rotation. However, inverting the disk-integrated flux into a solution for spot number, sizes, contrasts, etc is highly degenerate and thereby necessitating an exhaustive search of the parameter space. In recognition of this, the software MACULA is designed to be a fast forward model of circular, grey spots on rotating stars, including effects such as differential rotation, spot evolution and even spot penumbra/umbra. MACULA seeks to achieve computational efficiency by using a wholly analytic description of the disk-integrated flux, which is described in Kipping (2012), leading to a computational improvement of three orders-of-magnitude over its numerical counterparts. As part of the hack day, I'll show how to simulate light curves with MACULA and provide examples with visualizations. I will also discuss the on-going development of the code, which will head towards modeling spot crossing events and radial velocity jitter and I encourage discussions amongst the participants on analytic methods to this end.

  16. Textureless Macula Swelling Detection with Multiple Retinal Fundus Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Meriaudeau, Fabrice [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Grisan, Enrico [University of Padua, Padua, Italy; Favaro, Paolo [Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh; Ruggeri, Alfredo [University of Padua, Padua, Italy; Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2010-01-01

    Retinal fundus images acquired with non-mydriatic digital fundus cameras are a versatile tool for the diagnosis of various retinal diseases. Because of the ease of use of newer camera models and their relatively low cost, these cameras can be employed by operators with limited training for telemedicine or Point-of-Care applications. We propose a novel technique that uses uncalibrated multiple-view fundus images to analyse the swelling of the macula. This innovation enables the detection and quantitative measurement of swollen areas by remote ophthalmologists. This capability is not available with a single image and prone to error with stereo fundus cameras. We also present automatic algorithms to measure features from the reconstructed image which are useful in Point-of-Care automated diagnosis of early macular edema, e.g., before the appearance of exudation. The technique presented is divided into three parts: first, a preprocessing technique simultaneously enhances the dark microstructures of the macula and equalises the image; second, all available views are registered using non-morphological sparse features; finally, a dense pyramidal optical flow is calculated for all the images and statistically combined to build a naiveheight- map of the macula. Results are presented on three sets of synthetic images and two sets of real world images. These preliminary tests show the ability to infer a minimum swelling of 300 microns and to correlate the reconstruction with the swollen location.

  17. Afferent innervation of the utricular macula in pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Xiaohong; Zakir, Mridha Md; Dickman, J. David

    2003-01-01

    Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was used to retrogradely label afferents innervating the utricular macula in adult pigeons. The pigeon utriclar macula consists of a large rectangular-shaped neuroepithelium with a dorsally curved anterior edge and an extended medioposterior tail. The macula could be demarcated into several regions based on cytoarchitectural differences. The striola occupied 30% of the macula and contained a large density of type I hair cells with fewer type II hair cells. Medial and lateral extrastriola zones were located outside the striola and contained only type II hair cells. A six- to eight-cell-wide band of type II hair cells existed near the center of the striola. The reversal line marked by the morphological polarization of hair cells coursed throughout the epithelium, near the peripheral margin, and through the center of the type II band. Calyx afferents innervated type I hair cells with calyceal terminals that contained between 2 and 15 receptor cells. Calyx afferents were located only in the striola region, exclusive of the type II band, had small total fiber innervation areas and low innervation densities. Dimorph afferents innervated both type I and type II hair cells with calyceal and bouton terminals and were primarily located in the striola region. Dimorph afferents had smaller calyceal terminals with few type I hair cells, extended fiber branches with bouton terminals and larger innervation areas. Bouton afferents innervated only type II hair cells in the extrastriola and type II band regions. Bouton afferents innervating the type II band had smaller terminal fields with fewer bouton terminals and smaller innervation areas than fibers located in the extrastriolar zones. Bouton afferents had the most bouton terminals on the longest fibers, the largest innervation areas with the highest innervation densities of all afferents. Among all afferents, smaller terminal innervation fields were observed in the striola and large fields were

  18. Summer spawning of Porites lutea from north-western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddart, C. W.; Stoddart, J. A.; Blakeway, D. R.

    2012-09-01

    Most coral species off Australia's west coast spawn in the austral autumn (March-April), with a few species also spawning in the southern spring or early summer (November-December). This is the reverse timing to spawning recorded off Australia's east coast. Porites lutea, a gonochoric broadcast spawner that is common on Australia's west coast, is shown here to spawn in the months of November or December, as it does on Australia's east coast. Spawning occurred between 2 and 5 nights after full moon, with the majority of spawning activity on night 3. Gametes developed over three to four months with rapid development in the last two weeks before spawning. Zooxanthellae were typically observed in mature oocytes, only a week before spawning so their presence may provide a useful indicator of imminent spawning.

  19. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH VISUAL OUTCOME AFTER MACULA-OFF RHEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL DETACHMENT SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dae Hyun; Choi, Kyung Seek; Sun, Hae Jung; Lee, Sung Jin

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate preoperative factors influencing the visual outcome and postoperative factors associated with the changes in visual acuity, after reattachment surgery to treat macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. A total of 180 eyes of 180 patients who underwent reattachment surgery to treat macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, and who were followed up for more than 12 months, were reviewed retrospectively. Preoperative and postoperative characteristics, including optical coherence tomography findings, were comprehensively analyzed using univariate and multivariate models to evaluate preoperative factors influencing best-corrected visual acuity 12 months after macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment surgery and postoperative factors associated with changes in best-corrected visual acuity after surgery. Preoperatively, the extent of detachment (P = 0.037), macula-off duration (P macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment surgery were the extent of detachment, macula-off duration, and external limiting membrane integrity. Postoperatively, predictive factors were the outer retinal microstructures, particularly the photoreceptor outer segment layer.

  20. Histological observations on the scleractinian coral Porites lutea affected by pink-line syndrome

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran, J.; Raghukumar, C.

    A pink-line syndrome (PLS) was reported in the reef building coral Porites lutea in Kavaratti island of the Lakshadweep archipelago. The affected corals had dead patches colonized by a cyanobacterium Phormidium valderianum and the bordering coral...

  1. Automatic detection of the macula in retinal fundus images using seeded mode tracking approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Damon W K; Liu, Jiang; Tan, Ngan-Meng; Yin, Fengshou; Cheng, Xiangang; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cheung, Gemmy C M; Wong, Tien Yin

    2012-01-01

    The macula is the part of the eye responsible for central high acuity vision. Detection of the macula is an important task in retinal image processing as a landmark for subsequent disease assessment, such as for age-related macula degeneration. In this paper, we have presented an approach to automatically determine the macula centre in retinal fundus images. First contextual information on the image is combined with a statistical model to obtain an approximate macula region of interest localization. Subsequently, we propose the use of a seeded mode tracking technique to locate the macula centre. The proposed approach is tested on a large dataset composed of 482 normal images and 162 glaucoma images from the ORIGA database and an additional 96 AMD images. The results show a ROI detection of 97.5%, and 90.5% correct detection of the macula within 1/3DD from a manual reference, which outperforms other current methods. The results are promising for the use of the proposed approach to locate the macula for the detection of macula diseases from retinal images.

  2. MACULA RETINAL VASCULITIS AND CHOROIDITIS ASSOCIATED WITH GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lik Thai; Vasudevan, Vinaya; Shelton, Julie; Vitale, Albert T; Moorthy, Ramana

    2017-01-01

    To report a case series of two cases of granulomatosis with polyangiitis, previously known as Wegener granulomatosis, which developed macular necrosis, not previously associated with granulomatosis with polyangiitis, healed with fibrosis, despite aggressive immune-modulating therapy and good control of systemic disease. Case series of two cases with observation of treatment progress. The results reported the progress of response to treatment in the two cases, which resulted in the final outcome of fibrosis in the macula region, despite being on aggressive immune-modulating therapy and good systemic control. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis can be associated with macular necrosis leading to fibrosis, unresponsive to immune-modulating therapy.

  3. Serous Retinal Detachment in Dome-shaped Macula with 7 Years Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakeely, Adel G; Alrashaed, Saba

    2016-01-01

    Dome-shaped macula (DSM) was first described by Gaucher et al . as a convex protrusion of macula within a staphyloma in highly myopic eyes that cause visual impairment associated with serous foveal detachment (SFD). We describe a patient with persistent SFD in DSM documented by serial spectral domain optical coherence tomography for 7 years with stable vision.

  4. Bilateral Dome-Shaped Macula with Serous Macular Detachment in a Child

    OpenAIRE

    Cebeci, Zafer; Kir, Nur

    2015-01-01

    Dome-shaped macula is a structural disorder and optical coherence tomography (OCT) helps us to confirm macular convexity. We describe the first case of bilateral dome-shaped macula in an 8-year-old boy with subretinal fluid. The patient was diagnosed using spectral-domain OCT and received indocyanine green angiography-guided half-fluence photodynamic therapy as treatment.

  5. macula: Rotational modulations in the photometry of spotted stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipping, David M.

    2012-09-01

    Photometric rotational modulations due to starspots remain the most common and accessible way to study stellar activity. Modelling rotational modulations allows one to invert the observations into several basic parameters, such as the rotation period, spot coverage, stellar inclination and differential rotation rate. The most widely used analytic model for this inversion comes from Budding (1977) and Dorren (1987), who considered circular, grey starspots for a linearly limb darkened star. That model is extended to be more suitable in the analysis of high precision photometry such as that by Kepler. Macula, a Fortran 90 code, provides several improvements, such as non-linear limb darkening of the star and spot, a single-domain analytic function, partial derivatives for all input parameters, temporal partial derivatives, diluted light compensation, instrumental offset normalisations, differential rotation, starspot evolution and predictions of transit depth variations due to unocculted spots. The inclusion of non-linear limb darkening means macula has a maximum photometric error an order-of-magnitude less than that of Dorren (1987) for Sun-like stars observed in the Kepler-bandpass. The code executes three orders-of-magnitude faster than comparable numerical codes making it well-suited for inference problems.

  6. Correlation among foetal number, corpora lutea and plasma progesterone in rockland-swiss mice. [Progesterone determination by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, N G; Bridges, R S; Gandelmann, R [Rutgers - the State Univ., New Brunswick. NJ (USA). Dept. of Psychology; Rutgers - the State Univ., Newark, NJ (USA). Inst. of Animal Behavior)

    1978-01-01

    The relationship among plasma progesterone, number of corpora lutea, and foetal number was assessed in Rockland-Swiss albino mice. While number of corpora lutea and foetal number were significantly correlated, neither was related to plasma progesterone level. This finding in the mouse is similar to results reported in the rabbit.

  7. Simultaneous macula detection and optic disc boundary segmentation in retinal fundus images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Fantin; Kavalec, Conrad; Grenier, Sébastien; Ben Tahar, Houssem; Cheriet, Farida

    2016-03-01

    The optic disc (OD) and the macula are important structures in automatic diagnosis of most retinal diseases inducing vision defects such as glaucoma, diabetic or hypertensive retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. We propose a new method to detect simultaneously the macula and the OD boundary. First, the color fundus images are processed to compute several maps highlighting the different anatomical structures such as vessels, the macula and the OD. Then, macula candidates and OD candidates are found simultaneously and independently using seed detectors identified on the corresponding maps. After selecting a set of macula/OD pairs, the top candidates are sent to the OD segmentation method. The segmentation method is based on local K-means applied to color coordinates in polar space followed by a polynomial fitting regularization step. Pair scores are updated, resulting in the final best macula/OD pair. The method was evaluated on two public image databases: ONHSD and MESSIDOR. The results show an overlapping area of 0.84 on ONHSD and 0.90 on MESSIDOR, which is better than recent state of the art methods. Our segmentation method is robust to contrast and illumination problems and outputs the exact boundary of the OD, not just a circular or elliptical model. The macula detection has an accuracy of 94%, which again outperforms other macula detection methods. This shows that combining the OD and macula detections improves the overall accuracy. The computation time for the whole process is 6.4 seconds, which is faster than other methods in the literature.

  8. Insights into Europa's Shallow Water Mobility from Thrace and Thera Macula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, B. E.; Blankenship, D. D.; Patterson, G. W.; Schenk, P. M.

    2012-03-01

    Comparison of Thera and Thrace Macula shows evidence for shallow water mobility within Europa’s crust and places constraints on the timescales and direction of hydraulic water flow, as well as the material properties of the ice.

  9. [Dome-shaped macula: appearance on ultrasound and optical coherence tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chéour, M; Ben Aleya, N; Brour, J; Falfoul, Y; Agrebi, S; Skhiri, M; Kraïem, A

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of our work is to demonstrate the role of optical coherence tomography and ocular ultrasound in the diagnosis of the dome-shaped macula in high myopia. We report the case of a patient with high myopia who presented with a decrease in visual acuity and metamorphopsia in the left eye. She underwent visual acuity measurement, biomicroscopic examination and measurement of axial length. B-mode ultrasound and optical coherence tomography showed a projection of the macula in the convexity of the myopic staphyloma confirming the diagnosis of dome-shaped macula. Dome-shaped macula is a recently discovered entity, which may be responsible for a decrease in visual acuity in patients with high myopic posterior staphyloma. Ultrasound and optical coherence tomography are very helpful in making the diagnosis. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography of the sclera in dome-shaped macula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Yutaka; Iida, Tomohiro; Maruko, Ichiro; Zweifel, Sandrine A; Spaide, Richard F

    2011-02-01

    To examine the posterior anatomic structure of eyes with dome-shaped macula using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). Retrospective observational case series. Patients with dome-shaped macula, a condition defined as convex elevation of the macula as compared with the surrounding staphylomatous region in a highly myopic eye, were identified through routine examinations using optical coherence tomography (OCT). EDI-OCT was used to examine their posterior anatomic changes. The scleral thickness was measured from the outer border of the choroid to the outer scleral border under the fovea and 3000 μm temporal to the fovea. The mean age of the 15 patients (23 eyes) was 59.3 (± 12.2) years, and the mean refractive error was -13.6 (± 5.0) diopters. The best-corrected visual acuity ranged from 20/15 to 20/800 (median: 20/30). Eight patients (53%) had dome-shaped macula bilaterally. The mean subfoveal scleral thickness in 23 eyes with dome-shaped macula was 570 (± 221) μm, and that in 25 eyes of 15 myopic patients with staphyloma but without dome-shaped macula was 281 (± 85) μm (P macula is the result of a relative localized thickness variation of the sclera under the macula in highly myopic patients, and it cannot be categorized into any of the known types of staphyloma. This finding suggests the ocular expansion in myopia may be more complex than previously thought. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Functional results of cryosurgical procedures in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment including macula region - our experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrapek, O; Sín, M; Jirková, B; Jarkovský, J; Rehák, J

    2013-10-01

    Aim of this study is to evaluate retrospectively functional results of cryosurgical treatment of uncomplicated, idiopathic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment including macula region in phakic patients operated on at the Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty Hospital, Palacký University, Olomouc, Czech Republic, E.U., during the period 2002 -2013, and to evaluate the significance of the macula detachment duration for the final visual acuity. In the study group were included 56 eyes of 56 patients operated in the years 2003 - 2012 at the Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty Hospital, Palacký University, Olomouc. All patients were phakic and in all of them, the retinal detachment including the macula region was diagnosed. The mean follow-up period of the patients was 8,75 months. The initial and final visual acuity testing were performed. Comparing the initial and final visual acuity we rated the level of the visual acuity change. The result was stated as improved, if the visual acuity improved by 1 or more lines on the ETDRS chart. The result was rated as stabilized, if the visual acuity remained the same or it changed by 1 line of the ETDRS chart only. The result was evaluated as worsened, if the visual acuity decreased by 1 or more lines of the ETDRS chart. In the followed-up group, the authors compared visual acuity levels in patients with the macula detachment duration 10 days and 11 days. For the statistical evaluation of achieved results, the Mann - Whitney U test was used. The visual acuity improved in 49 (87 %), did not changed in 5 (9 %) and worsened in 2 (4 %) patients. The patients with macula detachment duration 10 days achieved statistically significant better visual acuity than patients with macula detachment duration 11 days. Patients with macula detachment duration 10 days have better prognosis for functional result than patients with macula detachment duration 11 days.

  12. Selective Pressures Explain Differences in Flower Color among Gentiana lutea Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Sobral

    Full Text Available Flower color variation among plant populations might reflect adaptation to local conditions such as the interacting animal community. In the northwest Iberian Peninsula, flower color of Gentiana lutea varies longitudinally among populations, ranging from orange to yellow. We explored whether flower color is locally adapted and the role of pollinators and seed predators as agents of selection by analyzing the influence of flower color on (i pollinator visitation rate and (ii escape from seed predation and (iii by testing whether differences in pollinator communities correlate with flower color variation across populations. Finally, (iv we investigated whether variation in selective pressures explains flower color variation among 12 G. lutea populations. Flower color influenced pollinator visits and differences in flower color among populations were related to variation in pollinator communities. Selective pressures on flower color vary among populations and explain part of flower color differences among populations of G. lutea. We conclude that flower color in G. lutea is locally adapted and that pollinators play a role in this adaptation.

  13. Studies on luteinizing hormone receptors of human corpora lutea during menstrual cycle and pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumi, Yasushi (Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-10-01

    With the purpose of explicating the lifespan of human corpora lutea, using human corpora lutea of the menstrual cycle and pregnancy, binding of /sup 125/I-LH to the 20,000g cell membrane fraction was examined. 1) Specific bindings of /sup 125/I-LH, /sup 125/I-HCG were demonstrated in the 20,000g cell membrane fraction. Although LH and HCG were parallel in inhibiting /sup 125/I-LH binding, HCG was found to be more effective. FSH did not inhibit binding. 2) Binding of /sup 125/I-LH was dependent on time, temperature, /sup 125/I-LH concentration, amount of the cell membrane fraction protein and pH. The highest binding was seen at pH 6.0 while incubating for 60 min at 37/sup 0/C. 3) The number of LH receptors in human corpora lutea of the menstrual cycle increased towards midluteal phase, especially on 5th day from ovulation, and decreased towards late luteal phase. LH receptor was not found in corpus albicans. The apparent dissociation constant of each corpus luteum did not change throughout the menstrual cycle. 4) Corpora lutea of pregnancy contained a few or no receptors which bound /sup 125/I-LH specifically. These data suggest that LH receptor is an important factor regulating the lifespan of corpus luteum and exogenous HCG has effect on luteal insufficiency, but the effect of HCG on threatened abortion is uncertain.

  14. Gonadotropin binding sites in human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shima, K.; Kitayama, S.; Nakano, R.

    1987-05-01

    Gonadotropin binding sites were localized by autoradiography after incubation of human ovarian sections with /sup 125/I-labeled gonadotropins. The binding sites for /sup 125/I-labeled human follicle-stimulating hormone (/sup 125/I-hFSH) were identified in the granulosa cells and in the newly formed corpora lutea. The /sup 125/I-labeled human luteinizing hormone (/sup 125/I-hLH) binding to the thecal cells increased during follicular maturation, and a dramatic increase was preferentially observed in the granulosa cells of the large preovulatory follicle. In the corpora lutea, the binding of /sup 125/I-hLH increased from the early luteal phase and decreased toward the late luteal phase. The changes in 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in the corpora lutea corresponded to the /sup 125/I-hLH binding. Thus, the changes in gonadotropin binding sites in the follicles and corpora lutea during the menstrual cycle may help in some important way to regulate human ovarian function.

  15. Studies on luteinizing hormone receptors of human corpora lutea during menstrual cycle and pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Yasushi

    1982-01-01

    With the purpose of explicating the lifespan of human corpora lutea, using human corpora lutea of the menstrual cycle and pregnancy, binding of 125 I-LH to the 20,000g cell membrane fraction was examined. 1) Specific bindings of 125 I-LH, 125 I-HCG were demonstrated in the 20,000g cell membrane fraction. Although LH and HCG were parallel in inhibiting 125 I-LH binding, HCG was found to be more effective. FSH did not inhibit binding. 2) Binding of 125 I-LH was dependent on time, temperature, 125 I-LH concentration, amount of the cell membrane fraction protein and pH. The highest binding was seen at pH 6.0 while incubating for 60 min at 37 0 C. 3) The number of LH receptors in human corpora lutea of the menstrual cycle increased towards midluteal phase, especiallt on 5th day from ovulation, and decreased towards late luteal phase. LH receptor was not found in corpus albicans. The apparent dissociation constant of each corpus luteum did not change throughout the menstrual cycle. 4) Corpora lutea of pregnancy contained a few or no receptors which bound 125 I-LH specifically. These data suggest that LH receptor is an important factor regulating the lifespan of corpus luteum and exogenous HCG has effect on luteal insufficiency, but the effect of HCG on threatened abortion is uncertain. (author)

  16. Detecting dispersal of Nuphar lutea in river corridors using microsatellite markers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fér, T.; Hroudová, Zdenka

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 7 (2008), s. 1409-1422 ISSN 0046-5070 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB6111304 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Nuphar lutea * dispersal * river corridors Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.704, year: 2008

  17. Selective Pressures Explain Differences in Flower Color among Gentiana lutea Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, Mar; Veiga, Tania; Domínguez, Paula; Guitián, Javier A; Guitián, Pablo; Guitián, José M

    2015-01-01

    Flower color variation among plant populations might reflect adaptation to local conditions such as the interacting animal community. In the northwest Iberian Peninsula, flower color of Gentiana lutea varies longitudinally among populations, ranging from orange to yellow. We explored whether flower color is locally adapted and the role of pollinators and seed predators as agents of selection by analyzing the influence of flower color on (i) pollinator visitation rate and (ii) escape from seed predation and (iii) by testing whether differences in pollinator communities correlate with flower color variation across populations. Finally, (iv) we investigated whether variation in selective pressures explains flower color variation among 12 G. lutea populations. Flower color influenced pollinator visits and differences in flower color among populations were related to variation in pollinator communities. Selective pressures on flower color vary among populations and explain part of flower color differences among populations of G. lutea. We conclude that flower color in G. lutea is locally adapted and that pollinators play a role in this adaptation.

  18. A comparison of some organizational characteristics of the mouse central retina and the human macula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volland, Stefanie; Esteve-Rudd, Julian; Hoo, Juyea; Yee, Claudine; Williams, David S

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models have greatly assisted our understanding of retinal degenerations. However, the mouse retina does not have a macula, leading to the question of whether the mouse is a relevant model for macular degeneration. In the present study, a quantitative comparison between the organization of the central mouse retina and the human macula was made, focusing on some structural characteristics that have been suggested to be important in predisposing the macula to stresses leading to degeneration: photoreceptor density, phagocytic load on the RPE, and the relative thinness of Bruch's membrane. Light and electron microscopy measurements from retinas of two strains of mice, together with published data on human retinas, were used for calculations and subsequent comparisons. As in the human retina, the central region of the mouse retina possesses a higher photoreceptor cell density and a thinner Bruch's membrane than in the periphery; however, the magnitudes of these periphery to center gradients are larger in the human. Of potentially greater relevance is the actual photoreceptor cell density, which is much greater in the mouse central retina than in the human macula, underlying a higher phagocytic load for the mouse RPE. Moreover, at eccentricities that correspond to the peripheral half of the human macula, the rod to cone ratio is similar between mouse and human. Hence, with respect to photoreceptor density and phagocytic load of the RPE, the central mouse retina models at least the more peripheral part of the macula, where macular degeneration is often first evident.

  19. Age-related changes in the macula. A histopathological study of fifty Indian donor eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Jyotirmay; Raman, Rajiv

    2002-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is clinically less common in India compared to the West. Therefore, clinicians are unfamiliar with histopathologic evidence of age-related macular changes in the Indian population. Fifty consecutive human donor eyes removed for corneal grafting were studied for gross, microscopic and histochemical features of age-related changes in the macula in the Indian population. A horizontal block was cut from the globe including the optic disc, and the macula. Six sections, 6 microns thick, were cut from three levels in the macula at a distance of 140 microns. These were stained with haemotoxylin-eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, Mallory, Masson trichrome, alcian blue and von Kossa stains. The presence of basal laminar deposits, drusen and thickening and calcification of Bruch's membrane in the macula were assessed at 400 x magnification using a modified version of Sark's classification. Twenty-four donor eyes (48%) had some form of age-related macular change. These included basal laminar deposits, hard drusen, soft drusen, extensive retinal pigment epithelium atrophy of the macula, and disciform degeneration of macula. A combination of changes was often seen. Age-related changes were more common in the seventh and eighth decade. Our study shows that histological changes characteristic of the early stages of age-related macular degeneration are fairly common in the Indian population. However, advanced macular changes are significantly rare.

  20. Progressive Macula Vessel Density Loss in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Takuhei; Zangwill, Linda M; Akagi, Tadamichi; Saunders, Luke J; Yarmohammadi, Adeleh; Manalastas, Patricia Isabel C; Penteado, Rafaella C; Weinreb, Robert N

    2017-10-01

    To characterize the rate of macula vessel density loss in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), glaucoma-suspect, and healthy eyes. Longitudinal, observational cohort from the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study. One hundred eyes (32 POAG, 30 glaucoma-suspect, and 38 healthy) followed for at least 1 year with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) imaging on at least 2 visits were included. Vessel density was calculated in the macula superficial layer. The rate of change was compared across diagnostic groups using a multivariate linear mixed-effects model. Baseline macula vessel density was highest in healthy eyes, followed by glaucoma-suspect and POAG eyes (P macula whole en face vessel density was significantly faster in glaucoma eyes (-2.23%/y) than in glaucoma-suspect (0.87%/y, P = .001) or healthy eyes (0.29%/y, P = .004). Conversely, the rate of change in ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness was not significantly different from zero in any diagnostic group, and no significant differences in the rate of GCC change among diagnostic groups were found. With a mean follow-up of less than 14 months, eyes with POAG had significantly faster loss of macula vessel density than either glaucoma-suspect or healthy eyes. Serial OCT-A measurements also detected glaucomatous change in macula vessel density in eyes without evidence of change in GCC thickness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Choroidal findings in dome-shaped macula in highly myopic eyes: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Francesco; Dell'Arti, Laura; Benatti, Eleonora; Invernizzi, Alessandro; Mapelli, Chiara; Ferrari, Fabio; Ratiglia, Roberto; Staurenghi, Giovanni; Barteselli, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    To describe choroidal findings in dome-shaped macula associated with high myopia using fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT), and to elucidate the mechanism and natural course of serous retinal detachment (RD) associated with dome-shaped macula. Retrospective, observational case series. We reviewed longitudinal imaging results of 52 highly myopic eyes with dome-shaped macula. Changes on FA and ICGA were assessed. Retinal, choroidal, and scleral thicknesses and bulge height were measured on SD OCT. Serous RD was the most common abnormality associated with dome-shaped macula, detected by SD OCT in 44% of the cases with no associated choroidal neovascularization. Significant differences in the proportion of eyes with pinpoint leakage on FA (P macula was likely caused by choroidal vascular changes, similar to central serous chorioretinopathy, but specifically confined in the inward bulge of the staphyloma and secondary to excessive scleral thickening. Serous retinal detachment showed fluctuating changes over time, with alternating active and inactive stages. Angiographic findings in dome-shaped macula suggest the choroid as a target for possible treatment strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Age-related changes in the macula. A histopathological study of fifty Indian donor eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas Jyotirmay

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD is clinically less common in India compared to the West. Therefore, clinicians are unfamiliar with histopathologic evidence of age-related macular changes in the Indian population. METHODS: Fifty consecutive human donor eyes removed for corneal grafting were studied for gross, microscopic and histochemical features of age-related changes in the macula in the Indian population. A horizontal block was cut from the globe including the optic disc, and the macula. Six sections, 6 microns thick, were cut from three levels in the macula at a distance of 140 microns. These were stained with haemotoxylin-eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, Mallory, Masson trichrome, alcian blue and von Kossa stains. The presence of basal laminar deposits, drusen and thickening and calcification of Bruch′s membrane in the macula were assessed at 400 x magnification using a modified version of Sark′s classification. RESULTS: Twenty-four donor eyes (48% had some form of age-related macular change. These included basal laminar deposits, hard drusen, soft drusen, extensive retinal pigment epithelium atrophy of the macula, and disciform degeneration of macula. A combination of changes was often seen. Age-related changes were more common in the seventh and eighth decade. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that histological changes characteristic of the early stages of age-related macular degeneration are fairly common in the Indian population. However, advanced macular changes are significantly rare.

  3. How does the macula protect itself from oxidative stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, James T

    2012-08-01

    Oxidative stress has been hypothesized to contribute to the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most common cause of blindness in the United States. At present, there is no treatment for early disease. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a physiological role in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a key cell type in this disease, but with excessive ROS, oxidative damage or excessive innate immune system activation can result. The RPE has developed a robust antioxidant system driven by the transcription factor Nrf2. Impaired Nrf2 signaling can lead to oxidative damage or activate the innate immune response, both of which can lead to RPE apoptosis, a defining change in AMD. Several mouse models simulating environmental stressors or targeting specific antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase or Nrf2, have simulated some of the features of AMD. While ROS are short-lived, oxidatively damaged molecules termed oxidation specific epitopes (OSEs), can be long-lived and a source of chronic stress that activates the innate immune system through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). The macula accumulates a number of OSEs including carboxyethylpyrrole, malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxynonenal, and advanced glycation endproducts, as well as their respective neutralizing PRRs. Excessive accumulation of OSEs results in pathologic immune activation. For example, mice immunized with the carboxyethylpyrrole develop cardinal features of AMD. Regulating ROS in the RPE by modulating antioxidant systems or neutralizing OSEs through an appropriate innate immune response are potential modalities to treat or prevent early AMD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A multiscale optimization approach to detect exudates in the macula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurto, Carla; Murray, Victor; Yu, Honggang; Wigdahl, Jeffrey; Pattichis, Marios; Nemeth, Sheila; Barriga, E Simon; Soliz, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Pathologies that occur on or near the fovea, such as clinically significant macular edema (CSME), represent high risk for vision loss. The presence of exudates, lipid residues of serous leakage from damaged capillaries, has been associated with CSME, in particular if they are located one optic disc-diameter away from the fovea. In this paper, we present an automatic system to detect exudates in the macula. Our approach uses optimal thresholding of instantaneous amplitude (IA) components that are extracted from multiple frequency scales to generate candidate exudate regions. For each candidate region, we extract color, shape, and texture features that are used for classification. Classification is performed using partial least squares (PLS). We tested the performance of the system on two different databases of 652 and 400 images. The system achieved an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.96 for the combination of both databases and an AUC of 0.97 for each of them when they were evaluated independently.

  5. Evidence of a sensory processing unit in the mammalian macula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimento, T. C.; Ross, M. D.

    1996-01-01

    We cut serial sections through the medial part of the rat vestibular macula for transmission electron microscopic (TEM) examination, computer-assisted 3-D reconstruction, and compartmental modeling. The ultrastructural research showed that many primary vestibular neurons have an unmyelinated segment, often branched, that extends between the heminode (putative site of the spike initiation zone) and the expanded terminal(s) (calyx, calyces). These segments, termed the neuron branches, and the calyces frequently have spine-like processes of various dimensions with bouton endings that morphologically are afferent, efferent, or reciprocal to other macular neural elements. The major questions posed by this study were whether small details of morphology, such as the size and location of neuronal processes or synapses, could influence the output of a vestibular afferent, and whether a knowledge of morphological details could guide the selection of values for simulation parameters. The conclusions from our simulations are (1) values of 5.0 k omega cm2 for membrane resistivity and 1.0 nS for synaptic conductance yield simulations that best match published physiological results; (2) process morphology has little effect on orthodromic spread of depolarization from the head (bouton) to the spike initiation zone (SIZ); (3) process morphology has no effect on antidromic spread of depolarization to the process head; (4) synapses do not sum linearly; (5) synapses are electrically close to the SIZ; and (6) all whole-cell simulations should be run with an active SIZ.

  6. Evidence of macular pigment in the central macula in albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Yulia; Fletcher, Emily; Strauss, Rupert W; Scholl, Hendrik P N

    2016-04-01

    Albinism represents a spectrum of disorders with diminished to absent amounts of melanin pigmentation including the posterior segment of the eye. Macular pigment (MP) consists of two main carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, concentrated in the macula. MP serves as blue light absorbent, antioxidant, and may reduce chromatic aberration and glare. It remains unclear if albinos have detectable MP. The purpose was to investigate the distribution of MP in albino patients with psychophysical and imaging techniques. MP was measured at the eccentricity of 0.5° by heterochromatic flicker perimetry (QuantifEye(®); Tinsley Precision Instruments Ltd.) or by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (MPOD module, MultiColor Spectralis(®), Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) in four albino patients, who were also investigated with multimodal ophthalmic imaging. Visual acuity ranged from 20/32 to 20/125, nystagmus was present in three patients, and all patients showed typical foveal hypoplasia on fundus exam and optical coherence tomography. Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) demonstrated various degrees of central FAF signal attenuation. Genetic testing was available in three patients and confirmed the diagnosis. Measurable amounts of MP were detected in all four patients and ranged from 0.05 to 0.24, which is below the normal range. We conclude that MP can be demonstrated and measured in albinos. Further studies are needed to investigate MP accumulation following carotenoid supplementation and its impact on visual performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. What made you wait so long? Delays in presentation of retinal detachment: knowledge is related to an attached macula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijk, Eva S V; Busschbach, Jan J V; Timman, Reinier; Monteban, Helma C; Vissers, Jan M H; van Meurs, Jan C

    2016-08-01

    In rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, the time between first symptoms and reattachment surgery is critical to prevent macular detachment. We explored which determinants discriminate between 'macula-ON' and 'macula-OFF' retinal detachments to improve timely treatment. Eight-hundred patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment admitted for surgery at the Rotterdam Eye Hospital in the Netherlands were eligible to complete a questionnaire to explore the following determinants: (i) patient's delay and doctor's delay; (ii) patient-reported causes for delay; (iii) symptoms as early warning signals; (iv) patient's prior knowledge about retinal detachment; and (v) trait anxiety. Five hundred and twenty-one questionnaires (65%) were analysed. Median interval between first symptoms and surgery was 14 days. Macula-ON/OFF ratio was 46/54. Patient's delay in macula-ON patients (median 3 days) was shorter than in macula-OFF (5 days, p = 0.026). No difference was found in doctor's delay except for 'waiting time for surgery': macula-ON patients were operated on faster (median 1 day) than macula-OFF (median 5 days, p Macula-ON patients more often attributed symptoms to retinal problems. Except floaters, no symptoms were determined as early warning signals for macula-ON. Macula-ON patients more often reported knowing that prognosis would be worse when treated later, even when controlled for previous experience with retinal detachment. Macula-ON patients seem to self-refer faster to a healthcare provider, seem more sensitive to floaters and seem more informed. This suggests that increasing awareness, especially about floaters, might increase the proportion of patients with macula still on at the moment of referral to the ophthalmologist. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Cytotoxic effect of Reseda lutea L.: A case of forgotten remedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulović, Niko S; Zlatković, Dragan B; Ilić-Tomić, Tatjana; Senerović, Lidija; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina

    2014-04-11

    Reseda lutea L. (Resedaceae) or Wild Mignonette is a widely distributed plant species. Pliny the Elder (AD 23-AD 79), a Roman scholar and naturalist, reported the use of R. lutea for reducing tumors in his Historia naturalis. Accounts of the beneficial effects of R. lutea in tumor treatment could also be found in the works of later authors, such as Étienne François Geoffroy (1672-1731) and Samuel Frederick Gray (1766-1828). However, to date no in vivo or in vitro evidence exists in support of the alleged tumor healing properties of R. lutea. The composition of autolysates obtained from different organs (root, flower and fruit) of R. lutea was investigated by GC and GC-MS analyses and IR, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. These analyses led to the discovery of a new compound isolated in pure form from the flower autolysate. Autolysates and their major constituents were submitted to MTT-dye reduction cytotoxic assay on human A375 (melanoma) and MRC5 (fibroblast) cell lines. Mechanism of the cytotoxic effects was studied by cell cycle analysis and Annexin V assay. Benzyl isothiocyanate and 2-(α-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate were identified as the major constituents of the root and flower autolysates, respectively (the later represents a new natural product). These compounds showed significant antiproliferative effects against both cell lines, which could also explain the observed high cytotoxic activity of the tested autolysates. Cell cycle analysis revealed apoptosis as the probable mechanism of cell death. Tumor healing properties attributed to R. lutea in the pre-modern texts were substantiated by the herein obtained results. Two isothiocyanates were found to be the major carriers of the observed activity. Although there was a relatively low differential effect of the plant metabolites on transformed and non-transformed cell lines, one can argue that the noted strong cytotoxicity provides first evidence that could explain the long forgotten use of this

  9. Genetic variation of the endangered Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca (Gentianaceae) in populations from the Northwest Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-López, Oscar; Polanco, Carlos; György, Zsuzsanna; Pedryc, Andrzej; Casquero, Pedro A

    2014-06-05

    Gentiana lutea L. (G. lutea L.) is an endangered plant, patchily distributed along the mountains of Central and Southern Europe. In this study, inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were used to investigate the genetic variation in this species within and among populations of G. lutea L. var. aurantiaca of the Cantabrian Mountains (Northwest Iberian Peninsula). Samples of G. lutea L. collected at different locations of the Pyrenees and samples of G. lutea L. subsp. vardjanii of the Dolomites Alps were also analyzed for comparison. Using nine ISSR primers, 106 bands were generated, and 89.6% of those were polymorphic. The populations from the Northwest Iberian Peninsula were clustered in three different groups, with a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances. Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca showed 19.8% private loci and demonstrated a remarkable level of genetic variation, both among populations and within populations; those populations with the highest level of isolation show the lowest genetic variation within populations. The low number of individuals, as well as the observed genetic structure of the analyzed populations makes it necessary to protect them to ensure their survival before they are too small to persist naturally.

  10. Genetic Variation of the Endangered Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca (Gentianaceae in Populations from the Northwest Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar González-López

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gentiana lutea L. (G. lutea L. is an endangered plant, patchily distributed along the mountains of Central and Southern Europe. In this study, inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers were used to investigate the genetic variation in this species within and among populations of G. lutea L. var. aurantiaca of the Cantabrian Mountains (Northwest Iberian Peninsula. Samples of G. lutea L. collected at different locations of the Pyrenees and samples of G. lutea L. subsp. vardjanii of the Dolomites Alps were also analyzed for comparison. Using nine ISSR primers, 106 bands were generated, and 89.6% of those were polymorphic. The populations from the Northwest Iberian Peninsula were clustered in three different groups, with a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances. Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca showed 19.8% private loci and demonstrated a remarkable level of genetic variation, both among populations and within populations; those populations with the highest level of isolation show the lowest genetic variation within populations. The low number of individuals, as well as the observed genetic structure of the analyzed populations makes it necessary to protect them to ensure their survival before they are too small to persist naturally.

  11. Luteinizing hormone receptors in human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamoto, M.; Nakano, R.; Iwasaki, M.; Ikoma, H.; Furukawa, K.

    1986-01-01

    The binding of 125 I-labeled human luteinizing hormone (hLH) to the 2000-g fraction of human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the entire menstrual cycle was examined. Specific high affinity, low capacity receptors for hLH were demonstrated in the 2000-g fraction of both follicles and corpora lutea. Specific binding of 125 I-labeled hLH to follicular tissue increased from the early follicular phase to the ovulatory phase. Specific binding of 125 I-labeled hLH to luteal tissue increased from the early luteal phase to the midluteal phase and decreased towards the late luteal phase. The results of the present study indicate that the increase and decrease in receptors for hLH during the menstrual cycle might play an important role in the regulation of the ovarian cycle

  12. Luteinizing hormone receptors in human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamoto, M.; Nakano, R.; Iwasaki, M.; Ikoma, H.; Furukawa, K.

    1986-08-01

    The binding of /sup 125/I-labeled human luteinizing hormone (hLH) to the 2000-g fraction of human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the entire menstrual cycle was examined. Specific high affinity, low capacity receptors for hLH were demonstrated in the 2000-g fraction of both follicles and corpora lutea. Specific binding of /sup 125/I-labeled hLH to follicular tissue increased from the early follicular phase to the ovulatory phase. Specific binding of /sup 125/I-labeled hLH to luteal tissue increased from the early luteal phase to the midluteal phase and decreased towards the late luteal phase. The results of the present study indicate that the increase and decrease in receptors for hLH during the menstrual cycle might play an important role in the regulation of the ovarian cycle.

  13. Dynamics of extracellular matrix in ovarian follicles and corpora lutea of mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irving-Rodgers, Helen F; Hummitzsch, Katja; Murdiyarso, Lydia S

    2009-01-01

    Despite the mouse being an important laboratory species, little is known about changes in its extracellular matrix (ECM) during follicle and corpora lutea formation and regression. Follicle development was induced in mice (29 days of age/experimental day 0) by injections of pregnant mare's serum...... and antral follicles. The focimatrix, a specialised matrix of the membrana granulosa, contained collagen type IV alpha1 and alpha2, laminin alpha1, beta1 and gamma1 chains, nidogens 1 and 2, perlecan and collagen type XVIII. In the corpora lutea, staining was restricted to capillary sub-endothelial basal...... gonadotrophin on days 0 and 1 and ovulation was induced by injection of human chorionic gonadotrophin on day 2. Ovaries were collected for immunohistochemistry (n=10 per group) on days 0, 2 and 5. Another group was mated and ovaries were examined on day 11 (n=7). Collagen type IV alpha1 and alpha2, laminin...

  14. Effects of Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra on the central nervous system in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Nilgün; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Aydin, Süleyman; Oztürk, Yusuf; Caliş, Ihsan

    2002-11-01

    A methanolic extact of Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra roots has been investigated for its possible effects on the central nervous system of mice. At doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg (i.p.), the methanol extract of Gentiana roots caused a significant increase in the swimming endurance test and exhibited slight analgesic activity, but no lethality in mice suggesting some activity on the central nervous system. However, there was no indication of sedation or muscular fatigue at the doses employed. HPLC analysis showed that three secoiridoid compounds, gentiopicroside, swertiamarine and sweroside were present and may have been responsible for the CNS effects of the methanol extract of Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra roots. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. [Genetic polymorphism of Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae) populations from Chornohora Ridge of Ukrainian Carpathians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosula, M Z; Konvaliuk, I I; Mel'nyk, V M; Drobyk, N M; Tsaryk, I V; Nesteruk, Iu I; Kunakh, V A

    2014-01-01

    The features of genetic structure and level of diversity were investigated for G. lutea populations from Chornohora Ridge of Ukrainian Carpathians using RAPD- and ISSR-PCR. We have shown a high level of genetic diversity for investigated populations. The differences between populations account for 59-72% of the total genetic variation, whereas intrapopulation polymorphism makes up 28-41%. The relationships among genetic variability level and ecological-geographical conditions as well as biological features of the species were assumed to be possible. The obtained results indicate the genetic isolation of G. lutea Chornohora populations from Ukrainian Carpathians. Pozhyzhevska agropopulation was characterized by a high level of polymorphism that means the possibility to use artificial plantings of the investigated species for its conservation.

  16. Orobanche lutea Baumg. (Orobanchaceae in Poland: revised distribution, taxonomy, phytocoenological and host relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piwowarczyk Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents current distribution of Orobanche lutea Baumg. in Poland based on a critical revision of herbarium and literature data as well as results of field investigations conducted between 1999-2014. Majority of localities are centred around the Silesia-Cracow, Małopolska and Lublin-Lviv Uplands. The greatest density of sites with probably the most abundant populations in Europe is in the central part of Silesia-Cracow Upland, which, by several hundred years, was heavily exploited for calamine mining (rich in zinc, lead and silver. This resulted in the formation of large areas of gangue containing toxic heavy metals. Since limestone, dolomite, marl and postglacial calcareous clay and sands occur there in most places, the soil is often strongly calcareous. Populations of O. lutea contain here many thousands of shoots. The distribution of the species in Poland is mapped. The taxonomy, biology, ecology and threats are also discussed.

  17. Application of QSAR models in analysis of antibacterial activity of some benzimidazole derivatives against Sarcina lutea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podunavac-Kuzmanović Sanja O.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, a quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR has been carried out on a series of 2-methyl and 2-aminobenzimidazole derivatives to identify the lipophilicity requirements for their inhibitory activity against bacteria Sarcina lutea. The tested compounds displayed in vitro antibacterial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined for all compounds. The partition coefficients of the studied compounds were measured by the shake flask method (log P and by theoretical calculation (Clog P. The relationships between lipophilicity descriptors and antibacterial activities were investigated and the mathematical models have been developed as a calibration models for predicting the inhibitory activity of this class of compounds. The models were validated by leave-one-out (LOO technique as well as by the calculation of statistical parameters for the established models. Therefore, QSAR analysis reveals that lipophilicity descriptor govern the inhibitory activity of benzimidazoles studied against Sarcina lutea.

  18. A Study on the Autecology of Reseda lutea L. (Resedaceae) Distributed in Western Anatolia

    OpenAIRE

    DOĞAN, Yunus

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the autecological characteristics of Reseda lutea L. (Resedaceae) distributed in Western Anatolia. The chemical and physical analysis was carried out on soil and plant samples collected from 54 different localities in Western Anatolia. The results show that the plant generally prefers sandy-loam and sandy-clayey-loam textural soils, with a slightly alkaline or medium alkaline pH. They prefer non-saline, calcareous soils which are poor in potassium and ph...

  19. Anti-acetylcholinesterase activity and antioxidant properties of extracts and fractions of Carpolobia lutea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwidu, Lucky Legbosi; Elmorsy, Ekramy; Thornton, Jack; Wijamunige, Buddhika; Wijesekara, Anusha; Tarbox, Rebecca; Warren, Averil; Carter, Wayne Grant

    2017-12-01

    There is an unmet need to discover new treatments for Alzheimer's disease. This study determined the anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, DPPH free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties of Carpolobia lutea G. Don (Polygalaceae). The objective of this study is to quantify C. lutea anti-AChE, DPPH free radical scavenging, and antioxidant activities and cell cytotoxicity. Plant stem, leaves and roots were subjected to sequential solvent extractions, and screened for anti-AChE activity across a concentration range of 0.02-200 μg/mL. Plant DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined, and cytotoxicity evaluated using human hepatocytes. Carpolobia lutea exhibited concentration-dependent anti-AChE activity. The most potent inhibitory activity for the stem was the crude ethanol extract and hexane stem fraction oil (IC 50  = 140 μg/mL); for the leaves, the chloroform leaf fraction (IC 50  = 60 μg/mL); and for roots, the methanol, ethyl acetate and aqueous root fractions (IC 50  = 0.3-3 μg/mL). Dose-dependent free radical scavenging activity and reducing power were observed with increasing stem, leaf or root concentration. Total phenolic contents were the highest in the stem: ∼632 mg gallic acid equivalents/g for a hexane stem fraction oil. Total flavonoid content was the highest in the leaves: ∼297 mg quercetin equivalents/g for a chloroform leaf fraction. At 1 μg/mL, only the crude ethanol extract oil was significantly cytotoxic to hepatocytes. Carpolobia lutea possesses anti-AChE activity and beneficial antioxidant capacity indicative of its potential development as a treatment of Alzheimer's and other diseases characterized by a cholinergic deficit.

  20. Immunolocalization of lipoxygenase in the microspore of Gagea lutea (L. Ker.-Gaw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Szczuka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Localization of lipoxygenase (LOX in the microspore of Gagea lutea (L. Ker.-Gaw. was investigated with the immunogold labelling method. The enzyme was found in the cytoplasm, nucleus and sporoderm. The most intensive reaction was observed in the cytoplasm, where the immunogold particles were sometimes grouped into clusters of several or more and showed the highest density. The smallest amount of particles occured in the sporoderm. The role of lipoxygenase in the microspore is discussed.

  1. Stereological estimation of total cell numbers in the young human utricular macula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Stig Avall; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten; Kirkegaard, Mette

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Conclusion: There is no change in the total cell population and hair cell:supporting cell ratio in the human utricular macula from gestational week 16 and onwards, whereas the lower hair cell:supporting cell ratio and lower total number of cells in the youngest specimens indicate...... that the utricle is still differentiating and adding new cells at the 10th to 12th gestational week. Objectives: Archival temporal bones were investigated to quantify cell numbers in the utricular macula in fetuses and children. Methods: The age of the subjects ranged from gestational week 10 to 15 years....... The optical fractionator was used to estimate the total number of cells in the utricular macula. Results: The total cell number was found to be 143 000 in subjects older than gestational week 16. The number of hair cells and supporting cells did not change between the 16th gestational week and 15 years...

  2. Induction of canine deciduoma in some reproductive stages with the different condition of corpora lutea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, K

    1997-03-01

    Bitches were examined to see whether canine deciduoma could be induced at some reproductive stages with the different conditions of corpora lutea by inserting a silk suture into the uterine lumen. The bitches stimulated in the early and middle stages of diestrus or in unilateral pregnancy corresponding to these diestrous stages formed deciduoma at a high induction rate, however, no difference in the strength of decidual reaction between the pregnant and diestrous stages was recognized. On the other hand, no reaction could be seen in bitches in late diestrus, the late stage of unilateral pregnancy or the post partum repair phase in which stromal decidual cells similar to those of the rodentia can be seen. In already implanted uteri, however, no deciduoma was formed in the interplacental areas. Even though the corpora lutea were functional, new additional stimulations were not accepted at the interplacental area in which the uterine horn had already been influenced by fertilized ova. From these results, it was suggested that in the dog as well as the rodentia, the endometrium has to be under the influence of functional corpora lutea in order to form deciduoma.

  3. Deleterious effects of progestagen treatment in VEGF expression in corpora lutea of pregnant ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letelier, C A; Sanchez, M A; Garcia-Fernandez, R A; Sanchez, B; Garcia-Palencia, P; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Flores, J M

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine the possible effects of progestagen oestrous synchronization on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression during sheep luteogenesis and the peri-implantation period and the relationship with luteal function. At days 9, 11, 13, 15, 17 and 21 of pregnancy, the ovaries from 30 progestagen treated and 30 ewes cycling after cloprostenol injection were evaluated by ultrasonography and, thereafter, collected and processed for immunohistochemical evaluation of VEGF; blood samples were drawn for evaluating plasma progesterone. The progestagen-treated group showed smaller corpora lutea than cloprostenol-treated and lower progesterone secretion. The expression of VEGF in the luteal cells increased with time in the cloprostenol group, but not in the progestagen-treated group, which even showed a decrease between days 11 and 13. In progestagen-treated sheep, VEGF expression in granulosa-derived parenchymal lobule capillaries was correlated with the size of the luteal tissue, larger corpora lutea had higher expression, and tended to have a higher progesterone secretion. In conclusion, the current study indicates the existence of deleterious effects from exogenous progestagen treatments on progesterone secretion from induced corpora lutea, which correlate with alterations in the expression of VEGF in the luteal tissue and, this, presumably in the processes of neoangiogenesis and luteogenesis. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Effects of GA3 Pregerminative Treatment on Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca Germination and Seedlings Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar González-López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gentiana lutea L. is widely used in bitter beverages and in medicine; Gentianae Radix is the pharmaceutical name of the root of G. lutea. These uses have generated a high demand. The wild populations of Gentiana lutea var. aurantiaca (M. Laínz M. Laínz have been decimated; it is necessary to establish guidelines for its cultivation. Gentian as most alpine species has dormant seeds. Dormancy can be removed by cold and by means of a gibberellic acid (GA3 treatment. However, cold treatments produce low germination percentages and GA3 treatments may produce off-type seedlings. So, the objective was to determine, for the first time, the presowing treatments that allow high germination rate and good seedling morphology. The best pregerminative doses of GA3 to break seed dormancy were 100, 500, and 1000 ppm, while the best doses to optimize the seedling habit were 50 and 100 ppm. This study provides, for the first time, a 100 ppm GA3 dose that led to a high germination rate and good seedling morphology, as the starting point for gentian regular cultivation.

  5. Effects of GA3 pregerminative treatment on Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca germination and seedlings morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-López, Óscar; Casquero, Pedro A

    2014-01-01

    Gentiana lutea L. is widely used in bitter beverages and in medicine; Gentianae Radix is the pharmaceutical name of the root of G. lutea. These uses have generated a high demand. The wild populations of Gentiana lutea var. aurantiaca (M. Laínz) M. Laínz have been decimated; it is necessary to establish guidelines for its cultivation. Gentian as most alpine species has dormant seeds. Dormancy can be removed by cold and by means of a gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment. However, cold treatments produce low germination percentages and GA3 treatments may produce off-type seedlings. So, the objective was to determine, for the first time, the presowing treatments that allow high germination rate and good seedling morphology. The best pregerminative doses of GA3 to break seed dormancy were 100, 500, and 1000 ppm, while the best doses to optimize the seedling habit were 50 and 100 ppm. This study provides, for the first time, a 100 ppm GA3 dose that led to a high germination rate and good seedling morphology, as the starting point for gentian regular cultivation.

  6. Comparative Evaluation of the Aphrodisiac efficacy of Sildenafil and Carpolobia lutea Root Extract in Male Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayobami Dare

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In spite of folkloric use of the root of Carpolobia lutea as sexual stimulant in man, there has been limited scientific proof of its efficacy. This study evaluates efficacy of methanol extract of Carpolobia lutea root (MECLR on sexual activity of male rabbits. Methods: Twenty adult male rabbits were grouped into four of five rabbits each. Groups 1-4 were treated orally for 28 days with 2ml/kg 1% tween 20 (vehicle, 40mg/kg MECLR, 80mg/kg MECLR, and 0.5mg/kg sildenafil citrate respectively. Sexual activities of males from each group was assessed by cohabiting them with sexually receptive female at estrus on days 0,1,3 and 5 using digital camera mounted on mating arena. Serum testosterone and nitric oxide concentration of the corpora cavernosa homogenates were also determined. Results: MECLR caused a dose dependent significant increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency and ejaculatory latency, while it reduced mount latency, intromission latency and post ejaculatory latency (similar to sildenafil citrate when compared with the control. MECLR also caused a significant increase in nitric oxide concentration in corpora cavernosa but no change in serum testosterone concentration. Conclusions: Results suggest that MECLR enhances male sexual activity possibly by augmenting nitric oxide concentration. This study thus provides novel scientific rationale for the use of Carpolobia lutea in the management of penile erectile dysfunction and impaired libido. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(4.000: 302-307

  7. Effect of myopia onset time for macula choroidal thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Ming Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the effect of onset time(Tfor macula choroidal thickness(CTin myopia patient. METHODS:A prospective cohort study was designed.One hundred and twenty-two myopia patients(244 eyes; 67 male and 55 female; aged 30~41 years, mean 35.1±4.6 years oldwho received preoperative examinations from March 2014 to April 2015 were recruited in this study. The patients were divided into three groups according to onset time(T:group A(T≤5a, group B(5aF=1.56,P>0.05,age(F=2.13,P>0.05,best corrected visual acuity(BCVA, F=1.41,P>0.05,corneal curvature(F=1.65,P>0.05and axial length(F=1.89,P>0.05among the three groups. The choroid in macular region was measured by enhanced depth imaging(EDIusing spectral-domain optical coherence tomography(SD-OCT. This study recorded the CT at subfoveal(SFCT, 1mm at temporal(T1mm, nasal(N1mm, superior(S1mmand inferior(I1mmto the fovea and 3mm temporal(T3mm, nasal(N3mm, superior(S3mmand inferior(I3mmto the fovea, respectively. The differences of CT at the same position among the three groups were analyzed.RESULTS:The mean SFCT for group A,B,C were 238.32±57.95μm, 230.58±67.21μm, 221.63±62.37μm respectively in this study. The CT was found no significant difference in different locations except N3mm(tA-B=4.34,P3mm(tB-C=7.61,P3mm(t=0.76,P>0.05between group A and C. Significant difference was found at N3mm(tA-B=4.31,t B-C=7.59,tA-C=12.18; PCONCLUSION:The choroidal thickness decreases as the myopia onset time is earlier, especially at nasal.

  8. Disease susceptibility of the human macula: differential gene transcription in the retinal pigmented epithelium/choroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radeke, Monte J; Peterson, Katie E; Johnson, Lincoln V; Anderson, Don H

    2007-09-01

    The discoveries of gene variants associated with macular diseases have provided valuable insight into their molecular mechanisms, but they have not clarified why the macula is particularly vulnerable to degenerative disease. Its predisposition may be attributable to specialized structural features and/or functional properties of the underlying macular RPE/choroid. To examine the molecular basis for the macula's disease susceptibility, we compared the gene expression profile of the human RPE/choroid in the macula with the profile in the extramacular region using DNA microarrays. Seventy-five candidate genes with differences in macular:extramacular expression levels were identified by microarray analysis, of which 29 were selected for further analysis. Quantitative PCR confirmed that 21 showed statistically significant differences in expression. Five genes were expressed at higher levels in the macula. Two showed significant changes in the macular:extramacular expression ratio; another two exhibited changes in absolute expression level, as a function of age or AMD. Several of the differentially expressed genes have potential relevance to AMD pathobiology. One is an RPE cell growth factor (TFPI2), five are extracellular matrix components (DCN, MYOC, OGN, SMOC2, TFPI2), and six are related to inflammation (CCL19, CCL26, CXCL14, SLIT2) and/or angiogenesis (CXCL14, SLIT2, TFPI2, WFDC1). The identification of regional differences in gene expression in the RPE/choroid is a first step in clarifying the macula's propensity for degeneration. These findings lay the groundwork for further studies into the roles of the corresponding gene products in the normal, aged, and diseased macula.

  9. The accuracy of axial length measurements in cases of macula-off retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Shousha, Mohsen; Helaly, Hany Ahmed; Osman, Ihab Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    To assess the accuracy of axial length measurements in cases of macula-off retinal detachment using different methods (optical biometry, A-scan ultrasound, and combined applanation vector-A/B-scan biometry). This prospective clinical study included 100 eyes of 100 patients who underwent vitrectomy alone or phacovitrectomy for macula-off retinal detachment. All patients included signed an informed consent. Preoperative examination of the patients included recording the axial length measurements using optical biometry, A-scan ultrasound, and combined applanation vector-A/B-scan biometry. The mean postoperative IOLMaster axial length after macular reattachment was 26.11 ± 2.91 mm. The mean preoperative IOLMaster axial length with macula-off was 25.32 ± 2.72 mm. The mean preoperative A-scan axial length with macula-off was 25.29 ± 2.80 mm. The mean preoperative vector-A/B-scan axial length with macula-off was 26.03 ± 2.90 mm. The preoperative vector-A/B-scan mean absolute error was 0.59 ± 0.48 D (range, 0.10-2.25 D). Regular methods (optical biometry and A-scan biometry) of measuring the axial length in cases with a detached macula proved to be variable and less accurate. The vector-A/B-scan offered good measurements of the actual axial length in the patients. This was reflected on more accurate postoperative refractive outcome. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Three-dimensional image reconstruction of macula from stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT) for diagnosis of macular degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arinilhaq; Widita, R

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of macular degeneration using a Stratus OCT with a fast macular thickness map (FMTM) method produced six B-scan images of macula from different angles. The images were converted into a retinal thickness chart to be evaluated by normal distribution percentile of data so that it can be classified as normal thickness of macula or as experiencing abnormality (e.g. thickening and thinning). Unfortunately, the diagnostic images only represent the retinal thickness in several areas of the macular region. Thus, this study is aims to obtain the entire retinal thickness in the macula area from Status OCT's output images. Basically, the volumetric image is obtained by combining each of the six images. Reconstruction consists of a series of processes such as pre-processing, segmentation, and interpolation. Linear interpolation techniques are used to fill the empty pixels in reconstruction matrix. Based on the results, this method is able to provide retinal thickness maps on the macula surface and the macula 3D image. Retinal thickness map can display the macula area which experienced abnormalities. The macula 3D image can show the layers of tissue in the macula that is abnormal. The system built cannot replace ophthalmologist in decision making in term of diagnosis. (paper)

  11. Three-dimensional image reconstruction of macula from stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT) for diagnosis of macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinilhaq; Widita, R.

    2016-03-01

    Diagnosis of macular degeneration using a Stratus OCT with a fast macular thickness map (FMTM) method produced six B-scan images of macula from different angles. The images were converted into a retinal thickness chart to be evaluated by normal distribution percentile of data so that it can be classified as normal thickness of macula or as experiencing abnormality (e.g. thickening and thinning). Unfortunately, the diagnostic images only represent the retinal thickness in several areas of the macular region. Thus, this study is aims to obtain the entire retinal thickness in the macula area from Status OCT's output images. Basically, the volumetric image is obtained by combining each of the six images. Reconstruction consists of a series of processes such as pre-processing, segmentation, and interpolation. Linear interpolation techniques are used to fill the empty pixels in reconstruction matrix. Based on the results, this method is able to provide retinal thickness maps on the macula surface and the macula 3D image. Retinal thickness map can display the macula area which experienced abnormalities. The macula 3D image can show the layers of tissue in the macula that is abnormal. The system built cannot replace ophthalmologist in decision making in term of diagnosis.

  12. Incidence, risk factors, and clinical characteristics of unexplained visual loss after intraocular silicone oil for macula-on retinal detachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheerlinck, Laura M.; Schellekens, Peter A.; Liem, Albert T.; Steijns, Daan; van Leeuwen, R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence, risk factors, and clinical characteristics of unexplained visual loss after macula-on rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Methods: Retrospective cohort of patients with primary macula-on rhegmatogenous retinal detachment treated by vitrectomy with gas or

  13. Serous retinal detachment accompanied by MEWDS in a myopic patient with dome-shaped macula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Min Kyu; Byon, Ik Soo; Park, Sung Who; Lee, Ji Eun

    2014-01-01

    Macular serous retinal detachment (MSRD) is a rare complication in highly myopic patients with an inferior staphyloma, tilted disc, or dome-shaped macula. Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) presents with sudden visual loss and multiple yellowish dots that resolve spontaneously within several weeks. The authors report the development and spontaneous resolution of subretinal fluid accompanied by MEWDS in a myopic patient with a dome-shaped macula. Dysfunction of the retinal pigment epithelium due to MEWDS likely induced temporary MSRD in this patient. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Red Anthocyanins and Yellow Carotenoids Form the Color of Orange-Flower Gentian (Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Gómez, Lourdes; Veiga, Tania; Ni, Xiuzhen; Farré, Gemma; Capell, Teresa; Guitián, Javier; Guitián, Pablo; Sandmann, Gerhard; Christou, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Flower color is an important characteristic that determines the commercial value of ornamental plants. Gentian flowers occur in a limited range of colors because this species is not widely cultivated as a cut flower. Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca (abbr, aurantiaca) is characterized by its orange flowers, but the specific pigments responsible for this coloration are unknown. We therefore investigated the carotenoid and flavonoid composition of petals during flower development in the orange-flowered gentian variety of aurantiaca and the yellow-flowered variety of G. lutea L. var. lutea (abbr, lutea). We observed minor varietal differences in the concentration of carotenoids at the early and final stages, but only aurantiaca petals accumulated pelargonidin glycosides, whereas these compounds were not found in lutea petals. We cloned and sequenced the anthocyanin biosynthetic gene fragments from petals, and analyzed the expression of these genes in the petals of both varieties to determine the molecular mechanisms responsible for the differences in petal color. Comparisons of deduced amino acid sequences encoded by the isolated anthocyanin cDNA fragments indicated that chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), anthocyanidin synthase 1 (ANS1) and ANS2 are identical in both aurantiaca and lutea varieties whereas minor amino acid differences of the deduced flavonone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) between both varieties were observed. The aurantiaca petals expressed substantially higher levels of transcripts representing CHS, F3H, DFR, ANS and UDP-glucose:flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase genes, compared to lutea petals. Pelargonidin glycoside synthesis in aurantiaca petals therefore appears to reflect the higher steady-state levels of pelargonidin synthesis transcripts. Moreover, possible changes in the substrate specificity of DFR enzymes may represent additional mechanisms for producing red pelargonidin glycosides in petals of

  15. Red Anthocyanins and Yellow Carotenoids Form the Color of Orange-Flower Gentian (Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Berman

    Full Text Available Flower color is an important characteristic that determines the commercial value of ornamental plants. Gentian flowers occur in a limited range of colors because this species is not widely cultivated as a cut flower. Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca (abbr, aurantiaca is characterized by its orange flowers, but the specific pigments responsible for this coloration are unknown. We therefore investigated the carotenoid and flavonoid composition of petals during flower development in the orange-flowered gentian variety of aurantiaca and the yellow-flowered variety of G. lutea L. var. lutea (abbr, lutea. We observed minor varietal differences in the concentration of carotenoids at the early and final stages, but only aurantiaca petals accumulated pelargonidin glycosides, whereas these compounds were not found in lutea petals. We cloned and sequenced the anthocyanin biosynthetic gene fragments from petals, and analyzed the expression of these genes in the petals of both varieties to determine the molecular mechanisms responsible for the differences in petal color. Comparisons of deduced amino acid sequences encoded by the isolated anthocyanin cDNA fragments indicated that chalcone synthase (CHS, chalcone isomerase (CHI, anthocyanidin synthase 1 (ANS1 and ANS2 are identical in both aurantiaca and lutea varieties whereas minor amino acid differences of the deduced flavonone 3-hydroxylase (F3H and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR between both varieties were observed. The aurantiaca petals expressed substantially higher levels of transcripts representing CHS, F3H, DFR, ANS and UDP-glucose:flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase genes, compared to lutea petals. Pelargonidin glycoside synthesis in aurantiaca petals therefore appears to reflect the higher steady-state levels of pelargonidin synthesis transcripts. Moreover, possible changes in the substrate specificity of DFR enzymes may represent additional mechanisms for producing red pelargonidin glycosides in

  16. Red Anthocyanins and Yellow Carotenoids Form the Color of Orange-Flower Gentian (Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Judit; Sheng, Yanmin; Gómez Gómez, Lourdes; Veiga, Tania; Ni, Xiuzhen; Farré, Gemma; Capell, Teresa; Guitián, Javier; Guitián, Pablo; Sandmann, Gerhard; Christou, Paul; Zhu, Changfu

    2016-01-01

    Flower color is an important characteristic that determines the commercial value of ornamental plants. Gentian flowers occur in a limited range of colors because this species is not widely cultivated as a cut flower. Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca (abbr, aurantiaca) is characterized by its orange flowers, but the specific pigments responsible for this coloration are unknown. We therefore investigated the carotenoid and flavonoid composition of petals during flower development in the orange-flowered gentian variety of aurantiaca and the yellow-flowered variety of G. lutea L. var. lutea (abbr, lutea). We observed minor varietal differences in the concentration of carotenoids at the early and final stages, but only aurantiaca petals accumulated pelargonidin glycosides, whereas these compounds were not found in lutea petals. We cloned and sequenced the anthocyanin biosynthetic gene fragments from petals, and analyzed the expression of these genes in the petals of both varieties to determine the molecular mechanisms responsible for the differences in petal color. Comparisons of deduced amino acid sequences encoded by the isolated anthocyanin cDNA fragments indicated that chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), anthocyanidin synthase 1 (ANS1) and ANS2 are identical in both aurantiaca and lutea varieties whereas minor amino acid differences of the deduced flavonone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) between both varieties were observed. The aurantiaca petals expressed substantially higher levels of transcripts representing CHS, F3H, DFR, ANS and UDP-glucose:flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase genes, compared to lutea petals. Pelargonidin glycoside synthesis in aurantiaca petals therefore appears to reflect the higher steady-state levels of pelargonidin synthesis transcripts. Moreover, possible changes in the substrate specificity of DFR enzymes may represent additional mechanisms for producing red pelargonidin glycosides in petals of

  17. Differential expression of anti-angiogenic factors and guidance genes in the developing macula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozulin, Peter; Natoli, Riccardo; O'Brien, Keely M Bumsted; Madigan, Michele C; Provis, Jan M

    2009-01-01

    The primate retina contains a specialized, cone-rich macula, which mediates high acuity and color vision. The spatial resolution provided by the neural retina at the macula is optimized by stereotyped retinal blood vessel and ganglion cell axon patterning, which radiate away from the macula and reduce shadowing of macular photoreceptors. However, the genes that mediate these specializations, and the reasons for the vulnerability of the macula to degenerative disease, remain obscure. The aim of this study was to identify novel genes that may influence retinal vascular patterning and definition of the foveal avascular area. We used RNA from human fetal retinas at 19-20 weeks of gestation (WG; n=4) to measure differential gene expression in the macula, a region nasal to disc (nasal) and in the surrounding retina (surround) by hybridization to 12 GeneChip microarrays (HG-U133 Plus 2.0). The raw data was subjected to quality control assessment and preprocessing, using GC-RMA. We then used ANOVA analysis (Partek) Genomic Suite 6.3) and clustering (DAVID website) to identify the most highly represented genes clustered according to "biological process." The neural retina is fully differentiated at the macula at 19-20 WG, while neuronal progenitor cells are present throughout the rest of the retina. We therefore excluded genes associated with the cell cycle, and markers of differentiated neurons, from further analyses. Significantly regulated genes (pmacula versus surround" and "macula versus nasal." KEGG pathway clustering of the filtered gene lists identified 25 axon guidance-related genes that are differentially regulated in the macula. Furthermore, we found significant upregulation of three anti-angiogenic factors in the macula: pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF), natriuretic peptide precurusor B (NPPB), and collagen type IValpha2. Differential expression of several members of the ephrin and semaphorin axon guidance gene families, PEDF, and NPPB was verified by

  18. Cataract surgery and the risk of aging macula disorder: The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Ho (Lintje); S. Boekhoorn (Sharmila); A. Liana (Alin); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); A. Hofman (Albert); P.T.V.M. de Jong (Paulus); Th. Stijnen (Theo); J.R. Vingerling (Hans)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE. To investigate still-controversial associations between prior cataract surgery and aging macula disorder (AMD) in a general population. METHODS. Baseline lens status and risk of incident AMD (iAMD) were examined in participants of the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study

  19. Alcohol consumption and risk of aging macula disorder in a general population: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhoorn, Sharmila S.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the possible relationship between overall or specific alcohol consumption and risk of aging macula disorder (AMD), a synonym for age-related macular degeneration, in a general population. Alcohol consumption and risk of early or late incident AMD (iAMD) were examined among all

  20. Dermoscopic findings and histological correlation of the acral volar pigmented maculae in Laugier-Hunziker syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendagorta, Elena; Feito, Marta; Ramírez, Paloma; Gonzalez-Beato, María; Saida, Toshiaki; Pizarro, Angel

    2010-11-01

    Laugier-Hunziker syndrome (LHS) is an acquired, benign, macular hyperpigmentation of the lips and oral mucosa, often associated with pigmentation of the nails. Volar acral maculae on the palms and fingertips of patients affected by LHS are a typical feature of this rare entity. Dermoscopic examination of these maculae has been described in a previous report, in which authors found a parallel-furrow pattern. We describe two cases in which a parallel-ridge pattern (PRP) was found on the dermoscopic examination of the pigmented acral lesions. Histological examination showed increased melanin in basal keratinocytes, which was most prominent in those located at the crista intermedia profunda, that is, in the epidermal rete ridges underlying the surface ridges. In our study, dermoscopic features of the pigmented maculae found on LHS differed from those previously described. In addition, by means of this case report, the histological features of these lesions are described for the first time, showing an excellent correlation with dermoscopy. The reported cases prove that although the PRP is very specific of melanoma, it is also possible to find it in benign lesions. Therefore, we must be familiar with the differential diagnosis of PRP, and take into consideration the clinical context in which we find it. Further studies are needed to increase our knowledge on the histological and dermoscopic features of acral pigmented maculae of LHS. © 2010 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  1. Structural recovery of the detached macula after retinal detachment repair as assessed by optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Soo Geun; Kim, Yoon Jeon; Chae, Ju Byung; Yang, Sung Jae; Lee, Joo Yong; Kim, June-Gone; Yoon, Young Hee

    2013-06-01

    To investigate correlations between preoperative and postoperative foveal microstructures in patients with macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). We reviewed the records of 31 eyes from 31 patients with macula-off RRD who had undergone successful re-attachment surgery. We analyzed data obtained from complete ophthalmologic examinations and optical coherence tomography (OCT) before and 9 to 12 months after surgery. All postoperative OCT measurements were taken with spectral-domain OCT, but a subset of preoperative OCT measurements were taken with time-domain OCT. The mean duration of macular detachment was 15.5 ± 15.2 days, and mean preoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) was 1.03 ± 0.68. Preoperative visual acuity was correlated with retinal detachment height (p macula-off duration. The final BCVA was significantly correlated with integrity of the junction between the photoreceptor inner and outer segments (IS/OS) combined with the continuity of external limiting membrane (ELM) (p = 0.025). The presence of IRS and OLU on a detached macula were highly correlated with the final postoperative integrity of the IS/OS junction and the ELM (p = 0.017). Eyes preoperatively exhibiting IRS and OLU showed a higher incidence of disruption to the photoreceptor IS/OS junction and the ELM at final follow-up. Such a close correlation between preoperative and postoperative structural changes may explain why ultimate visual recovery in such eyes is poor.

  2. Comparing the Structure-Function Relationship at the Macula With Standard Automated Perimetry and Microperimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Harsha L; Januwada, Manideepak; Hussain, Raza S M; Pillutla, Lalitha N; Begum, Viquar U; Chaitanya, Aditya; Senthil, Sirisha; Garudadri, Chandra S

    2015-12-01

    To compare the structure-function relationship between ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thickness measurements using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) and visual sensitivities measured using standard automated perimetry (SAP) and microperimetry (MP) at the macula in glaucoma. In a prospective study, 45 control eyes (29 subjects) and 60 glaucoma eyes (45 patients) underwent visual sensitivity estimation at the macula (central 10°) by SAP and MP, and GCIPL thickness measurement at the macula by SDOCT. Structure-function relationships between GCILP thickness and visual sensitivity loss with SAP and MP at various macular sectors were assessed using the Hood and Kardon model. To compare structure-function relationship with SAP and MP, we calculated the number of data points falling outside the 5th and the 95th percentile values of the Hood and Kardon model with each of the perimeters. The number of points falling outside the 5th and 95th percentile values of the Hood and Kardon model ranged from 28 (superior sector) to 48 (inferonasal sector) with SAP and 33 (superior sector) to 49 (inferonasal sector) with MP. The difference in the number of points falling outside the 5th and 95th percentile values with SAP and MP was statistically insignificant (P > 0.05, χ(2) test) for all the sectors. Visual sensitivity measurements of both SAP and MP demonstrated a similar relationship with the GCIPL measurements of SDOCT at the macula in glaucoma.

  3. Distribution of three nymphaeid macrophytes (Nymphaea alba L., Nuphar lutea (L.) Sm. and Nymphoides peltata (Gmel.) O. Kuntze) in relation to alkalinity and uptake of inorganic carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, A.J.M.; Lyon, de M.J.H.; Velde, van der G.; Roelofs, J.G.M.; Braak, ter C.J.F.

    1988-01-01

    The presence/absence data of Nymphaea alba L., Nuphar lutea (L.) Sm. and Nymphoides peltata (Gmel.) O. Kuntze in 588 water bodies throughout The Netherlands were converted into logistic response curves with respect to alkalinity. For Nuphar lutea and Nymphoides peltata maximum probability of

  4. Inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by Gentiana lutea root extracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rushendhiran Kesavan

    Full Text Available Gentiana lutea belonging to the Gentianaceae family of flowering plants are routinely used in traditional Serbian medicine for their beneficial gastro-intestinal and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the study was to determine whether aqueous root extracts of Gentiana lutea consisting of gentiopicroside, gentisin, bellidifolin-8-O-glucoside, demethylbellidifolin-8-O-glucoside, isovitexin, swertiamarin and amarogentin prevents proliferation of aortic smooth muscle cells in response to PDGF-BB. Cell proliferation and cell cycle analysis were performed based on alamar blue assay and propidium iodide labeling respectively. In primary cultures of rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs, PDGF-BB (20 ng/ml induced a two-fold increase in cell proliferation which was significantly blocked by the root extract (1 mg/ml. The root extract also prevented the S-phase entry of synchronized cells in response to PDGF. Furthermore, PDGF-BB induced ERK1/2 activation and consequent increase in cellular nitric oxide (NO levels were also blocked by the extract. These effects of extract were due to blockade of PDGF-BB induced expression of iNOS, cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA. Docking analysis of the extract components on MEK1, the upstream ERK1/2 activating kinase using AutoDock4, indicated a likely binding of isovitexin to the inhibitor binding site of MEK1. Experiments performed with purified isovitexin demonstrated that it successfully blocks PDGF-induced ERK1/2 activation and proliferation of RASMCs in cell culture. Thus, Gentiana lutea can provide novel candidates for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis.

  5. Inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by Gentiana lutea root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, Rushendhiran; Potunuru, Uma Rani; Nastasijević, Branislav; T, Avaneesh; Joksić, Gordana; Dixit, Madhulika

    2013-01-01

    Gentiana lutea belonging to the Gentianaceae family of flowering plants are routinely used in traditional Serbian medicine for their beneficial gastro-intestinal and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the study was to determine whether aqueous root extracts of Gentiana lutea consisting of gentiopicroside, gentisin, bellidifolin-8-O-glucoside, demethylbellidifolin-8-O-glucoside, isovitexin, swertiamarin and amarogentin prevents proliferation of aortic smooth muscle cells in response to PDGF-BB. Cell proliferation and cell cycle analysis were performed based on alamar blue assay and propidium iodide labeling respectively. In primary cultures of rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs), PDGF-BB (20 ng/ml) induced a two-fold increase in cell proliferation which was significantly blocked by the root extract (1 mg/ml). The root extract also prevented the S-phase entry of synchronized cells in response to PDGF. Furthermore, PDGF-BB induced ERK1/2 activation and consequent increase in cellular nitric oxide (NO) levels were also blocked by the extract. These effects of extract were due to blockade of PDGF-BB induced expression of iNOS, cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Docking analysis of the extract components on MEK1, the upstream ERK1/2 activating kinase using AutoDock4, indicated a likely binding of isovitexin to the inhibitor binding site of MEK1. Experiments performed with purified isovitexin demonstrated that it successfully blocks PDGF-induced ERK1/2 activation and proliferation of RASMCs in cell culture. Thus, Gentiana lutea can provide novel candidates for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis.

  6. Quantitative determination of secoiridoid and gamma-pyrone compounds in Gentiana lutea cultured in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menković, N; Savikin-Fodulović, K; Momcilović, I; Grubisić, D

    2000-02-01

    The production of secondary metabolites was studied in shoots, roots, and hairy roots of Gentiana lutea obtained in vitro. In shoots, both secoiridoid and gamma-pyrone compounds were detected in amounts similar to those found in aerial parts of plants collected from nature. The most abundant secoiridoid was gentiopicrin while mangiferin was the main compound among the gamma-pyrones. The adventitious roots obtained in vitro showed a poor biosynthetic capacity. Upon infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes, nine hairy root clones were established which differed in the amount of secondary metabolites.

  7. DOME-SHAPED MACULA IN MYOPIC EYES: Twelve-Month Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Daniel; Arias, Luis; Choudhry, Netan; Millan, Eduard; Flores, Ignacio; Rubio, Marcos J; Cobos, Estefanía; García-Bru, Pere; Filloy, Alejandro; Caminal, Josep M

    2017-04-01

    To study the long-term clinical course of dome-shaped macula in myopic eyes and to evaluate treatment efficacy for subretinal fluid (SRF) as a related complication. A retrospective, single-center consecutive case series study was conducted. The authors analyzed myopic eyes with dome-shaped macula in patients who presented for evaluation of decreased vision. Dome-shaped macula was defined as a convexity of the retina-choroidal macular complex seen on spectral domain optical coherence tomography images. All patients were followed for at least 12 months (mean, 25 months). Fluorescein angiography and/or indocyanine green angiography were performed in cases with SRF to rule out choroidal neovascularization. A total of 56 dome-shaped macula eyes from 36 patients were included in the study (bilateral in 55% of patients). Mean patient age was 56.9 ± 13.1 years. The mean spherical equivalent was -9.1 ± 6.0 diopters; 53% of eyes were considered highly myopic (>-6 diopters) and 47% of eyes were mildly myopic. In most cases (37 eyes; 66.1%), the dome-shaped macula was detected on vertical spectral domain optical coherence tomography scan patterns. No significant changes (P ≥ 0.1) were observed in mean best-corrected visual acuity or mean central foveal thickness from baseline to final follow-up. Subretinal fluid was present in 29 eyes (51.8%) at baseline, with no differences in best-corrected visual acuity in eyes with and without SRF (P ≥ 0.05). Nineteen of the 29 SRF eyes were treated: 8 underwent low-fluence photodynamic therapy, whereas 7 received bevacizumab, and 4 ranibizumab. No significant differences were found between treated and untreated SRF eyes in best-corrected visual acuity improvement (P ≥ 0.1), or complete resolution of SRF (P ≥ 0.1). Likewise, photodynamic therapy did not yield any significant benefit versus untreated eyes in best-corrected visual acuity or improvement of SRF. Dome-shaped macula is a condition associated with myopic eyes that seems

  8. A Comparative Assessment of Biological Effects and Chemical Profile of Italian Asphodeline lutea Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Melucci

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to highlight the therapeutic potential of Asphodeline lutea (AL, a wild edible plant of the Mediterranean diet. Roots, aerial parts, and flowers of AL at two different phenological stages were collected from three locations in Italy. The inhibitory activities of extracts on strategic enzymes linked to human diseases were assessed. The antioxidant properties were evaluated in vitro, using six standard bioassays. The phenolic and anthraquinone profiles were also established using HPLC-PDA. Zinc, cadmium, lead, and copper contents were also determined. All the samples inhibited acetylcholinesterase (from 1.51 to 2.20 mg GALAEs/g extract, tyrosinase (from 7.50 to 25.3 mg KAEs/g extract, and α-amylase (from 0.37 to 0.51 mmol ACAEs/g extract. Aloe-emodin and physcion were present in all parts, while rhein was not detected. The phenolic profile and the heavy metals composition of specimens gathered from three different regions of Italy were different. It can be argued that samples collected near the street can contain higher concentrations of heavy metals. The experimental data confirm that the A. lutea species could be considered as a potential source of bioactive metabolites, and its consumption could play a positive and safe role in human health maintenance.

  9. Content of heavymetals in Gentiana lutea L. roots and galenic forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGOJA RADANOVIC

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available An experimental field for the cultivated production of Gentiana lutea L. was established five years ago at the Suvobor Mountain, Serbia. Soil analysis of this area revealed the occurrence of high pseudo-total (Ni – 1270 mg/kg, Cr – 423 mg/kg, Co – 385 mg/kg and available (especially Ni – 133 mg/kg heavy metals contents in the soil. Hence, the aim of this research was to evaluate the quality of Gentiana lutea L. – roots and galenic forms (liquid extract in 70 % ethanol, spissum and siccum produced from the roots, because, for most plants, heavy metals accumulate in the root tissue. The amounts of Ni and Cr found in the analyzed roots were very high (54 mg/kg and 14 mg/kg, respectively. The efficiency of ethanol in extracting heavy metals from the roots varied depending on the particular element. The highest efficiency was obtained for Ni (41.3 %, then for Cd (39.5 %, Pb (37.0% and Co (30.4 %. According to this, a potential hazard exists for humans, if gentian's galenic forms are produced from the raw material with high heavy metals contents. It is concluded that quality control of the raw material must be carried out before further utilization of gentian.

  10. Determination of gentisin, isogentisin, and amarogentin in Gentiana lutea L. by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citová, Ivana; Ganzera, Markus; Stuppner, Hermann; Solich, Petr

    2008-01-01

    A novel, fast, and simple capillary electrophoresis method has been developed for the analysis of gentisin, isogentisin, and amarogentin in roots of Gentiana lutea (yellow gentian), an herb traditionally used as gastric stimulant. Gentisin and isogentisin are xanthones showing potent inhibition of monoamine oxidase type A and B, amarogentin represents one of the bitter principles of Gentiana, responsible for its gastric-roborant effects. Optimal CE-separation conditions comprise a 100 mM sodium tetraborate buffer of pH 9.3, containing 10 mM beta-cyclodextrin as additive; optimum temperature and applied voltage were found to be 30 degrees C and 25 kV, respectively. Direct diode array detection at 260 nm (gentisin, isogentisin) and 242 nm (amarogentin) was performed, and the required analysis time was only 11 min. The developed method was validated for linearity, sensitivity, precision, and accuracy, and utilized to assay several commercially available G. lutea samples. Quantitative data obtained with the developed CE method are compared with HPLC results, and the advantages of each approach are discussed.

  11. cDNA cloning and expression of carotenogenic genes during flower development in Gentiana lutea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Changfu; Yamamura, Saburo; Koiwa, Hiroyuki; Nishihara, Masashiro; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2002-02-01

    All cDNAs involved in carotenoid biosynthesis leading to lycopene in yellow petals of Gentiana lutea have been cloned from a cDNA library. They encode a geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase, a phytoene synthase, a phytoene desaturase and a zeta-carotene desaturase. The indicated function of all cDNAs was established by heterologous complementation in Escherichia coli. The amino acid sequences deduced from the cDNAs were between 47.5% and 78.9% identical to those reported for the corresponding enzymes from other higher plants. Southern analysis suggested that the genes for each enzyme probably represent a small multi-gene family. Tissue-specific expression of the genes and expression during flower development was investigated. The expression of the phytoene synthase gene, psy, was enhanced in flowers but transcripts were not detected in stems and leaves by northern blotting. Transcripts of the genes for geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (ggpps), phytoene desaturase (pds) and zeta-carotene desaturase (zds) were detected in flowers and leaves but not in stems. Analysis of the expression of psy and zds in petals revealed that levels of the transcripts were lowest in young buds and highest in fully open flowers, in parallel with the formation of carotenoids. Obviously, the transcription of these genes control the accumulation of carotenoids during flower development in G. lutea. For pds only a very slight increase of mRNA was found whereas the transcripts of ggpps decreased during flower development.

  12. Evaluation of the macular architecture of patients operated on from macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment using optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Lopez, Meisy; Obret Mendive, Isabel; Hernandez Silva, Juan Raul

    2010-01-01

    With the support of optical coherence tomography, to evaluate the macular condition of the patients operated on from rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, with detached macula, who underwent buckling surgery and pars plana vitrectomy

  13. HORIZONTAL RIDGE AS A POSTERIOR POLE FINDING IN A HIGHLY MYOPIC EYE WITH DOME-SHAPED MACULA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, I Chia

    2017-07-01

    This article describes a case with a highly myopic eye and a posterior pole with ridge-like lesions. Case report. A 72-year-old man with unilateral high myopia showed poor vision and an extremely elongated axial length in his right eye, but normal vision and normal axial length in his left eye. He was examined using fundus examination and optical coherence tomography, and revealed to have dome-shaped macula with two horizontal ridges connecting the optic disc and the macula in his highly-myopic eye. The findings suggest that a dome-shaped macula may not be limited to the macula area, but may involve the whole posterior pole and is potentially involved in the elongation of highly myopic eyeballs.

  14. Adaptive optics fundus images of cone photoreceptors in the macula of patients with retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojo, Naoki; Nakamura, Tomoko; Fuchizawa, Chiharu; Oiwake, Toshihiko; Hayashi, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine cone photoreceptors in the macula of patients with retinitis pigmentosa using an adaptive optics fundus camera and to investigate any correlations between cone photoreceptor density and findings on optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence. We examined two patients with typical retinitis pigmentosa who underwent ophthalmological examination, including measurement of visual acuity, and gathering of electroretinographic, optical coherence tomographic, fundus autofluorescent, and adaptive optics fundus images. The cone photoreceptors in the adaptive optics images of the two patients with retinitis pigmentosa and five healthy subjects were analyzed. An abnormal parafoveal ring of high-density fundus autofluorescence was observed in the macula in both patients. The border of the ring corresponded to the border of the external limiting membrane and the inner segment and outer segment line in the optical coherence tomographic images. Cone photoreceptors at the abnormal parafoveal ring were blurred and decreased in the adaptive optics images. The blurred area corresponded to the abnormal parafoveal ring in the fundus autofluorescence images. Cone densities were low at the blurred areas and at the nasal and temporal retina along a line from the fovea compared with those of healthy controls. The results for cone spacing and Voronoi domains in the macula corresponded with those for the cone densities. Cone densities were heavily decreased in the macula, especially at the parafoveal ring on high-density fundus autofluorescence in both patients with retinitis pigmentosa. Adaptive optics images enabled us to observe in vivo changes in the cone photoreceptors of patients with retinitis pigmentosa, which corresponded to changes in the optical coherence tomographic and fundus autofluorescence images.

  15. Adaptive optics fundus images of cone photoreceptors in the macula of patients with retinitis pigmentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tojo N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Naoki Tojo, Tomoko Nakamura, Chiharu Fuchizawa, Toshihiko Oiwake, Atsushi HayashiDepartment of Ophthalmology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to examine cone photoreceptors in the macula of patients with retinitis pigmentosa using an adaptive optics fundus camera and to investigate any correlations between cone photoreceptor density and findings on optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence.Methods: We examined two patients with typical retinitis pigmentosa who underwent ophthalmological examination, including measurement of visual acuity, and gathering of electroretinographic, optical coherence tomographic, fundus autofluorescent, and adaptive optics fundus images. The cone photoreceptors in the adaptive optics images of the two patients with retinitis pigmentosa and five healthy subjects were analyzed.Results: An abnormal parafoveal ring of high-density fundus autofluorescence was observed in the macula in both patients. The border of the ring corresponded to the border of the external limiting membrane and the inner segment and outer segment line in the optical coherence tomographic images. Cone photoreceptors at the abnormal parafoveal ring were blurred and decreased in the adaptive optics images. The blurred area corresponded to the abnormal parafoveal ring in the fundus autofluorescence images. Cone densities were low at the blurred areas and at the nasal and temporal retina along a line from the fovea compared with those of healthy controls. The results for cone spacing and Voronoi domains in the macula corresponded with those for the cone densities.Conclusion: Cone densities were heavily decreased in the macula, especially at the parafoveal ring on high-density fundus autofluorescence in both patients with retinitis pigmentosa. Adaptive optics images enabled us to observe in vivo changes in the cone photoreceptors of

  16. Age-related changes in the macula. A histopathological study of fifty Indian donor eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas Jyotirmay; Raman Rajiv

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is clinically less common in India compared to the West. Therefore, clinicians are unfamiliar with histopathologic evidence of age-related macular changes in the Indian population. METHODS: Fifty consecutive human donor eyes removed for corneal grafting were studied for gross, microscopic and histochemical features of age-related changes in the macula in the Indian population. A horizontal block was cut from the globe including the optic disc, ...

  17. Device for fluorescent control and photodynamic therapy of age-related macula degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loschenov, Victor B.; Meerovich, Gennadii A.; Budzinskaya, M. V.; Ermakova, N. A.; Shevchik, S. A.; Kharnas, Sergey S.

    2004-07-01

    Age-related macula degeneration (AMD) is a wide spread disease the appearance of which leads to poor eyesight and blindness. A method of treatment is not determined until today. Traditional methods, such as laser coagulation and surgical operations are rather traumatic for eye and often bring to complications. That's why recently a photodynamic method of AMD treatment is studied. Based on photodynamic occlusion of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) with minimal injury to overlying neurosensory retina what increases the efficiency.

  18. [Choroidal thickness assessment with SD-OCT in high myopia with dome-shaped macula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebil, A; Ben Achour, B; Chaker, N; Jedidi, L; Mghaieth, F; El Matri, L

    2014-03-01

    To measure macular choroidal thickness (CT) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in highly myopic eyes with dome-shaped macula (DSM), and to investigate whether the choroid is thicker in these eyes compared to highly myopic eyes without MB. A cross-sectional study of 200 eyes was performed between January 2010 and June 2012. Twenty-four highly myopic eyes (12%) had a dome-shaped macula. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmological examination, SD-OCT (TOPCON 2000), and B-scan ultrasonography. OCT scans were analyzed in 7 sections, and subfoveal CT was measured manually between the Bruch's membrane and the internal aspect of the sclera. The 20 eyes with isolated dome-shaped macular were paired by age and axial length (AL) with 20 eyes without macular involvement. In the subgroup with isolated MB, the mean subfoveal CT was 101.86 μm (± 21.35 μm). A statistically significant negative correlation was found between CT and AL (r=-0.623, P=0.0001). The regression equation demonstrated a decrease of 8.3 μm per mm of AL. In the subgroup without MB, matched with the subgroup with MB by age (P=0.591), and AL (P=0.815), the mean subfoveal CT was 89.54 μm (± 20.12 μm). The comparison between the two subgroups found a statistically significant difference in subfoveal CT (Pmacula compared to highly myopic eyes without dome-shaped macula. These findings suggest that abnormalities of the choroid may play a role in the pathogenesis of dome-shaped macula. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. METAMORPHOPSIA AND OUTER RETINAL MORPHOLOGIC CHANGES AFTER SUCCESSFUL VITRECTOMY SURGERY FOR MACULA-OFF RHEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL DETACHMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Tetsuhiko; Higashide, Tomomi; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the correlation between metamorphopsia and outer retinal morphologic changes after successful vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Forty eyes from 40 patients with macula-off (26 eyes) or macula-on (14 eyes) RRDs that underwent pars plana vitrectomy were included. Metamorphopsia was quantified with M-CHARTS. The relationship between the integrity of the outer retinal layers examined by spectral domain optical coherence tomography and metamorphopsia at 6 and 12 months postoperatively was evaluated. Metamorphopsia was significantly more frequent in eyes with macula-off RRD (88%) than in eyes with macula-on RRD (21%) at 6 months postoperatively (P macula-off RRD eyes from 6 months to 12 months (64%) postoperatively (P = 0.041). Horizontal metamorphopsia scores in eyes with continuous interdigitation zone and ellipsoid zone bands were significantly smaller than in eyes with a disrupted interdigitation zone band and a continuous ellipsoid zone band or in eyes with disrupted ellipsoid zone and interdigitation zone bands (P = 0.003 and P macula-off RRD.

  20. Differences in pollination success between local and foreign flower color phenotypes: a translocation experiment with Gentiana lutea (Gentianaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitián, Javier A; Sobral, Mar; Veiga, Tania; Losada, María; Guitián, Pablo; Guitián, José M

    2017-01-01

    The adaptive maintenance of flower color variation is frequently attributed to pollinators partly because they preferentially visit certain flower phenotypes. We tested whether Gentiana lutea -which shows a flower color variation (from orange to yellow) in the Cantabrian Mountains range (north of Spain)-is locally adapted to the pollinator community. We transplanted orange-flowering individuals to a population with yellow-flowering individuals and vice versa, in order to assess whether there is a pollination advantage in the local morph by comparing its visitation rate with the foreign morph. Our reciprocal transplant experiment did not show clear local morph advantage in overall visitation rate: local orange flowers received more visits than foreign yellow flowers in the orange population, while both local and foreign flowers received the same visits in the yellow population; thus, there is no evidence of local adaptation in Gentiana lutea to the pollinator assemblage. However, some floral visitor groups (such as Bombus pratorum , B. soroensis ancaricus and B. lapidarius decipiens ) consistently preferred the local morph to the foreign morph whereas others (such as Bombus terrestris ) consistently preferred the foreign morph. We concluded that there is no evidence of local adaptation to the pollinator community in each of the two G. lutea populations studied. The consequences for local adaptation to pollinator on G. lutea flower color would depend on the variation along the Cantabrian Mountains range in morph frequency and pollinator community composition.

  1. TOPOGRAPHIC CHANGES OF THE MACULA AFTER CLOSURE OF IDIOPATHIC MACULAR HOLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Kang Yeun; Park, Keun Heung; Kim, Kyong Ho; Park, Sung Who; Byon, Ik Soo; Kim, Hyun Woong; Chung, In Young; Lee, Joo Eun; Lee, Sang Joon; Lee, Ji Eun

    2017-04-01

    To investigate retinal displacement in the macula after surgical closure of idiopathic macular hole and to identify factors correlated with displacement. This retrospective multicenter study included 73 eyes of 73 patients having idiopathic macular hole. A custom program was developed to compare the position of the retinal vessels in the macula between preoperative and postoperative photographs. En face images of a 6 mm × 6 mm optical coherence tomography volume scans were registered to calculate the scale. A grid comprising 16 sectors in 2 rings (inner; 2-4 mm and outer; 4-6 mm) was superimposed. The displacement of the retinal vessels was measured as a vector value by comparing the location of the retinal vessels in each sector. The correlation between displacement and various clinical parameters was analyzed. The average displacement was 57.2 μm at an angle of -3.3° (nasal and slightly inferior). Displacement was larger in the inner ring (79.2 μm) than in the outer ring (35.3 μm, P macula was displaced centripetally, nasally, and slightly inferiorly after surgical closure of idiopathic macular hole. Hole closure, contraction of the nerve fiber layer, and gravity are the suggested mechanisms of macular displacement caused by internal limiting membrane peeling.

  2. DOME-SHAPED MACULA WITH THICKENED CHOROID IN AN EMMETROPIC PATIENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedkovid, Napang; Afshar, Armin R; Damato, Bertil E; Stewart, Jay M

    2015-01-01

    To report a rare case of bilateral dome-shaped macula in an emmetropic patient. Clinical case report and literature review. A 42-year-old woman presented with a history of blurred vision in the right eye. Visual acuity was 20/30 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. Intraocular pressure and anterior segment were unremarkable. Fundus examination revealed dull macular reflex and subretinal fluid nasal to the fovea in the right eye and a hyperpigmented area inferotemporal to the fovea in the left eye. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography showed subretinal fluid under the fovea in the right eye and elevation of the macula with increased choroidal thickness in both eyes. Fluorescein angiography revealed abnormal hyperfluorescence without any leakage in both eyes. B-scan ultrasound showed irregular globe contour with high internal reflectivity and dome-shaped lesions at the posterior pole in both eyes. Axial length was 24.6 mm in the right eye and 25.6 mm in the left eye. Although most commonly reported in myopic eyes, dome-shaped macula can occur in an emmetropic patient and can be associated with subretinal fluid.

  3. Herniation of the retina in the central macula in an adult after iridocyclitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qing; Pi, Yuli; Gao, Ting

    2014-09-01

    To report an unusual case of retinal hernia in the central macula in an adult after iridocyclitis. We report a case of a 46-year-old male who presented with blurred vision 2 weeks after complete resolution of acute iridocyclitis. Anterior segment and vitreous body examinations were unremarkable. Yellowish spots in the macular area were observed. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) imaging of the macula showed loss of the inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) photoreceptor junction, with irregularity of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and a V-shaped hernia of the retina into the choroid. The macular lesions emerged as mild window defects on fluorescein angiography and were visualized as hypofluorescent patches on all-phase indocyanine green angiography. At a one month follow-up, the best-corrected visual acuity improved to 20/20, which was followed by partial restoration of the IS/OS line, but a V-shaped hernia of the retina remained unchanged on SD-OCT. Ophthalmologists should be alert to the changes in OCT of the macula in patients after iridocyclitis and further research on the cause and possible predisposing factors for retinal herniation is warranted.

  4. Postoperative recovery of visual function after macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Put, Mathijs A J; Croonen, Danna; Nolte, Ilja M; Japing, Wouter J; Hooymans, Johanna M M; Los, Leonoor I

    2014-01-01

    To determine which factors affect the recovery of visual function in macula off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). In a prospective study of forty-five patients with a primary macula-off RRD of 24 hours to 6 weeks duration, the height of the macular detachment was determined by ultrasonography. At 12 months postoperatively, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), contrast acuity, and color confusion indexes (CCI) were obtained. Macular detachment was present for 2-32 (median 7) days before repair. A shorter duration of macular detachment was correlated with a better CCI saturé (p = 0.0026) and lower LogMAR BCVA (better Snellen visual acuity) (p = 0.012). Also, a smaller height of macular detachment was correlated with a lower LogMAR BCVA (p = 0.0034). A younger age and lower pre-operative LogMAR BCVA at presentation were both correlated with better postoperative contrast acuity in the total group (age: p = 1.7×10(-4) and pre-operative LogMAR BCVA: p = 0.0034). Functional recovery after macula-off RRD is affected by the duration and the height of the macular detachment. Recovery of contrast acuity is also affected by age and BCVA at presentation. ARVO annual meeting 2013, May 7, Seattle, Washington, United States of America. trialregister.nl NTR839.

  5. Anatomic features and function of the macula and outcome of surgical tenotomy and reattachment in achiasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Avery H; Phillips, James O; Kelly, John P

    2013-07-01

    To examine the anatomic features and function of the macula in achiasma and to compare visual acuity, eye movements, foveation, and eye velocity before and after tenotomy and reattachment (T&R) surgery. Case series. Two children with isolated achiasma. Ophthalmologic examinations, brain magnetic resonance imaging, full-field and multifocal electroretinography (ERG), visual evoked potentials (VEPs), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), eye-movement recordings, and unilateral T&R in 1 patient. Visual acuity before and after surgery, macular anatomic features and function, and eye velocity before and after T&R surgery in 1 patient. Magnetic resonance imaging and VEP confirmed absence of decussation of retinofugal fibers in both patients. Visual acuity was 20/100 and 20/200. The anatomic features and function of the fovea and macula were normal by OCT and multifocal ERG. After T&R, there was a marked reduction in horizontal eye velocity and monocular visual acuity improved to 20/80. The finding that the macula is normal in achiasma suggests that reduced acuity is the result of retinal image motion from nystagmus. Two-muscle T&R reduces horizontal retinal image motion and can improve visual acuity in achiasma or patients with infantile nystagmus. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of internal limiting membrane peeling during vitrectomy for macula-off primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Teijeiro, María José; Bande Rodriguez, Manuel; Mansilla Cuñarro, Raquel; Paniagua Fernández, Laura; Ruiz-Oliva Ruiz, Francisco; Piñeiro Ces, Antonio

    2018-03-01

    To determine the effectiveness of internal limiting membrane peeling during vitrectomy for macula-off primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in the prevention of postoperative epiretinal membrane formation and achievement of good visual outcomes and to identify preoperative and intraoperative risk factors for epiretinal membrane formation. We retrospectively analyzed data from 62 eyes of 62 consecutive patients with macula-off primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment who underwent vitrectomy with (n = 30) or without (n = 32) internal limiting membrane peeling between January 2014 and March 2016 and were followed up for at least 12 months. The effects of internal limiting membrane peeling on visual outcomes and postoperative recovery of the macular structure were determined. We subsequently divided patients into an epiretinal membrane group and a non-epiretinal membrane group and assessed the effects of various preoperative and intraoperative factors on postoperative epiretinal membrane formation. Postoperative epiretinal membrane developed in 10 patients in the no internal limiting membrane peeling group and three patients in the internal limiting membrane peeling group. Postoperative visual acuity significantly improved in both groups. Epiretinal membrane formation was found to be correlated with a higher number of retinal breaks. Our results suggest that internal limiting membrane peeling during macula-off primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment surgery can reduce the occurrence of postoperative epiretinal membrane, is safe, and results in favorable visual outcomes.

  7. Skeleton microstructure of Porites lutea in Kondang Merak, Malang, East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthfi, Oktiyas Muzaky; Sontodipoero, R. M. Agung M. Rizqon; Isdianto, Andik; Setyohadi, Daduk; Jauhari, Alfan; Januarsa, I. Nyoman

    2017-11-01

    Research on coral microstructure in Indonesia, especially in East Java is rarely done. Therefore, this study aims to examine the shape of Aragonite Crystal coral Porites lutea in Pantai Kondak Merak, East Java, especially in 1998 which is the time of El Nino and has a global impact on coral growth. The shape of the aragonite crystal on the reef can be seen using the Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersion X-Ray (SEM - EDX). Based on the coral aragonite crystal form, the increasing temperature in 1998 was not proven to have a devastating effect on the growth of corals of Pantai Kondang Merak. In contrast, the temperature at this site should support corals in order to grow rapidly, but there are other environmental factors that ultimately inhibit the growth of the coral.

  8. Chemical Composition, Biological and Cytotoxic Activities of Plant Extracts and Compounds Isolated from Ferula lutea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Znati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the phytochemical study on Ferula lutea flowers. Total phenolics and flavonoids of the n-butanol and ethyl acetate extracts were quantified (phenolics [40.68–52.29 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of dry weight], flavonoids [12.38–14.72 mg quercitin/g dry weight]. Two diastereoisomers were isolated and identified using spectroscopic techniques (1D, 2D NMR and GC-MS. The extracts and diastereoisomers were tested for antioxidant, antiacetylcholinesterase, antimicrobial, antidiabectic, cytotoxic (leukemia cell line activities and allelopathic potentialities. The strongest antioxidant activity was obtained for the ethyl acetate extract (IC50 = 12.8 ± 1.29 µg/mL. The two extracts exhibited high antidiabetic activity (54.1 and 52.1% at 40 µg/mL.

  9. Free radical scavenging activities of yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea L.) measured by electron spin resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusar, A; Zupancic, A; Sentjurc, M; Baricevic, D

    2006-10-01

    Yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea L.) is a herbal species with a long-term use in traditional medicine due to its digestive and stomachic properties. This paper presents an investigation of the free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extracts of yellow gentian leaves and roots in two different systems using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry. Assays were based on the stable free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the superoxide radicals (O2*-) generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XO) system. The results of gentian methanolic extracts were compared with the antioxidant capacity of synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). This study proves that yellow gentian leaves and roots exhibit considerable antioxidant properties, expressed either by their capability to scavenge DPPH or superoxide radicals.

  10. Effects of prostaglandin F2 alpha and a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist on inositol phospholipid metabolism in isolated rat corpora lutea of various ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahav, M.; West, L.A.; Davis, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The sensitivity of rat corpora lutea to luteolytic agents increases with luteal age. We examined the effect of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) and [D-Ala6,Des-Gly10]GnRH ethylamide (GnRHa) on inositol phospholipid metabolism in day 2 and day 7 corpora lutea from PMSG-treated rats. Isolated corpora lutea were incubated with 32PO4 or [3H]inositol and were treated with LH, PGF2 alpha, or GnRHa. Phospholipids were purified by TLC, and the water-soluble products of phospholipase-C activity (inositol phosphates) were isolated by ion exchange chromatography. In day 2 corpora lutea, PGF2 alpha, (10 microM) and GnRHa (100 ng/ml) significantly increased 32PO4 incorporation into phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidylinositol (PI), but not into other fractions. LH provoked slight increases in PA. Results were similar with 30 min of prelabeling or simultaneous addition of 32PO4 and stimulants. In other experiments, PGF2 alpha and GnRHa provoked rapid increases (1-5 min) in the accumulation of inositol mono-, bis-, and trisphosphates. LH did not significantly increase inositol phosphate accumulation, but stimulated cAMP accumulation in 2-day-old corpora lutea. Inositol phospholipid metabolism was increased in day 7 corpora lutea compared to that in day 2 corpora lutea. This increase was associated with increased incorporation of 32PO4 into PA and PI and increased accumulation of [3H]inositol phosphates. In day 7 corpora lutea, which are very sensitive to the luteolytic effect of PGF2 alpha, the PG-induced increase in PA labeling was small and inconsistent, whereas PI labeling was unaffected in 30-min incubations. GnRHa was without effect in such corpora lutea. LH, PGF2 alpha, or GnRHa did not increase inositol phosphate accumulation in 7-day-old corpora lutea. These studies demonstrate that the transformation of young (day 2) to mature (day 7) corpora lutea is associated with an increase in luteal inositol phospholipid metabolism

  11. Defining the Human Macula Transcriptome and Candidate Retinal Disease Genes UsingEyeSAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Catherine Bowes; Ebright, Jessica N.; Zavodni, Zachary J.; Yu, Ling; Wang, Tianyuan; Daiger, Stephen P.; Wistow, Graeme; Boon, Kathy; Hauser, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To develop large-scale, high-throughput annotation of the human macula transcriptome and to identify and prioritize candidate genes for inherited retinal dystrophies, based on ocular-expression profiles using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Methods Two human retina and two retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/choroid SAGE libraries made from matched macula or midperipheral retina and adjacent RPE/choroid of morphologically normal 28- to 66-year-old donors and a human central retina longSAGE library made from 41- to 66-year-old donors were generated. Their transcription profiles were entered into a relational database, EyeSAGE, including microarray expression profiles of retina and publicly available normal human tissue SAGE libraries. EyeSAGE was used to identify retina- and RPE-specific and -associated genes, and candidate genes for retina and RPE disease loci. Differential and/or cell-type specific expression was validated by quantitative and single-cell RT-PCR. Results Cone photoreceptor-associated gene expression was elevated in the macula transcription profiles. Analysis of the longSAGE retina tags enhanced tag-to-gene mapping and revealed alternatively spliced genes. Analysis of candidate gene expression tables for the identified Bardet-Biedl syndrome disease gene (BBS5) in the BBS5 disease region table yielded BBS5 as the top candidate. Compelling candidates for inherited retina diseases were identified. Conclusions The EyeSAGE database, combining three different gene-profiling platforms including the authors’ multidonor-derived retina/RPE SAGE libraries and existing single-donor retina/RPE libraries, is a powerful resource for definition of the retina and RPE transcriptomes. It can be used to identify retina-specific genes, including alternatively spliced transcripts and to prioritize candidate genes within mapped retinal disease regions. PMID:16723438

  12. Changes in contrast sensitivity after surgery for macula-on rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Fumiki; Sugiura, Yoshimi; Okamoto, Yoshifumi; Hiraoka, Takahiro; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate changes in contrast sensitivity after surgery for macula-on rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Prospective, interventional, consecutive, case-control study. This study included 84 eyes of 84 patients with unilateral macula-on RRD undergoing primary scleral buckling or vitrectomy without postoperative macular complication. We examined the logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution best-corrected visual acuity (logMAR BCVA) and contrast sensitivity at 4 spatial frequencies (3, 6, 12, and 18 cycles/degree) using the CSV-1000E (Vector Vision) before and after surgery. From the data obtained with the CSV-1000E, the area under the log contrast sensitivity function was calculated. The logMAR BCVA and contrast sensitivity in the contralateral normal eyes also were measured and were used as normal controls. Clinical data were collected, including age, gender, surgical procedures, the number of retinal tears, circumferential dimension of retinal tears, and area of retinal detachment, to determine the clinical factors related to visual function. Preoperative contrast sensitivity was significantly worse in eyes with RRD than in normal controls, but the preoperative logMAR BCVA was not different from that of normal controls. Contrast sensitivity decreased significantly after surgery, but logMAR BCVA did not change by surgery. Multiple regression analysis revealed that postoperative contrast sensitivity had a significant correlation with the circumferential dimension of retinal tears, whereas no clinical parameters were associated significantly with postoperative BCVA. Surgery for macula-on RRD did not change visual acuity, whereas contrast sensitivity was affected significantly in association with the extent of retinal tears. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Human Chorioretinal Layer Thicknesses Measured in Macula-wide, High-Resolution Histologic Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Jeffrey D.; Sloan, Kenneth R.; Mitra, Arnab; McGwin, Gerald; Spaide, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To provide a comprehensive description of chorioretinal layer thicknesses in the normal human macula, including two-layer pairs that can produce a combined signal in some optical coherence tomography (OCT) devices (ganglion cell [GCL] and inner plexiform [IPL] layers and outer plexiform [OPL] and outer nuclear [ONL] layers). Methods. In 0.8-μm-thick, macula-wide sections through the foveola of 18 donors (age range, 40–92 years), 21 layers were measured at 25 locations by a trained observer and validated by a second observer. Tissue volume changes were assessed by comparing total retinal thickness in ex vivo OCT and in sections. Results. Median tissue shrinkage was 14.5% overall and 29% in the fovea. Histologic laminar boundaries resembled those in SD-OCT scans, but the shapes of the foveolar OPL and ONL differed. Histologic GCL, IPL, and OPLHenle were thickest at 0.8. to 1, 1.5, and 0.4 mm eccentricity, respectively. ONL was thickest in an inward bulge at the foveal center. At 1 mm eccentricity, GCL, INL, and OPLHenle represented 17.3% to 21.1%, 18.0% to 18.5%, and 14.2% to 16.6% of total retinal thickness, respectively. In donors ≥70 years of age, the RPE and choroid were 17.1% and 29.6% thinner and OPLHenle was 20.8% thicker than in donors macula were generated. Newer OCT systems can separate GCL from IPL and OPLHenle from ONL, with good agreement for the proportion of retinal thickness occupied by OPLHenle in OCT and histology. The thickening of OPLHenle in older eyes may reflect Müller cell hypertrophy associated with rod loss. PMID:21421869

  14. Biodiversidad y comportamiento agron??mico en Le??n de "Gentiana lutea L." var. "aurantiaca" = Biodiversity and agronomic performance of Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca from Le??n

    OpenAIRE

    Gonz??lez L??pez, ??scar

    2014-01-01

    303 p. La Gentiana lutea L., denominada com??nmente genciana, se distribuye por los pastizales y laderas en las monta??as del centro y sur de Europa y de Asia Menor. Sus compuestos amargos, principalmente secoiridoides-glicosidos, localizados de forma mayoritaria en las ra??ces, le otorgan unas cualidades farmac??uticas que hacen que sea utilizada en la medicina tradicional como estimulante del apetito, as?? como para el tratamiento de diferentes dolencias estomacales. En las monta??as...

  15. cDNAs for the synthesis of cyclic carotenoids in petals of Gentiana lutea and their regulation during flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Changfu; Yamamura, Saburo; Nishihara, Masashiro; Koiwa, Hiroyuki; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2003-02-20

    cDNAs encoding lycopene epsilon -cyclase, lycopene beta-cyclase, beta-carotene hydroxylase and zeaxanthin epoxidase were isolated from a Gentiana lutea petal cDNA library. The function of all cDNAs was analyzed by complementation in Escherichia coli. Transcript levels during different stages of flower development of G. lutea were determined and compared to the carotenoid composition. Expression of all genes increased by a factor of up to 2, with the exception of the lycopene epsilon -cyclase gene. The transcript amount of the latter was strongly decreased. These results indicate that during flower development, carotenoid formation is enhanced. Moreover, metabolites are shifted away from the biosynthetic branch to lutein and are channeled into beta-carotene and derivatives.

  16. Cloning and functional analysis of the promoters that upregulate carotenogenic gene expression during flower development in Gentiana lutea

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Changfu; Yang, Qingjie; Ni, Xiuzhen; Bai, Chao; Sheng, Yanmin; Shi, Lianxuan; Capell Capell, Teresa; Sandmann, Gerhard; Christou, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, many carotenogenic genes have been cloned and used to generate metabolically engineered plants producing higher levels of carotenoids. However, comparatively little is known about the regulation of endogenous carotenogenic genes in higher plants, and this restricts our ability to predict how engineered plants will perform in terms of carotenoid content and composition. During petal development in the Great Yellow Gentian (Gentiana lutea), carotenoid accumulation, th...

  17. Chemical composition and seasonal variations in the amount of secondary compounds in Gentiana lutea leaves and flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menković, N; Savikin-Fodulović, K; Savin, K

    2000-03-01

    The chemical investigation of MeOH extracts of Gentiana lutea leaves and flowers showed that xanthones were one of the dominant class of compounds. Secoiridoids and flavonoids were also recorded. The amount of secondary metabolites varied depending on development stage. In the phase of flowering, leaves are rich with compounds possessing C-glycoside structures while O-glycoside structures accumulate mainly before flowering.

  18. High-resolution Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and Microperimetric Findings After Macula-off Retinal Detachment Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Allison J.; Telander, David G.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Choi, Stacey S.; Morse, Lawrence S.; Werner, John S.; Park, Susanna S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the morphologic changes in the macula of subjects with repaired macula-off retinal detachment (RD) using high-resolution Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD OCT) and to perform functional correlation in a subset of patients using microperimetry (MP-1). Design Prospective observational case series. Participants Seventeen eyes from 17 subjects who had undergone anatomically successful repair for macula-off, rhegmatogenous RD at least 3 months earlier and without visually significant maculopathy on funduscopy. Methods FD OCT with axial and transverse resolution of 4.5 μm and 10 to 15 μm, respectively, was used to obtain rapid serial B-scans of the macula, which were compared with that from Stratus OCT. The FD OCT B-scans were used to create a 3-dimensional volume, from which en face C-scans were created. Among 11 patients, MP-1 was performed to correlate morphologic changes with visual function. Main Outcome Measures Stratus OCT scans, FD OCT scans, and MP-1 data. Results Stratus OCT and FD OCT images of the macula were obtained 3 to 30 months (mean 7 months) postoperatively in all eyes. Although Stratus OCT revealed photoreceptor disruption in 2 eyes (12%), FD OCT showed photoreceptor disruption in 13 eyes (76%). This difference was statistically significant (Pmacula-off RD repair is a common abnormality in the macula that is detected better with FD OCT than Stratus OCT. A good correlation between MP-1 abnormality and presence of photoreceptor disruption or subretinal fluid on FD OCT demonstrates that these anatomic abnormalities contribute to decreased visual function after successful repair. PMID:18672289

  19. Differences in pollination success between local and foreign flower color phenotypes: a translocation experiment with Gentiana lutea (Gentianaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, Mar; Veiga, Tania; Guitián, Pablo; Guitián, José M.

    2017-01-01

    Background The adaptive maintenance of flower color variation is frequently attributed to pollinators partly because they preferentially visit certain flower phenotypes. We tested whether Gentiana lutea—which shows a flower color variation (from orange to yellow) in the Cantabrian Mountains range (north of Spain)—is locally adapted to the pollinator community. Methods We transplanted orange-flowering individuals to a population with yellow-flowering individuals and vice versa, in order to assess whether there is a pollination advantage in the local morph by comparing its visitation rate with the foreign morph. Results Our reciprocal transplant experiment did not show clear local morph advantage in overall visitation rate: local orange flowers received more visits than foreign yellow flowers in the orange population, while both local and foreign flowers received the same visits in the yellow population; thus, there is no evidence of local adaptation in Gentiana lutea to the pollinator assemblage. However, some floral visitor groups (such as Bombus pratorum, B. soroensis ancaricus and B. lapidarius decipiens) consistently preferred the local morph to the foreign morph whereas others (such as Bombus terrestris) consistently preferred the foreign morph. Discussion We concluded that there is no evidence of local adaptation to the pollinator community in each of the two G. lutea populations studied. The consequences for local adaptation to pollinator on G. lutea flower color would depend on the variation along the Cantabrian Mountains range in morph frequency and pollinator community composition. PMID:28194308

  20. Differences in pollination success between local and foreign flower color phenotypes: a translocation experiment with Gentiana lutea (Gentianaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A. Guitián

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The adaptive maintenance of flower color variation is frequently attributed to pollinators partly because they preferentially visit certain flower phenotypes. We tested whether Gentiana lutea—which shows a flower color variation (from orange to yellow in the Cantabrian Mountains range (north of Spain—is locally adapted to the pollinator community. Methods We transplanted orange-flowering individuals to a population with yellow-flowering individuals and vice versa, in order to assess whether there is a pollination advantage in the local morph by comparing its visitation rate with the foreign morph. Results Our reciprocal transplant experiment did not show clear local morph advantage in overall visitation rate: local orange flowers received more visits than foreign yellow flowers in the orange population, while both local and foreign flowers received the same visits in the yellow population; thus, there is no evidence of local adaptation in Gentiana lutea to the pollinator assemblage. However, some floral visitor groups (such as Bombus pratorum, B. soroensis ancaricus and B. lapidarius decipiens consistently preferred the local morph to the foreign morph whereas others (such as Bombus terrestris consistently preferred the foreign morph. Discussion We concluded that there is no evidence of local adaptation to the pollinator community in each of the two G. lutea populations studied. The consequences for local adaptation to pollinator on G. lutea flower color would depend on the variation along the Cantabrian Mountains range in morph frequency and pollinator community composition.

  1. Highly heterogeneous bacterial communities associated with the South China Sea reef corals Porites lutea, Galaxea fascicularis and Acropora millepora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Li

    Full Text Available Coral harbor diverse and specific bacteria play significant roles in coral holobiont function. Bacteria associated with three of the common and phylogenetically divergent reef-building corals in the South China Sea, Porites lutea, Galaxea fascicularis and Acropora millepora, were investigated using 454 barcoded-pyrosequencing. Three colonies of each species were sampled, and 16S rRNA gene libraries were constructed individually. Analysis of pyrosequencing libraries showed that bacterial communities associated with the three coral species were more diverse than previous estimates based on corals from the Caribbean Sea, Indo-Pacific reefs and the Red Sea. Three candidate phyla, including BRC1, OD1 and SR1, were found for the first time in corals. Bacterial communities were separated into three groups: P. lutea and G. fascicular, A. millepora and seawater. P. lutea and G. fascicular displayed more similar bacterial communities, and bacterial communities associated with A. millepora differed from the other two coral species. The three coral species shared only 22 OTUs, which were distributed in Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria and an unclassified bacterial group. The composition of bacterial communities within each colony of each coral species also showed variation. The relatively small common and large specific bacterial communities in these corals implies that bacterial associations may be structured by multiple factors at different scales and that corals may associate with microbes in terms of similar function, rather than identical species.

  2. ADAPTATION OF THE OBTAINED in vitro Gentiana lutea L. PLANTS TO ex vitro AND in situ CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Yu.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to develop the technology of introduction of the obtained by microclonal propagation Gentiana lutea L. plants into conditions in situ. Methods of cultivation of plant objects in vitro were used. There were chosen optimal conditions for rooting G. lutea shoots obtained through microclonal propagation in vitro: МS/2 medium with twice decreased concentration of NH4NO3 without vitamins and sucrose supplemented with 3 g/l of mannite and 0.05 mg/l kinetin, and agar (4 mg/l in combination with perlite (16 g/l used as a maintaining substrate; or the nutrient medium (MS/2 without vitamins and smaller concentration of N4NO3 with gradual decrease of carbohydrates from 10 g/l to 2 g/l, and further rooting experimental shoots in tap water. Rooted plants were adapted to conditions ex vitro through planting them into flowerpots with soil and gradual changing hothouse regime for exposed one. The share of adapted to in situ conditions plants (21% after a year of planting proves the suggested method to be efficient and promising. There was suggested this technology is the most efficient ones for revival of disturbed G. lutea populations that includes repatriation of rooted and adapted to ex vitro conditions plants obtained through microclonal propagation in vitro.

  3. Polarization sensitive changes in the human macula associated with normal aging and age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanNasdale, Dean Allan, Jr.

    2011-12-01

    The human macula occupies a relatively small, but crucial retinal area, as it is the location responsible for our most acute spatial vision and best color discrimination. Localizing important landmarks in the retina is difficult even in normal eyes where morphological inter-individual variability is high. This becomes even more challenging in the presence of sight-threatening pathology. With respect to the human macula, there remains a significant gap in the understanding of normal structure and function. Even less is known about the pathological mechanisms that occur in sight-threatening diseases including age-related macular degeneration. Because relatively little is known about normal aging changes, it is also difficult to differentiate those changes from changes associated with retinal disease. To better understand normal and pathological changes in the macula, imaging techniques using specific optical signatures are required. Structural features in the macula can be distinguished based on their intrinsic properties using specific light/tissue interactions. Because of the high degree of structural regularity in the macula, polarization sensitive imaging is potentially a useful tool for evaluating the morphology and integrity of the cellular architecture for both normal individuals and those affected by disease. In our investigations, we used polarization sensitive imaging to determining normal landmarks that are important clinically and for research investigations. We found that precision and accuracy in localizing the central macula was greatly improved through the use of polarization sensitive imaging. We also found that specific polarization alterations can be used to demonstrate systematic changes as a function of age, disproportionately affecting the central macular region. When evaluating patients with age-related macular degeneration, we found that precision and accuracy of localizing the central macula was also improved, even when significant pathology

  4. Anatomy and development of the macula: specialisation and the vulnerability to macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provis, Jan M; Penfold, Philip L; Cornish, Elisa E; Sandercoe, Trent M; Madigan, Michele C

    2005-09-01

    The central retina in primates is adapted for high acuity vision. The most significant adaptations to neural retina in this respect are: 1. The very high density of cone photoreceptors on the visual axis; 2. The dominance of Midget pathways arising from these cones and 3. The diminishment of retinal blood supply in the macula, and its absence on the visual axis. Restricted blood supply to the part of the retina that has the highest density of neural elements is paradoxical. Inhibition of vascular growth and proliferation is evident during foetal life and results in metabolic stress in ganglion cells and Muller cells, which is resolved during formation of the foveal depression. In this review we argue that at the macula stressed retinal neurons adapt during development to a limited blood supply from the choriocapillaris, which supplies little in excess of metabolic demand of the neural retina under normal conditions. We argue also that while adaptation of the choriocapillaris underlying the foveal region may initially augment the local supply of oxygen and nutrients by diffusion, in the long term these adaptations make the region more vulnerable to age-related changes, including the accumulation of insoluble material in Bruch's membrane and beneath the retinal pigment epithelium. These changes eventually impact on delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the RPE and outer neural retina because of reduced flow in the choriocapillaris and the increasing barriers to effective diffusion. Both the inflammatory response and the sequelae of oxidative stress are predictable outcomes in this scenario.

  5. Damage to the macula associated with LED-derived blue laser exposure: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lingling; Cui, Zhihua; Lu, Chengwei; Hao, Qian; Zheng, Yajuan

    2017-04-24

    Light emitting diodes laser is emerging as an important source of light replacing conventional lights. It is widely used for illumination in the bar where young people love to go. But not everyone knows about the light damage to the eye especially to the macula. In this article, we report the case of a macular damage induced by LED-derived blue laser in a bar, studied with optical coherence tomography (OCT) to evaluate the retinal lesion and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) to evaluate functional damage. Four days after the photo injury to the right eye, the visual acuity was 0.5. Funduscopy revealed a round red lesion in the macula of the right eye. Fluorescein angiography (FA) revealed no leakage. OCT revealed a deficiency in the center of the fovea. MfERG revealed a reduction of the peak value in the right eye compared to the left eye. One month later, although the vision was 1.0 in the right eye, OCT revealed a hyporeflectivity of the ellipsoid zone. MfERG still showed a reduction of the peak value in the right eye compared to the left eye. We believe that general knowledge about laser injuries to the eye should be realized widely. We also think in cases of macular laser damage, the recovery of vision can not demonstrate the recovery of the function of photoreceptors.

  6. Autoradiographic demonstration of oxytocin-binding sites in the macula densa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeckel, M.E.; Freund-Mercier, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Specific oxytocin (OT)-binding sites were localized in the rat kidney with use of a selective 125 I-labeled OT antagonist ( 125 I-OTA). High concentrations of OT binding sites were detected on the juxtaglomerular apparatus with use of the conventional film autoradiographic technique. No labeling occurred on other renal structures. The cellular localization of the OT binding sites within the juxtaglomerular apparatus was studied in light microscope autoradiography, on semithin sections from paraformaldehyde-fixed kidney slices incubated in the presence of 125 I-OTA. These preparations revealed selective labeling of the macula densa, mainly concentrated at the basal pole of the cells. Control experiments showed first that 125 I-OTA binding characteristics were not noticeably altered by prior paraformaldehyde fixation of the kidneys and second that autoradiographic detection of the binding sites was not impaired by histological treatments following binding procedures. In view of the role of the macula densa in the tubuloglomerular feedback, the putative OT receptors of this structure might mediate the stimulatory effect of OT on glomerular filtration

  7. Autoradiographic demonstration of oxytocin-binding sites in the macula densa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoeckel, M.E.; Freund-Mercier, M.J. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Strasbourg (France))

    1989-08-01

    Specific oxytocin (OT)-binding sites were localized in the rat kidney with use of a selective {sup 125}I-labeled OT antagonist ({sup 125}I-OTA). High concentrations of OT binding sites were detected on the juxtaglomerular apparatus with use of the conventional film autoradiographic technique. No labeling occurred on other renal structures. The cellular localization of the OT binding sites within the juxtaglomerular apparatus was studied in light microscope autoradiography, on semithin sections from paraformaldehyde-fixed kidney slices incubated in the presence of {sup 125}I-OTA. These preparations revealed selective labeling of the macula densa, mainly concentrated at the basal pole of the cells. Control experiments showed first that {sup 125}I-OTA binding characteristics were not noticeably altered by prior paraformaldehyde fixation of the kidneys and second that autoradiographic detection of the binding sites was not impaired by histological treatments following binding procedures. In view of the role of the macula densa in the tubuloglomerular feedback, the putative OT receptors of this structure might mediate the stimulatory effect of OT on glomerular filtration.

  8. [Choroidal thickness after scleral buckling surgery in macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoyun, I; Pınarcı, E Y; Yesilirmak, N; Yılmaz, G

    2014-10-01

    Enhanced depth imaging (EDI) optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides high-definition cross-sectional images of the choroid. Information on alterations in choroidal thickness (CT) after scleral buckling surgery (SBS) is rare. The medical charts of 122 patients (122 eyes) who underwent SBS for macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) were retrospectively analyzed. Patients with a follow-up ≥ 6 months were included. Postoperative EDI-OCT images concerning CT were evaluated 1 week, 1 month and 6 months postoperatively in 4 groups: group 1 cerclage + cryopexy (n = 39 eyes), group 2 cerclage + cryopexy + sponge (n = 28 eyes), group 3 SBS + subretinal fluid drainage (SRD) (n = 25 eyes) and group 4 SBS + sponge + SRD (n = 30 eyes). Subfoveal CT was compared between the groups and with the non-operated fellow eye. Subfoveal CT in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 was thicker 1 week postoperatively. There were no significant differences between the groups or when comparing the operated eye with the fellow eye 1 and 6 months postoperatively. There were no differences in subfoveal CT 1 and 6 months after SBS between the eye with macula-off RRD and the fellow eye. The use of a sponge or SRD induced no differences concerning subfoveal CT.

  9. Correlation of structure and function of the macula in patients with retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battu, R; Khanna, A; Hegde, B; Berendschot, T T J M; Grover, S; Schouten, J S A G

    2015-07-01

    To correlate the structure of the macula, as measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and function, as measured by microperimetry (MAIA) in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and relatively good visual acuity. Prospective, cross-sectional, non-intervention study. Patients with RP. Thirty patients with RP and good central visual acuity were identified. Each patient underwent SD-OCT of the macula and microperimetry. The images were overlaid using the custom-designed software. The retinal sensitivity by microperimetry was correlated with corresponding retinal thickness, as measured by the SD-OCT. ELM, COST, and IS/OS junction were scored as intact, disrupted, or absent. Comparing the retinal sensitivity on the MAIA with various measurements on the SD-OCT. The retinal sensitivity on the MAIA showed a significant correlation with total retinal thickness and outer retinal thickness on the SD-OCT. There was no association with either the inner retinal thickness or the choroidal thickness. ORT showed a statistically significant correlation with the anatomical classification of ELM (r=-0.76, Pmacula in patients with RP. These studies are important to establish surrogate markers that can be used as end points for various tests in future therapeutic clinical trials.

  10. Automated detection of exudates and macula for grading of diabetic macular edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, M Usman; Tariq, Anam; Khan, Shoab A; Javed, M Younus

    2014-04-01

    Medical systems based on state of the art image processing and pattern recognition techniques are very common now a day. These systems are of prime interest to provide basic health care facilities to patients and support to doctors. Diabetic macular edema is one of the retinal abnormalities in which diabetic patient suffers from severe vision loss due to affected macula. It affects the central vision of the person and causes total blindness in severe cases. In this article, we propose an intelligent system for detection and grading of macular edema to assist the ophthalmologists in early and automated detection of the disease. The proposed system consists of a novel method for accurate detection of macula using a detailed feature set and Gaussian mixtures model based classifier. We also present a new hybrid classifier as an ensemble of Gaussian mixture model and support vector machine for improved exudate detection even in the presence of other bright lesions which eventually leads to reliable classification of input retinal image in different stages of macular edema. The statistical analysis and comparative evaluation of proposed system with existing methods are performed on publicly available standard retinal image databases. The proposed system has achieved average value of 97.3%, 95.9% and 96.8% for sensitivity, specificity and accuracy respectively on both databases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Internal limiting membrane peeling in macula-off retinal detachment complicated by grade B proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foveau, Pauline; Leroy, Bertrand; Berrod, Jean-Paul; Conart, Jean-Baptiste

    2018-04-02

    To investigate the clinical benefit of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling as a surgical adjunct in the repair of primary retinal detachment (RD) complicated by grade B proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Retrospective, interventional, comparative case series. SETTING: Institutional. 75 consecutive patients who underwent vitrectomy for primary macula off RD complicated by grade B PVR. Patients were divided into an ILM peeling (group P) and a no ILM peeling (group NP). Anatomical success rate, best-corrected visual acuity, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) characteristics were collected at 1 and 6 months. In all, 37 eyes with ILM peeling were included in group P and 38 eyes without ILM peeling were included in group NP. The anatomical success rate after single surgery was higher in group P (89%) than in group NP (66%, p=0.03). Mean final visual acuity was 0.41 ±0.40 logMAR in group P versus 0.43 ±0.22 logMAR in group NP (p=0.82). We found no epiretinal membrane (ERM) formation in group P, whereas five cases of ERM (20%) were detected in group NP (p=0.012). The two groups did not differ in terms of cystoid macular edema occurrence, macular thickness, or photoreceptor damage. ILM peeling during vitrectomy in macula off RD complicated by grade B PVR reduces the need for a second surgery for re-detachment or macular pucker. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Synaptic changes in rat maculae in space and medical imaging: the link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M. D.

    1998-01-01

    Two different space life sciences missions (SLS-1 and SLS-2) have demonstrated that the synapses of the hair cells of rat vestibular maculae increase significantly in microgravity. The results also indicate that macular synapses are sensitive to stress. These findings argue that vestibular maculae exhibit neuroplasticity to macroenvironmental and microenvironmental changes. This capability should be clinically relevant to rehabilitative training and/or pharmacological treatments for vestibular disease. The results of this ultrastructural research also demonstrated that type I and type II hair cells are integrated into the same neuronal circuitry. The findings were the basis for development of three-dimensional reconstruction software to learn details of macular wiring. This software, produced for scientific research, has now been adapted to reconstruct the face and skull directly from computerized tomography scans. In collaboration with craniofacial reconstructive surgeons at Stanford University Medical Center, an effort is under way to produce a virtual environment workbench for complex craniofacial surgery. When completed, the workbench will help surgeons train for and simulate surgery. The methods are patient specific. This research illustrates the value of basic research in leading to unanticipated medical applications.

  13. Synergistic effect of Gentiana lutea L. on methyl methanesulfonate genotoxicity in the Drosophila wing spot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patenković, Aleksandra; Stamenković-Radak, Marina; Nikolić, Dragana; Marković, Tamara; Anđelković, Marko

    2013-03-27

    Gentiana lutea L., the yellow gentian, is herb known for its pharmacological properties, with a long tradition of use for the treatment of a variety of diseases including the use as a remedy for digestion, also in food products and in bitter beverages. The aim of the present study is to evaluate, for the first time, genotoxicity of gentian alone, and its antigenotoxicity against methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). The water infusion of the underground part of gentian were evaluated in vivo using the Drosophila wing spot test, at the dose commonly used in traditional medicine. For antigenotoxic study two types of treatment with gentian and MMS were performed: chronic co-treatment, as well as post-treatment with gentian after acute exposure with MMS. Water infusion of gentian alone did not exhibit genotoxicity. The results of co- and post-treatment experiments with gentian show that gentian enhanced the frequency of mutant clones over the values obtained with MMS alone, instead of reducing the genotoxicity of MMS, for 22.64% and 27.13% respectively. This result suggests a synergism of gentian with MMS, and indicates that water infusion of gentian used in traditional medicine may have particular effects with regard to genotoxicity indicating careful use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional characterization of the Gentiana lutea zeaxanthin epoxidase (GlZEP) promoter in transgenic tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingjie; Yuan, Dawei; Shi, Lianxuan; Capell, Teresa; Bai, Chao; Wen, Nuan; Lu, Xiaodan; Sandmann, Gerhard; Christou, Paul; Zhu, Changfu

    2012-10-01

    The accumulation of carotenoids in plants depends critically on the spatiotemporal expression profiles of the genes encoding enzymes in the carotenogenic pathway. We cloned and characterized the Gentiana lutea zeaxanthin epoxidase (GlZEP) promoter to determine its role in the regulation of carotenogenesis, because the native gene is expressed at high levels in petals, which contain abundant chromoplasts. We transformed tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom) plants with the gusA gene encoding the reporter enzyme β-glucuronidase (GUS) under the control of the GlZEP promoter, and investigated the reporter expression profile at the mRNA and protein levels. We detected high levels of gusA expression and GUS activity in chromoplast-containing flowers and fruits, but minimal levels in immature fruits containing green chloroplasts, in sepals, leaves, stems and roots. GlZEP-gusA expression was strictly associated with fruit development and chromoplast differentiation, suggesting an evolutionarily-conserved link between ZEP and the differentiation of organelles that store carotenoid pigments. The impact of our results on current models for the regulation of carotenogenesis in plants is discussed.

  15. Anti-VEGF therapy in symptomatic peripheral exudative hemorrhagic chorioretinopathy (PEHCR) involving the macula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, Ira; Hager, Annette; Duncker, Tobias; Riechardt, Aline I; Nürnberg, Daniela; Klein, Julian P; Rehak, Matus; Joussen, Antonia M

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the anatomical and functional outcome of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor (anti-VEGF) treatment in symptomatic peripheral exudative hemorrhagic chorioretinopathy (PEHCR) involving the macula. Clinical records from patients seen between 2012 and 2013 at a single academic center were reviewed to identify PEHCR patients receiving anti-VEGF therapy due to disease-associated changes involving the macula. Affected eyes were either treated with consecutive intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF or vitrectomy combined with anti-VEGF followed by pro re nata injections. The mean age of the patients was 76 years (range 70-89 years). In all nine eyes, visual acuity was reduced due to central subretinal fluid. On average, three anti-VEGF injections (range 2-5 injections) were required initially to achieve complete resolution of macular subretinal fluid. In three eyes, subretinal fluid reappeared after an average of 10 months (range 5-16 months), and an average of 2.5 anti-VEGF injections (range 2-3 injections) were necessary to attain complete resolution of macular subretinal fluid a second time. Median visual acuity at the visit before the first injection was 1.0 logMAR (range 2.1-0.4 logMAR) and increased to 0.8 logMAR (range 2-0.1 logMAR) at the last visit. Results of this study show that for cases in which PEHCR becomes symptomatic due to macular involvement, anti-VEGF treatment may have drying potential. Although vision was improved in some patients, it remained limited in cases with long-term macular involvement, precluding any definitive functional conclusion. However, we believe that the use of anti-VEGF agents should be recommended in PEHCR that threatens the macula. Due to its often self-limiting course, peripheral lesions should be closely observed. Larger studies are needed in order to provide clear evidence of the efficacy of anti-VEGF therapy in PEHCR.

  16. A basis for customising perimetric locations within the macula in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alluwimi, Muhammed S; Swanson, William H; Malinovsky, Victor E; King, Brett J

    2018-03-01

    It has been recognised that the 24-2 grid used for perimetry may poorly sample the macula, which has been recently identified as a critical region for diagnosing and managing patients with glaucoma. We compared data derived from patients and controls to investigate the efficacy of a basis for customising perimetric locations within the macula, guided by en face images of retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) bundles. We used SD-OCT en face montages (www.heidelbergengineering.com) of the RNFL in 10 patients with glaucoma (ages 56-80 years, median 67.5 years) and 30 age-similar controls (ages 47-77, median 58). These patients were selected because of either the absence of perimetric defect while glaucomatous damage to the RNFL bundles was observed, or because of perimetric defect that did not reflect the extent and locations of the glaucomatous damage that appeared in the RNFL images. We used a customised blob stimulus for perimetric testing (a Gaussian blob with 0.25° standard deviation) at 10-2 grid locations, to assess the correspondence between perimetric defects and damaged RNFL bundles observed on en face images and perimetric defects. Data from the age-similar controls were used to compute total deviation (TD) and pattern deviation (PD) values at each location; a perimetric defect for a location was defined as a TD or PD value of -0.5 log unit or deeper. A McNemar's test was used to compare the proportions of locations with perimetric defects that fell outside the damaged RNFL bundles, with and without accounting for displacement of ganglion cell bodies. All patients but one had perimetric defects that were consistent with the patterns of damaged RNFL bundles observed on the en face images. We found six abnormal perimetric locations of 2040 tested in controls and 132 abnormal perimetric locations of 680 tested in patients. The proportions of abnormal locations that fell outside the damaged RNFL bundles, with and without accounting for displacement of the

  17. Intraoperative Macula Protection by Perfluorocarbon Liquid for the Metallic Intraocular Foreign Body Removal during 23-Gauge Vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rejdak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate visual and safety outcomes of 23-gauge (G pars plana vitrectomy (PPV with application of perfluorocarbon liquid (PFCL for intraoperative protection of the macula during intraocular foreign body (IOFB removal. Methods. Retrospective study of 42 patients who underwent 23 G PPV for IOFB removal from posterior segment with intraoperative PFCL application for the macula shielding. Collected data included corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, size of IOFB, and complication rate. The mean follow-up period was 12 months. Results. The mean preoperative CDVA was 0.54 logMAR (SD 0.46, and the final mean CDVA was 0.68 logMAR (SD 0.66. All IOFBs were metallic with mean dimensions of 4.6 mm × 2.1 mm. Twenty-two IOFBs were removed through the corneal tunnel and 20 IOFBs through the sclerotomy. No intraoperative iatrogenic lesion of the macula was observed. As a tamponade, silicon oil was applied in 31 eyes, SF6 gas in 5 eyes, air in 4 eyes, and 2 eyes required no tamponade. Secondary retinal detachment was observed in 17% of cases, but at the end of the follow-up, all the retinas were attached. Conclusion. PFCL application during PPV is a safe method of protecting the macula from unexpected falling of the metallic IOFB during its removal.

  18. PERFLUOROCARBON LIQUIDS' ABILITY TO PROTECT THE MACULA FROM INTRAOCULAR DROPPING OF METALLIC FOREIGN BODIES: A Model Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Chirag M; Gentile, Ronald C; Mehta, Mitul C

    2016-07-01

    To examine the utility of perfluoro-n-octane (PFO) in balanced salt solution (BSS) to shield the macula from the impact of dropped metallic intraocular foreign bodies (IOFBs) by modeling scenarios in which they may fall during surgical removal. Model eyes were filled with various fluid mixtures (Group 1: 10% PFO/90% BSS; Group 2: 100% BSS; Group 3: 100% PFO; Group 4: 10% PFO/90% air; Group 5: 10% BSS/90% air). In Groups 1, 4, and 5, the 10% fluid volume covered the theoretical macula. For each fluid mixture, up to 30 IOFB drop scenarios were performed for each of the 5 sample IOFBs from 3 locations. Trajectories were recorded using a camera attached to a Zeiss operating microscope (Carl Zeiss, Jena, Germany). The percentages of IOFBs impacting the macula were calculated and Fisher exact test was used to assess differences. In Group 1, 93% (417/450) of the dropped IOFBs were deflected by the PFO-BSS interface compared with 0% (0/500) in Groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 (P macula in 30% of tests when dropped from the superior posterior segment (P < 0.01), all other IOFBs (2.8-13.4 mg) were deflected by the PFO-BSS interface in 100% of Group 1 drops (P < 0.01). As demonstrated by these simulations, the PFO-BSS interface can deflect IOFBs dropped during surgery in a wide range of scenarios, especially when the IOFB is of lower mass.

  19. CHANGES IN CHOROIDAL THICKNESS IN AND OUTSIDE THE MACULA AFTER HEMODIALYSIS IN PATIENTS WITH END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, In Boem; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Jae Suk

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate changes in choroidal thickness in and outside the macula as a result of hemodialysis (HD) in patients with end-stage renal disease. Patients with end-stage renal disease treated with maintenance HD in the Dialysis Unit of Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul, South Korea, were included in this study. The choroidal thickness was measured in and outside the macula before and after HD (paired t-test). Choroidal thickness in the macula was measured at the foveal center and 1.5 mm temporal to the foveal center and outside the macula was measured at superior, inferior, and nasal area 3.5 mm from the optic disk margin. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness, and systemic parameters such as serum osmolarity and blood pressure (BP) were measured before and after HD (paired t-test). We divided patients into two groups, diabetic and nondiabetic groups to compare the changes in choroidal thickness. Patients with diabetes were subdivided into two groups: severe retinal change group and moderate retinal change group (Mann-Whitney test). Pearson's correlation test was used to evaluate the correlations between choroidal thickness and changes in serum osmolarity, BP, and body weight loss. Choroidal thickness and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness were measured using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Fifty-four eyes of 31 patients with end-stage renal disease were included. After HD, the mean intraocular pressure was significantly decreased from 14.8 ± 2.5 mmHg to 13.0 ± 2.6 mmHg (P macula.

  20. Automated and simultaneous fovea center localization and macula segmentation using the new dynamic identification and classification of edges model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onal, Sinan; Chen, Xin; Satamraju, Veeresh; Balasooriya, Maduka; Dabil-Karacal, Humeyra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Detecting the position of retinal structures, including the fovea center and macula, in retinal images plays a key role in diagnosing eye diseases such as optic nerve hypoplasia, amblyopia, diabetic retinopathy, and macular edema. However, current detection methods are unreliable for infants or certain ethnic populations. Thus, a methodology is proposed here that may be useful for infants and across ethnicities that automatically localizes the fovea center and segments the macula on digital fundus images. First, dark structures and bright artifacts are removed from the input image using preprocessing operations, and the resulting image is transformed to polar space. Second, the fovea center is identified, and the macula region is segmented using the proposed dynamic identification and classification of edges (DICE) model. The performance of the method was evaluated using 1200 fundus images obtained from the relatively large, diverse, and publicly available Messidor database. In 96.1% of these 1200 cases, the distance between the fovea center identified manually by ophthalmologists and automatically using the proposed method remained within 0 to 8 pixels. The dice similarity index comparing the manually obtained results with those of the model for macula segmentation was 96.12% for these 1200 cases. Thus, the proposed method displayed a high degree of accuracy. The methodology using the DICE model is unique and advantageous over previously reported methods because it simultaneously determines the fovea center and segments the macula region without using any structural information, such as optic disc or blood vessel location, and it may prove useful for all populations, including infants. PMID:27660803

  1. Reactivity of Acetylcholine Esterase in inner Ear Maculae of Fish after Development at Hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feucht, I.; Hilbig, R.; Anken, R.

    It has been shown earlier that the growth of inner ear otoliths of larval fish is (among other environmental factors) guided by the gravity vector. This guidance most probably is effected by the efferent vestibular system in the brainstem, because a transection of the nervus vestibularis has been shown to effect a cessation of the supply of calcium to the otoliths. The efferent innervation of fish inner ear maculae uses the synaptic transmitter acetylcholine (ACh). Therefore, we were - in order to further assess the role of the efferent system for otolith growth - prompted to determine ACh esterase-reactivity in the sensory epithelium of the utricle and the saccule (as well as in a non-gravity relevant brain region for control) in larval cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus), which had been maintained at hypergravity during their development. The respective data will be communicated at the meeting. Acknowledgement: This work was financially supported by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) (FKZ: 50 WB 9997).

  2. Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging and Assessment of the Macula During Cataract Surgery: A Novel Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Koushik; Chawla, Rohan; Kumawat, Babulal; Sharma, Yog Raj

    2016-09-01

    The authors describe a technique to qualitatively analyze the posterior segment during cataract surgery using intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT). Macular iOCT can be done before and after intraocular lens implantation after the media is rendered clear following phacoemulsification. A handheld irrigating planoconcave contact lens is placed over the cornea with the operating microscope in retroillumination mode. After focusing the microscope and upon getting a clear view of the posterior segment, iOCT is switched on, centered at the macula, and focused. This technique enables the surgeon to intraoperatively analyze and document the macular morphology and vitreoretinal interface. Potential uses of this technique include intraoperative decision-making regarding concurrent use of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents or steroids in cases with dense cataracts where preoperative OCT is difficult. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:846-847.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Pattern Dystrophy of the Macula in a Case of Steinert Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Esteves

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Myotonic dystrophies are typically associated with ocular complications like ptosis, weakness of the ocular muscle and cataracts, but also with less recognized retinal changes. Case Report: A 41-year-old female with type 1 myotonic dystrophy complained of progressive vision loss. Slit lamp examination revealed the presence of typical bilateral polychromatic cataract with posterior subcapsular component. Dilated fundus examination was remarkable for bilateral macular depigmented changes. Multimodal imaging analysis of the macula suggested the presence of a butterfly-shaped pattern dystrophy. Discussion: In cases of myotonic dystrophies it is of great relevance to analyze the presence of retinal changes that might limit the visual improvement following cataract extraction.

  4. Evaluation of the central macula in commotio retinae not associated with other types of traumatic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joo Youn; Nam, Woo Ho; Kim, Seung Hoon; Jang, Sun Young; Ohn, Young-Hoon; Park, Tae Kwann

    2011-08-01

    To report on the anatomical and functional changes to the macula in nine patients suffering from commotio retinae not accompanied by any other types of traumatic retinopathy. Nine injured eyes with commotio retinae were evaluated soon after ocular trauma with ophthalmic examination, including Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). In 12 eyes of 6 patients, Humphrey visual field (HVF) and multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) were performed. Re-examinations were periodically performed for a mean of 26 days. Data from 9 injured eyes were collected and compared to data collected from the 9 non-affected eyes of the same patients. SD-OCT revealed no significant differences in the foveal thickness and total macular volume between traumatized and intact eyes in all 9 patients. Only 3 out of the 9 injured eyes showed abnormal findings in SD-OCT images such as discontinuity of the inner/outer segment (IS/OS) junction or abnormal hyper-reflectivity from the IS/OS and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) lines in the macula. HVF and mfERG results did not show any functional deterioration in the injured eyes compared with intact eyes. During follow-up, the commotio retinae resolved in all 9 eyes. The changes to the outer retinal region detected in 3 patients by SD-OCT were also resolved. Acute retinal changes in commotio retinae, not associated with other retinal pathologies, were resolved without histological and functional sequelae. In a few cases of commotio retinae, SD-OCT revealed transient abnormalities mainly observed at the IS/OS and RPE complexes.

  5. The microstructural and functional changes in the macula of heavy habitual smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobacı, Güngör; Musayev, Samir; Karslıoglu, Yıldırım; Gündoğan, Fatih Ç; Özge, Gökhan; Erdem, Üzeyir; Bayer, Atilla

    2013-10-01

    To investigate whether heavy habitual smoking affects microstructures and functions of the macula, 45 age- (20-39 years old) and sex-matched adult smokers (≥1 box/day for ≥5 years) and 45 nonsmokers (controls) were enrolled in this case-control study. Central macular thickness (CMT), macular autofluorescent pigment density (MAPD), macular electroretinogram (ERG), and photostress recovery time (PRT) measurements were performed. The mean age of smokers and nonsmokers was 32.9 ± 3.9 and 33.1 ± 4.1 years, respectively (p = 0.43), and smoking duration was 11 ± 5.6 years. CMT in smokers (220 ± 28 μm) and nonsmokers (217.2 ± 31 μm; p = 0.57) was similar. Smokers had lower MAPD values (124.6) than nonsmokers (138.2) (p = 0.010). Multifocal ERG parameters in the central (6°) hexagon were similar in both groups (p > 0.05 for latency and amplitudes of P1 and N1). PRT in smokers and nonsmokers was similar (7.2 ± 1.2 and 7.4 ± 1.9 min, respectively; p = 0.33); however, foveal threshold value (FTV) at the first minute after photostress was statistically higher in smokers (36.1 ± 1.04 dB) than nonsmokers (34.8 ± 1.05 dB) (p = 0.011). We conclude that decreased MAPD and altered response to photostress may be indicative of early nicotine toxicity in microstructurally sound macula of adult chronic smokers.

  6. LONGITUDINAL QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF PHOTORECEPTOR VOLUME FOLLOWING REPAIR OF MACULA-OFF RETINAL DETACHMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narala, Ramsudha; Scarinci, Fabio; Shaarawy, Amr; Simonett, Joseph M; Flaxel, Christina J; Fawzi, Amani A

    2016-08-01

    To quantify photoreceptor volume changes after successful surgical repair of macula-off retinal detachment and to correlate these volumetric changes to postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Retrospective study of 15 eyes of 15 patients with macula-off retinal detachment who underwent successful surgical repair. A minimum of 4 optical coherence tomography scans that straddled the foveal center was used to quantify the central photoreceptor volume (central 1 mm). Mean photoreceptor volume at the first postoperative visit was 0.451 mm, increasing to 0.523 mm at the final postoperative visit (P = 0.004). Mean BCVA improved from 1.13 ± 0.59 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution units (∼20/270) preoperatively to 0.52 ± 0.42 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution units (∼20/66) at the final postoperative visit (P = 0.001). Mean photoreceptor volume at either the initial or final visit demonstrated significant correlations with final postoperative BCVA (r = -0.670, P = 0.017 and r = -0.753, P = 0.005, respectively). Shorter time interval from diagnosis to surgery was significantly associated with greater mean final postoperative photoreceptor volume (r = -0.588, P = 0.021) and better mean final postoperative BCVA (r = 0.709, P = 0.003). We observed a significant increase in photoreceptor volume after successful retinal detachment repair; photoreceptor volume was positively associated with BCVA and time to surgery. Our series emphasizes the importance of prompt surgical repair and shows that photoreceptor recovery and volumetric improvement correlate significantly with BCVA.

  7. Correlation of visual recovery with macular height in macula-off retinal detachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowatt, L; Tarin, S; Nair, R G; Menon, J; Price, N J

    2010-02-01

    To determine the relationship between the preoperative macular height of a macular detachment and visual outcome of the post retinal reattachment. Prospective case series of 26 patients who presented to the Wolverhampton Eye Infirmary with a primary rhegmatogenous macula-off retinal detachment. Macular detachment height was assessed by B-scan ultrasound (10 Mhz) in the seated and supine postures before surgery. Age, gender, duration of the detachment, type of surgery, preoperative (pre-op) and postoperative (post-op) visual acuities at 3 and 6 months and status of the fellow eye were noted. A total of 26 eyes of 26 patients (mean age: 61.4 years+/-15.56 SD) were recruited. The mean logMAR pre- and post-op visual acuities at 3 and 6 months were 1.5+/-1.1 SD (range: 0.2-3), 0.38+/-0.23 SD (range: 0-0.84), and at 6 months 0.29+/-0.22 SD (range: 0-1.0). The median period of the macular detachment was 4.5 days (95% CI: 2-8 days). There was no significant difference between the mean macular heights while seated 2.42 mm+/-1.2 or supine 2.39 mm+/-1.0 (t-test, P=0.9). Correlation showed that the pre-op macular height is a statistical predictor of post-op visual acuity in our group of patients with macula-off retinal detachments. The shallower the macular detachment the greater the likelihood of a good visual outcome.

  8. Demarcation laser photocoagulation of selected macula-sparing rhegmatogenous retinal detachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrabec, T R; Baumal, C R

    2000-06-01

    To report a series of macula-sparing rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (MSRRDs) treated with demarcation laser photocoagulation (DLP). Retrospective, noncomparative case series. Thirty-one patients (34 eyes) with primary or recurrent MSRRDs without associated visual field loss, necrotizing retinitis, or proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), managed with DLP from November 1992 through May 1999. Demarcation laser photocoagulation consisting of a triple row of confluent laser burns. Best corrected postoperative visual acuity and MSRRD progression or recurrence. Thirty-four primary and recurrent MSRRDs were treated by DLP, which consisted of a triple row of confluent laser burns. Macula-sparing rhegmatogenous retinal detachments were located in all quadrants and affected 10% to 45% of the retina. Findings associated with MSRRDs included lattice degeneration (12 eyes), vitreous hemorrhage (4 eyes), and demarcation line (9 eyes). Symptoms (photopsias or floaters) were associated with 14 MSRRDs. Eight eyes were myopic and 11 were pseudophakic. Thirty-two MSRRDs were shallow, two were dome shaped, and all were smooth without corrugations. Follow-up ranged from 1.5 to 80 months (mean, 15.8 months; median, 17 months). Thirty-three of 34 detachments remained stable after DLP. Three flattened spontaneously. One eye was managed with scleral buckle 6 weeks after DLP. Progression was attributed to incomplete laser treatment. Best corrected postoperative visual acuity was the same or improved in all but one eye, in which a cataract developed. Demarcation laser photocoagulation is an effective method to manage acute or chronic, primary or recurrent MSRRDs without associated PVR that are shallow and smooth without corrugations. Demarcation laser photocoagulation is an alternative to both observation and surgical repair for these select MSRRDs.

  9. Microencapsulated bitter compounds (from Gentiana lutea) reduce daily energy intakes in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Ilario; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Ferracane, Rosalia; Arlorio, Marco; Pattarino, Franco; Vitaglione, Paola

    2016-11-10

    Mounting evidence showed that bitter-tasting compounds modulate eating behaviour through bitter taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. This study aimed at evaluating the influence of microencapsulated bitter compounds on human appetite and energy intakes. A microencapsulated bitter ingredient (EBI) with a core of bitter Gentiana lutea root extract and a coating of ethylcellulose-stearate was developed and included in a vanilla microencapsulated bitter ingredient-enriched pudding (EBIP). The coating masked bitterness in the mouth, allowing the release of bitter secoiridoids in the gastrointestinal tract. A cross-over randomised study was performed: twenty healthy subjects consumed at breakfast EBIP (providing 100 mg of secoiridoids) or the control pudding (CP) on two different occasions. Blood samples, glycaemia and appetite ratings were collected at baseline and 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after breakfast. Gastrointestinal peptides, endocannabinoids (EC) and N-acylethanolamines (NAE) were measured in plasma samples. Energy intakes were measured at an ad libitum lunch 3 h after breakfast and over the rest of the day (post lunch) through food diaries. No significant difference in postprandial plasma responses of gastrointestinal hormones, glucose, EC and NAE and of appetite between EBIP and CP was found. However, a trend for a higher response of glucagon-like peptide-1 after EBIP than after CP was observed. EBIP determined a significant 30 % lower energy intake over the post-lunch period compared with CP. These findings were consistent with the tailored release of bitter-tasting compounds from EBIP along the gastrointestinal tract. This study demonstrated that microencapsulated bitter secoiridoids were effective in reducing daily energy intake in humans.

  10. Gentiana lutea exerts anti-atherosclerotic effects by preventing endothelial inflammation and smooth muscle cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, R; Chandel, S; Upadhyay, S; Bendre, R; Ganugula, R; Potunuru, U R; Giri, H; Sahu, G; Kumar, P Uday; Reddy, G Bhanuprakash; Joksic, G; Bera, A K; Dixit, Madhulika

    2016-04-01

    Studies suggest that Gentiana lutea (GL), and its component isovitexin, may exhibit anti-atherosclerotic properties. In this study we sought to investigate the protective mechanism of GL aqueous root extract and isovitexin on endothelial inflammation, smooth muscle cell migation, and on the onset and progression of atherosclerosis in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Our results show that both GL extract and isovitexin, block leukocyte adhesion and generation of reactive oxygen species in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs), following TNF-alpha and platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) challenges respectively. Both the extract and isovitexin blocked TNF-α induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in HUVECs. PDGF-BB induced migration of RASMCs and phospholipase C-γ activation, were also abrogated by GL extract and isovitexin. Fura-2 based ratiometric measurements demonstrated that, both the extact, and isovitexin, inhibit PDGF-BB mediated intracellular calcium rise in RASMCs. Supplementation of regular diet with 2% GL root powder for STZ rats, reduced total cholesterol in blood. Oil Red O staining demonstrated decreased lipid accumulation in aortic wall of diabetic animals upon treatment with GL. Medial thickness and deposition of collagen in the aortic segment of diabetic rats were also reduced upon supplementation. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated reduced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) in aortic segments of diabetic rats following GL treatment. Thus, our results support that GL root extract/powder and isovitexin exhibit anti-atherosclerotic activities. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University

  11. Cloning and functional analysis of the promoters that upregulate carotenogenic gene expression during flower development in Gentiana lutea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Changfu; Yang, Qingjie; Ni, Xiuzhen; Bai, Chao; Sheng, Yanmin; Shi, Lianxuan; Capell, Teresa; Sandmann, Gerhard; Christou, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Over the last two decades, many carotenogenic genes have been cloned and used to generate metabolically engineered plants producing higher levels of carotenoids. However, comparatively little is known about the regulation of endogenous carotenogenic genes in higher plants, and this restricts our ability to predict how engineered plants will perform in terms of carotenoid content and composition. During petal development in the Great Yellow Gentian (Gentiana lutea), carotenoid accumulation, the formation of chromoplasts and the upregulation of several carotenogenic genes are temporally coordinated. We investigated the regulatory mechanisms responsible for this coordinated expression by isolating five G. lutea carotenogenic gene (GlPDS, GlZDS, GlLYCB, GlBCH and GlLYCE) promoters by inverse polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Each promoter was sufficient for developmentally regulated expression of the gusA reporter gene following transient expression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom). Interestingly, the GlLYCB and GlBCH promoters drove high levels of gusA expression in chromoplast-containing mature green fruits, but low levels in chloroplast-containing immature green fruits, indicating a strict correlation between promoter activity, tomato fruit development and chromoplast differentiation. As well as core promoter elements such as TATA and CAAT boxes, all five promoters together with previously characterized GlZEP promoter contained three common cis-regulatory motifs involved in the response to methyl jasmonate (CGTCA) and ethylene (ATCTA), and required for endosperm expression (Skn-1_motif, GTCAT). These shared common cis-acting elements may represent binding sites for transcription factors responsible for co-regulation. Our data provide insight into the regulatory basis of the coordinated upregulation of carotenogenic gene expression during flower development in G. lutea. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  12. Studies on the constituents of Gentiana species. II. A new triterpenoid, and (S)-(+)- and (R)-(-)-gentiolactones from Gentiana lutea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuda, Rie; Machida, Koichi; Yaoita, Yasunori; Kikuchi, Masafumi; Kikuchi, Masao

    2003-07-01

    A new triterpenoid, 12-ursene-3beta, 11alpha-diol 3-O-palmitate (1), has been isolated from the rhizomes and roots of Gentiana lutea, together with the artificial diene derivative, 9 (11), 12-ursadien-3beta-ol 3-O-palmitate (1a) and five known compounds (3-7). Their structures were established on the basis of spectral analysis. In addition, (+/-)-gentiolactone [(+/-)-2], isolated from this plant, was successfully separated into its enantiomers [(+)-2, (-)-2] for the first time, and the absolute configurations at C-9 of (+)-2, (-)-2 were assigned as S and R, respectively, from the optical rotations and the circular dichroism (CD) spectral data.

  13. The Herbal Bitter Drug Gentiana lutea Modulates Lipid Synthesis in Human Keratinocytes In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfle, Ute; Haarhaus, Birgit; Seiwerth, Jasmin; Cawelius, Anja; Schwabe, Kay; Quirin, Karl-Werner; Schempp, Christoph M

    2017-08-22

    Gentiana lutea is a herbal bitter drug that is used to enhance gastrointestinal motility and secretion. Recently we have shown that amarogentin, a characteristic bitter compound of Gentiana lutea extract (GE), binds to the bitter taste receptors TAS2R1 and TAS2R38 in human keratinocytes, and stimulates the synthesis of epidermal barrier proteins. Here, we wondered if GE also modulates lipid synthesis in human keratinocytes. To address this issue, human primary keratinocytes were incubated for 6 days with GE. Nile Red labeling revealed that GE significantly increased lipid synthesis in keratinocytes. Similarly, gas chromatography with flame ionization detector indicated that GE increases the amount of triglycerides in keratinocytes. GE induced the expression of epidermal ceramide synthase 3, but not sphingomyelinase. Lipid synthesis, as well as ceramide synthase 3 expression, could be specifically blocked by inhibitors of the p38 MAPK and PPARγ signaling pathway. To assess if GE also modulates lipid synthesis in vivo, we performed a proof of concept half side comparison on the volar forearms of 33 volunteers. In comparison to placebo, GE significantly increased the lipid content of the treated skin areas, as measured with a sebumeter. Thus, GE enhances lipid synthesis in human keratinocytes that is essential for building an intact epidermal barrier. Therefore, GE might be used to improve skin disorders with an impaired epidermal barrier, e.g., very dry skin and atopic eczema.

  14. The effects of combined treatment of irradiation and heat on bacteria escherichia coli and sarcina lutea in dry condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikham; Hilmy, Nazly

    1987-01-01

    The effects of combination treatment of irradiation and heat on bacteria escherichia coli and sarcina lutea in dry condition. Investigation on the effects of combined irradiation + heat and heat + irradiation treatments have been carried out i.e. at the doses of 0; 1.0; 1.5; and 2.0 kGy with heating at 50 0 C for 10; 20; and 30 minutes on escherichia coli B/r, escherichia coli from sludge and sarcine lutea. Samples of bacteria were prepared in dry condition by using sterile fine sand as carrier. Irradiation was done in aerobic condition with RH 90% and the time range between irradiation and heating was not more than 2 hours. The results showed that the D 10 value did not give significant difference between the combined irradiation + heat, and heat + irradiation treatments for the 3 species of bacteria, compared to irradiation only (p 0.05). Doses of 1.0 and 1.5 kGy combined with heating at 50 0 C for 10 and 20 minutes gave better results compared to irradiation only. 17 refs

  15. [The effect of yellow filter intraocular lens on the macula after cataract phacoemulsification in patients with age macular degeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpak, A A; Maliugin, B É; Fadeeva, T V

    2012-01-01

    Macula changes diagnosed with optical coherence tomography (OCT) within a year after cataract phacoemulsification (PE) with intraocular lens implantation with and without yellow filter are presented. 32 patients (36 eyes) with early stages of age macular degeneration (AMD) were included into the experimental group and 35 patients (36 eyes) served as controls. IOLs with yellow filter were implanted in 21 eyes, and in 15 cases IOLs without filter were used in each group. According to OCT data thickening of fovea and increasing of macula volume developed within 6 months after cataract PE. Implantation of yellow filter IOLs reduced the intensity of these changes after surgery in patients with AMD. The progression of early AMD into advanced stages within a year after PE was not observed.

  16. Visualization of the macula during elective pars plana vitrectomy in the presence of a dual-optic accommodating intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Eduardo F; Ferreira, Tiago B; Castanheira-Dinis, António

    2014-05-01

    We describe the case of a 69-year-old patient who had pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for epiretinal membrane removal 18 months after cataract surgery with implantation of a dual-optic accommodating IOL (Synchrony). During PPV, visualization of the macula was perfect, and the postoperative visual outcome was excellent. To our knowledge, this is the first report of retinal visualization during PPV in the presence of a dual-optic accommodating IOL. When choosing a presbyopia-correcting IOL, surgeons should consider the advantage of macula visualization with an IOL with monofocal optics. Dr. Marques is a consultant to Abbott Medical Optics, Inc. No other author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Macula analysis by spectral domain OCT in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zghal, I; Zgolli, H; Fekih, O; Chebbi, A; Bouguila, H; Nacef, L

    2015-03-01

    Despite surgical reattachment of retinal layers, postoperative functional outcomes after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) may be limited. This can be explained by microstructural changes in the macula inherent to the pathology itself as well as the surgery. To evaluate the various changes in the macula by OCT pre- and postoperatively, and correlate them with functional and clinical outcomes in patients with RRD. To establish pre- and postoperative prognostic factors. This was a prospective study of 50 eyes of 50 patients operated for RDD. Each patient underwent a complete clinical examination and macular OCT using the Heidelberg Spectralis; preoperatively and then successively at 7 days, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months after RRD surgery. Preoperative tomographic results revealed an average height of submacular fluid of 742 ± 345 μm. Ninety-six percent of patients exhibited thickening of photoreceptor outer segments (PROS), 62% an outer layer undulation, 60% cystic cavities in the outer and/or inner nuclear layers (ONL, INL), 36% disruptions of the external limiting membrane (ELM) and 64% disruption of the IS/OS junction. Postoperatively, 24% of patients had persistent submacular fluid. The average thickness of the central fovea, the ONL, the IS/OS junction and the PROS were 172 ± 51.3 μm, 88.4 ± 30.9 μm, 11.36 ± 5.4 μm and 19.54 ± 13.1 μm respectively. Postoperative disruptions of the ELM, the IS/OS junction and Verhoeff's membrane (VM) were present in 24%, 60% and 82% of patients respectively. The preoperative tomographic risk factors for poor visual outcome were: submacular fluid height > 800 μm (P<0.001), disruptions of the MLE and/or IS/OS junction (P<0.001), as well as cystic cavities in the ENL and/or INL (P=0.002). Postoperative risk factors were: thinning of the fovea (≤ 250 μm), central fovea (≤ 160 μm), ONL (≤ 90 μm), IS/OS junction (≤ 10 μm) and PROS (≤ 18 μm) layers (P<0.001), as well as a discontinuous or absent

  18. Retinal layer measurements after successful macula-off retinal detachment repair using optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Marcel N; Kowal, Jens H; Dufour, Pascal; Wolf-Schnurrbusch, Ute E; Ceklic, Lala; Framme, Carsten; Wolf, Sebastian

    2014-09-04

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to analyze the thickness of various retinal layers of patients following successful macula-off retinal detachment (RD) repair. Optical coherence tomography scans of patients after successful macula-off RD repair were reanalyzed with a subsegmentation algorithm to measure various retinal layers. Regression analysis was performed to correlate time after surgery with changes in layer thickness. In addition, patients were divided in two groups. Group 1 had a follow-up period after surgery of up to 7 weeks (range, 21-49 days). In group 2, the follow-up period was >8 weeks (range, 60-438 days). Findings were compared to a group of age-matched healthy controls. Correlation analysis showed a significant positive correlation between inner nuclear-outer plexiform layer (INL-OPL) thickness and time after surgery (P=0.0212; r2=0.1551). Similar results were found for the ellipsoid zone-retinal pigment epithelium complex (EZ-RPE) thickness (P=0.005; r2=0.2215). Ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness (GCL-IPL) was negatively correlated with time after surgery (P=0.0064; r2=0.2101). For group comparison, the retinal nerve fiber layer in both groups was thicker compared to controls. The GCL-IPL showed significant thinning in group 2. The outer nuclear layer was significantly thinner in groups 1 and 2 compared to controls. The EZ-RPE complex was significantly thinner in groups 1 and 2 compared to controls. In addition, values in group 1 were significantly thinner than in group 2. Optical coherence tomography retinal layer thickness measurements after successful macular-off RD repair revealed time-dependent thickness changes. Inner nuclear-outer plexiform layer thickness and EZ-RPE thickness was positively correlated with time after surgery. Ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness was negatively correlated with time after surgery. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  19. The vestibular nerve of the chinchilla. III. Peripheral innervation patterns in the utricular macula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, C.; Goldberg, J. M.; Baird, R. A.

    1990-01-01

    1. Nerve fibers supplying the utricular macula of the chinchilla were labeled by extracellular injection of horseradish peroxidase into the vestibular nerve. The peripheral terminations of individual fibers were reconstructed and related to the regions of the end organ they innervated and to the sizes of their parent axons. 2. The macula is divided into medial and lateral parts by the striola, a narrow zone that runs for almost the entire length of the sensory epithelium. The striola can be distinguished from the extrastriolar regions to either side of it by the wider spacing of its hair cells. Calyx endings in the striola have especially thick walls, and, unlike similar endings in the extrastriola, many of them innervate more than one hair cell. The striola occupies 10% of the sensory epithelium; the lateral extrastriola, 50%; and the medial extrastriola, 40%. 3. The utricular nerve penetrates the bony labyrinth anterior to the end organ. Axons reaching the anterior part of the sensory epithelium run directly through the connective tissue stroma. Those supplying more posterior regions first enter a fiber layer located at the bottom of the stroma. Approximately one-third of the axons bifurcate below the epithelium, usually within 5-20 microns of the basement membrane. Bifurcations are more common in fibers destined for the extrastriola than for the striola. 4. Both calyx and bouton endings were labeled. Calyces can be simple or complex. Simple calyces innervate individual hair cells, whereas complex calyces supply 2-4 adjacent hair cells. Complex endings are more heavily concentrated in the striola than in the extrastriola. Simple calyces and boutons are found in all parts of the epithelium. Calyces emerge from the parent axon or one of its thick branches. Boutons, whether en passant or terminal, are located on thin collaterals. 5. Fibers can be classified into calyx, bouton, or dimorphic categories. The first type only has calyx endings; the second, only bouton

  20. Exogenous estradiol enhances apoptosis in regressing post-partum rat corpora lutea possibly mediated by prolactin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telleria Carlos M

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In pregnant rats, structural luteal regression takes place after parturition and is associated with cell death by apoptosis. We have recently shown that the hormonal environment is responsible for the fate of the corpora lutea (CL. Changing the levels of circulating hormones in post-partum rats, either by injecting androgen, progesterone, or by allowing dams to suckle, was coupled with a delay in the onset of apoptosis in the CL. The objectives of the present investigation were: i to examine the effect of exogenous estradiol on apoptosis of the rat CL during post-partum luteal regression; and ii to evaluate the post-partum luteal expression of the estrogen receptor (ER genes. Methods In a first experiment, rats after parturition were separated from their pups and injected daily with vehicle or estradiol benzoate for 4 days. On day 4 post-partum, animals were sacrificed, blood samples were taken to determine serum concentrations of hormones, and the ovaries were isolated to study apoptosis in situ. In a second experiment, non-lactating rats after parturition received vehicle, estradiol benzoate or estradiol benzoate plus bromoergocryptine for 4 days, and their CL were isolated and used to study apoptosis ex vivo. In a third experiment, we obtained CL from rats on day 15 of pregnancy and from non-lactating rats on day 4 post-partum, and studied the expression of the messenger RNAs (mRNAs encoding the ERalpha and ERbeta genes. Results Exogenous administration of estradiol benzoate induced an increase in the number of apoptotic cells within the CL on day 4 post-partum when compared with animals receiving vehicle alone. Animals treated with the estrogen had higher serum prolactin and progesterone concentrations, with no changes in serum androstenedione. Administration of bromoergocryptine blocked the increase in serum prolactin and progesterone concentrations, and DNA fragmentation induced by the estrogen treatment. ERalpha and

  1. Level set segmentation of bovine corpora lutea in ex situ ovarian ultrasound images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Gregg P

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to investigate the viability of level set image segmentation methods for the detection of corpora lutea (corpus luteum, CL boundaries in ultrasonographic ovarian images. It was hypothesized that bovine CL boundaries could be located within 1–2 mm by a level set image segmentation methodology. Methods Level set methods embed a 2D contour in a 3D surface and evolve that surface over time according to an image-dependent speed function. A speed function suitable for segmentation of CL's in ovarian ultrasound images was developed. An initial contour was manually placed and contour evolution was allowed to proceed until the rate of change of the area was sufficiently small. The method was tested on ovarian ultrasonographic images (n = 8 obtained ex situ. A expert in ovarian ultrasound interpretation delineated CL boundaries manually to serve as a "ground truth". Accuracy of the level set segmentation algorithm was determined by comparing semi-automatically determined contours with ground truth contours using the mean absolute difference (MAD, root mean squared difference (RMSD, Hausdorff distance (HD, sensitivity, and specificity metrics. Results and discussion The mean MAD was 0.87 mm (sigma = 0.36 mm, RMSD was 1.1 mm (sigma = 0.47 mm, and HD was 3.4 mm (sigma = 2.0 mm indicating that, on average, boundaries were accurate within 1–2 mm, however, deviations in excess of 3 mm from the ground truth were observed indicating under- or over-expansion of the contour. Mean sensitivity and specificity were 0.814 (sigma = 0.171 and 0.990 (sigma = 0.00786, respectively, indicating that CLs were consistently undersegmented but rarely did the contour interior include pixels that were judged by the human expert not to be part of the CL. It was observed that in localities where gradient magnitudes within the CL were strong due to high contrast speckle, contour expansion stopped too early. Conclusion The

  2. Demequina lutea sp. nov., isolated from a high Arctic permafrost soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Kai Waldemar; Herbert, Rodney Andrew; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Schumann, Peter; Lomstein, Bente Aagaard

    2009-04-01

    Two Gram-stain-positive, pigmented, non-motile, non-spore-forming, pleomorphic, rod-shaped bacteria (strains SV45(T) and SV47), isolated from a permafrost soil collected from the Adventdalen valley, Spitsbergen, northern Norway, have been characterized taxonomically using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the two permafrost isolates formed a distinct phyletic line within the suborder Micrococcineae of the order Actinomycetales. DNA-DNA hybridization analyses indicate that strains SV45(T) and SV47 are closely related (60-69 % relatedness) and belong to the same species, although they show slightly different colony pigmentation. The closest phylogenetic neighbour was Demequina aestuarii JC2054(T), with 96 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Optimum growth of SV45(T) and SV47 occurred aerobically in the absence of NaCl, but both isolates tolerated up to 2 % NaCl (w/v) in the growth medium. Growth under anaerobic conditions was slow and weak. The peptidoglycan of both isolates was of the A4beta type with l-ornithine as the diamino acid and serine as a component of the interpeptide bridge with either d-aspartate (SV45(T)) or d-glutamate (SV47) as the N-terminal amino acid. The major fatty acids present in both isolates were C(15 : 0) (3.2-8.6 %), iso-C(16 : 0) (5.0-8.9 %), anteiso-C(15 : 0) (59.4-61.5 %), anteiso-C(17 : 0) (4.1-8.8 %) and anteiso-C(15 : 1) (4.4-6.4 %). Isoprenoid quinones were present at exceptionally low levels in both isolates, and only demethylmenaquinone DMK-9(H(4)) could be identified with any degree of confidence. Phylogenetic analysis and differences in physiological and biochemical characteristics between the strains and Demequina aestuarii JC2054(T) indicate that these isolates belong to a novel species within the genus Demequina, for which the name Demequina lutea sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SV45(T) (=LMG 24795(T) =DSM 19970(T)).

  3. Correlation of increased fundus autofluorescence signals at closed macula with visual prognosis after successful macular hole surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiragami, Chieko; Shiraga, Fumio; Nitta, Eri; Fukuda, Kouki; Yamaji, Hidetaka

    2012-02-01

    To study the significance of the increased fundus autofluorescence (FAF) signals at closed macula with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and visual prognosis after successful surgery in eyes with idiopathic full-thickness macular holes (MHs). Seventy-eight eyes of 78 consecutive patients with full-thickness MHs underwent successful standard vitrectomy, with internal limiting membrane peeling and followed by 10% sulfur hexafluoride gas injection. Simultaneous FAF and optical coherence tomography images were recorded at 10 days, and 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively, using a combined spectral-domain optical coherence tomography-fluorescein angiography device (Spectralis™/HRA Heidelberg Retina Angiograph 2). The appearance of increased FAF in the macula postoperatively and the relationship of FAF and optical coherence tomography findings to best-corrected visual acuity were examined. Stage 2, 3, and 4 MHs were present in 31, 29, and 18 eyes, respectively. The median patient age was 66 years, with a range of 54 to 79 years. In all patients, the MHs were successfully closed, and the preoperative increased FAF corresponding to MH disappeared 10 days after surgery. In 36 eyes (46.2%), however, hyperautofluorescence again appeared in the macular area 1 month postoperatively. This hyperautofluorescence was significantly associated with the recovery of the external limiting membrane lines at the fovea 1 month after surgery (P = 0.001, multiple logistic regression analysis). Also, this recovery of the external limiting membrane lines 1 month postoperatively was significantly associated with the recovery of photoreceptor inner and outer segment junction line 3 months postoperatively at the fovea (P macula 1 month postoperatively, the recovery of the photoreceptor inner and outer segment lines at the fovea 3 months postoperatively, and preoperative good visual acuity (P macula 1 month after successful MH surgery. This hyperautofluorescence could be a sign of good

  4. Persistent submacular fluid diagnosed with Optical Coherence Tomography after successful scleral buckle surgery for macula-off retinal detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačević, Igor; Radosavljević, Aleksandra; Kalezić, Bojan; Potić, Jelena; Damjanović, Goran; Stefanović, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    The objective of our study was to analyze the presence of persistent submacular fluid after apparently successful scleral buckle surgery for macula-off retinal detachment, using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), and to correlate these findings to postoperative visual acuity. Prospective study of consecutive patients hospitalized for macula-off retinal detachment, between February 2008 and April 2010, was carried out at the single referral centre for vitreoretinal surgery in Serbia. Outcomes were evaluated 1, 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively, using OCT and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA). All 48 patients with macula-off retinal detachment had undergone clinically successful scleral buckle surgery, 3 to 30 days (mean 14.2 ± 6.9) after the onset of symptoms. Reattachment was achieved and one month later, patients were divided in two groups, according to the presence of submacular fluid assessed by OCT group A with detectable residual submacular fluid (40%) and group B without (60%). The mean BCVA one month postoperatively was significantly lower (pmacula-off retinal detachment who had undergone successful scleral buckle surgery could be explained with presence of submacular fluid, diagnosed by OCT. However, final visual outcome was favourable, due to the gradual resorption of submacular fluid in a 12-month-period. PMID:22938546

  5. Intraoperative optical coherence tomography in macula involving rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair with pars plana vitrectomy and perfluoron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toygar, O; Riemann, C D

    2016-01-01

    PurposeTo investigate microanatomical relationships during surgical repair of macula involving retinal detachment with pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and perfluoron (PFO) with a microscope-integrated intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT) device.Patients and methodsThis consecutive case series included nine eyes of nine patients with macula involving retinal detachment operated by a single surgeon at the Cincinnati Eye Institute. All patients underwent PPV, PFO injection, endolaser, and air-fluid exchange. The macula was imaged with iOCT before PFO injection, after PFO injection, and after air-fluid exchange in all eyes.ResultsiOCT imaging was ergonomically easy to obtain in all eyes. iOCT clearly demonstrated submacular fluid (SMF) at the beginning of the surgery, macular flattening under PFO in all eyes, small residual SMF under PFO in six of nine eyes, and increased occult SMF following air-fluid exchange in all eyes.ConclusionMicroscope-integrated iOCT is a versatile and powerful imaging modality that holds a great deal of promise in the future. Its confirmation of persistent occult SMF in this small series of macular involving retinal detachment repair with PFO, may inform surgical decision making, and demonstrates a pathophysiological rationale for initial face-down positioning after retinal detachment repair.

  6. SCLERAL BUCKLING VERSUS VITRECTOMY IN THE MANAGEMENT OF MACULA-OFF PRIMARY RHEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL DETACHMENT: A COMPARISON OF VISUAL OUTCOMES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chee Wai; Yeo, Ian Yew San; Loh, Boon Kwang; Wong, Edmund Yick Mun; Wong, Doric Wen Kuan; Ong, Sze Guan; Ang, Chong Lye; Lee, Shu Yen

    2015-12-01

    To compare visual outcomes between pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with or without scleral buckling (SB) and SB alone in the management of uncomplicated macula-off primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Case-control study of 723 patients with uncomplicated macula-off primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment seen at the Singapore National Eye Centre from 2005 to 2011. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of eyes achieving functional success, defined as logMAR best-corrected visual acuity of ≤0.3 logMAR at 6 months postoperatively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed adjusting for the following preoperative covariates: age, gender, race, lens status, number of tears found, presence of proliferative vitreoretinopathy, operative procedure, logMAR best-corrected visual acuity, and duration of symptoms. Three hundred and eight eyes underwent SB alone, and 415 eyes underwent PPV ± SB. In the SB group, 133 eyes (43.2%) achieved functional success compared with 116 eyes (28.0%) in the PPV ± SB group. This difference was statistically significant on both univariate (P macula-off primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

  7. CHOROIDAL CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH SEROUS MACULAR DETACHMENT IN EYES WITH STAPHYLOMA, DOME-SHAPED MACULA OR TILTED DISK SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Anna C S; Yzer, Suzanne; Freund, K Bailey; Dansingani, Kunal K; Phasukkijwatana, Nopasak; Sarraf, David

    2017-08-01

    To study the relationship of choroidal abnormalities with serous retinal detachment (SRD) in eyes with staphyloma, dome-shaped macula, or tilted disk syndrome. Group 1, 28 eyes of 20 patients with staphyloma/dome-shaped macula/tilted disk syndrome associated with SRD was compared with Group 2, 30 eyes of 20 patients, with staphyloma/dome-shaped macula/tilted disk syndrome but without SRD. Radial and en-face optical coherence tomography and choroidal analysis were performed. Group 1 had a thicker mean subfoveal choroidal thickness (161 μm vs. 92 μm, P 0.05) compared with eyes of Group 2. Focal abrupt changes in choroidal thickness were more commonly seen in Group 1 versus eyes in Group 2 (90% vs. 30%, P < 0.05) and this area of abrupt change was located within or at the edge of the SRD in 64% of eyes. Large choroidal vessels (pachyvessels) (82% located within the area of SRD) were always associated with the presence of SRD. An abrupt transition in choroidal thickness may be involved in the pathogenesis of SRD. In some cases, a radial scan pattern may better demonstrate mild SRD, choroidal contours and the focal choroidal variations than horizontal or vertical raster scan patterns.

  8. Polarized Ends of Human Macula Densa Cells: Ultrastructural Investigation and Morphofunctional Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangiotti, Angela Maria; Lorenzi, Teresa; Zingaretti, Maria Cristina; Fabri, Mara; Morroni, Manrico

    2018-05-01

    The morphology of the kidney macula densa (MD) has extensively been investigated in animals, whereas human studies are scanty. We studied the fine structure of human MD cells focusing on their apical and basal ends and correlating structure and function. The MD region was examined by transmission electron microscopy in six renal biopsies from patients with kidney disease. Ultrastructural analysis of MD cells was performed on serial sections. MD cells show two polarized ends. The apical portion is characterized by a single, immotile cilium associated with microvilli; apically, cells are joined by adhering junctions. In the basal portion, the cytoplasm contains small, dense granules and numerous, irregular cytoplasmic projections extending to the adjacent extraglomerular mesangium. The projections often contain small, dense granules. A reticulated basement membrane around MD cells separates them from the extraglomerular mesangium. Although the fact that tissue specimens came from patients with kidney disease mandates extreme caution, ultrastructural examination confirmed that MD cells have sensory features due to the presence of the primary cilium, that they are connected by apical adhering junctions forming a barrier that separates the tubular flow from the interstitium, and that they present numerous basal interdigitations surrounded by a reticulated basement membrane. Conceivably, the latter two features are related to the functional activity of the MD. The small, dense granules in the basal cytoplasm and in cytoplasmic projections are likely related to the paracrine function of MD cells. Anat Rec, 301:922-931, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Declines in arrestin and rhodopsin in the macula with progression of age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethen, Cheryl M; Feng, Xiao; Olsen, Timothy W; Ferrington, Deborah A

    2005-03-01

    Biochemical analysis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) at distinct stages of the disease will help further understanding of the molecular events associated with disease progression. This study was conducted to determine the ability of a new grading system for eye bank eyes, the Minnesota Grading System (MGS), to discern distinct stages of AMD so that retinal region-specific changes in rod photoreceptor protein expression from donors could be determined. Donor eyes were assigned to a specific level of AMD by using the MGS. Expression of the rod photoreceptor proteins rhodopsin and arrestin was evaluated by Western immunoblot analysis in the macular and peripheral regions of the neurosensory retina from donors at different stages of AMD. A significant linear decline in both arrestin and rhodopsin content correlated with progressive MGS levels in the macula. In contrast, the peripheral region showed no significant correlation between MGS level and the content of either protein. The statistically significant relationship between decreasing macular rod photoreceptor proteins and progressive MGS levels of AMD demonstrates the utility of the clinically based MGS to correspond with specific protein changes found at known, progressive stages of degeneration. Future biochemical analysis of clinically characterized donor eyes will further understanding of the pathobiochemistry of AMD.

  10. Upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in porcine macula densa with chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommareddy, M; McAllister, R M; Ganjam, V K; Turk, J R; Laughlin, M Harold

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in the macula densa (MD) of swine, as well as the effects on expression of related proteins. Adult female Yucatan swine were given either tap water (control, n = 6) or water with N (G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 mg/liter, n = 5) for a minimum of 30 days. Duplicate samples of kidney were fixed or snap frozen. There was a significant (P = .0082) upregulation of COX-2 mRNA expression in the MD of L-NAME, as well as an apparent increase in COX-2 protein. Plasma renin activity also increased with L-NAME treatment (control, 0.34 ± 0.08 ng/ml; L-NAME, 1.26 ± 0.03 ng/ml; P = .00000003). There were no differences between groups in expression of either inducible NOS or renin protein or in serum electrolyte concentrations. In conclusion, with chronic inhibition of NOS, COX-2 in MD is upregulated, perhaps to compensate for loss of nitric oxide. Increases in COX-2 products may counteract renal arteriolar constriction and sustain renin release.

  11. Customizing Structure-Function Displacements in the Macula for Individual Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, Andrew; Chen, Siyuan; Sepulveda, Juan A; McKendrick, Allison M

    2015-09-01

    In the macula, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are displaced from their receptive fields. We used optical coherence tomography (OCT) to customize displacements for individual eyes by taking into account macular shape parameters, and determined the likely effect of individual anatomical differences on structure-function mapping in the central visual field. Using the population average model of Drasdo et al. as a starting point, we altered the RGC count in that model based on the ratio of an individual's RGC layer plus inner plexiform layer thickness to the population average on a pointwise basis as a function of eccentricity from the fovea. For 20 adults (age, 24-33; median age, 28) with normal vision, we computed displacements with the original model and our customized approach. We report the variance in displacements among individuals and compare the effects of such displacements on structure-function mapping of the commonly used the 10-2 visual field pattern. As expected, customizing the displacement using individual OCT data made only a small difference on average from the population-based values predicted by the Drasdo et al. model. However, the range between individuals was over 1° at many locations, and closer to 2° at some locations in the superior visual field. Individualizing macular displacement measurements based on OCT data for an individual can result in large spatial shifts in the retinal area corresponding to 10-2 locations, which may be important for clinical structure-function analysis when performed on a local, spatial scale.

  12. Serous Macular Detachment Associated with Dome-Shaped Macula and Tilted Disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diamar Pardo-López

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An entirely new type of staphyloma has been recently described as dome-shaped macula (DSM. It is characterized by an abnormal convex macular contour within the concavity of a posterior staphyloma. We found DSM associated with serous macular detachment (SMD and tilted disc in two consecutive cases. Case Reports: Case 1: A 37-year-old female presented to our department because of sudden onset blurred vision in her right eye (OD. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA was 0.5 in both eyes. Funduscopy evidenced bilateral tilted disc associated with posterior staphyloma. Optical coherence tomography (OCT demonstrated a DSM with SMD in her OD. After 15 months of follow-up, BCVA of her OD remained stable with chronic SMD. Case 2: A 32-year-old female presented to our department because of blurred vision in her OD. The BCVA was 0.4 in the OD and 1.0 in the left eye (OS. Bilateral tilted disc and posterior staphyloma were evidenced in the funduscopy. OCT demonstrated a bilateral DSM with SMD in her OD. After 45 months of follow-up, two further episodes of transient SMD were observed in her OD and seven in her OS. The final BCVA was 0.63 in the OD and 0.8 in the OS. Discussion: SMD associated with tilted disc constitutes a potential cause of subretinal fluid accumulation in myopic patients. OCT is essential for the detection of both SMD and DSM.

  13. Differential compartmentation of sucrose and gentianose in the cytosol and vacuoles of storage root protoplasts from Gentiana Lutea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, F; Wiemken, A

    1982-12-01

    The storage roots of perennial Gentiana lutea L.plants contain several sugars. The predominant carbohydrate reserve is gentianose (β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ↔ 2)-β-D-fructofuranoside). Vacuoles were isolated from root protoplasts and purified through a betaine density gradient. The yield was about 75%. Gentianose and gentiobiose were localized to 100% in the vacuoles, fructose and glucose to about 80%, and sucrose to only about 50%. Taking the volumes of the vacuolar and extravacuolar (cytosolic) compartments into account it is inferred that gentianose is located exclusively in the vacuoles, whilst sucrose is much more concentrated in the cytosol where it may play a role as a cryoprotectant. The concentration of fructose and glucose appeared to be similar on both sides of the tonoplast.

  14. The correlations between phenotypical characthers in selected families by Gentiana lutea L. and the chemical compounds of underground organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horea BARBU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The ground organs of Gentiana lutea L. contain active principles, which have certain properties recommended for anorexia or convalescence.Along the year we tried to show cast the existent correlations between the main morphological characters and the productivity elements, such as the concentration in active principles. It is proved that the development of a character influence either the development of positive correlation or negative correlation [7].Having in mind that the phonotypical expression is influenced by the phases of vegetation, a very important thing to know is the morph chemical characteristics of specie in different phases of vegetation. The superior quality of the raw materials obtained by different sowing methods defined during our research, will decrease the crop from our country wild flora [10].

  15. Effects of gentiopicroside, sweroside and swertiamarine, secoiridoids from gentian (Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra), on cultured chicken embryonic fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Nilgün; Korkmaz, Seval; Oztürk, Yusuf; Başer, K Hüsnü Can

    2006-03-01

    Wound healing properties of Gentian (Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra) extract and its main constituents, gentiopicroside, sweroside and swertiamarine (compounds 1-3, respectively) were evaluated by comparison with dexpanthenol on cultured chicken embryonic fibroblasts. The extract was also analyzed by HPLC to quantify its constituents. Chicken embryonic fibroblasts from fertilized eggs were incubated with the plant extract and its constituents, compounds 1-3. Using microscopy, mitotic ability, morphological changes and collagen production in the cultured fibroblasts were evaluated as parameters. Wound healing activity of Gentian seems to be mainly due to the increase in the stimulation of collagen production and the mitotic activity by compounds 2 and 3, respectively (p < 0.005 in all cases). All three compounds also exhibited cytoprotective effects, which may cause a synergism in terms of wound healing activity of Gentian. The findings demonstrated the wound healing activity of Gentian, which has previously been based only on ethnomedical data.

  16. Estudo da produção do suco clarificado de cajá (Spondias lutea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA,Antonio de Pádua Valença da; MAIA,Geraldo Arraes; OLIVEIRA,Gerardo Sérgio Francelino de; FIGUEIREDO,Raimundo Wilane de; BRASIL,Isabella Montenegro

    1999-01-01

    Cajás ( Spondias lutea L.), oriundos do município de Maranguape, Ceará, Brasil, foram processados em nível de escala-piloto para obtenção de suco clarificado através do emprego de enzimas pectinolíticas e agentes clarificantes. Aplicaram-se 120ppm de enzima pectinolítica (Pectinex Ultra SP-L) na polpa para obtenção do suco polposo e, em seguida, 500ppm de enzima pectinolítica (Pectinex-AR) no suco extraído, utilizando-se a "Prova do álcool" como indicador da presença de pectina. Para o proces...

  17. The structure and function of the macula in patients with advanced retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vámos, Rita; Tátrai, Erika; Németh, János; Holder, Graham E; DeBuc, Delia Cabrera; Somfai, Gábor Márk

    2011-10-28

    To assess the structure and function of the macula in advanced retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Twenty-nine eyes of 22 patients with RP were compared against 17 control eyes. Time-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) data were processed using OCTRIMA (optical coherence tomography retinal image analysis) as a means of quantifying commercial OCT system images. The thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer complex (GCL+IPL), inner nuclear layer and outer plexiform layer complex (INL+OPL), and the outer nuclear layer (ONL) were measured. Multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) was performed; two groups were formed based on the mfERG findings. Fourteen eyes had no detectable central retinal function (NCRF) on mfERG; detectable but abnormal retinal function (DRF) was present in the mfERG of the other 15 eyes. The thickness of the ONL in the central macular region was significantly less in the NCRF eyes compared with that in both DRF eyes and controls. The ONL was significantly thinner in the pericentral region in both patient groups compared with that in controls, whereas the thickness of the GCL+IPL and INL+OPL was significantly decreased only in the NCRF eyes. The RNFL in the peripheral region was significantly thicker, whereas the thickness of the GCL+IPL and ONL was significantly thinner in both patient groups compared with that in controls. The results are consistent with degeneration of the outer retina preceding inner retinal changes in RP. OCT image segmentation enables objective evaluation of retinal structural changes in RP, with potential use in the planning of therapeutic interventions and conceivably as an outcome measure.

  18. Evaluation of focal choroidal excavation in the macula using swept-source optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, F P M; Loh, B K; Cheung, C M G; Lim, L S; Chan, C M; Wong, D W K

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate imaging findings of patients with focal choroidal excavation (FCE) in the macula using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) and correlate it clinically. Prospective observational case series. Eleven consecutive patients (12 eyes) with FCE were described. Data on demographics and clinical presentation were collected and imaging findings (including color photography, fundus autofluorescence imaging, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and SS-OCT) were analyzed. The primary diagnosis was epiretinal membrane (two eyes), choroidal neovascularization (one eye), polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (three eyes), central serous chorioretinopathy (one eye), and dry age-related macular degeneration (two eyes). Eleven out of 12 of the lesions were conforming. One presented with a non-conforming lesion that progressed to a conforming lesion. One eye had multiFCE and two had two overlapping choroidal excavations. Using the SS-OCT, we found the choroid to be thinned out at the area of FCE but sclera remained normal. The choroidal tissue beneath the FCE was abnormal, with high internal reflectivity and poor visualization of choroidal vessels. There was loss of contour of the outer choroidal boundary that appeared to be pulled inward by this abnormal choroidal tissue. A suprachoroidal space was noted beneath this choroidal tissue and the choroidal-scleral interface was smooth. Repeat SS-OCT 6 months after presentation showed the area of excavation to be stable in size. FCE can be associated with epiretinal membrane, central serous chorioretinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. The choroid was thinned out in the area of FCE.

  19. Evaluation of focal choroidal excavation in the macula using swept-source optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, F P M; Loh, B K; Cheung, C M G; Lim, L S; Chan, C M; Wong, D W K

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate imaging findings of patients with focal choroidal excavation (FCE) in the macula using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) and correlate it clinically. Methods Prospective observational case series. Eleven consecutive patients (12 eyes) with FCE were described. Data on demographics and clinical presentation were collected and imaging findings (including color photography, fundus autofluorescence imaging, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and SS-OCT) were analyzed. Results The primary diagnosis was epiretinal membrane (two eyes), choroidal neovascularization (one eye), polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (three eyes), central serous chorioretinopathy (one eye), and dry age-related macular degeneration (two eyes). Eleven out of 12 of the lesions were conforming. One presented with a non-conforming lesion that progressed to a conforming lesion. One eye had multiFCE and two had two overlapping choroidal excavations. Using the SS-OCT, we found the choroid to be thinned out at the area of FCE but sclera remained normal. The choroidal tissue beneath the FCE was abnormal, with high internal reflectivity and poor visualization of choroidal vessels. There was loss of contour of the outer choroidal boundary that appeared to be pulled inward by this abnormal choroidal tissue. A suprachoroidal space was noted beneath this choroidal tissue and the choroidal–scleral interface was smooth. Repeat SS-OCT 6 months after presentation showed the area of excavation to be stable in size. Conclusion FCE can be associated with epiretinal membrane, central serous chorioretinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. The choroid was thinned out in the area of FCE. PMID:24946847

  20. Macular Bruch's membrane defect and dome-shaped macula in high myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuxin; Jonas, Jost B; Yokoi, Tae; Cao, Kejia; Shinohara, Kosei; Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko

    2017-01-01

    To examine an association between macular Bruch's membrane defects (MBMD) and a dome-shaped appearance of the macula (DSM). Retrospective, observational case series study. The study included highly myopic individuals who were consecutively examined between May 2014 and December 2015. The patients underwent swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) for visualization of DSM and MBMDs defined as Bruch´s membrane defects located at a distance of maximal 1500 μm from the foveola. Out of 1983 highly myopic eyes (1057 patients), 166 eyes (8.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI):7.2%,9.6%)) showed a DSM and 534 eyes showed a MBMD. In multivariate binary regression analysis, higher prevalence of DSM was associated with a higher prevalence of a MBMD (P<0.001; OR: 1.96; 95%CI: 1.40, 2.75) after adjusting for longer axial length (P<0.001; odds ratio (OR): 1.27; 95%CI: 1.16, 1.38). In eyes with a DSM partially surrounded by a MBMD, the retina, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choroid appeared relatively unchanged in the central region with Bruch´s membrane (BM) preserved. In the ring-like BM-free region surrounding the central prominent island of the DSM, the RPE, the outer and middle retinal layers, the choriocapillaris and the middle-sized choroidal vessel layer were absent. In association with a DSM, three MBMD types were differentiated: MBMDs in patchy chorioretinal atrophy, MBMDs in choroidal neovascularization-related macular atrophy, and MBMDs as temporally extending large parapapillary gamma zone. Presence of a DSM was significantly associated with the presence of MBMDs. The morphology of the DSM in association with MBMDs may be associated with a focal relaxation of the posterior sclera, no longer pushed outward by an expanding BM but allowed to partially bulge inward, leading to the formation of a DSM.

  1. The Structure and Function of the Macula in Patients with Advanced Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vámos, Rita; Tátrai, Erika; Németh, János; Holder, Graham E.; DeBuc, Delia Cabrera

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the structure and function of the macula in advanced retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Methods. Twenty-nine eyes of 22 patients with RP were compared against 17 control eyes. Time-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) data were processed using OCTRIMA (optical coherence tomography retinal image analysis) as a means of quantifying commercial OCT system images. The thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer complex (GCL+IPL), inner nuclear layer and outer plexiform layer complex (INL+OPL), and the outer nuclear layer (ONL) were measured. Multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) was performed; two groups were formed based on the mfERG findings. Fourteen eyes had no detectable central retinal function (NCRF) on mfERG; detectable but abnormal retinal function (DRF) was present in the mfERG of the other 15 eyes. Results. The thickness of the ONL in the central macular region was significantly less in the NCRF eyes compared with that in both DRF eyes and controls. The ONL was significantly thinner in the pericentral region in both patient groups compared with that in controls, whereas the thickness of the GCL+IPL and INL+OPL was significantly decreased only in the NCRF eyes. The RNFL in the peripheral region was significantly thicker, whereas the thickness of the GCL+IPL and ONL was significantly thinner in both patient groups compared with that in controls. Conclusions. The results are consistent with degeneration of the outer retina preceding inner retinal changes in RP. OCT image segmentation enables objective evaluation of retinal structural changes in RP, with potential use in the planning of therapeutic interventions and conceivably as an outcome measure. PMID:21948552

  2. Macular Bruch’s membrane defect and dome-shaped macula in high myopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Jost B.; Yokoi, Tae; Cao, Kejia; Shinohara, Kosei; Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To examine an association between macular Bruch’s membrane defects (MBMD) and a dome-shaped appearance of the macula (DSM). Design Retrospective, observational case series study. Methods The study included highly myopic individuals who were consecutively examined between May 2014 and December 2015. The patients underwent swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) for visualization of DSM and MBMDs defined as Bruch´s membrane defects located at a distance of maximal 1500 μm from the foveola. Results Out of 1983 highly myopic eyes (1057 patients), 166 eyes (8.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI):7.2%,9.6%)) showed a DSM and 534 eyes showed a MBMD. In multivariate binary regression analysis, higher prevalence of DSM was associated with a higher prevalence of a MBMD (P<0.001; OR: 1.96; 95%CI: 1.40, 2.75) after adjusting for longer axial length (P<0.001; odds ratio (OR): 1.27; 95%CI: 1.16, 1.38). In eyes with a DSM partially surrounded by a MBMD, the retina, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choroid appeared relatively unchanged in the central region with Bruch´s membrane (BM) preserved. In the ring-like BM-free region surrounding the central prominent island of the DSM, the RPE, the outer and middle retinal layers, the choriocapillaris and the middle-sized choroidal vessel layer were absent. In association with a DSM, three MBMD types were differentiated: MBMDs in patchy chorioretinal atrophy, MBMDs in choroidal neovascularization-related macular atrophy, and MBMDs as temporally extending large parapapillary gamma zone. Conclusions Presence of a DSM was significantly associated with the presence of MBMDs. The morphology of the DSM in association with MBMDs may be associated with a focal relaxation of the posterior sclera, no longer pushed outward by an expanding BM but allowed to partially bulge inward, leading to the formation of a DSM. PMID:28570624

  3. Non-damaging laser therapy of the macula: Titration algorithm and tissue response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanker, Daniel; Lavinsky, Daniel; Dalal, Roopa; Huie, Philip

    2014-02-01

    Retinal photocoagulation typically results in permanent scarring and scotomata, which limit its applicability to the macula, preclude treatments in the fovea, and restrict the retreatments. Non-damaging approaches to laser therapy have been tested in the past, but the lack of reliable titration and slow treatment paradigms limited their clinical use. We developed and tested a titration algorithm for sub-visible and non-damaging treatments of the retina with pulses sufficiently short to be used with pattern laser scanning. The algorithm based on Arrhenius model of tissue damage optimizes the power and duration for every energy level, relative to the threshold of lesion visibility established during titration (and defined as 100%). Experiments with pigmented rabbits established that lesions in the 50-75% energy range were invisible ophthalmoscopically, but detectable with Fluorescein Angiography and OCT, while at 30% energy there was only very minor damage to the RPE, which recovered within a few days. Patients with Diabetic Macular Edema (DME) and Central Serous Retinopathy (CSR) have been treated over the edematous areas at 30% energy, using 200μm spots with 0.25 diameter spacing. No signs of laser damage have been detected with any imaging modality. In CSR patients, subretinal fluid resolved within 45 days. In DME patients the edema decreased by approximately 150μm over 60 days. After 3-4 months some patients presented with recurrence of edema, and they responded well to retreatment with the same parameters, without any clinically visible damage. This pilot data indicates a possibility of effective and repeatable macular laser therapy below the tissue damage threshold.

  4. The impact of climatic variations on the reproductive success of Gentiana lutea L. in a Mediterranean mountain area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuena-Lombraña, Alba; Fois, Mauro; Fenu, Giuseppe; Cogoni, Donatella; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2018-03-01

    Increases in temperature have been predicted and reported for the Mediterranean mountain ranges due to global warming and this phenomenon is expected to have profound consequences on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. We hereby present the case of Gentiana lutea L. subsp. lutea, a rhizomatous long-lived plant living in Central-Southern Europe, which is at the edge of its ecological and distributional range in Sardinia. Concretely, we analysed the reproductive success experienced during three phenological cycles (2013/2014, 2014/2015 and 2015/2016) in four representative populations, with particular attention to the phenological cycle of 2014/2015, which has been recorded as one of the warmest periods of the last decades. The Smirnov-Grubbs test was used to evaluate differences in temperature and precipitation regimes among historical data and the analysed years, while the Kruskal-Wallis followed by the Wilcoxon test was used to measure differences between anthesis and reproductive performances among cycles and populations. In addition, generalised linear models were carried out to check relationships between climate variables and reproductive performance. Significant differences among climate variables and analysed cycles were highlighted, especially for maximum and mean temperatures. Such variations determined a non-flowering stage in two of the four analysed populations in 2014/2015 and significant differences of further five reproductive traits among cycles. These results confirmed that in current unstable climatic conditions, which are particularly evident in seasonal climates, reproductive success can be a sensitive and easily observable indicator of climatic anomalies. Considering the importance of this issue and the ease and cost-effectiveness of reproductive success monitoring, we argue that research in this sense can be a supporting tool for the enhancement of future crucial targets such as biodiversity conservation and the mitigation of global

  5. [Growth characteristics of Porites lutea skeleton in east sea area of Hainan Island, China and main affecting environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qiao Wen; Cao, Zhi Min; Wang, Dao Ru; Li, Yuan Chao; Ni, Jian Yu

    2016-03-01

    The growth characteristics of Porites lutea skeleton in east sea area of Hainan Island were studied by CoralXDS software based on X-ray chronology. The growth parameters obtained included extension rate (ER), skeleton density (D), and calcification rate (CR). The results showed that ER varied from 0.49 to 1.10 cm·a -1 with an annual average of 0.76 cm·a -1 , D varied from 1.11 to 1.35 g·cm -3 with an annual average of 1.22 g·cm -3 , and CR varied from 0.55 to 1.41 g·cm -2 ·a -1 with an annual average of 0.94 g·cm -2 ·a -1 . Statistical analyses indicated that sea surface temperature (SST) was the key environmental factor that controlled the growth characteristics, as it highly co-varied with ER and CR, less so with D. All of the three growth characteristics increased with the increase of SST. There were other factors that influenced the growth characteristics of the coral column, such as light, water salinity, and hydrodynamics, etc. In addition, typhoon and severe tropical storms also imposed a significant impact on the growth pattern of Porites lutea coral. The change in growth pattern of coral skeleton in east of Hainan Island was a response to complex climate fluctuation. Over the past century, SST of east Hainan Island dramatically increased at a rate of 0.15 ℃·(10 a) -1 . The SST increase trend for the oceanic region could be divided into two stages, early 1940s and early 1980s. The human activities and global warming was the main causes for the increase of SST.

  6. Antiallergic effect of the atomized extract of rhizome of Curcuma longa, flowers of Cordia lutea and leaves of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Acevedo, Jorge; Franco-Quino, Cesar; Ruiz-Ramirez, Eliberto; Chávez-Asmat, Roberto; Anampa-Guzmán, Andrea; Raéz-González, Ernesto; Cabanillas-Coral, José

    2016-01-01

    Allergies are a problem that greatly affects the population, and hence the use of antiallergic medications is fairly widespread. However, these drugs have many adverse effects. The use of medicinal plants could be an option, but they need to be evaluated. This study was designed to evaluate the antiallergic effect of the atomized extract of rhizome of Curcuma longa , flowers of Cordia lutea , and leaves of Annona muricata . Twenty-four New Zealand white albino rabbits were randomized into 2 groups. Group A received the atomized extract diluted in physiological saline (APS) and group B received it diluted in Freund's adjuvant (FA). Then, the back of each rabbit was divided into 4 quadrants. The A-I quadrant received only physiological saline. The A-I quadrants of each rabbit conformed the PS group. The following 3 quadrants received the APS in 10 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, and 1,000 μg/mL, respectively. The B-I quadrant received only FA. The B-I quadrants of each rabbit conformed the FA group. The following 3 quadrants received the AFA in 10 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, and 1,000 μg/mL, respectively. The occurrence of erythema and edema was recorded according to the Draize scoring system and the primary irritation index. After 72 hours, biopsies were performed. The AFA group presented significantly less erythema and edema compared to the FA group ( P <0.05). The histopathologic evaluation at 72 hours showed normal characteristics in the APS group. Considering the clinical and histopathological signs, we conclude that the administration of the atomized extract of rhizome of C. longa , flowers of C. lutea , and leaves of A. muricata lacks antigenic effect but could have an antiallergenic effect in a model of dermal irritation in rabbits.

  7. Progestogen treatments for cycle management in a sheep model of assisted conception affect the growth patterns, the expression of luteinizing hormone receptors, and the progesterone secretion of induced corpora lutea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letelier, Claudia; García-Fernández, Rosa Ana; Contreras-Solis, Ignacio; Sanchez, María Angeles; Garcia-Palencia, Pilar; Sanchez, Belen; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio; Flores, Juana María

    2010-03-01

    To determine, in a sheep model, the effect of a short-term progestative treatment on growth dynamics and functionality of induced corpora lutea. Observational, model study. Public university. Sixty adult female sheep. Synchronization and induction of ovulation with progestogens and prostaglandin analogues; ovarian ultrasonography, blood sampling, and ovariectomy. Determination of pituitary function and morphologic characteristics, expression of luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors, and progesterone secretion of corpora lutea. The use of progestative pretreatments for assisted conception affect the growth patterns, the expression of LH receptors, and the progesterone secretion of induced corpora lutea. The current study indicates, in a sheep model, the existence of deleterious effects from progestogens on functionality of induced corpora lutea. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Outcome of surgery after macula-off retinal detachment - results from MUSTARD, one of the largest databases on buckling surgery in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Ulrich; Amler, Susanne; Osada, Nani; Gerding, Heinrich

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the anatomical success rate of scleral buckling surgery in the treatment of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and to evaluate the differences in outcome between patients suffering macula-off retinal detachment and those without a macular involvement. As a retrospective interventional case series, Munster Study on Therapy Achievements in Retinal Detachment (MUSTARD) is one of the largest ever established of retinal detachment patients and their outcome after buckling surgery, with 4325 patients who underwent surgery between 1980 and 2001. In 53.94% (n = 2134) of 3956 patients with nontraumatic retinal detachment, the macula was involved. The main outcome measure was the achievement of dry anatomical attachment of the retina. The success rate in patients with macula-off retinal detachment is 80.46% and thus 7.78% lower (p macula intact whose success rate amounted to 88.24%. The overall success rate of all 4325 MUSTARD patients was 83.98%. Scleral buckling is an established and mostly successful method for the treatment of retinal detachment. As our case series has demonstrated, even eyes with macula-off can be treated successfully by this procedure, thereby avoiding the complications of primary vitrectomy. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Acta Ophthalmol.

  9. Identification of StARD3 as a lutein-binding protein in the macula of the primate retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binxing; Vachali, Preejith; Frederick, Jeanne M; Bernstein, Paul S

    2011-04-05

    Lutein, zeaxanthin, and their metabolites are the xanthophyll carotenoids that form the macular pigment of the human retina. Epidemiological evidence suggests that high levels of these carotenoids in the diet, serum, and macula are associated with a decreased risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and the AREDS2 study is prospectively testing this hypothesis. Understanding the biochemical mechanisms underlying the selective uptakes of lutein and zeaxanthin into the human macula may provide important insights into the physiology of the human macula in health and disease. GSTP1 is the macular zeaxanthin-binding protein, but the identity of the human macular lutein-binding protein has remained elusive. Prior identification of the silkworm lutein-binding protein (CBP) as a member of the steroidogenic acute regulatory domain (StARD) protein family and selective labeling of monkey photoreceptor inner segments with an anti-CBP antibody provided an important clue for identifying the primate retina lutein-binding protein. The homology of CBP with all 15 human StARD proteins was analyzed using database searches, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry, and we here provide evidence to identify StARD3 (also known as MLN64) as a human retinal lutein-binding protein. Antibody to StARD3, N-62 StAR, localizes to all neurons of monkey macular retina and especially cone inner segments and axons, but does not colocalize with the Müller cell marker, glutamine synthetase. Further, recombinant StARD3 selectively binds lutein with high affinity (K(D) = 0.45 μM) when assessed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding assays. Our results demonstrate previously unrecognized, specific interactions of StARD3 with lutein and provide novel avenues for exploring its roles in human macular physiology and disease.

  10. Identification of StARD3 as a Lutein-binding Protein in the Macula of the Primate Retina†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binxing; Vachali, Preejith; Frederick, Jeanne M.; Bernstein, Paul S.

    2011-01-01

    Lutein, zeaxanthin and their metabolites are the xanthophyll carotenoids that form the macular pigment of the human retina. Epidemiological evidence suggests that high levels of these carotenoids in the diet, serum and macula are associated with decreased risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and the AREDS2 study is prospectively testing this hypothesis. Understanding the biochemical mechanisms underlying the selective uptakes of lutein and zeaxanthin into the human macula may provide important insights into the physiology of the human macula in health and disease. GSTP1 is the macular zeaxanthin-binding protein, but the identity of the human macular lutein-binding protein has remained elusive. Prior identification of the silkworm lutein-binding protein (CBP) as a member of the steroidogenic acute regulatory domain (StARD) protein family, and selective labeling of monkey photoreceptor inner segments by anti-CBP antibody provided an important clue toward identifying the primate retina lutein-binding protein. Homology of CBP to all 15 human StARD proteins was analyzed using database searches, western blotting and immunohistochemistry, and we here provide evidence to identify StARD3 (also known as MLN64) as a human retinal lutein-binding protein. Further, recombinant StARD3 selectively binds lutein with high affinity (KD = 0.45 micromolar) when assessed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding assays. Our results demonstrate previously unrecognized, specific interactions of StARD3 with lutein and provide novel avenues to explore its roles in human macular physiology and disease. PMID:21322544

  11. Reproducibility of Perfusion Parameters of Optic Disc and Macula in Rhesus Monkeys by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Yang, Yi-Quan; Yang, Di-Ya; Liu, Xiang-Xiang; Sun, Yun-Xiao; Wei, Shi-Fei; Wang, Ning-Li

    2016-05-05

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography is a novel technique by which we can detect the local perfusion of fundus directly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of optic disc and macular flow perfusion parameters in rhesus monkeys using OCT angiography. Eighteen healthy monkeys (18 eyes) were subjected to optic disc and macula flow index measurements via a high-speed and high-resolution spectral-domain OCT XR Avanti with a split-spectrum amplitude de-correlation angiography algorithm. Right eye was imaged 3 times during the first examination and once during each of the two following examinations. The intra-visit and inter-visit intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were both determined. The average flow indices of the four optic disc area layers were 0.171 ± 0.009 (optic nerve head), 0.015 ± 0.004 (vitreous), 0.052 ± 0.009 (radial peripapillary capillary), and 0.167 ± 0.011 (choroid). Average flow indices of the four macula area layers were 0.044 ± 0.011 (superficial retina), 0.036 ± 0.011 (deep retina), 0.016 ± 0.009 (outer retina), and 0.155 ± 0.013 (choroid). Intra-visit (ICC value: 0.821-0.954) and inter-visit (ICC value: 0.844-0.899) repeatability were both high. The study is about the reproducibility of optic disc and macular perfusion parameters as measured by OCT angiography in healthy rhesus monkeys. Flow index measurement reproducibility is high for both the optic disc and macula of normal monkey eyes. OCT angiography might be a useful technique to assess changes when examining monkeys with experimental ocular diseases.

  12. A Historical Analysis of the Quest for the Origins of Aging Macula Disorder, the Tissues Involved, and Its Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Paulus T.V.M.

    2016-01-01

    Although ocular tissues involved in aging macula disorder (AMD) were already known in 300 BC, the last type of photoreceptors was discovered only 10 years ago. The earliest descriptions of AMD appeared around 1850. It took over 150 years, till a clearer concept of AMD was formulated and even longer to grasp its pathophysiology. The uncertainty of researchers about the pathogenesis of AMD over the last century is reflected in its changing terminology. The evolution of this terminology is provided in a table to afford the reader a better insight into explanations proposed by researchers during this quest. PMID:27812291

  13. A laser-spectroscopy complex for fluorescent diagnostics and photodynamic therapy of age-related macula degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchik, S. A.; Meerovich, Gennadii A.; Budzinskaya, M. V.; Ermakova, N. A.; Kharnas, Sergey S.; Loschenov, Victor B.

    2004-06-01

    A laser-spectroscopy complex was developed for fluorescent diagnostics and photodynamic therapy of age related macula degeneration using the Russian photosensitizer Photosense. The complex is based on slit lamp which was additionally equipped with an optical adapter, and the video adapter allows to combine the procedure of photodynamic therapy and the control of its carrying in the frame work of one procedure. The sensitivity and spatial resolution of the complex were investigated using a special test object. The availability of the developed complex and Photosense itself was examined on experimental animals.

  14. Location of a Dexamethasone Implant at the Macula after Intravitreal Injection in a Silicone Oil-Filled Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenap Mahmut Esenulku

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report a case with cystoid macular edema (CME due to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO presented with a dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex trapped at the macula in her silicone oil- (SO- filled eye after injection. No additional complications such as intraocular pressure (IOP rise or retinal damage were observed. The CME was resolved during the follow-up period. At the last visit, 3 months following the injection, Ozurdex implant was found to be mostly dissolved without any additional ocular complications.

  15. Thickness of the Macula, Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer, and Ganglion Cell Layer in the Epiretinal Membrane: The Repeatability Study of Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeng-Jin; Kim, Min-Su; Jo, Young-Joon; Kim, Jung-Yeul

    2015-07-01

    To analyze the repeatability of measurements of the thicknesses of the macula, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and ganglion cell inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in the epiretinal membrane (ERM). The prospective study analyzed patients who visited our retinal clinic from June 2013 to January 2014. An experienced examiner measured the thicknesses twice using macular cube 512 × 128 and optic disc cube 200 × 200 scans. The repeatability of the thicknesses of the macula, RNFL, and GCIPL were compared using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of two groups based on the central macular thickness (group A, ≤ 450 μm; group B, > 450 μm). A total of 88 patients were analyzed. The average thicknesses of the central macula, RNFL, and GCIPL were 256.5, 96.6, and 84.4 μm, respectively, in the normal fellow eye and 412.3, 94.6, and 56.7 μm in the affected eye. The ICCs of the central macula, RNFL, and GCIPL were 0.995, 0.994, and 0.996, respectively, for the normal fellow eye and 0.991, 0.973, and 0.881 for the affected eye. The average thicknesses of the central macula, RNFL, and GCIPL in group A were 360.9, 93.5, and 63.4 μm, respectively, and the ICCs were 0.997, 0.987, and 0.995. The thicknesses in group B were 489.5, 96.2, and 46.6 μm, respectively, and the ICCs were 0.910, 0.942, and 0.603, significantly lower repeatability compared with group A (P macula.

  16. Two- and three-dimensional topographic analysis of pathologically myopic eyes with dome-shaped macula and inferior staphyloma by spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ben, Antonio; Kamal-Salah, Radua; García-Basterra, Ignacio; Gonzalez Gómez, Ana; Morillo Sanchez, María José; García-Campos, Jose Manuel

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the posterior anatomical structure of pathologically myopic eyes with dome-shaped macula and inferior staphyloma using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Our database of 260 pathologically myopic eyes was analyzed retrospectively to identify patients with dome-shaped macula and inferior staphyloma. All patients underwent vertical and horizontal SD-OCT scans across the central fovea, with three-dimensional macular map reconstruction. Best-corrected visual acuity, axial length, and choroidal thickness measurements were recorded. The macular bulge height was also analyzed in eyes with dome-shaped macula. In the three-dimensional images, the symmetry and orientation of the main plane of the inward incurvation of the macula were examined. Twenty-eight (10.7%) of the 260 pathologically myopic eyes had dome-shaped macula of one of three different types: a round radially symmetrical dome (eight eyes, 28.5%), a horizontal axially symmetrical oval-shaped dome (15 eyes, 53.5%), or a vertical axially symmetrical oval-shaped dome (five eyes, 17.8%). The macular bulge height was significantly greater in horizontal oval-shaped dome eyes (p = 0.01, for each comparison). Inferior posterior staphylomas were observed in ten (3.8%) of the 260 pathologically myopic eyes with asymmetrical macular bends. Vertical and horizontal OCT sectional scanning in combination with three-dimensional macular map reconstruction provides important information for understanding the posterior anatomical structure of dome-shaped macula and inferior staphyloma in pathologically myopic eyes.

  17. LONG-TERM EVOLUTION OF DOME-SHAPED MACULA: Increased Macular Bulge is Associated With Extended Macular Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudier, Guillaume; Gaudric, Alain; Gualino, Vincent; Massin, Pascale; Nardin, Mathieu; Tadayoni, Ramin; Speeg-Schatz, Claude; Gaucher, David

    2016-05-01

    Dome-shaped macula (DSM) may cause impaired vision. This study analyzed the long-term evolution of DSM, most particularly macular changes: serous retinal detachment, retinal pigment epithelium atrophy, and DSM bulge increase. Twenty-nine eyes presenting with DSM were retrospectively studied. Clinical data, color photographs, fluorescein angiographs, and optical coherence tomography examinations were reviewed. Patients were followed up from 6 months to 111 months (mean, 37.89 months). The height of the macular bulge, the size of retinal pigment epithelium macular atrophy, and serous retinal detachment progression were studied. Other macular changes were noted. Mean vision remained stable. Dome-shaped macula height increased significantly from 338.9 μm to 364.3 μm (P = 0.007). Serous retinal detachment was present initially in 15 of 29 eyes; it increased in 4 cases and resolved spontaneously in 7. Macular retinal pigment epithelium atrophy correlated with the bulge height (P = 0.015), and it enlarged during follow-up (1.12 vs. 1.34, P = 0.04). Other macular anomalies were present initially or appeared during follow-up: macular pucker, choroidal neovascularization (CNV), subretinal pigmentary clumps, and flat irregular pigmented epithelium detachment. A few treatments were proven in serous retinal detachment cases but were ineffective in restoring vision. In DSM, vision may be stable for years while macular changes progress: the macular bulge increases as does retinal pigment epithelium atrophy.

  18. Comparative HPLC/ESI-MS and HPLC/DAD study of different populations of cultivated, wild and commercial Gentiana lutea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ahmed M; Caprioli, Giovanni; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Maggi, Filippo; Marín, Rosa; Vittori, Sauro; Sagratini, Gianni

    2015-05-01

    The root of Gentiana lutea L., famous for its bitter properties, is often used in alcoholic bitter beverages, food products and traditional medicine to stimulate the appetite and improve digestion. This study presents a new, fast, and accurate HPLC method using HPLC/ESI-MS and HPLC/DAD for simultaneous analysis of iridoids (loganic acid), secoiridoids (gentiopicroside, sweroside, swertiamarin, amarogentin) and xanthones (isogentisin) in different populations of G.lutea L., cultivated in the Monti Sibillini National Park, obtained wild there, or purchased commercially. Comparison of HPLC/ESI-MS and HPLC/DAD indicated that HPLC/ESI-MS is more sensitive, reliable and selective. Analysis of twenty samples showed that gentiopicroside is the most dominant compound (1.85-3.97%), followed by loganic acid (0.11-1.30%), isogentisin (0.03-0.48%), sweroside (0.05-0.35%), swertiamarin (0.08-0.30%), and amarogentin (0.01-0.07%). The results confirmed the high quality of the G.lutea cultivated in the Monti Sibillini National Park. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reconstructing skeletal fiber arrangement and growth mode in the coral Porites lutea (Cnidaria, Scleractinia: a confocal Raman microscopy study

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    G. Nehrke

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Confocal Raman microscopy (CRM mapping was used to investigate the microstructural arrangement and organic matrix distribution within the skeleton of the coral Porites lutea. Relative changes in the crystallographic orientation of crystals within the fibrous fan-system could be mapped, without the need to prepare thin sections, as required if this information is obtained by polarized light microscopy. Simultaneously, incremental growth lines can be visualized without the necessity of etching and hence alteration of sample surface. Using these methods two types of growth lines could be identified: one corresponds to the well-known incremental growth layers, whereas the second type of growth lines resemble denticle finger-like structures (most likely traces of former spines or skeletal surfaces. We hypothesize that these lines represent the outer skeletal surface before another growth cycle of elongation, infilling and thickening of skeletal areas continues. We show that CRM mapping with high spatial resolution can significantly improve our understanding of the micro-structural arrangement and growth patterns in coral skeletons.

  20. Nonprenylated Xanthones from Gentiana lutea, Frasera caroliniensis, and Centaurium erythraea as Novel Inhibitors of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Waltenberger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC plays a major role in restenosis, the pathological renarrowing of the blood vessel lumen after surgical treatment of stenosis. Since available anti-proliferative pharmaceuticals produce unfavorable side effects, there is high demand for the identification of novel VSMC proliferation inhibitors. A natural product screening approach using a resazurin conversion assay enabled the identification of gentisin (1 from Gentiana lutea as a novel inhibitor of VSMC proliferation with an IC50 value of 7.84 µM. Aiming to identify further anti-proliferative compounds, 13 additional nonprenylated xanthones, isolated from different plant species, were also tested. While some compounds showed no or moderate activity at 30 µM, 1-hydroxy-2,3,4,5-tetramethoxyxanthone (4, swerchirin (6, and methylswertianin (7 showed IC50 values between 10.2 and 12.5 µM. The anti-proliferative effect of 1, 4, 6, and 7 was confirmed by the quantification of DNA synthesis (BrdU incorporation in VSMC. Cell death quantification (determined by LDH release in the culture medium revealed that the compounds are not cytotoxic in the investigated concentration range. In conclusion, nonprenylated xanthones are identified as novel, non-toxic VSMC proliferation inhibitors, which might contribute to the development of new therapeutic applications to combat restenosis.

  1. Characterisation of an atypical manifestation of black band disease on Porites lutea in the Western Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Séré

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent surveys conducted on Reunion Island coral reefs revealed an atypical manifestation of black band disease on the main framework building coral, Porites lutea. This BBD manifestation (PorBBD presented a thick lighter-colored band, which preceded the typical BBD lesion. Whilst BBD aetiology has been intensively described worldwide, it remains unclear if corals with apparently similar lesions across coral reefs are affected by the same pathogens. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach involving field surveys, gross lesion monitoring, histopathology and 454-pyrosequencing was employed to provide the first comprehensive characterization of this particular manifestation. Surveys conducted within two geomorphological zones over two consecutive summers and winters showed spatial and seasonal patterns consistent with those found for typical BBD. Genetic analyses suggested an uncharacteristically high level of Vibrio spp. bacterial infection within PorBBD. However, microscopic analysis revealed high densities of cyanobacteria, penetrating the compromised tissue as well as the presence of basophilic bodies resembling bacterial aggregates in the living tissue, adjacent to the bacterial mat. Additionally, classical BBD-associated cyanobacterial strains, genetically related to Pseudoscillatoria coralii and Roseofilum reptotaenium were identified and isolated and the presence of sulfate-reducers or sulfide-oxidizers such as Desulfovibrio and Arcobacter, previously shown to be associated with anoxic microenvironment within typical BBD was also observed, confirming that PorBBD is a manifestation of classical BBD.

  2. Nonprenylated Xanthones from Gentiana lutea, Frasera caroliniensis, and Centaurium erythraea as Novel Inhibitors of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltenberger, Birgit; Liu, Rongxia; Atanasov, Atanas G; Schwaiger, Stefan; Heiss, Elke H; Dirsch, Verena M; Stuppner, Hermann

    2015-11-13

    Aberrant proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) plays a major role in restenosis, the pathological renarrowing of the blood vessel lumen after surgical treatment of stenosis. Since available anti-proliferative pharmaceuticals produce unfavorable side effects, there is high demand for the identification of novel VSMC proliferation inhibitors. A natural product screening approach using a resazurin conversion assay enabled the identification of gentisin (1) from Gentiana lutea as a novel inhibitor of VSMC proliferation with an IC50 value of 7.84 µM. Aiming to identify further anti-proliferative compounds, 13 additional nonprenylated xanthones, isolated from different plant species, were also tested. While some compounds showed no or moderate activity at 30 µM, 1-hydroxy-2,3,4,5-tetramethoxyxanthone (4), swerchirin (6), and methylswertianin (7) showed IC50 values between 10.2 and 12.5 µM. The anti-proliferative effect of 1, 4, 6, and 7 was confirmed by the quantification of DNA synthesis (BrdU incorporation) in VSMC. Cell death quantification (determined by LDH release in the culture medium) revealed that the compounds are not cytotoxic in the investigated concentration range. In conclusion, nonprenylated xanthones are identified as novel, non-toxic VSMC proliferation inhibitors, which might contribute to the development of new therapeutic applications to combat restenosis.

  3. Estudo da produção do suco clarificado de cajá (Spondias lutea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA Antonio de Pádua Valença da

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Cajás ( Spondias lutea L., oriundos do município de Maranguape, Ceará, Brasil, foram processados em nível de escala-piloto para obtenção de suco clarificado através do emprego de enzimas pectinolíticas e agentes clarificantes. Aplicaram-se 120ppm de enzima pectinolítica (Pectinex Ultra SP-L na polpa para obtenção do suco polposo e, em seguida, 500ppm de enzima pectinolítica (Pectinex-AR no suco extraído, utilizando-se a "Prova do álcool" como indicador da presença de pectina. Para o processo de clarificação do suco foram utilizados, como agentes clarificantes, 400ppm de gelatina e 500ppm de sílica sol. A "Prova do excesso e/ou da insuficiência de clarificação", bem como a "Prova de estabilidade" mostraram resultados negativos, indicando a eficiência do processo de clarificação.

  4. Two Cases of Severe Degeneration of the Macula Following Vitrectomy with Indocyanine Green-Assisted Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling for Idiopathic Macular Hole

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Junji; Sakuma, Toshiro; Kiyokawa, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Takebayashi, Hiroshi; Mizota, Atsushi; Tanaka, Minoru

    2008-01-01

    We describe three eyes of two cases of severe degeneration of the macula following vitrectomy with indocyanine green-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling for idiopathic macular hole. We need to remember the possibility of these complications and have to select the procedures that are safest to use for macular hole surgery.

  5. Quantitative analysis of fluorescence lifetime measurements of the macula using the fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscope in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysli, Chantal; Quellec, Gwénolé; Abegg, Mathias; Menke, Marcel N; Wolf-Schnurrbusch, Ute; Kowal, Jens; Blatz, Johannes; La Schiazza, Olivier; Leichtle, Alexander B; Wolf, Sebastian; Zinkernagel, Martin S

    2014-04-03

    Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) cannot only be characterized by the intensity or the emission spectrum, but also by its lifetime. As the lifetime of a fluorescent molecule is sensitive to its local microenvironment, this technique may provide more information than fundus autofluorescence imaging. We report here the characteristics and repeatability of FAF lifetime measurements of the human macula using a new fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscope (FLIO). A total of 31 healthy phakic subjects were included in this study with an age range from 22 to 61 years. For image acquisition, a fluorescence lifetime ophthalmoscope based on a Heidelberg Engineering Spectralis system was used. Fluorescence lifetime maps of the retina were recorded in a short- (498-560 nm) and a long- (560-720 nm) spectral channel. For quantification of fluorescence lifetimes a standard ETDRS grid was used. Mean fluorescence lifetimes were shortest in the fovea, with 208 picoseconds for the short-spectral channel and 239 picoseconds for the long-spectral channel, respectively. Fluorescence lifetimes increased from the central area to the outer ring of the ETDRS grid. The test-retest reliability of FLIO was very high for all ETDRS areas (Spearman's ρ = 0.80 for the short- and 0.97 for the long-spectral channel, P macula in healthy subjects. By using a custom-built software, we were able to quantify fluorescence lifetimes within the ETDRS grid. Establishing a clinically accessible standard against which to measure FAF lifetimes within the retina is a prerequisite for future studies in retinal disease.

  6. Temporal variations of heavy metals in coral Porites lutea from Guangdong Province, China: Influences from industrial pollution, climate and economic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Z.; Liu, J.; Zhou, C.; Nie, B.; Chen, T.

    2006-01-01

    The eight heavy metals Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb have been determined in samples of coral Porites lutea collected from Dafangji Island waters (21°21′N, 111°11′E), Dianbai County, Guangdong Province, China, by the ICP-MS method. The samples represent the growth of coral in the period of 1982–2001. The results showed that the waters were polluted by the heavy metals Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb in certain years, but not by other metals. The contamination may have come from industrial sources, including electroplating, metallurgy, mining, and aquatic industries in the coastal areas.

  7. Normative data set identifying properties of the macula across age groups: integration of visual function and retinal structure with microperimetry and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabates, Felix N; Vincent, Ryan D; Koulen, Peter; Sabates, Nelson R; Gallimore, Gary

    2011-01-01

    A normative database of functional and structural parameters of the macula from normal subjects was established to identify reference points for the diagnosis of patients with macular disease using microperimetry and scanning laser ophthalmoscope/spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). This was a community-based, prospective, cross-sectional study of 169 eyes from subjects aged 21 years to 85 years with best-corrected visual acuity of 20/25 or better and without any ocular disease. Full-threshold macular microperimetry combined with the acquisition of structural parameters of the macula with scanning laser ophthalmoscope/SD-OCT was recorded (SD-OCT/scanning laser ophthalmoscope with add-on Microperimetry module; OPKO). Fixation, central, subfield, and mean retinal thickness were acquired together with macular sensitivity function. Thickness and sensitivity as primary outcome measures were mapped and superimposed correlating topographically differentiated macular thickness with sensitivity. Statistical evaluation was performed with age, gender, and ethnicity as covariates. Subfield and mean retinal thickness and sensitivity were measured with macular microperimetry combined with SD-OCT and differentiated by macular topography and subjects' age, gender, and ethnicity. Mean retinal sensitivity and thickness were calculated for 169 healthy eyes (mean age, 48 ± 17 years). A statistically significant decrease in sensitivity was found only in the age group of participants ≥ 70 years and in peripheral portions of the macula in individuals aged ≥60 years and was more pronounced in the area surrounding the fovea than in the center of the macula, while retinal thickness did not change with age. No statistically significant differences in the primary outcome measures or their correlations were found when using gender or ethnicity as a covariate. A database for normal macular thickness and sensitivity was generated with a combined microperimetry SD

  8. Cloning of two individual cDNAS encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase from Gentiana lutea, their tissue-specific expression and physiological effect in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Changfu; Kauder, Friedrich; Römer, Susanne; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2007-02-01

    Two 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) cDNAs have been cloned from a petal library of Gentiana lutea. Both cDNAs carry a putative transit sequence for chloroplast import and differ mainly in their length and the 5'-flanking regions. GlNCED1 was evolutionary closely related to Arabidopsis thaliana NCED6 whereas GlNCED2 showed highest homology to tomato NCED1 and A. thaliana NCED3. The amounts of GlNCED2 transcript were below Northern detection in G. lutea. In contrast, GlNCED1 was specifically expressed at higher levels in developing flowers when petals start appearing. By genetic engineering of tobacco with coding regions of either gene under a constitutive promoter, their function was further analyzed. Although mRNA of both genes was detectable in the corresponding transgenic plants, a physiological effect was only found for GlNCED1 but not for GlNCED2. In germination experiments of GlNCED1 transgenic lines, delayed radicle formation and cotyledon appearance were observed. However, the transformants exhibited no improved tolerance against desiccation stress. In contrast to other plants with over-expressed NCEDs, prolonged delay of seed germination is the only abscisic-acid-related phenotypic effect in the GlNCED1 transgenic lines.

  9. Reproducibility of disc and macula optical coherence tomography using the Canon OCT-HS100 as compared with the Zeiss Cirrus HD-OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brautaset, Rune; Birkeldh, Ulrika; Rosén, Rebecka; Ramsay, Marika Wahlberg; Nilsson, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In a clinical setting, the usefulness of optical coherence tomography (OCT) is strongly dependent on reproducibility of the measurement. The aim of the present study was to evaluate macula and optic disc measurement reproducibility with the new spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) from Canon (Canon OCT-HS100) and to compare reproducibility and obtained measurements with the Zeiss Cirrus HD-OCT. Macula and optic disc parameters from the right eyes of 31 subjects were obtained twice with both instruments. Interoperator reproducibility was evaluated by use of the coefficient of repeatability (CR), and the obtained measurements were compared between the instruments. No difference in interoperator reproducibility could be found when comparing the 2 instruments and reproducibility ranged from 3.94% to 12.77% for optic disc parameters and from 1.19% to 3.54% for macula parameters. The lowest reproducibility was found for cup volume and vertical cup/disc ratio with both instruments. For all macula and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements, there was a statistical difference when comparing the 2 instruments, except for RFNL measurements of the superior quadrant, with the Canon OCT-HS100 always evaluating the thickness to be thicker; however, the 2 instruments correlated well. The Canon OCT-HS100 is a reproducible instrument that matches the Zeiss Cirrus HD-OCT well. It remains to be evaluated how sensitive the Canon OCT-HS100 is to detect small subtle changes in optic disc parameters and macular nerve fiber layer thickness. Furthermore, due to the differences in thickness estimation, it is important to emphasize that SD-OCTs are not interchangeable.

  10. Structural changes of the macula and optic nerve head in the remaining eyes after enucleation for retinoblastoma: an optical coherence tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Azza Mohamed Ahmed; Elbayomi, Ahmed Mohamed; Shaat, Ashraf Abdelsalam Kandeel

    2017-12-16

    To describe objectively the possible structural changes of the macula and optic nerve head in the free eyes of unilateral cured retinoblastoma patients and, also after enucleation using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. A cross sectional study involving 60 patients subdivided into three groups; 15 unilateral RB patients in whom enucleation was indicated as a sole treatment performed earlier in life [(study group (I)], 15 unilateral RB patients who had completely regressed disease with a preserved eye [(study group (II)] and 30 age and sex matched healthy controls. The remaining and free eyes in study groups and right eyes of control group had full ophthalmological examination, static automated perimetry and optical coherence tomography of the macula and optic nerve head. In study group (II); a significant thinning of total macula, central fovea, ganglion cell layer (GCL), ganglion cell complex (GCC), and some sectors of outer nuclear layer (P- values ≤0.05) was found with no significant difference in peripapillary nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness and optic nerve head parameters compared to the control group and the study group (I). A significantly thickened total macula, GCL, GCC, and pRNFL in study group (I) compared to study group (II). Thickened pRNFL was significantly correlated to standard automated perimetry pattern deviations. No significant difference was found between study group (I) and control group. Retinoblastoma eyes characterized by thinning of central fovea, GCL, GCC compared to the control group. After unilateral enucleation, increased GCC and pRNFL thicknesses were detected compared to retinoblastoma group.

  11. Profile of the genes expressed in the human peripheral retina, macula, and retinal pigment epithelium determined through serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Dror; Blackshaw, Seth; Cepko, Constance L.; Dryja, Thaddeus P.

    2002-01-01

    We used the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) technique to catalogue and measure the relative levels of expression of the genes expressed in the human peripheral retina, macula, and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) from one or both of two humans, aged 88 and 44 years. The cone photoreceptor contribution to all transcription in the retina was found to be similar in the macula versus the retinal periphery, whereas the rod contribution was greater in the periphery versus the macula. Genes encoding structural proteins for axons were found to be expressed at higher levels in the macula versus the retinal periphery, probably reflecting the large proportion of ganglion cells in the central retina. In comparison with the younger eye, the peripheral retina of the older eye had a substantially higher proportion of mRNAs from genes encoding proteins involved in iron metabolism or protection against oxidative damage and a substantially lower proportion of mRNAs from genes encoding proteins involved in rod phototransduction. These differences may reflect the difference in age between the two donors or merely interindividual variation. The RPE library had numerous previously unencountered tags, suggesting that this cell type has a large, idiosyncratic repertoire of expressed genes. Comparison of these libraries with 100 reported nonocular SAGE libraries revealed 89 retina-specific or enriched genes expressed at substantial levels, of which 14 are known to cause a retinal disease and 53 are RPE-specific genes. We expect that these libraries will serve as a resource for understanding the relative expression levels of genes in the retina and the RPE and for identifying additional disease genes. PMID:11756676

  12. Agreement between image grading of conventional (45°) and ultra wide-angle (200°) digital images in the macula in the Reykjavik eye study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csutak, A; Lengyel, I; Jonasson, F; Leung, I; Geirsdottir, A; Xing, W; Peto, T

    2010-10-01

    To establish the agreement between image grading of conventional (45°) and ultra wide-angle (200°) digital images in the macula. In 2008, the 12-year follow-up was conducted on 573 participants of the Reykjavik Eye Study. This study included the use of the Optos P200C AF ultra wide-angle laser scanning ophthalmoscope alongside Zeiss FF 450 conventional digital fundus camera on 121 eyes with or without age-related macular degeneration using the International Classification System. Of these eyes, detailed grading was carried out on five cases each with hard drusen, geographic atrophy and chorioretinal neovascularisation, and six cases of soft drusen. Exact agreement and κ-statistics were calculated. Comparison of the conventional and ultra wide-angle images in the macula showed an overall 96.43% agreement (κ=0.93) with no disagreement at end-stage disease; although in one eye chorioretinal neovascularisation was graded as drusenoid pigment epithelial detachment. Of patients with drusen only, the exact agreement was 96.1%. The detailed grading showed no clinically significant disagreement between the conventional 45° and 200° images. On the basis of our results, there is a good agreement between grading conventional and ultra wide-angle images in the macula.

  13. COMPLETE SUBRETINAL FLUID DRAINAGE IS NOT NECESSARY DURING VITRECTOMY SURGERY FOR MACULA-OFF RHEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL DETACHMENT WITH PERIPHERAL BREAKS: A Prospective, Nonrandomized Comparative Interventional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Yong; Yan, Ying; Hong, Ling; Zhu, Li; Deng, Jun; Din, Qin; Huang, Zhijian; Zhou, Hezhen

    2017-03-01

    To compare clinical outcomes in eyes with macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachments managed by surgical protocols, the result in either complete (CSFD) or partial subretinal fluid drainage (PSFD). Fifty-four eyes with macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachments with peripheral retinal breaks of 54 patients were assigned prospectively to one of the two surgical designs (PSFD or CSFD, 2:1) in a sequence. Patients were treated with 25-gauge plus vitrectomy, either CSFD (n = 18) or PSFD (n = 36), and 14% C3F8 was used for intraocular tamponade. Anatomical and visual outcomes as well as intraoperative and postoperative complications of the two groups were compared. The single-operation success rates were 16/18 (88.9%) and 33/36 (91.6%), respectively, for the CSFD and the PSFD groups (P = 1.00). The mean BCVA improvement (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters) at the 6-month postoperative was not significantly different between the two groups (26.50 ± 15.43 in CSFD group vs. 22.64 ± 15.43 in PSFD group, P = 0.43). Partial subretinal fluid drainage procedure during vitrectomy for the repair of macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachments revealed comparable results with CSFD in terms of anatomical and visual outcomes. Complete subretinal fluid drainage during vitrectomy seems to be unnecessary for all RRD reattachment surgical procedures.

  14. Resolution of foveal detachment in dome-shaped macula after treatment by spironolactone: report of two cases and mini-review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirani A

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ali Dirani,1 Alexandre Matet,1 Talal Beydoun,2 Irmela Mantel,1 Francine Behar-Cohen1–3 1Department of Ophthalmology, University of Lausanne, Jules Gonin Eye Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Hôtel-Dieu de Paris Hospital, Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France; 3Inserm UMRS872, Physiopathology of Ocular Diseases: Therapeutic Innovations, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France Abstract: Dome-shaped macula (DSM was recently described in myopic patients as a convex protrusion of the macula within a posterior pole staphyloma. The pathogenesis of DSM and the development of associated serous foveal detachment (SFD remain unclear. The obstruction of choroidal outflow and compressive changes of choroidal capillaries have been proposed as causative factors. In this paper, we report two cases of patients with chronic SFD associated with DSM treated with oral spironolactone. After treatment, there was a complete resolution of SFD in both patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of SFD in DSM by a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. Keywords: serous foveal detachment, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, dome-shaped macula, treatment

  15. Aflibercept in Serous Foveal Detachment in Dome-Shaped Macula: Short-Term Results in a Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomelli, Giovanni; Mencucci, Rita; Sodi, Andrea; Biagini, Ilaria; Abbruzzese, Giacomo; Giuntoli, Matteo; Rizzo, Stanislao; Virgili, Gianni

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate short-term efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept (Eylea; Regeneron, Tarrytown, NY) in serous foveal detachment (SFD) in dome-shaped macula (DSM). A retrospective, noncomparative case series. Three monthly aflibercept injections were administered. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), optical coherence tomography central subfield thickness (CST), and subretinal fluid (SRF) at baseline and at 2 months and 4 months after the last injection were considered for statistical analysis. The authors reviewed nine eyes affected by SFD in DSM. Mean BCVA improved from 0.42 LogMAR at baseline to 0.33 LogMAR at final follow-up (P = .06), and mean CST and SRF reduced from 347 μm to 295 μm (P = .09) and from 146 μm to 99 μm (P < .01), respectively. None of the considered eyes had resolution of the SRF. Three monthly aflibercept injections may improve BCVA and reduce CST and SRF in SFD of DSM. Further prospective studies are necessary to state the real efficacy of this approach. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:822-828.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Macular Choroidal Thickness in Myopic Eyes with and without a Dome-Shaped Macula: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudier, Guillaume; Gaudric, Alain; Gualino, Vincent; Massin, Pascale; Nardin, Mathieu; Tadayoni, Ramin; Speeg-Schatz, Claude; Gaucher, David

    2016-01-01

    Dome-shaped macula (DSM) has recently been described with myopic staphyloma, which may cause decreased vision. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the choroidal thickness of eyes with and eyes without DSM. A total of 26 eyes with DSM were paired based on axial length with 26 eyes without DSM. All patients underwent spectral-domain OCT examination using the 7-line EDI (enhanced depth imaging) protocol. The mean choroidal thickness was measured using Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) grid areas. Both nasal choroidal thickness and temporal choroidal thickness were significantly thinner in the DSM group (120.43 vs. 159.46 µm, p = 0.035, and 142.17 vs. 187.23 µm, p = 0.021, respectively). However, the mean central choroidal thickness did not differ (152.61 vs. 175.96 µm, p = 0.20). The ratio between central and peripheral choroidal thickness was very significantly elevated with DSM (1.18 ± 0.12 vs. 0.99 ± 0.09, p < 0.0001). Choroidal thickness decreases at the periphery but not in the macular area with DSM. DSM seems not to be due to an inward protrusion of the globe but due to macular anatomical preservation in a growing staphyloma. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Long-term changes in subfoveal choroidal thickness and central macula thickness after Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Tolga; Yilmaz, Ahu

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate changes in central macula thickness (CMT), subfoveal choroid thickness (SCT), and intraocular pressure (IOP) before and after neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser capsulotomy. 42 eyes of 42 patients who underwent Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy were included in this prospective study. CMT, SCT, and IOP were evaluated preoperatively and at postoperative week 1 and postoperative months 1, 3, 6, and 12. CMT was 238.1 ± 27.6 μm (mean ± SD) preoperatively, then 239.7 ± 29.8, 241.3 ± 28.7, 242.7 ± 27.2, 238.8 ± 23.7, and 238.3 ± 21.7 μm at postoperative week 1 and months 1, 3, 6, and 12, respectively. SCT was 263.3 ± 21.6 μm preoperatively, and 265.5 ± 24.8, 266.2 ± 25.7, 267.1 ± 26.3, 269.1 ± 24.2, and 269.9 ± 21.4 μm at postoperative week 1 and months 1, 3, 6, and 12, respectively. There were no significant differences between preoperative and postoperative results for CMT, SCT, or IOP (all p > 0.05). Although there were slight changes in choroid thickness in the long term, treatment of posterior capsule opacification with a low-energy Nd:YAG laser is a safe procedure that increases visual acuity without creating a significant increase in IOP, CMT, and SCT.

  18. Combining macula clinical signs and patient characteristics for age-related macular degeneration diagnosis: a machine learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraccaro, Paolo; Nicolo, Massimo; Bonetto, Monica; Giacomini, Mauro; Weller, Peter; Traverso, Carlo Enrico; Prosperi, Mattia; OSullivan, Dympna

    2015-01-27

    To investigate machine learning methods, ranging from simpler interpretable techniques to complex (non-linear) "black-box" approaches, for automated diagnosis of Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD). Data from healthy subjects and patients diagnosed with AMD or other retinal diseases were collected during routine visits via an Electronic Health Record (EHR) system. Patients' attributes included demographics and, for each eye, presence/absence of major AMD-related clinical signs (soft drusen, retinal pigment epitelium, defects/pigment mottling, depigmentation area, subretinal haemorrhage, subretinal fluid, macula thickness, macular scar, subretinal fibrosis). Interpretable techniques known as white box methods including logistic regression and decision trees as well as less interpreitable techniques known as black box methods, such as support vector machines (SVM), random forests and AdaBoost, were used to develop models (trained and validated on unseen data) to diagnose AMD. The gold standard was confirmed diagnosis of AMD by physicians. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC) were used to assess performance. Study population included 487 patients (912 eyes). In terms of AUC, random forests, logistic regression and adaboost showed a mean performance of (0.92), followed by SVM and decision trees (0.90). All machine learning models identified soft drusen and age as the most discriminating variables in clinicians' decision pathways to diagnose AMD. Both black-box and white box methods performed well in identifying diagnoses of AMD and their decision pathways. Machine learning models developed through the proposed approach, relying on clinical signs identified by retinal specialists, could be embedded into EHR to provide physicians with real time (interpretable) support.

  19. Study of retinal neurodegeneration and maculopathy in diabetic Meriones shawi: A particular animal model with human-like macula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoum, Imane; Benlarbi, Maha; Dellaa, Ahmed; Szabó, Klaudia; Dékány, Bulcsú; Csaba, Dávid; Almási, Zsuzsanna; Hajdú, Rozina I; Azaiz, Rached; Charfeddine, Ridha; Lukáts, Ákos; Ben Chaouacha-Chekir, Rafika

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate a potentially useful animal model, Meriones shawi (M.sh)-developing metabolic X syndrome, diabetes and possessing a visual streak similar to human macula-in the study of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema (DME). Type 2 diabetes (T2D) was induced by high fat diet administration in M.sh. Body weights, blood glucose levels were monitored throughout the study. Diabetic retinal histopathology was evaluated 3 and 7 months after diabetes induction. Retinal thickness was measured, retinal cell types were labeled by immunohistochemistry and the number of stained elements were quantified. Apoptosis was determined with TUNEL assay. T2D induced progressive changes in retinal histology. A significant decrease of retinal thickness and glial reactivity was observed without an increase in apoptosis rate. Photoreceptor outer segment degeneration was evident, with a significant decrease in the number of all cones and M-cone subtype, but-surprisingly-an increase in S-cones. Damage of the pigment epithelium was also confirmed. A decrease in the number and labeling intensity of parvalbumin- and calretinin-positive amacrine cells and a loss of ganglion cells was detected. Other cell types showed no evident alterations. No DME-like condition was noticed even after 7 months. M.sh could be a useful model to study the evolution of diabetic retinal pathology and to identify the role of hypertension and dyslipidemia in the development of the reported alterations. Longer follow up would be needed to evaluate the potential use of the visual streak in modeling human macular diseases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Scharioth Macula Lens: A new intraocular implant for low-vision patients with stabilized maculopathy- first experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekolova, Jana; Rozsival, Pavel; Sin, Martin; Jiraskova, Nada

    2017-06-01

    To present the initial results of Scharioth Macula Lens (SML) implantation. The SML is a new add-on intraocular lens designed to increase uncorrected near visual acuity (UCVA) in patients with stabilized maculopathy. Eight patients were included in the study. All met the indication criteria before SML implantation. An SML was implanted in the better seeing eye. Near and distance visual acuity were tested. Possible complications and patient complaints were recorded and patients were asked about their quality of vision after SML implantation. The examination was carried out on day 1, 1 week, 1, 3 and 6 months after surgery. Six-month-results are presented. Apart from one, all patients with the SML had good near visual acuity at a recommended reading distance of 15 cm. Preoperatively, the mean (min-max) near UCVA was J13 (J8-J16), mean distance BCVA was 0.27. Postoperatively, the best results were after 1 month - near UCVA was J2.5 (J1-J7), distance BCVA was 0.26. Three months after surgery, this decreased to J4.5 (J1-J8); distance VA remained 0.25. Six months postoperatively - near vision was J4 (J1-J8) and distance VA was unchanged. Patients reported problems with reading speed and reading distance. Daily exercise improved their reading ability. One patient converted to wet AMD 3 months post-implantation. The SML is a new hope for low-vision patients. It acts as a magnifier in the eye. It is a suitable method for increasing near visual acuity in patients with inactive maculopathy.

  1. Optical coherence tomography evaluation of patients with macula-off retinal detachment after different postoperative posturing: a randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiretti, Enrico; Nasini, Francesco; Buschini, Elisa; Caminiti, Giulia; Lesnik Oberstein, Sarit Y; Willig, Alissa; Bijl, Heico M; Mura, Marco

    2017-08-01

    To assess the presence of outer and inner retinal folds (RFs) and drop-out of the ellipsoid zone (EZ) occurring after surgical repair of macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) with different postoperative posture and preoperative use of adjuvant perfluorocarbon liquid (PFCO). In this prospective study, 56 eyes of 56 consecutive patients affected by RRD were subjected to 23- or 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). The patients were randomized in four groups (14 prone 5 hr without PFCO, 14 supine 5 hr without PFCO, 14 prone 5 hr with PFCO and 14 supine 5 hr with PFCO) and followed up with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was recorded before surgery, at days 30 and 90 to detect the presence of outer RFs, inner RFs and drop-out of EZ and to follow their variation over time. No statistical significance was found in our groups for outer RFs, inner RFs, drop-out of EZ formation and evolution. The postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improved in all groups (mean preoperative BCVA 1.47 logMar ± 0.19, mean postoperative BCVA 0.27 logMar ± 0.11, p < 0.01), without statistical variations between the four groups in BCVA after surgery. The use of adjuvant and variation in postoperative position did not change the risk of presenting outer RFs, inner RFs and drop-out of EZ after RRD. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Multi-nucleate retinal pigment epithelium cells of the human macula exhibit a characteristic and highly specific distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnes, Austin C; Huisingh, Carrie; McGwin, Gerald; Sloan, Kenneth R; Ablonczy, Zsolt; Smith, R Theodore; Curcio, Christine A; Ach, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is reportedly 3% bi-nucleated. The importance to human vision of multi-nucleated (MN)-RPE cells could be clarified with more data about their distribution in central retina. Nineteen human RPE-flatmounts (9 ≤ 51 years, 10 > 80 years) were imaged at 12 locations: 3 eccentricities (fovea, perifovea, near periphery) in 4 quadrants (superior, inferior, temporal, nasal). Image stacks of lipofuscin-attributable autofluorescence and phalloidin labeled F-actin cytoskeleton were obtained using a confocal fluorescence microscope. Nuclei were devoid of autofluorescence and were marked using morphometric software. Cell areas were approximated by Voronoi regions. Mean number of nuclei per cell among eccentricity/quadrant groups and by age were compared using Poisson and binominal regression models. A total of 11,403 RPE cells at 200 locations were analyzed: 94.66% mono-, 5.31% bi-, 0.02% tri-nucleate, and 0.01% with 5 nuclei. Age had no effect on number of nuclei. There were significant regional differences: highest frequencies of MN-cells were found at the perifovea (9.9%) and near periphery (6.8%). The fovea lacked MN-cells almost entirely. The nasal quadrant had significantly more MN-cells compared to other quadrants, at all eccentricities. This study demonstrates MN-RPE cells in human macula. MN-cells may arise due to endoreplication, cell fusion, or incomplete cell division. The topography of MN-RPE cells follows the topography of photoreceptors; with near-absence at the fovea (cones only) and high frequency at perifovea (highest rod density). This distribution might reflect specific requirements of retinal metabolism or other mechanisms addressable in further studies.

  3. Reference interval for the disc-macula distance to disc diameter ratio in a large population of healthy Japanese adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ken-ichi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study presents the calculated reference interval for the disc-to-macula distance to disc diameter ratio (DM:DD) based on a large population of healthy Japanese adults. A total of 308 consecutive, healthy Japanese adults were examined in this prospective observational study. Eighteen subjects were also excluded because of poor quality of the fundus photograph of one or both eyes; 290 (161 men and 129 women) were included in this study. For each subject, a color fundus photograph of one eye, either the right or left, was randomly selected and used for analysis. On the photograph, the distances between the fovea and the nearest temporal margin of the optic disc (Dft), and the two kinds of disc diameters (D1 and D2), which bisected at right angles and one of which was directed to the fovea (D1), were measured. DM:DD was estimated using the formula: (2Dft + D1)/(D1 + D2). The mean ± standard deviation of DM:DD was 2.91 ± 0.49 for men and 2.96 ± 0.54 for women; there was no sex difference (P = .78, Mann–Whitney U test). Also, almost no relationship was found between DM:DD and age (ρ = −.12, P = .04, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient). The data did not fit a normal distribution (P < .001, Kolmogorov–Smirnov test). The estimated reference interval for DM:DD corresponding to the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles was 2.12 to 4.18. Using a nonparametric approach, the reference interval for DM:DD of a large population of healthy Japanese adults was calculated to be 2.12 to 4.18, regardless of age or sex. PMID:28403107

  4. [Variability of nuclear 18S-25S rDNA of Gentiana lutea L. in nature and in tissue culture in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'nyk, V M; Spiridonova, K V; Andrieiev, I O; Strashniuk, N M; Kunakh, V A

    2004-01-01

    18S-25S rDNA sequence in genomes of G. lutea plants from different natural populations and from tissue culture has been studied with blot-hybridization method. It was shown that ribosomal repeats are represented by the variants which differ for their size and for the presence of additional HindIII restriction site. Genome of individual plant usually possesses several variants of DNA repeats. Interpopulation variability according to their quantitative ratio and to the presence of some of them has been shown. Modifications of the range of rDNA repeats not exceeding intraspecific variability were observed in callus tissues in comparison with the plants of initial population. Non-randomness of genome modifications in the course of cell adaptation to in vitro conditions makes it possible to some extent to forecast these modifications in tissue culture.

  5. [Assessment of the macula function by static perimetry, microperimetry and rarebit perimetry in patients suffering from dry age related macular degeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowomiejska, Katarzyna; Oleszczuk, Agnieszka; Zubilewicz, Anna; Krukowski, Jacek; Mańkowska, Anna; Rejdak, Robert; Zagórski, Zbigniew

    2007-01-01

    To compare the visual field results obtained by static perimetry, microperimetry and rabbit perimetry in patients suffering from dry age related macular degeneration (AMD). Fifteen eyes with dry AMD (hard or soft macula drusen and RPE disorders) were enrolled into the study. Static perimetry was performed using M2 macula program included in Octopus 101 instrument. Microperimetry was performed using macula program (14-2 threshold, 10dB) within 10 degrees of the central visual field. The fovea program within 4 degrees was used while performing rarebit perimetry. The mean sensitivity was significantly lower (p<0.001) during microperimetry (13.5 dB) comparing to static perimetry (26.7 dB). The mean deviation was significantly higher (p<0.001) during microperimetry (-6.32 dB) comparing to static perimetry (-3.11 dB). The fixation was unstable in 47% and eccentric in 40% while performing microperimetry. The median of the "mean hit rate" in rarebit perimetry was 90% (range 40-100%). The mean examination duration was 6.5 min. in static perimetry, 10.6 min. in microperimetry and 5,5 min. in rarebit perimetry (p<0.001). Sensitivity was 30%, 53% and 93% respectively. The visual field defects obtained by microperimetry were more pronounced than those obtained by static perimetry. Microperimetry was the most sensitive procedure although the most time-consuming. Microperimetry enables the control of the fixation position and stability, that is not possible using the remaining methods. Rarebit perimetry revealed slight reduction of the integrity of neural architecture of the retina. Microperimetry and rarebit perimetry provide more information in regard to the visual function than static perimetry, thus are the valuable method in the diagnosis of dry AMD.

  6. LONGITUDINAL CHANGES IN THICKNESSES OF THE MACULA, GANGLION CELL-INNER PLEXIFORM LAYER, AND RETINAL NERVE FIBER LAYER AFTER VITRECTOMY: A 12-Month Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyung-Bin; Lee, Min-Woo; Kwak, Baek-Soo; Jo, Young-Joon; Kim, Jung-Yeul

    2018-01-01

    To analyze longitudinal changes in the thicknesses of the macula, ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL), and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) after vitrectomy. Thirty-eight patients diagnosed with intraocular lens (IOL) dislocation without evidence of other vitreoretinal diseases were included. They underwent conventional vitrectomy and IOL transscleral fixation, with a follow-up of 12 months. Using spectral domain optical coherence tomography, the thicknesses of the macula, GC-IPL, and peripapillary RNFL in the vitrectomized and fellow control eyes were measured. Various optic nerve head parameters were also determined. Optical coherence tomography showed that there were no significant differences in postoperative central macular thickness compared with baseline values. The average GC-IPL thickness increased 1 month after surgery from baseline (P = 0.038). The average RNFL thickness increased from baseline at 1 month (P = 0.001) and 3 months (P = 0.011) after vitrectomy. The mean foveal, GC-IPL, and RNFL thicknesses of the study eyes compared with the fellow control eyes increased at 1 month (P = 0.034), 1 month (P = 0.048), and 1 month (P = 0.013) to 3 months (P = 0.038), respectively, after surgery. However, no significant differences were found in intraocular pressure or optic nerve head parameters between the study and fellow control eyes at 12 months after surgery. Transient increases in the thickness of the macula and GC-IPL were observed at 1 month after vitrectomy, and the postoperative RNFL thickness increased until 3 months after surgery, after which it returned to preoperative levels. There was no significant change in intraocular pressure or optic nerve head parameters before and after surgery.

  7. Long-Term Outcomes in Patients with Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration Who Maintain Dry Macula after Three Monthly Ranibizumab Injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Min; Kim, Jae Hui; Chang, Young Suk; Kim, Jong Woo; Kim, Chul Gu

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate long-term changes in visual acuity and retinal microstructure in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) who had maintained dry macula after initial treatment. This retrospective observational study included 55 eyes that were diagnosed with neovascular AMD, were treated with three monthly ranibizumab injections, and maintained dry macula during a two-year follow-up. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at three months and at the final follow-up were compared, and the degree of visual improvement was compared between eyes with and without improvement of the ellipsoid zone. In addition, the incidence of improvement of the ellipsoid zone was compared between eyes with different extents of disruption. The mean follow-up period was 30.3 ± 4.1 months. BCVA at three months and at the final follow-up was 0.51 ± 0.46 and 0.45 ± 0.49 (P200 μm of disruption of the ellipsoid zone, 15 (42.9%) showed improvement of the ellipsoid zone, and the improvement in BCVA was greater in these eyes than that in the remaining 20 eyes (P=0.021). A higher incidence of improvement of the ellipsoid zone was noted in eyes with 200 to 800 μm of disruption than in eyes with >800 μm of disruption (P<0.001). Long-term improvement in visual acuity was noted in eyes that had maintained dry macula after three ranibizumab injections. The status of the ellipsoid zone at three months was closely associated with visual improvement.

  8. Evaluation of optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of age related macula degeneration compared with fluorescence angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fröschl, Barbara

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In industrialised nations age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the most common cause of blindness and severe visual impairment. AMD is a disease of the retina characterized by the accumulation of metabolic products in the macula. In early stages drusen and pigment disorders occur, in late stages a dry form is distinguished from the exsudative form with choroidal neovascularisation. AMD causes vision disorders such as blurred vision of the central part of the visual field, leading finally to a dark spot. Several therapies are available for the exsudative form, however an exact diagnosis is partially essential. The gold standard for the diagnosis of AMD is fluorescein angiography (FA, an invasive investigation with intravenous application of a dye. Optical coherence tomography (OCT is a more recent non-invasive procedure. Objectives: The aim of this HTA report is to investigate the efficacy and efficiency of OCT compared to FA. Ethical, societal and legal aspects are also considered. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in 34 international databases which yielded 2324 articles. Eight publications were included for assessment, according to predefined selection criteria. Results: The number of studies investigating OCT compared to FA in patients with AMD is presently very limited and the quality of the studies is generally low. The number of investigated patients is below 35 in four publications and in only one publication it is above 100. Moreover in most of the articles very selected patient groups are studied. Economic studies concerning the efficiency of OCT compared to FA cannot be identified. DiscussionEven though the patient groups investigated and the objectives of the studies are very heterogenous, all publications uniformly show that OCT cannot replace FA. However, OCT yields additional diagnostic findings and may verify unclear findings of FA. Therefore the application of OCT in addition to FA is useful in

  9. The Quantitative Measurements of Vascular Density and Flow Areas of Macula Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Normal Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Fariba; Fadakar, Kaveh; Bazvand, Fatemeh; Mirshahi, Reza; Mohebbi, Masoumeh; Sabour, Siamak

    2017-06-01

    The quantification of the density of macular vascular networks and blood flow areas in the foveal and parafoveal area in healthy subjects using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Cross-sectional, prospective study in an institutional setting at the Retina Services of Farabi Eye Hospital. One hundred twelve normal volunteers with no known ocular or systemic disease were included, including patient numbers (one or both eyes), selection procedures, inclusion/exclusion criteria, randomization procedure, and masking. En face angiogram OCTA was performed on a 3 mm × 3 mm region centered on the macula. Automated thresholding and measuring algorithm method for foveal and parafoveal blood flow and vascular density (VD) were used. The density of macular vascular networks and blood flow area in the foveal and parafoveal area were measured. A total of 224 healthy eyes from 112 subjects with a mean age of 36.4 years ± 11.3 years were included. In the foveal region, the VD of the superficial capillary network (sCN) was significantly higher than that of the deep capillary network (dCN) (31.1% ± 5.5% vs. 28.3% ± 7.2%; P < .001), whereas in the parafoveal area, VD was higher in the dCN (62.24% ± 2.8% vs. 56.5% ± 2.5%; P < .001). Flow area in the 1-mm radius circle in the sCN was less than in the dCN. Superficial foveal avascular zone (sFAZ) size was negatively correlated with the VD of the foveal sCN, but in the deep FAZ (dFAZ) was not correlated with VD or blood flow area of the fovea. There was no difference between measured VD and blood flow surface area in both eyes of the subjects. OCTA could be used as a noninvasive, repeatable, layer-free method in quantitative evaluation of VD and blood flow of macular area. The normal quantities of the vascular plexus density and flow will help in better understanding the pathophysiological basis of the vascular disease of retina. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:478-486.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK

  10. Comparison of Heidelberg Retina Tomograph with disc-macula distance to disc diameter ratio in diagnosing optic nerve hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yi; Frantz, Kelly A

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate whether Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph (HRT) is a valid test for diagnosing congenital optic nerve hypoplasia (CONH) compared to the ratio of the distance between the centre of the optic disc and the centre of the macula and the mean optic disc diameter (DM:DD ratio). Furthermore, to determine the optimal cut-off value of HRT disc area to differentiate a hypoplastic disc from a normal optic disc. A total of 33 subjects with CONH (4-67 years old) and 160 normal subjects (5-65 years old) were recruited and underwent comprehensive eye examinations, fundus photography and HRT. Receiver operating characteristic curves for DM:DD ratio and HRT disc area were constructed based on data from the 46 CONH eyes and 160 control eyes. Mean (±S.D.) HRT disc area was 1.94 (±0.54) mm(2) for the control eyes and 0.84 (±0.35) mm(2) for the CONH eyes (p < 0.0001). The area under the curve (AUC) for DM:DD ratio was 0.83 (95% confidence interval: 0.76-0.90). The AUC for HRT disc area was 0.96 (95% confidence interval: 0.94-0.99). A statistically significant difference was found between AUC for HRT disc area and that for DM:DD ratio (p = 0.0004). The optimal cut-off value for HRT disc area was 1.42 mm(2) with 95% sensitivity and 85% specificity. The optimal cut-off value for DM:DD ratio was 3.20 with 78% sensitivity and 78% specificity. Both HRT and the DM:DD ratio are valid tests to aid diagnosis of CONH. HRT is superior to DM:DD ratio in diagnosing CONH with higher sensitivity and specificity. We suggest the optimal cut-off value for HRT disc area as 1.42 mm(2) in order to discriminate a hypoplastic disc from a normal optic disc. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2016 The College of Optometrists.

  11. Treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration in Sweden: outcomes at seven years in the Swedish Macula Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westborg, Inger; Granstam, Elisabet; Rosso, Aldana; Albrecht, Susanne; Karlsson, Niklas; Lövestam-Adrian, Monica

    2017-12-01

    To present Swedish Macula Register (SMR) data regarding treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in clinical practice since 2008. A retrospective register-based study was conducted. Evaluation of baseline demographics, visual outcome and number of injections during this period is presented. Mean age at diagnosis was 79 ± (SD) 8 years; 65% were female. The proportion of patients with <2 months' duration of symptoms increased from 26% in 2008 to 41% in 2014 (p = 0.001). Mean visual acuity (VA) at baseline increased from 54.3 ± 15.0 early treatment diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) letters in 2008 to 57.8 ± 15.6 letters in 2014 (CI 95 2.6; 4.3; p < 0.001). Mean VA after 1 year of treatment increased from 57.8 ± 17.7 ETDRS letters for patients who started the treatment in 2008 to 62.8 ± 16.4 ETDRS letters in patients starting treatment in 2014 (CI 95 2.67; 4.64; p < 0.001). During all study years, the proportion of patients with an improvement in VA of between 5 and 15 letters was around 30%, while 14% had VA improvement of more than 15 letters. The mean number of injections during the first treatment year increased from 4.3 ± 1.9 in 2008 to 5.9 ± 2.9 in 2014 (CI 95 1.40; 1.67; p < 0.001). Seven-year follow-up of 322 eyes showed a mean change of -1 letters from baseline, with a mean of 21 injections for the entire period. The duration of symptoms before treatment decreased, while VA at baseline and after 1 year of treatment increased over the years and so did the number of injections. Long-term follow-up demonstrated stable VA. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Self-Testing of Vision in Age-Related Macula Degeneration: A Longitudinal Pilot Study Using a Smartphone-Based Rarebit Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Winther

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. There is a need for efficient self-tests of vision in patients with neovascular age-related macula degeneration. A new tablet/smartphone application aiming to meet this need is described and its performance is assessed in a longitudinal pilot study. Materials and Methods. The new MultiBit Test (MBT employs segmented digits defined by rarebits, that is, receptive field-size bright dots briefly presented against a dark background. The number of rarebits per digit segment was varied in a cyclic fashion, in preset steps. There were no fixation demands. Twenty-eight patients with neovascular AMD of varying severity were monitored for an average of 30 weeks. Test scores were evaluated on an individual basis, by contrasting observed trends with the clinical status recorded at independently scheduled clinical examinations. Results. Serial plots of MBT results revealed gradual improvement after successful antineovascular treatment. Recurrences were signalled by gradual deteriorations of results. Test results remained stable during clinically stable time intervals. MBT results agreed well with clinical assessments whereas an acuity test performed at chance level. The MBT was well accepted by all subjects. Conclusions. The MBT appears to have a good potential for effective self-testing of vision in AMD and merits large-scale studies. Exploration of MBT performance with other forms of macula conditions may be worthwhile.

  13. Thinning of Inner Retinal Layers after Vitrectomy with Silicone Oil versus Gas Endotamponade in Eyes with Macula-Off Retinal Detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtskhvanidze, Konstantine; Hillenkamp, Jost; Tode, Jan; Junge, Olaf; Hedderich, Jürgen; Roider, Johann; Treumer, Felix

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate retinal layer thickness with optical coherence tomography (OCT) in eyes with macula-off retinal detachment after silicone oil (SiO) or gas endotamponade. Cross-sectional study of 40 eyes with macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment that underwent vitrectomy. 20 eyes received SiO tamponade and 20 matched eyes received gas. 33 healthy fellow eyes served as controls. Macular spectral domain OCT was performed with automated layer detection in the 5 inner subfields of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) map. Comparing the SiO group with the gas group, the ganglion cell layer showed a significant thinning in all fields of the inner ring of the ETDRS map, the inner plexiform layer in the nasal, superior and temporal quadrants, and the outer plexiform layer in the nasal quadrant. Inner retinal layers in the fovea/parafovea were significantly thinner in the SiO group. Prospective studies are warranted to further elucidate possible retinal adverse effects of SiO tamponade. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Comparison of the Thickness and Volume of the Macula and Fovea in Patients with Anisometropic Amblyopia Prior to and after Occlusion Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Dong Hee; Chun, Bo Young

    2018-02-01

    To compare the thickness of superior, temporal, inferior, and nasal macula and foveal thickness and volume in patients with anisometropic amblyopia prior to and after successful occlusion therapy using optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurement. Data were collected prospectively on 30 patients with unilateral anisometropic amblyopia from December 2006 to August 2007. All patients had anisometropia of 2.0 diopters or more. OCT scans were obtained for all patients at diagnosis. Occlusion therapy was then prescribed and OCT scans were obtained again at the time of successful occlusion therapy (defined as interocular difference of amblyopia. The mean duration of occlusion was 11.24 months and mean best-corrected visual acuity at diagnosis was 0.35 ± 0.12 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution. The mean thicknesses of the superior, temporal, inferior, and nasal macula prior to and after occlusion were not significantly different (p > 0.05). However, mean foveal volume prior to occlusion therapy (0.15 ± 0.02 mm³) decreased after occlusion (0.14 ± 0.01 mm³) with statistical significance (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p = 0.025). There was a meaningful decrease in foveal volume in patients with anisometropic amblyopia after successful occlusion therapy. Whether this decrease relates to visual improvement of the amblyopic eye remains to be determined. © 2018 The Korean Ophthalmological Society

  15. Tolerability of the combination of ginger (Zingiber officinalis), gentian (Gentiana lutea) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) in patients with cancer-associated anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanatani, Michael; Younus, Jawaid; Stitt, Larry; Malik, Nazish

    2015-03-01

    Anorexia is a common symptom for patients with advanced cancer. Gentian, ginger, and turmeric have traditionally been used to stimulate appetite. We tested these agents in combination, in a pilot study to assess tolerability in patients indicating 4/10 or worse anorexia on the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System, and who were not currently on chemotherapy. We collected exploratory data on the patient's appetite using a visual analogue scale. Between 2009 and 2012, 17 patients were enrolled in arm 1 (turmeric 1 g and ginger 1 g orally twice daily, and gentiana lutea tincture 1 mL three times a day, for 14 days). The three patients enrolled in arm 2 received the same doses of ginger and turmeric but no gentian. All patients completed a daily appetite diary and a weekly symptom assessment. In arm 1, seven patients (41%) completed treatment. Seven patients (41%) stopped early because of unacceptable toxicity or patient-initiated discontinuation, and 3 stopped because of other reasons. All patients in arm 2 stopped taking the study medication within few days of starting the treatment, leading the study committee to recommend stopping the trial. The most common adverse effects attributed to study drugs were nausea (6 patients), vomiting (3), fatigue (3), diarrhea (2) and bloating (2). There was no statistically significant effect seen on appetite. At the doses used in this study, the combination of ginger, turmeric, and gentian is not tolerated well in cancer patients. Future studies should use fewer agents or lower doses.

  16. Coral reef degradation and metabolic performance of the scleractinian coral Porites lutea under anthropogenic impact along the NE coast of Hainan Island, South China Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Roder, Cornelia

    2013-04-01

    Hainan\\'s coast provides favorable climatic, geochemical and biogeographic conditions for the development of extensive coral reefs in China. Observations in five reefs along the NE coast of Hainan showed, however, that the overall density of mobile macrofauna is low and key functional groups such as browsing, scraping or excavating herbivore fish are missing altogether. Coral diseases, partial mortality or tissue degradation are abundant and growth of macroalgal space competitors extensive. Signs of eutrophication, siltation and destructive fishing practices are evident resulting in a strongly altered environment unfavorable for coral recruitment success and survival. Acclimation to the anthropogenically altered conditions in the massive coral Porites lutea occurs at the cost of a decreased photosynthesis: respiration ratio reducing the regenerative capacity of these key framebuilding organisms. Even though, on the organismal level, corals are able to cope with these stressful conditions, a shift is imminent on the ecosystem level from a coral reef to a macroalgae-dominated community if land-based disturbance prevails unabated. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Recurrent somatic embryogenesis in long-term cultures of Gentiana lutea L. as a source for synthetic seed production for medium-term preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holobiuc Irina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to establish an efficient and reproducible system for producing synthetic seeds from recurrent somatic embryogenesis in long-term cultures of Gentiana lutea L. This species is a vulnerable medicinal plant, protected both at the national and international levels, and is included in different Red Lists and Books. In vitro culture, as an alternative to classical methods of preservation, allows for the cyclic multiplication of plant material and short-, medium- and long-term preservation of tissue collections. Biotechnological approaches allow for maintenance of the plant material in a confined space and protection against biotic and abiotic factors. Somatic embryogenesis (SE is the most efficient way to regenerate plants, ensuring material for preservation and fundamental research. In our experiment, recurrent somatic embryogenesis was developed in long-term cultures in the presence of sugar alcohols (mannitol, sorbitol and in the absence of growth factors. This process proceeded at a high rate, with adventive somatic embryos being generated in a continuous process, followed by maturation, germination and development into plants. To follow the somatic embryogenesis process, histological samples were made. We used these embryogenic cultures for synthetic seed production and medium-term conservation. The viability of somatic embryos after moderate osmotic stress treatment was tested using TTC. Our methodology relied on the induction of somatic embryogenesis in the presence of auxins in the first cycle of in vitro cultures, long-term high embryogenic culture maintenance in the presence of sugar alcohols and synthetic seed production.

  18. Coral reef degradation and metabolic performance of the scleractinian coral Porites lutea under anthropogenic impact along the NE coast of Hainan Island, South China Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Roder, Cornelia; Wu, Zhongjie; Richter, Claudio; Zhang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Hainan's coast provides favorable climatic, geochemical and biogeographic conditions for the development of extensive coral reefs in China. Observations in five reefs along the NE coast of Hainan showed, however, that the overall density of mobile macrofauna is low and key functional groups such as browsing, scraping or excavating herbivore fish are missing altogether. Coral diseases, partial mortality or tissue degradation are abundant and growth of macroalgal space competitors extensive. Signs of eutrophication, siltation and destructive fishing practices are evident resulting in a strongly altered environment unfavorable for coral recruitment success and survival. Acclimation to the anthropogenically altered conditions in the massive coral Porites lutea occurs at the cost of a decreased photosynthesis: respiration ratio reducing the regenerative capacity of these key framebuilding organisms. Even though, on the organismal level, corals are able to cope with these stressful conditions, a shift is imminent on the ecosystem level from a coral reef to a macroalgae-dominated community if land-based disturbance prevails unabated. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Analysis of iridoids, secoiridoids and xanthones in Centaurium erythraea, Frasera caroliniensis and Gentiana lutea using LC-MS and RP-HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberham, Anita; Pieri, Valerio; Croom, Edward M; Ellmerer, Ernst; Stuppner, Hermann

    2011-02-20

    This study presents a new and validated HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of bioactive compounds in Centaurium erythraea, Frasera caroliniensis and Gentiana lutea. The iridoid loganic acid, four secoiridoids and 29 xanthones were separated on a RP-18 column, using aqueous o-phosphoric acid (0.085%, v/v) and acetonitrile as mobile phase. Phytochemical investigation of C. erythraea herb and F. caroliniensis roots resulted into isolation of 25 xanthones and three secoiridoids the structure of which was elucidated by spectroscopic means (NMR, MS and UV). 1,3,8-Trihydroxy-5,6-dimethoxyxanthone, isolated from C. erythraea, turned out to be a novel xanthone. The stability of the analytes was tested by subjecting samples to light, moisture and different temperatures. After six months of storage, decomposition of gentiopicroside and sweroside was observed. The swertiamarin content was nearly unchanged when stored at room temperature or in the refrigerator, but high temperature conditions reduced the content to 85%. In contrast, xanthones were stable under long-term, refrigerated and accelerated conditions. The established chromatographic method has been successfully applied for the quantification of the bioactive compounds in the three plants. The presence and distribution of polyoxygenated xanthones within the three members of the Gentianaceae family and their significance as analytical markers are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Functional analysis of multiple carotenogenic genes from Lycium barbarum and Gentiana lutea L. for their effects on beta-carotene production in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jing; Wang, Gang; Wang, Jiehua; Wang, Ping

    2009-02-01

    Carotenoids are red, yellow and orange pigments, which are widely distributed in nature and are especially abundant in yellow-orange fruits and vegetables and dark green leafy vegetables. Carotenoids are essential for photosynthesis and photoprotection in plant life and also have different beneficial effects in humans and animals (van den Berg et al. 2000). For example, beta-carotene plays an essential role as the main dietary source of vitamin A. To obtain further insight into beta-carotene biosynthesis in two important economic plant species, Lycium barbarum and Gentiana lutea L., and to investigate and prioritize potential genetic engineering targets in the pathway, the effects of five carotenogenic genes from these two species, encoding proteins including geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase, phytoene synthase and delta-carotene desaturase gene, lycopene beta-cyclase, lycopene epsilon-cyclase were functionally analyzed in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. All transgenic tobacco plants constitutively expressing these genes showed enhanced beta-carotene contents in their leaves and flowers to different extents. The addictive effects of co-ordinate expression of double transgenes have also been investigated.

  1. Serum progesterone levels for diagnosing pregnancy and monitoring corpora lutea function during different reproductive stages in hormonally-treated heat synchronized female damascus goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakawi, M.

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was conducted on female damascus goats the breeding season to diagnose pregnancy on days 21-22 and 40-44 after mating and to monitor the corpora lutea function during different reproductive stages by measuring serum progesterone levels using radioimmunoassay. A total of 75 intact female damascus goats were divided into 3 equal groups, S, P and C. females in group S were fitted with sponges containing 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP) for 14 days and injected, at the sponge withdrawal, with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG). Females in group P were injected twice with prostaglandin F 2a at 11 day intervals. Females in group C (control) received no treatment. The results indicated that the accuracy of positive pregnancy on days 21-22 and 40-44 was 90.5% and 94.4%, respectively, and it was 100% for detecting non-pregnancy. There was no significant difference(p>0.05)among the 3 groups in serum progesterone level between days 21-22 and 40-44 after mating. Whereas, there were significant(p -1 at matinf, during pregnancy and at kidding. The triplet carrying goats had a significantly(p -1 , respectively. While, there was no significant difference in serum progesterone levels between the single and twin-carrying goats

  2. Impact of duration of macula-off retinal detachment on visual outcome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bussel, Erik M; van der Valk, Rikkert; Bijlsma, Ward R; La Heij, Ellen C

    2014-10-01

    To systematically review the influence of the lag time between macula-off retinal detachment and surgical intervention on postoperative visual acuity as main outcome measure. Systematic review and meta-analysis of articles published from 1995 to October 2013 of patients with macula-off retinal detachment and treated with scleral buckling or pars plana vitrectomy. Eligible data were pooled in a meta-analysis, analyzing the odds ratio between different durations of ≤ 3, ≤ 4, ≤ 7, and ≤ 10 days, comparing a final visual acuity of ≤ 0.4 logMAR with >0.4 logMAR, using a random-effects model. Last, the number needed to treat was calculated. Fourteen articles were eligible, of which 9 studies contained data that were suitable for meta-analysis. Patients who were operated with scleral buckling (n = 602) within 3 days since macular detachment had a statistically significant better chance of reaching a final visual acuity of 0.4 logMAR or better compared with a longer duration of macular detachment, with an odds ratio for ≤ 3 days versus 4 days to 7 days of 2.86 (95% confidence interval, 1.37-5.99) and an odds ratio for ≤ 3 days versus >3 days of 3.09 (95% confidence interval, 1.56-6.12), and with a number needed to treat of 4. For pars plana vitrectomy, the limited amount of data precluded a meta-analysis with substantial results. This meta-analysis suggests that scleral buckling for macular detachment must preferably be performed within 3 days to optimize visual outcome.

  3. Alterations in Rubisco activity and in stomatal behavior induce a daily rhythm in photosynthesis of aerial leaves in the amphibious-plant Nuphar lutea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snir, Ainit; Gurevitz, Michael; Marcus, Yehouda

    2006-12-01

    Nuphar lutea is an amphibious plant with submerged and aerial foliage, which raises the question how do both leaf types perform photosynthetically in two different environments. We found that the aerial leaves function like terrestrial sun-leaves in that their photosynthetic capability was high and saturated under high irradiance (ca. 1,500 mumol photons m(-2) s(-1)). We show that stomatal opening and Rubisco activity in these leaves co-limited photosynthesis at saturating irradiance fluctuating in a daily rhythm. In the morning, sunlight stimulated stomatal opening, Rubisco synthesis, and the neutralization of a night-accumulated Rubisco inhibitor. Consequently, the light-saturated quantum efficiency and rate of photosynthesis increased 10-fold by midday. During the afternoon, gradual closure of the stomata and a decrease in Rubisco content reduced the light-saturated photosynthetic rate. However, at limited irradiance, stomatal behavior and Rubisco content had only a marginal effect on the photosynthetic rate, which did not change during the day. In contrast to the aerial leaves, the photosynthesis rate of the submerged leaves, adapted to a shaded environment, was saturated under lower irradiance. The light-saturated quantum efficiency of these leaves was much lower and did not change during the day. Due to their low photosynthetic affinity for CO(2) (35 muM) and inability to utilize other inorganic carbon species, their photosynthetic rate at air-equilibrated water was CO(2)-limited. These results reveal differences in the photosynthetic performance of the two types of Nuphar leaves and unravel how photosynthetic daily rhythm in the aerial leaves is controlled.

  4. Serous Retinal Detachment Associated with Dome-Shaped Macula and Staphyloma Edge in Myopic Patients before and after Treatment with Spironolactone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Fernández-Vega Sanz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Serous retinal detachment (SRD is a common anatomical complication associated with dome-shaped macula (DSM and staphyloma margin in myopic patients. Here we described the anatomical and functional outcomes obtained with the use of oral spironolactone, a mineralocorticoid antagonist, in the management of myopic patients with SRD associated with DSM and staphyloma margin. Methods. We evaluated both eyes of twelve myopic patients with long-standing SRD associated with DSM or staphyloma margin. The patients were treated daily for six months with oral spironolactone 50 mg. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA and central retinal thickness (CRT, determined by optical coherence tomography, were evaluated on the first day and on monthly follow-up visits. Results. Pretreatment BCVA (mean ± standard deviation was 0.406 ± 0.324 LogMAR, and posttreatment BCVA was 0.421 ± 0.354 LogMAR (P=0.489. Pretreatment CRT was 323.9 ± 78.6 μm, and after six months of treatment it was significantly lower, 291.2 ± 74.5 μm (P=0.010. There were no treatment-related complications. Conclusions. We evaluated a novel treatment for SRD associated with DSM and staphyloma margin in myopic patients. After six months of treatment with the mineralocorticoid antagonist spironolactone, the subretinal fluid and CRT were significantly reduced; however, there was no improvement in BCVA.

  5. Subretinal Fluid Levels of Signal-Transduction Proteins and Apoptosis Molecules in Macula-Off Retinal Detachment Undergoing Scleral Buckle Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpineto, Paolo; Aharrh-Gnama, Agbeanda; Ciciarelli, Vincenzo; Borrelli, Enrico; Petti, Francesco; Aloia, Raffaella; Lamolinara, Alessia; Di Nicola, Marta; Mastropasqua, Leonardo

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate signal transduction and early apoptosis protein levels in subretinal fluid collected during scleral buckling surgery for macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Our aim was to assess both their relation with RRD features and their influence on the posttreatment outcome. Thirty-three eyes of 33 RRD patients scheduled for scleral buckle surgery were enrolled in the study. Undiluted subretinal fluid samples were collected during surgery and analyzed via magnetic bead-based immunoassay. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic evaluation at baseline and at each follow-up visit (months 1, 3, and 6). Moreover, both at baseline and at the postsurgery month 6 visit, the patients were tested by means of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in order to evaluate the average ganglion cell-inner plexiform complex thickness, as well as the photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment junction status. Patients' clinical features (retinal detachment size, detachment duration, and occurrence of proliferative vitreoretinopathy) were associated with several early apoptotic factors (caspase-8, caspase-9, and B-cell lymphoma 2 [Bcl-2]-associated death promoter [BAD]). Furthermore, both early apoptosis factors (caspase-8, Bcl-2, and p53) and signal-transduction proteins (ERK 1/2) were found to influence the postsurgery month 3 OCT characteristics. Signal-transduction proteins and early apoptosis proteins are associated with different clinical features and postsurgery outcomes.

  6. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography analysis of persistent subretinal fluid after scleral buckling surgery for macula-off retinal detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbiya, M; Malagola, R; Mariotti, C; Parisi, F; De Vico, U; Ganino, C; Grandinetti, F

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the predictive value of markers for persistent subretinal fluid (SRF) absorption and the influence of subfoveal fluid on visual outcome after scleral buckle (SB) surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Patients and methods This was a retrospective, observational study. We reviewed the medical records of 64 eyes of 64 patients who underwent SB surgery for macula-off RRD. Patients underwent clinical examination and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography before surgery, at 1 month and every 3 months postoperatively. The height and width of SRF bleb(s) were measured over time. Results Persistent SRF at 1 month was observed in 40 eyes (62.5%). SRF blebs were first detected 1.7±2.2 months postoperatively. In 29 cases that could be fully followed up, SRF blebs were completely absorbed 7.8±4.4 months postoperatively. Resolution of fluid was associated with an improvement of VA (P=0.003). Serial measurements of SRF bleb size showed that bleb width decreased significantly at all time points during the 12-month follow-up period (P0.05). The cut-off value of the bleb width-to-height ratio level for predicting bleb absorption at 6 months was 7, with 89% sensitivity and 83% specificity. Conclusions Visual improvement may occur with late resolution of residual subfoveal fluid. A bleb width-to-height ratio >7 indicates a higher risk of SRF to persist beyond 6 months after surgery. PMID:26139048

  7. Considering photodynamic therapy as a therapeutic modality in selected cases of dome-shaped macula complicated by foveal serous retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arapi, Ilir; Neri, Piergiorgio; Mariotti, Cesare; Gesuita, Rosaria; Pirani, Vittorio; Freddo, Francesco; Lutaj, Pajtim; Giovannini, Alfonso

    2015-02-01

    To study the role of photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a therapeutic modality in myopic patients with dome-shaped macula (DSM) associated with foveal serous retinal detachment (SRD). Retrospective interventional case series. The medical records of 10 consecutive myopic patients (10 eyes) with DSM associated with subfoveal SRD and treated with PDT were reviewed. Visual gain and loss were considered as increasing or decreasing of two or more lines of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), respectively, and eyes with fluid resolution were deemed responsive to PDT. All eyes underwent several PDT treatments, with a median of three and a median follow-up time of 15.5 months. At final follow-up, six eyes (60%) showed complete resolution of the foveal SRD. The baseline hypocyanescent macular area observed during late indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) frames was significantly lower in the group of patients who responded to PDT and had an increase of at least two Snellen lines in BCVA (P = .01). Data suggest that myopic eyes associated with DSM and foveal SRD may be responsive to PDT, showing total resolution of fluid accumulation and positive BCVA changes if baseline ICGA findings show evidence of a limited hypocyanescent macular area. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Functional and Morphological Evaluation of Traumatized Eyes With Berlin's Edema Affecting the Macula Using mfERG, Microperimetry, and SD-OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Joseph Daniel; Tosi, Joaquin; Glybina, Inna; Tewari, Asheesh; Abrams, Gary W

    2017-02-01

    To describe the structural and functional changes that occur in traumatic Berlin's edema involving the macula through assessment with multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG), microperimetry, fundus photography, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Retrospective case series of five eyes from four patients with macular traumatic Berlin's edema. Patients underwent baseline mfERG (three eyes), MP1 microperimetry (three eyes), fundus photography (five eyes), and SD-OCT (five eyes). All eyes with Berlin's edema showed abnormal findings on baseline SD-OCT, including disruption and fragmentation of the inner segment/ outer segment layer. In two patients with unilateral blunt ocular trauma who underwent mfERG, there was complete loss of the foveal peak in affected eyes. All three eyes that underwent microperimetry showed depressed retinal sensitivity in the area of Berlin's edema. SD-OCT, microperimetry, and mfERG can be used to help diagnose, stratify traumatic severity, and follow structural and functional progression over time in patients with Berlin's edema. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:114-121.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Retinal vascular abnormalities and dragged maculae in a carrier with a new NDP mutation (c.268delC) that caused severe Norrie disease in the proband.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Phoebe; Shankar, Suma P; Duncan, Jacque; Slavotinek, Anne; Stone, Edwin M; Rutar, Tina

    2010-02-01

    Norrie disease (ND) is caused by mutations in the ND pseudoglioma (NDP) gene (MIM 300658) located at chromosome Xp11.4-p11.3. ND is characterized by abnormal retinal vascular development and vitreoretinal disorganization presenting at birth. Systemic manifestations include sensorineural deafness, progressive mental disorder, behavioral and psychological problems, growth failure, and seizures. Other vitreoretinopathies that are associated with NDP gene mutations include X-linked familial exudative vitreoretinopathy, Coats disease, persistent fetal vasculature, and retinopathy of prematurity. Phenotypic variability associated with NDP gene mutations has been well documented in affected male patients. However, there are limited data on signs in female carriers, with mild peripheral retinal abnormalities reported in both carrier and noncarrier females of families with NDP gene mutations. Here, we report a family harboring a single base-pair deletion, c.268delC, in the NDP gene causing a severe ND phenotype in the male proband and peripheral retinal vascular abnormalities with dragged maculae similar to those observed in familial exudative vitreoretinopathy in his carrier mother. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional histology of the macula flava in the human vocal fold--Part 1: its role in the adult vocal fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kiminori; Umeno, Hirohito; Nakashima, Tadashi

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to clarify the role of the maculae flavae (MFe) in the human adult vocal fold mucosa (VFM). Our current results concerning MFe in the human adult VFM are summarized. MFe were found to be composed of dense masses of vocal fold stellate cells (VFSCs) and extracellular matrices (EM), such as fibrous proteins and glycosaminoglycans, which are essential for the EM in the human VFM. VFSCs in the MFe demonstrated marked morphologic differences from conventional fibroblasts. They were irregular and stellate in shape and possessed slender cytoplasmic processes. They had well-developed intracellular organelles. A number of vesicles were present at the periphery of the cytoplasm. They constantly synthesized EM. The VFSCs possessed lipid droplets and stored vitamin A. VFSCs formed an independent cell category of cells in the human VFM. The VFSCs in aged adult MFe decreased their activity, and had abnormal metabolism. Human MFe including VFSCs seem to be involved in the metabolism of EM which are essential for the viscoelasticity of the lamina propria of the VFM, and to be responsible for maintaining the characteristic layered structure of the human VFM. Age-related changes in VFSCs were found to influence the metabolism of EM in the VFM. (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Functional histology of the macula flava in the human vocal fold--Part 2: Its role in the growth and development of the vocal fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kiminori; Umeno, Hirohito; Nakashima, Tadashi

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to clarify the role of the maculae flavae (MFe) during growth and development of the human vocal fold mucosa (VFM). Our current results concerning the MFe in the human newborn, infant, and child VFM are summarized. Newborns already had immature MFe at the same sites as adults. They were composed of dense masses of vocal fold stellate cells (VFSCs), whereas extracellular matrix components were sparse. VFSCs in the newborn MFe had already started synthesizing extracellular matrices (EM). During infancy, the EM synthesized in the MFe appeared in the VFM to initiate the formation of the three-dimensional extracellular matrix structure of the human VFM. During childhood, MFe including VFSCs continued to synthesize EM such as collagenous, reticular, and elastic fibers, and hyaluronic acid (glycosaminoglycan), which are essential for the human VFM as a vibrating tissue. The MFe in newborns, infants and children were related to the growth and development of the human VFM. Human MFe including VFSCs were inferred to be involved in the metabolism of EM, essential for the viscoelasticity of the human VFM, and are considered to be an important structure in the growth and development of the human VFM. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Características de qualidade do suco polposo de cajá (Spondias lutea L. obtido por extração mecânico-enzimática Quality characteristics of pulpy caja fruit juice (Spondias lutea L. obtained by enzymatic-mechanical extration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio de Pádua Valença DA SILVA

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Cajás (Spondias lutea L., oriundas do município de Maranguape (CE - Brasil, em estádio de plena maturação foram processadas em escala-piloto para obtenção de suco integral através do processo de extração mecânico-enzimática. O produto final foi analisado com relação as suas características físico-químicas bem quanto ao perfil sensorial após estocagem de 120 dias à temperatura ambiente (28°C. A polpa foi tratada com 120 ppm de enzimas pectinolíticas (Pectinex Ultra SP-L por 30 min, à temperatura de 25°C, o pH natural (2,98, seguido o processo mecânico de extração. Foi empregado como processo de preservação do suco integral o método "hot-fill" + aditivos. Segundo o ponto de vista estatístico as características físico-químicas permaneceram inalteradas ao longo de 120 dias, apresentando os seguintes valores médios: pH (2,78, sólidos solúveis (11,19 °Brix, acidez titulável total (1,46 g% de ácido cítrico, açúcares redutores (6,91 g% em glicose, taninos (77,36 mg% de ácido tânico, cor (0,125 em leitura de absorbância a 440 nm, pectina (0,12 g% em pectato de cálcio e viscosidade (10,8 cps. A análise sensorial classificou o suco polposo como de "boa" e "muito boa", sendo que as maiores médias couberam aos parâmetros aparência, cor e sabor.Caja fruit (Spondias lutea L. from Maranguape (Ceará-Brazil obtained at the full maturity stage were processed at a pilot-scale level with the purpose to obtain pulpy juice through enzymatic-mechanical process. The final product was analysed regarding physical-chemical characteristics as well as in relation to sensorial profile after 120 days of storage at room temperature (28°C. The pulp was treated by 120 ppm of pectinolytics enzymes (Pectinex Ultra SP-L during 30 minutes at 25°C, keeping natural pulp pH (2,98. The "hot-fill " + aditives were used as a preservation process for the pulpy juice. At a statistical point of view physical-chemical characteristics

  13. Automatic diagnosis of abnormal macula in retinal optical coherence tomography images using wavelet-based convolutional neural network features and random forests classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasti, Reza; Mehridehnavi, Alireza; Rabbani, Hossein; Hajizadeh, Fedra

    2018-03-01

    The present research intends to propose a fully automatic algorithm for the classification of three-dimensional (3-D) optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans of patients suffering from abnormal macula from normal candidates. The method proposed does not require any denoising, segmentation, retinal alignment processes to assess the intraretinal layers, as well as abnormalities or lesion structures. To classify abnormal cases from the control group, a two-stage scheme was utilized, which consists of automatic subsystems for adaptive feature learning and diagnostic scoring. In the first stage, a wavelet-based convolutional neural network (CNN) model was introduced and exploited to generate B-scan representative CNN codes in the spatial-frequency domain, and the cumulative features of 3-D volumes were extracted. In the second stage, the presence of abnormalities in 3-D OCTs was scored over the extracted features. Two different retinal SD-OCT datasets are used for evaluation of the algorithm based on the unbiased fivefold cross-validation (CV) approach. The first set constitutes 3-D OCT images of 30 normal subjects and 30 diabetic macular edema (DME) patients captured from the Topcon device. The second publicly available set consists of 45 subjects with a distribution of 15 patients in age-related macular degeneration, DME, and normal classes from the Heidelberg device. With the application of the algorithm on overall OCT volumes and 10 repetitions of the fivefold CV, the proposed scheme obtained an average precision of 99.33% on dataset1 as a two-class classification problem and 98.67% on dataset2 as a three-class classification task.

  14. Automatic diagnosis of abnormal macula in retinal optical coherence tomography images using wavelet-based convolutional neural network features and random forests classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasti, Reza; Mehridehnavi, Alireza; Rabbani, Hossein; Hajizadeh, Fedra

    2018-03-01

    The present research intends to propose a fully automatic algorithm for the classification of three-dimensional (3-D) optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans of patients suffering from abnormal macula from normal candidates. The method proposed does not require any denoising, segmentation, retinal alignment processes to assess the intraretinal layers, as well as abnormalities or lesion structures. To classify abnormal cases from the control group, a two-stage scheme was utilized, which consists of automatic subsystems for adaptive feature learning and diagnostic scoring. In the first stage, a wavelet-based convolutional neural network (CNN) model was introduced and exploited to generate B-scan representative CNN codes in the spatial-frequency domain, and the cumulative features of 3-D volumes were extracted. In the second stage, the presence of abnormalities in 3-D OCTs was scored over the extracted features. Two different retinal SD-OCT datasets are used for evaluation of the algorithm based on the unbiased fivefold cross-validation (CV) approach. The first set constitutes 3-D OCT images of 30 normal subjects and 30 diabetic macular edema (DME) patients captured from the Topcon device. The second publicly available set consists of 45 subjects with a distribution of 15 patients in age-related macular degeneration, DME, and normal classes from the Heidelberg device. With the application of the algorithm on overall OCT volumes and 10 repetitions of the fivefold CV, the proposed scheme obtained an average precision of 99.33% on dataset1 as a two-class classification problem and 98.67% on dataset2 as a three-class classification task. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  15. Comparison of the efficacy of intravitreal ranibizumab for choroidal neovascularization due to pathological myopia with and without a dome-shaped macula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bincui; Yang, Jin; Li, Shuang; Wang, Linni; Chen, Lu; Li, Xiaorong; Li, Zhiqing

    2017-12-01

    Ranibizumab injection in the treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to pathologic myopia (PM) with and without a dome-shaped macula (DSM).Prospective observational study.A total of 24 patients (24 eyes) with angiographic evidence of CNV secondary to PM were divided into 2 groups: eyes with a DSM and eyes without DSM. All patients received a baseline intravitreal ranibizumab injection. Additional injections were considered at each follow-up visit. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and optical coherence tomography were tested monthly through 12 months of follow-up. The mean changes in BCVA, central retinal thickness (CRT, including retinal and CNV thickness), and the number of injections were evaluated.There were no significant differences in visual outcomes between the groups over 12 months (P > .05). Patients with a DSM had a mean change in BCVA of +8.7 letters compared with +14.2 letters in patients without a DSM (P = .68). However, there were more patients without a DSM who gained at least 15 letters from baseline compared with patients with a DSM. By the end of the follow-up, there was no significant difference in the mean change in baseline CRT between patients with and without a DSM (-65.0 and -90.7, respectively, P = .42). The mean number of injections was 8.83 in the patients with DSM and 8.17 in the patients without a DSM (P > .05).For the pathological myopia patients who had CNV with a DSM, the DSM did not alter the effect of the ranibizumab treatment. There was no difference in the visual improvement, anatomic benefit and number of treatments between the 2 groups. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reference interval for the disc-macula distance to disc diameter ratio in a large population of healthy Japanese adults: A prospective, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ken-Ichi

    2017-04-01

    This study presents the calculated reference interval for the disc-to-macula distance to disc diameter ratio (DM:DD) based on a large population of healthy Japanese adults.A total of 308 consecutive, healthy Japanese adults were examined in this prospective observational study. Eighteen subjects were also excluded because of poor quality of the fundus photograph of one or both eyes; 290 (161 men and 129 women) were included in this study. For each subject, a color fundus photograph of one eye, either the right or left, was randomly selected and used for analysis. On the photograph, the distances between the fovea and the nearest temporal margin of the optic disc (Dft), and the two kinds of disc diameters (D1 and D2), which bisected at right angles and one of which was directed to the fovea (D1), were measured. DM:DD was estimated using the formula: (2Dft + D1)/(D1 + D2).The mean ± standard deviation of DM:DD was 2.91 ± 0.49 for men and 2.96 ± 0.54 for women; there was no sex difference (P = .78, Mann-Whitney U test). Also, almost no relationship was found between DM:DD and age (ρ = -.12, P = .04, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient). The data did not fit a normal distribution (P < .001, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test). The estimated reference interval for DM:DD corresponding to the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles was 2.12 to 4.18.Using a nonparametric approach, the reference interval for DM:DD of a large population of healthy Japanese adults was calculated to be 2.12 to 4.18, regardless of age or sex.

  17. Varroa destructor Macula-like virus, Lake Sinai virus and other new RNA viruses in wild bumblebee hosts (Bombus pascuorum, Bombus lapidarius and Bombus pratorum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, Laurian; Smagghe, Guy; de Graaf, Dirk C; Meeus, Ivan

    2016-02-01

    Pollinators such as bumblebees (Bombus spp.) are in decline worldwide which poses a threat not only for ecosystem biodiversity but also to human crop production services. One main cause of pollinator decline may be the infection and transmission of diseases including RNA viruses. Recently, new viruses have been discovered in honeybees, but information on the presence of these in wild bumblebees is largely not available. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of new RNA viruses in Bombus species, and can report for the first time Varroa destructor Macula-like virus (VdMLV) and Lake Sinai virus (LSV) infection in multiple wild bumblebee hosts of Bombus pascuorum, Bombus lapidarius and Bombus pratorum. We sampled in 4 locations in Flanders, Belgium. Besides, we confirmed Slow bee paralysis virus (SBPV) in wild bumblebees, but no positive samples were obtained for Big Sioux river virus (BSRV). Secondly, we screened for the influence of apiaries on the prevalence of these viruses. Our results indicated a location effect for the prevalence of VdMLV in Bombus species, with a higher prevalence in the proximity of honeybee apiaries mainly observed in one location. For LSV, the prevalence was not different in the proximity or at a 1.5 km-distance of apiaries, but we reported a different isolate with similarities to LSV-2 and "LSV-clade A" as described by Ravoet et al. (2015), which was detected both in Apis mellifera and Bombus species. In general, our results indicate the existence of a disease pool of new viruses that seems to be associated to a broad range of Apoidae hosts, including multiple Bombus species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer and retinal nerve fibre layer changes within the macula in retinitis pigmentosa: a spectral domain optical coherence tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Chang Ki; Yu, Hyeong Gon

    2018-03-01

    To investigate how macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) and retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thicknesses within the macula change with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) severity. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was used to examine 177 patients with RP and 177 normal controls. An optical coherence tomography (OCT) line scan was used to grade RP severity. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) was categorized as more advanced if there was no identifiable inner segment ellipsoid (ISe) band (NISE) and as less advanced if an ISe band could be identified and peripheral loss of ISe was apparent (IISE). Ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) and RNFL thicknesses were manually measured on OCT images and analysed. Pearson's correlation analyses were used to examine correlations between GCIPL thickness, RNFL thickness, visual acuity (VA) and visual field extent in patients and controls. Ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) was significantly thicker in IISE than in control eyes (p layer (RNFL) was significantly thicker in eyes with IISE and NISE than in control eyes in both horizontal and vertical meridians (all p layer (GCIPL) thickness showed a weak positive correlation with vision, and RNFL thickness showed a weak negative correlation with vision and visual field extent. Based on these results, the inner retina, including the GCIPL and RNFL, maintains its gross integrity longer than the photoreceptor layer in RP. Additionally, thickening of the inner retina may have some functional implications in patients with RP. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Farklı ekim zamanı ve uygulamaların Censiyan (Gentiana lutea subs. symphyandra) tohumlarının çıkış gücü üzerine etkilerinin belirlenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    ERKEN, Serdar; KALECİ, Nilüfer

    2014-01-01

    Bu çalışma Türkiye’de nadir yayılış gösteren ve nesli tehlike altında olan Censiyan (Gentiana lutea subs.symphyandra) tohumlarının çoğaltılabilme imkanlarının araştırılması amacıyla 2009-2010 yılları arasında Yalova Atatürk Bahçe Kültürleri Merkez Araştırma Enstitüsü’nde yürütülmüştür. Çalışmada, ısıtmasız sera koşullarında farklı tarihlerde ekilen ve farklı ön uygulama yapılan tohumların çıkış gücü ile + 1 ºC’de farklı sürelerde nemli katlamaya tabi tutulan ve farklı dönemlerde ekilen tohuml...

  20. Tomaculocystis corpulenta n. gen., n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinorida) parasitizing the little yellow cockroach, Cariblatta lutea (Blattodea: Ectobiidae), in Alabama and Florida with recognition of Tomaculocystis cylindrosa n. comb. and Tomaculocystis mukundai n. comb. parasitizing ectobiid cockroaches in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clopton, Richard E

    2015-02-01

    Tomaculocystis corpulenta n. gen., n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinorida: Septatorina: Gregarinidae) is described from populations of the little yellow cockroach, Cariblatta lutea (Blattodea: Ectobiidae), established in laboratory culture from samples collected in Alabama and Florida. Tomaculocystis n. gen. are differentiated from other members of Gregarina by a markedly elliptoid gametocyst inside a persistent, lomentiform hyaline epicyst; developmental organization and growth of the spore tubes from gametocyst surface tumidi; and dehiscence by extrusion of non-chain forming oocysts through spore tubes that barely extend beyond the epicyst wall. Gregarina cylindrosa, Gregarina discocephala, and Gregarina mukundai are recognized as members of Tomaculocystis, and G. cylindrosa is recognized as the senior synonym of G. discocephala. Thus, Tomaculocystis cylindrosa n. comb. and Tomaculocystis mukundai n. comb. are formed. Species of Tomaculocystis are distinguished based on gamont deutomerite and oocyst shape and size. The oocysts of T. corpulenta are broadly dolioform, lack 4 polar knobs, and possess distinct, unique polar plates. Oocysts of all other known species in the genus are more oblong in shape, possess 4 polar knobs, and lack the distinct polar plates observed in the oocysts of T. corpulenta. Host utilization and geographic distribution among gregarine genera parasitizing the cockroach family Ectobiidae reveal a pattern of host-parasite specificity linking gregarine genera with ectobiidid subfamilies. Overall patterns suggest a hypothesis of European endemicy for Gamocystis, but hypotheses for the origin and radiation of Tomaculocystis or species of Gregarina infecting cockroaches are confounded by the cosmopolitan spread of pest cockroach species among humans.

  1. THICKNESS OF THE MACULA, RETINAL NERVE FIBER LAYER, AND GANGLION CELL-INNER PLEXIFORM LAYER IN THE AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION: The Repeatability Study of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Il-Hwan; Lee, Woo-Hyuk; Lee, Jong-Joo; Jo, Young-Joon; Kim, Jung-Yeul

    2018-02-01

    To determine the repeatability of measuring the thickness of the central macula, retinal nerve fiber layer, and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (Cirrus HD-OCT) in eyes with age-related macular degeneration. One hundred and thirty-four eyes were included. The measurement repeatability was assessed by an experienced examiner who performed two consecutive measurements using a 512 × 128 macular cube scan and a 200 × 200 optic disk cube scan. To assess changes in macular morphology in patients with age-related macular degeneration, the patients were divided into the following three groups according to the central macular thickness (CMT): A group, CMT 300 μm. Measurement repeatability was assessed using test-retest variability, a coefficient of variation, and an intraclass correlation coefficient. The mean measurement repeatability for the central macular, retinal nerve fiber layer, and GC-IPL thickness was high in the B group. The mean measurement repeatability for both the central macula and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness was high in the A and C groups, but was lower for the GC-IPL thickness. The measurement repeatability for GC-IPL thickness was high in the B group, but low in the A group and in the C group. The automated measurement repeatability for GC-IPL thickness was significantly lower in patients with age-related macular degeneration with out of normal CMT range. The effect of changes in macular morphology should be considered when analyzing GC-IPL thicknesses in a variety of ocular diseases.

  2. variation in maize tolerance to Striga lutea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uwaifoh

    2012-03-30

    Mar 30, 2012 ... Uninoculated and uninfested in pots and plots served as control. ... Its productions in the savanna ecologies are threatened by striga parasitic weeds which cause between ... some of which are non-biodegradable and toxic.

  3. Plant Guide: Yellow beeplant (Cleome lutea Hook)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek Tilley; Jim Cane; Loren St. John; Dan Ogle; Nancy Shaw

    2012-01-01

    Yellow beeplant is a valuable native forage species for bees wasps and butterflies. Over 140 species of native bees have been observed foraging for nectar or pollen on yellow beeplant in southern Utah (Cane, 2008). Yellow beeplant is an annual forb which could provide food to insects in the first growing season of a range seeding (Ogle and others, 2011a). This...

  4. Age-related macular disease : studies on incidence, risk factors, and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Leeuwen (Redmer)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAge-related macular disease (AMD) is a new name, recently coined by Bird,25 for a progressive and degenerative disease in elderly persons affecting the macula lutea. Dysfunction of this part of the retina, and especially its centre, the fovea, results in the inability to read,

  5. Age-related maculopathy: A genetic and epidemiological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.M. Willemse-Assink (Jacqueline)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn the 19th century, age-related maculopathy (ARM) was described for the first time as an agerelated abnormality of the macula lutea. ARM consists of a variety of clinical signs, from the early stages with soft distinct drusen, indistinct drusen and pigment alterations up to the late

  6. Age-Related Maculopathy: a biochemical and immunohistochemical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kliffen (Mike)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractAge-related maculopathy (ARM) is an age-related degenerative disorder of the central part of the retina, the macula lutea (yellow spot). Essentially, ARM is a clinical diagnosis based on funduscopical changes. It is customary nowadays to call the late stages of ARM, geographic atrophy

  7. Scanning the macula for detecting glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viquar U Begum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the advent of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT, there has been a renewed interest in macular region for detection of glaucoma. However, most macular SDOCT parameters currently are thickness parameters which evaluate thinning of the macular layers but do not quantify the extent of area over which the thinning has occurred. We therefore calculated a new macular parameter, "ganglion cell complex surface abnormality ratio (GCC SAR" that represented the surface area over which the macular thickness was decreased. Purpose: To evaluate the ability of SAR in detecting perimetric and preperimetric glaucoma. Design: Retrospective image analysis. Materials and Methods: 68 eyes with perimetric glaucoma, 62 eyes with preperimetric glaucoma and 165 control eyes underwent GCC imaging with SDOCT. SAR was calculated as the ratio of the abnormal to total area on the GCC significance map. Statistical Analysis: Diagnostic ability of SAR in glaucoma was compared against that of the standard parameters generated by the SDOCT software using area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC and sensitivities at fixed specificities. Results: AUC of SAR (0.91 was statistically significantly better than that of GCC average thickness (0.86, P = 0.001 and GCC global loss volume (GLV; 0.88, P = 0.01 in differentiating perimetric glaucoma from control eyes. In differentiating preperimetric glaucoma from control eyes, AUC of SAR (0.72 was comparable to that of GCC average thickness (0.70, P > 0.05 and GLV (0.72, P > 0.05. Sensitivities at specificities of 80% and 95% of SAR were comparable (P > 0.05 for all comparisons to that of GCC average thickness and GLV in diagnosing perimetric and preperimetric glaucoma. Conclusion: GCC SAR had a better ability to diagnose perimetric glaucoma compared to the SDOCT software provided global GCC parameters. However, in diagnosing preperimetric glaucoma, the ability of SAR was similar to that of software provided global GCC parameters.

  8. Descolamento regmatogênico de retina: avaliação pós-operatória da mácula Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: a postoperative study of the macula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otacílio de Oliveira Maia Júnior

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar função e estrutura macular de pacientes submetidos a cirurgia de descolamento regmatogênico da retina. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo de pacientes submetidos a retinopexia pneumática ou introflexão escleral com seguimento feito por meio de exame oftalmológico completo e tomografia de coerência óptica. RESULTADOS: A amostra foi composta por 14 olhos (14 pacientes, sendo 10 (71,4% submetidos a introflexão escleral e 4 (28,6%, a retinopexia pneumática. A idade variou entre 24 e 59 anos, média de 39,3 anos. Houve correlações negativas entre a acuidade visual final e a idade (r= -0,64 e p= 0,0127 e entre a acuidade visual final e o tempo de descolamento (r= -0,54 e p= 0,0447. Houve correlação positiva entre as acuidades visual do seguimento inicial e final (r= 0,69 e p= 0,0059. Na tomografia de coerência óptica, quatro olhos (28,6% apresentaram descolamento residual na fóvea, com resolução espontânea e melhora na acuidade visual (p= 0,031; não houve relação entre tempo de resolução e acuidade final (p= 0,5546. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados mostram que quanto mais jovem o paciente e mais precoce a intervenção cirúrgica, melhor acuidade visual final. Adicionalmente, quanto maior acuidade no início do pós-operatório, melhor acuidade final. Todos os casos de descolamento foveal evidenciados por meio da tomografia de coerência óptica, no pós-operatório, cursaram com reabsorção do líquido subfoveal e melhora da visão.PURPOSE: To evaluate the structure and function of the macula following rhegmatogenous retinal detachment surgery. METHODS: Prospective study of patients submitted to scleral buckle surgery or pneumatic retinopexy. The follow-up comprised a complete ophthalmologic exam and optical coherence tomography. RESULTS: The sample was composed of 14 eyes (14 patients, 71.4% operated with the scleral buckle technique, and 28.6% with the pneumatic retinopexy. The age range was from 24 to 59 years (mean

  9. State of the eyes in welders of Division M-5, Brown Coal Mine in Belchatow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gos, R.; Stepien, J.; Horowski, P.

    1984-01-01

    Sight organ impairments have been compared in a group of M-5 Division welders, Brown Coal Mine in Belchatow, and control group of randomly selected administration workers. In the group of welders statistically more frequent were degenerative changes in the eye macula, melanomatosis and conjunctivitis. Those with changes in the area of the macua lutea and melanosis conjunctivae should undergo periodic ophthalmological control (dispensary groups).

  10. Corpora lutea in superovulated ewes fed different planes of nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraisoon, A; Redmer, D A; Bass, C S; Navanukraw, C; Dorsam, S T; Valkov, V; Reyaz, A; Grazul-Bilska, A T

    2018-01-01

    The corpus luteum (CL) is an ovarian structure which is critical for the maintenance of reproductive cyclicity and pregnancy support. Diet and/or diet components may affect some luteal functions. FSH is widely used to induce multiple follicle development and superovulation. We hypothesized that FSH would affect luteal function in ewes fed different nutritional planes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if FSH-treatment affects (1) ovulation rate; (2) CL weight; (3) cell proliferation; (4) vascularity; (5) expression of endothelial nitric oxide (eNOS) and soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) proteins; and (6) luteal and serum progesterone (P4) concentration in control (C), overfed (O), and underfed (U) ewes at the early- and mid-luteal phases. In addition, data generated from this study were compared to data obtained from nonsuperovulated sheep and described by Bass et al. Ewes were categorized by weight and randomly assigned into nutrition groups: C (2.14 Mcal/kg; n = 11), O (2xC; n = 12), and U (0.6xC; n = 11). Nutritional treatment was initiated 60 d prior to day 0 of the estrous cycle. Ewes were injected with FSH on day 13-15 of the first estrous cycle, and blood samples and ovaries were collected at early- and mid-luteal phases of the second estrous cycle. The number of CL/ewe was determined, and CL was dissected and weighed. CL was fixed for evaluation of expression of Ki67 (a proliferating cell marker), CD31 (an endothelial cell marker), and eNOS and sGC proteins using immunohistochemistry and image analysis. From day 0 until tissue collection, C maintained, O gained, and U lost body weight. The CL number was greater (P ewes; however, concentration of P4 in luteal tissues was similar in both groups. Thus, in superovulated ewes, luteal cell proliferation and vascularity, expression of eNOS, and serum P4 concentration depend on the stage of luteal development, but not diet. Comparison to control ewes demonstrated several differences and some similarities in luteal functions after FSH-induced superovulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Porites lutea climate record from Sodwana Bay, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An overall decrease in coral growth rate was seen over this period, possibly linked to global temperature and acidification trends. ... The insignificant ocean warming recorded in the coral supports the existence of a local, self-regulating, cold-water upwelling system from the adjacent shelf break and canyons that is ...

  12. Parasitic mycobiota of yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Snežana Đ.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycopopulation of yellow gentian growing in plantations was studied in 2008 and 2009. Fourteen species of fungi were registered at seed, out of which five were pathogenic. The most common species was Alternaria alternata (72-74 %. Species of the genus Fusarium (F. oxysporum, F. solani and F. equiseti were present in a small percentage (2-6 %. These species, as well as F. verticillioides, were isolated from root, and Fusarium sp. was isolated from the flowers. Alternaria alternate, Epicoccum purpurescens, Phoma sp. and Alternaria sp. were regularly present on the leaves and stems.

  13. Antidiarrheal Mechanism And Ionic Profile Of Carpolobia Lutea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The HPLC fingerprint of ESE revealed UV spectra of biomolecules. Phytochemical screening revealed presence of saponins, polyphenols and glycosides. Conclusion: These investigations indicate presence of bioactive and elemental substances which could play major role in diarrheal management. This investigation ...

  14. Effect of ethanolic extract of Carpolobia lutea G. Don (polygalaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    (polygalaceae) root on learning and memory in CD1 mice ... of Human Physiology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria,2Department of Psychology and .... contribute in reducing the dearth of knowledge in this area. ... Experimental animals.

  15. Effect of ethanolic extract of Carpolobia lutea G. Don (polygalaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the extract on cognitive memory was investigated using the Novel Object recognition task (NORT) while the effect on visuospatial learning and memory was studied using the Morris Water maze (MWM). The results obtained in the NORT show that the index of habituation was significantly lower following acute ...

  16. Furosemide stimulates macula densa cyclooxygenase-2 expression in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Birgitte; Hartner, A; Jensen, B L

    2001-01-01

    of the loop diuretic furosemide (12 mg/day) or were fed with the diuretic hydrochlorothiazide (30 mg/kg day) for seven days each. To compensate for their salt and water loss, the animals had free access to normal water and to salt water (0.9% NaCl, 0.1% KCl). COX-2 expression in kidney cortex was assessed...

  17. Environmental and genetic risk factors for aging macula disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Boekhoorn (Sharmila)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWhat’s in a name? Since the first description of age-related macular degeneration in 1874 as “Symmetrical central choroido-retinal disease occurring in senile persons”, 1 over 20 different names have been given to this disorder, often reflecting the pathophysiological thinking at a

  18. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of macula in myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choovuthayakorn, Janejit; Laowong, Taksaorn; Watanachai, Nawat; Patikulsila, Direk; Chaikitmongkol, Voraporn

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the associations between regional macular thickness and gender, age, axial length, and degree of myopia in young and middle-aged healthy myopic eyes. One hundred and seventy-one subjects with -0.5 diopters of myopia or worse underwent prospective macular thickness measurement by Spectralis spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Subjects' mean age was 32.40 ± 8.25 years (range 18 to 49 years), with 45 % being male. The mean degree of myopia was -4.57 ± 3.52 diopters, with a mean axial length of 25.09 ± 1.67 mm. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated significantly thicker central (mean 9.13 µm thicker) and inner subfields (mean 8.55 µm thicker) in males (P values were <0.001 and 0.002, respectively). In addition, in both genders, for each millimeter of increased axial length, the central subfield thickness increased by 2.11 µm, the inner subfield decreased by 2.25 µm, and the outer subfield decreased by 3.62 µm (P values were 0.010, <0.001, and <0.001, respectively). Factors including gender and axial length affect baseline regional macular thickness in young and middle-age myopic subjects. The central subfield and inner subfield were affected by both gender and axial length, while the outer subfield was affected only by axial length. The macular thickness of myopic subjects with macular disease should be interpreted in light of these factors.

  19. Nondamaging Retinal Laser Therapy: Rationale and Applications to the Macula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavinsky, Daniel; Wang, Jenny; Huie, Philip; Dalal, Roopa; Lee, Seung Jun; Lee, Dae Yeong; Palanker, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Retinal photocoagulation and nondamaging laser therapy are used for treatment of macular disorders, without understanding of the response mechanism and with no rationale for dosimetry. To establish a proper titration algorithm, we measured the range of tissue response and damage threshold. We then evaluated safety and efficacy of nondamaging retinal therapy (NRT) based on this algorithm for chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) and macular telangiectasia (MacTel). Retinal response to laser treatment below damage threshold was assessed in pigmented rabbits by expression of the heat shock protein HSP70 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Energy was adjusted relative to visible titration using the Endpoint Management (EpM) algorithm. In clinical studies, 21 eyes with CSCR and 10 eyes with MacTel were treated at 30% EpM energy with high spot density (0.25-diameter spacing). Visual acuity, retinal and choroidal thickness, and subretinal fluid were monitored for 1 year. At 25% EpM energy and higher, HSP70 was expressed acutely in RPE, and GFAP upregulation in Müller cells was observed at 1 month. Damage appeared starting at 40% setting. Subretinal fluid resolved completely in 81% and partially in 19% of the CSCR patients, and visual acuity improved by 12 ± 3 letters. Lacunae in the majority of MacTel patients decreased while preserving the retinal thickness, and vision improved by 10 letters. Heat shock protein expression in response to hyperthermia helps define the therapeutic window for NRT. Lack of tissue damage enables high-density treatment to boost clinical efficacy, therapy in the fovea, and retreatments to manage chronic diseases.

  20. Evaluation of the macula prior to cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeague, Marta; Sharma, Priya; Ho, Allen C

    2018-01-01

    To describe recent evidence regarding methods of evaluation of retinal structure and function prior to cataract surgery. Studies in patients with cataract but no clinically detectable retinal disease have shown that routine use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) prior to cataract surgery can detect subtle macular disease, which may alter the course of treatment or lead to modification of consent. The routine use of OCT has been especially useful in patients being considered for advanced-technology intraocular lenses (IOLs) as subtle macular disease can be a contraindication to the use of these lenses. The cost-effectiveness of routine use of OCT prior to cataract surgery has not been studied. Other technologies that assess retinal function rather than structure, such as microperimetry and electroretinogram (ERG) need further study to determine whether they can predict retinal potential in cataract patients. There is growing evidence for the importance of more detailed retinal evaluation of cataract patients even with clinically normal exam. OCT has been the most established and studied method for retinal evaluation in cataract patients, but other technologies such as microperimetry and ERG are beginning to be studied.

  1. Selección natural sobre a cor das flores de Gentiana lutea L.

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga Blanco, Tania

    2015-01-01

    A variación floral dentro dunha de especie pode resultar da variación espacial nos axentes de selección. A cor floral podería variar pola selección dos animais que se alimentan das plantas. Os polinizadores poderían exercer selección natural sobre a cor, si a cor inflúe na eficacia do consumo. Outros axentes de selección, como os predadores de sementes, poderían seleccionar sobre a cor, si a cor indica recursos alimentarios (sementes) ou si a cor está relacionada con defensas químicas. Así, a...

  2. 75 FR 11080 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Carex lutea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ..., commercial, or industrial development; mining, drainage for silviculture and agriculture; highway expansion... alteration; conversion of its limited habitat for residential, commercial, or industrial development; mining... conversion of habitat for residential, commercial, or industrial development can change the topography, soils...

  3. 76 FR 11086 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Carex lutea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... industrial development; mining; drainage for silviculture and agriculture; highway expansion; and herbicide... alteration; conversion of its limited habitat for residential, commercial, or industrial development; mining... development can change the topography, soils, and general character of the site, making it uninhabitable for...

  4. Transition Metal Chelator Induces Progesterone Production in Mouse Cumulus-Oocyte Complexes and Corpora Lutea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X; Anthony, K; Diaz, Francisco J

    2017-04-01

    Progesterone production is upregulated in granulosa cells (cumulus and mural) after the LH surge, but the intra-follicular mechanisms regulating this transition are not completely known. Recent findings show that the transition metal chelator, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl)-ethylenediamine (TPEN), impairs ovarian function. In this study, we provide evidence that chelating transition metals, including zinc, enhances progesterone production. The findings show that TPEN (transition metal chelator) increases abundance of Cyp11a1 and Star messenger RNA (mRNA) between 8- and 20-fold and progesterone production more than 3-fold in cultured cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC). Feeding a zinc-deficient diet for 10 days, but not 3 days, increased Star, Hsd3b, and prostaglandin F2 alpha receptor (Ptgfr) mRNA ~2.5-fold, suggesting that the effect of TPEN is through modulation of zinc availability. Progesterone from cumulus cells promotes oocyte developmental potential. Blocking progesterone production with epostane during maturation reduced subsequent blastocyst formation from 89 % in control to 18 % in epostane-treated complexes, but supplementation with progesterone restored blastocyst developmental potential to 94 %. Feeding a zinc-deficient diet for 5 days before ovulation did not affect the number of CL, STAR protein, or serum progesterone. However, incubating luteal tissue with TPEN increased abundance of Star, Hsd3b, and Ptgfr mRNA 2-3-fold and increased progesterone production 3-fold. TPEN is known to abolish SMAD2/3 signaling in cumulus cells. However, treatment of COC with the SMAD2/3 phosphorylation inhibitor, SB421542, did not by itself induce steroidogenic transcripts but did potentiate EGF-induced Star mRNA expression. Collectively, the results show that depletion of transition metals with TPEN acutely enhances progesterone biosynthesis in COC and luteal tissue.

  5. Microencapsulated bitter compounds (from Gentiana lutea) reduce daily energy intakes in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennella, Ilario; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Ferracane, Rosalia; Arlorio, Marco; Pattarino, Franco; Vitaglione, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence showed that bitter-tasting compounds modulate eating behaviour through bitter taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. This study aimed at evaluating the influence of microencapsulated bitter compounds on human appetite and energy intakes. A microencapsulated bitter

  6. Pink-line syndrome, a physiological crisis in the scleractinian coral Porites lutea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran, J.; Raghukumar, C.

    the night and oxidative stress during the day due to the evolution of reactive nascent oxygen by the cyanobacterial photosynthesis. Therefore, in order to stop the photosynthetic processes in the cyanobacterial cells, the photosynthetic inhibitor, 3... and increase in numbers. 15 The subsequent increase in photosynthesis by the increased number of symbionts possibly causes oxidative stress to the host cell. The host is induced to produce defense enzyme such as superoxide dismutase, catalase...

  7. PROFIL PROTEIN HIPOFISA SAPI PERAH PERANAKAN FRIES HOLLAND (PFH BETINA FASE FOLIKULER DAN LUTEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Isnaini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK   Penelitian dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui profil protein hipofisa sapi perah PFH betina fase folikuler dan fase luteal dengan menggunakan metode SDS-PAGE. Hasil penelitian ini diharapkan dapat digunakan sebagai acuan untuk melaksanakan pengujian jenis protein tertentu yang terdapat dalam hipofisa sapi perah PFH.Materi yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah hipofisa sapi perah PFH betina Fase Folikuler dan Fase Luteal. Sampel hipofisa didapatkan dari Rumah Potong Hewan (RPH Singosari Malang. Metode penelitian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode observasi. Dimana sampel hipofisa sapi perah PFH fase folikuler dan fase luteal dilakukan isolasi protein, dan ditentukan Berat Molekul (BM proteinnya. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis diskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa profil protein hipofisa fase folikuler dan fase luteal sapi perah PFH memiliki perbedaan. Pada hipofisa fase folikuler memiliki 12 pita protein, yaitu 163; 112,3; 101,3; 85,8; 80,6; 71,2; 53,3; 45,2; 39,9; 32,4; 29,8; dan 24,8 kDa. Pada hipofisa fase luteal memiliki 12 pita protein, yaitu 163; 112,3; 101,3; 85,8; 71,2; 60,3; 53,3; 45,2; 39,9; 32,4; 29,8; dan 24,8 kDa. Pita protein yang membedakan adalah pita dengan berat molekul 80,6 kDa hanya terdapat pada hipofisa fase folikuler, dan pita dengan berat molekul 60,3 kDa hanya terdapat pada hipofisa fase luteal. Kesimpulan yang diperoleh dari penelitian ini adalah terdapat perbedaan profil protein yang dihasilkan pada hipofisa fase folikuler dengan hipofisa fase luteal. Saran yang diberikan adalah perlu dilakukan penelitian lanjutan yaitu uji immunoblothing atau westernblothing (WB untuk memastikan keberadaan  protein-protein tertentu.   Kata kunci: Hipofisa, folikuler, luteal, berat molekul protein. HIPOPHISIS PROTEIN PROFILE OF CROSSBREED FRIESH HOLLAND DAIRY CATTLE IN FOLLICULAR AND LUTEAL PHASE   ABSTRACT   The aim of this research was to identification of hipophisis protein profile of  crossbreed friesh holland dairy cattle follicular and luteal phase by SDS-PAGE method. The result of this research is expected can be used as reference for the examination of a existing certain protein type in hipophisis of crossbreed friesh holland dairy cattle. The material in this research was hipophisis of crossbreed friesh holland dairy cattle follicular phase and luteal phase, taken away from House of Animal Slaughtering Singosari Malang. The method used in this research was observation. Hipophisis sample of crossbreed friesh holland dairy cattle follicular phase and luteal phase was conducted protein isolation and determine weight protein molecule. The data were analysed with descriptive analysis. The result of this research indicate that hipophisis protein profile follicular phase and luteal phase of crossbreed friesh holland dairy cattle have difference. In hipophisis follicular phase have 12 protein bands, there were: 163; 112,3; 101,3; 85,8; 80,6; 71,2; 53,3; 45,2; 39,9; 32,4; 29,8 and 24,8 kDa. In hipophisis luteal phase have 12 protein bands, there were: 163; 112,3; 101,3; 85,8; 71,2; 60,3; 53,3; 45,2; 39,9; 32,4; 29,8 and 24,8 kDa. Weight protein molecule 80,6 kDa just in hipophisis follicular phase, and weight protein molecule 60,3 kDa just in hipophisis luteal phase.The conclusion this research a protein profile hipophisis follicular phase difference with a protein profile hipophisis luteal phase of crossbreed friesh holland dairy cattle. In suggestion  to do an extended research by immunoblothing or westernblothing (WB to make sure a certain protein.   Keywords: Hipophisis, follicular, luteal, weight protein molecule

  8. Demequina lutea sp. nov., isolated from a high Arctic permafrost soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finster, Kai; Herbert, Rodney Andrew; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup

    2009-01-01

    Two Gram-stain-positive, pigmented, non-motile, non-spore-forming, pleomorphic, rod-shaped bacteria (strains SV45T and SV47), isolated from a permafrost soil collected from the Adventdalen valley, Spitsbergen, northern Norway, have been characterized taxonomically using a polyphasic approach...

  9. 75 FR 45592 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Carex lutea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ....m. Eastern Daylight Savings Time on this date. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments by one of the..., at that time, we deferred proposal of critical habitat due to budgetary and workload constraints. On..., it is extremely likely that this subpopulation was present at the time of listing. The area where the...

  10. Molecular characterization and expression of DERL1 in bovine ovarian follicles and corpora lutea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lussier Jacques G

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The endoplasmic reticulum (ER is a major site of protein synthesis and facilitates the folding and assembly of newly synthesized proteins. Misfolded proteins are retrotranslocated across the ER membrane and destroyed at the proteasome. DERL1 is an important protein involved in the retrotranslocation and degradation of a subset of misfolded proteins from the ER. We characterized a 2617 bp cDNA from bovine granulosa cells that corresponded to bovine DERL1. Two transcripts of 3 and 2.6 kb were detected by Northern blot analysis, and showed variations in expression among tissues. During follicular development, DERL1 expression was greater in day 5 dominant follicles compared to small follicles, ovulatory follicles, or corpus luteum (CL. Within the CL, DERL1 mRNA expression was intermediate in midcycle, and lowest in late cycle as compared to early in the estrous cycle. Western blot analyses demonstrated the presence of DERL1 in the bovine CL at days 5, 11, and 18 of the estrous cycle. Co-immunoprecipitation using luteal tissues showed that DERL1 interacts with class I MHC but not with VIMP or p97 ATPase. The interaction between DERL1 and MHC I suggests that, in the CL, DERL1 may regulate the integrity of MHC I molecules that are transported to the ER membrane. Furthermore, the greater expression of DERL1 mRNA is associated with the active follicular development and early luteal stages, suggesting a role of DERL1 in tissue remodeling events and maintenance of function in reproductive tissues.

  11. Lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin: The basic and clinical science underlying carotenoid-based nutritional interventions against ocular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Paul S; Li, Binxing; Vachali, Preejith P; Gorusupudi, Aruna; Shyam, Rajalekshmy; Henriksen, Bradley S; Nolan, John M

    2016-01-01

    The human macula uniquely concentrates three carotenoids: lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin. Lutein and zeaxanthin must be obtained from dietary sources such as green leafy vegetables and orange and yellow fruits and vegetables, while meso-zeaxanthin is rarely found in diet and is believed to be formed at the macula by metabolic transformations of ingested carotenoids. Epidemiological studies and large-scale clinical trials such as AREDS2 have brought attention to the potential ocular health and functional benefits of these three xanthophyll carotenoids consumed through the diet or supplements, but the basic science and clinical research underlying recommendations for nutritional interventions against age-related macular degeneration and other eye diseases are underappreciated by clinicians and vision researchers alike. In this review article, we first examine the chemistry, biochemistry, biophysics, and physiology of these yellow pigments that are specifically concentrated in the macula lutea through the means of high-affinity binding proteins and specialized transport and metabolic proteins where they play important roles as short-wavelength (blue) light-absorbers and localized, efficient antioxidants in a region at high risk for light-induced oxidative stress. Next, we turn to clinical evidence supporting functional benefits of these carotenoids in normal eyes and for their potential protective actions against ocular disease from infancy to old age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Intramuscular depot steroids : Possible treatment of postsurgical cystoid macula edema with steroid response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuthe, A-M; Szurman, P; Boden, K T

    2017-11-01

    We report on a patient with postsurgical cystoid macular edema (CME) after phacoemulsification and multifocal intraocular lens (MIOL) implantation. At first, there was a very good reaction to intravitreal triamcinolone, inducing complete regression of the edema without increasing intraocular pressure (IOP). One year later the patient suffered from retinal detachment and was treated with vitrectomy, laser, and gas tamponade. Afterward, he developed macular pucker with edema. After surgical treatment with pucker peeling and intravitreal triamcinolone, the patient showed a steroid response and an increase IOP. Postoperatively, there was a recurrence of CME. A coincidental administration of a steroid injection intramuscularly by the general practitioner achieved a prompt reduction of the CME without increasing IOP. This case shows that an initially good reaction to triamcinolone without increasing IOP does not rule out a future steroid response, and that a potential treatment option for CME in patients with a known steroid response could consist of intramuscularly injected steroids.

  13. Renin release from isolated juxtaglomerular apparatus depends on macula densa chloride transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, J N; Weihprecht, H; Schnermann, J

    1991-01-01

    salts to inhibit renin secretion, starting from a stimulated value produced by low-NaCl perfusion. Perfusion with a high-NaCl solution decreased renin secretion from 58.9 to 14.8 nGU/min, which served as a positive control. Addition of choline chloride decreased renin secretion from 42.7 to 16.6 n...

  14. 7-Hexagon Multifocal Electroretinography for an Objective Functional Assessment of the Macula in 14 Seconds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbach, Etienne M; Chaikitmongkol, Voraporn; Annam, Rachel; McDonnell, Emma C; Wolfson, Yulia; Fletcher, Emily; Scholl, Hendrik P N

    2017-01-01

    We present the multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) with a 7-hexagon array as an objective test of macular function that can be recorded in 14 s. We provide normal values and investigate its reproducibility and validity. Healthy participants underwent mfERG testing according to International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV) standards using the Espion Profile/D310 multifocal ERG system (Diagnosys, LLC, Lowell, MA, USA). One standard recording of a 61-hexagon array and 2 repeated recordings of a custom 7-hexagon array were obtained. A total of 13 subjects (mean age 46.9 years) were included. The median response densities were 12.5 nV/deg2 in the center and 5.2 nV/deg2 in the periphery. Intereye correlations were strong in both the center (ρCenter = 0.821; p < 0.0001) and the periphery (ρPeriphery = 0.862; p < 0.0001). Intraeye correlations were even stronger: ρCenter = 0.904 with p < 0.0001 and ρPeriphery = 0.955 with p < 0.0001. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated an acceptable retest mean difference in both the center and periphery, and narrow limits of agreement. We found strong correlations of the center (ρCenter = 0.826; p < 0.0001) and periphery (ρPeriphery = 0.848; p < 0.0001), with recordings obtained by the 61-hexagon method. The 7-hexagon mfERG provides reproducible results in agreement with results obtained according to the ISCEV standard. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Maculoplasty for age-related macular degeneration: reengineering Bruch's membrane and the human macula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Priore, Lucian V; Tezel, Tongalp H; Kaplan, Henry J

    2006-11-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the western world. Over the last decade, there have been significant advances in the management of exudative AMD with the introduction of anti-VEGF drugs; however, many patients with exudative AMD continue to lose vision and there are no effective treatments for advanced exudative AMD or geographic atrophy. Initial attempts at macular reconstruction using cellular transplantation have not been effective in reversing vision loss. Herein we discuss the current status of surgical attempts to reconstruct damaged subretinal anatomy in advanced AMD. We reinforce the concept of maculoplasty for advanced AMD, which is defined as reconstruction of macular anatomy in patients with advanced vision loss. Successful maculoplasty is a three-step process that includes replacing or repairing damaged cells (using transplantation, translocation or stimulation of autologous cell proliferation); immune suppression (if allografts are used to replace damaged cells); and reconstruction or replacement of Bruch's membrane (to restore the integrity of the substrate for proper cell attachment). In the current article we will review the rationale for maculoplasty in advanced AMD, and discuss the results of initial clinical attempts at macular reconstruction. We will then discuss the role of Bruch's membrane damage in limiting transplant survival and visual recovery, and discuss the effects of age-related changes within human Bruch's membrane on the initial attachment and subsequent proliferation of transplanted cells. We will discuss attempts to repair Bruch's membrane by coating with extracellular matrix ligands, anatomic reconstitution of the inner collagen layer, and the effects of Bruch's membrane reconstruction of ultrastuctural anatomy and subsequent cell behavior. Lastly, we will emphasize the importance of continued efforts required for successful maculoplasty.

  16. Increased-resolution OCT thickness mapping of the human macula: a statistically based registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Rui; Santos, Torcato; Cunha-Vaz, José

    2008-05-01

    To describe the development of a technique that enhances spatial resolution of retinal thickness maps of the Stratus OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc., Dublin, CA). A retinal thickness atlas (RT-atlas) template was calculated, and a macular coordinate system was established, to pursue this objective. The RT-atlas was developed from principal component analysis of retinal thickness analyzer (RTA) maps acquired from healthy volunteers. The Stratus OCT radial thickness measurements were registered on the RT-atlas, from which an improved macular thickness map was calculated. Thereafter, Stratus OCT circular scans were registered on the previously calculated map to enhance spatial resolution. The developed technique was applied to Stratus OCT thickness data from healthy volunteers and from patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) or age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Results showed that for normal, or close to normal, macular thickness maps from healthy volunteers and patients with DR, this technique can be an important aid in determining retinal thickness. Efforts are under way to improve the registration of retinal thickness data in patients with AMD. The developed technique enhances the evaluation of data acquired by the Stratus OCT, helping the detection of early retinal thickness abnormalities. Moreover, a normative database of retinal thickness measurements gained from this technique, as referenced to the macular coordinate system, can be created without errors induced by missed fixation and eye tilt.

  17. Estudo macular na doença de Stargardt Macula study in Stargardt's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otacílio de Oliveira Maia Júnior

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar dano estrutural macular na doença de Stargardt por meio da tomografia de coerência óptica, correlacionando-o com acuidade visual e duração da doença. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos portadores da doença de Stargardt, submetidos à medida da acuidade visual (logMAR e exames complementares (retinografia, angiofluoresceinografia e tomografia de coerência óptica. Todos os casos foram reexaminados para confirmação diagnóstica, sendo determinada duração da doença. O grupo controle foi composto pelo mesmo número de casos, pareados por sexo, idade e sem qualquer alteração oftalmológica. RESULTADOS: A amostra foi composta por 22 pacientes (44 olhos, sendo 11 (50% do sexo masculino e 11 (50%, do feminino. A duração da doença variou de 3 a 21 anos (média de 11,4 ± 5,3 anos. Os grupos não apresentaram diferença significante na idade (p=0,98 e no sexo. O grupo caso apresentou valores de espessura macular na tomografia de coerência óptica significativamente menores em relação ao grupo controle (pPURPOSE: To evaluate de macular structural damage in Stargardt's disease by optical coherence tomography, correlating with visual acuity and disease duration. METHODS: Patients with Stargardt's disease were included and submitted to visual acuity (logMAR measurement and complementary examinations performed were color fundus photographs, fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography. All cases were reexamined for diagnostic confirmation and the duration of symptoms was determined. The control group was composed of the same number of subjects, matched by sex and age, without any ophthalmologic alteration. RESULTS: The sample was composed of 22 patients (44 eyes with Stargardt's disease, 11 (50% males and 11 (50% females. The duration of the disease varied from 3 to 21 years (mean of 11.4 ± 5.3 years. The groups did not show significant differences in age (p= 0.98 and sex. Concerning the macular thickness in optical coherence tomography, the variation in the study group differed significantly from the control group, presenting smaller values of thickness (p<0.001. There was negative and significant correlation between the duration of disease and the macular thickness assessed by optical coherence tomography (r=-0.57 and p=0.005. There was positive correlation between the duration of the disease and the visual acuity (r=0.50 and p=0.0167 and negative correlation between the visual acuity and the macular thickness in optical coherence tomography (r=-0.83 and p=0.0001. CONCLUSION: It was evidenced that patients with Stargardt's disease have a thinner macular thickness when compared to normal subjects, and this reduction is related to the duration of symptoms of the disease. Additionally, the thickness and also the duration of the disease influence the visual prognosis of the patients.

  18. Microstructure and network organization of the microvasculature in the human macula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Paula K; Balaratnasingam, Chandrakumar; Cringle, Stephen J; McAllister, Ian L; Provis, Jan; Yu, Dao-Yi

    2010-12-01

    To characterize the topography and cellular structure of the macular microvasculature using a recently developed technique of arterial cannulation, perfusion, fixation, and staining of human donor eyes. Sixteen human donor eyes were used. The central retinal artery was cannulated and perfused with Ringer's, then fixative, membrane permeabilizing, and selected labeling solutions. The eyes were immersion fixed, and the retina was flat mounted for confocal microscopy. The macular area, including the foveola, fovea, and parafovea, was sampled. The intracellular cytoskeleton of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells was studied in different orders of arterioles and venules and in the capillaries. To evaluate the degree of asymmetry within vascular networks, the distribution of generation numbers and the Horton-Strahler approach to vessel naming were compared. The distribution of the microvascular network in the macular region was complex but followed a general theme. The parafoveal region was supplied by dense vasculature with approximately nine closely arranged pairs of arterioles and venules. Each arteriole had abundant branches and a high degree of asymmetry (∼10 generations and 3.5 orders within 1.2-mm length). Only a few arterioles (average ∼2.9) supplied the terminal capillary ring. Very long spindle endothelial cells were seen in the superficial and deep capillaries. Significant heterogeneity of distribution and shape of the endothelial and smooth muscle cells was evident in different orders of the macular vasculature. The authors have demonstrated for the first time the cellular structure and topographic features of the macular microvasculature in human donor eyes.

  19. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography findings of the macula in 500 consecutive patients with uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajewski, R S; Boelke, A C; Adler, W; Meyer, S; Caramoy, A; Kirchhof, B; Cursiefen, C; Heindl, L M

    2016-11-01

    PurposeTo analyze the macular structure in a large series of consecutive patients with different types of uveitis using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).Patients and methodsFive hundred eyes of 500 consecutive patients with anterior, intermediate, posterior, and panuveitis underwent standardized macular examination using SD-OCT. Central retinal thickness (CRT), macular volume (MV), and presence of cystoid macular edema (CME), diffuse macular edema (DME), serous retinal detachment (SRD), epiretinal membrane with (ERM+) and without (ERM-) retinal surface wrinkling were determined.ResultsThe anatomic location of inflammation affected significantly CRT and MV (Pmacula is recommended for all uveitis patients. CRT, MV, and the incidence of CME were highest in intermediate and panuveitis.

  20. Structural Changes of the Macula on Optical Coherence Tomography after Vitrectomy for Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jong Chan; Kim, Jong Ho; Park, Dong Ho; Shin, Jae Pil

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between macular structural changes and visual prognosis after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The study included 60 eyes that had undergone PPV. Macular optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings were classified into 5 groups preoperatively and 10 groups postoperatively. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were analyzed according to pre- and postoperative OCT. From the preoperative OCT, normal fovea with/without traction, normal fovea with preretinal hemorrhage, and tractional retinal detachment involving fovea showed an increase in BCVA after PPV (all p 20/50). Subfoveal fibrosis, macular hole, loss of foveal depression, and serous foveal detachment showed poor visual prognosis (BCVA <20/100). Macular structural changes were various after PPV, and visual prognosis correlated with these changes. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Changes in anterior ocular structures and macula following deep sclerectomy with collagen implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suominen, Sakari M A; Harju, Mika P; Hautamäki, Asta M E; Vesti, Eija T

    2018-01-01

    To determine the effect of intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering with deep sclerectomy (DS) on visual acuity, macular structures, and anterior ocular dimensions during the early postoperative period. We prospectively analyzed 35 eyes of 35 patients scheduled for DS. Our focus with the measurements was on early postoperative changes in anterior ocular and macular structures related to IOP lowering during the first month after DS. In addition to a clinical ophthalmologic examination, our measurements included corneal topography, measurement of ocular dimensions with optical biometry, and examination of macular structure with optical coherence tomography. These measurements were repeated 1, 2, and 4 weeks postoperatively. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) decreased 1 week postoperatively to 0.22 (0.20) LogMAR (p = 0.006). The BCVA then increased to its preoperative level, 0.17 (0.18) (p = 0.28), after 4 weeks. Axial length decreased from 24.12 (1.81) mm to 24.04 (1.81) (p<0.001) 4 weeks postoperatively. The steeper meridian of corneal curvature and average corneal power increased postoperatively; central corneal thickness was decreased. No significant change appeared in other measurements. We found changes in corneal curvature and ocular dimensions after DS. These changes were relatively small and do not completely explain the decrease in visual acuity postoperatively. Macular structures showed no changes.

  2. Imaging of the Macula Indicates Early Completion of Structural Deficit in Autosomal-Dominant Optic Atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnbäck, Cecilia; Milea, Dan; Larsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables 3-dimensional imaging of the retina, including the layer of ganglion cells that supplies the optic nerve with its axons. We tested OCT as means of diagnosing and phenotyping autosomal-dominant optic atrophy (ADOA)....

  3. [Hybrid (femtosecond laser-assisted) phaco surgery and the state of the macula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetisov, K S; Bol'shunov, A V; Avetisov, S E; Yusef, Y N; Ivanov, M N; Sobol, E N; Sakalova, E D

    The review covers different aspects of the impact of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery on the state of the macular zone of the retina. Literature search has revealed inconsistency of the published data and indicated the need for a more detailed study of this problem.

  4. [Retinal imaging of the macula and optic disc in neurodegenerative diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turski, G N; Schmitz-Valckenberg, S; Holz, F G; Finger, R P

    2017-02-01

    Due to current demographic trends, the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment and dementia is expected to increase considerably. For potential new therapies it is important to identify patients at risk as early as possible. Currently, there is no population-based screening. Therefore, identification of biomarkers that will help screen the population at risk is urgently needed. Thus, a literature review on retinal pathology in neurodegenerative diseases was performed. PubMed was searched for studies published up to August 2016 using the following keywords: "mild cognitive impairment", "dementia", "eye", "ocular biomarkers", "OCT" and "OCT angiography". Relevant publications were selected and summarized qualitatively. Multiple studies using noninvasive in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging showed nonspecific retinal pathological changes in patients with neurodegenerative diseases such as mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Pathological changes in macular volume, optic nerve fiber layer thickness and the ganglion cell complex were observed. However, based on available evidence, no ocular biomarkers for neurodegeneration which could be integrated in routine clinical diagnostics have been identified. The potential use of OCT in the early diagnostic workup and monitoring of progression of neurodegenerative diseases needs to be further explored in longitudinal studies with large cohorts.

  5. Glaucoma diagnosis by mapping macula with Fourier domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ou; Lu, Ake; Chopra, Vik; Varma, Rohit; Hiroshi, Ishikawa; Schuman, Joel; Huang, David

    2008-03-01

    A new image segmentation method was developed to detect macular retinal sub-layers boundary on newly-developed Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (FD-OCT) with macular grid scan pattern. The segmentation results were used to create thickness map of macular ganglion cell complex (GCC), which contains the ganglion cell dendrites, cell bodies and axons. Overall average and several pattern analysis parameters were defined on the GCC thickness map and compared for the diagnosis of glaucoma. Intraclass correlation (ICC) is used to compare the reproducibility of the parameters. Area under receiving operative characteristic curve (AROC) was calculated to compare the diagnostic power. The result is also compared to the output of clinical time-domain OCT (TD-OCT). We found that GCC based parameters had good repeatability and comparable diagnostic power with circumpapillary nerve fiber layer (cpNFL) thickness. Parameters based on pattern analysis can increase the diagnostic power of GCC macular mapping.

  6. Type I hair cell degeneration in the utricular macula of the waltzing guinea pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Stig A; Raarup, Merete Krog; Ulfendahl, Mats

    2008-01-01

    Waltzing guinea pigs are an inbred guinea pig strain with a congenital and progressive balance and hearing disorder. A unique rod-shaped structure is found in the type I vestibular hair cells, that traverses the cell in an axial direction, extending towards the basement membrane. The present study...... estimates the total number of utricular hair cells and supporting cells in waltzing guinea pigs and age-matched control animals using the optical fractionator method. Animals were divided into four age groups (1, 7, 49 and 343 day-old). The number of type I hair cells decreased by 20% in the 343 day......-old waltzing guinea pigs compared to age-matched controls and younger animals. Two-photon confocal laser scanning microscopy using antibodies against fimbrin and betaIII-tubulin showed that the rods were exclusive to type I hair cells. There was no significant change in the length of the filament rods with age...

  7. Basic and clinical application progression of invigorating blood and dissolving stasis Chinese medicine in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Invigorating blood and dissolving stasis method is a kind of unique therapy of Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCMtreatment, which efficacy has become increasingly prominent in the treatment of ophthalmology. With the further studies of blood stasis and invigorating blood and dissolving stasis therapy, it is widely used in clinical ophthalmology, and get good effects beyond thought, especially when western medicine has no curative effects. It improved the cure rate of fundus oculi disease from the eyelids, conjunctiva, lacrimal sac, vitreous body to the choroid and retina, optic nerve and macula lutea, from surface to fundus, or pathological changes related to inflammation, degeneration, necrosis, atrophy, hyperplasia of fibrous tissue hyperplasia. This paper is aim to explain the definition of invigorating blood and dissolving stasis and make a review of basic research and clinical application about it in several diseases.

  8. The efficiency of using different mulch films in the cultivation of yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea L. in Serbia

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    Radanović Dragoja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Field trial with yellow gentian was established (11.1 plants per m2 at 1004 m.a.s.l., in order to assess the effect of black PE (bPE, silver PE (sPE, and black permeable biodegradable (bPB mulching films on the root yield and development during six years. The highest crop density measured prior to the root harvest (sixth year, was obtained in the plot with bPB film (84%, while in the plot with bPE and in control (without mulch number of plants was reduced by 34.2% and 45%, respectively. In addition, application of the bPB film proved to be the most effective treatment; in the fifth and sixth year root yields per m2 increased by 92.3% and 106.0%, respectively, in comparison to bPE, and by 78.9% and 69.2%, respectively, in comparison to sPE, and by 184.4% and 169.6%, respectively, in comparison to control. Application of bPE had a lower positive effect on YG root yield than control (-18.6%-54.95%, whereas the effect of sPE was higher than the bPE and control; the achieved root yields were higher, 29.7% and 70.6%, respectively.

  9. Structural changes of macula and optic disk of the fellow eye in patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, R; Yavas, G F; Veliyev, I; Dogan, M; Duman, R

    2018-05-10

    The aim was to assess the ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and optic disk features in the affected eyes (AE) and unaffected fellow eyes (FE) of subjects with unilateral nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) and to compare with healthy control eyes (CE) using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). This study included 28 patients and age, sex and refraction-matched 28 control subjects. Mean GCC thickness and peripapillary RNFL thickness in four quadrants measured by cirrus SD-OCT were evaluated in both AE and FE of patients and CE. In addition, optic disk measurements obtained with OCT were evaluated. Mean GCC thickness was significantly lower in AE compared with both FE and CE (P optic disk cupping compared with both FE and CE (P optic disk features between the CE and FE. And significantly greater optic disk cupping in the AE compared with both FE and CE supports the acquired enlargement of cupping after the onset of NAION.

  10. SD OCT Features of Macula and Silicon Oil–Retinal Interface in Eyes Status Post Vitrectomy for RRD

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    Manish Nagpal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To objectively document findings at the Silicon oil-Retinal interface, macular status and tamponade effect in Silicon Oil (SO filled eyes using SD OCT. Methods: 104 eyes of 104 patients underwent SD OCT examination, horizontal and vertical macular scans, in silicone oil filled eyes which underwent silicone oil injection post vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Findings were divided into 3 Groups; Group A: Findings at silicon oil retinal interface, Group B: Macular pathology and Group C: Tamponade effect. Group C was further divided into two groups; Group 1: Complete tamponade and Group 2: Incomplete tamponade. Results: Group A: subsilicon epiretinal membranes N = 17 (16.3%, emulsified silicon oil N = 16 (15.4% Group B: foveal thickening N = 22 (21.2%, foveal thinning N = 6 (5.7%, subfoveal fluid N = 8 (7.6%, macular hole N = 2 (1.9%; Group C: Incomplete tamponade was noted in N = 12 (11.5%, complete tamponade N = 92 (88.5%.10 out of 104 eyes (9.6% had recurrent retinal detachment post silicon oil removal. 8 of these eyes had complete tamponade and 2 had incomplete tamponade. Conclusion: SD OCT is a useful tool to assess the SO–Retina interface, tamponade effect and macular pathology in SO filled eyes. There is lesser incidence of redetachment with incomplete tamponade in OCT.

  11. Changes in visual function and thickness of macula after photodynamic therapy for age-related macular degeneration

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    Kyoko Okada

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Kyoko Okada, Mariko Kubota-Taniai, Masayasu Kitahashi, Takayuki Baba, Yoshinori Mitamura, Shuichi YamamotoDepartment of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba, JapanPurpose: To determine the correlation between the changes in the central retinal sensitivity and the changes in the foveal thickness (FT after photodynamic therapy (PDT for age-related macular degeneration (AMD.Methods: Nineteen eyes of 19 patients with choroidal neovasularizations (CNVs secondary to AMD were studied. The pretreatment values of the central retinal sensitivity determined by Micro Perimeter 1 (MP1; Nidek Technologies, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, and optical coherence tomography (OCT-determined FT were compared to the postoperative values at three and six months after PDT.Results: At six months, the retinal sensitivity within the central 10° was significantly improved (P = 0.02 and the FT was significantly thinner (P = 0.016. The BCVA, however, did not change significantly (P = 0.80. The changes in the retinal sensitivities were significantly correlated with the changes in the decrease in the FT (r = -0.59, P = 0.012 within the central 10° at six months after PDT.Conclusion: Significant improvements in retinal sensitivities within the central 10° and a decrease in FT were observed even though the BCVA was not significantly improved. The measurement of retinal sensitivity by MP1 may be a better method to assess central visual function than the conventional visual acuity after PDT.Keywords: age-related macular degeneration, fundus-related microperimetry, optical coherence tomography, photodynamic therapy

  12. Quantitative analysis of iridoids, secoiridoids, xanthones and xanthone glycosides in Gentiana lutea L. roots by RP-HPLC and LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberham, Anita; Schwaiger, Stefan; Stuppner, Hermann; Ganzera, Markus

    2007-11-05

    The here described HPLC-method enables the determination of all major, currently known bioactive compounds in gentian roots. A separation of iridoids (loganic acid), secoiridoids (swertiamarin, gentiopicroside, amarogentin, sweroside), xanthones (gentisin, isogentisin) and two xanthone glycosides (gentiosides) was possible on RP-18 column material, using 0.025% aqueous TFA, acetonitrile and n-propanol as mobile phase. The method is sensitive (LODlutea samples showed that gentiopicroside is the most dominant compound in the specimens (4.46-9.53%), followed by loganic acid (0.10-0.76%), swertiamarin (0.21-0.45%) and the xanthone glycosides. Gentisin and isogentisin were found in much lower concentrations between 0.02 and 0.11%, respectively.

  13. Retinal Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the center of this nerve tissue is the macula. It provides the sharp, central vision needed for ... young children. Macular pucker - scar tissue on the macula Macular hole - a small break in the macula ...

  14. Mechanism of Inflammation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

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    Francesco Parmeggiani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a multifactorial disease that represents the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment among people over the age of 50 in Europe, the United States, and Australia, accounting for up to 50% of all cases of central blindness. Risk factors of AMD are heterogeneous, mainly including increasing age and different genetic predispositions, together with several environmental/epigenetic factors, that is, cigarette smoking, dietary habits, and phototoxic exposure. In the aging retina, free radicals and oxidized lipoproteins are considered to be major causes of tissue stress resulting in local triggers for parainflammation, a chronic status which contributes to initiation and/or progression of many human neurodegenerative diseases such as AMD. Experimental and clinical evidences strongly indicate the pathogenetic role of immunologic processes in AMD occurrence, consisting of production of inflammatory related molecules, recruitment of macrophages, complement activation, microglial activation and accumulation within those structures that compose an essential area of the retina known as macula lutea. This paper reviews some attractive aspects of the literature about the mechanisms of inflammation in AMD, especially focusing on those findings or arguments more directly translatable to improve the clinical management of patients with AMD and to prevent the severe vision loss caused by this disease.

  15. Application of Optical Coherence Tomography and Contrast Sensitivity Test for Observing Fundus Changes of Patients With Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhixue; Zou, Yuanyuan; Li, Wenying; Wang, Xueyan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Wenying

    2015-11-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the fundus changes of patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome (PIHS) using optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology and contrast sensitivity (CS) tests.Ninety-eight patients with PIHS underwent routine eye examinations including vision correction, fundus examination, OCT, and CS tests. The CS test was performed at low, medium, and high frequency, respectively. Moreover, the difference in CS tests between 2 groups was analyzed by independent-samples T test. The Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test and linear regression model were used to detect the correlation of OCT with CS, respectively. Meanwhile Satterthwaite approximate T test was adopted for pairwise comparisons after nonparametric analysis of variance.The OCT test revealed that 56.76% of the examined eyes showed shallow retinal detachment in the macula lutea and around the optic disk. The differences in CS at each spatial frequency between the case and control group were statistically significant (P tests might be valuable methods in observing fundus changes for PIHS patients.

  16. Changes in retinal structure and function of Alzheimer's patients

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    Xi Qin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease(AD, a neurodegenerative disease, can result in memory loss,cognitive and behavioral deficits. The pathological hallmarkes are β amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles which lead loss of neurons in brain. As the extension of the central nervous system, retina has a similar tissue anatomy with central nervous system. The β amyloid plaques have also been detected in retina of AD. Furthermore, according to eye examinations of AD patients, we have found the loss of retinal ganglion cells, the attenuation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, the smaller changes of macula lutea, the decline of vascular density and so on. And then, there occurs the visual field loss and the decline of contrast sensitivity and so on in AD patients. Thus, the retina has occurred nerve degenerative changes in AD. Meanwhile, there has been proved that the retina nerve degeneration is even earlier than senile plaques formation in brain. In addition,curcumin, a natural and safe fluorescent dye, can be used to label β amyloid plaques in retina. The above suggests that retina can be a window for the early diagnosis of AD.

  17. Macular pigment and its contribution to visual performance and experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughman, James; Davison, Peter A.; Nolan, John M.; Akkali, Mukunda C.; Beatty, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    There is now a consensus, based on histological, biochemical and spectral absorption data, that the yellow colour observed at the macula lutea is a consequence of the selective accumulation of dietary xanthophylls in the central retina of the living eye. Scientific research continues to explore the function(s) of MP in the human retina, with two main hypotheses premised on its putative capacity to (1) protect the retina from (photo)-oxidative damage by means of its optical filtration and/or antioxidant properties, the so-called protective hypothesis and (2) influence the quality of visual performance by means of selective short wavelength light absorption prior to photoreceptor light capture, thereby attenuating the effects of chromatic aberration and light scatter, the so-called acuity and visibility hypotheses. The current epidemic of age-related macular degeneration has directed researchers to investigate the protective hypothesis of MP, while there has been a conspicuous lack of work designed to investigate the role of MP in visual performance. The aim of this review is to present and critically appraise the current literature germane to the contribution of MP, if any, to visual performance and experience.

  18. Macular pigment and its contribution to visual performance and experience

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    James Loughman

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available There is now a consensus, based on histological, biochemical and spectral absorption data, that the yellow colour observed at the macula lutea is a consequence of the selective accumulation of dietary xanthophylls in the central retina of the living eye. Scientific research continues to explore the function(s of MP in the human retina, with two main hypotheses premised on its putative capacity to (1 protect the retina from (photo-oxidative damage by means of its optical filtration and/or antioxidant properties, the so-called protective hypothesis and (2 influence the quality of visual performance by means of selective short wavelength light absorption prior to photoreceptor light capture, thereby attenuating the effects of chromatic aberration and light scatter, the so-called acuity and visibility hypotheses. The current epidemic of age-related macular degeneration has directed researchers to investigate the protective hypothesis of MP, while there has been a conspicuous lack of work designed to investigate the role of MP in visual performance. The aim of this review is to present and critically appraise the current literature germane to the contribution of MP, if any, to visual performance and experience.

  19. Efficacy of Diacetate Esters of Macular Carotenoids: Effect of Supplementation on Macular Pigment

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    Richard A. Bone

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of the carotenoids lutein, zeaxanthin, and mesozeaxanthin in the center of the human retina, and known as the macula lutea or macular pigment, is believed to protect the retina from age-related macular degeneration. Since the macular pigment is of dietary origin, supplements containing the relevant carotenoids are readily available. In this study, we compared the changes in macular pigment over a 24-week supplementation period for two groups of 24 subjects each assigned to either of two supplement formulations, 20 mg/day of lutein or 20 mg equivalent free carotenoids of a combination of diacetate esters of the macular carotenoids. The latter group responded with a larger increase (0.0666 ± 0.0481 in macular pigment optical density than the former group (0.0398 ± 0.0430, driven largely by the older subjects. The difference was statistically significant (p=0.0287. There was a general trend towards smaller increases in macular pigment for those subjects whose baseline value was high. However, the trend was only significant (p<0.05 for subjects in the diacetate group. No differences in response could be attributed to the gender of the subjects. We also observed no indication that the use of statin drugs by a few of the older subjects influenced their responses.

  20. Perceiving polarization with the naked eye: characterization of human polarization sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Shelby E.; McGregor, Juliette E.; Miles, Camilla; Graham, Laura; Miller, Josie; Buck, Jordan; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E.; Roberts, Nicholas W.

    2015-01-01

    Like many animals, humans are sensitive to the polarization of light. We can detect the angle of polarization using an entoptic phenomenon called Haidinger's brushes, which is mediated by dichroic carotenoids in the macula lutea. While previous studies have characterized the spectral sensitivity of Haidinger's brushes, other aspects remain unexplored. We developed a novel methodology for presenting gratings in polarization-only contrast at varying degrees of polarization in order to measure the lower limits of human polarized light detection. Participants were, on average, able to perform the task down to a threshold of 56%, with some able to go as low as 23%. This makes humans the most sensitive vertebrate tested to date. Additionally, we quantified a nonlinear relationship between presented and perceived polarization angle when an observer is presented with a rotatable polarized light field. This result confirms a previous theoretical prediction of how uniaxial corneal birefringence impacts the perception of Haidinger's brushes. The rotational dynamics of Haidinger's brushes were then used to calculate corneal retardance. We suggest that psychophysical experiments, based upon the perception of polarized light, are amenable to the production of affordable technologies for self-assessment and longitudinal monitoring of visual dysfunctions such as age-related macular degeneration. PMID:26136441

  1. An Overview on the Role of Macular Xanthophylls in Ocular Diseases

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    Sezen Yilmaz Sarialtin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Macula lutea, is the center of the retina of the eye, contains high concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin which can act as a filter against short-wavelength (blue light. Lutein and zeaxanthin are the only carotenoids detected in human lens which exhibit highly strong free radical scavenging activity. Many epidemiological studies, clinical trials, animal experiments have suggested that lutein and zeaxanthin have anti-inflammatory potential with their high antioxidant properties. Several eye diseases including, age-related macular degeneration, uveitis and retinitis pigmentosa are caused by ocular inflammation. Some studies have shown that lutein and zeaxanthin could be protective, curative and preventive against ocular inflammation induced diseases and other ocular disorders such as cataract, glaucoma and choroideremia. The mechanisms responsible for these effects are absorption of near-ultraviolet and blue light, reduction of oxidative stress, inflammation and angiogenesis. Lutein and zeaxanthin can be taken from dietary supplements or a diet high in fruits, vegetables such as kale, spinach and turnip greens. The aim of this review is to evaluate the relationship between the consumption of lutein and zeaxanthin and eye diseases.

  2. [Clinical observation on treating diabetic macular edema with intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide and laser].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongbo; Shi, Anna; Shi, Xun; Liu, Weifeng

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide(IVTA) combining with retinal laser treating for diabetic macular edema(DME). Twenty five patients(32 eyes) with DME who has microangioma in macula lutea were randomly divided into group A, B,C and D(8 eyes each group). Eyes in group A were treated with laser photocoagulation. Eyes in group B were treated with multiplier-532 laser photocoagulation and transpupillary thermotherapy. Eyes in group C were treated with multiplier-532 laser photocoagulation and intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide. Eyes in group D were treated with multiplier-532 laser, transpupillary thermotherapy plus triamcinolone acetonide injection. Intravitreal injection of 4 mg triamcinolone acetonide was done 1 week after laser photocoagulation in group C and D. The visual acuity, intraocular pressure, macular thickness (foveal thickness) of the eyes in 4 groups were observed before and 1, 3 and 6 months after treatment. The visual acuity, intraocular pressure and foveal thickness of the 4 groups before treatment showed no significant difference(p> ). The visual acuity, intraocular pressure, macular thickness of eyes in group A, B were better than those of group C, D at 1, 3 and 6 months after treatment, and they had significant difference(p0.05). The effect of laser photocoagulation and intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide, laser photocoagulation combining with transpupillary thermotherapy plus triamcinolone acetonide injectionvisual treating for DME was better than laser photocoagulation alone, laser photocoagulation combining with transpupillary thermotherapy.

  3. Mechanism of Inflammation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmeggiani, Francesco; Romano, Mario R.; Costagliola, Ciro; Semeraro, Francesco; Incorvaia, Carlo; D'Angelo, Sergio; Perri, Paolo; De Palma, Paolo; De Nadai, Katia; Sebastiani, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial disease that represents the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment among people over the age of 50 in Europe, the United States, and Australia, accounting for up to 50% of all cases of central blindness. Risk factors of AMD are heterogeneous, mainly including increasing age and different genetic predispositions, together with several environmental/epigenetic factors, that is, cigarette smoking, dietary habits, and phototoxic exposure. In the aging retina, free radicals and oxidized lipoproteins are considered to be major causes of tissue stress resulting in local triggers for parainflammation, a chronic status which contributes to initiation and/or progression of many human neurodegenerative diseases such as AMD. Experimental and clinical evidences strongly indicate the pathogenetic role of immunologic processes in AMD occurrence, consisting of production of inflammatory related molecules, recruitment of macrophages, complement activation, microglial activation and accumulation within those structures that compose an essential area of the retina known as macula lutea. This paper reviews some attractive aspects of the literature about the mechanisms of inflammation in AMD, especially focusing on those findings or arguments more directly translatable to improve the clinical management of patients with AMD and to prevent the severe vision loss caused by this disease. PMID:23209345

  4. Comparison of Macular Integrity Assessment (MAIA ™, MP-3, and the Humphrey Field Analyzer in the Evaluation of the Relationship between the Structure and Function of the Macula.

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    Kazuyuki Hirooka

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to compare relationships between the macular visual field (VF mean sensitivity measured by MAIATM (Macular Integrity Assessment, MP-3, or Humphry field analyzer (HFA and the ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer (GCA thicknesses.This cross-sectional study examined 73 glaucoma patients and 19 normal subjects. All subjects underwent measurements for GCA thickness by Cirrus HD-OCT and static threshold perimetry using MAIATM, MP-3, or HFA. VF and OCT in the retinal view were used to examine both the global relationship between the VF sensitivity and GCA thickness, and the superior hemiretina and inferior hemiretina. The relationship between the GCA thickness and macular sensitivity was examined by Spearman correlation analysis.For each instrument, statistically significant macular VF sensitivity (dB and GCA thickness relationships were observed using the decibel scale (R = 0.547-0.687, all P < 0.001. The highest correlation for the global (R = 0.682 and the superior hemiretina (R = 0.594 GCA thickness-VF mean sensitivity was observed by the HFA. The highest correlation for the inferior hemiretina (R = 0.687 GCA thickness-VF mean sensitivity was observed by the MP-3. Among the three VF measurement instruments, however, no significant differences were found for the structure-function relationships.All three VF measurement instruments found similar structure-function relationships in the central VF.

  5. Macular autofluorescence in eyes with cystoid macula edema, detected with 488 nm-excitation but not with 580 nm-excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessho, Kenichiro; Gomi, Fumi; Harino, Seiyo; Sawa, Miki; Sayanagi, Kaori; Tsujikawa, Motokazu; Tano, Yasuo

    2009-06-01

    Fundus autofluorescence (AF) derives from lipofuscin in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Because lipofuscin is a by-product of phagocytosis of photoreceptors by RPE, AF imaging is expected to describe some functional aspect of the retina. In this study we report distribution of AF in patients showing macular edema. Three eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME) and 11 with retinal vein occlusion (RVO), associated with macular edema (ME) were examined. ME was determined by standard fundus examination, fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). AF was recorded using a Heidelberg confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO) with 488 nm laser exciter (488 nm-AF), and a conventional Topcon fundus camera with halogen lamp exciter and 580 nm band-pass filter (580 nm-AF). Color fundus picture, FA image and these two AF images were analyzed by superimposing all images. All subjects presented cystoid macular edema (CME) with petaloid pattern hyperfluorescence in FA. In 488 nm-AF, all eyes (100%) showed macular autofluorescence of a similar shape to that of the CME in FA. In contrast, in 580 nm-AF only one eye (7%) presented this corresponding petaloid-shaped autofluorescence. In all cases, peripheral retinal edemas did not show autofluorescence corresponding to the leakage in FA. In eyes with CME, analogous hyperautofluorescence to the CME was always observed in 488 nm-AF, while it was rarely observed in 580 nm-AF. Moreover, this CME hyperautofluorescence was only seen in the macular area. We hypothesize that autofluorescence from CME may be considered as a "pseudo" or "relative" autofluorescence, due to macular stretching following CME that may result in lateral displacement of macular pigments (MPs) and subsequent reduction of MPs density, as MPs block 488 nm-AF more intensely than 580 nm-AF. Although this phenomenon may not directly indicate change of RPE function, it may be used as a method to assess or track CME non-invasively.

  6. SLO-infrared imaging of the macula and its correlation with functional loss and structural changes in patients with Stargardt disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasakis, Anastasios; Fishman, Gerald A; Lindeman, Martin; Genead, Mohamed A; Zhou, Wensheng

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To correlate the degree of functional loss with structural changes in patients with Stargardt disease. Methods Eighteen eyes of 10 Stargardt patients were studied. Scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) infrared images were compared to corresponding spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scans. Additionally, SLO microperimetry was performed and results were superimposed on SLO infrared images and in selected cases on fundus autofluorescence (FAF) images. Results Seventeen of 18 eyes showed a distinct hypo-reflective foveal and/or perifoveal area with distinct borders on SLO-infrared images which was less evident on funduscopy and incompletely depicted in FAF images. This hypo-reflective zone corresponded to areas of significantly elevated psychophysical thresholds on microperimetry testing, in addition to thinning of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), disorganization or loss of the photoreceptor cell inner-outer segment (IS-OS) junction and external limiting membrane (ELM) on SD-OCT. Conclusion SLO-infrared fundus images are useful for depicting retinal structural changes in Stargardt patients. An SD-OCT/SLO microperimetry device allows for a direct correlation of structural abnormalities with functional defects that will likely be applicable for the determination of retinal areas for potential improvement of retinal function in these patients during future clinical trials and for the monitoring of the diseases' natural history. PMID:21293320

  7. Infrared scanning laser ophthalmoscope imaging of the macula and its correlation with functional loss and structural changes in patients with stargardt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasakis, Anastasios; Fishman, Gerald A; Lindeman, Martin; Genead, Mohamed A; Zhou, Wensheng

    2011-05-01

    To correlate the degree of functional loss with structural changes in patients with Stargardt disease. Eighteen eyes of 10 patients with Stargardt disease were studied. Scanning laser ophthalmoscope infrared images were compared with corresponding spectral-domain optical coherence tomography scans. Additionally, scanning laser ophthalmoscope microperimetry was performed, and results were superimposed on scanning laser ophthalmoscope infrared images and in selected cases on fundus autofluorescence images. Seventeen of 18 eyes showed a distinct hyporeflective foveal and/or perifoveal area with distinct borders on scanning laser ophthalmoscope infrared images, which was less evident on funduscopy and incompletely depicted in fundus autofluorescence images. This hyporeflective zone corresponded to areas of significantly elevated psychophysical thresholds on microperimetry testing, in addition to thinning of the retinal pigment epithelium and disorganization or loss of the photoreceptor cell inner segment-outer segment junction and external-limiting membrane on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Scanning laser ophthalmoscope infrared fundus images are useful for depicting retinal structural changes in patients with Stargardt disease. A spectral-domain optical coherence tomography/scanning laser ophthalmoscope microperimetry device allows for a direct correlation of structural abnormalities with functional defects that will likely be applicable for the determination of retinal areas for potential improvement of retinal function in these patients during future clinical trials and for the monitoring of the diseases' natural history.

  8. Effects of blue light-filtering intraocular lenses on the macula, contrast sensitivity, and color vision after a long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara-Junior, Newton; Espindola, Rodrigo F; Gomes, Beatriz A F; Ventura, Bruna; Smadja, David; Santhiago, Marcony R

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the possible side effects and potential protection 5 years after implantation of an intraocular lens (IOL) with a blue-light filter (yellow tinted). Ophthalmology Department, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Prospective randomized clinical study. Patients with bilateral visually significant cataract randomly received an ultraviolet (UV) and blue light-filtering IOL (Acrysof Natural SN60AT) in 1 eye and an acrylic UV light-filtering only IOL (Acrysof SA60AT) in the fellow eye. The primary outcome measures were contrast sensitivity, color vision, and macular findings 5 years after surgery. The study enrolled 60 eyes of 30 patients. There were no significant clinical or optical coherence tomography findings in terms of age-related macular degeneration in any eye. There were no statistically significant differences in central macular thickness between the 2 IOL groups (P=.712). There were also no significant between-group differences under photopic or scotopic conditions at any spatial frequency studied. No statistically significant differences in the color discrimination test were found between the 2 IOL groups (P=.674). After 5 years, there were no significant differences in color perception, scotopic contrast sensitivity, or photopic contrast sensitivity between the blue light-filtering (yellow-tinted) IOL and the IOL with a UV-light filter only (untinted). The potential advantage of the tinted IOL in providing protection to macular cells remains unclear. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Atrophy of the macula in the context of its wet, age-related degeneration : An inescapable consequence of anti-VEGF therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garweg, J G

    2016-12-01

    Current understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the long-term consequences of anti-VEGF therapy in wet, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is poor. Here, the impact of this treatment on the development of macular atrophy (MA) is discussed based on our current pathophysiological understanding. This review is based on a PubMed literature survey using the MeSH terms "wet AMD" and "macular atrophy" (151 hits) and limited to publications since 2013 (n = 90). Publications focussing on diagnostics and clinical course not in the context of therapy were excluded. Macular atrophy is defined herein as atrophy affecting the functionally relevant complex of photoreceptors, retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), Bruch's membrane and choriocapillaris. Experimentally, a primary complete suppression of local VEGF leads to evident changes in the choriocapillaris, whereas its incomplete suppression exacerbates cell death of RPE and photoreceptors. Since pre-existing atrophic changes are already present at diagnosis, the role of anti-VEGF treatment cannot be separated from the spontaneous progression of AMD. The progression of MA appears to be faster under ranibizumab than bevacizumab, and likewise on a monthly rather than as-needed basis. Although MA progresses more rapidly under consequent therapy, visual function remains better. Hence, a functionally relevant progression of atrophy during the first five years of treatment would only be expected in pre-existing advanced MA. Despite doubts regarding the long-term safety of anti-VEGF therapy, it is the author's view that this is the only option to stabilise visual function. The impact of therapy-induced damage on the spontaneous progression of AMD and the biological status of the aging individual cannot be unequivocally assessed.

  10. Designing clinical trials for age-related geographic atrophy of the macula: enrollment data from the geographic atrophy natural history study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunness, Janet S; Applegate, Carol A; Bressler, Neil M; Hawkins, Barbara S

    2007-02-01

    To derive information from the Geographic Atrophy (GA) Natural History Study that is relevant to recruiting patients and designing clinical trials for GA. A prospective natural history study with annual follow-up enrolled patients with GA and no choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in at least one eye. Characteristics of recruited and enrolled patients are analyzed, in the context of progression data from the study. The data show that GA from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) was seen in 82% of the referred patients, there was an attrition rate of 14%, and 60% of the patients with GA from AMD had bilateral GA without CNV. Within the 83 patients in the bilateral GA group with follow-up, 50 patients (60%) met both the proposed visual acuity and the proposed GA area criteria for a treatment trial in one or both eyes. These data should be helpful in planning future treatment trials for GA.

  11. What Is Macular Edema?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... brain and interpreted as the images you see. It is the macula that is responsible for your ... fluids. The macula does not function properly when it is swollen. Vision loss may be mild to ...

  12. Macular degeneration (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... macula in the back of the eye. The macula is important for clear central vision, allowing an individual to see fine details. There are two types of macular degeneration, dry and wet. Dry macular degeneration is more ...

  13. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... part of your eye and what it does. Macula (MACK-yoo-luh) is the small, sensitive area ... FOH-vee-uh) is the center of the macula, where your vision is sharpest. Optic nerve (OP- ...

  14. ‘A monumental step for Riegl and Schlosser in France’: Alois Riegl, Christopher S. Wood, Emmanuel Alloa, L’industrie d’art romaine tardive, trans. Marielène Weber, Sophie Yersin Legrand, Paris: Éditions Macula 2014 and Patricia Falguières, Les Cabinets d’art et de merveilles de la Renaissance tardive: Une contribution à l’histoire du collectionnisme, Paris: Éditions Macula 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Johns

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two books are reviewed here: a French translation of Alois Riegl’s Spätrömische Kunstindustrie (1901 and Julius von Schlosser’s Kunst- und Wunderkammern der Spätrenaissance (1908. The first is supplemented by an introduction by Christopher S Wood and a postface by Emmanuel Alloa, Otto Pächt’s appendix to the second edition (1927, Riegl’s essay ‘Late Roman or oriental?’ and the entry for Alois Riegl in Schlosser’s essay on the Vienna School of art history (1934. The second is prefaced by Patricia Falguières ‘La société des objects’ and she also contributes a postface ‘Lire Schlosser aujourd’hui?’; it also has an abundance of notes. Both volumes have very high production values and are beautifully illustrated. The review focuses on the editorial commentary in the context of the interests and ambitions of both Riegl and Schlosser.

  15. Diabetes Care and Treatment Project: A Joslin Telemedicine Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-31

    both diabetic retinopathy and other non-diabetes related eye diseases such as age related macula degeneration . The reporting functionality also...relative elevation in the macula as an indication of risk for macula edema a sight threatening process or development of optic disc changes

  16. Scanning electron microscopic study of the otolithic organs in the bichir (Polypterus bichir) and shovel-nose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper, A N

    1978-09-01

    The anatomy and ultrastructure of the sacculus, lagena, and utriculus of the ear of Polypterus bichir and Scaphirhynchus platorynchus were studied using the scanning electron microscope. The otolithic organs each contain a single dense calcareous otolith in close contact with a sensory epithelium (macula). The maculae have sensory hair cells typical of those found in other vertebrates, surrounded by microvilli-covered supporting cells. The hair cells on each macula are divided into several groups, with all of the cells in each group morphologically polarized in the same direction. The cells of the utricular macula in both species are divided into opposing groups in a pattern similar to that found in other vertebrates. The saccular and lagenar maculae are located in a single large chamber in both species. In Scaphirhychus the two maculae are on the same plane, while in Polypterus they are at right angles to one another. The hair cells on the saccular maculae of both species are divided into two oppositely oriented groups. In Scaphirhynchus the cells on the posterior half of the macula are oriented dorsally on the dorsal half of the macula and ventrally on the ventral half. The anterior region of the macula is rotated and the cells of the dorsal and ventral groups are shifted so that they are oriented on the animal's horizon plane. A similar pattern is found in Polypterus, except that this macula is shaped like a "J" with the vertical portion of the J having horizontal cells and the bottom portion vertical cells. The lagenar maculae in both species have dorsally oriented cells on the anterior side of the macula and ventrally oriented cells on the posterior half of the macula. While these data are not sufficient for clarifying the taxonomic relationship between the two species studied, it is clear that the ears in these species have a number of significant differences from the teleost ear that could have functional and/or taxonomic significance.

  17. Macular xanthophylls and ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in age-related macular degeneration: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Christin; Winter, Lisa; Fröhlich, Kati; Jentsch, Susanne; Dawczynski, Jens; Jahreis, Gerhard; Böhm, Volker

    2013-05-01

    It has been shown that the functionality of the macula lutea depends on the nutritional uptake of lutein and zeaxanthin and that it is inversely associated with the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Additionally, ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) may also be protective. To investigate the effect of a 12-month intervention with macular xanthophylls and ω-3 LC-PUFAs on xanthophylls and fatty acids in plasma, antioxidant capacity, and optical density of the macular pigment of patients with nonexudative AMD. The LUTEGA study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel clinical trial that was conducted for 12 months. University Eye Hospital and Institute of Nutrition, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany. A total of 172 individuals with nonexudative AMD. Individuals were enrolled and randomly divided as follows: placebo group, group 1 (a capsule containing 10 mg of lutein, 1 mg of zeaxanthin, 100 mg of docosahexaenoic acid, and 30 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid administered each day), and group 2 (same substances but twice the dose used in group 1). One hundred forty-five participants completed the study successfully. Plasma xanthophyll concentrations and fatty acid profiles, optical density of the macular pigment, and antioxidant capacity in plasma (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid [Trolox] equivalent antioxidant capacity and photochemiluminescence). The concentrations of the administered carotenoids in plasma as well as the optical density of the macular pigment increased significantly in the groups randomized to receive supplementary macular xanthophylls and ω-3 LC-PUFAs after 1 month of intervention and remained at this level through the end of the study. Use of the double dose resulted in a beneficial alteration of the fatty acid profile in the plasma of patients with AMD in comparison with the dose in group 1. The lipophilic antioxidant capacity in plasma was significantly elevated

  18. Circulating vitamin D concentration and age-related macular degeneration: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annweiler, Cedric; Drouet, Morgane; Duval, Guillaume T; Paré, Pierre-Yves; Leruez, Stephanie; Dinomais, Mickael; Milea, Dan

    2016-06-01

    Vitamin D may be involved in ocular function in older adults, but there is no current consensus on a possible association between circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and the occurrence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Our objective was to systematically review and quantitatively assess the association of circulating 25OHD concentration with AMD. A Medline search was conducted in November 2015, with no date limit, using the MeSH terms "Vitamin D" OR "Vitamin D deficiency" OR "Ergocalciferols" OR 'Cholecalciferol' combined with "Age-related macular degeneration" OR "Macular degeneration" OR "Retinal degeneration" OR "Macula lutea" OR "Retina". Fixed and random-effects meta-analyses were performed to compute (i) standard mean difference in 25OHD concentration between AMD and non-AMD patients; (ii) AMD risk according to circulating 25OHD concentration. Of the 243 retrieved studies, 11 observational studies-10 cross-sectional studies and 1 cohort study-met the selection criteria. The number of participants ranged from 65 to 17,045 (52-100% women), and the number with AMD ranged from 31 to 1440. Circulating 25OHD concentration was 15% lower in AMD compared with non-AMD on average. AMD was inversely associated with the highest 25OHD quintile compared with the lowest (summary odds ratio (OR)=0.83 [95%CI:0.71-0.97]), notably late AMD (summary OR=0.47 [95%CI:0.28-0.79]). Circulating 25OHD<50nmol/L was also associated with late-stage AMD (summary OR=2.18 [95%CI:1.34-3.56]), an association that did not persist when all categories of AMD were considered (summary OR=1.26 [95%CI:0.90-1.76]). In conclusion, this meta-analysis provides evidence that high 25OHD concentrations may be protective against AMD, and that 25OHD concentrations below 50nmol/L are associated with late AMD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hyperhomocysteinemia and Age-related Macular Degeneration: Role of Inflammatory Mediators and Pyroptosis; A Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mahavir; Tyagi, Suresh C

    2017-08-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and pyroptosis cause irreversible vascular changes in the eyes leading to central vision loss in patients. It is the most common eye disease affecting millions of people aged 50years or older, and is slowly becoming a major health problem worldwide. The disease mainly affects macula lutea, an oval-shaped pigmented area surrounding fovea near the center of retina, a region responsible for visual acuity. It is fairly a complex disease as genetics of patients, environmental triggers as well as risk factors such as age, family history of CVDs, diabetes, gender, obesity, race, hyperopia, iris color, smoking, diabetes, exposure to sun light and pyroptosis have all been clubbed together as probable causes of macular degeneration. Among genes that are known to play a role include variant polymorphisms in the complement cascade components such as CFH, C2, C3, and CFB as potential genetic risk factors. So far, AMD disease hypothesized theories have not resulted into the anticipated impact towards the development of effective or preventive therapies in order to help alleviate patients' suffering because, as of today, it is still unclear what actually initiates or leads to this dreaded eye condition. Based upon our extensive work on the metabolism of homocysteine (Hcy) in various disease conditions we, therefore, are proposing a novel hypothesis for AMD pathogenesis as we strongly believe that Hcy and events such as pyroptosis make a greater contribution to the overall etiology of AMD disease in a target population of susceptible hosts by inciting and accelerating the inherent inflammatory changes in the retina of these patients (Fig. 2). In this context, we further state that Hcy and pyroptosis should be considered as legitimate and valuable markers of retinal dysfunction as they not only aid and abet in the development but also in the progression of AMD in older people as discussed in this paper. This discussion should open up new

  20. Low Level (Sub Threshold), Large Spot Laser Irradiations of the Foveas of Macaca Mulatta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    spherules. In a portion of the block containing the macula a degenerating patch is seen, displaying considerable edema, with pyknotic and missing nuclei...6 Peripheral areas 11 Macula 11 Eye # 3 M31 2KD 15 (enucleated 7 days after focal irradiation jby gallium arsenide laser). Control areas 15 Neodymium...laser irradiations peripheral areas 23 Macula 28 TABLE OF CONTENTS continued Page Eye # 5 M443 2JD Patched Eye 32 Most areas 32 area nasal to optic disc

  1. The Effects of Gx, Gy and Gz Forces on Cone Mesopic Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    of duration less than 1.0 seconds (time frame may vary depending on the source referred to). macular degeneration - Atrophy of the macula of the...rela- 7 tive number of cones itrcreases. In the macula , the visual center of the eye, there is virtually only cones. There are other anatomic...the cones in the center of the macula having a 1:1 synaptic ratio). These features allow small stimuli with minimal separated distances to activate

  2. [The investigation of genomes of some species of the genus Gentiana in nature and in vitro cell culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'nyk, V M; Spiridonova, K V; Andrieiev, I O; Strashniuk, N M; Kunakh, V A

    2002-01-01

    The comparative study of the genomes of intact plants-representatives of some species of the genus Gentiana L. as well as cultured cells of G. lutea and G. punctata was performed using restriction analysis. Species specificity of restriction fragment patterns for studied representatives of this genus was revealed. The differences between electrophoretic patterns of digested DNA purified from rhizome and leaves of G. lutea and G. punctata were found. The changes in genomes of G. lutea and G. punctata cells cultured in vitro compared with the genomes of intact plants were detected. The data obtained evidence that some of them may be of nonrandom character.

  3. Mahe, Seychelles Stable Isotope (delta 18O) Data for 1846 to 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seychelles coral oxygen-18 time series, data are monthly values of d18O from July 1846 to February 1995 from a 3-m Porites lutea coral colony collected from Beau...

  4. REPRODUCTION IN THE ROCK HYRAX (PROCA VIA CAPENSIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of corpora lutea and foetuses in the females, the reproductive organs and glands of all animals ... However, the approximate time of conception was calculated from the ... These findings were further confirmed by estimating the percentage.

  5. composition and size class structure of tree species in ihang'ana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nb

    Previous plant biodiversity studies in this ecosystem concentrated on large-sized Forest ... assess tree species composition, structure and diversity in Ihang'ana FR (2982 ha), one of the ..... Dombeya rotundifolia. (Hochst) ... Ficus lutea. Vahl.

  6. Phytochemical pattern of Gentiana species of Appennino in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, A; Guarcini, L; Altieri, A; Bianco, A

    2013-01-01

    The molecular pattern of two Gentiana species, G. dinarica and G. lutea, present in a protected area of Appennino Centrale in Italy, was examined. Results were compared with literature data, examining the differences between the two species.

  7. Traditional uses of indigenous tree species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Cordia millenii, Ficus spp, Markhamia lutea and Albizia spp are the most commonly used indigenous ... activities like construction of roads and expansion of ranches and ... impact of traditional uses of indigenous tress on the sustainability.

  8. What Is Macular Edema?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Academy Store Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & ... is swelling or thickening of the eye's macula, the part of your eye responsible for detailed, central vision. The macula is a very small area at the center of the retina—a thin ...

  9. Reflections on flurbiprofen eyedrops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sorge, Adriaan Alastair

    2002-01-01

    University of Groningen Surgery of the eye lens has become the treatment of choice for senile cataract. As from the first description of this therapy, there have been reports on a serious complication in the macula of the retina (macula retinae) affecting the vision of the patient. This

  10. Alport syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... itching, or redness of the eye, or blurred vision. Abnormal coloring of the retina , a condition called dot-and-fleck retinopathy. It ... macula. The macula is a part of the retina that makes central vision sharper and more detailed. A macular hole causes ...

  11. Comparative proteomic analyses of macular and peripheral retina of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Haru; Umeda, Shinsuke; Nozawa, Takehiro; Suzuki, Michihiro T; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Matsuura, Etsuko T; Iwata, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    The central region of the primate retina is called the macula. The fovea is located at the center of the macula, where the photoreceptors are concentrated to create a neural network adapted for high visual acuity. Damage to the fovea, e.g., by macular dystrophies and age-related macular degeneration, can reduce central visual acuity. The molecular mechanisms leading to these diseases are most likely dependent on the proteins in the macula which differ from those in the peripheral retina in expression level. To investigate whether the distribution of proteins in the macula is different from the peripheral retina, proteomic analyses of tissues from these two regions of cynomolgus monkeys were compared. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry identified 26 proteins that were present only in the macular gel spots. The expression levels of five proteins, cone photoreceptor specific arrestin-C, gamma-synuclein, epidermal fatty acid binding protein, tropomyosin 1alpha chain, and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1, were significantly higher in the macula than in the peripheral retina. Immunostaining of macula sections by antibodies to each identified protein revealed unique localization in the retina, retinal pigment epithelial cells and the choroidal layer. Some of these proteins were located in cells with higher densities in the macula. We suggest that it will be important to study these proteins to determine their contribution to the pathogenesis and progression of macula diseases.

  12. Transcorneal Electrical Stimulation Therapy for Retinal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    Retinitis Pigmentosa; Macula Off; Primary Open Angle Glaucoma; Hereditary Macular Degeneration; Treated Retina Detachment; Retinal Artery Occlusion; Retinal Vein Occlusion; Non-Arthritic-Anterior-Ischemic Optic-Neuropathy; Hereditary Autosomal Dominant Optic Atrophy; Dry Age Related Macular Degeneration; Ischemic Macula Edema

  13. What Is Macular Edema?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Macular Edema Treatment What Is Macular Edema? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es un edema macular? Dec. 01, 2010 Macular edema is swelling or thickening of the eye's macula, the part of your eye responsible for detailed, central vision. The macula is a very small area ...

  14. Endometrial cytology in the female cat (Felis catus) during diestrus

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Riquelme, Alfonso; Arias Ruiz, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe and quantify cytological findings in the cat’s endometrium (Felis catus). Twenty genital tracts were obtained by ovariohysterectomy. To establish the status of the estrous cycle, vaginal cytology was evaluated and ovarian structures were recorded, resulting that all females were in the luteal phase. According to the presence of corpora lutea and follicles, a classification of the luteal phase was proposed: early diestrus: corpora lutea and follicles of...

  15. Pink-line syndrome

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran J.; Raghukumar, C.; Manikandan, B.

    , a physiological crisis in the scleractinian coral Porites lutea. Marine biology 149: 347-356 7. Ravindran J, Raghukumar C (2006a) Histological observations on the scleractinian coral Porites lutea affected by pink-line syndrome. Current science... handbook: guidelines for assessment and monitoring. Currie Communications, Melbourne, Australia, 94p+App 10. Vargas-Angel B, Wheeler B (2009) Coral health and disease assessment in the US Pacific territories and affiliated states. Proc. 11th Coral Reef...

  16. [A case of Veratrum poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festa, M; Andreetto, B; Ballaris, M A; Panio, A; Piervittori, R

    1996-05-01

    A poisoning from a Veratrum album infusion mistaken for Gentiana lutea is described. Confusion between these two plants can easily occur because they are very similar, although flowers and disposition of leaves allow their botanic determinat: V. album leaves are alternate and flowers are white, while G. lutea leaves are opposite and flowers yellow. The poisoning involves gastrointestinal (pyrosis, vomiting) and cardiocirculatory systems (bradyarrhy-thmias, A-V dissociation, vasodilatation) Atropine is the drug of choice.

  17. Age related macular degeneration - modern diagnostic and therapeutic preventive approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gogelová, Blanka

    2009-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease associated with aging that gradually destroys sharp, central vision. Central vision is needed for seeing objects clearly and for common daily tasks such as reading and driving. AMD affects the macula, the part of the eye that alows seeing of fine details. AMD occurs in two form: dry and wet. In dry AMD, the light sensitive cells in the macula slowly break down. As fewer cells in the macula are able to function, people will see details less c...

  18. Macular Pigment: Practical Implications for Optometric Practice in Preventative Health Care and Visual Performance Enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Scanlon, Grainne

    2011-01-01

    The macula is a specialised part of the retina responsible for detailed central and colour vision. The carotenoids, lutein, zeaxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin are uniquely concentrated in the inner and central layers of the primate macula, where they are known as macular pigment (MP). It has been shown that MP is entirely of dietary origin and that lutein and zeaxanthin levels in serum, diet and retina correlate. Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is a disease of the macula and results in los...

  19. Macular sensitivity and fixation patterns in patients with autosomal dominant optic atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnbäck, Cecilia; Larsen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    in the nasal macula (13.6 (± 5.7) dB versus 19.7 (± 0.7) dB) and in the central macula (14.2 (± 5.1) dB versus 19.9 (± 0.3) dB). The average sensitivity decreased with decreasing BCVA in ADOA (p ... fixation was observed in 35% of ADOA patients versus 14% of controls. Unstable fixation was found only in ADOA, where its prevalence was 7%. CONCLUSION: ADOA was associated with unstable fixation and subnormal microperimetric sensitivity, especially in the central and nasal macula where the ganglion cell...

  20. Description of a new Goliathid from the Cameroons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neervoort van de Poll, J.R.H.

    1890-01-01

    ♀. Brunneo-niger, nitidus ; plaga basalis prothoracis, scutellum elytraque (humeri excepti) tomento brunneo-olivaceo obtecta. Prothorax lateraliter margine angusta et ab angulis anticis linea obliqua, scutellum lateraliter vitta lata, elytra omnino maculis et atomis (quae maculae ad margines

  1. RESEARCH NOTE Aniridia due to a novel microdeletion affecting ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andreas Syrimis

    development of the central nervous system. ... hypoplasia, which was confirmed by optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the macula (Fig. 1B- ... DCD1, IMMP1L, DNAJC24 and ELP4 was also reported to have autism spectrum disorder and.

  2. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and Data Resources for the media Pressroom Contacts Dustin Hays - ... it does. Macula (MACK-yoo-luh) is the small, sensitive area of the retina needed for central ...

  3. Otolith Responses During Centrifugation Along Three Axes of Orientation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    Humans perceive tilt by the otoliths as a result of shear forces on the maculae. The current study was designed to investigate the influence of forces from different directions on eye movements and tilt perception...

  4. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the macula, where your vision is sharpest. Optic nerve (OP-tic nurv) is the bundle of ... the eyeball. It sends electrical impulses through the optic nerve to the brain. Watch now! Learn how ...

  5. EARLY SIMULTANEOUS FUNDUS AUTOFLUORESCENCE AND OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY FEATURES AFTER PARS PLANA VITRECTOMY FOR PRIMARY RHEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL DETACHMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellʼomo, Roberto; Mura, Marco; Lesnik Oberstein, Sarit Y.; Bijl, Heico; Tan, H. Stevie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To describe fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography (OCT) features of the macula after pars plana vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Methods: Thirty-three eyes of 33 consecutive patients with repaired rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with or without the

  6. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about each part of your eye and what it does. Macula (MACK-yoo-luh) is the small, ... area of the retina needed for central vision. It contains the fovea. Lens is the clear part ...

  7. Hypertensive retinopathy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... retina from high blood pressure is called hypertensive retinopathy. It occurs as the existing high blood pressure ... flame hemorrhages and cotton wool spots. As hypertensive retinopathy progresses, hard exudates can appear around the macula ...

  8. Macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The macula is the part of the retina that distinguishes fine details at the center of the field of vision. Macular degeneration results from a partial breakdown of the insulating layer between the retina and the choroid layer of ...

  9. Intravitreal injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may have this procedure if you have: Macular degeneration : An eye disorder that slowly destroys sharp, central vision Macular edema: Swelling or thickening of the macula, the part of your eye that provides sharp, ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Stargardt macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recognizing faces. In most people with Stargardt macular degeneration , a fatty yellow pigment (lipofuscin) builds up in cells underlying the macula. Over time, the abnormal accumulation of this substance ...

  11. Macular degeneration - age-related

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AMD occurs when the blood vessels under the macula become thin and brittle. Small yellow deposits, called drusen, form. Almost all people with macular degeneration start with the dry form. Wet AMD occurs ...

  12. How the Build Up of Aqueous Humor Can Damage the Optic Nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pit or depression at the center of the macula that provides the greatest visuals acuity. Iris: The ... email address. Keep me informed about: * Alzheimer's Macular Degeneration Glaucoma Please select at least one. You must ...

  13. Homonymous Hemianopia with Macular Sparing: Clinical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Osoba

    peripheral vision function in the cerebral cortex is located. Sparing ... Key words: brain, magnetic resonance imaging, macula, occipital lobe, vision ... luminance right homonymous hemianopia affecting inferior and superior ... infarction in left.

  14. Refractive aim and visual outcome after phacoemulsification: A 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common ocular comorbidities excluded were corneal opacity/corneal scar, glaucoma, uveitis, pseudo exfoliation syndrome, moderate and severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, macula edema, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, eye trauma, age‑related macular degeneration, previous corneal surgery, glaucoma ...

  15. Retinal Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Linked Retinoschisis (XLRS) X-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa (XLRP) Usher Syndrome Other Retinal Diseases Glossary News & Research News & Research ... central portion of the retina called the macula. Usher Syndrome Usher syndrome is an inherited condition characterized by ...

  16. Review of the safety of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of ischaemic heart disease and thromboembolic events in comparison to .... age, using a higher NSAID dose, a longer duration of therapy, a previous ... 2 enzyme in the macula densa, the thick ascending limb of the Loop of .... Prevention of in.

  17. Why lutein is important for the eye and the brain

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez Maria

    2016-01-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoids that accumulate in the macula. The macula is a yellow spot near the center of the retina that is responsible of high resolution vision. Macular pigment acts as a natural blue light filter and protects the eye from damage. Macular pigment optical density (MPOD) increases with lutein administration and is related to visual function and to the prevention of age-related macular degeneration. MOPD can be measured non-invasively and has been related to better c...

  18. A New System for Measuring Auto-Fluorescence Changes in Neovascular-AMD after Intravitreal Injection of Bavecizumab

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Norouzifard; Ali Soleymani; Jamshid Shanbehzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is the second disease diabetes which causes blindness in aged people. The only remedy for AMD is intravenous injection of bavecizumab. To prove the efficiency of remedy, the degenerated cells in Macula should be measured. In this article, a modern system is introduced to measure Auto-Fluorescence in Macula part of retina in order to obtain number of degenerated cells. The system consists of three main parts: Pre-processing stage is omission of margins an...

  19. Mechanisms of Retinal Damage from Chronic Laser Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    and the other by 15 a slower, partly reversible rod cell degeneration It appears that a normal light cycle protects the rat eye somewhat from the...lium, disturbing the metabolic support of the receptors. Gross separation as in retinal detachment is known to cause degeneration of receptors and...border by scatter and reflection. A particular kind of specialization in the retina is represented by the fovea and macula . In the center of the macula

  20. Retinal Information Processing for Minimum Laser Lesion Detection and Cumulative Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-17

    macula and especially the fovea. This is the region where information processing is most important, as it must make up for the poor optical quality of the...the fovea and portions of the central macula leave the retina with only large receptive field ganglion cells. In these cases, the ordinary mechanical... degeneration or failure of neurons following laser exposure without subsequent therapy. As the research progressed, significant progress was made in cat

  1. Optical Research and Field Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    manuscript "Retinal Damage from Femtosecond Near-Infrared Laser Pulses" for the macula vs. paramacula data article (Journal of Applied Optics) was reviewed and...Fiber Layer (NFL) degeneration following acute laser-induced retinal damage, new optical imaging approaches for detection of laser ocular damage...pulses in the macula /paramacula regions of the live eye," Laser-Tissue Interaction X, Steven L. Jacques, Ed., Proc. SPIE Vol. 3601, 39-42 (1999). Patyal

  2. [Tapeto-retinal degeneration combined with incomplete general albinism (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivandić, T

    1975-05-01

    Report on a family, which presented the rare autosomal dominant transmitted, incomplete general albinism associated with autosomal recessive inherited, diffuse tapeto-retinal degeneration "sine pigmento". hypopigmentation of skin, eyebrows and hair, blue iris and fundus albinoticus with hypoplasia of the macula. In 3 cases additionally appeared: waxy pallor of optic disc, vascular narrowing, reflexless hypoplastic macula, pigmentless periphery, acquired blue-yellow blindness, concentric limitation of the visual field, reduced darkadaptation, abolished electroretinogram and myopic astigmatism.

  3. A phase 2/3, multicenter, randomized, double-masked, 2-year trial of pegaptanib sodium for the treatment of diabetic macular edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sultan, Marla B; Zhou, Duo; Loftus, Jane

    2011-01-01

    To confirm the safety and compare the efficacy of intravitreal pegaptanib sodium 0.3 mg versus sham injections in subjects with diabetic macular edema (DME) involving the center of the macula associated with vision loss not due to ischemia.......To confirm the safety and compare the efficacy of intravitreal pegaptanib sodium 0.3 mg versus sham injections in subjects with diabetic macular edema (DME) involving the center of the macula associated with vision loss not due to ischemia....

  4. Bleaching herbicide norflurazon inhibits phytoene desaturase by competition with the cofactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenbach, J; Zhu, C; Sandmann, G

    2001-11-01

    Cofactor requirement was determined for the heterologous expressed phytoene desaturases from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus and the higher plant Gentiana lutea. The cyanobacterial enzyme is dependent on either NAD(P) or plastoquinone, whereas only quinones such as plastoquinone can function as a cofactor for the phytoene desaturase from G. lutea. Enzyme kinetic studies were carried out to determine a possible competition between the cofactors and the bleaching herbicide norflurazon. For the Synechococcus enzyme, competition between norflurazon and NADP, as well as plastoquinone, could be demonstrated. The K(m) values for these cofactors were 6.6 mM and 0.23 microM, respectively. Inhibition of the phytoene desaturase from G. lutea by norflurazon was also competitive with respect to plastoquinone. The K(m) values of both enzymes for plastoquinone were very close.

  5. [18S-25S rDNA variation in tissue culture of some Gentiana L. species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'nyk, V M; Andrieiev, I O; Spiridonova, K V; Strashniuk, N M; Kunakh, V A

    2007-01-01

    18S-25S rDNA of intact plants and tissue cultures of G. acaulis, G. punctata and G. lutea have been investigated by using blot-hybridization. The decrease of rDNA amount was found in the callus cultures as compared with the plants. In contrast to other species, G. lutea showed intragenome heterogeneity of rRNA genes as well as qualitative rDNA changes in tissue culture, in particular appearance of altered repeats. The relationship between the peculiarities of rRNA gene structure and their rearrangements in in vitro culture was suggested.

  6. Effect of different dose rates administration of FSH + LH (Pergonal®)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The does were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups administered of 19.0 IU, 38.0 IU and 76.0 IU FSH + LH (Pergonal®) and 1.0 ml physiological saline as the control treatment. The treatments were administered intramuscularly for 3 days consecutively. The results on the number of corpora lutea on the ovary did not ...

  7. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences - Vol 28, No 2 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of ethanolic extract of Carpolobia lutea G. Don (polygalaceae) root on learning and memory in CD1 mice · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Coffee Consumption Attenuates Insulin Resistance and Glucose Intolerance in Rats fed on High-Sucrose Diet · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL ...

  8. Expression of the clock genes Per1 and Bmal1 during follicle development in the rat ovary. Effects of gonadotropin stimulation and hypophysectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gräs, Søren; Georg, Birgitte; Jørgensen, Henrik L

    2012-01-01

    rhythms in the rat ovary to the luteinising hormone receptor and suggest a functional link to androgen and progesterone production. In hypophysectomised animals, rhythmic clock gene expression is also observed in the corpora lutea and in secondary interstitial cells demonstrating that...

  9. Observations on Neobarya, including new species and new combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Candoussau, F.; Boqueras, M.; Gómez-Bolea, A.

    2007-01-01

     Technical abstract:  New combinations and new species are proposed in Neobarya: N. aurantiaca comb. nov., N. byssicola comb. nov., N. lichenicola comb. nov., N. lutea sp. nov., N. peltigerae sp. nov., N. xylariicola sp. nov. Neobarya agaricicola, and N. parasitica are redescribed. Anamorphs asso...

  10. Reevaluation of Vegetational Characteristics at the CERC (Coastal Engineering Research Center) Field Research Facility, Duck, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    var. cerifera L. Wax myrtle Onagraceae *Ludiigia aZata Ell. W. - r-priurose Oenothera frticoea L. drops 0. hisniflsa Nuttall Evening primrose... Orchidaceae Spiranthee cernua ver. odorata Nodding ladies’ (Nuttall) Correll. tresses Passiflorarese *PassifZora lutea L. Passion-flower Phytolacaceat POytoZaca

  11. Introduction of wild MAP species into the field culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušková, Elena

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Althea officinalis L., Dracocephalum moldavica L., Gentiana lutea L., Rhodiola rosea L., and Valeriana officinalis L. are the species of wild medicinal plants which are not very commonly grown in field culture. The methods and practical experiences of their multiplication and growing in a field nursery in Olomouc (the Czech Republic are explained and shown in the manuscript.

  12. De Centauriebremraap (Orobanche elatior Sutton) in Zuid-Limburg: een nieuwe soort voor de Nederlandse flora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreutz, C.A.J.

    1989-01-01

    From 1973 onwards an Orobanche species was found repeatedly (though at intervals of several years) on a chalk slope in the South of Limburg. At first the plant was identified as O. lutea, but the author argues that in fact it is O. elatior. Presumably its host is Centaurea scabiosa.

  13. The new Dytiscidae and Gyrinidae collected during the recent scientific Sumatra- Expedition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Régimbart, M.

    1880-01-01

    Oblongo-ovalis, postice paululum attenuatus, subtilissime reticulatus, infra fusco-ferrugineus, antennis pedibusque testaceo-ferrugineis; capite ac prothorace fulvis, hoc ad basin leviter infuscato; elytris nigro-fuscis, crebre et irregulariter fulvo-irroratis, ad basin fascia lutea transversa et

  14. Sunbirds hover at flowers of Salvia and Lycium | Wester | Ostrich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here I present detailed observations of foraging behaviour in two sunbird species (Malachite Sunbird Nectarinia famosa and Southern Double-collared Sunbird Cinnyris chalybeus) at flowers of three Salvia species (Salvia africana-lutea, S. lanceolata and S. africana-caerulea; Lamiaceae) and one natural hybrid as well as ...

  15. Co-occurence of Invasive Species on Priority TES Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Tropical Bushmint Hyptis mutabilis forb Clay Camp Blanding FL Red-cockaded Woodpecker Congongrass Imperata cylindrica grass O,F Clay Camp...Woodpecker Yellow Unicornplant Ibicella lutea forb Alachua Camp Blanding FL Red-cockaded Woodpecker Congongrass Imperata cylindrica grass O,F...Grey Bat & Indiana Bat Indian Swampweed Hygrophila polysperma forb A AL Grey Bat & Indiana Bat Brazilian satintail Imperata brasiliensis grass

  16. 76 FR 82146 - Tepraloxydim; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... index, some information is not publicly available, e.g., Confidential Business Information (CBI) or... corpora lutea, and decreased follicles in female mice; increased incidences of focal calcification of the... study in rats, motor activity was decreased in all treated female groups, while forelimb grip strength...

  17. Preliminary Guide to the Onsite Identification and Delineation of the Wetlands of the South Atlantic United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    shield) Ceratophyilum demersum (Coontail) Myriophyllum spp. (Watermilfoil) Nelumbo lutea ( American lotus) Nuphar luteum (Spatterdock) Nymphaea odorata...Overcup oak) Quercus palustris (Pin oak) Quercus phelios (Willow oak) Ulmus americana ( American elm) UlmuS rubra (Slippery elm) c. Atlantic White...var. biflora (Swamp black gum) Persea borbonia (Red bay) Pinus serotina (Pond pine) Smilax laurifolia (Bamboo vine) Sphagnum spp. (Sphagnum moss

  18. ~i ~i ~~

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More- over, injections of oxytocin or oestrogenic substances have been shown to inhibit functional corpora lutea and reduce the plasma progesterone level in cattle. (Armstrong & Hansel, 1959; Kaltenbach, Niswender,. Zimmerman & Wiltbank, 1964). The rationale for using potentiating agents was to improve the response to.

  19. Environmental effects on the stable carbon and oxygen isotopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1999-11-10

    The timing of band formation and linear skeletal growth rate based on environmental changes were investigated using alizarin red S (ARS) in Porites lutea coral at Khang Khao Island, the Gulf of Thailand from November 10, 1999 to March 15, 2001. The X-radiograph of the vertical section of the Porites coral skeleton was ...

  20. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTION OF THE LEAF EXTRACT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Saroj K.; Mukherjee, Pulok K.; Saha, Kakali; Pal, M.; Saha, B.P.

    1995-01-01

    The ethnolic extract of the leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Fam. Moringaceae) was tested for antimicrobial activities against Gram Positive – Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea: Gram negative – Escherichia coli and Acid fast Mycobacterium phlei. Significant antimicrobial activity of the extract was found in this study. PMID:22556699

  1. Action of minute dosis of gamma rays on gestation of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templier, J.; Maudouyt, M.A.; Charpenteau, M.; Bonnet, J.

    1978-01-01

    Female mice were irradiated with 10 rads of 60 Co gamma ray, 7 hours after mating. This low dose induces a decrease in implantation number, and alive foetus number and is followed by a lower number of corpora lutea. These results to seem to show an effect of gamma irradiation on ovary and embryonic development [fr

  2. Detectability of thermal signatures associated with active formation of ‘chaos terrain’ on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Oleg; Rathbun, J.; Schmidt, Britney E.; Spencer, John R.

    2013-01-01

    A recent study by Schmidt et al. (2011) suggests that Thera Macula, one of the “chaos regions” on Europa, may be actively forming over a large liquid water lens. Such a process could conceivably produce a thermal anomaly detectable by a future Europa orbiter or flyby mission, allowing for a direct verification of this finding. Here, we present a set of models that quantitatively assess the surface and subsurface temperatures associated with an actively resurfacing chaos region using constraints from Thera Macula. The results of this numerical study suggest that the surface temperature over an active chaos region can be as high as ∼200 K. However, low-resolution Galileo Photo-Polarimeter Radiometer (PPR) observations indicate temperatures below 120 K over Thera Macula. This suggests that Thera Macula is not currently active unless an insulating layer of at least a few centimeters in thickness is present, or activity is confined to small regions, reducing the overall intensity of the thermal signature. Alternatively, Thera may have been cooling for at least 10–100 yr and still contain a subsurface lake, which can take ∼300,000 yr to crystallize. According to the present study, a more sensitive instrument capable of detecting anomalies ∼5 K above ambient could detect activity at Thera Macula even if an insulating layer of ∼50 cm is present.

  3. Successful treatment of radiation retinopathy with panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) in a patient of orbital MALT lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Chikuda, Makoto; Kadoya, Kouji

    2012-01-01

    Report a case of satisfactory progress radiation retinopathy after radiation for mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. A 26-year-old male patient, referred to our department for lacrimal sac tumor. Biopsy was done by otolaryngology and radiation therapy was performed (total irradiation of 41.4 Gy) as pathological examination revealed MALT lymphoma. Soft exudates and macula edema appeared in posterior pole of the right fundus after radiotherapy. Right vision became 0.5 because of macula edema, and panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) was performed. After PRP, macula edema withdrew and right vision improved to 1.2. It is suggested that the fundus must be monitored after radiation therapy, and early treatment, such as PRP is effective in radiation retinopathy. (author)

  4. Docetaxel Retinopathy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Nghiem-Buffet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To report the use of En-face optical coherence tomography (OCT in a patient treated with docetaxel and tamoxifen for breast cancer for the detection of macular edema (ME without evidence of leakage on fluorescein angiography (FA. Case Presentation: A 52-year-old woman treated for breast cancer presented with bilateral visual loss for 2 months. FA showed no significant leakage while spectral-domain OCT scans of both eyes showed foveolar and parafoveolar cystic spaces in a moderately thickened macula. En-face OCT segmented at the inner retina showed the petaloid arrangement of cystic cavities, comparable to a cystoid ME. Conclusions: The combined use of tamoxifen could have potentiated the toxic effect of docetaxel on the macula. En-face OCT images may reveal a petaloid aspect of the macula due to cysts in the inner retina segmentation, when FA shows no leakage.

  5. Current visual and anatomic outcomes of pneumatic retinopexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Kaushal M; Roth, Daniel B; Prenner, Jonathan L

    2007-10-01

    To assess current visual and anatomic outcomes of pneumatic retinopexy (PR) for the repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RD). Retrospective chart review of 150 patients who underwent PR for RD between January 2000 and February 2005. Patients with a history of scleral buckling, Lincoff balloon, or proliferative diabetic retinopathy in the same eye were excluded. Successful reattachment was achieved in 76.7% with a single procedure and 98.7% after additional procedures. A total of 17.3% underwent a subsequent procedure for a new or persistent tear. The success rate remained consistent in pseudophakic and aphakic eyes, and eyes with traumatic detachments, macular detachment, multiple breaks, poor preoperative visual acuity (VA) (lattice degeneration, >or=6 clock hours of detachment, and prior pars plana vitrectomy. A total of 2.7% of eyes underwent a second additional procedure for RD. A total of 32% of males versus 15.3% of females underwent an additional procedure for RD (P = 0.07). Final VA >or=20/50 was achieved in 80.8% of macula-on and 73.6% of macula-off RDs. Of eyes that underwent an additional procedure, final VA >or=20/50 was achieved in 63.2% of macula-on and 43.8% of macula-off RDs, and those with macula-on RD lost a mean of 1.79 (+/-4.9) lines of Snellen VA, while those with macula-off RD gained a mean of 5.6 (+/-4.6) lines (P = 0.00006). : PR had a high anatomic success rate in eyes with a wide variety of complicated RDs. Male sex may be a risk factor for failed PR. Careful monitoring and treatment of postoperative tears is important in preventing redetachment.

  6. Bilateral macular colobomata: Temporal dragging of optic disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Mathew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 13-year-old male presented with decreased vision and squint from childhood. He had bilateral large colobomata at the macula in each eye, the one on the right being larger than the left. The disc was dragged temporally with straightening of the temporal retinal vessels. This is a case report of bilateral large macular coloboma and serves to report its association with a temporally dragged disc and straightened temporal retinal vessels. A dragged disc if present with a colobomatous defect at the macula may strengthen the case for diagnosis of macular coloboma and help exclude other differentials.

  7. Microinvasive surgery in the treatment of retinal detachment associated with an optic disk pit: 2 cases report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Sdobnokova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We report two cases of an 18-year-old boy with a left optic disc pit and associated retinal edema of the macula and 47-year-old woman with an optic disk pit and associated retinal detachment of the macula. First was treated by intravitreal injection of Lucentis. Woman was treated by gas tamponade as a primary procedure. Both procedures resulted in complete resolution of subretinal fluid andincrease of visual acuity. We conclude that microinvasive surgery can be effective treatment of this disease.

  8. Retinal pigment epithelial atrophy following indocyanine green dye-assisted surgery for serous macular detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Nazimul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To report subretinal migration of indocyanine green dye (ICG and subsequent retinal pigment epithelial (RPE atrophy during macular surgery for serous macular detachment. A 65-year-old woman presented with residual epiretinal membrane and serous detachment of the macula following vitreoretinal surgery for epiretinal membrane. She underwent resurgery with ICG-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling and intraocular tamponade. Intraoperatively a large area of subretinal ICG was seen with subsequent RPE mottling and atrophy of the macula in the area involved during follow-up. This case demonstrates that subretinal migration of ICG is possible and can be toxic to RPE.

  9. Cyclooxygenase 2 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in the renal cortex are not interdependent in states of salt deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castrop, H; Kammerl, M; Mann, Birgitte

    2000-01-01

    Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in the kidney are localized to the cortical thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle (cTALH), including the macula region, and increase after salt restriction. Because of the similar localization and regulation of n...... excretion. These findings suggest that under these conditions the control of nNOS and COX-2 gene expression in the macula densa regions of the kidney cortex are not dependent on each other....

  10. Cellular mechanisms within the juxtaglomerular apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briggs, J P; Skøtt, O; Schnermann, J

    1990-01-01

    Cl concentration at the macular densa. This change also results in inhibition of secretion of renin. The macula densa has a unique location near the terminal end of the thick ascending limb, where NaCl concentration is highly flow dependent. The cellular mechanisms by which changes in tubular fluid NaCl produce...... vasoconstriction and inhibition of renin secretion are unknown, but the anatomy of the juxtaglomerular apparatus strongly suggests that such responses may be mediated by the extraglomerular mesangial cells located in the polar cushion underlying the macula densa. Recent evidence suggests that interstitial chloride...

  11. Normative data of outer photoreceptor layer thickness obtained by software image enhancing based on Stratus optical coherence tomography images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, U.C.; Krøyer, K.; Thomadsen, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    backscattered light within the outer nuclear layer (ONL) in the fovea was registered and compared with backscattered light within the ONL in the peripheral part of the macula (I-ratio-ONL). Results: The mean RPE-OScomplex thickness in the foveal centre was 77.2 mu m (SD = 3.95). The RPE-OScomplex thickness...... in the superior macula 0.5-3 mm of the centre was significantly increased as compared with the corresponding inferior retina. In healthy subjects, the I-ratio-ONL was 1.06. Conclusions: Contrast-enhanced OCT images enable quantification of outer photoreceptor layer thickness, and normative values may help...

  12. Mammalian Gravity Receptors: Structure and Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    Calcium metabolism in mammalian gravity receptors is examined. To accomplish this objective it is necessary to study both the mineral deposits of the receptors, the otoconia, and the sensory areas themselves, the saccular and utricular maculas. The main focus was to elucidate the natures of the organic and inorganic phases of the crystalline masses, first in rat otoconia but more recently in otoliths and otoconia of a comparative series of vertebrates. Some of the ultrastructural findings in rat maculas, however, have prompted a more thorough study of the organization of the hair cells and innervation patterns in graviceptors.

  13. Good visual outcome in a longstanding macular detachment associated with an optic disc pit treated with vitrectomy, laser, and gas tamponade: case report. doi: 10.20513/2447-6595.2016v56n1p68-70

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de Aragao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Optic disc pit is a congenital anomaly of the optic nerve frequently associated with macula detachment. It has a poor visual prognosis if left untreated. The treatment of the optic disc remains controversial and includes the use of laser along the edge of the optic nerve, vitrectomy with gas tamponade with or without removal of posterior hyaloid. We report a case of a 19-year-old female with a longstanding macula detachment due to optic disc pit who was treated with vitrectomy with removal of posterior hyaloid, gas tamponade, and laser. Despite longstanding macular detachment the final visual acuity was 20/25.

  14. Dietary poisoning with Veratrum album--a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagler, Bernhard; Zelger, Anton; Salvatore, Carmen; Pechlaner, Christoph; De Giorgi, Franco; Wiedermann, Christian J

    2005-02-01

    Veratrum album is a poisonous plant that can easily be mistaken for the yellow gentian, Gentiana lutea, used in beverages. Two adult men were brought to the emergency department six hours after drinking gentian spirit. Each presented with nausea and vomiting, preceded by headache, developed within one hour after ingestion, and followed by diarrhea in one of the patients. Vital signs were normal except for heart rates of 42 and 45 beats per minute in the two patients, respectively. Laboratory findings were unremarkable. Electrocardiograms revealed sinus bradycardia. Activated charcoal and antiemetics were given and the patients were admitted for observation of signs of toxicity. The further clinical course was uneventful. Heart rates returned to normal within eight hours after admission. Retrospective investigation of the gentian beverage confirmed that V. album was mistaken for G. lutea. Patients with clinical toxicity following unintentional ingestion of V. album should be kept under observation and generally recover with supportive care.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of kombucha made from Rtanj tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Dragoljub D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is a beverage with special therapeutic properties produced by the metabolic activity of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria in sweetened black tea (traditional cultivation medium. The antimicrobial activity of kombucha (for consumption made from black tea and Rtanj tea, as well as particular control samples, was examined by the modified disc diffusion method. Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sp., Sarcina lutea, Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Aspergilus niger, Aspergilus flavus, Rhodotorula sp. Candida pseudotropi-calis and Saccharomyces cerevisae have been used as test organisms. Acetic acid and kombucha samples show significant antimicrobial activity against all bacteria except Sarcina lutea. The other control samples (neutralized kombucha, tea and a "model sistem" show less bacteriostatic activity. Kombucha and acetic acid solution show borderline inhibitory activity against some moulds, while was no activity against yeasts.

  16. Simultaneous Analysis of Anthocyanin and Non-Anthocyanin Flavonoid in Various Tissues of Different Lotus (Nelumbo) Cultivars by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sha; Xiang, Yue; Deng, Jiao; Liu, Yanling; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    A validated HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn method for the analysis of non-anthocyanin flavonoids was applied to nine different tissues of twelve lotus genotypes of Nelumbo nucifera and N. lutea, together with an optimized anthocyanin extraction and separation protocol for lotus petals. A total of five anthocyanins and twenty non-anthocyanin flavonoids was identified and quantified. Flavonoid contents and compositions varied with cultivar and tissue and were used as a basis to divide tissues into three groups characterized by kaempferol and quercetin derivatives. Influences on flower petal coloration were investigated by principal components analyses. High contents of kaempferol glycosides were detected in the petals of N. nucifera while high quercetin glycoside concentrations occurred in N. lutea. Based on these results, biosynthetic pathways leading to specific compounds in lotus tissues are deduced through metabolomic analysis of different genotypes and tissues and correlations among flavonoid compounds. PMID:23646125

  17. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and ... is the center of the macula, where your vision is sharpest. Optic nerve (OP-tic nurv) is the bundle of more than 1 ...

  18. Macular scar secondary to congenital toxoplasmosis | El Hamichi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 8 years old girl suffers from strabismus since her first months of life. Her visual acuity was very low and could only see fingers moving in her left eye. Her left eye fundus showed a chorioretinal scar in the macula due to congenital toxoplasmosis. The biological findings proved the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  19. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Extramural Science Programs Division of Extramural Activities Extramural Contacts NEI Division of Extramural Research Suite 1300 5635 Fishers Lane, MSC ... Macula (MACK-yoo-luh) is the small, sensitive area of the retina needed for central vision. It ...

  20. Saccular impact on ocular torsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, B. de; Bos, J.E.; Groen, E.L.

    1996-01-01

    When someone is tilted laterally the sheer force on the maculae of the utriculus and the sacculus is described by the sine and the cosine of the angle of tilt, respectively. So both the sacculus and the utriculus are stimulated, but in the litera-ture ocular torsion is normally attributed to

  1. Histologic correlation of in vivo optical coherence tomography images of the human retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, T.; Cense, B.; Miller, J.S.; Rubin, P. A. D.; Deschler, D. G.; Gragoudas, E. S.; de Boer, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To correlate in vivo human retina optical coherence tomography (OCT)3 images with histology. Design: Case series. Methods: Linear OCT3 scans through the macula and optic nerve were obtained in three eyes of three patients who then underwent exenteration surgery for orbital cancers. OCT3

  2. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Aggressive or Protective Factor for the Retina? Evaluation of Macular Thickness and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layers Using High-Definition Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Edvan de Souza-Júnior

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare macular thickness (MT and retinal nerve fiber layers (RNFL between women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and healthy women. Materials and Methods. The study included 45 women with PCOS and 47 ovulatory women undergoing clinical-gynecological and ophthalmic evaluations, including measurement of MT, RNFL, and optic disc parameters using optical coherence tomography. Results. The superior RNFL around the optic nerve was significantly thicker in PCOS than in healthy volunteers (P=0.036. After stratification according to insulin resistance, the temporal inner macula (TIM, the inferior inner macula (IIM, the nasal inner macula (NIM, and the nasal outer macula (NOM were significantly thicker in PCOS group than in control group (P<0.05. Both the presence of obesity associated with insulin resistance (P=0.037 and glucose intolerance (P=0.001 were associated with significant increase in the PC1 mean score, relative to MT. A significant increase in the PC2 mean score occurred when considering the presence of metabolic syndrome (P<0.0001. There was a significant interaction between obesity and inflammation in a decreasing mean PC2 score relative to macular RNFL thickness (P=0.034. Conclusion. Decreased macular RNFL thickness and increased total MT are associated with metabolic abnormalities, while increased RNFL thickness around the optic nerve is associated with hormonal changes inherent in PCOS.

  3. Fundus Autofluorescence Features of Optic Disc Pit Related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chorioretinopathy, retina telangiectasia and diffuse and macula retina dystrophies.[1,3‑8] These features give useful clinical and prognostic information, making FAF a desired day‑to‑day clinical tool. Fundus autoflorescence signals can be detected using 3 different systems, the Delori's fundus. Fundus Autofluorescence ...

  4. Elusive drusen and changing terminology of AMD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, P. T. V. M.

    2018-01-01

    The first descriptions of ageing macula disorder (AMD), be it under other names, appeared in 1855 and 1868. The earliest accounts of AMD linked the presence of drusen with visual loss. It took a century before these connections between drusen and AMD were generally accepted by medical science and in

  5. A New System for Measuring Auto-Fluorescence Changes in Neovascular-AMD after Intravitreal Injection of Bavecizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Norouzifard

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD is the second disease diabetes which causes blindness in aged people. The only remedy for AMD is intravenous injection of bavecizumab. To prove the efficiency of remedy, the degenerated cells in Macula should be measured. In this article, a modern system is introduced to measure Auto-Fluorescence in Macula part of retina in order to obtain number of degenerated cells. The system consists of three main parts: Pre-processing stage is omission of margins and reversion of images in retina. Analysis stage is in charge of classification of images and elicitation of their features. In classification the target areas are identified by methods like morphology, dynamic threshold and connected comportments and the features of target area including Euclidean distance to the center of image and density. In the stage of understanding by gathering the features of each class, we will get the measurable parameter of evaluating Auto Fluorescence by the help of which we can count the number of degenerated cells of Macula area. The results are coming from statistical analysis, including linear regression and correlation of data. Experiments have been done on a database of 34 retina images of AMD patients. The average statistical error rate is equal to76 percent. In clinical reviews, the founded relation to disinflation of Macula has been proved, while there were no proved relations to the vision decreasing or increasing of patients.

  6. R102G polymorphism of the complement component 3 gene in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nur Afiqah Mohamad

    neovascular (wet or exudative) (nAMD), which can lead to a sud- den deterioration of vision ... from abnormal blood vessels developing underneath the macula. [2]. Although the .... for 60 s, annealing at 55 °C for 60 s and extending at 72 °C for.

  7. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-11-17

    Nov 17, 2015 ... Abstract. Here we report a case of central retinal artery occlusionrevealing an ischemic cardiomyopathy. A 54-year old smoker man presented at the hospital because of sudden visual loss in his left eye. There was cherry-red spot in the macula in his left eye. We performed a fluorescein angiogram and.

  8. Mutations in CTNNA1 cause butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy and perturbed retinal pigment epithelium integrity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saksens, N.T.; Krebs, M.P.; Schoenmaker, F.E.; Hicks, W.; Yu, M.; Shi, L.; Rowe, L.; Collin, G.B.; Charette, J.R.; Letteboer, S.J.; Neveling, K.; Moorsel, T.W. van; Abu-Ltaif, S.; Baere, E. De; Walraedt, S.; Banfi, S.; Simonelli, F.; Cremers, F.P.; Boon, C.J.; Roepman, R.; Leroy, B.P.; Peachey, N.S.; Hoyng, C.B.; Nishina, P.M.; Hollander, A.I. den

    2016-01-01

    Butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy is an eye disease characterized by lesions in the macula that can resemble the wings of a butterfly. Here we report the identification of heterozygous missense mutations in the CTNNA1 gene (encoding alpha-catenin 1) in three families with butterfly-shaped pigment

  9. A Comparative Analysis of Ganglion Cell Complex Parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr femi Oderinlo

    in the eyes, the optic nerve head, nerve fibre layer and retinal ganglion cells. Retinal ganglion cells encompass three layers ... of the macula in eyes with mild diabetic retinopathy. 8. *Correspondence: O Oderinlo, Eye Foundation ... most sensitive detection of GCC thinning. FLV provides a. 10 quantitative measure of the ...

  10. Diagnosis of non-exudative (DRY) age related macular degeneration by non-invasive photon-correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankhauser, Franz Ii; Ott, Maria; Munteanu, Mihnea

    2016-01-01

    Photon-correlation spectroscopy (PCS) (quasi-elastic light scattering spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering spectroscopy) allows the non-invasively reveal of local dynamics and local heterogeneities of macromolecular systems. The capability of this technique to diagnose the retinal pathologies by in-vivo investigations of spatial anomalies of retinas displaying non-exudative senile macular degeneration was evaluated. Further, the potential use of the technique for the diagnosis of the macular degeneration was analyzed and displayed by the Receiver Operating Curve (ROC). The maculae and the peripheral retina of 73 normal eyes and of 26 eyes afflicted by an early stage of non-exudative senile macular degeneration were characterized by time-correlation functions and analyzed in terms of characteristic decay times and apparent size distributions. The characteristics of the obtained time-correlation functions of the eyes afflicted with nonexudative macular degeneration and of normal eyes differed significantly, which could be referred to a significant change of the nano- and microstructure of the investigated pathologic maculas. Photon-correlation spectroscopy is able to assess the macromolecular and microstructural aberrations in the macula afflicted by non-exudative, senile macular degeneration. It has been demonstrated that macromolecules of this disease show a characteristic abnormal behavior in the macula.

  11. A Simplified Method of Identifying the Trained Retinal Locus for Training in Eccentric Viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukicevic, Meri; Le, Anh; Baglin, James

    2012-01-01

    In the typical human visual system, the macula allows for high visual resolution. Damage to this area from diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), causes the loss of central vision in the form of a central scotoma. Since no treatment is available to reverse AMD, providing low vision rehabilitation to compensate for the loss of…

  12. Thin Film Research. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-30

    data in terms of the damage frequency was made and compared to theoretical damage probability distributions from a degenerate defect ensemble model...diaseases affecting the macula . The polarized-light retinal pattern is attributed to birefringence in cone-photoreceptor outer segments. Haidinger’s

  13. Progression of transsynaptic retinal degeneration with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen G. Schwartz

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions and importance: Retrograde transsynaptic retinal degeneration may occur in patients with homonymous visual field loss caused by post-geniculate neurologic disease. This is best detected as homonymous thinning of the retina, corresponding to the pattern of visual field loss, using SD-OCT of the GCC and macula. The retinal changes occur at a variable time following the onset of neurologic disease.

  14. Permanent Visual Change Associated with Punctate Foveal Lesions,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    morphological photic damage to the macula of the rhesus monkey abated over several months post-exposure. Animals sacrificed at six months post...HE. Actinic macular retinal pigment degeneration . U.S. Naval Medical Bulletin 1944; XL 11:675-680. 8. Hecht S. Sunlight harms night vision, Air

  15. Night Vision Manual for the Flight Surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    macula and fovea centralis. 4. Duality theory of vision-extends sensitivity of vision over 100,000 times (Fig. 12). ~Im Uilting Ullmlrage WVIVIWCentral...lowered night vision capa- bilities due to disease or degenerations . F. Hypoxia 1. Decrement of central vision due to 02 lack is quite small; such as, at

  16. A Brief Guide to Color Vision Testing for Ophthalmology Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    degeneration (ARMD), diabetic retinopathy, central serous retinopathy, cystoid macular edema (CME), and chloroquine toxicity. Uptic nerve problems may be due to...blue caps if the macula is normal. Pseudo-Isochromtic Plates Test If the visual acuity is 20/200 or better, the patient should have no trouble

  17. Age-related macular degeneration : a light and electron microscopical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.L. van der Schaft (Theo)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractIn the preceding chapters, current knowledge on the normal histology, agerelated changes in the human macula and ARMD is summarized. However, this knowledge is frequently based on one single or only a few observations and it is often mainly descriptive without quantification and/or

  18. A System for Controlled Presentation of the Arden Contrast Sensitivity Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    and Woo,1978); I.?glaucoma (Atkin, et al,1979); amblyopia (Hess,1979); retinal degeneration (Woo and Long,1979); multiple sclerosis (Regan, et al...decrease, contrast sensitivity diminishes, and imaging L shifts to an area covering 12 -15 of the peripheral macula . The theoretical threshold grid

  19. Nutrition and the Aging Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as drusen form under the retina, affecting the macula, the small area near the center of the retina that helps produce the sharp central vision needed for reading or driving. In "wet" macular degeneration, blood vessels growing up from below the retina ...

  20. C-reactive protein and pentraxin-3 binding of factor H-like protein 1 differs from complement factor H: Implications for retinal inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, M. (Maurice); Zhang, J.H. (Justine H.); Tilakaratna, V. (Viranga); Black, G. (Graeme); Perveen, R. (Rahat); McHarg, S. (Selina); Inforzato, A. (Antonio); Day, A.J. (Anthony J.); Clark, S.J. (Simon J.)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractRetinal inflammation plays a key role in the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a condition that leads to loss of central vision. The deposition of the acute phase pentraxin C-reactive protein (CRP) in the macula activates the complement system, thereby contributing

  1. Medline Plus

    Full Text Available The macula is the part of the retina that distinguishes fine details at the center of the field of vision. Macular degeneration results from a partial breakdown of the insulating layer between the retina and the choroid layer of ...

  2. Eye Controlled Simulation of Scotoma Effects on the Retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    movements since the central region of the viewing. The PRLs were positioned near the retina, the macula , and its center, the fovea, have scotoma boundary...scotoma area; as macular degeneration increases in size. near to the fovea as possible to maximize acuity, Feedback of failures to detect targets might

  3. Macular thickness and volume in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subhi, Yousif; Forshaw, Thomas; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2016-01-01

    manifests in the macula of the elderly focusing on clinical relevant measures that are thicknesses and volumes of different macular areas. Ageing seems to increase center point foveal thickness. Ageing does not seem to change the center subfield thickness significantly. Ageing decreases the inner and outer...

  4. Traumatic ocular emergencies: the difficulties associated with their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In black Africa, the severity of traumatic ocular emergencies (TOE) is increased by a lack of ophthalmologists and often inadequate or even the inexistence of surgical ... These TOE were: corneoscleral rupture (63.2%), vitreoretinal iron foreign body (16.8%), retinal detachment (15%), and macula hole (5%).

  5. Treatment of Laser-Induced Retinal Injury and Visual Loss Using Sustained Release of Intra-Vitreal Neurotrophic Growth Factors. Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    phagocytosed melanine granules. Significant microglial infiltration was present in different retinal layers (arrow heads in red boxes). 2 Figure...photoreceptor density, corresponds to human macula), c) set of linear scans through inferior/non-tapetal fundus (these scans were aligned vertically...degree of retinal pigmentation affects the degree of laser damage and recovery with treatment, analogous to humans with differing eye pigmentation

  6. Electrolyte composition of retro-oil fluid and silicone oil-related visual loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheerlinck, Laura M E; Kuiper, Jonas J W; Liem, Albert T A; Schellekens, Peter A W J F; van Leeuwen, Redmer

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Up to one-third of patients with intra-ocular silicone oil (SO) tamponade for complex macula-on retinal detachment may experience an unexplained visual loss during or after SO tamponade. Although the underlying mechanism is unknown, previous studies suggested that accumulation of retinal

  7. Visual loss after use of intraocular silicone oil associated with thinning of inner retinal layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulrik C; la Cour, Morten

    2012-01-01

    with vitrectomy for primary RRD in 2004-2005. In 162 eyes, SiO (5500 centiStoke) had been used as intravitreal tamponade and in 54 eyes gas (perflouropropane, C(3) F(8) ) had been used. Following chart review, we identified 16 eyes in 16 patients (nine SiO eyes, seven gas eyes) with macula-on and documented...

  8. Über eine neue Dasyproctus-Art aus Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohl, Franz Friedr.

    1908-01-01

    ♂ — Long. 7—8 mm. Niger, ex magna parte (supra) opacus. Tergita 2., 3. et 4. utrinque maculata, 5. et 6. interrupte fasciata, hoc nonnunquam fascia integra flava. Flava sunt insuper: linea suprabasalis mandibularum, scapi ex parte, fascia interrupta collaris, alarum squamulae et 2—4 maculae

  9. Tackling the high burden of blindness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... care delivery, and tackling the five major eye conditions that contribute to most blindness could reduce the current burden of blindness. This would open the window for addressing glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and macula degeneration which are the new emerging global consequences of non-communicable diseases.

  10. Retinal vein occlusion in Benin City, Nigeria | Uhumwangho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eyes which had definitive treatment with intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factors and laser photocoagulation for macula edema and retinal neovascularization, respectively, had better visual acuity compared to eyes which did not receive these treatment, P = 0.002. Conclusion: The incidence and visual loss that ...

  11. Aetiology of blindness in Benin City, Nigeria | Omoti | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major causes of binocular blindness were cataract (34.4%), glaucoma (25%) and age related macula degeneration (8.59%). The main causes of uniocular blindness were cataract (23.79%), glaucoma (22.58%) and trauma (11.69%). Conclusion: Avoidable causes of blindness remain the leading causes of blindness ...

  12. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-09-18

    Sep 18, 2015 ... Dimitris Koufakis1, Dimitrios Konstantopoulos1, Theocharis Koufakis2,&. 1Larissa Macula Center, Larissa, Greece, 2Department of Internal Medicine, General Hospital of Larissa, Larissa, Greece. &Corresponding author: Theocharis Koufakis, Department of Internal Medicine, General Hospital of Larissa, ...

  13. Prolonged multifocal electroretinographic implicit times in the ocular ischemic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Peter Kristian; Munch, Inger Christine; Sander, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    .4 +/- 1.7 mm Hg, respectively. Summed mfERG implicit times (N1, P1, N2) were prolonged in eyes with OIS, by 7.6%, 6.2%, and 7.5%, respectively, compared with fellow eyes (P macula, whereas the assessment of responses from...

  14. Intrarenal purinergic signaling in the control of renal tubular transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prætorius, Helle; Leipziger, Jens Georg

    2010-01-01

    -reaching advances indicate that ATP is often used as a local transmitter for classical sensory transduction. This transmission apparently also applies to sensory functions in the kidney. Locally released ATP is involved in sensing of renal tubular flow or in detecting the distal tubular load of NaCl at the macula...

  15. Cytomegalovirus retinitis in Cape Town, South Africa: Clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macular (central vision) involvement had a significant adverse effect on visual outcome compared with cases in which the macula was uninvolved (p=0.005). Conclusions. Independent risk factors that predict final visual outcome include presenting VA, number of retinal quadrants involved, macular involvement and being on ...

  16. Macular lesion caused by neodymium laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prammer, G.; Wiesflecker, J.; Grabner, G.

    1980-01-01

    A 21-year-old patient was struck by the pulse of a rangefinder laser (infrared laser). The massive pathologic changes on his macula are explained by the focusing effect of the refractive media. Secure location of the beam, the avoidance of reflective surfaces and absorbing screens are recommended as protective measures. (orig.) [de

  17. Clinical Profile and Outcome of Serpiginous Choroiditis in a Uveitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tulyasys

    around the optic disc and then gradually spread in a serpentine manner toward the macula and peripheral fundus. It can be classified into typical (peripapillary geographic paern), serpiginous macular choroiditis and atypical (ampiginous choroiditis). Serpiginous choroiditis is very rare in our environment; work in this area ...

  18. Fundus autofluorescence features of optic disc pit related maculopathy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fundus autoflorescence (FAF) is a new investigational tool used to identify lipofuscin distribution in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell monolayer. It has recently been used to analyze age‑related macular degeneration, central serous chorioretinopathy, retina telangiectasia and diffuse and macula retina dystrophies.

  19. What Is Macular Edema?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the retina, where they are transmitted to the brain and interpreted as the images you see. It is the macula that is responsible for your pinpoint vision, allowing you to read, sew or recognize a face. Macular edema develops when blood vessels in the retina are leaking ...

  20. Xanthophylls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthophylls are dietary carotenoids found throughout the body and include lutein, zeaxanthin, ß-cryptoxanthin, astaxanthin, and canthaxanthin. Lutein and zeaxanthin selectively accumulate in the macula of the eye and in the brain. Major dietary sources of xanthophylls include green leafy vegetables...