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Sample records for macrosiphum euphorbiae homoptera

  1. Effects of plant protease inhibitors, oryzacystatin I and soybean Bowman-Birk inhibitor, on the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Homoptera, Aphididae) and its parasitoid Aphelinus abdominalis (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, H; Cherqui, A; Campan, E D M; Rahbé, Y; Duport, G; Jouanin, L; Kaiser, L; Giordanengo, P

    2005-01-01

    Transgenic plants expressing protease inhibitors (PIs) have emerged in recent years as an alternative strategy for pest control. Beneficial insects such as parasitoids may therefore be exposed to these entomotoxins either via the host or by direct exposure to the plant itself. With the objective of assessing the effects of PIs towards aphid parasitoids, bioassays using soybean Bowman-Birk inhibitor (SbBBI) or oryzacystatin I (OCI) on artificial diet were performed on Macrosiphum euphorbiae-Aphelinus abdominalis system. OCI significantly reduced nymphal survival of the potato aphid M. euphorbiae and prevented aphids from reproducing. This negative effect was much more pronounced than with other aphid species. On the contrary, SbBBI did not affect nymphal viability but significantly altered adult demographic parameters. Enzymatic inhibition assays showed that digestive proteolytic activity of larvae and adults of Aphelinus abdominalis predominantly relies on serine proteases and especially on chymotrypsin-like activity. Immunoassays suggested that OCI bound to aphid proteins and accumulated in aphid tissues, whereas SbBBI remained unbound in the gut. Bioassays using M. euphorbiae reared on artificial diets supplemented with both OCI and SbBBI showed a fitness impairment of Aphelinus abdominalis that developed on intoxicated aphids. However, only SbBBI was detected in parasitoid larvae, while no PI could be detected in adult parasitoids that emerged from PI-intoxicated aphids. The potential impact of PI-expressing plants on aphid parasitoids and their combined efficiency for aphid control are discussed.

  2. Effects of mineral oil application on the orientation and feeding behaviour of Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Homoptera: Aphidae)%矿物油处理对马铃薯长管蚜定向和取食行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arnaud AMELINE; Aude COUTY; Maria MARTOUB; Philippe GIORDANENGO

    2009-01-01

    大田和实验室研究均表明矿物油的施用可有效降低蚜虫对非持久性病毒的传播.我们分别于矿物油喷施马铃薯植株24 h和7 d后,调查其对马铃薯长管蚜Macrosiphum euphorbiae行为的影响;采用暗室生测法调查了蚜虫对处理的植物挥发性化合物的反应;采用刺探电位技术(EPG)评价了矿物油处理对蚜虫取食行为的影响.结果表明:矿物油处理导致植物对寄主的引诱作用失效,这种效果至少持续24 h.矿物油处理马铃薯植株24 h和7 d后,蚜虫对处理植株的取食行为发生改变.开始记录至第1次刺探所需时间降低,但只在处理7 d后显著降低,提示矿物油处理有助于蚜虫口针的穿刺.然而,流涎阶段以及韧皮部汁液吸食阶段(摄食阶段)显著缩短.本研究中观察到的蚜虫行为的改变不能充分解释施用矿物油的大田中为什么出现7 d 的保护作用,因此可能还存在其他的机制.%Application of mineral oil both in the fields and in the laboratory has been shown to efficiently reduce the transmission of non-persistent phytoviruses by aphids. In this study we investigated the influence a mineral oil spray on potato plants has on the behaviour of Macrosiphum euphorbiae, 24 h and 7 d after treatment. The aphid response towards oil treated plant volatiles was investigated using a darkened arena bioassay. The effect of oil treatment on aphid trophic behaviour was assessed using the electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique. Mineral oil treatment induced a lack of attractiveness of the host-plant, which lasted at least 24 h. The feeding behaviour of M. euphorbiae was modified on oil treated potato plants 24 h and 7 d after treatment. "Time from start of recording to first probe" was reduced but only significantly at 7 d after treatment, suggesting the facilitation of aphid stylet insertion. However, salivations phases and phloem sap feeding (ingestion phases) were significantly delayed. The

  3. Role of xylem consumption on osmoregulation in Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompon, Julien; Quiring, Dan; Giordanengo, Philippe; Pelletier, Yvan

    2010-06-01

    Aphids are phloem feeders that occasionally ingest xylem sap. The duration of xylem consumption by Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) was positively correlated with the level of dehydration of alate aphids of different ages after a period of starvation, supporting the hypothesis that aphids ingest xylem sap to replenish their water balance. However, the duration of xylem sap ingestion but not phloem sap consumption varied in unstarved alate adults of different ages. Furthermore, both alate and apterous aphids ingested xylem sap at the end of their life, when aphids were not dehydrated but when fecundity started to decrease. Fecundity was negatively correlated with the proportion of time spent ingesting xylem sap, and that over the entire reproductive life of alate and apterous aphids. The lower proportion of xylem ingested by apterous than by alate aphids during the first few days of adult life may be related to a higher symbiont density in apterous morphs. As previous studies have demonstrated a relationship between sucrose assimilation, which is directly influenced by fecundity and symbiont density, and osmoregulation, we suggest that xylem consumption may play a role in the osmoregulation of haemolymph of aphids.

  4. Comparative analysis of Solanum stoloniferum responses to probing by the green peach aphid Myzus persicae and the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adriana E.Alvarez; Viviana G.Broglia; Anahí M.Alberti D'Amato; Doret Wouters; Edwin van der Vossen; Elisa Garzo; W.Fred Tjallingii

    2013-01-01

    Plants protect themselves against aphid attacks by species-specific defense mechanisms.Previously,we have shown that Solanum stoloniferum Schlechtd has resistance factors to Myzus persicae Sulzer (Homoptera:Aphididae) at the epidermal/mesophyll level that are not effective against Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas (Homoptera:Aphididae).Here,we compare the nymphal mortality,the pre-reproductive development time,and the probing behavior of M.persicae and M.euphorbiae on S.stoloniferum and Solanum tuberosum L.Furthermore,we analyze the changes in gene expression in S.stoloniferum 96 hours post infestation by either aphid species.Although the M.euphorbiae probing behavior shows that aphids encounter more probing constrains on phloem activities-longer probing and salivation time-on S.stoloniferum than on S.tuberosum,the aphids succeeded in reaching a sustained ingestion of phloem sap on both plants.Probing by M.persicae on S.stoloniferum plants resulted in limited feeding only.Survival of M.euphorbiae and M.persicae was affected on young leaves,but not on senescent leaves of S.stoloniferum.Infestation by M.euphorbiae changed the expression of more genes than M.persicae did.At the systemic level both aphids elicited a weak response.Infestation of S.stoloniferum plants with a large number ofM.persicae induced morphological changes in the leaves,leading to the development of pustules that were caused by disrupted vascular parenchyma and surrounding tissue.In contrast,an infestation by M.euphorbiae had no morphological effects.Both plant species can be regarded as good host for M.euphorbiae,whereas only S.tuberosum is a good host for Mo persicae and S.stoloniferum is not.Infestation of S.stoloniferum by M.persicae or M.euphorbiae changed the expression of a set of plant genes specific for each of the aphids as well as a set of common genes.

  5. Biological parameters and thermal requirements of the parasitoid Praon volucre (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) with Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) as host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conti, De B.F.; Bueno, V.H.P.; Sampaio, M.V.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the biology of Praon volucre (Haliday, 1833) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas, 1878) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) hosts was studied and the thermal requirements of the parasitoid were determined. Experiments were carried out at 16, 19, 22, 25, and 28

  6. Larval competition between Aphidius ervi and Praon volucre (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) in Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney, Lívia Alvarenga; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Lins, Juracy Caldeira; Sampaio, Marcus Vinicius; Silva, Diego Bastos

    2010-10-01

    Interspecific competition between parasitoid larvae may influence the size, structure, and stability of the population, leading to a reduction in total parasitism and thus restricting the pest control. Aphidius ervi (Haliday) and Praon volucre (Haliday) are endoparasitoids that possess a wide host range and present considerable potential for the biological control of the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas). The larval competition between A. ervi and P. volucre, and the possible intrinsic competitive superiority of one of the parasitoids in M. euphorbiae, have been studied. In single parasitism experiments, mated parasitoid females (n=10) were maintained individually in contact with M. euphorbiae hosts (n=30) inside petri dishes containing lettuce leaf discs and maintained in environmental chamber at 22 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% RH, and 12-h photophase. The multiple parasitism experiments consisted of exposing single parasitized aphids (n=120) to the second parasitoid species. Two oviposition events were performed with a 4-h interval between them, namely the following: sequence A (oviposition by A. ervi, followed by P. volucre) and sequence B (oviposition by P. volucre, followed by A. ervi). Oviposition sequence A generated 24 A. ervi and 55 P. volucre adults, whereas oviposition sequence B generated 23 and 49 adults. P. volucre is an intrinsically superior competitor compared with A. ervi, and the use of the two species simultaneously may result in competitive exclusion and influence the stability of the parasitoid population.

  7. Host Plant Volatiles and the Sexual Reproduction of the Potato Aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Hurley

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In late summer, heteroecious aphids, such as the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae, move from their secondary summer host plants to primary host plants, where the sexual oviparae mate and lay diapausing eggs. We tested the hypothesis that volatiles of the primary host, Rosa rugosa, would attract the gynoparae, the parthenogenetic alate morph that produce oviparae, as well as the alate males foraging for suitable mates. In wind tunnel assays, both gynoparae and males oriented towards and reached rose cuttings significantly more often than other odour sources, including potato, a major secondary host. The response of males was as high to rose cuttings alone as to potato with a calling virgin oviparous female. These findings are discussed within the seasonal ecology of host alternating aphids.

  8. Praon volucre (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae), a natural enemy of Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera: Aphididae): Life table and intrinsic rate of population increase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lins, J.C.; Bueno, V.H.P.; Silva, D.B.; Sampaio, M.V.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Life table data of natural enemies are often used to understand their population dynamics and estimate their potential role in the biological control of pests. Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is an important pest of several crops and its intrinsic rate of population increase (

  9. Repellence and toxicity of plant essential oils to the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munneke, M.E.; Bruin, de A.; Moskal, J.R.; Tol, van R.W.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Several plant essential oils were tested for their effect on behaviour and mortality of M. euphorbiae. Olfactory and contact experiments were performed to study these effects. We found that host plant and formulation of the different oils have a strong influence on repellence and mortality of the

  10. Petroleum plantations. [Euphorbias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, M.

    1978-04-01

    Photosynthesis is examined as an annually renewable resource for material and energy. The production of fermentation alcohol from sugar cane as a major source of materials for chemical feed-stocks is examined as well as the direct photosynthetic production of hydrocarbon from known plant sources. Experiments are underway to analyze the hydrocarbons from Euphorbias and other hydrocarbon containing plants with a view toward determining their various chemical components. In addition, experimental plantings of several species of Euphorbias have begun to obtain data on which species would be most successful. Using Euphorbia lathyris, there are indications that we may expect a yield of approximately ten barrels of hydrocarbon material per acre in a seven-month growing period on semiarid land.

  11. Local and systemic responses induced by aphids in Solanum tuberosum plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dugravot, S.; Brunissen, L.; Létocart, E.; Tjallingii, W.F.; Vincent, C.; Giordanengo, Ph.; Cherqui, A.

    2007-01-01

    The aphids Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae) are serious pests of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) (Solanaceae), notably in transmitting several plant viruses. Heterospecific interactions may occur between these two species as they are often seen at the

  12. Local and systemic responses induced by aphids in Solanum tuberosum plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dugravot, S.; Brunissen, L.; Létocart, E.; Tjallingii, W.F.; Vincent, C.; Giordanengo, Ph.; Cherqui, A.

    2007-01-01

    The aphids Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae) are serious pests of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) (Solanaceae), notably in transmitting several plant viruses. Heterospecific interactions may occur between these two species as they are often seen at the

  13. Succulent Euphorbias or northern Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauh, Werner

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey is given or the Euphorbia species occurring in northern Madagascar. The systematic groups which shaw no affinities with African-Indian Euphorbia species. are discussed. One new combination: Euphorbia aureo-vindiflora (Rauh Rauh is proposed.

    Es presenta una revisió de les espècies suculentes del gènere Euphorbia L del nord de Madagascar. Es discuteixen els grups sistemàtics que no mostren afinitat amb les espècies indo-africanes d'Euphorbia. Es proposa una nova combinació: Euphorbia aureo-vitidiftora (Rauh Rauh.

  14. Eine neue Euphorbia aus Malesien

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pax, F.; Hoffmann, Käthe

    1938-01-01

    Euphorbia Backeri PAX et K. HOFFM. n. sp. — Gaules 40—150 cm alti, plerumque 60 cm superantes, basi ad 1 cm diametientes, solitarii, a basi erecti, apice saepe nutantes, basi saepe lignescentes, superne ramosi, ramis oblique erectis, simplicibus vel ramosis. Partes juveniles ± dense pilis albis, ad

  15. Presence of the Aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii, on Strawberry in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia CÉDOLA; Grecob, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal abundance of the strawberry aphid complex under different agronomic practices in the outskirts of La Plata, Argentina was studied on strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae). Aphid densities were low in strawberry fields in which insecticides and fungicides were used. In addition to Aphis gossypii, Aphis fabae, Mysus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae, the aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell) (Homoptera: Aphididae), was recorded for the first time in this ...

  16. Notes on Euphorbia subgenus Euphorbia in Ethiopia

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    Gilbert, M. G.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Precursory notes on Euphorbia subgen. Euphorbia for the Flora of Ethiopia are given. Revised synonymies are given for E. abyssinica, E. ampliphylla and E. polyacantha. Six species: E. burgen M.G. Gilbert, E. nigrispinoides M.G. Gilbert, E. sebsebei M.G.Gilbert, E. bitataënsis M.G. Gilbert, E. baleënsis M.G. Gilbert and E. awashensis M.G. Gilbert, and one subspecies: E. septentrionalis subsp. gamugofana M.G. Gilbert, are described as new.

    Es presenten unes notes preliminars per a la Flora d'Etiòpia sobre Euphorbia L. subgen. Euphorbia. Es do nen les sinonímies revisades per a E. abyssinica, E. Ampliphylla i E. poJyacantha. Es descriuen sis espècies noves (E. Burgeri M.a . Gilbert, E. nigrispinoides M.O. Gilbert, E. sebsebei M.a . Gilbert, E. bitataënsis M.O. Gilbert, E. baleënsis M.G. Gilbert i E. awashensis M.G. Gilbert i una subespècie (E. septentrionalis subsp. gamugofana M.G. Gilbert.

  17. Euphorbia candelabrum auctt

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    Leach, L. C.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the taxonomic data of Euphorbia candelabrum Welwitseh and the illegitimate E. candelabrum Kotschy.

    En aquest treball es discuteix informació taxonòmica sobre Euphorbia candelabrum Welwitsch i el nom il-legitim E. candelabrum Kotschy.

  18. Chemical Constituents of Euphorbia ebracteolata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIHai-ming; MINZhi-da

    2004-01-01

    Aim To study the chemical constituents of Euphorb/a ebracteolata Hayata. Methods Column chromatography was used in the isolation procedure, while the structures of isolated compounds were elucidated by spectral data. Results Six compounds were isolated and their structures were identified as baccatin (1), 3-acetyl-β-amyrin (2), 3,3'-diacetyl-4,4'-dim-ethoxy- 2,2', 6,6'-tetrah ydroxy diphenylmethane (3), 2,4- dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl acetophenone (4), β-sitosterol(5), and daucosterol (6). Conclusion Baccatin was obtained from Euphorbia ebracteolata for the first time.

  19. Will tree euphorbias (Euphorbia tetragona and Euphorbia triangularis) survive under the impact of black rhinoceros (Bicornis diceros minor) browsing in the Great Fish River Reserve, South Africa?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heilmann, L.C.; Jong, de K.; Lent, P.C.; Boer, de W.F.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of black rhinoceros (Bicornis diceros minor) on the tree euphorbias Euphorbia tetragona and Euphorbia triangularis was studied in the Great Fish River Reserve, South Africa. Black rhinoceros pushed over about 5¿7% of the trees in a 2-month period. There was a preference of rhinos for smal

  20. Keratouveitis caused by Euphorbia plant sap

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    Basak Samar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The milky sap or latex of Euphorbia plant is highly toxic and an irritant to the skin and eye. This report illustrates the spectrum of ocular inflammation caused by accidental inoculation of latex of Euphorbia plant. Three patients presented with accidental ocular exposure to the milky sap of Euphorbia species of recent onset. The initial symptoms in all cases were severe burning sensation with blurring of vision. Visual acuity reduced from 20/60 to counting fingers. Clinical findings varied from kerato-conjunctivitis, mild to severe corneal edema, epithelial defects, anterior uveitis and secondary elevated intraocular pressure. All symptoms and signs had resolved by 10-14 days with active supportive medication. People who handle Euphorbia plants should wear eye protection. It is always advisable to ask the patient to bring a sample of the plant for identification.

  1. Genome Sequence of Euphorbia mosaic virus from Passionfruit and Euphorbia heterophylla in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londoño, M. A.; Cohen, A. L.; Padilla-Rodriguez, M.; Rosario, K.; Breitbart, M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Euphorbia mosaic virus (EuMV) was found in a symptomatic passionfruit (Passiflora edulis) plant from Homestead, Florida, USA, as well as in the symptomatic weed Euphorbia heterophylla. This is the first identification of EuMV in Florida and the United States and the first report of a natural infection of passionfruit by EuMV. PMID:28254981

  2. Chromatographic study of Euphorbia cyparissias

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    Cristina, T. Romeo,

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The ectoparasitic population control is very difficult and includes numerous chemical substances and therapeutic techniques. Although efficient at first, the repeated use of acaricidal substances leads to the appearance of resistance. The more and more reduced efficacy of the therapeutic arsenal puts serious problems for the practitionersand increases the need of newer substances on the market. Besides this appears the problem of residues in eggs and meat, which is a serious impediment. Because of this the use of plant extracts is an attractive and promising research path. The investigations tied to the parasitic biocontrol have diversified with the study of the numerous control sources (fungi, plant extracts, volatile oils etc..In this context, the plant extracts can become an alternative source for the acaricidal control knowing that they constitute a rich source of efficient bioactive compounds. Unfortunately although at hand until today, not very much data is known about what determines theacaricidal activity of some plant extracts against the argaside ticks.The present work describes an in vitro CG-MS study for identification of Euphorbia cyparissias’ chemical composition.

  3. BURN WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF Euphorbia hirta

    OpenAIRE

    Jaiprakash, B.; Chandramohan,; Reddy, D. Narishma

    2006-01-01

    The Ethanolic extract of whole plant of Euphorbia hirta was screened for burn wound healing activity in rats as 2% W/W cream. The study was carried out based on the assessment of percentage reduction in original wound. It showed significant burn wound healing activity.

  4. A new casbane diterpene from Euphorbia pekinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kuilong; Yu, Hongli; Wu, Hao; Wang, Xinzhi; Pan, Yaozong; Chen, Yeqing; Liu, Liping; Jin, Yangping; Zhang, Chenchao

    2015-01-01

    A new casbane diterpenoid, referred to as pekinenin G, together with one cembrane diterpene and four known casbane diterpenoids were isolated from the roots of Euphorbia pekinensis. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic studies and comparison with related known compounds. The six compounds showed different cytotoxic activities against four human cancer cell lines.

  5. New Myrsinol Diterpenes from Euphorbia prolifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG,Wan-Jin(张万金); CHEN,Dao-Feng(陈道峰); HOU,Ai-Jun(侯爱君)

    2004-01-01

    Four new myrsinol diterpenes, euphorprolitherins A-D (1-3, 5), were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the root of Euphorbia prolifera, along with a known one, SPr5 (4). The structures were elucidated on the basis of their spectroscopic evidences. The structure and relative stereochemistry of 1 were confirmed by X-ray crystallography.

  6. Diterpenoids and triterpenoids from Euphorbia retusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Hamada; Lavaud, Catherine; Magid, Abdulmagid Alabdul; Benkhaled, Mohammed

    2009-07-01

    Six new ent-abietane lactones (1-6), three new esterified tetracyclic triterpenes (7-9), and seven known diterpenoids and triterpenoids were isolated from the roots of Euphorbia retusa. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic studies including 1D and 2D NMR, mass spectrometry, chemical transformation, and comparison with literature data.

  7. Isolation and characterization of ingenol esters from Euphorbia cornigera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Imam Bakhsh Baloch; Musa Kaleem Baloch

    2011-01-01

    Methanolic extract of Euphorbia cornigera Boiss. on HPLC separation yielded three new compounds. Their structures and relative stereochemistry were established through 2D-NMR spectroscopic measurements.

  8. Evolutionary aspects of acoustic communication in Ribautodelphax planthoppers (Homoptera, Delphacidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, de A.J.

    1994-01-01

    Delphacidae (Homoptera), commonly referred to as planthoppers, are herbivores, which usually feed on grasses and sedges. During sexual behaviour males and females communicate by exchanging low-frequency vibrational signals, which are transmitted through the substrate, normally the host plant. This t

  9. First natural urease inhibitor from Euphorbia decipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Viqar Uddin; Hussain, Javid; Hussain, Hidayat; Jassbi, Amir Reza; Ullah, Farman; Lodhi, Muhammad Arif; Yasin, Amsha; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal

    2003-06-01

    Three new diterpene esters with a myrsinol-type skeleton have been isolated from Euphorbia decipiens BOISS. & BUHSE. The structure elucidation of the isolated compounds was based primarily on two-dimensional (2D)-NMR techniques including correlation spectroscopy (COSY), heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (HMQC), heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC) and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) experiments. Compounds 1 and 3 are active against prolyl endopeptidase and compound 2 showed inhibitory activity against urease enzyme.

  10. Three New Diterpenoids from Euphorbia wallichii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG, Huan(王环); ZHANG, Xiao-Feng(张晓峰); CAI, Xiang-Hai(蔡祥海); MA, Yun-Bao(马云保); LUO Xiao-Dong(罗晓东)

    2004-01-01

    Three new abietane diterpene lactones, 3α-hydroxyjolkinolide A (1), ent-8α,14β-dihydroxy-13(15)-ene-16(12α)- abietanolide (2) and ent-8α,14α-dihydroxy-13(15)-ene-16(12α)-abietanolide (3) as well as a known abietane diterpene jolkinolide A (4) were isolated from the roots of Euphorbia wallichii. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis.

  11. Diterpenes inhibiting NO production from Euphorbia helioscopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongqiang; Wang, Hao; Yang, Bo; Jin, Da-Qing; Yang, Shuliang; Wang, Meicheng; Xu, Jing; Ohizumi, Yasushi; Guo, Yuanqiang

    2014-06-01

    Three new jatrophane diterpenes (1-3), an unreported spectroscopic data jatrophane diterpenene (4), and nine known analogues (5-13) have been isolated from the whole plants of Euphorbia helioscopia. Their structures were established by detailed spectroscopic data analyses (IR, ESIMS, HR-ESIMS, and 1D and 2D NMR), and the structure of 1 was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The diterpenes showed inhibitory activities on LPS-induced NO production in murine microglial BV-2 cells.

  12. Phytochemical relationship of Euphorbia helioscopia and Euphorbia pulcherrima with Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Hafiza Ayesha; Yousaf, Zubaida; Rashid, Madiha; Younas, Afifa; Arif, Ayesha; Afzal, Ismah; Akram, Waheed

    2014-01-01

    Allelopathy is an important phenomenon that modifies the ecosystem. A plant can enhance or reduce the growth of other plant due to the presence of a number of allelochemicals in its different parts. Euphorbia helioscopia and Euphorbia pulcherrima are medicinal plant species. Both these species are collected from wild resources for various purposes. To reduce the pressure on wild population, it is important to bring them into cultivation. Therefore, the allelopathic effects of E. helioscopia and E. pulcherrima on the growth of lettuce seeds were studied. Three different concentrations (2%, 4% and 6%) of five different solvents (methanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, n-hexane and distilled water) were used to estimate the allelopathic potential of the above-mentioned Euphorbia species. Results indicated a non-significant growth inhibitory effect of both plants on lettuce seeds. Different extracts reduced the growth of test plant to some extent but this inhibition was not significant. From the observed results, it was concluded that the studied Euphorbia species, being medicinally important crops, can be introduced as intercrop with other cash crops.

  13. A new bisabolane sesquiterpenoid from Euphorbia chrysocoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, H-M; Long, B-S; Cui, X-M; Min, Z-D

    2005-12-01

    The new sesquiterpenoid (6R)-2-chloro-6-[(1S)-1,5-dimethylhex-4-en-1-yl]-3-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-one (1), together with ten known compounds, (6R)-6-[(1S)-1,5-dimethylhex-4-en-1-yl]-3-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-one (2), bauerenol acetate (3), lupenone (4), alpha-amyrenone (5), beta-sitosterol (6), stigmasterol (7), beta-amyrin (8), ursolic acid (9), betulinic acid (10), scopolin (11), have been isolated from the roots of Euphorbia chrysocoma Lévl. et Vant. Their structures have been elucidated by spectroscopic data.

  14. Terpenoids and Steroids from Euphorbia hypericifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin-Xin; Shi, Shan-Shan; Sheng, Li; Li, Jia; Yue, Jian-Min

    2015-12-01

    Two new triterpenoids and two new sterols, named euphyperins A-D (1-4), including an oleanane-type triterpenoid (1), a lupane-type nortriterpenoid (2), and two cholestane-type steroids (3 and 4), along with five known compounds (5-9) were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Euphorbia hypericifolia. Euphyperin B (2) represents a rare lupane-type nortriterpenoid, and euphyperin C (3) is a novel 8,14-secocholestane-type steroid. Euphyperin A (1) exhibited moderate PTP1B inhibitory activity with an IC50 = 17.05 ± 1.12 μg/mL.

  15. Study of Resistance to Insecticides in Macrosiphum avenae F. in Sichuan Province%四川省麦长管蚜(Macrosiphum avenae F.)的抗药性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭丽年; 张小平; 叶建生; 左燕

    2000-01-01

    1988~1999年测定了四川省不同地区麦长管蚜(Macrosiphum avenae F.)对化学农药的抗性水平,结果表明,麦长管蚜对乐果、氧乐果的抗性已达中抗至极高抗水平,对氰戊菊酯、溴氰菊酯也产生了较高水平的抗性,对吡虫啉、抗蚜威较为敏感.比较了12种农药对麦长管蚜的毒力,并对该害虫的抗性治理策略进行了讨论.

  16. Field population abundance of leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadelidae) and planthopper (Homoptera: Delphacidae) as affected by rice growth stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafizal, M. M.; Idris, A. B.

    2013-11-01

    The leafhopper (Homoptera: Delphacidae) and planthopper (Homoptera: Cicadelidae) are considered as important rice pest in Asia including Malaysia. As phloem-feeders, they can cause loss to rice growth development and their population abundance is thought to be influenced by rice growth stages. This study was conducted to examine the population of Delphacidae and Cicadelidae between different rice growth stages, i.e. before and after rice planting periods. Monthly sampling was conducted in three sites in Kuala Selangor at before planting, vegetative, reproductive, maturing stages and post-harvest period using sweeping net and light traps. Population abundance of Delphacidae and Cicadelidae were found to be significantly different and positively correlated with different rice growth stages (ppopulation of these two homopterans indicated adaptive feeding strategy to reduce food competition.

  17. Euphorbia grandicornis Sap Keratouveitis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gómez-Valcárcel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe a case of keratouveitis caused by Euphorbia grandicornis sap, that resolved with topic steroids. Methods: We report a case presentation of a patient with keratouveitis. Results: A 70-year-old woman suffered from accidental ocular contact with E. grandicornis sap in her left eye. Two hours after the contact, she attended the clinic due to conjunctival hyperemia and pain. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA was 20/25. The toxic conjunctivitis was treated with topical lubricant and steroid. After 24 h, she presented blurred vision. BCVA was 20/80. Toxic keratouveitis was diagnosed. Topical treatment with 1% cyclopentolate t.i.d., 5% sodium chloride, 1.14% dexamethasone phosphate each hour, and 4% sodium hyaluronate each hour was continued. Complete resolution was obtained 1 week later. Euphorbia sap content analysis was performed using dissolvent extraction spectrophotometry. Its contents included flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols and sesquiterpene lactones. Conclusion: Corneal exposure to E. grandicornis sap is a cause of nonvisually threatening keratouveitis when adequately treated with corticosteroids.

  18. Euphorbia esula: Achieving Management Objectives: Analysis of 2000 Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In spring 2000, we continued to assess the ecological impacts of the invasive non-native species Euphorbia esula (leafy spurge) on rangeland and natural areas in the...

  19. Phytotoxin produced by Bipolaris euphorbiae in-vitro is effective against the weed Euphorbia heterophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa Aneli M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Four virulent strain isolates of the fungus, Bipolaris euphorbiae (previously identified as a Helminthosporium sp., isolated from host plants in four states within Brazil were screened for the production of phytotoxins that promoted wilting and defoliation of the Brazilian weed, Euphorbia heterophylla, commonly found growing among soyabean crops. Only one isolate, B. euphorbiae Strain I (EUPH petropar from Mato Grosso state, produced phytotoxin in-vitro when grown in stationary culture for 7 d at 28 ° C on minimum salts medium supplemented with 1.5 % glucose as the sole carbon source. Phytotoxin was also produced when the fungal strain was grown on fructose, galactose, mannose, xylose and sucrose. The addition of nitrogen source (yeast extract, peptone or malt extract to the culture medium did not influence phytotoxin production. The phytotoxin produced by Strain I was most active at pH 6.0, stable between pH 3-9, and was highly thermostable, remaining fully active when heated at 90 ° C for 1 h.

  20. Updates on the genus Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassemer, Gustavo; Marques Da Silva, Otávio Luis; Funez, Luís Adriano

    2017-01-01

    This contribution presents updates to the knowledge of the species of Euphorbia that occur in Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. More specifically, we here typify the names E. cyathophora, E. hirtella, E. paranensis and E. stenophylla, and present the first records of E. cyathophora, E. grami....... graminea, E. ophthalmica and E. thymifolia for Santa Catarina. Finally, we provide an updated identification key to all 30 species of Euphorbia that occur in Santa Catarina, including native, naturalised and cultivated species....

  1. Production cost analysis of Euphorbia lathyris. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendel, D.A.

    1979-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate costs of production for Euphorbia lathyris (hereafter referred to as Euphorbia) in commercial-scale quantities. Selection of five US locations for analysis was based on assumed climatic and cultivation requirements. The five areas are: nonirrigated areas (Southeast Kansas and Central Oklahoma, Northeast Louisiana and Central Mississippi, Southern Illinois), and irrigated areas: (San Joaquin Valley and the Imperial Valley, California and Yuma, Arizona). Cost estimates are tailored to reflect each region's requirements and capabilities. Variable costs for inputs such as cultivation, planting, fertilization, pesticide application, and harvesting include material costs, equipment ownership, operating costs, and labor. Fixed costs include land, management, and transportation of the plant material to a conversion facility. Euphorbia crop production costs, on the average, range between $215 per acre in nonirrigated areas to $500 per acre in irrigated areas. Extraction costs for conversion of Euphorbia plant material to oil are estimated at $33.76 per barrel of oil, assuming a plant capacity of 3000 dry ST/D. Estimated Euphorbia crop production costs are competitive with those of corn. Alfalfa production costs per acre are less than those of Euphorbia in the Kansas/Oklahoma and Southern Illinois site, but greater in the irrigated regions. This disparity is accounted for largely by differences in productivity and irrigation requirements.

  2. First report of Vryburgia amaryllidis (Bouché (Homoptera, Pseudococcidae on Agapanthus sp. in Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santi Longo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The lily mealybug, Vryburgia amarillidis (Bouché (Homoptera, Pseudococcidae was detected on containerized Agapanthus sp. plants in Sicily, Italy. The morphological characteristics of the Sicilian populations of this pest are described.

  3. Biological and taxonomic differentiation in the Ribautodelphax collinus complex (Homoptera, Delphacidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Bieman, C.F.M.

    1987-01-01

    Dit proefschrift behandelt de biosystematiek van het Ribautodelphaxcollinus komplex (Homoptera, Delphacidae). De soorten uit dit komplex vertonen slechts geringe morfologische verschillen, 'terwijl enkele diagnostische kenmerken ook nog variabel zijn. Deze geringe verschillen waren een

  4. Comparison of the Main Effective Ingredient Content of Euphorbia Seeds,Kernel of Euphorbia and Seed Coat of Euphorbia%千金子种子、种仁及种皮有效成分含量比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓德英; 张宏伟; 张振凌; 李雅

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To compare the fatty oil and euphorbia sterol content of euphorbia seeds,kernel of euphorbia and seed coat of eu-phorbia,and to ensure the necessity to wipe out of the shell of euphorbia. Methods:Used the extraction method to extract the fatty oil and the HPLC method to determine the content of euphorbia sterol in euphorbia seeds,kernel of euphorbia and kind of shell of euphorbia. Results:Kernel of euphorbia accounted for 65. 87% of the seeds'weight,seed coat of euphorbia accounted for 34. 13% of the seeds' weight;fatty oil content No. 1(20110707)of kernel of euphorbia is 61. 39% > euphorbia seeds 45. 40% > seed coat of euphorbia 4. 94% ,No. 2(20100330)of kernel of euphorbia was 64. 47% > euphorbia seeds 47. 97% > seed coat of euphorbia 3. 46% ,No. 3 (20110912)of kernel of euphorbia was 57. 52% > euphorbia seeds 44. 04% > seed coat of euphorbia 4. 59% . The content of euphorbia sterol,No. 1(20110707)of kernel of euphorbia was 1. 10% > euphorbia seeds 0. 78% > seed coat of euphorbia 0. 08% ,No. 2 (20100330)of kernel of euphorbia was 1. 30% > euphorbia seeds 0. 89% > seed coat of euphorbia 0. 07% ,No. 3(20110912)of ker-nel of euphorbia was 1. 34% > euphorbia seeds 0. 85% > seed coat of euphorbia 0. 09% . Conclusion:The contents of fatty oil and eu-phorbia sterol in kernel of euphorbia are far higher than which in seed coat of euphorbia,and seed coat of euphorbia accounted for a lar-ger proportion of euphorbia seeds. Preparation of euphorbia frost add seed coat of euphorbia can affect appearance and clinical efficacy. Therefore,it is necessary to shuck out of shell of euphorbia.%目的:对千金子种子、种仁及种皮中脂肪油、千金子甾醇含量进行比较,进一步确定“去壳”必要性。方法:索式提取法提取脂肪油、高效液相色谱法测定千金子甾醇含量。结果:千金子种仁占种子质量的65.87%,种皮占种子质量的34.13%;脂肪油含量一批(批号:20110707)种仁61.39%>种子45.40%>

  5. Técnica de cruzamentos controlados em Euphorbia heterophylla L. Crossing technique in Euphorbia heterophylla L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEANDRO VARGAS

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O leiteiro, Euphorbia heterophylla L., é uma planta daninha comum no Sul, no Sudeste e no Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Seu controle químico é realizado principalmente com herbicidas que agem inibindo a enzima acetolactato sintase. Contudo, nos últimos anos, vêm sendo observados genótipos resistentes em diversas lavouras da região Sul. Até o momento, não se realizaram estudos sobre as características genéticas de tal resistência. Este trabalho teve como objetivo descrever uma técnica de cruzamento controlado em Euphorbia heterophylla L., para viabilizar futuros estudos genéticos. Efetuaram-se hibridações controladas em diversas fases do desenvolvimento do botão floral das plantas. As polinizações e emasculações realizadas no estádio 1(quando as flores femininas apresentam estiletes separados, eretos e com coloração avermelhada, e ovário incluso no ciátio produzem grande número de ciátios com uma ou duas sementes e raras com três. As realizadas no estádio 2 (momento em que os estiletes estão separados e pouco reflexos sobre o ciátio com alteração da coloração avermelhada para branca, com a extremidade bifurcada, e ovário ainda incluso no ciátio ou acima deste, garantiram o sucesso dos cruzamentos com boa produção de sementes.Euphorbia heterophylla L. is a common weed in the South, Southeast, and Central West portions of Brazil. Chemical control is mainly done with herbicides that inhibit the enzyme Acetolactate synthase. However, resistant individuals have being observed in several farms of the South Region. There is no information about the genetic control of such resistance. The present work was aimed to study the hybridization technique in Euphorbia heterophylla L. It was studied the anatomy and the organogenesis of different individuals. Controlled emasculations and pollinations carried out in the stage 1(when the flowers present separate styles, erect and red, and ovary inside of the cyathium produce great

  6. Migration and population genetics of the grain aphid Macrosiphum miscanti (Takahashi) in relation to the geographic distance and gene flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wei; SHEN Zuorui; LI Zhihong; GAO Lingwang

    2005-01-01

    The population genetics of the grain aphid Macrosiphum miscanti (Takahashi) is analyzed by microsatellite markers.Samples collected from 15 locations in China have been examined at 5 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Overall, genetic diversity displays a relation between the migration and gene flow in the grain aphid: a free and frequent gene flow is found in the eastern populations, and gene isolation occurs in the two western populations, especially Datong population and Guiyang population. The natural barriers may present an insurmountable obstacle preventing gene flow and aphid migration. However, a spatial genetic differentiation between populations is correlated with their geographical separation, indicating the geographic differentiation may play an important role in shaping the genetic structure of M. miscanti populations. In addition, most populations of grain aphids are out of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and there is heterozygote deficit. Based on F statistics, the average genetic differentiation among different geographical populations is relatively low. It seems that the long distance migration of the grain aphid may enhance gene flow and decrease genetic differentiation among different populations.

  7. Keratouveitis from Euphorbia cyparissias exposure is a temporal phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischman D

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available David Fleischman, Jay J Meyer, W Craig FowlerDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of North Carolina Hospitals, Chapel Hill, NC, USAAbstract: We present the case of an 82-year-old woman with severe keratouveitis secondary to exposure to the plant Euphorbia cyparissias during the month of August. Despite copious irrigation of both eyes, she developed a case of Euphorbia keratouveitis that was typical in its course. Exposure to plant sap from this species should be treated much like an alkaline chemical injury as the pH of the ocular surface may be elevated. E. cyparissias should be carefully handled as it may result in keratouveitis, especially in early autumn.Keywords: Euphorbia cyparissias, sap, keratitis, uveitis

  8. Antifungal ellagitannin isolated from Euphorbia antisyphilitica Zucc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan; Ascacio-Valdés; Edgardo; Burboa; Antonio; F; Aguilera-Carbo; Mario; Aparicio; Ramón; Pérez-Schmidt; Raúl; Rodríguez; Cristóbal; N; Aguilar

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study antifungal activity of a new ellagitannin isolated from the plant residues of Euphorbia antisyphilitica(E.antisyphilitica)Zucc in the wax extraction process.Methods:An extract was prepared from dehydrated and pulverized residues and fractionated by liquid chromatography on Amberilte XAD-16,until obtained an ellagitannin-rich ethanolic fraction which was treated by rotaevaporation to recover the ellagitannin as fine powder.An aqueous solution was prepared and treated through ionic exchange liquid chromatography(Q XL)and gel permeation chromatography(G 25).The ellagitannin-rich fraction was thermogravimetrically evaluated(TGA and DTA)to test the thermo-stability of ellagic acid(monomeric unit).Then ellagitannin powder was analyzed by infrared spectrospcopy to determinate the functional groups and.also mass spectroscopy was used to determine the molecular ion.Results:The principal functional groups of ellagitannin were determined,the molecular weight was 860.7 g/mol;and an effective antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi was demonstrated.Conclusions:It can be concluded that the new ellagitannin(860.7 g/mol)isolated from E.antisyphilitica Zucc is an effective antifungal agent against Alternaria alternata,Fusarium oxyzporum,Colletotrichum gloeosporoides and Rhizoctnia solani.

  9. Hydrocarbons and energy from plants. [Euphorbias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemethy, E.K.; Otvos, J.W.; Calvin, M.

    1978-11-01

    To explore the feasibility of obtaining fuels and chemical feedstocks by extraction of reduced photosynthetic materials from latex-bearing plants, field studies were undertaken in the cultivation and harvesting of Euphorbia lathyrus, a shrub that grows wild in the California climate. Preliminary results with wild seed and without the benefit of optimization of fertilizer and irrigation conditions gave an annual crop yield of about 12 dry tons per acre. Continuing agronomic studies are suggested for improving this yield. Reduced photosynthate can be extracted with various solvents from the plant material to the extent of 8.7% of dry plant weight. The extract is a complex mixture, averaging between 400 and 500 in molecular weight. It contains some paraffins and carotenoids in addition to the major components, which are apparently pentacyclic triterpenones. A typical extract has a heat of combustion of 17,000 BTU per pound. Results of a very preliminary economic study of a conceptual process, including a biomass operation and a processing plant that extracts the oily material and leaves behind a saleable, cellulosic residue, indicate a cost of $30 to $45 per barrel for the oil extract.

  10. Antifungal ellagitannin isolated from Euphorbia antisyphilitica Zucc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Ascacio-Valds; Edgardo Burboa; Antonio F Aguilera-Carbo; Mario Aparicio; Ramn Prez-Schmidt; Ral Rodrguez; Cristbal N Aguilar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study antifungal activity of a new ellagitannin isolated from the plant residues of Euphorbia antisyphilitica (E. antisyphilitica) Zucc in the wax extraction process. Methods:An extract was prepared from dehydrated and pulverized residues and fractionated by liquid chromatography on Amberilte XAD-16, until obtained an ellagitannin-rich ethanolic fraction which was treated by rotaevaporation to recover the ellagitannin as fine powder. An aqueous solution was prepared and treated through ionic exchange liquid chromatography (Q XL) and gel permeation chromatography (G 25). The ellagitannin-rich fraction was thermogravimetrically evaluated (TGA and DTA) to test the thermo-stability of ellagic acid (monomeric unit). Then ellagitannin powder was analyzed by infrared spectrospcopy to determinate the functional groups and, also mass spectroscopy was used to determine the molecular ion. Results: The principal functional groups of ellagitannin were determined, the molecular weight was 860.7 g/mol; and an effective antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi was demonstrated. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the new ellagitannin (860.7 g/mol) isolated from E. antisyphilitica Zucc is an effective antifungal agent against Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxyzporum, Colletotrichum gloeosporoides and Rhizoctnia solani.

  11. Diterpenoids and triterpenoids from Euphorbia guyoniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Hamada; Lavaud, Catherine; Harkat, Hassina; Alabdul Magid, Abdulmagid; Marcourt, Laurence; Benkhaled, Mohammed

    2007-05-01

    Two new compounds with tigliane and cycloartane skeletons: 4,12-dideoxy(4alpha)phorbol-13-hexadecanoate (1) and 24-methylenecycloartane-3,28-diol (2), respectively, in addition of four known diterpenoids and 13 triterpenoids: 3-benzoyloxy-5,15-diacetoxy-9,14-dioxojatropha-6(17),11-diene (4), ent-abieta-8(14),13(15)-dien-16,12-olide (5), ent-8alpha,14alpha-epoxyabieta-11,13(15)-dien-16,12-olide (6), ent-3-hydroxyatis-16(17)-ene-2,14-dione (7), 3beta-hydroxytaraxer-14-en-28-oic acid (8), beta-sitosteryl-3beta-glucopyranoside-6'-O-palmitate (9), multiflorenyl acetate (10), multiflorenyl palmitate (11), peplusol (12), 24-methylenecycloartanol (3), lanosterol (13), euferol (14), butyrospermol (15), cycloartenol (16), obtusifoliol (17), cycloeucalenol (18) and beta-sitosterol (19), were isolated from the roots of Euphorbia guyoniana. Their structures were established on the basis of physical and spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D homo- and heteronuclear NMR experiments (COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY) and by comparison with the literature data.

  12. Triterpenoid biosynthesis in Euphorbia lathyris latex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, D.R.

    1987-11-01

    The structures of triterpenols, not previously been known, from Euphorbia lathyris latex are reported. A method for quantifying very small amounts of these compounds was developed. Concerning the biochemistry of the latex, no exogenous cofactors were required for the biosynthesis and the addition of compounds such as NADPAH and ATP do not stimulate the biosynthesis. The addition of DTE or a similar anti-oxidant was found to help reduce the oxidation of the latex, thus increasing the length of time that the latex remains active. The requirement of a divalent cation and the preference for Mn in the pellet was observed. The effect of several inhibitors on the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids was examined. Mevinolin was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids from acetate, but not mevalonate. A dixon plot of the inhibition of acetate incorporation showed an I/sub 50/ concentration of 3.2 ..mu..M. Fenpropimorph was found to have little or no effect on the biosynthesis. Tridemorph was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of all of the triterpenoids with an I/sub 50/ of 4 ..mu..M. It was also observed that the cyclopropyl containing triterpenols, cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol were inhibited much more strongly than those containing an 8-9 double bond, lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol. The evidence indicates, but does not definetely prove, that lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol are not made from cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol via a ring-opening enzyme such as cycloeucalenol-obtusifoliol isomerase. The possibilty that cycloartenol is made via lanosterol was investigated by synthesizing 4-R-4-/sup 3/H-mevalonic acid and incubating latex with a mixture of this and /sup 14/C-mevalonic acid. From the /sup 3/H//sup 14/C ratio it was shown that cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol are not made via an intermediate containing as 8-9 double bond. 88 refs., 15 figs., 30 tabs.

  13. Triterpenoid biosynthesis in Euphorbia lathyris latex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, D.R.

    1987-11-01

    The structures of triterpenols, not previously been known, from Euphorbia lathyris latex are reported. A method for quantifying very small amounts of these compounds was developed. Concerning the biochemistry of the latex, no exogenous cofactors were required for the biosynthesis and the addition of compounds such as NADPAH and ATP do not stimulate the biosynthesis. The addition of DTE or a similar anti-oxidant was found to help reduce the oxidation of the latex, thus increasing the length of time that the latex remains active. The requirement of a divalent cation and the preference for Mn in the pellet was observed. The effect of several inhibitors on the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids was examined. Mevinolin was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids from acetate, but not mevalonate. A dixon plot of the inhibition of acetate incorporation showed an I/sub 50/ concentration of 3.2 ..mu..M. Fenpropimorph was found to have little or no effect on the biosynthesis. Tridemorph was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of all of the triterpenoids with an I/sub 50/ of 4 ..mu..M. It was also observed that the cyclopropyl containing triterpenols, cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol were inhibited much more strongly than those containing an 8-9 double bond, lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol. The evidence indicates, but does not definetely prove, that lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol are not made from cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol via a ring-opening enzyme such as cycloeucalenol-obtusifoliol isomerase. The possibilty that cycloartenol is made via lanosterol was investigated by synthesizing 4-R-4-/sup 3/H-mevalonic acid and incubating latex with a mixture of this and /sup 14/C-mevalonic acid. From the /sup 3/H//sup 14/C ratio it was shown that cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol are not made via an intermediate containing as 8-9 double bond. 88 refs., 15 figs., 30 tabs.

  14. A new Bacillus pasteurii urease inhibitor from Euphorbia decipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodhi, Muhammad Arif; Hussain, Javid; Abbasi, Muhammad Athar; Jassbi, Amir Reza; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Ahmad, Viqar Uddin

    2006-10-01

    Inhibition of Bacillus pasteurii urease enzyme by 3,7,15-tri-O-acetyl-5-O-nicotinoyl-13,14-dihydroxymyrsinol (1), a diterpene ester with a myrsinol-type skeleton, isolated from Euphorbia decipiens Boiss. and Buhse, was un-competitive consistent with the molecular docking results. The Ki value was 117.40 +/- 0.7 microM.

  15. Global medicinal uses of Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Madeleine; Grace, Olwen M; Saslis Lagoudakis, Haris

    2015-01-01

    and the taxonomic distribution of this value. Materials and Methods: We undertook an extensive survey of over 260 multidisciplinary publications on the online repository JSTOR using the search term “Euphorbia medicinal”. Results: Medicinal uses were identified for > 5% of the species in the genus, including...

  16. Antileishmanial activity of piceatannol isolated from Euphorbia lagascae seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, Noelia; Kayser, Oliver; Abreu, Pedro; Ferreira, Maria-Jose U.

    2008-01-01

    In the search for biologically active compounds from Euphorbia lagascae Spreng, an herbaceous plant native to southeast of Iberic Peninsula, a stilbene, two coumarins and two 1-2-deoxyphorbol diterpene esters were isolated by chromatographic methods, from the methanol extracts of its defatted seeds.

  17. Studies on the Structure of Kansuinine A from Euphorbia kansui

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Kansuinine A is a macrocyclic jatrophane diterpene that was isolated from Euphorbia kansui. Further investigation of the structure was revealed that the benzoyl group located at C-8 and the position of C-3 was the present of an acetyl group by means of HMQC, HMBC spectra.

  18. Updates on the genus Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassemer, Gustavo; Marques da Silva, Otávio Luis; Funez, Luís Adriano

    2017-01-01

    This contribution presents updates to the knowledge of the species of Euphorbia that occur in Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. More specifically, we here typify the names E. cyathophora, E. hirtella, E. paranensis and E. stenophylla, and present the first records of E. cyathophora, E. grami...

  19. A new lathyrane diterpene glycoside from Euphorbia helioscopia L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A new lathyrane diterpene glycoside,named 3β,7β,15β-trihydroxy-14-oxolathyra-5E,12E-dienyl-16-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, was isolated from Euphorbia helioscopia L.Its structure was established by spectroscopic techniques including 2D NMR.

  20. Generic vapor heat treatments to control Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A

    2004-08-01

    Vapor heat treatments were developed against life stages of the mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Treatments tested were 47 degrees C for 5-50 min in 5-min increments and 49 degrees C for 3, 5, 8, 10, and 12 min. All tests were conducted with mixed age M. hirsutus on Chinese pea, Pisum sativum L. Treatment at 47 degrees C required 45 min to kill all M. hirsutus, whereas treatment at 49 degrees C required 10 min. The adult female and nymphal stages were the most heat tolerant at 47 degrees C, but the egg stage was the most heat tolerant at 49 degrees C. Use of the vapor heat treatments on other commodities will require achieving or exceeding the proper temperature and duration at all locations on the host where M. hirsutus may reside.

  1. Sporoderm morphogenesis in Euphorbia obesa and Croton gratissimus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Frean

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Pollen grains of the Euphorbiaceae show a number of pollen types which can be clearly distinguished. Generally different genera are characterized by a specific pollen type.  Euphorbia obesa Hook. f. and Croton gratissimus Burch, subsp.  subgratissimus (Prain Burtt Davy, represent two genera within the Crotonoideae with different morphology, each type characteristic for the respective genus. Taxonomically, the genus Euphorbia with apetalous flowers consisting of a naked pistil surrounded by several staminate flowers within a cyathium, is considered more advanced than the genus  Croton. In  Croton the inflorescence is a raceme with unisexual flowers. The floral whorls of the male show numerous anthers and both calyx and a showy corolla are present. Both genera are insect pollinated. In both  Euphorbia obesa and  Croton gratissimus the pollen wall in section shows columellae, a structure characteristic of angiosperms. However the present ontogenetic studies show that the formation of the columellae differs entirely in the two pollen types. The final stratification of the wall as well as the morphology of the grains differ and evaluation of the exine structure indicates that phylogenetically Croton pollen shows more advanced characters than  Euphorbia — contradicting the floral phylogeny. This study conducted at light and electron microscope level compares the two pollen types morphologically and ontogenetically, concentrating mainly on the formation of the exine which is tectate-perforate in the prolate tricolpate grain of Euphorbia obesa and semi-tectate in the anaperturate, spheroidal grain of Croton gratissimus. The aim of the study was to evaluate the significance of pollen characters in taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships within the Euphorbiaceae. The differing pollen morphology which is related to the taxonomic grouping of tribes within the subfamily (Crotonoideae emphasizes diversity, which may result from physiological

  2. A new tigliane-type diterpene from Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lin-Feng; Liang, Qian; Liu, Tie; He, Ming-Yu; Zhao, Ping; Xu, Wen-Hui

    2016-07-01

    One new tigliane-type diterpene, 4-deoxy-4(β)H-8-hydroperoxyphorbol-12-benzoate-13-isobutyrate (1), together with two known diterpenoids, 3-acetyl-5,8-dibenzoyl-14α-propanoyl-13,17-epoxy-7-myrsinaone diterpene with C9-C10 cyclised to form an additional lactone ring (2), Euphodendriane A (3) have been isolated from the whole plants of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. Their structures were elucidated by means of extensive spectroscopic analysis (NMR and HR-ESI-MS) and comparison with data reported in the literature. This is the first isolation of 8-hydroperoxy tigliane diterpene (1) from the genus of Euphorbia. All compounds were evaluated for their antifungal activities.

  3. Two new flavonol glycosides from Gymnema sylvestre and Euphorbia ebracteolata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Ye, Wencai; Yu, Biao; Zhao, Shouxun; Wu, Houming; Che, Chuntao

    2004-03-15

    Two new flavonol glycosides, namely kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (1) and quercetin 3-O-6"-(3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), have been isolated from the aerial parts of Gymnema sylvestre and Euphorbia ebracteolata, respectively. Their structures were determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic methods.

  4. Genotoxicity of Euphorbia hirta: An Allium cepa Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Kwan Yuet Ping; Ibrahim Darah; Umi Kalsom Yusuf; Chen Yeng; Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2012-01-01

    The potential genotoxic effects of methanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta which is commonly used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseased conditions including asthma, coughs, diarrhea and dysentery was investigated using Allium cepa assay. The extracts of 125, 250, 500 and 1,000 µg/mL were tested on root meristems of A. cepa. Ethylmethanesulfonate was used as positive control and distilled water was used as negative ...

  5. Euphorbia gummifera. A. gregaria and a new species from Damaraland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Leach

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available The identity of  Euphorbia gummifera Boiss. and  E. gregaria Marl, is discussed and a new species, E. damarana Leach, is described. A key to the species including  E. carunculifera Leach from southern Angola and a map showing their distribution are provided. The possible significance of these species in the phylogeny of the genus is also discussed.

  6. Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of Planococcus ficus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on grape benchgrafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlled atmosphere with ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments for control of vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus Signoret (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), on grape rootstocks were developed successfully. Two ULO treatments with 30 ppm oxygen, 3 days at 25'C and 4 days at 15'C, achieved complete control of a...

  7. Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of Planococcus ficus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on grape rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlled atmosphere with ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments for control of vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus Signoret (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), on grape rootstocks were developed successfully. Two ULO treatments with 30 ppm oxygen, 3 days at 25'C and 4 days at 15'C, achieved complete control of a...

  8. Acute renal failure by ingestion of Euphorbia paralias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubaker, Karima; Ounissi, Mondher; Brahmi, Nozha; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Abdellah, Taieb Ben; El Younsi, Fethi; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2013-05-01

    Euphorbia paralias is known in traditional medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent, a purgative and for its local anesthetic property. To the best our knowledge, renal toxicity of this substance has not been previously reported. In this paper, we report the case of a 29-year-old male who developed renal damage following ingestion of Euphorbia paralias. He had been on follow-up for nephrotic syndrome since 1986, although irregularly, with several relapses but each responding well to steroid therapy. A kidney biopsy had not been performed earlier due to refusal by the patient. He was off steroids since April 2008 because the patient developed osteoporosis. He was admitted with general malaise and oliguria to our department in May 2009, following repeated vomiting and watery diarrhea for three days. On examination, he was edematous but had normal vital signs except for a pulse rate of 120/min. Hemoglobin was only 5.5 g/dL but with normal white cell and platelet counts. Blood biochemistry showed evidence of advanced renal failure with a serum creatinine level of 1835 μmol/L and urea at 44.6 mmol/L, sodium of 132 μmol/L and potassium at 4.3 mmol/L. He had features of nephrotic syndrome with severe hypoproteinamia and 24-h urinary protein of 10.45 g. Ultrasonography revealed enlarged kidneys with a reduced echogenecity of the medulla and the papillae. Subsequently, after hemodialysis with blood transfusion, a kidney biopsy was performed that showed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis associated with an acute tubular injury. On intensive interrogation, the patient gave a history of ingesting boiled Euphorbia paralias as a native treatment for edema, ten days prior to the onset of the current illness. A diagnosis of acute renal failure (ARF) resulting from the possible nephrotoxic effect of Euphorbia paralias poisoning was made. He was treated with intermittent hemodialysis and corticosteroids. Serum creatinine values improved after 48 days. At six months following the

  9. Acute renal failure by ingestion of Euphorbia paralias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Boubaker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia paralias is known in traditional medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent, a purgative and for its local anesthetic property. To the best our knowledge, renal toxicity of this substance has not been previously reported. In this paper, we report the case of a 29-year-old male who developed renal damage following ingestion of Euphorbia paralias. He had been on follow-up for nephrotic syndrome since 1986, although irregularly, with several relapses but each responding well to steroid therapy. A kidney biopsy had not been performed earlier due to refusal by the patient. He was off steroids since April 2008 because the patient developed osteoporosis. He was admitted with general malaise and oliguria to our department in May 2009, following repeated vomiting and watery diarrhea for three days. On examination, he was edematous but had normal vital signs except for a pulse rate of 120/min. Hemoglobin was only 5.5 g/dL but with normal white cell and platelet counts. Blood biochemistry showed evidence of advanced renal failure with a serum creatinine level of 1835 μmol/L and urea at 44.6 mmol/L, sodium of 132 μmol/L and potassium at 4.3 mmol/L. He had features of nephrotic syndrome with severe hypoproteinamia and 24-h urinary protein of 10.45 g. Ultrasonography revealed enlarged kidneys with a reduced echogenecity of the medulla and the papillae. Subsequently, after hemodialysis with blood transfusion, a kidney biopsy was performed that showed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis associated with an acute tubular injury. On intensive interrogation, the patient gave a history of ingesting boiled Euphorbia paralias as a native treatment for edema, ten days prior to the onset of the current illness. A diagnosis of acute renal failure (ARF resulting from the possible nephrotoxic effect of Euphorbia paralias poisoning was made. He was treated with intermittent hemodialysis and corticosteroids. Serum creatinine values improved after 48 days. At six

  10. Oxidation and cyclization of casbene in the biosynthesis of Euphorbia factors from mature seeds of Euphorbia lathyris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dan; Callari, Roberta; Hamberger, Britta; Wubshet, Sileshi Gizachew; Nielsen, Morten T.; Andersen-Ranberg, Johan; Hallström, Björn M.; Cozzi, Federico; Lindberg Møller, Birger; Hamberger, Björn

    2016-01-01

    The seed oil of Euphorbia lathyris L. contains a series of macrocyclic diterpenoids known as Euphorbia factors. They are the current industrial source of ingenol mebutate, which is approved for the treatment of actinic keratosis, a precancerous skin condition. Here, we report an alcohol dehydrogenase-mediated cyclization step in the biosynthetic pathway of Euphorbia factors, illustrating the origin of the intramolecular carbon–carbon bonds present in lathyrane and ingenane diterpenoids. This unconventional cyclization describes the ring closure of the macrocyclic diterpene casbene. Through transcriptomic analysis of E. lathyris L. mature seeds and in planta functional characterization, we identified three enzymes involved in the cyclization route from casbene to jolkinol C, a lathyrane diterpene. These enzymes include two cytochromes P450 from the CYP71 clan and an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). CYP71D445 and CYP726A27 catalyze regio-specific 9-oxidation and 5-oxidation of casbene, respectively. When coupled with these P450-catalyzed monooxygenations, E. lathyris ADH1 catalyzes dehydrogenation of the hydroxyl groups, leading to the subsequent rearrangement and cyclization. The discovery of this nonconventional cyclization may provide the key link to complete elucidation of the biosynthetic pathways of ingenol mebutate and other bioactive macrocyclic diterpenoids. PMID:27506796

  11. Control de lecheron (Euphorbia dentata con glifosato Control of toothed spurge (Euphorbia dentata with glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Juan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia dentata es una maleza anual, de ciclo primaveral estival que está presente en el 85% del área agrícola del partido de Azul, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Estudios en campo fueron conducidos durante dos años a fin de realizar ajustes de dosis y momentos de aplicación que permitan lograr una alta eficacia de control de E. dentata con glifosato y estudiar el uso de distintas concentraciones de un surfactante, para lograr resultados más predecibles en aplicaciones a campo. Se realizó un ensayo que consistió en la aplicación de dosis crecientes del herbicida en dos estados fenológicos de la maleza y con los datos se establecieron relaciones dosis respuesta, se ajustaron ecuaciones de regresión lineal y se determinaron las dosis de glifosato necesarias para lograr un 90% de control para cada estado fenológico de la maleza. Otro ensayo fue conducido para determinar la influencia del agregado de un surfactante en interacción con la dosis y el estado de la maleza. Se observó una dependencia de la eficacia de control de glifosato respecto del estado fenológico. La adición del surfactante a la solución de aspersión mejoró, en general la eficacia obtenida por las dosis de glifosato, detectándose una mayor influencia en los tratamientos realizados en estados fenológicos avanzados.Euphorbia dentata is an annual, spring-summer weed present in 85% of the agricultural land of the District of Azul, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Field studies were conducted during two years with the aim of (i adjusting the dose and time of application that would achieve an efficient control of E. dentata with glyphosate and (ii studying the use of different concentrations of surfactant to achieve more predictable field results. To address aim (i, a trial consisting in applying increasing doses of the herbicide was carried out in two phenological stages of the weed. Based on the data obtained, rate-response relationships were

  12. Competencia de lecheron (Euphorbia dentata en soja Competition of spurge toothed (Euphorbia dentata in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Juan

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia dentata es una maleza anual, de ciclo primavero - estival que está presente en el 85% del área agrícola del partido de Azul, Pcia Buenos Aires Argentina, con densidades que oscilan entre 20 a 200 plantas m-2. Estudios en campo fueron conducidos durante dos años para determinar la relación de competencia entre soja y E. dentata a través de la evaluación del efecto de distintas densidades de la maleza sobre los componentes del rendimiento del cultivo y su biomasa. El peso seco y rendimiento de soja mostraron una respuesta dependiente de la densidad y de la biomasa de la maleza, siendo reducidos al 80% por la interferencia a partir de la densidad de 20 plantas m-2. En el rango de densidades estudiadas se observó una respuesta lineal que fue ajustada a una ecuación de regresión que indica que la producción de semillas de soja decrece 6,73 kg ha-1 por el incremento de cada planta m-2 de E. dentata. De los componentes del rendimiento del cultivo, el número de vainas por planta fue el más severamente afectado por la competencia obteniéndose reducciones del 40% respecto del tratamiento sin maleza. Altos niveles de correlación fueron observados entre el rendimiento de soja, el número de vainas por planta y el peso de 1.000 semillas (98 y 85% respectivamente.Euphorbia dentata is a spring-summer annual weed first detected in Azul Co., Buenos Aires Province, Argentina., in 1983, in an isolated soybean crop spot crops. It is now found as a weed in 85 % of the cropland, with densities ranging from 20 to 200 plants m-2. Two year- field studies were conducted to determine the competition relationship between soybean and E. dentata. The effect of different weed densities was evaluated on yield parameters and biomass. Both soybean dry weight and yield gave a significant response to weed density and biomass, resulting in a reduction of 80% due to interference starting at a density of 20 plants m². It was determined that E. dentata has a

  13. Allosteric modulation of Euphorbia peroxidase by nickel ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintus, Francesca; Mura, Anna; Bellelli, Andrea; Arcovito, Alessandro; Spanò, Delia; Pintus, Anna; Floris, Giovanni; Medda, Rosaria

    2008-03-01

    A class III peroxidase, isolated and characterized from the latex of the perennial Mediterranean shrub Euphorbia characias, contains one ferric iron-protoporphyrin IX pentacoordinated with a histidine 'proximal' ligand as heme prosthetic group. In addition, the purified peroxidase contained 1 mole of endogenous Ca(2+) per mole of enzyme, and in the presence of excess Ca(2+), the catalytic efficiency was enhanced by three orders of magnitude. The incubation of the native enzyme with Ni(2+) causes reversible inhibition, whereas, in the presence of excess Ca(2+), Ni(2+) leads to an increase of the catalytic activity of Euphorbia peroxidase. UV/visible absorption spectra show that the heme iron remains in a quantum mechanically mixed-spin state as in the native enzyme after addition of Ni(2+), and only minor changes in the secondary or tertiary structure of the protein could be detected by fluorescence or CD measurements in the presence of Ni(2+). In the presence of H(2)O(2) and in the absence of a reducing agent, Ni(2+) decreases the catalase-like activity of Euphorbia peroxidase and accelerates another pathway in which the inactive stable species accumulates with a shoulder at 619 nm. Analysis of the kinetic measurements suggests that Ni(2+) affects the H(2)O(2)-binding site and inhibits the formation of compound I. In the presence of excess Ca(2+), Ni(2+) accelerates the reduction of compound I to the native enzyme. The reported results are compatible with the hypothesis that ELP has two Ni(2+)-binding sites with opposite functional effects.

  14. Biological Activities of Aerial Parts Extracts of Euphorbia characias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Barbara Pisano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-HIV, and cholinesterase inhibitory activities of aqueous and alcoholic extracts from leaves, stems, and flowers of Euphorbia characias. The extracts showed a high antioxidant activity and were a good source of total polyphenols and flavonoids. Ethanolic extracts from leaves and flowers displayed the highest inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, showing potential properties against Alzheimer’s disease. Antimicrobial assay showed that leaves and flowers extracts were active against all Gram-positive bacteria tested. The ethanolic leaves extract appeared to have the strongest antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus with MIC value of 312.5 μg/mL followed by Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus that also exhibited good sensitivity with MIC values of 1250 μg/mL. Moreover, all the extracts possessed anti-HIV activity. The ethanolic flower extract was the most potent inhibitor of HIV-1 RT DNA polymerase RNA-dependent and Ribonuclease H with IC50 values of 0.26 and 0.33 μg/mL, respectively. The LC-DAD metabolic profile showed that ethanolic leaves extract contains high levels of quercetin derivatives. This study suggests that Euphorbia characias extracts represent a good source of natural bioactive compounds which could be useful for pharmaceutical application as well as in food system for the prevention of the growth of food-borne bacteria and to extend the shelf-life of processed foods.

  15. Morphological study of some Euphorbia taxa in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEYED MEHDI TALEBI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Talebi SM, Noori M, Davijani SS. 2016. Morphological study of some Euphorbia taxa in Iran. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 103-110. Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae has nearly 2000 species and great morphological diversity present between its members. For this reason, species of this genus are classified into different infrageneric ranks. In the present study, morphological characteristics of fifteen taxa of this genus were examined in Iran. Thirty one qualitative and quantitative morphological characteristics from the vegetative and reproductive organs of the studied taxa were examined. ANOVA test showed significant variations for all of studied quantitative features. PCA-biplot of the studied traits confirmed that some of them were very useful for identification of the treated taxa. In addition, the obtained results did not confirm species classifications in sections/subsections according to Flora Iranica as well as Flora of Turkey and proved high morphological variations between these species; therefore traditional classification of species in subsection must be changed and our results confirmed previous molecular studies.

  16. Allelochemicals in the rhizosphere soil of Euphorbia himalayensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; Lu, Dengxue; Jin, Hui; Yan, Zhiqiang; Li, Xiuzhuang; Yang, Xiaoyan; Guo, Hongru; Qin, Bo

    2014-08-27

    Weed infestation has been known to cause considerable reductions in crop yields, thereby hindering sustainable agriculture. Many plants in genus Euphorbia affect neighboring plants and other organisms by releasing chemicals into the environment. In view of the serious threat of weeds to agriculture, the allelochemicals of Euphorbia himalayensis and their allelopathic effects were investigated. The extract of root exudates from rhizosphere soil exhibited allelopathic activities against crops (wheat, rape, and lettuce) and grasses (Poa annua, Festuca rubra, and red clover). Bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation from the root extract of E. himalayensis led to the characterization of two ellagic acid derivatives and a jatrophane diterpene, which observably showed phytotoxic activities against lettuce, Festuca arundinacea, and F. rubra. They were further confirmed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to have concentrations of 3.6, 3.8, and 8.99 nmol/g in the rhizospere soil, respectively. Bioassay indicated that the combination of the allelochemicals could be selective plant growth regulator in agriculture.

  17. Morphological and biodegradability studies of Euphorbia latex modified polyester - Banana fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Bhuvneshwar; Kumar, Gulshan; Diwan, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    The composites of Banana fiber were prepared using polyester resin blended Euphorbia coagulum, morphology and the degree of rate of aerobic biodegradation of the prepared composites were studied. Polyester resin blended Euphorbia coagulum containing Banana fiber, Euphorbia coagulum and polyester resin taken in the ratio 40: 24: 36 was used for the study, which was the optimum composition of the composite reported in a previous study by the authors. In the biodegradability study cellulose has been used as positive reference material. Result shows that Euphorbia coagulum modified polyester - Banana fiber composites exhibited biodegradation to the extent of around 40%. The use of developed green composites may help in reducing the generation of non-biodegradable polymeric wastes.

  18. Euphorbia esula Biocontrol : Achieving Management Objectives : Preliminary Analysis of 1998 Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In spring 1998, studies were initiated to assess the ecological impacts of the invasive non-native species leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) on rangeland and natural...

  19. Euphorbia esula : Achieving Management Objectives : Analysis of 1998-2002 Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Euphorbia esula is a long-lived perennial plant with an extensive root system. The extent of the root system makes the plant highly resistant to most traditional...

  20. LC-MS²-Based dereplication of Euphorbia extracts with anti-Chikungunya virus activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothias-Scaglia, Louis-Félix; Dumontet, Vincent; Neyts, Johan; Roussi, Fanny; Costa, Jean; Leyssen, Pieter; Litaudon, Marc; Paolini, Julien

    2015-09-01

    Recently, phorbol esters from Euphorbiaceae have been shown to elicit potent and selective antiviral activity on the replication of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in cell culture. With the objective to found new compounds with anti-CHIKV activities, 45 extracts from various plant parts of 11 Mediterranean Euphorbia and one Mercurialis species were evaluated for selective inhibition of CHIKV replication. All EtOAc extracts, especially those prepared from latex, exhibited significant and selective antiviral activity in a Chikungunya virus-cell-based assay. An LC-MS(2) dereplication method was then developed to investigate whether known diterpenoids with anti-CHIKV activity, such as the potent anti-CHIKV 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), phorbol-12,13-didecanoate, and prostratin as well as 24 other commercially available diterpenoids of tigliane-, ingenane-, and daphnane-type for which the anti-CHIKV activity have been established in advance (Nothias-Scaglia et al. 2015), were present in the Euphorbia extracts. Only ingenol-3-mebutate, 13-O-isobutyryl-12-deoxyphorbol-20-acetate, and ingenol-3,20-dibenzoate, all exhibiting weak anti-CHIKV activities, were detected in the EtOAc extracts of Euphorbia peplus, Euphorbia segetalis ssp. pinea, and Euphorbia pithyusa ssp. pithyusa. Given the potent anti-CHIKV activities of these Euphorbia extracts, the present study suggested that their antiviral activities are probably due to untargeted diterpenoids.

  1. One-Pot Fabrication and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Solanum lycopersicum: An Eco-Friendly and Potent Control Tool against Rose Aphid, Macrosiphum rosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanu Bhattacharyya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The espousal of nanotechnology is a current come-up of the present revolution. As we know that the rose aphid, Macrosiphum rosae (Hemiptera: Aphididae, is a key pest on rose plant in Kashmir Valley, India, it exhibits a worldwide distribution. In the present study, we have synthesized biologically silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs from Solanum lycopersicum and characterized them by UV-vis spectroscopy, TEM, and X-RD analysis. The experiment was performed by leaf dip method. Insecticidal solutions of different Ag NPs concentrations, namely, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm, were tested on M. rosae. For assessment purposes, leaves were treated with distilled water (used as control. Aphid mortality data revealed that the Ag NPs were effective at 500 ppm concentration. As the concentration and day’s treatment increased, the aphid mortality rate also increased. There were statistically significant differences in M. rosae mortality between concentrations by LSD at 5%. In wrapping up, the use of Ag NPs in pest control processes will be the most novel eco-friendly approach in the Kashmir Valley, India, in future.

  2. Identification and characterization of Euphorbia nivulia latex proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgujar, Shamkant B; Mahajan, Raghunath T

    2014-03-01

    The protein profile of latex of Euphorbia nivulia Buch.-Ham. is established. Three new proteins viz., Nivulian-I, II and III have been purified to homogeneity from the latex. The relative molecular masses of Nivulian-I, II and III are 31,486.985, 43,670.846 and 52,803.470 Da respectively. Nivulian-I is a simple type of protein while Nivulian-II and III are glycoproteins. Peptide mass fingerprint analysis revealed peptides of these proteins match with Tubulin alpha-1 chain of Eleusine indica, Maturase K of Banksia quercifolia and hypothetical protein of Zea mays respectively. Tryptic digestion profile of Nivulian-I, II and III, infer the exclusive nature of latex origin proteins and may be new and are additive molecules in the dictionaries of phytoproteins or botany. This is the first of its kind, regarding characterization and validation of Nivulian-I, II and III with respect to peptide sequencing.

  3. Bioactive triterpene derivatives from latex of two Euphorbia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazoir, Noureddine; Benharref, Ahmed; Bailén, María; Reina, Matías; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2008-04-01

    We have investigated the antifeedant and toxic effects of 23 semisynthetic terpenoid derivatives obtained through chemical modifications of the major components of Euphorbia resinifera (alpha-euphol and alpha-euphorbol) and E. officinarum (obtusifoliol and 31-norlanostenol) latex on several insect species (Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae and Rhopalosiphum padi), their selective cytotoxicity on insect Sf9 and mammalian CHO cells and their phytotoxic effects on Lactuca sativa. The conversions focused mainly on positions 3,7,11, and 24 with several oxidizing agents. A total of 18 compounds affected S. littoralis growth (IGR). Our results support the importance of the C-3 substituent, suggest the involvement of the C-7 substituent and indicate that the C-3 hydroxyl is not essential for the IGR effect. Overall, Sf9 cells were more sensitive to the active compounds than CHO cells. All of these compounds had non selective moderate phytotoxic effects on radicle elongation of L. sativa.

  4. Euphorbia latex: a possible source of hydrocarbons and rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viaud, P.; Teisseire, D.

    1975-01-01

    Illustrated descriptions are given of 36 plants of potential economic value in underdeveloped tropical countries, classified by use. The plants are either wild or cultivated on a fairly local scale. Accounts of limitations and special requirements and lists of references, research contacts and sources of germ plasm are included for each species. The following tree and shrub species are included: Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, C. chayamansa and hearts of several edible palm species including Euterpe edulis (vegetables); Durio species, Garcinia mangostana, Solanum quitoense, Bactris gaspiaes, Citrus grandis, Annona muricata and Pourouma cecropiaefolia (fruits); Orbignya martiana, Caryocar species, Jessenia polycarpa and Simmondsia chinensis (oil seeds); Acacia albida, Brosimum alicastrum, Cassia sturtii, Atriplex species and Prosopis tamarungo (forage (browse)); Mauritia flexuosa (fruit, wood, etc.); Euphorbia antisyphilitica (wax); and Parthenium argentatum (rubber).

  5. Isolation and characterisation of cytotoxic compounds from Euphorbia clementei Boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmerache, Abbes; Alabdul Magid, Abdulmagid; Labed, Amira; Kabouche, Ahmed; Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Laurence; Hubert, Jane; Morjani, Hamid; Kabouche, Zahia

    2017-09-01

    A new phorbol-type diterpene ester, 4,20-dideoxy-4α-phorbol-12β-acetate-13α-isobutyrate, in addition to 11 known compounds were isolated from the latex and roots of Euphorbia clementei Boiss. Structure elucidation was performed by comprehensive 1D and 2D NMR analyses ((1)H and (13)C NMR, COSY, ROESY, HSQC and HMBC experiments), mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS) and by comparison with literature data. The inhibitory activity of all isolated compounds was evaluated against promyelocytic leukemia HL60 and human erythromyeloblastoid leukemia K562 cell lines and seven of these compounds exhibited a weak cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging from 40 to 97 μM.

  6. Gebruik van Euphorbia tirucalli als rubberleverancier en energiegewas

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    P. Van Damme

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia tirucalli lias been used as a source for natural rubber at different times in history, especially in southern Africa. The latex resin content is too high to guarantee a good quality product and economic production has never taken off as some had hoped. The fact that the plant is very well adapted to arid and semi arid conditions and can be grown on marginal waste lands makes it a potential energy crop which can be turned into biogas without too much investment in costly technology. The first results obtained in the laboratory and in field conditions (Senegal are very promising. The latex contains a number of interesting triterpenes which have a very high energy content and could be used in fuel production. Most of these applications have been tested or used in Africa and can offer long-term solutions for old problems, particularly in the case of renewable energy through biomass fermentation.

  7. REVIEW ON PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF EUPHORBIA HIRTA LINN.

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    SANDEEP BP,NILOFAR SN CHANDRAKANT SM

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Medicinal herbs are the local heritage with global importance. Medicinal herbshave curative properties due to presence of various complex chemical substance ofdifferent composition, which are found as secondary plant metabolites in one or moreparts of these plants. These plant metabolites according to their composition are groupedas alkaloids, glycosides, corticosteroids, essential oils etc. Euphorbia hirta, (family-Euphorbiaceae is an herb found in many parts of the world. In Sanskrit it means“Dugadhika” According to the Doctrine of Signatures, the plant has a reputation forincreasing milk flow in women, because of its milky latex, and is used for other femalecomplaints as well as diseases of the respiratory tract. The plant has been reported asincrease in urine output, antidiarrheal, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory etc.

  8. Genotoxicity of Euphorbia hirta: an Allium cepa assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuet Ping, Kwan; Darah, Ibrahim; Yusuf, Umi Kalsom; Yeng, Chen; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2012-06-26

    The potential genotoxic effects of methanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta which is commonly used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseased conditions including asthma, coughs, diarrhea and dysentery was investigated using Allium cepa assay. The extracts of 125, 250, 500 and 1,000 µg/mL were tested on root meristems of A. cepa. Ethylmethanesulfonate was used as positive control and distilled water was used as negative control. The result showed that mitotic index decreased as the concentrations of E. hirta extract increased. A dose-dependent increase of chromosome aberrations was also observed. Abnormalities scored were stickiness, c-mitosis, bridges and vagrant chromosomes. Micronucleated cells were also observed at interphase. Result of this study confirmed that the methanol extracts of E. hirta exerted significant genotoxic and mitodepressive effects at 1,000 µg/mL.

  9. GCMS analysis and antimicrobial action of latex of Euphorbia caducifolia

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    Manoj Goyal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia caducifolia is conspicuously and regularly represented in the flora of the Rajasthan state. Latex of E. caducifolia is used to cure skin infections, cutaneous eruption, leucoderma and applied to cuts and wounds for speedy healing. The GCMS analysis of fraction isolated from latex showed presence of methyl palmitate, 5,9-heptadecadienoate, methyl 11 octadecenoate, methyl octadecenoate and 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl- 2-hexadecene-l-ol. Isolated fraction of E. caducifolia (IFEC and latex of E. caducifolia (ECL were tested against S. aureus, M. luteus, B. subtilis, E. coli, S. typhi, A. niger and C. albicans. IFEC was found to be more effective against fungal species, and MIC was found to be 150 and micro;g/ml against A. niger. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 119-123

  10. Minor ent-abietane diterpenoids from Euphorbia guyoniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Hamada; Marcourt, Laurence; Benkhaled, Mohammed; Long, Christophe

    2013-11-01

    Three new abietane-type diterpenoids: ent-abieta-8,11,13-trien-16-ol (1), ent-abieta-8,11,13-trien-11,16-diol (2) and 11,12-dihydroxy-7-oxo-ent-abieta-8,11,13-trien-16-oic acid methyl ester (3), in addition to three known triterpenoids: euphol (4), 24,25-epoxycycloartanol (5) and beta-sitosterol O-beta-D-glucoside (6) were isolated from the chloroform extract of the roots of Euphorbia guyoniana. Structures of the isolated compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including 1D and 2D homo and heteronuclear NMR experiments and ESIMS, and comparison with literature data.

  11. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF EUPHORBIA RESINIFERA L.

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    Houcine Benmehdi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at detecting the phytochemicals and evaluating the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Euphorbia resinifera known for their medicinal properties in folk medicine. Phytochemical screening was carried out on the aerial part of Euphorbia resinifera. The assessment of antifungal activity was performed in terms of percentage of radial growth on solid medium (potatoes dextrose agar PDA against Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium expansum. The antibacterial effect was studied by the agar direct contact method using Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli strains. Then, the antioxidant evaluation of the extracts of alkaloids, flavonoids and methanolic extract was performed by DPPH• free radical scavenging and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC techniques. The phytochemical estimation revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and saponosides. These phytochemicals were isolated from the plant with yields of 0.7 %, 0.4 % and 0.35 %. HPTLC screening provided qualitatively the antioxidant effect of extracts under study. Furthermore, it was found that the methanolic, flavonoids and alkaloids extracts had a potent DPPH scavenging potency with IC50 values of 0.0086; 0.378 and 1.171 mg/mL, respectively. Finally, the results of antimicrobial activity of the aqueous extract showed a pronounced antifungal activity against the tested strains. The percentage inhibition values were found to be in the range of 64.14 to 85.51 % against Aspergillus flavus and 60.33 to 92.28 % against Penicillium expansum. In contrast, the same extract inhibited only the growth of Escherichia coli bacteria. Further study is recommended to isolate and elucidate the active compounds and to evaluate in vivo their antioxidant and antimicrobial effect.

  12. The systematic position of Cubanthus and other shrubby endemic species of Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae in Cuba

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    Steinmann, Víctor W.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cubanthus (Euphorbiaceae has traditionally been recognized as a small genus of three similar species restricted to Cuba and Hispaniola. In this study we used DNA sequence data from the nuclear ITS and chloroplast ndhF gene regions to investigate its systematic position and the position of four other shrubby Euphorbia species endemic to Cuba: E. cubensis, E. helenae, E. munizii, and E. podocarpifolia. The results demonstrate that all of these taxa belong to a well-supported Antillean clade nested within Euphorbia that also includes E. punicea and E. gymnonota. For that reason, we treat Cubanthus as a section of Euphorbia instead of a separate genus. Euphorbia sect. Adenorima is relegated to a synonym of sect. Cubanthus. New names are proposed for Cubanthus brittonii and Cubanthus linearifolius (Euphorbia millspaughii and E. scutiformis, respectively, and a new combination is made for Cubanthus umbelliformis (Euphorbia umbelliformis. Section Cubanthus belongs to clade C of Euphorbia and is part of a New World assemblage that includes members of sections Euphorbiastrum, Pteroneurae, Portulacastrum, Stachydium, and the former genus Pedilanthus. Based on both the molecular results and morphological differences, two subsections are proposed: subsect. Cubanthus and subsect. Moa. The molecular phylogeny supports the hypothesis that section Cubanthus radiated entirely within the Antilles and the nearby Bahamian archipelago.Cubanthus (Euphorbiaceae ha sido tradicionalmente reconocido como un género de tres especies muy similares entre sí y endémicas de las islas de Cuba y La Española. En este estudio se emplearon datos de secuencias de ADN tanto nuclear (ITS como del cloroplasto (ndhF para investigar la posición sistemática de Cubanthus y de cuatro especies arbustivas de Euphorbia endémicas de Cuba: E. cubensis, E. helenae, E. munizii, y E. podocarpifolia. Los resultados muestran que todas las especies analizadas pertenecen a un clado Antillano

  13. Neue mediterrane Zikadenarten der Gattungen Hysteropterum Amyot & Serville, 1843, Macropsidius Ribaut, 1952, und Chlorita Fieber, 1872 (Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dlabola, Jirí

    1975-01-01

    Some mediterranean species of Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha are described and figured. Hysteropterum duffelsi n. sp. and H. gravesteini n. sp. (Issidae) are described respectively from Cyprus and Mallorca. In the genus Macropsidius (Cicadellidae), M. hispanus Dlabola, 1963 falls as a junior synonym of

  14. Role of Euphorbia thymifolia L. ethanolic root extract in treating female reproductive dysfunction in rats

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    Siva Prasad Gudipudi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia thymifolia root is having the protective effect against female reproductive dysfunctions. This study is to evaluate the antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Euphorbia thymifolia root in treating stress induced female reproductive dysfunctions. Forced swimming stress (15min/day for 28 days and restraint stress (3h/day for 28 days were the methods employed to induce female reproductive dysfunction in rats. Ethanolic extract of Euphorbia thymifolia root was given to rats in two doses, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg for 28 days along with induction of stress and its effectiveness was assessed by observing changes in SOD, catalase and lipid peroxidation of uterus and ovary. The results were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s test. Euphorbia thymifolia root extract showed a significant antioxidant activity which is evident by increase in the levels of SOD and catalase, decrease in the levels of lipid peroxidation confirming the antioxidant effect which was found to be dose dependent. The antioxidant activity may be due to the presence of various phytochemical constituents like alkaloids, flavonoids and other constituents present in the Euphorbia thymifolia root.

  15. ANTI-STRESS ACTIVITY OF EUPHORBIA THYMIFOLIA L. AQUEOUS ROOT EXTRACT IN FEMALE RATS

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    SIVAPRASAD GUDIPUDI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia thymifolia root is having the protective effect against female reproductive dysfunctions. This study is to evaluate the anti-stress activity of aqueous extract of Euphorbia thymifolia root in treating female reproductive dysfunction induced by stress. Forced swimming stress (15min/day for 28 days and restraint stress (3h/day for 28 days were the methods employed to induce female reproductive dysfunction in rats. Aqueous extract of Euphorbia thymifolia root was given to rats in two doses, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg for 28 days along with induction of stress and its effectiveness was assessed by observing changes in estrous cycle and organs weight. The results were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s test. Euphorbia thymifolia root extract showed a significant protective effect which is evident by decrease in the duration of proestrous and increase in duration of estrous, metestrous, and diestrous phases. Whereas the weight of adrenal glands noticeably decreased in aqueous extract treated group confirming the anti-stress activity which was found to be dose dependent. The anti-stress activity may be due to the presence of various phytochemical constituents like alkaloids, flavonoids and other constituents present in the Euphorbia thymifolia root.

  16. Development and Fecundity of Aphis Gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae) on Three Malvaceae Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Serdar SATAR; KERSTING, Ulrich; UYGUN, Nedim

    1999-01-01

    Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera, Aphididae) obtained from cotton fields near Adana in the east Mediterranean region of Turkey were colonized on Gossypium hirsutumL. 'Çukurova 1518' in a climatic room. The effect of host transfer from cotton to common mallow, Malva sylvestris L., and okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench 'Bamya 501', on performance of A. gossypii was studied at constant 25 ± 1°C, 60 ± 5 % relative humidity and 16 h of artificial light (5000 l...

  17. Development and Fecundity of Aphis Gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae) on Three Malvaceae Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Serdar SATAR; KERSTING, Ulrich; UYGUN, Nedim

    2014-01-01

    Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera, Aphididae) obtained from cotton fields near Adana in the east Mediterranean region of Turkey were colonized on Gossypium hirsutumL. 'Çukurova 1518' in a climatic room. The effect of host transfer from cotton to common mallow, Malva sylvestris L., and okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench 'Bamya 501', on performance of A. gossypii was studied at constant 25 ± 1°C, 60 ± 5 % relative humidity and 16 h of artifici...

  18. [Study on detoxication of euphorbia pekinensis radix processed with vinegar on rat small intestinal crypt epithelial cells IEC-6].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu-Dan; Yan, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Li; Ding, An-Wei

    2014-03-01

    To compare the difference of Euphorbia Pekinensis Radix before and after being processed with vinegar in the toxicity on rat small intestinal crypt epithelial cells IEC-6, and make a preliminary study on the mechanism of detoxication of Euphorbia Pekinensis Radix processed with vinegar. With rat small intestinal crypt epithelial cells IEC-6 as the study object, the MTT method was adopted to detect the effect of Euphorbia Pekinensis Radix before and after being processed with vinegar on IEC-6 cell activity. The morphology of cells were observed by the inverted microscope. The down-regulated mitochondrial apoptosis pathway of enterocytes caused by the vinegar processing was analyzed by using the high content screening. Compared with the negative control group, the proliferation inhibition experiment showed that Euphorbia Pekinensis Radix showed a relatively high intestinal cell toxicity (P IEC-6 cell membrane, so as to provide a basis for further explanation of the detoxication mechanism of Euphorbia Pekinensis Radix processed with vinegar.

  19. Análise da viabilidade de sementes de Euphorbia heterophylla Viability analysis of Euphorbia heterophylla seeds

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    J.R. Aarestrup

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes é um aspecto importante para o controle das plantas daninhas. Objetivou-se verificar a viabilidade de sementes de Euphorbia heterophylla resistentes e suscetíveis a herbicidas, após serem armazenadas durante 14 meses, por meio da aplicação dos testes de germinação e tetrazólio. Foi analisada a germinação na ausência e presença de luz, em temperatura constante (25 ºC. Para o teste de tetrazólio, as sementes foram seccionadas longitudinal-diagonalmente, colocadas em placas de Petri contendo solução de tetrazólio a 1%, envoltas em papel-alumínio e mantidas a 30 ºC, no escuro e em estufa, por 18 horas. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os biótipos resistentes e suscetíveis de E. heterophylla em ambos os testes. As sementes mantiveram-se viáveis durante o período de armazenamento. As médias de viabilidade das sementes no teste de tetrazólio foram superiores àquelas obtidas nos testes de germinação, sugerindo que, apesar da viabilidade, as sementes de E. heterophylla apresentam dormência quando armazenadas por 14 meses.The evaluation of the physiological quality of seeds is an important aspect in weed control. The viability of Euphorbia heterophylla seeds resistant and susceptible to herbicides stored for 14 months was verified using germination and tetrazolium tests. Germination was analyzed in the absence and presence of light at constant temperature (25 ºC. For the tetrazolium test, seeds were longitudinally and diagonally sectioned, placed in Petri plates containing tetrazolium solution at 1%, wrapped in aluminum foil and maintained at 30 ºC in a dark chamber for 18 hours. Resistant and susceptible biotypes of E. heterophylla did not differ statistically in both tests. Seeds were maintained viable during the storage period. The average viability of the seeds submitted to the tetrazolium test was higher than that of the germination tests

  20. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF EUPHORBIA PROSTRATA AIT.

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    Surendra Kr. Sharma et al.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia prostrata Ait.(Euphorbiaceae is a small, prostrate, annual green herb sometime purple tint in colour. It is widely distributed globally and used as antihemorrhoidal, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, hypolipidemic, antidiabetic, antidirroheal, antiasthmatic and for various skin diseases. The microscopy of root shows the presence of obliterated cork cells, phelloderm, cortex, endodermis, phloem, medulary rays and xylem; the stem shows the presence of multicellular trichome, cuticle, epidermis, cortex, endodermis, pericycle, phloem, latex canal, xylem and pith; the leave reveal the presence of multicellular, multiseriate glandular hairs, epidermis, vascular bundles, stomata anomocytic and anisocytic. The vein islet number and vein termination number have also been determined. The powder study reveals the presence of epidermal cells, trichomes, parenchymatous cells, pollen grains, vessels, fibers and stomata. The water soluble, alcohol soluble and petroleum ether extractive values were determined. The total ash, water soluble ash, acid insoluble ash and sulphated ash were also observed. Preliminary phytochemical studies revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, glycosides and saponins in the alcoholic extract of the plant. This is the first report on pharmacognostical studies on this plant.

  1. Feeding preference of Macrolophus caliginosus (Heteroptera: Miridae) on Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonato, Olivier; Couton, Louise; Fargues, Jacques

    2006-08-01

    A study of predation choices of Macrolophus caliginosus Wagner (Heteroptera: Miridae) late instars and adults, when offered various developmental stages (eggs and nymphs) of the recently established whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), was made based on two preference indices. In addition, prey choices of late instars when presented with three ratios of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and B. tabaci at a similar developmental stage (eggs, young or late instars) were assessed. M. caliginosus preferred older nymphs of B. tabaci than any other stage. It also chose T. vaporariorum over B. tabaci, unless the latter consisted of > 75% of the available prey. These results suggested that M. caliginosus might interfere with parasitoids such as Encarsia, Eretmocerus, or Amitus spp. because all three species emerge from the host pupal case. Furthermore, in mixed infestations, M. caliginosus preference for T. vaporariorum might either negatively affect the control of B. tabaci, or, contrarily, enhance the predator population, before a B. tabaci outbreak occurs in the greenhouse.

  2. Report: physicochemical and phytochemical analysis of Euphorbia helioscopia (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Uzma; Hussain, Khalid; Ahmad, Mobasher; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan; Malik, Arif; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-05-01

    The present study aimed to standardize the crude drug from "Euphorbia helioscopia" by doing qualitative and quantitative analysis of different pulverized plant parts and extracts. Physicochemical analysis (determination of moisture contents, total ash, water insoluble ash, sulphated ash, acid insoluble ash, and water and alcohol extractives) was done on powdered raw materials (stem and leaves). The moisture contents and the ash value were found within the normal recommended range (moisture contents 6% and ash value 20%). The value of water-soluble extracts was higher as compared to alcohol soluble extractives. Percentage yield was highest in methanol solvent. The phytochemical analysis i.e. total lipids, total proteins and carbohydrates of crude powder showed that lipids and proteins contents were high (2.4% & 0.91% respectively) in pulverized stem while carbohydrate contents were high (78.27%) in pulverized leaves. Qualitative analysis by FTIR fingerprints and UV-scanning showed that stem and leaves of the plant contained the same constituents because their spectra are super-imposable. Aqueous-, ethanol-, petroleum ether-, chloroform- and methanol extracts were used in the study. Quantitative analysis was done by calculating the primary and secondary metabolites (total proteins, total glycosaponins, total alkaloids, total flavonoids, and total polyphenolics) in all the extracts using suitable markers. Chloroform gave very less percentage yield and nil primary metabolites so it was eliminated from secondary metabolites estimation. The maximum value of total proteins, total glycosaponins, total alkaloids, total flavonoids and total polyphenolics were found in the leaves methanol (36.56%), stem methanol (34%), stem ethanol (41.84%), leaves methanol (108.96%), and leaves petroleum ether (7.22%) respectively. Different pharmacological activities of the plants are due to their flavonoid contents. It is concluded that methanol is the best solvent for extraction. Any

  3. Terpenoid biosynthesis in Euphorbia lathyris and Copaifera spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skrukrud, C.L.

    1987-07-01

    Biosynthesis of triterpenoids by isolated latex of Euphorbia lathyris was investigated. The rate of in vitro incorporation of mevalonic acid into triterpenoids was thirty times greater than acetate incorporation indicating that the rate-limiting step in the pathway occurs prior to mevalonate. Both HMG-CoA reductase (EC 1.1.1.34) and HMG-CoA lyase (EC 4.1.3.4) activities were detected in isolated latex. HMG-CoA reductase was localized to a membrane-bound fraction of a 5000g pellet of latex. The rate of conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate by this enzyme is comparable to the overall rate of acetate incorporation into the triterpenoids suggesting that this enzyme is rate-determining in the biosynthesis of triterpenoids in E. lathyris latex. HMG-CoA reductase of E. lathyris vegetative tissue was localized to the membrane-bound portion of a particulate fraction (18,000g), and was solubilized by treatment with 2% polyoxyethylene ether W-1. Differences in the optimal pH for activity of HMG-CoA reductase from the latex and vegetative tissue suggest that isozymes of the enzyme may be present in the two tissue types. Studies of the incorporation of various precursors into leaf discs and cuttings taken from Copaifera spp. show differences in the rate of incorporation into Copaifera sesquiterpenes suggesting that the site of sesquiterpene biosynthesis may differ in its accessibility to the different substrates and/or reflecting the metabolic controls on carbon allocation to the terpenes. Mevalonate incorporation by Copaifera langsdorfii cuttings into sesquiterpenes was a hundred-fold greater than either acetate or glucose incorporation, however, its incorporation into squalene and triterpenoids was also a hundred-fold greater than the incorporation into sesquiterpenes. 119 refs., 58 figs., 16 tabs.

  4. Polymerization of euphorbia oil with Lewis acid in carbon dioxide media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3-OEt2) Lewis acid catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of euphorbia oil (EO), a natural epoxy oil, in liquid carbon dioxide was conducted in an effort to develop useful vegetable oil based polymers. The resulting polymers (RPEO) were characterized by FTIR, 1H-...

  5. A new species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Euphorbia tehuacana (Euphorbiaceae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrbom, Allen L; Castillo-Meza, Ana Lucía; García-Chávez, Juan Héctor; Aluja, Martín; Rull, Juan

    2014-03-24

    Anastrepha tehuacana, a new species of Tephritidae (Diptera) from Tehuacán, Puebla, Mexico reared from seeds of Euphorbia tehuacana (Brandegee) V.W. Steinm. (Euphorbiaceae), is described and illustrated. Its probable relationship to A. relicta Hernández-Ortiz is discussed.

  6. The involvement of amino acids in latex lipid synthesis in Euphorbia lathyris seedlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, H.W.; Elings, J.

    1984-01-01

    The breakdown of triglycerides and proteins in the endosperm of Euphorbia lathyris was assayed in a 14 day germination period. Six days after germination, the average daily production was 2.7 μmol of amino acids. Arginine, glutamine, asparagine and glutamic acid accounted for 53% of the total amino

  7. New Compounds from Euphorbia helioscopia and Absolute Configuration Determination by Computational Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jiangbo; Zhu, Hua Jie; Luo, Gui Fen; Li, Yan; Cheng, Yong Xian [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming (China); Chen, Hao; Chen, Shaopeng; Lu, Xin; Zhou, Guochun [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Guang Ming [Dali University, Dali (China)

    2010-08-15

    The whole plant of Euphorbia helioscopia is an important traditional Chinese medicine. Fom its BuOH soluble extract, one new lactam, three new terpenoids including a new naturally occurring compound, and three known compounds were isolated. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic evidences. In particular, the absolute configurations of side chain of compounds 1 and 2 were determined using computational methods.

  8. The involvement of amino acids in latex lipid synthesis in Euphorbia lathyris seedlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, H.W.; Elings, J.

    1984-01-01

    The breakdown of triglycerides and proteins in the endosperm of Euphorbia lathyris was assayed in a 14 day germination period. Six days after germination, the average daily production was 2.7 μmol of amino acids. Arginine, glutamine, asparagine and glutamic acid accounted for 53% of the total amino

  9. Demonstration of the economic feasibility of plant tissue culture for jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) and Euphorbia spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluis, C.

    1980-09-01

    The economic feasibility of plant tissue culture was demonstrated as applied to two plants: jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) and Euphorbia spp. The gopher weed (Euphorbia lathyris) was selected as the species of Euphorbia to research due to the interest in this plant as a potential source of hydrocarbon-like compounds. High yield female selections of jojoba were chosen from native stands and were researched to determine the economic feasibility of mass producing these plants via a tissue culture micropropagation program. The female jojoba selection was successfully mass produced through tissue culture. Modifications in initiation techniques, as well as in multiplication media and rooting parameters, were necessary to apply the tissue culture system, which had been developed for juvenile seedling tissue, to mature jojobas. Since prior attempts at transfer of tissue cultured plantlets were unsuccessful, transfer research was a major part of the project and has resulted in a system for transfer of rooted jojoba plantlets to soil. Euphorbia lathyris was successfully cultured using shoot tip cultures. Media and procedures were established for culture initiation, multiplication of shoots, callus induction and growth, and root initiation. Well-developed root systems were not attained and root initiation percentages should be increased if the system is to become commercially feasible.

  10. TOXICITY OF EB-82 APHIDICIDE ON MACROSIPHUM ROSAE AND THE INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY%EB-82灭蚜菌对蔷薇长管蚜的毒力及温湿度对其的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马江; 龙厚茹

    1998-01-01

    @@ 蔷薇长管蚜(Macrosiphum rosae L.)是蔷薇(Rosa amblyotis)、月季(Rosa chinensis)等花卉上重要的害虫之一(严衡元等,1985).程素琴(内部资料,1985)报道了生物农药EB-82灭蚜菌对蔬菜及花卉上多种蚜虫有较好的防治效果.本试验在室内采用点滴法研究不同浓度的EB-82灭蚜菌对蔷薇长管蚜的毒力及温湿度对其的影响.现将结果报告如下.

  11. [Analysis and comparison of trace elements of herba euphorbiae humifusae in different periods by microwave digestion-atomic absorption spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Cai, Miao-zhen; Wang, Hong; Yu, Rui-peng; Cheng, Cun-gui

    2010-07-01

    Herba euphorbiae humifusae is the dried whole plant of Euphorbia humi fusa Willd. that belongs to euphorbiaceae. In the present paper, the microwave digestion procedure was used to digest herba euphorbiae humifusae collected in different periods, and then flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was used to determine the contents of eight kinds of trace elements of herba euphorbiae humifusae in different periods, and the change in the contents of trace elements at different times was studied and analysed. The results showed that of all the trace elements of herba euphorbiae humifusae in different periods, element Fe was the highest in June, element K was in August at the highest level, element Mn reached the highest content in September, elements Na and Ca were dividedly at the highest content in October and November, and in December the highest content elements were Zn, Cu and Mg. In one word, the change of Na and Ca was jumping, while the change of Cu and Zn was comparatively mild. The results provide scientific basis for the time of collection of herba euphorbiae humifusae.

  12. Influence de quelques facteurs environnementaux sur la germination d'Euphorbia heterophylla L. (Euphorbiaceae

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    Ipou Ipou, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of some Environmental Factors on Euphorbia heterophylla L. (Euphorbiaceae Seeds Germination. In Ivory Coast, Euphorbia heterophylla appears as a weed in cotton fields. Effects of temperature, light and burying levels on its seed germination were tested. Temperature effects were monitored by means of 4 procedures, using a range of temperatures between 20 and 35 °C. The germination latency period can vary between 1 and 2 days, according to the temperature. After 4 days, germination rates were not longer related to temperature and were very similar. Germination can not happen without light. In order to measure the effect of burying levels, six series of 100 seeds were buried; the first at ground level, the others respectively 2, 4, 6, 8 and 9 cm deeper. Optimal germination rates were found for seeds that were buried between 0 and 6 cm.

  13. Toxicological study of the molluscicidal latex of Euphorbia splendens: irritant action on skin and eye

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    J. C. B. R. Freitas

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous solutions of the molluscicidal latex of Euphorbia splendens are irritant to the rabbit eye in concentrations higher than 0.35% and to the rabbit skin in concentrations higher than 0.5%. Although this irritant potential does not proclude its use as a molluscicide, special precautions are recommended for hanbdling and application of the product and the hazard of skin tumor-promoting potencial should be carefully investigated before its use for schistosomiasis vector control.

  14. 13C-NMR Data of Three Important Diterpenes Isolated from Euphorbia Species

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    Fen-Qiang You

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia species are widely distributed plants, many of which are used in folk medicine. Over the past twenty years, they have received considerable phytochemical and biological attention. Their diterpenoid constituents, especially those with abietane, tigliane, ingenane skeletons, are thought to be the main toxicant and bioactive factors. In this work, the utility of 13C-NMR spectroscopy for the structural elucidation of these compounds is briefly discussed.

  15. Preliminary results of entomological studies of diseased oaks in Lower Austria. [Scolytus intricatus; Agrilus; Andricus quercusradicus; Homoptera; Xiphydria; Xyleborus; Cerambycidae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schopf, A.

    1987-03-01

    Entomological studies on diseased Quercus petraea at several localities in Lower Austria show that numerous insect species are involved in the lethal course of the disease. As expected, Scolytus intricatus and Agrilus species as well as two coccid species were frequently present. Particular importance is attached to the massive infestation of young branches by Andricus quercusradicus and egg deposition by an as yet undetermined leafhopper species (Homoptera). Wood-boring insects (Xiphydria, Xyleborus, Cerambycidae) attack the trunk at an early stage of the disease and devalue the wood.

  16. Effects of simulated wind and rain on the natural population dynamics of Macrosiphum avenae%模拟风雨对麦长管蚜自然种群发展的干扰作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冰; 李克斌; 尹姣; 曹雅忠

    2011-01-01

    The English grain aphid Macrosiphum avenae ( Fabricius) is one of the most prominent agricultural pests of wheat and causes economically significant damage to wheat crops in China. We artificially simulated wind and rain to investigate the effect of these weather conditions on the population development of M. Avenae. Population development and recovery were slowed by simulated wind and rain at different stages of population development. Furthermore, the critical period of M. Avenae population development was the most affected. The greater the treatment intensity the stronger the effect. The control effects of target spraying were obviously higher than those of non-target spraying. We found that the early filling stage of wheat was the most suitable period for the application of artificial rain or wind.%麦长管蚜Macrosiphum avenae (Fabricius)是我国小麦生产上的重大害虫,给小麦生产造成严重的威胁.本研究采用人工模拟风雨气象因子的方法,研究了吹风和喷水对麦长管蚜种群数量的干扰作用,解析了麦长管蚜在种群不同发展阶段受模拟风雨干扰后种群变化的特征,明确了麦长管蚜受模拟风雨作用影响其种群生长的关键时期.结果表明,在小麦田进行模拟风雨试验,处理强度越大,防治效果越好;有目标的对靶喷施处理的防治效果明显高于非目标喷施处理;确定人工喷水或吹风处理的最佳时期为小麦灌浆初期,即在该阶段进行一次喷水处理,可以获得最佳的防治效果和保产作用.

  17. 球孢白僵菌对月季长管蚜的生物防治效果%Studies on biological control of Macrosiphum roswomm by using Beauveria bassiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚晓洁; 朱虹

    2015-01-01

    Macrosiphum roswomm is one of the most serious pests on Rosaceae. However, biological control of M. ros⁃womm with Beauveria bassiana still remains unreported. The patho genicity and greenhouse control effect of B. bassiana strain isolated from M.roswomm on aphid nymphs and adults, and the survival of B. bassiana on rose leaves were studied. The results showed that, under the same conditions, aphid mortality increased with increasing spore concentration. At the spore concentration of 108 spores/mL, the highest cumulative mortality was 99�3% in 5 days; the pathogenicity for adults and the third instar nymphs was much higher than the first instar nymph. Under different temperature and humidi⁃ty, the highest mortality was discovered at the condition of 25℃, and the infection mortality rate increased with the in⁃creasing of the environment humidity;the highest infection mortality in greenhouse was 94%. These results indicated that B.bassiana has a good potential in biological control of M. roswomm.%研究了1株分离自月季长管蚜( Macrosiphum roswomm Zhang)的球孢白僵菌( Beauveria bassiana ( Bals.) Vuill)对月季长管蚜若虫和成虫的致病力及温室防治效果,并对球孢白僵菌孢子在月季叶片上的存活动态进行了深入观测。结果表明:相同条件下,月季长管蚜死亡率随球孢白僵菌孢子浓度的增加而上升,在孢子浓度为108 spores/mL时,月季长管蚜5 d的最高累积死亡率为99.3%;球孢白僵菌对成虫和3龄若虫的致病性最强,1龄若虫最低。试验发现25℃时月季长管蚜死亡率最高,环境湿度越大,月季长管蚜的死亡率越高;温室内最高感染死亡率达94%,表明球孢白僵菌在月季长管蚜的生物防治中具有很好的应用潜力。

  18. Taxonomic notes on some Polyglyptini: descriptions of new genus and new species (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae

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    Albino M. Sakakibara

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic notes on some Polyglyptini; descriptions of new genus and new species (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae. The genera Hemiptycha Germar, Metheisa Fowler, Maturnaria Metcalf, Aphetea Fowler, Dioclophara Kirkaldy, and Phormophora Stål, are redescribed; Creonus, gen.n. (type species: Maturna lloydi Funkhouser, 1914, and Aphetea robustula, sp.n. (from Bolivia, are described. Some nomenclatural changes are introduced, as follow: - Hemiptycha Germar, 1833 = Polyrhyssa Stål, 1869, syn.n.: - Hemiptycha cultrata (Coquebert, 1801, comb.n., = Polyglyptodes flavocostatus Haviland, 1925, syn.n., = Polyrhyssa cultrata maculata Fonseca, 1942, syn.n. - Hemiptycha obtecta (Fabricius, 1803 = Hille herbicola Haviland, 1925, syn.n. - Maturnaria ephippigera (Fairmaire, 1846 = Publilia tumulata Buckton, 1903, syn.n., = Metheisa fowleri Funkhouser, 1927, syn.n. - Creonus lloydi (Funkhouser, 1914, comb.n. - Aphetea parvula (Fabricius, 1803, comb.n., = Aphetea affinis Haviland, 1925, syn.n. - Dioclophara Kirkaldy, 1904 = lncolea Goding, 1926, syn.n. - Dioclophara viridula (Fairmaire, 1846 = Maturna multilineata Fonseca, 1942, syn.n. - Dioclophara variegata (Goding, 1926, comb.n. = lncolea viridis Goding, 1926, syn.n. - Phormophora maura (Fabricius, 1803 = Darnis dorsata Fabricius, 1803, syn.n.

  19. Greenhouse whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) dispersal under different UV-light environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukas, Dimitrios; Payne, Christopher C

    2007-04-01

    The greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), is known to respond to UV light (UV). Field studies were conducted to improve our understanding of the behavioral effects and practical implications of using UV-blocking plastic films for the control of whitefly. Adult whiteflies were released in outdoor-located choice-chamber experiments with compartments clad with a range of films that transmitted incident UV to different extents. In release-recapture experiments, a very small proportion of the whiteflies recovered had dispersed into compartments where the entire UV spectrum was blocked, whereas the major proportion preferred compartments with UV. Compartments clad with films that blocked UV below 375 nm attracted significantly more whiteflies than films that blocked UV below 385 nm, whereas the absorption of UV wavelengths above 385 nm did not show any further effect on whitefly numbers. A reduction in the side cladding of the compartments by >20% significantly reduced the advantage of using UV-blocking films. Adult whitefly did not discriminate between direct- and diffused-light environments, as long as the UV-absorbing properties of the films were equivalent. Whitefly dispersal was influenced by the time of the day when adult whitefly were released, with a higher proportion of whitefly avoiding compartments clad with UV-blocking films, at times of the day when light intensities were higher. The future use of UV-blocking films as a potentially highly effective component of integrated pest management systems for the control of whitefly is discussed.

  20. Enumerative and binomial sampling plans for citrus mealybug (Homoptera: pseudococcidae) in citrus groves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ferrer, María Teresa; Ripollés, José Luís; Garcia-Marí, Ferran

    2006-06-01

    The spatial distribution of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), was studied in citrus groves in northeastern Spain. Constant precision sampling plans were designed for all developmental stages of citrus mealybug under the fruit calyx, for late stages on fruit, and for females on trunks and main branches; more than 66, 286, and 101 data sets, respectively, were collected from nine commercial fields during 1992-1998. Dispersion parameters were determined using Taylor's power law, giving aggregated spatial patterns for citrus mealybug populations in three locations of the tree sampled. A significant relationship between the number of insects per organ and the percentage of occupied organs was established using either Wilson and Room's binomial model or Kono and Sugino's empirical formula. Constant precision (E = 0.25) sampling plans (i.e., enumerative plans) for estimating mean densities were developed using Green's equation and the two binomial models. For making management decisions, enumerative counts may be less labor-intensive than binomial sampling. Therefore, we recommend enumerative sampling plans for the use in an integrated pest management program in citrus. Required sample sizes for the range of population densities near current management thresholds, in the three plant locations calyx, fruit, and trunk were 50, 110-330, and 30, respectively. Binomial sampling, especially the empirical model, required a higher sample size to achieve equivalent levels of precision.

  1. Antinociceptive, muscle relaxant and sedative activities of gold nanoparticles generated by methanolic extract of Euphorbia milii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nazar Ul; Khan, Ibrahim; Rauf, Abdur; Muhammad, Naveed; Shahid, Muhammad; Shah, Mohammad Raza

    2015-05-29

    Nanotechnology has potential future for enhancing therapeutic efficacy and reducing the unwanted effects of herbal drugs. The biological research on Euphorbia species has been supported by the use of some plants in traditional medicines. Many species of Euphorbia have been reported as having strong sedative and analgesic effects. In the present research work gold nanoparticles of Euphorbia milii methanolic extract (Au-EM) were synthesized, characterized and tested for antinociceptive, muscle relaxant and sedative activities. Au-EM was prepared by stirring 1 mM warm trihydrated tetrachloroaurate solution with E. milii methanolic extract without using any external reducing agents. The gold nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, infrared spectrophotometery, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy while their stability was evaluated against varying pH and different volumes of sodium chloride (NaCl). The metal sensing capacity of Au-EM was tested towards cobalt, copper, lead, mercury and nickel. Au-EM was evaluated in BALB/c mice at a dose of 10 and 20 mg/kg for antinociceptive, muscle relaxant and sedative activities in comparison with the crude E. milii methanolic extract. Au-EM showed remarkable stability in different NaCl and pH solutions. Au-EM produced significant (P nanoparticles improved the potency of E. milii methanolic extract and exhibited significant analgesic, muscle relaxant and sedative properties. The significant metals sensing ability and enhanced stability in different NaCl and pH solutions may enable us to explore different formulations of E. milii gold nanoparticles for potentially effective and safe nano-herbal therapy.

  2. The effect of aqueous extract of Euphorbia drupifera on the physiology of wistar rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Ununuma Akpiri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The plant Euphorbia came from Mount Atlas region of present-day Morocco and was probably the resin Spurge. This local herb is used by traditional herbalists for treatment of hypertension, diabetes and several other ailments. The aim of this study is to investigate the toxic effect of aqueous extract of Euphorbia drupifera on the physiology of wistar rats. Considering objectives such as: determining the efficacy of Eupholobia drupifera in rat and determining if the extract is dose and time-dependent. Twenty  five (25 normal wistar rats were used for this study. They were acclimatized and randomly distributed into groups A-D and control. They were given, oral administration of Euphorbia extracts twice daily. Doses of 0.056ml/g, 0.118ml/g, 0.174ml/g and 0.254ml/g were given to groups A,B,C and D respectively. The higher the dosage, the shorter the time of death. The animals were observed for morphological changes afterwards. Five rats, one from each group were examined after death. The results obtained recorded a 100% mortality rate in the test groups of rats. Tissue observation showed swollen intestine. Behavioural observation showed continuous itching immediately after feeding with extract,  reduced activity, loss of appetite, drowsiness, and swollen jaws. E. drupifera  was found to have a severe toxic effect on the physiology of rats as 100% mortality was observed in all test groups(Group A, 144hrs; Group B, 96hrs; Group C, 48hrs; and Group D, 36hrs. Thus, caution should be taken in handling and general usage of the plant. No death occurred in the control group without the extract. 

  3. A synopsis or chinese euphorbia L. s.l. (euphorbiaceae

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    Majinshuang, J. S.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic treatment or the Chinese species or Euphorbia (s.l. is summarized. Altogether 5 subgenera., 12 sections and 77 species (including cultivated and escaped ones are recognized as occurring in China. Keys to subgenera., sections and species of Euphorbia (s.l. found in China are presented; the original literature of each species, synonyms and distribution to the provincial level within China and more briefly outside China, as well as comments where necessary, are reported also. One new species (E.tlongchuanensis C. Y. Wu & J. S. Ma, sp. nov. and one new section (Sect. Wentsai C. Y. Wu & J.S. Ma, sect. nov. are described.

    Síntesi del tractament taxonòmic de les espècies d'Euphorbia s.l. de la Xina. En conjunt es reconeixen per aquest país 5 subgèneres, 12 seccions i 77 espècies (incloent cultivades i naturalitzades. També es presenten claus de subgèneres, seccions i espècies; a més s'apona per a cada espècie lloc de publicació. sinònims i distribució a nivell provincial dins la Xina i més breument per a fora de la Xina, així com comentaris on siguin precisos. Es descriu una nova espècie (E. tongchuanensis Wu & Ma. i un nova secció (Sect. Wentsai Wu & Ma..

  4. 麦长管蚜在连作晚稻穗期的发生和防治%Occurrence of Macrosiphum avenae and Their Control in Heading Period of Second - Cropped Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶建人; 江国炜; 李云明

    2001-01-01

    麦长管蚜[Macrosiphum avenae (Fabricius)]是温岭市连作晚稻上主要的害虫之一。由于受水稻品种更换、防治措施演替等因素的影响,在温岭市连作晚稻上已从20世纪90年代前的零星发生,发展为常年发生,为害呈上升趋势。失治的田块,水稻穗部因麦长管蚜分泌蜜露引发霉病,导致全穗变黑,秕谷率上升,千粒重下降,严重严重水稻的产量和质量。为了控制晚稻麦长管蚜的为害,从1995年开始列题对其发生规律和防治技术进行了研究。

  5. Angiogenic activity of latex from Euphorbia tirucalli Linnaeus 1753 (Plantae, Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa, G; Melo-Reis, P R; Araújo, L A; Mrué, F; Freitas, G B; Brandão, M L; Silva Júnior, N J

    2015-08-01

    To assess the pro-angiogenic activity of Euphorbia tirucalli, commonly known as "avelós" plant, we performed a series of tests by applying an aqueous E. tirucalli latex solution (10 mg/mL) to the chorioallantoic membranes (CAMs) of 80 fertilized chicken eggs incubated in a temperature- and humidity-controlled automatic incubator. The results indicated that the aqueous latex solution increased vascular network formation compared to that with the negative control (p latex solution induced an inflammatory response leading to neoangiogenesis.

  6. Resposta de biótipos de Euphorbia heterophylla a doses de glyphosate.

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, L.; M.A. Nohatto; D. Agostinetto; M.A. Bianchi; Gonçalves, E. M.; R.E. Toledo

    2012-01-01

    A leiteira (Euphorbia heterophylla) é uma planta daninha de ciclo anual encontrada com frequência em lavouras de soja na região Sul do Brasil, controlada em lavouras de soja geneticamente modificada (Roundup Ready® - RR) com uso do herbicida glyphosate. Entretanto, nos últimos anos, o controle dessa espécie não tem sido satisfatório em alguns locais, provocando a suspeita de que foram selecionados biótipos resistentes ao herbicida. Diante disso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, por meio...

  7. Modified jatrophane diterpenes as modulators of multidrug resistance from Euphorbia dendroides L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Gabriella; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Lanzotti, Virginia; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Appendino, Giovanni; Ballero, Mauro; Simon, Pierre Noël; Dumontet, Charles; Di Pietro, Attilio

    2003-11-17

    The new diterpenoids terracinolides J-L (1-3), 13alpha-OH terracinolide F (8), abeodendroidin F (11) and epiabeodendroidin F (12) have been identified from Euphorbia dendroides L. The new compounds and six co-occurring known terracinolides were tested as inhibitors of the drug-efflux activity of P-glycoprotein from cancer cells. The results were used to extend the structure-activity relationships established for this class of compounds highlighting the relevance of substitution at positions 2, 3, 6, and 15 and disclosing a remarkable tolerance toward connectivity changes in the terpenoid core.

  8. Biocrude crop production in arid lands. [Calotropis procera, Chrysothamus paniculatus, Euphorbia lathyris, Grindelia camporum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, S.P.; Kingsolver, B.E.; Hoffmann, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    Published and unpublished estimates of land and water requirements and energy yield were used to prepare energy budgets for 4 potential biocrude (liquid fuel) crops in the SW USA: the perennials Calotropis procera and Chrysothamnus paniculatus and the annuals Euphorbia lathyris and Grindelia camporum. Estimated annual costs are examined and discussed for an operation processing 300,000 t/yr. The cheapest energy was produced by C. paniculatus, although it required the largest land area. The paper emphasizes that selecting for biocrude content (biomass quality) of plants may be at the expense of productivity (quantity) since the 2 have been shown to be inversely related in many cases. 8 references.

  9. Analysis of in vitro activity of high dilutions of Euphorbia tirucalli L. in human melanoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Andrade Leitao Aguiar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aveloz (firestick cactus; Euphorbia tirucalli L. belongs to Euphorbiaceae family, characterized by the production of a toxic latex that has corrosive effects on the skin and mucous membranes. Continual topic use of the latex is recommended by popular medicine to treat warts, and epitheliomas. To validate this indication, ultra diluted latex and homeopathic medicine Euphorbia tirucalli were tested in vitro on the proliferation of melanoma cells. Ultra diluted latex was prepared in homeopathic dilutions 5cH, 15cH and 30cH by dilution and agitation (trituration for solid and sucussion for liquid phases using 70º GL (Gay Lussac ethylic alcohol (70º GL EtOH 70ºGL as inert medium according to the guidelines in Farmacopéia Homeopática Brasileira (FHB. Homeopathic medicine Euphorbia tirucalli was prepared from mother-tincture according to the centesimal Hahnemannian method. Solutions 0.5% and 5% of 70ºGL EtOH were succussed and used as control. Human melanoma cells were cultured, treated and monitored by method MTT for 24 to 72 hours. It was observed that 0.5% 70ºGL EtOH solution had little or no effect on the proliferation of melanoma cells (5.1% maximal inhibition in dilution 30cH. Positive correlation was observed in most groups between inhibition of proliferation and diluted preparations, maximal increase (9% was seen in with 5% latex. Moreover, mother-tincture proved to be more active than latex; treatment with 0.5% solution of latex 30cH exhibited 19.7% inhibition, whereas treatment with 0.5% solution of Euphorbia tirucalli 30cH exhibited 32.1% inhibition of cell proliferation (p<0.05. These results suggest that high dilutions of firestick cactus (especially dilution 30cH might have a therapeutic indication in melanoma, further studies are needed in this regard.

  10. Angiogenic activity of latex from Euphorbia tirucalliLinnaeus 1753 (Plantae, Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Bessa

    Full Text Available AbstractTo assess the pro-angiogenic activity of Euphorbia tirucalli, commonly known as “avelós” plant, we performed a series of tests by applying an aqueous E. tirucalli latex solution (10 mg/mL to the chorioallantoic membranes (CAMs of 80 fertilized chicken eggs incubated in a temperature- and humidity-controlled automatic incubator. The results indicated that the aqueous latex solution increased vascular network formation compared to that with the negative control (p < 0.05 and the inhibitor control (p < 0.05. This suggests that under the experimental conditions tested, the aqueous latex solution induced an inflammatory response leading to neoangiogenesis.

  11. Diterpene Constituents of Euphorbia exigua L. and Multidrug Resistance Reversing Activity of the Isolated Diterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rédei, Dóra; Boros, Klára; Forgo, Peter; Molnár, Joseph; Kele, Zoltán; Pálinkó, István; Pinke, Gyula; Hohmann, Judit

    2015-08-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the MeOH extract obtained from the aerial parts of the annual weed Euphorbia exigua L. resulted in the isolation of two novel (1, 2) and one known (3) jatrophane diterpenes. Their structures were established by extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and HR-ESI-MS. The isolated compounds were evaluated for multidrug resistance (MDR) reversing activity on human MDR gene-transfected L5178 mouse lymphoma cells; and all three compounds were found to modulate the intracellular drug accumulation.

  12. Phytotoxic effects of metabolites from Alternaria euphorbiicola against its host plant Euphorbia heterophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Vinícius Vieira Varejão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A bioassay-guided fractionation of culture filtrates of the fungus Alternaria euphorbiicola, a pathogen of the weed Euphorbia heterophylla, led to the isolation of anhydromevalonolactone (1, tyrosol (2, (R-( - -mevalonolactone (3, and cycloglycylproline (4. When tested on the punctured leaves of the host plant, these compounds produced bleached lesions with dark brown margins at concentrations as low as 80 µM. When tested on the leaves of other relevant weeds, only cycloglycylproline showed selective activity against E. heterophylla. This is the first report on the isolation of phytotoxins from A. euphorbiicola and on the phytotoxicity of anhydromevalonolactone, (R-( - -mevalonolactone, and cycloglycylproline.

  13. Lewis acid catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of natural epoxy oil (Euphorbia oil) in carbon dioxide media

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an attempt to build up useful application of plant oil based polymers, natural epoxy oil (euphorbia oil-EuO) was polymerized in liquid carbon dioxide in the presence of Lewis acid catalyst [Boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3•OEt2)]. The resulting polymers (RPEuO) were characterized by FTIR ...

  14. Identification of Phenolic Compounds and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Euphorbia Tirucalli L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keline Medeiros de Araújo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive compounds extracted from natural sources can benefit human health. The aim of this work was to determine total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli L. followed by identification and quantification of the phenolic compounds, as well as their antibacterial activities. Antioxidant activities were determined by DPPH and ABTS•+ assay. Identification of phenolic compounds was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and antimicrobial activities were verified by agar dilution methods and MIC values. Total phenolic content ranged from 7.73 to 30.54 mg/100 g gallic acid equivalent. Extracts from dry plants showed higher antioxidant activities than those from fresh ones. The DPPH EC50 values were approximately 12.15 μg/mL and 16.59 μg/mL, respectively. Antioxidant activity measured by the ABTS method yielded values higher than 718.99 μM trolox/g for dry plants, while by the Rancimat® system yielded protection factors exceeding 1 for all extracts, comparable to synthetic BHT. Ferulic acid was the principal phenolic compound identified and quantified through HPLC-UV in all extracts. The extracts proved effective inhibitory potential for Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. These results showed that extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli L. have excellent antioxidant capacity and moderate antimicrobial activity. These can be attributed to the high concentration of ferulic acid.

  15. Use of biochar as peat substitute for growing substrates of Euphorbia × lomi potted plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Dispenza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biochar from conifers wood was used in soilless culture as growing substrate alternative to peat for ornamental crops. Potted plants of Euphorbia × lomi Rauh cv. ‘Ilaria’ were grown with different mixtures (v:v of brown peat and biochar in order to evaluate main physical and chemical characteristics of this biomaterial as well as its effect on plant growth, ornamental characteristics and nutrients uptake. Biochar addition to peat increased pH, EC and K content of the growing substrates, as well as air content and bulk density. Biochar content of substrates significantly affected plant growth and biomass partitioning: higher number of shoots and leaves, leaf area and leaf dry weight were recorded in plants grown in 40% peat-60% biochar, with respect to plants grown in 100% peat and secondarily in 100% biochar. Leaf chlorophyll content was higher in plants grown in 60% and 80% biochar, while biomass water use efficiency was higher with 60% biochar. Plant uptake of K and Ca increased as biochar content of the substrates increased. Hence, a growing substrate containing 40% brown peat and 60% conifers wood biochar was identified as the more suitable mixture allowing to have a high-quality production of Euphorbia × lomi potted plants.

  16. Purification and partial characterization of a fructose-binding lectin from the leaves of Euphorbia helioscopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Shaista; Qadir, Sakeena; Wani, Ishfak Hussain; Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Masood, Akbar; Hamid, Rabia

    2014-11-01

    A lectin was purified from leaves of Euphorbia helioscopia, by a combination of ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. On ion exchange using a DEAE- cellulose column in 0.2 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.2, the bound protein was eluted with a linear sodium chloride gradient of 0.1 M to 0.5 M. Further purification of the lectin was achieved by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. Euphorbia helioscopia lectin (EHL) agglutinates only chick erythrocytes, showing no agglutination of all human blood group erythrocytes. The EHL induced hemagglutination is inhibited by fructose. The purified protein showed one band, both in non-denaturing PAGE and SDS-PAGE establishing the charge and size homogeneities of the lectin preparation. The molecular mass of the lectin as indicated by SDS-PAGE was approximately 31 kDa and that estimated from G-100 gel filtration chromatography was about 65 kDa establishing that the lectin is a homodimer. The lectin was stable within a temperature range of 0°C-40°C and exhibited a narrow range of pH stability, being optimally active at around pH 7. EHL also possesses antimicrobial activity and is an inhibitor of bacterial growth particularly Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli.

  17. Spasmodic versus spasmolytic activities of Euphorbia spinidens extract on rat isolated uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanadian, Mustafa; Sadraei, Hassan; Cheraghi, Zeinab

    2016-12-01

    Preterm contraction of uterus is a main cause of miscarriages and preterm labour. Euphorbia known as Ferphion in Iranian traditional medicine texts like Al-Hawi, is reported for prevention of preterm labour. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the effect of Euphorbia spinidens Bornm. Ex Prokh. on motility of rat uterus. Uterine horns were isolated form non-pregnant female rats pretreated with estrogen. E. spinidens hydroalcoholic extract was examined on KCl (80 mM) induced and spontaneous periodic contraction in isolate uterine strips suspended in an organ bath and compared with nifedipine and ritodrine. In isolated rat uterine strips, E. spinidens extract (1-500 µg/mL) showed mixed effects. At lower concentrations, firstly potentiated the spontaneous periodic contraction, while in concentrations above 256 µg/mL the spontaneous periodic contractions were completely attenuated. These findings demonstrated that although lower concentrations of hydroalcoholic extract potentiated the spontaneous periodic contraction of rat uterine smooth muscle, but at higher concentrations it had inhibitory effect on rat uterus contraction.

  18. Spasmodic versus spasmolytic activities of Euphorbia spinidens extract on rat isolated uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ghanadian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm contraction of uterus is a main cause of miscarriages and preterm labour. Euphorbia known as Ferphion in Iranian traditional medicine texts like Al-Hawi, is reported for prevention of preterm labour. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the effect of Euphorbia spinidens Bornm. Ex Prokh. on motility of rat uterus. Uterine horns were isolated form non-pregnant female rats pretreated with estrogen. E. spinidens hydroalcoholic extract was examined on KCl (80 mM induced and spontaneous periodic contraction in isolate uterine strips suspended in an organ bath and compared with nifedipine and ritodrine. In isolated rat uterine strips, E. spinidens extract (1-500 µg/mL showed mixed effects. At lower concentrations, firstly potentiated the spontaneous periodic contraction, while in concentrations above 256 µg/mL the spontaneous periodic contractions were completely attenuated. These findings demonstrated that although lower concentrations of hydroalcoholic extract potentiated the spontaneous periodic contraction of rat uterine smooth muscle, but at higher concentrations it had inhibitory effect on rat uterus contraction.

  19. Colonization and diversification of the Euphorbia species (sect. Aphyllis subsect. Macaronesicae) on the Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ye; Li, Yanshu; Vargas-Mendoza, Carlos Fabián; Wang, Faguo; Xing, Fuwu

    2016-01-01

    Diversification between islands and ecological radiation within islands are postulated to have occurred in the Euphorbia species (sect. Aphyllis subsect. Macaronesicae) on the Canary Islands. In this study, the biogeographical pattern of 11 species of subsect. Macaronesicae and the genetic differentiation among five species were investigated to distinguish the potential mode and mechanism of diversification and speciation. The biogeographical patterns and genetic structure were examined using statistical dispersal-vicariance analysis, Bayesian phylogenetic analysis, reduced median-joining haplotype network analysis, and discriminant analysis of principal components. The gene flow between related species was evaluated with an isolation-with-migration model. The ancestral range of the species of subsect. Macaronesicae was inferred to be Tenerife and the Cape Verde Islands, and Tenerife-La Gomera acted as sources of diversity to other islands of the Canary Islands. Inter-island colonization of E. lamarckii among the western islands and a colonization of E. regis-jubae from Gran Canaria to northern Africa were revealed. Both diversification between islands and radiation within islands have been revealed in the Euphorbia species (sect. Aphyllis subsect. Macaronesicae) of the Canary Islands. It was clear that this group began the speciation process in Tenerife-La Gomera, and this process occurred with gene flow between some related species. PMID:27681300

  20. Euphorbia davidii - an invasive weed species in the fields of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajgand Dragan K.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia davidii Subils (Euphorbiaceae or toothed spurge is a plant native to North America, but in Europe it is an alien weed. The populations of this weed were recorded in the Province of Vojvodina (Serbia for the first time in 2007 in the arable fields in two localities: between the villages of Aleksa Šantić and Pačir and also between the villages of Pačir and Đurđin. There were no previous published data about the occurrence of this species in Serbia, nor about management measures in crops to suppress this agricultural invader. In this paper, we present experiences with several herbicide treatments applied to suppress populations of toothed spurge from the crop fields in Serbia during the last six years. The most effective was treatment with a high concentration of glyphosate in the early phases of toothed spurge growing. The populations of this invasive weed spread and formed more or less dense patches in the crop field, the area of distribution increased from 3 ha to 7 ha. Observations and experiences with treatments suggest that Euphorbia davidii, as an invasive plant, has significant impact on crop fields, therefore further investigation of suppression measures and monitoring of its population is needed.

  1. 关于停止使用"同翅目Homoptera" 目名的建议%A proposal to stop using the insect order name "Homoptera"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁爱萍

    2005-01-01

    长期以来,在我国昆虫学界,"同翅目Homoptera"和半翅目Hemiptera一直被作为2个并列的昆虫目被广泛使用.传统的"同翅目"被分为3亚目10总科,即鞘喙亚目Coleorrhyncha(包括膜翅蝽总科Peloridioidea)、胸喙亚目Sternorrhyncha(包括木虱总科Psylloidea、粉虱总科Aleyrodoidea、蚧总科Coccoidea和蚜总科Aphidoidea)和头喙亚目Auchenorrhyncha[包括蜡蝉子亚目Fulgoromorpha(包括蜡蝉总科Fulgoroidea)和蝉子亚目Cicadomorpha(包括蝉总科Cicadoidea、沫蝉总科Cercopoidea、叶蝉总科Cicadelloidea和角蝉总科Membracoidea)].近年来,形态学及分子学特征数据的支序分析研究表明,木虱总科、粉虱总科、蚧总科、蚜总科、蜡蝉总科、蝉总科、沫蝉总科、角蝉总科都是单系群;鞘喙亚目、胸喙亚目、蝉子亚目及蜡蝉子亚目也都是单系群,其相互之间的系统发育关系为:胸喙亚目+(蝉子亚目+(蜡蝉子亚目+(鞘喙亚目+异翅亚目(蝽类)))),它们共同组成了单系的半翅目Hemiptera.系统发育分析表明,在半翅目中,鞘喙亚目与异翅亚目具有最近的亲缘关系,蜡蝉子亚目与鞘喙亚目+异翅亚目是姊妹群,蝉子亚目是蜡蝉子亚目+(鞘喙亚目+异翅亚目)的姐妹群,胸喙亚目是半翅目中最早和最原始的一个分枝.因此传统的"同翅目"并不是一个自然的单系类群,而是一个人为的并系类群.目前,在国际昆虫学界,"同翅目"作为一个人为的并系类群已得到公认和普遍接受,并已不再作为昆虫纲的一个有效目被使用.然而,"同翅目"作为昆虫纲的一个有效目在国内一直被广泛使用,为此,作者建议我国的昆虫学工作者今后应停止使用"同翅目"这一人为的并系目名而使用单系的半翅目目名,即将长期以来一直置于"同翅目"的木虱、粉虱、蚧虫、蚜虫、蝉、沫蝉、叶蝉、角蝉及蜡蝉类昆虫与蝽类昆虫一起作为半翅目的成员对待.

  2. Interferência de Euphorbia heterophylla no crescimento e acúmulo de macronutrientes da soja Interference of Euphorbia heterophylla in the growth and macronutrient accumulation of soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O grau de interferência depende da densidade de plantas daninhas que infestam a soja. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar características de crescimento e nutrição mineral da soja mantida em convivência com densidades crescentes de Euphorbia heterophylla. O experimento foi conduzido em Jaboticabal, SP, Brasil, entre outubro e dezembro de 2008, em vasos mantidos em campo aberto. Os tratamentos consistiram em submeter uma planta de soja por vaso à convivência com 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 e 16 plantas de E. heterophylla por vaso, da semeadura até o início do florescimento. Nesse período, avaliaram-se, apenas na soja, a altura e o número de trifólios, e em ambas as espécies, a matéria seca e o acúmulo de macronutrientes. Observou-se variação na altura de plantas e redução no número de trifólios e no acúmulo de matéria seca e macronutrientes da soja devido ao maior acúmulo de matéria seca e macronutrientes por densidades crescentes de E. heterophylla. Conclui-se que a soja mantida em convivência com E. heterophylla teve o crescimento e o acúmulo de macronutrientes reduzidos em razão da interferência imposta pela planta daninha.The degree of weed interference depends on the density of the weeds infesting the soybean crop. The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth and mineral nutrition characteristics in soybean maintained in coexistence with increasing densities of Euphorbia heterophylla. The experiment was carried out in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil, from October through December 2008, in pots maintained under open field conditions. The treatments consisted in submitting one soybean plant per pot to coexistence with 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 plants of E. heterophylla per pot, from sowing until the beginning of soybean flowering. At this period, only height and number of leaves were evaluated in soybean, while dry matter and macronutrient accumulation were evaluated in both species. Variation in plant height and reduction in the

  3. Unraveling the karyotype structure of the spurges Euphorbia hirta Linnaeus, 1753 and E. hyssopifolia Linnaeus, 1753 (Euphorbiaceae) using genome size estimation and heterochromatin differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Karla C. B.; Pinangé, Diego S. B.; Vasconcelos, Santelmo; Oliveira, Ana R.; Brasileiro-Vidal, Ana C.; Alves, Marccus V.; Benko-Iseppon, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Euphorbia Linnaeus, 1753 (Euphorbiaceae) is one of the most diverse and complex genera among the angiosperms, showing a huge diversity in morphologic traits and ecologic patterns. In order to improve the knowledge of the karyotype organization of Euphorbia hirta (2n = 18) and Euphorbia hyssopifolia (2n = 12), cytogenetic studies were performed by means of conventional staining with Giemsa, genome size estimations with flow cytometry, heterochromatin differentiation with chromomycin A3 (CMA) and 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and Giemsa C-banding, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 45S and 5S rDNA probes, and impregnation with silver nitrate (AgNO3). Our results revealed small metacentric chromosomes, CMA+/DAPI0 heterochromatin in the pericentromeric regions of all chromosomes and CMA+/DAPI− in the distal part of chromosome arms carriers of nucleolar organizing regions (NORs). The DNA content measurements revealed small genomes for both species: Euphorbia hirta with 2C = 0.77 pg and Euphorbia hyssopifolia with 2C = 1.41 pg. After FISH procedures, Euphorbia hirta, and Euphorbia hyssopifolia presented three and four pairs of terminal 45S rDNA sites, respectively, colocalizing with CMA+ heterochromatic blocks, besides only one interstitial pair of 5S rDNA signals. Additionally, the maximum number of active NORs agreed with the total number of observed 45S rDNA sites. This work represents the first analysis using FISH in the subfamily Euphorbioideae, revealing a significant number of chromosomal markers, which may be very helpful to understand evolutionary patterns among Euphorbia species. PMID:28123686

  4. Identification, activity and function determination of several salivary enzymes secreted by Macrosiphum avenae%麦长管蚜唾液中几种酶的鉴定、活力测定与功能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭光喜; 刘勇; 杨景娟; 马向真

    2006-01-01

    用Parafilm膜夹营养液法,以两种食料介质饲喂麦长管蚜Macrosiphum avenae 3龄若蚜并收集其唾液,对唾液中的酶类进行了鉴定、活力测定和功能分析.结果表明,在20%蔗糖介质提取液中,鉴定有果胶酶、多酚氧化酶和纤维素酶;在水介质提取液中鉴定有纤维素酶;两种介质提取液中都未鉴定出过氧化物酶.酶活力测定结果表明,在20%蔗糖介质提取液中,每30头蚜虫分泌的果胶酶、多酚氧化酶和纤维素酶的酶活力分别为2.59×10-3U/g、7×10-3U/g和7.89×10-3U/g;在水介质提取液中,纤维素酶活力为3.68×10-3U/g.行为反应试验结果表明,果胶酶处理麦苗的挥发物组分能引起麦长管蚜寄生性天敌燕麦蚜茧蜂Aphidius avenae和捕食性天敌七星瓢虫Coccinellaseptempunctata的嗅觉偏好反应,因此,果胶酶在麦长管蚜取食诱导小麦植株的间接防御反应中具有重要作用.

  5. Phylogenetic position of the yeast-like symbiotes of Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae) based on 18S ribosomal DNA partial sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Xet-Mull, Ana M.; Quesada, Tania; Espinoza, Ana M

    2014-01-01

    Tagosodes orizicolus Muir (Homoptera: Delphacidae), the endemic delphacid species of tropical America carries yeast-like symbiotes (YLS) in the abdominal fat bodies and the ovarial tissues, like other rice planthoppers of Asia. These YLS are obligate symbiotes, which are transmitted transovarially, and maintain a mutualistic relationship with the insect host. This characteristic has made in vitro culture and classification of YLS rather difficult using conventional methods. Nevertheless, micr...

  6. Description of a new species of Oligosita Walker (Chalcidoidea: Trichogrammatidae), egg parasitoid of Balclutha brevis Lindberg (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) living on Pennisetum setaceum, from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, Salvatore; Cupani, Sebastiano; D'urso, Vera; Laudonia, Stefania; Sinno, Martina; Viggiani, Gennaro

    2015-11-06

    A new species of Oligosita Walker (Chalcidoidea: Trichogrammatidae), O. balcluthae Viggiani et Laudonia n. sp., is described as a parasitoid of the eggs of Balclutha brevis Lindberg (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) associated with crimson fountain grass, Pennisetum setaceum (Poaceae) in Italy. Morphological features and biology of the new species are discussed and illustrated. The 28S-D2 and ITS2 regions were successfully amplified and sequenced.

  7. Cytotoxicity of latex and pharmacobotanical study of leaves and stem of Euphorbia umbellata (Janaúba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia E.C. Luz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn southern Brazil, the bottled latex of Synadenium grantii Hook f., Euphorbiaceae, is popularly used as a treatment of all types of cancer. Similarly, Synadenium umbellatum Pax. is used in the central western region of Brazil for the same purpose and in the same manner of use. Both plants are popularly known as janaúba or leitosinha. The objectives of this study were to use pharmacobotanical analysis to verify whether these two species, which are considered to be distinct, are actually the same to determine anatomical markers; to assist in the identification and differentiation of other Euphorbia; and to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of the latex in relation to HeLa and HRT-18 cells. Leaves and stems of the species were collected in Goiânia and Ponta Grossa and were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy techniques. The latex was also collected and analyzed in relation to its cytotoxic effect by employing MTT and NR techniques. The pharmacobotanical study of the specimens in both localities showed that they were the same species, namely Euphorbia umbellata (Pax Bruyns, which is the scientific nomenclature accepted and confirmed by an expert taxonomist who specializes in Euphorbia. The pharmacobotanical characteristics highlighted in this study can assist in the identification of the taxon and contribute to the control of the quality of this plant drug. The evaluation of the latex in relation to HRT-18 cells demonstrated action after 48 h of experiment. In contrast, in relation to HeLa cells its induced cytotoxicity in all times and a dose-dependent manner. The IC50 values (72 h observed were 252.58 ± 18.51 µg/ml and 263.42 ± 15.92 µg/ml to MTT experiment and 250.18 ± 19.48 µg/ml and 430.56 ± 19.71 µg/ml to NR experiment for the HeLa and HRT-18 cells, respectively.

  8. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assessment of Euphorbia hirta in MCF-7 cell line model using comet assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwan Yuet Ping; Ibrahim Darah; Yeng Chen; Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity activity of Euphorbia hirta (E. hirta) in MCF-7 cell line model using comet assay. Methods: The cytotoxicity of E. hirta extract was investigated by employing brine shrimp lethality assay and the genotoxicity of E. hirta was assessed by using Comet assay. Results: Both toxicity tests exhibited significant toxicity result. In the comet assay, the E. hirta extract exhibited genotoxicity effects against MCF-7 DNA in a time-dependent manner by increasing mean percentage of DNA damage. The extract of E. hirta showed significant toxicity against brine shrimp with an LC50 value of 620.382 μg/mL (24 h). Comparison with positive control potassium dichromate signifies that cytotoxicity exhibited by the methanol extract might have moderate activity. Conclusion:The present work confirmed the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of E. hirta. However, the observed toxicity of E. hirta extracts needs to be confirmed in additional studies.

  9. Soil surface searching and transport of Euphorbia characias seeds by ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espadaler, Xavier; Gómez, Crisanto

    The intensity of exploring the soil surface by ants was studied for the four species involved in the dispersal and predation of seeds of the West-Mediterranean myrmecochorous plant Euphorbia characias. During the dehiscence period (June) the whole soil surface is sccanned in 43 minutes. Not all ants that find a seed take it to the nest. For the four ant species studied ( Pheidole pallidula, Aphaenogaster senilis, Tapinoma nigerrimum, Messor barbarus) the proportion of ants that finally take the seed is 67.6%. In spite of this, the high level of soil surface searching explains the rather short time that seeds remain on the soil before being removed. The presence of an elaiosome is a key element in the outcome of the ant-seed interaction: a seed with elaiosome has a seven-fold increase in probability of being taken to the nest if found by a non-granivorous ant. The predator-avoidance hypothesis for myrmecochory is supported.

  10. Extraction and characterization of a natural rubber from Euphorbia characias latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanò, Delia; Pintus, Francesca; Mascia, Claudia; Scorciapino, Mariano Andrea; Casu, Mariano; Floris, Giovanni; Medda, Rosaria

    2012-08-01

    A natural rubber was identified and characterized for the first time in the latex of the perennial Mediterranean shrub Euphorbia characias. Four different methods, i.e., acetone, acetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, and Triton® X-100, followed by successive treatments with cyclohexane/ethanol, were employed to extract the natural rubber. The rubber content was shown to be 14% (w/v) of the E. characias latex, a low content compared with that of Hevea brasiliensis (30-35%) but a similar content to other rubber producing plants. E. characias rubber showed a molecular weight of 93,000 with a M(w) /M(n) of 2.9. (1) H NMR, (13) C NMR, and FTIR analysis revealed the characteristic of the cis-1,4-polyisoprene typical of natural rubber. These results provided novel insight into latex components and will ultimately benefit the broader understanding of E. characias latex composition.

  11. Overexpression of the AtSHI gene in poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima, results in compact plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, M. Ashraful; Lütken, Henrik Vlk; Haugslien, Sissel

    2013-01-01

    Euphorbia pulcherrima, poinsettia, is a non-food and non-feed vegetatively propagated ornamental plant. Appropriate plant height is one of the most important traits in poinsettia production and is commonly achieved by application of chemical growth retardants. To produce compact poinsettia plants...... of the AtSHI gene into poinsettia by genetic engineering can be an effective approach in controlling plant height without negatively affecting flowering time. This can help to reduce or avoid the use of toxic growth retardants of environmental and human health concern. This is the first report that At...... integration of transgene was verified by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Reduced plant height (21–52%) and internode lengths (31–49%) were obtained in the transgenic lines compared to control plants. This correlates positively with the AtSHI transcript levels, with the highest levels in the most dwarfed...

  12. An in silico study on antidiabetic activity of bioactive compounds in Euphorbia thymifolia Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Vo, T Hoang; Tran, Ngan; Nguyen, Dat; Le, Ly

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicines have become strongly preferred treatment to reduce the negative impacts of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its severe complications due to lesser side effects and low cost. Recently, strong anti-hyperglycemic effect of Euphorbia thymifolia Linn. (E. thymifolia) on mice models has reported but the action mechanism of its bioactive compounds has remained unknown. This study aimed to evaluate molecular interactions existing between various bioactive compounds in E. thymifolia and targeted proteins related to Type 2 DM. This process involved the molecular docking of 3D structures of those substances into 4 targeted proteins: 11-β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase, protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B and mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase sirtuin-6. In the next step, LigandScout was applied to evaluate the bonds formed between 20 ligands and the binding sites of each targeted proteins. The results identified seven bioactive compounds with high binding affinity (bioactive compounds, in silico approach is performed.

  13. Study on Chloroplast Ultrastructure in Different Color Period of Euphorbia pulcherrima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jia; NIU De; WANG Lijuan

    2008-01-01

    By the observation of chloroplast ultrastructure in different period of bract colors of Euphorbia pulcherrima,the paper studied the change of chloroplast ultrastructrural in the transition process of bract colors, identified the rehtionship between E.pulcherrima color change and the chloroplast ultrastructure to provide theorical bases for the cultivation management and further study of E.pulcherrima.Ultrastructural study showed that in the process of change from green to red,the chloroplast of bracts disintegrated gradually,lamellar structure was destroyed gradually,and the content of chloroplasts in mesophyll cells was also reduced gradually. When bracts color resumed to turn green gradually,the content of chloroplasts in mesophyll cells was also increased gradually.

  14. Regulated Expressions of MMP-2, -9 by Diterpenoids from Euphorbia formosana Hayata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa-Wen Yin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Two new abietane type diterpenoids, namely seco-helioscopinolide (1 and 3b,7b-dihydroxy-ent-abieta-8,13-diene-12,16-olide (2 were isolated from the aerial parts of Euphorbia formosana Hayata together with helioscopinolide A (3, helioscopinolide B (4, helioscopinolide C (5 and ent-(5b,8a,9b,10a,12a-12-hydroxyatis-16-ene-3,14-dione (6. The structures of compounds 1−6 were elucidated by analyzing their spectroscopic data and comparison with the literature. Further biological tests by gelatin zymographic analysis revealed that 3−5 significantly up-regulated the expressions and activation of MMP-2 and -9 in human fibrosarcoma cell line HT1080.

  15. Structural characterization of rubber from jackfruit and euphorbia as a model of natural rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekkriengkrai, Dararat; Ute, Koiichi; Swiezewska, Ewa; Chojnacki, Tadeusz; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Sakdapipanich, Jitladda T

    2004-01-01

    A structural study of low molecular weight rubbers from Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) and Painted spurge (Euphorbia heterophylla) was carried out as model compounds of natural rubber from Hevea brasiliensis. The rubber content of latex from Jackfruit was 0.4-0.7%, which is very low compared with that of 30-35% in the latex from Hevea tree. The rubber from Jackfruit latex was low molecular weight with narrow unimodal molecular weight distribution (MWD), whereas that obtained from E. heterophylla showed very broad MWD. The 1H and 13C NMR analyses showed that Jackfruit rubber consists of a dimethylallyl group and two trans-isoprene units connected to a long sequence of cis-isoprene units. The alpha-terminal group of Jackfruit rubber was presumed to be composed of a phosphate group based on the presence of 1H NMR signal at 4.08 ppm corresponding to the terminal =CH-CH2OP group.

  16. Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts from Leaves, Stems and Flowers of Euphorbia macroclada against plant pathogenic fungi

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    K. Al-Mughrabi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Extracts drawn from dried and powdered flowers, stems and leaves of Euphorbia macroclada with some organic solvents were tested for antimicrobial effect against the fungi Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium italicum, Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria solani, Stemphylium solani, Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp., and Pythium sp. The strongest inhibitory effect of the extracts was observed against R. solani, V. dahliae, F. oxysporum, Pythium sp. and R. stolonifer. The weakest effect was against A. solani. Extracts from the stems had a stronger inhibitory effect than those from the flowers or leaves. Butanol was the best solvent to extract antimicrobial compounds from leaves, stems and flowers and was superior to chloroform, water and petroleum ether. Results clearly indicate that E. macroclada is a promising source of antimicrobial compounds.

  17. Total phenolic compounds, antioxidant potential and α-glucosidase inhibition by Tunisian Euphorbia paralias L.

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    Malek Besbes Hlila

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the potential antioxidant and anti-α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of Tunisian Euphorbia paralias L. leaves and stems extracts and their composition of total polyphenol and flavonoids. Methods: The different samples were tested for their antiradical activities by using 2, 2’- azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays. In α-glucosidase activity, α-glucosidase (0.3 IU/mL and substrate, 2500 µmol/ L p-nitrophenyl α-D-glucopyranoside were used; absorbance was registered at 405 nm. Results: The leaves acetonic extract exhibited the strongest α-glucosidase inhibition [IC50 = (0.0035 ± 0.001 µg/mL], which was 20-fold more active than the standard product (acarbose [IC50 = (0.07 ± 0.01 µg/mL]. Acetonic extract of the leaves exhibited the highest quantity of total phenolic [(95.54 ± 0.04 µg gallic acid equivalent/mg] and flavonoid [(55.16 ± 0.25 µg quercetin equivalent/mg]. The obtained findings presented also that this extract was detected with best antioxidant capacity [IC50 = (0.015 ± 0.01 µg/mL] against DPPH and a value of IC50 equal to (0.02 ± 0.01 µg/mL against ABTS. Positive relationship between polyphenolic content of the tested Euphorbia paralias L. leaves and stems extracts and its antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS was detected. Elevated positive linear correlation was got between ABTS and total phenolic (R2 = 0.751. Conclusions: The findings clearly demonstrate that the use of a polar solvent enables extraction of significant quantities of phenol compounds and flavonoids.

  18. Total phenolic compounds, antioxidant potential andα-glucosidase inhibition by TunisianEuphorbia paralias L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malek Besbes Hlila; Kaouther Majouli; Fethia Harzallah Skhiri; Hichem Ben Jannet; Mahjoub Aouni; Maha Mastouri; Boulbaba Selmi

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To examine the potential antioxidant and anti-α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of TunisianEuphorbia paralias L. leaves and stems extracts and their composition of total polyphenol and flavonoids. Methods: The different samples were tested for their antiradical activities by using 2, 2’-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. In α-glucosidase activity,α-glucosidase (0.3 IU/mL) and substrate, 2 500µmol/Lp-nitrophenylα-D-glucopyranoside were used; absorbance was registered at 405 nm. Results:The leaves acetonic extract exhibited the strongestα-glucosidase inhibition [IC50=(0.0035 ± 0.001)µg/mL], which was 20-fold more active than the standard product (acarbose) [IC50 = (0.07 ± 0.01)µg/mL]. Acetonic extract of the leaves exhibited the highest quantity of total phenolic [(95.54 ± 0.04)µg gallic acid equivalent/mg] and flavonoid [(55.16 ± 0.25)µg quercetin equivalent/mg]. The obtained findings presented also that this extract was detected with best antioxidant capacity [IC50 = (0.015 ± 0.01)µg/mL] againstDPPH and a value of IC50 equal to (0.02 ± 0.01)µg/mL againstABTS. Positive relationship between polyphenolic content of the testedEuphorbia paralias L. leaves and stems extracts and its antioxidant activity (DPPH andABTS) was detected. Elevated positive linear correlation was got betweenABTS and total phenolic (R2 = 0.751). Conclusions: The findings clearly demonstrate that the use of a polar solvent enables extraction of significant quantities of phenol compounds and flavonoids.

  19. Crescimento e esporulação de Bipolaris euphorbiae cultivado sob diferentes condições nutricionais Growth and sporulation of Bipolaris euphorbiae cultivated under different nutritional conditions

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    Mara Cristina Penariol

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de ser considerado um potencial bioagente de controle do amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla L. em cultivos de soja no Brasil, pouco se conhece sobre as características nutricionais do fungo Bipolaris euphorbiae Muchovej & Carvalho. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diferentes fontes de carbono (glicose, amido, sacarose, lactose e maltose, de nitrogênio (nitrato de sódio, nitrato de amônio, sulfato de amônio, fosfato de amônio dibásico, cloreto de amônio, de fósforo (fosfato de potássio monobásico, fosfato de potássio bibásico, fosfato de cálcio, fosfato de sódio, ácido fosfórico, fosfato de amônio e a suplementação do meio de cultivo com fontes orgânicas de macro e micronutrientes, para o crescimento e a esporulação de B. euphorbiae. O amido proporcionou o maior crescimento, sendo também considerada a fonte de carbono mais favorável para a esporulação. O melhor crescimento e esporulação de B. euphorbiae foram obtidos usando o nitrato de sódio como fonte de nitrogênio e fosfato de potássio monobásico e fosfato de cálcio como fonte de fósforo, embora as demais fontes de fósforo analisadas, exceto o ácido fosfórico, tenham igualmente favorecido a esporulação. A suplementação do meio de cultivo com peptona e extrato de levedura resultou em melhor crescimento e esporulação do fungo e a adição de vitaminas favoreceu a produção de conídios.Bipolaris euphorbiae Muchovej & Carvalho is considered a potential bioagent for control of selvage peanuts (Euphorbia heterophylla L. on soybean crops in Brazil. However, little is known about the nutritional characteristics of this fungus. The main objective of this research was to evaluate different sources of carbon (glucose, starch, sucrose, lactose and maltose, of nitrogen (sodium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, bi-basic ammonium phosphate, ammonium chloride, of phosphorus (monobasic potassium phosphate, bi-basic potassium phosphate

  20. Optimisation of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity from Euphorbia tirucalli Using Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Euphorbia tirucalli (E. tirucalli) is now widely distributed around the world and is well known as a source of traditional medicine in many countries. This study aimed to utilise response surface methodology (RSM) to optimise ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions for total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant capacity from E. tirucalli leaf. The results showed that ultrasonic temperature, time and power effected TPC and antioxidant capacity; however, the effects varied. Ultrason...

  1. A comprehensive phylogeography of the Hyles euphorbiae complex (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) indicates a ‘glacial refuge belt’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mende, Michael B.; Bartel, Manuela; Hundsdoerfer, Anna K.

    2016-01-01

    We test the morphology based hypothesis that the Western Palaearctic spurge hawkmoths represent two species, the Eurasian H. euphorbiae and Afro-Macaronesian H. tithymali. It has been suggested that these species merged into several hybrid swarm populations, although a mitochondrial phylogeography revealed substructure with local differentiation. We analysed a three-gene mt-dataset (889 individuals) and 12 microsatellite loci (892 individuals). Microsatellite analyses revealed an overall weak differentiation and corroborated the superordinate division into two clusters. The data indicate that the populations studied belong to only one species according to the biological species concept, refuting the opening hypothesis. A future taxonomic revision appears necessary to reflect the division into two subgroups. Ancestral mitochondrial polymorphisms are retained in H. euphorbiae, indicating gene flow within a broad ‘glacial refuge belt’ and ongoing postglacial gene flow. Diverse patterns of extensive mito-nuclear discordance in the Mediterranean and the Middle East presumably evolved by more recent processes. This discordance indicates introgression of H. tithymali-related mitochondrial haplogroups, accompanied (to a lesser degree) by nuclear alleles, into Italian and Aegean H. euphorbiae populations as recently as the late Holocene. The complex mosaic of divergence and reintegration is assumed to have been influenced by locally differing environmental barriers to gene flow. PMID:27439775

  2. Acute Toxicity Of Euphorbia Royleana Boiss (Euphorbiaceae latex on freshwater catfish, Heteropneustes Fossilis (Siluriformes, Heteropneustidae Toxicidad aguda del látex de Euphorbia royleana Boiss (Euphorbiaceae en el bagre de agua dulce, Heteropneutes fossilis (Siluriformes, Heteropneustidae

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    Prasad ManiRam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An acute toxicity test was performed by using a four-day static renewal test to determine the LC50 value of aqueous extract of Euphorbia royleana latex for the freshwater fsh, Heteropneustes fossilis. The LC50 values, their upper and lower confdence limits and slope functions were calculated. The LC50 values for aqueous extract of Euphorbia royleana latex at various exposure periods were 7.758 mg/L for 24 h, 5.847 mg/L for 48 h, 4.474 mg/L for 72 h and 3.090 mg/L for 96 h. The regression coeffcient showed that there was signifcant negative correlation between exposure time and different LC values. Hence, it is concluded that the concentration to produce toxicity of latex of Euphorbia royleana is comparable and close to the concentration to produce toxicity of synthetic organophosphates pesticides for the fsh H. fossilis. Therefore, adequate precautions must be taken when Euphorbia royleana latex is being used near fsh- inhabited areas.La prueba de la toxicidad aguda fue realizada utilizando un test estático con renovación, de cuatro días de duración, para determinar el valor de la CL50 de un extracto acuoso del látex de Euphorbia royleana, en el pez de agua dulce Heteropneustes fossilis. Se calcularon el valor de la CL50, los límites de confanza máximo y mínimo y la pendiente. Los valores de la CL50 para el extracto acuoso del látex en varios períodos de exposición fueron 7,758 mg/L para 24 h, 5,847 mg/L para 48 h, 4,474 mg/L para 72 h y 3,090 mg/L para 96 h. El coefciente de regresión mostró una correlación negativa signifcativa entre el tiempo de exposición y diferentes valores de la CL50. Se concluye que la concentración del látex de E. royleana que produce toxicidad es comparable y cercana a la de los plaguicidas sintéticos organofosforados para el pez H. fossilis. Por lo tanto, se deben tomar precauciones adecuadas cuando el látex de E. royleana es utilizado cerca de áreas donde habita el pez H. fossilis.

  3. De novo assembly of Euphorbia fischeriana root transcriptome identifies prostratin pathway related genes

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    Barrero Roberto A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Euphorbia fischeriana is an important medicinal plant found in Northeast China. The plant roots contain many medicinal compounds including 12-deoxyphorbol-13-acetate, commonly known as prostratin that is a phorbol ester from the tigliane diterpene series. Prostratin is a protein kinase C activator and is effective in the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV by acting as a latent HIV activator. Latent HIV is currently the biggest limitation for viral eradication. The aim of this study was to sequence, assemble and annotate the E. fischeriana transcriptome to better understand the potential biochemical pathways leading to the synthesis of prostratin and other related diterpene compounds. Results In this study we conducted a high throughput RNA-seq approach to sequence the root transcriptome of E. fischeriana. We assembled 18,180 transcripts, of these the majority encoded protein-coding genes and only 17 transcripts corresponded to known RNA genes. Interestingly, we identified 5,956 protein-coding transcripts with high similarity (> = 75% to Ricinus communis, a close relative to E. fischeriana. We also evaluated the conservation of E. fischeriana genes against EST datasets from the Euphorbeacea family, which included R. communis, Hevea brasiliensis and Euphorbia esula. We identified a core set of 1,145 gene clusters conserved in all four species and 1,487 E. fischeriana paralogous genes. Furthermore, we screened E. fischeriana transcripts against an in-house reference database for genes implicated in the biosynthesis of upstream precursors to prostratin. This identified 24 and 9 candidate transcripts involved in the terpenoid and diterpenoid biosyntehsis pathways, respectively. The majority of the candidate genes in these pathways presented relatively low expression levels except for 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E-butenyl 4-diphosphate synthase (HDS and isopentenyl diphosphate/dimethylallyl diphosphate synthase (IDS, which

  4. HUBUNGAN KUTU DOMPOLAN DYSMICOCCUS BREVIPES (CKLL. (HOMOPTERA : PSEUDOCOCCIDAE DAN SEMUT API SOLENOPSIS SP. (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE PADA DUA CARA BERTANAM NENAS

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    Rosma Hasibuan .

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Association of mealybug, Dysmicoccus brevipes (Ckll. (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae and fire ant, Solenopsis sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae on two pineapple–planting patterns.  A pineapple mealybug, Dysmicoccus  brevipes (Ckll.  (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae is an important insect pest in major pineapple growing areas.  Its feeding activity causes damage on the pineapple plants and it can also transmit pineapple wilt virus.  The mealybugs are often found in association with fire ants, Solenopsis sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae that provide protection in exchange for the sweet honeydew liquid. The field study was conducted to determine the close association between  mealybugs and fire ants on  two plant row spacing (single and double row spacing four different plant stages (3, 7, 11, and 17 months after planting. The  results indicated  that there was a significant correlation between the mealybugs and the fire ant on two pineapple-planting patterns, particularly on late growth periods (11, and 17 months after planting. In this field study, population of mealybugs on double row spacing were more abundant  (ranging from 0 to 25.67 bugs/plant compared with that on single row spacing which ranged 0 to 3.67 bugs/plant. Moreover, general mean of population density of mealybugs (14.53 bugs/plant on double row was significantly higher  than that on single row spacing (1.83 bugs/plant. In  line with this mealybug-population development, mean numbers of fire ants caught on baited-sticky traps were ranged from 0 to 8.53 ants/trap on single row versus 0 to 23.57 ants/trap on double row spacing pattern. The general mean number of captured ants (12.73 ants/trap on double row was significantly higher compared with that on single row spacing (5.55 ants/trap. It appears that the patterns of population densities of mealybugs are closely related to that of fire ants that act as attendant species on two pineapple row spacing.

  5. Resposta de biótipos de Euphorbia heterophylla a doses de glyphosate Response of Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes to glyphosate rates

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    L Vargas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A leiteira (Euphorbia heterophylla é uma planta daninha de ciclo anual encontrada com frequência em lavouras de soja na região Sul do Brasil, controlada em lavouras de soja geneticamente modificada (Roundup Ready® - RR com uso do herbicida glyphosate. Entretanto, nos últimos anos, o controle dessa espécie não tem sido satisfatório em alguns locais, provocando a suspeita de que foram selecionados biótipos resistentes ao herbicida. Diante disso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, por meio de curvas de dose-resposta, biótipos de leiteira com suspeita de resistência ao glyphosate. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação, em delineamento experimental completamente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 90, 180, 360, 720, 1.080, 1.440 e 2.160 g e.a. ha-1, aplicadas sobre cinco biótipos de leiteira, oriundos de lavouras de soja RR do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. As variáveis avaliadas foram controle e matéria seca da parte aérea. Os resultados evidenciam que os biótipos de leiteira avaliados são suscetíveis ao glyphosate.Wild poinsettia is an annual cycle weed, commonly found in soybean crop in southern Brazil. It is controlled by glyphosate in genetically- modified soybean (Roundup Ready® - RR. The control of this species has not proven to be satisfactory in some places in the last years, leading to the suspicion that biotypes resistant to glyphosate have been selected. The objective this work was to evaluate, by response-dose curve, wild poinsettia biotypes with suspected resistance to glyphosate. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions and the experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design, with four replications. The treatments consisted of increased application rates of glyphosate (0, 90, 180, 360, 720, 1,080, 1,440 and 2,160 g a.e. ha-1 on five wild poinsettia biotypes, from crop soybean RR in the state of Rio

  6. Lathyrol diterpenes as modulators of P-glycoprotein dependent multidrug resistance: structure-activity relationship studies on Euphorbia factor L3 derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Wei; Wan, Zhongmin; Chen, Shuang; Lu, Runhua; Chen, Xiaozhen; Fang, Dongmei; Wang, Jiufeng; Pu, Shengcai; Huang, Xin; Gao, Haixiang; Shao, Huawu

    2015-05-14

    Five series of 37 new acylate and epoxide derivatives (3-39) of Euphorbia factor L3, a lathyrol diterpene isolated from Euphorbia lathyris, were designed by modifying the hydroxyl moiety of C-3, C-5, or C-15. Chemoreversal effects of the acylates on multidrug resistance (MDR) were evaluated in breast cancer multidrug-resistant MCF-7/ADR cells that overexpress P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Eight derivatives exhibited greater chemoreversal ability than verapamil (VRP) against adriamycin (ADR) resistance. Compounds 19 and 25 exhibited 4.8 and 4.0 times, respectively, more effective reversal ability than VRP against ADR resistance. To determine the key characteristics of Euphorbia factor L3 derivatives that contribute to MDR reversal, we conducted a structure-activity relationship study of these compounds. The simulation studies indicated different possible mechanisms and revealed the important influence of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds in the flexible cavity of P-gp.

  7. Use of raw Euphorbia tirucalli extract for inhibition of ascitic Ehrlich tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Orlando José Dos; Sauaia Filho, Euler Nicolau; Nascimento, Flávia Raquel Fernandes do; Júnior, Francisco Cardoso Silva; Fialho, Eder Magalhães Silva; Santos, Rayan Haquim Pinheiro; Santos, Rennan Abud Pinheiro; Serra, Izabel Cristina Portela Bogéa

    2016-02-01

    to evaluate the effect of the Euphorbia tirucalli hydroalcoholic extract (ETHE) on the development of Ehrlich Tumor, in its ascitic form. we intraperitoneally inoculated 15 Swiss mice with 10.44 x 107 cells of Ehrlich Tumor and divided them in two groups one day after: ETHE Group (eight mice), treated with a dosage of 125 mg/kg/day of EHTE for five days; and Control Group (seven mice), treated only with 0.9% isotonic saline solution over the same period. The treatment was done by gavage. Ten days after inoculation, four mice from each group were sacrificed for quantification of tumor cell number, ascitic fluid volume and bone marrow cell number. The remaining animals were maintained to evaluate survival. The ascitic fluid volume and the tumor cell number were decreased in the ETHE group when compared with the control group, but with no statistical significance. On the other hand, survival was higher in the ETHE group, as well as the number of bone marrow cells. Treatment with ETHE after inoculation of Ehrlich Tumor decreases its development and increases survival and the bone marrow cellularity, thus reducing the myelosuppression present in the Ehrlich Tumor bearing mice.

  8. Minerals salt composition and secondary metabolites of Euphorbia hirta Linn., an antihyperglycemic plant

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    N′Guessan Bra Yvette Fofie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical study and research on acute toxicity were performed on the aerial parts (leaves and stems of Euphorbia hirta Linn. The phytochemical screening and chromatography revealed the presence of saponin, sterol, terpene, alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids and especially mucilage. The evaluation of total polyphenols and total flavonoids gave 120.97 ± 7.07 gallic acid equivalents (GAE mg/g (mg of GAE/g of extract of dry extract and 41.4 ± 0.5 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g (mg of QE/g of plant extract of dry extract respectively. The physicochemical study revealed moisture content of 7.73% ± 0.00%, total ash 7.48% ± 0.03%. Sulfuric ash 9.05% ± 0.01%, hydrochloric acid insoluble ash of 0.8% ± 0.02%. The search for minerals salt revealed the presence of Cr, Zn, K, Ca and Mg having an important role in glucose metabolism. The acute toxicity study showed that the toxic dose may be above 3000 mg/kg. The results of these studies indicate that extracts from the leaves and stem of E. hirta Linn. contains trace elements and minerals salt and bioactive secondary metabolites which explain their therapeutic uses for treating diabetes mellitus.

  9. Minerals salt composition and secondary metabolites of Euphorbia hirta Linn., an antihyperglycemic plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvette Fofie, N'Guessan Bra; Sanogo, Rokia; Coulibaly, Kiyinlma; Kone-Bamba, Diénéba

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemical study and research on acute toxicity were performed on the aerial parts (leaves and stems) of Euphorbia hirta Linn. The phytochemical screening and chromatography revealed the presence of saponin, sterol, terpene, alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids and especially mucilage. The evaluation of total polyphenols and total flavonoids gave 120.97 ± 7.07 gallic acid equivalents (GAE) mg/g (mg of GAE/g of extract) of dry extract and 41.4 ± 0.5 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g) (mg of QE/g of plant extract) of dry extract respectively. The physicochemical study revealed moisture content of 7.73% ± 0.00%, total ash 7.48% ± 0.03%. Sulfuric ash 9.05% ± 0.01%, hydrochloric acid insoluble ash of 0.8% ± 0.02%. The search for minerals salt revealed the presence of Cr, Zn, K, Ca and Mg having an important role in glucose metabolism. The acute toxicity study showed that the toxic dose may be above 3000 mg/kg. The results of these studies indicate that extracts from the leaves and stem of E. hirta Linn. contains trace elements and minerals salt and bioactive secondary metabolites which explain their therapeutic uses for treating diabetes mellitus.

  10. A new myrsinol-type diterpene polyester from Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Yang, Jing; Chi, Yu-Qian; Ouyang, Wen-Bin; Zang, Zhen; Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Cao, Pei; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    A new myrsinol-type diterpene polyester, 14-deoxo-3β-O-propinoyl-2α,5α,7β,15β-tetra-O-acetyl-14α-O-benzoyl-myrsinol (1), and its known analogue, 14-deoxo-3β-O-prorionyl-5α,15β-di-O-acetyl-7β-O-nicotinoyl-myrsinol-14β-acetate (2), together with a monoterpenoid, pubinernoid A (3), two indole alkaloids, neoechinulin A (4) and dihydroxyisoechinulin A (5), two benzene derivatives, siringin (6) and (3-methoxyphenyl) acetic acid (7), were isolated from the 70% acetone extract of the aerial parts of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and comparison with literature reports. The absolute configuration of 1 was deduced by comparing experimental and calculated ECD spectra. Among them, compounds 4 and 5 were first obtained from the plant source. In addition, the (13)C NMR data of compound 2 was reported for the first time.

  11. Comparison of the oxygen exchange between photosynthetic cell suspensions and detached leaves of Euphorbia characias L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrier, P.; Chagvardieff, P.; Tapie, P. (C.E.N. Cadarache, Saint-Paul lez Durance (France))

    1989-11-01

    Using a mass-spectrometric {sup 16}O{sub 2}/{sup 18}O{sub 2}-isotope technique, we compared the nature and the relative importance of oxygen exchange in photomixotrophic (PM) and photoautotrophic (PA) suspensions of Euphorbia characias L. with those in intact leaves of the same species. Young and mature leaves, dividing and nondividing cell suspensions were characterized in short-term experiments. On chlorophyll basis, the gross photosynthetic activities at CO{sub 2} saturating concentration of PA and PM suspensions varied little from those of leaves. On dry weight basis, gross photosynthesis of PA suspensions was equal to that of leaves because of their similar chlorophyll content. This was not the case in PM suspensions where gross photosynthesis was lower and largely varied during the growth cycle. The CO{sub 2} compensation point of PA cells was much higher than that of leaves. Oxygen uptakes were analyzed in terms of mitochondrial respiration, photorespiration and light stimulation of oxygen uptake (LSOU), often identified to Mehler-type reactions. In Pa and PM suspensions, mitochondrial respiration rates were higher than in leaves by a factor of 1.5 to 4.5. In PM suspensions, photorespiration and LSOU were observed only in nondividing cells. Photorespiration and LSOU rates were comparable in PA suspensions and leaves. Our results demonstrate that photorespiration of PA suspensions has not been affected by the 2% CO{sub 2} concentration imposed during 2 years of culture.

  12. Amelioration of nitrobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity by the ethanol extract of the herb Euphorbia hirta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Suganya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Euphorbia hirta (L. (Euphorbiaceae is a very popular herb amongst practitioners of traditional medicine and used in the treatment of female disorders, respiratory ailments, tumors, jaundice, digestive problems, wounds, etc. We aimed to evaluate the protective effect of E. hirta against nitrobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats. Materials and Methods: The nephroprotective activity of the ethanol extract of E. hirta (400 mg/kg body weight was studied in nitrobenzene-induced albino rats (1000 mg/kg body weight. The activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH, total thiols and vitamin C in the kidney tissues were determined. Histopathologic investigation was performed in the kidney tissue samples. Results: Nitrobenzene administration significantly (P < 0.01 enhanced the lipid peroxidation and significantly (P < 0.05 depleted the levels of SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GSH, total thiols and vitamin C. Treatment with the ethanol extract of E. hirta significantly normalized the antioxidant levels. The nephroprotective activity was also supported by histopathologic studies of kidney tissue. Conclusion: The results indicate that the ethanol extract of E. hirta ameliorates renal dysfunction and could be used as an effective protector against nitrobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity, primarily through its antioxidant capacity.

  13. Development of Diagnostic Microscopic and Chemical Markers of Some Euphorbia Latexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Uppuluri Venkata Mallavadhani; Kantamreddi Venkata Siva Satyanarayana; Anita Mahapatra; Akella Venkata Subrahmanya Sudhakar; Kilambi Narasimhan; Devendar Kumar Pandey; Manikkannan Thirunavokkarasu

    2006-01-01

    The latexes of the three Euphorbia species, namely E. antiquorum L., E. nerifolia L., and E. tirucalli L., are highly valued in the Indian system of medicine as purgatives, in addition to their specific and distinct therapeutic activities. In order to distinguish these latexes and develop their diagnostic microscopic and chemical markers, we performed extensive chemical and microscopic studies. The three latexes differ significantly in their microscopic features by exhibiting characteristic starch grain patterns. Although amoebic structures were found to be characteristic of E. antiquorum, dumb-bell and oval structures are characteristic of E. nerifolia and E. tirucalli, respectively. In addition, these latexes showed bone-shaped structures as a common feature, but these differed considerably in their length (10-60, 30-55, and 50-70 μm in length in E. antiquorum, E. nerifolia, and E. tirucalli, respectively). The chemical markers nerifoliene and euphol were found to be common to both E. antiquorum and E. nerifolia, whereas euphol is the only marker for E.tirucalli. A reverse-phase high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed to distinguish these three latexes and to generate their standard fingerprinting patterns. Most significantly,the markers nerifoliene and euphol could be resolved by RP-18 F254s precoated aluminium plates and the latexes have been quantitatively estimated with respect to these markers. The developed microscopic,chemical and HPTLC patterns can be used to distinguish the three latexes.

  14. Physiotypic Plasticity and Survival of Arido-active Euphorbia triaculeata (Euphorbiaceae in its Natural Habitat

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    Turki A. Al-Turki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Leafless stem succulent Euphorbia triaculeata Forssk. is abundant in arid regions southwest of the Arabian Peninsula. These regions are characterized by short wet season with erratic rainfall and long dry season with high temperature and high irradiance. Field observations indicated that the plant survives the long dry season and acquires a red stem colour under high irradiance and protracted drought. Our work aimed at investigating survival of this arido-active species in its natural habitat by studying diurnal and seasonal changes in stomatal conductance, cell sap acidity, and chlorophyll fluorescence. Results showed that E. triaculeata is obligate crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM plant. Under protracted drought, low stomatal conductance and dampening of CAM denoted a shift to CAM-idling. Observed stress-induced reduction of Photosystem II activity occurred in concomitance with increased non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence and increased anthocyanin content. These results reflected operation of a photoprotective mechanism involving interplay of non-photochemical energy dissipation via xanthophyll cycle and alleviation of oxidative stress by anthocyanin. It was concluded that E. triaculeata survives in its arid habitat by performing obligate CAM, shifting to CAM-idling under protracted drought, increasing non-photochemical excess energy dissipation, and accumulating anthocyanin pigment for its antioxidant attributes.

  15. Heavy metal content and localization in mycorrhizal Euphorbia cyparissias zinc wastes in southern Poland

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    Katarzyna Turnau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM development, heavy metal uptake by the plant and localization of heavy metals within plant and AM fungal structures, has been investigated in Euphorbia cyparissias collected from zinc wastes in Poland and from two other stands differing in soil parameters. The plant was selected on the basis of preliminary research on mycorrhiza of plants colonizing zinc wastes. E. cyparissias was strongly mycorrhizal and arbuscules were abundant except at the very beginning of the vegetation period. Light microscopy after rhodizoniate staining and SEM equiped with an EDS system have been used to localize heavy metals within the fungal mycelium and mycorrhizal roots. About 80% of the total intraradical mycelium show an increased content of heavy metals in comparison to the remaining 20% where heavy metals were under detection limit. At the same time the number of arbuscules formed by mycelium stained by rhodizoniate is slightly lower than in mycelium containing a low level of these elements. Using the rhodizoniate staining lead was found in epidermal cell walls, root hairs, in mycorrhizal mycelium and in crystaloids deposited within latex and inside cortical cells, around fungal hyphae. SEM observations with EDS system confirmed that these crystaloid depositions contained higher concentrations of Zn than root cell wall and fungal structures.

  16. Contribuição para o estudo da Euphorbia brasiliensis Lam

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    R. J. de Siqueira-Jaccoud

    1956-06-01

    Full Text Available O autor, após tecer rápidas considerações sôbre Phytomonas da planta em questão e do gênero Manihot, passa a dar: métodos por êle empregados na confecção da presente nota; sucinta descrição da Euphorbia brasiliensis Lam. e suas variedades; nomes vulgares por que é a mesma conhecida no Brasil; resultado negativo, por êle encontrado, nas pesquisas de alcalóide e, finalmente, descrição anatômica da fôlha e caule. Fôlha. a - limbo: epidermes com cutícula e estoma, uma camada de células paliçadicas, tecido lacunoso, ramificações dos tubos laticiferos e bainha dos feixes bem desenvolvida. b - nervura principal: epidermes com cutícula, uma camada de tecido paliçadico, bainha dos feixes em semicírculo, xilema, floema e parênquima. Caule - Epiderme com cutícula, colênquima, parênquima cortical, tubos laticíferos, esclerócitos, floema, câmbio e fibras do lenho (inclusive gelatinosas, vasos e, finalmente, parênquima fundamental.

  17. Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Study of Euphorbia hirta L. Methanol Extract in Rats

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    Kwan Yuet Ping

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite Euphorbia hirta L. ethnomedicinal benefits, very few studies have described the potential toxicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo toxicity of methanolic extracts of E. hirta. The acute and subchronic oral toxicity of E. hirta was evaluated in Sprague Dawley rats. The extract at a single dose of 5000 mg/kg did not produce treatment related signs of toxicity or mortality in any of the animals tested during the 14-day observation period. Therefore, the LD 50 of this plant was estimated to be more than 5000 mg/kg. In the repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study, the administration of 50 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg/day of E. hirta extract per body weight revealed no significant difference (P>0.05 in food and water consumptions, body weight change, haematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and gross findings compared to the control group. Macropathology and histopathology examinations of all organs including the liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Analyses of these results with the information of signs, behaviour, and health monitoring could lead to the conclusion that the long-term oral administration of E. hirta extract for 90 days does not cause sub-chronic toxicity.

  18. Acute and subchronic toxicity study of Euphorbia hirta L. methanol extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuet Ping, Kwan; Darah, Ibrahim; Chen, Yeng; Sreeramanan, Subramaniam; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2013-01-01

    Despite Euphorbia hirta L. ethnomedicinal benefits, very few studies have described the potential toxicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo toxicity of methanolic extracts of E. hirta. The acute and subchronic oral toxicity of E. hirta was evaluated in Sprague Dawley rats. The extract at a single dose of 5,000 mg/kg did not produce treatment related signs of toxicity or mortality in any of the animals tested during the 14-day observation period. Therefore, the LD 50 of this plant was estimated to be more than 5,000 mg/kg. In the repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study, the administration of 50 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 1,000 mg/kg/day of E. hirta extract per body weight revealed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in food and water consumptions, body weight change, haematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and gross findings compared to the control group. Macropathology and histopathology examinations of all organs including the liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Analyses of these results with the information of signs, behaviour, and health monitoring could lead to the conclusion that the long-term oral administration of E. hirta extract for 90 days does not cause sub-chronic toxicity.

  19. Three New Myrsinol Diterpenes from Euphorbia prolifera and Their Neuroprotective Activities

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    Yuanqiang Guo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Three new myrsinol diterpenes were isolated from the roots of Euphorbia prolifera. Their structures were elucidated as 2α-O-isobutyryl-3β,5α,7β,10,15β-penta-O-acetyl-14α-O-benzoyl-10,18-dihydromyrsinol (1, 2α-O-isobutyryl-3β-O-propion-yl-5α,7β,10,15β-tetra-O-acetyl-10,18-dihydromyrsinol (2, and 2α,14α-di-O-benzoyl-3β,5α,7β,10,15β-penta-O-acetyl-10,18-dihydromyrsinol (3 on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses (IR, ESI-MS, HR-ESI-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR. Their neuroprotective activities were evaluated and compounds 1 and 2 showed neuroprotective effects against MPP+-induced neuronal cell death in SH-SY5Y cells.

  20. Molluscicidal activity of compounds isolated from Euphorbia conspicua N. E. Br

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mata, Rosalina C.S. [Chemistry Department, Agostinho Neto University, Luanda (Angola); Mendonca, Dina I.M.D. de; Vieira, Liliana, E-mail: disabel@ubi.p [Textile and Paper Materials Center, University of Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal); Santos, Aldenir F. dos; Silva, Luciana A. da; Sant' Ana, Antonio E.G. [Chemistry Department, Federal University of Alagoas, Maceio, AL (Brazil); Gaspar, Jorge F.; Martins, Celia; Rueff, Jose [Department of Genetics , Faculty of Medical Sciences, New University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-09-15

    Euphorbia conspicua latex was fractionated into triterpenic and irritant fractions I and II. The triterpenic fraction afforded 15 known compounds and a new triterpene, 3{beta}-(E)- cinnamoyleuphorbol. 20-O-Acetyl-3-O-angeloylingenol was isolated from irritant fraction II. The compounds euphol, 3{beta}-acetoxyeupha-8,24-diene, 3{beta}-(E)-cinnamoyleuphorbol and 20-O-Acetyl- 3-O-angeloylingenol were evaluated for molluscicidal activity. 20-O-Acetyl-3-O-angeloylingenol presented LC100 value of 1 mg mL{sup -1}, equivalent to that of the standard molluscicide niclosamide. Compounds euphol, 3{beta}-acetoxyeupha-8,24-diene and 3{beta}-(E)-cinnamoyleuphorbol showed low molluscicidal activity. Mutagenic assays (Ames test with strains TA 98, 100 and 102) were performed with 3{beta}-(E)-cinnamoyleuphorbol in the presence and absence of metabolic activation (S9 mix). In V79 cells, the cytotoxicity of 3{beta}-(E)-cinnamoyleuphorbol was evaluated using the MTT assay and the genotoxicity was assessed using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) with or without S9 mix. Mutagenic or genotoxic activity was not detected, and no significant cytotoxicity was observed for 3{beta}-(E)-cinnamoyleuphorbol at lower doses. (author)

  1. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of a Lebanese plant Euphorbia macroclada schyzoceras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hussein Farhan; Hassan Rammal; Akram Hijazi; Ahmad Daher; Mohamad Reda; Hussein Annan; Ali Chokr; Ali Bassal; Bassam Badran

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To determine the chemical composition, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the crude extracts from leaves and stems of a Lebanese plant Euphorbia macroclada schyzoceras (E. macroclada), and to evaluate their antioxidant potential using DPPH, H2O2, and chelating of ferrous ions tests. Methods:Quantification of the total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the crude extracts from leaves and stems and the antioxidant activities were evaluated using spectrophotometric analyses. The chemical composition has been estimated using different techniques such as IR, LC/MS and NMR. Results:Ethanolic extract from leaves of E. macroclada was better than aqueous extract and showed higher content in total phenolic and total flavonoid than found in the stems. On the other hand, using DPPH and H2O2 tests, this extract from leaves showed higher antioxidant capacity than aqueous extract. However, using the chelating of ferrous ions test, the antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract of both stems and leaves was stronger than that of ethanolic once. The chemical composition of the whole plant showed the presence of some aromatic compounds and fatty acids. Conclusions:Both ethanolic and water extracts from both parts of this plant are effective and have good antioxidant power. So, this plant can be used in the prevention of a number of diseases related to oxidative stress.

  2. Population Dynamics and Life History of Euphorbia rosescens, a Perennial Herb Endemic to Florida Scrub.

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    Stacy A Smith

    Full Text Available Euphorbia rosescens is a recently described plant that is narrowly endemic to the Lake Wales Ridge. Little is known of the ecology or life history of this diminutive, deeply rooted polygamodioecious perennial. We studied 13 subpopulations of this species from 2004-2012 from five habitats, sampling monthly during its growing season. Subpopulations were stable year-to-year with annual survivals > 90%, but with considerable within-year dynamics, peaking in density in April and dying back in the fall and winter. Stem densities did not vary among subpopulations, habitats, or by subpopulation gender. Annual plant dormancy was common and decreased subsequent survival. Belowground biomass averaged almost 50 times higher than aboveground biomass. Subpopulations either consisted of entirely female individuals or a mixture of male and functionally andromonoecious individuals and these subpopulation genders remained stable across years. Overall, flowering has been dominated by female plants. Plants produced modest numbers of inflorescences (cyathia, and fruit production was very low. Although most plants survived fire by resprouting, fire decreased survival and had a short-term positive effect on floral production. Lack of fecundity and recruitment are concerns for this state-endangered species, but more information is needed on its breeding system and clonality to make specific management recommendations.

  3. Effect of Pseudomonas putida on Growth and Anthocyanin Pigment in Two Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Cultivars

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    Ramon Zulueta-Rodriguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas putida is plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR that have the capacity to improve growth in plants. The purpose of this study was to determine growth and anthocyanin pigmentation of the bracts in two poinsettia Euphorbia pulcherrima cultivars (Prestige and Sonora Marble using three strains of P. putida, as well as a mixture of the three (MIX. Comparison with the control group indicated for the most part that Prestige grew better than the Sonora Marble cultivars with the PGPR strains. Prestige with the MIX strain grew better compared to control for the number of cyathia (83 versus 70.4, volume of roots (45 versus 35 cm3, number of leaves (78 versus 58, and area of leaf (1,788 versus 1,331 cm2, except for the number of flowers (8.8 versus 11.6. To the naked eye, coloration of plants appeared identical in color compared to the control group. For all plants with P. putida strains, there was less anthocyanin pigment, but biomass was always greater with PGPR strains. Nevertheless, to the naked eye, the coloration of the plants appeared identical in color compared to the control group. This is the first study reporting the positive effects of P. putida rhizobacteria treatments on growth of poinsettia cultivars.

  4. Antioxidant activity and concentration of secondary metabolites in the plant parts of Euphorbia cyparissias L.

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    Stanković Milan S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a screening of nine different extracts from the plant parts (leaves, flowers and stems of Euphorbia cyparissias for total phenolic content, concentration of flavonoids and in vitro antioxidant activity. Main reason for this study is the determination of these parameters and their variability among plant parts and plant extracts obtained by different solvents, respectively. Obtained amounts for total phenolic content ranged from 10.76 to 40.72 mg GA/g. The concentration of flavonoids varied from 34.32 to 134.34 mg Ru/g. The IC50 values of antioxidant activity varied from 88.48 to 2891.08 μg/ml. Results obtained from the different plant parts were of uneven value. Great variability of the studied parameters was observed when comparing the effectiveness of the used solvents. The acetone extracts from stems contain the greatest concentrations of phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, and showed high antioxidant activity. According to our research, plant parts from E. cyparissias can be regarded as promising candidates for natural plant sources with high value of biological compounds.

  5. Effects of Euphorbia milii latex on mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation

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    I.F. Delgado

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The crude latex of "Crown-of-Thorns" (Euphorbia milii var hislopii, syn E.splendens is a potent plant molluscicide. For this reason, toxicological studies have been performed to evaluate the health risks posed by its use in schistosomiasis control programs. The present study is part of a more comprehensive immunotoxicological evaluation of this molluscicide. Here, we investigated the effects of E. milii latex on the proliferation of human lymphocytes in vitro. Lyophilized latex of E. milii (0, 0.5, 5, 25 and 50 µg/ml was incubated with whole blood in the presence of proliferation stimulators, i.e. lectins (phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A and pokeweed mitogen, as well as with human monoclonal antibody against CD3 and tetanus toxoid. Cell proliferation was measured by ³H-thymidine incorporation, and the effects of latex on mitogen-induced cell proliferation were compared to the effects of 10 ng/ml of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA. Results showed that mitogen-induced cell proliferation was markedly enhanced by E. milii latex. This synergistic effect of latex on mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation may be due to the presence of TPA-like phorbol esters and/or to mitogenic plant lectins.

  6. Phyto toxic effects of Euphorbia dracunculoides: a weed of rainfed chickpea-chickpea cropping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shance, S.; Tranveer, A.; Javaid, M. M.; Chaudhry, K. M.; Aziz, A.; Khaliq, A.; Chaudhry, M. N.; Pervez, M. A.; Awan, I. U.

    2011-07-01

    Phyto toxic effect occurs when plants release chemicals that inhibit neighbouring plants. Phyto toxic effects of aqueous extracts of different parts of Euphorbia dracunculoides L. (green spurge) at two concentrations, and its infested soil were investigated on germination and seedling growth of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The fruit extract at 1:20 (w/v) concentration caused maximum reduction (12%) in germination of chickpea seeds while leaf extract at 1:10 (w/v) concentration resulted in maximum mean germination time value and minimum germination index of chickpea seeds. All the traits of chickpea seedling growth including emergence were adversely affected by the aqueous extracts at both concentrations. Further, the inhibition of chickpea seedling growth was more pronounced with 1:10 (w/v) concentration whereas the lower concentration (1:20 w/v) showed stimulatory effect on shoot length, seedling vigor index and chlorophyll contents of chickpea seedlings. The leaf extract at 1:10 (w/v) concentration proved most harmful to seedling growth and chlorophyll contents (76% reduction) of chickpea. Soil beneath the E. dracunculoides plants significantly reduced emergence (23%), seedling vigor index (55%) and chlorophyll content (19%) of chickpea but a significant increase in N (6%), P (16%) and K (4%) contents of chickpea seedlings was recorded. Thus it can be concluded that E. dracunculoides contains compounds in its tissues which may cause phyto toxic effects on chickpea under field conditions. (Author) 31 refs.

  7. Genotoxicity of Euphorbia hirta: An Allium cepa Assay

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    Kwan Yuet Ping

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential genotoxic effects of methanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta which is commonly used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseased conditions including asthma, coughs, diarrhea and dysentery was investigated using Allium cepa assay. The extracts of 125, 250, 500 and 1,000 µg/mL were tested on root meristems of A. cepa. Ethylmethanesulfonate was used as positive control and distilled water was used as negative control. The result showed that mitotic index decreased as the concentrations of E. hirta extract increased. A dose-dependent increase of chromosome aberrations was also observed. Abnormalities scored were stickiness, c-mitosis, bridges and vagrant chromosomes. Micronucleated cells were also observed at interphase. Result of this study confirmed that the methanol extracts of E. hirta exerted significant genotoxic and mitodepressive effects at 1,000 µg/mL.

  8. A review on phyto‑pharmacological potentials of Euphorbia thymifolia L.

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    Prashant Y Mali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia thymifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae is a small branched, hispidly pubescent, prostate annual herb, commonly known as laghududhika or choti-dudhi. The leaves, seeds and fresh juice of whole plant are used in worm infections, as stimulant, astringent. It is also used in bowel complaints and in many more diseases therapeutically. The present work is an extensive review of published literature concerning phytochemical and pharmacological potential of E. thymifolia. Data was searched and designed using various review modalities manually and using electronic search engines with reference to all aspects of E. thymifolia and was arranged chronologically. Complete information of the plant has been collected from the various books and journals since the last 32 years, internet databases, etc., were searched. Compiled data reflects the safety and therapeutic efficacy of the plant. This will be helpful for researchers to focus on the priority areas of research yet to be explored and in scientific use of the plant for its wide variety of traditional therapeutic claims and also as to find out new chemical entities responsible for its claimed traditional activities.

  9. Two new diterpene derivatives from Euphorbia lunulata Bge and their anti-proliferative activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Liao, Zhi-xin; Liu, Shi-jun; Qu, Yan-bo; Wang, Heng-shan

    2014-07-01

    A new ent-abietane-type diterpene lactone (1) and a new jatrophane-type diterpenoid (2), together with twelve known compounds including three diterpenes (3-5), five triterpenes (6-10) and four sterides (11-14) were isolated from the ethanol extract of the whole plant of Euphorbia lunulata Bge. The structure of compounds 1 and 2 was elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectra and the HR-ESI-MS data. The structure of compound 2 was further analyzed by an X-ray crystallographic study. The in vitro anti-proliferative activities against MCF-7 and NCI-H460 cell lines for compounds 1-5 (diterpene) were evaluated. The results showed marked activity for compound 1 against the two cell lines with the IC50 values 19.5 (NCI-H460) and 18.6 (MCF-7) μM, while for cis-platinum (a positive cytotoxic control agent) 29.7 (NCI-H460) and 27.7 (MCF-7) μM. Compounds 2-5 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activities for the two cell lines with the IC50 values ranging from 32.1 to 58.2 μM.

  10. Evaluation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of Euphorbia heyneana Spreng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ganga Rao Battu; Sambasiva Rao Ethadi; Veda Priya G; Swathi Priya K; Chandrika K; Venkateswara Rao A; Satya Obbala Reddy

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To assess the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the alcoholic extract of Euphorbia heyneana (E. heyneana) in carrageenan induced inflammation in rats. Methods:In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated for superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Three doses 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg were tested for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced rat paw oedema model and paw thickness was measured every one hour up to 6 hours. Results:The alcoholic extract of E. heyneana produced dose dependent inhibition of superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and DPPH radicals. In carrageenan induced inflammation model, all three doses produced significant percentage inhibition of rat paw oedema and 800 mg/kg dose produced maximum percent inhibition of rat paw oedema (47.06%) among the three doses compared to control group. Conclusions:It can be concluded that alcoholic extract of E. heyneana shows good in vitro antioxidant and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activities in rats.

  11. Mass spectrometric determination of the inorganic carbon species assimilated by photoautotrophic cells of Euphorbia characias L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebeille, F; Gans, P; Chagvardieff, P; Pean, M; Tapie, P; Thibault, P

    1988-09-05

    The chemical forms of inorganic carbon, CO2 or HCO3-, incorporated during photosynthesis in photoautotrophic Euphorbia characias cell suspension cultures were determined in experiments using 13CO2 and a mass spectrometry technique. From the equations of the CO2 hydration reaction, a kinetic model was first developed, and the effect of photosynthesis on the external CO2 concentration was simulated. It was predicted from this model that CO2 and HCO3- uptakes could be differentiated by recording only the CO2 variation rate in the external medium, successively in absence then in presence of an exogenous carbonic anhydrase activity. The results obtained with either CO2-grown or air-grown photoautotrophic cells were in good agreement with the model and demonstrated that CO2 was the sole species taken up during photosynthesis. In addition no accumulation of inorganic carbon within the cells was observed in the light. Similarly, in dark, CO2 was the only species released by respiration in the external medium.

  12. Euphorbia characias latex: micromorphology of rubber particles and rubber transferase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanò, Delia; Pintus, Francesca; Esposito, Francesca; Loche, Danilo; Floris, Giovanni; Medda, Rosaria

    2015-02-01

    We have recently characterized a natural rubber in the latex of Euphorbia characias. Following that study, we here investigated the rubber particles and rubber transferase in that Mediterranean shrub. Rubber particles, observed by scanning electron microscopy, are spherical in shape with diameter ranging from 0.02 to 1.2 μm. Washed rubber particles exhibit rubber transferase activity with a rate of radiolabeled [(14)C]IPP incorporation of 4.5 pmol min(-1)mg(-1). Denaturing electrophoresis profile of washed rubber particles reveals a single protein band of 37 kDa that is recognized in western blot analysis by antibodies raised against the synthetic peptide whose sequence, DVVIRTSGETRLSNF, is included in one of the five regions conserved among cis-prenyl chain elongation enzymes. The cDNA nucleotide sequence of E. characias rubber transferase (GenBank JX564541) and the deduced amino acid sequence appear to be highly homologous to the sequence of several plant cis-prenyltransferases.

  13. Genetics, realized heritability and preliminary mechanism of spinosad resistance in Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae): an invasive pest from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Abbas, Naeem

    2015-12-01

    The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) has gained recognition as a key pest due to its invasive nature throughout the world. The P. solenopsis has a wide range of host plants and damages the cotton crop in various parts of the world. In view of the economic importance of this pest, a study on selection, inheritance and mechanism of spinosad resistance was conducted on P. solenopsis. Selection of field collected P. solenopsis for seven generations with spinosad resulted in a high resistance ratio of 282.45-fold. Genetic studies of spinosad resistance in P. solenopsis indicated that maternal effects are not involved in spinosad resistance; and resistance development is an autosomal and incompletely dominant trait. The number of genes involved in spinosad resistance was determined to be more than one, suggesting that resistance is controlled by multiple loci. The realized heritability (h (2)) value for spinosad resistance was 0.94. Synergism bioassays of spinosad with piperonyl butoxide and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate showed that spinosad resistance in P. solenopsis could be due to esterase only. The study provides the basic information for implementation of effective resistance management strategies to control P. solenopsis.

  14. Characterization of Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) Resistance to Emamectin Benzoate: Cross-Resistance Patterns and Fitness Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, M B S; Shad, S A

    2016-06-01

    Cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a sucking pest of worldwide importance causing huge losses by feeding upon cotton in various parts of the world. Because of the importance of this pest, this research was carried out to select emamectin resistance in P. solenopsis in the laboratory to study cross-resistance, stability, realized heritability, and fitness cost of emamectin resistance. After selection from third generation (G3) to G6, P. solenopsis developed very high emamectin resistance (159.24-fold) when compared to a susceptible unselected population (Unsel pop). Population selected to emamectin benzoate conferred moderate (45.81-fold), low (14.06-fold), and no cross-resistance with abamectin, cypermethrin, and profenofos, respectively compared to the Unsel pop. A significant decline in emamectin resistance was observed in the resistant population when not exposed to emamectin from G7 to G13. The estimated realized heritability (h (2)) for emamectin resistance was 0.84. A high fitness cost was associated with emamectin resistance in P. solenopsis. Results of this study may be helpful in devising insecticide resistance management strategies for P. solenopsis.

  15. Inheritance, realized heritability and biochemical mechanism of acetamiprid resistance in the cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad; Abbas, Naeem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali

    2015-07-01

    The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a serious pest in many countries of the world because of its polyphagous nature and has caused huge losses to the cotton crop. The aim of present study was to explore the mode of inheritance and mechanism of acetamiprid resistance in P. solenopsis. After five rounds of selection with acetamiprid, P. solenopsis developed a 315-fold resistance compared with the laboratory susceptible population. The LC50 values of progenies of both reciprocal crosses (F1 and F1') showed no significant difference and degree of dominance values were 0.56 and 0.93 for F1 and F1', respectively. Monogenic model of inheritance and Lande's method revealed that more than one factors were involved in acetamiprid resistance. Realized heritability (h(2)) value was 0.58 for acetamiprid resistance. A synergism study of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF) with acetamiprid also showed the significant presence of P-450 mono-oxygenase and esterase in the acetamiprid resistance. Hence, acetamiprid resistance in the P. solenopsis was autosomal, incompletely dominant and polygenic. These results are a source of basic information to design and plan fruitful management programmes to control P. solenopsis.

  16. Influences of Soil Fertility on Spatial Patterns of Aphis Gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae Occurred in Bt-cotton Plants

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    Zhi-Qiang Tan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With the widespread planting of bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt-cotton, non-target piercing-sucking insects such as Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae have become the main hazard of cotton. Fertilization influences the distribution and population dynamics of aphid seriously. In this study, the effects of Nitrogen (N and Phosphorus (P on aphid population density were investigated on Bt-cotton; the combinational impacts of nitrogen and potassium (K fertilizers on the distribution of aphid were examined as to guide rational fertilization to reduce pests and environmental pollution. Aphid density in cotton plants fertilized with 72 kg/ha N (84.2±22.7 aphids/plant was significantly higher than fertilized with 0 and 108 kg/ha N (36.7±4.0 and 47.8±18.7 aphids/plant. Compared to cotton plants treated with 23 and 69 kg/ha P, aphid density was higher (61.67±21.08 aphids/plant in cotton plants treated with 46 kg/ha P. Comparison of spatial distribution of aphid population showed that aphid preferred to suck the sap of bottom fruit branches in cotton plants treated by single K fertilizer and combinational fertilizers of N and K. Thus, these results suggested that proper application of fertilizers should be beneficial to controlling phytophagous insects in Bt-cotton production.

  17. Effects of Tagetes patula Mixed Planted with Rosa chinensis on Macrosiphum rosirvorum Zhang%孔雀草与月季混栽对月季长管蚜的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯丹; 杨斌

    2011-01-01

    研究了孔雀草与月季混栽后对月季长管蚜的影响.结果表明,月季与孔雀草混栽对蚜虫控制作用明显,与未混栽的月季相比,混栽组月季长管蚜种群数量减少55.90%~77.27%.嗅觉行为试验显示,混栽后月季叶片有32%~45%蚜虫选择,未混栽的有55%~65%选择,显然,通过孔雀草的化感作用,月季叶片挥发性成分改变,时月季长管蚜引诱能力降低:嗅觉行为试验还显示,孔雀草散发的气味物质对月季长管蚜寄主选择有明显干扰或者掩盖作用,孔雀草与月季叶片混合后,月季长管蚜选择混合气味的最高比例为36.16%,最低比例仅为20.00%.而选择纯月季叶片的比例最高可迭80.03%,最低也达到63.84%.%The influence of mixed planting of Rosa chinensis (Hotpink) and Tagetes patula on Macrosiphum rosirvorum Zhang was investigated. It was confirmed that Hotpink planted with T. patula could obviously control the number of M. rosirvorum.The population of M. rosirvorum on mixed planted Hotpink group reduced by 55.90%~77.27% compared with the sole planted Hotpink. Olfactory test showed that the leaves of the Hotpink mixed planted with T. patula were selected by 32%~45% aphids; while the sole planted Hotpink were selected by 55%~65% aphids. Obviously, interaction of Hotpink and T. patula via allelopathy could change the volatile of Hotpink and lower its attraction to M. rosirvorum. The olfactory test also indicated that the odor substances came from T. patula had conspicuously interferential or masking effects on host selection of M.rosirvorum. After the mixing of T. patula and Hotpink leaves. the proportion that the mixed leaves were selected by M.rosirvorum was 20.00%~36.16%. Meanwhile, the proportion that sole planted Hotpink leaves were selected bv M. rosirvorumwas as high as 63.84%~80.03%.

  18. 异源植物提取物对稻蚜的作用研究%Effect of crude of different origin extracts from plants on rice aphid Macrosiphum avenae (Fabricius)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨朗; 陈恩海; 黄立飞; 覃伟权; 方月兰

    2007-01-01

    Plant extracts including secondary compounds have become more and more popular at present. In the experiment, the repellent, tempted and lethal effect and toxicity of the plant extracts on Macrosiphum avenae (Fabricius) were studied in laboratory. The results showed that the repellent effects of Annona squamosa L., Cocos nucifer L. and Eupatorium odoratum L. on the settlement and feeding of rice aphid were high in 24 hours after treatment and the repellent index of the three plant extracts was under 0.5. The repellent index of Manilkara zapota (L.) van Royen, Psidium littorale Raddi, Mikania Micrantha H.B, Mangifera indica L., Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels and Didhrocephala bicolor (Roth) Schlcht.in L. was above 1.0, which illuminated these plant extracts with tempting function on rice aphid. Moreover, the lethal effects of most of plant extracts on rice aphid were weak and only the survival index of Passiflora caerulea L. and Piper betle L. was lower than 0.5 after 24 hours, and just that of Piper betle L. was lower than 0.5 after 48 hours. With the prolongation of time, the survival index rice aphid decreased and the lethal effects of plant extracts was weakened.%植物异源次生物质在害虫生态控制中具有广阔的应用前景.本研究测定了19种异源植物提取物对稻蚜的忌避、引诱作用和致死作用,结果表明:处理24h 后,番荔枝Annona squamosa L.、椰子Cocos nucifer L.、飞机草Eupatorium odoratum L.等植物的提取物对稻蚜定居取食的干扰效果较好,忌避作用指数在0.5以下;人心果Manilkara zapota (L.) van Royen、番石榴Psidium littorale Raddi、微苷菊Mikania Micrantha H.B、芒果Mangifera indica L.、黄皮Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels、鱼眼菊Didhrocephala bicolor (Roth) Schlcht.in L.等的忌避作用指数大于1,说明它们对稻蚜不再表现为忌避作用,而是引诱作用.绝大部分植物提取物对稻蚜的致死作用不强,处理后24h,仅西番莲Passiflora caerulea L

  19. Delphastus catalinae and Coleomegilla maculata lengi (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) as biological control agents of the greenhouse whitefly, trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Eric; Labrecque, Claude; Coderre, Daniel

    2004-11-01

    Predation efficacy and compatibility of the predatory lady beetles Coleomegilla maculata lengi Timberlake and Delphastus catalinae (Horn) against the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) were studied in laboratory on glabrous fuchsia (Fuchsia hybrida Voss cv Lena Corolla) and pubescent poinsettia plants (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd ex Klotzch cv Dark Red Annette Hegg). On glabrous plants (fuchsia), fourth-instar and adults of C maculata were the most efficient, both against whitefly eggs and pupae. On pubescent plants (poinsettia), the larger stages of C maculata were negatively affected and less efficient than adults of D catalinae. The presence of plant structure did not affect the voracity of either predator species. Finally, the simultaneous use of both predator species generated inter-specific competition. These results provide recommendations for biological control of whitefly in horticultural greenhouses.

  20. Fluctuación de carbohidratos durante el desarrollo de nochebuena (Euphorbia pulcherrima willd) en dos localidades

    OpenAIRE

    María Teresa Colinas León; Irán Alia Tejacal; Cecilio Bautista Bañuelos; Luis Alonso Valdéz Aguilar

    2006-01-01

    Se evaluaron carbohidratos totales solubles, reductores y almidón en hojas de dos estratos de la planta (superior e inferior), en tres cultivares de Nochebuena (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd): ‘Freedom marble’, ‘Supjibi’ y ‘Gutbier V-17 Angelika’, en plantas desarrolladas en Cuautla, Morelos y Texcoco, Estado de México; en Texcoco se aplicaron noches artificiales largas para la inducción floral. Se hicieron muestreos a los 84, 114, 140 y 155 d después del trasplante. En Cuautla la concentración...

  1. Evaluation of the molluscicidal property of Euphorbia splendens var. Hispolii (N.E.B. (Euphorbiaceae: 2. Investigation in lotic habitat

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    D. F. Baptista

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hispolii in 12 ppm concentration (12 mg/l caused 100% mortality for a Biomphalaria tenagophila population in a lotic habitat after 9 hr of dripfeed application. For sentinel snails, in cages placed at the water surface and buried under 0.10 m, the mortality rates varied with the distance from the application point and were: 100% (0 m; 92.6% (50 m and 94.7% (100. No lethal effects were observed for the other living species in this habitat (Pomacea haustrum and Poecilia reticulata.

  2. The candelabra tree (Euphorbia ingens: a source of water for black rhinoceros in Liwonde National Park, Malawi

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    C.O. Dudley

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of two rhinoceros into a 15 km2 fenced sanctuary within Liwonde National Park provided an opportunity for close observation of the animals feeding on the toxic succulent Euphorbia ingens. Feeding invariably caused the death of the plant and for plants with basal diameters between 5-17 cm, mortality ranged from 40-90 . During the severe drought of 1994 rhinoceros did not drink from the artificial waterhole from approximately 15 July to at least 23 September. As this waterhole was the only source of free water it is believed that the rhinoceros obtained their water from browsing on E. ingens.

  3. Euphorbia helioscopia Linn as a green source for synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their optical and catalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Sajadi, S Mohammad; Babaei, Ferydon; Maham, Mehdi

    2015-07-15

    During this study, we report the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using Euphorbia helioscopia Linn leaf extract for the synthesis of propargylamines. Also, the structural and optical properties are studied. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterized by TEM, XRD, FT-IR and UV-visible techniques. UV-visible studies show an absorption band at 440 nm due to surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the silver nanoparticles. Furthermore, the catalyst exhibits high catalytic activity, superior cycling stability and excellent substrate applicability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumor, and cytotoxic activities of an important medicinal plant (Euphorbia royleana from Pakistan

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    Aisha Ashraf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to evaluate antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antitumor activities of methanol, hexane, and aqueous extracts of fresh Euphorbia royleana. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated as gallic acid and querectin equivalents, respectively. Antioxidant activity was assessed by scavenging of free 2,2′- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals and reduction of ferric ions, and it was observed that inhibition values increase linearly with increase in concentration of extract. The results of ferric reducing antioxidant power assay showed that hexane extract has maximum ferric reducing power (12.70 ± 0.49 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of plant extract. Maximum phenolic (47.47 ± 0.71 μg gallic acid equivalents/mg of plant extract and flavonoid (63.68 ± 0.43 μg querectin equivalents/mg of plant extract contents were also found in the hexane extract. Furthermore, we examined antimicrobial activity of the three extracts (methanol, hexane, aqueous against a panel of microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtillis, Pasteurella multocida, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium solani by disc-diffusion assay, and found the hexane extract to be the best antimicrobial agent. Hexane extract was also observed as to be most effective in a potato disc assay. As hexane extract showed potent activity in all the investigated assays, it was targeted for cytotoxic assessment. Maximum cytotoxicity (61.66% by hexane extract was found at 800 μg/mL. It is concluded that investigated extracts have potential for isolation of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds for the pharmaceutical industry.

  5. Short-term disruption of a leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) biocontrol program following herbicide application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, D.L.; Grace, J.B.; Rabie, P.A.; Andersen, P.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) for invasive plant species is being advocated by researchers and implemented by land managers, but few studies have evaluated the success of IPM programs in natural areas. We assessed the relative effects of components of an IPM program for leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula), an invasive plant, at Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota. Effects of herbicides on leafy spurge abundance and on dynamics of flea beetles (Aphthona spp.) used to control leafy spurge were evaluated over three field seasons following herbicide application. We monitored leafy spurge-infested plots with established flea beetle populations that had received picloram plus 2,4-D in September 1997 or 1998, imazapic in September 1998, versus those with no chemical treatment. Mature stem counts did not differ significantly between treated and untreated plots in 2001, suggesting that leafy spurge stands had recovered from herbicide treatment. Flea beetles were less abundant on plots with a history of herbicide treatment. Structural equation models indicated that in 2000 negative correlations between relative abundances of the two flea beetle species were greater on plots that had received herbicide treatments than on those that had not, but by 2001 no differences were apparent between treated and untreated plots. These results suggest that the most effective component of IPM for leafy spurge at this site is biological control. All herbicide effects we observed were short-lived, but the increased negative correlation between flea beetle relative abundances during 2000 implies that herbicide application may have temporarily disrupted an effective biological control program at this site. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Overexpression of the AtSHI gene in poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima, results in compact plants.

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    M Ashraful Islam

    Full Text Available Euphorbia pulcherrima, poinsettia, is a non-food and non-feed vegetatively propagated ornamental plant. Appropriate plant height is one of the most important traits in poinsettia production and is commonly achieved by application of chemical growth retardants. To produce compact poinsettia plants with desirable height and reduce the utilization of growth retardants, the Arabidopsis SHORT INTERNODE (AtSHI gene controlled by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was introduced into poinsettia by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Three independent transgenic lines were produced and stable integration of transgene was verified by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Reduced plant height (21-52% and internode lengths (31-49% were obtained in the transgenic lines compared to control plants. This correlates positively with the AtSHI transcript levels, with the highest levels in the most dwarfed transgenic line (TL1. The indole-3-acetic acid (IAA content appeared lower (11-31% reduction in the transgenic lines compared to the wild type (WT controls, with the lowest level (31% reduction in TL1. Total internode numbers, bract numbers and bract area were significantly reduced in all transgenic lines in comparison with the WT controls. Only TL1 showed significantly lower plant diameter, total leaf area and total dry weight, whereas none of the AtSHI expressing lines showed altered timing of flower initiation, cyathia abscission or bract necrosis. This study demonstrated that introduction of the AtSHI gene into poinsettia by genetic engineering can be an effective approach in controlling plant height without negatively affecting flowering time. This can help to reduce or avoid the use of toxic growth retardants of environmental and human health concern. This is the first report that AtSHI gene was overexpressed in poinsettia and transgenic poinsettia plants with compact growth were produced.

  7. Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Euphorbia wallichii Root Extract and its Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Haq, Ihsan; Ullah, Nazif; Bibi, Gulnaz; Kanwal, Simab; Sheeraz Ahmad, Muhammad; Mirza, Bushra

    2012-01-01

    Euphorbia wallichii a perennial herb growing mainly in Himalayas has been widely used in folk medicines for its medicinal properties. In the present study, the crude methanolic root extract (CME) and its fractions; n-Hexane Fraction (NHF), n-Butanol Fraction (NBF), Chloroform Fraction (CHF), Ethyl acetate Fraction (EAF) and Aqueous Fraction (AQF) of this plant specie were investigated for antioxidant and cytotoxic activities and phytochemical analysis. Antioxidant activity was determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) and DNA protection assay performed on pBR322 plasmid DNA. In both these assays, promising results were obtained for CME as well as other fractions. The IC50 values for DPPH assay were in a range of 7.89 to 63.35 μg/ml in which EAF showed the best anti-oxidant potential and almost all the tested samples showed certain level of DNA protection. The cytotoxic activity was assessed by using Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay on human cell lines; H157 (Lung Carcinoma) and HT144 (Malignant Melanoma). The IC50 values of the tested samples ranged from 0.18 to 1.4 mg/mL against H157 cell line whereas against HT144 cell line the IC50 values ranged from 0.46 to 17.88 mg/mL with NBF fraction showing maximum potential for both. Furthermore, the phytochemical analysis of CME and its fractions showed the presences of flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoides and cardiac glycosides with varying concentrations.

  8. Cytotoxic activities of Euphorbia kopetdaghi against OVCAR-3 and EJ-138 cell lines

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    Aghaei Mahmoud

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over the centuries, the genus Euphorbia was known to be toxic to humans and animals. Recently, in a primary study significant suppressive activity against phytohemagglutinin activated T-cell proliferation has been reported from this plant. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of different parts of E. kopetdaghi against cancer cell lines. Methods: Filtration and in vacuo concentration resulted in a green gum which was subjected on silica gel CC (hexane/Acetone, 0→50 to several fractions: F1-F8. The inhibitory effects of obtained fractions with 5, 50, and 500 μg/ml concentrations were evaluated on proliferation and viability of cancer cells (OVCAR and EJ-138 in 48 hours treatment. Finally, cell viability was determined at a wavelength of 570 by 3-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT method. Results: Based on studies of microscopic observation and viability testing, F1, F2, F4, F5, F6, and F7 showed significant cytotoxic effect at concentration of 50 and 500 μg/ml against EJ-138 and OVCAR-3 cell lines. These fractions inhibited growth of EJ-138 and OVCAR-3 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Fraction of F8 induced tumor promotion significantly in EJ-138 and OVCAR-3 cells, respectively. Conclusion: Due to the inhibitory properties of E. kopetdaghi extract and its fractions on cancer cells of OVCAR3 and EJ-13, isolation, purification and identification of compounds presented in the fractions possessing cytotoxic effects are recommended which were the area of our future research.

  9. Euphorbia hirta accelerates fibroblast proliferation and Smad-mediated collagen production in rat excision wound

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    Aadesh Upadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae is a traditional herbal medicine used for treatment of various diseases. Objective: E. hirta was investigated for in vitro/in vivo wound healing activity using human dermal fibroblast cell line and Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water successive extracts of E. hirta leaves were evaluated for antioxidant, antimicrobial and fibroblast proliferation activities. Among different extracts, the promising methanol extract was screened for wound healing activity in Wistar rats, using gentamicin sulfate (0.01% w/w as a reference. Wound contraction, hydroxyproline content and the protein expression of COL3A1, bFGF, Smad-2,-3,-4 and -7 were measured. Results: The E. hirta methanol extract showed a potent antimicrobial (MIC 0.250 mg/ml against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, both, antioxidant activities (IC 50 = 10.57 μg/ml , 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; 850.23 μg/ml , superoxide-anion radical scavenging activity and 23.63 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram extract with significant fibroblast proliferating activity (112% at 12.5 μg/ml as compared to other extracts. In vivo study also supported the wound healing potential of methanol extract, as evidenced by faster wound contraction, higher hydroxyproline (4.240 mg/100 mg tissue and improved histopathology of granulation tissue as compared to control groups and gentamicin sulfate-treated ones. Western blot also revealed a significantly altered expression of Smad-mediated proteins resulting in collagen production. Conclusion: The study suggested that E. hirta accelerates the wound healing by augmenting the fibroblast proliferation and Smad-mediated collagen production in wound tissue.

  10. Resistence of Euphorbia Heterophylla L. to ALS-inhibiting herbicides in soybean

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    Gelmini Gerson Augusto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides are widely used in soybean for weed control, and the selection pressure attributed to the repeated use of herbicides with similar modes of action on the same site has caused selection for resistant biotypes within and among previously susceptible species, such as Euphorbia heterophylla L., in relation to ALS enzyme inhibitors, in the states of Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, and São Paulo, Brazil. Seeds of E. heterophylla were collected to examine possible new cases of resistant populations and to test alternative herbicide treatments to manage these populations, in the Caarapó region, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in areas where plants of this species have survived continuous herbicide applications. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions, where biotypes with a history of suspected resistance were compared with a known susceptible biotype. Several post-emergence herbicides were sprayed at zero, one, two, four, and eight times the recommended field application rates. Twenty days after application, plants were harvested, and control percentage and fresh weight were determined to establish dose-response curves, in the aim to obtain the resistance factor using CD50 and RD50 data. The chlorimuron-ethyl resistance factor values for the control percentage and fresh weight parameters were higher than 16.5 and 16.9, respectively, while imazethapyr showed resistance factors higher than 25.0 and 23.5, respectively. The resistant biotype showed different resistance levels to chlorimuron-ethyl and imazethapyr, showing cross-resistance to the sulfonylurea and imidazolinone groups. Nevertheless, this biotype was effectively controlled by fomesafen (250 g ha-1, lactofen (120 g ha-1, flumiclorac-pentyl (40 g ha-1, glufosinate-ammonium (150 g ha-1, and glyphosate (360 g ha-1.

  11. Consequences of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), invasion on pollination of Euphorbia characias (L.) (Euphorbiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancafort, Xavier; Gómez, Crisanto

    2005-07-01

    We have studied the influence of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, on the pollination of Euphorbia characias, a deciduous insect-pollinated shrub. The observations were made in two adjacent areas (invaded and non-invaded by L. humile) in a Mediterranean cork-oak forest. In the invaded area, L. humile has replaced most of the native ants that climb up this plant's inflorescences. Five native ant species were detected in the non-invaded areas and only one in the invaded area. The number of visitors to infested inflorescences (1.54 ± 1.86 visitors/10 min observation) was lower than in non-infested inflorescences in the invaded area (3.74 ± 4.19 visitors/10'), and in the non-invaded areas (4.16 ± 5.00 visits/10'). For several species of flower-visiting insects, no differences were detected between the time spent in the flowers and the number of flowers visited in the two areas, except for Eristalis tenax, a dipteran which visited more flowers (15.2 ± 11.1 flowers visited/10') and spent more time (9.4 ± 5.8 sec) in the non-invaded area than in the invaded area (7.8 ± 8.2 flowers visited/10' and 5.3 ± 2.1 sec, respectively). The relative representation of insect orders in the two areas was not different. A significant reduction in fruit-set and seed-set was detected in the invaded area. These results suggest that the Argentine ant may greatly affect the reproductive success of components of the Mediterranean flora.

  12. Eutirucallin, a RIP-2 type lectin from the latex of Euphorbia tirucalli L. presents proinflammatory properties.

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    Sanzio Silva Santana

    Full Text Available Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins that recognize and modulate physiological activities and have been used as a toll for detection and identification of biomolecules, and therapy of diseases. In this study we have isolated a lectin present in the latex of Euphorbia tirucalli, and named it Eutirucallin. The latex protein extract was subjected to ion exchange chromatography and showed two peaks with haemagglutinating activity. Polypeptides of 32 kDa protein extract strongly interacted with immobilized galactose (α-lactose > D-N-acetylgalactosamine. The Eutirucallin was obtained with a yield of 5.6% using the α-lactose column. The lectin domain has 32 kDa subunits and at least two of which are joined by disulfide bridges. The agglutinating capacity for human erythrocytes A(+, B(+ and O(+ is inhibited by D-galactose. The haemagglutinating activity of Eutirucallin was independent of Ca(2+ and maintained until the temperature of 55°C. Eutirucallin presented biological activities such as neutrophils recruitment and cytokine prodution by macrophages. The analysis of the trypsin-digested Eutirucallin by ms/ms in ESI-Q-TOFF resulted in nine peptides similar to type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein (type-2 RIP. It's partial sequence showed a similarity of 67.4 - 83.1% for the lectin domain of type-2 RIP [Ricin and Abrin (83.1%, Viscumin, Ebulin, Pulchellin, Cinnamomin, Volkensin and type-2 RIP Iris hollandica]. Our data suggest that Eutirucallin is a new member of type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein and presents biotechnological potential.

  13. Morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of biofuel plant Euphorbia lathyris to salt stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jie; Cao, Yan; Yang, Ziyi; Lu, Changmei [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal Univ., Nanjing (China)], E-mail: 08134@njnu.edu.cn); Zhang, Weiming; Sun, Lijun [Nanjing Inst. for the Comprehensive Utilization of Wild plants, Nanjing (China)

    2013-05-15

    Saline lands are characterized by salinity and nutrient deficiency and there is an ever increasing need for economical, adaptable plant species to rejuvenate these lands. In this study, we determined the suitability and tolerance of Euphorbia lathyris L. (Caper spurge), a well-known biofuel plant, as a sustainable candidate to colonize saline lands. We investigated the germination rate, seedling growth, solute change and anti-oxidative enzyme activities etc. under salt stress conditions. Our results showed that Caper spurge seeds prefer to germinate under nonsaline environments and high salt stress induced temporary dormancy during germination, but did not completely hamper the viability of the seeds. The seedling biomass increased without any visible distress symptoms in the presence of NaCl not over 171 mM. Further increase in NaCl concentration had a negative impact on the seedling growth. These demonstrate that Caper spurge seedlings have the potential to grow in saline lands. The salinity tolerance of Caper spurge seedlings was closely associated with the regional distribution of Na{sup + }in roots, stable absorption of Ca{sup 2{sup +,}} K{sup + }and Mg{sup 2{sup +,}} accumulation of organic solutes, and increased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes. However, excessive accumulation of Na{sup +,} sharp increase of superoxide (O{sub 2}), H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, malonaldehyde (MDA) and cell membrane leakage, reduction of osmoprotectants, and decreased activities of CAT and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) etc. under high salinity might be the reasons for the restrained seedling growth.

  14. Aspectos biológicos de Coccidophilus citricola (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae sobre Aspidiotus nerii e Chrysomphalus aonidum (Homoptera, Diaspididae Biological studies of Coccidophilus citricola (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae on Aspidiotus nerii and Chrysomphalus aonidum (Homoptera, Diaspididae

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    Antonio Cesar dos Santos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Aspectos biológicos de Coccidophilus citricola Brèthes (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae foram estudados sobre Chrysomphalus aonidum Linnaeus e Aspidiotus nerii Bouchè (Homoptera, Diaspididae criadas sobre abóbora. Observou-se a duraç��o (dias do período de ovo, dos quatro ínstares, pré-pupa, pupa, longevidade de adultos e a proporção machos: fêmeas de C. citricola. Determinou-se também verificar a eficiência de predação de adultos de C. citricola sobre A. nerii. C. aonidum e A. nerii são presas adequadas para C. citricola, com desenvolvimento semelhante do coccinelídeo sobre essas cochonilhas; o período de incubação do ovo foi de 7,9 e 8,1 dias com A. nerii e C. aonidum; a duração (dias de cada ínstar larval de C. citricola sobre A. nerii e C. aonidum foram respectivamente de: (I 2,7 e 2,9; (II 3,1 e 3,3; (III 3,0 e 3,3 e (IV 3,2 e 3,1 dias. A duração das fases de pré-pupa e pupa foi de 2,5 e 4,5 dias sobre A. nerii e 2,8 e 4,8 dias sobre C. aonidum e a viabilidade de ovo a adulto foi de 63,2% e 62,7% respectivamente para indivíduos criados sobre essas presas. A longevidade de adultos de C. citricola foi de 57,0 dias com A. nerii e de 62,0 dias com C. aonidum. A proporção macho: fêmea foi de 0,82:1,00. O consumo diário de C. citricola foi de 1,15 adultos ou 2,35 ninfas de 2o ínstar ou 3,16 ninfas de 1o ínstar de A. nerii por dia.Laboratory trials were carried out to study biological aspects of Coccidophilus citricola Brèthes (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae on Chrysomphalus aonidum Linnaeus and Aspidiotus nerii Bouché (Homoptera: Diaspididae. The scales were reared on squashes and then served as food source to the predator. The period of egg, larvae (four ínstars, pre-pupae, pupae, adults’ longevity and male: female ratio was observed. Predatory efficacy of C. citricola on A. nerii was also determined. The period of egg was 7.9 and 8.1 days on A. nerii and C. aonidum. The development (days of different stages of C

  15. Short-Term population dynamics and impacts of the red-headed leafy spurge stem borer (Oberea erythrocephala (Schrank.) Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We researched the efficacy of the biological control agent Oberea erythrocephala against the nonnative invasive plant leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula). Our three treatments were release of O. erythrocephala into uncaged plots, release of O. erythrocephala into plots caged to prevent agent escape and ...

  16. Antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans strains and genotoxicity assessment in human leukocyte cells of Euphorbia tirucalli L.

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    Luís Flávio Souza de Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last times, focus on plant research has increased all over the world. Euphorbia tirucalli L., a plant known popularly as Aveloz, and originally used in Africa, has been drawing attention for its use in the United States and Latin America, both for use as an ornamental plant and as a medicinal plant. E. tirucalli L. is a member of the family Euphorbiaceae and contains many diterpenoids and triterpenoids, in particular phorbol esters, apparently the main constituent of this plant, which are assumed to be responsible for their activities in vivo and in vitro. The in vitro antifungal activities of Euphorbia tirucalli (L. against opportunistic yeasts were studied using microbroth dilution assay. The results showed that aqueous extract and latex preparation were effective against ten clinical strains of Cryptococcus neoformans in vitro (Latex and extract MIC range of 3.2 - > 411 µg/mL. Aiming the safe use in humans, the genotoxic effects of E. tirucalli were evaluated in human leukocytes cells. Our data show that both aqueous extract and latex preparation have no genotoxic effect in human leukocytes cells in vitro. Although the results cannot be extrapolated by itself for use in vivo, they suggest a good perspective for a therapeutic application in future. In conclusion, our results show that the aqueous extract and latex preparation from E. tirucalli L. are antifungal agents effectives against several strains of C. neoformans and do not provoke DNA damage in human leukocyte cells, considering the concentrations tested.

  17. Evaluation of leishmanicidal effect of Euphorbia erythadenia extract by in vitro leshmanicidal assay using promastigotes of Leishmania major

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza Kazemi Oskuee; Mahmoud Reza Jaafari; Sara Amani; Mohammad Ramezani

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate leishmanicidal effects of Euphorbia erythadenia plant extract. Methods:Extraction was done using methanolic Soxhlet of dried and ground aerial parts of the plant. Then, five different extract concentrations, in addition of positive, negative and solvent controls were prepared and added to a 24-well plate containing 40 000 parasites/well. The extract concentrations were 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125 and 0.062 5 mg/mL. Amphotricin B (0.5 mg/mL) was used as positive control while negative control contained only culture medium. After 3 d incubation at 25 °C the amount of parasites in each well was determined on each day of experiment microscopially using Neubar chamber. Results:Soxhlet extract as well as amphotricin B killed all parasites at concentration of 1 mg/mL. The leshmanicidal activity of lower doses of extract was dose-dependent. The EC50 for Soxhlet extracts in dimethylsulfoxide was 0.30 mg/mL. The EC50 for Soxhlet extracts in methanol was 0.23 mg/mL. No obvious effects from the control solvent on the Leishmania major promastigotes were observed. Conclusions: The Soxhlet extract of Euphorbia erythadenia showed suitable leishmanicidal activity, especially in higher concentration fractions.

  18. Study on Molecular Recognition between Euphorbia Factor L713283 and β-Tubulin via Molecular Simulation Methods

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    Shan Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia factor L713283 is a new lathyrane diterpene isolated from Euphorbia lathyris and shows strong anticancer activity. By using molecular similarity analysis, β-tubulin was identified as one of the possible targets of L713283. We further investigated the binding modes of L713283 with β-tubulin using molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD simulation methods. The results indicated that the binding site between β-tubulin and L713283 was composed of the four regions, that is, residues Phe20~Glu27, Leu225~Thr232, Phe270~Gly277, and Ile356~Met363. MM/GBSA method was used to calculate the binding free energy and determine the key residues for the association of L713283 with β-tubulin. It was found that nonpolar interactions made the major contributions for the binding. In addition, we compared the binding pocket and motion modes of L713283-free and L713283-bound β-tubulin systems. It is proposed that L713283 may bind to β-tubulin and favor the formation of αβ-tubulin dimmer. This work provides possible explanation for molecular mechanism of the anticancer agent L713283, and the strategy used here could benefit the investigation of possible target profile for those bioactive agents with unknown mechanisms.

  19. Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Potential Anti-Dengue Metabolites from Tawa-tawa (Euphorbia hirta Linn.

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    Wilanfranco Caballero TAYONE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Many natural products found in plants exhibit a variety of biological activities including antibiotic, antitumor, and antiviral activities that have been utilized in the medicinal field to cure millions of people from serious diseases. Euphorbia hirta Linn. herb, a folkloric medicinal plant in the Philippines against dengue is reportedly effective against the dengue virus. This deadly and painful mosquito-born disease continuously affects millions of people worldwide for there are no commercially developed drugs or vaccines available. From the viewpoint of overcoming the dengue disease, the authors investigated the chemical components of Euphorbia hirta Linn. Preliminary anti-dengue assay by Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT revealed that the ethyl acetate layer was the most active fraction and significantly reduced the plaque forming capacity of the dengue virus serotypes 1 and 2 relative to the control. Further purification of the active ethyl acetate fraction afforded 6 known triterpene and 3 flavonoid compounds. The planar structures of these molecules were established by ESIMS and NMR spectroscopic analyses.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.65

  20. Physical chemical and citotoxic evaluation of highly diluted solutions of Euphorbia tirucalli L. prepared through the fifty milesimal homeopathic method

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    Carlos Renato Zacharias

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: although Hahnemann described the fifty-milesimal (LM method in the 6th edition of the Organon of the Medical Art, very little research has been carried out on the physical chemical properties of these homeopathic preparations. Furthermore, there is still no evidence allowing for the correlation between the alleged physical chemical properties and the biological effects of high dilutions. Aims: to evaluate physical chemical characteristics of LM preparations including electrical conductivity, pH and refraction index, and their effect on biological experimental models. Materials and methods: preparations tested for physical chemical analysis were dilutions 1 lm to 10 lm of Euphorbia tirucalli L. prepared from the latex and the juice of the plant. To rule the seasonal characteristics of this plant, 2 different populations were used, one collected in June 2007 and the other in May 2008. Furthermore, the cytotoxic effect of Euphorbia tirucalli 5 lm was tested on human breast cancer cells (MCF7 through MTT assay. Some differences among the two collections were observed. However, any clear correlation could be observed between physical chemical properties and biological activity.

  1. Methanic fermentation of Euphorbia tirucalli, a rich and renewable vegetal biomass of the Sahel and arid zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sow, D. [Dakar Univ. (Senegal); Depeyre, D.; Isambert, A. [Ecole Centrale des Arts et Manufactures, 92 - Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    1994-12-31

    A rich and renewable vegetal biomass is existing in Senegal. In fact Euphorbia tirucalli is a latex plant well adapted to sahelian climatic conditions, spread all along the country. In this work, methanic fermentation experimentations are made with this plant in a specific continuous fermentor named Transpaille. A 120 l biodigester was tested at 37 deg C with a piece-broken plant. The registered volumic efficiency is 0.80 l/l.d. With this interesting result, the same experiment was made with real operating conditions on a village digester in a farm. With a bioreactor of 12 m{sup 3}, incubated at ambient temperature, the obtained volumic efficiency is 0.61 l/l.d. The produced biogas of this experiment was used for food cooking and for farm milk cooling. This work shows that a vulgarization policy of the biogas way in rural conditions in Senegal is now possible with Euphorbia tirucalli. (authors). 19 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Factors affecting herbivory of Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae and Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae on the eggplant (Solanum melongena

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    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of total rainfall, mean temperature, natural enemies, chemical composition of leaves, levels of nitrogen and potassium on leaves and density of leaf trichomes on attack intensity of Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae and Aphis gossypii (Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae on plantations of the eggplant (Solanum melongena in two regions of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Higher numbers of A. gossypii/leaf and T. palmi/leaf were observed in plantations of this eggplant in the Municipalities of Viçosa and Guidoval, respectively. Guidoval had a rainy and hotter weather than Viçosa. T. palmi was almost positivelly correlated with rainfall (r= 0.49, P= 0.0538 while A. gossypii seemed to be more affected by mean temperature (r= -0.31; P= 0.1134. Higher number of aphids in eggplants in Viçosa than in Guidoval could be explained by the higher number of natural enemies such as Adialytus spp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Cycloneda sanguinea (L. and Exochomus bimaculosus Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae and Chrysoperla spp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae in this municipality. However, only Adialytus spp. was significativelly correlated with aphid populations. Higher number of T. palmi in eggplant plantations of Guidoval than in Viçosa could be due to the absence of its possible Eulophidae parasitoid in the first municipality. The spiders were significativelly correlated with this pest in both municipalities.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de pluviosidade total, temperatura média, inimigos naturais, composição química foliar, níveis de nitrogênio e potássio foliar e densidade de tricomas na intensidade de ataque de Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae e Aphis gossypii (Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae em plantações de berinjela (Solanum melongena em dois municípios de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Observou-se maiores números de A. gossypii e T. palmi por folha em plantações de berinjela nos

  3. Leaf endophytic fungi of chili (Capsicum annuum and their role in the protection against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae

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    HENY HERNAWATI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hernawati H, Wiyono S, Santoso S (2011 Leaf endophytic fungi of chili (Capsicum annuum and their role in the protection against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae. Biodiversitas 12: 187-191. The objectives of the research were to study the diversity of leaf endophytic fungi of chili, and investigate its potency in protecting host plants against Aphis gossypii Glov. Endophytic fungi were isolated from chili leaves with two categories: aphid infested plants and aphid-free plants, collected from farmer’s field in Bogor, West Java. Abundance of each fungal species from leave samples was determined by calculating frequency of isolation. The isolated fungi were tested on population growth of A. gossypii. The fungal isolates showed suppressing effect in population growth test, was further tested on biology attributes i.e. life cycle, fecundity and body length. Five species of leaf endophytic fungi of chili were found i.e. Aspergillus flavus, Nigrospora sp., Coniothyrium sp., and SH1 (sterile hypha 1, SH2 (sterile hypha 2. Eventhough the number of endophytic fungi species in aphid-free and aphid-infested plant was same, the abundance of each species was different. Nigrospora sp., sterile hyphae 1 and sterile hyphae 2 was more abundant in aphid-free plants, but there was no difference in dominance of Aspergillus flavus and Coniothyrium sp. Nigrospora sp., SH1 and SH2 treatment reduced significantly fecundity of A. gossypii. Only SH2 treatment significantly prolonged life cycle and suppress body length, therefore the fungus had the strongest suppressing effect on population growth among fungi tested. The abundance and dominance of endophytic fungal species has relation with the infestation of A. gossypii in the field.

  4. Ocorrência de Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel) (homoptera: margarodidae) em videira no município de Louveira, Estado de São Paulo Occurrence of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel) (homoptera: margarodidae) on grape at Louveira, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    André Luiz Lourenção; Fernando Picarelli Martins; Luiz Carlos Mollo Alarcon

    1989-01-01

    Em 1986, em inspeção em vinhedos no município de Louveira, SP, foi observado definhamento acentuado de plantas em uma quadra de uma propriedade no Bairro de Abadia. Plantas do mesmo vinhedo, mas de outros talhões e de outras propriedades, não apresentava o problema. O exame do sistema radicular de plantas da quadra em questão revelou a presença de Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel) (Homoptera: Margarodidae) em alta infestação. Conhecida também como pérola-da-terra ou margarodes, é praga muit...

  5. Studies on phytochemical, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Euphorbia dracunculoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Shah, Naseer Ali; Ul Haq, Ihsan; Farooq, Muhammad Asad; Ullah, Shafi; Sharif, Anam; Zahra, Zartash; Younis, Tahira; Sajid, Moniba

    2015-10-07

    Plants provide an alternative source to manage various human disorders due to diverse metabolites. Euphorbia dracunculoides of family Euphorbiaceae is used by local practitioners in rheumatism, epilepsy, edema, snake bite, warts and also possesses diuretic and purgative effects. The present study evaluated the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of various extracts of E. dracunculoides. Further, phytochemical constituents of the leading extracts were also investigated. Dry powder of E. dracunculoides was extracted with n-hexane (EDH), acetone (EDA), ethanol (EDE), ethanol + water (1:1) (EDEW) and methanol (EDM) and screened for phytochemical classes, total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid content (TFC). Antioxidant effects of the extracts were manifested by in vitro multidimensional assays. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the extracts were evaluated through carrageenan induced paw edema and hot plate test in rat. In addition, GC-MS analysis of EDH and HPLC-DAD analysis of EDEW was carried out to determine the presence of active constituents. Qualitative analysis of various extracts of E. dracunculoides assured the existence of tannins and coumarins while presence of anthraquinones and anthocyanins was not traced in these extracts. Maximum quantity of TPC and TFC was recorded in EDEW followed by EDE. EDEW and EDE showed significant antioxidant activities with therapeutic potential against hydroxyl and phosphomolybdate radicals, β-carotene bleaching assay and in reducing of iron while moderate to low scavenging abilities were recorded for DPPH, nitric oxide and for iron chelation. During anti-inflammatory activity after 4 h of drug administration the 300 mg/kg body weight dose of EDH (68.660 ± 10.502%) and EDE (51.384 ± 8.623%) exhibited strong anti-inflammatory activity and reduced the carrageenan-induced paw edema in rat as compared to standard drug diclofenac sodium (78.823 ± 6.395%). Treatment of rats with EDH

  6. Fasciolose bovina: controle com látex da "coroa-de-Cristo" (Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii

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    Edwin Pile

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a utilização do látex da "coroa-de-Cristo" (Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii no controle da fasciolose hepática. A avaliação foi feita analisando a disponibilidade de metacercárias na pastagem, utilizando animais traçadores numa fazenda de gado de corte no município de Taubaté, São Paulo, Brasil. Os resultados obtidos, examinando fezes de 60 animais através da técnica de Quatro Tamises, demonstraram uma queda significativa na prevalência da infecção durante a experiência, indicando mais um subsídio no controle do problema.

  7. Optimisation of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity from Euphorbia tirucalli Using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Quan V; Goldsmith, Chloe D; Dang, Trung Thanh; Nguyen, Van Tang; Bhuyan, Deep Jyoti; Sadeqzadeh, Elham; Scarlett, Christopher J; Bowyer, Michael C

    2014-09-17

    Euphorbia tirucalli (E. tirucalli) is now widely distributed around the world and is well known as a source of traditional medicine in many countries. This study aimed to utilise response surface methodology (RSM) to optimise ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions for total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant capacity from E. tirucalli leaf. The results showed that ultrasonic temperature, time and power effected TPC and antioxidant capacity; however, the effects varied. Ultrasonic power had the strongest influence on TPC; whereas ultrasonic temperature had the greatest impact on antioxidant capacity. Ultrasonic time had the least impact on both TPC and antioxidant capacity. The optimum UAE conditions were determined to be 50 °C, 90 min. and 200 W. Under these conditions, the E. tirucalli leaf extract yielded 2.93 mg GAE/g FW of TPC and exhibited potent antioxidant capacity. These conditions can be utilised for further isolation and purification of phenolic compounds from E. tirucalli leaf.

  8. Optimisation of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity from Euphorbia tirucalli Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan V. Vuong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia tirucalli (E. tirucalli is now widely distributed around the world and is well known as a source of traditional medicine in many countries. This study aimed to utilise response surface methodology (RSM to optimise ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE conditions for total phenolic compounds (TPC and antioxidant capacity from E. tirucalli leaf. The results showed that ultrasonic temperature, time and power effected TPC and antioxidant capacity; however, the effects varied. Ultrasonic power had the strongest influence on TPC; whereas ultrasonic temperature had the greatest impact on antioxidant capacity. Ultrasonic time had the least impact on both TPC and antioxidant capacity. The optimum UAE conditions were determined to be 50 °C, 90 min. and 200 W. Under these conditions, the E. tirucalli leaf extract yielded 2.93 mg GAE/g FW of TPC and exhibited potent antioxidant capacity. These conditions can be utilised for further isolation and purification of phenolic compounds from E. tirucalli leaf.

  9. The lethality of Euphorbia conspicua to adults of Biomphalaria glabrata, cercaria of Schistosoma mansoni and larvae of Artemia salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Aldenir F; de Azevedo, Denise P L; dos Santos Mata, Rosalina da C; de Mendonça, Dina I M Dinis; Sant'Ana, Antônio E Goulart

    2007-01-01

    Leaf extracts of Euphorbia conspicua (Euphorbiaceae), together with the latex and fractions derived therefrom, were evaluated for their molluscicidal and cercaricidal activities and their toxicities to brine shrimps. Whilst the leaf extracts were inactive against Biomphalaria glabrata, the latex, its triterpenic fraction and irritant fractions I and II exhibited high activities against adult snails with LC90 values of 4.87, 10.55, 0.64 and 0.10 microg/mL, respectively. The latex and its derived fractions were considered lethal to the cercaria of Schistosoma mansoni at concentrations of 100 microg/mL. The toxicities of the latex and the irritant fractions, but not of the triterpenic fraction, against Artemia salina were high with LC50 values < 10 microg/mL. The possible application of the latex of E. conspicua as an alternative natural molluscicide is considered.

  10. Cytotoxicity of three new triazolo-pyrimidine derivatives against the plant trypanosomatid: Phytomonas sp. isolated from Euphorbia characias

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    Rosa Magán

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available There is no effective chemotherapy against diseases caused by Phytomonas sp., a plant trypanosomatid responsible for economic losses in major crops. We tested three triazolo-pyrimidine complexes [two with Pt(II, and another with Ru(III] against promastigotes of Phytomonas sp. isolated from Euphorbia characias. The incorporation of radiolabelled precursors, ultrastructural alterations and changes in the pattern of metabolite excretion were examined. Different degrees of toxicity were found for each complex: the platinun compound showed an inhibition effect on nucleic acid synthesis, provoking alterations on the levels of mitochondria, nucleus and glycosomes. These results, together with others reported previously in our laboratory about the activity of pyrimidine derivatives, reflect the potential of these compounds as agents in the treatment of Phytomonas sp.

  11. 15-O-Acetyl-3-O-benzoylcharaciol and helioscopinolide A, two diterpenes isolated from Euphorbia helioscopia suppress microglia activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Jingling; Xu, Jing; Cui, Chun-Ai; Guo, Yuanqiang; Jin, Da-Qing

    2016-01-26

    Microglia activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases by producing neurotoxic factors. In the present study, we found that two diterpenes isolated from Euphorbia helioscopia, 15-O-Acetyl-3-O-benzoylcharaciol and helioscopinolide A suppressed NO and PGE2 production by inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia cells. The diterpenes also inhibited the production of ROS and proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, the mechanism involved the NF-κB but not Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Moreover, the two diterpenes also attenuate microglia activation-mediated neuronal death. These results suggest that 15-O-Acetyl-3-O-benzoylcharaciol and helioscopinolide A may provide potential therapeutic strategy for various neuroinflammatory diseases.

  12. Research advances of the anti-tumor mechanisms of Euphorbia helioscopia L.%泽漆抗肿瘤作用机制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨万里; 衷宇; 丁井永

    2016-01-01

    泽漆(Euphorbia helios copia L.)是大戟属(Euphorbia L.)大戟科一年生草本植物,别名猫儿眼睛草、五凤灵芝、五朵云等.具有利水消肿、消痰退热、散结杀虫等功效.临床上用于治疗腹水、水肿、肺结核、癣疮、宫颈癌、食管癌等.近年来国内外学者对泽漆抗肿瘤作用与机制研究较为活跃,本文就近年来国内外对泽漆的抗肿瘤有效成分与作用机制方面的研究进展做一综述.

  13. The area ratio of leaves and green stems and degree of leaves reduction of succulent plants of the genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae Juss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergii O. Kalashnyk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ratio between area of green leaves and stem area for model photosynthetic plants of 23 Euphorbia L. species were determined. On the base of this ratio studied species were divided onto three groups: a leaf surface area exceeds area of green stems more than in twice; b leaf surface area exceeds area of green stems less than in twice; c area of green stems exceeds leaf surface area more than in twice. Correlation between these groups and arid degree of native habitats of investigated species has been ascertained. It was established that current grouping method is more objective in sense of morphological characteristic stem-succulent representatives from the genus Euphorbia in context of their ecological specifications than simple statement of leaves presence and photosynthetic activity of the stem.

  14. DNA barcoding in a biodiversity hot spot: potential value for the identification of Malagasy Euphorbia L. listed in CITES Appendices I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubriot, Xavier; Lowry, Porter P; Cruaud, Corinne; Couloux, Arnaud; Haevermans, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The island of Madagascar is a key hot spot for the genus Euphorbia, with at least 170 native species, almost all endemic. Threatened by habitat loss and illegal collection of wild plants, nearly all Malagasy Euphorbia are listed in CITES Appendices I and II. The absence of a reliable taxonomic revision makes it particularly difficult to identify these plants, even when fertile, and thereby compromises the application of CITES regulations. DNA barcoding, which can facilitate species-level identification irrespective of developmental stage and the presence of flowers or fruits, may be a promising tool for monitoring and controlling trade involving threatened species. In this study, we test the potential value of barcoding on 41 Euphorbia species representative of the genus in Madagascar, using the two widely adopted core barcode markers (matK and rbcL), along with two additional DNA regions, nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the chloroplastic intergenic spacer psbA-trnH. For each marker and for selected marker combinations, inter- and intraspecific distance estimates and species discrimination rates are calculated. Results using just the 'official' barcoding markers yield overlapping inter- and intraspecific ranges and species discrimination rates below 60%. When ITS is used, whether alone or in combination with the core markers, species discrimination increases to nearly 100%, whereas the addition of psbA-trnH produces less satisfactory results. This study, the first ever to test barcoding on the large, commercially important genus Euphorbia shows that this method could be developed into a powerful identification tool and thereby contribute to more effective application of CITES regulations.

  15. Evaluation of the molluscicidal properties of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (n. e. b. (Euphorbiaceae - 1: experimental test in a lentic habitat

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    Nelymar Martineli Mendes

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available The latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii, at concentrations between 5 to 12 mg/l, kills 100% of the population of Biomphalaria glabrata in a lentic habitat, after 24 h. The lyophilized latex, stocked for 18 months, killed only 34.2% of the snails, at the concentration of 5 mg/l, and 96.0% at 12 mg/l. No lethal effect was observed among Pomacea haustrum exposed to the same concentrations of the molluscicide.

  16. Actividad fagodisuasiva de las plantas Tithonia diversifolia y Montanoa hibiscifolia (Asteraceae sobre adultos del insecto plaga Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Bagnarello

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae es una plaga polífaga, cosmopolita y de gran relevancia mundial, sobre todo como vector de virus en numerosos cultivos, por lo que sería deseable un enfoque preventivo para su manejo. En tal sentido, podría recurrirse a la utilización de sustancias repelentes o disuasivas, algunas de ellas presentes en plantas tropicales, lo cual contribuiría al aprovechamiento de la rica biodiversidad mesoamericana. Por tanto, se evaluó la posible actividad fagodisuasiva sobre los adultos de B. tabaci de dos especies silvestres de la familia Asteraceae: titonia (Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray y tora (Montanoa hibiscifolia Benth.. Para ello, en condiciones de invernadero se evaluaron los extractos crudos y cuatro fracciones (hexano, diclorometano, acetato de etilo y metanol de ambas especies, a los cuales se les hizo un análisis fitoquímico (tamizaje el cual permitió determinar cuáles metabolitos presentes en T. diversifolia y M. hibiscifolia podrían causar fagodisuasión en B. tabaci. Se realizaron dos tipos de experimentos: de escogencia restringida y de escogencia irrestricta. En los primeros, cada fracción se evaluó a cuatro dosis (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 y 1.5% v/v, y se comparó con cuatro tratamientos testigo: aceite agrícola, endosulfán, un emulsificante (Citowett y un testigo absoluto (agua. Se asperjaron plantas de tomate colocadas dentro de jaulas de manga, donde se liberaron 50 adultos de B. tabaci. Para determinar si existía fagodisuasión se utilizó como criterio el número de adultos posados a las 48h. Para el experimento de escogencia irrestricta se utilizaron las dos concentraciones más altas (1.0 y 1.5% del extracto crudo de cada especie y se compararon con el aceite agrícola y agua. Los extractos crudos de titonia y tora causaron fagodisuasión, y para ambas especies la fracción de metanol fue la que más sobresalió. En conclusión, los resultados obtenidos en los bioensayos

  17. Toxicity of Diphenyl-pentenone Against Three Aphids(Homoptera:Aphididae) and Its Effects on the Esterases and Glutathione S-transferase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Ping(高平); Gan Mingzhe; Liu Shigui

    2004-01-01

    The most provocative aspect of this study is its original findings on the toxicity of diphenyl-pentenone(1,5-diphenyl-2-penten-1-one, DP) against the three kinds of aphids (Macrosiphum granarium Kirby, Lipaphis erysimi(kaltenbach), Schizaphis aurantiae(Fosc.)and the inhibitory effects of DP against detoxification enzyme system of the aphid (S aurantiae). The result of bioassay in the laboratory shows that the product has strong contact activity and very good antifeeding activity, with higher efficacy than anabasine and nicotine, two botanical aphidicides. The median lethal concentrations of the three products against the apterous adult (M granarium) are 175.85, 217.23 and 245.22 mg/L, respectively, at 24 h of pest treatment. DP is inferior to methomyl in contact assay but superior in antifeeding activity assay against the three aphides. DP has strong inhibitory effects on nonspecific esterases, carboxylesterase of aphid (S aurantiae), but it can not inhibit AchE. DP also has strong inhibitory effects on glutathione S-transferase of the aphid.

  18. Research and Practice on Classic Prescription with Use of Euphorbia Kansui Match Licorice%经方运用甘遂配甘草的探索与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王付

    2011-01-01

    探索经方甘遂半夏汤中甘遂配甘草的理论研究与临床应用.方法 通过研究甘遂配甘草的古代认识,历代沿袭,以及甘遂、甘草主治、化学成分及药理,甘遂配甘草是否产生新的毒性,甘遂配甘草之间的用量调配关系等,进而证实临床运用以甘遂半夏汤为主治疗肠结核,甲状腺炎的可行性与实用性.结果 探索甘遂配甘草在理论上是科学的,在临床中具有良好的治疗作用.结论 历史记载甘遂与甘草相反是缺乏理论假说的,临床中合理应用辨治诸多病证则是客观事实.%Objective: This article research classic prescription on euphorbia kansui and pinellia soup, which is contained the euphorbia kansui to match the licorice , with the theoretical research and the clinical practice. Method: Through the research on euphorbia kansui matched the licorice the ancient times to know that, all previous dynasties followed, as well as the euphorbia kansui, the licorice mainly treatment effects, the chemical composition and the pharmacology, the euphorbia kansui match the licorice whether had the new toxicity, how to deploy the euphorbia kansui matched the licorice and so on, then the confirmation clinical utilized by the euphorbia kansui pinellia soup primarily treats intestinal tuberculosis, the thyroiditis feasibility and practicality. Result: The exploration euphorbia kansui matches the licorice theoretically is scientific, in clinical also has the good treatment function. Conclusion: The historical record euphorbia kansui and the licorice relative opposite lack the theory hypothesis, the clinical reasonable application differentiation of symptoms and signs is objective fact.

  19. Variabilidade genética em biotipos de leiteiro de Londrina/PR Genetic variability among Euphorbia heterophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José V. de Vasconcelos

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia heterophylla, também conhecida como amendoim-bravo ou leiteira, é considerada planta invasora importante em mais de 56 países, inclusive no Brasil, tendo acarretado perdas de até 33 % na cultura da soja. Fenotipicamente, é uma espécie de características variáveis, especialmente em relação ao formato do limbo foliar. Esta variabilidade fenotípica tem sido utilizada para diferenciar e classificar as plantas, sugerindo a vários autores que a leiteira seria, de fato, constituída por diferentes espécies. Para estudar a variabilidade genética a nível de DNA entre plantas de Euphorbia heterophylla, que apresentam folhas morfologicamente diferentes, foram analisadas dez plantas diferentes coletadas em campos de soja, em Londrina/PR. As plantas foram transplantadas para casa-devegetação e o DNA das folhas foi extraído para análise pela técnica de RAPD. Vinte seis diferentes "primers", de dez nucleotídeos de sequência aleatória, geraram total de 102 bandas de DNA, sendo 38 delas polimórficas. A distância genética entre os indivíduos foi calculada em função da presença e da ausência das bandas, variando de 1 a 39% entre plantas. A análise de agrupamento dividiu as plantas em dois grupos, considerando limite de distância relativa de 22%. Os grupos gerados separaram nitidamente as plantas quanto ao formato do limbo foliar (estreito ou arredondado e quanto á ramificação (densa ou normal.Euphorbia heterophylla is an important weed affecting the performance of annual and perennial crops. It is native from tropical and subtropical regions in the American continent, and has been detected at high densities in 20 different countries worldwide, and at low densities in other 40 countries. In Brazil, it has been inclued among the ten most important weeds affecting different crops, causing yield losses up to 33% in soybean fields. Phenotypically, this species is extremely variable, especially in relation to leaf shape and

  20. The crude latex of Euphorbia tirucalli modulates the cytokine response of leukocytes, especially CD4+ T lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethânia A. Avelar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The plants of the Euphorbiaceae family, especially those of the genus Euphorbia, are frequently used by Brazilian folk communities to treat a wide variety of infectious, tumoral and inflammatory illnesses. Among the species of this genus, Euphorbia tirucalli L. is widely used in some Brazilian regions, such as the Jequitinhonha River Valley. There is evidence that the latex produced by E. tirucalli has antiviral and antitumor activities, but little is known about the mechanisms involved in these effects. It is likely that the mechanism for such activities involves leukocyte activation and cytokine production. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the production of type 1 (TNF-α and IFN-γ and type 2 (IL-4 and IL-10 cytokines by circulating leukocyte subsets submitted to brief stimulation with the crude latex of E. tirucalli. Peripheral blood leukocytes of twenty healthy subjects were submitted to 4 h incubation with crude E. tirucalli latex diluted in dimethylsulfoxide. After the incubation period, the cells were stained with FITC-conjugated monoclonal antibodies specific to the cell surface receptors CD4, CD8 and CD14, and to PE-conjugated monoclonal antibodies specific to the cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10. The acquisition and analysis of data were performed by flow cytometry. The results showed a significant increase (p<0.05 in the percentage of CD4+ T lymphocytes positive for the type 1 cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ. Neutrophils and CD8+ T lymphocytes showed a mixed profile of cytokine production, characterized by an increase in the percentage of cells expressing IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10. The data indicate a predominant type 1 cytokine response. The findings presented suggest that the effect popularly attributed to E. tirucalli usage may be attributed to its effect on the production of TNF-α and IFN-γ. However, the relationship between the in vitro and in vivo effects of E. tirucalli needs to be investigated.

  1. Host plant shifts and transitions into new adaptive zones in leafhoppers: the example of Macropsinae (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae) of Russia and adjacent countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishechkin, Dmitri Yu

    2016-06-08

    The modes of diversification of Palaearctic Macropsinae (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae) are reconstructed based on data on their host plants and distribution in Russia and the adjacent territories. Macropsinae (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae) is originally an Oriental group, which penetrated into the Palaearctic from Southeast Asia. The genus Pediopsoides and species of the genus Macropsis that feed on East Asian oaks have not dispersed beyond broadleaf forests of the Eastern Palaearctic. Apparently, Pediopsis and elm-feeding species of Macropsis initially dispersed throughout the entire broadleaf forest zone. Division of this zone into two widely separated parts in temperate areas of Europe and East Asia (nemoral disjunction), produced closely related vicariant pairs of sister species. The genus Oncopsis and species of Macropsis feeding on Salicaceae dispersed throughout the entire Palaearctic following their host plants. Both lineages penetrated into riparian forests of the foothills and midlands of Central Asia, where they produced endemic species. The Central Asian Macropsis lineage shifted from Salicaceae to trees and shrubs of unrelated families (wild roses, barberry, oleaster, and sea-buckthorn) growing in the same biotopes. Subsequent diversification on those plants produced several separate host-associated species-groups, some of which penetrated following their hosts from riparian forests into arid habitats. One such lineage apparently shifted from shrubs to wormwood species (Artemisia spp.) and thus gave rise to the genus Macropsidius. This genus underwent adaptive radiation on wormwood species in the plains of South Kazakhstan and Central Asia; advancing westward, it formed secondary centres of diversity in Transcaucasia and the Mediterranean. Finally, some lineage of Macropsidius (or its sister-group) switched from feeding on Artemisia to polyphagy, yielding the ancestral form of the genus Hephathus. In general, the evolution of

  2. Simultaneous analysis and peroxynitrite-scavenging activity of galloylated flavonoid glycosides and ellagic acid in Euphorbia supina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Agung; Rhim, Tae-Jin; Choi, Moo-Young; Choi, Jae Sue; Kim, Youn-Chul; Kim, Min-Sun; Park, Hee-Juhn

    2014-07-01

    The herbs of Euphorbia supina (Euphorbiaceae) have been used to treat hemorrhage, chronic bronchitis, hepatitis, jaundice, diarrhea, gastritis, and hemorrhoids as a medicinal herb. This work is aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the polyphenols with peroxynitrite-scavenging activities. The eight compounds: gallic acid, methyl gallate, avicularin, astragalin, juglanin, isoquercitrin 6″-gallate, astragalin 6″-gallate, and ellagic acid, were isolated from E. supina and used for HPLC analysis and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-))-scavenging assay. Simultaneous analysis of the eight compounds was performed on MeOH extract and its fractions. The contents in MeOH extract and peroxynitrite-scavenging activities of the dimer of gallic acid, ellagic acid (15.64 mg/g; IC50 0.89 μM), and two galloylated flavonoid glycosides, astragalin 6″-gallate (13.72 mg/g; IC50 1.43 μM) and isoquercitrin 6″-gallate (16.99 mg/g; IC50 1.75 μM), were high, compared to other compounds. The legendary uses of E. supina could be attributed to the high content of polyphenols, particularly ellagic acid, isoquercitrin 6″-gallate, and astragalin 6″-gallate as active principles.

  3. Propiedad molusquicida de Euphorbia laurifolia A. Juss (Euphorbiaceae contra Biomphalaria glabrata Say hospedador intermediario de Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ángel Mogollón-Morales

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available En América Latina, los caracoles de Biomphalaria glabrata (Planorbidae son hospedadores intermediarios del parasito Schistosoma mansoni, agentes causantes de la schistosomiasis, una parasitosis que afecta a millones de personas en el mundo. El presente trabajo evalúa el papel de la especie Euphorbia laurifolia A. Juss (Euphorbiaceae contra B. glabrata. La actividad molusquicida se evaluó de acuerdo a los parámetros sugeridos por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Se utilizaron caracoles de B. glabrata criados en el laboratorio. Se realizaron diferentes bioensayos utilizando extractos metanólico crudo, en n-hexano, en acetato de etilo y en metanol de las partes aéreas de E. laurifolia a diferentes concentraciones. Los resultados demostraron que esta especie posee una potente actividad letal con todos los extractos estudiados contra caracoles de B. glabrata, considerándose el mejor el extracto de acetato de etilo, el cual presentó una DL50 de 5,57 ppm.

  4. Estudo botânico, fitoquímico e fisico-químico de Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Pinto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia hirta L., popularmente conhecida por erva andorinha, tem sido utilizada no tratamento de distúrbios respiratórios e como antiespasmódico. Esse trabalho foi realizado com a finalidade de determinar as características macroscópicas e microscópicas das folhas, caule e raiz dessa planta, uma vez que estas são as partes usadas popularmente. Algumas características de valor na sua diagnose foram apontadas e ilustradas por fotomicrografias. Reações de fitoquímica e a determinação do conteúdo de água e de cinzas foram realizadas no pó obtido da planta inteira, parte essa utilizada na fitoterapia Ayuverda. Na prospecção fitoquímica foram encontrados flavonóides, mucilagem, resinas e cumarinas. Na determinação do teor de água, de cinzas totais e de cinzas insolúveis em ácido, os valores encontrados foram 8,99%, 9,35%, 0,75%, respectivamente. Com o desenvolvimento deste trabalho foi possível obter parâmetros para o controle de qualidade das folhas, caule e raízes de E. hirta.

  5. Phylogenetics of the Chamaesyce clade (Euphorbia, Euphorbiaceae): reticulate evolution and long-distance dispersal in a prominent C4 lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya; Berry, Paul E

    2011-09-01

    The Chamaesyce clade of Euphorbia is the largest lineage of C(4) plants among the eudicots, with 350 species including both narrow endemics and cosmopolitan weeds. We sampled this group worldwide to address questions about subclade relationships, the origin of C(4) photosynthesis, the evolution of weeds, and the role of hybridization and long-distance dispersal in the diversification of the group. • Two nuclear (ITS and exon 9 of EMB2765) and three chloroplast markers (matK, rpl16, and trnL-F) were sequenced for 138 ingroup and six outgroup species. Exon 9 of EMB2765 was cloned in accessions with >1% superimposed peaks. • The Chamaesyce clade is monophyletic and consists of three major subclades [1(2,3)]: (1) the Acuta clade, containing three North American species with C(3) photosynthesis and C(3)-C(4) intermediates; (2) the Peplis clade, mostly North American and entirely C(4); and (3) the Hypericifolia clade, all C(4), with both New World and Old World groups. Incongruence between chloroplast and ITS phylogenies and divergent cloned copies of EMB2765 exon 9 suggest extensive hybridization, especially in the Hawaiian Islands radiation. • The Chamaesyce clade originated in warm, arid areas of North America, where it evolved C(4) photosynthesis. From there, it diversified globally with extensive reticulate evolution and frequent long-distance dispersals. Although many species are weedy, there are numerous local adaptations to specific substrates and regional or island radiations, which have contributed to the great diversity of this group.

  6. Euphorbia tirucalli L.-comprehensive characterization of a drought tolerant plant with a potential as biofuel source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastilestari, Bernadetta Rina; Mudersbach, Marina; Tomala, Filip; Vogt, Hartmut; Biskupek-Korell, Bettina; Van Damme, Patrick; Guretzki, Sebastian; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2013-01-01

    Of late, decrease in mineral oil supplies has stimulated research on use of biomass as an alternative energy source. Climate change has brought problems such as increased drought and erratic rains. This, together with a rise in land degeneration problems with concomitant loss in soil fertility has inspired the scientific world to look for alternative bio-energy species. Euphorbia tirucalli L., a tree with C3/CAM metabolism in leaves/stem, can be cultivated on marginal, arid land and could be a good alternative source of biofuel. We analyzed a broad variety of E. tirucalli plants collected from different countries for their genetic diversity using AFLP. Physiological responses to induced drought stress were determined in a number of genotypes by monitoring growth parameters and influence on photosynthesis. For future breeding of economically interesting genotypes, rubber content and biogas production were quantified. Cluster analysis shows that the studied genotypes are divided into two groups, African and mostly non-African genotypes. Different genotypes respond significantly different to various levels of water. Malate measurement indicates that there is induction of CAM in leaves following drought stress. Rubber content varies strongly between genotypes. An investigation of the biogas production capacities of six E. tirucalli genotypes reveals biogas yields higher than from rapeseed but lower than maize silage.

  7. Euphorbia tirucalli L.-comprehensive characterization of a drought tolerant plant with a potential as biofuel source.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadetta Rina Hastilestari

    Full Text Available Of late, decrease in mineral oil supplies has stimulated research on use of biomass as an alternative energy source. Climate change has brought problems such as increased drought and erratic rains. This, together with a rise in land degeneration problems with concomitant loss in soil fertility has inspired the scientific world to look for alternative bio-energy species. Euphorbia tirucalli L., a tree with C3/CAM metabolism in leaves/stem, can be cultivated on marginal, arid land and could be a good alternative source of biofuel. We analyzed a broad variety of E. tirucalli plants collected from different countries for their genetic diversity using AFLP. Physiological responses to induced drought stress were determined in a number of genotypes by monitoring growth parameters and influence on photosynthesis. For future breeding of economically interesting genotypes, rubber content and biogas production were quantified. Cluster analysis shows that the studied genotypes are divided into two groups, African and mostly non-African genotypes. Different genotypes respond significantly different to various levels of water. Malate measurement indicates that there is induction of CAM in leaves following drought stress. Rubber content varies strongly between genotypes. An investigation of the biogas production capacities of six E. tirucalli genotypes reveals biogas yields higher than from rapeseed but lower than maize silage.

  8. Comparative study on plant latex particles and latex coagulation in Ficus benjamina, Campanula glomerata and three Euphorbia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Georg; Gorb, Stanislav N; Klein, Marie-Christin; Nellesen, Anke; von Tapavicza, Max; Speck, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Among latex-producing plants, mainly the latex of Hevea brasiliensis has been studied in detail so far, while comprehensive comparative studies of latex coagulation mechanisms among the more than 20,000 latex-bearing plant species are lacking. In order to give new insights into the potential variety of coagulation mechanisms, the untreated natural latices of five latex-bearing plants from the families Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae and Campanulaceae were visualised using Cryo-SEM and their particle size compared using the laser diffraction method. Additionally, the laticifers of these plants species were examined in planta via Cryo-SEM. Similar latex particle sizes and shape were found in Ficus benjamina and Hevea brasiliensis. Hence, and due to other similarities, we hypothesize comparable, mainly chemical, coagulation mechanisms in these two species, whereas a physical coagulation mechanism is proposed for the latex of Euphorbia spp. The latter mechanism is based on the huge amount of densely packed particles that after evaporation of water build a large surface area, which accelerates the coagulation procedure.

  9. [Effects of calcium fertilizer on the development, survival, and feeding of B-biotype Bemisia tabaci on Euphorbia pulcherrima].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Zhang, Juan; Yu, Yong-Ming; Liu, Jian-Xin; Li, Ming-Jiang; Zhu, Kai-Yuan

    2012-09-01

    This paper studied the development, survival, and feeding of B-biotype Bemisia tabaci on Euphorbia pulcherrima under the conditions of 26 +/- 1 degrees C and 60% - 80% relative humidity after applying calcium fertilizer, taking applying fresh water as the control. There existed significant differences in the developmental duration of B. tabaci between treatment applying calcium fertilizer and the control. After applying calcium fertilizer, the egg stage of B. tabaci shortened significantly, and the development from egg to adult took 20.18 days (for the control, it took 18.72 days). However, there were no significant differences in the survival rates of B. tabaci at different development stages between the two treatments. The feeding of B. tabaci on E. pulcherrima induced the plant leaf chlorophyll fluorescence parameters changed, i. e., the photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), photochemical quenching coefficient (q(p)), light use efficiency (alpha), maximum photosynthesis rate (rETRmax), and tolerance to light (I(k)) decreased significantly, while the non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) had a significant increase. After applying calcium fertilizer, the plant leaf photoinhibition parameter (beta), rETRmax, and I(k) had less difference with th e control. The nail polish blot observation on the lower epidermis structure of plant leaf showed that calcium fertilizer could effectively compensate the decrease in the photosynthesis of E. pulcherrima damaged by B-biotype B. tabaci.

  10. Comparative study on plant latex particles and latex coagulation in Ficus benjamina, Campanula glomerata and three Euphorbia species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Bauer

    Full Text Available Among latex-producing plants, mainly the latex of Hevea brasiliensis has been studied in detail so far, while comprehensive comparative studies of latex coagulation mechanisms among the more than 20,000 latex-bearing plant species are lacking. In order to give new insights into the potential variety of coagulation mechanisms, the untreated natural latices of five latex-bearing plants from the families Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae and Campanulaceae were visualised using Cryo-SEM and their particle size compared using the laser diffraction method. Additionally, the laticifers of these plants species were examined in planta via Cryo-SEM. Similar latex particle sizes and shape were found in Ficus benjamina and Hevea brasiliensis. Hence, and due to other similarities, we hypothesize comparable, mainly chemical, coagulation mechanisms in these two species, whereas a physical coagulation mechanism is proposed for the latex of Euphorbia spp. The latter mechanism is based on the huge amount of densely packed particles that after evaporation of water build a large surface area, which accelerates the coagulation procedure.

  11. 猩猩草化学成分的研究%The Chemical Constituents of Euphorbia cyathophora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琳; 穆淑珍; 姜春勇; 葛永辉; 张建新; 郝小江

    2011-01-01

    目的 对大戟属植物猩猩草Euphorbia cyathophora的化学成分进行研究.方法 应用正、反相硅胶(RP-18型)柱层析;葡聚糖凝胶(Sephadex LH-20型)柱层析,结合重结晶方法进行分离纯化,运用1H-NMR、13C NMR和EI-MS等现代波谱技术对化合物的结构进行鉴定.结果 从猩猩草提取物的石油醚萃取部位中分离鉴定了5个化合物,分别被鉴定为:十六烷酸(Ⅰ)、β-谷甾醇(Ⅱ)、stigmast-5-ene-3,7一diol(Ⅲ)、11-氧代-β-香树脂醇乙酸酯(Ⅳ)、germanicolacetate(Ⅴ).结论 以上化合物均为首次从该植物中分离得到.

  12. Action of Chitosan Against Xanthomonas Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from Euphorbia pulcherrima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity and mechanism of two kinds of chitosan were investigated against twelve Xanthomonas strains recovered from Euphorbia pulcherrima. Results indicated that both chitosans markedly inhibited bacterial growth based on OD loss. Furthermore, the release of DNA and RNA from three selected strains was increased by both chitosans. However, the release of intracellular proteins was inhibited by both chitosans at different concentration and incubation times, except chitosan A at 0.1 mg/mL for 0.5 h incubation and 0.2 mg/mL for 2.0 h incubation increased the release of proteins, indicating the complexity of the interaction and cell membranes, which was affected by incubation time, bacterial species, chitosan type and concentration. Transmission electron microscopic observations revealed that chitosan caused changes in protoplast concentration and surface morphology. In some cells, the membranes and walls were badly distorted and disrupted, while other cells were enveloped by a thick and compact ribbon-like layer. The contrary influence on cell morphology may explain the differential effect in the release of material. In addition, scanning electron microscope and biofilm formation test revealed that both chitosans removed biofilm biomass. Overall, this study showed that membrane and biofilm play an important role in the antibacterial mechanism of chitosan.

  13. Euphorbia tirucalli L.–Comprehensive Characterization of a Drought Tolerant Plant with a Potential as Biofuel Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastilestari, Bernadetta Rina; Mudersbach, Marina; Tomala, Filip; Vogt, Hartmut; Biskupek-Korell, Bettina; Van Damme, Patrick; Guretzki, Sebastian; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2013-01-01

    Of late, decrease in mineral oil supplies has stimulated research on use of biomass as an alternative energy source. Climate change has brought problems such as increased drought and erratic rains. This, together with a rise in land degeneration problems with concomitant loss in soil fertility has inspired the scientific world to look for alternative bio-energy species. Euphorbia tirucalli L., a tree with C3/CAM metabolism in leaves/stem, can be cultivated on marginal, arid land and could be a good alternative source of biofuel. We analyzed a broad variety of E. tirucalli plants collected from different countries for their genetic diversity using AFLP. Physiological responses to induced drought stress were determined in a number of genotypes by monitoring growth parameters and influence on photosynthesis. For future breeding of economically interesting genotypes, rubber content and biogas production were quantified. Cluster analysis shows that the studied genotypes are divided into two groups, African and mostly non-African genotypes. Different genotypes respond significantly different to various levels of water. Malate measurement indicates that there is induction of CAM in leaves following drought stress. Rubber content varies strongly between genotypes. An investigation of the biogas production capacities of six E. tirucalli genotypes reveals biogas yields higher than from rapeseed but lower than maize silage. PMID:23658836

  14. Impact of Veratrum nigrum L.and Euphorbia fischeriana steud.on Embryo Development of Cattle in Sanjiang Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Ke-mei; FENG Yue-ping; LIU Hua-zhen; CHENG Guo-fu; YANG Jun; LI Xin

    2002-01-01

    It is very important to find out the reasons and the morphological changes of cattle abortion,death embryo and teratism in Sanjiang area, in order to determine the preventive measures, to improve animalquality, and to accelerate the animal industry. In the present studies, 25 cows and 25 local bos calves were in-vestigated. The powder of Veratrum nigrum L. and Euphorbia fischeriana steud, was medicated to the ani-mals during the 15 - 19th day of gestation. It was found that there were different poisoning reactions. Whenthe poisoning was on the 15 - 16th day of gestation, the pregnant animals were easy to miscarriage. When thepoisoning was on the 17 - 18th day of gestation, the embryos were easy to become teratism. The joint malfor-mation bicephalus and rachischisis could take place for calves. If the poisoning was after 19th day of gesta-tion, there were much more death embryos. The results of the studies showed that Veratrum and Euphorbiafischeriana steud, were the most poisonous plants to the animal industry of Sanjiang area. Some preventivemeasures were proposed.

  15. The use of Euphorbia falcata extract as eco-friendly corrosion inhibitor of carbon steel in hydrochloric acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Bribri, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique, Bioorganique et Environnement, Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaib Doukkali, B.P. 20, M-24000 El Jadida (Morocco); Tabyaoui, M., E-mail: hamidtabyaoui@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique, Bioorganique et Environnement, Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaib Doukkali, B.P. 20, M-24000 El Jadida (Morocco); Laboratoire des Matériaux, Nanoparticules et Environnement, Université Mohamed V Agdal, Faculté des Sciences, 4 Av. Ibn Battouta, B.P. 1014 RP, M-10000 Rabat (Morocco); Tabyaoui, B. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique, Bioorganique et Environnement, Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaib Doukkali, B.P. 20, M-24000 El Jadida (Morocco); El Attari, H.; Bentiss, F. [Laboratoire de Catalyse et de Corrosion des Matériaux (LCCM), Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaib Doukkali, B.P. 20, M-24000 El Jadida (Morocco)

    2013-08-15

    Euphorbia falcata L. extract (EFE) was investigated as eco-friendly corrosion inhibitor of carbon steel in 1 M HCl using gravimetric, ac impedance, polarization and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The experimental results show that EFE is good corrosion inhibitor and the protection efficiency is increased with the EEF concentration. The results obtained from weight loss and ac impedance studies were in reasonable agreement. Impedance experimental data revealed a frequency distribution of the capacitance, simulated as constant phase element. Polarization curves indicated that EFE is a mixed inhibitor. The corrosion inhibition was assumed to occur via adsorption of EFE molecules on the metal surface. The adsorption of the E. falcata extract was well described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The calculated ΔG{sub ads}{sup o} value showed that the corrosion inhibition of the carbon steel in 1 M HCl is mainly controlled by a physisorption process. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • EFE is a good eco-friendly inhibitor for the corrosion of carbon steel in 1 M HCl. • EFE acts as mixed-type inhibitor in 1 M HCl medium. • Weight loss, ac impedance and polarization methods are in reasonable agreement. • The adsorption of EFE is well described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

  16. In vivo anti-salmonella activity of aqueous extract of Euphorbia prostrata Aiton(Euphorbiaceae) and its toxicological evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donald; Sédric; Tala; Donatien; Gatsing; Siméon; Pierre; Chegaing; Fodouop; Charles; Fokunang; Fabrice; Kengni; Merline; Namekong; Djimeli

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the in vivo anti-salmonella activity and the safety of aqueous extract of Euphorbia prostratra(E. prostratra), a plant commonly used in Cameroon by traditional healers.Methods: A Salmonella typhimurium-infected rat model was used for the study. The physiological, biochemical and histopathological markers of possible side effects of this extract were studied using standard methods.Results: The extract had a significant effect on the number of viable Salmonella typhimurium recovered from faeces, and could stop salmonellosis after 8 and 10 days of treatment for male and female rats, respectively, with non-toxic doses. However, the biochemical and histopathological analyses revealed that at relatively high doses(≥ 73.48 mg/kg for female and ≥ 122.71 mg/kg for male) the extract could induce liver damage, as illustrated by a rise of serum transaminases’ levels and significant inflammation of the parenchyma and portal vein.Side effects were also observed on the kidneys, as shown by both serum and urinary creatinine,and urinary proteins.Conclusions: The overall results indicate that the aqueous extract of E. prostrata has the potential to provide an effective treatment for salmonellosis, including typhoid fever. However,it is necessary to extrapolate these results in large animals, in further studies.

  17. Host stage preference and suitability of Allotropa suasaardi Sarkar & Polaszek (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae, a newly identified parasitoid of pink cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae

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    Md. Akhtaruzzaman Sarkar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Allotropa suasaardi Sarkar & Polaszek (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae has been recently reported as a gregarious endoparasitoid of the pink cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae in Thailand. With the aim of improving mass production of this parasitoid, laboratory experiments were conducted comparing the parasitoid’s preference on different host stages of mealybug, host suitability and its effect on parasitism, development, progeny fitness and sex ratio. All nymphal stages and adult of P. manihoti were parasitized by the parasitoid. However, host stage preference and suitability tests showed that the parasitoid had a significant preference for the older host stages. Percentage parasitization was higher in the third instar and early adult female stages compared with the first and second instar host. Mean developmental time for male parasitoids was shorter than for the females. Higher percentage emergence of parasitoid was observed from older mealybugs. Sex ratios of the offspring produced by the parasitoid were varied in different host stages and the ratio of female to male was higher in the older host stages. The implication of this host selection behavior for mass rearing of A. suasaardi and for evaluating it in a biological control program of the cassava mealybug are discussed.

  18. Energy budgets of the Chinese green lacewing (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and its potential for biological control of the cotton aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG GAO; XIANG-HUI LIU; FENG GE

    2007-01-01

    Energy budgets of larval stages of the Chinese green lacewing, Chrysopa sinica (Tjeder) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were determined under laboratory conditions at photoperiod of 14:10 L:D, 27±1℃ and 75%±2% RH. The energy used as ingestion,assimilation, respiration, productivity and feces was constructed for each developmental stage. In addition, under these experimental conditions, the potential of C.sinica as a biological control agent was evaluated according to the ingestion by this predator and the energy content of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Glover) (Homoptera: Aphididae). The larval stage of C. sinica was able to consume 1281.4 1-day-old aphids, 1018.7 2-day-old aphids,626.9 3-day-old aphids, 393.5 4-day-old aphids, 312.1 5-day-old aphids or 203.5 9-day-old aphids, respectively. No significant difference was detected between the estimated number of aphids consumed by the lacewings using energetic methods and the actual number of aphids consumed by the lacewings in this experiment. Our results showed that C. sinica is an important natural enemy of the cotton aphid, and energetic methods are very useful to quantify biological control efficacy of natural enemies.

  19. The growth-form of Euphorbia hedyotoides N. E. Br. (syn. E. decariana Croiz.

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    Rauh, Werner

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available A detailed description is given or Euphorbia hedyotoides N. E. Or. from southern Madagascar with a peculiar growth-form. Together with E. eliotii Léandri it is placed in a separate group: the E. hedyotoides-group.

    S'ofereix una detallada descripció d'una peculiar forma de creixement d'E. hedyotoides N. E. Or. procedent del sud de Madagascar. Es situa,juntament amb E. eliotii Léandri, en un grup separat : el grup E. hedyotoides.

  20. Aplicações isoladas ou associadas de diuron, oxyfluorfen e prometryne para o controle de Euphorbia heterophylla Isolated or combined application of diuron, oxyfluorfen and prometryn for Euphorbia heterophylla control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S Oliveira JR

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação em pré-emergência no início do ciclo do algodoeiro é prática consagrada entre os produtores. Embora os herbicidas diuron, oxyfluorfen e prometryne sejam opções para uso nessa cultura, há informações limitadas referentes à eficácia desses herbicidas no controle de Euphorbia heterophylla. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a curva de dose-resposta de diuron, oxyfluorfen e prometryne para o controle de E. heterophylla, bem como analisar a eficiência biológica de misturas desses herbicidas no manejo dessa espécie. O trabalho foi composto por seis experimentos conduzidos simultaneamente em casa de vegetação, sendo três deles com doses crescentes de cada herbicida aplicado isoladamente e três compostos por misturas dos herbicidas dois a dois. A curva de dose-resposta foi ajustada para os dados das avaliações de porcentagem de redução de massa seca aos 28 dias após a aplicação. Determinoaram-se as doses I80 e I95, que correspondem ao controle de 80% e 95%, respectivamente, de controle visual ou redução da massa seca. Diuron, oxyfluorfen e prometryne, aplicados isoladamente, mostraram-se eficientes, dentro do intervalo de doses utilizado, no controle de E. heterophylla. As misturas contendo oxyfluorfen apresentaram-se, de modo geral, como aditivas ou antagonísticas, ao passo que misturas de diuron+prometryne foram aditivas ou sinergísticas. Das três combinações de produtos possíveis, oxyfluorfen+prometryne foi a associação que resultou em menor número de tratamentos que promoveram controle aceitável do leiteiro.Pre-emergence herbicide application at the beginning of the crop cycle is a consecrated practice among cotton farmers. Although herbicides, such as diuron, oxyfluorfen and prometryn, are options for this crop, not much is known about their effect on Euphorbia heterophylla. This work aimed to elaborate dose-response curves for diuron, oxyfluorfen and prometryn in relation to E

  1. Herança da resistência aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS em biótipos da planta daninha Euphorbia heterophylla Inheritance of ALS inhibitor resistance in Euphorbia heterophylla weed biotypes

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    L. Vargas

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Os herbicidas inibidores da ALS são os principais produtos aplicados para o controle da planta daninha amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia herterophylla em lavouras de soja; no entanto, já foram identificados biótipos desta planta daninha resistentes a estes herbicidas no Brasil. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar a herança, o número de genes que conferem a resistência e o grau de resistência dos biótipos homozigotos e heterozigotos resistentes. Foram realizados cruzamentos recíprocos entre os genitores suscetíveis e resistentes para obtenção de sementes F1 e, posteriormente, realizaram-se os retrocruzamentos (RC com os genitores resistente (R e suscetível (S. Plantas F1 foram autofecundadas artificialmente para obtenção da geração F2. As plantas F1, F2, RCr e RCs e dos genitores foram tratadas com o herbicida imazethapyr (150 g ha-1. Para avaliar o grau de resistência, plantas F1 e os genitores resistente e suscetível foram tratados com as doses de imazethapyr de 0, 100, 200, 400, 800 e 1.600 g ha-1. As plantas F1 mostraram-se totalmente resistentes ao herbicida, demonstrando que a resistência é nuclear e dominante. As plantas F2 apresentaram alta probabilidade para segregação 3:1, indicando que a resistência é codificada por um gene dominante. A aplicação de doses de imazethapyr sobre as plantas F1 demonstrou que os biótipos homozigotos resistentes e os heterozigotos apresentam o mesmo grau de resistência para doses de até 1.600 g ha-1 deste herbicida. A resistência é codificada por um gene dominante nuclear com dominância completa.The ALS inhibitor herbicides are the main products applied to control Euphorbia heterophylla in the soybean crop; however, resistant biotypes to these herbicides have been identified in Brazil. This research aimed to study the inheritance, number of genes involved in the resistance and the degree of resistance of the homozygous and heterozygous resistant biotypes. Reciprocal crossings (RSs

  2. Período crítico de interferência de Euphorbia heterophylla na cultura da soja sob baixa densidade de semeadura Critical period of interference of Euphorbia heterophylla in soybean crop under low seeding rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.K. Meschede

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante o ano agrícola de 1999/2000, dois experimentos foram conduzidos na Fazenda Boa Terra, em Quarto Centenário-PR, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes períodos de controle e convivência de Euphorbia heterophylla sobre a produtividade da soja, cv. BRS-133, cultivada em baixa densidade de semeadura. Os períodos de convivência consistiram em manter a cultura na presença e ausência de E. heterophylla por 5, 12, 19, 26, 33, 40, 47, 54, 61 e 68 dias após a emergência (DAE e pelo ciclo todo. Quando da primeira capina, nos tratamentos mantidos em convivência por períodos iniciais com a comunidade infestante, e na colheita, nos tratamentos mantidos por períodos iniciais na ausência de plantas daninhas, foram determinadas as densidades e biomassas de E. heterophylla. A presença da infestante proporcionou perdas diárias de produtividade de 5,15 kg ha-1, ao passo que a ausência até 44 DAE representou ganho diário de produtividade de 7,27 kg ha¹. Verificou-se que a convivência da soja com E. heterophylla por até 17 dias após a emergência não causou qualquer efeito sobre a produtividade, enquanto o período total de prevenção da interferência foi de 44 dias após a emergência, o que configura um período crítico de competição dos 17 aos 44 DAE.Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of different periods of control or coexistence of Euphorbia heterophylla on soybean (cv. BRS-133 grain yield at low seeding rate, at Boa Terra Farm, Quarto Centenário-PR, Brazil, during 1999-2000 growing season. The treatments for both experiments consisted of keeping the crop either with or without E. heterophylla for 5, 12, 19, 26, 33, 40, 47, 54, 61 and 68 days after emergence (DAE and during the whole cycle. At the first weeding, for those treatments kept for increasing periods with weeds, and at harvest, for those treatments kept for increasing periods free of weed competition, E. heterophylla densities and

  3. Efeito do período de chuva no controle de Euphorbia heterophylla e Ipomoea purpurea pelos herbicidas glyphosate e sulfosate Effect of rainfall on Euphorbia heterophylla and Ipomoea purpurea control by glyphosate and sulfosate

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    P.A. Monquero

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência do período de chuva sobre a eficácia dos herbicidas sulfosate e glyphosate no controle de Euphorbia heterophylla e Ipomoea purpurea. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação, no Centro de Ciências Agrárias/UFSCar, em Araras, SP. Os tratamentos, além da testemunha, consistiram na aplicação de duas doses em equivalente ácido dos herbicidas sulfosate (0,66 e 1,32 kg ha-1 e glyphosate (0,72 e 1,44 kg ha-1, sendo as plantas tratadas submetidas à simulação de chuva de 20 mm durante 30 minutos, nos intervalos de 2, 4, 6, 8 e 48 horas após a aplicação. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. A eficácia no controle das plantas daninhas foi avaliada 7, 14 e 21 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAT e a matéria seca, aos 28 DAT. E. heterophylla não foi eficazmente controlada pelo herbicida glyphosate, exigindo intervalo sem chuva superior a 24 horas após a aplicação para obter, na maior dose, controle de apenas 60%. Por sua vez, o herbicida sulfosate proporcionou controle de 75%, mesmo na menor dose, quando a chuva ocorreu quatro horas depois da aplicação. I. purpurea também não foi controlada de maneira eficaz pelo herbicida glyphosate, independentemente da dose e do intervalo de chuva; no entanto, somente a maior dose do herbicida sulfosate foi eficiente no controle desta espécie, a partir de quatro horas sem chuva. Para ambas as espécies, o herbicida sulfosate foi menos afetado pelo período da chuva.The influence of rainfall occurrence was evaluated on the efficacy of the herbicides glyphosate and sulfosate applied in post-emergence on Euphorbia heterophylla and Ipomoea purpurea. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at the Centro de Ciências Agrárias/UFSCar, in Araras-SP, Brazil. The treatments,plus control, consisted of two doses, in acid equivalent of sulfosate (0.66 and 1.32 kg ha-1 and glyphosate (0.72 and

  4. Eficácia de herbicidas em diferentes quantidades de palha de cana-de-açúcar no controle de Euphorbia heterophylla Efficacy of herbicides in different amounts of sugar cane straw on Euphorbia heterophylla control

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    P.A. Monquero

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar o efeito de diferentes quantidades de palha de cana-de-açúcar, colhida sem queima prévia do canavial, sobre a eficácia de alguns herbicidas recomendados para esta cultura. O experimento foi conduzido em campo no Centro de Ciências Agrárias/UFSCar, em Araras, SP. Os tratamentos consistiram dos herbicidas trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametryn (1.463 + 37 g i.a ha-1, imazapic (84 g i.a ha-1, imazapyr (200 g i.a ha-1, ¹diuron + hexazinone (1.170 + 330 g i.a ha-1 e ²diuron + hexazinone (1.330 + 160 g i.a ha-1 aplicados em pré-emergência de Euphorbia heterophylla e sobre cinco quantidades de palha de cana-de-açúcar (0, 5, 10, 15 e 20 t ha-1. A eficácia de controle das plantas daninhas foi avaliada aos 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAT. A palha (15 e 20 t ha-1 reduziu a população de E. heterophylla. À medida que se aumentou a quantidade de palha, houve redução na eficácia dos herbicidas; com 15 t ha-1 de palha, o controle foi considerado satisfatório (90% apenas para os tratamentos ¹diuron + hexazinone e trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametryn. Com 20 t ha-1, nenhum herbicida foi eficaz; entretanto, a palha foi eficiente na supressão dessa espécie, verificando-se que o número de plantas emergidas foi menor mesmo na testemunha.This work aimed to study the effect of different amounts of sugar cane straw, collected unburned, on the efficacy of some herbicides recommended for this culture. The experiment was carried out in the field, at the Centro de Ciências Agrárias/UFSCar, Araras, SP. The treatments consisted of herbicides trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametryn (1,463 + 37 g a.i ha-1, imazapic (84 g a.i ha-1, imazapyr (200 g a.i ha-1, diuron + hexazinone (1,170 + 330 g a.i ha ¹ and ²diuron + hexazinone (1,330 + 160 g a.i ha-1 applied in pre emergence of Euphorbia heterophylla and five increasing amounts of sugar cane straw ( 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 t ha-1.Weed

  5. Avaliação de cultivares de soja (Glycine max (L. Merril em competição com Euphorbia heterophylla L. sob três densidades e dois períodos de ocorrência Evaluation of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill cultivars in competition with Euphorbia heterophylla L. in three densities and two periods of occurrence

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    V. M. Chemale

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho, conduzido durante o ano agrícola de 1979/80 na Estação Experimental Agronômica de UFRGS, em Guaíba, RS, apresentou como objetivo testar quatro cultivares de soja (Paraná, Prata, Hood e IAS-4 quanto à sua habilidade em concorrer com Euphorbia heterophylla L. (leiteira, amendoim-bravo estabelecida em três densidades (0, 12 e 54 plan-tas/m2, em média e dois períodos de duração da competição (45 e 115 dias após a emergência da soja. Constatou-se que houve redução no rendimento de grãos de soja por efeito dos dois períodos de competição e das densidades de E. heterophylla L. referidas. Também os números de grãos e de legumes por área foram consideravelmente reduzidos pela presença da planta daninha associada ao período mais prolongado de competição. A espessura do caule e o número de nós das plantas de soja decresceram apenas sob o efeito da maior densidade da Euphorbia; entretanto, o número de ramos e o índice de área foliar, este aos 75 dias após a emergência da cultura, sofreram redução com a infestação de 12 plantas de Euphorbia por m2.A field experiment was performed at the Agronomy Experimental Station of UFRGS, in Guaíba, RS, Brazil, during the 1979/80 growing season, in order to test four soybean cultivars (Paraná, Prata, Hood e IAS-4 in competition with Euphorbia heterophylla L. established in three densities (0, 12 and 54 plants/m2 during two periods (45 and 115 days after soybean emergence. It was observed that soybean cultivars presented reduction of seed yields under the effect of the pe riods of competition and densities of Euphorbia heterophylla L. The number of seeds and pods per area were considerably reduced in the presence of the weed associated with the longest competition period. The stem diameter and number of nodes were reduced only by competition of the highest Euphorbia density; however, the number of branches and leaf area index, this after a period of 75 days

  6. Mechanism of Action of Isolated Caffeic Acid and Epicatechin 3-gallate from Euphorbia hirta against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Shanmugapriya; Mahmud, Roziahanim; Ismail, Sabariah

    2017-07-01

    The escalating dominance of resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains as infectious pathogen had urged the researchers to look for alternative and complementary drugs. The objective of this study is to address the biological targets and probable mechanisms of action underlying the potent antibacterial effect of the isolated compounds from Euphorbia hirta (L.) against P. aeruginosa. The action mechanisms of caffeic acid (CA) and epicatechin 3-gallate (ECG) on P. aeruginosa cells were investigated by several bacterial physiological manifestations involving outer membrane permeabilization, intracellular potassium ion efflux, and nucleotide leakage. The findings revealed that ECG and CA targeted both cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane of P. aeruginosa. The cellular membrane destruction and ensuing membrane permeability perturbation of P. aeruginosa had led to the ascending access of hydrophobic antibiotics, release of potassium ions, and leakages of nucleotides. The overall study concludes that ECG and CA isolated from E. hirta possess remarkable anti-infective potentials which can be exploited as drug template for the development of new antibacterial agent against resistant P. aeruginosa pathogen. Epicatechin 3-gallate (ECG) and caffeic acid (CA) exhibited remarkable bactericidal abilities by increasing the outer membrane and plasma membrane permeability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenECG and CA had facilitated the entry of hydrophobic antibiotics into P. aeruginosa by disintegrating the lipopolysaccharides layer of the outer membraneECG-induced potassium efflux with efficiency close to that obtained with cefepime suggesting mode of action through membrane disruptionBoth ECG and CA had caused consistent leakage of intracellular nucleotide content with the increase in time. Abbreviations used: ECG: Epicatechin 3-gallate; CA: Caffeic acid; E. hirta: Euphoria hirta.

  7. Long-term dynamics of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and its biocontrol agent, flea beetles in the genus Aphthona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Diane L.; Grace, James B.; Larson, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Three flea beetle species (Aphthona spp.), first introduced into North America in 1988, have come to be regarded as effective biological control organisms for leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula). The black flea beetles (Aphthona lacertosa and A. czwalinae) in particular have been shown to cause reductions in leafy spurge stem counts in the northern Great Plains, while the brown flea beetle (A. nigriscutis) has persisted and spread, but has not been found to be as effective at controlling leafy spurge. The ability of black flea beetles to control leafy spurge in any given year, however, has been found to vary. To better understand the long-term effects of flea beetle herbivory on leafy spurge, we monitored stem counts of leafy spurge and numbers of black and brown flea beetles at three sites on two National Wildlife Refuges in east-central North Dakota, USA, from 1998 to 2006. Brown flea beetle numbers were observed to be negligible on these sites. Over the 9 years of the study, black flea beetles were seen to spread over the three study sites and leafy spurge stem counts declined substantially on two of the three sites. Even at low densities of spurge, black flea beetle populations persisted, a necessary prerequisite for long-term control. We used structural equation models (SEM) to assess the yearly effects of black flea beetles, soil texture, and refuge site on leafy spurge stem counts over this time period. We then used equations developed from the SEM analysis to explore flea beetle–leafy spurge dynamics over time, after controlling for soil texture and refuge. Yearly effect strength of black flea beetles on leafy spurge was found to be modest, largely owing to substantial spatial variability in control. However, simulation results based on prediction coefficients revealed leafy spurge to be highly responsive to increases in flea beetle populations on average.

  8. In vitro α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition by aqueous, hydroalcoholic, and alcoholic extract of Euphorbia hirta L.

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    Manjur Ali Sheliya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae, commonly known as Dudhani, is distributed in the warm region of India and China. Traditionally, it is used in respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders. In addition, the antidiabetic property of the plant was also reported in the literature. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of aqueous, hydroalcoholic, and methanolic extracts (MEHs of E. hirta on α-glucosidase and α-amylase in vitro. Materials and Methods: Aqueous, hydroalcoholic, and MEHs of E. hirta were prepared as per application program interface. In α-glucosidase activity, α-glucosidase (0.1 μ/mL and substrate, 2.5 mM p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside was used; absorbance was recorded at 405 nm. In α-amylase activity, α-amylase solution (1.0 μ/mL and substrate, 0.25% starch were used, and absorbance was measured at 540 nm. The IC50values were calculated by linear regression. Results: All the extracts showed α-glucosidase inhibitory activity comparable to acarbose with MEH having highest inhibitory activity among tested extracts. The observed IC50values were 213.63, 146.9, 78.88, and 8.07 μg/mL for aqueous, hydroalcoholic, MEH, and acarbose, respectively. All the extracts have shown mild α-amylase inhibitory activity compared to acarbose. Lineweaver–Burk plot has shown that the MEH is a mixed noncompetitive inhibitor for α-glucosidase enzyme. Conclusion: The results from this in vitro study clearly indicated that MEH of E. hirta had strong inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase and mild inhibitory activity against α-amylase. It can be used for management of postprandial hyperglycemia with lesser side effects, and provide a strong rationale for further animal and clinical studies.

  9. Molluscicidal activity of crown of Christ (Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (Euphorbiaceae latex submitted to pH variation

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    Vasconcellos Maurício Carvalho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and field bioassays have confirmed the specificity of the molluscicidal activity of the Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii latex (crown of Christ (Euphorbiaceae over snails of the species Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila, B. straminea, B. pfeifferi and Bulinus sp. in the control of Schistosoma mansoni. In the present study, the effect of the pH variation on lethal concentration (LC90 over B. tenagophila was evaluated. Bioassays with the aqueous solutions of the latex ranging from 0.4 to 12 µl/l were adjusted for pH of 5.0; 6.0; 7.0 and 8.0, and tested in accordance with methods standardized by World Health Organization. The results obtained indicated that the minor concentration of the latex occurred at pH 6.0 (LC90 = 3.2 µl/l and the maximum at pH 8.0 (LC90 = 10.3 µl/l. Lethal concentrations adjusted for pH 5.0 and 7.0 were 3.4 µl/l and 4,7µl/l, respectively. From the results it could be concluded that the molluscicidal toxicity was not altered when the concentrations were adjusted for pH 5.0 and 6.0, as we observed that mortality rate was 100% starting at a concentration of 2.0 µl/l, not the same for the concentrations with adjustment for pH 7.0 and 8.0.

  10. Coagulation And Hemagglutination Properties Of The Crude Extract Derived From The Leaves Of Euphorbia Hirta L. Tridax Procumbens L. And Vernonia Cinerea L Less

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    Romeo C. Ongpoy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the potential of selected wild grasses from the Philippines as coagulant and typing sera. To do this Euphorbia hirta L. Tridax procumbens L. and Vernonia cinerea L Less aqueous infusions were each subjected to blood components from healthy individuals. The plasma part of the blood was used to test for coagulation where Plasma Clotting Time PCT and Factor VIII screening test were the procedures used to test the different leaf extracts. On the other hand the Packed Red Blood Cell part of the blood was used to test for hemagglutination where microscopic and macroscopic evaluations were the procedures used to test the different leaf extracts against the blood groups from the ABO system. About this study it was found out that all the wild grasses did not give a comparable coagulation to the commercially available positive control which is Calcium Chloride while Euphorbia hirta L. gave a positive hemagglutination to Type A and Type B cells Tridax procumbens L. gave a positive hemagglutination to Type A cell and Vernonia cinerea L Less gave a positive hemagglutination to Type B cells both in macroscopic and microscopic evaluations. The results show that all the wild grasses tested may not be used as a coagulant but all of them may have a potential as a typing sera.

  11. Estudio morfológico y anatómico de E uphorbia peplus linneo ( Euphorbiaceae Morphological and Anatomical Study of Euphorbia peplusLinneo (Euphorbiaceae

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    Palacios Catalina

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se tomaron muestras de ejemplares de Euphorbia peplus L. (Euphorbiaceae de los predios de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Bogotá (Bello 262. Se realizaron cortes con micrótomo siguiendo procedimientos de histotecnia y cortes a mano alza-da para estudiar y establecer la anatomía de esta planta. Se observaron ejemplares frescos al estereoscopio para estudiar y determinar la morfología. Se establecieron características morfológicas como la arquitectura propia de E. peplus L. y la organización de su inflorescencia en ciatio, su sistema radical alorricico, las diversas formas de sus hojas, y particularidades del fruto, la semilla, y características anatómicas como el crecimiento secundario limitado en tallo y raíz entre otros.Samples of Euphorbia peplus L. (Euphorbiaceae specimens were taken from the ground at Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá (Bello 262. Microtome slices and freehand slices were made following histological techniques, to study and determine the plant anatomy; fresh samples were observed to study and determine the plant morphology. Morphological features were established, as the plant specific architecture, the ciatium, the radical system, the leaves diverse shapes and the characteristics of the fruit and seed. Anatomical features as the limited secondary growth on stemand root were also determined.

  12. HPLC法测定千金子不同极性部位中二萜酯类化合物含量%Comparison of Content of Diterpene Esters from Different Polar Fractions in Euphorbiae Semen by HPLC Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超; 朱娟娟; 王英姿; 孙秀梅

    2014-01-01

    目的:考察千金子素L8、千金子素L1、千金子素L2、千金子素L3四种化合物在千金子不同极性部位的分布情况。方法:用HPLC测定,色谱柱为Inertsil ODS-3(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm),流动相为甲醇-水(75∶25),流速1.0 mL·min-1,柱温25℃;检测波长275 nm。结果:4个二萜酯类化合物在石油醚部位中含量最高,在乙酸乙酯和正丁醇部位中较少,在剩余水部位基本检测不到二萜酯类化合物。结论:该方法准确简便,重现性好,可用于比较千金子不同极性部位二萜酯类化合物的分布情况。%Objective:To study the distribution of euphorbia factor L8,euphorbia factor L1,euphorbia factor L2 and euphorbia factor L3 in the different polar fractions of Euphorbiae semen. Methods:Using HPLC method determine the content of 4 ingredients. The column is performed on Inertsil ODS-3(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm), with mobile phase for methanol and water(75∶25),velocity 1.0 mL·min-1,column temperature 25℃,275 nm wavelength detection. Results:The content of diterpene esters was the highest in the petroleum ether fraction of Euphorbiae semen. The content of diterpene esters was lower in the fractions of acetic ether and n-bu-tanol. In the remaining part of water,the diterpene esters were undetected. Conclusion:The method is sim-ple,accurate and well reproducibile,so it can be used to compare the content of diterpene esters from dif-ferent polar fractions in Euphorbiae semen.

  13. Chronic toxicological effects of ultradiluted solutions of Aveloz (Euphorbia tirucalli Lineu on healthy mice: a preliminary study Efeitos toxicológicos crônicos de altas diluições de Aveloz (Euphorbia tirucalli L. em camundongos sadios: estudo preliminar. Efectos toxicológicos crónicos de altas diluciones de Euphorbia tirucalli en ratones sanos: estudio preliminar.

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    Morgana Castelo Branco

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The latex extracted from Euphorbia tirucalli, a plant popularly known as Aveloz, is used in complementary medicine to induce tumor regression. However, as this latex has toxic effects when administered orally in ponderal doses, the present study was designed to assess the effects of high dilutions in healthy mice over a period of 18 weeks. The Aveloz latex-high diluted solutions (latex-HD were obtained through the interaction of two processes: 1:100 dilution in mass and succussion, using ethanol 70% as a solvent, in the homeopathic dilutions of 5, 15 and 30cH, following Farmacopéia Homeopática Brasileira. Control solutions without latex were compounded (ethanolic-HD in the same dilutions and were administered simultaneously. The animals which received latex-HD 30cH showed a significant increase in food consumption (p Keywords: Euphorbia tirucalli; Aveloz; Toxicology; High Dilutions; Mice.   Efeitos toxicológicos crônicos de altas diluições de Aveloz (Euphorbia tirucalli L. em camundongos sadios: estudo preliminar. Resumo O látex extraído de Euphorbia tirucalli, planta conhecida popularmente como Aveloz, é utilizado em medicina complementar para induzir regressão tumoral. No entanto, como este látex tem efeitos tóxicos quando administrado por via oral em doses ponderais, este estudo foi desenhado para avaliar os efeitos de altas diluições do mesmo em camundongos sadios por um período de 18 semanas. As altas diluições do látex do Aveloz (látex-HD foram obtidas através da interação de dois processos: diluição 1:100 em massa e sucussão, utilizando etanol 70% como solvente, nas diluições homeopáticas 5, 15 e 30cH, de acordo com a Famracopéia Homeopática Brasileira. Soluções de controle sem o látex (etanol-HD foram

  14. 异色瓢虫显明变种对荻草谷网蚜和禾谷缢管蚜捕食选择性研究%Selectivity of Harmonia axyridis(Pallas) Var.Spectabilis to Macrosiphum Avenae and Rhopalosiphum Padi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张悦; 井维霞; 王涛; 刘修堂; 曲爱军

    2012-01-01

    It was tested that predatory quantity of the ladybird,Harmonia axyridis(Pallas) Var.Spectabilis,to the two aphid,Macrosiphum avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi at different densities in the certain space in the laboratory.The results showed that the selective coefficient of the ladybird varied with these two aphid populations.When the two pest population numbers increased synchronously,the ladybird preferred M.avenae. But when only R.padi increased,H.axyridis would obviously like to predate it.On the contrary,when only M. avenae increased,the ladybird would like to predate it.The result of the predatory quantity of the ladybird was similar to the selective coefficient.%在实验室条件下,在特定空间内,测定异色瓢虫显明变种对两种蚜虫荻草谷网蚜和禾谷缢管蚜不同密度值下的捕食量。结果表明,荻草谷网蚜和禾谷缢管蚜种群数量同步增加时,EG-S值和EI值变化是从1到∞,EI值是在0到+1范围内依次增加,表明异色瓢虫显明变种喜好捕食荻草谷网蚜明显高于禾谷缢管蚜;荻草谷网蚜数量不变,禾谷缢管蚜数量增加时,EG-S值和EI值是从+1到0,EI值从-1到0范围内依次减少,表明异色瓢虫显明变种明显喜好捕食禾谷缢管蚜;禾谷缢管蚜数量不变,荻草谷网蚜数量增加时,EG-S值和EI值变化从+1到∞,EI值在0到+1范围内依次增加,表明异色瓢虫显明变种明显喜好捕食荻草谷网蚜。捕食量结果同选择指数。

  15. Virulence testing and extracellular subtilisin-like (Pr1) and trypsin-like (Pr2) activity during propagule production of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus isolates from whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Moguel, Judith; González-Barajas, Margarita; Mier, Teresa; Reyes-Montes, María Del Rocío; Aranda, Eduardo; Toriello, Conchita

    2007-03-01

    To properly characterize several isolates of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, a fungal entomopathogen of whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and other insect pests for biocontrol purposes, virulence towards Trialeurodes vaporariorum, and subtilisin-like (Pr1) and trypsin-like (Pr2) protease activity during propagule production were investigated in monospore cultures (MCs). The virulence of three MCs towards second instar whiteflies was measured and expressed as lethal median concentration (LC50). Number and widthlength ratio of propagules (blastospores, hyphal bodies, short hyphae, submerged conidia) and extracellular proteolytic activity was determined simultaneously in liquid medium. Total protease activity was assayed with azocasein, Pr1 and Pr2 activity was determined with the substrates N-Succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide and N-Benzoyl-Phe-Val-Arg-pnitroanilide, respectively. Natural variability in virulence, propagule production and cuticle-degrading proteases among isolates was observed. Bioassays showed a LC50 of 1.1 x 1,000, 2.5 x 10,000 and 7.6 x 10,000 conidia/ml for MCs EH-506/3, EH-503/3 and EH-520/3, respectively, EH-506/3 being the most virulent isolate. Isolate EH-503/3 produced the highest yield of propagules (7.7 x 10000000 propagules/ml), followed by EH-520/3 with 6.4 x 10000000 and EH-506/3 with 1.0 x 10000000 propagules/ml. Subtilisin-like (Pr1) and trypsin-like (Pr2) activity was present in the three MCs. Subtilisin-like (Pr1) activity was highest (745.7 UPr1/ml at 120 h) in the most virulent isolate, EH-506/3, pointing at Pr1 as a phenotypic marker of virulence for P. fumosoroseus. EH-506/3 appears to be a good candidate for whitefly biocontrol due to its high virulence, Pr1 concentration and rapid transition to blastospores in submerged liquid medium.

  16. Densidades y frecuencias de liberación de Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae sobre Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae en tomate

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    Tello Paola

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    La mosca blanca de los invernaderos, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae es una de las plagas más importantes de cultivos de tomate bajo invernadero en la Sabana de Bogotá. Para su control tradicionalmente se acude a la aplicación de insecticidas. Sin embargo, también son contempladas liberaciones del parasitoide Encarsia formosa (Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae. Para estandarizar el proceso de cría masiva de E. formosa, se evaluaron tres densidades diferentes de liberación de las avispas (6, 12 y 18 avispas/planta en tres frecuencias de liberación (1, 2 y 3 veces/semana, sobre plantas de tomate de ocho semanas de edad con tres niveles de infestación (15, 30 y 45 ninfas de mosca blanca/hoja, susceptibles de ser parasitadas. El mayor porcentaje de parasitismo (70% en ninfas de tercer instar se logró cuando se liberaron seis avispas por planta, dosificadas en tres momentos diferentes en la misma semana. El menor porcentaje de parasitismo (50%, se obtuvo cuando se realizó una sola liberación de 6, 12 o 18 avispas. Los resultados anteriores permiten concluir que se puede lograr un porcentaje de parasitismo en torno a un 70% de la infestación de mosca blanca (hasta 45 ninfas/hoja en plantas de tomate con pocas avispas de E. formosa (seis cuando se liberan en tres momentos diferentes.

  17. Effect of insecticides on mealybug destroyer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Dickinson, Amy

    2006-10-01

    In this study, we measured, under laboratory conditions, the direct and indirect effects of insecticides on mealybug destroyer, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). The adult stages of both natural enemies were exposed to sprays of the insecticides buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, flonicamid, acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin at label-recommended rates to assess direct mortality after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. The effects of the insecticides on L. dactylopii parasitization rate and percentage of parasitoid emergence also were monitored using the label and 4x the recommended label rate. Dinotefuran was extremely detrimental to the adult parasitoid at the label rate with 100% mortality after 24 h. Buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid were not harmful to L. dactylopii when applied at the label rate. At 4x the recommended label rate, dinotefuran, acetamiprid, and clothianidin were all harmful to the parasitoid with 100% mortality 72 h after application. Both buprofezin and flonicamid were not toxic to L. dactylopii with 100% adult survival after 72 h. Pyriproxyfen and flonicamid, at both the label and 4x the recommended label rate, did not negatively affect L. dactylopii parasitization rate or percentage of parasitoid emergence. Acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin were toxic to C. montrouzieri adults with 100% mortality after 48 h, whereas buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid demonstrated minimal (10-20% mortality after 48 h) harmful effects to the predator. Based on the results from our study, the indirect effects of the insect growth regulator (IGR) buprofezin were not decisive; however, the IGR pyriproxyfen and the insecticide flonicamid were not directly or indirectly harmful to the predator C. montrouzieri and parastioid L. dactylopii, indicating that

  18. Biolarvicidal and pupicidal potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Euphorbia hirta against Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshini, Karthikeyan Agalya; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Ponarulselvam, Sekar; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2012-09-01

    Vector control is a critical requirement in epidemic disease situations, as is an urgent need to develop new and improved mosquito control methods that are economical and effective yet safe for nontarget organisms and the environment. Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of synthesized natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In the present study, activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Euphorbia hirta (E. hirta) plant leaf extract against malarial vector Anopheles stephensi (A. stephensi) was determined. Range of concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, and 50 ppm) and methanol crude extract (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 ppm) were tested against larvae of A. stephensi. The synthesized AgNPs from E. hirta were highly toxic than methanolic crude extract against malarial vector, A. stephensi. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction. SEM analyses of the synthesized showed that AgNPs, measuring 30-60 nm in size, were clearly distinguishable. The synthesized AgNPs showed larvicidal effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest larval mortality was found in the synthesized AgNPs against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of values LC(50) (10.14, 16.82, 21.51, and 27.89 ppm, respectively), LC(90) (31.98, 50.38, 60.09, and 69.94 ppm, respectively), and the LC(50) and LC(90) values of pupae of 34.52 and 79.76 ppm, respectively. Methanol extract exhibited the larval toxicity against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of values LC(50) (121.51, 145.40, 169.11, and 197.40 ppm, respectively), LC(90) (236.44, 293.75, 331.42, and 371.34 ppm, respectively), and the LC(50) and LC(90) values of

  19. Green mediated synthesis and characterization of ZnO nanoparticles using Euphorbia Jatropa latex as reducing agent

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    M.S. Geetha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Presently the progress of green chemistry in the synthesis of nanoparticles with the use of plants has engrossed a great attention. This study reports the synthesis of ZnO using latex of Euphorbia Jatropa as reducing agent. As prepared product was characterized by powder X-ray diffractometer (PXRD, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS, Rietveld refinement, UV–Visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL. The concentration of plant latex plays an important role in controlling the size of the particle and its morphology. PXRD graphs showed the well crystallisation of the particles. The average particle size was calculated using Scherrer equation and advanced Williamson Hall (WH plots. The average particle size was around 15 nm. This result was also supported by SEM and TEM analyses. FTIR shows the characteristic peak of ZnO at 435 cm−1. SEM and TEM micrographs show that the particles were almost hexagonal in nature. EDS of SEM analysis confirmed that the elements are only Zn and O. EDS confirmed purity of ZnO. Atomic states were confirmed by XPS results. Crystal parameters were determined using Rietveld refinement. From UV–Visible spectra average energy gap was calculated which is ∼3.63 eV. PL studies showed UV emission peak at 392 nm and broad band visible emission centred in the range 500–600 nm. The Commission International de I'Eclairage and colour correlated temperature coordinates were estimated for ZnO prepared using 2 ml, 4 ml and 6 ml Jatropa latex. The results indicate that the phosphor may be suitable for white light emitting diode (WLED. The study fruitfully reveals simple, fast, economical and eco friendly method of synthesis of multifunctional ZnO nanoparticles (Nps.

  20. Evaluation of the genotoxic and mutagenic potentials of phytotherapic and homeopathic solutions of Euphorbia tirucalli Lineu (Aveloz

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    Carla Holandino

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Euphorbia tirucalli Lineu, commonly known as Aveloz, is a very common plant found in tropical regions [1]. The ingestion or contact with its latex causes symptoms such as vomiting and diarrhea, pallor, skin irritation, hepatotoxicity as well as carcinogenesis [2]. Moreover, the Aveloz latex is also responsible for a few important activities against some infectious and neoplastic diseases. Aveloz latex phytochemical composition may vary according to seasonal aspects and geographic location [3], and it is used either orally or topically in traditional medicine. Popularly known as an antitumoral agent (breast, prostate, lung, kidney, it is used not only in Brazil, but in several other countries. According to the literature, the latex could have a dual behaviour, activating or inhibiting tumoral events [3-6]. However, there are few reports discussing these mechanisms. Besides, the mutagenic and genotoxic potentials of phytochemical and homeopathic Aveloz have not yet been described. Several experimental methods have been used to evaluate the mutagenic and genotoxic effects, such as Inductest, the Ames test and the chromotest. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the genotoxic and mutagenic potentials of Aveloz latex and Aveloz phytotherapic and homeopathic solutions. Methodology: In this study, Aveloz 5 and 30cH are prepared according to Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia [7], from Aveloz latex collected in the Center for Natural Products Research (NPPN at the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro [8]. The Aveloz phytochemical solution was prepared following the doses used in folk medicine: 2 drops diluted in 250ml of water and 2 drops diluted in 25 ml of water. All test solutions were submitted to the following methodologies: (a Inductest: assesses the ability of physical or chemical agents to promote lysogenic induction as a response to DNA damage in lysogenic bacteria; (b The Ames test: uses indicator strains of Salmonella

  1. Study of the embryofeto-toxicity of Crown-of-Thorns (Euphorbia milii latex, a natural molluscicide

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    Souza C.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The crude latex of Crown-of-Thorns (Euphorbia milii var. hislopii is a potent plant molluscicide and a promising alternative to the synthetic molluscicides used in schistosomiasis control. The present study was undertaken to investigate the embryofeto-toxic potential of E. milii latex. The study is part of a comprehensive safety evaluation of this plant molluscicide. Lyophilized latex (0, 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight in corn oil was given by gavage to Wistar rats (N = 100 from days 6 to 15 of pregnancy and cesarean sections were performed on day 21 of pregnancy. The numbers of implantation sites, living and dead fetuses, resorptions and corpora lutea were recorded. Fetuses were weighed, examined for external malformations, and fixed for visceral examination, or cleared and stained with Alizarin red S for skeleton evaluation. A reduction of body weight minus uterine weight at term indicated that E. milii latex was maternally toxic over the dose range tested. No latex-induced embryolethality was noted at the lowest dose (125 mg/kg but the resorption rate was markedly increased at 250 mg/kg (62.5% and 500 mg/kg (93.4%. A higher frequency of fetuses showing signs of delayed ossification (control: 17.4%; 125 mg/kg: 27.4% and 250 mg/kg: 62.8%; P<0.05 vs control indicated that fetal growth was retarded at doses ³ 125 mg latex/kg body weight. No increase in the proportion of fetuses with skeletal anomalies was observed at the lowest dose but the incidence of minor skeletal malformations was higher at 250 mg/kg body weight (control: 13.7%; 125 mg/kg: 14.8%; 250 mg/kg: 45.7%; P<0.05 vs control. Since a higher frequency of minor malformations was noted only at very high doses of latex which are embryolethal and maternally toxic, it is reasonable to conclude that this plant molluscicide poses no teratogenic hazard or, at least, that this possibility is of a considerably low order of magnitude

  2. Atividade da acetolactato sintase de plantas de milho e de amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla resistentes e suscetíveis ao imazaquin ALS activity of wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla and corn (Zea mays resistant and susceptible to imazaquin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Oliveira

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O amendoim-bravo, (Euphorbia heterophylla é uma importante planta daninha em mais de 56 países, inclusive no Brasil, onde tem sido relatado o aparecimento de populações resistentes aos herbicidas inibidores da acetolactato sintase (ALS. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do herbicida imazaquin na atividade da ALS extraída das plantas de milho e amendoim-bravo, resistentes e suscetíveis ao produto. Sementes de dois genótipos de milho e vários biótipos de amendoim-bravo provenientes de diferentes regiões agrícolas brasileiras foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação por 21 dias. A atividade da ALS extraída das folhas das plantas foi determinada na presença de doses de imazaquin. A etapa de purificação da enzima foi substituída por uma centrifugação de 2.800 rpm por dois minutos. Equações de regressão linear para absorbância em função do log da concentração de imazaquin foram ajustadas para cada população, visando obtenção do I50. A dose de imazaquin necessária para inibir 50% da atividade da ALS (I50 na variedade de milho Pioneer 3162 IR (I50 260 µM foi 4.333 vezes maior que a dose requerida pela BRS 473 (0,06 µM, a qual é suscetível ao imazaquin. Os biótipos de amendoim-bravo provenientes do Rio Grande do Sul apresentaram valores de I50 de 1.961,3 e 13,8 mM para os biótipos resistentes e suscetíveis, respectivamente. Os biótipos provenientes de Cafelândia e Maringá (PR e Viçosa (MG apresentaram valores de I50 maiores que 5.000 mM para os biótipos resistentes e maiores que 1.000 mM para os suscetíveis. O amendoim-bravo coletado na Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, em área que nunca foi tratada com herbicidas inibidores da ALS, apresentou I50 de 12,2 mM. Conclui-se que a medida in vitro da atividade da ALS é um método sensível para determinação da presença de biótipos resistentes à ação do herbicida imazaquin. A etapa de purificação da ALS pode ser substituída por um método que envolve uma r

  3. Resistência de biótipos de Euphorbia heterophylla l. Aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima ALS utilizados na cultura de soja Resistance of Euphorbia heterophylla l. Biotypes to ALS enzyme inhibitor herbicides used in soybean crop

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    GERSON AUGUSTO GELMINI

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Os herbicidas constituem-se na principal medida de controle de plantas daninhas na cultura de soja; no entanto, a pressão de seleção causada pelo uso contínuo de produtos com o mesmo mecanismo de ação pode provocar a seleção de biótipos resistentes, como ocorreu com Euphorbia heterophylla L., que se mostrou resistente aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima acetolactato sintase (ALS em áreas dos Estados do Paraná e Rio Grande do Sul. Para comprovar possíveis novos casos, bem como alternativas para prevenção e manejo, coletaram-se sementes de plantas de E. heterophylla L., na região de Assis (SP, que sobreviveram a tratamentos, em que esses herbicidas foram sistematicamente aplicados nos últimos anos. Desenvolveu-se o experimento em casa de vegetação, comparando-se o biótipo resistente ao suscetível, quando submetido aos diversos herbicidas aplicados em pós-emergência. Aplicaram-se quando as plantas encontravam-se no estádio de duas a quatro folhas verdadeiras, nas doses zero, uma, duas, quatro e oito vezes a recomendada. Aos 20 dias após a aplicação, avaliaram-se os parâmetros relativos ao controle e produção de fitomassa epígea visando ao estabelecimento de curvas de doses-resposta, à obtenção dos fatores de resistência com base nos valores da DL50 e GR50, e à verificação da ocorrência de resistência múltipla. O biótipo resistente apresentou diferentes níveis de resistência aos herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl e imazethapyr, demonstrando resistência cruzada aos inibidores da ALS dos grupos das sulfoniluréias e imidazolinonas. No entanto, foi eficientemente controlado nos tratamentos com fomesafen (250 g.ha-1, lactofen (120 g.ha-1, flumiclorac-pentil (40 g.ha-1, glufosinato de amônio (150 g.ha-1 e glyphosate (360 g.ha-1.Herbicides are the main tool for weed control in soybean crop, but the selection pressure attributed to the repeated application of the same herbicides and the same mechanism of action can

  4. 以麦二叉蚜和麦长管蚜为寄主的烟蚜茧蜂生理生化特性比较研究%Comparative Studies of the Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Aphidius gifuensis Ashmead Parasitizing Schizaphis graminum and Macrosiphum avenae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋修超; 郑方强; 戴凤宾; 墨铁路; 许永玉

    2012-01-01

    In the laboratory (22 ℃, RH 40%, a photoperiod of L : D=16h : 8h), the adult physiological and biochemical characteristics of Aphidius gifuensis Ashmead were compared after reared on the two species of wheat aphid, Schizaphis graminum and Macrosiphum avenae. The results showed that, compared with those reared on S. graminum, both female and male adult wasps had wider head width (0.67 mm, 0.62 mm), longer longevity (5.0 d, 4.6 d), lower supercooling points (-25.7 ℃, -25.3 ℃) and freezing points (-24.9 ℃, -24.8 ℃), and higher water, protein and carbohydrate contents when reared on M. avenae. However, there were no differences in fat content between those reared on two different host plants, and no differences in all previous parameters between female and males reared on the same host plants. There were no differences in activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase between those reared on two host plants, and between female and male adult wasps reared on the same host plants, with exceptions of that male adult wasps reared on M. avenae had higher activities of catalase than those reared on S. graminum and that female adult wasps reared on M. avenae had higher activities of peroxidase than those reared on S. graminum. The results indicated that A.gifuensis from M. avenae gets higher potential of anti-adversity than those from S. graminum.%在22 ℃,相对湿度 40%和光周期16L:8D条件下,对以麦二叉蚜Schizaphis graminum和麦长管蚜Macrosiphum avenae为寄主的烟蚜茧蜂Aphidius gifuensis Ashmead雌、雄成蜂生理生化特性进行了比较研究.结果发现,与以麦二叉蚜为寄主时相比,以麦长管蚜为寄主的烟蚜茧蜂雌、雄成蜂头壳更宽、寿命更长(雌蜂 5.0 d,雄蜂 4.6 d)、过冷却点(雌蜂 -25.7 ℃,雄蜂 -25.3 ℃)和结冰点(雌蜂 -24.9 ℃,雄蜂 -24.8 ℃)更低,体内水分、蛋白质和糖类含量更高,但脂肪含量无显著差异.在同一寄主上雌雄蜂间,前

  5. Differentiation of the traditional Chinese medicinal plants Euphorbia humifusa and E. maculata from adulterants by TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Heng-Gang; Wang, Hong; Li, De-Zhu; Xue, Chun-Ying; Wang, Qing-Zhong

    2008-02-01

    DNA sequence analysis of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction were exploited for their applications in the differentiation of the traditional chinese medicinal plants euphorbia humifusa and e. maculata from three related adulterants e. hypericifolia, E. atoto and E. prostrata. The data demonstrated that variations in the ITS1 regions were very low at the intra-species level but extremely high at the inter-species level, so that they could be easily distinguished at the DNA level. The sequence difference allowed an effective and reliable differentiation of E. humifusa and E. maculata from the adulterants by TaqMan real-time PCR.

  6. Green synthesis of the Cu/ZnO nanoparticles mediated by Euphorbia prolifera leaf extract and investigation of their catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Seyedeh Samaneh; Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Rustaiyan, Abdolhossein

    2016-06-15

    A green synthesis process was developed for the preparation of the Cu/ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) using Euphorbia prolifera leaf extract as a mild, renewable and non-toxic reducing agent and efficient stabilizer without using dangerous, hazardous and toxic materials. The approach of biosynthesis appears to be cost efficient eco-friendly and easy alternative to conventional methods of the Cu/ZnO NPs synthesis. The Cu/ZnO NPs were characterized by FESEM, EDS, elemental mapping, TEM and XRD. TEM micrograph has shown the formation of Cu NPs with the size in the range of 5-17 nm. In addition, the synthesized Cu/ZnO NPs presented excellent catalytic activity for the degradation of Methylene blue (MB) and Congo red (CR) in the presence of NaBH4 in water at room temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Development and detection efficiency of sequence characterized amplified region markers for authentication of medicinal plant Ruta graveolens and its adulterant Euphorbia dracunculoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irum Gul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the increase in demand of herbal medicines, adulteration in these drugs is also gaining momentum and remains an indispensable problem in domestic and export markets. Correct identification is the first step toward assuring quality, safety, and efficacy of indigenous herbal medicines. Materials and Methods: In this study, sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR markers were developed to discriminate Ruta graveolens from its adulterant Euphorbia dracunculoides. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD was performed and subsequently converted into SCAR markers. Results: After performing RAPD, SCAR primers were designed from the selected unique RAPD amplicons of the genuine drug as well as its adulterant. These primers produced 670 bp and 750 bp SCAR markers with genomic DNA sample of R. graveolens and E. dracunculoides, respectively. Conclusion: Development of these markers will help in the quality control of herbal drugs and monitoring widespread adulteration of these drugs by pharmaceutical industries and government agencies.

  8. A transmission electron microscopy study of the diversity of Candida albicans cells induced by Euphorbia hirta L.leaf extract in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abu; Arra; Basma; Zakaria; Zuraini; Sreenivasan; Sasidharan

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the major changes in the microstructure of Candida albicans(C. albicans) after treatment with Euphorbia hirta(E.hirta) L.leaf extract.Methods:Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the ultrastructural changes caused by E.hirta extract on C. albicans cells al various exposure time.Results:It was found that the main abnormalities were the alterations in morphology,lysis and complete collapse of the yeast cells after 36 h of exposure to the extract.Whereas the control cultures showed a typical morphology of Candida with a uniform central density,typically structured nucleus,and a cytoplasm with several elements of endomembrane system and enveloped by a regular,intact cell wall.Conclusions:The significant antifungal activity shown by this methanol extract of E.hirta L.suggests its potential against infections caused by C.albicans.The extract may be developed as an anticandidal agent.

  9. A transmission electron microscopy study of the diversity of Candida albicans cells induced by Euphorbia hirta L. leaf extract in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abu Arra Basma; Zakaria Zuraini; Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the major changes in the microstructure of Candida albicans (C. albicans) after treatment with Euphorbia hirta (E. hirta) L. leaf extract. Methods: Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the ultrastructural changes caused by E. hirta extract on C.albicans cells at various exposure time. Results: It was found that the main abnormalities were the alterations in morphology, lysis and complete collapse of the yeast cells after 36 h of exposure to the extract. Whereas the control cultures showed a typical morphology of Candida with a uniform central density, typically structured nucleus, and a cytoplasm with several elements of endomembrane system and enveloped by a regular, intact cell wall. Conclusions: The significant antifungal activity shown by this methanol extract of E. hirta L. suggests its potential against infections caused by C. albicans. The extract may be developed as an anticandidal agent.

  10. Studies on macrocyclic jatrophane diterpenes of Euphorbia kansui%甘遂中麻风树烷型大环二萜类化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈云利; 袁丹; 徐鑫; 傅宏征

    2008-01-01

    目的:研究甘遂Euphorbia kansui中麻风树烷型大环二萜类的化学成分.方法:采用硅胶、凝胶等色谱技术进行分离,通过NMR等波谱学方法鉴定化合物结构.结果:分离并鉴定出3个麻风树烷型大环二萜,分别为甘遂宁D1(kansuinin D1,1),甘遂宁D(kansuinin D,2)和甘遂宁A(kansuinin A,3).结论:其中化合物1为新化合物.

  11. Water stress on the performace of herbicides and biochemical characteristics of Euphorbia heterophyllaDéficit hídrico na eficiência de herbicidas e nas características bioquímicas de Euphorbia heterophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Ferraz Campos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate conditions the effectiveness of acetolactate synthase (ALS and protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PROTOX inhibitors in the Bidens pilosa control under two water deficit conditions, as well as to determine the action under the content of soluble carbohydrates and protein and free amino acids of weed. The experimental design was randomized completely design, with four replications, with the treatments setup in a factorial scheme 4x2, with four herbicides (fomesafen lactofen, chlorimuron-ethyl and imazethapyr, and two soil water conditions (-0.5 MPa and –0.01MPa. At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after application (DAA, was assessed visually control efficiency of herbicides. For the determination of organic solutes plants were collected at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after application (HAA, except for the amino acids were analyzed 48, 72 e 96 HAA. Herbicides fomesafen and lactofen were efficient to control E. heterophylla, while the ALS inhibitors (chlorimuron-ethyl e imazethapyr provided an unsatisfactory control. Water deficit altered the efficiency of herbicides, mainly chlorimuronethyl. Lactofen provided a smaller content of soluble carbohydrates, in the same way, the protein ranged in the 72 HAA, the lower value observed for imazethapyr e lactofen respectively. Herbicide lactofen increased the concentration of free amino acids, while the imposition of water deficit caused an increase in soluble carbohydrate content.O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de herbicidas inibidores da acetolactato sintase (ALS e protoporfirinogênio oxidase (PROTOX no controle de Euphorbia heterophylla sob duas condições hídricas, bem como determinar a ação destes sob o conteúdo de carboidratos e proteínas solúveis e aminoácidos livres da planta daninha. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, com os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial 4x2, sendo quatro

  12. Produção de Bipolaris euphorbiae em meios de cultura sólidos e líquidos obtidos de grãos e resíduos agroindustriais Production of Bipolaris euphorbiae in solid and liquid culture media obtained from grains and agricultural industry residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Cristina Penariol

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A introdução de Bipolaris euphorbiae como bioagente de controle de Euphorbia heterophylla é dependente da produção de conídios em grande quantidade. No presente trabalho, objetivou-se definir meios de cultura sólidos e líquidos, obtidos de grãos ou resíduos da agroindústria, eficazes para a produção de conídios de B. euphorbiae. No preparo dos meios sólidos utilizaram-se grãos de arroz, trigo e sorgo, quirelas de arroz, milho e trigo, sorgo moído, farelos de arroz, trigo e soja, cascas de mandioca e soja, casca de mandioca + farelo de soja, bagaço de cana e bagaço de cana + amido solúvel. No preparo dos meios líquidos, utilizaram-se grãos de arroz, sorgo e trigo, quirela de milho, farelos de trigo, soja e arroz, casca de mandioca e soja, vinhaça de cana e água de prensa da mandioca. Avaliaram-se a produção e a viabilidade dos conídios e a virulência do fungo e, nos meios líquidos, também a biomassa. A produção de conídios é influenciada pelo tipo de meio de cultura, sendo acentuadamente maior nos meios sólidos, destacando-se, como substratos, o sorgo em grão (474 x 10(6 conídios g-1 e a casca de soja (472 x 10(6 conídios g-1. Dentre os meios líquidos obteve-se mais produção usando-se farelo de trigo (1,33 x 10(6 conídios mL-1. A virulência e a viabilidade de B. euphorbiae não são afetadas pelo preparo de meios sólidos ou líquidos e pela composição nutricional dos meios de cultura. Na maioria dos meios sólidos ou líquidos obteve-se viabilidade de conídios maior que 98%; apenas os conídios produzidos nos meios sólidos de quirela de arroz, casca de mandioca + farelo de soja e farelo de soja estavam com viabilidade significativamente menor.The introduction of Bipolaris euphorbiae as a bioagent for Euphorbia heterophylla control depends on fungal conidia production in large amount. This work evaluate to solid and liquid culture media obtained from grains and residues from agriculture industries

  13. Avaliação da atividade moluscicida do látex de três espécies de Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae sobre Leptinaria unilamellata d'Orbigny, 1835 (Gastropoda - Subulinidae Assessment of moluscicidal activity of the latex of three Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae species on Leptinaria unilamellata d'Obigny 1835 (Gastropoda - Subulinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S Afonso-Neto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastrópodes pulmonados terrestres podem atuar como hospedeiros intermediários de helmintos. Os primeiros registros do controle químico desses invertebrados datam do início do século XX e as substâncias utilizadas eram toxinas inespecíficas já empregadas no controle de outras pragas. Moluscicidas sintéticos apresentam limitações técnicas que estimularam a busca de substitutos naturais. Dentre as várias espécies vegetais com atividade moluscicida, Euphorbia cotinifolia L., Euphorbia milii des Moul. var. splendens (Bojer ex Hook Ursch & Leandri e Euphorbia tirucalli L. despertam atenção pelos excelentes resultados obtidos sobre moluscos aquáticos. Contudo, estudos sobre a atividade de plantas moluscicidas em moluscos terrestres são pouco comuns, apesar de sua grande importância parasitológica e agrícola. As semelhanças anatomo-fisiológicas entre espécies de moluscos aquáticos e terrestres sugerem que estratégias de controle químico possam ter eficiência semelhante para os dois grupos de invertebrados. Com base nessa hipótese, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade moluscicida do látex de três espécies do gênero Euphorbia sobre Leptinaria unilamellata d'Orbigny, 1835, gastrópode terrestre descrito como hospedeiro intermediário de helmintos trematódeos digenéticos que parasitam animais domésticos. Destas E. milii var. splendens apresentou efeito moluscicida elevado sobre L. unilamellata, 100% até uma diluição de 1:800, já nos primeiros minutos após a aplicação. Embora citadas na literatura como tóxicas para moluscos aquáticos, E. cotinifolia e E. tirucalli não exibiram atividade moluscicida sobre L. unilamellata. Os resultados do presente estudo indicam que o látex de E. milii var. splendens pode se constituir em uma estratégia viável de controle químico de moluscos terrestres.Pulmonate terrestrial gastropods can be intermediate hosts for helminthes. The first records of

  14. Influence des facteurs écologiques (température et hygrométrie sur le développement de la cochenille farineuse du manioc (Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero, Homoptera: Pseudococcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obame Minko, D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Influence of Ecological Factors (such as Temperature and Hygrometry on the Development of Cassava Mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero, Homoptera: Pseudococcidae. Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero cassava mealybug was accidentally carried away from South America to Africa by early 70s. Since then, it has been inducing a lot of damage to cassava cultures, which cassava remains the main foodstuff in the southern Sahara inhabitant's nutrition. Being anxious to understand the depredator population evolution in the nature, we have studied the temperature and hygrometry as main ecological factors helpful to development. The temperature favours eggs hatching and reduces the duration of embryonic, larval and cycle development whereas hygrometry's action on mealybug development can be neglected. As both factors are opposite functions in the nature, mutual influence on the field can be possible.

  15. 千金子化学成分的研究%Studies on Chemical constituents in seeds of Euphorbia lathyris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦威; 鲁璐; 邓美彩; 邵华武; 鲁润华

    2010-01-01

    目的 对续随子Euphorbia lathyris的种子千金子进行化学成分的研究.方法 采用正反相硅胶柱色谱、凝胶柱色谱和重结晶方法进行分离和纯化,通过理化常数和波谱分析对化合物结构进行鉴定.结果 从千金子乙醇提取物中分离得到结构类型多样的22个化合物,分别是大戟因子L_1[euphobia L_1,3-O-苯乙酰基-5,15-O-二乙酰基-6(17)-环氧续随子醇,1]、3,7-O-二苯甲酰基-5,15-O-二乙酰基-7-羟基续随子醇(2)、3-O-苯甲酰基-5,15-O-二乙酰基续随子醇(3)、3-O-十六碳酰基巨大戟醇(4)、20-O-十六碳酰基巨大戟醇(5)、3-O-肉桂酰基-15,17-O-二乙酰基-17-羟基交京大戟醇(6)、3-O-苯甲酰基-5,15,17-O-三乙酰基-17-羟基异续随子醇(7)、3-O-烟酰基-5,15-O-二乙酰基续随子醇(8)、3-O-苯甲酰基-5,15-O-二乙酰基-7-O-烟酰基-7-羟基续随子醇(9)、巨大戟醇(10)、续随子醇(11)、七叶树内酯(12)、B-谷甾醇(13)、棕榈酸(14)、1,2,3-三羟基苯(15)、2,3-二羟丙基十九碳酸酯(16)、2,3-二羟丙基-9-烯-十八碳酸酯(17)、2,3,4-三羟基丁基-十五碳-3-烯碳酸酯(18)、金色酰胺醇脂(19)、苯甲酸(20)、对羟基苯甲酸(21)、油酸(22).结论 其中化合物10、11、14~19是首次从千金子中分离得到.化合物1~3是其主要二萜成分.

  16. 链格孢菌毒素能诱导中国月季产生抗蚜活性的细交链孢菌酮酸%Alternaria toxin-induced resistance in rose plants against rose aphid (Macrosiphum rosivorum):effect of tenuazonic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fa-zhong YANG; Bin YANG; Bei-bei LI; Chun XIAO

    2015-01-01

      结论:(1)链格孢菌粗毒素和对照品 TeA均能使中国月季植株产生对月季长管蚜的系统诱导抗性,显著降低月季长管蚜对中国月季的危害;(2)链格孢菌粗毒素中的主要抗蚜活性成分是 TeA, TeA有望成为中国月季上具有抗蚜活性的先导化合物;(3)粗毒素和对照品 TeA对蚜虫和植物均无伤害作用,但能激活植物对虫害的诱导抗性(ISR)和系统获得性抗性(SAR),可直接证实二者间存在着寄主植物介导的间接的病虫互作关系。%Many different types of toxins are produced by the fungus, Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. Little is known, however, regarding the influence of these toxins on insects. In this study, we investigated the toxin-induced inhibitory effects of the toxin produced by A. alternata on the rose aphid, Macrosiphum rosivorum, when the toxin was applied to leaves of the rose, Rosa chinensis. The results demonstrated that the purified crude toxin was non-harmful to rose plants and rose aphids, but had an intensive inhibitory effect on the multiplication of aphids. The inhibitory index against rose aphids reached 87.99% when rose plants were sprayed with the toxin solution at a low concentration. Further results from bioassays with aphids and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses demon-strated that tenuazonic acid (TeA) was one of the most important resistance-related active components in the crude toxin. The content of TeA was 0.1199% in the crude toxin under the HPLC method. Similar to the crude toxin, the inhibitory index of pure TeA reached 83.60%15 d after the rose plants were sprayed with pure TeA solution at the lower concentration of 0.060μg/ml, while the contents of residual TeA on the surface and in the inner portion of the rose plants were only 0.04 and 0.00 ng/g fresh weight of TeA-treated rose twigs, respectively, 7 d after the treatment. Our results show that TeA, an active component

  17. Nephrotoxicity evaluation of a new cembrane diterpene from Euphorbiae pekinensis Radix with HEK 293T cells and the toxicokinetics study in rats using a sensitive and reliable UFLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Ziying; Zhang, Ruowen; Hou, Pengyi; Bi, Kaishun; Chen, Xiaohui

    2016-02-01

    (-)-(1S)-15-Hydroxy-18-carboxycembrene, the first cembrane-type diterpenoid found in the family Euphorbiaceae, isolated from Euphorbiae pekinensis Radix, was identified to be nephrotoxic using HEK 293T cells. Tests on cell morphology, cell viability and biochemical markers about oxidation stress were carried out using inverted microscope, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and commercial kits respectively, which proved the diterpene time- and dose-dependently decreased cells proliferation. Besides, a sensitive and robust UFLC-MS/MS method was developed and fully validated to investigate the in vivo behavior in rats of the diterpene after oral administration of Euphorbiae pekinensis Radix extracts at a dosage of 9g/kg. The method showed a good linearity in tested range (3-1500ng/mL) with acceptable accuracy and precision. The recovery of the diterpene was more than 85% and the matrix effect was within ±20%. The toxicokinetics parameters indicate the diterpene reached Cmax quickly and slowly eliminate. The study proved the newly found diterpene was one of the nephrotoxic substances of Euphorbiae pekinensis Radix and revealed its toxicokinetics behavior.

  18. Ocorrência de Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel (homoptera: margarodidae em videira no município de Louveira, Estado de São Paulo Occurrence of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel (homoptera: margarodidae on grape at Louveira, State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    André Luiz Lourenção

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Em 1986, em inspeção em vinhedos no município de Louveira, SP, foi observado definhamento acentuado de plantas em uma quadra de uma propriedade no Bairro de Abadia. Plantas do mesmo vinhedo, mas de outros talhões e de outras propriedades, não apresentava o problema. O exame do sistema radicular de plantas da quadra em questão revelou a presença de Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel (Homoptera: Margarodidae em alta infestação. Conhecida também como pérola-da-terra ou margarodes, é praga muito nociva à videira e de difícil controle. Sua ocorrência no Estado de São Paulo infestando raízes de videira restringia-se aos municípios de São Miguel Arcanjo e Guareí, acrescentando-se, agora, Louveira.A survey on vineyards at Louveira, State of São Paulo, Brazil, carried out in 1986 revealed a limited but pronounced manifestation of decay, including death of some plants. Analysis of the root system of symptomatic plants showed infestation of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis females. This insect is a serious grape pest in Southern Brazil. In the State of Sao Paulo, however, occurrence of E. brasiliensis on grape had so far been restricted to São Miguel Arcanjo and Guareí counties. The region in which Louveira is located has been the most important grape producing area of the State. Therefore, due to the harm this pest represents to the grape crop, the growers should be alerted to prevent further dissemination.

  19. High dilutions of euphorbia tirucalli L. (aveloz modify the viability and glycolytic metabolism of cell lines Altas Diluciones de Euphorbia tirucalli L. (arbusto de goma modifican la viabilidad y metabolismo glucolítico de líneas celulares Altas diluições de Euphorbia tirucalli L. (aveloz modificam a viabilidade e o metabolismo glicolítico de linhas celulares

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    Carla Holandino

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The latex of Euphorbia tirucalli L. (Aveloz is popularly used to treat cancers from diverse sources such as: breast, prostate, lung and kidney. Furthermore, high dilutions of this latex (latex-HDs have been successfully used in the treatment of tumors, although the mechanisms involved in this antitumoral activity are not yet known. The present study aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effects of latex-HDs in 2 human cell lines, including non-tumoral melanocytes (MelanA line and human breast cancer cells (MCF7 line. Latex-HDs were obtained through the interaction of two procedures: 1:100 dilution in mass and agitation, using 2 solvents, water and 70% ethanol in homeopathic preparations 5, 15 and 30cH, following the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopeia. Cell lines were incubated with 1 % and 10 % of latex-HDs for 24 hours. Controls treated with similar preparations without latex were incubated under the same conditions. Cell viability was analyzed by MTT assay and morphological features were assessed by May-Grunwald-Giemsa method. Cell ultrastructure was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Metabolic alterations were detected by spectrophotometric assay for the enzyme 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK-1 activity. 1% of ethanolic latex-HDs induced no alterations in MelanA cells viability, however Aveloz 15cH induced an increase in MCF7 cells viability. After aqueous treatment, MelanA cells viability decreased in almost all systems, whereas in MCF7 cells, an increase was detected in dynamized water systems and Aveloz 15CH. However, only water 15cH increased cell viability in comparison to control and non-dynamized water. No alterations in MCF7 morphology and ultrastructure were visualized through light microscopy or electronic microscopy, respectively. Interesting results were detected when we studied the glycolytic metabolism of both cells, giving support to evidences showing that HDs interfere in the metabolism of cell lines. Further studies are

  20. Análise fitoquímica e atividade fotoprotetora de extrato etanólico de Euphorbia tirucalli Linneau (Euphorbiaceae

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    J.F.F ORLANDA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Euphorbia tirucalli Linneau, conhecida popularmente como “avelós”, “cachorro pelado” ou “pau-pelado”, é utilizada na medicina popular para o tratamento de câncer, antibiótico e antivirótico. As plantas medicinais são, frequentemente, utilizadas com o intuito de substituir ou auxiliar as terapias convencionais no tratamento de várias doenças, inclusive para evitar os malefícios causados por radiações ultravioletas. Com isso, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o potencial fotoprotetor e a triagem fitoquímica do extrato etanólico das partes aéreas de avelós. A atividade fotoprotetora foi avaliada por meio de ensaios in vitro segundo o método adaptado de Mansur, utilizando extrato etanólico das partes aéreas. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o estudo fitoquímico evidenciou a presença de açúcares redutores, alcaloides, fenóis, flavonoides, taninos, saponinas, esteroides e triterpenóides na fração etanólica. O extrato apresentou capacidade antioxidante (EC50 de 16,98 ± 0,35 μg.mL-1, teor de compostos fenólicos de 96,18 ± 1,33 mg EqAG/g e flavonoides de 63,57 ± 2,74 mg EqC/g que podem favorecer a atividade fotoprotetora. Avaliando o fator de proteção solar, pode-se observar que todas as concentrações testadas (0,01 a 0,1 µg.mL-1 apresentaram potencial de fotoproteção da radiação ultravioleta com variação de FPS de 6,05 a 19,84, respectivamente. Esses resultados sugerem que o extrato etanólico de Euphorbia tirucalli Linneau apresenta possível efeito fotoprotetor.

  1. Effect of Niclosamide (Bayluscide WP 70 (R, Anacardium occidentale hexane extract and Euphorbia splendens latex on behavior of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818, under laboratory conditions

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    Pedro Jurberg

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available The repellent effect of the molluscicides Niclosamide (Bayluscide WP 70 (R, Anacardium occidentale and the latex of Euphorbia splendens on Biomphalaria glabrata was observed through the investigation of the occurrence of escape behavior among molluscs that were exposed to dosages lower than the LD 50. The total number of individuals out of water among the surviving snails in the control group provided a "Natural Escape Index". The comparison between this total and the total number of surviving snails in each group exposed to the different dosages of the molluscicides after 24 hr provided the "Molluscicide Escape Index" and the detection of a "Repellency Range" to these snails. The escape indexes for Niclosamide, A. occidentale and E. splendens were 10, 6.22 and 6.44 respectively. Repellency occurred at the following concentration ranges: 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03 ppm Bayluscide, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 ppm A. occidentale and 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20 ppm E. splendens. The Natural Escape Index obtained in the control group was zero.

  2. C/sub 4/ photosynthesis in Euphorbia degeneri and E. remyi: a comparison of photosynthetic carbon metabolism in leaves, callus cultures and regenerated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzin, S.E.

    1984-04-01

    Based on analysis of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ fixation kinetics and assays of enzymes related to C/sub 4/ metabolism (NAD-ME, NADP-ME, NAD-MDH, NADP-MDH, AST, ALT), leaves and regenerated plants of Euphorbia degeneri exhibit a modified NADP-ME-type photosynthesis. Apparently, both aspartate and malate are used for transport of CO/sub 2/ to bundle sheath cells. Callus grown on either non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media fixes CO/sub 2/ into RPP-cycle intermediates and sucrose, as well as malate and aspartate. /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ pulse/chase kinetics show no significant loss of label from C/sub 4/ acids throughout a one minute chase. Analysis of PEPCase revealed the presence of 2 isoenzymes in both leaf and regenerated plant tissues (K/sub m/ (PEP) = 0.080 and 0.550) but only one isoenzyme in callus (K/sub m/ = 0.100). It appears that C/sub 4/ photosynthesis does not occur in callus derived from this C/sub 4/ dicot but is regenerated concomitant with shoot regeneration, and ..beta..-carboxylation of PEP in callus, mediated by the low K/sub m/ isoenzyme of PEPCase, produces C/sub 4/ acids that are not involved in the CO/sub 2/ shuttle mechanism characteristic of C/sub 4/ photosynthesis. 161 references, 19 figures, 12 tables.

  3. Alterações histológicas em Lymnaea columella provocadas pelo látex de Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii

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    Samanta Moura de Araújo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Observações histológicas em moluscos da espécie Lymnaea columella foram realizadas para determinar a existência ou não de alterações provocadas pelo uso do látex de Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii. O experimento foi realizado de acordo com os métodos padronizados pela OMS. Cinqüenta exemplares de L. columella, com comprimento de concha de 6±1mm, foram submetidos a 200ml das soluções nas concentrações de 0,47µl/L; 0,76µl/L; 0,94µl/L e 1,51µl/L, durante 24 horas. Após o evento experimental, os moluscos foram colocados em solução de Raillet & Henry, para sacrifício e fixação. Os resultados demonstraram lesões caracterizadas por degeneração, necrose e acúmulo de líquido na glândula digestiva e no rim, em exemplares submetidos a concentrações a partir de 0,47 mil/L.

  4. The molluscicidal activity of the latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii on Melanoides tuberculata (Thiaridae, a snail associated with habitats of Biomphalaria glabrata (Planorbidae

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    Alexandre Giovanelli

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of the latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii was considered as an effective control method for Biomphalaria glabrata in Sumidouro, Rio de Janeiro. However, the appearance and expansion of the snail Melanoides tuberculata since August 1997, with the concomitant reduction of the population of B. glabrata suggest that competitive exclusion might be taking place. Depending on the susceptibility of the thiarid to the E. splendens toxin, the natural control that is occurring could be interrupted by the employment of the latex if the planorbid were less susceptible to the toxin. The aim of this study is to investigate the molluscicidal activity of the latex on M. tuberculata. We used 420 M. tuberculata, from Sumidouro. Fourteen different latex concentrations were tested using World Health Organization general methodology. Probit analysis was used for LD90 and LD50 determination. The LD50 was 3.57 mg/l and LD90 was 6.22 mg/l. At the highest concentration (10 mg/l there was no survival. No significant differences among replicas (chi2 = 8.31; gl = 13; p > 0.05 were found. The LD90 dose for M. tuberculata was 13.8 times greater than that for B. glabrata, so that the molluscicide in the presence of the thiarid may have a synergic effect on reduction of Biomphalaria populations.

  5. Physiological changes in Biomphalaria glabrata say, 1818 (Pulmonata: Planorbidae caused by sub-lethal concentrations of the latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii N.E.B (Euphorbiaceae

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    Clélia Christina Mello-Silva

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Molluscides have been used as one of the strategies to control schistosomiasis. Many plant extracts with molluscidal effects have been tested, but the action of the latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii is considered the most promising because it meets the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO. The objective of this study was to determine the lethal dose and identify the effects of the different doses of latex of E. splendens var. hislopii on the physiology of Biomphalaria glabrata submitted to treatment for 24 h. The concentrations of glucose, uric acid and total proteins in the hemolymph and of glycogen in the digestive gland and cephalopodal mass were determined. The LD50 value was 1 mg/l. The highest escape index was found to be at a concentration of 0.6 mg/l. The results showed that the latex of E. splendens var. hislopii caused a sharp reduction in the reserves of glycogen in the digestive gland and elevation of the protein content in the hemolymph of B. glabrata.

  6. Evaluation of the Molluscicidal Properties of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (N.E.B. Latex: Experimental Test in an Endemic Area in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Mendes Nelymar M

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the positive results obtained regarding the molluscicidal properties of the latex of Euphorbia splendens that were corroborated in laboratory and field tests under restricted conditions, a field study was conducted in experimental streams located in an endemic area. After recording the average annual fluctuations of vectors in three streams, a solution of E. splendens latex at 12 ppm was applied in stream A, a solution of niclosamide at 3 ppm that was applied in stream B and a third stream (C remained untreated for negative control. Applications of E. splendens and niclosamide resulted in a mortality of 100% among the snails collected in the streams A and B. No dead snails were found in the negative control stream. A monthly follow-up survey conducted during three consecutive months confirmed the return of vectors to both experimental streams treated with latex and niclosamide. This fact has called for a need to repeat application in order to reach the snails that remained buried in the mud substrate or escaped to the water edge, as well as, newly hatched snails that did not respond to the concentration of these molluscicides. Adults snails collected a month following treatment led us to believe that they had migrate from untreated areas of the streams to those previously treated

  7. Efficiency of the latex from Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (N.E. Br. Ursch & Leandri, Euphorbiaceae, in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806 (Acari: Ixodidae

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    Zeneida T. Pinto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the latex from Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (N.E. Br. Ursch & Leandri, Euphorbiaceae, on the eggs and engorged larvae of Rhipicephalus (B. sanguineus (Latreille, 1806 (Acari: Ixodidae. Six aqueous concentrations: 25, 50, 100, 125, 250 and 500 μL/L of the latex of this plant were tested. The control group was tested only with distilled water. The latex of E. splendens var. hislopii presented an LD50 of 18.031 μL/L and LD90 of 84.610 μL/L against the eggs of R. (B. sanguineus. The larvae of all the groups treated with the latex presented a low survival rate of 0% at 25 μL/L, 1% at 50 μL/L, 2% at 100 μL/L, 3% at 125 μL/L, 9% at 250 μL/L, 5% at 500 μL/L when compared with the control group (91%. On day 7 and 14 after the application the latex killed more efficiently the treated groups (25, 50, 100, 125, 250 and 500 μL/L. As from day 21 the latex became less effective for all treatments. Our results clearly show that the aqueous concentration of the latex have a strong effect on tick eggs and larvae suggesting that it could become an important acaricide.

  8. Acute toxicity impacts of Euphorbia hirta L extract on behavior, organs body weight index and histopathology of organs of the mice and Artemia salina

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    Mohammad Abu Basma Rajeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The methanol extract of Euphorbia hirta L (Euphorbiaceae, which is used in traditional medicines, was tested for in vivo toxicity. Materials and Methods: In vivo brine shrimp lethality assay and oral acute toxicity study at single high dose of 5000 mg/kg and observation for 14 days in mice were used to study the toxic effect of E. hirta. Results: Brine shrimp lethality assay was used to calculate the median lethal concentration (LC 50 of E. hirta (for leaves, stems, flowers and roots methanolic extracts at concentrations from 100 to 0.07 mg/ml. The LC 50 values of 1.589, 1.420, 0.206 and 0.0827 mg/ml were obtained for stems, leaves, flowers and roots, respectively. Potassium dichromate (the positive control had LC 50 value of 0.00758 mg/ml. The acute oral toxicity study of the leaf extract resulted in one third mortality and mild behavioral changes among the treated mice. No significant statistical differences found between body weight, relative (% and absolute (g organ weights of treated and untreated groups (P> 0.05. Gross and microscopic examination of the vital organ tissues revealed no differences between control and treated mice. All the tissues appeared normal. Conclusions : E. hirta leaves methanol extract has exhibited mild toxic effects in mice.

  9. Pathogenic Identification of Bacterial Blight in Euphorbia pulcherrima%一种一品红细菌性疫病病原菌的鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣意; 谭志琼; 解修超; 梁玮莎

    2004-01-01

    采用一系列指标对一种一品红细菌性疫病病原菌进行了鉴定研究.描述了近年来海南省儋州市某花圃一品红植株上发生的一种细菌性疫病的症状,测定了病原菌的形态、染色反应、培养性状、生理生化特性以及寄主范围,将病原菌鉴定为野油菜黄单胞菌一品红致病变种[Xanthomonas campestris pv.poinsettiicola(Patel Bhatt et Kulkarni 1951)Dye 1978].猩猩草(Euphora heterophylla)、铁海棠(Euphorbia millii)和木薯(Manihot esculenta)为国内新报道的接种寄主,橡胶(Hevea brasiliensis)和蓖麻(Ricinus communis)为国内外新报道的接种寄主.

  10. Euphorbia milii-native bacteria interactions under airborne formaldehyde stress: Effect of epiphyte and endophyte inoculation in relation to IAA, ethylene and ROS levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaksar, Gholamreza; Treesubsuntorn, Chairat; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2017-02-01

    Better understanding of plant-bacteria interactions under stress is of the prime importance for enhancing airborne pollutant phytoremediation. No studies have investigated plant-epiphyte interactions compared to plant-endophyte interactions under airborne formaldehyde stress in terms of plant Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), ethylene, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and pollutant removal efficiency. Euphorbia milii was inoculated with native plant growth-promoting (PGP) endophytic and epiphytic isolates individually to investigate plant-endophyte compared to plant-epiphyte interactions under continuous formaldehyde fumigation. Under airborne formaldehyde stress, endophyte interacts with its host plant closely and provides higher levels of IAA which protected the plant against formaldehyde phytotoxicity by lowering intracellular ROS, ethylene levels and maintaining shoot epiphytic community; hence, higher pollutant removal. However, plant-epiphyte interactions could not provide enough IAA to confer protection against formaldehyde stress; thus, increased ROS and ethylene levels, large decrease in shoot epiphytic population and lower pollutant removal although epiphyte contacts with airborne pollutant directly (has greater access to gaseous formaldehyde). Endophyte-inoculated plant synthesized more tryptophan as a signaling molecule for its associated bacteria to produce IAA compared to the epiphyte-inoculated one. Under stress, PGP endophyte interacts with its host closely; thus, better protection against stress and higher pollutant removal compared to epiphyte which has limited interactions with the host plant; hence, lower pollutant removal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Bio-guided isolation of the cytotoxic terpenoids from the roots of Euphorbia kansui against human normal cell lines L-O2 and GES-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Gao, Lan; Li, Zhengjun; Yan, Xiaojing; Yang, Yanjing; Tang, Yuping; Cao, Yudan; Ding, Anwei

    2012-01-01

    The dried roots of Euphorbia kansui (kansui) have been used for centuries in China as a herbal medicine for edema, ascites, and asthma. The 95% ethanol extract showed a significant inhibition of cell proliferation against human normal cell lines L-O2 and GES-1. Bioassay-guided separation of the 95% ethanol extract from the roots of E. kansui led to the isolation of 12 diverse terpenoids whose structures were identified by (1)H, (13)C NMR spectroscopy and ESI-MS as kansuinine A (1), kansuinine B (2), kansuinine C (3), kansuiphorin C (4), 3-O-(2'E,4'Z-decadienoyl)-20-O-acetylingenol (5), 3-O-(2'E,4'Edecadienoyl)-20-O-acetylingenol (6), 3-O-(2'E,4'Z-decadienoyl)-20-deoxyingenol (7), 3-O-benzoyl-20-deoxyingenol (8), 5-O-benzoyl-20-deoxyingenol (9), kansenone (10), epi-kansenone (11), euphol (12). All these 12 terpernoids were evaluated in vitro for cytotoxicity on L-O2 and GES-1 cell lines. Most ingenane-type diterpenoids and 8-ene-7-one triterpenoids (5-11) exhibited a relatively lower IC(50) value; therefore, these compounds had stronger cytotoxicity against human normal cell lines L-O2 and GES-1 with dose-dependent relationships. These results will be significantly helpful to reveal the mechanism of toxicity of kansui and to effectively guide safer clinical application of this herb.

  12. Estudo da atividade mutagênica das plantas, Euphorbia milii Des Moulins e Ricinus communis L através do teste de Allium cepa

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    Sueli A. da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a mutagenicidade e o grau de toxicidade de duas plantas tóxicas, a "mamona" (Ricinus communis e a "coroa-de-cristo" (Euphorbia milii, utilizando infusões das sementes de mamona e o látex da coroa-de-cristo, em células meristemáticas de Allium cepa. Foram analisados: o índice mitótico (IM, as anomalias do ciclo mitótico (ACM, anomalias interfásicas, (AI e o total de anomalias (TA. As soluções testes foram preparadas em três concentrações: MT1 - 0,5 g/l, MT2 - 1,0 g/l, MT3 - 2,0 g/l, e MT4 como controle. Da coroa-de-cristo extraiu-se o látex e dissolveu-se em água destilada nas concentrações CT1 -0,5 ml/l, CT2 - 1,0 ml/l, CT3 - 2,0 ml/l, e CT4 controle. Os resultados constataram que somente a mamona aumentou a freqüência de anomalias do ciclo mitótico, assim como, as anomalias interfásicas, demonstrando, dessa forma, uma ação tóxica para o material genético, através do teste de Allium cepa.

  13. Protective potential [correction of potencial] of Euphorbia hirta against cytotoxicity induced in hepatocytes and a HepG2 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindha, D; Saroja, S; Jeyanthi, G P

    2010-01-01

    Medicinal plants play a key role in human health care. Frustration over the side effects of allopathic drugs has driven the medical world to take asylum in the plant kingdom for the treatment of various ailments. Euphorbia hirta belonging to the family of Euphorbiacae has been reported to possess antibacterial, antiviral, and anticancer activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of E. hirta against antitubercular drug-induced cytotoxicity in freshly isolated hepatocytes. The extent of cytotoxicity of the plant extracts was also analyzed using human liver derived HepG2 cell line by estimating the viability of cells (MTT assay). The alcoholic plant extract normalized the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), triacylglycerol (TAG), cholesterol, total protein, albumin, total and direct bilirubin, which were altered due to antitubercular drug intoxication. A dose-dependent increase in percent viability was observed when antitubercular drug exposed HepG2 cells were treated with different concentrations of plant extracts (125, 250, 500 and 1000 microg/mL) which were compared with a standard hepatoprotective drug silymarin. The highest percentage viability of HepG2 was observed at a concentration of 1000 microg/mL. The results suggest that E. hirta exerts protection against antitubercular drug-induced cytotoxicity in this vitro model system.

  14. Resistance of Wild Solanum Accessions to Aphids and Other Potato Pests in Quebec Field Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Fréchette, B.; Bejan, M.; Lucas, É.; Giordanengo, P.; Vincent, C

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were done to determine the susceptibility of six wild potato accessions to the aphids Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Densities of aphid colonies were compared between caged Solanum pinnatisectum Dunal (Solanales: Solanaceae), S. polyadenium Greenmam, S. tarijense Hawkes, S. infundibuliforme Philippi, S. oplocense Hawkes, and S. stoloniferum Schlechted and Bouché, and the commercially cultivated potato plant S. tuberosum L. c...

  15. Isolamento de gene de defensina em Euphorbia hyssopifolia L., caracterização in silico, propriedades químicas e função putativa da proteína codificada

    OpenAIRE

    Santana, Karla Camila Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    Plantas possuem complexos e eficientes mecanismos de defesa contra diversos agentes patogênicos, dentre eles a ativação transcricional de numerosos genes, como os responsáveis pela produção de peptídeos antimicrobianos, incluindo as defensinas. Tratamse de proteínas pequenas (ca. 5 kDa), básicas e ricas em cisteína, que fazem parte do sistema de defesa desses organismos. Euphorbia hyssopifolia L. é uma erva daninha amplamente empregada na medicina popular brasileira, indiana e ...

  16. 山西杉苞蚧蜡泌物的超微形态与化学成分研究%The Ultra-Morphology and Chemical Composition of Waxes Secreted by a Scale Insect Physokermes shanxiensis (Homoptera: Coccidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢映平; 薛皎亮; 郑乐怡

    2005-01-01

    The ultra-morphology and chemical composition of waxes secreted by the scale insect Physokermes shartxiensis (Homoptera: Coccidae) was researched with the techniques of scanning electron microscope (SEM), infrared absorption spectra(IR) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The result indicated that the scale insect secreted wet wax in its nymph stage. The wet wax coagulated into translucent wax covering on the body surface. However, the female adult secreted its wax secretion with white color and long thread form. According to the infrared absorption spectra characteristic of the waxes, it can be known that the both waxes either from male nymph or female adult were composed by a series of saturated and unsaturated long carbon chain compounds. But the two waxes have different in the chemical functional group's kind and numbers that composed the compounds, because of the differences in absorption peaks' numbers and forms which appeared in the two infrared spectra from the wave number 1 800 cm-1 to 1 000 cm-1. Through detected with GC/MS, 14 compounds with carbon atomnumber form C13 to C32 were obtained form the wax of the male scale insect. These compounds included 5 saturated higher fatty acids, 1 unsaturated higher fatty acid, 1 saturated higher fatty alcohol, 1 unsaturated higher fatty alcohol, 1 unsaturated ester,1 saturated aldehyde, and 4 saturated alkane compounds.

  17. Assessment of Euphorbia hirta L. Leaf, Flower, Stem and Root Extracts for Their Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality

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    Santhanam Amutha

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activities of the methanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta L leaves, flowers, stems and roots were evaluated against some medically important bacteria and yeast using the agar disc diffusion method. Four Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus sp., Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus thuringensis, four Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhi and P. mirabilis and one yeast (Candida albicans species were screened. Inhibition zones ranged between 16–29 mm. Leaves extract inhibited the growth of all tested microorganisms with large zones of inhibition, followed by that of flowers, which also inhibited all the bacteria except C. albicans. The most susceptible microbes to all extracts were S. aureus and Micrococcus sp. Root extract displayed larger inhibition zones against Gram positive bacteria than Gram negative bacteria and had larger inhibition zones compared to stem extract. The lowest MIC values were obtained with E. coli and C. albicans (3.12 mg/mL, followed by S. aureus (12.50 mg/mL and P. mirabilis (50.00 mg/mL. All the other bacteria had MIC values of 100.00 mg/mL. Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM studies revealed that the cells exposed to leaf extract displayed a rough surface with multiple blends and invaginations which increased with increasing time of treatment, and cells exposed to leaf extract for 36 h showed the most damage, with abundant surface cracks which may be related to final cell collapse and lossThe antimicrobial activities of the methanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta L leaves, flowers, stems and roots were evaluated against some medically important bacteria and yeast using the agar disc diffusion method. Four Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus sp., Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus thuringensis, four Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhi and P. mirabilis and one yeast (Candida albicans species were screened. Inhibition

  18. Estudios sobre lecheron en la zona centro de la provincia de Buenos Aires Study of Euphorbia dentata in province center zone of Buenos Aires

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    V.F. Juan

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia dentata Michaux é uma espécie de ciclo primaveril-estival, de recente introdução na zona central da Província de Buenos Aires. Nos últimos anos, no distrito de Azul, adiquiriu importância como planta daninha ocupando uma grande área agrícola, principalmente de soja, milho e girassol. Atualmente, o pouco conhecimento desta espécie dificulta o emprego de métodos de manejo racionais e eficientes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a área de difusão desta planta daninha na região de azul; descrever suas características botânicas e estudar o seu comportamento nesta área através de diversos aspectos biológicos que pudessem ser relevantes para estabelecer programas de controle. Os estudos foram desenvolvidos em toda área agricultável da região durante os anos de 1993/94, 1994/95 e 1995/96. Nas áreas de amostragem determinou-se a presença e densidade e, diversos aspectos relacionados a biologia como emergência, germinação, número de frutos e sementes por planta e peso seco. Determinou-se a viabilidade das sementes e descreveu-se botanicamente a espécie. Verificou-se que a espécie ocupa uma superfície aproximada de 250.000 ha, o que representa 40% do distrito de Azul e 85% da área cultivada, com níveis de infestação que vão desde 20 a 200 plantas/m2. Sob condições naturais ocorrem dois picos de emergência e, a floração foi induzida pelo fotoperíodo. Em geral as plantas produzem uma grande quantidade de sementes e com alta viabilidade. Para um melhor conhecimento da espécie, esta encontra-se descrita botanicamente.Euphorbia dentata Michaux is an annual species which grows during spring and summer. Its has been recently introduced in the Province of Buenos Aires. In Azul district, during the last few years it has become an important weed with increasing propagation occuping a high proportio of agricultural land associated mainly with soybean, corn and sunflower crops. At present the limited

  19. Polyphenolic Extract of Euphorbia supina Attenuates Manganese-Induced Neurotoxicity by Enhancing Antioxidant Activity through Regulation of ER Stress and ER Stress-Mediated Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Entaz; Lee, Geum-Hwa; Bhattarai, Kashi Raj; Lee, Hwa-Young; Choi, Min-Kyung; Rashid, Harun-Or; Kim, Ji-Ye; Chae, Han-Jung; Yoon, Hyonok

    2017-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an important trace element present in human body, which acts as an enzyme co-factor or activator in various metabolic reactions. While essential in trace amounts, excess levels of Mn in human brain can produce neurotoxicity, including idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD)-like extrapyramidal manganism symptoms. This study aimed to investigate the protective role of polyphenolic extract of Euphorbia supina (PPEES) on Mn-induced neurotoxicity and the underlying mechanism in human neuroblastoma SKNMC cells and Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rat brain. PPEES possessed significant amount of total phenolic and flavonoid contents. PPEES also showed significant antioxidant activity in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and reducing power capacity (RPC) assays. Our results showed that Mn treatment significantly reduced cell viability and increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, which was attenuated by PPEES pretreatment at 100 and 200 µg/mL. Additionally, PPEES pretreatment markedly attenuated Mn-induced antioxidant status alteration by resolving the ROS, MDA and GSH levels and SOD and CAT activities. PPEES pretreatment also significantly attenuated Mn-induced mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and apoptosis. Meanwhile, PPEES pretreatment significantly reversed the Mn-induced alteration in the GRP78, GADD34, XBP-1, CHOP, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 activities. Furthermore, administration of PPEES (100 and 200 mg/kg) to Mn exposed rats showed improvement of histopathological alteration in comparison to Mn-treated rats. Moreover, administration of PPEES to Mn exposed rats showed significant reduction of 8-OHdG and Bax immunoreactivity. The results suggest that PPEES treatment reduces Mn-induced oxidative stress and neuronal cell loss in SKNMC cells and in the rat brain. Therefore, PPEES may be considered as potential treat-ment in Mn-intoxicated patients. PMID:28146110

  20. Polyphenolic Extract of Euphorbia supina Attenuates Manganese-Induced Neurotoxicity by Enhancing Antioxidant Activity through Regulation of ER Stress and ER Stress-Mediated Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entaz Bahar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Manganese (Mn is an important trace element present in human body, which acts as an enzyme co-factor or activator in various metabolic reactions. While essential in trace amounts, excess levels of Mn in human brain can produce neurotoxicity, including idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD-like extrapyramidal manganism symptoms. This study aimed to investigate the protective role of polyphenolic extract of Euphorbia supina (PPEES on Mn-induced neurotoxicity and the underlying mechanism in human neuroblastoma SKNMC cells and Sprague-Dawley (SD male rat brain. PPEES possessed significant amount of total phenolic and flavonoid contents. PPEES also showed significant antioxidant activity in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power capacity (RPC assays. Our results showed that Mn treatment significantly reduced cell viability and increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH level, which was attenuated by PPEES pretreatment at 100 and 200 µg/mL. Additionally, PPEES pretreatment markedly attenuated Mn-induced antioxidant status alteration by resolving the ROS, MDA and GSH levels and SOD and CAT activities. PPEES pretreatment also significantly attenuated Mn-induced mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm and apoptosis. Meanwhile, PPEES pretreatment significantly reversed the Mn-induced alteration in the GRP78, GADD34, XBP-1, CHOP, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 activities. Furthermore, administration of PPEES (100 and 200 mg/kg to Mn exposed rats showed improvement of histopathological alteration in comparison to Mn-treated rats. Moreover, administration of PPEES to Mn exposed rats showed significant reduction of 8-OHdG and Bax immunoreactivity. The results suggest that PPEES treatment reduces Mn-induced oxidative stress and neuronal cell loss in SKNMC cells and in the rat brain. Therefore, PPEES may be considered as potential treat-ment in Mn-intoxicated patients.

  1. Mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Euphorbia hirta Linn. (Family:Euphorbiaceae) andBacillus sphaericus against Anopheles stephensiListon. (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C Panneerselvam; K Murugan; K Kovendan; P Mahesh Kumar; J Subramaniam

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the larvicidal and pupicidal activity ofEuphorbia hirta (E. hirta)leaf extract andBacillus sphaericus (B. sphaericus) against the malarial vector,Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi).Methods:The larvicidal and pupicidal activity was assayed againstAn. stephensiat various concentrations ranging from (75-375 ppm) under the laboratory as well as field conditions. TheLC50 andLC90value of theE. hirta leaf extract was determined by probit analysis.Results:The plant extract showed larvicidal effects after24 h of exposure; however, the highest larval mortality was found in the methanol extract ofE. hirta against the first to fourth instars larvae and pupae of valuesLC50=137.40,172.65,217.81,269.37 and332.39 ppm;B. sphaericusagainst the first to fourth instars larvae and pupae of valuesLC50=44.29,55.83,68.51,82.19 and95.55 ppm, respectively. Moreover, combined treatment of values ofLC50=79.13,80.42,86.01,93.00 and98.12 ppm, respectively. No mortality was observed in the control.Conclusions:These results suggest methanol leaf extracts ofE. hirta andB. sphaericus have potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the malarial vector,An. stephensi as target species of vector control programs. This study provides the first report on the combined mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal activity of this plant crude extract and bacterial toxin againstAn. stephensimosquitoes.

  2. Primary and secondary abscission in Pisum sativum and Euphorbia pulcherrima –how do they compare and how do they differ?

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    Anne Kathrine (Trine eHvoslef-Eide

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAbscission is a highly regulated and coordinated developmental process in plants. It is important to understand the processes leading up to the event, in order to better control abscission in crop plants. This has the potential to reduce yield losses in the field and increase the ornamental value of flowers and potted plants. A reliable method of abscission induction in poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima flowers has been established to study the process in a comprehensive manner. By correctly decapitating buds of the third order, abscission can be induced in one week. AFLP differential display (DD was used to search for genes regulating abscission. Through validation using qRT-PCR, more information of the genes involved during induced secondary abscission have been obtained. A study using two mutants of pea (Pisum sativum in the def (Developmental funiculus gene have been performed and compared these with wild type peas (tall and dwarf in both cases. The def mutant results in a deformed, abscission-less zone instead of normal primary abscission at the funiculus. RNA in situ hybridization studies using gene sequences from the poinsettia differential display, resulted in six genes differentially expressed for abscission specific genes in both poinsettia and pea. Two of these genes are associated with gene up- or down-regulation during the first two days after decapitation in poinsettia. Present and previous results in poinsettia (biochemically and gene expressions, enables a more detailed division of the secondary abscission phases in poinsettia than what has previously been described from primary abscission in Arabidopsis.This study compares the inducible secondary abscission in poinsettia and the non-abscising mutants/wild types in pea demonstrating primary abscission zones. The results may have wide implications on the understanding of abscission, since pea and poinsettia have been separated for 94-98 million years in evolution, hence

  3. Phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Euphorbia golondrina L.C. Wheeler (Euphorbiaceae Juss.): an unexplored medicinal herb reported from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndam, Lawrence Monah; Mih, Afui Mathias; Tening, Aaron Suh; Fongod, Augustina Genla Nwana; Temenu, Nkegua Anna; Fujii, Yoshiharu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the phytochemical constituents of Euphorbia golondrina L.C. Wheeler, an alien invasive medicinal herb that is used for the treatment of gastroenteritis related ailments, diabetes, conjunctivitis, gastritis, enterocolitis, tonsillitis, vaginitis, hemorrhoids, prostatism, warts and painful swellings by the Mundani people of the mount Bambouto Caldera in SouthWestern Cameroon, and to evaluate its in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Susceptibility testing by agar well diffusion assay revealed good antibacterial activity with inhibition zone diameter of 20 ± 1.1 mm against Bacillus cereus followed by Staphylococcus aureus with inhibition zone diameter of 17 ± 1.6 mm which was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than the positive control (amoxicillin). None of the fungi was inhibited by the acetone extract of E. golondrina except Candida albicans wherein the zone of inhibition was not significantly different from that of the positive control (Amphotericin B). The ABTS scavenging activity of E. golondrina was higher than that of gallic acid and BHT at concentrations greater than 0.1 and 0.2 mg/mL respectively while at all concentrations, nitric oxide scavenging activity was higher than those of both rutin and vitamin C. GC-MS profile of E. golondrina steam distilled volatiles revealed that the plant has potent phytoconstituent classes such as sesquiterpenes, monoterpenes, alkaloids, phenolics and aromatic hydrocarbons. Among the 30 compounds identified, caryophyllene oxide (14.16 %), camphor (9.41 %) and phytol (5.75 %) were the major compounds. Further structural characterisation based on (1)H and (13)C NMR is required to demonstrate structural integrity including correct stereochemistry. The current study partially justifies the ethnomedicinal uses of E. golondrina in Cameroon.

  4. 对叶大戟地上部分的化学成分%Chemical constituents of the aerial parts of Euphorbia sororia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维库; 张晓琦; 叶文才

    2007-01-01

    目的:研究对叶大戟 (Euphorbia sororia)的化学成分.方法:采用95%乙醇提取,硅胶、Sephadex LH-20及C18柱等层析方法分离纯化,通过理化常数和光谱数据鉴定化合物的结构.结果:从对叶大戟乙醇提取物的乙酸乙酯部位和正丁醇部位中分离得到15个化合物,其结构分别被鉴定为:kaempferol 3-O-(2″-O-E-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1),kaempferol 3-O-(6″-O-E-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2),apigenin 7-O-(3″-O-E-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (3),山柰酚 3-O-β-D-吡喃半乳糖苷(kaempferol 3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside,4),麦黄酮 (tricin,5),槲皮素3-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside,6),槲皮素3-O-β-D-吡喃半乳糖苷(quercetin 3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside,7),7α-羟基谷甾醇(7α-hydrositosterol,8),(22E,24R)-24-methyl-5α-cholesta-7,22-diene-3β,5,6β-triol (9),β-吲哚酸(β-indole carboxylic acid,10),胸腺嘧啶(thymine,11),腺苷(adenosine,12),尿嘧啶(uracil,13),尿苷(uridine,14)和丁香苷(syringin,15).结论:化合物1~15均为首次从该植物中分得.

  5. Revealing the Effects of the Herbal Pair of Euphorbia kansui and Glycyrrhiza on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Ascites with Integrating Network Target Analysis and Experimental Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanqiong; Lin, Ya; Zhao, Haiyu; Guo, Qiuyan; Yan, Chen; Lin, Na

    2016-01-01

    Although the herbal pair of Euphorbia kansui (GS) and Glycyrrhiza (GC) is one of the so-called "eighteen antagonistic medicaments" in Chinese medicinal literature, it is prescribed in a classic Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula Gansui-Banxia-Tang for cancerous ascites, suggesting that GS and GC may exhibit synergistic or antagonistic effects in different combination designs. Here, we modeled the effects of GS/GC combination with a target interaction network and clarified the associations between the network topologies involving the drug targets and the drug combination effects. Moreover, the "edge-betweenness" values, which is defined as the frequency with which edges are placed on the shortest paths between all pairs of modules in network, were calculated, and the ADRB1-PIK3CG interaction exhibited the greatest edge-betweenness value, suggesting its crucial role in connecting the other edges in the network. Because ADRB1 and PIK3CG were putative targets of GS and GC, respectively, and both had functional interactions with AVPR2 approved as known therapeutic target for ascites, we proposed that the ADRB1-PIK3CG-AVPR2 signal axis might be involved in the effects of the GS-GC combination on ascites. This proposal was further experimentally validated in a H22 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ascites model. Collectively, this systems-level investigation integrated drug target prediction and network analysis to reveal the combination principles of the herbal pair of GS and GC. Experimental validation in an in vivo system provided convincing evidence that different combination designs of GS and GC might result in synergistic or antagonistic effects on HCC ascites that might be partially related to their regulation of the ADRB1-PIK3CG-AVPR2 signal axis.

  6. Dual role of novel ingenol derivatives from Euphorbia tirucalli in HIV replication: inhibition of de novo infection and activation of viral LTR.

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    Celina M Abreu

    Full Text Available HIV infection is not cleared by antiretroviral drugs due to the presence of latently infected cells that are not eliminated with current therapies and persist in the blood and organs of infected patients. New compounds to activate these latent reservoirs have been evaluated so that, along with HAART, they can be used to activate latent virus and eliminate the latently infected cells resulting in eradication of viral infection. Here we describe three novel diterpenes isolated from the sap of Euphorbia tirucalli, a tropical shrub. These molecules, identified as ingenols, were modified at carbon 3 and termed ingenol synthetic derivatives (ISD. They activated the HIV-LTR in reporter cell lines and human PBMCs with latent virus in concentrations as low as 10 nM. ISDs were also able to inhibit the replication of HIV-1 subtype B and C in MT-4 cells and human PBMCs at concentrations of EC50 0.02 and 0.09 µM respectively, which are comparable to the EC50 of some antiretroviral currently used in AIDS treatment. Control of viral replication may be caused by downregulation of surface CD4, CCR5 and CXCR4 observed after ISD treatment in vitro. These compounds appear to be less cytotoxic than other diterpenes such as PMA and prostratin, with effective dose versus toxic dose TI>400. Although the mechanisms of action of the three ISDs are primarily attributed to the PKC pathway, downregulation of surface receptors and stimulation of the viral LTR might be differentially modulated by different PKC isoforms.

  7. Étude de la toxicité des extraits foliaires d’Euphorbia guyoniana Boiss. et Reut. (Euphorbiaceae chez Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775 (Orthoptera-Acrididea

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    A. KEMASSI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Study of the toxicity of the crude acetone leaf extract of Euphorbia guyoniana Boiss. and Reut. (Euphorbiaceae in Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775 (Orthoptera-Acrididea Abstract-This study examines the effect by ingestion of leaf cabbage sprayed with crude acetone extract of Euphorbia guyoniana leaves harvested in the Algerian Sahara on some biological parameters of larvae L5 and adult of desert locusts. The ingestion of cabbage leaves soaked in acetone extract of this Saharan plant generates a 100% mortality in larvae L5 and 66,67% for adult. A significant reduction in food intake was observed in the treated population compared to the control population. It results in a loss of exceptional weight ranging from 26,93% in larvae L5 to 33,09% in adults. Difficulties and anomalies are observed in moulting 16,66% of larvae L5 fed with cabbage leaves soaked in leaf extract of E. guyoniana. Dissection of adult females of the lot processing allows the observation of body regression demonstrating the depressant action of this extract on ovocyte cycle in the desert locust.

  8. A natural component from Euphorbia humifusa Willd displays novel, broad-spectrum anti-influenza activity by blocking nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, So Young; Park, Ji Hoon [Respiratory Viruses Research Laboratory, Discovery Biology Department, Institut Pasteur Korea, 16, Daewangpangyo-ro 712 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 463-400 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Ho; Kang, Jong Seong [College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Ji-Young, E-mail: jiyoung.min@ip-korea.org [Respiratory Viruses Research Laboratory, Discovery Biology Department, Institut Pasteur Korea, 16, Daewangpangyo-ro 712 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 463-400 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-04

    The need to develop anti-influenza drugs with novel antiviral mechanisms is urgent because of the rapid rate of antigenic mutation and the emergence of drug-resistant viruses. We identified a novel anti-influenza molecule by screening 861 plant-derived natural components using a high-throughput image-based assay that measures inhibition of the influenza virus infection. 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (TGBG) from Euphorbia humifusa Willd showed broad-spectrum anti-influenza activity against two seasonal influenza A strains, A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) and A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2), and seasonal influenza B strain B/Florida/04/2006. We investigated the mode of action of TGBG using neuraminidase activity inhibition and time-of-addition assays, which evaluate the viral release and entry steps, respectively. We found that TGBG exhibits a novel antiviral mechanism that differs from the FDA-approved anti-influenza drugs oseltamivir which inhibits viral release, and amantadine which inhibits viral entry. Immunofluorescence assay demonstrated that TGBG significantly inhibits nuclear export of influenza nucleoproteins (NP) during the early stages of infection causing NP to accumulate in the nucleus. In addition, influenza-induced activation of the Akt signaling pathway was suppressed by TGBG in a dose-dependent manner. These data suggest that a putative mode of action of TGBG involves inhibition of viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm consequently disrupting the assembly of progeny virions. In summary, TGBG has potential as novel anti-influenza therapeutic with a novel mechanism of action. - Highlights: • The plant-derived natural product TGBG has broad-spectrum antiviral activity against seasonal influenza A and B viruses. • TGBG has a novel anti-viral mechanism of action that from differs from the currently available anti-influenza drugs. • TGBG hinders nuclear export of the influenza virus ribonucleoprotein (v

  9. The Microstructure Organization and Functional Peculiarities of Euphorbia paralias L. and Polygonum maritimum L. – Halophytic Plants from Dunes of Pomorie Lake (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Kosakivska

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the leaf surface microstructure, pigments spectrum, hormones status and lipids composition of halophytes Polygonum maritimum L. and Euphorbia paralias L. that grow under natural conditions on the dunes of Pomorie Lake, (Bulgaria. It was shown that the existence in saline and dry soils provided among others adaptive mechanisms by specific microstructure of leaf. The adaxial and abaxial surfaces of P. maritimum leaves are covered with a dense layer of cuticle wax, stomata are located on the leaf both sides below the cuticle level. In E. paralias the cuticle is also well developed on the adaxial surface of leaf laminas. The epidermis of the leaf lower side is covered with a less dense cuticle layer formed by large wax crystals. This plant has stoma pores only on the abaxial side of small leaves below the cuticle level and they are surrounded with hump-shaped cuticle constructions. A high amount of carotenoids (as compared with that of chlorophylls in P. maritimum leaves indicates that these pigments have a light-collecting function and could transfer an additional energy to chlorophylls. The high performance liquid chromatography method has been used to provide a qualitative and quantitative analysis of hormones. It was shown that in leaves of E. paralias and P. maritimum free abscisic (ABA and conjugated indole-3-acetic (IAA acids prevailed. A high level of active ABA is correlated with the salt tolerance and ability to survive and grow in stress conditions. A high level of conjugated form of IAA demonstrated that activity of this hormone is limited. The cytokinins qualitative and quantitative analyses demonstrated that in E. paralias leaves zeatin forms dominated, and the level of inactive cytokinins (cis-zeatin and zeatin-O-glucoside was much higher than that of active ones (trans-zeatin and zeatin riboside. P. maritinum leaves contained a significant quantity of isopentenyl forms

  10. Male Reproductive System and Spermatogenesis in Homoptera (Insecta: Hemiptera)%同翅类昆虫的雄性生殖系统及精子发生(昆虫纲:半翅目)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田润刚; 袁锋; 张雅林

    2006-01-01

    本文比较了同翅类昆虫雄性生殖系统的结构、减数分裂期间染色体的行为和精子尾部的超微结构.研究表明蜡蝉总科和异翅类的精巢具有被膜,而蝉总科、叶蝉总科、沫蝉总科、角蝉总科、木虱总科、蚜总科、粉虱总科和蚧总科的精巢均不具有被膜.也可以根据精巢小叶的形状将精巢分为三类,蝉总科、叶蝉总科、沫蝉总科、角蝉总科、蚜总科和粉虱总科的精巢小叶为球形,蜡蝉总科、木虱总科和蚧总科的精巢小叶为管状,而异翅类的精巢小叶为片层状.减数分裂可以被分为5类:①蝉型(Cicadoid type);②蜡蝉型(Fulgoroid type);③木虱型(Psyloid type);④蚜型(Aphidoid type);⑤粉虱型(Aleyrodoid type)和⑥蚧型(Coccoid type),至少具有四个类群的减数分裂前期I具有弥散期,它们是:木虱总科、蜡蝉总科、蚧总科和异翅类.除粉虱总科和蚧总科的精子尾部退化以外,其余种类的精子鞭毛均具有典型的9+9+2轴丝结构.%Morphology of the male reproductive system, chromosome behaviors during meiosis and spem tail structures in Homoptera and Heteroptera are compared in this paper. The sheathed testis is found in Fulgoroidea and Heteroptera, and unsheathed testis occurs in Cicadoidea, Cicadelloidea, Cercopoidea, Membracoidea, Psyloidea, Aphidoidea, Aleyrodoidea and Coccoidea. The testis also can be divide into three types by the shape of testicular follicles. The sphere-shaped type is found in Cicadoidea, Cicadelloidea, Cercopoidea, Membracoidea, Aphidoidea and Aleyrodoidea, the tube-shaped type observed in Fulgoroidea, Psyloidea and Coccoidea, and the lamella-shaped type represented by Heteroptera. It is suggested the unsheathed testis may be the primitive type in Homoptera. Meiosis can be divided into 6 type at least, i.e. 1) Cicadoid type; 2) Fulgoroid type; 3) Psyloid type; 4) Aphidoid type; 5) Aleyrodoid type; and 6) Coccoid type. At

  11. Evaluation of temporal, seasonal and geographic stability of the molluscicidal property of Euphorbia splendens latex Avaliação da estabilidade temporal, estacional e geográfica da ação moluscicida do latex da Euphorbia splendens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Torres Schall

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests with aqueous solutions of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii latex have demonstrated seasonal stability of the molluscicidal principle, with LD90 values of 1.14 ppm (spring, 1.02 ppm (fall, 1.09 ppm (winter, and 1.07 ppm (summer that have been determined against Biomphalaria tenagophila in the field. Assays on latex collected in Belo Horizonte and Recife yielded LD90 values similar to those obtained with the reference substance collected in Rio de Janeiro (Ilha do Governador, demonstrating geographic stability of the molluscicidal effect. The molluscicidal action of aqueous dilutions of the latex in natura, centrifuged (precipitate and lyophilized, was stable for up to 124 days at room temperature (in natura and for up to 736 days in a common refrigerator at 10 to 12ºC (lyophilized product. A 5.0 ppm solution is 100% lethal for snails up to 13 days after preparation, the effect being gradually lost to almost total inactivity by the 30th day. This observation indicated that the active principle is instable. These properties together with the wide distribution of the plant, its resistance and adaptation to the tropical climate, its easy cultivation and the easy obtention of latex and preparation of the molluscicidal solution, make this a promising material for large-scale use in the control of schistosomiasisTestes de laboratório com soluções aquosas do látex da Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii demonstraram uma estabilidade estacional da atividade moluscicida do produto coletado na Ilha do Governador - RJ, encontrando-se as seguintes DL90: 1,14 ppm (primavera; 1,02 ppm (outono; 1,09 ppm (inverno e 1,07 ppm (verão sobre Biomphalaria tenagophila de campo. Ensaios com o látex da planta coletado em Belo Horizonte e Recife, identificaram DL90 semelhantes aos da substância de referência coletada no Rio, demonstrando uma estabilidade geográfica do efeito moluscicida. Usando diluições aquosas do latex in natura, centrifugado

  12. A field survey of crop management practices and distribution of ALS resistant Euphorbia heterophylla in two states in southern Brazil Avaliação das práticas de manejo das lavouras e da distribuição geográfica de Euphorbia heterophylla resistente aos inibidores de als em dois estados do sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Vidal

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Herbicide resistance was reported in Brazil almost ten years ago. One of the main weeds with herbicide resistance is wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla. This work evaluates the distribution of ALS-resistant E. heterophylla in two states in southern Brazil and determines the major contributing management causes for weed resistance selection in the area. E. heterophylla seeds from 148 sites located in Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul were sampled during 2001 and 2002. Farmers provided specific site data for weed control, tillage system, crop rotation and harvesting operations during previous years. ALS resistant E. heterophylla biotypes were found widely distributed in the survey area. Data analysis suggests seed dissemination is unlikely to explain the widespread distribution of resistance. The most probable factor for the selection of the resistant E. heterophylla is the persistent high use of ALS-inhibiting herbicides over time. Indirect evidence is presented demonstrating the need to educate legislators and farmers about the importance of herbicide mixtures as a strategy to prevent herbicide resistance.A resistência aos herbicidas foi relatada no Brasil há quase uma década. Uma das principais plantas daninhas com resistência aos herbicidas é a leiteira (Euphorbia heterophylla. Este trabalho foi planejado para avaliar a distribuição geográfica de E. heterophylla resistente aos herbicidas nos estados do Paraná e Rio Grande do Sul e para obter dados que identificassem os principais fatores de manejo associados à seleção de biótipos resistentes na área. Sementes de E. heterophylla de 148 locais foram coletadas nos anos de 2001 e 2002. Em cada local, os agricultores informaram os procedimentos relativos a controle de plantas daninhas, sistema de preparo do solo, rotação de culturas e colheita. Este trabalho demonstrou que biótipos resistentes aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS estão amplamente distribuídos na região amostrada. A

  13. Práticas de manejo e a resistência de Euphorbia heterophylla aos inibidores da ALS e tolerância ao glyphosate no Rio Grande do Sul Management practices x Euphorbia heterophylla resistance to ALS-inhibitors and tolerance to glyphosate in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vargas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização intensiva do glyphosate nas lavouras de soja Roundup Ready® (RR no Rio Grande do Sul (RS, nos últimos anos, pode ter selecionado biótipos de leiteira (Euphorbia heterophylla resistentes ao herbicida. Esse cenário dificultará ainda mais o manejo da espécie, já que permanecem indícios da presença de biótipos resistentes também em herbicidas inibidores da acetolactato sintase (ALS. Assim, os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a sensibilidade da leiteira a herbicidas inibidores da ALS e ao glyphosate, verificar a distribuição dos biótipos resistentes no RS e determinar os principais fatores agronômicos associados a falhas de controle. Para isso, amostras de sementes de plantas de leiteira foram coletadas em lavouras de soja RR localizadas em 56 municípios do Estado do RS. Por ocasião das coletas, os agricultores responderam a questionário que abordava o manejo das plantas daninhas na área. Usando-se as sementes coletadas, foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa de vegetação: no primeiro, avaliou-se a resposta de 86 biótipos ao herbicida glyphosate, aplicado na dose de 2.160 g e.a. ha-1; e, no segundo, a resposta de 73 biótipos ao herbicida imazethapyr, aplicado na dose de 200 g i.a. ha-1. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam que todos os biótipos de leiteira avaliados são suscetíveis ao glyphosate, porém existem biótipos resistentes aos inibidores da ALS. As respostas do questionário indicam que práticas de manejo como uso de subdoses e/ou utilização intensiva do glyphosate e a ausência de rotação de culturas favorecem falhas no controle de leiteira pelo herbicida glyphosate em soja.The intensive use of glyphosate in Roundup Ready® (RR soybean fields in Rio Grande do Sul (RS, in recent years may have selected wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes resistant to the herbicide. This scenario will further complicate the management of this species, since evidence remains of the presence of

  14. Análise de crescimento de biótipos de amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla resistente e suscetível aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS Growth analysis of wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes resistant and susceptible to ALS inhibitor herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Brighenti

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação contínua de herbicidas do grupo químico das imidazolinonas, nas mesmas áreas de produção de soja, durante anos seguidos, no município de Cafelândia, PR, favoreceu a seleção de um biótipo resistente de amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla aos herbicidas inibidores da acetolactato sintase (ALS. Um estudo comparativo das características do crescimento do biótipo resistente e do suscetível foi realizado em casa de vegetação da Embrapa Soja, Londrina-PR, a fim de identificar diferenças no crescimento e no desenvolvimento das plantas e de seus órgãos. A produção de matéria seca total, a área foliar, a matéria seca dos caule, das raízes e das folhas, bem como a altura por planta, foram avaliadas em 13 vezes a intervalos regulares, iniciando aos 14 dias após a semeadura. A partir desses parâmetros, foram calculadas a taxa de crescimento relativo, a taxa assimilatória líquida, a razão de área foliar, a razão de peso foliar e a área foliar específica, que decrescem com a ontogenia das plantas de amendoim-bravo, sendo similares para ambos os biótipos. A matéria seca total acumulada pelas plantas e seus órgãos, a área foliar e a altura apresentaram comportamentos semelhantes para os biótipos resistente e suscetível. O ciclo vegetativo dos dois biótipos estudados não mostrou diferença significativa quanto ao crescimento e ao desenvolvimento.Repetitive spraying of imidazolinone herbicides year after year to control weeds in the soybean grown areas of Cafelândia, Paraná, Brazil, has favored the selection of an ALS (acetolactate synthase inhibitor herbicide resistant biotype of wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla. A comparative study of growth and development of wild poinsettia resistant and susceptible to ALS inhibitor herbicides was carried out in the greenhouse of the experimental station of Soybean Embrapa in Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Total dry biomass yield, leaf area, shoot dry weight, leaf

  15. Análise de crescimento de biótipos de leiteira (Euphorbia heterophylla resistentes e suscetível aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS Growth analysis of resistant and susceptible wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes to ALS-inhibiting herbicides

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    R.A. Vidal

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em condições de casa de vegetação, com o objetivo de analisar comparativamente o crescimento de três biótipos de leiteira (Euphorbia heterophylla - EPHHL resistentes (R (Passo Fundo, Não-Me-Toque e Rio Pardo e um suscetível (S (Porto Alegre aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS, por meio do cálculo da taxa de crescimento relativo (TCR e dos índices que a compõem. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental completamente casualizado, com três repetições e tratamentos organizados em fatorial 2 x 4 x 4, em que o fator A correspondeu às duas estações de crescimento (outono e primavera, o fator B aos quatro biótipos de EPHHL e o fator C às quatro épocas de determinação dos índices de crescimento das plantas de leiteira - no primeiro experimento, aos 15, 25, 35 e 45, e, no segundo, aos 23, 33, 43 e 53 dias após a emergência (DAE. No experimento realizado no outono não houve interação entre época de avaliação e biótipo nem efeito simples de biótipo. No experimento realizado na primavera, a razão de peso foliar (RPF do biótipo de Não-Me-Toque foi superior em média à dos demais biótipos; a razão de área foliar (RAF foi superior no biótipo de Não-Me-Toque aos 23 e 53 DAE; e não houve diferenças da TAL e TCR entre os biótipos. Esses resultados sugerem produtividade semelhante entre os biótipos R e S e, portanto, sua equivalência competitiva.Two trials were carried out under greenhouse conditions to compare the development of three ALS inhibitor herbicides resistant (R wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes (Passo Fundo, Não-Me-Toque and Rio Pardo - RS - Brazil and one susceptible (S (Porto Alegre - RS - Brazil using relative growth rate (RGR and related indices. The experiment was arranged as a completely randomized design, with three replications, in a 2 x 4 x 4 factorial, where factor A was two growth seasons (fall and spring; factor B, four biotypes of wild poinsettia

  16. Estudos anatômicos de folhas de espécies de plantas daninhas de grande ocorrência no Brasil: IV - Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella e Euphorbia heterophylla Leaf anatomical studies in weed species widely common in Brazil: IV - Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella and Euphorbia heterophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Ferreira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho é apresentado um estudo da anatomia das folhas de espécies de plantas daninhas de grande ocorrência no Brasil: Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella e Euphorbia heterophylla, visando melhor compreensão das barreiras que cada espécie impõe à penetração dos herbicidas e outros compostos utilizados em aplicações foliares. As folhas completamente expandidas do terceiro ao quinto nó foram coletadas de plantas de ocorrência espontânea no campo. Das folhas de cada espécie foram obtidas três amostras da região mediana, com aproximadamente 1 cm², as quais foram utilizadas em estudos da estrutura, clarificação e em observações em microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Todas as espécies avaliadas são anfiestomáticas. As principais barreiras foliares potenciais à penetração de herbicidas observadas nas plantas daninhas A. deflexus e A. spinosus foram, respectivamente, grande espessura da cutícula da face adaxial e da cutícula das duas faces. Já em relação a A. tenella, grande espessura da cutícula das duas faces, elevado teor de cera epicuticular e alta densidade tricomática foram os principais obstáculos potenciais detectados. E. heterophylla apresentou como possíveis principais barreiras foliares à penetração de agroquímicos o alto teor de cera epicuticular, a elevada densidade de laticíferos e a grande espessura da cutícula da face adaxial.This research aimed to study the leaf anatomy of the weed species Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella and Euphorbia heterophylla, widely known in Brazil, to acquire a better understanding of the barriers each species imposes to herbicide penetration, and to other substances used for leaf spraying. Completely expanded leaves from the third to the fifth nodes were collected from spontaneous plants in the field. Three samples approximately 1cm², were removed from the medium portion of the leaves, from each

  17. Possibilities and limitations of sup 1 H and sup 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for the identification and the quantitative determination of some naturally occurring carcinogenic risk factors. [Senecio vulgaris; Senecio vernalis; Senecio jacobaea; Euphorbia ingens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieters, L.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a phytochemical screening method for some selected carcinogenic or tumor-promoting principles in higher plants. The pyrrolizidine alkaloids from some Senecio species (Compositae or Asteraceae), and the diterpene ester from Croton tiglium L. and Euphorbia ingens E. Mey (Euphorbiaceae) were chosen as representatives of both groups. The possibilities and limitations of {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR) for the analysis of mixtures of carcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids were compared with high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography with high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography was well as gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. Senecio vulgaris L., Senecio vernalis Waldst. and Kit. and Senecio jacobaea L. were investigated.

  18. Taxonomic Study on a Naturalized Plant,Euphorbia dentate Michx. and Its New Distribution in Hebei Province%齿裂大戟的分类学研究及其在河北省的新分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛玉璐

    2011-01-01

    The specimen of naturalized plant Euphorbia dentate Michx.collected from Yi County and Luquan County was a newly geographical distribution in Hebei Province.A description of this species,as well as its taxonomic features and distributions,was presented in%首次报道了归化植物齿裂大戟在河北省易县和鹿泉县的新分布;详细描述了该种的分类学特征和地理分布,并总结出该种的识别特征;对该种与其相近种进行了比较.最后,对该种扩散范围与趋势进行了讨论.

  19. Euphorbia heterophylla leaf extract mediated green synthesis of Ag/TiO2 nanocomposite and investigation of its excellent catalytic activity for reduction of variety of dyes in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atarod, Monireh; Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Mohammad Sajadi, S

    2016-01-15

    This work reports a facile and green synthesis of Ag/TiO2 nanocomposite by extract of leaves of Euphorbia heterophylla without any stabilizer or surfactant. The green synthesized Ag/TiO2 nanocomposite was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and UV-vis. The Ag/TiO2 nanocomposite was found to be effective catalyst for reduction of various dyes, such as 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), Methyl orange (MO), Congo red (CR) and Methylene blue (MB) in the presence of NaBH4 in water at room temperature. Catalysis reactions were monitored by employing UV-vis spectroscopy. Catalysis reactions followed pseudo-first order rate equation. The catalyst can be recovered and reused several times without significant loss of its catalytic activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effets de Panicum maximum Jacq. associé à Euphorbia heterophylla (L. Klotz. & Garcke sur la productivité des femelles durant le cycle de reproduction chez le cobaye (Cavia porcellus L.

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    N'G. D.V. Kouakou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Panicum maximum Jacq. Associated with Euphorbia heterophylla (L. Klotz. & Garcke on Productivity of Females (Cavia porcellus L During the Reproductive Cycle. In Ivory Coast, Guinea pigs reared for meat (Cavia porcellus L. are mainly fed with Panicum maximum Jacq. The association of this forage with Euphorbia heterophylla (L. Klotz. & Garcke improves the organic matter digestibility of the mixed diet compared to P. maximum distributed alone in growing male guinea pigs. In order to determine the effect of this diet during gestation and lactation in female guinea pigs, three diets: P. maximum (PAN basic diet; P. maximum associated to E. heterophylla (PANEUPH and P. maximum associated to pellets for rabbit (PANGRAN, were distributed ad libitum to multiparous guinea pigs (604.9 ± 40.8 g. The daily ingestion during gestation and lactation were 59.8±11.2 and 53.2±8.5; 61.5±5.2 and 72.9±16.4; 83.1±12.9 and 111.3±13.9 g DM.d-1 respectively for PAN, PANEUPH and PANGRAN. Similarly, the rates of fecundity were 111.1±0.9; 188.9±0.6 and 244.4±0.5% respectively for PAN, PANEUPH and PANGRAN. The individual birth weight and weight gain during lactation of the piglets were 58.7±12.4, 75.6±16.2 and 102.5±12 g and 2.4±0.6; 4.1±0.9 and 6.5±1.2 g.d-1 respectively for PAN, PANEUPH, and PANGRAN. In conclusion, the association of P. maximum and E. heterophylla significantly improves ingestion, digestibility, fecundity, birth weight and weaning weight in guinea pigs in comparison to Panicum maximum used as a sole diet.

  1. Coupling effect of water and fertilizer on potted Euphorbia pulcherrima in greenhouse.%温室盆栽一品红水肥耦合效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙向丽; 张启翔

    2011-01-01

    为降低盆花生产成本和提高水肥利用率,实现盆花生产的精准控制,采用盆栽试验,利用二次通用旋转组合设计的方法,研究浇水频率和施肥量对一品红株高、冠幅、生物量、花期和花头数的影响.结果表明,浇水频率和施肥量对一品红盆花的株高、冠幅、生物量和花期有明显影响,其中施肥量对品质的影响大于浇水频率.建立的回归模型均准确可靠,可用于生产预报.通过方程拟合和模拟寻优,得到以V(玉米秆粉):V(锯末):V(珍珠岩)为2:1:1的基质配方栽培一品红盆花的最佳水、肥供应模式:基质含水量为59.28%~66.83%进行浇水,浇水量为500.00mL/盆;每周施肥1次,施肥量为756.02~833.33 mg/盆.%In order to reduce the production cost and improve the utilization efficiency of water and fertilizer, and to realize the precise control of potted flowers, we studied the effect of different watering frequencies and fertilizer amounts on the plant height, crown diameter, biomass, blooming duration and number of flowers of Euphorbia pulcherrima by pot culture and quadratic general rotary design. The results indicated that watering frequency and fertilizer amount markedly affected the plant height, crown diameter, biomass and blooming duration of E. pulcherrima, and fertilizer amount had more obvious impacts than watering frequency. The regression models were both accurate and reliable, and could be used for prediction of production. The optimum matching control methods of water and fertilizer were found for E. pulcherrima in a growth medium V(corn stalk): V(sawdust): V(perlite) =2: 1:1 by equation fitting and simulating optimization. The optimum watering frequency was: once the water content of the medium ranged from 59.28% -66.83% , watering 500. 00 mL per pot; the optimum fertilizer amount was 756.02-833.33 mg per pot, once a week.

  2. 茉莉酸甲酯诱导大戟三萜类代谢的研究%Triterpene biosynthesis in Euphorbia pekinensis induced by methyl jasmonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文娟; 曹小迎; 蒋继宏

    2015-01-01

    京大戟是多年生草本药用植物,入药部分是其干燥根,但可入药的京大戟资源由于生长缓慢以及环境污染的加剧而越发匮乏,因此解决大戟资源日益紧张的问题是当今药用植物资源开发与利用方向的重要课题。京大戟含有三萜类、二萜类、黄酮类等丰富的活性成分,一些常见药用植物的有效成分是三萜类化合物,其在抗病毒、抗肿瘤、免疫调节等方面具有很好的活性。对植物萜类物质代谢起重要作用的关键酶,如3-羟基,3-甲基戊二酰辅酶 A 还原酶(hmgr)、鲨烯合酶(sqs)、法尼基焦磷酸合酶(fps)的基因克隆及活性研究取得了进展和突破,但通过调控萜类物质代谢途径中关键酶基因的表达来诱导终产物合成的研究鲜有报道。通过研究大戟萜类物质代谢途径进而利用基因工程手段提升目的物质的产量来解决京大戟药源短缺问题具有重要意义。该研究以大戟愈伤组织为材料,使用茉莉酸甲酯分别按时间梯度和浓度梯度进行诱导,将诱导后的愈伤组织分为两部分:一部分提取其总 RNA,以 actin 为内参基因进行反转录,实时定量 RT-PCR 分析大戟三萜类代谢途径中 hmgr、sqs 与 fps 基因的相对表达差异;另一部分用于提取其总三萜并使用分光光度法进行含量测定。实时定量 RT-PCR 分析结果表明,茉莉酸甲酯可诱导3个基因的表达,但其表达模式不一样。相应的京大戟愈伤组织中总三萜的含量明显提高,最高可较未处理样品增加27%。研究结果可为茉莉酸甲酯促进药用植物大戟三萜类物质积累的分子机制研究提供参考。%Euphorbia pekinensis is a perennial herb.The part of medicine is the dried root and is our traditional Chi-nese medicine.E .pekinensis have distributed in many provinces in China except for Tibet and Xinjiang.In recent years,medicine studies have showed that it can also be used on carbuncle

  3. Euphorbia L. subsect. Esula (Boiss. in DC. Pax in the Iberian Peninsula. Leaf surface, chromosome numbers and taxonomic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molero, Julià

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a taxonomic study of the representatives or Euphorbia subsect. Esula in the Iberian Peninsula. Prior to this, a first section is included on the study of the leaf surface and a second section on chromosome numbers.
    The section on leaf surface is based on a study of the leaves or 45 populations of Iberian and European taxa of the subsections using a light microscope and SEM. The characters analyzed are cell shape, morphology of the cells and stomata (primary and secondary sculpture and epicuticular waxes (tertiary sculpture. Some microcharacters of the leaf surface proved particularly usefu1for taxonomical purposes. Thus the basic type of stoma and the distribution model of the stomata on the two sides of the leaf are characters which make it possible to separate taxa as closely related as E. esula L. subsp. esula and E. esula L. subsp orientalis (Boiss. in DC. Molero & Rovira. The morphological type of the epicuticular waxes also enables us to differentiate between E.graminifolia Vill. and E. esula aggr. And to distinguish subsp. bolosii Molero & Rovira from the remaining subespecies in E. nevadensis Boiss. & Reuter.
    Cytogenetic investigation reveals the presence of only the diploid cytotype (2n=10 in E. cyparissias L. and E. esula L. subsp. esula in the Iberian Peninsula. We describe for the first time in E. nevadensis s.1. a polyploidy complex with a base of x= 10 in which the diploid level (2n=20 is present in all subspecies; the tetraploid level (2n=40 is present in E. nevadensis subsp. nevadensis and the hexaploid level (2n=60 is found in E. nevadensis subsp. bolosii. Chromosome number is not a parameter that can be used for taxonomic purposes. In E. nevadensis, cytogenetic differentiation has followed its own course, with no apparent relationship to the process of morphological

  4. Action of some micronutrients on the infestation and yield components of faba bean by the aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Aphididae, Homoptera) and the leaf miner, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (Agromyzidae, Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, A K; Hammad, S A; Guirguis, G Z; Zaghloul, O A; Sadek, Hanan A

    2004-01-01

    Field experiments were carried out in the two growing seasons of 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 on faba bean (Vicia faba) plants in the Experimental Farm of Agriculture Research Station at Nubaria region, Alexandria, which is considered as a newly reclaimed calcareous soil. The present investigation aimed to evaluate the effect of spraying faba bean plants with certain micronutrients, i.e. Iron, Manganese and Zinc either in single double or triple combinations on the infestation by the aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Aphididae, Homoptera) and the leaf miner, Liriomyza trfolü (Burgess) (Agromyzidae, Diptera). The infestation by these insects was assessed using the parameters of Infestation grades as well as the injury indices. Faba bean plants cv. Giza Blanca were sprayed twice (45 and 66 days) after planting with the above-mentioned micronutrients. However, results of this investigation showed, with no doubt, that Mn, Zn and Fe individually or in double or triple combinations have increased to varied extents the infestation rates (%) of faba bean plants compared to the untreated ones. Such varied increases were mainly due to the metabolic roles of the used foliar sprays and their interactions, which indirectly affect the physio-biological actions of plants that may render them suitable for either A. craccivora or L. trifoii reproduction. This phenomenon might be also due to the different environmental factors. In both seasons, the relationship between nutrients applications and pests Infestation followed the same trend of increase in the percentages of infested plants. This assures and confirms the constant metabolic roles of such micronutrients. The biological seed weight (ton/fed.) was positively affected by the application of the used micronutrients. It is worth mentioning that the maximum response was observed in case of the triple treatment followed by the double and single treatments in a descending order. Application of the investigated micronutrients alone or in

  5. Efeito antimutagênico do látex de Euphorbia tirucalli no sistema metionina em Aspergillus nidulans - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i4.1531 Antimutagenic effect of the Euphorbia’s latex in Aspergillus nidulans methionine system - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i4.1531

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alencar Pamphile

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Muitas plantas medicinais têm sido analisadas quanto a seus potenciais antitumoral e antimutagênico. Aveloz, uma planta do gênero Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae, tem sido utilizada popularmente na América do Sul no tratamento de úlceras, cânceres, tumores, verrugas e outras doenças. No entanto, algumas pesquisas demonstraram efeitos contrários a estes descritos. Devido a estes resultados contraditórios, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial antimutagênico da Euphorbia tirucalli utilizando o sistema metionina em Aspergillus nidulans. Duas concentrações do látex - 0,1% e 0,2% (v/v - foram usadas no tratamento por 24 horas de conídios dormentes obtidos de colônias de cinco dias. Os resultados indicaram que o látex da Euphorbia tem potencial antimutagênico, pois tanto a concentração de 0,1% quanto a de 0,2% (v/v do látex resultaram em freqüência de mutação significativamente menor que a freqüência de mutação espontânea, obtida para o controle nestes experimentosFolk medicinal plants have been analyzed and assayed to confirm their possible antitumoral and anticarcinogenic properties. Aveloz is a plant of the genus Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae and it has been popularly used in South America for treating ulcer, cancer, tumor, wart and other diseases. However, some researches have shown opposite effects. Due to these contradictory results, the aim of this work was to test the antimutagenic potential of Euphorbia tirucalli latex in Aspergillus nidulans methionine system. Two concentrations of the latex were used in conidia treatment: 0.1% and 0.2% (v/v. The treatment was developed by collecting quiescent conida from five days old colonies in latex solution, during 24 hours. The results have indicated that both concentrations show antimutagenic effect because the mutation frequency of the treated conidia was smaller than mutation frequency of the control

  6. The Drought Resistance and Its Differences between the Clones and the Individuals of Efficient Energy Crop Euphorbia tirucalli%高效能源作物绿玉树的抗旱性及其无性系、个体间差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何觉民; 黄顺虹; 何仪; 莫俊杰; 周鸿凯

    2011-01-01

    为了解绿玉树的抗旱性,揭示绿玉树无性系间、个体间的抗旱性差异,选择选育抗旱无性系,对海大3#等7个绿玉树无性系的抗旱性进行了研究.结果表明,绿玉树有非常强的抗旱性.无性系间萎蔫系数在0.9%~2.6%之间,以沙漠绿抗旱性最强,其凋萎系数为0.9%,其次是海大5#和海大3#,其凋萎系数为1.5%,而笔杆绿则抗旱性最弱,为2.58%;单株间萎蔫系数为0.3%~4.43%,以海大3#-7最强,其凋萎系数为0.3%,其次为上海绿-2,其凋萎系数为0.4%.供试绿玉树的抗旱性不仅在无性系间具有很大差异,而且在同一无性系不同个体间也存在很大差异.%In order to understand the drought resistance of Euphorbia tirucalli and reveal its differences between the clones and the individuals, so as to selecting and breeding drought resistance Euphorbia tirucalli clones, the drought resistance of 7 clones of Euphorbia tirucalli were studied. The results showed that the clones of the Euphorbia tirucalli had very strong drought resistance. The wilting points of the clones were between 0.9% -2.6% ,Shamolv was the most drought resistant line,its wilting point was 0.9% ,followed by Haida 5# and Haida3#,the wilting coefficient was 1.5% ,while the Biganlv was the worst drought resistance line,its wilting point was 2.58% ;The wilting points of the individuals were between 0.3% -4.43% ,Haida3#-7 was the most drought resistant individual,the wilting coefficient was 0.3% , followed by the Shanghai-2, the wilting coefficient was 0.4% . There is large difference in drought resistant between the tested Euphorbia tirucalli clones and the individuals of the clones.

  7. Efeito alelopático de Artemisia annua L. na germinação e desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de alface (Lactuca sativa L. e leiteiro (Euphorbia heterophylla L. Allelopathic effect of Artemisia annua L. on the germination and initial development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. and wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla L. seedlings

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    E.C. Magiero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar o efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso de folhas de A. annua sobre a germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento de plântulas de alface (Lactuca sativa L. e leiteiro (Euphorbia heterophylla L.. O extrato aquoso bruto foi preparado a partir de 250 g folhas frescas extraídas em 1 L de água destilada. Este primeiro extrato foi filtrado e centrifugado, sendo utilizado o sobrenadante. Foram utilizadas as seguintes concentrações de 100% (extrato filtrado e centrifugado; 75%, 50% e 25% (diluições do extrato 100%; e 0% (água destilada. As sementes das espécies testadas foram distribuídas em placas de petri e acondicionadas em câmara de germinação. Foram analisadas as variáveis: germinabilidade (G, velocidade média de germinação (V, tempo médio de germinação (t, comprimento da radícula (CR e massa seca das plântulas. A elevação da concentração do extrato aquoso de A. annua provocou redução na germinabilidade de alface e, a partir da concentração de 50%, a germinação foi completamente inibida. Para o leiteiro, a germinação foi totalmente inibida a partir da concentração de 75%. Observou-se também redução significativa na velocidade média de germinação de alface com a elevação da concentração do extrato, efeito que não foi observado para o leiteiro. O comprimento radicular do leiteiro foi significativamente reduzido nas concentrações de 25 e 50%, e totalmente inibido em 75 e 100%. Para alface, a concentração de 25% reduziu significativamente o comprimento radicular, e as concentrações de 50, 75 e 100% inibiram completamente a formação de raízes, mostrando ser esta espécie mais sensível que o leiteiro. Extratos aquosos de A. annua apresentaram ação alelopática inibitória sobre a germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento de plântulas de alface e leiteiro.The aim of this work was to study the allelopathic effect of leaf aqueous extract of A

  8. Allelopathic effects of aqueous and organic fractions of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. on germination and seedling growth of chickpea and wheat Efectos alelopáticos de fracciones acuosas y orgánicas de Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. sobre la germinación y crecimiento de plántulas de garbanzo y trigo

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    Asif Tanveer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of weed species with allelopathic potential and characterization of their adverse effects against associated crops is required for better understanding of weed-crop interactions. Phytotoxic activity of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. on germination and seedling growth of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was investigated under controlled conditions. Two separate studies were done with each of four organic solvent fractions (n-hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate, 1-butanol and crude aqueous (1:10 and 1:20 whole plant fractions of E. dracunculoides using distilled water and 0.05% (v/v dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO as control. Different aqueous and organic fractions of E. dracunculoides had a significant bearing on germination attributes and seedling growth that varied among tested species. The final germination percentage of wheat remained unaffected; nevertheless, root and shoot elongation and biomass accumulation in these parts were significantly retarded. Aqueous fractions appeared more phytotoxic than organic fractions and suppressed chickpea germination by 35-53%. These aqueous fractions also reduced root (64-75% and 33-34% and shoot (18-62% and 21% length and root (32-33% and 42-46% and shoot (7-32% and 80-84% dry weight of wheat and chickpea, respectively. Among organic fractions, n-hexane was more suppressive to test species. Chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of four phytotoxins, furoic, p-coumaric, syringic, and caffeic acids, in aqueous whole plant (1:10 fractions. This study determined the phytotoxic allelopathic activity of E. dracunculoides against wheat and chickpea.Se requiere la identificación de especies de malezas con potencial alelopático y la caracterización de sus efectos adversos en contra de los cultivos asociados para una mejor comprensión de las interacciones cultivos-malezas. Se investigó la actividad fitotóxica de Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. en la germinación y

  9. ATIVIDADE ANTIMICROBIANA IN VITRO DO LÁTEX DO AVELOZ (Euphorbia tirucalli L., PINHÃO BRAVO (Jatropha mollissima L. E PINHÃO ROXO (Jatropha gossypiifolia L. SOBRE MICRORGANISMOS PATOGÊNICOS.

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    Francisco Angelo Gurgel da Rocha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Por milênios, o Homem tem explorado a flora como recurso terapêutico. Muitas das espécies medicinais utilizadas possuem fitoquímicos com potencial aplicação no controle do crescimento microbiano. A resistência microbiana crescente representa um sério risco à Saúde Coletiva, sendo necessário o desenvolvimento de projetos que visem a prospecção e/ou o desenvolvimento de novas drogas antimicrobianas. Na Caatinga da Região do Seridó do RN são encontradas as plantas medicinais Jatropha mollissima (Pohl Baill (Pinhão-bravo, a Jatropha gossypiifolia L (Pinhão-roxo e Euphorbia tirucalli L (Aveloz, pertencentes à Família Euphorbiaceae, na qual estão presentes fitoquímicos antimicrobianos. O presente projeto objetivou caracterizar a ação antibacteriana do látex destas espécies vegetais contra os patógenos Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella typhi e Listeria monocytogenes. Duplicatas de Placas de Petri contendo ágar Mueller-Hinton foram semeadas em superfície com culturas padronizadas de cada microrganismo. Foram perfurados poços de 10 mm de diâmetro nos quais se inoculou 100 µL das diluições dos látex testados. As placas foram incubadas a 35±2oC/24 h. Os halos de inibição quando existentes foram medidos e registrados. L. monocytogenes apresentou a maior sensibilidade ao látex de J. mollissima; S. aureus foi inibido por J. mollissima e J. gossypiifolia, sendo mais sensível no primeiro caso. S. typhi e S. typhimurium apresentaram os maiores halos de inibição (J. gossypiifolia, sendo S. typhi mais sensível ao látex de J. gossypiifolia e S. typhimurium ao de J. mollissima. E. tirucalli não apresentou atividade inibitória. Padrões de sazonalidade parecem influenciar a capacidade inibitória do látex. Recomendamos que sejam efetuados estudos mais detalhados acerca das propriedades antimicrobianas do látex de J. mollissima e J. gossypiifolia. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: atividade antimicrobiana, Jatropha

  10. 泽漆乙酸乙酯萃取物对小鼠经口急性毒性%Acute Oral Toxicity of Euphorbia helioscopia’ Ethylacetate Extract in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雪; 李明会; 张庆; 粟杨静

    2015-01-01

    With Kunming mouse as test animal , we studied Euphorib a helioscopia’ s toxicity and appraised the GHS class of E. heil oscopia’ s extract by onet-ime intragastric administration .The intragastric administration ’ s LD50 of Epu horbia heliosco-pia’ s ethylacetate extract .Ethylacetate extract of Euphorbia helioscopia was GHS Lever 3, and had good mouse killing ac-tive.All extracts effected moise ’ s physical signs , and created obviously different poison symptoms .The intragastric admin-istration’s LD50 of Euphorbia helioscopia’s ethylacetate extract was 314.80 mg・ kg-1.The 95%confidence interval was (314.80±38.29)mg・ kg-1.The lowest killed does estimated value was LD 10 of 220.53 mg・ kg-1, and at 95%confidence interval it was (220.53±35.61)mg・ kg-1.Ethylacetate extract made significant changes on many physiological indexes of mouse, and injured heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney in varying degrees .%研究了泽漆( Euphorib a helioscopia)乙酸乙酯萃取物的灭鼠毒性,评价了其灌胃GHS毒性类别,并以点斜法测定其灌胃LD50和LD10。结果表明:泽漆乙酸乙酯萃取物属于GHS 3类,有较好的杀鼠活性,其灌胃LD50为314.80 mg・ kg-1,95%置信区间是(314.80±38.29)mg・ kg-1,最低致死剂量估计值LD10为220.53 mg・ kg-1,LD10的95%置信区间是(220.53±35.61)mg・ kg-1。萃取物对灌胃的KM小鼠造成了多项生理指标的显著变化,对KM小鼠心脏、肝脏、脾脏、肺脏、肾脏均造成了不同程度的损伤,并表现出多种明显的中毒症状。

  11. Cleome rutidosperma and Euphorbia thymifolia Suppress Inflammatory Response via Upregulation of Phase II Enzymes and Modulation of NF-κB and JNK Activation in LPS-Stimulated BV2 Microglia

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    Hsiou-Yu Ding

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cleome rutidosperma DC. and Euphorbia thymifolia L. are herbal medicines used in traditional Indian and Chinese medicine to treat various illnesses. Reports document that they have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities; nonetheless, the molecular mechanisms involved in their anti-inflammatory actions have not yet been elucidated. The anti-neuroinflammatory activities and underlying mechanisms of ethanol extracts of Cleome rutidosperma (CR and Euphorbia thymifolia (ET were studied using lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated microglial cell line BV2. The morphology changes and production of pro-inflammatory mediators were assayed. Gene expression of inflammatory genes such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase (COX-2, interleukin (IL-1β, and CC chemokine ligand (CCL-2, as well as phase II enzymes such as heme oxygenase (HO-1, the modifier subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLM and NAD(PH quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1, were further investigated using reverse transcription quantitative-PCR (RT-Q-PCR and Western blotting. The effects of CR and ET on mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs and nuclear factor (NF-κB signaling pathways were examined using Western blotting and specific inhibitors. CR and ET suppressed BV2 activation, down-regulated iNOS and COX-2 expression and inhibited nitric oxide (NO overproduction without affecting cell viability. They reduced LPS-mediated tumor necrosis factor (TNF and IL-6 production, attenuated IL-1β and CCL2 expression, but upregulated HO-1, GCLM and NQO1 expression. They also inhibited p65 NF-κB phosphorylation and modulated Jun-N terminal kinase (JNK activation in BV2 cells. SP600125, the JNK inhibitor, significantly augmented the anti-IL-6 activity of ET. NF-κB inhibitor, Bay 11-7082, enhanced the anti-IL-6 effects of both CR and ET. Znpp, a competitive inhibitor of HO-1, attenuated the anti-NO effects of CR and ET. Our results show that CR and ET exhibit anti

  12. Influência do manejo da palhada de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens sobre o desenvolvimento inicial de soja (Glycine max e amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla Influence of straw management of Brachiaria decumbens on the initial development of Glycine max and Euphorbia heterophylla

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    C.D.G. Maciel

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de diferentes manejos de palhada de capim-braquiária sobre o desenvolvimento inicial da cultura de soja e da planta daninha amendoimbravo, foi conduzido um experimento em condições de casa de vegetação no NuPAMFCA/UNESP, BotucatuSP. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: manejo da palhada na superfície do solo + irrigação superficial (T1; manejo da palhada na superfície do solo + irrigação subsuperficial (T2; palhada incorporada ao solo (T3; e testemunha sem cobertura (T4. A palhada foi colhida no campo 30 dias após dessecação com o herbicida glyphosate (1,44 g i.a. ha-1. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com sete repetições, sendo as unidades experimentais vasos plásticos, com a soja e o amendoim-bravo semeados paralelamente, em linhas distintas. O T1 reduziu significativamente o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG e a altura das plântulas de soja aos 5 e 10 dias após a emergência (DAE, ao contrário do amendoim-bravo, o qual não sofreu interferência dos tratamentos estudados, constituindo-se em uma planta-problema para sistemas produtivos com palhada de capim-braquiária. Os resultados da análise de crescimento (TCA - taxa de crescimento absoluto, TCR - taxa de crescimento relativo e TAL - taxa de assimilação líquida das plântulas de soja e amendoim-bravo apresentaram valores máximos aos 15 DAE, com exceção do T3 para soja, o qual reduziu expressivamente o desenvolvimento em relação aos demais tratamentos.An experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions at NuPAM-FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, SP, Brazil to evaluate the effects of different types of straw management of Brachiaria decumbens on the initial development of Glycine max and Euphorbia heterophylla. The treatments were: straw on soil surface + irrigation on the top (T1; straw on soil surface + underirrigation (T2; straw incorporated into the soil (T3 and control (T4. B. decumbens

  13. Therapeutic effects of Euphorbia Pekinensis and Glycyrrhiza glabra on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Ascites Partially Via Regulating the Frk-Arhgdib-Inpp5d-Avpr2-Aqp4 Signal Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanqiong; Yan, Chen; Li, Yuting; Mao, Xia; Tao, Weiwei; Tang, Yuping; Lin, Ya; Guo, Qiuyan; Duan, Jingao; Lin, Na

    2017-02-01

    To clarify unknown rationalities of herbaceous compatibility of Euphorbia Pekinensis (DJ) and Glycyrrhiza glabra (GC) acting on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ascites, peritoneum transcriptomics profiling of 15 subjects, including normal control (Con), HCC ascites mouse model (Mod), DJ-alone, DJ/GC-synergy and DJ/GC-antagonism treatment groups were performed on OneArray platform, followed by differentially expressed genes (DEGs) screening. DEGs between Mod and Con groups were considered as HCC ascites-related genes, and those among different drug treatment and Mod groups were identified as DJ/GC-combination-related genes. Then, an interaction network of HCC ascites-related gene-DJ/GC combination-related gene-known therapeutic target gene for ascites was constructed. Based on nodes’ degree, closeness, betweenness and k-coreness, the Frk-Arhgdib-Inpp5d-Avpr2-Aqp4 axis with highly network topological importance was demonstrated to be a candidate target of DJ/GC combination acting on HCC ascites. Importantly, both qPCR and western blot analyses verified this regulatory effects based on HCC ascites mice in vivo and M-1 collecting duct cells in vitro. Collectively, different combination designs of DJ and GC may lead to synergistic or antagonistic effects on HCC ascites partially via regulating the Frk-Arhgdib-Inpp5d-Avpr2-Aqp4 axis, implying that global gene expression profiling combined with network analysis can offer an effective way to understand pharmacological mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions.

  14. Activity of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii N.E.B. (Euphorbiaceae) latex against Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817) (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae), intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, Linnaeus, 1758 (Trematoda: Fasciolidae). 2: limited field-testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Carvalho; de Amorim, Alziro

    2003-10-01

    The molluscicidal evaluation of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (Crown of thorns) against Lymnaea columella snails, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, in irrigation ditches of the Pisciculture Station at Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, was studied under limited field conditions. An aqueous solution of the latex at 5 mg/l was tested in two irrigation ditches (experimental and control ditches), after initial sampling of the snail population present. Twenty-four hours after application of the product, it was verified that 97.4% of free L. columella snails and 100% of snails of the same species captive in cages and used as sentinels at three points equidistant from the application site in the experimental ditch, died. For Biomphalaria tenagophila and Melanoides tuberculata snails, present in the experimental ditch, the mortality was 100%, for the species Pomacea spp. the mortality was 40%. No mortality was verified in the free mollusks, or in the sentinels in the ditch used as control. E. splendens var. hislopii latex is thus an efficient natural molluscicide, which may be used as an alternative control agent against L. columella.

  15. Activity of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii N.E.B. (Euphorbiaceae latex against Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817 (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, Linnaeus, 1758 (Trematoda: Fasciolidae. 2: limited field-testing

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    Vasconcellos Mauricio Carvalho de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The molluscicidal evaluation of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (Crown of thorns against Lymnaea columella snails, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, in irrigation ditches of the Pisciculture Station at Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, was studied under limited field conditions. An aqueous solution of the latex at 5 mg/l was tested in two irrigation ditches (experimental and control ditches, after initial sampling of the snail population present. Twenty-four hours after application of the product, it was verified that 97.4% of free L. columella snails and 100% of snails of the same species captive in cages and used as sentinels at three points equidistant from the application site in the experimental ditch, died. For Biomphalaria tenagophila and Melanoides tuberculata snails, present in the experimental ditch, the mortality was 100%, for the species Pomacea spp. the mortality was 40%. No mortality was verified in the free mollusks, or in the sentinels in the ditch used as control. E. splendens var. hislopii latex is thus an efficient natural molluscicide, which may be used as an alternative control agent against L. columella.

  16. Aumento da Sobrevivência de Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus, em Condições de Laboratório, pela Ingestão de Néctar Extrafloral de Euphorbia milii Des Moul. (Euphorbiaceae

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    Nathalia Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Abstract. The objective this study was to determine if in laboratory, Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (L., an important vector of dengue and yellow fever, feeds on the nectar of Euphorbia milii Des Moul (Euphorbiaceae , plant commonly used in homes as a hedge, and evaluate the effect of feeding on survival. The lifetime of both sexes was checked daily and a test for fructose was used for verification of sugar intake by mosquitoes. The daily access to the nectar gave a significant increase in the lifetime of males and females (12.8 and 18.4 days, respectively in relation to mosquitoes maintained only with water (6.4 and 7.4 days, respectively. Plants in domestic environments, producing nectar and suitable for feeding by mosquitoes of the same, as well as E. milii, have the potential to play a significant role in the energy budget of mosquitoes. An increase in the survival of females can mean an increased likelihood of infection and disease transmission in males and an increased likelihood of insemination of females. Although often overlooked in research and control tactics, the propensity of the mosquito Ae. aegypti ingesting sugars can be a variable that confers advantages to this vector.

  17. Effects of insecticide application on Oracella acuta (Lobdell) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) population and its two dominant parasitoids%杀虫剂对湿地松粉蚧种群及其天敌的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙江华; 张彦周

    2003-01-01

    湿地松粉蚧是于1988年传入我国广东省的一种重要林业外来入侵害虫.现在该害虫在我国的分布面积为35.52万公顷,严重影响着我国南方松林的生长健康.该害虫在其原产地美国南方并不造成大的危害,也不是一种主要害虫.只有当大量应用杀虫剂防治其它害虫时,由于杀死了其天敌,湿地松粉蚧种群才会明显增长.为控制这一外来入侵害虫,中美两国于1995年开展了从美国引进天敌防治广东省湿地松粉蚧的林业合作项目.本文报道了1996~1997年间在美国南方三个种子园使用杀虫剂防治球果种实害虫时,杀虫剂对湿地松粉蚧种群及其两种主要天敌有明显的影响,这也间接地说明了寄生性天敌对湿地松粉蚧在自然条件下的控制作用.相关分析显示湿地松粉蚧种群数量与其天敌是密切相关的,但杀虫剂可以打破这种平衡.这一方面说明从美国引进天敌防治湿地松粉蚧是可行的,另一方面也显示在美国采集湿地松粉蚧天敌应在使用过杀虫剂后的林分中.%The effects of insecticide application on loblolly pine mealybug, Oracella acuta (Lobdell) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) and its two dominant parasitoids, Allotropa sp. (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Zarhopalus debarri Sun (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), were investigated using yellow sticky traps. Theresultsrevealed that the Oracella population responded positively to the intensityof insecticide use, which had adverse effects on its two parasitoids. In fact, the outbreak of the mealybug was largely due to this adverse effect of insecticides on its parasitoids. Orchards with high intensity use of insecticides resulted higher Oracella population and vice versa. Comparison of three orchards with three levels of insecticide use further demonstrated the effectiveness of the parasitoids in regulating mealybug populations. Significantly more males of Zarhopalus sp. were caught than females indicated a

  18. Characteristic of intestinal absorption of euphorbia factor L1 by rats single pass intestinal perfusion moder in situ%在体单向肠灌流模型研究千金子甾醇在大鼠肠吸收特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀婷; 王英姿; 李韶菁; 段飞鹏; 王晴; 张春泥; 李凤英; 李文华; 骆声秀

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the characteristic of absorption of euphorbia factor L1 in intestine of rats, and to observe the effects of P-glycoprotein(P-gp)and multidrug resistance-associated protein(MRP2)on intestinal absorption of euphorbia factor L1 .Methods The contents of euphorbia factor L1 of intestinal perfusion fluid of duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon in the rats in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion model were determined by using HPLC.The drug absorption rate constant( Ka ) and the apparent absorp-tion coefficient( Papp ) in four intestinal regions were calculated.Results Ka and Papp of euphorbia factor L1 at colon were the highest of the whole rat intestine.Significant increase of Ka and Papp showed at rat colon when co-perfused with verapamil hydrochloride, by contrast, decrease of Ka and Papp found when co-perfused with indomethacin.Conclusion We inferred that verapamil hydrochloride be the substrate of P-gp and that indomethacin be not the substrate of MRP2 .%目的:研究千金子甾醇在大鼠肠道内的吸收情况以及P-糖蛋白( P-gp)和多药耐药相关蛋白( MRP2)对千金子甾醇肠吸收的影响。方法采用大鼠在体单向肠灌流模型,运用高效液相色谱法测定十二指肠、空肠、回肠、结肠灌流液中千金子甾醇的含量,计算吸收速率常数( Ka )和表观渗透系数(Papp)。结果千金子甾醇在大鼠结肠的Ka 及Papp最高(P<0.05)。加入P-gp抑制剂盐酸维拉帕米后,千金子甾醇在结肠段的Ka 及Papp显著增加;而加入MRP2抑制剂吲哚美辛后,千金子甾醇在大鼠结肠段的Ka及Papp普遍降低。结论千金子甾醇在肠道中的主要吸收部位为结肠,推测千金子甾醇可能为P-gp的底物,而非MRP2的底物。

  19. To Measure the Half Lethal Dose of Petroleum Ether and Ethyl Acetate Parts of Euphorbia Fischeriana Steud in Mice%狼毒大戟石油醚提取物和乙酸乙酯提取物的半数致死量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡珍珍; 金铭; 温宪春; 刘吉成

    2013-01-01

      目的:研究狼毒大戟石油醚提取物和乙酸乙酯提取物对小鼠的半数致死量(LD50).方法:150只昆明种小鼠,完全随机平均分组,每组10只.腹腔注射给药,分别给予不同浓度的狼毒大戟石油醚提取物和乙酸乙酯提取物,以小鼠急性死亡率为指标,求狼毒大戟石油醚提取物和乙酸乙酯提取物的半数致死量(LD50)和 LD50的95%可信区间.结果:狼毒大戟石油醚提取物和乙酸乙酯提取物对小鼠的半数致死量(LD50)分别为31.03 mg/kg、1538.58 mg/kg.结论:狼毒大戟石油醚和乙酸乙酯提取物具有一定的毒性,实验结果为进一步研究和开发狼毒大戟提供了毒性依据.%Objective:To measure the half lethal dose(LD50)of petroleum ether extract and ethyl acetate extract of Euphorbia fischeriana Steud in mice.Method:Totally 150 kunming mice in half genders were randomly divided into corresponding groups,each had 10 mice.Intraperitoneal injection the mice with extractive of Euphorbia fischeriana Steud and observe the toxic symptom,and the LD50 and 95% confidence interval of the drug was measured with acute mortality rate as index.Result:The half lethal dose(LD50)of petroleum ether extract and ethyl acetate extract of Euphorbia fischeriana Steud in mice were 31.03 mg/kg,1538.58 mg/kg.Conclusion:The petroleum ether extract and ethyl acetate extract of Euphorbia fischeriana Steud have some toxicity.The experimental result provided toxicity data for further research and development.

  20. Reduction of Adhesion Molecule Production and Alteration of eNOS and Endothelin-1 mRNA Expression in Endothelium by Euphorbia hirta L. through Its Beneficial β-Amyrin Molecule

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    Mei Fen Shih

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The inflammatory reaction in large blood vessels involves up-regulation of vascular adhesion molecules such as endothelial cell selectin (E-selectin, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM-1, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM-1. These vascular dysfunctions are associated with the development of atherosclerosis. β-Amyrin, an active component of Euphorbia hirta L., has potent anti-inflammatory effects. So far, its preventive effects against the expression of inflammatory mediator-induced adhesion molecules have not been investigated. Endothelial cells (SVEC4-10 cell line were treated with 50% RAW conditioned media (i.e., normal SVEC4-10 culture media contains 50% of lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophage culture media without or with β-amyrin (0.6 and 0.3 µM. The production levels of E-selectin, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 in the SVEC4-10 cells were measured with ELISA assay kits. Under the same treatment conditions, expression of endothelin (ET-1 and endothelial type of NO synthase (eNOS mRNA were analyzed by RT-PCR and agarose gel. With β-amyrin, the 50% RAW conditioned media-induced E-selectin, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 levels as well as ET-1 gene expression were all suppressed. β-Amyrin treatment also restored the 50% RAW conditioned media-suppressed eNOS mRNA expression. These data indicate that β-amyrin is potentially useful in preventing chronic inflammation-related vascular diseases.

  1. 续随子种子油提取工艺响应面法优化及成分分析%Optimization of Extraction Technique of Seed Oil from Euphorbia Lathyris L. Using Response Surface Methodology and Component Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田琴; 牛伟; 鹿茸; 孙楠; 单璐; 冀佩双; 张丽珍; 牛宇

    2014-01-01

    确定续随子种子油的最优提取工艺,并对其脂肪酸成分进行分析。通过比较索氏法、超声法、水酶法对续随子种子油的提取效率,选出最佳提取方法。在单因素试验基础上,采用Plackett-Burman设计筛选索氏提取法中影响提取率的因素。以种子油提取率作为响应目标,对筛选出的因素通过中心复合设计(Central Composite Design)进行优化,确定索氏提取法的最优提取工艺。三种方法的最高得率分别为41.97%,36.38%,34.33%。提取溶剂、液料比、温度、时间为影响最明显的因素。确定了索氏提取法的最优提取工艺为:提取溶剂石油醚,液料比30:1(v:m),提取温度90℃,提取时间9 h。采用气相色谱-质谱法(GC-MS)分析种子油成分,共鉴定出8种脂肪酸,占总脂肪酸含量的99%以上。其中,不饱和脂肪酸以油酸、亚油酸、α-亚麻酸和花生酸等为主,其含量达到总脂肪酸90%以上。在此工艺条件下,续随子种子油得率理论值为54.353%,实测值为54.175%,与理论值相比,相对误差为0.120%。研究结果可为续随子种子油的提取工艺提供参考,为续随子的进一步开发利用建立基础。%The aim was to determine the optimal parameters in extraction of seed oil from Euphorbia Lathyris L. and analyze its fatty acid composition. The extraction efficiency of three extraction methods, including Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction and aqueous enzymatic extraction were compared. Based on the single factor experiment, four factors were screened and optimized by using Plackett-Burman (PB) design. Central Composite Design was applied to optimize the selected factors using the seed oil as the response value. The results showed that the average extraction efficiency were 41.97%, 36.38% and 34.33%, respectively. The effect of extraction solvent, ratio of liquid to dry material, temperature and time on the extraction

  2. Morfologia externa dos cicadellinae (homoptera, cicadellidae: comparação entre versigonalia ruficauda (walker (cicadellini e tretogonia cribrata melichar (proconiini, com notas sobre outras espécies e análise da terminologia External morphology of the cicadellinae (homoptera, cicadellidae: comparison between versigonalia ruficauda (walker (cicadellini and tretogonia cribrata melichar (proconiini, with notes on other species and an analysis of the structural terminology

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    Gabriel Mejdalani

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The external morphology of two cicadelline species, Versigonalia ruficauda (Walker, 1851 (Cicadellini and Tretogonia cribrata Melichar, 1926 (Proconiini, is analyzed. The head, axillary sclerites, wing venation, female genitalia, and tegumentary processes are described. Notes on other Cicadellini - Amblyscarlidia albofasciata (Walker, 1851, Tettisama quinquemacidata (Germar, 1821, Macugonalia lencomelas (Walker, 1851, and Diedrocephala variegata (Fabricius, 1775 - and Proconiini - Ciccus adspersus (Fabricius, 1803, Homoscarta superciliaris (Jacobi, 1905, Ichthyobelus sp., and Rhaphirrhinus phosphoreus (Linnaeus, 1758 - are added. A technique for dissecting the female genitalia is presented. The facial porlion of head in V. ruficauda, T. cribrata, and remaining species has a large sclerite (frons or postfrontofrons clearly defined by the frontogenal suture. Below the frons, and separated from it by the epistomal suture, a smaller sclerite is present (clypeus. The identification of these sclerites is based on comparisons with descriptions in the literature of a generalized Pterygota, a Psocoptera, a fossil Hemipteroidea, and other Homoptera. The conclusions about the identities of frons and clypeus corroborate the hypotheses of Hamilton (1981 on the homologies of cephalic areas in Rhynchota. The facial sclerites have modifications related with the xyleniomyzous diet. The frons is swollen, providing a larger area for attachmcnt of cibarial muscles. Other modifications increasing the area of frons are observed in the Proconiini. In C. adspersus its lateral margins are distinctly pronounced and its upper portion has a pair of lateral elevations. In Ichthyobelus sp. and R. phosphoreus the upper part of frons is greatly developed, occupying 4/5 of dorsal area of head on middle line. The vertex is limited to a small portion (1/5 of that area. The clypeus is also swollen, a fact related with the greater development of cibarium. This character is more

  3. El complex Euphorbia esula-E. virgata (Euphorbiaceae al nord-est de la península Ibèrica: precisions corològiques, ecològiques i taxonòmiques

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    Rovira, A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent discovery in the north-east of the Iberian Peninsula (southern and central Catalonia of three populations belonging to the Euphorbia esula–E. virgata complex (Euphorbiaceae prompted us to conduct a macro- and micromorphological study to ascertain their taxonomic identity. Only two previous records of plants from this complex existed in the area and these were gathered in 1908/1909 (previously identified as E. esula subsp. saratoi and in 1930 (E. esula s. l.. Our results indicate that all the material examined (both recent and old samples can be attributed to E. virgata, a taxon whose main distribution area lies in eastern Europe, and whose southwestern distribution limit lies in northeastern Iberian Peninsula. The macromorphological characteristics vary somewhat between populations and some individual plants bear a strong resemblance to forms that are usually referred to E. ×pseudovirgata, a supposed hybrid of E. virgata and E. esula. It is not possible, however, to confirm the presence of this hybrid in the region without further studies. After this study, E. esula subsp. esula should be excluded from Catalonia, Valencia and Aragon. The present-day populations we attribute to E. virgata are highly localized but dense. They are found in herbaceous habitats with clear anthropic influence (abandoned fields and the edges of roads and tracks, on deep, fairly dry soils. These habitats are similar to those typical of E. virgata in eastern and central Europe. It is likely that the populations are temporal and indeed in two of the three recent localities it has been confirmed that they date from after 2005. Current data suggest that this is a non-indigenous species, but in view of the fact that it was detected a century ago, the possibility that it is a rare indigenous species with itinerant populations cannot be ruled out.El hallazgo reciente de tres poblaciones del complejo Euphorbia esula-E. virgata (Euphorbiaceae en el nordeste de la

  4. Effect of cation-π interactions and steric bulk on the catalytic action of oxidosqualene cyclase: a case study of Phe728 of β-amyrin synthase from Euphorbia tirucalli L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ryousuke; Hashimoto, Ippei; Masukawa, Yukari; Hoshino, Tsutomu

    2013-12-09

    The function of the active-site residues of oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs) has been presumed mainly in light of the product distribution; however, not much research has been performed into the enzymatic activity of mutated OSCs. β-Amyrin, which is widely found in the plant kingdom, is classified as an OSC; mutational studies on β-amyrin cyclase are very limited. Six site-specific mutations targeted at the Phe728 residue of Euphorbia tirucalli β-amyrin synthase (EtAS) were constructed to inspect the function of this aromatic residue. We developed a simple method to evaluate the in vivo enzymatic activity; the expression levels of EtASs and the quantities of the cyclic triterpenes produced were determined by use of western blot and GC analyses, respectively. Measurement of the relative in vivo activity of the mutants versus that of the wild-type enzyme showed that the Ala, Met, His, and Trp variants had significantly decreased activity, but that the Tyr mutant had a high activity, which was nearly the same as that of the wild-type enzyme. In contrast to Tyr, Ala and Met possess no π-electrons; thus, the role of Phe728 is to stabilize the cationic intermediates, resulting in facilitation of the ring-expansion processes, especially by stabilizing the secondary cations. The decreased activity of the Trp mutant is ascribed to the introduction of a large steric bulk, leading to looser binding of oxidosqualene in the Trp variant. The His mutant afforded germanicol as the main product, indicating that the Phe residue is located near the D/E-ring-formation site. Changes in the steric bulk gave some cationic intermediates, resulting in the formation of 13 cyclic triterpenes, including an unnatural triterpene, (17E)-dammara-17(20),24-dien-3β-ol, and isoursenol, which has rarely been found in nature. In this study, we provide the first experimental evidence that cation-π interactions play a key role in the catalytic action of OSCs.

  5. Molluscicidal action of the latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii N.E.B. ("Christ's Crown") (Euphorbiaceae) against Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817) (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae), intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica Linnaeus, 1758 (Trematode: Fasciolidae): 1- test in laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Carvalho; de Amorim, Alziro

    2003-06-01

    The latex action of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (Christ's Crown) against snails Lymnaea columella, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, derived from irrigation ditches of the Station of Pisciculture at Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, was studied in the laboratory. Lab bioassays, using aqueous solutions of the latex, varying between 0.1 and 10 mg/l, have proven molluscicidal activity of the product collected on the same day the tests were performed, during the four seasons of the year, finding the following lethal concentrations (LC90): 1.51 mg/l in the spring; 0.55 mg/l in the summer; 0.74 mg/l in the fall and 0.93 mg/l in winter, after 24 h exposure of the snails, showing significant differences among the seasons of the year (ANOVA test, F = 11.01, G.L.= 3/33, p < 0.05), as well as among the concentrations (ANOVA test, F = 27.38, G.L.= 11/33, p < 0.05). In the summer, mortality reached 100% from concentration at 0.6 mg/l, the same during fall and in winter as of 1 mg/l, while in spring it only reached 100% mortality as of 2 mg/l. Mortality in the controls was low, reaching 5% in the summer and winter and 10% in the fall and spring. None of the samples died. During the assay, with an aqueous solution of the latex at a concentration of 5 mg/l, in order to check the time of duration of the product effect, in the laboratory, it was observed that the molluscicidal activity remained stable up to the 15th day after the beginning of the test with 100% mortality of L. columella, gradually losing its effect until the 23rd day, when we no longer observed animal mortality. In the control group, there was a random daily variation in mortality rate ranging 0-50% after 48 h of observation for 30 days.

  6. Molluscicidal action of the latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii N.E.B. ("Christ's Crown" (Euphorbiaceae against Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817 (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica Linnaeus, 1758 (Trematode: Fasciolidae: 1- test in laboratory

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    Vasconcellos Mauricio Carvalho de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The latex action of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (Christ's Crown against snails Lymnaea columella, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, derived from irrigation ditches of the Station of Pisciculture at Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, was studied in the laboratory. Lab bioassays, using aqueous solutions of the latex, varying between 0.1 and 10 mg/l, have proven molluscicidal activity of the product collected on the same day the tests were performed, during the four seasons of the year, finding the following lethal concentrations (LC90: 1.51 mg/l in the spring; 0.55 mg/l in the summer; 0.74 mg/l in the fall and 0.93 mg/l in winter, after 24 h exposure of the snails, showing significant differences among the seasons of the year (ANOVA test, F = 11.01, G.L.= 3/33, p < 0.05, as well as among the concentrations (ANOVA test, F = 27.38, G.L.= 11/33, p < 0.05. In the summer, mortality reached 100% from concentration at 0.6 mg/l, the same during fall and in winter as of 1 mg/l, while in spring it only reached 100% mortality as of 2 mg/l. Mortality in the controls was low, reaching 5% in the summer and winter and 10% in the fall and spring. None of the samples died. During the assay, with an aqueous solution of the latex at a concentration of 5 mg/l, in order to check the time of duration of the product effect, in the laboratory, it was observed that the molluscicidal activity remained stable up to the 15th day after the beginning of the test with 100% mortality of L. columella, gradually losing its effect until the 23rd day, when we no longer observed animal mortality. In the control group, there was a random daily variation in mortality rate ranging 0-50% after 48 h of observation for 30 days.

  7. Effect of Euphorbia Fischeriana Polysaccharide on the P-selectin Expression in HUVECs Induced by TNF-α%狼毒多糖对TNF-α诱导的内皮细胞P-selectin表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋丽艳; 于智浦; 宋波

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of Euphorbia fischeriana polysaccharide (EFP-AW1) on the P-selectin expression in HUVECs induced by TNF-α.Method:HUVECs were divided into normal group,TNF-α stimulation group and EFP-AW1 and TNF-α associated stimulation group.Flow cytometry was used to measure the level of P-selectin protein in HUVECs cell; and Real-time PCR were applied to assay status of P-selectin mRNA expression in HUVECs cell.Result:TNF-α stimulation group had significantly increased the levels of P-selectin mRNA and protein(P<0.05). Compared with the group stimulated of TNF-α,the expression of P-selectin mRNA and protein in HUVECs cell had apparently decreased by pre-treated with EFP-AW1(P<0.05),and had a certain dose dependent.Conclusion:EFP-AW1 could inhibit the expression of P-selectin induced by TNF-α in endothelial cells.%目的:探讨狼毒多糖(EFP-AW1)对TNF-α诱导的内皮细胞P-selectin表达的影响。方法:以TNF-α诱导HUVECs建立内皮细胞分泌P-selectin模型,流式细胞术检测EFP-AW1对TNF-α诱导的HUVECs细胞P-selectin蛋白表达的影响;Real-time PCR检测EFP-AW1对TNF-α诱导的HUVECs细胞P-selectin mRNA表达的影响。结果:HUVECs经TNF-α刺激后P-selectin表达较空白对照组明显增强(P<0.05),而经过EFP-AW1预处理的HUVECs P-selectin mRNA和蛋白表达水平与TNF-α刺激组比较明显降低(P<0.05),并具有一定的剂量依赖性。结论:EFP-AW1能够降低TNF-α诱导的内皮细胞黏附分子P-selectin表达,从而抑制P-selectin介导的肿瘤细胞与内皮细胞的黏附。

  8. Analysis of a new strain of Euphorbia mosaic virus with distinct replication specificity unveils a lineage of begomoviruses with short Rep sequences in the DNA-B intergenic region

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    Argüello-Astorga Gerardo R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Euphorbia mosaic virus (EuMV is a member of the SLCV clade, a lineage of New World begomoviruses that display distinctive features in their replication-associated protein (Rep and virion-strand replication origin. The first entirely characterized EuMV isolate is native from Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; subsequently, EuMV was detected in weeds and pepper plants from another region of Mexico, and partial DNA-A sequences revealed significant differences in their putative replication specificity determinants with respect to EuMV-YP. This study was aimed to investigate the replication compatibility between two EuMV isolates from the same country. Results A new isolate of EuMV was obtained from pepper plants collected at Jalisco, Mexico. Full-length clones of both genomic components of EuMV-Jal were biolistically inoculated into plants of three different species, which developed symptoms indistinguishable from those induced by EuMV-YP. Pseudorecombination experiments with EuMV-Jal and EuMV-YP genomic components demonstrated that these viruses do not form infectious reassortants in Nicotiana benthamiana, presumably because of Rep-iteron incompatibility. Sequence analysis of the EuMV-Jal DNA-B intergenic region (IR led to the unexpected discovery of a 35-nt-long sequence that is identical to a segment of the rep gene in the cognate viral DNA-A. Similar short rep sequences ranging from 35- to 51-nt in length were identified in all EuMV isolates and in three distinct viruses from South America related to EuMV. These short rep sequences in the DNA-B IR are positioned downstream to a ~160-nt non-coding domain highly similar to the CP promoter of begomoviruses belonging to the SLCV clade. Conclusions EuMV strains are not compatible in replication, indicating that this begomovirus species probably is not a replicating lineage in nature. The genomic analysis of EuMV-Jal led to the discovery of a subgroup of SLCV clade viruses that contain in

  9. Wild Solanum resistance to aphids: antixenosis or antibiosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Vincent; Dugravot, Sébastien; Campan, Erick; Dubois, Françoise; Vincent, Charles; Giordanengo, Philippe

    2008-04-01

    The type (antixenosis or antibiosis) of resistance against the aphids Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) was characterized for the wild tuber-bearing potatoes, Solanum chomatophilum Bitter and Solanum stoloniferum Schltdl. & Bouché through behavioral (olfactometry and electrical penetration graph) and physiological studies. In dual-choice assays, only S. stoloniferum exerted attraction to M. euphorbiae. This ruled out the possibility that plant volatiles of S. chomatophilum and S. stoloniferum may contribute to the high resistance expressed. In electrical penetration graph experiments, aphids feeding on S. stoloniferum showed increased salivation phases, whereas phloem ingestion was drastically reduced for both aphid species. Because reaching phloem elements was not delayed in both species, the resistance mechanism was phloem-located. The antixenosis exhibited by S. stoloniferum was similar on young and mature leaves. S. chomatophilum also showed phloem-located antixenosis against M. persicae. In contrast, M. euphorbiae had no difficulty to reach S. chomatophilum phloem tissues and to ingest sap. S. chomatophilum resistance against M. euphorbiae was antibiosis and only expressed in mature leaves, where a complete nymphal mortality was observed.

  10. Probing behavior of apterous and alate morphs of two potato-colonizing aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boquel, Sébastien; Giordanengo, Philippe; Ameline, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Secondary host plant colonization by aphids involves alate and apterous morphs to spread in the population at a large scale by flying or, at a finer one, by walking. Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are two polyphagous aphids that cause serious losses on many crops, particularly on potato, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae). When settlement of virginoparous alate aphids occurs, apterous individuals are produced and spread within the potato field. As these two potato colonizers originate from different areas and show different body length, this study compared probing behaviors of virginoparous alate and apterous M. persicae and M. euphorbiae on one of their secondary host plants, Solanum tuberosum. Non–choice bioassays and electrical penetration graph (EPG) recordings were performed. Most M. euphorbiae of the two morphs rapidly accepted potato plants and exhibited long duration of probing, phloem sap salivation, and ingestion phases. In contrast, at the end of the experiment, most alates of M. persicae left the potato leaflet after brief gustative probes. Moreover, EPG experiments showed that the main difference between both morphs of the two species concerned the xylem ingestion parameter. Differences between species were also reported, such as an increased total duration of probing in both morphs and enhanced phloem ingestion duration in apterous M. euphorbiae. All the differences highlighted in this study are discussed according to the variations observed in aphid body size and to their historical association with Solanum species.

  11. Probing Behavior of Apterous and Alate Morphs of two Potato—Colonizing Aphids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boquel, Sébastien; Giordanengo, Philippe; Ameline, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Secondary host plant colonization by aphids involves alate and apterous morphs to spread in the population at a large scale by flying or, at a finer one, by walking. Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are two polyphagous aphids that cause serious losses on many crops, particularly on potato, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae). When settlement of virginoparous alate aphids occurs, apterous individuals are produced and spread within the potato field. As these two potato colonizers originate from different areas and show different body length, this study compared probing behaviors of virginoparous alate and apterous M. persicae and M. euphorbiae on one of their secondary host plants, Solanum tuberosum. Non—choice bioassays and electrical penetration graph (EPG) recordings were performed. Most M. euphorbiae of the two morphs rapidly accepted potato plants and exhibited long duration of probing, phloem sap salivation, and ingestion phases. In contrast, at the end of the experiment, most alates of M. persicae left the potato leaflet after brief gustative probes. Moreover, EPG experiments showed that the main difference between both morphs of the two species concerned the xylem ingestion parameter. Differences between species were also reported, such as an increased total duration of probing in both morphs and enhanced phloem ingestion duration in apterous M. euphorbiae. All the differences highlighted in this study are discussed according to the variations observed in aphid body size and to their historical association with Solanum species. PMID:22242548

  12. Purification, kinetics, inhibitors and CD for recombinant β-amyrin synthase from Euphorbia tirucalli L and functional analysis of the DCTA motif, which is highly conserved among oxidosqualene cyclases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ryousuke; Masukawa, Yukari; Hoshino, Tsutomu

    2013-03-01

    β-Amyrin, a natural triterpene, is widely distributed in the plant kingdom, and its pentacyclic skeleton is produced by oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC). OSC enzymes are classified as membrane proteins, and they catalyze the polycyclization reaction of (3S)-2,3-oxidosqualene to yield nearly 150 different cyclic triterpene skeletons. To date, no report has described the successful purification and characterization of plant β-amyrin synthase. The β-amyrin synthase from Euphorbia tirucalli (EtAS) was expressed as a polyhistidine-tagged protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae GIL77, which lacks the lanosterol synthase gene. The expression yield, determined by western blotting analysis, was 5-7 mg. By Ni(2+) -nitrilotriacetic acid affinity column chromatography and careful selection of the proper imidazole concentration during the purification processes of washing and elution, a single band was successfully obtained on SDS/PAGE. We then tested the effects of four detergents on the enzyme activity. Supplementation with Triton X-100 at a concentration of 0.05% yielded the highest activity. The optimal pH and temperature were 7.0 and 30 °C, respectively. The kinetic parameters, K(m) and k(cat) , were determined to be 33.8 ± 0.53 μm and 46.4 ± 0.68 min(-1), respectively. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports describing both K(m) and k(cat) for OSCs except for two examples of rat and bovine lanosterol synthases. The β-amyrin synthase purified in this study showed a significantly higher catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) (~ 10(3)-fold) than those of the two reported lanosterol synthases. Gel-filtration HPLC indicated that the OSC exists as a monomer, and the eluted OSC retained its activity. Furthermore, the inhibition constants K(i) and IC(50) and types of inhibition by iminosqualene, Ro48-8071 and U18666A were determined, and indicated that iminosqualene and Ro48-8071 are potent inhibitors. Additionally, this is the first report of the kinetic data of the

  13. 京大戟中大戟二烯醇对照品的制备研究%Study on the Preparation of Euphol Reference Substance in Euphorbia pekinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛秀允; 孙立立; 张乐林

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To establish a preparative separation method for euphol reference substance in Euphorbia pekinensis. METHODS:Parts of petroleum ether extraction from E. pekinensis ethanol extract were separated by silica gel column chromatogra-phy with petroleum ether-ethyl acetate(95∶5-70∶30,V/V)by gradient elution. The enriched fractions of euphol were collected. With the methanol repeated recrystallization,nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy(NMR)method,mass spectrometry(MS)meth-od and other spectroscopic methods were used to identify the chemical structures,and thin layer chromatography (TLC),UV, HPLC-UV,HPLC-MS were combined to detect the mass fraction. RESULTS:The mass fraction of euphol reference substance sepa-rated from E. pekinensis was>99%. CONCLUSIONS:The reference substance of euphol acquired by this method meet the relative requirements of the chemical reference substance in the content dertermination of TCM new drug quality standard. It provides chemi-cal reference substance for the quality control of E. pekinensis and prescription preparations containing E. pekinensis and the basic research of effective substances.%目的:研究制备京大戟中大戟二烯醇对照品的分离方法。方法:取京大戟药材醇提浸膏的石油醚萃取部分,用硅胶柱色谱分离,以石油醚-乙酸乙酯(95∶5~70∶30,V/V)梯度洗脱,收集大戟二烯醇富集流份,以甲醇反复重结晶,通过核磁共振、质谱等波谱方法鉴定化合物结构,采用薄层鉴别、紫外鉴别、高效液相色谱和液质联用等技术进行质量分数检测。结果:从京大戟中制备分离的大戟二烯醇对照品,质量分数>99%。结论:该方法得到的大戟二烯醇对照品符合中药新药质量标准含量测定用对照品的相关技术要求,可作为京大戟药材和含京大戟的成方制剂的质量控制及药效物质基础研究中的对照品。

  14. 甘遂中激活NF-κB信号通路的化学成分%Chemical Components from Euphorbia kansui Activate NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓珍; 张婷婷; 李国友; 方冬梅; 张国林; 罗应刚

    2013-01-01

    采用95%乙醇对甘遂进行提取,溶剂回收后得总浸膏;然后采用不同极性的有机溶剂进行萃取得萃取物;将总浸膏和各萃取物进行激活NF-κB信号通路活性检测;选取激活作用最强的氯仿萃取物进行硅胶柱层析,TLC检测合并;将得到的各部位进行进一步的激活NF-κB信号通路测试;结果表明激活作用最强的部位为非极性部位,因此我们采用GC-MS技术分离并鉴定了56个化合物,占总量的99.72%,主要成分为脂肪酸及其衍生物、长链烷烃及其衍生物,还有单萜、倍半萜类、芳香族类和脂肪醛等.在激活NF-κB信号通路的指导下,我们从甘遂非极性部位分析并鉴定了其中的促炎成分如(Z)-7-Hexadecenal和7,11-Hexadecadienal等,这些成分激活NF-κB信号通路的表达,从而引起炎症因子的释放,导致炎症,从上述非极性部位中还分析了部分毒性物质,为阐明甘遂的毒效物质基础提供了参考.%Kansui Radix, the dried roots of Euphorbia kansui Liou. (Euphorbiaceae) ,are commonly used traditional Chinese medicine. It was reported that the usage of Kansuiwould cause inflammation. An NF-KB-LUC reporter system was established to evaluate the bioactivity of Kansuiin this study. The 95% ethanol crude extractand different solvent-soluble extracts of Kansui were obtained by solvent extraction and fractionation. Bioassay guided separation suggested that the first sub-fraction ( C1) of the CHCI3 -soluble fraction displayed strong bioactivity. GC-MS was introduced to separate and identify the chemical components of the nonpolar sub-fraction of Kansui ( C1). Totally 56 compounds were identified from the non-polar sub-fraction C1. The main components were aliphatic acids and derivatives, long-chain alkanes, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, aromatic compoundsand aldehydydes. The aliphatic aldehydes such as (Z)-7-hexadecenal and 7,11-hexadecadienal detected in the sample extract were reported to cause

  15. Effects of calcium fertilizer on the development, survival, and feeding of B-biotype Bemisia tabaci on Euphorbia pulcherrima%钙肥对B型烟粉虱发育、存活及取食为害的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄俊; 张娟; 郁永明; 刘建新; 李明江; 朱开元

    2012-01-01

    This paper studied the development, survival, and feeding of B-biotype Bemisia tabaci on Euphorbia pulcherrima under the conditions of 26±1 ℃ and 60% -80% relative humidity after applying calcium fertilizer, taking applying fresh water as the control. There existed significant differences in the developmental duration of B. tabaci between treatment applying calcium fertilizer and the control. After applying calcium fertilizer, the egg stage of B. tabaci shortened significantly, and the development from egg to adult took 20. 18 days (for the control, it took 18.72 days). However , there were no significant differences in the survival rates of B. tabaci at different development stages between the two treatments. The feeding of B. tabaci on E. pulcherrima induced the plant leaf chlorophyll fluorescence parameters changed, i. e. , the photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm ) , photochemical quenching coefficient (qp) , light use efficiency (α) , maximum photosynthesis rate (rETRmax ) , and tolerance to light (Ik) decreased significantly, while the non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) had a significant increase. After applying calcium fertilizer, the plant leaf photoinhibition parameter (β) , rETRmax,and Ik had less difference with the control. The nail polish blot observation on the lower epidermis structure of plant leaf showed that calcium fertilizer could effectively compensate the decrease in the photosynthesis of E. pulcherrima damaged by B-biotype B. tabaci.%以清水为对照,研究了施用钙肥后一品红植株对B型烟粉虱发育、存活和取食为害的影响.结果表明:在温度(26±1)℃、相对湿度60%~80%条件下,钙肥处理的一品红植株上的B型烟粉虱在发育历期上与对照存在显著差异,卵期明显缩短,各龄若虫期延长,从卵到成虫的发育时间为20.18 d,而对照为18.72 d;但钙肥处理对B型烟粉虱各虫态的存活率无显著影响.B型烟粉虱的取食为害诱导了一品红叶片叶

  16. Euphorbia tirucalli mediated green synthesis of rose like morphology of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} red phosphor: Structural, photoluminescence and photocatalytic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidya, Y.S., E-mail: vidyays.phy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, LBSGFGC, Bangalore 560 032 (India); Anantharaju, K.S., E-mail: ananth.che@gmail.com [Research Center, Department of Science, East West Institute of Technology, Bangalore 560 091 (India); Nagabhushana, H. [Prof. C.N.R. Rao Centre for Advanced Materials Research, Tumkur University, Tumkur 572 103 (India); Sharma, S.C. [Chhattisgarh Swami Vivekananda Technical University, Bhilai, Chhattisgarh 490 009 (India)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Various morphology of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} nanoparticles were synthesized using E-tirucalli plant latex as a fuel. • These nanoparticles were characterized by PXRD, SEM, UV–Vis and PL. • Eu{sup 3+} doped Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} is a promising single phased red phosphor. • Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} (7 mol%, 1 ml) nanophosphor exhibits superior photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Eco-friendly, cost effective and bio template route was used for the preparation of cubic Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} nanophosphors using Euphorbia tirucalli (E. tirucalli) plant latex as fuel. As – formed Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} (7 mol%, 1–7 ml), calcined Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} (7 mol%, 1–7 ml) and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} (1–11 mol%, 7 ml) samples were characterized using XRD, SEM and UV–Vis absorption spectrophotometer. With increase in latex concentration, the nanophosphor gets transformed from nano plates to rose – like nanoflowers with size varying from 20 to 30 nm. X-ray diffraction pattern of as – formed product shows hexagonal Gd (OH){sub 3}: Eu{sup 3+} phase and it converts to pure cubic phase of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} on calcination at 600 °C for 3 h. Rietveld refinement of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} (7 mol%, 7 ml) revealed the presence of cations in the 8b (0.25, 0.25, 0. 25) and 24d positions (−0.0287, 0.00, 0. 25) and the anions in the 48e positions (0.39, 0.15, 0. 37) with space group Ia-3(206). The photoluminescence intensities of transitions between different J levels depend on the symmetry of the local environment of Eu{sup 3+} ion activators and the high ratio of intensity of ({sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 2}) and ({sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 1}) provides the conclusion that Eu{sup 3+} ion occupies sites with a low symmetry and without an inversion centre. The chromaticity and the CIE coordinates were very close to the standard red color region. The absorption observed in the excitation spectra

  17. Prediction of potential distribution area of Euphorbia dentata in China based on MAXENT model%基于MAXENT模型预测齿裂大戟在中国的潜在分布区

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张路

    2015-01-01

    【背景】齿裂大戟原产于北美,是近年来入侵我国的一种检疫性杂草。目前,该杂草已在我国的华北、华东和西南建立种群,并呈扩散蔓延趋势。由于该入侵植物具有极强的繁殖能力,一旦大面积扩散势必造成极大损失,急需通过风险评估明确其未来的扩散趋势,进而制定早期预警措施。【方法】使用MAXNET模型,运用齿裂大戟在原产地和中国的已知分布数据及筛选后的环境变量,结合地理信息系统( Geographic information system,GIS)及其生活史特征和环境适应特性,直观和定量地预测了该原产北美的植物在中国的适生范围,并采用受试者工作曲线( Receiver operator characteristic curve,ROC)分析方法对模型预测结果进行了检验。【结果】齿裂大戟在我国有较为广阔的潜在分布区,其中高风险区主要集中在地处33°~40° N,109°~119° E的北京、天津、河北南部、河南北部、山东中北部、山西南部和陕西西安等地。【结论与意义】结合齿裂大戟在我国的分布现状和传入扩散特性,划定了其在我国潜在的高风险区域,为制定预防和控制入侵植物进一步传入和扩散的早期预警和监测措施提供科学依据。%Background] Euphorbia dentata, an alien weed native to North America, has been introduced to China in the past cen-tury. [Method] By using model and geographic information system ( GIS) , this paper analyzed the environmental variables affecting the distribution of E.dentata on the basis of the biological characteristics, as well as quantitatively predicted its future distribution in China. The prediction was verified by the ROC curve. [Result] The results showed that E.dentata could have a wide potential distri-bution in China, with the main suitable areas located between 33°~40°N and 109°~119°E, i.e., in regions of Beijing, Tianjin, South Hebei, North Henan, Central&North Shandong, South Shanxi, and Xi′an of

  18. Het traditioneel gebruik van Euphorbia Tirucalli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Van Damme

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the traditional uses of E. tirucalli. This succulent latex plant, although originating from southern Africa, is now growing as a hedge plant in tropical and subtropical regions all over the world. Its special chemical properties have induced people to use it as a source of poison against bacteria, amoebas, nematodes, insects, fish, birds and mammals. Its medicinal use has also been recorded in a wide variety of settings. In a few cases, the latex has been used for the production of varnish and paint.

  19. Home About Us » Editorial Board Indexed in Current Issue Coming Issue Archives Submission » Contact Us Euphorbia Helioscopia Inhibits The LPS-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Response in RAW 264.7 Cells Via The NF-Κb and MAPK Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jin Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have characterized the total polyphenolic contents, antioxidant activity, tyrosinase, elastase, and NO production of halophytes. Halophytes are distributed among many countries; however, it has not been properly utilized. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of halophyte Euphorbia helioscopia (E.H. on the LPS-induced inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 macrophages by MTT assay, NO assay, ELISA, and western blot analysis. Our results demonstrate that E.H. reduced LPS-induced NO and PGE2 in addition to pro-inflammatory mediators, IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α. Furthermore, E.H. inhibited LPS-induced activation of NF-κB, via IκBα degradation and phosphorylation of JNK and ERK. Our data suggest that the E.H. anti-inflammatory effect is a result of inhibition of LPS-induced NO, PGE2, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α production via downregulation of the NF-κB and MAPK pathway.

  20. Assessing aphids potato virus Y-transmission efficiency: A new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boquel, Sébastien; Ameline, Arnaud; Giordanengo, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    In order to develop an alternative method to optimize the relative efficiency factor (REF) assessment, the efficiency of transmission of Potato virus Y (PVY) by seven aphid species was examined. In vitro micropropagated potato plantlets were used to experiment on phenotypically and genetically homogeneous material. Species-specific acquisition access period (AAP) on a PVY-infected plantlet was assessed for each aphid species using electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique. Aphid probing behaviour determined by EPG showed that Macrosiphum euphorbiae and Myzus persicae exhibited the shortest AAPs (15 and 11min, respectively) whereas Rhopalosiphum padi, Sitobion avenae, Brevicoryne brassicae and Acyrthosiphon pisum exhibited the longest ones (more than 30min). The transmission rate obtained for M. persicae (83.3%) was higher than the ones reported in the literature. REFs assessment showed that A. pisum and B. brassicae were poor efficient vectors while M. euphorbiae and S. avenae seemed to be efficient ones even though their respective REF were significantly lower than that of M. persicae. The species R. padi and A. fabae did not transmit PVY. The hypothesis assessed for M. euphorbiae and S. avenae and consisting in the compensation of a weak PVY-transmission efficiency by a higher number of vectors, was not supported. The use of this new method for REF evaluation and the need to consider aphid behaviour for such an assessment was discussed.

  1. [Quality of different aphids species as hosts for the parasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney, Lívia A; Bueno, Vanda H P; Lins, Juracy C; Silva, Diego B; Sampaio, Marcus V

    2010-01-01

    The suitability of Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach) and Acyrthosiphon kondoi Shinji (Hemiptera: Aphididae) as hosts for the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday was evaluated by assessing host size, host preference, and host quality. Tests were carried out in an environmental chamber at 22±1ºC, 70±10% RH and 12h photophase. Replicates (11) consisted of one 24h-old mated female of A. ervi without a previous oviposition experience. Female was released into a Petri dish (5 cm) with 20 2nd and 3rd instars of one of each aphid species tested on a leaf disc of the host plant onto a 1% water-agar layer. Parasitoid emergency was lower in A. kondoi (78.7%) compared to M. euphorbiae (92.2%) and A. solani (91.7%). Acyrthosiphon kondoi (0.36 mm) was the smallest host. The parasitoid showed preference (74.0% parasitism) for M. euphorbiae, the largest host (hind tibia length=0.73 mm), which in turn yielded larger A. ervi females (0.75 mm).

  2. 苦苣菜及泽漆茎叶水浸提液对3种蔬菜的化感作用%Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts from Sonchus oleraceus L.and Euphorbia helioscopia L.stems and leaves on three kinds of vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宁; 袁美丽; 李韶霞; 陈翔宇; 丁向运; 张庆斌

    2016-01-01

    [目的]探讨苦苣菜(Sonchus oleraceus L.)和泽漆(Euphorbia helioscopia L.)茎叶水浸提液对蔬菜的化感作用,为洛阳地区蔬菜生产防除恶性杂草提供参考依据.[方法]采用培养皿滤纸法培育萝卜、白菜和甘蓝幼苗,测定分析苦苣菜和泽漆茎叶水浸提液对其种子发芽率、发芽指数、幼苗苗高和根长的化感作用.[结果]苦苣菜和泽漆茎叶水浸提液对3种蔬菜种子萌发及幼苗生长均存在化感作用,且化感作用大小与浸提液浓度呈正相关.3种蔬菜对苦苣菜和泽漆的化感作用敏感程度有所不同,萝卜、甘蓝对泽漆茎叶水浸提液较敏感,甘蓝对苦苣菜茎叶水浸提液不敏感;总体上泽漆茎叶水浸提液对3种蔬菜的化感抑制作用大于苦苣菜.[结论]泽漆和苦苣菜对萝卜、白菜和甘蓝均产生一定的化感作用,泽漆的化感抑制作用相对较大,应加强对其防除.

  3. Biosystematic studies on the Muellerianella complex (Delphacidae), Homoptera, auchenorrhyncha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drosopoulos, S.

    1977-01-01

    The genus Muellerianella comprises the species: M. farmairei, M. brevipennis, M. relicta and one pseudogamous all-female biotype M. fairmairei (3n). The bisexual species M. fairmairei and M. brevipennis as well as the unisexual M. fairmairei (3n) were investigated from a biosystematic point of view.

  4. Particle film affects black pecan aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) on pecan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W; Reilly, Charles C

    2002-08-01

    Three species of aphids attack pecan foliage, Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch, and cause economic damage. We tested a kaolin-based particle film against one of these aphid species, black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis). Effect of particle film on host selection, adult mortality, and production of nymphs by M. caryaefoliae was tested on seedling pecans in the laboratory. Fewer M. caryaefoliae adults selected treated foliage compared with untreated foliage. A higher percentage of adults that did select treated foliage were recovered from upper leaf surfaces compared with the percentage of adults recovered from upper leaf surfaces of untreated leaves. Observations with a microscope revealed an accumulation of particle film on aphid body parts, especially on tarsi, and strongly suggests that aphid mobility was restricted. Adult mortality was higher on treated foliage and led to an overall decrease in production of nymphs on those seedlings. In addition, we measured spectral properties of treated seedling pecan foliage. Light reflectance by treated foliage was increased and absorptance decreased compared with control foliage whereas transmittance of light through control and particle film-treated leaves was similar. We did not detect any phytotoxic effect on pecan due to application of particle film.

  5. Perkembangan Populasi Empoasca sp. (Homoptera : Cicadelidae di Kebun Teh Pagilaran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pachrudin Pachrudin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Empoasca sp. was first reported as pest in West Java tea plantation in 1998. In 2000, this cicadellid was also found in Pagilaran tea plantation in Central Java. The aim of this research was to observe the preferences of Empoasca sp. to tea cultivars and the effect of altitude and climate factors to population dynamics of Empoasca sp. the result showed that Kiara 8 cultivar planted in 700 - 850 m asl was highly susceptible to Empoasca sp. The lowest population and the least damage was found in PS 1 cultivar which has leaves with the densest hair. Intensity of the rain-fall was likely to have higher impact to population of Empoasca sp. rather than humidity and temperature.

  6. Toxicity of plant essential oils to Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Il; Lee, Eun-Hee; Choi, Byeoung-Ryeol; Park, Hyung-Man; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2003-10-01

    A total of 53 plant essential oils were tested for their insecticidal activities against eggs, nymphs, and adults of Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood, using an impregnated filter paper bioassays without allowing direct contact. Responses varied according to oil type and dose, and developmental stage of the insect. Bay, caraway seed, clove leaf, lemon eucalyptus, lime dis 5 F, pennyroyal, peppermint, rosewood, spearmint, and tea tree oils were highly effective against T. vaporariorum adults, nymphs, and eggs at 0.0023, 0.0093, and 0.0047 microl/ml air, respectively. These results indicate that the mode of delivery of these essential oils was largely a result of action in the vapor phase. Significant correlations among adulticidal, nymphicidal, and ovicidal activities of the test oils were observed. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for T. vaporariorum control.

  7. Biosystematic studies on the Muellerianella complex (Delphacidae Homoptera Auchenorrhyncha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drosopoulos, S.

    1977-01-01

    The genus Muellerianella comprises the species: M. farmairei, M. brevipennis, M. relicta and one pseudogamous all-female biotype M. fairmairei (3n). The bisexual species M. fairmairei and M. brevi

  8. Una nueva especie de Iragua Melichar, 1926 (Insecta: Homoptera: Cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro W. Lozada

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra una nueva especie de Iragua Melichar, I. chola sp. n., de material procedente de la Zona Reservada de Tambopata, departamento de Madre de Dios, y de Chanchamayo, departamento de Junín, en Perú. El material tipo se encuentra depositado en las colecciones del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural y del Museo de Entomología de la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Perú.

  9. Appearance of Neotoxoptera formosana (Homoptera: Aphididae) in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piron, P.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Neotoxoptera formosana (Takahashi) is a pest of wild and cultivated Allium species, but never iwht disastrous consequences. In 1984, N. formosana was found in France. This was the first finding in Europe. Since then, N. formosana has been observed also in other European countries. The first record f

  10. Karyotypes of six previously unstudied European mealybugs (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Gavrilov-Zimin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenacoccus peruvianus Granada de Willink, 2007, Ph. prope avenae Borchsenius, 1949, Ph. hordei (Lindeman, 1886, Вalanococcus boratynskii Williams, 1962, Trionymus  radicum (Newstead, 1895, Rhizoecus halophilus (Hardy, 1868 were studied karyologically for the first time. All species demonstrate 2n=10 and a Lecanoid genetic system. Photos of karyotypes of all studied species are given.

  11. The male of Nancyana curva (Homoptera: Cicadellidae from southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luci Boa Nova Coelho

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The adult male of Nancyana curva is described and illustrated for the first time, based on four specimens from the states of Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. Male diagnostic characters include the presence of a pair of inner projections on the dorsal lobe of the pygofer, and a dorsal pair of short subapical processes on the aedeagus. The female color pattern is similar to that of male, with dark brown bands on torax not so clear.

  12. A synopsis of the tribe Micrutalini Haupt (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino M. Sakakibara

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The tribe Micrutalini and its two genera, Trachytalis Fowler and Micrutalis Fowler, are redescribed. The following species are treated and, in some cases, nomenclatura! changes introduced: Trachytalis isabellina Fowler, 1895; T. distinguenda Fowler, 1895; T. retrofasciata (Lethierry, 1890, comb.n.; Micrutalis alrovena Goding, 1930; M. balteata (Fairmaire, 1846 = Aculalis lucidus Buckton, 1902, syn.n.; M. bella Goding, 1929; M. biguttula (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n.; M. binaria (Fairmaire, 1846 = Acutalis flavivenlris Lethierry, 1890, syn.n.; M. callan-gensis Goding, 1930; M. calva (Say, 1830; M. discalis (Walker, 1858; M. dorsalis (Fitch, 1851; M. dubia Fowler, 1895 = M. zeteki Goding, 1928, syn.n.; M. flava Goding, 1929; M. flavozonala (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n. = Acutalis geniculata Stál, 1862, syn.n. = Acutalis modesta Stál, 1862, syn.n.; M. godfreyi Sakakibara, 1976; M. incerla Sakakibara, 1976; M. lata Goding, 1930; M. litlerala (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n.;M lugubrina(Stál, 1862;M malleiferaFovj]er, 1895 = M binariamutabilis Fowler, 1895, syn.n.; M. minutus Buckton, 1902; M. nigrolineata (Stál, 1864; M. nigromarginata Funkhouser, 1940; M. notalipennis Fowler, 1895; M. occidentalis (Goding, 1893; M. pollens Fowler, 1895; M. parva (Goding, 1893; M. plagíala (Stál, l&62 = AcutalisvariabiIisBerg, 1879,syn.n. =M. chapadensisGoding, 1930,syn.n.; M. punctifera (Walker, 1858; M. semialba (Stál, 1862; M. stipulipennis Buckton, 1902; M. tau Goding, 1930; M. trifurcala Goding, 1893; M. tripunctata (Fairmaire, 1846 = Acutalis moesta Stál, 1859, syn.n. = M. tartaredoides Goding, 1930, syn.n.. New species: Micrutalis diminuta sp.n. (Ecuador, Pichincha; Micrutalis divisa sp.n. (Brazil, Mato Grosso; Micrutalis henki sp.n. (Panama, Canal Zone; Micrutalis infúscala sp.n. (Venezuela, Portuguesa; Micrutalis margínala sp.n. (Brazil, Mato Grosso; Micrutalis meridana sp.n. (Venezuela, Mérida; Micrutalis mucuya sp.n. (Venezuela, Mérida; Micrutalis robustula sp.n. (Venezuela, Caracas; M. seminigra sp.n. (Brazil, Paraná; Micrutalis turriba sp.n. (Costa Rica, Turrialba. Lectotypes are designated for: Acutalis balteata Fairmaire, 1846, Aculalis binaria Fairmaire, 1846, Acutalis flavozonala Fairmaire, 1846, una Acutalis tripunctata Fairmaire, 1846. New taxonomic position: Micrutalis melanogramma (Petty, 1833 is transferred to Melu-sinella Metcalf, 1952 (Ceresini - Melusinella melanogramma (Petty, 1833, comb.n. = Melusinella nervosa (Fairmaire, 1846, syn.n.. Species incertae sedis: Tragopa ephippium Burmeister, 1836.

  13. Appearance of Neotoxoptera formosana (Homoptera: Aphididae) in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piron, P.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Neotoxoptera formosana (Takahashi) is a pest of wild and cultivated Allium species, but never iwht disastrous consequences. In 1984, N. formosana was found in France. This was the first finding in Europe. Since then, N. formosana has been observed also in other European countries. The first record

  14. Biosystematic studies on the Muellerianella complex (Delphacidae Homoptera Auchenorrhyncha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drosopoulos, S.

    1977-01-01

    The genus Muellerianella comprises the species: M. farmairei, M. brevipennis, M. relicta and one pseudogamous all-female biotype M. fairmairei (3n). The bisexual species M. fairmairei and M.

  15. Two New Treehoppers of the Genus Sipylus (Homoptera, Membracidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Masami, HAYASHI; Toshitsugu, ENDO; Department of Biology, Faculty of Education, Saitama University

    1990-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Sipylus, sphyrna and piceus, are described from North Thailand and the Malay Peninsula, respectively. Some remarks on the species are given in comparison with S. truncaticornis FUNKHOUSER and auriculatus FUNKHOUSER.

  16. Distributional patterns and possible origin of leafhoppers (Homoptera, Cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervin W. Nielson

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The zoogeographical distribution of 42 cicadellid subfamilies and their assigned tribes and genera is compiled with distributional maps and proposed dispersal pathways of genera that are shared interzoogeographically. Possible origin of the subfamilies and tribes is proposed in an ancestral context from which the more modern extant groups evolved whereas origin of genera is in a more modern context. Notwithstanding their complex biogeography, the distributional data of the higher groups indicate that all of the cosmopolitan and near cosmopolitan subfamilies arose during early Cretaceous or possibly the late Jurassic period (140-116 m.y.a. when continental drift was in its early stages. Nearly all of the New World and some Old World subfamilies are considered of more recent origin (late Cretaceous-Tertiary. Ninety percent of the known genera (2,126 are endemic to their respective zoogeographical region and subregion, thus indicating relatively high host specificity and low rate of dispersal. The majority (76% of known extant genera are pantropical in origin, suggesting early or possible Gondwanaland origin of their ancestors. Dispersal pathways of genera shared by more than one zoogeographical region were generally south to north (Neotropical/Nearctic, Oriental/Palaearctic or west to east (Palaearctic/Nearctic, Oriental/Australian, from regions of high diversity to regions of low diversity and from warmer climates to cooler climates. The most diverse and richest leafhopper fauna are present in the Neotropical and Ethiopian regions although taxal affinities between them are poorest. The most depauperate fauna are in the Nearctic region and in Australia, reflecting the impact of isolating and ecological factors on distribution and radiation. Ecological barriers were more evident between the Ethiopian and Oriental fauna than between any other zoogeographical combination. Taxal affinities appeared to be correlated with close continental proximities. Vicariance (physical was the principal event that appealed to explain the distribution of many subfamilies and tribes whereas dispersal accounted for distribution of the majority of interzoogeographical genera.

  17. Nomenclatural changes in Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae and Delphacidae (Homoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    New replacement names are proposed for seven species of the subfamily Typhlocybinae; one new synonym is recognized in the family Delphacidae. The following changes are proposed: Empoasca (Empoasca) angustata nom.nov. for Empoasca angusta Linnavuori & DeLong (not Dworakowska); Empoasca (Empoasca) ch...

  18. Nomenclatural changes in Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae and Delphacidae (Homoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Dmitriev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available New replacement names are proposed for seven species of the subfamily Typhlocybinae; one new synonym is recognized in the family Delphacidae. The following changes are proposed: Empoasca (Empoasca angustata nom.nov. for Empoasca angusta Linnavuori & DeLong (not Dworakowska; Empoasca (Empoasca chilensis nom.nov. for Empoasca diversa Linnavuori & DeLong (not Vilbaste; Austroasca verdensis nom.nov. for Empoasca artemisiae Lindberg (not Lethierry; Kropka vidanoi Dworakowska for Erythroneura unipunctata Dlabola (not Cerutti; Zyginella vietnamica nom.nov. for Zyginella melichari Dworakowska (not Kirkaldy; Eupteryx (Eupteryx dlabolai nom.nov. for Eupteryx octonotata Dlabola (not Hardy; Baaora ahmedi nom.nov. for Baaora spinosa (Ahmed (not Beamer; Paradelphacodes insolitus Dmitriev is synonymized with Paradelphacodes gvosdevi (Mitjaev, syn.nov.

  19. Biology of Diaphorina citri (Homoptera: Psyllidae) on four host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, J H; Liu, Y H

    2000-12-01

    The biology of the citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama was studied at 25 degrees C on four commonly grown citrus and related plants [rough lemon, Citrus jambhiri Lush; sour orange, C aurantium L.; grapefruit, C. paradisi Macfadyen; and orange jessamine, Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack] in the laboratory. The biological characteristics of each life stage are described. The average egg incubation periods on orange jessamine, grapefruit, rough lemon, and sour orange varied very little (4.1-4.2 d). The average nymphal developmental periods on these four host plants were essentially the same except the fifth stadium. Survival of immatures on orange jessamine, grapefruit, rough lemon, and sour orange was 75.4, 84.6, 78.3, and 68.6%, respectively. Female adults lived an average of 39.7, 39.7, 47.6, and 43.7 d on these respective host plants. The average number of eggs laid per female on grapefruit (858 eggs) was significantly more than those on other hosts (P < 0.05). The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) for D. citri on grapefruit was highest. Jackknife estimates of r(m) varied from 0.188 on grapefruit to 0.162 on orange jessamine and rough lemon. The mean population generation time on these hosts ranged from 31.6 to 34.1 d. The continuous flushes produced by orange jessamine could play an important role in maintaining high populations of this vector when the new flushes are not available in the commercial citrus groves.

  20. Migration, trapping and local dynamics of whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Lisbeth; Nachman, Gösta

    2006-01-01

    1 The ability to quantify whitefly migration provides a tool that can contribute to an improved understanding of the epidemic development of whitefly-transmitted viruses. 2 In an attempt to develop a protocol for estimating whitefly immigration and emigration rates in an annual crop, new traps...... and sampling devices were tested in the field and models for population dynamics were developed. 3 An estimate of immigration rate was derived from the growth of a natural population of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) in the beginning of a crop cycle before offspring of immigrants contributed...

  1. Strawberry resistance to the aphid Chaetosiphon fragaefolii Cockerell (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Milenković

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sections of leaf blades and petioles of different strawberry genotypes exhibiting different levels of resistance to Chaetosiphon fragaefolii were studied using the paraffin method, and staining with safranin, crystal violet and light green. Besides thicker cell walls of the cortex collenchyma in the more resistant genotypes, and a proportionally wider collenchyma than parenchyma in the cortex, their midribs are also encircled by a ring of more intensely stained lignified cells forming a physical ring. This stain reaction of cells to safranin and crystal violet occurs also in lateral vascular bundles, as well as in leaf palisade tissue. The tissue cross-sections of the sensitive genotypes revealed a predominance of green on the cellulose cell walls and protoplasts due to the reaction to light green SF, while stain reactions to safranin and crystal violet were not evidenced.

  2. Grey relational analysis on fingerprint characteristics of different eluted parts of Euphorbia humifusa and antifungal effect%地锦草洗脱部位指纹图谱特征与其抗真菌作用的灰关联度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李治建; 周露; 古力娜·达吾提; 斯拉甫·艾白

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To determine the contribution of chemical components represented by characteristic peaks of fingerprint of different eluted parts of Euphorbia humifusa to the antifungal effect to provide theoretical basis and data support for the traditional Chinese medicine quality control mode. Method; HPLC was introduced to analyze fingerprint of different eluted parts of E. Humifusa. The antifungal effect was observed using NCCLS M38-A method. The correlation between fingerprint and antifungal effect of E. Humifusa was identified using grey relational analysis. Result; The antifungal effect of different eluted parts of E. Humifusa is resulted from the combined action of multiple chemical components. Chemical components representing a contribution to pharmacy dynamics were ordered by representative spectrum 2>5>3>4>1 for anti-Trichophyton rubnan and anti-T. Mentagrophytes 5>2>3>4>1. Conclusion-. Fingerprint of different eluted parts of E. Humifusa is related with their antifungal effect to some extent.%目的:确定地锦草不同洗脱部位指纹图谱特征峰所代表的化学成分对其抗真菌作用贡献大小,为建立“指纹图谱与药效关联”的中药质量控制模式提供理论依据和数据支持.方法:用HPLC研究地锦草不同洗脱部位的指纹图谱;用NCCLS M38-A研究其抗真菌作用;用灰关联度分析方法研究其谱效关系.结果:地锦草不同洗脱部位的抗真菌作用是多种化学成分共同作用的结果,各特征峰所代表的各化学成分(以特征峰编号作为该特征峰所代表的化学成分名称)对其抗真菌作用贡献的大小顺序为红色毛癣菌:2>5>3>4>1;石膏样毛癣菌:5>2>3>4>1.结论:地锦草不同洗脱部位指纹图谱与其抗真菌作用之间有一定的对应关系.

  3. Environ: E00634 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00634 Euphorbia herb Euphorbia thymifolia [TAX:318061], Euphorbia prostrata [TAX:212836], Euphorbia... makinoi, Euphorbia [TAX:3990] Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) Euphorbia thymifolia, Euphorbia prostrata, Euphorbia... makinoi herb (mixed, dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) E00634 Euphorbia herb ...

  4. Study on HPLC chromatograms of different processed Euphorbia ebracteolata products and content change of three chemical components%狼毒(月腺大戟)不同炮制品的HPLC图谱及狼毒乙素、狼毒丙素、岩大戟内酯B的含量变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄果; 李俊松; 蔡宝昌

    2013-01-01

    To prepare processed products with different methods,in order to study the impact of auxiliary materials and temperature on chemical components of Euphorbia ebracteolata,and establish specific chromatograms of different processed products.Welchorm-C18 column(4.6 mm × 250 mm,5 μm) was used and eluted with a gradient program,with acetonitrile(A)-water(B).The column temperature was 25 ℃,and the detection wave length was set at 226 nm.The aim was to determine the content of effective components in different processed products——ebracteolata cpd B,ebracteolata cpd C and jolkinolide B and establish respective characteristic fingerprints to compare with similarity.The results showed that the content of ebracteolata cpd B,ebracteolata cpd C first increased and then decreased with the rise in temperature.Different processed products showed significant difference in HPLC spectrograms,with a low similarity.This study showed great impacts of auxiliary materials and temperature on chemical components of E.ebracteolata.As the vinegar processing method had higher attenuation and and synergistic effects than other methods,the auxiliary material vinegar cannot be replaced by chemical reagent acetic acid.%为了研究辅料和温度对狼毒(月腺大戟)成分的影响,建立不同炮制品的特征图谱,该文采用不同方法和温度制备炮制品,采用Welchorm-C1s色谱柱(4.6 mm ×250 mm,5μm),检测波长226 nm,柱温25℃,流动相乙腈-水,梯度洗脱,测定不同炮制品中有效成分狼毒乙素、狼毒丙素及毒效成分岩大戟内酯B的含量,同时建立各自特征指纹图谱,比较其相似度.结果发现有效成分狼毒乙素、狼毒丙素的含量随着温度的升高基本呈现先上升后下降的趋势,而岩大戟内酯B的含量则随着温度的升高呈现不断降低的趋势.不同炮制品的HPLC图谱差别较大,相似度低.该研究发现辅料和温度对月腺大戟化学成分的影响较大.醋制法较其他方法更能

  5. Cluster Analysis for the Pollen Quantity and Viability of 27 Euphorbia pulcherrima Cultivars and Comparison of Testing Methods%一品红27个品种花粉量、花粉活力及3种测定方法的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李畅; 苏家乐; 刘晓青; 陈尚平; 何丽斯

    2012-01-01

    Variation analysis for the quantity and germination characteristics of pollens was carried out in vitro on 27 Euphorbia pulcherrima cultivars. ' Cam Red' and ' Prestige Red' , ' Premium Red' and ' Capri White' were chosen as the experimental materials for determining their different pollen viability. Comparison of three testing methods, including TTC coloration, I - KI coloration, peroxide enzyme coloration, were used. The result showed that significant variations in the pollen quantity, germination rate and length of the pollen tubes were observed among the different cultivars, which were estimated to be 817 -3867 grains per anther, 18.04% -82.07% and 0. 20 - 1. 52 mm respectively. There was significant positive correlation among the pollen quantity, germination rate and length of the pollen tubes. Further investigation on the pollination value of different E. pulcherrima cultivars was performed based on cluster analysis on the above data. The population of the cultivars with low germinated pollen quantity and shorter pollen tube length was relatively larger, accounting 40. 74% of the total tested cultivars. The statistic data from peroxide enzyme coloration differed little from the germination rate testing method, so it is believed this method may be the better one for testing E. pulcherrima pollen viability.%以一品红27个品种为试材,探讨其单药花粉量及其花粉离体萌发特性差异;并从中选择花粉相对活力低、高组4个品种(“双喜”和“威望”、“金奖”和“金多利”)的花粉,以花粉离体萌发法为对照,对Ⅰ-KⅠ染色法、TTC染色法、过氧化物酶染色法3种染色测定花粉活力法进行比较筛选.结果表明:测试品种单药花粉量变化范围为817 ~3 867粒,花粉萌发率18.04% ~ 82.07%,花粉管长度0.20~1.52 mm;品种间存在明显差异.花粉量、花粉萌发率、花粉管长度3指标间极显著正相关.对上述各因子聚类分析表明供试品种中可萌

  6. Antibiogram and GC analysis of Euphorbia hirta leaf extract

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The antibiogram activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of E.hirta was studied. Ethanol extract of the plant showed the maximal antibacterial activity and G.C Analysis showed the presence of citronellal. The extract showed inhibited the growth of E.coli, S.aureus, P.aeruginosa, Proteus etc.,

  7. Evolutionary prediction of medicinal properties in the genus Euphorbia L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Madeleine; Saslis Lagoudakis, Haris; Grace, Olwen M.

    2016-01-01

    The current decrease of new drugs brought to the market has fostered renewed interest in plant-based drug discovery. Given the alarming rate of biodiversity loss, systematic methodologies in finding new plant-derived drugs are urgently needed. Medicinal uses of plants were proposed as proxy...... for bioactivity, and phylogenetic patterns in medicinal plant uses have suggested that phylogeny can be used as predictive tool. However, the common practice of grouping medicinal plant uses into standardised categories may restrict the relevance of phylogenetic predictions. Standardised categories are mostly...... associated to systems of the human body and only poorly reflect biological responses to the treatment. Here we show that medicinal plant uses interpreted from a perspective of a biological response can reveal different phylogenetic patterns of presumed underlying bioactivity compared to standardised methods...

  8. Antiproliferative activity of extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical analysis were carried out using High-performance liquid chromatography-diode array. (HPLC-UV-DAD) and electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance ..... (CcHhNnOoSs), based on such singly charged.

  9. Weather forecasting by insects: modified sexual behaviour in response to atmospheric pressure changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Ana Cristina; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda Gomes Villalba; Nardi, Cristiane; Bezner-Kerr, Wayne; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Bento, José Maurício Simões; McNeil, Jeremy N

    2013-01-01

    Prevailing abiotic conditions may positively or negatively impact insects at both the individual and population levels. For example while moderate rainfall and wind velocity may provide conditions that favour development, as well as movement within and between habitats, high winds and heavy rains can significantly decrease life expectancy. There is some evidence that insects adjust their behaviours associated with flight, mating and foraging in response to changes in barometric pressure. We studied changes in different mating behaviours of three taxonomically unrelated insects, the curcurbit beetle, Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera), the true armyworm moth, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Lepidoptera) and the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera), when subjected to natural or experimentally manipulated changes in atmospheric pressure. In response to decreasing barometric pressure, male beetles exhibited decreased locomotory activity in a Y-tube olfactometer with female pheromone extracts. However, when placed in close proximity to females, they exhibited reduced courtship sequences and the precopulatory period. Under the same situations, females of the true armyworm and the potato aphid exhibited significantly reduced calling behaviour. Neither the movement of male beetles nor the calling of armyworm females differed between stable and increasing atmospheric pressure conditions. However, in the case of the armyworm there was a significant decrease in the incidence of mating under rising atmospheric conditions, suggesting an effect on male behaviour. When atmospheric pressure rose, very few M. euphorbiae oviparae called. This was similar to the situation observed under decreasing conditions, and consequently very little mating was observed in this species except under stable conditions. All species exhibited behavioural modifications, but there were interspecific differences related to size-related flight ability and the diel periodicity of mating activity. We

  10. Dynamics of nonpersistent aphid-borne viruses in lettuce crops covered with UV-absorbing nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legarrea, S; Betancourt, M; Plaza, M; Fraile, A; García-Arenal, F; Fereres, A

    2012-04-01

    Aphid-transmitted viruses frequently cause severe epidemics in lettuce grown under Mediterranean climates. Spatio-temporal dynamics of aphid-transmitted viruses and its vector were studied on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown under tunnels covered by two types of nets: a commercial UV-absorbing net (Bionet) and a Standard net. A group of plants infected by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, family Bromoviridae, genus Cucumovirus) and Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV, family Potyviridae, genus Potyvirus) was transplanted in each plot. The same virus-infected source plants were artificially infested by the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas). Secondary spread of insects was weekly monitored and plants were sampled for the detection of viruses every two weeks. In 2008, the infection rate of both CMV and LMV were lower under the Bionet than under the Standard cover, probably due to the lower population density and lower dispersal rate achieved by M. euphorbiae. However, during spring of 2009, significant differences in the rate of infection between the two covers were only found for LMV six weeks after transplant. The spatial distribution of the viruses analysed by SADIE methodology was "at random", and it was not associated to the spatial pattern of the vector. The results obtained are discussed analyzing the wide range of interactions that occurred among UV-radiation, host plant, viruses, insect vector and environmental conditions. Our results show that UV-absorbing nets can be recommended as a component of an integrated disease management program to reduce secondary spread of lettuce viruses, although not as a control measure on its own.

  11. Direct and indirect sublethal effects of Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) on the development of a potato-aphid parasitoid, Aphelinus abdominalis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couty, A; de la Viña, G; Clark, S J.; Kaiser, L; Pham-Delègue, M -H.; Poppy, G M.

    2001-06-01

    Snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA), has been shown to confer partial resistance to two potato aphids Myzus persicae and Aulacorthum solani, when incorporated in artificial diet and/or expressed in transgenic potato. First-tier laboratory-scale experiments were conducted to assess the potential effect of GNA on the aphid parasitoid Aphelinus abdominalis. GNA (0.1% w/v) was successfully delivered to Macrosiphum euphorbiae via artificial diet and induced a reduced growth rate and increased mortality compared to aphids fed a control diet. As aphid parasitoid larvae are endophagous, they may be exposed to GNA during their larval development and potential "chronic toxicity" on A. abdominalis was investigated. The amounts of GNA present in aphid and parasitoid tissues were estimated by western blotting. Results suggest that parasitoids excrete most of the GNA ingested. Sublethal effects of GNA on several parasitoid fitness parameters (parasitism success, parasitoid development and size, emergence success, progeny survival and sex ratio) were studied. No direct detrimental effect of GNA on A. abdominalis was observed. However, GNA had an indirect host-size-mediated effect on the sex ratio and the size of parasitoids developing in GNA-fed aphids. This work highlights the need to determine the exact "causes and effects" when assessing the ecological impact of transgenic plants on non-target beneficial insects. Such bioassays form the basis of a tiered risk assessment moving from laboratory studies assessing individuals towards field-scale experiments assessing populations.

  12. Competition for Aphid Prey between Different Lady Beetle Species in a Laboratory Arena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy Leppanen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct competition for aphid prey (Hemiptera: Aphididae was evaluated between and among several lady beetle species (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae. The behavior of three native (Coccinella trifasciata, Coleomegilla maculata, and Hippodamia convergens and four nonnative (Coccinella septempunctata, Harmonia axyridis, Hippodamia variegata, and Propylea quatuordecimpunctata lady beetles was observed in laboratory arenas. The beetles were kept alone, paired with conspecifics or paired with heterospecifics, and presented with potato aphids (Macrosiphum euphorbiae. Harmonia axyridis was the most successful aphid predator in our study, being able to find aphids more quickly and consume more of them compared to most other lady beetle species. It was also by far the most aggressive of the tested species. Coccinella septempunctata, C. trifasciata, and C. maculata generally followed H. axyridis in aphid consumption. Prey discovery, consumption, and aggressive behaviors were dependent on which species were present in the arena. Except for the generally superior H. axyridis, there was no obvious dominance hierarchy among the other tested species and no dichotomy between the native and non-native species. Asymmetric interactions between lady beetle species may affect their abilities to coexist in the same habitat.

  13. Resistance of wild Solanum accessions to aphids and other potato pests in Quebec field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréchette, B; Bejan, M; Lucas, E; Giordanengo, P; Vincent, C

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were done to determine the susceptibility of six wild potato accessions to the aphids Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Densities of aphid colonies were compared between caged Solanum pinnatisectum Dunal (Solanales: Solanaceae), S. polyadenium Greenmam, S. tarijense Hawkes, S. infundibuliforme Philippi, S. oplocense Hawkes, and S. stoloniferum Schlechted and Bouché, and the commercially cultivated potato plant S. tuberosum L. cv. Désirée. Moreover the susceptibility of S. polyadenium and S. tarijense to the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrlysomelidae), the potato flea beetle Epitrix cucumeris (Harris), and the potato leafhopper Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) was compared to that of S. tuberosum cv. Désirée in the field. Results indicated that S. polyadenium and S. tarijense were more resistant to M. persicae than S. pinnatisectum and the commercially cultivated S. tuberosum cv. Désirée. Solanum polyadenium was more resistant to aphids than S. tarijense in 2004, but not in 2005. Moreover, S. polyadenium and S. tarijense were more resistant than S. tuberosum cv. Désirée to L. decemlineata, E. cucumeris and E. fabae.

  14. Ethylene contributes to potato aphid susceptibility in a compatible tomato host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantelin, Sophie; Bhattarai, Kishor K; Kaloshian, Isgouhi

    2009-01-01

    Resistance to potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is conferred by Mi-1. Early during both compatible and incompatible interactions, potato aphid feeding induces the expression of ethylene (ET) biosynthetic genes. Here, we used genetic and pharmacologic approaches to investigate the role of ET signaling in basal defense and Mi-1-mediated resistance to potato aphid in tomato. The effect of potato aphid infestation on ET biosynthesis in susceptible and resistant plants was assessed. Aphid bioassays were performed using plants impaired in ET biosynthesis or perception using virus-induced gene silencing, the Never ripe (Nr) mutant, and 1-methylcyclopropene (MCP) treatment. A burst of ET was observed after aphid feeding in both resistant and susceptible plants, correlated with an increase in the expression of ET biosynthetic genes. However, impairing ET signaling or biosynthesis did not compromise Mi-1-mediated resistance but it did decrease susceptibility to potato aphid in a compatible host. ET may not play a significant role in Mi-1-mediated resistance to potato aphids in tomato but modulates the host basal defense, enhancing its susceptibility to the aphid.

  15. Ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla of aphids. I. Coeloconic and placoid sensilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, A K; Dunn, J A; Anderson, M

    1979-01-01

    An electron microscopical study was made of the coeloconic and placoid sensilla on the antennae of the aphids Aphis pomi, Macrosiphum euphorbiae, Nasonovia ribis-nigri, and Pemphigus bursarius. Scanning electron microscopy revealed some variation in morphology which may be functionally important but is more likely to reflect the evolution of these species. The placoid sensilla were shown by tranwo or three neurons is surrounded by two ensheathing cells. The ciliary regions of the dendrites pass through a vacuole into a cavity between an outer and an inner cuticle where they may be connected to the dendritic branches although such connections were no seen. Small pores (8 nm diameter) partially penetrate the cuticle implying that these sensilla have an olfactory function. They are suggested to be important in host selection by alate aphids. The coeloconic sensilla are poreless pegs with nonsensory cuticular projections at their tips. The distal portions of their dendrites contain densely packed microtubules and the cellular arrangement of the sensila is similar to that of the placoid sensilla. It is suggest that they may function as thermoreceptors.

  16. Impact of aphid alarm pheromone release on virus transmission efficiency: When pest control strategy could induce higher virus dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fang-Jing; Bosquée, Emilie; Liu, Ying-Jie; Chen, Ju-Lian; Yong, Liu; Francis, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    Aphids cause serious damages to crops not only by tacking sap but also by transmitting numerous viruses. To develop biological control, the aphid alarm pheromone, namely E-β-farnesene (EβF), has been demonstrated to be efficient to repel aphids and as attract beneficials, making it a potential tool to control aphid pests. Considering aphids also as virus vectors, changes of their behavior could also interfere with the virus acquisition and transmission process. Here, a combination of two aphid species and two potato virus models were selected to test the influence of EβF release on aphid and virus dispersion under laboratory conditions. EβF release was found to significantly decrease the population of Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae around the infochemical releaser but simultaneously also increasing the dispersal of Potato Virus Y (PVY). At the opposite, no significant difference for Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) transmission efficiency was observed with similar aphid alarm pheromone releases for none of the aphid species. These results provide some support to carefully consider infochemical releasers not only for push-pull strategy and pest control but also to include viral disease in a the plant protection to aphids as they are also efficient virus vectors. Impact of aphid kinds and transmission mechanisms will be discussed according to the large variation found between persistent and non persistent potato viruses and interactions with aphids and related infochemicals.

  17. Conservation of predatory arthropods in cotton: role of action thresholds for Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, S E; Ellsworth, P C; Chu, C C; Henneberry, T J

    2002-08-01

    Studies were conducted in 1994 and 1995 to examine the effects of a range of action thresholds for managing Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) Biotype B (= B. argentifolii Bellows & Perring) with insecticides in cotton on populations of arthropod predators in Imperial Valley, CA, and Maricopa, AZ. Application of insecticides significantly reduced population densities of spiders, Geocoris punctipes (Say), G. pallens (Stål), Orius tristicolor (White), Nabis alternatus Parshley, Zelus renardii Kolenati, Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Méneville, Spanogonicus albofasciatus (Reuter), Drapetis sp., and Chrysoperla carnea Stephens in one or both years and sites compared with untreated controls. Use of higher B. tabaci thresholds conserved some species and groups relative to lower thresholds. Stepwise regression analyses indicated that reductions in predator populations were generally influenced more strongly by the timing of the first insecticide application than by the total number of sprays necessary to maintain suppression of the pest below any given action threshold. A predation index, which weights the importance of each predator species based on their known frequency of predation on B. tabaci and another key pest, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), was developed and analyzed. Patterns were similar to results based on changes in abundance alone, but the index generally revealed less severe effects of insecticides on overall predator function. The current action threshold for conventional insecticidal control of B. tabaci in Arizona and southern California is five adults per leaf. Results here suggest that predator conservation may be enhanced by raising the initial threshold to delay the first application or initially using more selective materials such as insect growth regulators.

  18. Duas novas espécies de Tunama fennah, 1968 (Homoptera, Cercopidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gervásio Silva Carvalho

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new brazilian species of Tunaima Fennah, 1968 are described: T. brunneoau-rantiaca sp.n. (from São Paulo and Paraná and T. brunneolutea sp.n. (from Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul.

  19. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci in the green leafhopper Empoasca vitis Goethe (Homoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papura, D; Giresse, X; Chauvin, B; Caron, H; Delmotte, F; VAN Helden, M

    2009-05-01

    Eight dinucleotide microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized within the green leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Goethe) using an enrichment cloning procedure. Primers were tested on 171 individuals collected in the southwest of France from the vine plants. The identified loci were polymorphic, with allelic diversity ranging from two to 18 alleles per locus. Observed heterozygosities were from 0.021 to 0.760. These microsatellite markers should prove to be a useful tool for estimating the population genetic structure, host-plant specialization and migration capacity of this insect.

  20. BIOEFFICACY OF PIPER RIBESIOIDES (PIPERACEAE) EXTRACTS AGAINST NILAPARVATA LUGENS STAL. (HOMOPTERA: DELPHACIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phankaen, Y; Pluempanupat, W; Mourad, A K; Bullangpoti, V

    2014-01-01

    The extracts of stem and seeds of Piper ribesioides (Piperaceae) were prepared in hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol and evaluated for their efficacy against 3-day-old adult brown plant hoppers, Nilaparvata lugens Stal under laboratory conditions. The treatment was given topically and results suggest the dose dependent response related to exposure time. The ethyl acetate extract was the best with an LC50 = 738 ppm-, 24 h post-treatment. There was substantial increase in activity (LC50 = 27.298 ppm) with the increase in duration of exposure. This trend was observed in all treatments that suggests the potential of Piper ribesioides as an insecticide for N. lugens as an alternative control.

  1. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for control of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) on harvested lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Biao

    2012-06-01

    Low temperature regular phosphine fumigations under the normal oxygen level and oxygenated phosphine fumigations under superatmospheric oxygen levels were compared for efficacy against the aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley), and effects on postharvest quality of romaine and head lettuce. Low temperature regular phosphine fumigation was effective against the aphid. However, a 3 d treatment with high phosphine concentrations of > or = 2,000 ppm was needed for complete control of the aphid. Oxygen greatly increased phosphine toxicity and significantly reduced both treatment time and phosphine concentration for control of N. ribisnigri. At 1,000 ppm phosphine, 72 h regular fumigations at 6 degrees C did not achieve 100% mortality of the aphid. The 1,000 ppm phosphine fumigation under 60% O2 killed all aphids in 30 h. Both a 72 h regular fumigation with 2,200 ppm phosphine and a 48 h oxygenated fumigation with 1,000 ppm phosphine under 60% O2 were tested on romaine and head lettuce at 3 degrees C. Both treatments achieved complete control of N. ribisnigri. However, the 72 h regular fumigation resulted in significantly higher percentages of lettuce with injuries and significantly lower lettuce internal quality scores than the 48 h oxygenated phosphine fumigation. Although the oxygenated phosphine fumigation also caused injuries to some treated lettuce, lettuce quality remained very good and the treatment is not expected to have a significant impact on marketability of the lettuce. This study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation was more effective and less phytotoxic for controlling N. ribisnigri on harvested lettuce than regular phosphine fumigation and is promising for practical use.

  2. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for control of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) on harvested lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laboratory study was conducted to compare phosphine fumigations under the normal and superatmospheric oxygen levels on toxicity against Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) and effects on postharvest quality of romaine and head lettuce. Low temperature phosphine fumigation was effective against the aphi...

  3. Rapid method to screen resistance of potato plants against Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae) in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Vincent; Saguez, Julien; Vincent, Charles; Giordanengo, Philippe

    2004-12-01

    With the objective to develop a potato, Solanum tuberosum L., resistance program against aphids, we propose a rapid screening method with Myzus persicae (Sulzer) in the laboratory. We aimed to optimize the duration of the whole procedure and to decrease the frequency of measurements. In a first experiment, intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) values were compared between adult aphids reared throughout their entire life and adults reared only during a period equivalent to their prereproductive period. No significant differences were observed. In a second experiment, four groups of aphids were distinguished according to the sampling frequency, i.e., those whose biological parameters were evaluated every single, second, third, and fourth day. Except for the fourth-day experiment, the r(m) values estimated on aphids reared on the three potato lines were not significantly different whatever sampling frequency of single, second, or third day used to check aphids. Thus, screening efforts in laboratory can be largely optimized by evaluating adult aphids only during a period equivalent to their prereproductive period and assessing M. persicae populations every third day. Our method is reliable and adapted to screen a large number of potato plants against M. persicae because it allows an average 70% reduction in the time required for the whole experimental process.

  4. Seasonal population dynamics of the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on strawberries in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, J L; Toscano, N C; Ballmer, G R

    2002-12-01

    The greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), has recently become a major insect pest of strawberries in Southern California. The population dynamics of this pest were monitored over 2 yr in six commercial strawberry fields near the coastal communities of Oxnard and Ventura under two crop-production regimes, summer- and fall-planted strawberries. Adult whitefly numbers generally peaked during the February through May period for fall-planted strawberries and during the October through November period for summer-planted strawberries. Population densities varied greatly among fields within each regime and the differences were likely caused by surrounding alternate host crops.

  5. Effects of UV-absorbing plastic films on greenhouse whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutwiwa, Urbanus N; Borgemeister, Christian; von Elsner, Burkhard; Tantau, Hans-Juergen

    2005-08-01

    Studies were conducted to investigate the effects of ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing plastic films on the orientation and distribution behavior of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood). In field experiments, small tunnels were constructed and covered with either an UV-transmitting (Thermilux) or UV-absorbing (K-Rose) plastic film. Results show that significantly more whiteflies were recorded in the tunnels with high compared with those with low UV intensities. Moreover, whitefly penetration and dispersion were less inside the UV-deficient tunnels. These results suggest that the type of plastic film used for greenhouse covers may have a significant influence on both the initial immigration and distribution of T. vaporariorum into greenhouses. The possibilities of using UV-absorbing plastic films for whitefly integrated pest management in greenhouses are discussed.

  6. The genus Baeturia Stål as represented in New Guinea (Homoptera, Cicadidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blöte, H.C.

    1960-01-01

    Until now only three species of the genus Baeturia have been recorded from New Guinea, viz., B. bicolorata Distant, B. viridicata Distant, and B. nana Jacobi. As I had the opportunity to study a fairly large collection of this group from different sources, collected in New Guinea, it appeared to me

  7. The phylogeny and taxonomic status of the Chlorocystini (sensu stricto) (Homoptera, Tibicinidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de A.J.

    1995-01-01

    The “Baeturia and related genera complex”, as defined earlier (De Boer, 1990) by shared aedeagal characters, is identified as the tribe Chlorocystini (sensu stricto). The Prasiini (sensu stricto) are identified as the sister group of the Chlorocystini (sensu stricto), while the genus Muda is recogni

  8. Characterization and discrimination of three Rhopalosiphum species (Homoptera: Aphididae based on isozymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia M. N. Lázzari

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen clones of Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus, 1758, 14 of R. maidis (Fitch, 1856, and two of R. insertum (Walker, 1849, representing a wide range of host plants and geographic distribution, were examined electrophoretically to determine intra and interspecific variation. Twenty-one enzyme systems were tested using starch-gel techniques. The electromorph variation within species was low, as expected for parthenogenetic organisms. Frequency of heterozygotes was also relatively low for most populations. The percentage of polymorphic loci ranged from 0% to 27.3% in R. padi, but it was lower (0% to 18.2% in the completely an holocyclic R. maidis. No consistent correlation between band patterns and host plant or geographic origin could be established for R. padi and R. maidis. The distinction between R. padi and R. insertum was made by Est-1, Lap-2, Pgm, Got-1,and α-gpdh.The enzymes Est-2, G-3pdh, Sdh, and Got-2 were useful to separate R. maidis from R. padi, while Est-1, Lap-2, Got-1, and α-gpdh, in addition to the first three mentioned above, separated R. maidis from R. insertum. However, many other loci shared only one electromorph and had another that was useful to partially distinguish the species. The utilization of starch-gel electrophoresis as a taxonomic tool in distinguishing populations and species of aphids and its combination with other taxonomic methods are briefly discussed.

  9. Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) infestation on cassava genotypes grown at different ecozones in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyo, O A; Dixon, A G O; Atiri, G I

    2005-04-01

    Large-scale screening of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz, genotypes for resistance to infestation by whitefly Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, the vector of cassava mosaic geminiviruses, is limited. A range of new cassava elite clones were therefore assessed for the whitefly infestation in the 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 cropping seasons in experimental fields of International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria. On each scoring day, between 0600 and 0800 hours when the whiteflies were relatively immobile, adult whitefly populations on the five topmost expanded leaves of cassava cultivars were counted. All through the 6-mo scoring period, there was a highly significant difference in whitefly infestation among the new cassava elite clones. Vector population buildup was observed in Ibadan (forest-savanna transition zone) and Onne (humid forest), 2 mo after planting (MAP). Mean infestation across cassava genotypes was significantly highest (16.6 whiteflies per plant) in Ibadan and lowest in Zaria (0.2). Generally, whitefly infestation was very low in all locations at 5 and 6 MAP. During this period, cassava genotypes 96/1439 and 91/02324 significantly supported higher infestations than other genotypes. Plants of 96/1089A and TMS 30572 supported the lowest whitefly infestation across cassava genotypes in all locations. The preferential whitefly visitation, the differences between locations in relation to whitefly population, cassava mosaic disease, and the fresh root yield of cassava genotypes are discussed.

  10. Induced life cycle transition from holocycly to anholocycly of the Russian wheat aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko),exists with holocyclic life cycle in Tacheng, Xinjiang in Northwest China. It produces males and oviparae to mate and oviposit for overwintering by eggs. Under laboratory conditions with 14 h/d photophase and temperature not lower than 15℃, RWA occurred in parthenogenesis and produced no males. The laboratory popu-lations of Russian wheat aphid, which were kept under natural conditions in fall by 15th, 49th and 81st generation while wild populations produced males and oviparae for mating, produced males and oviparae with their number decreased gradually, but viviparae and nymphs increased sequen-tially. As a result, it produced a small amount of oviparae and no males emerged in fields by 49 generations' reproduction in laboratory. After development of 81 generations, oviparae happened occasionally and no eggs occurred for overwintering instead of viviparae and nymphs. A hypothesis of RWA disastrous process was proposed. The life cycle of RWA can be changed from holocycly to anholocycly in its long-term spread and evolution. Anholocycly is more dangerous than holocycly to small grains for its strong adaptability and dispersal ability.

  11. Aphicidal Activity of an Ageraphorone Extract From Eupatorium adenophorum Against Pseudoregma bambucicola (Homoptera: Aphididae, Takahashi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Xiang; Chen, Feng-Zheng; Yang, Yao-Jun; Liang, Zi; Huang, Bao-Lian; Li, Yi; Liu, Tian-Fei; Yu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    The bamboo aphid, Pseudoregma bambucicola, is an important insect pest of bamboo that affects normal bamboo growth and induces sooty molds. The control of P. bambucicola involves the application of chemicals, such as imidacloprid, to which many species are resistant. In this study, we isolate a novel botanical pesticide (9-oxo-10,11-dehydro-ageraphorone) from an Eupatorium adenophorum(Asteraceae: Compositae) petroleum ether extract and test the aphicidal activity of this compound against P. bambucicola in laboratory bioassay and field-based experiments. This ageraphorone compound at a concentration of 2 mg/ml caused 73.33% mortality (corrected mortality [Subtracted the mortality of the negative control]: 70%) of P. bambucicola by laboratory bioassay within 6 h. Even at lower concentrations, this compound caused greater 33% mortality (corrected mortality: 30%) of aphids. Field experiments with naturally infested bamboo plants showed that two applications of 2 mg/ml ageraphorone to infested plants completely cleared infestations within 30 d. These effects were similar to those of the positive control (imidacloprid). These results reveal that 9-oxo-10,11-dehydro-ageraphorone exhibits significant aphicidal activity against bamboo aphids. We suggest that future research be directed at developing this ageraphorone compound from E. adenophorum as an aphicidal agent for biocontrol.

  12. Molecular identification and population dynamics of two species of Pemphigus (Homoptera: Pemphidae) on cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naiqi Chen; Tong-Xian Liu; Mamoudou Sétamou; J. Victor French; Eliezer S. Louzada

    2009-01-01

    The poplar petiole gall aphid, Pemphiguspopulitransversus Riley, has been one of the major pests on cruciferous vegetable in the Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of Texas since the late 1940s. It normally migrates from poplar trees to cruciferous vegetables in the fall, and migrates back to the trees in early spring of the coming year. Some root-feeding aphids were found on cruciferous vegetables in late spring and early summer in 1998 and the following years. Those aphids have been identified as Pemphigus obesinymphae Moran. This discovery completely changed the current knowledge about the root-feeding aphids on cruciferous vegetables in the LRGV. Due to their small size, morphological and feeding similarities between P. populitransversus and P. obesinymphae, their identification and distinction are difficult. In this study, random amplification ofpolymorphic DNA (RAPD) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) were used to distinguish these two species over a period of time when the two species occurred together, or separately, in cabbage fields. The two species occurred on cabbage at different times of the year, and overlapped from October to June. From May to October, both species migrated to their primary hosts. The apterous aphids found on cabbage in winter contained mainly P. obesinymphae, whereas in early spring more apterous P. populitransversus were recovered. The root-feeding aphids would feed on cabbage plants as long as this host was available even during the hot, dry summer in the LRGV, although their populations were generally low. Both RAPD and AFLP techniques were efficient in discriminating the two species that showed obviously genetic variability. These molecular techniques confirmed the existence of the two aphid species in apterous samples collected from the soil in cabbage fields in the LRGV, and the results performed by RAPD were confirmed by AFLP. Furthermore, the results suggest that RAPD technique was a better choice despite its reproducibility problem, as it was less time-consuming and required less technology, labor and expense than AFLP.

  13. Three New Rhizopulvinaria Species (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) for Scale Insect Fauna of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kaydan, Mehmet Bora

    2002-01-01

    Three Rhizopulvinaria species, Rhizopulvinaria pyrethri Borchsenius, Rhizopulvinaria turkestanica (Archangelskaya), and Rhizopulvinaria viridis Borchsenius, were identified on wild flora in eastern Anatolia in 1997. All of them are new records for the Turkish scale insect fauna.

  14. Seasonal capacity of attached and detached vineyard roots to support grape phylloxera (Homoptera: Phylloxeridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granett, J; Omer, A D; Walker, M A

    2001-02-01

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate population densities and survival, developmental rate, and fecundity of grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch), as influenced by root attachment or detachment from mature, field-grown, Vitis vinifera L. grapevines through the growing season. Experiments were performed using artificial infestations of California biotype A grape phylloxera. Thirty-day bioassays on attached- and detached-roots were repeated monthly from May to September in 1997 (cultivar 'Carignane') and April to September in 1998 (cultivar 'Thompson Seedless'). The bioassays showed that attached roots had lower population densities than detached roots in all months of both years. Densities varied by month, tending to be higher in spring than in summer. Of the population parameters studied, survival was most influenced by attachment condition, being higher on detached than on attached roots by up to 25-fold. These results imply the importance of vine-related mortality factors to grape phylloxera population density. Influence of root attachment condition on developmental rate and fecundity was not uniform across bioassay months for either year; however, in the four out of 21 assays where there was a significant difference it favored detached roots by twofold. Fruit harvest resulted in higher survival in the July assay but not for assays in August and September; however, neither developmental rate nor fecundity was affected by harvest in any ofthe assays. We conclude that mortality rather than nutritional factors are most limiting for field populations on susceptible vines. This work suggests that detachment of roots as occurs with root girdling by root pathogens may increase grape phylloxera populations on infested, susceptible vines. These results imply that excised root bioassays over-estimate grape phylloxera virulence and underestimate rootstock resistance.

  15. Aphids of Java. Part II: Sinomegoura Takahashi, 1960 (Homoptera: Aphididae), with a new species from Coffea*

    OpenAIRE

    Noordam, D.

    1986-01-01

    A description is given of Sinomegoura. The following three species were collected in Java: Sinomegoura citricola (Van der Goot, 1917), from various woody plants; Sinomegoura symplocois (Van der Goot, 1917), collected by Van der Goot from Symplocos and described by him as Aulacorthum symplocois Van der Goot, 1917; and a new species collected from leaves of Coffea sp., Sinomegoura coffeae spec. nov. Keys are given to the apterae and alatae viviparae, and the species are described.

  16. New cytogenetic data for some Palaearctic species of scale insects (Homoptera, Coccinea with karyosystematic notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Gavrilov-Zimin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available New cytogenetic data are reported for 17 species from 15 genera of the families Pseudococcidae, Eriococcidae, Kermesidae, and Coccidae. Twelve species and 6 genera (Peliococcopsis Borchsenius, 1948, Heterococcopsis Borchsenius, 1948, Heliococcus Šulc, 1912, Trabutina Marchal, 1904, Lecanopsis Targioni Tozzetti, 1868, and Anapulvinaria Borchsenius, 1952 were studied cytogenetically for the first time. The taxonomic problems in the genera Trionymus Berg, 1899, Acanthopulvinaria Borchsenius, 1952 and Rhizopulvinaria Borchsenius, 1952 are discussed based on karyotype characters. Two chromosomal forms (cryptic species of Acanthopulvinaria orientalis (Nasonov, 1908, 2n=18 and 2n=16 were discovered.

  17. Catalogación inicial de las Cochinillas del Valle del Cauca. [Homoptera-Coccoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueroa Potes. Adalberto

    1946-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo es un intento hacia la catalogación de las especies de cóccidos (cochinillas, palomillas etc. que se encuentran en el Valle del Cauca, sean o no de importancia económica. La presente catalogación no comprende todas las especies de cochinillas de este Departamento, pero sí las más comunes y las que he tenido oportunidad de recolectar personalmente o han recolectado mis colegas y amigos. He anotado los nombres científicos válidos hoy después de la revisión de algunos grupos, hecha esa revisión por taxonomistas renombrados de la época moderna. También algunas sinonimias, la distribución o lugar donde se han recolectado o constatado y la planta hospedadora con su nombre científico y vulgar

  18. Effect of temperature on the biology of Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Effect of temperature on the biology of Paracoccus marginatus was investigated. P. marginatus was able to develop and complete its life cycle at 18°, 20°, 25° and 30°C. At 15°, 34° and 35°C eggs hatched, but further development was arrested. Approximately 80 -90% of the eggs survived betw...

  19. Genetics and preliminary mechanism of chlorpyrifos resistance in Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad; Ijaz, Mamuna; Farooq, Zahra; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Abbas, Naeem

    2015-03-01

    Cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, is a serious pest of cotton and other crops and infestation by this pest results in yield losses that affect the economy of Pakistan. Various groups of insecticides have been used to control this pest but resistance development is a major factor that inhibits its control in the field. Chlorpyrifos is a common insecticide used against many pests including P. solenopsis. The present experiment was designed to assess the genetics and mechanism of chlorpyrifos resistance and to develop a better resistance management strategy and assess the genetics and mechanism of chlorpyrifos resistance. Before selection, the field strain showed 3.1-fold resistance compared to the susceptible strain (CSS). After 8 rounds of selection with chlorpyrifos, a selected population developed a 191.0-fold resistance compared to the CSS. The LC50 values of F1 (CRR ♀ × CSS ♂) and F1(†) (CRR ♂ × CSS ♀) strains were not significantly different and dominance (DLC) values were 0.42 and 0.55. Reciprocal crosses between chlorpyrifos susceptible and resistant strains indicated that resistance was autosomal and incompletely recessive. The monogenic model of fit test and calculation of number of genes segregating in the chlorpyrifos resistant strain demonstrated that resistance is controlled by multiple genes. A value of 0.59 was calculated for realized heritability for chlorpyrifos resistance. Synergism bioassays with piperonyl butoxide and S, S, S-butyl phosphorotrithioate showed that chlorpyrifos resistance was associated with microsomal oxidases and esterases. It was concluded that chlorpyrifos resistance in P. solenopsis was autosomally inherited, incompletely recessive and polygenic. These findings would be helpful to improve the management of P. solenopsis.

  20. Distinction of Indian commercial lac insect lines of Kerria spp. (Homoptera: Coccoidea) based on their morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ayashaa; Ramani, Ranganathan; Sharma, Kewal K; Vidyarthi, Ambrish S; Ramamurthy, Vilayanoor V

    2014-01-01

    The lac insects belong to the genus Kerria (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Kerriidae) and are commercially exploited worldwide for the production of lac, which comes from their waxy test and has diverse industrial applications. The insects are maintained by the Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums as distinctive lines that are cultivated and commercialized in the lac producing areas of India. The lines are all considered to belong to the genus Kerria but without validation of their taxonomic characters, and their identity to species has not been ascertained. This study used single-factor analysis of variance and several multivariate analyses, such as principal component analysis, discriminant function analysis, and canonical discriminant analysis to explore the morphometrics of some of the adult female lac insect lines. The results have enabled the identification of some taxonomically significant characters in adult females, which has grouped the 32 lac insect lines studied into 15 species along with validation of the most significant characters. Distinctive grouping patterns for the species of Kerria have been brought out using morphometrics.

  1. The Australian species of the genus Lembeja Distant, 1892 (Homoptera, Tibicinidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Four described Australian and one described New Guinean species of the tribe Prasiini in fact represent only two species: Lembeja paradoxa (Karsch, 1890) and Lembeja vitticollis (Ashton, 1912), the only representatives of the tribe in Australia. Relationships of the species are discussed. The specie

  2. Einfluss der Bitterstoffe des Hopfens auf das Wirtswahlverhalten von Phorodon humuli (Schrank), Homoptera, Aphididae

    OpenAIRE

    Kryvynets, Oleg; Walker, Frank; Zebitz, Claus Paul Walter

    2008-01-01

    Erkenntnisse über das Wirt-Parasit-Verhältnis zwischen Hopfen Humulus lupulus L. und Hopfenblattlaus Phorodon humuli (Schrank) sind von entscheidender Bedeutung für die Selektion blattlausresistenter Sorten. Die Besiedelung des Wirts durch Blattläuse wird durch in den Pflanzen befindliche Substanzen erheblich beeinflusst (Nault & Styer 1972; Leath & al. 1974; Klingauf & al. 1978; Kendall & al. 1980; Singh 1980; Powell & al. 1999; Campo & al. 2003). Die in dieser Hinsicht wichtigsten Bestandte...

  3. The Hawaiian cave planthoppers (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea: Cixiidae - A model for rapid subterranean speciation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannelore Hoch

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available After the successful colonization of a single ancestral species in the Hawaiian Islands, planthoppers of the cixiid genus Oliarus underwent intensive adaptive radiation resulting in 80 described endemic species. Oliarus habitats range from montaneous rain forests to dry coastal biotopes and subterranean environments. At least 7 independant evolutionary lines represented by different species have adapted to lava tubes on Molokai (1, Maui (3, and Hawaii Island (3. Behavioral and morphological studies on one of these evolutionary lines on Hawaii Island, the blind, flight- and pigmentless Oliarus polyphentus have provided evidence for reproductive isolation between allopatric populations which may in fact be separate species. Significant differences in song parameters were observed even between populations from neighbouring lava tubes, although the planthoppers are capable of underground migration through the voids and cracks of the mesocavernous rock system which is extant in young basalt: after a little more than 20 years, lava tubes within the Mauna Ulu 1974 flow had been colonized by O. ‘polyphenius” individuals, most probably originating from a near-by forestkipuka. Amazingly, this species complex is found on the youngest of the Hawaiian Islands, with probably less than 0.5 m.y., which suggests rapid speciation processes. Field observations have led to the development of a hypothesis to match underground speciation with the dynamics of vegetational succession on the surface of active volcanoes. Planthopper range partitioning and geographic separation of populations by young lava flows, founder events and small population size may be important factors involved in rapid divergence.

  4. Effects on the non-target aphid Aphis Gossypii Glover (Homoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bych76-zhjh77

    2012-05-22

    May 22, 2012 ... studies comparing aphid populations in Bt and non-Bt cotton fields gave ..... reported that Bt maize affected the development, reproduction and intrinsic .... Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2011. ISAAA Brief ...

  5. Kemampuan Pemangsaan Menochilus sexmaculatus F. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae terhadap Rhopalosiphum maidis Fitch (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indriya Radiyanto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the functional response of M. sexmaculatus. The hypothesis of this study was that age of predator and the numbers of prey will effect predation rate. To test this hypothesis, a set of prey (first and fourth instar and adult R. maidis was separately placed together with first and fourth instar larval and adult female of M. sexmaculatus at different densities. The length of the exposure of the hosts were respectively 13, 14 and 2 hours for 1st instar larval predator, 4th instar larval predator and adult predators. In addition a combination of 1st and 4th instar nymph of R. maidis were exposed to adult M. sexmaculatus for 24 hours. The result of this study showed that the ability to predation of young and adult M. exmaculatus was type II, indicating that M. sexmaculatus can be categorized as effective biological control agent. Adults of M. sexmaculatus are better predators than the larval stages. Based on non linear regression analysis, the maximum numbers of preys consumed by adult females of M. sexmaculatus was 300 individuals of various stages of R. maidis per 24 hours.

  6. Sugarcane aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae): A new pest on sorghum in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2013 the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a new invasive pest of sorghum in North America, was confirmed on sorghum in four states and 38 counties in the U.S. In 2015, the aphid was reported on sorghum in 17 states and over 400 counties as well as all sorgh...

  7. Antibiosis and antixenosis to Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididac) in Colocasia esculenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleson, Jenifer L; Miller, Ross H

    2005-06-01

    Fifty cultivars of taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Araceae), collected from islands in Micronesia and Polynesia, eight cultivars from the University of Hawaii's taro germplasm collection, and a closely related aroid, Xanthosorna sagittifolium (L.) (Araceae), were screened for antibiosis and antixenosis to Aphis gossypii Clover. Life history data for A. gossypii were collected by assessing survivorship and fecundity of aphids caged on taro leaves in the field. Significant differences in aphid reproductive rate and longevity were observed among the taro cultivars, and cultivars were ranked from most resistant to most susceptible. Antixenosis was assayed in the laboratory in a multiround choice test where A. gossypii were offered four leaf discs excised from different taro cultivars. Additionally, field observations of aphid abundance on taro cultivars were made to corroborate clip cage studies and laboratory experiments. 'Iliuaua','Rumung Mary','Maria', 'Ketan 36', and'Agaga' were the most resistant in terms of reducing aphid fecundity and survivorship, whereas the Iliuana,'Purple', 'TC-83001', and 'Putih 24' were least preferred in aphid choice tests. X. sagittifolium consistently exhibited strong aphid resistance. Resistant cultivars identified in this study may form the basis of breeding programs seeking to combine aphid resistance with other desirable agronomic traits in taro.

  8. Lophopidae of the amazon basin with keys to new world genera and species (HOMOPTERA: FULGOROIDEA).

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    The two especies of Lophopidae found in the lowland Amazon Basin, Hesticus rufimanus, (walker) and H. sanguinifrons Muir, are redescribed and their geographical distributions given. Keys are provided to genera of New World lophopidae, and to species of Hesticus .

  9. Relationships Between Aphids (Insecta: Homoptera: Aphididae) and Slugs (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: Agriolimacidae) Pests of Legumes (Fabaceae: Lupinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowski, Jan; Strażyński, Przemysław; Jaskulska, Monika; Kozłowska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Lupin plants are frequently damaged by various herbivorous invertebrates. Significant among these are slugs and aphids, which sometimes attack the same plants. Relationships between aphids, slugs and food plant are very interesting. Grazing by these pests on young plants can lead to significant yield losses. There is evidence that the alkaloids present in some lupin plants may reduce grazing by slugs, aphids and other invertebrates. In laboratory study was analyzed the relationships between aphid Aphis craccivora and slug Deroceras reticulatum pests of legumes Lupinus angustifolius. It was found that the presence of aphids significantly reduced slug grazing on the plants. The lupin cultivars with high alkaloid content were found to be less heavily damaged by D. reticulatum, and the development of A. craccivora was found to be inhibited on such plants.

  10. New discovery of Palaeontinid fossils from the Middle Jurassic in Daohugou, Inner Mongolia (Homoptera, Palaeontinidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIH; ChungKun

    2007-01-01

    Three new species of fossil Palaeontinidae are described from Daohugou Village, Inner Mongolia, China: Daohugoucossus shii sp. nov., D. parallelivenius sp. nov., D. lii sp. nov. The diagnosis of Dao- hugoucossus Wang, Zhang and Fang, 2006 is revised. These materials are the first complete fossil palaeontinids in the Middle Jurassic of the world. Based on observation of these new specimens, Sc of this new genus has the following combined characters: joined with R at base, diverged near M separa- tion, coalesced with R before the nodal line, extended beyond the nodal line and fused with R1 before distal end. Due to the Sc characteristics mentioned above, the genus Liaocossus Ren, Yin and Dou, 1998 can be well distinguished from “Ilerdocossus-complex”.

  11. Plastic cup traps equipped with light-emitting diodes for monitoring adult Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chang-Chi; Jackson, Charles G; Alexander, Patrick J; Karut, Kamil; Henneberry, Thomas J

    2003-06-01

    Equipping the standard plastic cup trap, also known as the CC trap, with lime-green light-emitting diodes (LED-plastic cup trap) increased its efficacy for catching Bemisia tabaci by 100%. Few Eretmocerus eremicus Rose and Zolnerowich and Encarsia formosa Gahan were caught in LED-plastic cup traps. The LED-plastic cup traps are less expensive than yellow sticky card traps for monitoring adult whiteflies in greenhouse crop production systems and are more compatible with whitefly parasitoids releases for Bemisia nymph control.

  12. Enemigos naturales de la mosca blanca Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae): parasitoides y depredadores.

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Se estudió la composición de parasitoides y depredadores de la mosca blanca en espiral Aleurodicus dispersus así como la abundancia relativa de las primeras diez fincas productoras de banano, durante 1997 y 1998 en Matina, Limón, Costa Rica. Se recuperaron cuatro especies de parasitoides de ninfas de mosca blanca Encarsiella noyesi Hayat, E. aleurodici (Girault), Encarsiella probo nsp. y Encarsia guadeloupae Viggiani. Los depredadores de ninfas y adultos de mosca blanca más comunes fueron dos...

  13. Egg parasitoids of Sophonia rufofascia (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M.T.; Yang, P.; Huber, J.T.; Jones, V.P.

    2001-01-01

    Parasitism of the leafhopper Sophonia rufofascia (Kuoh and Kuoh), a recent immigrant that has become a widespread pest in Hawaii, was examined in a 1-year survey in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Samples of young leaves of four plant species infested with eggs of S. rufofascia were collected at five sites ranging from 880 to 1190 m in elevation. Leafhopper eggs were parasitized principally by three species of Mymaridae (Hymenoptera): Polynema sp., Schizophragma sp. probably bicolor (Dozier), and Chaetomymar sp. Although parasitism by each species fluctuated at levels usually below 10%, all three were detected consistently across most host plants, sites, and sample periods. Total parasitism differed at a marginally significant level among host plants and sites, but not among sample periods. Total parasitism averaged 14.3% (maximum: 26.3%) on Dodonaea viscosa Jacquin, 10.6% (maximum: 17.5%) on Myrica faya Aiton, 8.7% (maximum: 29.5%) on Metrosideros polymorpha Gaudich-Beaupre, and 1.6% (maximum: 4.3%) on Vaccinium reticulatum Smith. Parasitism was generally higher at sites lower in elevation. Further monitoring is recommended to determine whether parasitism will increase to levels that can effectively suppress S. rufofascia populations. The efficacy of natural enemies already present in Hawaii is important because concern over nontarget impacts on endemic leafhoppers makes introduction of new biological control agents difficult. ?? 2001 Academic Press.

  14. Studies on Idiocerine Leafhoppers XII. Idioscopus Clavosignatus spec. nov. (Homoptera, Cicadellidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maldonado Capriles, J.

    1974-01-01

    Among material from the Leiden Museum loaned to me for study a new species of Idioscopus was found that is described here. A summary of the species in the genus is added in two tables. In the descriptions below 30 micrometer units are equivalent to 1.0 mm. The types are deposited in the Leiden Museu

  15. Cuatro cigarrillas de la subfamilia Typhlocybinae (Homoptera, Cicadellidae nuevas para la fauna española

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguin Pombo, D.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Typhlocibid leafhoppers are a group of phytophagous insects little known in the Iberian Peninsula. Until now only about seventy leafhopper species have been recorded. After the study of material collected mainly from the northwest of Spain, four new species records belonging to the tribe Typhlocibini were found. Of those, two species are new to the Iberian Peninsula: Wagneripteryx germari (Zetterstedt, 1840 and Edwardsiana hippocastani (Edwards, 1888, the other two: Eupteryx filicum (Newman, 1853 and Eurhadina ribauti Wagner, 1935, are new records to Spain. For each species information on distribution, biology and food plants is included.

    Los Tiflocíbinos son un grupo de insectos fitófagos poco conocidos en la Península Ibérica. Hasta ahora han sido citadas solamente unas setenta especies de cigarrillas. Del estudio del material recogido principalmente en el noroeste de España han resultado cuatro cigarrillas nuevas para la fauna española pertenecientes a la tribu Typhlocibini. De estas, dos especies son nuevas para la Península: Wagneripteryx germari (Zetterstedt, 1840 y Edwardsiana hippocastani (Edwards, 1888; las otras dos: Eurhadina ribauti Wagner, 1935 y Eupteryx filicum (Newman, 1853, son dos citas nuevas para España. Para cada especie se incluye información sobre su distribución, biología y plantas nutricias.

  16. Distributional patterns and possible origins of the tribes and genera of Coelidiinae (Homoptera, Membracoidea, Cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervin W Nielson

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Leafhoppers are well known biological indicators of zoogeographical regions owing, in part, to their phytodependency, high host plant specificity and relatively low vagility. In this connection, we discuss distributional patterns and possible zoogeographical origins of nine constituent tribes and their genera of the pantropical subfamily Coelidiinae. Among 118 known genera, only eight currently occupy more than one zoogeographical region, indicating an extremely high endemic profile which supports the proposed centers of origin and relatively low rate of intercontinental dispersal. The pantropical tribe Coelidiini is suggested as the basal group of the subfamily which is believed to have arisen prior to continental drift (late Jurassic-early Cretaceous because there appears to be no other evidence at the present time to explain its near cosmopolitan distribution. Possible origins of three Old World tribes, Hikangiini (Ethiopian, Thagriini (Oriental and Thanini (Australian and four New World -(Neotropical tribes, Teruliini, Tinobregmini, Gabritini and Sandersellini are elucidated. The tribe Youngolidiini occupies the Neotropical and Ethiopian realms but its origin is problematical. There appears to be ample evidence that origin/dispersal patterns are related to the geological history of the areas occupied by its faunal members.

  17. Distributional patterns and possible origins of the tribes and genera of Coelidiinae (Homoptera, Membracoidea, Cicadellidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nielson, Mervin W.; William J. Knight; Yalin Zhang

    2000-01-01

    Leafhoppers are well known biological indicators of zoogeographical regions owing, in part, to their phytodependency, high host plant specificity and relatively low vagility. In this connection, we discuss distributional patterns and possible zoogeographical origins of nine constituent tribes and their genera of the pantropical subfamily Coelidiinae. Among 118 known genera, only eight currently occupy more than one zoogeographical region, indicating an extremely high endemic profile which sup...

  18. Metcalfa pruinosa (Say (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha anew harmful species for entomofauna of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Ljubodrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the early autumn 2006, a Nonarctic species of cicadas Metcalfa pruinosa (Say (Auchenorrhyncha: Flatidae was identified in Belgrade (Košutnjak. In Europe, this species was identified for the first time in Italy in 1979. In Slovenia, it was identified in 1990 in west Istria, and in 2001 in the neighbourhood of Ljubljana. In the park forest Košutnjak (Belgrade mass occurrence of M. pruinosa was recorded in the area of about 5 ha. The larvae developed on woody species in the genera: Acer, Aesculus, Gleditchia Robinia, Ailanthus, Populus, Platanus, Prunus, Pyrus, Ulmus, Tilia, Cornus Fraxinus, Quercus and Thuja, što is konstatovano based on damages of larvae while numerous adults were found on trees and branches of the same plants.

  19. Paracoccus burnerae (HOMOPTERA; PLANOCOCCIDAE AS A VECTOR OF Banana streak virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muturi S M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Banana streak virus ( BSV is a causative agent of the banana streak disease (BSD which causes considerable damage to banana production in tropical countries. The virus is vectored by several mealy bug species. However, the competence of the oleander mealy bug ( Paracoccus burnerae , in the transmission of BSV is unknown. Rolling Circle Amplification (RCA technique was used to select both diseased and healthy plantlets fo r transmission experiments. RCA was conducted on viruliferous instars of P . burnerae and virus - inoculated plantlet DNA samples. The results revealed that P . burnerae is a vector of BSV . However, during hot conditions (24 - 30ºC, the insect was unable to acq uire and transmit BSV . Under cool conditions (9 - 20ºC, a minimum of 6 h of feeding time was necessary for P . burnerae instars to become viruliferous. These results indicate that P . burnerae is a vector of BSV and transmission efficiency depends on the ambi ent temperature and the feeding time.

  20. Biology of Scymnus ningshanensis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): A predator of Adelges tsugae (Homoptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Montgomery; Hongbin Wang; Defu Yao; Wenhau Lu; Nathan Havill; Guangwu. Li

    2002-01-01

    Information is presented on the occurrence, development, and feeding of Scymnus (Neopullus) ningshanensis Yu et Yao. Information on its biology was collected in the field and laboratory in China and in quarantine in the United States. This lady beetle was found in China only on hemlock infested with ...

  1. Extended survival of spiders (Aranaeae) feeding on whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) honeydew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeydew produced by homopteran insects such as aphids, whiteflies and mealybugs, can be abundant in some crops and may represent an important food resource for spiders and other honeydew feeding natural enemies. Woolly whiteflies are common in south Texas citrus, and spiders consistently make up a...

  2. Induced life cycle transition from holocycly to anholocycly of the Russian wheat aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Runzhi; (

    2001-01-01

    [1]Jiao Jiujiu, Grey hydrogeologic system analysis and time series model, Survey Science and Technology (in Chinese), 1987,(10): 39-43.[2]Li Shuwen, Wang Baolai, Xiao Guoqiang, A compound model of grey and periodic scrape and its application in groundwater prediction, Journal of Hebei Institute of Architectural Science & Technology (in Chinese), 1992, (3): 246-251.[3]Wang Qingyin, Li Shuwen, Grey distributed parameter model and groundwater analog, Journal of Hebei Institute of Architectural Science & Technology (in Chinese), 1992, (3): 66-70.[4]Guo Chunqing, Xia Riyuan, Liu Zhenglin, Gray Systematic Theory and Methodological Study of Krast Groundwater Resources Evaluation (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1993, 3-60.[5]Wang Qingyin, Liu Kaidi, The Mathematical Method of Grey Systematic Theory and Its Application (in Chinese), Chengdu: Publishing House of Southwestern China University of Communication, 1990, 23-27.[6]Wang Qingyin, Wu Heqing, The concept of grey number and its property, in Proceedings of NAFIPS98, USA, 1998,45-49.[7]Givoli, D., Doukhovni, I., Finite element programming approach for contact problems with geometrical nonlinearity, Computers and Structures, 1996, (8): 31-41.[8]Li Shuwen, Wang Zhiqiang, Wu Qiang, The superiority of storage-centered finite element method in solving seepage problem, Coal Geology and Exploration (in Chinese), 1999, (5): 46-49.

  3. Aploneura lentisci (Homoptera: Aphididae) and Its Interactions with Fungal Endophytes in Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popay, Alison J.; Cox, Neil R.

    2016-01-01

    Aploneura lentisci Pass. is endemic to the Mediterranean region where it is holocyclic, forming galls on its primary host, Pistacia lentiscus and alternating over a 2-year period between Pistacia and secondary hosts, principally species of Gramineae. This aphid is widely distributed in Australia and New Zealand on the roots of the common forage grasses, ryegrass (Lolium spp.) and tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix) where it exists as permanent, anholocyclic, parthenogenetic populations. Previous studies have indicated that infestations of A. lentisci significantly reduce plant growth and may account for differences in field performance of Lolium perenne infected with different strains of the fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae var. lolii. These obligate biotrophs protect their host grasses from herbivory via the production of alkaloids. To confirm the hypothesis that growth of L. perenne is associated with the effect of different endophyte strains on aphid populations, herbage and root growth were measured over time in two pot trials that compared three fungal endophyte strains with an endophyte-free control. In both pot trials, aphid numbers were lowest on plants infected with endophyte strain AR37 at all sampling times. In plants infected with a common toxic strain naturalized in New Zealand, aphid numbers overall were lower than on uninfected plants or those infected with strain AR1, but numbers did not always differ significantly from these treatments. Populations on AR1-infected plants were occasionally significantly higher than those on endophyte-free. Cumulative foliar growth was reduced in AR1 and Nil treatments relative to AR37 in association with population differences of A. lentisci in both trials and root dry weight was reduced in one trial. In four Petri dish experiments survival of A. lentisci on plants infected with AR37 declined to low levels after an initial phase of up to 19 days during which time aphids fed and populations were similar to those on plants without endophyte. Aphids on AR37-infected plants became uncoordinated in their movement and developed tremors before dying suggesting a neurotoxin was responsible for their mortality. Results support the hypothesis that differences in A. lentisci populations due to endophyte infection status and strain affects plant growth. PMID:27695470

  4. Aploneura lentisci (Homoptera: Aphididae and its interactions with fungal endophytes in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Jean Popay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aploneura lentisci Pass. is endemic to the Mediterranean region where it is holocyclic, forming galls on its primary host, Pistacia lentiscus and alternating over a 2 year period between Pistacia and secondary hosts, principally species of Graminae. This aphid is widely distributed in Australia and New Zealand on the roots of the common forage grasses, ryegrass (Lolium spp. and tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix where it exists as permanent, anholocyclic, parthenogenetic populations. Previous studies have indicated that infestations of A. lentisci significantly reduce plant growth and may account for differences in field performance of Lolium perenne infected with different strains of the fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae var lolii. These obligate biotrophs protect their host grasses from herbivory via the production of alkaloids. To confirm the hypothesis that growth of L. perenne is associated with the effect of different endophyte strains on aphid populations, herbage and root growth were measured over time in two pot trials that compared three fungal endophyte strains with an endophyte-free control. In both pot trials, aphid numbers were lowest on plants infected with endophyte strain AR37 at all sampling times. In plants infected with a common toxic strain naturalized in New Zealand, aphid numbers overall were lower than on uninfected plants or those infected with strain AR1, but numbers did not always differ significantly from these treatments. Populations on AR1-infected plants were occasionally significantly higher than those on endophyte-free. Cumulative foliar growth was reduced in AR1 and Nil treatments relative to AR37 in association with population differences of A. lentisci in both trials and root dry weight was reduced in one trial. In four Petri dish experiments survival of A. lentisci on plants infected with AR37 declined to low levels after an initial phase of up to 19 days during which time aphids fed and populations were similar to those on plants without endophyte. Aphids on AR37-infected plants became uncoordinated in their movement and developed tremors before dying suggesting a neurotoxin was responsible for their mortality. Results support the hypothesis that differences in A. lentisci populations due to to endophyte infection status and strain affects plant growth.

  5. The tribe Acutalini Fowler (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae: new genera, new species and some nomenclatural changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino M Sakakibara

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The tribe Acutalini Fowler is redescribed as well as the genera Acutalis Fairmaire, Euritea Stål, and Thrasymedes Kirkaldy. The following new taxa and nomenclatural changes are presented: Thrasymedes mexicana sp.n. (from Mexico, Oaxaca; Bordonia gen.n., with B. venezuelana sp.n. (type-species (from Venezuela, Portachuelo, B. clypeata sp.n. (from Colombia, Cuesta Boba, B. majuscula sp.n. (from Venezuela, Portachuelo, and Cornutalis gen.n., with C. cauca sp.n. (type-species (from Colombia, Cauca, and C. validu sp.n. (from Ecuador, Sto. Domingo. Acutalis fusconervosa Fairmaire, 1846 = Horiola venosa Walker, 1858, syn.n.; Euritea munda (Walker, 1858 = Stictolobus nitidus Funkhouser, 1940, syn.n.; Bordonia nigricosta (Goding, 1926, comb.n.; Bordonia virescens (Funkhouser, 1940, comb.n.. One species is transferred to Smiliinae-Ceresini: Tapinolobus curvispina (Walker, 1858, comb.n. (formerly in Thrasymedes = Tapinolobus fasciatus Sakakibara, 1969, syn.n.; another one is transferred to Darninae-Cymbomorphini: Eumela darnioides (Walker, 1858, comb.n. (formerly in Euritea.

  6. Mechanisms of Oryza sativa (Poaceae resistance to Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae under greenhouse condition in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex González

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tagosodes orizicolus is one of the main plagues of rice in tropical America causing two types of damages, the direct one, feeding and oviposition effect, and an indirect one, by the transmission of the “Rice hoja blanca virus”. During 2006-2007 we carried out research under greenhouse conditions at Fundación Danac, Venezuela, in order to determine the mechanisms of antixenosis, antibiosis and tolerance to T. orizicolus, which could be acting in commercial varieties and advanced lines of the rice genetic breeding programs of INIA and Fundación Danac. The method of free feeding was used for the antixenosis evaluation, whereas the method of forced feeding was used for antibiosis evaluation (effect on survival and oviposition. Additionally, we used the indirect method based on biomass depression to estimate the tolerance. Some of the evaluated traits included: grade of damage, number of insects settling on rice plants, percentage of sogata mortality at the mature state, number of eggs in the leaf midrib and an index of tolerance. The results showed that rice genotypes possess different combinations of resistance mechanisms, as well as different grades of reactions. The susceptible control ‘Bluebonnet 50’ was consistently susceptible across experiments and the resistant control ‘Makalioka’ had high antixenosis and high antibiosis based on survival and oviposition. The rest of the genotypes presented lower or higher degrees of antixenosis and antibiosis for survival and viposition. The genotype ‘FD0241-M-17-6-1-1-1-1’ was identified with possible tolerance to the direct damage of sogata.Tagosodes orizicolus es una de las principales plagas del cultivo del arroz en América tropical causando dos tipos de daños a la planta, el directo, por efecto de la alimentación y oviposición; el indirecto, por la transmisión del virus de la hoja blanca del arroz. Durante el período 2006-2007 se llevó a cabo una investigación bajo condiciones de umbráculo en la Fundación Danac, Venezuela, con el objeto de determinar los mecanismos de resistencia de antixenosis, antibiosis y tolerancia a T. orizicolus que pudieran estar actuando en líneas avanzadas y cultivares del programa de mejoramiento enético de arroz de las instituciones INIA y Fundación Danac. Para la evaluación de antixenosis se utilizó el método de libre elección, para antibiosis (efecto sobre sobrevivencia y oviposición de los insectos el de alimentación forzada, adicionalmente se usó un método indirecto para estimar la tolerancia. Dentro de los principales parámetros determinados se encontraban: grado de daño, número de insectos posados sobre plantas de arroz, porcentaje de mortalidad de sogata en estado adulto, número de huevos y se calculó un índice de tolerancia con base en la biomasa. Los resultados mostraron que los genotipos de arroz evaluados poseen diferentes combinaciones en cuanto a los mecanismos de resistencia, así como el grado de su efecto. El testigo ‘Bluebonnet 50’ se mantuvo consistentemente susceptible en las evaluaciones y el testigo resistente ‘Makalioka’ fue el único genotipo que presentó alta antixenosis y alta antibiosis para sobrevivencia y oviposición. El resto de los genotipos presentaron un menor o mayor grado de resistencia de tipo antixenosis y antibiosis para sobrevivencia y oviposición. Se identificó el genotipo ‘FD0241-M-17-6-1-1-1-1’ con posible tolerancia al daño directo de sogata.

  7. Environ: E00393 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00393 Euphorbia helioscopia stem and leaf Crude drug Euphorbia helioscopia [TAX:154990] Euphorbia...ceae (spurge family) Euphorbia helioscopia stem and leaf Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Euphorbia...ceae (spurge family) E00393 Euphorbia helioscopia stem and leaf ...

  8. Oxidation and cyclization of Casbene in the biosynthesis of Euphorbia factors from mature seeds of Euphorbia lathyris L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Dan; Callari, Roberta; Hamberger, Britta;

    2016-01-01

    Ingenol mebutate is a diterpene ester with a highly complex macrocyclic structure that has been approved for the treatment of actinic keratosis, a precondition of skin cancer. The current production of ingenol mebutate through plant extraction or chemical synthesis is inefficient and costly. Here...

  9. 非寄主植物对月季长管蚜嗅觉行为的影响%Effect of Non-host Plants on Olfactory Behavior of Macrosiphum rosivorum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宁; 冯丹; 杨斌

    2012-01-01

    The effect of non-host plants (Tagetes patula and Allium tubero.sum) on olfactory behavior of M. rosivorum was studied by a "Y" olfactometer to explore new plant attractants and repellents. The results showed that the induced rate of the leaf mixture of Rosa hybrida and non-host plants to M. rosivorum was obviously lower than K. hybrida leaves. The induced rate of the leaf mixture of R. hybrida and T. patula with 1 : 3 ratio to M. rosivorum was only 20 %, 33 % lower than R. hybrida leaves. The induced rate of the leaf mixture of JR. hybrida and Allium tuberosum with 1 : 3 ratio to M. rosivorum was 26%, 28% lower than R. hybrida leaves.%为寻求新的植物源引诱剂和驱避剂,采用“Y”型嗅觉仪测试方法,研究了非寄主植物(韭菜和孔雀草)对月季长管蚜嗅觉行为的影响.结果表明:月季与非寄主植物叶片混合后对月季长管蚜的引诱率均明显低于未与非寄主叶片混合的月季叶片,月季叶片:孔雀草叶片以1∶3的比例混合后对月季长管蚜驱避效果最好,引诱率仅为20%,比月季叶片低33%.月季叶片:韭菜叶片以1∶3的比例混合后对月季长管蚜引诱率为26%,比月季叶片低28%.

  10. Predatory Functional Responses of Three Species of Ladybirds to Macrosiphum rosirvorum and Sitobion avenae%3种瓢虫对月季长管蚜与麦长管蚜的捕食功能反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任向辉; 杨萌; 程辉; 邓方超

    2014-01-01

    室内研究了七星瓢虫、龟纹瓢虫和异色瓢虫对月季长管蚜与麦长管蚜的捕食功能反应.结果表明,在25℃条件下,3种瓢虫的雌成虫对月季长管蚜与麦长管蚜野生种群的捕食功能反应类型为HollingⅡ型.利用麦夸特迭代算法进行Holling's圆盘方程分析表明,3种瓢虫对两种蚜虫捕食效率较高.对两种蚜虫处理时间最短的是七星瓢虫,对月季长管蚜攻击系数最高的为异色瓢虫,而对麦长管蚜攻击系数最高的则为七星瓢虫.

  11. Development of Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. on leaves of common poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kułek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of Botrytis cinerea was assessed on six cultivars of common poinsettia, differing in the colour of bracts, and being in great demand among buyers of these ornamental plants. Resistance to this pathogen differed in the investigated poinsettias. Cultivar 'Malibu Red' (red bracts turned out to be most susceptible, while cv. 'Marblestar' (cream-pink and cv. 'Coco White' (white - relatively resistant to this fungus. After application of various inoculation methods (leaf discs, cut off leaves, whole plants the differences in resistance to B. cinerea were confirmed for two extreme cultivars - susceptible ('Malibu Red' and resistant ('Coco White', which indicated genetic background of this polymorphism. The rate of disease development on poinsettia leaves was affected by the amount of spores used for inoculation (optimum density of 3.5·105 B. cinerea conidia / ml suspension and the addition of stimulants (0.1 M glucose with 0.05 M KH2PO4, which facilitated germination and infection of the host tissue. The inoculated poinsettia leaves showed high stability of plasma membranes. In the susceptible cultivar, in spite of the development of necrotic spots, a significant increase in the membrane damage index (by 13% was found only on day 7 of the disease development.

  12. Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Profile of Euphorbia pulcherrima Methanol Extract on Wistar Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Sharif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was designed to evaluate the acute and subchronic toxicity of E. pulcherrima methanol extract. Mean lethal dose (LD50 and subchronic toxicity were determined using Lorke’s method to assess the effect of the extract on kidney and liver functions along histopathology assessment of the liver and kidney, respectively. The LD50 determined was 3807.89 mg/kg both orally and intraperitoneally. The kidney function parameters indicated elevation of the serum urea above the normal value in both control and the group treated with 10 mg/kg of the extract with mean values of 7.92 ± 1.19 and 7.86 ± 1.14 mMol/L, respectively. The creatinine and electrolytes were within the normal values. The results of ALAT, ASAT, ALP, T protein albumin, and bilirubin in all cases were within the normal values. Kidney, liver function parameters, and relative organ weight were statistically insignificant across all groups. This shows that various concentrations of E. pulcherrima extract did not influence negatively the liver and kidney function parameters. Further studies are required to rule out the observed mild hepatic histological changes among a few members of the groups treated with 100 and 1000 mg/kg/day and any possible hepatoprotective and nephron-protective potential the extract may possess.

  13. INFLUÊNCIA DO FOTOPERÍODO NO FLORESCIMENTO DA NEVE-DA-MONTANHA ( Euphorbia leucocephala)

    OpenAIRE

    PEDROSO, Luciana; da Silva, Lucimara; Pereira, Márcio; Fundação Educacional de Ituverava

    2007-01-01

    Native of the region of Africa, the snow of the mountain is a very sensible plant to the fotoperiódicas variations. With objective to evaluate the influence of fotoperíodo in the induction of the bloom, the present work was lead; in the period of 31/03/2005 to the 28/07/2005, in the campus of the FAFRAM, city of Ituverava-SP. The observed plants were planted in the garden of the campus to the different distances of the light source. For being plants of short days, the same ones only blossom i...

  14. RAPD-PCR analysis of some species of Euphorbia grown in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    family ^____^

    2013-12-04

    Dec 4, 2013 ... systemic claimed that molecular data were more likely to reflect the true ... DNA concentration (µg/ml) = O.D 260 nm × 50 × dilution factor ... About 12.5 µl of the PCR ready mix (Go Taq®Green Master Mix) was added when the ...

  15. Configuration Confirmation of Euphorbia Factor L1 by Single-crystal X-ray Diffraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A 6,(17)-epoxylathyrol diterpenoid ((2S*3S*4R*5R*6S*9S*11S*15R*)-5,15-diacetoxy-3- phenylacetoxy-14-oxolathyra-6(17),(12E)-diene-6(17)-epoxide) was isolated from the seeds of Euhporbia lathyris L. Its configuration was puzzled because of the incomplete X-ray results reported before. In this work, the atom connectivity and configuration were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction together with ESI-MS, 1H-, and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The compound crystallizes in monoclinic, space group P21 with a = 11.386(1), b = 8.2839(7), c = 17.192(2)(A), β = 108.305(2)o, Z = 2, V = 1539.5(2)(A)3, C32H40O8, Mr = 552.64, Dc = 1.192 g/m3, F(000) = 592, μ(MoKα) = 0.085 mm-1, T = 293(2) K, the final R = 0.0398 and wR = 0.0950 for 2057 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I). The molecule shows a tricyclic terpenoid skeleton, consisting of fused five-, eleven- and three-membered rings. The configuration at C(5) is R* and that at C(6) S*.

  16. Studies on antihyperglycemic effect of Euphorbia antiquorum L. root in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VARADHARAJAN MADHAVAN

    2015-12-01

    Materials and methods: The study evaluates the antihyperglycemic effect of E. antiquorum root in Streptozotocin- Nicotinamide induced Type 2 Diabetes mellitus and fructose induced insulin resistance models. Alcohol and aqueous extracts of E. antiquorum root were administered at doses 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. Serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb and hepatic levels of MDA, GSH and glycogen were estimated. Results: Treatment with the alcohol and aqueous extracts of E. antiquorum roots resulted in significant (P < 0.001 lowering of serum blood glucose and GHb levels in both the models. Flavonoids, phenolic compounds, glycosides were detected in the preliminary phytochemical screening. Conclusion: Root of E. antiquorum showed promising antihyperglycemic effect which may be due to the presence of important phytochemicals. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(4.000: 308-313

  17. Proteases from Latex of Euphorbia spp. and Its Application on Milk Clot Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidia Fibriana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Crude proteases were extracted from Euphorbiaceae family, i.e. E. milii var imperata, E. trigona, and E. maculata. Among those three crude proteases, the activity of protease from E. trigona was the highest (812.50 U/ml, whereas E. milii and E. maculata crude proteases activity were 298.60 U/ml and 95.80 U/ml, respectively. E. maculata protein concentration was the highest among those three crude enzymes (1.206 mg/ml. The optimum pH and temperature of the enzymes were pH 7.0, pH 6.0, pH 6.5 and 60 °C, 50 °C, and 50 °C, respectively. Crude protease from E. milii var imperata, E. trigona, and E. maculata retained proteolytic activity over a wide range of pH (5.0–9.0 and temperature (up to 65 °C with casein as substrate. All crude proteases showed milk clotting activity ranged from 0.58 U/ml to 1.01 U/ml. Thus, these crude proteases are potential to be applied in dairy industries. However, further study on enzyme purification and characterization are necessary to obtain high purity of proteases before its application.Protease kasar berhasil diekstrak dari tanaman family Euphorbiaceae, yaitu E. milii var imperata, E. trigona, dan E. maculata. Diantara ketiga protease tersebut, aktivitas protease tertinggi diperoleh dari E. trigona (812,50 U/ml, sedangkan aktivitas protease dari E. milii dan E. maculata adalah 298,60 U/ml dan 95,80 U/ml, berturut-turut. Konsentrasi total protein tertinggi terdapat pada protease kasar E. maculata (1,206 mg/ml. pH dan suhu optimum ketiga enzim tersebut adalah pH 7.0, pH 6.0, pH 6.5 dan suhu 60 °C, 50 °C, and 50 °C, berturut-turut. Protease kasar dari E. milii var imperata, E. trigona, dan E. maculata menunjukkan aktivitas proteolitik pada rentang pH 5.0–9.0 dan rentang suhu sampai 65 °C menggunakan kasein sebagai substrat. Semua protease kasar menunjukkan aktivitas penggumpalan susu dengan rentang dari 0,58 U/ml sampai 1,01 U/ml. Berdasarkan hasil yang diperoleh, protease kasar dari ketiga jenis tanaman ini berpotensi untuk diaplikasikan dalam industri olahan susu. Meskipun demikian, studi lanjut mengenai purifikasi dan karakterisasi sangat diperlukan untuk memperoleh protease murni sebelum aplikasi dalam industri makanan, khususnya pada industri olahan susu.

  18. PRODUCCIÓN DE PLÁNTULAS DE CANDELILLA (Euphorbia antisyphilitica Zucc. MEDIANTE ESTACAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Villa-Castorena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En México, la recolección de candelilla representa una importante fuente de ingresos para las comunidades de las zonas semidesérticas consideradas como de extrema pobreza. Sin embargo, existe una sobreexplotación de esta especie, lo que hace necesario la reforestación de las áreas degradadas para la conservación de este recurso. En el presente estudio se evaluaron cuatro ecotipos: Cuatrociénegas, Viesca, Tlahualilo y Cuencamé; cuatro sustratos como medio de cultivo: arena, mezcla arena con fibra de coco (1:1, arena con turba (peat moss, 1:1 y mezcla de turba con perlita y vermiculita (1:1:1, y cuatro tratamientos químicos a las estacas para promover su enraizamiento y brotación: con proroot, magic root, ácido fenoxiacético y un tratamiento sin aplicación de químicos. Se usó un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con diez repeticiones y un arreglo de tratamientos en parcelas subdivididas. Se usaron bolsas de plástico negro, de 3.7 litros de capacidad, como macetas, las cuales se llenaron con los sustratos estudiados y se plantaron las estacas. Éstas se regaron cada dos o tres veces por semana y estuvieron dentro de un invernadero tipo túnel con cubierta de plástico y ventilado en forma natural. Los resultados indican que Cuatro ciénegas posee características genéticas especiales que lo hacen ser superior al resto de los ecotipos y no necesita de productos químicos para la formación de raíces, emisión y crecimiento de brotes. Las mezclas de turba con perlita y vermiculita, y arena con turba proporcionaron las mejores condiciones para un mayor enraizamiento y crecimiento de brotes. Viesca sólo presentó efectos positivos al tratamiento de estacas con proroot.

  19. Physiology and Biochemistry Changes of Euphorbia pulcherrima During Leaf Color Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Reasons for the color change of E.pulcherrima were studied with physiological and biochemical paraments such as: chlorophyll,carotenoids,anthocyanin,Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL),pH of cell sap in leaves and soluble sugar content etc.The results showed that during the period of the leaf color transmittion of E.pulcherrima,the contents of plastid pigment,soluble sugar and pH of cells sap in leaves showed a high-low-high dynamic change,while the contents of anthocyanin and PAL activity showed the low-high...

  20. Evolutionary prediction of medicinal properties in the genus Euphorbia L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Madeleine; Saslis Lagoudakis, Haris; Grace, Olwen M.

    2016-01-01

    The current decrease of new drugs brought to the market has fostered renewed interest in plant-based drug discovery. Given the alarming rate of biodiversity loss, systematic methodologies in finding new plant-derived drugs are urgently needed. Medicinal uses of plants were proposed as proxy for b...

  1. The chemical composition of the essential oils of Euphorbia caracasana and E. cotinifolia (Euphorbiaceae) from Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Janne; Baldovino, Shirley; Vizcaya, Marietta; Rojas, Luis B; Morales, Antonio

    2009-04-01

    The essential oils from leaves of E. caracasana Boiss collected from Miyoi, Pueblo Llano, Mérida State at 1800 m above sea level and leaves of E. cotinifolia L collected from Manzano Alto-Ejido, Mérida State at 1520 m were analyzed by GC/MS. Beta-Caryophyllene (33.7 %), alpha-humulene (18.8 %) and aromadendrene (8.4 %) were the major constituents of E. caracasana oil, whereas those of E. cotinifolia oil were beta-caryophyllene (39.3 %), germacrene-D (21.5 %) and alpha-copaene (9.3 %).

  2. Environ: E00443 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00443 Euphorbia lathyris seed Euphorbiae lathyridis semen Crude drug Esculetin [CP...D:C09263], Epoxylathyrol, Ingenol-3-hexadecanoate, Euphorbetin Euphorbia lathyris [TAX:212925] Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) Euphorbi...a lathyris mature seed (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) E00443 Euphorbia lathyris seed ...

  3. Environ: E00388 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00388 Euphorbia kansui radix Euphorbia kansui root Crude drug Tirucallol, alpha-Eu...20-acetate, 13-Oxyingenol-13-dodecanoate-20-hexanoate Euphorbia kansui [TAX:239687] Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) Euphorbia... kansui root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) E00388 Euphorbia kansui root ...

  4. Environ: E00602 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00602 Euphorbia root Crude drug 24-Methylenecycloartanone Euphorbia pallasii [TAX:457262], Euphorbia... ebracteolata [TAX:526193] Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) Euphorbia root (dried) Crude drug...s [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) E00602 Euphorbia root ...

  5. Environ: E00595 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00595 Euphorbia pekinensis root Crude drug Euphorbon Euphorbia pekinensis [TAX:273621] Euphorbia...ceae (spurge family) Euphorbia pekinensis root (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) E00595 Euphorbia pekinensis root ...

  6. Trans-generational effects of mild heat stress on the life history traits of an aphid parasitoid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ismaeil

    Full Text Available Temperature changes are common in nature and insects are particularly exposed and sensitive to such variations which can be potential stresses, ultimately affecting life history traits and overall fitness. Braconids have been widely used to study the effects of temperature on host-parasitoid interactions and the present work focused on the solitary endoparasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae Aphidiidae, an efficient biological control agent commercially used against aphids such as the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae. Contrary to previous studies using heat shocks at extreme temperatures, we evaluated the effects of mild heat stresses by transferring young parasitoid adults from the constant temperature of 20°C to either a warm (25°C or hot (28°C temperature, for either 1 h or 48 h. Such treatments are consistent with situations commonly experienced by parasitoids when moved from their rearing conditions to greenhouses or field conditions. The effects were evaluated both on the heat stressed A. ervi adults (G0 (immediate effects and on their first generation (G1 progeny (trans-generational effects. G0 wasps' mortality was significantly affected by the temperature in interaction with the duration of the stress. Longevity of G0 wasps surviving the heat stress was negatively affected by the temperature and females lived longer than males. Heat stress applied to A. ervi parents also had consequences on their G1 progeny whose developmental time, rates of mummification and percentage of parasitoid completing total development were negatively affected. Surprisingly, the egg load at emergence of the G1 female progeny was increased when their mothers had been submitted to a mild heat stress of 25°C or 28°C. These results clearly demonstrate trans-generational phenotypic plasticity, showing that adaptation to thermal stresses may be achieved via maternal effects. This study also sheds light on

  7. Differential effects of weather and natural enemies on coexisting aphid populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyokhin, Andrei; Drummond, Francis A; Sewell, Gary; Storch, Richard H

    2011-06-01

    Study of mechanisms responsible for regulating populations of living organisms is essential for a better comprehension of the structure of biological communities and evolutionary forces in nature. Aphids (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) comprise a large and economically important group of phytophagous insects distributed worldwide. Previous studies determined that density-dependent mechanisms play an important role in regulating their populations. However, only a few of those studies identified specific factors responsible for the observed regulation. Time series data used in this study originated from the untreated control plots that were a part of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) insecticide trials in northern Maine from 1971 to 2004. The data set contained information on population densities of three potato-colonizing aphid species (buckthorn aphid, Aphis nasturtii; potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae; and green peach aphid, Myzus persicae) and their natural enemies. We used path analysis to explore effects of weather and natural enemies on the intrinsic growth rates of aphid populations. Weather factors considered in our analyses contributed to the regulation of aphid populations, either directly or through natural enemies. However, direct weather effects were in most cases detectable only at P ≤ 0.10. Potato aphids were negatively affected by both fungal disease and predators, although buckthorn aphids were negatively affected by predators only. Parasitoids did not have a noticeable effect on the growth of any of the three aphid species. Growth of green peach aphid populations was negatively influenced by interspecific interactions with the other two aphid species. Differential population regulation mechanisms detected in the current study might at least partially explain coexistence of three ecologically similar aphid species sharing the same host plant.

  8. Glycoalkaloids of wild and cultivated Solanum: effects on specialist and generalist insect herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altesor, Paula; García, Álvaro; Font, Elizabeth; Rodríguez-Haralambides, Alejandra; Vilaró, Francisco; Oesterheld, Martín; Soler, Roxina; González, Andrés

    2014-06-01

    Plant domestication by selective breeding may reduce plant chemical defense in favor of growth. However, few studies have simultaneously studied the defensive chemistry of cultivated plants and their wild congeners in connection to herbivore susceptibility. We compared the constitutive glycoalkaloids (GAs) of cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum, and a wild congener, S. commersonii, by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. We also determined the major herbivores present on the two species in field plots, and tested their preference for the plants and their isolated GAs in two-choice bioassays. Solanum commersonii had a different GA profile and higher concentrations than S. tuberosum. In the field, S. tuberosum was mostly attacked by the generalist aphids Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae, and by the specialist flea beetle Epitrix argentinensis. In contrast, the most common herbivore on S. commersonii was the specialist sawfly Tequus sp. Defoliation levels were higher on the wild species, probably due to the chewing feeding behavior of Tequus sp. As seen in the field, M. persicae and E. argentinensis preferred leaf disks of the cultivated plant, while Tequus sp. preferred those of the wild one. Congruently, GAs from S. commersonii were avoided by M. persicae and preferred by Tequus sp. The potato aphid performed well on both species and was not deterred by S. commersonii GAs. These observations suggest that different GA profiles explain the feeding preferences of the different herbivores, and that domestication has altered the defensive capacity of S. tuberosum. However, the wild relative is still subject to severe defoliation by a specialist herbivore that may cue on the GAs.

  9. Wounding, insect chewing and phloem sap feeding differentially alter the leaf proteome of potato, Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duceppe Marc-Olivier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various factors shape the response of plants to herbivorous insects, including wounding patterns, specific chemical effectors and feeding habits of the attacking herbivore. Here we performed a comparative proteomic analysis of the plant's response to wounding and herbivory, using as a model potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. subjected to mechanical wounding, defoliation by the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, or phloem sap feeding by the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas. Results Out of ~500 leaf proteins monitored by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE, 31 were up- or downregulated by at least one stress treatment compared to healthy control plants. Of these proteins, 29 were regulated by beetle chewing, 8 by wounding and 8 by aphid feeding. Some proteins were up- or downregulated by two different treatments, while others showed diverging expression patterns in response to different treatments. A number of modulated proteins identified by mass spectrometry were typical defense proteins, including wound-inducible protease inhibitors and pathogenesis-related proteins. Proteins involved in photosynthesis were also modulated, notably by potato beetle feeding inducing a strong decrease of some photosystem I proteins. Quantitative RT PCR assays were performed with nucleotide primers for photosynthesis-related proteins to assess the impact of wounding and herbivory at the gene level. Whereas different, sometimes divergent, responses were observed at the proteome level in response to wounding and potato beetle feeding, downregulating effects were systematically observed for both treatments at the transcriptional level. Conclusions These observations illustrate the differential impacts of wounding and insect herbivory on defense- and photosynthesis-related components of the potato leaf proteome, likely associated with the perception of distinct physical and chemical cues in planta.

  10. Avaliação de inseticidas no controle de Myzus persicae (sulz. (homoptera: aphididae na cultura da alface Evaluation of insecticides to control Myzus persicae (Sulz (Homoptera: Aphididae on lettuce crop

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    Jeferson Zagonel

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a eficiência de inseticidas no controle de Myzus persicae (Sulz. na cultura da alface, cv. Verônica, em experimento conduzido na UEPG, em 1999. Usou-se delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constaram de thiamethoxam nas doses de 50; 75 e 100 g i.a./ha; imidacloprid na dose de 140 g i.a./ha; pymetrozine na dose de 150 g i.a./ha e testemunha sem pulverização. Os tratamentos foram aplicados nas mudas em bandejas, um dia antes do transplantio. Avaliou-se a fitotoxicidade, o número de pulgões por planta, a porcentagem de plantas com pulgões e a eficiência dos inseticidas. O thiamethoxam nas doses de 50; 75 e 100 g i.a./ha foi eficiente no controle de M. persicae durante todo o ciclo, mostrando eficiência igual ou superior a 98,6%, similar ao imidacloprid. O pymetrozine apresentou eficiência no controle de M. persicae até 21 dias após o transplante das mudas. Os inseticidas não causaram efeitos fitotóxicos nas plantas de alface; além disso, houve produção de plantas com maior massa fresca em relação à testemunha.A field trial was carried out at Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, State of Paraná, Brazil, in 1999, to evaluate the efficiency of insecticides in controlling Myzus persicae (Sulz on lettuce cv. Veronica. The experimental design was of completely randomized blocks with six treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of thiamethoxam (50; 75 and 100 g i.a/ha imidacloprid (140 g i.a/ha; pymetrozine (150 g i.a/ha and control. The treatments were applied to seedlings grown in polyestyrene trays one day before the transplanting. The fitotoxicity, the number of aphids/plant, the percentage of plants with aphids and the efficiency of the insecticides were evaluated. Thiamethoxan at doses of 50; 75 and 100 g i.a/ha was efficient to control M. persicae from transplanting till 43 days after showing equal or higher efficiency than 98.6%, similar to imidacloprid. The pymetrozine was efficient to control M. persicae until 21 days after transplanting. Effects of fitotoxicity on lettuce plants were not observed. Higher fresh weight was observed in treated plants in comparison to the one of the control.

  11. Bandaromimus Linnavuori (Homoptera, Cicadellidae, Deltocephalinae: primeiro registro no Brasil e descrição de duas espécies novas Bandaromimus Linnavuori (Homoptera, Cicadellidae, Deltocephalinae: first record for Brazil and description of two new species

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    Keti Maria Rocha Zanol

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Bandaromimus Linnavuori, 1959 is reported for the first time in Brazil. Two new species are described: Bandaromimus matogrossensis sp. nov. (Brazil, Mato Grosso and Bandaromimus insularis sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná. The female of Bandaromimus parvicauda Linnavuori & Heller, 1961 is described and the illustrations of male genitalia is also added.

  12. Impacts of the Psyllid Arytinnis hakani (Homoptera: Psyllidae) on Invasive French Broom in Relation to Plant Size and Psyllid Density.

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    Hogg, Brian N; Moran, Patrick J; Smith, Lincoln

    2017-06-01

    The impacts of weed biological control agents may vary with plant ontogeny. As plants grow, structural and chemical changes can alter plant resistance, which may reduce herbivory via chemical or structural defenses, and plant tolerance, which may enable plants to maintain fitness despite attack. Resistance and tolerance generally increase as plants grow. Nonetheless, prerelease tests of agent efficacy often overlook plant ontogeny. Here, we assess the performance and impacts of a candidate biocontrol agent, the psyllid Arytinnis hakani (Loginova), in relation to the age of its host plant, the invasive shrub French broom, Genista monspessulana. We also examined whether the psyllid can consistently kill plants when its densities are sufficiently high. Survival of psyllids to adulthood and the timing of adult emergence did not differ between plant sizes, indicating that performance of nymphs was not influenced by plant size. However, adult psyllid survival was reduced on small plants, suggesting that nymphs and adults responded differently to ontogenetic changes in plant quality. Psyllids affected the growth of small and large plants similarly; all measured plant growth parameters were lower in the presence of psyllids regardless of plant size. In a separate experiment, effects on plant survival depended on psyllid density, as higher realized densities of ∼9 psyllids per cm stem length were necessary to consistently kill plants. Thus, results suggest that the psyllid would be equally effective on a range of plant sizes, particularly at high densities, and show the potential of the psyllid to help control French broom in California. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. Resolution of phylogenetic relationships of the major subfamilies of the Delphacidae (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea) using the mitochondrial ribosomal DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EDDY DIJKSTRA; MICHEL A. SLOTMAN; RORY J. POST

    2006-01-01

    Delphacid relationships from the genus level to the subfamily have been completely resolved (among those taxa examined) using sequence data from the 3' end of the 12S gene. Monophyly of the non-asiracine subfamilies was strongly supported and the asiracine Ugyops was placed in the most basal position of the tree. Support levels for monophyly of the Delphacini increased after weighting transversions more heavily than transitions and after removing the cixiid outgroup from the dataset. Among the Delphacini,Conomelus and Megamelus were more closely related to each other than either was to Chloriona. These results are in agreement with the tree based on morphological characters. However, in contrast to morphological data our results strongly supported a sister group relationship between the Stenocraninae and the Kelisiinae. Although the 12S gene fragment gave some information about the species relationships within Chloriona, neither this fragment nor the 5' end of the 16S gene appear to be very useful for this level. Molecular evolutionary patterns provided evidence that there has been a shift in base composition from T to A during the early evolution of the non-Asiracinae. The non-Asiracinae also had comparatively fast substitution rates and these two observations are possibly correlated. In the 'modern' delphacid Chloriona, the AT content was comparatively low in regions free of constraints but this was not the case for 'non-modern' delphacids. The tRNA for valine has been translocated elsewhere, probably before the Delphacidae and Cixiidae diverged from each other.

  14. Interplant movement and spatial distribution of alate and apterous morphs of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) on lettuce.

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    Diaz, B M; Barrios, L; Fereres, A

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge on colonization modes and interplant movement of Nasonovia ribisnigri can contribute to the development of optimal control of this pest. The aim of this study was to determine the spatio-temporal distribution and the mode of spread between adult morphs of Nasonovia ribisnigri, comparing spring and autumn lettuce protected crops. The spatial and temporal pattern was analyzed using the spatial analysis by distance indices (SADIE) methodology and other related displacement indices. The population size of N. ribisnigri was greater in the autumn than in the spring growing seasons due to milder temperatures. The percentage of plants colonized by aphids was higher in spring than in autumn, showing the great dispersal potential of this aphid species independent of their population size. Differential propensity for initial displacement from the central plant was observed between adult morphs in spring, resulting in a greater ability of apterous than alate aphids to spread far away from the source plant. In autumn, both adult morphs showed an initial reduced displacement; however, the number of plants infested (≈20%) with at least one aphid at this initial time (seven days) was similar for both adult morphs and both growing seasons. Analysis of the spatial pattern of both adult morphs revealed a predominantly random distribution for both spring and autumn trials. This pattern was achieved by a prevalent random movement over the area (γ≈0.5). These results highlight the ability of the apterous N. ribisnigri to spread within greenhouse lettuce crops early in the spring, suggesting that detection of the pest by deep visual inspection is required after lettuce emergence.

  15. Evaluation of the Synergistic Effect Between Ethyl Formate and Phospine for Control of Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae).

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    Lee, Byung Ho; Kim, Hye Min; Kim, Bong Soo; Yang, Jeong Oh; Moon, Young Mi; Ren, Yonglin

    2016-02-01

    Cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, is known as a quarantine pest that is hard to control with short periods of fumigation with phosphine (PH(3)) or low concentrations of ethyl formate. Moreover, low-temperature fumigation with ethyl formate can lead to phototoxic damage of some perishable commodities. Therefore, a laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the synergistic effect of mixing ethyl formate and PH(3) for the treatment of adults and nymphs of A. gossypii. Combined toxicity was observed and compared with a single dose of eitherrethyl formate or PH(3). When insects were exposed to 0.5 g/m(3) of PH(3) combined with different levels of ethyl formate from 1.6 to 16.3 g/m(3) at 5 and 20C for 2 h, L(Ct)(50) and L(Ct)(99) values were greatly reduced in comparison with a single dose of either ethyl formate or PH(3). The synergistic ratio (SR) is described as L(Ct) of ethyl formate alone/L(Ct) of ethyl formate + PH(3). The SR values of L(Ct)(50) and L(Ct)(99) for adult A. gossypii at 5C were 4.55 and 2.33, respectively. However, at 20C the SR levels of L(Ct)(50) and L(Ct)(99) were 2.22 and 1.45, respectively, but still showed significant synergism (significant difference, P<0.5). This new technology could meet quarantine and preshipment requirements for shorter exposure times and less damage of perishable commodities, and could also be extended for controlling other quarantine pests and thereby be a useful alternative to methyl bromide for fruit and vegetable applications.

  16. Aphids (Homoptera, Aphidodea inhabiting the trees Crataegus x media Bechst. in the urban green area. Part I. The population dynamics

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    Bożena Jaśkiwicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies were conducted in the years 1999-2001 in the green areas of Lublin, on the trees of Crataegus x media Bechst. The purpose of the studies was to establish the species composition and the population dynamics of aphids inhabiting hawthorn in the street and park sites. The studies found out the presence of four aphid species on the examined trees, namely Aphis pomi De Geer, aphids from the genus Dysaphis Börn., Ovatus crataegarius (Walk. and Rhopalosiphum insertum (Walk.. More aphid species and bigger populations were found in the street site (A as compa red with the park site (B.The weather conditions (air temperatures of over 30°C and stormy rainfalls limited the population of all aphid species. On the other hand, a mild winter and a warm spring with the rainfalls within the norm caused that the number of aphids decreased considerably.

  17. Comparison of numerical response and predation effects of two coccinellid species on hemlock woolly adelgid (Homoptera: Adelgidae).

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    Butin, Elizabeth; Elkinton, Joseph; Havill, Nathan; Montgomery, Michael

    2003-06-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, is an introduced pest in North America that is native to Asia, and is causing extensive damage to eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis Carriere) and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana Englemann) in the eastern United States. We compared two coccinellids imported for biological control of the adelgid: Scymnus ningshanensis Yu et Yao from China and Pseudoscymnus tsugae Sasaji and McClure from Japan. In a laboratory study, we measured the numerical response of each beetle species to a range of prey densities, and in field studies we examined the reproductive success and ability of the coccinellids to reduce populations of the hemlock woolly adelgid. In the laboratory, S. ningshanensis showed a positive numerical response as hemlock woolly adelgid density increased, and P. tsugae showed a density-independent response. In field cages, the presence of S. ningshanensis resulted in negative hemlock woolly adelgid population growth, in contrast to positive growth in both control cages and cages containing P. tsugae. Both our laboratory and field experiments suggest that S. ningshanensis has good potential as a biological control agent of hemlock woolly adelgid.

  18. Growth and development of Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae): effect of host age.

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    Hu, Jing S; Gelman, Dale B; Blackburn, Michael B

    2002-03-01

    The tiny parasitoid wasp, Encarsia formosa, has been used successfully to control greenhouse whiteflies (GHWFs) in greenhouses in many countries throughout the world. Therefore, there has been considerable interest in developing methods for artificially rearing this wasp. However, little information is available concerning the regulation of its development including the host-parasitoid interactions that are required for the parasitoid to complete its life cycle. Here we confirm that parasitoid developmental rates differ significantly based upon the host instar parasitized. Development was faster when 3rd and 4th instar GHWFs were offered for parasitization than when 1st or 2nd instars were used. Our results show that it is primarily the embryo and the first two parasitoid instars that exhibit prolonged developmental times when 1st and 2nd instar whiteflies are parasitized. Although percent emergence was not affected by host age at the time of parasitization, adult longevity as well as adult emergence pattern varied greatly depending upon the instar parasitized. When 3rd and 4th instar GHWFs were selected for oviposition, adult wasps lived significantly longer than when 1st or 2nd instars were used; also, there was a sharp emergence peak on the 2nd day after emergence was first observed (reduced or absent when 1st or 2nd instar GHWFs were parasitized) and the emergence period was reduced from between 8 and 11 days to 5 days. In general, the younger the host instar parasitized, the less synchronous was parasitoid development. Previous reports that E. formosa will not molt to the 2nd instar until the host has reached its 4th instar were not confirmed. When 1st instar host nymphs were parasitized, 2nd instar parasitoids were detected in 3rd instar hosts. Importantly, however, no matter which instar was parasitized, the parasitoid never molted to its last instar until the host had reached Stage 5 of its last instar, a stage in which host pharate adult formation has been initiated. It appears, then, that a condition(s) associated with host pharate adult formation is required for the parasitoid's final larval molt. Results reported here should facilitate the development of in vitro rearing systems for E. formosa.

  19. Co-development of Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) and the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae): a histological examination.

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    Blackburn, Michael B; Gelman, Dale B; Hu, Jing S

    2002-09-01

    Using histological techniques, we have simultaneously examined the co-development of the Aphelinid parasitoid Encarsia formosa and its host the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Previously we have determined that regardless of the whitefly instar parasitized, parasitoid larvae would not molt to their final instar until the whitefly reaches its maximum dimensions. In unparasitized T. vaporariorum, this point in development corresponds to the initiation of the adult molt. In part, this study was conducted to determine the developmental state of parasitized whiteflies at the time they achieve their maximum dimensions. It was found that parasitized final instar T. vaporariorum do, in fact, undergo a final molt and that E. formosa larvae will not molt to their final instar until this has occurred. The timing of the final whitefly molt appears unaffected by parasitization. The commonly observed melanization of parasitized whiteflies appears to be a consequence of this molt. In addition, we have discovered that the adult wasp oviposits within the ventral ganglion of the whitefly, and that major organ systems of the whitefly persist very late into parasitoid development. We also report the presence of possible endosymbiotic bacteria residing in the fatbody of E. formosa.

  20. [Evaluation of interactive efficacy of two mycoinsecticides and low application rate imidacloprid in controlling greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae)].

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    Chen, Bin; Feng, Mingguang

    2003-11-01

    The interactive effects of pure emulsifiable formulations (10(10) conidia.ml-1) of Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus conidia and 1% and 3% of imidacloprid 10% WP were tested for controlling greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, on lettuce grown in four polyethylene film-covered greenhouses (5 m x 100 m) in Kunming, Yunnan. Six fungal treatments, two imidacloprid ones, and one water-spray control were included in the experiment, with each being replicated in three plots (7 m x 5 m.plot-1). For each of the treatments, 1000-fold aqueous dilution (10(7) conidia.ml-1) was sprayed twice at a 15-d interval, with the first spray given on day 11 after lettuce transplantation. Counts of live and dead whiteflies from each treatment were made on the initial day, and then, once every five days. During a 30-d period of observation from August 20, the two applications of the fungal formulations alone or those containing low rates of imidacloprid 10% WP effectively protected the lettuce from damage by T. vaporariorum, and generated relative efficacies. Whitefly density decreased > 95%, which was significantly higher than that attributed to the low application rates of imidacloprid 10% WP. Based on the estimations of relative efficacy and percent density decrease, P. fumosoroseus treatments controlled the whiteflies better than B. bassiana ones, and the effects of both fungi on the pest population were apparently enhanced with the quantity of imidacloprid added. The differences among the fungal treatments in the two estimations were larger during the first 10 days, but decreased thereafter, becoming insignificant on day 10 after the second spray. The results indicated that the fungal formulations tested in this study are of great potential for practical use in whitefly control, and their efficacy could be enhanced with low rates of imidacloprid.