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Sample records for macrosiphum euphorbiae homoptera

  1. Effect of an alternate weed host, hairy nightshade, Solanum sarrachoides, on the biology of the two most important potato leafroll virus (Luteoviridae: Polerovirus) vectors, Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Aphididae: Homoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu; Alvarez, Juan M; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Eigenbrode, Sanford D; Novy, Richard G

    2008-04-01

    Hairy nightshade, Solanum sarrachoides (Sendtner), is a ubiquitous weed in potato agro-ecosystems and nonagricultural lands of southeastern Idaho and the Pacific Northwest. This weed increases the complexity of the Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) (Luteoviridae: Polervirus)-potato pathosystem by serving as aphid and virus reservoir. Previous field studies showed higher densities of green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), the two most important vectors of PLRV, on S. sarrachoides compared with potato plants in the same fields. Some of the S. sarrachoides plants sampled in these surveys tested positive for PLRV. Viral infections can alter the physiology of plant hosts and aphid performance on such plants. To understand better the potential effects of S. sarrachoides on the PLRV-potato-aphid pathosystem, the life histories of M. persicae and M. euphorbiae were compared on virus-free and PLRV-infected S. sarrachoides and potato. Individual nymphs of each aphid species were held in clip cages on plants from each treatment to monitor their development, survival, and reproductive output. Nymphal survival for both aphids across plant species was higher on S. sarrachoides than on potato, and, within plant species, it was higher on PLRV-infected plants than on noninfected plants. With a few exceptions, similar patterns occurred for fecundity, reproductive periods, adult longevity, and intrinsic rate of increase. The enhanced performance of aphids on S. sarrachoides and on PLRV-infected plants could alter the vector population dynamics and thus the PLRV-disease epidemiology in fields infested with this weed.

  2. Development and survival of Aulacorthum solani, Macrosiphum euphorbiae and Uroleucon ambrosiae at six temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conti, de B.F.; Bueno, V.H.P.; Sampaio, M.V.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Temperature is one of the most important factors in determining the survival and developmental rate of aphids. The aim of this study was to evaluate the developmental time and survival of the aphid species Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Uroleucon ambrosiae

  3. Diminished UV-absorbing nets reduce the Spreads and population density of Macrosiphum euphorbiae in lettuce.

    OpenAIRE

    Legarrea, S.; Díaz, B. M.; Plaza, M.; Barrios, L.; Morales, Ignacio; Viñuela Sandoval, Elisa; Fereres Castiel, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    UV-absorbing covers reduce the incidence of injurious insect pests and viruses in protected crops. In the present study, the effect of a UV-absorbing net (Bionet) on the spatio-temporal dynamics of the potato aphid on lettuce plants was evaluated. A field experiment was conducted during three seasons in two identical tunnels divided in four plots. A set of lettuce plants were artificially infested with Macrosiphum euphorbiae adults and the population was estimated by counting aphids on ev...

  4. Biological parameters and thermal requirements of the parasitoid Praon volucre (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) with Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) as host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conti, De B.F.; Bueno, V.H.P.; Sampaio, M.V.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the biology of Praon volucre (Haliday, 1833) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas, 1878) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) hosts was studied and the thermal requirements of the parasitoid were determined. Experiments were carried out at 16, 19, 22, 25, and 28

  5. Larval competition between Aphidius ervi and Praon volucre (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) in Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney, Lívia Alvarenga; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Lins, Juracy Caldeira; Sampaio, Marcus Vinicius; Silva, Diego Bastos

    2010-10-01

    Interspecific competition between parasitoid larvae may influence the size, structure, and stability of the population, leading to a reduction in total parasitism and thus restricting the pest control. Aphidius ervi (Haliday) and Praon volucre (Haliday) are endoparasitoids that possess a wide host range and present considerable potential for the biological control of the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas). The larval competition between A. ervi and P. volucre, and the possible intrinsic competitive superiority of one of the parasitoids in M. euphorbiae, have been studied. In single parasitism experiments, mated parasitoid females (n=10) were maintained individually in contact with M. euphorbiae hosts (n=30) inside petri dishes containing lettuce leaf discs and maintained in environmental chamber at 22 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% RH, and 12-h photophase. The multiple parasitism experiments consisted of exposing single parasitized aphids (n=120) to the second parasitoid species. Two oviposition events were performed with a 4-h interval between them, namely the following: sequence A (oviposition by A. ervi, followed by P. volucre) and sequence B (oviposition by P. volucre, followed by A. ervi). Oviposition sequence A generated 24 A. ervi and 55 P. volucre adults, whereas oviposition sequence B generated 23 and 49 adults. P. volucre is an intrinsically superior competitor compared with A. ervi, and the use of the two species simultaneously may result in competitive exclusion and influence the stability of the parasitoid population.

  6. Host Plant Volatiles and the Sexual Reproduction of the Potato Aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae

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    Jessica Hurley

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In late summer, heteroecious aphids, such as the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae, move from their secondary summer host plants to primary host plants, where the sexual oviparae mate and lay diapausing eggs. We tested the hypothesis that volatiles of the primary host, Rosa rugosa, would attract the gynoparae, the parthenogenetic alate morph that produce oviparae, as well as the alate males foraging for suitable mates. In wind tunnel assays, both gynoparae and males oriented towards and reached rose cuttings significantly more often than other odour sources, including potato, a major secondary host. The response of males was as high to rose cuttings alone as to potato with a calling virgin oviparous female. These findings are discussed within the seasonal ecology of host alternating aphids.

  7. Repellence and toxicity of plant essential oils to the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munneke, M.E.; Bruin, de A.; Moskal, J.R.; Tol, van R.W.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Several plant essential oils were tested for their effect on behaviour and mortality of M. euphorbiae. Olfactory and contact experiments were performed to study these effects. We found that host plant and formulation of the different oils have a strong influence on repellence and mortality of the

  8. Capacidad parasítica de Praon pos. occidentale (Hymenoptera: Braconidae sobre Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera: Aphididae en condiciones de laboratorio

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    Aragón Sandra

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Praon pos. occidentale es un parasitoide promisorio para regular poblaciones de áfidos Macrosiphum euphorbiae en cultivos comerciales bajo invernadero de rosas. Se evaluó la capacidad parasítica de P. pos. occidentale bajo tres temperaturas constantes (18, 25 y 28ºC y variando la densidad de su hospedero (5, 10, 20, 40, 80 y 150. En cada unidad experimental se liberó una pareja del parasitoide con 24 horas de edad y se mantuvieron durante 24 horas en incubadoras graduadas a cada temperatura en evauación, con 12 horas de luz y 12 de oscuridad. Se registró el número de áfidos parasitados y se permitió el desarrollo de los huevos depositados hasta adulto. Se estimó la tasa instantánea de búsqueda (a’ y el tiempo de manipulación (Th a partir de los cuales se ajustó el modelo de respuesta funcional tipo II para cada temperatura. La tasa instantánea de búsqueda (a’ fue más alta a 18ºC con un valor de 0,1081, seguida de 28ºC con 0,0323 y 25ºC con 0,0103. El tiempo de manipulación (Th más corto fue el que se presentó a 25ºC de 4,8913, seguido de 28º C con un tiempo de 5,7579 y 18ºC con 8,2697. El máximo número de individuos parasitados estimado fue de 4,9 a 25ºC. A 18ºC el 60% de los áfidos parasitados alcanzó la emergencia del adulto, el 74,2% a 25ºC y el 88% a 28ºC. No existe ningún efecto significativo de la densidad del hospedero ni de la temperatura en la proporción sexual de Praon pos. Occidentale.

  9. EUPHORBIA SINCLAIRIANA, AN OLDER NAME FOR THE WIDESPREAD EUPHORBIA ELATA

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    BERNAL RODRIGO

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of collections of Euphorbia elata from accross its range withspecimens of E. sinclairiana from its only known locality, the island of Gorgona,off the Pacific coast of Colombia, shows that the two entities are better treated asconspecific, under the older name E. sinclairiana.

  10. Lasiodiplodia species associated with dying Euphorbia ingens in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various species of Euphorbia occur in South Africa, including herbaceous, succulent and woody types. The largest of the succulent Euphorbia spp. in South Africa is Euphorbia ingens. These trees have been dying at an alarming rate in the Limpopo province during the course of the last 15 years. Investigations into the ...

  11. Chromatographic study of Euphorbia cyparissias

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    Cristina, T. Romeo,

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The ectoparasitic population control is very difficult and includes numerous chemical substances and therapeutic techniques. Although efficient at first, the repeated use of acaricidal substances leads to the appearance of resistance. The more and more reduced efficacy of the therapeutic arsenal puts serious problems for the practitionersand increases the need of newer substances on the market. Besides this appears the problem of residues in eggs and meat, which is a serious impediment. Because of this the use of plant extracts is an attractive and promising research path. The investigations tied to the parasitic biocontrol have diversified with the study of the numerous control sources (fungi, plant extracts, volatile oils etc..In this context, the plant extracts can become an alternative source for the acaricidal control knowing that they constitute a rich source of efficient bioactive compounds. Unfortunately although at hand until today, not very much data is known about what determines theacaricidal activity of some plant extracts against the argaside ticks.The present work describes an in vitro CG-MS study for identification of Euphorbia cyparissias’ chemical composition.

  12. RAPD-PCR analysis of some species of Euphorbia grown in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    family ^____^

    2013-12-04

    Dec 4, 2013 ... This study attempts to identify species of Euphorbia (Euphorbia peplus, Euphorbia helioscopia,. Euphorbia granulata and Euphorbia hirta) grown in University of Baghdad Campus in Jadiriyah and determine the genetic polymorphism among them by using DNA markers generated by polymerase.

  13. Unintended effects of a Phytophtora-resistant cisgenic potato clone on the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae and its parasitoid Aphidius ervi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cascone, P.; Radkova, M.; Arpaia, S.; Errico, S.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Magarelli, R.A.; Djilianov, D.; Guerrieri, E.

    2018-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) plants may show unintended differences compared to the original varieties, due to the modification process. Such differences might in some cases affect non-target organisms linked to the crop into an agro-ecosystem. In this paper, we aimed to study interactions of two

  14. Antibacterial activity of Euphorbia hirta against Streptococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation was conducted to determine the in-vitro effect of aqueous, ethanol and methanol crude extracts of Euphorbia hirta at concentrations ranging from 10mg/ml – 100mg/ml against three pathogenic bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris) using cup plate method.

  15. Flatidae (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea) of Indonesia, exclusive of Irian Jaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medler, J.T.

    1999-01-01

    Taxa of the fulgoroid family Flatidae (Homoptera) occurring in Indonesia exclusive of Irian Jaya are treated. One hundred twenty seven species are recorded under 50 genera. Keys, descriptions, illustrations and collection data are presented. New genera described: Insulume, type species - Insulume

  16. Population Growth Parameters of Rose Aphid, Macrosiphum rosae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Different Rose Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golizadeh, A; Jafari-Behi, V; Razmjou, J; Naseri, B; Hassanpour, M

    2017-02-01

    The rose aphid, Macrosiphum rosae (L.), is one of the most important pests on rose plants (Rosa spp.) with a worldwide distribution. As resistance indices, the development, survivorship, and reproduction of this aphid were evaluated on 10 rose cultivars, including Bella Vita, Cool Water, Dolce Vita, Maroussia, Orange Juice, Pinkpromise, Roulette, Tea, Valentine, and Persian Yellow in laboratory at 25 ± 1°C, 65 ± 5% relative humidity, and photoperiod of 16:8 (L/D) h. Rose aphid successfully survived on all 10 rose cultivars, although mortality rate was higher on Tea and Bella Vita. The number of offspring per female differed significantly among the tested rose cultivars, and ranged from 9.2 on Tea to 38.7 nymphs on Orange Juice. Population growth parameters were significantly affected by rose cultivars. The longest mean generation time (T) was observed on Bella Vita (14.8 days) and Tea (14.7 days) and the shortest on Orange Juice (10.0 days). The net reproductive rate (R 0 ) ranged from 6.9 on Tea to 33.2 nymphs on Orange Juice cultivar. Correspondingly, the highest value of intrinsic rate of increase (r m ) was observed on Orange Juice (0.348 day -1 ) and lower values on Tea (0.131 day -1 ) followed by Bella Vita (0.154 day -1 ). Cluster analysis of all the measured parameters of rose aphid on different rose cultivars revealed that Tea and Bella Vita were relatively resistant to M. rosae. These findings could be useful in developing an integrated pest management (IPM) program for this aphid in urbanized areas and commercial rose potting.

  17. Chemical Investigation of Euphorbia schimperi C. Presl

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    Azza R. Abdel-Monem

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Three triterpenoids; cycloart-25-en-3β,24-diol, cycloart-23-en-3β,25-diol, and a -amyrin, in addition to b -sitosterol- b -D-O-glucoside, scopoletin, luteolin and kampferol were isolated for the first time from the chloroform fraction of the alcoholic extract of Euphorbia schimperi C. Presl (F. Euphorbiaceae. The isolated compounds were identified using different spectroscopic methods (EIMS, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, HMQC, HMBC and COSY. The cytotoxic activity of the chloroform fraction was also studied using brain and breast carcinoma cell lines.

  18. Preliminary results on the ichthyocidal properties of Euphorbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Euphorbiaceae). Mathew J Ross, Gert J Steyn. Abstract. Euphorbia ingens belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae, which includes a variety of latex-producing plants, the majority of them having ichthyocidal properties (Coates-Palgrave 2000). Tests to ...

  19. Phytotoxin produced by Bipolaris euphorbiae in-vitro is effective against the weed Euphorbia heterophylla

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    Barbosa Aneli M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Four virulent strain isolates of the fungus, Bipolaris euphorbiae (previously identified as a Helminthosporium sp., isolated from host plants in four states within Brazil were screened for the production of phytotoxins that promoted wilting and defoliation of the Brazilian weed, Euphorbia heterophylla, commonly found growing among soyabean crops. Only one isolate, B. euphorbiae Strain I (EUPH petropar from Mato Grosso state, produced phytotoxin in-vitro when grown in stationary culture for 7 d at 28 ° C on minimum salts medium supplemented with 1.5 % glucose as the sole carbon source. Phytotoxin was also produced when the fungal strain was grown on fructose, galactose, mannose, xylose and sucrose. The addition of nitrogen source (yeast extract, peptone or malt extract to the culture medium did not influence phytotoxin production. The phytotoxin produced by Strain I was most active at pH 6.0, stable between pH 3-9, and was highly thermostable, remaining fully active when heated at 90 ° C for 1 h.

  20. Evolutionary bursts in Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) are linked with photosynthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, James W; Xi, Zhenxiang; Riina, Ricarda; Peirson, Jess A; Yang, Ya; Dorsey, Brian L; Berry, Paul E; Davis, Charles C; Wurdack, Kenneth J

    2014-12-01

    The mid-Cenozoic decline of atmospheric CO2 levels that promoted global climate change was critical to shaping contemporary arid ecosystems. Within angiosperms, two CO2 -concentrating mechanisms (CCMs)-crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) and C4 -evolved from the C3 photosynthetic pathway, enabling more efficient whole-plant function in such environments. Many angiosperm clades with CCMs are thought to have diversified rapidly due to Miocene aridification, but links between this climate change, CCM evolution, and increased net diversification rates (r) remain to be further understood. Euphorbia (∼2000 species) includes a diversity of CAM-using stem succulents, plus a single species-rich C4 subclade. We used ancestral state reconstructions with a dated molecular phylogeny to reveal that CCMs independently evolved 17-22 times in Euphorbia, principally from the Miocene onwards. Analyses assessing among-lineage variation in r identified eight Euphorbia subclades with significantly increased r, six of which have a close temporal relationship with a lineage-corresponding CCM origin. Our trait-dependent diversification analysis indicated that r of Euphorbia CCM lineages is approximately threefold greater than C3 lineages. Overall, these results suggest that CCM evolution in Euphorbia was likely an adaptive strategy that enabled the occupation of increased arid niche space accompanying Miocene expansion of arid ecosystems. These opportunities evidently facilitated recent, replicated bursts of diversification in Euphorbia. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Biosynthesis of macrocyclic diterpenoids in Euphorbia lathyris L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Dan

    documents the investigation of the biosynthetic pathways of macrocyclic diterpenoids known as Euphorbia factors in Euphorbia lathyris L. (caper spurge). These macrocyclic diterpenoids are the current industrial source of ingenol mebutate, which is approved for the treatment of actinic keratosis...

  2. In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Euphorbia hirta (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, In vitro anticancer effects of Euphorbia hirta were investigated. The objectives of this study are to find the presence of secondary metabolites by preliminary phytochemical investigation and FTIR analysis in the Euphorbia hirta. Ethanolic leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta was tested for its cytotoxicity against ...

  3. Evaluation of Life Table Parameters of Coccinella septempunctata (L. Fed on Macrosiphum rosae (L.

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    Elham Aminafshar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Macrosiphum rosae is one of the most important members of the Aphididae (Hemiptera which feeds on plant juices, colonizes underside of leaves,stems and buds. This pest is a polyphagous insect vastly found in Europe, Asia and America. Coccinella septempunctata (L. (Col: Coccinellidae is the successful biological control agent against aphids in under the greenhouse and field conditions. In the present study, the effects of constant temperature on the demography of C. septempunctata which feds on M. rosae was investigated. Materials and Methods: The predators were originally collected from the field (Sorke hesar park in Tehran in march 2012 and reared on aphids in the germinator at 25 ± 1°C, 60 % ± 5 % relative humidity and photoperiod of 16L: 8D/h to lay their eggs and then females were removed after oviposition. These eggs were used for further examination. The life table parameters of C. septempunctata were measured under laboratory conditions at constant temperatures (14, 25 and 31 °C, relative humidity 60 ± 5 % and photoperiod of 16 hours light and 8 hours darkness with 100 repetitions. The different stages of the ladybeetles were fed with 20-100 aphids from different stages of M. rosae. The developmental time of immature stages of beetles were recorded every day. When adult females emerged, an adult male was introduced into the cells to fertilize of them and after that number of offspring produced was counted daily. SAS software v 9.1 was used for data analysis. One-way ANOVA was run to determine the significant differences between demographic parameter of C. septempunctata at two constant temperatures. If there were significant differences, the Tukey's multiple tests were used for multiple comparisons (P < 0.05. Results and Discussion: There was no ovipostion at 14 °C. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm of C. septempunctata at 25 and 31 ˚C were 0.170 and 0.186, the net reproductive rate (R0 were 187.55 and 76.74,the

  4. Keratouveitis from Euphorbia cyparissias exposure is a temporal phenomenon

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    Fleischman D

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available David Fleischman, Jay J Meyer, W Craig FowlerDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of North Carolina Hospitals, Chapel Hill, NC, USAAbstract: We present the case of an 82-year-old woman with severe keratouveitis secondary to exposure to the plant Euphorbia cyparissias during the month of August. Despite copious irrigation of both eyes, she developed a case of Euphorbia keratouveitis that was typical in its course. Exposure to plant sap from this species should be treated much like an alkaline chemical injury as the pH of the ocular surface may be elevated. E. cyparissias should be carefully handled as it may result in keratouveitis, especially in early autumn.Keywords: Euphorbia cyparissias, sap, keratitis, uveitis

  5. Phytogeographical Analysis Of Euphorbia Subgenus Esula (Euphorbiaceae

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    Geltman Dmitry V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia subg. Esula is one of four major clades within the genus. A geographical analysis of the 466 species in the subgenus is reported here. Every species was assigned to one of 29 geographical elements clustered in ten groups of elements. This geographical analysis showed that the Tethyan group (comprising nine geographical elements clearly dominates the subgenus and contains 260 species (55.79% of the total number of species. The most numerous geographical elements are Irano-Turanian (105 species and Mediterranean (85. Other significant groups of elements are Boreal (91 species, 19.54%, East Asian (40 species, 8.58%, Madrean (26 species, 5.58%, Paleotropical (23 species, 4.94% and South African (16 species, 3.43%. The area of the Tethyan floristic subkingdom is the center of the modern diversity of E. subg. Esula. It is likely that such diversity is the result of intensive speciation that took place during the Eocene–Miocene.

  6. Treehoppers (Homoptera, Membracidae in southeastern Brazil: use of host plants

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    Benedito C. Lopes

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey on the use of host plants by treehoppers in plants in cerrado (savanna vegetation at Moji-Guaçu (São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil was made. Fifty-two species of treehoppers were recorded in association with 40 host plant species from October 1980 to February 1982. The families Araliaceae, Asteraceae, Leguminosae, Malpighiaceae, Myrtaceae and Nyctaginaceae were the most commonly used for oviposition. Byrsonima intermedia A. Juss. (Malpighiaceae had the highest number of associated treehopper species (10 species. The abundance of treehopper individuals was related to the hot and rainy season (from October to February, while during the cold and dry season (from March to September there was a decrease in the number of these Homoptera. After the occurrence of a frost, few adults and nymphs were observed on the host plants for one to two months.

  7. Triterpenoid biosynthesis in Euphorbia lathyris latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, D.R.

    1987-11-01

    The structures of triterpenols, not previously been known, from Euphorbia lathyris latex are reported. A method for quantifying very small amounts of these compounds was developed. Concerning the biochemistry of the latex, no exogenous cofactors were required for the biosynthesis and the addition of compounds such as NADPAH and ATP do not stimulate the biosynthesis. The addition of DTE or a similar anti-oxidant was found to help reduce the oxidation of the latex, thus increasing the length of time that the latex remains active. The requirement of a divalent cation and the preference for Mn in the pellet was observed. The effect of several inhibitors on the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids was examined. Mevinolin was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids from acetate, but not mevalonate. A dixon plot of the inhibition of acetate incorporation showed an I 50 concentration of 3.2 μM. Fenpropimorph was found to have little or no effect on the biosynthesis. Tridemorph was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of all of the triterpenoids with an I 50 of 4 μM. It was also observed that the cyclopropyl containing triterpenols, cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol were inhibited much more strongly than those containing an 8-9 double bond, lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol. The evidence indicates, but does not definetely prove, that lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol are not made from cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol via a ring-opening enzyme such as cycloeucalenol-obtusifoliol isomerase. The possibilty that cycloartenol is made via lanosterol was investigated by synthesizing 4-R-4- 3 H-mevalonic acid and incubating latex with a mixture of this and 14 C-mevalonic acid. From the 3 H/ 14 C ratio it was shown that cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol are not made via an intermediate containing as 8-9 double bond. 88 refs., 15 figs., 30 tabs

  8. Triterpenoid biosynthesis in Euphorbia lathyris latex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, D.R.

    1987-11-01

    The structures of triterpenols, not previously been known, from Euphorbia lathyris latex are reported. A method for quantifying very small amounts of these compounds was developed. Concerning the biochemistry of the latex, no exogenous cofactors were required for the biosynthesis and the addition of compounds such as NADPAH and ATP do not stimulate the biosynthesis. The addition of DTE or a similar anti-oxidant was found to help reduce the oxidation of the latex, thus increasing the length of time that the latex remains active. The requirement of a divalent cation and the preference for Mn in the pellet was observed. The effect of several inhibitors on the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids was examined. Mevinolin was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids from acetate, but not mevalonate. A dixon plot of the inhibition of acetate incorporation showed an I/sub 50/ concentration of 3.2 ..mu..M. Fenpropimorph was found to have little or no effect on the biosynthesis. Tridemorph was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of all of the triterpenoids with an I/sub 50/ of 4 ..mu..M. It was also observed that the cyclopropyl containing triterpenols, cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol were inhibited much more strongly than those containing an 8-9 double bond, lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol. The evidence indicates, but does not definetely prove, that lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol are not made from cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol via a ring-opening enzyme such as cycloeucalenol-obtusifoliol isomerase. The possibilty that cycloartenol is made via lanosterol was investigated by synthesizing 4-R-4-/sup 3/H-mevalonic acid and incubating latex with a mixture of this and /sup 14/C-mevalonic acid. From the /sup 3/H//sup 14/C ratio it was shown that cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol are not made via an intermediate containing as 8-9 double bond. 88 refs., 15 figs., 30 tabs.

  9. Effect of Euphorbia hirta and Thymus vulgaris powders on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ban placed on the long term use of commercial antibiotics at subtherapeutic levels for diseases control and growth promotion in livestock production necessitated a worldwide search for available, cost effective and efficacious alternatives. Accordingly, the effects of Euphorbia hirta (EH) and Thymus vulgaris (TV) ...

  10. Antimicrobial activity of Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Euphorbia hirta and Asystasia gangeticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, M; Rao, Ch V; Rao, P M; Raju, D B; Venkateswarlu, Y

    2006-07-01

    The ethanolic extracts of the dry fruits of Caesalpinia pulcherrima, aerial parts of Euphorbia hirta and flowers of Asystasia gangeticum were tested for antimicrobial activity. The three plants exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, particularly against Escherichia coli (enteropathogen), Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus.

  11. Effects of chromatographic fractions of Euphorbia hirta on the rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of the chromatographic fractions of Euphorbia hirta Linn on the serum biochemical parameters in rats were investigated. The ethanolic extract of this plant was subjected to chromatographic separation using the vacuum liquid chromatographic technique, a modified form of classical column chromatography.

  12. Antimicrobial efficacy and tissue reaction of Euphorbia hirta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... Department of Veterinary Surgery and Reproduction, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Oyo State,. Nigeria. Accepted 22 March, 2010. Antimicrobial efficacy and tissue reaction of crude ethanolic extract of Euphorbia hirta was investigated in canine infected incised wounds. The gross ...

  13. Effect Of Euphorbia Cyparissias Ointments On Acanthosis | Cristina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of Euphorbiacae were identified, revealing a large plant family with a polyvalent therapeutic activity. Materials and Methods: The aim of the study was to assess the skin tolerance level to irritation on different testing concentrations, of Euphorbia cyparissias extracts and ointments. Study was accomplished in rats and dogs, ...

  14. Updates on the genus Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassemer, Gustavo; Marques da Silva, Otávio Luis; Funez, Luís Adriano

    2017-01-01

    This contribution presents updates to the knowledge of the species of Euphorbia that occur in Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. More specifically, we here typify the names E. cyathophora, E. hirtella, E. paranensis and E. stenophylla, and present the first records of E. cyathophora, E...

  15. Antileishmanial activity of piceatannol isolated from Euphorbia lagascae seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, Noelia; Kayser, Oliver; Abreu, Pedro; Ferreira, Maria-Jose U.

    In the search for biologically active compounds from Euphorbia lagascae Spreng, an herbaceous plant native to southeast of Iberic Peninsula, a stilbene, two coumarins and two 1-2-deoxyphorbol diterpene esters were isolated by chromatographic methods, from the methanol extracts of its defatted seeds.

  16. Studies on wound healing activity of some Euphorbia species on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Plants of Euphorbiaceae are used in folkloric medicines in variety of ailments and well known for chemical diversity of their isoprenoid constituents. This study was carried out to explore the preliminary wound healing potential of four Euphorbia species (E. consorbina 1, E. consorbina 2, E. inarticulata, ...

  17. Global medicinal uses of Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Madeleine; Grace, Olwen M; Saslis Lagoudakis, Haris

    2015-01-01

    in Australia, topical application of latex of Euphorbia peplus L. is used as a home treatment for skin cancer and actinic keratosis. Its use in Australian folk medicine has inspired the release of the drug Picato ® (ingenol mebutate), and further fostered interest in natural products and medicinal uses...

  18. Alternaria toxin-induced resistance in rose plants against rose aphid (Macrosiphum rosivorum): effect of tenuazonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fa-zhong; Yang, Bin; Li, Bei-bei; Xiao, Chun

    2015-04-01

    Many different types of toxins are produced by the fungus, Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. Little is known, however, regarding the influence of these toxins on insects. In this study, we investigated the toxin-induced inhibitory effects of the toxin produced by A. alternata on the rose aphid, Macrosiphum rosivorum, when the toxin was applied to leaves of the rose, Rosa chinensis. The results demonstrated that the purified crude toxin was non-harmful to rose plants and rose aphids, but had an intensive inhibitory effect on the multiplication of aphids. The inhibitory index against rose aphids reached 87.99% when rose plants were sprayed with the toxin solution at a low concentration. Further results from bioassays with aphids and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses demonstrated that tenuazonic acid (TeA) was one of the most important resistance-related active components in the crude toxin. The content of TeA was 0.1199% in the crude toxin under the HPLC method. Similar to the crude toxin, the inhibitory index of pure TeA reached 83.60% 15 d after the rose plants were sprayed with pure TeA solution at the lower concentration of 0.060 μg/ml, while the contents of residual TeA on the surface and in the inner portion of the rose plants were only 0.04 and 0.00 ng/g fresh weight of TeA-treated rose twigs, respectively, 7 d after the treatment. Our results show that TeA, an active component in the A. alternata toxin, can induce the indirect plant-mediated responses in rose plants to intensively enhance the plant's resistances against rose aphids, and the results are very helpful to understand the plant-mediated interaction between fungi and insects on their shared host plants.

  19. COMPARATIVE ANATOMICAL ASPECTS OF EUPHORBIA MILLI VAR. SPLENDENS (BOJER EX HOOK. URSCH & LEANDRI AND EUPHORBIA PULCHERRIMA WILLD. EX KLOTZSCH SPECIES LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica BERCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative study concerning the leaf structure of two Euphorbia species belonging to Euphorbiaceae family: Euphorbia milli var. splendens (Bojer ex Hook. Ursch & Leandri and Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch. Anatomically, the leaves of the studied species are quite similar in the basic structure. The petiole has a single-layered epidermis, a collenchyma tissue – hypodermis - and three collateral bundles embedded in a basic tissue. Differences occur concerning the relationship between the collateral bundles. The Euphorbia pulcherrima bract petiole has almost the same structure as those of the leaf petiole. The blade is amphistomatic for Euphorbia milli var. splendes and hipostomatic for E. pulcherrima. The heterogeneous mesophyll is isobilateral in Euphorbia milli var. splendens blade and bifacial in E. pulcherrima. The vascular system of the mid rib is represented by one collateral bundle for both species, more developed in Euphorbia milli var. splendens blade. Differences appear concerning the epidermal cells cuticle thickness, the type of mesophyll, the abundance of the non-articulated laticifers and the development of the vascular system. The Euphorbia pulcherrima bract has the same organization plan structure as the leaf blade but some features differences occur.

  20. Euphorbia gummifera. A. gregaria and a new species from Damaraland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Leach

    1975-11-01

    Full Text Available The identity of  Euphorbia gummifera Boiss. and  E. gregaria Marl, is discussed and a new species, E. damarana Leach, is described. A key to the species including  E. carunculifera Leach from southern Angola and a map showing their distribution are provided. The possible significance of these species in the phylogeny of the genus is also discussed.

  1. Biología y ciclo reproductivo de Praon pos. occidentale (Hymenoptera: Braconidae parasitoide de Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera:Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantor Fernando

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Trabajos preliminares realizados en cultivos comerciales de rosa en la Sabana de Bogotá han permitido evidenciar la presencia de avispas del género Praon parasitando áfidos. Con el fin de explorar su potencial como controlador biológico, el presente estudio caracterizó la biología y el ciclo reproductivo de Praon sp. en condiciones de laboratorio bajo seis temperaturas constantes: 15, 17, 20, 25, 28 y 30°C. Áfidos parasitados fueron mantenidos en incubadoras a la temperatura deseada con 12 horas luz y 12 horas de oscuridad. Diariamente se realizaron disecciones de los áfidos parasitados para determinar el estado de desarrollo del parasitoide, lo que hizo posible determinar la duración promedio en días de cada estado, desde huevo hasta adulto. A todas las temperaturas, excepto a 15°C, se observó un desarrollo completo de los diferentes estadios, para los cuales se ajustaron modelos de tasa de desarrollo en función de la temperatura. El estado de huevo presentó el mayor umbral de temperatura mínima requerida para completar su desarrollo. Tanto hembras como machos son más longevos a temperaturas bajas. A temperaturas de 17 y 20°C se encontró mayor número de machos, mientras que a 25, 28 y 30°C se halló mayor número de hembras.

  2. Acute renal failure by ingestion of Euphorbia paralias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Boubaker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia paralias is known in traditional medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent, a purgative and for its local anesthetic property. To the best our knowledge, renal toxicity of this substance has not been previously reported. In this paper, we report the case of a 29-year-old male who developed renal damage following ingestion of Euphorbia paralias. He had been on follow-up for nephrotic syndrome since 1986, although irregularly, with several relapses but each responding well to steroid therapy. A kidney biopsy had not been performed earlier due to refusal by the patient. He was off steroids since April 2008 because the patient developed osteoporosis. He was admitted with general malaise and oliguria to our department in May 2009, following repeated vomiting and watery diarrhea for three days. On examination, he was edematous but had normal vital signs except for a pulse rate of 120/min. Hemoglobin was only 5.5 g/dL but with normal white cell and platelet counts. Blood biochemistry showed evidence of advanced renal failure with a serum creatinine level of 1835 μmol/L and urea at 44.6 mmol/L, sodium of 132 μmol/L and potassium at 4.3 mmol/L. He had features of nephrotic syndrome with severe hypoproteinamia and 24-h urinary protein of 10.45 g. Ultrasonography revealed enlarged kidneys with a reduced echogenecity of the medulla and the papillae. Subsequently, after hemodialysis with blood transfusion, a kidney biopsy was performed that showed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis associated with an acute tubular injury. On intensive interrogation, the patient gave a history of ingesting boiled Euphorbia paralias as a native treatment for edema, ten days prior to the onset of the current illness. A diagnosis of acute renal failure (ARF resulting from the possible nephrotoxic effect of Euphorbia paralias poisoning was made. He was treated with intermittent hemodialysis and corticosteroids. Serum creatinine values improved after 48 days. At six

  3. Competencia de lecheron (Euphorbia dentata en soja Competition of spurge toothed (Euphorbia dentata in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Juan

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia dentata es una maleza anual, de ciclo primavero - estival que está presente en el 85% del área agrícola del partido de Azul, Pcia Buenos Aires Argentina, con densidades que oscilan entre 20 a 200 plantas m-2. Estudios en campo fueron conducidos durante dos años para determinar la relación de competencia entre soja y E. dentata a través de la evaluación del efecto de distintas densidades de la maleza sobre los componentes del rendimiento del cultivo y su biomasa. El peso seco y rendimiento de soja mostraron una respuesta dependiente de la densidad y de la biomasa de la maleza, siendo reducidos al 80% por la interferencia a partir de la densidad de 20 plantas m-2. En el rango de densidades estudiadas se observó una respuesta lineal que fue ajustada a una ecuación de regresión que indica que la producción de semillas de soja decrece 6,73 kg ha-1 por el incremento de cada planta m-2 de E. dentata. De los componentes del rendimiento del cultivo, el número de vainas por planta fue el más severamente afectado por la competencia obteniéndose reducciones del 40% respecto del tratamiento sin maleza. Altos niveles de correlación fueron observados entre el rendimiento de soja, el número de vainas por planta y el peso de 1.000 semillas (98 y 85% respectivamente.Euphorbia dentata is a spring-summer annual weed first detected in Azul Co., Buenos Aires Province, Argentina., in 1983, in an isolated soybean crop spot crops. It is now found as a weed in 85 % of the cropland, with densities ranging from 20 to 200 plants m-2. Two year- field studies were conducted to determine the competition relationship between soybean and E. dentata. The effect of different weed densities was evaluated on yield parameters and biomass. Both soybean dry weight and yield gave a significant response to weed density and biomass, resulting in a reduction of 80% due to interference starting at a density of 20 plants m². It was determined that E. dentata has a

  4. Population Dynamics of Macrosiphum rosae (L. on Different Cultivars of Rose (Rosahybrida, Rosaceae and Biodiversity of its Predators in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Keykhosravi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rose (Rosa hybrida (L., Rosaceae has been grown on earth for millions of years and has been used for beauty and decoration of gardens, extraction of perfume and in medicine. But main use of roses is in cut flower industry and landscaping. Roses are attractive for insects, especially aphids (2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 11, 17, 27, 28, 35, 38. Among them, the predominant aphid that feeds on the cultivated roses in outdoors is the rose aphid, Macrosiphum rosae (13, 27, 28, 29. The rose aphid has a wide distribution throughout Iran and the world (27, 28, 29. Rose aphids generally initiate feeding on roses in early spring as the new flush of growth emerges. Like other aphid species, rose aphids tend to congregate or cluster in large numbers feeding on the terminal growth including leaves and stems, and developing flower buds, and on leaf undersides. Their feeding causes deformity flower buds and leaves which may result in flower buds aborting or falling off prematurely before opening. In addition, aphids secrete honeydew, which attracts ants, wasps, hornets and serves as a growing medium for certain black sooty mold fungi. Rose aphids are attacked by anvarray of natural enemies including parasitoids and predators such as ladybird beetles, green lacewings, syrphids and several other groups of arthropods. These may provide natural regulation depending on the number of rose aphids present and other biotic and abiotic factors. Although many herbivorous arthropods may attack roses but many roses cultivar can resist against these pests (23, 26, 28, 40. An important factor influencing this success is careful selection of varieties, which vary significantly in susceptibility to pests and disease problems (9, 13, 19, 21, 23, 30, 40. Of course, other factors such as agricultural practices and the presence and activities of natural enemies of pests are also important. This study aimed to determine any resistance against rose aphid in different rose cultivars

  5. Biological Activities of Aerial Parts Extracts of Euphorbia characias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Barbara Pisano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-HIV, and cholinesterase inhibitory activities of aqueous and alcoholic extracts from leaves, stems, and flowers of Euphorbia characias. The extracts showed a high antioxidant activity and were a good source of total polyphenols and flavonoids. Ethanolic extracts from leaves and flowers displayed the highest inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, showing potential properties against Alzheimer’s disease. Antimicrobial assay showed that leaves and flowers extracts were active against all Gram-positive bacteria tested. The ethanolic leaves extract appeared to have the strongest antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus with MIC value of 312.5 μg/mL followed by Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus that also exhibited good sensitivity with MIC values of 1250 μg/mL. Moreover, all the extracts possessed anti-HIV activity. The ethanolic flower extract was the most potent inhibitor of HIV-1 RT DNA polymerase RNA-dependent and Ribonuclease H with IC50 values of 0.26 and 0.33 μg/mL, respectively. The LC-DAD metabolic profile showed that ethanolic leaves extract contains high levels of quercetin derivatives. This study suggests that Euphorbia characias extracts represent a good source of natural bioactive compounds which could be useful for pharmaceutical application as well as in food system for the prevention of the growth of food-borne bacteria and to extend the shelf-life of processed foods.

  6. Analysis of the essential oil from the dried leaves of Euphorbia hirta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... Euphorbia hirta Linn (Euphorbiaceae), a potential medication for asthma. Modupe ... more popularity than ever before as sales figures in some countries, for example the ... obstruction and also cause an associated increase in.

  7. Extraction, isolation and identification of flavonoid from Euphorbia neriifolia leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Sharma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The flavonoids contained in Euphorbia neriifolia leaves were extracted, identified and characterized. Direct and sequential soxhlet extraction and its concentrated fractions were subjected to thin layer chromatography and high performance thin layer chromatography. The results showed that maximum yield of the flavonoid (6.53 g was obtained from ethanolic extract. The Rf value of isolated flavonoid and phytochemical screening has been compared with standard Quercetin. Characterization of isolated flavonoid was done by IR, 1H NMR, and MS. On the basis of chemical and spectral analysis structure was elucidated as 2-(3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-phenyl-3,5-dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxychromen-4-one, a flavonoid. This compound was isolated for the first time from this plant.

  8. Euphorbia latex: a possible source of hydrocarbons and rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viaud, P; Teisseire, D

    1975-01-01

    Illustrated descriptions are given of 36 plants of potential economic value in underdeveloped tropical countries, classified by use. The plants are either wild or cultivated on a fairly local scale. Accounts of limitations and special requirements and lists of references, research contacts and sources of germ plasm are included for each species. The following tree and shrub species are included: Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, C. chayamansa and hearts of several edible palm species including Euterpe edulis (vegetables); Durio species, Garcinia mangostana, Solanum quitoense, Bactris gaspiaes, Citrus grandis, Annona muricata and Pourouma cecropiaefolia (fruits); Orbignya martiana, Caryocar species, Jessenia polycarpa and Simmondsia chinensis (oil seeds); Acacia albida, Brosimum alicastrum, Cassia sturtii, Atriplex species and Prosopis tamarungo (forage (browse)); Mauritia flexuosa (fruit, wood, etc.); Euphorbia antisyphilitica (wax); and Parthenium argentatum (rubber).

  9. One-Pot Fabrication and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Solanum lycopersicum: An Eco-Friendly and Potent Control Tool against Rose Aphid, Macrosiphum rosae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, A.; Prasad, R.; Buhroo, A. A.; Yousuf, I.; Khanday, A. L.; Duraisamy, P.; Umadevi, M.; Bindhu, M. R.; Govindarajan, M.

    2016-01-01

    The espousal of nano technology is a current come-up of the present revolution. As we know that the rose aphid, Macrosiphum rosae (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a key pest on rose plant in Kashmir Valley, India, it exhibits a worldwide distribution. In the present study, we have synthesized biologically silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) from Solanum lycopersicum and characterized them by UV-vis spectroscopy, TEM, and X-RD analysis. The experiment was performed by leaf dip method. Insecticidal solutions of different Ag NPs concentrations, namely, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm, were tested on M. rosae. For assessment purposes, leaves were treated with distilled water (used as control). Aphid mortality data revealed that the Ag NPs were effective at 500 ppm concentration. As the concentration and day’s treatment increased, the aphid mortality rate also increased. There were statistically significant differences in M. rosae mortality between concentrations by LSD at 5%. In wrapping up, the use of Ag NPs in pest control processes will be the most novel eco-friendly approach in the Kashmir Valley, India, in future.

  10. Effect of Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract on immunostimulant response of Aeromonas hydrophila infected Cyprinus carpio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, NatarajaPillai

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the present study is to improve the immune power of Cyprinus carpio by using Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract as immunostimulants. The haematological, immunological and enzymatic studies were conducted on the medicated fish infected with Aeromonas hydrophila pathogen. The results obtained from the haematological studies show that the RBC count, WBC count and haemoglobin content were increased in the infected fish at higher concentration of leaf extract. The feeds with leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta were able to stimulate the specific immune response by increasing the titre value of antibody. It was able to stimulate the antibody production only up to the 5th day, when fed with higher concentrations of (25 g and 50 g) plant leaf extract. The plant extract showed non-specific immune responses such as lysozyme activity, phagocytic ratio, NBT assay, etc. at higher concentration (50 g) and in the same concentration (50 g), the leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta significantly eliminated the pathogen in blood and kidney. It was observed that fish have survival percentage significantly at higher concentration (50 g) of Euphorbia hirta, when compared with the control. The obtained results are statistically significant at P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 levels. This research work suggests that the plant Euphorbia hirta has immunostimulant activity by stimulating both specific and non-specific immunity at higher concentrations. PMID:25405077

  11. Selected Enzyme Inhibitory Effects of Euphorbia characias Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Fais

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of aerial part of Euphorbia characias were examined to check potential inhibitors for three selected enzymes involved in several metabolic disorders. Water and ethanol extracts from leaves and flowers showed in vitro inhibitory activity toward α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and xanthine oxidase. IC50 values were calculated for all the extracts and the ethanolic extracts were found to exert the best effect. In particular, for the α-glucosidase activity, the extracts resulted to be 100-fold more active than the standard inhibitor. The inhibition mode was investigated by Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis. E. characias extracts display different inhibition behaviors toward the three enzymes acting as uncompetitive, noncompetitive, and mixed-type inhibitors. Moreover, ethanolic extracts of E. characias showed no cytotoxic activity and exhibited antioxidant capacity in a cellular model. The LC-DAD metabolic profile was also performed and it showed that leaves and flowers extracts contain high levels of quercetin derivatives. The results suggest that E. characias could be a promising source of natural inhibitors of the enzymes involved in carbohydrate uptake disorders and oxidative stress.

  12. Identification and characterization of Euphorbia nivulia latex proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgujar, Shamkant B; Mahajan, Raghunath T

    2014-03-01

    The protein profile of latex of Euphorbia nivulia Buch.-Ham. is established. Three new proteins viz., Nivulian-I, II and III have been purified to homogeneity from the latex. The relative molecular masses of Nivulian-I, II and III are 31,486.985, 43,670.846 and 52,803.470 Da respectively. Nivulian-I is a simple type of protein while Nivulian-II and III are glycoproteins. Peptide mass fingerprint analysis revealed peptides of these proteins match with Tubulin alpha-1 chain of Eleusine indica, Maturase K of Banksia quercifolia and hypothetical protein of Zea mays respectively. Tryptic digestion profile of Nivulian-I, II and III, infer the exclusive nature of latex origin proteins and may be new and are additive molecules in the dictionaries of phytoproteins or botany. This is the first of its kind, regarding characterization and validation of Nivulian-I, II and III with respect to peptide sequencing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The effects of Euphorbia hirta on the ultrastructure of the murine liver, kidney and aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    WONG, J.Y.R.; CHEN, Y.S.; CHAKRAVARTHI, S.; JUDSON, J.P.; L., SANTHANA RAJ; ER, H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Euphorbia hirta is widely used in traditional remedies and has been used cross-culturally for generations against maladies such as asthma, skin ailments and hypertension. Previous studies have demonstrated that Euphorbia hirta has antibacterial activity, and have also indicated certain antimolluscidal, antimalarial and anti-inflammatory properties, the latter of which have been suggested to be more pronounced than those of the rheumatological drug, etanercept. To date, no studies have identified the anatomical effects of this herb on the organs of test animals. This study aimed to identify the effects of Euphorbia hirta on the ultrastructure of the murine liver, kidney and aorta. A total of 32 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups; three groups were fed with aqueous extracts of Euphorbia hirta at doses of 1, 10 and 50 mg/kg, respectively, every alternate day for 50 days, while one group served as a control. The animals were later sacrificed and the liver, kidney and aorta harvested for examination by electron microscopy. The aorta showed no ultrastructural changes across the groups. Renal and hepatic tissue from the treated groups demonstrated dose-dependent injuries, which showed architectural damage beginning in the nuclei and spreading outwards. Taking into consideration the properties of Euphorbia hirta that have been described in previous studies, in addition to the results from the present study, it appears that the herb may exhibit similar effects to those of the quinolone group of antibiotics. Further in-depth investigations are required into the potential effects of Euphorbia hirta, deleterious and otherwise. PMID:24223653

  14. Terpenoid biosynthesis in Euphorbia lathyris and Copaifera spp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrukrud, C.L.

    1987-07-01

    Biosynthesis of triterpenoids by isolated latex of Euphorbia lathyris was investigated. The rate of in vitro incorporation of mevalonic acid into triterpenoids was thirty times greater than acetate incorporation indicating that the rate-limiting step in the pathway occurs prior to mevalonate. Both HMG-CoA reductase (EC 1.1.1.34) and HMG-CoA lyase (EC 4.1.3.4) activities were detected in isolated latex. HMG-CoA reductase was localized to a membrane-bound fraction of a 5000g pellet of latex. The rate of conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate by this enzyme is comparable to the overall rate of acetate incorporation into the triterpenoids suggesting that this enzyme is rate-determining in the biosynthesis of triterpenoids in E. lathyris latex. HMG-CoA reductase of E. lathyris vegetative tissue was localized to the membrane-bound portion of a particulate fraction (18,000g), and was solubilized by treatment with 2% polyoxyethylene ether W-1. Differences in the optimal pH for activity of HMG-CoA reductase from the latex and vegetative tissue suggest that isozymes of the enzyme may be present in the two tissue types. Studies of the incorporation of various precursors into leaf discs and cuttings taken from Copaifera spp. show differences in the rate of incorporation into Copaifera sesquiterpenes suggesting that the site of sesquiterpene biosynthesis may differ in its accessibility to the different substrates and/or reflecting the metabolic controls on carbon allocation to the terpenes. Mevalonate incorporation by Copaifera langsdorfii cuttings into sesquiterpenes was a hundred-fold greater than either acetate or glucose incorporation, however, its incorporation into squalene and triterpenoids was also a hundred-fold greater than the incorporation into sesquiterpenes. 119 refs., 58 figs., 16 tabs

  15. Terpenoid biosynthesis in Euphorbia lathyris and Copaifera spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skrukrud, C.L.

    1987-07-01

    Biosynthesis of triterpenoids by isolated latex of Euphorbia lathyris was investigated. The rate of in vitro incorporation of mevalonic acid into triterpenoids was thirty times greater than acetate incorporation indicating that the rate-limiting step in the pathway occurs prior to mevalonate. Both HMG-CoA reductase (EC 1.1.1.34) and HMG-CoA lyase (EC 4.1.3.4) activities were detected in isolated latex. HMG-CoA reductase was localized to a membrane-bound fraction of a 5000g pellet of latex. The rate of conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate by this enzyme is comparable to the overall rate of acetate incorporation into the triterpenoids suggesting that this enzyme is rate-determining in the biosynthesis of triterpenoids in E. lathyris latex. HMG-CoA reductase of E. lathyris vegetative tissue was localized to the membrane-bound portion of a particulate fraction (18,000g), and was solubilized by treatment with 2% polyoxyethylene ether W-1. Differences in the optimal pH for activity of HMG-CoA reductase from the latex and vegetative tissue suggest that isozymes of the enzyme may be present in the two tissue types. Studies of the incorporation of various precursors into leaf discs and cuttings taken from Copaifera spp. show differences in the rate of incorporation into Copaifera sesquiterpenes suggesting that the site of sesquiterpene biosynthesis may differ in its accessibility to the different substrates and/or reflecting the metabolic controls on carbon allocation to the terpenes. Mevalonate incorporation by Copaifera langsdorfii cuttings into sesquiterpenes was a hundred-fold greater than either acetate or glucose incorporation, however, its incorporation into squalene and triterpenoids was also a hundred-fold greater than the incorporation into sesquiterpenes. 119 refs., 58 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. New Compounds from Euphorbia helioscopia and Absolute Configuration Determination by Computational Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jiangbo; Zhu, Hua Jie; Luo, Gui Fen; Li, Yan; Cheng, Yong Xian; Chen, Hao; Chen, Shaopeng; Lu, Xin; Zhou, Guochun; Liu, Guang Ming

    2010-01-01

    The whole plant of Euphorbia helioscopia is an important traditional Chinese medicine. Fom its BuOH soluble extract, one new lactam, three new terpenoids including a new naturally occurring compound, and three known compounds were isolated. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic evidences. In particular, the absolute configurations of side chain of compounds 1 and 2 were determined using computational methods

  17. Fungi and insects associated with Euphorbia ingens die-off in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Euphorbia ingens, landmark succulent trees in savannas of South Africa, have been dying in large numbers over the last 10–15 years. Initial studies conducted in the Limpopo province of South Africa revealed a diverse group of biotic agents including fungi, beetles and moths associated with dying trees, but due to the ...

  18. Beheersing en bestrijding van Botrytis cinerea en van Penicillium in Euphorbia fulgens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubben, J.P.; Hazendonk, A.; Bosker, I.; Slootweg, C.; Hoope, ten M.

    2002-01-01

    De bloeiwijze van Euphorbia fulgens kent twee belangrijke schimmelbelagers, die problemen in de teelt veroorzaken: Botrytis cinerea en Penicillium. B. cinerea geeft schade in de vorm van smet of pokken, die op de bloemblaadjes verschijnen. Dit zijn kleine donkerbruine/zwarte plekjes van ongeveer 1

  19. Demonstration of the economic feasibility of plant tissue culture for jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) and Euphorbia spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluis, C.

    1980-09-01

    The economic feasibility of plant tissue culture was demonstrated as applied to two plants: jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) and Euphorbia spp. The gopher weed (Euphorbia lathyris) was selected as the species of Euphorbia to research due to the interest in this plant as a potential source of hydrocarbon-like compounds. High yield female selections of jojoba were chosen from native stands and were researched to determine the economic feasibility of mass producing these plants via a tissue culture micropropagation program. The female jojoba selection was successfully mass produced through tissue culture. Modifications in initiation techniques, as well as in multiplication media and rooting parameters, were necessary to apply the tissue culture system, which had been developed for juvenile seedling tissue, to mature jojobas. Since prior attempts at transfer of tissue cultured plantlets were unsuccessful, transfer research was a major part of the project and has resulted in a system for transfer of rooted jojoba plantlets to soil. Euphorbia lathyris was successfully cultured using shoot tip cultures. Media and procedures were established for culture initiation, multiplication of shoots, callus induction and growth, and root initiation. Well-developed root systems were not attained and root initiation percentages should be increased if the system is to become commercially feasible.

  20. Inoculation of cyclamen (Cyclamen persicum) and poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Trichoderma harzianum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dubský, M.; Šrámek, F.; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2002), s. 63-68 ISSN 0370-663X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Cyclamen persicum * Euphorbia pulcherrima * inoculation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.333, year: 2002

  1. Growth analysis of three species weeds Euphorbia genus = Análise de crescimento de espécies daninhas do gênero Euphorbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Teresa Ferreira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In sugarcane plantations, species of the genus Euphorbia are reported as weeds able to reduce productivity by up to 85%. Planning the correct strategies for controlling these plants requires knowledge of their biology and growth. The aim of this work therefore, was to evaluate the growth of three weed species of the genus Euphorbia occurring in sugarcane plantations. The study was carried out in a greenhouse, using a completely randomised experimental design in a scheme of lots subdivided over time, with five replications. The factors were three species of Euphorbia (E. heterophylla, E. hyssopifolia and E. hirta and 13 periods of evaluation 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, 84, 91 and 98 days after sowing (DAS. Each evaluation measured plant height (PH, leaf area (LA, number of leaves (NL and total dry matter (TDM. From the mean values for shoot dry matter (SDM, TDM and LA, the absolute growth rate (AGR and relative growth rate (RGR, leaf area ratio (LAR, and leaf weight ratio (LWR were calculated. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and non-linear regression. E. heterophylla displayed greater PH up to 63 DAS, from this point E. hyssopifolia obtained greater height among the species under study. E. heterophylla was noteworthy for having a greater accumulation of LA, TDM and AGR among the studied species, followed by E. hyssopifolia and E. hirta. Maximum growth in the species under evaluation was at 77 DAS. Among the species, E. heterophylla displays greater growth and development. = Nos canaviais, espécies do gênero Euphorbia são relatadas como plantas daninhas capazes de reduzir a produtividade em até 85%. Para traçar estratégias corretas de controle dessas plantas é necessário o conhecimento tanto da sua biologia quanto do seu crescimento. Assim, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o crescimento de três espécies daninhas do gênero Euphorbia ocorrentes nos canaviais. O estudo foi realizado em casa de vegeta

  2. Atividade residual de diuron, oxyfluorfen e prometryne no controle de Euphorbia heterophylla Residual activity of diuron, oxyfluorfen, and prometryne for Euphorbia heterophylla control

    OpenAIRE

    R.S. Oliveira Jr.; J.C. Carneiro; J. Constantin; G. Santos; A.C. Francischini; A.M. Oliveira Neto

    2012-01-01

    As aplicações de herbicidas em pré-emergência têm por finalidade a obtenção da atividade residual no início do ciclo das culturas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade residual dos herbicidas diuron, oxyfluorfen e prometryne, aplicados isoladamente ou em misturas, no controle de Euphorbia heterophylla. Oito experimentos foram conduzidos em casa de vegetação, aplicando-se doses dos herbicidas ou das misturas aos 30, 20, 10 e 0 dias antes da semeadura da planta daninha (DAS)...

  3. An evolutionary perspective on drug discovery in the plant genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Madeleine

    herbivory and physical stresses or to attract pollinators. Consequently, specializedmetabolites, as well as plants used in traditional medicine, are not randomly distributed across phylogenetictrees. Evolutionary approaches to plant-based drug discovery suggest that this informationcan be used to guide...... healthcarethreats, urge for systematic and time-efficient approaches in finding new drug candidates. Manydrugs are derived from plant specialized metabolites, chemical compounds, which are synthesizedby the plants in response to evolutionary adaptation to environmental and ecological factors, for example,to combat...... evolution and diversification. Also, Euphorbia species producean often chemically highly diverse latex exhibiting an exceptional number of biological activities withpharmaceutical interest. In this PhD project, the genus Euphorbia was chosen as a model group forstudying evolutionary approaches to plant...

  4. Influence de quelques facteurs environnementaux sur la germination d'Euphorbia heterophylla L. (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipou Ipou, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of some Environmental Factors on Euphorbia heterophylla L. (Euphorbiaceae Seeds Germination. In Ivory Coast, Euphorbia heterophylla appears as a weed in cotton fields. Effects of temperature, light and burying levels on its seed germination were tested. Temperature effects were monitored by means of 4 procedures, using a range of temperatures between 20 and 35 °C. The germination latency period can vary between 1 and 2 days, according to the temperature. After 4 days, germination rates were not longer related to temperature and were very similar. Germination can not happen without light. In order to measure the effect of burying levels, six series of 100 seeds were buried; the first at ground level, the others respectively 2, 4, 6, 8 and 9 cm deeper. Optimal germination rates were found for seeds that were buried between 0 and 6 cm.

  5. Reactivation of HIV-1 from Latency by an Ingenol Derivative from Euphorbia Kansui

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Pengfei; Lu, Panpan; Qu, Xiying; Shen, Yinzhong; Zeng, Hanxian; Zhu, Xiaoli; Zhu, Yuqi; Li, Xian; Wu, Hao; Xu, Jianqing; Lu, Hongzhou; Ma, Zhongjun; Zhu, Huanzhang

    2017-01-01

    Cells harboring latent HIV-1 pose a major obstacle to eradication of the virus. The ?shock and kill? strategy has been broadly explored to purge the latent reservoir; however, none of the current latency-reversing agents (LRAs) can safely and effectively activate the latent virus in patients. In this study, we report an ingenol derivative called EK-16A, isolated from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Euphorbia kansui, which displays great potential in reactivating latent HIV-1. A compari...

  6. A study on effect of ATH on Euphorbia coagulum modified polyester banana fiber composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sanju; Rai, Bhuvneshwar; Kumar, Gulshan

    2018-02-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer composites are used for building and structural applications due to their high strength. In conventional composites both the binder and the reinforcing fibers are synthetic or either one of the material is natural. In the present study coagulum of Euphorbia royleana has been used for replacing polyester resinas binder in polyester banana composite. Euphorbia coagulum (driedlatex) is rich in resinous mass (60-80%), which are terpenes and polyisoprene (10-20%). Effect of varying percentage of coagulum content on various physico-mechanical properties of polyester-banana composites has been studied. Since banana fiber is sensitive to water due to presence of polar group, banana composite undergoes delamination and deterioration under humid condition. Alkali treated banana fiber along with coagulum content has improved overall mechanical properties and reduction in water absorption. The best physico-mechanical properties have been achieved on replacing 40% of polyester resin by coagulum. An increase of 50% in bending strength, 30% bending modulus and 45% impact strength as well as 68% decrease in water absorption was observed. Incorporation of 20% ATH as flame retardant in coagulum modified banana polyester composite enhanced limiting oxygen index from 20.6 to 26.8% and smoke density reduced up to 40%. This study presents the possibility of utilization of renewable materials for environmental friendly composite development as well as to find out alternative feedstock for petroleum products. Developed Euphorbia latex modified banana polyester composites can have potential utility in hardboard, partition panel, plywood and automotive etc.

  7. LOL2 and LOL5 loci control latex production by laticifer cells in Euphorbia lathyris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelblanque, Lourdes; Balaguer, Begoña; Marti, Cristina; Orozco, Marianela; Vera, Pablo

    2018-06-07

    Laticifers are specialized plant cells capable of indefinite elongation that ramify extensively and are responsible for latex biosynthesis and accumulation. However, the mechanisms underlying laticifer cell differentiation, growth and production of latex remain largely unknown. In a search for mutants showing enhanced accumulation of latex we identified two LOT OF LATEX (LOL) loci in Euphorbia lathyris. lol2 and lol5 mutants show enhanced production of latex contained within laticifer cells. The recessive lol2 mutant carries increased biosynthesis of the plant hormone jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) and therefore establishes a genetic link between jasmonic acid (JA) signaling and latex production in laticifers. Instead, heightened production of latex in lol5 plants obeys to enhanced proliferation of laticifer cells. Phylogenetic analysis of laticifer-expressed genes in E. lathyris and in two other latex-bearing species, Euphorbia corallioides and Euphorbia palustris, allowed the identification of canonical JA responsive elements present in the gene promoter regions of laticifer marker genes. Moreover, we identified that the hormone JA functions not as a morphogen for laticifer differentiation but as a trigger for the fill out of laticifers with latex and the associated triterpenoids. The identification of LOL loci represents a further step towards the understanding of mechanisms controlling latex production in laticifer cells. No claim to original US Government works New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Taxonomic notes on some Polyglyptini: descriptions of new genus and new species (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino M. Sakakibara

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic notes on some Polyglyptini; descriptions of new genus and new species (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae. The genera Hemiptycha Germar, Metheisa Fowler, Maturnaria Metcalf, Aphetea Fowler, Dioclophara Kirkaldy, and Phormophora Stål, are redescribed; Creonus, gen.n. (type species: Maturna lloydi Funkhouser, 1914, and Aphetea robustula, sp.n. (from Bolivia, are described. Some nomenclatural changes are introduced, as follow: - Hemiptycha Germar, 1833 = Polyrhyssa Stål, 1869, syn.n.: - Hemiptycha cultrata (Coquebert, 1801, comb.n., = Polyglyptodes flavocostatus Haviland, 1925, syn.n., = Polyrhyssa cultrata maculata Fonseca, 1942, syn.n. - Hemiptycha obtecta (Fabricius, 1803 = Hille herbicola Haviland, 1925, syn.n. - Maturnaria ephippigera (Fairmaire, 1846 = Publilia tumulata Buckton, 1903, syn.n., = Metheisa fowleri Funkhouser, 1927, syn.n. - Creonus lloydi (Funkhouser, 1914, comb.n. - Aphetea parvula (Fabricius, 1803, comb.n., = Aphetea affinis Haviland, 1925, syn.n. - Dioclophara Kirkaldy, 1904 = lncolea Goding, 1926, syn.n. - Dioclophara viridula (Fairmaire, 1846 = Maturna multilineata Fonseca, 1942, syn.n. - Dioclophara variegata (Goding, 1926, comb.n. = lncolea viridis Goding, 1926, syn.n. - Phormophora maura (Fabricius, 1803 = Darnis dorsata Fabricius, 1803, syn.n.

  9. Responses of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) to susceptible and resistant lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Biao; McCreight, James D

    2006-06-01

    Nymphs and alates of aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Homoptera: Aphididae) were tested on 10 lettuce cultivars with N. ribisnigri resistance gene Nr and 18 cultivars without the resistance gene in various bioassays. Bioassays used whole plants, leaf discs, or leaf cages to determine susceptibility of commercial lettuce cultivars to N. ribisnigri infestation and to evaluate screening methods for breeding lettuce resistance to N. ribisnigri. Resistant and susceptible plants were separated in 3 d when using whole plant bioassays. Long-term (> or =7 d) no-choice tests using leaf cages or whole plants resulted in no survival of N. ribisnigri on resistant plants, indicating great promise of the Nr gene for management of N. ribisnigri. Effective screening was achieved in both no-choice tests where resistant or susceptible intact plants were tested separately in groups or individually and in choice tests where susceptible and resistant plants were intermixed. Leaf discs bioassays were not suitable for resistance screening. All lettuce cultivars without the resistance gene were suitable hosts for N. ribisnigri, indicating the great importance of this pest to lettuce production and the urgency in developing resistant lettuce cultivars to manage N. ribisnigri.

  10. Distribution and population development of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) in iceberg lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Biao

    2004-06-01

    A field study was conducted to determine the distribution and development of aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Homoptera: Aphididae) populations in iceberg lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. 'Salinas'. Lettuce plants were transplanted and caged individually in the field and inoculated with apterous N. ribisnigri at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 wk after transplanting in spring and fall 2002. Plants were harvested 15-50 d after inoculations; numbers of alates and apterous N. ribisnigri were counted or estimated on each leaf for each plant. Inoculations during all 5 wk of plant development resulted in successful colonization of lettuce heads. Results indicated that head formation did not reduce the risk of colonization by N. ribisnigri to iceberg lettuce; plants were susceptible to colonization by N. ribisnigri throughout their development. For later inoculations, N. ribisnigri populations were relatively smaller, and aphids were found mostly within the heads. For earlier inoculations, N. ribisnigri populations were larger, and within-plant distributions shifted toward frame leaves. The shift of population distributions toward frame leaves correlated significantly with increases in N. ribisnigri population density. For most inoculations, more aphids were present on wrapper leaves than on other leaves. The proportion of alates did not vary significantly with population density. Population development of N ribisnigri also correlated significantly with heat unit accumulation. Yellow sticky cards were used to monitor alates in each cage. Catches of N. ribisnigri alates on yellow sticky cards were significantly correlated with total numbers of alates as well as with total population sizes on individual lettuce plants.

  11. Homoptera, Cicadidae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-10-24

    Oct 24, 1988 ... There are also morphological differences between the two taxa which parallel the differences in their .... Female 5 31,0 29,9--32,2 9 26,8 25,3-28,7 -8,11 0,0001. • Student's t test. [. 1mm. A. B. Figure 2 Male genitalia (pygophore and urite). A, P. stridula; ... mainly on trees, all of which were exotics, e.g. Port.

  12. Homoptera: Cicadidae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-10-24

    Oct 24, 1988 ... The geographical distributions, habitat preferences, plant associations and seasonal appearance of the platypleurine cicadas occurring on the Natal coastal plain, South Africa, are reported for the first time, and a key to the species is provided. Die geografiese verspreiding, habitatvoorkeur, plantassosiasies ...

  13. Homoptera: Aphididae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and parasitoids per plant, ladybird beetles per plot, and finally grain yield per plot were recorded. Based on the results of the ANOVA, plant ... is a food, fodder and feed crop belonging to the family Leguminosae (= Fabaceae) ... use of predators, parasitoids and pathogens for pest control, either by introduction from other ...

  14. Molecular systematics of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae): new insights from the long-wavelength opsin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Rivas, Benjamín; Moya, Andrés; Martínez-Torres, David

    2004-01-01

    Viviparous aphids (Aphididae) constitute a monophyletic group within the Homoptera with more than 4000 extant species worldwide but higher diversity in temperate regions. Several aspects of their biology account for attention paid to this group of insects. Their plant-sap-sucking way of feeding with many species transmitting viruses to crop plants has important implications on crop management strategies. Cyclical parthenogenesis associated in many groups to host alternation and elaborate polyphenisms is of special interests for evolutionists. Finally, the ancient association of most aphid species with intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria (Buchnera sp.) has also received much attention from evolutionists interested in mechanisms involved in the symbiotic process. Knowing the phylogenetic relationships among major aphid taxa is of special interest to evolutionists interested in the above issues. However, until recently, molecular approaches to aphid phylogeny were absent and discussions on the evolution of aphid life-cycles and on evolutionary aspects of their symbiotic association with Buchnera were framed by morphology-based phylogenies. Recently, two reports using molecular approaches attempted to address the yet unresolved phylogeny of Aphididae with limited although somehow different conclusions. In the present report we study the utility of the long-wave opsin gene in resolving phylogenetic relationships among seven subfamilies within the Aphididae. Our results corroborate some previously proposed relationships and suggest a revision of some others. In particular, our data support grouping the analysed aphid species into three main clades, being the subfamily Lachninae one of them, which contradicts its generally accepted sistership relationship with the subfamily Aphidinae. Moreover, our data also suggest a basal position of Lachninae which has implications on current discussions about the ancestrality of conifer-feeding in modern aphids.

  15. Experimental study of neuropharmacological profile of Euphorbia pulcherrima in mice and rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundan Kr Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Euphorbia pulcherrima (EP belongs to the family: Euphorbiaceae and Genus: Euphorbia. Many species of Euphorbia have been reported as having beneficial properties like anticonvulsive effect, central analgesic properties, antipyretic action, central depressant action and strong sedative effect. However, little study has been done and published on EP. Aims: To observe and evaluate various neuropharmacological effects like antinociceptive effect, anticonvulsant effect, motor in-coordination, pentobarbital induced sleeping time and behavioral responses of EP in mice and rats. Setting and Design: Quantitative experimental study in mice and rats by various experimental models. Materials and Methods: Different experimental models were used to assess the antinociceptive effect (hotplate, tail flick and acetic acid induced writhing test, anticonvulsant effect (Maximal Electroshock Seizure test [MES] and Pentylenetetrazole induced seizures [PTZ], motor in-coordination effect (Rota rod test, pentobarbital induced sleeping time and behavioral responses of EP in mice and rats after oral administration of EP crude dried extracts in three different doses (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg. Statistical Analysis Used: The significance of difference with respect to control was evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U test. A probability (P-value level less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: In MES test model, duration of tonic hind limb extension in mice treated with EP was significantly less as compared to vehicle treated group. EP was most effective in a dose of 1000 mg/kg. There was also significant increase in the latency and decrease in the incidence of convulsions with the use of EP in three different doses in PTZ induced seizure model. Conclusions: This study showed EP (crude dried extracts to possess anticonvulsant properties but no effect on motor co-ordination and anxiety.

  16. Isolated or combined application of diuron, oxyfluorfen and prometryn for Euphorbia heterophylla control

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira JR, R.S; Carneiro, J.C; Constantin, J; Santos, G; Martini, P.E; Francischini, A.C; Osipe, J.B

    2011-01-01

    A aplicação em pré-emergência no início do ciclo do algodoeiro é prática consagrada entre os produtores. Embora os herbicidas diuron, oxyfluorfen e prometryne sejam opções para uso nessa cultura, há informações limitadas referentes à eficácia desses herbicidas no controle de Euphorbia heterophylla. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a curva de dose-resposta de diuron, oxyfluorfen e prometryne para o controle de E. heterophylla, bem como analisar a eficiência biológica de misturas ...

  17. The Effects of Temperature, Photoperiod, and Vernalization on Regrowth and Flowering Competence in Euphorbia Esula (Euphorbiaceae) Crown Buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The herbaceous perennial weed Euphorbia esula (Euphorbiaceae) reproduces by vegetative and sexual means; characteristics that are key to its persistence and survival. In this study, we examined environmental effects on dormancy and flowering under controlled conditions to further validate field obse...

  18. POTENSI ANTIMIKROBIA KRIM EKSTRAK RANTING PATAH TULANG (Euphorbia tirucalli Linn. TERHADAP Propionibacterium acnes ATCC 11827 DAN Candida albicans ATCC 24433

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Scandinovita Setiorini

    2016-04-01

    extracts with cream for testing Candida albicans.The final results were 10% test extract had MIC to Propionibacterium acnes and 6% test extract had MIC in cream to Candida albicans. Keywords: Euphorbia tirucalli L., DMSO, Thymol, antimicrobial potency, cream (o/w, Propionibacterium acnes, Candida albicans

  19. Use of biochar as peat substitute for growing substrates of Euphorbia × lomi potted plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dispenza, V.; Pasquale, C. de; Fascella, G.; Mammano, M.M.; Alonzo, G.

    2016-01-01

    Biochar from conifers wood was used in soilless culture as growing substrate alternative to peat for ornamental crops. Potted plants of Euphorbia × lomi Rauh cv. ‘Ilaria’ were grown with different mixtures (v:v) of brown peat and biochar in order to evaluate main physical and chemical characteristics of this biomaterial as well as its effect on plant growth, ornamental characteristics and nutrients uptake. Biochar addition to peat increased pH, EC and K content of the growing substrates, as well as air content and bulk density. Biochar content of substrates significantly affected plant growth and biomass partitioning: higher number of shoots and leaves, leaf area and leaf dry weight were recorded in plants grown in 40% peat-60% biochar, with respect to plants grown in 100% peat and secondarily in 100% biochar. Leaf chlorophyll content was higher in plants grown in 60% and 80% biochar, while biomass water use efficiency was higher with 60% biochar. Plant uptake of K and Ca increased as biochar content of the substrates increased. Hence, a growing substrate containing 40% brown peat and 60% conifers wood biochar was identified as the more suitable mixture allowing to have a high-quality production of Euphorbia × lomi potted plants.

  20. Lipid metabolites with free-radical scavenging activity from Euphorbia helioscopia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cateni, F; Zilic, J; Altieri, T; Zacchigna, M; Procida, G; Gaggeri, R; Rossi, D; Collina, S

    2014-07-01

    The methanolic extract of the plant Euphorbia helioscopia L. exhibited an interesting free-radical scavenging activity. From the aerial parts of Euphorbia helioscopia L. (Euphorbiaceae), a complex mixture of seven cerebrosides together with glucoclionasterol, a digalactosyldiacylglycerol and a diacylmonogalactosylglycerol were identified. The structures of the cerebrosides were characterized as 1-O-β-D-glucosides of phytosphingosines, which comprised (2S, 3S, 4E, 8E)-2-amino-4(E),8(E)-octadecadiene-1,3-diol, (2S, 3S, 4E, 8Z)-2-amino-4(E),8(Z)-octadecadiene-1,3-diol, (2S, 3S, 4R, 8Z)-2-amino-8(Z)-octadecene-1,3,4-triol as long chain bases with seven 2-hydroxy fatty acids of varying chain lengths (C16, C24:1, C26:1, C24, C26, C28:1) linked to the amino group. The glycosylglycerides were characterized as (2S)-2,3-O-di-(9,12,15-octadecatrienoyl)-glyceryl-6-O-(α-D-galactopyranosyl)-β-D-galactopyranoside and (2S)-2,3-O-di-(9,12,15-octadecatrienoyl)-glyceryl-1-O-β-D-galactopyranoside. The structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical reactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Сhlorenchyma in stem of succulent plants from the genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.О. Kalashnyk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of photosynthesis execution by stems causes the structural and functional changes in plants. The stems of majority of succulent plants of the genus Euphorbia L. are covered only with the epidermis for a long time. In plants of some species the palisade parenchyma can appear which can be considered as a secondary or consequential tool to perform photosynthesis function by their stems. The anatomical structure of green annual stems of 23 Euphorbia species was examined. For 12 of them the palisade parenchyma has been established. The palisade parenchyma in the stem differs from such in the leaf by cells form and size as well as cells arrangement. The presence or absence of palisade parenchyma in the primary cortex indicates the level of specialization of stem tissues to perform the assimilation function. As the degree of development of palisade parenchyma depends on the amount of solar radiation, the presence and number of palisade parenchyma does not directly confirm the adaptation to the growth in conditions of a certain degree of aridity. Its appearance is could be caused also by growth under high insolation. Undoubtedly, appearance of palisade parenchyma in the stems of stem-succulent plants is correlated with reduction of leaves and probably is consequence of this.

  2. Comparative ecomorphology of the cyathial nectaries in eight European Euphorbia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Nóra; Csete, S; Farkas, Agnes

    2013-03-01

    The morphology and histology of the cyathial nectary were studied in 8 European leafy spurge (Euphorbia) species, revealing that certain histological traits of the glands are in close correlation to each species' habitat, underlining the importance of morphological evidences in determining relevant ecological tolerance spectra of plants.The structure of the cyathial glands was studied in longitudinal sections with light microscopy, and histological parameters were measured and statistically analyzed by appropriate softwares.The nectaries consist of a cuticle-covered epidermis, formed by palisade cells, under which the glandular tissue and parenchyma are composed of isodiametric and anisodiametric cells in all species. Thickness of cuticle, position of nectary stomata and number of rows comprising the glandular tissue vary to a great extent in plants living in xeric, humid or mesic habitats.Although all the studied anatomical features of the nectaries were expected to be in correspondence with the characteristics of habitat types, we have only found the number of glandular cell rows to be in strong correlation with the Ellenberg's ecological indicator values on soil moisture, which varied with species. The recorded anatomical differences among the studied Euphorbia taxa emphasize the ecological significance of glandular tissue in plant adaptation, which can also be relevant for systematic purposes.

  3. Biomimetic Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Endosymbiotic Bacterium Inhabiting Euphorbia hirta L. and Their Bactericidal Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker Syed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to evaluate biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using endophytic bacterium EH 419 inhabiting Euphorbia hirta L. The synthesized nanoparticles were initially confirmed with change in color from the reaction mixture to brown indicating the synthesis of nanoparticles. Further confirmation was achieved with the characteristic absorption peak at 440 nm using UV-Visible spectroscopy. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were subjected to biophysical characterization using hyphenated techniques. The possible role of biomolecules in mediating the synthesis was depicted with FTIR analysis. Further crystalline nature of synthesized nanoparticles was confirmed using X-ray diffraction (XRD with prominent diffraction peaks at 2θ which can be indexed to the (111, (200, (220, and (311 reflections of face centered cubic structure (fcc of metallic silver. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM revealed morphological characteristics of synthesized silver nanoparticles to be polydisperse in nature with size ranging from 10 to 60 nm and different morphological characteristics such as spherical, oval, hexagonal, and cubic shapes. Further silver nanoparticles exhibited bactericidal activity against panel of significant pathogenic bacteria among which Pseudomonas aeruginosa was most sensitive compared to other pathogens. To the best of our knowledge, present study forms first report of bacterial endophyte inhabiting Euphorbia hirta L. in mediating synthesizing silver nanoparticles.

  4. Use of biochar as peat substitute for growing substrates of Euphorbia × lomi potted plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Dispenza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biochar from conifers wood was used in soilless culture as growing substrate alternative to peat for ornamental crops. Potted plants of Euphorbia × lomi Rauh cv. ‘Ilaria’ were grown with different mixtures (v:v of brown peat and biochar in order to evaluate main physical and chemical characteristics of this biomaterial as well as its effect on plant growth, ornamental characteristics and nutrients uptake. Biochar addition to peat increased pH, EC and K content of the growing substrates, as well as air content and bulk density. Biochar content of substrates significantly affected plant growth and biomass partitioning: higher number of shoots and leaves, leaf area and leaf dry weight were recorded in plants grown in 40% peat-60% biochar, with respect to plants grown in 100% peat and secondarily in 100% biochar. Leaf chlorophyll content was higher in plants grown in 60% and 80% biochar, while biomass water use efficiency was higher with 60% biochar. Plant uptake of K and Ca increased as biochar content of the substrates increased. Hence, a growing substrate containing 40% brown peat and 60% conifers wood biochar was identified as the more suitable mixture allowing to have a high-quality production of Euphorbia × lomi potted plants.

  5. Use of biochar as peat substitute for growing substrates of Euphorbia × lomi potted plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dispenza, V.; Pasquale, C. de; Fascella, G.; Mammano, M.M.; Alonzo, G.

    2016-07-01

    Biochar from conifers wood was used in soilless culture as growing substrate alternative to peat for ornamental crops. Potted plants of Euphorbia × lomi Rauh cv. ‘Ilaria’ were grown with different mixtures (v:v) of brown peat and biochar in order to evaluate main physical and chemical characteristics of this biomaterial as well as its effect on plant growth, ornamental characteristics and nutrients uptake. Biochar addition to peat increased pH, EC and K content of the growing substrates, as well as air content and bulk density. Biochar content of substrates significantly affected plant growth and biomass partitioning: higher number of shoots and leaves, leaf area and leaf dry weight were recorded in plants grown in 40% peat-60% biochar, with respect to plants grown in 100% peat and secondarily in 100% biochar. Leaf chlorophyll content was higher in plants grown in 60% and 80% biochar, while biomass water use efficiency was higher with 60% biochar. Plant uptake of K and Ca increased as biochar content of the substrates increased. Hence, a growing substrate containing 40% brown peat and 60% conifers wood biochar was identified as the more suitable mixture allowing to have a high-quality production of Euphorbia × lomi potted plants.

  6. Identification of Phenolic Compounds and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Euphorbia Tirucalli L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keline Medeiros de Araújo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive compounds extracted from natural sources can benefit human health. The aim of this work was to determine total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli L. followed by identification and quantification of the phenolic compounds, as well as their antibacterial activities. Antioxidant activities were determined by DPPH and ABTS•+ assay. Identification of phenolic compounds was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and antimicrobial activities were verified by agar dilution methods and MIC values. Total phenolic content ranged from 7.73 to 30.54 mg/100 g gallic acid equivalent. Extracts from dry plants showed higher antioxidant activities than those from fresh ones. The DPPH EC50 values were approximately 12.15 μg/mL and 16.59 μg/mL, respectively. Antioxidant activity measured by the ABTS method yielded values higher than 718.99 μM trolox/g for dry plants, while by the Rancimat® system yielded protection factors exceeding 1 for all extracts, comparable to synthetic BHT. Ferulic acid was the principal phenolic compound identified and quantified through HPLC-UV in all extracts. The extracts proved effective inhibitory potential for Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. These results showed that extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli L. have excellent antioxidant capacity and moderate antimicrobial activity. These can be attributed to the high concentration of ferulic acid.

  7. Euphorbia davidii - an invasive weed species in the fields of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajgand Dragan K.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia davidii Subils (Euphorbiaceae or toothed spurge is a plant native to North America, but in Europe it is an alien weed. The populations of this weed were recorded in the Province of Vojvodina (Serbia for the first time in 2007 in the arable fields in two localities: between the villages of Aleksa Šantić and Pačir and also between the villages of Pačir and Đurđin. There were no previous published data about the occurrence of this species in Serbia, nor about management measures in crops to suppress this agricultural invader. In this paper, we present experiences with several herbicide treatments applied to suppress populations of toothed spurge from the crop fields in Serbia during the last six years. The most effective was treatment with a high concentration of glyphosate in the early phases of toothed spurge growing. The populations of this invasive weed spread and formed more or less dense patches in the crop field, the area of distribution increased from 3 ha to 7 ha. Observations and experiences with treatments suggest that Euphorbia davidii, as an invasive plant, has significant impact on crop fields, therefore further investigation of suppression measures and monitoring of its population is needed.

  8. Comparative efficacy of some insecticides against cotton whitefly, bemisia tabaci (gennadius) (homoptera: aleyrodidae) under natural field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, M.K.; Hasnain, M.; Ahmed, S.; Ashfaq, M.

    2011-01-01

    Comparative efficacy of five commonly used insecticides viz., acetamiprid, buprofezin, diafenthiuron, imidacloprid and endosulfan against nymph and adult population of cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) under natural field conditions has been studied. Results showed that buprofezin was the most effective insecticide against nymph population of whitefly among the tested insecticides where nymphal population of B. tabaci was 0.2/leaf after 24h spray as compared to 1.9/leaf in control. Acetamiprid was the most effective against adult population of whitefly (0.3 to 1.3/leaf post 72 h spray, as compared to control with 6.9 to 8.2/leaf) followed by diafenthiuron and imidaclopirid. whereas, endosulfan was found to be the least effective on both populations as adult and nymph of whitefly. From the tested insecticides, acetamaprid gave effective control of both nymph and adult population of B. tabaci. (author)

  9. Interferência de Euphorbia heterophylla no crescimento e acúmulo de macronutrientes da soja Interference of Euphorbia heterophylla in the growth and macronutrient accumulation of soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O grau de interferência depende da densidade de plantas daninhas que infestam a soja. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar características de crescimento e nutrição mineral da soja mantida em convivência com densidades crescentes de Euphorbia heterophylla. O experimento foi conduzido em Jaboticabal, SP, Brasil, entre outubro e dezembro de 2008, em vasos mantidos em campo aberto. Os tratamentos consistiram em submeter uma planta de soja por vaso à convivência com 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 e 16 plantas de E. heterophylla por vaso, da semeadura até o início do florescimento. Nesse período, avaliaram-se, apenas na soja, a altura e o número de trifólios, e em ambas as espécies, a matéria seca e o acúmulo de macronutrientes. Observou-se variação na altura de plantas e redução no número de trifólios e no acúmulo de matéria seca e macronutrientes da soja devido ao maior acúmulo de matéria seca e macronutrientes por densidades crescentes de E. heterophylla. Conclui-se que a soja mantida em convivência com E. heterophylla teve o crescimento e o acúmulo de macronutrientes reduzidos em razão da interferência imposta pela planta daninha.The degree of weed interference depends on the density of the weeds infesting the soybean crop. The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth and mineral nutrition characteristics in soybean maintained in coexistence with increasing densities of Euphorbia heterophylla. The experiment was carried out in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil, from October through December 2008, in pots maintained under open field conditions. The treatments consisted in submitting one soybean plant per pot to coexistence with 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 plants of E. heterophylla per pot, from sowing until the beginning of soybean flowering. At this period, only height and number of leaves were evaluated in soybean, while dry matter and macronutrient accumulation were evaluated in both species. Variation in plant height and reduction in the

  10. Cytotoxicity of latex and pharmacobotanical study of leaves and stem of Euphorbia umbellata (Janaúba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia E.C. Luz

    Full Text Available AbstractIn southern Brazil, the bottled latex of Synadenium grantii Hook f., Euphorbiaceae, is popularly used as a treatment of all types of cancer. Similarly, Synadenium umbellatum Pax. is used in the central western region of Brazil for the same purpose and in the same manner of use. Both plants are popularly known as janaúba or leitosinha. The objectives of this study were to use pharmacobotanical analysis to verify whether these two species, which are considered to be distinct, are actually the same to determine anatomical markers; to assist in the identification and differentiation of other Euphorbia; and to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of the latex in relation to HeLa and HRT-18 cells. Leaves and stems of the species were collected in Goiânia and Ponta Grossa and were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy techniques. The latex was also collected and analyzed in relation to its cytotoxic effect by employing MTT and NR techniques. The pharmacobotanical study of the specimens in both localities showed that they were the same species, namely Euphorbia umbellata (Pax Bruyns, which is the scientific nomenclature accepted and confirmed by an expert taxonomist who specializes in Euphorbia. The pharmacobotanical characteristics highlighted in this study can assist in the identification of the taxon and contribute to the control of the quality of this plant drug. The evaluation of the latex in relation to HRT-18 cells demonstrated action after 48 h of experiment. In contrast, in relation to HeLa cells its induced cytotoxicity in all times and a dose-dependent manner. The IC50 values (72 h observed were 252.58 ± 18.51 µg/ml and 263.42 ± 15.92 µg/ml to MTT experiment and 250.18 ± 19.48 µg/ml and 430.56 ± 19.71 µg/ml to NR experiment for the HeLa and HRT-18 cells, respectively.

  11. Structural characterization of rubber from jackfruit and euphorbia as a model of natural rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekkriengkrai, Dararat; Ute, Koiichi; Swiezewska, Ewa; Chojnacki, Tadeusz; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Sakdapipanich, Jitladda T

    2004-01-01

    A structural study of low molecular weight rubbers from Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) and Painted spurge (Euphorbia heterophylla) was carried out as model compounds of natural rubber from Hevea brasiliensis. The rubber content of latex from Jackfruit was 0.4-0.7%, which is very low compared with that of 30-35% in the latex from Hevea tree. The rubber from Jackfruit latex was low molecular weight with narrow unimodal molecular weight distribution (MWD), whereas that obtained from E. heterophylla showed very broad MWD. The 1H and 13C NMR analyses showed that Jackfruit rubber consists of a dimethylallyl group and two trans-isoprene units connected to a long sequence of cis-isoprene units. The alpha-terminal group of Jackfruit rubber was presumed to be composed of a phosphate group based on the presence of 1H NMR signal at 4.08 ppm corresponding to the terminal =CH-CH2OP group.

  12. Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts from Leaves, Stems and Flowers of Euphorbia macroclada against plant pathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Al-Mughrabi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Extracts drawn from dried and powdered flowers, stems and leaves of Euphorbia macroclada with some organic solvents were tested for antimicrobial effect against the fungi Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium italicum, Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria solani, Stemphylium solani, Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp., and Pythium sp. The strongest inhibitory effect of the extracts was observed against R. solani, V. dahliae, F. oxysporum, Pythium sp. and R. stolonifer. The weakest effect was against A. solani. Extracts from the stems had a stronger inhibitory effect than those from the flowers or leaves. Butanol was the best solvent to extract antimicrobial compounds from leaves, stems and flowers and was superior to chloroform, water and petroleum ether. Results clearly indicate that E. macroclada is a promising source of antimicrobial compounds.

  13. Caper spurge (Euphorbia lathyris L. ) as a potential crop plant of oleochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hondelmann, W.; Dambroth, M.

    1987-01-01

    Caper Spurge (Euphorbia lathyris L.) on account of the high seed oil content and the dominating position of oleic acid (> 80%) calls for special attention as potential creep plant for oleochemistry. In domesticating this wild species the characters 'biennial life cycle' and 'dehiscent fruits' could be eliminated in favour of their corresponding crop plant characters 'annual life cycle' and 'indehiscent fruits'. The genetic variation hitherto available seems to be relatively limited. Very high is the amount of 'variation between populations'. Estimates of heritability generally are high, but response to selection is predominantly lower. Because of the rather low fracture resistance of the seed coat the adaption for harvesting by means of a combine is not yet existing. Furthermore, caper spurge exhibits a strongly expressed seed dormancy. Therefore, selection in favour of a diminished primary dormancy is needed. (orig.)

  14. Hydropyrolysis of extracted Euphorbia rigida in a well-swept fixed-bed tubular reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gercel, H.F.; Putun, A.E.; Putun, E.

    2002-05-01

    Tubular reactor fixed-bed hydropyrolysis experiments have been conducted on a sample of extracted Euphorbia rigida to determine the possibility of being a potential source of renewable fuels and chemical feedstock. The effects of hydropyrolysis temperature and heating rate on the hydropyrolysis yields and chemical compositions have been investigated. The maximum bio-oil yield of 39.8 wt% was obtained in H{sub 2} atmosphere at a hydrogen pressure of 150 bar, a hydrogen flow rate of 5 dm{sup 3} min{sup -} {sup 1}, a hydropyrolysis temperature of 550{sup o}C, and a heating rate of 100{sup o}C min{sup -1}. Then this bio-oil was characterized by elemental analysis and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. (author)

  15. Overexpression of the AtSHI gene in poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima, results in compact plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, M. Ashraful; Lütken, Henrik Vlk; Haugslien, Sissel

    2013-01-01

    of the AtSHI gene into poinsettia by genetic engineering can be an effective approach in controlling plant height without negatively affecting flowering time. This can help to reduce or avoid the use of toxic growth retardants of environmental and human health concern. This is the first report that At......Euphorbia pulcherrima, poinsettia, is a non-food and non-feed vegetatively propagated ornamental plant. Appropriate plant height is one of the most important traits in poinsettia production and is commonly achieved by application of chemical growth retardants. To produce compact poinsettia plants...... integration of transgene was verified by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Reduced plant height (21–52%) and internode lengths (31–49%) were obtained in the transgenic lines compared to control plants. This correlates positively with the AtSHI transcript levels, with the highest levels in the most dwarfed...

  16. Allelopathy of small everlasting (Antennaria microphylla) : Phytotoxicity to leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) in tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, M E; Manners, G D

    1990-03-01

    Media and media extracts from callus cultures of small everlasting (Antennaria microphylla) inhibited leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) callus tissue and suspension culture growth (50 and 70% of control, respectively) and were phytotoxic in lettuce and leafy spurge root elongation bioassays (64 and 77% of control, respectively). Hydroquinone, a phytotoxic compound previously isolated from small everlasting, was also biosynthesized by callus and suspension cultures of this species. Exogenously supplied hydroquinone (0.5 mM) was toxic to leafy spurge suspension culture cells and was only partially biotransformed to its nontoxic water-soluble monoglucoside, arbutin, by these cells. This report confirms the chronic involvement of hydroquinone in the allelopathic interaction between small everlasting and leafy spurge.

  17. Total phenolic compounds, antioxidant potential and α-glucosidase inhibition by Tunisian Euphorbia paralias L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Besbes Hlila

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the potential antioxidant and anti-α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of Tunisian Euphorbia paralias L. leaves and stems extracts and their composition of total polyphenol and flavonoids. Methods: The different samples were tested for their antiradical activities by using 2, 2’- azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays. In α-glucosidase activity, α-glucosidase (0.3 IU/mL and substrate, 2500 µmol/ L p-nitrophenyl α-D-glucopyranoside were used; absorbance was registered at 405 nm. Results: The leaves acetonic extract exhibited the strongest α-glucosidase inhibition [IC50 = (0.0035 ± 0.001 µg/mL], which was 20-fold more active than the standard product (acarbose [IC50 = (0.07 ± 0.01 µg/mL]. Acetonic extract of the leaves exhibited the highest quantity of total phenolic [(95.54 ± 0.04 µg gallic acid equivalent/mg] and flavonoid [(55.16 ± 0.25 µg quercetin equivalent/mg]. The obtained findings presented also that this extract was detected with best antioxidant capacity [IC50 = (0.015 ± 0.01 µg/mL] against DPPH and a value of IC50 equal to (0.02 ± 0.01 µg/mL against ABTS. Positive relationship between polyphenolic content of the tested Euphorbia paralias L. leaves and stems extracts and its antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS was detected. Elevated positive linear correlation was got between ABTS and total phenolic (R2 = 0.751. Conclusions: The findings clearly demonstrate that the use of a polar solvent enables extraction of significant quantities of phenol compounds and flavonoids.

  18. Crescimento e esporulação de Bipolaris euphorbiae cultivado sob diferentes condições nutricionais Growth and sporulation of Bipolaris euphorbiae cultivated under different nutritional conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Cristina Penariol

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de ser considerado um potencial bioagente de controle do amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla L. em cultivos de soja no Brasil, pouco se conhece sobre as características nutricionais do fungo Bipolaris euphorbiae Muchovej & Carvalho. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diferentes fontes de carbono (glicose, amido, sacarose, lactose e maltose, de nitrogênio (nitrato de sódio, nitrato de amônio, sulfato de amônio, fosfato de amônio dibásico, cloreto de amônio, de fósforo (fosfato de potássio monobásico, fosfato de potássio bibásico, fosfato de cálcio, fosfato de sódio, ácido fosfórico, fosfato de amônio e a suplementação do meio de cultivo com fontes orgânicas de macro e micronutrientes, para o crescimento e a esporulação de B. euphorbiae. O amido proporcionou o maior crescimento, sendo também considerada a fonte de carbono mais favorável para a esporulação. O melhor crescimento e esporulação de B. euphorbiae foram obtidos usando o nitrato de sódio como fonte de nitrogênio e fosfato de potássio monobásico e fosfato de cálcio como fonte de fósforo, embora as demais fontes de fósforo analisadas, exceto o ácido fosfórico, tenham igualmente favorecido a esporulação. A suplementação do meio de cultivo com peptona e extrato de levedura resultou em melhor crescimento e esporulação do fungo e a adição de vitaminas favoreceu a produção de conídios.Bipolaris euphorbiae Muchovej & Carvalho is considered a potential bioagent for control of selvage peanuts (Euphorbia heterophylla L. on soybean crops in Brazil. However, little is known about the nutritional characteristics of this fungus. The main objective of this research was to evaluate different sources of carbon (glucose, starch, sucrose, lactose and maltose, of nitrogen (sodium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, bi-basic ammonium phosphate, ammonium chloride, of phosphorus (monobasic potassium phosphate, bi-basic potassium phosphate

  19. INHIBITION EFFECT OF FLAVONOID EXTRACT OF Euphorbia Guyoniana ON THE CORROSION OF MILD STEEL IN H2SO4 MEDIUM

    OpenAIRE

    S. Chihi; N. Gherraf; B. Alabed; S. Hameurlain

    2009-01-01

    The influence of flavonoids extracts of three parts of Euphorbia Guyoniana towards the corrosion of type API 5L X52 steel in 15% H2SO4 has been evaluated by weight loss method and polarization technique. The results showed that extracts are a good inhibitors for API 5L X52 steel in this medium. The corrosion inhibition efficiency increases on increasing plant extracts concentration. The inhibition is attributed to the adsorption of the surface of the metal. Potentiodynamic polarization result...

  20. Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts from Leaves, Stems and Flowers of Euphorbia macroclada against plant pathogenic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    K. Al-Mughrabi

    2003-01-01

    Extracts drawn from dried and powdered flowers, stems and leaves of Euphorbia macroclada with some organic solvents were tested for antimicrobial effect against the fungi Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium italicum, Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria solani, Stemphylium solani, Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp., and Pythium sp. The strongest inhibitory effect of the extracts was observed against R. solani, V. dahliae, F. oxysporum, Pythium sp. and R. ...

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Ingenol in Euphorbia species via Validated Isotope Dilution Ultra-high Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Béres, T.; Dragull, K.; Pospíšil, Jiří; Tarkowská, Danuše; Dančák, M.; Bíba, Ondřej; Tarkowski, P.; Doležal, K.; Strnad, Miroslav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 1 (2018), s. 23-29 ISSN 0958-0344 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-14007S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Euphorbia genus * ingenol * isotope-dilution method * mass spectrometry * ultra-high performance liquid chromatography Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 2.292, year: 2016

  2. Atividade residual de diuron, oxyfluorfen e prometryne no controle de Euphorbia heterophylla Residual activity of diuron, oxyfluorfen, and prometryne for Euphorbia heterophylla control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Oliveira Jr.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As aplicações de herbicidas em pré-emergência têm por finalidade a obtenção da atividade residual no início do ciclo das culturas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade residual dos herbicidas diuron, oxyfluorfen e prometryne, aplicados isoladamente ou em misturas, no controle de Euphorbia heterophylla. Oito experimentos foram conduzidos em casa de vegetação, aplicando-se doses dos herbicidas ou das misturas aos 30, 20, 10 e 0 dias antes da semeadura da planta daninha (DAS. Com o diuron e prometryne, foram observados controles satisfatórios até 20 DAS nas doses a partir de 1,07 e 1,6 kg ha-1, respectivamente. Quanto ao oxyfluorfen, foi registrado um período residual inferior, obtendo-se controle mínimo de 80% até 10 DAS nas doses a partir de 0,324 kg ha-1. Em relação às misturas dos herbicidas, a mistura diuron+prometryne promoveu controle superior a 85% por períodos de até 30 dias, quando aplicada na menor dose (1+2 kg ha-1, e de 20 dias, quando aplicada na dose de 2+1 kg ha-1. Visando obter esse mesmo patamar de controle por 30 dias, foi necessário 1+0,288 kg ha-1 da mistura diuron+oxyfluorfen. A mistura prometryne+oxyfluorfen apresentou um mínimo de 80% de controle no período de 10 dias, quando utilizada a dose de 1+0,192 kg ha-1.Pre-emergence herbicide applications are designed to obtain residual activity at the beginning of the crop cycle. The objective of this study was to evaluate the residual activity of diuron, oxyfluorfen, and prometryne, applied alone or in mixture, to control Euphorbia heterophylla. Eight experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions, by applying herbicide doses or mixtures at 30, 20, 10, and 0 days before weed sowing (DBWS.With diuron and prometryne, satisfactory controls were observed at doses up to 20 DBWS, from 1.07 to 1.6 kg ha-1, respectively. As for oxyfluorfen, a lower residual period was verified, with a minimum gaining control of at least 80% being obtained

  3. Presence of the aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii, on strawberry in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cédola, Claudia; Grecob, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal abundance of the strawberry aphid complex under different agronomic practices in the outskirts of La Plata, Argentina was studied on strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae). Aphid densities were low in strawberry fields in which insecticides and fungicides were used. In addition to Aphis gossypii, Aphis fabae, Mysus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae, the aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell) (Homoptera: Aphididae), was recorded for the first time in this horticultural area. Life history and some demographic parameters were calculated for C. fragaefolii. The mean duration of nymphal stages was 10.44 days, the oviposition period was 11.8 days, and the mean number of nymph/female/day was 2.4 +/- 0.3. Demographic parameters analyzed included the net reproductive rate R(o) = 14.55 +/- 0.096 nymph/female, generation time T=16.91 +/- 0.035 days, and the intrinsic rate of increase r(m) = 0.158 +/- (0.004). No parasites were found associated with C. fragaefolli. The pathogenic fungus, Entomophthora planchoniana Cornu (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales) was the main mortality factor. Although aphids are not the main pests in strawberry fields, C. fragaefolii can be a serious problem because it can transmit several virus diseases of strawberry. Greater knowledge of life history traits and mortality factors of this species is needed in order to design appropriate control strategies.

  4. Controle da pérola-da-terra, Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel) (Homoptera:Margarodidae), através da insetigação

    OpenAIRE

    Hickel, Eduardo R.; Peruzzo, Edegar L.; Schuck, Enio

    2001-01-01

    A pérola-da-terra, Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel) (Homoptera: Margarodidae), é a principal praga da videira no Sul do Brasil. As estratégias normais de controle desta praga não afetam a população do inseto porque os indivíduos estão no subsolo e desenvolvem um corpo globoso resistente a intempéries. Assim sendo, um ensaio foi conduzido em laboratório para verificar a possibilidade de aplicar a insetigação no controle da pérola-da-terra. Tubos de 50 mm de altura de cano PVC (150 mm fi) fo...

  5. Characterization of Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) Resistance to Emamectin Benzoate: Cross-Resistance Patterns and Fitness Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, M B S; Shad, S A

    2016-06-01

    Cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a sucking pest of worldwide importance causing huge losses by feeding upon cotton in various parts of the world. Because of the importance of this pest, this research was carried out to select emamectin resistance in P. solenopsis in the laboratory to study cross-resistance, stability, realized heritability, and fitness cost of emamectin resistance. After selection from third generation (G3) to G6, P. solenopsis developed very high emamectin resistance (159.24-fold) when compared to a susceptible unselected population (Unsel pop). Population selected to emamectin benzoate conferred moderate (45.81-fold), low (14.06-fold), and no cross-resistance with abamectin, cypermethrin, and profenofos, respectively compared to the Unsel pop. A significant decline in emamectin resistance was observed in the resistant population when not exposed to emamectin from G7 to G13. The estimated realized heritability (h (2)) for emamectin resistance was 0.84. A high fitness cost was associated with emamectin resistance in P. solenopsis. Results of this study may be helpful in devising insecticide resistance management strategies for P. solenopsis.

  6. Potential damages, seasonal abundance and distribution of Empoasca terminalis Distant (Homoptera: Cicadellidae on soybean in South Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Nasruddin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant damages caused by leafhopper, Empoasca terminalis Distant (Homoptera: Cicadellidae on soybean were first encountered in 2007 in Makassar, South Sulawesi. The insect has been constantly associated with soybean crops in the province ever since. The purposes of the present study were to (i evaluate potential yield loss attributable to the leafhopper in an experimental set up, (ii seasonal abundance of E. terminalis, and (iii distribution of E. terminalis in all major soybean-producing areas in the province. Potential yield loss due to the leafhopper was assessed in a field experiment using two large plots. One of the plots was kept leafhopper-free by weekly insecticide sprays; and the other plot was left unsprayed to allow leafhopper infestation to occur. Adult abundance was weekly monitored using a sweep net throughout the season. Nymph abundance was determined by direct count on the plant leaves. Leafhopper distribution was assessed through surveys conducted in all major soybean-producing areas in South Sulawesi, from 2009–2013. The results of the study showed that E. terminalis caused an average yield loss of 26% on susceptible crops without insecticide use. First leafhopper infestation in all planting seasons occurred two weeks after the plant emergence. Rainfall negatively correlated with the leafhopper abundance. The leafhopper existed in all major soybean production areas in the province. Therefore, our results confirmed the status of E. terminalis as an important soybean pest in the region. In addition, crops planted early in the dry season could escape from heavy leafhopper infestation.

  7. Antioxidant activity and concentration of secondary metabolites in the plant parts of Euphorbia cyparissias L.

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    Stanković Milan S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a screening of nine different extracts from the plant parts (leaves, flowers and stems of Euphorbia cyparissias for total phenolic content, concentration of flavonoids and in vitro antioxidant activity. Main reason for this study is the determination of these parameters and their variability among plant parts and plant extracts obtained by different solvents, respectively. Obtained amounts for total phenolic content ranged from 10.76 to 40.72 mg GA/g. The concentration of flavonoids varied from 34.32 to 134.34 mg Ru/g. The IC50 values of antioxidant activity varied from 88.48 to 2891.08 μg/ml. Results obtained from the different plant parts were of uneven value. Great variability of the studied parameters was observed when comparing the effectiveness of the used solvents. The acetone extracts from stems contain the greatest concentrations of phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, and showed high antioxidant activity. According to our research, plant parts from E. cyparissias can be regarded as promising candidates for natural plant sources with high value of biological compounds.

  8. Molluscicidal effect of Euphorbia umbellata (Pax Bruyns latex on Biomphalaria glabrata, Schistosoma mansoni host snail

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    Luciana Patrícia Lima Alves Pereira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Euphorbia umbellata (Pax Bruyns is an easily cultivated shrub, with occurrence in the tropical regions of the American and African continents. Chemical studies have revealed that the latex of this plant is rich in terpene compounds, which are highly toxic to snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Basommatophora: Planorbidae. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and molluscicidal activity of the latex produced by E. umbellata, as well as the safety of its application in aquatic environments. The concentration of latex that killed 90% of the exposed snails after 24 h exposure (LC90 was 3.69 mg/L. Toxicity bioassays using Danio rerio (zebrafish revealed that these animals were less susceptible to latex than planorbids. However, it is important to perform other toxicity tests to ensure the feasibility of using latex to control populations of mollusks that contribute to schistosomiasis transmission. A phytochemical screening performed with the E. umbellata latex identified the triterpenoid and coumarin class. Further studies are warranted to isolate, identify, and test the active compounds of E. umbellata latex in B. glabrata.

  9. The site of 2,4-D accumulation in Euphorbia helioscopia L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakri, F.A.

    1990-01-01

    The distribution and accumulation of the herbicide 2,4-D have been studied by 14 C labelling and by tracing due to the autoradiographic method in young plants of Euphorbia helioscopia L. (milkweed). Milkweed plants were grown in a greenhouse at 30deg C under 16 hrs. photoperiod for about two weeks. The two lower opposite leaves, the cotyledons, were used as sites for 14 C-labelled 2,4-D application. The autoradiograph of the whole plants revealed that labelled 2,4-D movement was predominantly basipetal into the root as well as acropetal into the shoot apex. The 2,4-D movement has by-passed all the matured leaves in its movement from active sources to active sinks. The microautoradiography indicated that 2,4-D can accumulate to a considerable amount both in the parenchyma of the pith and in the cortical cells. It is concluded that 2,4-D is transported through phloem cells when applied to the healthy long leaves. (author)

  10. Use of raw Euphorbia tirucalli extract for inhibition of ascitic Ehrlich tumor

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    Orlando José dos Santos

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the effect of the Euphorbia tirucalli hydroalcoholic extract (ETHE on the development of Ehrlich Tumor, in its ascitic form. Methods: we intraperitoneally inoculated 15 Swiss mice with 10.44 x 107 cells of Ehrlich Tumor and divided them in two groups one day after: ETHE Group (eight mice, treated with a dosage of 125 mg/kg/day of EHTE for five days; and Control Group (seven mice, treated only with 0.9% isotonic saline solution over the same period. The treatment was done by gavage. Ten days after inoculation, four mice from each group were sacrificed for quantification of tumor cell number, ascitic fluid volume and bone marrow cell number. The remaining animals were maintained to evaluate survival. Results: The ascitic fluid volume and the tumor cell number were decreased in the ETHE group when compared with the control group, but with no statistical significance. On the other hand, survival was higher in the ETHE group, as well as the number of bone marrow cells. Conclusion: Treatment with ETHE after inoculation of Ehrlich Tumor decreases its development and increases survival and the bone marrow cellularity, thus reducing the myelosuppression present in the Ehrlich Tumor bearing mice.

  11. Microscopic processes ruling the bioavailability of Zn to roots of Euphorbia pithyusa L. pioneer plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medas, Daniela; De Giudici, Giovanni; Casu, Maria Antonietta; Musu, Elodia; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Iadecola, Antonella; Meneghini, Carlo; Tamburini, Elena; Sprocati, Anna Rosa; Turnau, Katarzyna; Lattanzi, Pierfranco

    2015-02-03

    Euphorbia pithyusa L. was used in a plant growth-promoting assisted field trial experiment. To unravel the microscopic processes at the interface, thin slices of E. pithyusa roots were investigated by micro-X-ray fluorescence mapping. Roots and rhizosphere materials were examined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Zn K-edge, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. Results indicate some features common to all the investigated samples. (i) In the rhizosphere of E. pithyusa, Zn was found to exist in different phases. (ii) Si and Al are mainly concentrated in a rim at the epidermis of the roots. (iii) Zn is mostly stored in root epidermis and does not appear to be coordinated to organic molecules but mainly occurs in mineral phases such as Zn silicates. We interpreted that roots of E. pithyusa significantly promote mineral evolution in the rhizosphere. Concomitantly, the plant uses Si and Al extracted by soil minerals to build a biomineralization rim, which can capture Zn. This Zn silicate biomineralization has relevant implications for phytoremediation techniques and for further biotechnology development, which can be better designed and developed after specific knowledge of molecular processes ruling mineral evolution and biomineralization processes has been gained.

  12. Potential Use of Euphorbia hirta for Dengue: A Systematic Review of Scientific Evidence

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    Sashini D. Perera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia hirta commonly known as Tawa-Tawa is a plant used in folklore medicine in the Philippines for the treatment of dengue. Though, E. hirta has been extensively investigated for numerous bioactivities, limited studies have been conducted on the antidengue activity. Thus, the present study provides a comprehensive review of studies conducted on the antidengue activity of E. hirta. A systematic literature survey was carried out in scientific databases, PubMed®, Scopus, and Google Scholar, for research carried on the antidengue activity of E. hirta. The literature search identified a total of 867 articles: databases PubMed = 6, Scopus SciVerse® = 423, and Google Scholar = 437; one additional article was identified by searching reference lists. Eight full papers were entitled to the review; out of those, two studies focused on ethnobotanical surveys, three on animal experiments, one on human trial, and two on in vitro antiviral activities, and one was computational study. The available evidence conclusively demonstrates the potential of E. hirta against dengue as it holds significant antiviral and platelet increasing activities. However, the number of studies conducted to validate its antidengue activity was found to be inadequate. Hence, well-controlled clinical trials and contemporary pharmacological approaches including activity guided fractionation and elucidation of the mode of action are encouraged to establish the use of E. hirta for dengue.

  13. Comparison of supercritical fluid and Soxhlet extractions for the quantification of hydrocarbons from Euphorbia macroclada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Adnan; Ozcan, Asiye Safa

    2004-10-08

    This study compares conventional Soxhlet extraction and analytical scale supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) for their yields in extracting of hydrocarbons from arid-land plant Euphorbia macroclada. The plant material was firstly sequentially extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide, modified with 10% methanol (v/v) in the optimum conditions that is a pressure of 400atm and a temperature of 50 degrees C and then it was sonicated in methylene chloride for an additional 4h. E. macroclada was secondly extracted by using a Soxhlet apparatus at 30 degrees C for 8h in methylene chloride. The validated SFE was then compared to the extraction yield of E. macroclada with a Soxhlet extraction by using the Student's t-test at the 95% confidence level. All of extracts were fractionated with silica-gel in a glass column to get better hydrocarbon yields. Thus, the highest hydrocarbons yield from E. macroclada was achieved with SFE (5.8%) when it compared with Soxhlet extractions (1.1%). Gas chromatography (GC) analysis was performed to determine the quantitative hydrocarbons from plant material. The greatest quantitative hydrocarbon recovery from GC was obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extract (0.6mgg(-1)).

  14. The Possibilities to use Euphorbia Tirucalli as an Energy and a Rubber Crop

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    Patrick Van Damme

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia tirucalli has been used as a source for natural rubber at different times in history, especially in southern Africa. The latex resin content is too high to guarantee a good quality product and economic production has never taken off as some had hoped. The fact that the plant is very well adapted to arid and semi arid conditions and can be grown on marginal waste lands makes it a potential energy crop which can be turned into biogas without too much investment in costly technology. The first results obtained in the laboratory and in field conditions (Senegal are very promising. The latex contains a number of interesting triterpenes which have a very high energy content and could be used in fuel production. Most of these applications have been tested or used in Africa and can offer long-term solutions for old problems, particularly in the case of renewable energy through biomass fermentation. KEY WORDS: rubber, biomass, biogas, triterpenes, energy crop

  15. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Putative Genes Involved in Steroid Biosynthesis in Euphorbia tirucalli

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    Weibo Qiao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical analysis of different Euphorbia tirucalli tissues revealed a contrasting tissue-specificity for the biosynthesis of euphol and β-sitosterol, which represent the two pharmaceutically active steroids in E. tirucalli. To uncover the molecular mechanism underlying this tissue-specificity for phytochemicals, a comprehensive E. tirucalli transcriptome derived from its root, stem, leaf and latex was constructed, and a total of 91,619 unigenes were generated with 51.08% being successfully annotated against the non-redundant (Nr protein database. A comparison of the transcriptome from different tissues discovered members of unigenes in the upstream steps of sterol backbone biosynthesis leading to this tissue-specific sterol biosynthesis. Among them, the putative oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC encoding genes involved in euphol synthesis were notably identified, and their expressions were significantly up-regulated in the latex. In addition, genome-wide differentially expressed genes (DEGs in the different E. tirucalli tissues were identified. The cluster analysis of those DEGs showed a unique expression pattern in the latex compared with other tissues. The DEGs identified in this study would enrich the insights of sterol biosynthesis and the regulation mechanism of this latex-specificity.

  16. Nectar regulation in Euphorbia tithymaloides L., a hummingbird-pollinated Euphorbiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga Blanco, T; Galetto, L; Machado, I C

    2013-09-01

    Floral sexual phases can differ in nectar production and might be under selective pressure by pollinators. We studied Euphorbia tithymaloides, which has inflorescences that are initially female and then hermaphroditic. Volume and concentration of nectar were measured in both stages. Nectar production and the effect of extractions were determined using sets of bagged inflorescences; inflorescences in the hermaphroditic phase had higher values of nectar concentration, volume and sugar mass than inflorescences in the female phase. Nectar resorption was detected in senescent inflorescences. To test for homeostatic nectar regulation, artificial nectar was added and the response assessed after 24 h. The experiments showed that concentration and sugar mass are regulated within a narrow range, and the homeostatic points differ between the two sexual phases. These differences in nectar can be detected by hummingbirds, which prefer the female stage. Resorption and secretion seem to be part of a homeostatic mechanism by which nectar attributes are maintained to optimise sugar recovery. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. Effect of Pseudomonas putida on Growth and Anthocyanin Pigment in Two Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Cultivars

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    Ramon Zulueta-Rodriguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas putida is plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR that have the capacity to improve growth in plants. The purpose of this study was to determine growth and anthocyanin pigmentation of the bracts in two poinsettia Euphorbia pulcherrima cultivars (Prestige and Sonora Marble using three strains of P. putida, as well as a mixture of the three (MIX. Comparison with the control group indicated for the most part that Prestige grew better than the Sonora Marble cultivars with the PGPR strains. Prestige with the MIX strain grew better compared to control for the number of cyathia (83 versus 70.4, volume of roots (45 versus 35 cm3, number of leaves (78 versus 58, and area of leaf (1,788 versus 1,331 cm2, except for the number of flowers (8.8 versus 11.6. To the naked eye, coloration of plants appeared identical in color compared to the control group. For all plants with P. putida strains, there was less anthocyanin pigment, but biomass was always greater with PGPR strains. Nevertheless, to the naked eye, the coloration of the plants appeared identical in color compared to the control group. This is the first study reporting the positive effects of P. putida rhizobacteria treatments on growth of poinsettia cultivars.

  18. Reactivation of HIV-1 from Latency by an Ingenol Derivative from Euphorbia Kansui.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengfei; Lu, Panpan; Qu, Xiying; Shen, Yinzhong; Zeng, Hanxian; Zhu, Xiaoli; Zhu, Yuqi; Li, Xian; Wu, Hao; Xu, Jianqing; Lu, Hongzhou; Ma, Zhongjun; Zhu, Huanzhang

    2017-08-25

    Cells harboring latent HIV-1 pose a major obstacle to eradication of the virus. The 'shock and kill' strategy has been broadly explored to purge the latent reservoir; however, none of the current latency-reversing agents (LRAs) can safely and effectively activate the latent virus in patients. In this study, we report an ingenol derivative called EK-16A, isolated from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Euphorbia kansui, which displays great potential in reactivating latent HIV-1. A comparison of the doses used to measure the potency indicated EK-16A to be 200-fold more potent than prostratin in reactivating HIV-1 from latently infected cell lines. EK-16A also outperformed prostratin in ex vivo studies on cells from HIV-1-infected individuals, while maintaining minimal cytotoxicity effects on cell viability and T cell activation. Furthermore, EK-16A exhibited synergy with other LRAs in reactivating latent HIV-1. Mechanistic studies indicated EK-16A to be a PKCγ activator, which promoted both HIV-1 transcription initiation by NF-κB and elongation by P-TEFb signal pathways. Further investigations aimed to add this compound to the therapeutic arsenal for HIV-1 eradication are in the pipeline.

  19. Euphorbia neriifolia L.: Review on botany, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Prashant Y; Panchal, Shital S

    2017-05-01

    The present review is intended to provide information on botany, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of various parts of Euphorbia neriifolia (E. neriifolia). E. neriifolia has several ethnomedicinal uses. The latex of E. neriifolia is used as laxative, purgative, rubefacient, carminative and expectorant as well as in treatment of whooping cough, gonorrhoea, leprosy, asthma, dyspepsia, jaundice, enlargement of the spleen, tumours, stone in the bladder, abdominal troubles and leucoderma. Leaves are brittle, heating, carminative, and good for improving the appetite and treatment of tumours, pains, inflammations, abdominal swellings and bronchial infections. Roots are used as symptomatic treatment of snake bite, scorpion sting and antispasmodic. Various plant parts or whole E. neriifolia extract and its isolates have been reported scientifically using various in-vivo and in-vitro experimental methods for anaesthetic, analgesic, anti-anxiety, anti-convulsant, anti-psychotic, anti-arthritis, anti-carcinogenic, antidiabetic, anti-diarrhoeal, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, cytotoxic, death-receptor expression enhancing, dermal irritation, diuretic, haemolytic, immunomodulatory, radioprotective, scorpion venom and wound healing properties. It is reported to have chemical constituents like, neriifolin-S, neriifolin, neriifoliene, euphol, neriifolione, cycloartenol, nerifoliol, lectin, euphonerins A-G, 3-O-acetyl-8-O-tigloylingol, taraxerol, antiquorin, etc. Identified chemical constituents are still required to be explored for their advanced isolation techniques and biological activities. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Resistence of Euphorbia Heterophylla L. to ALS-inhibiting herbicides in soybean Resistência de Euphorbia Heterophylla L. aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS na cultura da soja

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    Gerson Augusto Gelmini

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides are widely used in soybean for weed control, and the selection pressure attributed to the repeated use of herbicides with similar modes of action on the same site has caused selection for resistant biotypes within and among previously susceptible species, such as Euphorbia heterophylla L., in relation to ALS enzyme inhibitors, in the states of Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, and São Paulo, Brazil. Seeds of E. heterophylla were collected to examine possible new cases of resistant populations and to test alternative herbicide treatments to manage these populations, in the Caarapó region, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in areas where plants of this species have survived continuous herbicide applications. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions, where biotypes with a history of suspected resistance were compared with a known susceptible biotype. Several post-emergence herbicides were sprayed at zero, one, two, four, and eight times the recommended field application rates. Twenty days after application, plants were harvested, and control percentage and fresh weight were determined to establish dose-response curves, in the aim to obtain the resistance factor using CD50 and RD50 data. The chlorimuron-ethyl resistance factor values for the control percentage and fresh weight parameters were higher than 16.5 and 16.9, respectively, while imazethapyr showed resistance factors higher than 25.0 and 23.5, respectively. The resistant biotype showed different resistance levels to chlorimuron-ethyl and imazethapyr, showing cross-resistance to the sulfonylurea and imidazolinone groups. Nevertheless, this biotype was effectively controlled by fomesafen (250 g ha-1, lactofen (120 g ha-1, flumiclorac-pentyl (40 g ha-1, glufosinate-ammonium (150 g ha-1, and glyphosate (360 g ha-1.Os herbicidas constituem a principal medida de controle de plantas daninhas na cultura da soja, mas através da pressão de seleção, o uso contínuo e

  1. INHIBITION EFFECT OF FLAVONOID EXTRACT OF Euphorbia Guyoniana ON THE CORROSION OF MILD STEEL IN H2SO4 MEDIUM

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    S. Chihi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of flavonoids extracts of three parts of Euphorbia Guyoniana towards the corrosion of type API 5L X52 steel in 15% H2SO4 has been evaluated by weight loss method and polarization technique. The results showed that extracts are a good inhibitors for API 5L X52 steel in this medium. The corrosion inhibition efficiency increases on increasing plant extracts concentration. The inhibition is attributed to the adsorption of the surface of the metal. Potentiodynamic polarization results revealed that the studied inhibitors behave as a mixed type.

  2. Estudo botânico, fitoquímico e fisico-químico de Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae)

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    Pinto,M.V.; Nogueira,J.C.M.; Tresvenzol,L.M.F.; Fiuza,T.S.; Paula,J.R.; Bara,M.T.F.

    2014-01-01

    Euphorbia hirta L., popularmente conhecida por erva andorinha, tem sido utilizada no tratamento de distúrbios respiratórios e como antiespasmódico. Esse trabalho foi realizado com a finalidade de determinar as características macroscópicas e microscópicas das folhas, caule e raiz dessa planta, uma vez que estas são as partes usadas popularmente. Algumas características de valor na sua diagnose foram apontadas e ilustradas por fotomicrografias. Reações de fitoquímica e a determinação do conteú...

  3. The candelabra tree (Euphorbia ingens: a source of water for black rhinoceros in Liwonde National Park, Malawi

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    C.O. Dudley

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of two rhinoceros into a 15 km2 fenced sanctuary within Liwonde National Park provided an opportunity for close observation of the animals feeding on the toxic succulent Euphorbia ingens. Feeding invariably caused the death of the plant and for plants with basal diameters between 5-17 cm, mortality ranged from 40-90 . During the severe drought of 1994 rhinoceros did not drink from the artificial waterhole from approximately 15 July to at least 23 September. As this waterhole was the only source of free water it is believed that the rhinoceros obtained their water from browsing on E. ingens.

  4. Factors affecting herbivory of Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae and Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae on the eggplant (Solanum melongena

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    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of total rainfall, mean temperature, natural enemies, chemical composition of leaves, levels of nitrogen and potassium on leaves and density of leaf trichomes on attack intensity of Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae and Aphis gossypii (Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae on plantations of the eggplant (Solanum melongena in two regions of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Higher numbers of A. gossypii/leaf and T. palmi/leaf were observed in plantations of this eggplant in the Municipalities of Viçosa and Guidoval, respectively. Guidoval had a rainy and hotter weather than Viçosa. T. palmi was almost positivelly correlated with rainfall (r= 0.49, P= 0.0538 while A. gossypii seemed to be more affected by mean temperature (r= -0.31; P= 0.1134. Higher number of aphids in eggplants in Viçosa than in Guidoval could be explained by the higher number of natural enemies such as Adialytus spp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Cycloneda sanguinea (L. and Exochomus bimaculosus Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae and Chrysoperla spp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae in this municipality. However, only Adialytus spp. was significativelly correlated with aphid populations. Higher number of T. palmi in eggplant plantations of Guidoval than in Viçosa could be due to the absence of its possible Eulophidae parasitoid in the first municipality. The spiders were significativelly correlated with this pest in both municipalities.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de pluviosidade total, temperatura média, inimigos naturais, composição química foliar, níveis de nitrogênio e potássio foliar e densidade de tricomas na intensidade de ataque de Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae e Aphis gossypii (Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae em plantações de berinjela (Solanum melongena em dois municípios de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Observou-se maiores números de A. gossypii e T. palmi por folha em plantações de berinjela nos

  5. Leaf endophytic fungi of chili (Capsicum annuum and their role in the protection against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae

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    HENY HERNAWATI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hernawati H, Wiyono S, Santoso S (2011 Leaf endophytic fungi of chili (Capsicum annuum and their role in the protection against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae. Biodiversitas 12: 187-191. The objectives of the research were to study the diversity of leaf endophytic fungi of chili, and investigate its potency in protecting host plants against Aphis gossypii Glov. Endophytic fungi were isolated from chili leaves with two categories: aphid infested plants and aphid-free plants, collected from farmer’s field in Bogor, West Java. Abundance of each fungal species from leave samples was determined by calculating frequency of isolation. The isolated fungi were tested on population growth of A. gossypii. The fungal isolates showed suppressing effect in population growth test, was further tested on biology attributes i.e. life cycle, fecundity and body length. Five species of leaf endophytic fungi of chili were found i.e. Aspergillus flavus, Nigrospora sp., Coniothyrium sp., and SH1 (sterile hypha 1, SH2 (sterile hypha 2. Eventhough the number of endophytic fungi species in aphid-free and aphid-infested plant was same, the abundance of each species was different. Nigrospora sp., sterile hyphae 1 and sterile hyphae 2 was more abundant in aphid-free plants, but there was no difference in dominance of Aspergillus flavus and Coniothyrium sp. Nigrospora sp., SH1 and SH2 treatment reduced significantly fecundity of A. gossypii. Only SH2 treatment significantly prolonged life cycle and suppress body length, therefore the fungus had the strongest suppressing effect on population growth among fungi tested. The abundance and dominance of endophytic fungal species has relation with the infestation of A. gossypii in the field.

  6. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumor, and cytotoxic activities of an important medicinal plant (Euphorbia royleana from Pakistan

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    Aisha Ashraf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to evaluate antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antitumor activities of methanol, hexane, and aqueous extracts of fresh Euphorbia royleana. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated as gallic acid and querectin equivalents, respectively. Antioxidant activity was assessed by scavenging of free 2,2′- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals and reduction of ferric ions, and it was observed that inhibition values increase linearly with increase in concentration of extract. The results of ferric reducing antioxidant power assay showed that hexane extract has maximum ferric reducing power (12.70 ± 0.49 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of plant extract. Maximum phenolic (47.47 ± 0.71 μg gallic acid equivalents/mg of plant extract and flavonoid (63.68 ± 0.43 μg querectin equivalents/mg of plant extract contents were also found in the hexane extract. Furthermore, we examined antimicrobial activity of the three extracts (methanol, hexane, aqueous against a panel of microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtillis, Pasteurella multocida, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium solani by disc-diffusion assay, and found the hexane extract to be the best antimicrobial agent. Hexane extract was also observed as to be most effective in a potato disc assay. As hexane extract showed potent activity in all the investigated assays, it was targeted for cytotoxic assessment. Maximum cytotoxicity (61.66% by hexane extract was found at 800 μg/mL. It is concluded that investigated extracts have potential for isolation of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds for the pharmaceutical industry.

  7. Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Activities of Two Extracts of the Plant Species Euphorbia dendroides L.

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    Agena Ghout

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: These days, the desire for naturally occurring antioxidants has significantly increased, especially for use in foodstuffs, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products, to replace synthetic antioxidants that are regularly constrained due to their carcinogenicity. Methods: The study in hand aimed to appraise the antioxidant effect of two Euphorbia dendroides extracts using reducing power, anti-peroxidation, and DPPH (1,1 Diphenyl 2 Pycril Hydrazil scavenging essays, in addition to the anticancer activity against two tumor cell lines, namely C6 (rat brain tumorcells, and Hela (human uterus carcinomacell lines. Results: The results indicated that the ethyl acetate extract exhibited antiradical activity of 29.49%, higher than that of n-butanol extract (18.06% at 100 µg/mL but much lower than that of gallic acid (78.21%.The ethyl acetate extract exhibits better reducing capacity and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity compared to n-butanol extract but less than all tested standards. Moreover, the ethyl acetate extract was found to have an antiproliferative activity of more than 5-FU (5-fluoro-Uracil against C6 cells at 250 µg/mL with IC50 and IC75 of 113.97, 119.49 µg/mL, respectively, and good cytotoxic activity against the Hela cell lines at the same concentration. The HPLC-TOF-MS (high performance liquid chromatography-Time-of-flight-Mass Spectrometry analyses exposed the presence of various compounds, among which Gallic and Chlorogenic acids functioned as major compounds. Conclusions: The two extracts exhibited moderate anticancer abilities and behaved somewhat as average antioxidant agents. Based on the total phenolics and flavonoids contents, as well as HPLC results, it could be concluded that antiproliferative and antioxidant activities depend upon the content of different phenolics and flavonoids.

  8. Morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of biofuel plant Euphorbia lathyris to salt stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jie; Cao, Yan; Yang, Ziyi; Lu, Changmei [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal Univ., Nanjing (China)], E-mail: 08134@njnu.edu.cn); Zhang, Weiming; Sun, Lijun [Nanjing Inst. for the Comprehensive Utilization of Wild plants, Nanjing (China)

    2013-05-15

    Saline lands are characterized by salinity and nutrient deficiency and there is an ever increasing need for economical, adaptable plant species to rejuvenate these lands. In this study, we determined the suitability and tolerance of Euphorbia lathyris L. (Caper spurge), a well-known biofuel plant, as a sustainable candidate to colonize saline lands. We investigated the germination rate, seedling growth, solute change and anti-oxidative enzyme activities etc. under salt stress conditions. Our results showed that Caper spurge seeds prefer to germinate under nonsaline environments and high salt stress induced temporary dormancy during germination, but did not completely hamper the viability of the seeds. The seedling biomass increased without any visible distress symptoms in the presence of NaCl not over 171 mM. Further increase in NaCl concentration had a negative impact on the seedling growth. These demonstrate that Caper spurge seedlings have the potential to grow in saline lands. The salinity tolerance of Caper spurge seedlings was closely associated with the regional distribution of Na{sup + }in roots, stable absorption of Ca{sup 2{sup +,}} K{sup + }and Mg{sup 2{sup +,}} accumulation of organic solutes, and increased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes. However, excessive accumulation of Na{sup +,} sharp increase of superoxide (O{sub 2}), H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, malonaldehyde (MDA) and cell membrane leakage, reduction of osmoprotectants, and decreased activities of CAT and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) etc. under high salinity might be the reasons for the restrained seedling growth.

  9. Overexpression of the AtSHI gene in poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima, results in compact plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ashraful Islam

    Full Text Available Euphorbia pulcherrima, poinsettia, is a non-food and non-feed vegetatively propagated ornamental plant. Appropriate plant height is one of the most important traits in poinsettia production and is commonly achieved by application of chemical growth retardants. To produce compact poinsettia plants with desirable height and reduce the utilization of growth retardants, the Arabidopsis SHORT INTERNODE (AtSHI gene controlled by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was introduced into poinsettia by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Three independent transgenic lines were produced and stable integration of transgene was verified by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Reduced plant height (21-52% and internode lengths (31-49% were obtained in the transgenic lines compared to control plants. This correlates positively with the AtSHI transcript levels, with the highest levels in the most dwarfed transgenic line (TL1. The indole-3-acetic acid (IAA content appeared lower (11-31% reduction in the transgenic lines compared to the wild type (WT controls, with the lowest level (31% reduction in TL1. Total internode numbers, bract numbers and bract area were significantly reduced in all transgenic lines in comparison with the WT controls. Only TL1 showed significantly lower plant diameter, total leaf area and total dry weight, whereas none of the AtSHI expressing lines showed altered timing of flower initiation, cyathia abscission or bract necrosis. This study demonstrated that introduction of the AtSHI gene into poinsettia by genetic engineering can be an effective approach in controlling plant height without negatively affecting flowering time. This can help to reduce or avoid the use of toxic growth retardants of environmental and human health concern. This is the first report that AtSHI gene was overexpressed in poinsettia and transgenic poinsettia plants with compact growth were produced.

  10. Impact of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis minor) on a local population of Euphorbia bothae in the Great Fish River Reserve, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luske, B.L.; Mertens, T.; Lent, P.C.; Boer, de W.F.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2009-01-01

    In the Great Fish River Reserve, South Africa, black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis minor) feed extensively on a local population of Euphorbia bothae. Maintaining the endangered black rhinoceros and the protected E. bothae population are both conservation priorities of the reserve. Therefore, the

  11. Chemical Composition and Mosquitocidal activity of n-Hexane and Methanol Extracts from Euphorbia anacampseros var. tmolea, an endemic species of Turkey, against Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    New and safe mosquito control agents are necessary due to increasing resistance to synthetic insecticides and environmental change. The mosquito larvicidal and adulticidal activity and chemical composition of Euphorbia anacampseros var. tmolea extracts are investigated in this article for the first ...

  12. In vitro growth inhibition and cytotoxicity of Euphorbia caducifolia against four human cancer cell lines and its phytochemical characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bano, Shaista; Siddiqui, Bina Shaheen; Farooq, Ahsana Dar; Begum, Sabira; Siddiqui, Faheema; Kashif, Muhammad; Azhar, Mudassar

    2017-12-01

    Several Euphorbia species have been used in folklore as cancer remedies, however, scientific studies on the cytotoxicity (in vitro studies) of Euphorbia caducifolia are lacking. In present study, anticancer potential of E. caducifolia aerial parts ethanol extract and its fractions were evaluated against human lung (NCI-H460), breast (MCF-7), prostate (PC-3) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cell lines, using sulphorhodamine-B in vitro cytotoxicity (in vitro studies) assay. The ethanol extract demonstrated growth inhibitory effect against all aforementioned cancer cell lines with IC 50 , 19-135 μg/mL and LC 50 , ~220 μg/mL, and its petroleum ether fraction obtained on bioactivity guided fraction showed highest activity with IC 50 , 28-70 μg/mL and LC 50 , 71 μg/mL against NCI-H460 and MCF-7 cell lines. Its phytochemicals were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The present study provides scientific justification for its traditional use against cancer.

  13. Methanic fermentation of Euphorbia tirucalli, a rich and renewable vegetal biomass of the Sahel and arid zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sow, D. [Dakar Univ. (Senegal); Depeyre, D.; Isambert, A. [Ecole Centrale des Arts et Manufactures, 92 - Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    1994-12-31

    A rich and renewable vegetal biomass is existing in Senegal. In fact Euphorbia tirucalli is a latex plant well adapted to sahelian climatic conditions, spread all along the country. In this work, methanic fermentation experimentations are made with this plant in a specific continuous fermentor named Transpaille. A 120 l biodigester was tested at 37 deg C with a piece-broken plant. The registered volumic efficiency is 0.80 l/l.d. With this interesting result, the same experiment was made with real operating conditions on a village digester in a farm. With a bioreactor of 12 m{sup 3}, incubated at ambient temperature, the obtained volumic efficiency is 0.61 l/l.d. The produced biogas of this experiment was used for food cooking and for farm milk cooling. This work shows that a vulgarization policy of the biogas way in rural conditions in Senegal is now possible with Euphorbia tirucalli. (authors). 19 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Climatic factors and populational dynamics of Mahanarva posticata (Stal-1855) (Homoptera-Cercopidae) as a contribution to a possible regional implantation of the sterile male technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.L. de

    1981-01-01

    A field study on the population dynamics of M. posticata (STAL, 1855) (Homoptera-Cercopidae) was carried out from 1971 to 1978 under the ecological conditions prevailing in the Litoral-Mata-Sul Zone of Pernambuco, Brazil. The results indicated that maximal infestation of the sugar cane crops by the insect generally occured in June and in July, and it was dependent on rainfall, temperature and relative humidity. The population density of adults was decreased markedly during the months of January, February and March. Technical and economical viability of the insect control by the male-sterilization-techniques through radiation was also demonstrated. The technique is to be used isolated or with other conventional procedures in the combat of froghopper infestations in the sugar cane growing in Pernambuco, Brazil. (Author) [pt

  15. Analysis of the populations genetic variability of Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae), virus vector of the rice white leaf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Alfaro, Myriam

    2006-01-01

    Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae), is a monophagous insect of the rice and virus vector of the white leaf (RHBV). It is distributed in America Central, El Caribe, part of the America del Sur and in Costa Rica it is in all the producing zones of rice. The genetic variability was analyzed by means of RAPD-PCR of individuals from three populations of Costa Rica: Parrita, Guanacaste (Liberia) y San Carlos (Santa Clara), that they are found separated geographically. The technique consisted of amplifying regions at random of the genome of these insects utilizing five primers. A total of 72 polymorphic bands were obtained, that upon being analyzed statistically by means of the multivariate analysis program of numerical taxonomy could show a clear genetic distancing among said populations. The genetic distance observed in the molecular analysis can be explained for the climatic and/or geographical isolation of the populations or by the incident of Wolbachia, riquettsia that induces cytoplasmic sterility in insects. These symbionts are transmitted of generation in generation, of the mother to their offspring and they cause reproductive alterations as cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis and feminization. The presence of Wolbachia was determined by means of transmission electronic microscopy being observed in the greasy and muscular weave of the abdomen of T. orizicolus. Rickettsias present pleomorphic morphology and form small groups, that are characterized for the presence of electrondense material semidetached to the cell wall with an interior electronlucent. Its size in transverse cuts ranged between 520 nm of length X 470 nm of width. In addition, its presence was detected by means of the amplification by PCR of the genomic DNA of the insects; a specific primer for the DNA ribosomal 16S of Wolbachia was utilized for it. A 86% of insects of the San Carlos population were positive, a 96% was determined for Guanacaste, a 37% for Parrita and a 100% for

  16. Optimisation of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity from Euphorbia tirucalli Using Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Quan V.; Goldsmith, Chloe D.; Dang, Trung Thanh; Nguyen, Van Tang; Bhuyan, Deep Jyoti; Sadeqzadeh, Elham; Scarlett, Christopher J.; Bowyer, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Euphorbia tirucalli (E. tirucalli) is now widely distributed around the world and is well known as a source of traditional medicine in many countries. This study aimed to utilise response surface methodology (RSM) to optimise ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions for total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant capacity from E. tirucalli leaf. The results showed that ultrasonic temperature, time and power effected TPC and antioxidant capacity; however, the effects varied. Ultrasonic power had the strongest influence on TPC; whereas ultrasonic temperature had the greatest impact on antioxidant capacity. Ultrasonic time had the least impact on both TPC and antioxidant capacity. The optimum UAE conditions were determined to be 50 °C, 90 min. and 200 W. Under these conditions, the E. tirucalli leaf extract yielded 2.93 mg GAE/g FW of TPC and exhibited potent antioxidant capacity. These conditions can be utilised for further isolation and purification of phenolic compounds from E. tirucalli leaf. PMID:26785074

  17. Effects of growth retardants and fumigations with ozone and sulfur dioxide on growth and flowering of Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathey, H.M.; Heggestad, H.E.

    1973-01-01

    Eight cultivars of poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd., were evaluated for sensitivity to ..cap alpha..-cyclopropyl-..cap alpha.. (4-methoxyphenyl)-5-pyrimidine methanol (ancymidol) and protection from ozone and sulfur dioxide injury afforded by applications of ancymidol and (2-chloroethyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride (chlormequat). Foliar sprays of ancymidol were at least 80 to 500 times and the soil drench 1000 times more active than chlormequat in retarding stem elongation. The diam of the bracts was reduced, but branching increased more on plants treated with ancymidol than on untreated plants. The cv. Annette Hegg (AH) was more sensitive to ozone fumigations than was Eckespoint C-1' (C-1). Sulfur dioxide also caused more injury to AH than to C-1. Ancymidol and chlormequat reduced visible injury induced by ozone and sulfur dioxide.

  18. Facile synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Euphorbia antiquorum L. latex extract and evaluation of their biomedical perspectives as anticancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekaran Rajkuberan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reveals the rapid biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (EAAgNPs using aqueous latex extract of Euphorbia antiquorum L as a potential bioreductant. Synthesized EAAgNPs generate the surface plasmonic resonance peak at 438 nm in UV–Vis spectrophotometer. Size and shape of EAAgNPs were further characterized through transmission electron microscope (TEM which shows well-dispersed spherical nanoparticles with size ranging from 10 to 50 nm. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis (EDAX confirms the presence of silver (Ag as the major constituent element. X-ray diffraction (XRD pattern of EAAgNPs corresponding to (111, (200, (220 and (311 planes, reveals that the generated nanoparticles were face centered cubic crystalline in nature. Interestingly, fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis shows the major role of active phenolic constituents in reduction and stabilization of EAAgNPs. Phyto-fabricated EAAgNPs exhibits significant antimicrobial and larvicidal activity against bacterial human pathogens as well as disease transmitting blood sucking parasites such as Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (IIIrd instar larvae. On the other hand, in vitro cytotoxicity assessment of bioformulated EAAgNPs has shown potential anticancer activity against human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa. The preliminary biochemical (MTT assay and microscopic studies depict that the synthesized EAAgNPs at minimal dosage (IC50 = 28 μg triggers cellular toxicity response. Hence, the EAAgNPs can be considered as an environmentally benign and non-toxic nanobiomaterial for biomedical applications. Keywords: Crystal structure, Euphorbia antiquorum L., Silver nanoparticles, Anticancer, Human pathogens

  19. Chronic toxicological effects of ultradiluted solutions of Aveloz (Euphorbia tirucalli Lineu) on healthy mice: a preliminary study Efeitos toxicológicos crônicos de altas diluições de Aveloz (Euphorbia tirucalli L.) em camundongos sadios: estudo preliminar. Efectos toxicológicos crónicos de altas diluciones de Euphorbia tirucalli en ratones sanos: estudio preliminar.

    OpenAIRE

    Morgana Castelo Branco; Ricardo Kuster; Alexandre dos Santos Pyrrho; Paulo Eduardo Mansur Hobaica; Gleyce Moreno Barbosa; Nelson Gomes; Carolina Lessa Aquino; Elaine Daudt; Teresa Gomes; Cristiane Pereira; Fernanda Sales; Marcia CBN Varricchio; Carla Holandino

    2008-01-01

    The latex extracted from Euphorbia tirucalli, a plant popularly known as Aveloz, is used in complementary medicine to induce tumor regression. However, as this latex has toxic effects when administered orally in ponderal doses, the present study was designed to assess the effects of high dilutions in healthy mice over a period of 18 weeks. The Aveloz latex-high diluted solutions (latex-HD) were obtained through the interaction of two processes: 1:100 dilution in mass and succussion, using et...

  20. DNA barcoding in a biodiversity hot spot: potential value for the identification of Malagasy Euphorbia L. listed in CITES Appendices I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubriot, Xavier; Lowry, Porter P; Cruaud, Corinne; Couloux, Arnaud; Haevermans, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The island of Madagascar is a key hot spot for the genus Euphorbia, with at least 170 native species, almost all endemic. Threatened by habitat loss and illegal collection of wild plants, nearly all Malagasy Euphorbia are listed in CITES Appendices I and II. The absence of a reliable taxonomic revision makes it particularly difficult to identify these plants, even when fertile, and thereby compromises the application of CITES regulations. DNA barcoding, which can facilitate species-level identification irrespective of developmental stage and the presence of flowers or fruits, may be a promising tool for monitoring and controlling trade involving threatened species. In this study, we test the potential value of barcoding on 41 Euphorbia species representative of the genus in Madagascar, using the two widely adopted core barcode markers (matK and rbcL), along with two additional DNA regions, nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the chloroplastic intergenic spacer psbA-trnH. For each marker and for selected marker combinations, inter- and intraspecific distance estimates and species discrimination rates are calculated. Results using just the 'official' barcoding markers yield overlapping inter- and intraspecific ranges and species discrimination rates below 60%. When ITS is used, whether alone or in combination with the core markers, species discrimination increases to nearly 100%, whereas the addition of psbA-trnH produces less satisfactory results. This study, the first ever to test barcoding on the large, commercially important genus Euphorbia shows that this method could be developed into a powerful identification tool and thereby contribute to more effective application of CITES regulations. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Ingestion et digestibilité in vivo du Panicum maximum associé à trois compléments: tourteau de Jatophra curcas, tourteau de coton Gossypium hirsutum et Euphorbia heterophylla chez le cobaye Cavia porcellus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N'G.D.V. Kouakou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Intake and the in vivo Digestibility of Panicum maximum Associated with Three Supplements: Jatophra curcas Cake, Gossypium hirsutum Cake and Euphorbia heterophylla (Euph in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus L.. The intake and the in vivo digestibility of Panicum maximum associated with three supplements: Jatropha curcas cake, Gossypium hirsutum cake and Euphorbia heterophylla (Euph in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus L. pigs, its association with Panicum maximum could be popularized wherever its abundance has been reported. In order used weed Euphorbia heterophylla in guinea pigs diet, comparative study of the intake and the in vivo digestibility of four treatments, Panicum maximum (Pan, Panicum maximum and Gossypium hirsutum cake (Pancoton, Panicum maximum and Euphorbia heterophylla (Paneuph and Panicum maximum and Jatropha curcas cake (Panjatro, in male guinea pigs were conducted in Yamoussoukro (Ivory Coast. The means of the intake (g DM/d were 64.8 ± 12.5; 74.3 ± 12.9; 73.7 ± 17.8 and 69.1 ± 12.3 respectively for Pan, Pancoton, Paneuph and Panjatro. Pancoton and Paneuph were significantly better ingested than Pan and Panjatro. Euphorbia heterophylla was significantly better ingested than the other two supplements (P< 0.05 and the mean daily weight gain with its association with Panicum maximum of 3.1 ± 0.6 g/d. The rate of substitution of Panicum maximum by Euphorbia heterophylla was nearly to one (1. The apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC for dry (68.0 ± 10.5% and organic matter (84.1 ± 5.2% of Paneuph were significantly higher (P< 0.05 than the ADC's for the other three treatments. Given the nutritional value of Euphorbia heterophylla in guinea pigs, its association with Panicum maximum could be popularized wherever its abundance has been reported.

  2. Interferência de populações de Euphorbia heterophylla e Ipomoea ramosissima isoladas ou em misturas sobre a cultura de soja Interference of populations of Euphorbia heterophylla and Ipomoea ramosissima isolated or in mixture in soybean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Rizzardi

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as principais espécies daninhas que infestam as lavouras de soja do sul do Brasil, destacam-se Euphorbia heterophylla (leiteira e, mais recentemente, Ipomoea ramosissima (corda-de-viola. Objetivou-se avaliar a habilidade competitiva relativa entre espécies daninhas e soja e quantificar a interferência de infestações mistas de leiteira e corda-de-viola quando em convivência com plantas de soja. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, comparando associações de leiteira ou corda-de-viola com soja, utilizando-se cinco proporções de plantas de leiteira e soja ou corda-de-viola e soja (0:8; 2:6; 4:4; 6:2; 8:0. Em um terceiro experimento, mantiveram-se constantes quatro plantas de soja por vaso e utilizaram-se cinco proporções de plantas de leiteira e corda-de-viola (0:8; 2:6; 4:4; 6:2; 8:0, estabelecidas em duas épocas de emergência das plantas daninhas em relação à soja. Verificou-se que a redução na biomassa da soja é mais intensa quando em presença de corda-de-viola do que de leiteira e, principalmente, em situações nas quais a planta daninha se estabelece antes que a cultura. Quando em infestação mista, corda-de-viola é mais competitiva do que leiteira.Euphorbia heterophylla (wild poinsettia, and, more recently, Ipomoea ramosissima (morningglory are among the main weeds infesting soybean crop in southern Brazil. This work aimed to evaluate the effects of wild poinsettia and morningglory as single or mixed populations in coexistence with soybean. Two experimentswere conducted to compare associations of wild poinsettia or moningglory with soybean, using five ratios of wild poinsettia plants and soybean or morningglory (0:8, 2:6, 4:4, 6:2 and 8:0. In a third experiment, four soybean plants per pot were kept constant and five ratios of of wild poinsettia and moningglory plants were used (0:8, 2:6, 4:4, 6:2 and 8:0, established in two weed emergence periods related to the soybean. The results indicated that a higher

  3. Aplicações seqüenciais de flumicloracpentil para o controle de Euphorbia heterophylla na cultura da soja = Sequential application of flumicloracpentil for Euphorbia heterophylla control in soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubem Silvério de Oliveira Jr

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia heterophylla destacase como a principal planta daninha na cultura da soja no Estado do Paraná, não só pela sua disseminação, mas também pela natural dificuldade de controle e pela ocorrência de biótipos que apresentam resistência. Em face de tais problemas, buscou se avaliar a eficácia de aplicações seqüenciais em pós emergência de flumicloracpentil no controle dessa planta daninha. As aplicações seqüenciais de flumicloracpentil foram superiores, em termos de eficácia, às doses recomendadas em aplicação única, promovendo no mínimo 86% de controle aos 24 dias após a aplicação dasegunda etapa das seqüenciais. Todas as combinações de doses de flumicloracpentil avaliadas promoveram controle adequado de E. heterophylla, desde que aplicadas no estádio de duas folhas verdadeiras. Comparando se os resultados obtidos em casadevegetaçãoe em estufa, observou se que, em condições de campo, o sombreamento imposto pela soja auxilia no nível de controle final da planta daninha.Wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla is one the most importantweeds in soybean fields in the state of Paraná, not only for its dissemination, but also due to its natural difficulty of controlling features by herbicides and to occurrence of resistant biotypes. Facing those problems, an evaluation of the field and greenhouse trials was carried out in order to check the efficacy of postemergencesequential application of flumicloracpentil to control this weed. Sequential applications of flumicloracpentil were more efficientthan a single application, promoting, at least, 86% of weed control on the 24th day after the second application of the sequential treatments. All the evaluated combinations of flumiclorac rates once sprayed at two true leaves stage, promoted adequate control of E. heterophylla. Comparing the greenhouse and the field results, it was concluded that, under field conditions, the canopy provided by the crop helps to improve the

  4. Functional characterization of the Hyles euphorbiae hawkmoth transcriptome reveals strong expression of phorbol ester detoxification and seasonal cold hardiness genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, M Benjamin; Buchwalder, Katja; Kawahara, Akito Y; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Shanlin; Krezdorn, Nicolas; Rotter, Björn; Horres, Ralf; Hundsdoerfer, Anna K

    2018-01-01

    The European spurge hawkmoth, Hyles euphorbiae (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae), has been intensively studied as a model organism for insect chemical ecology, cold hardiness and evolution of species delineation. To understand species isolation mechanisms at a molecular level, this study aims at determining genetic factors underlying two adaptive ecological trait candidates, phorbol ester (TPA) detoxification and seasonal cold acclimation. A draft transcriptome of H. euphorbiae was generated using Illumina sequencing, providing the first genomic resource for the hawkmoth subfamily Macroglossinae. RNA expression levels in tissues of experimental TPA feeding larvae and cooled pupae was compared to levels in control larvae and pupae using 26 bp RNA sequence tag libraries (DeepSuperSAGE). Differential gene expression was assessed by homology searches of the tags in the transcriptome. In total, 389 and 605 differentially expressed transcripts for detoxification and cold hardiness, respectively, could be identified and annotated with proteins. The majority (22 of 28) of differentially expressed detox transcripts of the four 'drug metabolism' enzyme groups (cytochrome P450 (CYP), carboxylesterases (CES), glutathione S-transferases (GST) and lipases) are up-regulated. Triacylglycerol lipase was significantly over proportionally annotated among up-regulated detox transcripts. We record several up-regulated lipases, GSTe2, two CESs, CYP9A21, CYP6BD6 and CYP9A17 as candidate genes for further H. euphorbiae TPA detoxification analyses. Differential gene expression of the cold acclimation treatment is marked by metabolic depression with enriched Gene Ontology terms among down-regulated transcripts almost exclusively comprising metabolism, aerobic respiration and dissimilative functions. Down-regulated transcripts include energy expensive respiratory proteins like NADH dehydrogenase, cytochrome oxidase and ATP synthase. Gene expression patterns show shifts in carbohydrate

  5. The Potato Aphid Salivary Effector Me47 Is a Glutathione-S-Transferase Involved in Modifying Plant Responses to Aphid Infestation

    OpenAIRE

    Kettles, Graeme J.; Kaloshian, Isgouhi

    2016-01-01

    Polyphagous aphid pests cause considerable economic damage to crop plants, primarily through the depletion of photoassimilates and transfer of viruses. The potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae) is a notable pest of solanaceous crops, however, the molecular mechanisms that underpin the ability to colonize these hosts are unknown. It has recently been demonstrated that like other aphid species, M. euphorbiae injects a battery of salivary proteins into host plants during feeding. It is speculate...

  6. Role of the aphid species and their feeding locations in parasitization behavior of Aphelinus abdominalis, a parasitoid of the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Govinda; Skovg?rd, Henrik; Reddy, Gadi V. P.; Steenberg, Tove; Enkegaard, Annie

    2017-01-01

    Aphid species feeding on lettuce occupy distinct feeding sites: the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri prefers to feed on heart leaves, whereas the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae feeds only on outer leaves. The aphid parasitoid Aphelinus abdominalis, known to be able to regulate M. euphorbiae on many crops, has recently been indicated as a promising biocontrol candidate also for use against N. ribisnigri, a major pest of lettuce. This study therefore examined A. abdominalis parasitizatio...

  7. Variabilidade genética em biotipos de leiteiro de Londrina/PR Genetic variability among Euphorbia heterophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José V. de Vasconcelos

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia heterophylla, também conhecida como amendoim-bravo ou leiteira, é considerada planta invasora importante em mais de 56 países, inclusive no Brasil, tendo acarretado perdas de até 33 % na cultura da soja. Fenotipicamente, é uma espécie de características variáveis, especialmente em relação ao formato do limbo foliar. Esta variabilidade fenotípica tem sido utilizada para diferenciar e classificar as plantas, sugerindo a vários autores que a leiteira seria, de fato, constituída por diferentes espécies. Para estudar a variabilidade genética a nível de DNA entre plantas de Euphorbia heterophylla, que apresentam folhas morfologicamente diferentes, foram analisadas dez plantas diferentes coletadas em campos de soja, em Londrina/PR. As plantas foram transplantadas para casa-devegetação e o DNA das folhas foi extraído para análise pela técnica de RAPD. Vinte seis diferentes "primers", de dez nucleotídeos de sequência aleatória, geraram total de 102 bandas de DNA, sendo 38 delas polimórficas. A distância genética entre os indivíduos foi calculada em função da presença e da ausência das bandas, variando de 1 a 39% entre plantas. A análise de agrupamento dividiu as plantas em dois grupos, considerando limite de distância relativa de 22%. Os grupos gerados separaram nitidamente as plantas quanto ao formato do limbo foliar (estreito ou arredondado e quanto á ramificação (densa ou normal.Euphorbia heterophylla is an important weed affecting the performance of annual and perennial crops. It is native from tropical and subtropical regions in the American continent, and has been detected at high densities in 20 different countries worldwide, and at low densities in other 40 countries. In Brazil, it has been inclued among the ten most important weeds affecting different crops, causing yield losses up to 33% in soybean fields. Phenotypically, this species is extremely variable, especially in relation to leaf shape and

  8. Comparative study of the conformational lock, dissociative thermal inactivation and stability of euphorbia latex and lentil seedling amine oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amani, M; Moosavi-Movahedi, A A; Floris, G; Longu, S; Mura, A; Moosavi-Nejad, S Z; Saboury, A A; Ahmad, F

    2005-04-01

    The thermal stability of copper/quinone containing amine oxidases from Euphorbia characias latex (ELAO) and lentil seedlings (LSAO) was measured in 100 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) following changes in absorbance at 292 nm. ELAO was shown to be about 10 degrees C more stable than LSAO. The dissociative thermal inactivation of ELAO was studied using putrescine as substrate at different temperatures in the range 47-70 degrees C, and a "conformational lock" was developed using the theory pertaining to oligomeric enzyme. Moreover ELAO was shown to be more stable towards denaturants than LSAO, as confirmed by dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide denaturation curves. A comparison of the numbers of contact sites in inter-subunits of ELAO relative to LSAO led us to conclude that the higher stability of ELAO to temperature and towards denaturants was due to the presence of larger number of contact sites in the conformational lock of the enzyme. This study also gives a putative common mechanism for thermal inactivation of amine oxidases and explains the importance of C-terminal conserved amino acids residues in this class of enzymes.

  9. The use of Euphorbia falcata extract as eco-friendly corrosion inhibitor of carbon steel in hydrochloric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Bribri, A.; Tabyaoui, M.; Tabyaoui, B.; El Attari, H.; Bentiss, F.

    2013-01-01

    Euphorbia falcata L. extract (EFE) was investigated as eco-friendly corrosion inhibitor of carbon steel in 1 M HCl using gravimetric, ac impedance, polarization and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The experimental results show that EFE is good corrosion inhibitor and the protection efficiency is increased with the EEF concentration. The results obtained from weight loss and ac impedance studies were in reasonable agreement. Impedance experimental data revealed a frequency distribution of the capacitance, simulated as constant phase element. Polarization curves indicated that EFE is a mixed inhibitor. The corrosion inhibition was assumed to occur via adsorption of EFE molecules on the metal surface. The adsorption of the E. falcata extract was well described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The calculated ΔG ads o value showed that the corrosion inhibition of the carbon steel in 1 M HCl is mainly controlled by a physisorption process. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • EFE is a good eco-friendly inhibitor for the corrosion of carbon steel in 1 M HCl. • EFE acts as mixed-type inhibitor in 1 M HCl medium. • Weight loss, ac impedance and polarization methods are in reasonable agreement. • The adsorption of EFE is well described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm

  10. Ethnopharmacological studies on the uses of Euphorbia hirta in the treatment of dengue in selected indigenous communities in Pangasinan (Philippines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Gerard Quinto; Dacanay, Aleth Therese Lora; Andaya, Benjel Andaya; Alejandro, Grecebio Jonathan Duran

    2016-01-01

    Euphorbia hirta is the most widely used plant in the folkloric treatment of dengue in the Philippines. This study documents the anecdotal uses of E. hirta in the treatment of dengue in 3 indigenous communities in Pangasinan from April to June of 2015. The number of use reports pertaining to symptoms of dengue and other diseases were tallied from 82 informants living in Anda Island, Mt. Colisao and Mt. Balungao. The demographics of the informants as well as the corrected major use agreements (cMUAs) and fidelity levels (FLs) of each reported symptom of dengue were calculated. The major dosage forms used during treatment were also tallied. Respondents, dominated by the age group 60-80 and mostly females with at least primary and secondary education, provided information on the use reports of E. hirta. High FL values and cMUA of at least 35% were obtained for cardinal symptoms of dengue-related to bleeding episodes while low cMUAs (i.e. 2-4%) were obtained for symptoms during the recovery phase. High FL values were obtained for symptoms observed during the febrile phase. The most widely used dosage forms are decoctions of the leaves and barks of E. hirta. This study was able to qualify the uses of E. hirta in the treatment of dengue in the 3 communities surveyed.

  11. Anti-proliferation activity of terpenoids isolated from Euphorbia kansui in human cancer cells and their structure-activity relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jin-Jun; Shen, Yao; Yang, Zhou; Fang, Lin; Cai, Lu-Ying; Yao, Shuai; Long, Hua-Li; Wu, Wan-Ying; Guo, De-An

    2017-10-01

    Euphorbia kansui is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of edema, pleural effusion, and asthma, etc. According to the previous researches, terpenoids in E. kansui possess various biological activities, e.g., anti-virus, anti-allergy, antitumor effects. In this work, twenty five terpenoids were isolated from E. kansui, including thirteen ingenane- and eight jatrophane-type diterpenoids (with two new compounds, kansuinin P and Q) and four triterpenoids. Eighteen of them were analyzed by MTS assay for in vitro anticancer activity in five human cancer cell lines. Structure-activity relationship for 12 ingenane-type diterpenoids in colorectal cancer Colo205 cells were preliminary studied. Significant anti-proliferation activities were observed in human melanoma cells breast cancer MDA-MB-435 cells and Colo205 cells. More than half of the isolated ingenane-type diterpenoids showed inhibitory activities in MDA-MB-435 cells. Eight ingenane- and one jatrophane-type diterpenoids possessed much lower IC 50 values in MDA-MB-435 cells than positive control staurosporine. Preliminary structure-activity relationship analysis showed that substituent on position 20 was important for the activity of ingenane-type diterpenoids in Colo205 cells and substituent on position 3 contributed more significant biological activity of the compounds than that on position 5 in both MDA-MB-435 and Colo205 cells. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Extracts of Euphorbia hirta Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) and Rauvolfia vomitoria Afzel (Apocynaceae) demonstrate activities against Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attah, Simon K; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F; Sittie, Archibald A; Oppong, Isaac V; Nyarko, Alexander K

    2013-03-18

    Onchocerciasis transmitted by Onchocerca volvulus is the second major cause of blindness in the world and it impacts negatively on the socio-economic development of the communities affected. Currently, ivermectin, a microfilaricidal drug is the only drug recommended for treating this disease. There have been speculations, of late, concerning O. volvulus resistance to ivermectin. Owing to this, it has become imperative to search for new drugs. World-wide, ethnomedicines including extracts of Euphorbia hirta and Rauvolfia vomitoria are used for treating various diseases, both infectious and non-infectious. In this study extracts of the two plants were evaluated in vitro in order to determine their effect against O. volvulus microfilariae. The toxicity of the E. hirta extracts on monkey kidney cell (LLCMK2) lines was also determined. The investigations showed that extracts of both plants immobilised microfilariae at different levels in vitro and, therefore, possess antifilarial properties. It was found that all the E. hirta extracts with the exception of the hexane extracts were more effective than those of R. vomitoria. Among the extracts of E. hirta the ethyl acetate fraction was most effective, and comparable to that of dimethanesulphonate salt but higher than that of Melarsoprol (Mel B). However, the crude ethanolic extract of E. hirta was found to be the least toxic to the LLCMK2 compared to the fractionated forms. Extracts from both plants possess antifilarial properties; however, the crude extract of E. hirta was found to be least toxic to LLCMK2.

  13. Euphorbia tirucalli L.-comprehensive characterization of a drought tolerant plant with a potential as biofuel source.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadetta Rina Hastilestari

    Full Text Available Of late, decrease in mineral oil supplies has stimulated research on use of biomass as an alternative energy source. Climate change has brought problems such as increased drought and erratic rains. This, together with a rise in land degeneration problems with concomitant loss in soil fertility has inspired the scientific world to look for alternative bio-energy species. Euphorbia tirucalli L., a tree with C3/CAM metabolism in leaves/stem, can be cultivated on marginal, arid land and could be a good alternative source of biofuel. We analyzed a broad variety of E. tirucalli plants collected from different countries for their genetic diversity using AFLP. Physiological responses to induced drought stress were determined in a number of genotypes by monitoring growth parameters and influence on photosynthesis. For future breeding of economically interesting genotypes, rubber content and biogas production were quantified. Cluster analysis shows that the studied genotypes are divided into two groups, African and mostly non-African genotypes. Different genotypes respond significantly different to various levels of water. Malate measurement indicates that there is induction of CAM in leaves following drought stress. Rubber content varies strongly between genotypes. An investigation of the biogas production capacities of six E. tirucalli genotypes reveals biogas yields higher than from rapeseed but lower than maize silage.

  14. Estudo botânico, fitoquímico e fisico-químico de Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae

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    M.V. Pinto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia hirta L., popularmente conhecida por erva andorinha, tem sido utilizada no tratamento de distúrbios respiratórios e como antiespasmódico. Esse trabalho foi realizado com a finalidade de determinar as características macroscópicas e microscópicas das folhas, caule e raiz dessa planta, uma vez que estas são as partes usadas popularmente. Algumas características de valor na sua diagnose foram apontadas e ilustradas por fotomicrografias. Reações de fitoquímica e a determinação do conteúdo de água e de cinzas foram realizadas no pó obtido da planta inteira, parte essa utilizada na fitoterapia Ayuverda. Na prospecção fitoquímica foram encontrados flavonóides, mucilagem, resinas e cumarinas. Na determinação do teor de água, de cinzas totais e de cinzas insolúveis em ácido, os valores encontrados foram 8,99%, 9,35%, 0,75%, respectivamente. Com o desenvolvimento deste trabalho foi possível obter parâmetros para o controle de qualidade das folhas, caule e raízes de E. hirta.

  15. Action of Chitosan Against Xanthomonas Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from Euphorbia pulcherrima

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    Yanli Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity and mechanism of two kinds of chitosan were investigated against twelve Xanthomonas strains recovered from Euphorbia pulcherrima. Results indicated that both chitosans markedly inhibited bacterial growth based on OD loss. Furthermore, the release of DNA and RNA from three selected strains was increased by both chitosans. However, the release of intracellular proteins was inhibited by both chitosans at different concentration and incubation times, except chitosan A at 0.1 mg/mL for 0.5 h incubation and 0.2 mg/mL for 2.0 h incubation increased the release of proteins, indicating the complexity of the interaction and cell membranes, which was affected by incubation time, bacterial species, chitosan type and concentration. Transmission electron microscopic observations revealed that chitosan caused changes in protoplast concentration and surface morphology. In some cells, the membranes and walls were badly distorted and disrupted, while other cells were enveloped by a thick and compact ribbon-like layer. The contrary influence on cell morphology may explain the differential effect in the release of material. In addition, scanning electron microscope and biofilm formation test revealed that both chitosans removed biofilm biomass. Overall, this study showed that membrane and biofilm play an important role in the antibacterial mechanism of chitosan.

  16. Comparative study on plant latex particles and latex coagulation in Ficus benjamina, Campanula glomerata and three Euphorbia species.

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    Georg Bauer

    Full Text Available Among latex-producing plants, mainly the latex of Hevea brasiliensis has been studied in detail so far, while comprehensive comparative studies of latex coagulation mechanisms among the more than 20,000 latex-bearing plant species are lacking. In order to give new insights into the potential variety of coagulation mechanisms, the untreated natural latices of five latex-bearing plants from the families Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae and Campanulaceae were visualised using Cryo-SEM and their particle size compared using the laser diffraction method. Additionally, the laticifers of these plants species were examined in planta via Cryo-SEM. Similar latex particle sizes and shape were found in Ficus benjamina and Hevea brasiliensis. Hence, and due to other similarities, we hypothesize comparable, mainly chemical, coagulation mechanisms in these two species, whereas a physical coagulation mechanism is proposed for the latex of Euphorbia spp. The latter mechanism is based on the huge amount of densely packed particles that after evaporation of water build a large surface area, which accelerates the coagulation procedure.

  17. Prey Preference of Predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae on untreated and Beauveria bassiana-treated of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae

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    Marjan Seiedy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The predator Amblyseius swirskii and entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana are important biocontrol agents of Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Determination of the host preference of predators in the fields when receiving signals related to either untreated and Beauveria bassiana-treated pest is important. Materials and Methods In this research, the prey preference of adult female (2 days old of A. swirskii was determined on untreated and Beauveria bassiana-treated of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae in various treatments base on Manly Index. These different treatments consisted of two time intervals; 24 and 48 h post-inoculation of greenhouse whiteflies with 1×105 conidia /ml of B. bassiana with 13 replicates. 24-h starved predators were added to the leaf discs singly then the number of consumed untreated and B. bassiana-treated T. vaporariorum in each Petri dish was assessed after 24 h. Results and Discussion The results revealed that mean number of consumed B. bassiana-treated T. vaporariorum in two time intervals; 24 and 48 h. after inoculation were 4/15±0/19 and 2.23±0/12, respectively. This investigation showed a significant preference of A. swirskii towards untreated T. vaporariorum in 24 (P< 0.0034 and 48 h. (P

  18. Eficácia de herbicidas em diferentes quantidades de palha de cana-de-açúcar no controle de Euphorbia heterophylla Efficacy of herbicides in different amounts of sugar cane straw on Euphorbia heterophylla control

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    P.A. Monquero

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar o efeito de diferentes quantidades de palha de cana-de-açúcar, colhida sem queima prévia do canavial, sobre a eficácia de alguns herbicidas recomendados para esta cultura. O experimento foi conduzido em campo no Centro de Ciências Agrárias/UFSCar, em Araras, SP. Os tratamentos consistiram dos herbicidas trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametryn (1.463 + 37 g i.a ha-1, imazapic (84 g i.a ha-1, imazapyr (200 g i.a ha-1, ¹diuron + hexazinone (1.170 + 330 g i.a ha-1 e ²diuron + hexazinone (1.330 + 160 g i.a ha-1 aplicados em pré-emergência de Euphorbia heterophylla e sobre cinco quantidades de palha de cana-de-açúcar (0, 5, 10, 15 e 20 t ha-1. A eficácia de controle das plantas daninhas foi avaliada aos 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAT. A palha (15 e 20 t ha-1 reduziu a população de E. heterophylla. À medida que se aumentou a quantidade de palha, houve redução na eficácia dos herbicidas; com 15 t ha-1 de palha, o controle foi considerado satisfatório (90% apenas para os tratamentos ¹diuron + hexazinone e trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametryn. Com 20 t ha-1, nenhum herbicida foi eficaz; entretanto, a palha foi eficiente na supressão dessa espécie, verificando-se que o número de plantas emergidas foi menor mesmo na testemunha.This work aimed to study the effect of different amounts of sugar cane straw, collected unburned, on the efficacy of some herbicides recommended for this culture. The experiment was carried out in the field, at the Centro de Ciências Agrárias/UFSCar, Araras, SP. The treatments consisted of herbicides trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametryn (1,463 + 37 g a.i ha-1, imazapic (84 g a.i ha-1, imazapyr (200 g a.i ha-1, diuron + hexazinone (1,170 + 330 g a.i ha ¹ and ²diuron + hexazinone (1,330 + 160 g a.i ha-1 applied in pre emergence of Euphorbia heterophylla and five increasing amounts of sugar cane straw ( 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 t ha-1.Weed

  19. Aplicações isoladas ou associadas de diuron, oxyfluorfen e prometryne para o controle de Euphorbia heterophylla Isolated or combined application of diuron, oxyfluorfen and prometryn for Euphorbia heterophylla control

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    R.S Oliveira JR

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação em pré-emergência no início do ciclo do algodoeiro é prática consagrada entre os produtores. Embora os herbicidas diuron, oxyfluorfen e prometryne sejam opções para uso nessa cultura, há informações limitadas referentes à eficácia desses herbicidas no controle de Euphorbia heterophylla. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a curva de dose-resposta de diuron, oxyfluorfen e prometryne para o controle de E. heterophylla, bem como analisar a eficiência biológica de misturas desses herbicidas no manejo dessa espécie. O trabalho foi composto por seis experimentos conduzidos simultaneamente em casa de vegetação, sendo três deles com doses crescentes de cada herbicida aplicado isoladamente e três compostos por misturas dos herbicidas dois a dois. A curva de dose-resposta foi ajustada para os dados das avaliações de porcentagem de redução de massa seca aos 28 dias após a aplicação. Determinoaram-se as doses I80 e I95, que correspondem ao controle de 80% e 95%, respectivamente, de controle visual ou redução da massa seca. Diuron, oxyfluorfen e prometryne, aplicados isoladamente, mostraram-se eficientes, dentro do intervalo de doses utilizado, no controle de E. heterophylla. As misturas contendo oxyfluorfen apresentaram-se, de modo geral, como aditivas ou antagonísticas, ao passo que misturas de diuron+prometryne foram aditivas ou sinergísticas. Das três combinações de produtos possíveis, oxyfluorfen+prometryne foi a associação que resultou em menor número de tratamentos que promoveram controle aceitável do leiteiro.Pre-emergence herbicide application at the beginning of the crop cycle is a consecrated practice among cotton farmers. Although herbicides, such as diuron, oxyfluorfen and prometryn, are options for this crop, not much is known about their effect on Euphorbia heterophylla. This work aimed to elaborate dose-response curves for diuron, oxyfluorfen and prometryn in relation to E

  20. Avaliação de cultivares de soja (Glycine max (L. Merril em competição com Euphorbia heterophylla L. sob três densidades e dois períodos de ocorrência Evaluation of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill cultivars in competition with Euphorbia heterophylla L. in three densities and two periods of occurrence

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    V. M. Chemale

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho, conduzido durante o ano agrícola de 1979/80 na Estação Experimental Agronômica de UFRGS, em Guaíba, RS, apresentou como objetivo testar quatro cultivares de soja (Paraná, Prata, Hood e IAS-4 quanto à sua habilidade em concorrer com Euphorbia heterophylla L. (leiteira, amendoim-bravo estabelecida em três densidades (0, 12 e 54 plan-tas/m2, em média e dois períodos de duração da competição (45 e 115 dias após a emergência da soja. Constatou-se que houve redução no rendimento de grãos de soja por efeito dos dois períodos de competição e das densidades de E. heterophylla L. referidas. Também os números de grãos e de legumes por área foram consideravelmente reduzidos pela presença da planta daninha associada ao período mais prolongado de competição. A espessura do caule e o número de nós das plantas de soja decresceram apenas sob o efeito da maior densidade da Euphorbia; entretanto, o número de ramos e o índice de área foliar, este aos 75 dias após a emergência da cultura, sofreram redução com a infestação de 12 plantas de Euphorbia por m2.A field experiment was performed at the Agronomy Experimental Station of UFRGS, in Guaíba, RS, Brazil, during the 1979/80 growing season, in order to test four soybean cultivars (Paraná, Prata, Hood e IAS-4 in competition with Euphorbia heterophylla L. established in three densities (0, 12 and 54 plants/m2 during two periods (45 and 115 days after soybean emergence. It was observed that soybean cultivars presented reduction of seed yields under the effect of the pe riods of competition and densities of Euphorbia heterophylla L. The number of seeds and pods per area were considerably reduced in the presence of the weed associated with the longest competition period. The stem diameter and number of nodes were reduced only by competition of the highest Euphorbia density; however, the number of branches and leaf area index, this after a period of 75 days

  1. Euphorbia denticulata Lam.: A promising source of phyto-pharmaceuticals for the development of novel functional formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, Gokhan; Uysal, Ahmet; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Mocan, Andrei; Mollica, Adriano; Locatelli, Marcello; Custodio, Luisa; Neng, Nuno R; Nogueira, José M F; Aumeeruddy-Elalfi, Zaahira; Mahomoodally, M Fawzi

    2017-03-01

    In this study, Methanolic extracts of Euphorbia denticulata parts (flowers, leaf, stem, and mix of aerial parts) were assessed for a panoply of bioactivities. Inhibitory potential against key enzymes involved in diabetes (α-glucosidase and α-amylase), obesity (pancreatic lipase), neurodegenerative diseases (cholinesterases), and hyperpigmentation (tyrosinase) was evaluated. The antioxidant and antibacterial properties were also assessed. The total phenolic, flavonoid, and phytochemical profile were established using HPLC/DAD and molecular modelling studies on specific target compounds were performed in silico. The flower extract was found to be rich in phenolics and flavonoids, (60.11±1.40mgGAE/g and 42.04±0.16mgRE/g respectively), which tend to correlate with the high radical scavenging activity of this extract (120.34±3.33mgTE/g and 165.42±2.16mgTE/g for DPPH and ABTS respectively). Catechin, epicatechin, gallic acid, p-OH-Benzoic acid, rosmarinic acid, and epigallocatechin gallate, found in significant abundance in the extracts were assessed using molecular modelling with the aim to study their docking properties on a set of six enzymes used in this study. The extracts were moderately effective with MIC values ranging between 1.56 to 6.25mg/ml, but potent growth inhibitors of MRSA strains. Results amassed herein can be used as a stimulus for further studies geared towards the development of novel phyto-pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Ocorrência de Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson, Brown & Burckhardt, 1986(Hemiptera: Homoptera, Psyllidae em plantios experimentais de camu-camu Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. Mc Vaugh em Manaus (Amazonas, Brasil Occurrence of Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson, Brown & Burckhardt, 1986 (Hemiptera: Homoptera, Psyllidae in experimental plantations of camu-camu Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. Mc Vaugh in Manaus (Amazonas, Brazil

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    Márcio Luís Leitão Barbosa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo de camu-camu Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. Mc Vaugh tem apresentado inúmeros problemas fitossanitários, dentre os quais, Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson et al. (Hemiptera: Homoptera, Psyllidae, que constantemente é citada como praga secundária. Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar o nível e a intensidade de infestação (% por T. cognata e estudar aspectos do ciclo biológico e do comportamento de T. cognata, em plantios experimentais de camu-camu. Foram selecionados, de forma aleatória, 17 e 14 exemplares nos plantios I e II, respectivamente. Para cada uma das variáveis estudadas, foram calculados a média aritmética, o desviopadrão, a variância e a amplitude de variação. Foi verificado um nível de infestação de 82% (plantio I e 57% (plantio II, uma intensidade de infestação de 94% (plantio I e 75% (plantio II e uma média de seis ninfas/folha em cada plantio, o que indica que T. cognata representa uma das pragas-chave dessa cultura. Foram observados adultos de Chrysoperla sp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae e ninfas de Reduviidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, que podem atuar como prováveis agentes de controle biológico de T. cognata.The cultivation of camu-camu Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. Mc Vaugh has presented countless phytosanitary problems, among them, Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson et al. (Hemiptera: Homoptera, Psyllidae, which often is noticed as a secondary pest. This study aimed to determine the level and the intensity of infestation (% for T. cognata, as well as to study the biological cycle and behavioural aspects of T. cognata, in experimental plantation of camu-camu. 17 and 14 specimens from plantation I and II, respectively, were randomly selected. The arithmetic average, the standard deviation, the variance and the total amplitude were calculated for each studied variable. A level of infestation of 82% (plantation I and 57% (plantation II, an intensity of infestation of 94% (plantation I and 75% (plantation II and an

  3. Phylogenetic position of the yeast-like symbiotes of Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae based on 18S ribosomal DNA partial sequences

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    Ana M Xet-Mull

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Tagosodes orizicolus Muir (Homoptera: Delphacidae, the endemic delphacid species of tropical America carries yeast-like symbiotes (YLS in the abdominal fat bodies and the ovarial tissues, like other rice planthoppers of Asia. These YLS are obligate symbiotes, which are transmitted transovarially, and maintain a mutualistic relationship with the insect host. This characteristic has made in vitro culture and classification of YLS rather difficult using conventional methods. Nevertheless, microorganisms of similar characteristics have been successfully classified by using molecular taxonomy. In the present work, the YLS of Tagosodes orizicolus(YLSTo were purified on Percoll® gradients, and specific segments of 18S rDNA were amplified by PCR, cloned and sequenced. Sequences were aligned by means of the CLUSTAL V (DNASTAR program; phylogenetic trees were constructed with the Phylogeny Inference Package (PHYLIP, showing that YLSTo belong to the fungi class Pyrenomycetes, phylum Ascomycota. Similarities between 98% and 100% were observed among YLS of the rice delphacids Tagosodes orizicolus, Nilaparvata lugens, Laodelphax striatellus and Sogatella furcifera, and between 89.8% and 90.8% when comparing the above to YLS of the aphid Hamiltonaphis styraci. These comparisons revealed that delphacid YLS are a highly conserved monophyletic group within the Pyrenomycetes and are closely related to Hypomyces chrysospermus. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 777-785. Epub 2004 Dic 15.Tagosodes orizicolus Muir (Homoptera: Delphacidae es una especie endémica de América tropical que al igual que otros saltahojas de Asia, tiene simbiontes levaduriformes (YLS, por sus siglas en Inglés en los cuerpos grasos del abdomen y en los tejidos de los ovarios. Los YLS son simbiontes obligados que se transmiten transovarialmente y que mantienen relaciones mutualística con el insecto hospedero. Esta característica ha hecho muy difícil su cultivo in vitro y por ende su clasificaci

  4. Densidades y frecuencias de liberación de Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae sobre Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae en tomate

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    Tello Paola

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    La mosca blanca de los invernaderos, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae es una de las plagas más importantes de cultivos de tomate bajo invernadero en la Sabana de Bogotá. Para su control tradicionalmente se acude a la aplicación de insecticidas. Sin embargo, también son contempladas liberaciones del parasitoide Encarsia formosa (Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae. Para estandarizar el proceso de cría masiva de E. formosa, se evaluaron tres densidades diferentes de liberación de las avispas (6, 12 y 18 avispas/planta en tres frecuencias de liberación (1, 2 y 3 veces/semana, sobre plantas de tomate de ocho semanas de edad con tres niveles de infestación (15, 30 y 45 ninfas de mosca blanca/hoja, susceptibles de ser parasitadas. El mayor porcentaje de parasitismo (70% en ninfas de tercer instar se logró cuando se liberaron seis avispas por planta, dosificadas en tres momentos diferentes en la misma semana. El menor porcentaje de parasitismo (50%, se obtuvo cuando se realizó una sola liberación de 6, 12 o 18 avispas. Los resultados anteriores permiten concluir que se puede lograr un porcentaje de parasitismo en torno a un 70% de la infestación de mosca blanca (hasta 45 ninfas/hoja en plantas de tomate con pocas avispas de E. formosa (seis cuando se liberan en tres momentos diferentes.

  5. Effect of insecticides on mealybug destroyer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Dickinson, Amy

    2006-10-01

    In this study, we measured, under laboratory conditions, the direct and indirect effects of insecticides on mealybug destroyer, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). The adult stages of both natural enemies were exposed to sprays of the insecticides buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, flonicamid, acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin at label-recommended rates to assess direct mortality after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. The effects of the insecticides on L. dactylopii parasitization rate and percentage of parasitoid emergence also were monitored using the label and 4x the recommended label rate. Dinotefuran was extremely detrimental to the adult parasitoid at the label rate with 100% mortality after 24 h. Buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid were not harmful to L. dactylopii when applied at the label rate. At 4x the recommended label rate, dinotefuran, acetamiprid, and clothianidin were all harmful to the parasitoid with 100% mortality 72 h after application. Both buprofezin and flonicamid were not toxic to L. dactylopii with 100% adult survival after 72 h. Pyriproxyfen and flonicamid, at both the label and 4x the recommended label rate, did not negatively affect L. dactylopii parasitization rate or percentage of parasitoid emergence. Acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin were toxic to C. montrouzieri adults with 100% mortality after 48 h, whereas buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid demonstrated minimal (10-20% mortality after 48 h) harmful effects to the predator. Based on the results from our study, the indirect effects of the insect growth regulator (IGR) buprofezin were not decisive; however, the IGR pyriproxyfen and the insecticide flonicamid were not directly or indirectly harmful to the predator C. montrouzieri and parastioid L. dactylopii, indicating that

  6. An Ingenol Derived from Euphorbia kansui Induces Hepatocyte Cytotoxicity by Triggering G0/G1 Cell Cycle Arrest and Regulating the Mitochondrial Apoptosis Pathway in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Yan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural product lingenol, a purified diterpenoid compound derived from the root of Euphorbia kansui, exerts serious hepatotoxicity; however, the molecular mechanisms remain to be defined. In the present study, cell counting Kit-8 (CCK-8, inverted phase contrast microscope and flow cytometry were used to demonstrate that lingenol significantly inhibited L-O2 cells proliferation, and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Moreover, the results investigated that lingenol markedly disrupted mitochondrial functions by high content screening (HCS. In addition, the up-regulation of cytochrome c, AIF and Apaf-1 and activation of caspases were found in L-O2 cells detected by Western blotting and ELISA assay, which was required for lingenol activation of cytochrome c-mediated caspase cascades and AIF-mediated DNA damage. Mechanistic investigations revealed that lingenol significantly down-regulated the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and enhanced the reactive oxygen species (ROS in L-O2 cells. These data collectively indicated that lingenol modulation of ROS and Bcl-2/Bax ratio led to cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in L-O2 cells in vitro. All of these results will be helpful to reveal the hepatotoxicity mechanism of Euphorbia kansui and to effectively guide safer and better clinical application of this herb.

  7. Obtusifoliol related steroids from Euphorbia sogdiana with cell growth inhibitory activity and apoptotic effects on breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB231).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei, Mahmoud; Yazdiniapour, Zeinab; Ghanadian, Mustafa; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Lanzotti, Virginia; Mirsafaee, Vahid

    2016-11-01

    From the aerial parts of Euphorbia sogdiana Popov, obtusifoliol (1) and two related steroids (2-3) have been isolated and characterized along with a known cycloartane derivative (4). The chemical structure of the obtusifoliol-related compounds, obtained by 1D and 2D NMR, and MS measurements, have been determined as: 3β,7α-dihydroxy-4α,14α-dimethyl-5α-ergosta-8,24(28)-diene-11-one (2) and 3β-hydroxy-4α,14α-dimethyl-5α-ergosta-8,24(28)-diene-1-one (3). Compound 2 has been previously isolated from Euphorbia chamaesyce while compound 3 was never reported before. The isolated compounds 1-4 were subjected to cytotoxic tests on the breast cancer cells, MCF-7 and MDA-MB231. Further pharmacological tests on the more active compounds 2 and 3 indicated their action to be related to cell growth inhibitory activity and apoptotic effects on the tested cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular characterization and prevalence of two capulaviruses: Alfalfa leaf curl virus from France and Euphorbia caput-medusae latent virus from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Pauline; Muhire, Brejnev; François, Sarah; Deshoux, Maëlle; Hartnady, Penelope; Farkas, Kata; Kraberger, Simona; Filloux, Denis; Fernandez, Emmanuel; Galzi, Serge; Ferdinand, Romain; Granier, Martine; Marais, Armelle; Monge Blasco, Pablo; Candresse, Thierry; Escriu, Fernando; Varsani, Arvind; Harkins, Gordon W; Martin, Darren P; Roumagnac, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about the prevalence, diversity, evolutionary processes, genomic structures and population dynamics of viruses in the divergent geminivirus lineage known as the capulaviruses. We determined and analyzed full genome sequences of 13 Euphorbia caput-medusae latent virus (EcmLV) and 26 Alfalfa leaf curl virus (ALCV) isolates, and partial genome sequences of 23 EcmLV and 37 ALCV isolates. While EcmLV was asymptomatic in uncultivated southern African Euphorbia caput-medusae, severe alfalfa disease symptoms were associated with ALCV in southern France. The prevalence of both viruses exceeded 10% in their respective hosts. Besides using patterns of detectable negative selection to identify ORFs that are probably functionally expressed, we show that ALCV and EcmLV both display evidence of inter-species recombination and biologically functional genomic secondary structures. Finally, we show that whereas the EcmLV populations likely experience restricted geographical dispersion, ALCV is probably freely moving across the French Mediterranean region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of a Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion Extraction Combined with UPLC/Q-TOF-MS for Determination of Phenolics and Terpenoids from the Euphorbia fischeriana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjing; Lin, Yu; Wang, Yuchun; Hong, Bo

    2017-09-11

    A method based on a simplified extraction by matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with the quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) determination is validated for analysis of two phenolics and three terpenoids in Euphorbia fischeriana . The optimized experimental parameters of MSPD including dispersing sorbent (silica gel), ratio of sample to dispersing sorbent (1:2), elution solvent (water-ethanol: 30-70) and volume of the elution solvent (10 mL) were examined and set down. The highest extraction yields of chromatogram information and the five compounds were obtained under the optimized conditions. A total of 25 constituents have been identified and five components have been quantified from Euphorbia fischeriana . A linear relationship (r² ≥ 0.9964) between the concentrations and the peak areas of the mixed standard substances were revealed. The average recovery was between 92.4% and 103.2% with RSD values less than 3.45% ( n = 5). The extraction yields of two phenolics and three terpenoids obtained by the MSPD were higher than those of traditional reflux and sonication extraction with reduced requirement on sample, solvent and time. In addition, the optimized method will be applied for analyzing terpenoids in other Chinese herbal medicine samples.

  10. Green mediated synthesis and characterization of ZnO nanoparticles using Euphorbia Jatropa latex as reducing agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Geetha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Presently the progress of green chemistry in the synthesis of nanoparticles with the use of plants has engrossed a great attention. This study reports the synthesis of ZnO using latex of Euphorbia Jatropa as reducing agent. As prepared product was characterized by powder X-ray diffractometer (PXRD, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS, Rietveld refinement, UV–Visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL. The concentration of plant latex plays an important role in controlling the size of the particle and its morphology. PXRD graphs showed the well crystallisation of the particles. The average particle size was calculated using Scherrer equation and advanced Williamson Hall (WH plots. The average particle size was around 15 nm. This result was also supported by SEM and TEM analyses. FTIR shows the characteristic peak of ZnO at 435 cm−1. SEM and TEM micrographs show that the particles were almost hexagonal in nature. EDS of SEM analysis confirmed that the elements are only Zn and O. EDS confirmed purity of ZnO. Atomic states were confirmed by XPS results. Crystal parameters were determined using Rietveld refinement. From UV–Visible spectra average energy gap was calculated which is ∼3.63 eV. PL studies showed UV emission peak at 392 nm and broad band visible emission centred in the range 500–600 nm. The Commission International de I'Eclairage and colour correlated temperature coordinates were estimated for ZnO prepared using 2 ml, 4 ml and 6 ml Jatropa latex. The results indicate that the phosphor may be suitable for white light emitting diode (WLED. The study fruitfully reveals simple, fast, economical and eco friendly method of synthesis of multifunctional ZnO nanoparticles (Nps.

  11. Resistência de biótipos de Euphorbia heterophylla l. Aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima ALS utilizados na cultura de soja Resistance of Euphorbia heterophylla l. Biotypes to ALS enzyme inhibitor herbicides used in soybean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERSON AUGUSTO GELMINI

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Os herbicidas constituem-se na principal medida de controle de plantas daninhas na cultura de soja; no entanto, a pressão de seleção causada pelo uso contínuo de produtos com o mesmo mecanismo de ação pode provocar a seleção de biótipos resistentes, como ocorreu com Euphorbia heterophylla L., que se mostrou resistente aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima acetolactato sintase (ALS em áreas dos Estados do Paraná e Rio Grande do Sul. Para comprovar possíveis novos casos, bem como alternativas para prevenção e manejo, coletaram-se sementes de plantas de E. heterophylla L., na região de Assis (SP, que sobreviveram a tratamentos, em que esses herbicidas foram sistematicamente aplicados nos últimos anos. Desenvolveu-se o experimento em casa de vegetação, comparando-se o biótipo resistente ao suscetível, quando submetido aos diversos herbicidas aplicados em pós-emergência. Aplicaram-se quando as plantas encontravam-se no estádio de duas a quatro folhas verdadeiras, nas doses zero, uma, duas, quatro e oito vezes a recomendada. Aos 20 dias após a aplicação, avaliaram-se os parâmetros relativos ao controle e produção de fitomassa epígea visando ao estabelecimento de curvas de doses-resposta, à obtenção dos fatores de resistência com base nos valores da DL50 e GR50, e à verificação da ocorrência de resistência múltipla. O biótipo resistente apresentou diferentes níveis de resistência aos herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl e imazethapyr, demonstrando resistência cruzada aos inibidores da ALS dos grupos das sulfoniluréias e imidazolinonas. No entanto, foi eficientemente controlado nos tratamentos com fomesafen (250 g.ha-1, lactofen (120 g.ha-1, flumiclorac-pentil (40 g.ha-1, glufosinato de amônio (150 g.ha-1 e glyphosate (360 g.ha-1.Herbicides are the main tool for weed control in soybean crop, but the selection pressure attributed to the repeated application of the same herbicides and the same mechanism of action can

  12. RESULTS OF THE THREE-YEAR MONITORING (2001.-2003. OF TOBACCO WHITEFLY Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889, (HOMOPTERA: ALEYRODIDAE IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Masten

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The quarantine pest tobacco whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 was for the first time found in Croatia in 2000 on some culture and weed plants in greenhouses and in the open field in the area from Trogir to Omiš. Monitoring of tobacco whitefly was organized in all counties (21. Eventual presence of tobacco whitefly adults on the plants in glasshouses was established by the hanging of yellow sticky traps. In the course of monitoring the undersides of leaves on host plants were inspected for the purpose of discovering pest nymphal and pupal stages. The plants of poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima produced as pest free plants have been used as catch plants in the conditions of lower infestation of host plants by tobacco whitefly adults. In three-year monitoring it was found out that poinsettia is the most atractive host plant for this pest between 38 host plants being registered during this monitoring. The fact that tobacco whitefly during the summer was found on the vegetables, ornamentals and weeds in the open fields in Dalmatia indicate that tobacco whitefly became domesticated and it can successfully overwinter in mediteranean climate conditions. During the monitoring tobacco whitefly was detected in 13 counties in our country, indicating shows that tobacco whitefly has been spreading progresivly since it was found in Croatia for the first time.

  13. Influence des facteurs écologiques (température et hygrométrie sur le développement de la cochenille farineuse du manioc (Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero, Homoptera: Pseudococcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obame Minko, D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Influence of Ecological Factors (such as Temperature and Hygrometry on the Development of Cassava Mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero, Homoptera: Pseudococcidae. Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero cassava mealybug was accidentally carried away from South America to Africa by early 70s. Since then, it has been inducing a lot of damage to cassava cultures, which cassava remains the main foodstuff in the southern Sahara inhabitant's nutrition. Being anxious to understand the depredator population evolution in the nature, we have studied the temperature and hygrometry as main ecological factors helpful to development. The temperature favours eggs hatching and reduces the duration of embryonic, larval and cycle development whereas hygrometry's action on mealybug development can be neglected. As both factors are opposite functions in the nature, mutual influence on the field can be possible.

  14. Characterization of Thermo- and Detergent Stable Antigenic Glycosylated Cysteine Protease of Euphorbia nivulia Buch.-Ham. and Evaluation of Its Ecofriendly Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamkant B. Badgujar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An antigenic glycosylated cysteine protease has been purified from the latex of Euphorbia nivulia Buch.-Ham. It exhibits remarkable protease activity in the presence of metal ions, oxidizing agents, organic solvents, and detergents. This enzyme showed potential role in leather processing industry due to its dehairing activity for animal hide without hydrolyzing fibrous proteins, producing, by this way, a better quality product. The enzyme can also be used for silver recovering from X-ray plates. In addition, the stability (temperature and surfactants and hydrolysis of blood stain data also revealed its application in detergent industries. Agriculturally, this protease finds application in biocontrol process against the infectious management of root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Biologically, it shows noticeable wound healing, haemostatic and antibacterial activity.

  15. Development and detection efficiency of sequence characterized amplified region markers for authentication of medicinal plant Ruta graveolens and its adulterant Euphorbia dracunculoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irum Gul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the increase in demand of herbal medicines, adulteration in these drugs is also gaining momentum and remains an indispensable problem in domestic and export markets. Correct identification is the first step toward assuring quality, safety, and efficacy of indigenous herbal medicines. Materials and Methods: In this study, sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR markers were developed to discriminate Ruta graveolens from its adulterant Euphorbia dracunculoides. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD was performed and subsequently converted into SCAR markers. Results: After performing RAPD, SCAR primers were designed from the selected unique RAPD amplicons of the genuine drug as well as its adulterant. These primers produced 670 bp and 750 bp SCAR markers with genomic DNA sample of R. graveolens and E. dracunculoides, respectively. Conclusion: Development of these markers will help in the quality control of herbal drugs and monitoring widespread adulteration of these drugs by pharmaceutical industries and government agencies.

  16. Water stress on the performace of herbicides and biochemical characteristics of Euphorbia heterophyllaDéficit hídrico na eficiência de herbicidas e nas características bioquímicas de Euphorbia heterophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Ferraz Campos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate conditions the effectiveness of acetolactate synthase (ALS and protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PROTOX inhibitors in the Bidens pilosa control under two water deficit conditions, as well as to determine the action under the content of soluble carbohydrates and protein and free amino acids of weed. The experimental design was randomized completely design, with four replications, with the treatments setup in a factorial scheme 4x2, with four herbicides (fomesafen lactofen, chlorimuron-ethyl and imazethapyr, and two soil water conditions (-0.5 MPa and –0.01MPa. At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after application (DAA, was assessed visually control efficiency of herbicides. For the determination of organic solutes plants were collected at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after application (HAA, except for the amino acids were analyzed 48, 72 e 96 HAA. Herbicides fomesafen and lactofen were efficient to control E. heterophylla, while the ALS inhibitors (chlorimuron-ethyl e imazethapyr provided an unsatisfactory control. Water deficit altered the efficiency of herbicides, mainly chlorimuronethyl. Lactofen provided a smaller content of soluble carbohydrates, in the same way, the protein ranged in the 72 HAA, the lower value observed for imazethapyr e lactofen respectively. Herbicide lactofen increased the concentration of free amino acids, while the imposition of water deficit caused an increase in soluble carbohydrate content.O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de herbicidas inibidores da acetolactato sintase (ALS e protoporfirinogênio oxidase (PROTOX no controle de Euphorbia heterophylla sob duas condições hídricas, bem como determinar a ação destes sob o conteúdo de carboidratos e proteínas solúveis e aminoácidos livres da planta daninha. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, com os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial 4x2, sendo quatro

  17. Produção de Bipolaris euphorbiae em meios de cultura sólidos e líquidos obtidos de grãos e resíduos agroindustriais Production of Bipolaris euphorbiae in solid and liquid culture media obtained from grains and agricultural industry residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Cristina Penariol

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A introdução de Bipolaris euphorbiae como bioagente de controle de Euphorbia heterophylla é dependente da produção de conídios em grande quantidade. No presente trabalho, objetivou-se definir meios de cultura sólidos e líquidos, obtidos de grãos ou resíduos da agroindústria, eficazes para a produção de conídios de B. euphorbiae. No preparo dos meios sólidos utilizaram-se grãos de arroz, trigo e sorgo, quirelas de arroz, milho e trigo, sorgo moído, farelos de arroz, trigo e soja, cascas de mandioca e soja, casca de mandioca + farelo de soja, bagaço de cana e bagaço de cana + amido solúvel. No preparo dos meios líquidos, utilizaram-se grãos de arroz, sorgo e trigo, quirela de milho, farelos de trigo, soja e arroz, casca de mandioca e soja, vinhaça de cana e água de prensa da mandioca. Avaliaram-se a produção e a viabilidade dos conídios e a virulência do fungo e, nos meios líquidos, também a biomassa. A produção de conídios é influenciada pelo tipo de meio de cultura, sendo acentuadamente maior nos meios sólidos, destacando-se, como substratos, o sorgo em grão (474 x 10(6 conídios g-1 e a casca de soja (472 x 10(6 conídios g-1. Dentre os meios líquidos obteve-se mais produção usando-se farelo de trigo (1,33 x 10(6 conídios mL-1. A virulência e a viabilidade de B. euphorbiae não são afetadas pelo preparo de meios sólidos ou líquidos e pela composição nutricional dos meios de cultura. Na maioria dos meios sólidos ou líquidos obteve-se viabilidade de conídios maior que 98%; apenas os conídios produzidos nos meios sólidos de quirela de arroz, casca de mandioca + farelo de soja e farelo de soja estavam com viabilidade significativamente menor.The introduction of Bipolaris euphorbiae as a bioagent for Euphorbia heterophylla control depends on fungal conidia production in large amount. This work evaluate to solid and liquid culture media obtained from grains and residues from agriculture industries

  18. Population Growth of Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae on Different Cereal Crops from the Semiarid Pampas of Argentina under Laboratory Conditions Crecimiento Poblacional de Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae sobre Diferentes Cereales de la Pampas Semiárida de Argentina en Condiciones de Laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian R Descamps

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae is one of the main pests in a number of crops in the semiarid Pampas of Argentina. In the present study, the effect of different host plants, including Triticum aestivum L., ×Triticosecale Wittm., Hordeum vulgare L., Hordeum distichum L., Avena sativa L., and Secale cereale L. on biological parameters of R. padi L. was studied in the laboratory at 24 ± 1 °C, 65 ± 10% RH and a 14:10 photoperiod. Longevity, intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m, net reproductive rate (R0, mean generation time (T, doubling time (DT, and finite rate of increase (λ of the bird cherry-oat aphid on the different cereal crops were estimated. Differences in fertility life table parameters of R. padi among host plants were analyzed using pseudo-values, which were produced by Jackknife re-sampling. Results indicated that beer barley might be the most suitable food for R. padi due to greater adult longevity (20.88 d, higher fecundity (41 nymphs female-1, higher intrinsic rate of natural increase (0.309 females female-1 d-1, lower doubling time (2.24, and lower nymphal mortality (22.2%. Therefore, it can be concluded from the present study that R. padi prefers beer barley for fast and healthy development over other cereal crops.El áfido Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae es una de las principales plagas de numerosos cultivos de la región semiárida pampeana de Argentina. En el presente trabajo se estudió el efecto de diferentes cereales incluidos Triticum aestivum L., ×Triticosecale Wittm., Hordeum vulgare L., Hordeum distichum L., Avena sativa L. and Secale cereale L. sobre los parámetros biológicos de R. padi en laboratorio. Se estimaron longevidad, tasa intrínseca de crecimiento natural (r m, tasa neta de reproducción (R0, tiempo generacional medio (T, tiempo de duplicación (TD, y tasa finita de incremento (λ del pulgón de la avena en diferentes cereales. Las diferencias de

  19. Euphorbia heterophylla L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2015 ... dans l'alimentation des lapins (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) dont la récolte non contrôlée des ... Effect of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) associated with ..... fed to Guinea pigs in periurban rearing systems of Kinshasa.

  20. Etude comparative de la digestibilité in vivo de l'herbe de guinée (Panicum maximum Jacq.) associée aux feuilles et tiges de patate douce (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) (régime Panipo) ou à l'herbe de lait (Euphorbia heterophylla L.) (régime Paneuph) chez le lapin (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) et le cobaye (Cavia porcellus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kouakou, NGDV.; Kouba, M.; Thys, E.

    2016-01-01

    Digestibility of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) associated with sweet potato leaves and stems (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) (Panipo diet) or poison milk (Euphorbia heterophylla L.) (Paneuph diet) in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) and in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus L.). A comparative study of in vivo digestibility of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) associated with sweet potato leaves and stems (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) (Panipo diet) or with poison milk (Euphorbia heterophylla L.)...

  1. C/sub 4/ photosynthesis in Euphorbia degeneri and E. remyi: a comparison of photosynthetic carbon metabolism in leaves, callus cultures and regenerated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzin, S.E.

    1984-04-01

    Based on analysis of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ fixation kinetics and assays of enzymes related to C/sub 4/ metabolism (NAD-ME, NADP-ME, NAD-MDH, NADP-MDH, AST, ALT), leaves and regenerated plants of Euphorbia degeneri exhibit a modified NADP-ME-type photosynthesis. Apparently, both aspartate and malate are used for transport of CO/sub 2/ to bundle sheath cells. Callus grown on either non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media fixes CO/sub 2/ into RPP-cycle intermediates and sucrose, as well as malate and aspartate. /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ pulse/chase kinetics show no significant loss of label from C/sub 4/ acids throughout a one minute chase. Analysis of PEPCase revealed the presence of 2 isoenzymes in both leaf and regenerated plant tissues (K/sub m/ (PEP) = 0.080 and 0.550) but only one isoenzyme in callus (K/sub m/ = 0.100). It appears that C/sub 4/ photosynthesis does not occur in callus derived from this C/sub 4/ dicot but is regenerated concomitant with shoot regeneration, and ..beta..-carboxylation of PEP in callus, mediated by the low K/sub m/ isoenzyme of PEPCase, produces C/sub 4/ acids that are not involved in the CO/sub 2/ shuttle mechanism characteristic of C/sub 4/ photosynthesis. 161 references, 19 figures, 12 tables.

  2. C4 photosynthesis in Euphorbia degeneri and E. remyi: a comparison of photosynthetic carbon metabolism in leaves, callus cultures and regenerated plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzin, S.E.

    1984-04-01

    Based on analysis of 14 CO 2 fixation kinetics and assays of enzymes related to C 4 metabolism (NAD-ME, NADP-ME, NAD-MDH, NADP-MDH, AST, ALT), leaves and regenerated plants of Euphorbia degeneri exhibit a modified NADP-ME-type photosynthesis. Apparently, both aspartate and malate are used for transport of CO 2 to bundle sheath cells. Callus grown on either non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media fixes CO 2 into RPP-cycle intermediates and sucrose, as well as malate and aspartate. 14 CO 2 pulse/chase kinetics show no significant loss of label from C 4 acids throughout a one minute chase. Analysis of PEPCase revealed the presence of 2 isoenzymes in both leaf and regenerated plant tissues (K/sub m/ [PEP] = 0.080 and 0.550) but only one isoenzyme in callus (K/sub m/ = 0.100). It appears that C 4 photosynthesis does not occur in callus derived from this C 4 dicot but is regenerated concomitant with shoot regeneration, and β-carboxylation of PEP in callus, mediated by the low K/sub m/ isoenzyme of PEPCase, produces C 4 acids that are not involved in the CO 2 shuttle mechanism characteristic of C 4 photosynthesis. 161 references, 19 figures, 12 tables

  3. Cell division arrest by gamma-irradiation in photoautotrophic suspension culture of Euphorbia characias: maintenance of photosynthetic capacity and overaccumulation of sucrose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagvardieff, P.; Dimon, B.; Carrier, P.; Triantaphylides, C.

    1989-01-01

    Gamma-irradiation (250 Gy) applied to photoautotrophic cell suspensions of Euphorbia characias L. in the exponential growth phase led to the arrest of cell division and to a subsequent overaccumulation of sucrose and dry matter. From the fourth day of culture, the chlorophyll content and gross photosynthesis were not depressed by gamma-treatment nor by sugar accumulation. In both cultures, no difference was observed between oxygen uptake in the light at CO 2 saturating concentration and in the dark, suggesting that no change in energy-dissipative reactions took place after irradiation. A slight increase in oxygen uptake in both light and dark was observed in irradiated cells during the first four days. However, in the absence of limiting factors, the photosynthetic capacities of the dividing and irradiated non-dividing photoautotrophic cells were identical but higher than that of the non-dividing cells in the stationary growth phase. This suggests that gamma-irradiation arrests cell division by a mechanism different to that occurring in stationary-phase cultures. This may be of value in investigating the metabolism of secondary products. (author)

  4. Alterations in carbohydrates and the protein metabolism of the harmful freshwater vector snail Lymnaea acuminata induced by the Euphorbia tirucalli latex extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Sudhanshu; Singh, A

    2005-11-01

    To know the short- as well as long-term effect of aqueous latex extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli on carbohydrate and protein metabolism, the snail Lymnaea acuminata was exposed to sublethal doses of 0.37 and 0.55 mg/L for a 24-h and 0.20 and 0.31 mg/L for a 96-h exposure period. Significant (P<0.05) alterations in the glycogen, pyruvate, lactate, total protein, and free amino acid level, as well as in the activity of enzyme lactic dehydrogenase, succinic dehydrogenase, cytochrome oxidase, protease, aspartate aminotransaminase, and alanine aminotransaminase were observed in the nervous, hepatopancreatic, and ovotestis tissues of the freshwater vector snail L. acuminata exposed to sublethal doses of E. tirucalli latex extract. The alterations in all biochemical parameters were significantly (P<0.05) time and dose dependent. After the 7th day of the withdrawal of treatment, there was significant (P<0.05) recovery in glycogen, pyruvate, lactate, total protein, and the free amino acid level and in the activity of the lactic dehydrogenase, succinic dehydrogenase, cytochrome oxidase, protease, aspartate aminotransaminase and alanine aminotransaminase enzymes in all three of the studied tissues of the snail, which supports the view that the plant product is safe for use as a molluscicide for the control of harmful freshwater vector snails in the aquatic environment.

  5. Environmentally Friendly Procedure Based on Supercritical Fluid Chromatography and Tandem Mass Spectrometry Molecular Networking for the Discovery of Potent Antiviral Compounds from Euphorbia semiperfoliata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothias, Louis-Félix; Boutet-Mercey, Stéphanie; Cachet, Xavier; De La Torre, Erick; Laboureur, Laurent; Gallard, Jean-François; Retailleau, Pascal; Brunelle, Alain; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Costa, Jean; Bedoya, Luis M; Roussi, Fanny; Leyssen, Pieter; Alcami, José; Paolini, Julien; Litaudon, Marc; Touboul, David

    2017-10-27

    A supercritical fluid chromatography-based targeted purification procedure using tandem mass spectrometry and molecular networking was developed to analyze, annotate, and isolate secondary metabolites from complex plant extract mixture. This approach was applied for the targeted isolation of new antiviral diterpene esters from Euphorbia semiperfoliata whole plant extract. The analysis of bioactive fractions revealed that unknown diterpene esters, including jatrophane esters and phorbol esters, were present in the samples. The purification procedure using semipreparative supercritical fluid chromatography led to the isolation and identification of two new jatrophane esters (13 and 14) and one known (15) and three new 4-deoxyphorbol esters (16-18). The structure and absolute configuration of compound 16 were confirmed by X-ray crystallography. This compound was found to display antiviral activity against Chikungunya virus (EC 50 = 0.45 μM), while compound 15 proved to be a potent and selective inhibitor of HIV-1 replication in a recombinant virus assay (EC 50 = 13 nM). This study showed that a supercritical fluid chromatography-based protocol and molecular networking can facilitate and accelerate the discovery of bioactive small molecules by targeting molecules of interest, while minimizing the use of toxic solvents.

  6. Assessment of Euphorbia hirta L. Leaf, Flower, Stem and Root Extracts for Their Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhanam Amutha

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activities of the methanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta L leaves, flowers, stems and roots were evaluated against some medically important bacteria and yeast using the agar disc diffusion method. Four Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus sp., Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus thuringensis, four Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhi and P. mirabilis and one yeast (Candida albicans species were screened. Inhibition zones ranged between 16–29 mm. Leaves extract inhibited the growth of all tested microorganisms with large zones of inhibition, followed by that of flowers, which also inhibited all the bacteria except C. albicans. The most susceptible microbes to all extracts were S. aureus and Micrococcus sp. Root extract displayed larger inhibition zones against Gram positive bacteria than Gram negative bacteria and had larger inhibition zones compared to stem extract. The lowest MIC values were obtained with E. coli and C. albicans (3.12 mg/mL, followed by S. aureus (12.50 mg/mL and P. mirabilis (50.00 mg/mL. All the other bacteria had MIC values of 100.00 mg/mL. Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM studies revealed that the cells exposed to leaf extract displayed a rough surface with multiple blends and invaginations which increased with increasing time of treatment, and cells exposed to leaf extract for 36 h showed the most damage, with abundant surface cracks which may be related to final cell collapse and lossThe antimicrobial activities of the methanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta L leaves, flowers, stems and roots were evaluated against some medically important bacteria and yeast using the agar disc diffusion method. Four Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus sp., Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus thuringensis, four Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhi and P. mirabilis and one yeast (Candida albicans species were screened. Inhibition

  7. Polyphenolic Extract of Euphorbia supina Attenuates Manganese-Induced Neurotoxicity by Enhancing Antioxidant Activity through Regulation of ER Stress and ER Stress-Mediated Apoptosis

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    Entaz Bahar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Manganese (Mn is an important trace element present in human body, which acts as an enzyme co-factor or activator in various metabolic reactions. While essential in trace amounts, excess levels of Mn in human brain can produce neurotoxicity, including idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD-like extrapyramidal manganism symptoms. This study aimed to investigate the protective role of polyphenolic extract of Euphorbia supina (PPEES on Mn-induced neurotoxicity and the underlying mechanism in human neuroblastoma SKNMC cells and Sprague-Dawley (SD male rat brain. PPEES possessed significant amount of total phenolic and flavonoid contents. PPEES also showed significant antioxidant activity in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power capacity (RPC assays. Our results showed that Mn treatment significantly reduced cell viability and increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH level, which was attenuated by PPEES pretreatment at 100 and 200 µg/mL. Additionally, PPEES pretreatment markedly attenuated Mn-induced antioxidant status alteration by resolving the ROS, MDA and GSH levels and SOD and CAT activities. PPEES pretreatment also significantly attenuated Mn-induced mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm and apoptosis. Meanwhile, PPEES pretreatment significantly reversed the Mn-induced alteration in the GRP78, GADD34, XBP-1, CHOP, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 activities. Furthermore, administration of PPEES (100 and 200 mg/kg to Mn exposed rats showed improvement of histopathological alteration in comparison to Mn-treated rats. Moreover, administration of PPEES to Mn exposed rats showed significant reduction of 8-OHdG and Bax immunoreactivity. The results suggest that PPEES treatment reduces Mn-induced oxidative stress and neuronal cell loss in SKNMC cells and in the rat brain. Therefore, PPEES may be considered as potential treat-ment in Mn-intoxicated patients.

  8. Revealing the Effects of the Herbal Pair of Euphorbia kansui and Glycyrrhiza on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Ascites with Integrating Network Target Analysis and Experimental Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanqiong; Lin, Ya; Zhao, Haiyu; Guo, Qiuyan; Yan, Chen; Lin, Na

    2016-01-01

    Although the herbal pair of Euphorbia kansui (GS) and Glycyrrhiza (GC) is one of the so-called "eighteen antagonistic medicaments" in Chinese medicinal literature, it is prescribed in a classic Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula Gansui-Banxia-Tang for cancerous ascites, suggesting that GS and GC may exhibit synergistic or antagonistic effects in different combination designs. Here, we modeled the effects of GS/GC combination with a target interaction network and clarified the associations between the network topologies involving the drug targets and the drug combination effects. Moreover, the "edge-betweenness" values, which is defined as the frequency with which edges are placed on the shortest paths between all pairs of modules in network, were calculated, and the ADRB1-PIK3CG interaction exhibited the greatest edge-betweenness value, suggesting its crucial role in connecting the other edges in the network. Because ADRB1 and PIK3CG were putative targets of GS and GC, respectively, and both had functional interactions with AVPR2 approved as known therapeutic target for ascites, we proposed that the ADRB1-PIK3CG-AVPR2 signal axis might be involved in the effects of the GS-GC combination on ascites. This proposal was further experimentally validated in a H22 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ascites model. Collectively, this systems-level investigation integrated drug target prediction and network analysis to reveal the combination principles of the herbal pair of GS and GC. Experimental validation in an in vivo system provided convincing evidence that different combination designs of GS and GC might result in synergistic or antagonistic effects on HCC ascites that might be partially related to their regulation of the ADRB1-PIK3CG-AVPR2 signal axis.

  9. Dye-sensitized solar cells using natural dye as light-harvesting materials extracted from Acanthus sennii chiovenda flower and Euphorbia cotinifolia leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuletaw Andargie Ayalew

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural dyes are environmentally and economically superior to ruthenium-based dyes because they are nontoxic and cheap. In this study, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were fabricated using natural dyes light harvesting materials. The natural dyes were extracted from Acanthus sennii chiovenda flower and Euphorbia cotinifolia leaf. In the as-prepared DSSC, a quasi-solid state electrolyte was sandwiched between the working electrode (photoanode and counter electrode (PEDOT-coated FTO glass. The photoelectrochemical performance of the as-prepared quasi-solid state DSSCs showed open-circuit voltages (VOC varied from 0.475 to 0.507 V, the short-circuit current densities (JSC ranged from 0.352 to 0.642 mA cm−2 and the fill factors (FF varied from 47 to 60% at 100 mWcm−2 light intensity. The dye extracted from A. sennii chiovenda flower, using acidified ethanol (in 1% HCl as extracting solvent, exhibited best conversion efficiency with a maximum open-circuit voltage (VOC of 0.507 V, short-circuit current density (JSC of 0.491 mA cm−2, fill factor (FF of 0.60 and an overall conversion efficiency (η of 0.15%. On the other hand, the maximum power conversion efficiency of the dye extracted from E. cotinifolia leaf was 0.136%. This is the first study that reports the fabrication of DSSC using natural dye sensitizers extracted from these plants in the presence of quasi-solid state electrolyte and PEDOT as a counter electrode.

  10. Primary and secondary abscission in Pisum sativum and Euphorbia pulcherrima –how do they compare and how do they differ?

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    Anne Kathrine (Trine eHvoslef-Eide

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAbscission is a highly regulated and coordinated developmental process in plants. It is important to understand the processes leading up to the event, in order to better control abscission in crop plants. This has the potential to reduce yield losses in the field and increase the ornamental value of flowers and potted plants. A reliable method of abscission induction in poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima flowers has been established to study the process in a comprehensive manner. By correctly decapitating buds of the third order, abscission can be induced in one week. AFLP differential display (DD was used to search for genes regulating abscission. Through validation using qRT-PCR, more information of the genes involved during induced secondary abscission have been obtained. A study using two mutants of pea (Pisum sativum in the def (Developmental funiculus gene have been performed and compared these with wild type peas (tall and dwarf in both cases. The def mutant results in a deformed, abscission-less zone instead of normal primary abscission at the funiculus. RNA in situ hybridization studies using gene sequences from the poinsettia differential display, resulted in six genes differentially expressed for abscission specific genes in both poinsettia and pea. Two of these genes are associated with gene up- or down-regulation during the first two days after decapitation in poinsettia. Present and previous results in poinsettia (biochemically and gene expressions, enables a more detailed division of the secondary abscission phases in poinsettia than what has previously been described from primary abscission in Arabidopsis.This study compares the inducible secondary abscission in poinsettia and the non-abscising mutants/wild types in pea demonstrating primary abscission zones. The results may have wide implications on the understanding of abscission, since pea and poinsettia have been separated for 94-98 million years in evolution, hence

  11. Étude de la toxicité des extraits foliaires d’Euphorbia guyoniana Boiss. et Reut. (Euphorbiaceae chez Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775 (Orthoptera-Acrididea

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    A. KEMASSI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Study of the toxicity of the crude acetone leaf extract of Euphorbia guyoniana Boiss. and Reut. (Euphorbiaceae in Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775 (Orthoptera-Acrididea Abstract-This study examines the effect by ingestion of leaf cabbage sprayed with crude acetone extract of Euphorbia guyoniana leaves harvested in the Algerian Sahara on some biological parameters of larvae L5 and adult of desert locusts. The ingestion of cabbage leaves soaked in acetone extract of this Saharan plant generates a 100% mortality in larvae L5 and 66,67% for adult. A significant reduction in food intake was observed in the treated population compared to the control population. It results in a loss of exceptional weight ranging from 26,93% in larvae L5 to 33,09% in adults. Difficulties and anomalies are observed in moulting 16,66% of larvae L5 fed with cabbage leaves soaked in leaf extract of E. guyoniana. Dissection of adult females of the lot processing allows the observation of body regression demonstrating the depressant action of this extract on ovocyte cycle in the desert locust.

  12. The Microstructure Organization and Functional Peculiarities of Euphorbia paralias L. and Polygonum maritimum L. – Halophytic Plants from Dunes of Pomorie Lake (Bulgaria

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    I.V. Kosakivska

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the leaf surface microstructure, pigments spectrum, hormones status and lipids composition of halophytes Polygonum maritimum L. and Euphorbia paralias L. that grow under natural conditions on the dunes of Pomorie Lake, (Bulgaria. It was shown that the existence in saline and dry soils provided among others adaptive mechanisms by specific microstructure of leaf. The adaxial and abaxial surfaces of P. maritimum leaves are covered with a dense layer of cuticle wax, stomata are located on the leaf both sides below the cuticle level. In E. paralias the cuticle is also well developed on the adaxial surface of leaf laminas. The epidermis of the leaf lower side is covered with a less dense cuticle layer formed by large wax crystals. This plant has stoma pores only on the abaxial side of small leaves below the cuticle level and they are surrounded with hump-shaped cuticle constructions. A high amount of carotenoids (as compared with that of chlorophylls in P. maritimum leaves indicates that these pigments have a light-collecting function and could transfer an additional energy to chlorophylls. The high performance liquid chromatography method has been used to provide a qualitative and quantitative analysis of hormones. It was shown that in leaves of E. paralias and P. maritimum free abscisic (ABA and conjugated indole-3-acetic (IAA acids prevailed. A high level of active ABA is correlated with the salt tolerance and ability to survive and grow in stress conditions. A high level of conjugated form of IAA demonstrated that activity of this hormone is limited. The cytokinins qualitative and quantitative analyses demonstrated that in E. paralias leaves zeatin forms dominated, and the level of inactive cytokinins (cis-zeatin and zeatin-O-glucoside was much higher than that of active ones (trans-zeatin and zeatin riboside. P. maritinum leaves contained a significant quantity of isopentenyl forms

  13. A natural component from Euphorbia humifusa Willd displays novel, broad-spectrum anti-influenza activity by blocking nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, So Young; Park, Ji Hoon [Respiratory Viruses Research Laboratory, Discovery Biology Department, Institut Pasteur Korea, 16, Daewangpangyo-ro 712 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 463-400 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Ho; Kang, Jong Seong [College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Ji-Young, E-mail: jiyoung.min@ip-korea.org [Respiratory Viruses Research Laboratory, Discovery Biology Department, Institut Pasteur Korea, 16, Daewangpangyo-ro 712 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 463-400 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-04

    The need to develop anti-influenza drugs with novel antiviral mechanisms is urgent because of the rapid rate of antigenic mutation and the emergence of drug-resistant viruses. We identified a novel anti-influenza molecule by screening 861 plant-derived natural components using a high-throughput image-based assay that measures inhibition of the influenza virus infection. 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (TGBG) from Euphorbia humifusa Willd showed broad-spectrum anti-influenza activity against two seasonal influenza A strains, A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) and A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2), and seasonal influenza B strain B/Florida/04/2006. We investigated the mode of action of TGBG using neuraminidase activity inhibition and time-of-addition assays, which evaluate the viral release and entry steps, respectively. We found that TGBG exhibits a novel antiviral mechanism that differs from the FDA-approved anti-influenza drugs oseltamivir which inhibits viral release, and amantadine which inhibits viral entry. Immunofluorescence assay demonstrated that TGBG significantly inhibits nuclear export of influenza nucleoproteins (NP) during the early stages of infection causing NP to accumulate in the nucleus. In addition, influenza-induced activation of the Akt signaling pathway was suppressed by TGBG in a dose-dependent manner. These data suggest that a putative mode of action of TGBG involves inhibition of viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm consequently disrupting the assembly of progeny virions. In summary, TGBG has potential as novel anti-influenza therapeutic with a novel mechanism of action. - Highlights: • The plant-derived natural product TGBG has broad-spectrum antiviral activity against seasonal influenza A and B viruses. • TGBG has a novel anti-viral mechanism of action that from differs from the currently available anti-influenza drugs. • TGBG hinders nuclear export of the influenza virus ribonucleoprotein (v

  14. A natural component from Euphorbia humifusa Willd displays novel, broad-spectrum anti-influenza activity by blocking nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, So Young; Park, Ji Hoon; Kim, Young Ho; Kang, Jong Seong; Min, Ji-Young

    2016-01-01

    The need to develop anti-influenza drugs with novel antiviral mechanisms is urgent because of the rapid rate of antigenic mutation and the emergence of drug-resistant viruses. We identified a novel anti-influenza molecule by screening 861 plant-derived natural components using a high-throughput image-based assay that measures inhibition of the influenza virus infection. 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (TGBG) from Euphorbia humifusa Willd showed broad-spectrum anti-influenza activity against two seasonal influenza A strains, A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) and A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2), and seasonal influenza B strain B/Florida/04/2006. We investigated the mode of action of TGBG using neuraminidase activity inhibition and time-of-addition assays, which evaluate the viral release and entry steps, respectively. We found that TGBG exhibits a novel antiviral mechanism that differs from the FDA-approved anti-influenza drugs oseltamivir which inhibits viral release, and amantadine which inhibits viral entry. Immunofluorescence assay demonstrated that TGBG significantly inhibits nuclear export of influenza nucleoproteins (NP) during the early stages of infection causing NP to accumulate in the nucleus. In addition, influenza-induced activation of the Akt signaling pathway was suppressed by TGBG in a dose-dependent manner. These data suggest that a putative mode of action of TGBG involves inhibition of viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm consequently disrupting the assembly of progeny virions. In summary, TGBG has potential as novel anti-influenza therapeutic with a novel mechanism of action. - Highlights: • The plant-derived natural product TGBG has broad-spectrum antiviral activity against seasonal influenza A and B viruses. • TGBG has a novel anti-viral mechanism of action that from differs from the currently available anti-influenza drugs. • TGBG hinders nuclear export of the influenza virus ribonucleoprotein (v

  15. Evaluation of temporal, seasonal and geographic stability of the molluscicidal property of Euphorbia splendens latex Avaliação da estabilidade temporal, estacional e geográfica da ação moluscicida do latex da Euphorbia splendens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Torres Schall

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests with aqueous solutions of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii latex have demonstrated seasonal stability of the molluscicidal principle, with LD90 values of 1.14 ppm (spring, 1.02 ppm (fall, 1.09 ppm (winter, and 1.07 ppm (summer that have been determined against Biomphalaria tenagophila in the field. Assays on latex collected in Belo Horizonte and Recife yielded LD90 values similar to those obtained with the reference substance collected in Rio de Janeiro (Ilha do Governador, demonstrating geographic stability of the molluscicidal effect. The molluscicidal action of aqueous dilutions of the latex in natura, centrifuged (precipitate and lyophilized, was stable for up to 124 days at room temperature (in natura and for up to 736 days in a common refrigerator at 10 to 12ºC (lyophilized product. A 5.0 ppm solution is 100% lethal for snails up to 13 days after preparation, the effect being gradually lost to almost total inactivity by the 30th day. This observation indicated that the active principle is instable. These properties together with the wide distribution of the plant, its resistance and adaptation to the tropical climate, its easy cultivation and the easy obtention of latex and preparation of the molluscicidal solution, make this a promising material for large-scale use in the control of schistosomiasisTestes de laboratório com soluções aquosas do látex da Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii demonstraram uma estabilidade estacional da atividade moluscicida do produto coletado na Ilha do Governador - RJ, encontrando-se as seguintes DL90: 1,14 ppm (primavera; 1,02 ppm (outono; 1,09 ppm (inverno e 1,07 ppm (verão sobre Biomphalaria tenagophila de campo. Ensaios com o látex da planta coletado em Belo Horizonte e Recife, identificaram DL90 semelhantes aos da substância de referência coletada no Rio, demonstrando uma estabilidade geográfica do efeito moluscicida. Usando diluições aquosas do latex in natura, centrifugado

  16. Análise de crescimento de biótipos de leiteira (Euphorbia heterophylla resistentes e suscetível aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS Growth analysis of resistant and susceptible wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes to ALS-inhibiting herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Vidal

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em condições de casa de vegetação, com o objetivo de analisar comparativamente o crescimento de três biótipos de leiteira (Euphorbia heterophylla - EPHHL resistentes (R (Passo Fundo, Não-Me-Toque e Rio Pardo e um suscetível (S (Porto Alegre aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS, por meio do cálculo da taxa de crescimento relativo (TCR e dos índices que a compõem. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental completamente casualizado, com três repetições e tratamentos organizados em fatorial 2 x 4 x 4, em que o fator A correspondeu às duas estações de crescimento (outono e primavera, o fator B aos quatro biótipos de EPHHL e o fator C às quatro épocas de determinação dos índices de crescimento das plantas de leiteira - no primeiro experimento, aos 15, 25, 35 e 45, e, no segundo, aos 23, 33, 43 e 53 dias após a emergência (DAE. No experimento realizado no outono não houve interação entre época de avaliação e biótipo nem efeito simples de biótipo. No experimento realizado na primavera, a razão de peso foliar (RPF do biótipo de Não-Me-Toque foi superior em média à dos demais biótipos; a razão de área foliar (RAF foi superior no biótipo de Não-Me-Toque aos 23 e 53 DAE; e não houve diferenças da TAL e TCR entre os biótipos. Esses resultados sugerem produtividade semelhante entre os biótipos R e S e, portanto, sua equivalência competitiva.Two trials were carried out under greenhouse conditions to compare the development of three ALS inhibitor herbicides resistant (R wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes (Passo Fundo, Não-Me-Toque and Rio Pardo - RS - Brazil and one susceptible (S (Porto Alegre - RS - Brazil using relative growth rate (RGR and related indices. The experiment was arranged as a completely randomized design, with three replications, in a 2 x 4 x 4 factorial, where factor A was two growth seasons (fall and spring; factor B, four biotypes of wild poinsettia

  17. Estudos anatômicos de folhas de espécies de plantas daninhas de grande ocorrência no Brasil: IV - Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella e Euphorbia heterophylla Leaf anatomical studies in weed species widely common in Brazil: IV - Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella and Euphorbia heterophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Ferreira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho é apresentado um estudo da anatomia das folhas de espécies de plantas daninhas de grande ocorrência no Brasil: Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella e Euphorbia heterophylla, visando melhor compreensão das barreiras que cada espécie impõe à penetração dos herbicidas e outros compostos utilizados em aplicações foliares. As folhas completamente expandidas do terceiro ao quinto nó foram coletadas de plantas de ocorrência espontânea no campo. Das folhas de cada espécie foram obtidas três amostras da região mediana, com aproximadamente 1 cm², as quais foram utilizadas em estudos da estrutura, clarificação e em observações em microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Todas as espécies avaliadas são anfiestomáticas. As principais barreiras foliares potenciais à penetração de herbicidas observadas nas plantas daninhas A. deflexus e A. spinosus foram, respectivamente, grande espessura da cutícula da face adaxial e da cutícula das duas faces. Já em relação a A. tenella, grande espessura da cutícula das duas faces, elevado teor de cera epicuticular e alta densidade tricomática foram os principais obstáculos potenciais detectados. E. heterophylla apresentou como possíveis principais barreiras foliares à penetração de agroquímicos o alto teor de cera epicuticular, a elevada densidade de laticíferos e a grande espessura da cutícula da face adaxial.This research aimed to study the leaf anatomy of the weed species Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella and Euphorbia heterophylla, widely known in Brazil, to acquire a better understanding of the barriers each species imposes to herbicide penetration, and to other substances used for leaf spraying. Completely expanded leaves from the third to the fifth nodes were collected from spontaneous plants in the field. Three samples approximately 1cm², were removed from the medium portion of the leaves, from each

  18. Possibilities and limitations of sup 1 H and sup 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for the identification and the quantitative determination of some naturally occurring carcinogenic risk factors. [Senecio vulgaris; Senecio vernalis; Senecio jacobaea; Euphorbia ingens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieters, L.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a phytochemical screening method for some selected carcinogenic or tumor-promoting principles in higher plants. The pyrrolizidine alkaloids from some Senecio species (Compositae or Asteraceae), and the diterpene ester from Croton tiglium L. and Euphorbia ingens E. Mey (Euphorbiaceae) were chosen as representatives of both groups. The possibilities and limitations of {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR) for the analysis of mixtures of carcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids were compared with high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography with high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography was well as gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. Senecio vulgaris L., Senecio vernalis Waldst. and Kit. and Senecio jacobaea L. were investigated.

  19. A study of some heavy metals found in medicinal plants (euphorbia cornigera, rhazya stricta and citrullus colocynthis) in turbat region of balochistan with reference to prevention of environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, M.I.; Hameed, M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the accumulation content of toxic heavy metals such as Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni and Pb in the shoots of three plants species (Euphorbia cornigera, Rhazya stricta and Citrullus colocynthis) collected from Turbat (Balochistan). These therapeutic plants play an important role in the traditional medication system that has been existed for several years and continuously provide new and novel remedies to the human beings. Moreover, these medicinal plants are used throughout the world for the purpose of treatment of many diseases and also a significant source of raw material for pharmaceutical and agricultural industries. Further, the various concentrations of heavy metals in medicinal plants was recorded as Pb > Zn > Cd > Cu > Ni. In the present research the results were related with the safety standards recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). (author)

  20. Euphorbia L. subsect. Esula (Boiss. in DC. Pax in the Iberian Peninsula. Leaf surface, chromosome numbers and taxonomic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molero, Julià

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a taxonomic study of the representatives or Euphorbia subsect. Esula in the Iberian Peninsula. Prior to this, a first section is included on the study of the leaf surface and a second section on chromosome numbers.
    The section on leaf surface is based on a study of the leaves or 45 populations of Iberian and European taxa of the subsections using a light microscope and SEM. The characters analyzed are cell shape, morphology of the cells and stomata (primary and secondary sculpture and epicuticular waxes (tertiary sculpture. Some microcharacters of the leaf surface proved particularly usefu1for taxonomical purposes. Thus the basic type of stoma and the distribution model of the stomata on the two sides of the leaf are characters which make it possible to separate taxa as closely related as E. esula L. subsp. esula and E. esula L. subsp orientalis (Boiss. in DC. Molero & Rovira. The morphological type of the epicuticular waxes also enables us to differentiate between E.graminifolia Vill. and E. esula aggr. And to distinguish subsp. bolosii Molero & Rovira from the remaining subespecies in E. nevadensis Boiss. & Reuter.
    Cytogenetic investigation reveals the presence of only the diploid cytotype (2n=10 in E. cyparissias L. and E. esula L. subsp. esula in the Iberian Peninsula. We describe for the first time in E. nevadensis s.1. a polyploidy complex with a base of x= 10 in which the diploid level (2n=20 is present in all subspecies; the tetraploid level (2n=40 is present in E. nevadensis subsp. nevadensis and the hexaploid level (2n=60 is found in E. nevadensis subsp. bolosii. Chromosome number is not a parameter that can be used for taxonomic purposes. In E. nevadensis, cytogenetic differentiation has followed its own course, with no apparent relationship to the process of morphological

  1. Correction: β-Amyrin synthase from Euphorbia tirucalli L. functional analyses of the highly conserved aromatic residues Phe413, Tyr259 and Trp257 disclose the importance of the appropriate steric bulk, and cation-π and CH-π interactions for the efficient catalytic action of the polyolefin cyclization cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ryousuke; Nakada, Chika; Hoshino, Tsutomu

    2017-01-18

    Correction for 'β-Amyrin synthase from Euphorbia tirucalli L. functional analyses of the highly conserved aromatic residues Phe413, Tyr259 and Trp257 disclose the importance of the appropriate steric bulk, and cation-π and CH-π interactions for the efficient catalytic action of the polyolefin cyclization cascade' by Ryousuke Ito et al., Org. Biomol. Chem., 2017, 15, 177-188.

  2. Eficácia de herbicidas aplicados nas épocas seca e úmida para o controle de Euphorbia heterophylla na cultura da cana-de-açúcar Efficacy of herbicides applied during the dry and wet seasons for Euphorbia heterophylla control in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M Correia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar o efeito de herbicidas aplicados em pré e pós-emergência, isolados e em combinações nas épocas seca e úmida, para o controle de leiteiro (Euphorbia heterophylla na cultura de cana-de-açúcar. O experimento foi desenvolvido no período de agosto de 2008 a junho de 2009, em área de produção comercial de cana-de-açúcar localizada no município de Jaboticabal-SP. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em esquema de parcela subdividida. Na época seca foram avaliados os herbicidas amicarbazone (1.400 g ha-1, imazapic (147 g ha-1 e sulfentrazone (900 g ha-1, aplicados em 1º/8/2008 após a colheita da cana, e testemunha sem manejo prévio das plantas daninhas. Os herbicidas utilizados na época úmida foram: mesotrione isolado (192 g ha-1 e em mistura (120 g ha-1 com ametryn (1.500 gha-1, atrazine (1.500 gha-1 ou diuron + hexazinone (702 + 198 g ha-1, aplicados em 14/11/2008, além de testemunha capinada e outra sem manejo das plantas daninhas. A aplicação de imazapic na época seca foi eficaz no controle de E. heterophylla, dispensando a complementação de manejo na época úmida. No entanto, para os herbicidas amicarbazone e sulfentrazone houve necessidade da aplicação de mesotrione, isolado ou em mistura com ametryn, atrazine ou diuron + hexazinone, para a manutenção do controle de E. heterophylla na época úmida (de 105 a 230 dias após a aplicação na época seca. Quando não foi realizada a aplicação de herbicida na época seca, constatou-se melhor controle de E. heterophylla na época úmida com o herbicida mesotrione associado a ametryn, atrazine ou diuron + hexazinone do que quando aplicado isoladamente. Apesar dos sintomas visuais de fitointoxicação ocasionados pelos tratamentos mesotrione + ametryn e mesotrione + (diuron + hexazinone pulverizados na época úmida, nenhum dos manejos adotados ou combinações entre eles interferiu no número de colmos vi

  3. Aumento da Sobrevivência de Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus, em Condições de Laboratório, pela Ingestão de Néctar Extrafloral de Euphorbia milii Des Moul. (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Abstract. The objective this study was to determine if in laboratory, Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (L., an important vector of dengue and yellow fever, feeds on the nectar of Euphorbia milii Des Moul (Euphorbiaceae , plant commonly used in homes as a hedge, and evaluate the effect of feeding on survival. The lifetime of both sexes was checked daily and a test for fructose was used for verification of sugar intake by mosquitoes. The daily access to the nectar gave a significant increase in the lifetime of males and females (12.8 and 18.4 days, respectively in relation to mosquitoes maintained only with water (6.4 and 7.4 days, respectively. Plants in domestic environments, producing nectar and suitable for feeding by mosquitoes of the same, as well as E. milii, have the potential to play a significant role in the energy budget of mosquitoes. An increase in the survival of females can mean an increased likelihood of infection and disease transmission in males and an increased likelihood of insemination of females. Although often overlooked in research and control tactics, the propensity of the mosquito Ae. aegypti ingesting sugars can be a variable that confers advantages to this vector.

  4. La ruta de señalización del acido salicílico juega un papel importante en la resistencia en tomate a Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) mediada por el gen Mi-1

    OpenAIRE

    Muñiz, Mariano; Rodriguez, C.I.; Kaloshian, I.; Nombela, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    Es bien conocido que la resistencia en tomate a Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), a Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) y a tres especies de nematodos formadores de nódulos (Meloidogyne spp.) está mediada por el gen Mi-1. Asimismo, está documentado que el ácido salicílico interviene en los mecanismos de resistencia frente a nematodos formadores de nódulos y áfidos. Recientemente se ha descrito que, en Arabidopsis, el biotipo B de B. tabaci induce defensas activadas por este ácido e inhibe las del ácido...

  5. Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Homoptera: Aphididae) infestation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant height, plant density per 0.25 m2, number of pea aphids and parasitoids per plant, ladybird beetles per plot, and finally grain yield per plot were recorded. Based on the results of the ANOVA, plant height was significantly different between treated and untreated plots especially after the vegetative stage. The density of ...

  6. Preparation and surface characterization of activated carbons from Euphorbia rigida by chemical activation with ZnCl2, K2CO3, NaOH and H3PO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kılıç, Murat; Apaydın-Varol, Esin; Pütün, Ayşe Eren

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An arid land plant evaluated as low cost activated carbon precursor. ► Four types of different chemical activation agents are used. ► Higher surface area (2600 m 2 /g) obtained by chemical activation. ► Obtained activated carbon can be effectively used as an adsorbent for the removal of toxic pollutants from aqueous solutions. - Abstract: Preparation of activated carbons from Euphorbia rigida by chemical activation with different impregnation agents and ratios was studied. ZnCl 2 , K 2 CO 3 , NaOH and H 3 PO 4 were used as chemical activation agents and four impregnation ratios (25–50–75–100%) by mass were applied on biomass. Activation is applied to impregnated biomass samples at 700 °C under sweeping gas in a fixed bed reactor. For determination of chemical and physical properties of the obtained activated carbons; elemental analysis was applied to determine the elemental composition (C, H, N, O) and FT-IR spectra was used to analyze the functional groups. BET equation was used to calculate the surface areas of activated carbons. For understanding the changes in the surface structure, activated carbons were conducted to Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Maximum BET surface area (2613 m 2 /g) was reached with 75% K 2 CO 3 impregnated biomass sample. Experimental results showed that impregnation types and ratios have a significant effect on the pore structure of activated carbon and E. rigida seems to be an alternative precursor for commercial activated carbon production.

  7. Effects of vacuum and controlled atmosphere treatments on insect mortality and lettuce quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Biao

    2003-08-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effects of vacuum and controlled atmosphere on mortality of aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) and Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), and leafminer, Liriomyza langei Frick, and on the visual quality of iceberg lettuce at three different temperatures. Vacuum at 50 mbar and controlled atmosphere with 6% CO2 were effective in controlling aphids and leafminer larvae. Complete control of N. ribisnigri and M. euphorbiae was achieved with vacuum treatments and 6% CO2 CA treatments at 5 degrees C in 4 d. Mortality was >96% when leafminer larvae were treated with vacuum and 6% CO2 CA treatments for 4 d. However, leafminer pupae were more tolerant to the treatments and highest mortality was close to 60% in 4 d with CO2 under vacuum. None of the treatments had negative effects on visual quality of iceberg lettuce. Results from this study are encouraging and warrant further and large-scale research.

  8. El complex Euphorbia esula-E. virgata (Euphorbiaceae al nord-est de la península Ibèrica: precisions corològiques, ecològiques i taxonòmiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovira, A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent discovery in the north-east of the Iberian Peninsula (southern and central Catalonia of three populations belonging to the Euphorbia esula–E. virgata complex (Euphorbiaceae prompted us to conduct a macro- and micromorphological study to ascertain their taxonomic identity. Only two previous records of plants from this complex existed in the area and these were gathered in 1908/1909 (previously identified as E. esula subsp. saratoi and in 1930 (E. esula s. l.. Our results indicate that all the material examined (both recent and old samples can be attributed to E. virgata, a taxon whose main distribution area lies in eastern Europe, and whose southwestern distribution limit lies in northeastern Iberian Peninsula. The macromorphological characteristics vary somewhat between populations and some individual plants bear a strong resemblance to forms that are usually referred to E. ×pseudovirgata, a supposed hybrid of E. virgata and E. esula. It is not possible, however, to confirm the presence of this hybrid in the region without further studies. After this study, E. esula subsp. esula should be excluded from Catalonia, Valencia and Aragon. The present-day populations we attribute to E. virgata are highly localized but dense. They are found in herbaceous habitats with clear anthropic influence (abandoned fields and the edges of roads and tracks, on deep, fairly dry soils. These habitats are similar to those typical of E. virgata in eastern and central Europe. It is likely that the populations are temporal and indeed in two of the three recent localities it has been confirmed that they date from after 2005. Current data suggest that this is a non-indigenous species, but in view of the fact that it was detected a century ago, the possibility that it is a rare indigenous species with itinerant populations cannot be ruled out.El hallazgo reciente de tres poblaciones del complejo Euphorbia esula-E. virgata (Euphorbiaceae en el nordeste de la

  9. Role of the aphid species and their feeding locations in parasitization behavior of Aphelinus abdominalis, a parasitoid of the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Govinda; Skovgård, Henrik; Reddy, Gadi V P; Steenberg, Tove; Enkegaard, Annie

    2017-01-01

    Aphid species feeding on lettuce occupy distinct feeding sites: the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri prefers to feed on heart leaves, whereas the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae feeds only on outer leaves. The aphid parasitoid Aphelinus abdominalis, known to be able to regulate M. euphorbiae on many crops, has recently been indicated as a promising biocontrol candidate also for use against N. ribisnigri, a major pest of lettuce. This study therefore examined A. abdominalis parasitization preference between N. ribisnigri and M. euphorbiae and its ability to parasitize aphids feeding on different parts of lettuce plants. In addition, life history traits of A. abdominalis on these aphid species were investigated. In no-choice laboratory experiments on leaf discs and 24 h exposure, A. abdominalis successfully parasitized 54% and 60% of the offered N. ribisnigri and M. euphorbiae, respectively, with no significant difference. In the corresponding choice experiment, however, A. abdominalis had a tendency for a significantly higher preference for M. euphorbiae (38%) compared to N. ribisnigri (30%). Growth chamber experiments on whole plants demonstrated that A. abdominalis was able to parasitize aphids, regardless of their feeding locations on lettuce plants. However, aphid feeding behavior had a significant effect on the parasitization rate. A. abdominalis parasitized significantly higher percentages of M. euphorbiae or N. ribisnigri when aphids were exposed separately to parasitoids on whole lettuce plants as compared with N. ribisnigri exposed only on heart leaf. A significant preference of A. abdominalis for M. euphorbiae compared to N. ribisnigri was also observed in the growth chamber choice experiment. A high percentage of adult emergence (> 84%) and female-biased sex ratio (> 83%) were found irrespective of the aphid species.

  10. Role of the aphid species and their feeding locations in parasitization behavior of Aphelinus abdominalis, a parasitoid of the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govinda Shrestha

    Full Text Available Aphid species feeding on lettuce occupy distinct feeding sites: the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri prefers to feed on heart leaves, whereas the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae feeds only on outer leaves. The aphid parasitoid Aphelinus abdominalis, known to be able to regulate M. euphorbiae on many crops, has recently been indicated as a promising biocontrol candidate also for use against N. ribisnigri, a major pest of lettuce. This study therefore examined A. abdominalis parasitization preference between N. ribisnigri and M. euphorbiae and its ability to parasitize aphids feeding on different parts of lettuce plants. In addition, life history traits of A. abdominalis on these aphid species were investigated. In no-choice laboratory experiments on leaf discs and 24 h exposure, A. abdominalis successfully parasitized 54% and 60% of the offered N. ribisnigri and M. euphorbiae, respectively, with no significant difference. In the corresponding choice experiment, however, A. abdominalis had a tendency for a significantly higher preference for M. euphorbiae (38% compared to N. ribisnigri (30%. Growth chamber experiments on whole plants demonstrated that A. abdominalis was able to parasitize aphids, regardless of their feeding locations on lettuce plants. However, aphid feeding behavior had a significant effect on the parasitization rate. A. abdominalis parasitized significantly higher percentages of M. euphorbiae or N. ribisnigri when aphids were exposed separately to parasitoids on whole lettuce plants as compared with N. ribisnigri exposed only on heart leaf. A significant preference of A. abdominalis for M. euphorbiae compared to N. ribisnigri was also observed in the growth chamber choice experiment. A high percentage of adult emergence (> 84% and female-biased sex ratio (> 83% were found irrespective of the aphid species.

  11. Role of the aphid species and their feeding locations in parasitization behavior of Aphelinus abdominalis, a parasitoid of the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Govinda; Skovgård, Henrik; Reddy, Gadi V. P.; Steenberg, Tove; Enkegaard, Annie

    2017-01-01

    Aphid species feeding on lettuce occupy distinct feeding sites: the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri prefers to feed on heart leaves, whereas the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae feeds only on outer leaves. The aphid parasitoid Aphelinus abdominalis, known to be able to regulate M. euphorbiae on many crops, has recently been indicated as a promising biocontrol candidate also for use against N. ribisnigri, a major pest of lettuce. This study therefore examined A. abdominalis parasitization preference between N. ribisnigri and M. euphorbiae and its ability to parasitize aphids feeding on different parts of lettuce plants. In addition, life history traits of A. abdominalis on these aphid species were investigated. In no-choice laboratory experiments on leaf discs and 24 h exposure, A. abdominalis successfully parasitized 54% and 60% of the offered N. ribisnigri and M. euphorbiae, respectively, with no significant difference. In the corresponding choice experiment, however, A. abdominalis had a tendency for a significantly higher preference for M. euphorbiae (38%) compared to N. ribisnigri (30%). Growth chamber experiments on whole plants demonstrated that A. abdominalis was able to parasitize aphids, regardless of their feeding locations on lettuce plants. However, aphid feeding behavior had a significant effect on the parasitization rate. A. abdominalis parasitized significantly higher percentages of M. euphorbiae or N. ribisnigri when aphids were exposed separately to parasitoids on whole lettuce plants as compared with N. ribisnigri exposed only on heart leaf. A significant preference of A. abdominalis for M. euphorbiae compared to N. ribisnigri was also observed in the growth chamber choice experiment. A high percentage of adult emergence (> 84%) and female-biased sex ratio (> 83%) were found irrespective of the aphid species. PMID:28854232

  12. Analysis of a new strain of Euphorbia mosaic virus with distinct replication specificity unveils a lineage of begomoviruses with short Rep sequences in the DNA-B intergenic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argüello-Astorga Gerardo R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Euphorbia mosaic virus (EuMV is a member of the SLCV clade, a lineage of New World begomoviruses that display distinctive features in their replication-associated protein (Rep and virion-strand replication origin. The first entirely characterized EuMV isolate is native from Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; subsequently, EuMV was detected in weeds and pepper plants from another region of Mexico, and partial DNA-A sequences revealed significant differences in their putative replication specificity determinants with respect to EuMV-YP. This study was aimed to investigate the replication compatibility between two EuMV isolates from the same country. Results A new isolate of EuMV was obtained from pepper plants collected at Jalisco, Mexico. Full-length clones of both genomic components of EuMV-Jal were biolistically inoculated into plants of three different species, which developed symptoms indistinguishable from those induced by EuMV-YP. Pseudorecombination experiments with EuMV-Jal and EuMV-YP genomic components demonstrated that these viruses do not form infectious reassortants in Nicotiana benthamiana, presumably because of Rep-iteron incompatibility. Sequence analysis of the EuMV-Jal DNA-B intergenic region (IR led to the unexpected discovery of a 35-nt-long sequence that is identical to a segment of the rep gene in the cognate viral DNA-A. Similar short rep sequences ranging from 35- to 51-nt in length were identified in all EuMV isolates and in three distinct viruses from South America related to EuMV. These short rep sequences in the DNA-B IR are positioned downstream to a ~160-nt non-coding domain highly similar to the CP promoter of begomoviruses belonging to the SLCV clade. Conclusions EuMV strains are not compatible in replication, indicating that this begomovirus species probably is not a replicating lineage in nature. The genomic analysis of EuMV-Jal led to the discovery of a subgroup of SLCV clade viruses that contain in

  13. INHIBITION EFFECT OF FLAVONOID EXTRACT OF Euphorbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-31

    Dec 31, 2009 ... ICID: 1040455. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. ISSN 1112-9867. 1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 ... Natural products of plant origin contain different organic compounds (e.g. alkaloids, tannins, pigments, organic and amino ... corrosion as inhibitors in acidic media [7-11]. Heterocyclic compounds containing N.

  14. Phytotherapeutic activity of Euphorbia cyparissias extracts on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vivo study of the efficacy of E. cyparissias concentrations was performed on 35 naturally infested sheep and on 30 bovines parasitized with Ixodes ricinus, sprayed with tincture and glycerinate dilutions (bovines) on days 0 and 7. The results revealed detrimental effects on the survivability of female ticks, the most ...

  15. Etude comparative de la digestibilité in vivo de l'herbe de guinée (Panicum maximum Jacq. associée aux feuilles et tiges de patate douce (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam (régime Panipo ou à l'herbe de lait (Euphorbia heterophylla L. (régime Paneuph chez le lapin (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. et le cobaye (Cavia porcellus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouakou, NGDV.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Digestibility of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. associated with sweet potato leaves and stems (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam (Panipo diet or poison milk (Euphorbia heterophylla L. (Paneuph diet in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. and in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus L.. A comparative study of in vivo digestibility of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. associated with sweet potato leaves and stems (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam (Panipo diet or with poison milk (Euphorbia heterophylla L. (Paneuph diet was conducted involving 16 rabbits and 16 weaned guinea pigs fed ad libitum. Paneuph was significantly better ingested (P0.05 for guinea pigs. Poison milk was better ingested than the leaves and stems of sweet potato (P0.05. The ADC of DM, OM and MAT of Paneuph exceeded 80% and were higher than those of Panipo in rabbits and guinea pigs (P<0.05. Based on the results obtained, the effects of the distribution of the Guinea grass associated with the poison milk during rabbits growing have to be further studied before recommending this new diet to farmers in areas where poison milk and Guinea grass are present and rabbit breeding enough developed.

  16. Euphorbia loricata Lam.: the first South African succulent Euphorbia drawn in situ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawant, P.; Winthagen, D.

    2007-01-01

    When describing a new plant species, it is good practice to include in the protologue the exact date and precise locality of its discovery. These data, together with the original plant picture, can afterwards serve as the lectotype. Here is some material from about 320 years ago!

  17. Migration, trapping and local dynamics of whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Lisbeth; Nachman, Gösta

    2006-01-01

    to population growth. 4 A model for changes in whitefly density during an entire bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) crop cycle, including an immigration parameter, was also developed. 5 Non-attractant window traps surrounding an annual field crop were assumed to intercept whiteflies immigrating into and emigrating...

  18. Calling songs of some South African cicadas (Homoptera: Cicadidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-07-13

    Jul 13, 1987 ... Figure 11 Posture of male cicadas during calling song, illustrated by a specimen ... parameters of the smaller samples falls within that of the largest conspecific ... under the control of the neuromuscular system (Pringle. 1954b).

  19. Whitefly Pest Species (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on Citrus Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Katja Žanić; Sonja Kačić; Miro Katalinić

    2000-01-01

    Today, the Citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead), is a very important pest on all Citrus species throughout the citrus growing areas in Croatia. It causes direct damage by sucking the plant juice from the leaves. Furthermore, immatures excrete honeydew that stimulates sooy mold. The presence of sooty mold on contaminated leaves interferes with the photosynthesis of plants. Citrus fruits coated by sooty mold lose its market value. Because Dialeurodes citri is poorly known in Croatia, th...

  20. Comparative cytogenetics of Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera, Homoptera): a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Valentina; Aguin-Pombo, Dora

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A comprehensive review of cytogenetic features is provided for the large hemipteran suborder Auchenorrhyncha, which currently contains approximately 42,000 valid species. This review is based on the analysis of 819 species, 483 genera, and 31 families representing all presently recognized Auchenorrhyncha superfamilies, e.i. Cicadoidea (cicadas), Cercopoidea (spittle bugs), Membracoidea (leafhoppers and treehoppers), Myerslopioidea (ground-dwelling leafhoppers), and Fulgoroidea (planthoppers). History and present status of chromosome studies are described, as well as the structure of chromosomes, chromosome counts, trends and mechanisms of evolution of karyotypes and sex determining systems, their variation at different taxonomic levels and most characteristic (modal) states, occurrence of parthenogenesis, polyploidy, B-chromosomes and chromosome rearrangements, and methods used for cytogenetic analysis of Auchenorrhyncha. PMID:26807037

  1. Distributional patterns and possible origin of leafhoppers (Homoptera, Cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervin W. Nielson

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The zoogeographical distribution of 42 cicadellid subfamilies and their assigned tribes and genera is compiled with distributional maps and proposed dispersal pathways of genera that are shared interzoogeographically. Possible origin of the subfamilies and tribes is proposed in an ancestral context from which the more modern extant groups evolved whereas origin of genera is in a more modern context. Notwithstanding their complex biogeography, the distributional data of the higher groups indicate that all of the cosmopolitan and near cosmopolitan subfamilies arose during early Cretaceous or possibly the late Jurassic period (140-116 m.y.a. when continental drift was in its early stages. Nearly all of the New World and some Old World subfamilies are considered of more recent origin (late Cretaceous-Tertiary. Ninety percent of the known genera (2,126 are endemic to their respective zoogeographical region and subregion, thus indicating relatively high host specificity and low rate of dispersal. The majority (76% of known extant genera are pantropical in origin, suggesting early or possible Gondwanaland origin of their ancestors. Dispersal pathways of genera shared by more than one zoogeographical region were generally south to north (Neotropical/Nearctic, Oriental/Palaearctic or west to east (Palaearctic/Nearctic, Oriental/Australian, from regions of high diversity to regions of low diversity and from warmer climates to cooler climates. The most diverse and richest leafhopper fauna are present in the Neotropical and Ethiopian regions although taxal affinities between them are poorest. The most depauperate fauna are in the Nearctic region and in Australia, reflecting the impact of isolating and ecological factors on distribution and radiation. Ecological barriers were more evident between the Ethiopian and Oriental fauna than between any other zoogeographical combination. Taxal affinities appeared to be correlated with close continental proximities. Vicariance (physical was the principal event that appealed to explain the distribution of many subfamilies and tribes whereas dispersal accounted for distribution of the majority of interzoogeographical genera.

  2. Particle film affects black pecan aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) on pecan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W; Reilly, Charles C

    2002-08-01

    Three species of aphids attack pecan foliage, Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch, and cause economic damage. We tested a kaolin-based particle film against one of these aphid species, black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis). Effect of particle film on host selection, adult mortality, and production of nymphs by M. caryaefoliae was tested on seedling pecans in the laboratory. Fewer M. caryaefoliae adults selected treated foliage compared with untreated foliage. A higher percentage of adults that did select treated foliage were recovered from upper leaf surfaces compared with the percentage of adults recovered from upper leaf surfaces of untreated leaves. Observations with a microscope revealed an accumulation of particle film on aphid body parts, especially on tarsi, and strongly suggests that aphid mobility was restricted. Adult mortality was higher on treated foliage and led to an overall decrease in production of nymphs on those seedlings. In addition, we measured spectral properties of treated seedling pecan foliage. Light reflectance by treated foliage was increased and absorptance decreased compared with control foliage whereas transmittance of light through control and particle film-treated leaves was similar. We did not detect any phytotoxic effect on pecan due to application of particle film.

  3. A synopsis of the tribe Micrutalini Haupt (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino M. Sakakibara

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The tribe Micrutalini and its two genera, Trachytalis Fowler and Micrutalis Fowler, are redescribed. The following species are treated and, in some cases, nomenclatura! changes introduced: Trachytalis isabellina Fowler, 1895; T. distinguenda Fowler, 1895; T. retrofasciata (Lethierry, 1890, comb.n.; Micrutalis alrovena Goding, 1930; M. balteata (Fairmaire, 1846 = Aculalis lucidus Buckton, 1902, syn.n.; M. bella Goding, 1929; M. biguttula (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n.; M. binaria (Fairmaire, 1846 = Acutalis flavivenlris Lethierry, 1890, syn.n.; M. callan-gensis Goding, 1930; M. calva (Say, 1830; M. discalis (Walker, 1858; M. dorsalis (Fitch, 1851; M. dubia Fowler, 1895 = M. zeteki Goding, 1928, syn.n.; M. flava Goding, 1929; M. flavozonala (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n. = Acutalis geniculata Stál, 1862, syn.n. = Acutalis modesta Stál, 1862, syn.n.; M. godfreyi Sakakibara, 1976; M. incerla Sakakibara, 1976; M. lata Goding, 1930; M. litlerala (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n.;M lugubrina(Stál, 1862;M malleiferaFovj]er, 1895 = M binariamutabilis Fowler, 1895, syn.n.; M. minutus Buckton, 1902; M. nigrolineata (Stál, 1864; M. nigromarginata Funkhouser, 1940; M. notalipennis Fowler, 1895; M. occidentalis (Goding, 1893; M. pollens Fowler, 1895; M. parva (Goding, 1893; M. plagíala (Stál, l&62 = AcutalisvariabiIisBerg, 1879,syn.n. =M. chapadensisGoding, 1930,syn.n.; M. punctifera (Walker, 1858; M. semialba (Stál, 1862; M. stipulipennis Buckton, 1902; M. tau Goding, 1930; M. trifurcala Goding, 1893; M. tripunctata (Fairmaire, 1846 = Acutalis moesta Stál, 1859, syn.n. = M. tartaredoides Goding, 1930, syn.n.. New species: Micrutalis diminuta sp.n. (Ecuador, Pichincha; Micrutalis divisa sp.n. (Brazil, Mato Grosso; Micrutalis henki sp.n. (Panama, Canal Zone; Micrutalis infúscala sp.n. (Venezuela, Portuguesa; Micrutalis margínala sp.n. (Brazil, Mato Grosso; Micrutalis meridana sp.n. (Venezuela, Mérida; Micrutalis mucuya sp.n. (Venezuela, Mérida; Micrutalis robustula sp.n. (Venezuela, Caracas; M. seminigra sp.n. (Brazil, Paraná; Micrutalis turriba sp.n. (Costa Rica, Turrialba. Lectotypes are designated for: Acutalis balteata Fairmaire, 1846, Aculalis binaria Fairmaire, 1846, Acutalis flavozonala Fairmaire, 1846, una Acutalis tripunctata Fairmaire, 1846. New taxonomic position: Micrutalis melanogramma (Petty, 1833 is transferred to Melu-sinella Metcalf, 1952 (Ceresini - Melusinella melanogramma (Petty, 1833, comb.n. = Melusinella nervosa (Fairmaire, 1846, syn.n.. Species incertae sedis: Tragopa ephippium Burmeister, 1836.

  4. Appearance of Neotoxoptera formosana (Homoptera: Aphididae) in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piron, P.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Neotoxoptera formosana (Takahashi) is a pest of wild and cultivated Allium species, but never iwht disastrous consequences. In 1984, N. formosana was found in France. This was the first finding in Europe. Since then, N. formosana has been observed also in other European countries. The first record

  5. Aspects of the ecology of spittlebugs (Homoptera: Cercopidae) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species type and pattern of distribution of spittlebugs was studied from 6th March to 15th December 2009 within the University of Nigeria, Nsukka campus. Three spittlebug species namely, Deois flavopicta, Aphrophora saratogensis and Philaenus spumarius were identified within the University campus. Whereas A.

  6. Pytotoxic activity of crude methanolic extract of Euphorbia prostrata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology

    2011-09-30

    Sep 30, 2011 ... preservative. Almost all the active principles responsible for the pharmacological action are known (Bulletin of the. WHO, 1998, 1993; Khan et al., 2010a, b). ... The plant was extracted and filtered by using Whatman filter paper No 1. The filtrate of the sample was concentrated by using rotary evaporator.

  7. Evolutionary prediction of medicinal properties in the genus Euphorbia L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Madeleine; Saslis Lagoudakis, Haris; Grace, Olwen M.

    2016-01-01

    The current decrease of new drugs brought to the market has fostered renewed interest in plant-based drug discovery. Given the alarming rate of biodiversity loss, systematic methodologies in finding new plant-derived drugs are urgently needed. Medicinal uses of plants were proposed as proxy...... for bioactivity, and phylogenetic patterns in medicinal plant uses have suggested that phylogeny can be used as predictive tool. However, the common practice of grouping medicinal plant uses into standardised categories may restrict the relevance of phylogenetic predictions. Standardised categories are mostly...... associated to systems of the human body and only poorly reflect biological responses to the treatment. Here we show that medicinal plant uses interpreted from a perspective of a biological response can reveal different phylogenetic patterns of presumed underlying bioactivity compared to standardised methods...

  8. Evolutionary prediction of medicinal properties in the genus Euphorbia L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Madeleine; Saslis Lagoudakis, Haris; Grace, Olwen M.

    2016-01-01

    The current decrease of new drugs brought to the market has fostered renewed interest in plant-based drug discovery. Given the alarming rate of biodiversity loss, systematic methodologies in finding new plant-derived drugs are urgently needed. Medicinal uses of plants were proposed as proxy for b...... interpretation of medicinal plant uses may therefore allow for a more targeted approach for future phylogeny-guided drug discovery at an early screening stage, which will likely result in higher discovery rates of novel chemistry with functional biological activity.......The current decrease of new drugs brought to the market has fostered renewed interest in plant-based drug discovery. Given the alarming rate of biodiversity loss, systematic methodologies in finding new plant-derived drugs are urgently needed. Medicinal uses of plants were proposed as proxy...... for bioactivity, and phylogenetic patterns in medicinal plant uses have suggested that phylogeny can be used as predictive tool. However, the common practice of grouping medicinal plant uses into standardised categories may restrict the relevance of phylogenetic predictions. Standardised categories are mostly...

  9. Antiproliferative activity of extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Specifically, a prescription of six drops of E. tirucalli latex .... pressure of 0.5 - 1.0 bar, capillary voltage of 3.0 -. 3.5 kV, and transfer ..... d), which permit unrestricted use, distribution, ... compounds in atrue boiling point distillation system using.

  10. Screening of endophytic fungi that promote the growth of Euphorbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-06

    Oct 6, 2008 ... host plantlets. Indole acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin (GA) were found in the fermented broth of E4 and. E5. ... plant has been hampered by its slow maturation of this perennial ..... µmol L-1 abscisic acid. .... grown from seeds.

  11. Antimicrobial activities of some Euphorbia species | Kirbag | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial activities of these extracts were examined on test microorganisms as follows: Staphylococcus aureus COWAN 1, Bacillus megaterium DSM 32, Proteus vulgaris FMC 1, Klebsiella pneumonia FMC 5, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa DSM 50071, Candida albicans FMC 17, Candida ...

  12. Protective effect of Euphorbia neriifolia saponin fraction on CCl 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-18

    Oct 18, 2010 ... ALP, alkaline phosphatase; NAD, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide .... Laboratory bred Wistar albino rats of both sexes (150 - 200 g) were maintained .... experimental animals is a commonly used model for the screening of ...

  13. Compensatory growth of Euphorbia peplus regenerating from a bud bank

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Latzel, Vít; Malíková, Lenka; Klimešová, Jitka

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 5 (2011), 313-321 ISSN 1916-2790 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/08/H044; GA ČR GPP505/10/P173 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : hypocotyl * disturbance * invasive species Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.251, year: 2011

  14. Seletividade de inseticidas a predadores de pulgões Selectivity of insecticides to predators of aphids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rafael Gusmão

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a seletividade dos inseticidas cipermetrina, diclorvós, diazinon, etion, fenitrotion, malation, metamidofós, paration metílico, permetrina, pirimicarbe e vamidation para adultos dos predadores Cycloneda sanguinea (L. e Eriopis connexa (Germ.(Coleoptera: Coccinellidae. Folhas de tomateiro foram imersas em caldas inseticidas nas doses utilizadas para o controle dos pulgões Myzus persicae (Sulzer e Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas em tomateiro e também na metade das doses recomendadas. Os fatores em estudo foram os inseticidas, as doses, as espécies de predadores e o sexo para C. sanguinea. Vamidation e o pirimicarbe foram os inseticidas mais seletivos a C. sanguinea seguidos do etion e diclorvós (3,2; 6,7; 49,7 e 52,5% de mortalidade, respectivamente. Para E. connexa o pirimicarbe foi o mais seletivo seguido pelo etion e cipermetrina (1,96; 71,28 e 81,92% de mortalidade, respectivamente. Os machos de C. sanguinea foram mais tolerantes que as fêmeas ao etion (33 e 66,5% de mortalidade e permetrina (61 e 100% de mortalidade, respectivamente. A toxicidade da permetrina a E. connexa e do etion às fêmeas de C. sanguinea foi menor quando estes inseticidas foram aplicados em subdose (74,4 e 25% de mortalidade, respectivamente do que quando estes foram aplicados na dose recomendada (100 e 66,5% de mortalidade, respectivamente para o controle de pulgões no tomateiro.The selectivity of cypermethrin, dichlorvos, diazinon, ethion, fenitrothion, matathion, methamidophos, methyl parathion, permethrin, pirimicarb, and vamidathion to adults of Cycloneda sanguinea (L. and Eriopis connexa (Germ. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae was studied. Tomato leaves were submerged in insecticide solution at recommended rate for controlling Myzus persicae (Sulzer and Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas in tomatoes. The effect of insecticides, doses, predator species, and sex of C. Sanguinea in insecticide selectivity was evaluated. Pirimicarb and vamidathion were the

  15. The Potato Aphid Salivary Effector Me47 Is a Glutathione-S-Transferase Involved in Modifying Plant Responses to Aphid Infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettles, Graeme J; Kaloshian, Isgouhi

    2016-01-01

    Polyphagous aphid pests cause considerable economic damage to crop plants, primarily through the depletion of photoassimilates and transfer of viruses. The potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae) is a notable pest of solanaceous crops, however, the molecular mechanisms that underpin the ability to colonize these hosts are unknown. It has recently been demonstrated that like other aphid species, M. euphorbiae injects a battery of salivary proteins into host plants during feeding. It is speculated that these proteins function in a manner analagous to secreted effectors from phytopathogenic bacteria, fungi and oomycetes. Here, we describe a novel aphid effector (Me47) which was identified from the potato aphid salivary secretome as a putative glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Expression of Me47 in Nicotiana benthamiana enhanced reproductive performance of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae). Similarly, delivery of Me47 into leaves of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) by Pseudomonas spp. enhanced potato aphid fecundity. In contrast, delivery of Me47 into Arabidopsis thaliana reduced GPA reproductive performance, indicating that Me47 impacts the outcome of plant-aphid interactions differently depending on the host species. Delivery of Me47 by the non-pathogenic Pseudomonas fluorescens revealed that Me47 protein or activity triggers defense gene transcriptional upregulation in tomato but not Arabidopsis. Recombinant Me47 was purified and demonstrated to have GST activity against two specific isothiocyanates (ITCs), compounds implicated in herbivore defense. Whilst GSTs have previously been associated with development of aphid resistance to synthetic insecticides, the findings described here highlight a novel function as both an elicitor and suppressor of plant defense when delivered into host tissues.

  16. The potato aphid salivary effector Me47 is a glutathione-S-transferase involved in modifying plant responses to aphid infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme James Kettles

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyphagous aphid pests cause considerable economic damage to crop plants, primarily through the depletion of photoassimilates and transfer of viruses. The potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae is a notable pest of solanaceous crops, however the molecular mechanisms that underpin the ability to colonize these hosts are unknown. It has recently been demonstrated that like other aphid species, M. euphorbiae injects a battery of salivary proteins into host plants during feeding. It is speculated that these proteins function in a manner analagous to secreted effectors from phytopathogenic bacteria, fungi and oomycetes. Here we describe a novel aphid effector (Me47 which was identified from the potato aphid salivary secretome as a putative glutathione-S-transferase (GST. Expression of Me47 in Nicotiana benthamiana enhanced reproductive performance of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae. Similarly, delivery of Me47 into leaves of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum by Pseudomonas spp. enhanced potato aphid fecundity. In contrast, delivery of Me47 into Arabidopsis thaliana reduced GPA reproductive performance, indicating that Me47 impacts the outcome of plant-aphid interactions differently depending on the host species. Delivery of Me47 by the non-pathogenic Pseudomonas fluorescens revealed that Me47 protein or activity triggers defense gene transcriptional upregulation in tomato but not Arabidopsis. Recombinant Me47 was purified and demonstrated to have GST activity against two specific isothiocyanates (ITCs, compounds implicated in herbivore defense. Whilst GSTs have previously been associated with development of aphid resistance to synthetic insecticides, the findings described here highlight a novel function as both an elicitor and suppressor of plant defense when delivered into host tissues.

  17. Weather forecasting by insects: modified sexual behaviour in response to atmospheric pressure changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Ana Cristina; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda Gomes Villalba; Nardi, Cristiane; Bezner-Kerr, Wayne; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Bento, José Maurício Simões; McNeil, Jeremy N

    2013-01-01

    Prevailing abiotic conditions may positively or negatively impact insects at both the individual and population levels. For example while moderate rainfall and wind velocity may provide conditions that favour development, as well as movement within and between habitats, high winds and heavy rains can significantly decrease life expectancy. There is some evidence that insects adjust their behaviours associated with flight, mating and foraging in response to changes in barometric pressure. We studied changes in different mating behaviours of three taxonomically unrelated insects, the curcurbit beetle, Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera), the true armyworm moth, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Lepidoptera) and the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera), when subjected to natural or experimentally manipulated changes in atmospheric pressure. In response to decreasing barometric pressure, male beetles exhibited decreased locomotory activity in a Y-tube olfactometer with female pheromone extracts. However, when placed in close proximity to females, they exhibited reduced courtship sequences and the precopulatory period. Under the same situations, females of the true armyworm and the potato aphid exhibited significantly reduced calling behaviour. Neither the movement of male beetles nor the calling of armyworm females differed between stable and increasing atmospheric pressure conditions. However, in the case of the armyworm there was a significant decrease in the incidence of mating under rising atmospheric conditions, suggesting an effect on male behaviour. When atmospheric pressure rose, very few M. euphorbiae oviparae called. This was similar to the situation observed under decreasing conditions, and consequently very little mating was observed in this species except under stable conditions. All species exhibited behavioural modifications, but there were interspecific differences related to size-related flight ability and the diel periodicity of mating activity. We

  18. Activity of aphids associated with lettuce and broccoli in Spain and their efficiency as vectors of Lettuce mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebreda, M; Moreno, A; Pérez, N; Palacios, I; Seco-Fernández, V; Fereres, A

    2004-03-01

    This research sought to identify the aphid virus vector species associated with lettuce and broccoli crops in Spain, and to determine their population dynamics and ability to transmit Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV). Green tile traps and Moericke yellow water-pan traps were used to monitor aphid flights during the spring and autumn growing seasons of 2001. Aphid species feeding on lettuce were counted weekly. The transmission efficiencies of LMV were determined for the aphid species caught most frequently. The Moericke traps generally caught more aphid species than the tile trap, but the latter was the most suitable to estimate flight activity of species involved in virus spread. Spring aphid catches indicated that the main aphid species landing on lettuce in the regions of Madrid and Murcia was Hyperomyzus lactucae, but Brachycaudus helichrysi was also abundant in both regions. In broccoli in the Navarra region, the most abundant species in spring were Aphis fabae, B. helichrysi and H. lactucae. In autumn-sown crops, the main species landing on lettuce in the Madrid region were Hyadaphis coriandri and Aphis spiraecola. In Murcia, A. spiraecola and Myzus persicae were the most abundant, while in Navarra, Therioaphis trifolii, and various Aphis spp. were the most numerous landing on broccoli. The main aphid species colonising lettuce was Nasonovia ribisnigri, but other less abundant colonising species were Aulacorthum solani and Macrosiphum euphorbiae. The most efficient vectors of LMV were M. persicae, Aphis gossypii and M. euphorbiae, while A. fabae and H. lactucae transmitted with low efficiency, and Rhopalosiphum padi and N. ribisnigri did not transmit. Occurrence of LMV epidemics in central Spain in relation to aphid flights and the role of weeds as virus reservoirs is discussed.

  19. Dynamics of nonpersistent aphid-borne viruses in lettuce crops covered with UV-absorbing nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legarrea, S; Betancourt, M; Plaza, M; Fraile, A; García-Arenal, F; Fereres, A

    2012-04-01

    Aphid-transmitted viruses frequently cause severe epidemics in lettuce grown under Mediterranean climates. Spatio-temporal dynamics of aphid-transmitted viruses and its vector were studied on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown under tunnels covered by two types of nets: a commercial UV-absorbing net (Bionet) and a Standard net. A group of plants infected by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, family Bromoviridae, genus Cucumovirus) and Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV, family Potyviridae, genus Potyvirus) was transplanted in each plot. The same virus-infected source plants were artificially infested by the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas). Secondary spread of insects was weekly monitored and plants were sampled for the detection of viruses every two weeks. In 2008, the infection rate of both CMV and LMV were lower under the Bionet than under the Standard cover, probably due to the lower population density and lower dispersal rate achieved by M. euphorbiae. However, during spring of 2009, significant differences in the rate of infection between the two covers were only found for LMV six weeks after transplant. The spatial distribution of the viruses analysed by SADIE methodology was "at random", and it was not associated to the spatial pattern of the vector. The results obtained are discussed analyzing the wide range of interactions that occurred among UV-radiation, host plant, viruses, insect vector and environmental conditions. Our results show that UV-absorbing nets can be recommended as a component of an integrated disease management program to reduce secondary spread of lettuce viruses, although not as a control measure on its own. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Mineral Oil on Potato Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimberti, Andrew; Alyokhin, Andrei

    2018-05-28

    Mineral oil is a product used to reduce Potato Virus Y transmission in potato fields. However, there is little information available about other effects that oil may have on insect pests of potato. To better understand how mineral oil affects potato pests, we performed a series of experiments testing the effects of oil on mortality, behavior, and development of potato aphids, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), green peach aphids, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and Colorado potato beetles, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). All three species showed negative behavioral responses to oil-treated potato foliage. Oil treatment also increased aphid mortality. Colorado potato beetle mortality was not affected, but developing on oil-treated potato plants resulted in prolonged development and smaller adults. Additionally, oil acted synergistically with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae); Colorado potato beetle larvae were killed more rapidly when sprayed with both products compared with when sprayed with B. bassiana alone. Based on these results, mineral oil has the potential for expanded use in potato IPM programs.

  1. Trichoderma harzianum enhances tomato indirect defense against aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Mariangela; Cascone, Pasquale; Chiusano, Maria Luisa; Colantuono, Chiara; Lorito, Matteo; Pennacchio, Francesco; Rao, Rosa; Woo, Sheridan Lois; Guerrieri, Emilio; Digilio, Maria Cristina

    2017-12-01

    Many fungal root symbionts of the genus Trichoderma are well-known for their beneficial effects on agronomic performance and protection against plant pathogens; moreover, they may enhance protection from insect pests, by triggering plant resistance mechanisms. Defense barriers against insects are induced by the activation of metabolic pathways involved in the production of defense-related plant compounds, either directly active against herbivore insects, or exerting an indirect effect, by increasing the attraction of herbivore natural enemies. In a model system composed of the tomato plant, the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae and the parasitoid Aphidius ervi, plant metabolic changes induced by Trichoderma harzianum and their effects on higher trophic levels have been assessed. T. harzianum T22 treatments induce a primed state that upon aphid attacks leads to an increased attraction of aphid parasitoids, mediated by the enhanced production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are known to induce Aphidius ervi flight. Transcriptome sequencing of T22-treated plants infested by aphids showed a remarkable upregulation of genes involved in terpenoids biosynthesis and salicylic acid pathway, which are consistent with the observed flight response of A. ervi and the VOC bouquet profile underlying this behavioral response. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. Annual Fire, Mowing and Fertilization Effects on Two Cicada Species (Homoptera: Cicadidae) in Tallgrass Prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac A. Callaham; Matt R. Whiles; John M. Blair

    2002-01-01

    In tallgrass prairie, cicadas emerge annually, are abundant and their emergence can be an important flux of energy and nutrients. However, factors influencing the distribution and abundance of these cicadas are virtually unknown. We examined cicada emergence in plots from a long-term (13 y) experimental manipulation involving common tallgrass prairie management...

  3. Radiation sterilization of the greenhouse white fly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westw., Homoptera, Aleyrodidae). Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genchev, N.

    1987-01-01

    Results are reported of studies of the sterilizing effect on puparia and imagoes of the greenhouse white fly (T. vaporariorum). The irradiation was made by gamma rays at the rate of 12+-5% rad/s. The parameters of radiation-induced sterility were sex determined. The sterilizing effect was expressed in emergence of dominant lethal mutations in spermatozoa accompanied by partial sperm inactivation and of partial aspermia. The absolute sterilizing doses for the two ontogenetic stage are 6 and 7 krad respectively. Radiation induced sterilization of the male parent resulted in forced arrhenotoky in F 1 and was regarded as a transformation of parthogenesis factor necessary for the normal propagation in the insect process into one that is lethal to the population factor. Radiation induced female sterility in females was expressed in the emergence of dominant lethals in oocytes. The absolute sterilizing doses for the puparium and the imago were 5 and 6 krad, respectively. Doses ≥4 krad caused partial infertility

  4. First results in the use of sterile insect technique against Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyroididae) in greenhouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvitti, M.; Remotti, P.C.; Pasquali, A.; Cirio, U.

    1998-01-01

    Trials for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique for the suppression of greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), both in cage and in greenhouse conditions are described. The results show a significant reduction of the reproductive capacity of the untreated whitefly populations interacting with sterile insects. Untreated whiteflies, co-existing in a mixed population together with sterile insects, attained less than the half (44%) of their potential reproductive capacity. This trend was also evident in the cage test where the untreated whitefly population, crossed with the sterile whiteflies, increased without exceeding 2/3 of the density recorded in the control cages. These results may be based on 2 joint sterile insect technique effects: primarily a drastic reduction of the progeny of normal untreated females, when mating with sterile males, carriers of dominant lethal mutations, and secondarily a progressive reduction of the females in the population due to an increasing rate of unsuccessful matings resulting in a condition of forced arrhenotoky. No deleterious effects, on plant health and fruit quality, were observed on plants exposed to high sterile whitefly pressures

  5. Responses of Russian Wheat Aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) to Aphid Alarm Pheromone

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, P. A.; Pickett, J. A.; Vandenberg, J. D.

    2017-01-01

    In a series of laboratory tests, Russian wheat aphids, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), responded to synthetic aphid alarm pheromone, (E)-β-farnesene, by removing stylets and leaving feeding sites or by crawling out of test arenas. Late instars and adults were more responsive than early instars. In dose-response assays, EC50 estimates ranged from 0.94 to 8.95 mg/ml among 3 experiments. In arenas, D. noxia also responded to the proximity of cornicle-damaged nymphs of either the green peach aphid, ...

  6. The tribe Acutalini Fowler (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae: new genera, new species and some nomenclatural changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino M Sakakibara

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The tribe Acutalini Fowler is redescribed as well as the genera Acutalis Fairmaire, Euritea Stål, and Thrasymedes Kirkaldy. The following new taxa and nomenclatural changes are presented: Thrasymedes mexicana sp.n. (from Mexico, Oaxaca; Bordonia gen.n., with B. venezuelana sp.n. (type-species (from Venezuela, Portachuelo, B. clypeata sp.n. (from Colombia, Cuesta Boba, B. majuscula sp.n. (from Venezuela, Portachuelo, and Cornutalis gen.n., with C. cauca sp.n. (type-species (from Colombia, Cauca, and C. validu sp.n. (from Ecuador, Sto. Domingo. Acutalis fusconervosa Fairmaire, 1846 = Horiola venosa Walker, 1858, syn.n.; Euritea munda (Walker, 1858 = Stictolobus nitidus Funkhouser, 1940, syn.n.; Bordonia nigricosta (Goding, 1926, comb.n.; Bordonia virescens (Funkhouser, 1940, comb.n.. One species is transferred to Smiliinae-Ceresini: Tapinolobus curvispina (Walker, 1858, comb.n. (formerly in Thrasymedes = Tapinolobus fasciatus Sakakibara, 1969, syn.n.; another one is transferred to Darninae-Cymbomorphini: Eumela darnioides (Walker, 1858, comb.n. (formerly in Euritea.

  7. Mechanisms of Oryza sativa (Poaceae resistance to Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae under greenhouse condition in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex González

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tagosodes orizicolus is one of the main plagues of rice in tropical America causing two types of damages, the direct one, feeding and oviposition effect, and an indirect one, by the transmission of the “Rice hoja blanca virus”. During 2006-2007 we carried out research under greenhouse conditions at Fundación Danac, Venezuela, in order to determine the mechanisms of antixenosis, antibiosis and tolerance to T. orizicolus, which could be acting in commercial varieties and advanced lines of the rice genetic breeding programs of INIA and Fundación Danac. The method of free feeding was used for the antixenosis evaluation, whereas the method of forced feeding was used for antibiosis evaluation (effect on survival and oviposition. Additionally, we used the indirect method based on biomass depression to estimate the tolerance. Some of the evaluated traits included: grade of damage, number of insects settling on rice plants, percentage of sogata mortality at the mature state, number of eggs in the leaf midrib and an index of tolerance. The results showed that rice genotypes possess different combinations of resistance mechanisms, as well as different grades of reactions. The susceptible control ‘Bluebonnet 50’ was consistently susceptible across experiments and the resistant control ‘Makalioka’ had high antixenosis and high antibiosis based on survival and oviposition. The rest of the genotypes presented lower or higher degrees of antixenosis and antibiosis for survival and viposition. The genotype ‘FD0241-M-17-6-1-1-1-1’ was identified with possible tolerance to the direct damage of sogata.Tagosodes orizicolus es una de las principales plagas del cultivo del arroz en América tropical causando dos tipos de daños a la planta, el directo, por efecto de la alimentación y oviposición; el indirecto, por la transmisión del virus de la hoja blanca del arroz. Durante el período 2006-2007 se llevó a cabo una investigación bajo condiciones de umbráculo en la Fundación Danac, Venezuela, con el objeto de determinar los mecanismos de resistencia de antixenosis, antibiosis y tolerancia a T. orizicolus que pudieran estar actuando en líneas avanzadas y cultivares del programa de mejoramiento enético de arroz de las instituciones INIA y Fundación Danac. Para la evaluación de antixenosis se utilizó el método de libre elección, para antibiosis (efecto sobre sobrevivencia y oviposición de los insectos el de alimentación forzada, adicionalmente se usó un método indirecto para estimar la tolerancia. Dentro de los principales parámetros determinados se encontraban: grado de daño, número de insectos posados sobre plantas de arroz, porcentaje de mortalidad de sogata en estado adulto, número de huevos y se calculó un índice de tolerancia con base en la biomasa. Los resultados mostraron que los genotipos de arroz evaluados poseen diferentes combinaciones en cuanto a los mecanismos de resistencia, así como el grado de su efecto. El testigo ‘Bluebonnet 50’ se mantuvo consistentemente susceptible en las evaluaciones y el testigo resistente ‘Makalioka’ fue el único genotipo que presentó alta antixenosis y alta antibiosis para sobrevivencia y oviposición. El resto de los genotipos presentaron un menor o mayor grado de resistencia de tipo antixenosis y antibiosis para sobrevivencia y oviposición. Se identificó el genotipo ‘FD0241-M-17-6-1-1-1-1’ con posible tolerancia al daño directo de sogata.

  8. Cytogenetic and taxonomic studies of some legless mealybugs (Homoptera, Coccinea, Pseudococcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya A. Gavrilov-Zimin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A new monotypic genus and species, Komodesia circuliplurima gen. et sp. n., from Flores Is. (Indonesia and the new species, Antonina diversiglandulosa sp. n., from Southern Thailand are described and illustrated. Chromosomes of these species and also the ones of Antonina purpurea Signoret, 1872 and A. thaiensis Takahashi, 1942 are studied for the first time: 2n = 30, 20, 12 and 22+Bs correspondingly; the male embryos of all four species demonstrate Lecanoid paternal heterochromatinization of one haploid set of chromosomes. The karyotypes of three widely distributed species, Antonina pretiosa Ferris, 1953, A. graminis (Maskell, 1897 and Chaetococcus bambusae (Maskell, 1893, are studied based on material from other regions in comparison with previously published data. Photographs of the karyotypes are provided for the first time for all seven species. The terminological problems connected with the identification and naming of the three scale insect genetic systems, Lecanoid, Comstockioid and Diaspidoid, are discussed.

  9. Influences of pea morphology and interacting factors on pea aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, N; Cuddington, K

    2009-08-01

    It has been claimed that plant architecture can alter aphid reproductive rates, but the mechanism driving this effect has not been identified. We studied interactions between plant architecture, aphid density, environmental conditions, and nutrient availability on the reproduction of pea aphids [Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris)] using four near-isogenic peas (Pisum sativum L.) that differ in morphology. Manipulations of aphid density (1, 5, and 10 adults per plant) allowed us to examine any effects of plant morphology on crowding and consequently reproduction. Pea morphology per se did not alter pea aphid crowding, as measured by mean nearest neighbor distance, and there was no effect on reproduction. In addition, reproduction increased with increasing adult density, indicating positive density dependence. In a separate experiment, peas were fertilized to determine whether differences between nutrient availability of the four different morphologies might drive any observed differences in aphid reproduction. Although plant nitrogen content was altered by fertilization treatments, this did not have an impact on aphid reproduction. Greenhouse experiments, however, suggested that pea morphology can interact with environmental conditions to reduce aphid reproduction under some conditions. We conclude that plant morphology only influences aphid reproduction when environmental conditions are less than optimal.

  10. The genus Baeturia Stål as represented in New Guinea (Homoptera, Cicadidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blöte, H.C.

    1960-01-01

    Until now only three species of the genus Baeturia have been recorded from New Guinea, viz., B. bicolorata Distant, B. viridicata Distant, and B. nana Jacobi. As I had the opportunity to study a fairly large collection of this group from different sources, collected in New Guinea, it appeared to me

  11. Bioacoustic investigations and taxonomic considerations on the Cicadetta montana species complex (Homoptera: Cicadoidea: Tibicinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Gogala

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent bioacoustic investigations have shown that Cicadetta montana Scopoli 1772 is a complex of morphologically similar sister species that are best characterized by their song patterns. At the type locality of C. montana, only mountain cicadas with simple, long lasting song phrases were heard, recorded and collected. Therefore, we have good reasons to suggest that this type of song is characteristic for C. montana s. str. Boulard described a song of C. montana from France with phrases composed of a long and a short echeme; this type of song is characteristic for cicadas morphologically corresponding to C. montana var. brevipennis Fieber 1876; we suggest to raise this taxon to species level. On the basis of specific song, Puissant and Boulard described C. cerdaniensis from Pyrénées. A similar case was the discovery and description of C. montana macedonica Schedl 1999 from Macedonia; since these Macedonian cicadas are sympatric with at least two other cryptic species in the C. montana group and molecular investigations showed substantial genetic differences between C. macedonica and C. montana or C. brevipennis, we conclude that this taxon should also be raised to species level. Songs of closely related C. podolica and Korean mountain cicada are presented as well.Pesquisas recentes de bioacústica mostraram que Cicadetta montana Scopoli 1772 é um complexo de espécie-irmãs morfologicamente semelhantes e melhor caracterizadas por seus padrões de canto. Na localidade-tipo de C. montana somente cigarras serranas de longas frases de canto foram ouvidas, gravadas e coletadas. Portanto, temos boas razões para propor este tipo de canto como característico de C. montana s. str. Boulard descreveu um canto de C. montana da França com frases compostas de uma estridulação longa e uma curta; este tipo de canto é característico das cigarras correspondendo morfologicamente a C. montana var. brevipennis Fieber 1876; sugerimos elevar este táxon ao nível de espécie. Baseando-se nos cantos específicos, Puissant e Boulard descreveram C. cerdaniensis dos Pirineus. Um caso similar foi a descoberta e descrição de C. montana macedonica Schedl 1999 da Macedônia; desde que essas cigarras macedônicas são simpátricas com pelo menos duas outras espécies crípticas dentro do grupo C. montana e as análises moleculares mostraram diferenças genéticas substanciais entre C. montana e C. brevipennis, concluímos que este táxon também deve ser elevado ao nível de espécie. Cantos de espécies próximas, C. podolica e a cigarra serrana da Korea, são também apresentados.

  12. Appearance of cicada fauna (Homoptera: Cicadoidea) by altitudes in Johor National Park, Mount Ledang, Johor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Aliadi Mohd; Sulaiman, Azman

    2015-09-01

    A total of 31 cicada species in 15 genera under two families (Cicadidae, 27 species in 11 genera; Tibicinidae, four species in three genera) was recorded for Johor National Park, Mount Ledang, Johor. This was based on 666 individuals were obtained through six sampling occasions in November 2012 until October 2013, each time using light trap set in six sampling locations (L1, L2, L3, L4a, L4b, L4c) that were selected based on altitudes. The most common and abundant species in L1 is Pomponia sp1 and recognized as new species that need to be described as new to science. Orientopsaltria saudarapadda Duffles & Zaidi appeared as the most common and abundant species in L2, represented by 21 individuals which covers 34.43 % of the total cicadas specimen in that area. In the location of L3, Dundubia vaginata (Fabricius) appeared as the most abundant species represented by 37 individuals or 26.81% while Abroma maculicollis Guerin appeared as the most common species. Shannon's Species Diversity Index (H') in L3 was the highest (H'=2.28) followed by L4b (H'=2.21), L2 (H'=1.93) L4a (H'=1.92), L4c (H'=1.84) and L1 (H'=1.58), and the evenness index in L1 was the highest (E= 0.88), followed by L4b (E= 0.79), L3 (E= 0.77), L2 (E= 0.75), L4c (E= 0.74) and L4a (E= 0.79). Margalef Species Richness Index in L3 was the highest (R'=3.65), followed by oleh L4b (R'=3.01), L4a (R'=2.97), L2 (R'=2.92), L4c (R'=2.4), and L1 (R'=2.01). Generally shows that L3 at the altitude 350 m appear as the best sampling site for cicadas species in Mount Ledang Johor with the highest value of species diversity and richness index.

  13. Metcalfa pruinosa (Say (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha anew harmful species for entomofauna of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Ljubodrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the early autumn 2006, a Nonarctic species of cicadas Metcalfa pruinosa (Say (Auchenorrhyncha: Flatidae was identified in Belgrade (Košutnjak. In Europe, this species was identified for the first time in Italy in 1979. In Slovenia, it was identified in 1990 in west Istria, and in 2001 in the neighbourhood of Ljubljana. In the park forest Košutnjak (Belgrade mass occurrence of M. pruinosa was recorded in the area of about 5 ha. The larvae developed on woody species in the genera: Acer, Aesculus, Gleditchia Robinia, Ailanthus, Populus, Platanus, Prunus, Pyrus, Ulmus, Tilia, Cornus Fraxinus, Quercus and Thuja, što is konstatovano based on damages of larvae while numerous adults were found on trees and branches of the same plants.

  14. Energetics of emergence in the cicadas, Cyclochila australasiae and Abricta curvicosta (Homoptera: Cicadidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Prudence M; Thompson, Michael B

    2006-09-01

    The final moult in cicadas marks a major transition in lifestyle and is a behaviour that makes the cicada vulnerable to predation. Consequently, emergence times are short and, we predict, therefore the rate of energy consumption would be high. Hence, we measured the energetic cost of emergence in Cyclochila australasiae (green grocer) and Abricta curvicosta (floury baker) cicadas during the final moult from nymph to adult cicada. Maximum energy expended whilst emerging was compared between the sexes and species. Even though C. australasiae take longer to emerge than A. curvicosta, the mass-specific cost of emergence is not different between the two species (C. australasiae: 11.34+/-2.55 J g(-1); A. curvicosta: 12.91+/-1.90 J g(-1)). The mass-specific metabolic rates of fully emerged adults of both species are approximately twice those of the nymphs and the maximum metabolic rate during emergence is about 1.5 times higher than the resting metabolic rate of emerged adults. Emergence times, as indicated by rates of oxygen consumption, are longer than expected and probably reflect limitations in the oxygen capacity of the cicadas during moulting.

  15. The taxonomy and biogeography of the genus Thaumastopsaltira Kirkaldy, 1900 (Homoptera, Tibicinidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de A.J.

    1992-01-01

    The taxonomic concept of the genus Thaumastopsaltria Kirkaldy is redefined on the basis of the shape of postclypeus and the length of the ovipositor. Tegmen venation is shown to be unreliable for this purpose. T. nana (Jacobi) does not fit this new concept and is, pending its transfer to another

  16. Distributional patterns and possible origins of the tribes and genera of Coelidiinae (Homoptera, Membracoidea, Cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervin W Nielson

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Leafhoppers are well known biological indicators of zoogeographical regions owing, in part, to their phytodependency, high host plant specificity and relatively low vagility. In this connection, we discuss distributional patterns and possible zoogeographical origins of nine constituent tribes and their genera of the pantropical subfamily Coelidiinae. Among 118 known genera, only eight currently occupy more than one zoogeographical region, indicating an extremely high endemic profile which supports the proposed centers of origin and relatively low rate of intercontinental dispersal. The pantropical tribe Coelidiini is suggested as the basal group of the subfamily which is believed to have arisen prior to continental drift (late Jurassic-early Cretaceous because there appears to be no other evidence at the present time to explain its near cosmopolitan distribution. Possible origins of three Old World tribes, Hikangiini (Ethiopian, Thagriini (Oriental and Thanini (Australian and four New World -(Neotropical tribes, Teruliini, Tinobregmini, Gabritini and Sandersellini are elucidated. The tribe Youngolidiini occupies the Neotropical and Ethiopian realms but its origin is problematical. There appears to be ample evidence that origin/dispersal patterns are related to the geological history of the areas occupied by its faunal members.

  17. Mechanisms of Oryza sativa (Poaceae) resistance to Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae) under greenhouse condition in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alex; Labrín, Natalia; Alvarez, Rosa M; Jayaro, Yorman; Gamboa, Carlos; Reyes, Edicta; Barrientos, Venancio

    2012-03-01

    Tagosodes orizicolus is one of the main plagues of rice in tropical America causing two types of damages, the direct one, feeding and oviposition effect, and an indirect one, by the transmission of the "Rice hoja blanca virus". During 2006-2007 we carried out research under greenhouse conditions at Fundaci6n Danac, Venezuela, in order to determine the mechanisms of antixenosis, antibiosis and tolerance to T. orizicolus, which could be acting in commercial varieties and advanced lines of the rice genetic breeding programs of INIA and Fundaci6n Danac. The method of free feeding was used for the antixenosis evaluation, whereas the method of forced feeding was used for antibiosis evaluation (effect on survival and oviposition). Additionally, we used the indirect method based on biomass depression to estimate the tolerance. Some of the evaluated traits included: grade of damage, number of insects settling on rice plants, percentage of sogata mortality at the mature state, number of eggs in the leaf midrib and an index of tolerance. The results showed that rice genotypes possess different combinations of resistance mechanisms, as well as different grades of reactions. The susceptible control 'Bluebonnet 50' was consistently susceptible across experiments and the resistant control 'Makalioka' had high antixenosis and high antibiosis based on survival and oviposition. The rest of the genotypes presented lower or higher degrees of antixenosis and antibiosis for survival and oviposition. The genotype 'FD0241-M-17-6-1-1-1-1' was identified with possible tolerance to the direct damage of sogata.

  18. The authority and types for the hackberry gall psyllid genus Pachypsylla (Riley) (Hemiptera-Homoptera: Psyllidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nomenclatural problems with the hackberry gall psyllid species names are rectified. The genus Pachypsylla Riley, 1883, type species, Psylla venusta Osten-Sacken, includes 14 nominal species. These are: Pachypsylla venusta (Osten-Sacken, 1861); P. celtidismamma Riley, 1875; P. celtidisgemma Ri...

  19. Microsatellite marker analysis of peach-potato aphids (Myzus persicae, Homoptera: Aphididae) from Scottish suction traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloch, G; Highet, F; Kasprowicz, L; Pickup, J; Neilson, R; Fenton, B

    2006-12-01

    The peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) is an important vector of plant viruses. A network of suction traps collects aerial samples of this aphid in order to monitor and help predict its spatial distribution and likely impact on virus transmission in crops. A suction trap catch is thought to be a good representation of the total aphid pool. Sensitive molecular markers have been developed that determine the genetic composition of the M. persicae population. In Scotland, UK, these were applied to field collections revealing a limited number of clones. Molecular markers are less successful when applied to specimens that have been preserved in an ethanol-based trap fluid designed to preserve morphology. An assessment of different DNA extraction and PCR techniques is presented and the most efficient are used to analyse M. persicae specimens caught in the Dundee suction trap in 2001, a year when exceptionally high numbers were caught. The results reveal that the majority of the M. persicae caught belonged to two highly insecticide resistant clones. In addition, it was possible to compare the relative frequencies of genotypes caught in the trap with those collected at insecticide treated and untreated field sites in the vicinity. These results indicate that, in addition to suction trap data, the ability to sample field sites provides valuable early warning data which have implications for pest control and virus management strategies.

  20. Evaluation of insecticides against cotton whitefly, bemisia tabachi (Genn.) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razaq, M.; Aslam, M.; Sharif, K.; Salman, B.; Aleem, F.

    2003-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of lmidacloprid (Confidor 200SL), Acetamaprid (Mospilon 20SP), Methamidophos (Tamaron 600SL), Endosulfan (Thioluxon 35EC), Buprofezin (Sitara 25WP), Fenpropathrin (Fenthrin 20EC) and Diafenthiuron (Polo 500 SC) against whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) on cotton variety CIM-473 during the crop year 2002. The crop was sprayed twice in September. After seven days of the first spray, the lowest population (0.6/leaf) of whitefly was observed in plots treated with Endosulfan 35EC followed by Acetamaprid 20SP(1.1/leaf), while the plots receiving Buprofezin 25 WP + Fenpropathrin 20 EC, Methamidophos 600SL and Imidacloprid 200SL had population of whitefly statistically similar. Seven days after second spray Acetamaprid 20SP and Diafenthiuron 500SC treated plots had the lowest population (1.4 per leaf) of whitefly followed by Imidacloprid 200SL (1.8 per leaf) and Fenpropathrin 20EC (1.9 per leaf).(author)

  1. The Toxicity and Detoxifying Mechanism of Cycloxaprid and Buprofezin in Controlling Sogatella furcifera (Homoptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaoli; Yuan, Yongda; Zhang, Tianshu; Wang, Dongsheng; Du, Xingbin; Wu, Xiangwen; Chen, Haixia; Chen, Yaozhong; Jiao, Yuetong; Teng, Haiyuan

    2015-01-01

    The effects of cycloxaprid (a modified neonicotinoid insecticide) and buprofezin (a thiadiazine insecticide) on mortality of the white-backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera, were determined in laboratory assays. Cycloxaprid killed WBPH nymphs and adults but buprofezin killed only nymphs, and cycloxaprid acted faster than buprofezin. One day after infestation, mortality of third-instar nymphs was >65% with cycloxaprid at 125 mg liter(-1) but was buprofezin at 148 mg liter(-1). By the 4th day after infestation, however, control of nymphs by the two insecticides was similar, and cycloxaprid at 125 mg liter(-1) caused ≥ 80% mortality of adults but buprofezin at 148 mg liter(-1) (the highest rate tested) caused almost no adult mortality. LC50 values for cycloxaprid were lowest with nymphs, intermediate with adult males, and highest with adult females. Although buprofezin was slower acting than cycloxaprid, its LC50 for nymphs 5 d after infestation was 3.79-fold lower than that of cycloxaprid. Mean carboxylesterase (CarE) specific activity of nymphal WBPH treated with cycloxaprid and buprofezin was higher than that of control, but there was no significant difference between cycloxaprid and control (no insecticide), and it was significantly higher for buprofezin than those of cycloxaprid and control. For glutathione S-transferase and mixed function oxygenase, the specific activity of nymphal WBPH treated with buprofezin was significantly higher than those of cycloxaprid and control, too. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  2. The Toxicity and Detoxifying Mechanism of Cycloxaprid and Buprofezin in Controlling Sogatella furcifera (Homoptera: Delphacidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Xiaoli; Yuan, Yongda; Zhang, Tianshu; Wang, Dongsheng; Du, Xingbin; Wu, Xiangwen; Chen, Haixia; Chen, Yaozhong; Jiao, Yuetong; Teng, Haiyuan

    2015-01-01

    The effects of cycloxaprid (a modified neonicotinoid insecticide) and buprofezin (a thiadiazine insecticide) on mortality of the white-backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera, were determined in laboratory assays. Cycloxaprid killed WBPH nymphs and adults but buprofezin killed only nymphs, and cycloxaprid acted faster than buprofezin. One day after infestation, mortality of third-instar nymphs was >65% with cycloxaprid at 125?mg liter?1 but was

  3. Aleyrodes proletella (Linnaeaus, 1758) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) puede desarrollarse en plantas de tomate en condiciones controladas

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, D.; Gómez, Azahara A.; Nombela, Gloria; Muñiz, Mariano

    2007-01-01

    La mosca blanca de la col, Aleyrodes proletella L. causa importantes daños directos en cultivos del género Brassica en Europa, entre los que se incluyen la coliflor, brócoli, lombarda y romanesco. En España se ha observado un incremento de sus poblaciones, especialmente en Islas Canarias, Navarra y Murcia. La aplicación prolongada de plaguicidas de amplio espectro origina la aparición de poblaciones resistentes y efectos medioambientales adversos. Tras una infestación accidental de adult...

  4. Repellency and toxicity of three Impatients species (Balsaminaceae) extracts on Myzus persicae Sulzer (Homoptera: Aphididae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavela, R.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Šerá, Božena

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 2009, - (2009), s. 48-51 ISSN 0974-391X R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QH72117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Impatiens * repellency * toxicity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  5. Hemlock woolly adelgid (Homoptera: Adelgidae): stylet bundle insertion and feeding sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca F. Young; Kathleen S. Shields; Graeme P. Berlyn

    1995-01-01

    Stylet bundle insertion site, path traveled, and feeding site were examined for the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, on needles from current and previous years of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis Carriere. The stylet bundle is composed of 4 individual stylets--2 outer mandibular stylets and 2 inner maxillary stylets...

  6. Dinamika Populasi Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Homoptera: Psyllidae dan Deteksi CVPD dengan Teknik PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I NYOMAN WIJAYA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in the field of Taro village Gianyar regency and Katung village Bangli regency and at the Laboratory of Biotechnology Faculty of Agricultural Udayana University. The purpose of the research were to investigate population dynamic of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama and other insects that were assosiated with citrus cv. siam; and molecular detection of CVPD patogen in its vector, other phytophagous insects on citrus cv.siam and kemuning [Murraya paniculata (L. Jack.] The result of this study showed that in six month period there was one peak of D. citri population which was associated with the flushing period of citrus at Taro as well Katung villages. The peak of D. citri population of Taro village was higher than that of Katung village. Two species of parasitoids and four spesies of predators were found in the field and may contribute in the suppression of D. citri population. The parasitoids identified were Tamarixia radiata Wat. and Diaphorencyrtus alligharensi Shaffe, whereas the predators were Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Phiddipus sp., Menochilus sexmaculatus Fabricius and Oxyopes javanus Thorell. T. radiata has been proven to be an effective nymph parasitoid that could suppress the population development of D. citri in citrus orchads. The research revealed that kemuning could serve as a source of infection because it is also a host of CVPD disease as well as of D. citri. Toxoptera citricidus Kirkaldy and Maleuterpes dentipes Hell. were not proven to contain CVPD disease.

  7. Extended survival of spiders (Aranaeae) feeding on whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) honeydew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeydew produced by homopteran insects such as aphids, whiteflies and mealybugs, can be abundant in some crops and may represent an important food resource for spiders and other honeydew feeding natural enemies. Woolly whiteflies are common in south Texas citrus, and spiders consistently make up a...

  8. The Hawaiian cave planthoppers (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea: Cixiidae - A model for rapid subterranean speciation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannelore Hoch

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available After the successful colonization of a single ancestral species in the Hawaiian Islands, planthoppers of the cixiid genus Oliarus underwent intensive adaptive radiation resulting in 80 described endemic species. Oliarus habitats range from montaneous rain forests to dry coastal biotopes and subterranean environments. At least 7 independant evolutionary lines represented by different species have adapted to lava tubes on Molokai (1, Maui (3, and Hawaii Island (3. Behavioral and morphological studies on one of these evolutionary lines on Hawaii Island, the blind, flight- and pigmentless Oliarus polyphentus have provided evidence for reproductive isolation between allopatric populations which may in fact be separate species. Significant differences in song parameters were observed even between populations from neighbouring lava tubes, although the planthoppers are capable of underground migration through the voids and cracks of the mesocavernous rock system which is extant in young basalt: after a little more than 20 years, lava tubes within the Mauna Ulu 1974 flow had been colonized by O. ‘polyphenius” individuals, most probably originating from a near-by forestkipuka. Amazingly, this species complex is found on the youngest of the Hawaiian Islands, with probably less than 0.5 m.y., which suggests rapid speciation processes. Field observations have led to the development of a hypothesis to match underground speciation with the dynamics of vegetational succession on the surface of active volcanoes. Planthopper range partitioning and geographic separation of populations by young lava flows, founder events and small population size may be important factors involved in rapid divergence.

  9. Collective defense of Aphis nerii and Uroleucon hypochoeridis (Homoptera, Aphididae against natural enemies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Hartbauer

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevalent way aphids accomplish colony defense against natural enemies is a mutualistic relationship with ants or the occurrence of a specialised soldier caste typical for eusocial aphids, or even both. Despite a group-living life style of those aphid species lacking these defense lines, communal defense against natural predators has not yet been observed there. Individuals of Aphis nerii (Oleander aphid and Uroleucon hypochoeridis, an aphid species feeding on Hypochoeris radicata (hairy cat's ear, show a behavioral response to visual stimulation in the form of spinning or twitching, which is often accompanied by coordinated kicks executed with hind legs. Interestingly, this behaviour is highly synchronized among members of a colony and repetitive visual stimulation caused strong habituation. Observations of natural aphid colonies revealed that a collective twitching and kicking response (CTKR was frequently evoked during oviposition attempts of the parasitoid wasp Aphidius colemani and during attacks of aphidophagous larvae. CTKR effectively interrupted oviposition attempts of this parasitoid wasp and even repelled this parasitoid from colonies after evoking consecutive CTKRs. In contrast, solitary feeding A. nerii individuals were not able to successfully repel this parasitoid wasp. In addition, CTKR was also evoked through gentle substrate vibrations. Laser vibrometry of the substrate revealed twitching-associated vibrations that form a train of sharp acceleration peaks in the course of a CTKR. This suggests that visual signals in combination with twitching-related substrate vibrations may play an important role in synchronising defense among members of a colony. In both aphid species collective defense in encounters with different natural enemies was executed in a stereotypical way and was similar to CTKR evoked through visual stimulation. This cooperative defense behavior provides an example of a surprising sociality that can be found in some aphid species that are not expected to be social at all.

  10. Ultralow oxygen treatment for postharvest control of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) on iceberg lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Biao

    2005-12-01

    The aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) is a common pest of lettuce in the United States. It hinders export of U.S. lettuce to the overseas market such as Japan where it is a quarantined pest. Ultralow oxygen treatments were studied for control of the insect on iceberg lettuce. Small-scale ultralow oxygen treatments in plastic jars were conducted at 1, 5, and 10 degrees C for different durations to determine effective treatment against nymphs and alates of N. ribisnigri. At oxygen levels of 0.015-0.025%, N. ribisnigri can be controlled in 3 d at 1 degrees C, 2 d at 5 degrees C, and 1 d at 10 degrees C. Large-scale ultralow oxygen treatments were conducted in bulk container treatment chambers with commercial iceberg lettuce heads for 2 d at 6 degrees C with oxygen levels of 0.015 and 0.025% and for 3 d at 3 degrees C with oxygen level of 0.015%. All treatments achieved complete control of N. ribisnigri. No negative impact on lettuce quality was detected after 2 wk of posttreatment storage. Therefore, the selected treatments have potential to be commercially developed for postharvest control of N. ribisnigri on iceberg lettuce.

  11. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for control of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) on harvested lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Biao

    2012-06-01

    Low temperature regular phosphine fumigations under the normal oxygen level and oxygenated phosphine fumigations under superatmospheric oxygen levels were compared for efficacy against the aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley), and effects on postharvest quality of romaine and head lettuce. Low temperature regular phosphine fumigation was effective against the aphid. However, a 3 d treatment with high phosphine concentrations of > or = 2,000 ppm was needed for complete control of the aphid. Oxygen greatly increased phosphine toxicity and significantly reduced both treatment time and phosphine concentration for control of N. ribisnigri. At 1,000 ppm phosphine, 72 h regular fumigations at 6 degrees C did not achieve 100% mortality of the aphid. The 1,000 ppm phosphine fumigation under 60% O2 killed all aphids in 30 h. Both a 72 h regular fumigation with 2,200 ppm phosphine and a 48 h oxygenated fumigation with 1,000 ppm phosphine under 60% O2 were tested on romaine and head lettuce at 3 degrees C. Both treatments achieved complete control of N. ribisnigri. However, the 72 h regular fumigation resulted in significantly higher percentages of lettuce with injuries and significantly lower lettuce internal quality scores than the 48 h oxygenated phosphine fumigation. Although the oxygenated phosphine fumigation also caused injuries to some treated lettuce, lettuce quality remained very good and the treatment is not expected to have a significant impact on marketability of the lettuce. This study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation was more effective and less phytotoxic for controlling N. ribisnigri on harvested lettuce than regular phosphine fumigation and is promising for practical use.

  12. Identification of Russian wheat aphid (Homoptera : Aphididae) populations virulent to the Dn4 resistance gene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, C. M.; Belay, T.; Stauffer, CH.; Starý, Petr; Kubečková, I.; Starkey, S.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 3 (2004), s. 1112-1117 ISSN 0022-0493 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5007102 Grant - others:Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station(US) 04-120-J Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Diuraphis noxia * barley * virulence Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 1.283, year: 2004

  13. Biology and taxonomy of Tuthillia cognata (Homoptera : Psylloidea), a pest on Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Burckhardt, D.; Couturier, Guy

    1988-01-01

    #Tuthillia cognata$ est découvert comme ravageur de #Myrciaria dubia$ (#Myrtaceae$) au Pérou et Brésil. Tenant compte de la morphologie de la larve, le genre est transféré des #Ciriacreminae$ dans les #Anomoneurinae$. (Résumé d'auteur)

  14. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci in the green leafhopper Empoasca vitis Goethe (Homoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papura, D; Giresse, X; Chauvin, B; Caron, H; Delmotte, F; VAN Helden, M

    2009-05-01

    Eight dinucleotide microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized within the green leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Goethe) using an enrichment cloning procedure. Primers were tested on 171 individuals collected in the southwest of France from the vine plants. The identified loci were polymorphic, with allelic diversity ranging from two to 18 alleles per locus. Observed heterozygosities were from 0.021 to 0.760. These microsatellite markers should prove to be a useful tool for estimating the population genetic structure, host-plant specialization and migration capacity of this insect. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Oxidation and cyclization of Casbene in the biosynthesis of Euphorbia factors from mature seeds of Euphorbia lathyris L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Dan; Callari, Roberta; Hamberger, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Ingenol mebutate is a diterpene ester with a highly complex macrocyclic structure that has been approved for the treatment of actinic keratosis, a precondition of skin cancer. The current production of ingenol mebutate through plant extraction or chemical synthesis is inefficient and costly. Here...

  16. Adventitious sprouting enables the invasive annual herb Euphorbia geniculata to regenerate after severe injury

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malíková, Lenka; Mudrák, Ondřej; Klimešová, Jitka

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 5 (2012), 841-847 ISSN 0912-3814 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/08/H044; GA ČR GPP504/12/P540 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : arable weed * mechanical control * potential bud bank Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.552, year: 2012

  17. Effect of applied environmental stress on growth, photosynthesis, carbon allocation, and hydrocarbon production in Euphorbia lathyris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S.E.; Calvin, M.

    1988-01-01

    Photosynthetic activity was reduced by salinity stress, but is was found to be less sensitive than growth. Salinity stress also caused changes in the concentrations of specific cations. Moderate water stress had little effect on growth, but large changes in hydrocarbon production were still observed. Carbon allocation experiments with radiolabeled carbon indicated that carbon for latex production was supplied by nearby leaves, with some translocation down the stem also occurring

  18. RAPD-PCR analysis of some species of Euphorbia grown in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    family ^____^

    2013-12-04

    Dec 4, 2013 ... Molecular analysis was performed by using nine random markers in random amplified polymorphic DNA ..... plant species. Genetic variations were tested in normal ... A Ph.D. thesis, College of Science- Baghdad University.

  19. PRODUCCIÓN DE PLÁNTULAS DE CANDELILLA (Euphorbia antisyphilitica Zucc. MEDIANTE ESTACAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Villa-Castorena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En México, la recolección de candelilla representa una importante fuente de ingresos para las comunidades de las zonas semidesérticas consideradas como de extrema pobreza. Sin embargo, existe una sobreexplotación de esta especie, lo que hace necesario la reforestación de las áreas degradadas para la conservación de este recurso. En el presente estudio se evaluaron cuatro ecotipos: Cuatrociénegas, Viesca, Tlahualilo y Cuencamé; cuatro sustratos como medio de cultivo: arena, mezcla arena con fibra de coco (1:1, arena con turba (peat moss, 1:1 y mezcla de turba con perlita y vermiculita (1:1:1, y cuatro tratamientos químicos a las estacas para promover su enraizamiento y brotación: con proroot, magic root, ácido fenoxiacético y un tratamiento sin aplicación de químicos. Se usó un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con diez repeticiones y un arreglo de tratamientos en parcelas subdivididas. Se usaron bolsas de plástico negro, de 3.7 litros de capacidad, como macetas, las cuales se llenaron con los sustratos estudiados y se plantaron las estacas. Éstas se regaron cada dos o tres veces por semana y estuvieron dentro de un invernadero tipo túnel con cubierta de plástico y ventilado en forma natural. Los resultados indican que Cuatro ciénegas posee características genéticas especiales que lo hacen ser superior al resto de los ecotipos y no necesita de productos químicos para la formación de raíces, emisión y crecimiento de brotes. Las mezclas de turba con perlita y vermiculita, y arena con turba proporcionaron las mejores condiciones para un mayor enraizamiento y crecimiento de brotes. Viesca sólo presentó efectos positivos al tratamiento de estacas con proroot.

  20. Vitex agnus castus and Euphorbia characias ssp. wulfenii as reservoirs of aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavallieratos, N. G.; Tomanovic, Ž.; Starý, Petr; Emmanouel, N. E.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 2 (2008), s. 179-191 ISSN 0015-4040 Grant - others:The Ministry of Science nad Environment Protection of the Republic of Serbia(CS) 143006B Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : aphids * parasitoids * reservoirs Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.886, year: 2008

  1. Diets of angora goats grazing leafy spurge Euphorbia esula-infested rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald Kirby; Thomas P. Hanson; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    1997-01-01

    Angora goats have been suggested as biological control agents for leafy spurge, especially in environmentally sensitive or limited access areas. Dietary preferences and dietary nutritive content of herded Angora goats were evaluated over a two-year period in North Dakota. Relative preferences of forages were evaluated by comparing botanical composition of diets as...

  2. Development of Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. on leaves of common poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kułek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of Botrytis cinerea was assessed on six cultivars of common poinsettia, differing in the colour of bracts, and being in great demand among buyers of these ornamental plants. Resistance to this pathogen differed in the investigated poinsettias. Cultivar 'Malibu Red' (red bracts turned out to be most susceptible, while cv. 'Marblestar' (cream-pink and cv. 'Coco White' (white - relatively resistant to this fungus. After application of various inoculation methods (leaf discs, cut off leaves, whole plants the differences in resistance to B. cinerea were confirmed for two extreme cultivars - susceptible ('Malibu Red' and resistant ('Coco White', which indicated genetic background of this polymorphism. The rate of disease development on poinsettia leaves was affected by the amount of spores used for inoculation (optimum density of 3.5·105 B. cinerea conidia / ml suspension and the addition of stimulants (0.1 M glucose with 0.05 M KH2PO4, which facilitated germination and infection of the host tissue. The inoculated poinsettia leaves showed high stability of plasma membranes. In the susceptible cultivar, in spite of the development of necrotic spots, a significant increase in the membrane damage index (by 13% was found only on day 7 of the disease development.

  3. Influence of growth retardant on growth and development of Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pobudkiewicz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of single foliar flurprimidol treatment on morphology and transpiration of ‘Roman’ and ‘Freedom Red’ poinsettias. The growth retardant flurprimidol (Topflor 015 SL was applied once as a foliar spray at concentrations of 5, 10 or 15 mg × dm-3 when lateral shoots were about 5 cm in length. Single foliar flurprimidol treatment was sufficient to inhibit stem elongation of both poinsettia cultivars. The degree of growth inhibition depended on cultivar and growth retardant concentration. As compared to the control, the shoots of flurprimidol treated ‘Roman’ and ‘Freedom Red’ plants were up to 44% and 37% shorter, respectively. The desirable plant heights for ‘Roman’ and ‘Freedom Red’ poinsettias were obtained with flurprimidol at concentrations of 5 and 10 mg × dm-3, respectively. The shoots of flurprimidol sprayed poinsettia were also more rigid and aligned relative to each other and thus the bracts on the plant were placed on the same level. The diameters of growth retardant treated poinsettias were up to 13% narrower. The leaf areas, petiole lengths, fresh and dry weights of ‘Roman’ and ‘Freedom Red’ poinsettias treated with flurprimidol were substantially smaller as compared to the control. The bract diameters of both poinsettia cultivars were only slightly affected by growth retardant application. Plants exposed to flurprimidol had also intensified green leaf pigmentation. There was almost no abscission of the oldest leaves in the low portions of growth retardant treated plants, compared to those of the control ones. Flurprimidol had no effect on transpiration rate per unit leaf area and stomatal conductance in both poinsettia cultivars. No phytotoxicity was observed in flurprimidol treated plants. Chemical name used: α-(1-methylethyl-α-[4-(trifluromethoxyphenyl]-5-pyrimidinemethanol (flurprimidol.

  4. Proteases from Latex of Euphorbia spp. and Its Application on Milk Clot Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidia Fibriana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Crude proteases were extracted from Euphorbiaceae family, i.e. E. milii var imperata, E. trigona, and E. maculata. Among those three crude proteases, the activity of protease from E. trigona was the highest (812.50 U/ml, whereas E. milii and E. maculata crude proteases activity were 298.60 U/ml and 95.80 U/ml, respectively. E. maculata protein concentration was the highest among those three crude enzymes (1.206 mg/ml. The optimum pH and temperature of the enzymes were pH 7.0, pH 6.0, pH 6.5 and 60 °C, 50 °C, and 50 °C, respectively. Crude protease from E. milii var imperata, E. trigona, and E. maculata retained proteolytic activity over a wide range of pH (5.0–9.0 and temperature (up to 65 °C with casein as substrate. All crude proteases showed milk clotting activity ranged from 0.58 U/ml to 1.01 U/ml. Thus, these crude proteases are potential to be applied in dairy industries. However, further study on enzyme purification and characterization are necessary to obtain high purity of proteases before its application.Protease kasar berhasil diekstrak dari tanaman family Euphorbiaceae, yaitu E. milii var imperata, E. trigona, dan E. maculata. Diantara ketiga protease tersebut, aktivitas protease tertinggi diperoleh dari E. trigona (812,50 U/ml, sedangkan aktivitas protease dari E. milii dan E. maculata adalah 298,60 U/ml dan 95,80 U/ml, berturut-turut. Konsentrasi total protein tertinggi terdapat pada protease kasar E. maculata (1,206 mg/ml. pH dan suhu optimum ketiga enzim tersebut adalah pH 7.0, pH 6.0, pH 6.5 dan suhu 60 °C, 50 °C, and 50 °C, berturut-turut. Protease kasar dari E. milii var imperata, E. trigona, dan E. maculata menunjukkan aktivitas proteolitik pada rentang pH 5.0–9.0 dan rentang suhu sampai 65 °C menggunakan kasein sebagai substrat. Semua protease kasar menunjukkan aktivitas penggumpalan susu dengan rentang dari 0,58 U/ml sampai 1,01 U/ml. Berdasarkan hasil yang diperoleh, protease kasar dari ketiga jenis tanaman ini berpotensi untuk diaplikasikan dalam industri olahan susu. Meskipun demikian, studi lanjut mengenai purifikasi dan karakterisasi sangat diperlukan untuk memperoleh protease murni sebelum aplikasi dalam industri makanan, khususnya pada industri olahan susu.

  5. Evaluación de barreras vegetales en el manejo integrado de la mancha anular del papayo (PRSV-P en Michoacán, México Evaluation of plant barriers in an integrated management of papayo ringspot in Michoacan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Rivas-Valencia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El efecto de barreras vegetales como componente de un programa de manejo integrado (MI, se validó y adaptó en 1999 en Michoacán, México, para controlar la Mancha Anular del Papayo, enfermedad causada por el Papaya ringspot potyvirus type-P (PRSV-P. Se estableció un experimento en parcelas divididas con dos factores experimentales: barreras vegetales (Hibiscus sabdariffa, y componentes de MI: MI sin aspersión de citrolina (1.5% (MI-A, MI sin eliminación de plantas con síntomas iniciales de virosis antes de floración (MI-D y MI. Las barreras vegetales sembradas 20 días antes del trasplante del papayo y el desplante retrasaron en 19 días el inicio del progreso de epidemias en el MI lo que resultó en una mayor producción (14.2% que el resto de tratamientos, aunque fue superado por MI-A en vigor (4% en diámetro de tallo. La citrolina fue fitotóxica, disminuyó el vigor de plantas (5.3% y no limitó significativamente el desarrollo de la enfermedad ya que la intensidad de las epidemias (X0 = 47días, Yf = 84% y ABCPE = 3220% días fue similar al testigo. El uso de barreras vegetales por si sola aparentemente no es suficiente para la reducción de la incidencia y dispersión de la enfermedad. Los áfidos más abundantes, con reconocida capacidad transmisora del PRSV-P, fueron Aphis gossypii, A. nerii, A. spiraecola y Macrosiphum euphorbiae, los cuales representaron aproximadamente el 13% del total de áfidos capturados.The effect of plant barriers as a component of an integrated management program (IM was validated and adapted in 1999, in Michoacan, Mexico, to control papaya ringspot, caused by papaya ringspot potyvirus type-P (PRSV-P. A split-plot design was established with two experimental factors: plant barriers and components of IM: IM without oil sprinkling (IM-O, IM without plant rouging (IM-R, and complete IM. Plant barriers (Hibiscus sabdariffa, sowed 20 days before papaya transplanting, and plant rouging delayed the epidemics

  6. Revisão do gênero Potnia Stål (Homoptera, Membracidae, Membracinae, Hoplophorionini Revision of the genus Potnia Stål (Homoptera, Membracidae, Membracinae, Hoplophorionini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio J Creão-Duarte

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen species of Potnia Stål, 1866 are presented with descriptions, illustrations and a key for identification. The following nomenclatural changes are introduced: P. knightae sp.n. (from Guiana, P. miracyae sp.n. (from Costa Rica, P. diringshofeni sp.n. (from Brasil, P. webbi sp.n. (from Brazil, P. turrialbensis sp.n. (from Costa Rica, P. pinheiroi sp.n. (from Brazil, P. tapuruquarensis sp.n. (from Brasil, P. cornigera sp.n. (from Brazil and P. inca sp.n. (from Peru. Potnia venosa (Germar, 1821 = Aconophora nigrivittata Walker, 1851, syn.n. = Potnia perobtusa Fowler, 1894, syn.n.. Potnia brevicornis Fowler, 1894, sp. reval. = Potnia brunneifrontis Funkhouser, 1943, syn.n. = Potnia maculata Funkhouser, 1943, syn.n.. Potnia jacula (Fabricius, 1803 = Potnia orthosoma Fonseca & Diringshofen, 1974, syn.n.

  7. Biología de Eretmocerus mundus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, parasitoide del complejo Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae, en condiciones de laboratorio Biology of Eretmocerus mundus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, parasitoid of Bemisia tabaci complex (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerlin Chacón Castro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La estimación de los atributos biológicos de un enemigo natural, previa a su empleo en el campo, constituye un aspecto de importancia en todo proyecto de control biológico. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar los principales parámetros biológicos de Eretmocerus mundus Mercet, parasitoide de Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, bajo condiciones de laboratorio.La emergencia del adulto, longevidad y fecundidad de la hembra, proporción sexual de la descendencia, tasa intrínseca de crecimiento poblacional (r m, tasa neta de reproducción (Ro y tiempo generacional (T; se estimaron mediante la técnica de tabla de vida y fecundidad, utilizando el pimiento (Capsicum annuum L. y el tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L. como plantas hospederas. Los resultados obtenidos en pimiento y tomate fueron respectivamente: supervivencia pupal: 86.86 ± 1.94 y 83,45 ± 2,13%; longevidad de la hembra: 18,19 ± 1,61 y 17,00 ± 0,92 días; proporción sexual: 0,34 ± 0,06 y 0,47 ± 0,05 hembras/(machos + hembras; l x50: 21 y 18 días; r m: 0,226 ± 0,061 y 0,228 ± 0,057 ninfas parasitadas/hembra/día; Ro: 189,71 ± 24,25 y 154,65 ± 17,58 ninfas parasitadas/hembra; T: 25,88 ± 0,42 y 24,03 ± 0,34 días. Los resultados obtenidos son una contribución al conocimiento de la población local del parasitoide y su posible papel como agente de control biológico de B. tabaci.The estimation of biological attributes of natural enemies prior to its use in the field is an important tool in a biological control program. The objective of the present paper was to evaluate the main biological parameters of Eretmocerus mundus Mercet, a parasitoid of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, under controlled laboratory conditions. Parasitoid survival, female longevity, fecundity, sex rate, intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m, net reproductive rate (Ro and generational time (T were studied using life tables, with pepper (Capsicum annuum L. and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. as host plants. Results obtained on pepper and tomato, respectively, were: pupal survival: 86.86 ± 1.94 and 83,45 ± 2,13%; female longevity: 18,19 ± 1,61 and 17,00 ± 0,92 days; sex rate: 0,34 ± 0,06 and 0,47 ± 0,05 female/(male + female; l x50: 21 and 18 days; r m: 0,226 ± 0,061 and 0,228 ± 0,057 parasitized nymphs/female/day; Ro: 189,71 ± 24,25 and 154,65 ± 17,58 parasitized nymphs/female; T: 25,88 ± 0,42 and 24,03 ± 0,34 days. Results lead to a better understanding of the local population of this parasitoid and its potential role as a biological control agent of B. tabaci.

  8. Avaliação de inseticidas no controle de Myzus persicae (sulz. (homoptera: aphididae na cultura da alface Evaluation of insecticides to control Myzus persicae (Sulz (Homoptera: Aphididae on lettuce crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson Zagonel

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a eficiência de inseticidas no controle de Myzus persicae (Sulz. na cultura da alface, cv. Verônica, em experimento conduzido na UEPG, em 1999. Usou-se delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constaram de thiamethoxam nas doses de 50; 75 e 100 g i.a./ha; imidacloprid na dose de 140 g i.a./ha; pymetrozine na dose de 150 g i.a./ha e testemunha sem pulverização. Os tratamentos foram aplicados nas mudas em bandejas, um dia antes do transplantio. Avaliou-se a fitotoxicidade, o número de pulgões por planta, a porcentagem de plantas com pulgões e a eficiência dos inseticidas. O thiamethoxam nas doses de 50; 75 e 100 g i.a./ha foi eficiente no controle de M. persicae durante todo o ciclo, mostrando eficiência igual ou superior a 98,6%, similar ao imidacloprid. O pymetrozine apresentou eficiência no controle de M. persicae até 21 dias após o transplante das mudas. Os inseticidas não causaram efeitos fitotóxicos nas plantas de alface; além disso, houve produção de plantas com maior massa fresca em relação à testemunha.A field trial was carried out at Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, State of Paraná, Brazil, in 1999, to evaluate the efficiency of insecticides in controlling Myzus persicae (Sulz on lettuce cv. Veronica. The experimental design was of completely randomized blocks with six treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of thiamethoxam (50; 75 and 100 g i.a/ha imidacloprid (140 g i.a/ha; pymetrozine (150 g i.a/ha and control. The treatments were applied to seedlings grown in polyestyrene trays one day before the transplanting. The fitotoxicity, the number of aphids/plant, the percentage of plants with aphids and the efficiency of the insecticides were evaluated. Thiamethoxan at doses of 50; 75 and 100 g i.a/ha was efficient to control M. persicae from transplanting till 43 days after showing equal or higher efficiency than 98.6%, similar to imidacloprid. The pymetrozine was efficient to control M. persicae until 21 days after transplanting. Effects of fitotoxicity on lettuce plants were not observed. Higher fresh weight was observed in treated plants in comparison to the one of the control.

  9. Trans-generational effects of mild heat stress on the life history traits of an aphid parasitoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaeil, Ibrahim; Doury, Géraldine; Desouhant, Emmanuel; Dubois, Françoise; Prevost, Geneviève; Couty, Aude

    2013-01-01

    Temperature changes are common in nature and insects are particularly exposed and sensitive to such variations which can be potential stresses, ultimately affecting life history traits and overall fitness. Braconids have been widely used to study the effects of temperature on host-parasitoid interactions and the present work focused on the solitary endoparasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae Aphidiidae), an efficient biological control agent commercially used against aphids such as the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae). Contrary to previous studies using heat shocks at extreme temperatures, we evaluated the effects of mild heat stresses by transferring young parasitoid adults from the constant temperature of 20°C to either a warm (25°C) or hot (28°C) temperature, for either 1 h or 48 h. Such treatments are consistent with situations commonly experienced by parasitoids when moved from their rearing conditions to greenhouses or field conditions. The effects were evaluated both on the heat stressed A. ervi adults (G0) (immediate effects) and on their first generation (G1) progeny (trans-generational effects). G0 wasps' mortality was significantly affected by the temperature in interaction with the duration of the stress. Longevity of G0 wasps surviving the heat stress was negatively affected by the temperature and females lived longer than males. Heat stress applied to A. ervi parents also had consequences on their G1 progeny whose developmental time, rates of mummification and percentage of parasitoid completing total development were negatively affected. Surprisingly, the egg load at emergence of the G1 female progeny was increased when their mothers had been submitted to a mild heat stress of 25°C or 28°C. These results clearly demonstrate trans-generational phenotypic plasticity, showing that adaptation to thermal stresses may be achieved via maternal effects. This study also sheds light on the complexity

  10. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the Columbia Basin and Northeastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Mathew L; Rondon, Silvia I; Walenta, Darrin L; Zeb, Qamar; Murphy, Alexzandra F

    2017-08-01

    Aphid species, such as the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas, and the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer, are routinely considered the most important pests of potatoes. Potato aphid, green peach aphid, and more recently, other aphids such as the bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi L. have been identified as vectors of multiple plant pathogenic viruses in potatoes. Since 2006, an area-wide trapping network consisting of ∼60 sites was developed through collaboration between researchers, extension faculty, and stakeholders, to monitor aphid populations in the Columbia Basin of Oregon (Umatilla and Morrow counties) and in northeastern Oregon (Union and Baker counties). Over a 9-yr period (2006 to 2014), aphid specimens were collected weekly using yellow bucket traps and specimens were then identified and counted to determine population levels during the growing season (May-September). Thus, aphid population data were compiled and subjected to spatial and temporal distribution analysis. Weather data, obtained from an established network of weather stations located in the monitoring areas, were used in a nonparametric multiplicative regression analysis to determine which abiotic variables may impact aphid populations. Weather conditions were characterized using confidence intervals (CIs) established based on weather data from 1999 to 2005 for each environmental variable. Aphid populations were found to have a heterogeneous distribution in most years; a few sites had high aphid populations while low numbers were observed at most sites; aphids were also found to correlate with several abiotic variables, namely, elevation, previous season temperature, and previous season dew point. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Trans-generational effects of mild heat stress on the life history traits of an aphid parasitoid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ismaeil

    Full Text Available Temperature changes are common in nature and insects are particularly exposed and sensitive to such variations which can be potential stresses, ultimately affecting life history traits and overall fitness. Braconids have been widely used to study the effects of temperature on host-parasitoid interactions and the present work focused on the solitary endoparasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae Aphidiidae, an efficient biological control agent commercially used against aphids such as the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae. Contrary to previous studies using heat shocks at extreme temperatures, we evaluated the effects of mild heat stresses by transferring young parasitoid adults from the constant temperature of 20°C to either a warm (25°C or hot (28°C temperature, for either 1 h or 48 h. Such treatments are consistent with situations commonly experienced by parasitoids when moved from their rearing conditions to greenhouses or field conditions. The effects were evaluated both on the heat stressed A. ervi adults (G0 (immediate effects and on their first generation (G1 progeny (trans-generational effects. G0 wasps' mortality was significantly affected by the temperature in interaction with the duration of the stress. Longevity of G0 wasps surviving the heat stress was negatively affected by the temperature and females lived longer than males. Heat stress applied to A. ervi parents also had consequences on their G1 progeny whose developmental time, rates of mummification and percentage of parasitoid completing total development were negatively affected. Surprisingly, the egg load at emergence of the G1 female progeny was increased when their mothers had been submitted to a mild heat stress of 25°C or 28°C. These results clearly demonstrate trans-generational phenotypic plasticity, showing that adaptation to thermal stresses may be achieved via maternal effects. This study also sheds light on

  12. Phenology, natural enemies, and efficacy of horticultural oil for control of Chionaspis heterophyllae (Homoptera: Diaspididae) on Christmas tree plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondren, Kirsten M; McCullough, Deborah G

    2005-10-01

    Pine needle scale, Chionaspis pinifoliae (Fitch), and Chionaspis heterophyllae Cooley are important pests of Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris L., and other conifers in much of North America. On Christmas tree plantations, these insects are typically controlled by spraying broad-spectrum insecticides when the vulnerable immature stages are present. However, effective control of bivoltine populations can be difficult to achieve due to asynchronous hatch and development of the second generation. Our objectives were to 1) determine the phenology of the second generation of C. heterophyllae in Michigan; 2) characterize the natural enemy complex; and 3) assess the effectiveness of horticultural oil for control of C. heterophyllae on P. sylvestris Christmas tree plantations. We monitored scale populations in three counties in lower Michigan for 3 yr. Scale phenology was consistently associated with cumulative degree-days base 10 degrees C (DD(10 degrees C)). Second-generation egg hatch began at approximately 1230-1300 DD(10 degrees C), and continued for approximately 3 wk. The peak of the second instar coincided with 1500-1600 DD(10 degrees C). Common predators included the coccinellids Chilocorus stigma (Say) and Microweisia misella (LeConte). On average, 70% of the C. heterophyllae population in unsprayed fields was killed by predators in 1999. Two endoparasitic wasps, Encarsia bella Gahan and Marietta mexicana Howard (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), also were recovered. In 2000 and 2001, we applied a highly refined horticultural spray oil with a backpack mist blower at 1500-1600 DD(10 degrees). Scale mortality on trees treated with oil ranged from 66 to 80% and was similar to control achieved using conventional insecticides in both years.

  13. Pear transformed with a lytic peptide gene for disease control affects nontarget organism, pear psylla (Homoptera: Psyllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puterka, Gary J; Bocchetti, Chris; Dang, Phat; Bell, R L; Scorza, Ralph

    2002-08-01

    The biology and behavior of pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola Foerster, on a transgenic clone of 'Bartlett' pear, Pyrus communis L., containing a synthetic antimicrobial gene, D5C1, was compared with that of a nontransgenic parental clone to determine whether there were any nontarget effects. The gene construct also contained the marker gene nptII (aminoglycoside 3'-phosphotransferase II) that encodes for antibiotic resistance to identify transformed plants. The purpose of the original transformation was to enhance pear resistance to the bacterial disease fireblight caused by Erwinia amylovora (Burr.) Winslow et al. The biology and behavior of pear psylla on a transgenic clone were compared with a nontransgenic parental pear clone in short- (crops.

  14. Scale insects and mealy bugs (Homoptera: Coccoidea) attacking deciduous fruit trees in the western north coast of Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, A K; Moursi Khadiga, S; Mesbah, H A; Abdel-Razak Soad, I

    2008-01-01

    This investigation covered a survey of scale insects and mealy bugs infesting ten growing species of deciduous fruit trees in three localities in Alexandria govemorate. These localities were Merghem, Burg El-Arab, and El-Nahda about 50 Km. West of Alexandria under both rain-fed and irrigation system conditions. The common inspected fruit trees were fig, white mulberry, pomegranate, apple, pear, apricot, European plum, peach, almond, and persimmon. It was shown that a group of twenty scale insects and meaty bug species pertaining to fifteen genera belonging to six families of the super family: Coccoidea were collected and identified during the elapsing period from January to December, 2004. Among these species, Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock) was recorded for the first time in Egypt. In the present study, many insect and non-insect parasitoids and predators were also found associated with these scale insects and mealy bugs on deciduous fruit trees in the three concerned localities throughout this investigation. These natural enemies were identified and recorded.

  15. Life table analysis of the performance of aphid Sitobion avenae (Homoptera: Aphididae nymphs exposed to a static magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Juan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the age-stage two-sex life table, this work was undertaken in order to determine the effect of static magnetic fields (SMFs at two flux densities (0.176T and 0.065T applied at increasing times of duration (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 h on the development, fecundity and reproduction of the aphid, Sitobion avenae. Exposed nymphs had a statistically significant shortened first instar period and adult longevity and prolonged fourth instar periods compared to controls. There were significant differences in the population parameters for two exposure combinations, 0.176T for 0.5 h and 0.065T for 1 h. The intrinsic rate of increase (r, net reproductive rate (R0 and mean generation time (T were 0.1165, 3.5 and 11.7 days, respectively, 0.176 T for 0.5 h and -0.0198, 0.7 and 11.8 days, respectively, 0.065T for 1 h. We therefore recommend using the age-stage, two-sex life table to study the effect of the static magnetic field on development and growth of the aphid, Sitobion avenae.

  16. Bacterial symbionts, Buchnera, and starvation on wing dimorphism in English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F. (Homoptera: Aphididae

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    Fangmei eZhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Wing dimorphism in aphids can be affected by multiple cues, including both biotic (nutrition, crowding, interspecific interactions, the presence of natural enemies, maternal and transgenerational effects, and alarm pheromone and abiotic factors (temperature, humidity, and photoperiod. The majority of the phloem-feeding aphids carry Buchnera, an obligate symbiotic proteobacteria. Buchnera has a highly reduced genome size, but encode key enzymes in the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway and is crucial for nutritional balance, development and reproduction in aphids. In this study, we investigated the impact of two nutritional-based biotic factors, symbionts and starvation, on the wing dimorphism in the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, a devastating insect pest of cereal crops (e.g., wheat worldwide. Elimination of Buchnera using the antibiotic rifampicin significantly reduced the formation of winged morphs, body mass and fecundity in S. avenae. Furthermore, the absence of this primary endosymbiont may disrupt the nutrient acquisition in aphids and alter transgenerational phenotypic expression. Similarly, both survival rate and the formation of winged morphs were substantially reduced after neonatal (< 24h old offspring were starved for a period of time. The combined results shed light on the impact of two nutritional-based biotic factors on the phenotypic plasticity in aphids. A better understanding of the wing dimorphism in aphids will provide the theoretical basis for the prediction and integrated management of these phloem-feeding insect pests.

  17. A new genus and new species of felt scales (Homoptera: Coccinea: Eriococcidae from Tierra del Fuego (Chile

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    Ilya A. Gavrilov-Zimin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Telmatococcus igniumterrae gen. nov. et sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on the material collected from a sphagnum bog in the extreme southern part of South America (Tierra del Fuego. The new monotypic genus differs from all known genera of Eriococcidae in having short cylindrical truncated setae of the anal apparatus and pouches with numerous quinquelocular pores near the anal apparatus. The habitat of the new taxon is characterized.

  18. The environmental plasticity of diverse body color caused by extremely long photoperiods and high temperature in Saccharosydne procerus (Homoptera: Delphacidae

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    Haichen Yin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Melanization reflects not only body color variation but also environmental plasticity. It is a strategy that helps insects adapt to environmental change. Different color morphs may have distinct life history traits, e.g., development time, growth rate, and body weight. The green slender planthopper Saccharosydne procerus (Matsumura is the main pest of water bamboo (Zizania latifolia. This insect has two color morphs. The present study explored the influence of photoperiod and its interaction with temperature in nymph stage on adult melanism. Additionally, the longevity, fecundity, mating rate, and hatching rate of S. procerus were examined to determine whether the fitness of the insect was influenced by melanism under different temperature and photoperiod. The results showed that a greater number of melanic morphs occurred if the photoperiod was extremely long. A two-factor ANOVA showed that temperature and photoperiod both have a significant influence on melanism. The percentages of variation explained by these factors were 45.53% and 48.71%, respectively. Moreover, melanic morphs had greater advantages than non-melanic morphs under an environmental regime of high temperatures and a long photoperiod, whereas non-melanic morphs were better adapted to cold temperatures and a short photoperiod. These results cannot be explained by the thermal melanism hypothesis. Thus, it may be unavailable to seek to explain melanism in terms of only one hypothesis.

  19. The impact of some physiomorphic characters of sugarcane genotypes on their resistance against sugarcane pyrilla, pyrilla perpusilla wlk. (lophopidae: homoptera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasul, A.; Hassan, M.; Suhail, A.; Sahi, S.T.

    2010-01-01

    Field trials were conducted in the Research Area, Directorate of Sugarcane, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad to study he physio-morphic characters of sugarcane resistance to the sucking pest Pyrilla perpusilla. Twenty genotypes of sugarcane were tested for their resistance susceptibility against P. perpusilla, as a preliminary screening experiment, during 2006. Based on the population-density count, 3 genotypes, viz., HSF- 240, CPF-243 and S-2002-US-114 showing resistance responses, 3 genotypes viz. CPHS-35, S-2003-US-394 and S-2003-US-623 showing susceptible trends and 3 genotypes viz. S-2003-US-809, S-2002-US-140 and S- 2002-US-104 exerting intermediate trends against the pest under test were selected for the final screening trials during 2007.The genotype S-2003-US-623, was found to be comparatively susceptible; whereas, HSF-240, showed resistance responses. The leaf-width and cane length showed a positive and significant correlation whereas the leaf-spine density had a significant negative effect with pest-population. The Leaf-length and Cane-Diameter did not show a significant correlation with the pest population. (author)

  20. Insecticide susceptibility of the green plant bug, Apolygus lucorum Meyer-Dür (Homoptera: Miridae and two predatory arthropods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhengqun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The green plant bug (Apolygus lucorum Meyer-Dür is a key pest of Bt cotton in China. Along with biological control, chemical control is one of the most important strategies in A. lucorum Integrated Pest Management (IPM. The goal of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of eight conventional insecticides to A. lucorum and to assess the susceptibility of two generalist predators Chrysopa sinica (Jieder and Propylaea japonica (Thunbery to insecticides that are commonly used in A. lucorum management. Via glass-vial and leaf-dip bioassay, toxicity tests with selected insecticides at two different life-stages of A. lucorum indicated significant differences between the LD50 or LC50 values for these compounds within different insecticidal classes. Phenylpyrazole fipronil had the highest toxicity to 4th-instar nymphs and adults of A. lucorum, whereas neonicotinoid imidacloprid had the lowest toxicity among the insecticides. Females were more tolerant to insecticides than were males, as shown by the higher LD50 values for females. Furthermore, laboratory tests showed that endosulfan had the highest selectivity to C. sinica and P. japonica: the selective toxicity ratios (STRs were superior to other tested insecticides, particularly imidacloprid, and were 5.396 and 4.749-fold higher than baseline STRs, respectively. From this study, we conclude that fipronil can potentially be used to efficiently control A. lucorum. An alternative control agent worth consideration is endosulfan, owing to its relative safety to non-targeted natural enemies.

  1. Performance of novel vs traditional insecticides for the control of amrascs biguttula biguttula (homoptera, cicadellidae) on cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karar, H.; Babar, T.K.; Shahzad, F.; Saleem, M.; Ali, A.; Akram, M.

    2013-01-01

    Amrasca biguttula biguttula (ishida) can reduce the yield of cotton approximately 25%. no potential predators have been recorded in the field for its control. to overcome this pest insecticides play significant role in the improvement of crop yields all over the world during the last four to five decades. to save the crop from this notorious pest, ten formulations of insecticides viz., acephate 75sp (acephate) at the rate 625g, imidacloprid 25wp (imidacloprid) at the rate188g, thiamethaxim 25wg (actara) at the rate 60g, imidacloprid 70wg (confidor) at the rate 43g, dimethoat e 40ec (sanitox) at the rate 1000 ml, nytonpyron 10sl (pyramid) at the rate 500ml, lambdacyhlothrin 2.5e (kango) at the rate 825 ml, thiachloprid 480sc (talent) at the rate 63 ml, imidacloprid 25sl (confidor) at the rate 500ml, and diafenthiuron 500sc (polo), at the rate 500ml, per hectare were sprayed in the field having maximum population of nymphs and adults of jassid at cotton research station, multan on cotton variety bt-886 in the month of july, 2011 and 2012. the maximum mortality of Jassid was observed in those treatments, where acephate was applied with 79, 72, 65 mortality, nytonpyron with 69, 63, 55 and imidacloprid 68, 63, 57 percent mortality after 24, 72 and 168 h of spray. minimum mortality of jassid was observed in the treatments where talent was applied having 25, 17 and 16 percent mortality 24, 72 and 168 h after spray. By the application of acephate, pyramid and confidor 25sl on cotton crop the yield can be increased. (author)

  2. Inheritance Mode and Realized Heritability of Resistance to Imidacloprid in the Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) (Homoptera: Delphacidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) is a serious pest which causes enormous losses to the rice crop in Asia. The genetic basis of imidacloprid resistance was investigated in N. lugens. RESULTS: The resistant strain, selected for imidacloprid resistance from a laboratory pop...

  3. Effect of different humidity levels on the biology of longtailed mealy bug pseudococcus longispinus (targioni and tozzetti) (homoptera: pseudococidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillani, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    On determining the effects of different humidity levels on the biology of mealy bug Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni and Tozzetti), it was found that the relative humidity (RH) at 35%, 55% and 75% had no effect on pre-adult development, adult longevity, life span and fecundity of P. longispinus. The survival of pre-adult stages was minimal at 35% RH. Sex ratio was male-biased at 35% RH and female-biased at 75% RH. (author)

  4. Comparison of AC electronic monitoring and field data for estimating tolerance to Empoasca kraemeri (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) in common bean genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, M S; Backus, E A; Cardona, C

    2000-12-01

    Two methods for estimating the tolerance of common bean genotypes to Empoasca kraemeri Ross & Moore were compared, using a yield trial carried out at Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Cali, Colombia, versus stylet penetration tactics measured by AC electronic feeding monitors. A stylet penetration index was devised based on principal component scores of three penetration tactics identified (pulsing laceration, cell rupturing, and lancing sap ingestion), combined with knowledge of the hopperburn symptoms caused by each tactic. Tolerant genotypes, as classified by the CIAT yield index, showed significantly more unprotected yield and lower hopperburn scores than the susceptible control. They also induced performance of less pulsing laceration (the tactic considered most damaging to the plant), and more of the other two, mitigating tactics, especially cell rupturing. When index values were calculated for each genotype, stylet penetration index values matched those of the yield index for three out of five genotypes: two EMP-coded tolerant lines ('EMP 385' and 'EMP 392') and the susceptible control 'BAT 41'. Thus, for these three genotypes, all subsequent hoppereburn symptoms are predictable by the type of feeding behavior performed on them. 'Porrillo Sintético' and 'EMP 84', considered borderline genotypes by the yield index, were overestimated and underestimated respectively, by the stylet penetration index. We postulate that, for these two genotypes, plant physiological responses to feeding (either compensatory or heightened sensitivity, respectively) synergize with type of feeding performed to generate the overall hopperburn condition. This multivariate analysis of electronic monitoring data was successfully used to devise an index of resistance. The implications of using the stylet penetration index and the advantages of using electronic monitoring in a bean-breeding program are discussed.

  5. Buprofezin susceptibility survey, resistance selection and preliminary determination of the resistance mechanism in Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhua; Gao, Congfen; Xu, Zhiping; Zhu, Yu Cheng; Zhang, Jiushuang; Li, Wenhong; Dai, Dejiang; Lin, Youwei; Zhou, Weijun; Shen, Jinliang

    2008-10-01

    Buprofezin has been used for many years to control Nilaparvata lugens (Stål). Assessment of susceptibility change in the insect is essential for maintaining control efficiency and resistance management. Eleven-year surveys showed that most field populations were susceptible before 2004. However, substantially higher levels of resistance (up to 28-fold) were found in most of the rice fields in China after 2004. A field population was collected and periodically selected for buprofezin resistance in the laboratory. After 65 generations (56 were selected), the colony successfully obtained 3599-fold resistance to buprofezin. Synergism tests showed that O,O-diethyl-O-phenyl phosphorothioate (SV1), piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and diethyl maleate (DEM) increased buprofezin toxicity in the resistant strain by only 1.5-1.6 fold, suggesting that esterases, P450-monooxygenases and glutathione S-transferases had no substantial effect on buprofezin resistance development. The results from this study indicate that N. lugens has the potential to develop high resistance to buprofezin. A resistance management program with rotation of buprofezin and other pesticides may efficiently delay or slow down resistance development in the insect. Further investigation is also necessary to understand the resistance mechanisms in N. lugens.

  6. Susceptibility to neonicotinoids and risk of resistance development in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Homoptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhua; Chen, Jin; Zhu, Yu Cheng; Ma, Chongyong; Huang, Yue; Shen, Jinliang

    2008-12-01

    In recent years, outbreaks of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), have occurred more frequently in China. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of N. lugens to neonicotinoids and other insecticides in major rice production areas in China. Results indicated that substantial variations in the susceptibility to different insecticides existed in N. lugens. Field populations had developed variable resistance levels to neonicotinoids, with a high resistance level to imidacloprid (RR: 135.3-301.3-fold), a medium resistance level to imidaclothiz (RR: 35-41.2-fold), a low resistance level to thiamethoxam (up to 9.9-fold) and no resistance to dinotefuran, nitenpyram and thiacloprid (RR buprofezin. In addition, N. lugens had been able to develop 1424-fold resistance to imidacloprid in the laboratory after the insect was selected with imidacloprid for 26 generations. Long-term use of imidacloprid in a wide range of rice-growing areas might be associated with high levels of resistance in N. lugens. Therefore, insecticide resistance management strategies must be developed to prevent further increase in resistance.

  7. Detection of resistance, cross-resistance, and stability of resistance to new chemistry insecticides in Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basit, Muhammad; Saeed, Shafqat; Saleem, Mushtaq Ahmad; Denholm, Ian; Shah, Maqbool

    2013-06-01

    Resistance levels in whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) collections from cotton and sunflower (up to four districts) for five neonicotinoids and two insect growth regulators (IGRs) were investigated for two consecutive years. Based on the LC50(s), all collections showed slight to moderate levels of resistance for the tested insecticides compared with the laboratory susceptible population. The data also indicated that cotton and sunflower collections had similar resistance levels. In comparison (four collections), Vehari collections showed higher resistance for acetamiprid, thiacloprid, and nitenpyram compared with those of others. Average resistance ratios for acetamiprid, thiacloprid, and nitenpyram ranged from 5- to 13-, 4- to 8-, and 9- to 13-fold, respectively. Multan and Vehari collections also exhibited moderate levels (9- to 16-fold) of resistance to buprofezin. Furthermore, toxicity of neonicotinoids against immature stages was equal to that of insect growth regulators. The data also suggested that resistance in the field populations was stable. After selection for four generations with bifenthrin (G1 to G4), resistance to bifenthrin increased to 14-fold compared with the laboratory susceptible population. Selection also increased resistance to fenpropathrin, lambdacyhalothrin, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and diafenthuron. Cross-resistance and stability of resistance in the field populations is of some concern. Rotation of insecticides having no cross-resistance and targeting the control against immature stages may control the resistant insects, simultaneously reducing the selection pressure imposed.

  8. Action threshold for applying insect growth regulators to tomato for management of irregular ripening caused by Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, D J

    2002-04-01

    The whitefly Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring is a major pest of tomatoes, causing an irregular ripening disorder characterized externally by incomplete or inhibited reddening of fruit, especially in longitudinal sections, and internally by an increase in the amount of white tissue. Experiments were undertaken during the spring and fall of 1997 and 1998 and the spring of 1999 to develop an action threshold for applying the insect growth regulators (IGRs) buprofezin and pyriproxyfen to manage B. argentifolii and irregular ripening. The IGRs were applied when predetermined thresholds were reached and were compared with a high rate of the systemic insecticide imidacloprid, which was applied at transplanting and provided season-long whitefly control. Only plots treated when the numbers of sessile nymphs (second through fourth instars) reached five per 10 leaflets consistently had both external and internal irregular ripening severity ratings similar to the imidacloprid standard. Results were similar for buprofezin and pyriproxyfen even though the modes of action differ. The five nymphs per 10 leaflets threshold lends itself to field scouting because nymphal counts completed in the field using the unaided eye supplemented with a 10x hand lens were linearly and significantly related to counts completed in the laboratory with a dissecting microscope.

  9. Varietals resistance and susceptibility in mustard (brassica campestris l.) genotypes against aphid myzus persicae (sulzer) (homoptera: aphididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Ahmad, N.; Khan, G.Z.; Tofique, M.

    2009-01-01

    The exploitation of resistant cultivars is an imperative, simple, practical and flexible way to cope with insect pests incidence. Thirty genotypes of mustard (Brassica campestris L.) were tested for their resistance and susceptibility to aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) exposed under natural field conditions. Data on pest tolerance of genotypes were judged by quantitative traits such as number of aphids on each infested plant and mean dry weight of seeds per genotype. Studies observed the discrepancy in overall rates of pest invasion and seed yield contained by trailed mustard genotypes. Agati sarson (P), S-9-S-97-100/45 and S-9-S-97-100/45 were the least damaged genotypes showing their moderate resistance. Amongst other genotypes, MM-I/01-5, MM-I285 and MM-I/01-6 were the most damaged showing oversensitive response. Although the majority of genotypes were found vulnerable to pest, Agati sarson (P) and S-9-S-97-100/45 due to their lowest hypersensitive response toward aphid contamination and increased pods yield could be used for the development of essential resistance in mustard plant. A marked mode of damage inflicted by aphid on the crop was noticed and the abiotic factors contributing variations in aphid infestation levels during both growing seasons were determined. Knowledge about the host plant resistance investigated can facilitate growers to choose the most appropriate cultivars as pest control strategy. (author)

  10. Antifeedant activity of botanical crude extracts and their fractions on Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae adults: I. Gliricidia sepium (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Flores

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci is an important virus vector on a number of crops worldwide. Therefore, a preventive approach to deal with viral epidemics may be the deployment of repellents or phagodeterrents at earlier stages of plant development (critical period. Thus, the crude extract and four fractions thereof (water, water:methanol, methanol, and diethyl ether of mother-of-cocoa (Gliricidia sepium, Fabaceae were tested for phagodeterrence to B. tabaci adults under greenhouse conditions, on tomato plants, in Costa Rica. Both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments showed that the crude extract and some fractions exerted such effect on the insect. In the former (in sleeve cages, three fractions caused deterrence at doses as low as 0.1% (methanol, 0.5% (water:methanol and 1.5% (diethyl ether. However, in the latter (plants exposed in a greenhouse no one of the fractions performed well, suggesting that the deterrent principles somehow decomposed under the experimental conditions. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4: 2099-2113. Epub 2008 December 12.Mundialmente, Bemisia tabaci es un importante vector de virus en numerosos cultivos. Por tanto, un enfoque preventivo para enfrentar las epidemias virales podría ser el empleo de sustancias repelentes o fagodisuasivas en las etapas tempranas del desarrollo de las plantas (período crítico. Así, tanto el extracto crudo como cuatro fracciones (agua, agua:metanol, metanol y éter dietílico del madero negro (Gliricidia sepium, Fabaceae fueron evaluadas en cuanto a su actividad fagodisuasiva sobre los adultos de B. tabaci en condiciones de invernadero, utilizando plantas de tomate, en Turrialba, Costa Rica. Tanto los experimentos de escogencia restringida como los de escogencia irrestricta revelaron que el extracto crudo y algunas fracciones mostraron dicha actividad. En los primeros experimentos (en jaulas de manga, tres fracciones causaron fagodisuasión a dosis tan bajas como 0.1% (metanol, 0.5% (agua:metanol y 1.5% (éter dietílico. Sin embargo, en los segundos (plantas expuestas dentro de un invernadero ninguna de las fracciones lo hizo, lo cual sugiere que los principios fagodisuasivos perdieron su actividad en esas condiciones experimentales.

  11. Biología de Eretmocerus mundus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, parasitoide del complejo Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae, en condiciones de laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerlin CHACÓN CASTRO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La estimación de los atributos biológicos de un enemigo natural, previa a su empleo en el campo, constituye un aspecto de importancia en todo proyecto de control biológico. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar los principales parámetros biológicos de Eretmocerus mundus Mercet, parasitoide de Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, bajo condiciones de laboratorio. La emergencia del adulto, longevidad y fecundidad de la hembra, proporción sexual de la descendencia, tasa intrínseca de crecimiento poblacional (r m , tasa neta de reproducción (R o y tiempo generacional (T; se estimaron mediante la técnica de tabla de vida y fecundidad, utilizando el pimiento ( Capsicum annuum L. y el tomate ( Solanum lycopersicum L. como plantas hospederas. Los resultados obtenidos en pimiento y tomate fueron respectivamente: supervivencia pupal: 86.86 ± 1.94 y 83,45 ± 2,13%; longevidad de la hembra: 18,19 ± 1,61 y 17,00 ± 0,92 días; proporción sexual: 0,34 ± 0,06 y 0,47 ± 0,05 hembras/(machos + hembras; l x50 : 21 y 18 días; r m : 0,226 ± 0,061 y 0,228 ± 0,057 ninfas parasitadas/hembra/día; Ro: 189,71 ± 24,25 y 154,65 ± 17,58 ninfas parasitadas/hembra; T: 25,88 ± 0,42 y 24,03 ± 0,34 días. Los resultados obtenidos son una contribución al conocimiento de la población local del parasitoide y su posible papel como agente de control biológico de B. tabaci.

  12. Antifeedant activity of botanical crude extracts and their fractions on Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae adults: II. Sechium pittieri (Cucurbitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Flores

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci is a key pest of vegetables and other crops worldwide, but it is a particularly serious problem in the tropics, due to its ability to transmit several types of viruses, especially begomoviruses (Geminiviridae. Therefore, a preventive approach to deal with viral epidemics may be the deployment of repellents or phagodeterrents at earlier stages of plant development (critical period. Thus, the crude extract and four fractions thereof (water, water: methanol, methanol, and diethyl ether of wild "tacaco" (Sechium pittieri, Cucurbitaceae, were tested for phagodeterrence to B. tabaci adults under greenhouse conditions, on tomato plants, in Costa Rica. Both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments showed that the crude extract as well as some fractions exert such effect on the insect. In the former (in sleeve cages, fractions caused deterrence at doses as low as 0.1% (ether and 0.5% (water and water: methanol, with the methanol fraction showing no activity. However, in the latter (plants exposed in a greenhouse no one of the fractions performed well, suggesting that the deterrent principles somehow decomposed under the experimental conditions. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4: 2115-2129. Epub 2008 December 12.Bemisia tabaci es una plaga clave de hortalizas y otros cultivos, mundialmente, y representa un problema particularmente serio en los trópicos, debido a su habilidad para transmitir varios tipos de virus, especialmente begomovirus (Geminiviridae. Por tanto, un enfoque preventivo para enfrentar las epidemias virales podría consistir en la utilización de sustancias repelentes o disuasivas en las eta-pas tempranas del desarrollo de la planta (período crítico. Así, el extracto crudo y cuatro fracciones (agua, agua: metanol, metanol, y éter dietílico de tacaco cimarrón (Sechium pittieri, Cucurbitaceae, fueron evaluadas por su posible actividad fagodisuasiva sobre B. tabaci en un invernadero, utilizando plantas de tomate, en Turrialba, Costa Rica. Tanto los experimentos de escogencia restringida como los de escogencia irrestricta mostraron dicha actividad en el extracto crudo y en algunas de sus fracciones. En el primer tipo de experimento (en jaulas de manga, las fracciones causaron fagodisuasión a dosis tan bajas como 0.1% (éter dietílico y 0.5% (agua y agua: metanol, mientras que la fracción metanólica no la causó. Sin embargo, en los otros experimentos (plantas expuestas a B. tabaci dentro de un invernadero ninguna de las fracciones funcionó bien, lo cual sugiere que los principios disuasivos se disiparon bajo esas condiciones experimentales.

  13. Interplant movement and spatial distribution of alate and apterous morphs of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) on lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, B M; Barrios, L; Fereres, A

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge on colonization modes and interplant movement of Nasonovia ribisnigri can contribute to the development of optimal control of this pest. The aim of this study was to determine the spatio-temporal distribution and the mode of spread between adult morphs of Nasonovia ribisnigri, comparing spring and autumn lettuce protected crops. The spatial and temporal pattern was analyzed using the spatial analysis by distance indices (SADIE) methodology and other related displacement indices. The population size of N. ribisnigri was greater in the autumn than in the spring growing seasons due to milder temperatures. The percentage of plants colonized by aphids was higher in spring than in autumn, showing the great dispersal potential of this aphid species independent of their population size. Differential propensity for initial displacement from the central plant was observed between adult morphs in spring, resulting in a greater ability of apterous than alate aphids to spread far away from the source plant. In autumn, both adult morphs showed an initial reduced displacement; however, the number of plants infested (≈20%) with at least one aphid at this initial time (seven days) was similar for both adult morphs and both growing seasons. Analysis of the spatial pattern of both adult morphs revealed a predominantly random distribution for both spring and autumn trials. This pattern was achieved by a prevalent random movement over the area (γ≈0.5). These results highlight the ability of the apterous N. ribisnigri to spread within greenhouse lettuce crops early in the spring, suggesting that detection of the pest by deep visual inspection is required after lettuce emergence.

  14. O hodowli in vitro wycinków z łodygi rącznika (Ricinus communis L. i wilczomlecza tyrlicza (Euphorbia lathyris L. [In vitro culture of segment from shoots of Ricinus communis L. and Euphorbia lathyris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wojciechowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of certain factors on the growth and differentiation of the material investigated was analysed. Histo- and organogenesis are discussed together with the anatomy of the coalescence of the segments.

  15. Production of poinsettia (Euphorbia Pulcherrima) with light emitting diodes compared with the traditional high pressure sodium lamp

    OpenAIRE

    Thapa, Sabir

    2017-01-01

    Use of chemical are commonly used as tools for the commercial pot plant producers to grow strong, dwarfed, and compact plants. Although, these growth regulators have adverse effects on human health and the environment. So, this issue has motivated researchers to search for alternative methods for growth regulation. The aim of this study was to test light emitting diodes (LEDs) with different light qualities alone or in combination with high pressure sodium lamps (HPSs), to investigate their e...

  16. Plasma metabonomics study on toxicity biomarker in rats treated with Euphorbia fischeriana based on LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingfeng; Man, Hongxue; Gao, Jian; Liu, Xinfeng; Ren, Xiaolei; Chen, Jianxin; Zhang, Jiayu; Gao, Kuo; Li, Zhongfeng; Zhao, Baosheng

    2016-09-01

    Lang-du (LD) has been traditionally used to treat human diseases in China. Plasma metabolic profiling was applied in this study based on LC-MS to elucidate the toxicity in rats induced by injected ethanol extract of LD. LD injection was given by intraperitoneal injection at doses of 0.1, 0.05, 0.025 and 0 g kg(-1) body weight per day to rats. The blood biochemical levels of alanine aminotransferase, direct bilirubin, creatinine, serum β2-microglobulin and low-density lipoprotein increased in LD-injected rats, and the levels of total protein and albumin decreased in these groups. The metabolic profiles of the samples were analyzed by multivariate statistics analysis, including principal component analysis, partial least squares discriminant analysis and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA). The metabolic characters in rats injected with LD were perturbed in a dose-dependent manner. By OPLS-DA, 18 metabolites were served as the potential toxicity biomarkers. Moreover, LD treatment resulted in an increase in the p-cresol, p-cresol sulfate, lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) (18:0), LPE (16:0), lysophosphatidylcholine (16:0) and 12-HETE concentrations, and a decrease in hippuric acid, cholic acid and N-acetyl-l-phenylalanine. These results suggested that chronic exposure to LD could cause a disturbance in lipids metabolism and amino acids metabolism, etc. Therefore, an analysis of the metabolic profiles can contribute to a better understanding of the adverse effects of LD. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Selection and validation of endogenous reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis in leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula.

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    Wun S Chao

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR is the most important tool in measuring levels of gene expression due to its accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. However, the accuracy of qRT-PCR analysis strongly depends on transcript normalization using stably expressed reference genes. The aim of this study was to find internal reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis in various experimental conditions for seed, adventitious underground bud, and other organs of leafy spurge. Eleven candidate reference genes (BAM4, PU1, TRP-like, FRO1, ORE9, BAM1, SEU, ARF2, KAPP, ZTL, and MPK4 were selected from among 171 genes based on expression stabilities during seed germination and bud growth. The other ten candidate reference genes were selected from three different sources: (1 3 stably expressed leafy spurge genes (60S, bZIP21, and MD-100 identified from the analyses of leafy spurge microarray data; (2 3 orthologs of Arabidopsis "general purpose" traditional reference genes (GAPDH_1, GAPDH_2, and UBC; and (3 4 orthologs of Arabidopsis stably expressed genes (UBC9, SAND, PTB, and F-box identified from Affymetrix ATH1 whole-genome GeneChip studies. The expression stabilities of these 21 genes were ranked based on the C(T values of 72 samples using four different computation programs including geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the comparative ΔC(T method. Our analyses revealed SAND, PTB, ORE9, and ARF2 to be the most appropriate reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression data. Since SAND and PTB were obtained from 4 orthologs of Arabidopsis, while ORE9 and ARF2 were selected from 171 leafy spurge genes, it was more efficient to identify good reference genes from the orthologs of other plant species that were known to be stably expressed than that of randomly testing endogenous genes. Nevertheless, the two newly identified leafy spurge genes, ORE9 and ARF2, can serve as orthologous candidates in the search for reference genes from other plant species.

  18. Surtos populacionais de Bemisia tabaci no estado de São Paulo Outbreaks of Bemisia tabaci in the São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Lourenção

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de 1991, tem sido observada a presença da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Genn. (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae em altas populações em hortaliças e orna-mentais nos municípios paulistas de Paulínia, Holambra, Jaguariúna e Artur Nogueira. Foram constatadas infestações severas em tomateiro, brócolos, berinjela e aboboreira; nesta última, o sintoma observado em plantas infestadas pela mosca-branca é o prateamento da face superior das folhas, em conjunto com queda drástica da produção. Uma lavoura de tomate severamente infestada por B. tabaci apresentava o sintoma referido colo amadurecimento irregular dos frutos do tomateiro; plantas invasoras presentes nessa área também foram intensamente colonizadas, principalmente Sida rhombifolia L., Sonchus oleraceus L., Solanum viarum Dun. e Ipomoea acuminata Roem. & Schult. Em Holambra, verificaram-se ataques intensos em plantas ornamentais, principalmente crisântemo (Chrysantemum morifolium Ramat. e bico-de-papagaio (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd.; roseiras foral pouco colonizadas. Nessas hortaliças e nas ornamentais, a aplicação quase diária de inseticidas não reduziu a infestação do inseto. Além dessas plantas, campos de algodão, em Holambra, e de feijão, em Paulínia, também foram infestados por B. tabaci. Nos E.U.A., a capacidade de certas populações de B. tabaci de induzir o prateamento da folha em aboboreira e de colonizar intensamente E. pulcherrima, entre outros fatores, têm levado à distinção do biótipo "B" ou "poinsétia", nome vulgar dessa euforbiácea; todavia, estudos recentes na Califórnia (E.U.A. mostram a possibilidade de se tratar de duas espécies distintas. Dada a similaridade entre as infestações associadas a B. tabaci que vêm ocorrendo naquele país e, mais recentemente, no Brasil, é provável que o biótipo B ou essa nova espécie tenha sido aqui introduzido.Since 1991, an increase in the populations of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn. (Homoptera

  19. Female-induced increase of host-plant volatiles enhance specific attraction of aphid male Dysaphis plantaginea (Homoptera: Aphididae) to the sex pheromone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Helsen, H.H.M.; Griepink, F.C.; Kogel, de W.J.

    2009-01-01

    All aphid species studied so far share the same sex pheromone components, nepetalactol and nepetalactone. Variation by different enantiomers and blends of the two components released by different aphid species are limited and can only partially explain species-specific attraction of males to

  20. Comparative field evaluation of some newer versus conventional insecticides for the control of aphids (homoptera: aphididae) on oilseed rape (brassica napus l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Ahmad, N.; Bux, M.; Nasrullah, A.; Tofique, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of new insecticides like, Imidacloprid (Confidor 200 EC), Thiomethoxam (Actara 25 WG) and Acetamiprid (Megamos 20 SL) belonging to Nitroguanidine group along with conventional insecticides such as, Chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 40 EC) and Dimethoate (Systoate 40 EC) belonging to Organophosphate group against aphids' population on oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). A perusal of data, based on the overall performance of the test compounds, reflected that newer insecticides were superior in reducing the population of aphids and yield enhancement as compared to conventional insecticides. The best results were achieved with the application of Imidacloprid by recording the lowest number of aphids (2.2 per plant) than obtained with Thiomethoxam and Acetamiprid (3.22 and 4.66, respectively). Other insecticides, viz., Chlorpyrifos and Dimethoate were also found to be effective in maintaining the aphids' population at lower levels per plant (16.2 and 17.5, respectively) over untreated control (227.7). Imidacloprid was responsible for increasing the grain yield to 3722.85 Kg per Hectare, approached by Thiomethoxam, Acetamiprid, Chlorpyrifos and Dimethoate as against unsprayed control (2980.0, 2542.85, 1542.85, 540.0 and 604.85 Kg per Hectare, respectively). Study indicated that selective use of newer insecticides would seem a reasonable strategy in aphids controlling and integration of such chemicals in insects' management package could help to reduce pest densities. (author)

  1. Host Plant-Herbivore-Predator Interactions in Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae) on Four Plant Species Under Laboratory Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, Milad; Gharekhani, Gholamhossein; Iranipour, Shahzad; Hassanpour, Mahdi

    2017-12-05

    The common green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), is a well-known biocontrol agent. The current study examined host plant-herbivore-predator interactions with C. carnea and Myzus persicae on four host plants (peach, almond, pepper, and potato). The experiments were carried out at 25 ± 1°C and 65 ± 5% RH at a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h). Duration of the preadult growth period, adult longevity, fecundity, and population growth parameters were analyzed based on the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. The shortest and longest preadult developmental times of the predator were observed on the peach and potato, respectively. The highest and lowest predation rate, oviposition period, and male and female longevity of predator were also observed on the peach and potato, respectively. The lowest intrinsic rate of increase (r) and finite rate of increase (λ) were observed on the potato (0.1087 and 1.11 d-1, respectively) and the highest on the peach (0.1460 and 1.15 d-1, respectively). The maximum and minimum mean generation times (T) were 41.84 and 35.59 d in the potato and peach, respectively. Overall, peach was found to be a more appropriate host than the other host plants for development and predation fitness of C. carnea. These findings reveal that information on tritrophic interactions and subsequent life table evaluation of natural enemies improves integrated pest management programs. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. Source Areas for the Early Immigration of Sogatella furcifera (Homoptera: Delphacidae) at Xiushan in the Middle Reach of Yangtze River of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, C X; Chen, X L; Bi, J C; Li, J J; Xiao, X H; Li, Q; Wang, H J; Yang, Q F

    2015-12-01

    The spatiotemporal distribution of source areas for the early immigration of the white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horvάth), at Xiushan in the middle reach of Yangtze River of China, was analyzed with HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) and ArcGIS 10.0. The analysis was based on light trap data collected during April-July in 2000-2012. The synoptic meteorology backgrounds during the immigration periods were analyzed by GrADS (Grid Analysis and Display System). The light trap catches of S. furcifera varied monthly and annually. S. furcifera started immigration in Xiushan in early April to early May, whereas the main immigration period was in July. The distribution of the source areas varied monthly, and the core was moved from the south to the north gradually. The main source areas of S. furcifera in May were in southwestern Guangxi and northern Vietnam. The source areas of S. furcifera in June were located in southwestern Guangxi and western Hunan. Additionally, some of the pests were from southeastern Yunnan. The source areas in July were in northwestern Guangxi, southwestern Guizhou, eastern Yunnan, and the transitional parts of Guangxi, Guizhou, and Yunnan. The sum frequencies of southwest and south winds on the 850 hPa isobaric surface of Xiushan of May-July in heavy occurrence years were more than the light occurrence years. The key meteorological factors were suggested to be vertical perturbation, precipitation, and wind shear during S. furcifera immigration periods. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Cosmopsaltria halmaherae n. sp. endemic to Halmahera, Maluku, Indonesia (Homoptera, Cicadidae). The relationship of cicadas of Maluku Utara and Maluku Selatan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffels, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    Cosmopsaltria halmaherae n. sp. is described from Halmahera, Maluku and placed in the C. doryca group. The characters of this group are reconsidered and the relationships of its members are discussed. The C. doryca group and two other monophyletic groups of cicadas demonstrate a vicariant

  4. The eye-catching cicada Hamza ciliaris (Linnaeus, 1758) comb. n. in Indonesia and the Pacific: taxonomie status, synonymy, and distribution (Homoptera, Cicadoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffels, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The new combination Hamza ciliaris (Linnaeus) is proposed for a cicada species widely distributed in Maluku ( = Moluccas), Timor, Banda, Kei and Banggai Islands, the Philippines, and the Palau group of the Caroline Islands. The synonymy of five species, treated in the literature as junior synonyms

  5. Resistance and susceptibility of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars to the aphid Therioaphis maculata (Homoptera:Aphididae): insect biology and cultivar evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALEXANDRE DE ALMEIDA E SILVA; ELENICE MOURO VARANDA; JOS(E) RICARDO BAROSELA

    2006-01-01

    Biology of the aphid Therioaphis maculata was studied on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), including four resistant (Mesa-Sirsa, CUF101, Baker and Lahontan) and two susceptible (ARC and Caliverde) alfalfa cultivars, and one of the most cropped Brazilian cultivars, Crioula. Under controlled conditions, antibiosis (i.e., reduced longevity, fecundity and increased mortality of the aphid) was observed mainly on the resistant alfalfa cultivars,except on Lahontan. Crioula seemed to be tolerant to aphids. Present data support geographic limitation usage of cultivars, and we suggest Baker and Mesa-Sirsa as sources of antibiosis,and provide biological information of a tropical T. maculata biotype on alfalfa.

  6. New species of the family Triozidae (Homoptera: Psylloidea) from China, and the first record of Psylloidea as host of Braconidae (Hymenoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, F.; Achterberg, van C.; He, J.

    2000-01-01

    Two new species of Triozidae (Psylloidea) from China producing sphere-shaped leaf galls on Ficus hainanensis Merr. & Shun., are illustrated and described. For the first time Psylloidea are reported as host of a species of Braconidae. The parasitoid belonging to the genus Bracon Fabricius, 1804, is

  7. Reproducción de cochinilla silvestre Dactylopius opuntiae (Homóptera: Dactylopiidae Reproduction of wild cochineal Dactylopius opuntiae (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnoldo Flores-Hernández

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Por sus características, la cochinilla silvestre ofrece perspectivas de aprovechamiento como fuente de carmín y para el mejoramiento genético de la grana fina. Por lo anterior, se estableció una multiplicación y crianza de cochinilla silvestre, proveniente de la zona árida del norte de México para caracterizarla, utilizando como hospedero a Opuntia megacantha Salm Dyck. Los resultados indican que la especie silvestre pertenece al género-especie Dactylopius opuntia. Se determinó la presencia de partenogénesis en hembras. La duración de los estadios biológicos depende del sexo del insecto; el adulto hembra permaneció durante 38.4 días y 4.2 días para machos, los primeros estadios ninfales fueron similares en duración (18.1-19.8 días. El ciclo biológico de las hembras fue de 77 días mientras que el de los machos fue de 43 días. Para las hembras se estimó un periodo de preoviposición de 18.8 días, manteniéndose en oviposición durante 21 días con un promedio de 131 insectos por hembra. La proporción sexual hembras: machos fue 1:1. El tipo de reproducción fue predominantemente sexual, aunque hubo hembras partenogénicas. Este es el primer reporte de Dactylopius opuntiae como cochinilla silvestre asociada a la zona árida del noreste de México, específicamente en el Bolsón de Mapimí, Durango, México.Wild cochineal has characteristics that offer advantage as a source of carmine and for fine cochineal improvement. To characterize wild cochineal, we initiated a breeding effort raising wild cochineal from the arid zone of the north oh Mexico, using as a host organism Opuntia megacantha Salm dick. The results indicate that the wild specie is Dactylopius opuntiae. The presence of parthenogenesis in females was determined. The duration of ontogenetic stages depends on the sex of the insect. The adult female lasted 38.4 days and 4.2 days for males, the first stage nymphs were similar in duration (18-19.8 days. The complete biological cycle of the females was 77 days, and in the males 43 days. A period of preoviposition of 18.8 days for the females was found, laying eggs during 21 days with an average of 131 insects per female. The sex ratio female: male was 1:1. The reproduction generally was sexual although there were parthenogenetic females. This is the first report of Dactylopius opuntiae as a source of wild cochineal in the arid zone of North, Central and Norwest of Mexico specifically in the Bolson of Mapimí, Durango, Mexico.

  8. Interactive Effects of Southern Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus Infection of Host Plant and Vector on Performance of the Vector, Sogatella furcifera (Homoptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wenbin; Liu, Danfeng; Li, Pei; Hou, Maolin

    2014-10-01

    Performance of insect vectors can be influenced by the viruses they transmit, either directly by infection of the vectors or indirectly via infection of the host plants. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) is a propagative virus transmitted by the white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Hovath). To elucidate the influence of SRBSDV on the performance of white-backed planthopper, life parameters of viruliferous and nonviruliferous white-backed planthopper fed rice seedlings infected or noninfected with SRBSDV were measured using a factorial design. Regardless of the infection status of the rice plant host, viruliferous white-backed planthopper nymphs took longer to develop from nymph to adult than did nonviruliferous nymphs. Viruliferous white-backed planthopper females deposited fewer eggs than nonviruliferous females and both viruliferous and nonviruliferous white-backed planthopper females laid fewer eggs on infected than on noninfected plants. Longevity of white-backed planthopper females was also affected by the infection status of the rice plant and white-backed planthopper. Nonviruliferous white-backed planthopper females that fed on infected rice plants lived longer than the other three treatment groups. These results indicate that the performance of white-backed planthopper is affected by SRBSDV either directly (by infection of white-backed planthopper) or indirectly (by infection of rice plant). The extended development of viruliferous nymphs and the prolonged life span of nonviruliferous adults on infected plants may increase their likelihood of transmitting virus, which would increase virus spread. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  9. Herencia de la resistencia al daño mecánico causado por Tagosodes orizicolus (Muir (Homoptera-Delphacidae en arroz Oryza sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuevas P. Federico

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In Colombia all rice varieties developed are reported as resistant to Tagosodes orizicolus. Given the narrow genetic base of the resistant sources, this study was undertaken to identify the resistant parents or donors more oftenly used in Latin America. The materials were characterized as resistant (Mudgo, Amistad 82, IRAT 120, IRAT 124, Makalioka or susceptible based on the free chosen test and non chosen test and on the survival and oviposition of the insect (Chianan 8, Colombia 1, Bluebonnet 50, IR 8 (lCA, IR 8 (IRRI, Tetep and Cica 8. The damage was associated with insect survival, oviposition and eggs eclotion. To determine heritability two parents (Makalioka and Mudgo, were crossed with IR 8 F1 and F3 populations were also evaluated based on the free chosen test.

     

     

    En Colombia las variedades de arroz desarrolladas se consideran como resistentes a Tagosodes orizicolus. Dada la estrechez genética de las fuentes de resistencia, se inició este estudio para identificar los progenitores donantes de resistencia usados con mayor frecuencia en América Latina. Los materiales se caracterizaron como resistentes (Mudgo, Amistad 82, IRAT, 120, IRAT 124 Y Makalioka o susceptibles (Chianan 8, Colombia 1, Bluebonnet 50, IR 8 (lCA, IR (IRRI, Tetep y Cica 8, con base en las pruebas de libre escogencia, no escogencia, sobre vivencia y oviposición. El daño estuvo asociado con la supervivencia, oviposición y eclosión de huevos del insecto. Para la determinación de la herencia se cruzaron los progenitores Makalioka y Mudgo con IR8. En la Progenie F1 del cruzamiento resistente x resistente el 111% de las plantas fueron susceptibles; Mudgo y Makalioka segregaron 23 y 41% de plantas susceptibles.

  10. Molecular dynamics of detoxification and toxin-tolerance genes in brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål., Homoptera: Delphacidae) feeding on resistant rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhifan; Zhang, Futie; He, Qing; He, Guangcun

    2005-06-01

    To investigate the molecular response of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (BPH) to BPH-resistant rice plants, we isolated cDNA fragments of the genes encoding for carboxylesterase (CAR), trypsin (TRY), cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450), NADH-quinone oxidoreductase (NQO), acetylcholinesterase (ACE), and Glutathione S-transferase (GST). Expression profiles of the genes were monitored on fourth instar nymphs feeding on rice varieties with different resistance levels. Northern blot hybridization showed that, compared with BPH reared on susceptible rice TN1, expression of the genes for P450 and CAR was apparently up-regulated and TRY mRNA decreased in BPH feeding on a highly resistant rice line B5 and a moderately resistant rice variety MH63, respectively. Two transcripts of GST increased in BPH feeding on B5; but in BPH feeding on MH63, this gene was inducible and its expression reached a maximum level at 24 h, and then decreased slightly. The expression of NQO gene was enhanced in BPH on B5 plants but showed a constant expression in BPH on MH63 plants. No difference in ACE gene expression among BPH on different rice plants was detected by the RT-PCR method. The results suggest these genes may play important roles in the defense response of BPH to resistant rice.

  11. Inheritance mode and realized heritability of resistance to imidacloprid in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Homoptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan Hua; Liu, Xu Gan; Zhu, Yu Cheng; Wu, Sheng Gan; Li, Shu Yong; Chen, Wen Ming; Shen, Jin Liang

    2009-06-01

    The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), is a serious pest that causes enormous losses to the rice crop in Asia. The genetic basis of imidacloprid resistance was investigated in N. lugens. The resistant strain, selected for imidacloprid resistance from a field population of N. lugens collected from Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China, showed a 964-fold resistance compared with the laboratory strain. Progenies of reciprocal crosses (F(1) and F(1)') showed similar dose-mortality responses (LC(50)) to imidacloprid, and also exhibited a similar degree of dominance (D), 0.58 for F(1) and 0.63 for F(1)'. Chi-square analyses of self-bred and backcross progenies (F(2), F(2)' and BC respectively) rejected the hypothesis for a single gene control of the resistance. The estimated realized heritability (h(2)) of imidacloprid resistance was 0.1141 in the resistant strain of N. lugens. The results showed that imidacloprid resistance in N. lugens was autosomal and was expressed as an incompletely dominant trait, probably controlled by multiple genes.

  12. Insect growth regulator effects of azadirachtin and neem oil on survivorship, development and fecundity of Aphis glycines (Homoptera: Aphididae) and its predator, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraiss, Heidi; Cullen, Eileen M

    2008-06-01

    Aphis glycines Matsumura, an invasive insect pest in North American soybeans, is fed upon by a key biological control agent, Harmonia axyridis Pallas. Although biological control is preferentially relied upon to suppress insect pests in organic agriculture, approved insecticides, such as neem, are periodically utilized to reduce damaging pest populations. The authors evaluated direct spray treatments of two neem formulations, azadirachtin and neem seed oil, under controlled conditions for effects on survivorship, development time and fecundity in A. glycines and H. axyridis. Both azadirachtin and neem seed oil significantly increased aphid nymphal mortality (80 and 77% respectively) while significantly increasing development time of those surviving to adulthood. First-instar H. axyridis survival to adulthood was also significantly reduced by both neem formulations, while only azadirachtin reduced third-instar survivorship. Azadirachtin increased H. axyridis development time to adult when applied to both instars, while neem oil only increased time to adult when applied to first instar. Neither neem formulation affected the fecundity of either insect. Results are discussed within the context of future laboratory and field studies aimed at clarifying if neem-derived insecticides can be effectively integrated with biological control for soybean aphid management in organic soybeans. Copyright (c) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Evaluación de extractos cetónicos de paraíso, eucalipto y ricino sobre Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carrizo, Paola; Pelicano, Alicia; Caffarini, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    En el cultivo de pimiento, Myzus persicae es una plaga cuyo manejo se basa en el uso de agroquímicos de síntesis. Una alternativa de menor impacto ambiental para su control es la aplicación de extractos naturales. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de extractos provenientes de Melia azedarach, Eucalyptus globulus y Ricinus communis sobre este pulgón. Se escogió la técnica del film residual en papel de filtro, manteniendo los individuos sobre hojas de pimiento ornamental. Se uti...

  14. A reliable bioassay procedure to evaluate per os toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis strains against the rice delphacid, Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Mora

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A reliable bioassay procedure was developed to test ingested Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins on the rice delphacid Tagosodes orizicolus. Initially, several colonies were established under greenhouse conditions, using rice plants to nurture the insect. For the bioassay, an in vitro feeding system was developed for third to fourth instar nymphs. Insects were fed through Parafilm membranes on sugar (10 % sucrose and honey bee (1:48 vol/vol solutions, observing a natural mortality of 10-15 % and 0-5 %, respectively. Results were reproducible under controlled conditions during the assay (18±0.1 °C at night and 28±0.1 °C during the day, 80 % RH and a 12:12 day:light photoperiod. In addition, natural mortality was quantified on insect colonies, collected from three different geographic areas of Costa Rica, with no significant differences between colonies under controlled conditions. Finally, bioassays were performed to evaluate the toxicity of a Bt collection on T. orizicolus. A preliminary sample of twenty-seven Bt strains was evaluated on coarse bioassays using three loops of sporulated colonies in 9 ml of liquid diet, the strains that exhibited higher percentages of T. orizicolus mortality were further analyzed in bioassays using lyophilized spores and crystals (1 mg/ml. As a result, strains 26-O-to, 40-X-m, 43S-d and 23-O-to isolated from homopteran insects showed mortalities of 74, 96, 44 and 82 % respectively while HD-137, HD-1 and Bti showed 19, 83 and 95 % mortalities. Controls showed mortalities between 0 and 10 % in all bioassays. This is the first report of a reliable bioassay procedure to evaluate per os toxicity for a homopteran species using Bacillus thuringiensis strains. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (2: 373-383. Epub 2007 June, 29.Se desarrolló una metodología de bioensayo para evaluar toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt ingeridas por Tagosodes orizicolus, plaga del arroz y vector del virus de la hoja blanca. Se establecieron colonias del insecto en condiciones de invernadero usando plantas de arroz como alimento. Para el bioensayo, se desarrolló un sistema de alimentación in vitro para ninfas de tercer y cuarto estadío. Los insectos se alimentaron de soluciones de miel de abeja (1:48 vol/vol y sacarosa (10 % a través de membranas de Parafilm. Se observaron mortalidades del 10-15 % y 0-5 %, respectivamente, en ambas dietas. Los resultados fueron reproducibles en condiciones controladas de humedad y temperatura (18±0.1 °C de noche y 28±0.1 °C de día, 80 % H.R y a 12:12 fotoperíodo día:noche. Asimismo, se analizó la mortalidad natural de los insectos según su procedencia, sin embargo, no se observaron diferencias significativas en condiciones controladas. Finalmente, se elaboraron bioensayos para evaluar la toxicidad de una colección de cepas de Bt contra T. orizicolus. Se evaluó preliminarmente, una submuestra de 27 cepas de Bt en bioensayos burdos usando tres asadas como inóculo para 9 ml de dieta líquida. Posteriormente, las cepas que mostraron los mayores porcentajes de mortalidad se evaluaron en bioensayos usando esporas y cristales liofilizados (1 mg/ml. Como resultado, las cepas aisladas a partir de homópteros 26-O-to, 40-X-m, 43-S-d y 23-O-to mostraron mortalidades de 74, 96, 44 y 82 % respectivamente, mientras que las HD-137, HD-1 y Bti mostraron 19, 83 y 95 % de mortalidad. Los controles presentaron mortalidades de 0 y 10 % en los bioensayos. Este es el primer informe de un bioensayo para evaluar la toxicidad de cepas de Bt utilizando la especie T. orizicolus.

  15. The jacoona assemblage of the genus Dundubia Amyot & Serville (Homoptera: Cicadidae): a taxonomic study of its species and a discussion of its phylogenetic relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuk, Paul L.Th.

    1996-01-01

    The species of Orientopsaltria with unicolorous opercula and three related species of Platylomia are transferred to the genus Dundubia and allocated in the ‘Dundubia jacoona assemblage’ pending further investigation. The assemblage comprises eleven species in total; all are found in the

  16. Inter-regional differences in baseline toxicity of Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) to the two insect growth regulators, buprofezin and pyriproxyfen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, N C; Prabhaker, N; Castle, S J; Henneberry, T J

    2001-12-01

    A survey of 53 Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring populations from different agricultural regions in California and Arizona was conducted from 1997 to 1999 to establish baseline toxicological responses to buprofezin and pyriproxyfen. Although both compounds proved to be highly toxic even in minute quantities to specific stages, geographical and temporal differences in responses were detected using a leaf spray bioassay technique. Monitoring for three years revealed that six to seven populations had higher LC50 values but not greater survival when exposed to these two insecticides. A significant difference in relative susceptibility to buprofezin was first observed in late season 1997 in San Joaquin Valley populations with LC50s ranging from 16 to 22 microg (AI)/liter(-1) compared with IC50s of 1 to 3 mg (AI)/liter(-1) in Imperial, Palo Verde Valley and Yuma populations. Whiteflies collected in subsequent years from these and other locations showed an increase in susceptibility to buprofezin. Regional differences in susceptibilities to pyriproxyfen were minimal within the same years. Three years of sampling revealed consistently higher LC50s to pyriproxyfen in populations from Palo Verde Valley, CA, compared with whiteflies from Imperial, San Joaquin Valley or Yuma. As was the case with buprofezin, a decline in LC50s to pyriproxyfen was observed in whiteflies from all locations sampled in 1999. However, no correlation was observed between buprofezin and pyriproxyfen toxicity in any of the strains. The variable toxicities observed to both compounds over a period of 3 yr may be due principally to inherent differences among geographical populations or due to past chemical use which may confer positive or negative cross-resistance to buprofezin or pyriproxyfen.

  17. Tri-trophic interactions between Bt cotton, the herbivore Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae), and the predator Chrysopa pallens (Rambur) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian-Ying; Wan, Fang-Hao; Dong, Liang; Lövei, Gábor L; Han, Zhao-Jun

    2008-02-01

    Tri-trophic impacts of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton GK12 and NuCOTN 99B were studied using a predator, the great lacewing Chrysopa pallens (Rambur), and its prey, the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover, in laboratory feeding experiments. The parental nontransgenic cotton cultivar of GK12 was used as control. The predator was fed with uniform (aphids from a single cultivar) or mixed prey (aphids from the three cotton cultivars provided on alternate days). Mortality and development of the immature stages, pupal body mass, adult sex ratio, fecundity, and egg viability of C. pallens were measured. When fed GK12-originated aphid prey, pupal body mass of C. pallens was significantly higher than that of the control, more females emerged, and these females laid significantly more eggs. Other parameters were not impacted. Females emerging from larvae maintained on NuCOTN 99B-originated prey laid fewer eggs than those maintained on GK12. Other measurements did not differ significantly between the two Bt cotton cultivars. Compared with the control, mixed feeding significantly prolonged pupal development time and increased pupal body mass and percentage of females but did not affect other parameters. These results indicate that C. pallens is sensitive to aphid prey from different cotton cultivars. Transgenic Bt cotton GK12-originated aphid prey has no adverse impact on survival, development, and fecundity of C. pallens. Between the two Bt cotton cultivars, NuCOTN 99B-originated aphid prey provided to C. pallens in the larval stage may lower female fecundity. Mixed feeding of C. pallens with the two Bt cotton-originated prey and non-Bt prey may have some adverse impacts on pupal development.

  18. [Phagodeterrent activity of the plants Tithonia diversifolia and Montanoa hibiscifolia (Asteraceae) on adults of the pest insect Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnarello, Gina; Hilje, Luko; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Cartín, Victor; Calvo, Marco

    2009-12-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is a polyphagous, cosmopolitan and worldwide relevant pest, mainly acting as a virus vector on many crops. A sound preventive approach to deal with it would be the application of repellent or deterrent substances hopefully present in tropical plants, which in turn may contribute to take advantage of the remarkable rich Mesoamerican biodiversity. Therefore, extracts of two wild plants belonging to family Asteraceae, titonia (Tithonia diversifolia) and "tora" (Montanoa hibiscifolia), were tested for phagodeterrence to B. tabaci adults. The crude leaf extract of each one, as well as four fractions thereof (hexane, dichlorometane, ethyl acetate, and methanol) were tested under greenhouse conditions; in addition, the extracts were submitted to a phytochemical screening to determine possible metabolites causing phagodeterrence. Both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments were conducted. In the former ones, each fraction was tested at four doses (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% v/v), which were compared with four control treatments: distilled water, endosulfan, an agricultural oil (Aceite Agricola 81 SC), and the emulsifier Citowett. Tomato plants were sprayed and placed inside sleeve cages, where 50 B. tabaci adults were released. The criterion to appraise phagodeterrence was the number of landed adults on plants at 48h. For the unrestricted-choice experiments, only the two highest doses (1.0 and 1.5%) of the crude extracts of each species were tested, and compared to distilled water and the agricultural oil. The titonia and "tora" crude extracts caused phagodeterrence, and for both plant species the methanol fraction stood out. Results suggest that metabolites causing phagodeterrence are several sesquiterpenic lactones, polyphenolic compounds (flavonoids and tannins) and saponins.

  19. Microsatellite markers reveal a predominant sugarcane aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) clone is found on sorghum in seven states and one territory of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari, has become a serious pest causing severe economic losses to sorghum grown in the southern United States (U.S.). Since its original detection in four states in 2013, M. sacchari on sorghum has now, for 2016, spread to 19 states. The presence of one or multip...

  20. Dispersal of Dactylopius opuntiae Cockerell (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae, a biological control agent of Opuntia stricta (Haworth. Haworth. (Cactaceae in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Foxcroft

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical control efforts, the introduction of Cactoblastis cactorum and attempted releases of Dactylopius opuntiae Cockerell into the expanding infestation of Opuntia stricta in the Skukuza region of the Kruger National Park (KNP have had limited suc- cess in preventing the spread and densification of 0. stricta. To boost the biological control component, a new strain of D. opuntiae was introduced into KNP during 1997. The new strain established readily and has destroyed large clumps of plants in the vicin- ity of the release site. A large-scale redistribution programme with D. opuntiae is now needed to exploit this biological control agent to the full. In order to match the frequency of manual releases with the natural rates of spread of the insects, surveys were conducted under field conditions to determine the dispersal abilities ofD. opuntiae, with regard to rate and direction of movement. Dispersal of D. opuntiae was found to be slow and restricted and that the insects need to be redistributed by placing them onto plants at approximately 10 m intervals to ensure that they become quickly and evenly distributed on the weed. This information will be crucial in the revision of the integrated management plan for 0. stricta in the KNP, in integrating the cochineal and other control mechanisms.

  1. Establishment of Lipolexis oregmae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) in a classical biological control program directed against the brown citrus aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persad, A.B.; Hoy, M.A.; Ru Nguyen

    2007-01-01

    The parasitoid Lipolexis oregmae Gahan (introduced as L. scutellaris Mackauer) was imported from Guam, evaluated in quarantine, mass reared, and released into citrus groves in Florida in a classical biological control program directed against the brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy. Releases of 20,200, 12,100, and 1,260 adults of L. oregmae were made throughout Florida during 2000, 2001, and 2002, respectively. To determine if L. oregmae had successfully established, surveys were conducted throughout the state beginning in the summer of 2001 and continuing through the summer of 2003. Parasitism during 2001 and 2002 was evaluated by holding brown citrus aphids in the laboratory until parasitoid adults emerged. Lipolexis oregmae was found in 10 sites in 7 counties and 4 sites in 3 counties with parasitism rates ranging from 0.7 to 3.3% in 2001 and 2002, respectively. Laboratory tests indicated that high rates of mortality occurred if field-collected parasitized aphids were held in plastic bags, so a molecular assay was used that allowed immature L. oregmae to be detected within aphid hosts immediately after collection. The molecular assay was used in 2003 with the brown citrus aphids and with other aphid species collected from citrus, weeds, and vegetables near former release sites; immatures of L. oregmae were detected in black citrus aphids, cowpea aphids, spirea aphids, and melon aphids, as well as in the brown citrus aphid, in 4 of 8 counties sampled, with parasitism ranging from 2.0 to 12.9%, indicating that L. oregmae is established and widely distributed. Samples taken in Polk County during Oct 2005 indicated that L. oregmae has persisted. The ability of L. oregmae to parasitize other aphid species on citrus, and aphids on other host plants, enhances the ability of L. oregmae to persist when brown citrus aphid populations are low. (author) [es

  2. Insecticide resistance in Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) could compromise the sustainability of malaria vector control strategies in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnankiné, Olivier; Bassolé, Imael H N; Chandre, Fabrice; Glitho, Isabelle; Akogbeto, Martin; Dabiré, Roch K; Martin, Thibaud

    2013-10-01

    Insecticides from the organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid (PY) chemical families, have respectively, been in use for 50 and 30 years in West Africa, mainly against agricultural pests, but also against vectors of human disease. The selection pressure, with practically the same molecules year after year (mainly on cotton), has caused insecticide resistance in pest populations such as Bemisia tabaci, vector of harmful phytoviruses on vegetables. The evolution toward insecticide resistance in malaria vectors such as Anopheles gambiae sensus lato (s.l.) is probably related to the current use of these insecticides in agriculture. Thus, successful pest and vector control in West Africa requires an investigation of insect susceptibility, in relation to the identification of species and sub species, such as molecular forms or biotypes. Identification of knock down resistance (kdr) and acetylcholinesterase gene (Ace1) mutations modifying insecticide targets in individual insects and measure of enzymes activity typically involved in insecticide metabolism (oxidase, esterase and glutathion-S-transferase) are indispensable in understanding the mechanisms of resistance. Insecticide resistance is a good example in which genotype-phenotype links have been made successfully. Insecticides used in agriculture continue to select new resistant populations of B. tabaci that could be from different biotype vectors of plant viruses. As well, the evolution of insecticide resistance in An. gambiae threatens the management of malaria vectors in West Africa. It raises the question of priority in the use of insecticides in health and/or agriculture, and more generally, the question of sustainability of crop protection and vector control strategies in the region. Here, we review the susceptibility tests, biochemical and molecular assays data for B. tabaci, a major pest in cotton and vegetable crops, and An. gambiae, main vector of malaria. The data reviewed was collected in Benin and Burkina Faso between 2008 and 2010 under the Corus 6015 research program. This review aims to show: (i) the insecticide resistance in B. tabaci as well as in An. gambiae; and (ii) due to this, the impact of selection of resistant populations on malaria vector control strategies. Some measures that could be beneficial for crop protection and vector control strategies in West Africa are proposed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Les cochenilles des Myrtaceae en Amazonie péruvienne : 1. Description de deux nouveaux ravageurs de Myrciaria dubia (Homoptera, Coccidae et Kerriidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Matile-Ferrero, D.; Couturier, Guy

    1993-01-01

    #Ceroplastes flosculoides$ Matile-Ferrero n.sp. (Coccidae) et #Austrotachardiella sexcordata$ Matile-Ferrero n.sp. (Kerriidae), sont décrits et illustrés. Les deux espèces sont des ravageurs d'une Myrtacée cultivée, #Myrciaria dubia$, en Amazonie péruvienne. #Austrotachardiella trilobata$ (Mendes) n.comb. est transférée de #Tachardiella$ Cockerell. (Résumé d'auteur)

  4. Luta biológica clássica com Hyperaspis pantherina Fürsch (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae no combate à Orthezia insignis Browne (Homoptera: Ortheziidae em jacarandá Biological control with Hyperaspis pantherina Fürsch (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae to control Orthezia insignis Browne (Homoptera: Ortheziidae on blue jacaranda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Félix

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os jacarandás e várias plantas ornamentais que ornamentam passeios e áreas ajardinadas da cidade do Funchal encontram-se infestados pela cochonilha Orthezia insignis Browne. Para combater esta praga foi importada do Quénia, uma joaninha, Hyperaspis pantherina Fürsch. Este predador é específico de O. insignis e tem sido utilizado, com sucesso em programas de luta biológica, em vários países de África, no Peru, Hawai e na Ilha de Santa Helena. Na Ilha da Madeira, desde Julho de 2002, H. pantherina está a ser criado em laboratório e largado em jacarandás infestados com o objectivo de combater a cochonilha-dojacarandá através da luta biológica clássica. Referem-se as largadas de H. pantherina e o sistema de monitorização adoptado para verificar a aclimatação do predador.The Jacaranda trees and other ornamental plants used in sidewalks and gardenlike areas of sidewalks and other gardened areas of the downton Capital city of Madeira Island (Funchal, are infested by the Jacaranda or Lantana Bug, Orthezia insignis Browne. A ladybird, Hyperaspis pantherina Fürsch, was imported from Kenya to control this pest. This ladybird is a specific predator of O. insignis and it has been used, successfully in biological control programs, in several countries of Africa, in Peru, Hawaii and in Santa Helena Island. In Madeira Island, H. pantherina is being reared in laboratory and released into infested jacarandas since July 2002, in a classical biological control way. The releasing of H. pantherina is described in detail as well as the adopted monitoring system to verify its acclimation.

  5. Membracidos de Colombia - I. Revisión parcial de las especies del género Alchisme Kirkaldy (Homoptera: Membracidae: Hoplophorioninae Membracidos de Colombia - I. Revisión parcial de las especies del género Alchisme Kirkaldy (Homoptera: Membracidae: Hoplophorioninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo Mejía Ruben

    1980-09-01

    Full Text Available Se revisó el género Alchisme Kirkaldy. De las diecinueve especies anotadas por Metcalf (1965 no se obtuvieron especímenes de A. apicalis (Walker, A. costaricensis Goding, A. elevata Goding, A. laticornis Funkhouser, A. pinguicornisFunkhouser, A. recurva (Stäl, A. spinosa Funkhouser y A. truncaticornis (Germar. Se incluyen las descripciones originales de estas especies y tentativamente se localizan en la clave presentada. Se redescriben: A. bos (Fairmaire, A. fastidiosa (Fairmaire, A. grossa (Fairmaire, A. inermis (Fairmaire, A. nigrocarinata (Fairmaire, A. rubrocostata (Spinola, A. turrita (Germar, A. ustulata (Fairmaire, A. virescens (Fairmaire y A. nigrocarinata var. tridentata (Fairmaire, para la cual se usa su combinación original A. tridentata (Fairmaire. Se sinonimizóa A. projecta Funkhouser en favor de A. bos (Fairmaire.Se ilustran las principales características del pronoto y de los genitales de los machos; se observaron y se obtuvieron fotografías de los edeagos en un microscopio electrónico "rastreador" (Scanning Electro Microscope, las cualesse incluyen como parte de las ilustraciones. Se analizó la distribución geográfica del género y se ilustró por medio de mapas.The genus Alchisme Kirkaldy was revised. From nineteen species listed by Metcalf (1965 not specimens were obtained of eight of them. Original descriptions of these species are included and tentatively are localized in the key.  A redescription is given for the species A. bos (Fairmaire, A. fastidiosa (Fairmaire, A. grossa (Fairmaire, A. inermis (Fairmaire, A. nigrocarinata (Fairmaire, A. rubrocostata (Spinola, A. turrita (Germar, A. ustulata (Fairmaire, A. virescens (Fairmaire y A. nigrocarinata var. tridentata (Fairmaire, for which was used the original combination A. tridentata (Fairmaire. A. projecta Funkhouser was synonymized in A. bos (Fairmaire. The main pronotum characters and male genitalia are illustred; Scanning Electro Microscope pictures of the aedeagus of the insects were observed and obtained and are included as part of the illustrations. Geographic distributionsof the genus was analized and maps were prepared.

  6. Efecto de la configuración de lotes de gramíneas invernales sobre poblaciones de Delphacidae (Insecta: Homoptera en dispersión The effect of the configuration of winter grass plots on dispersing populations of Delphacidae (Insecta: Homoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Bruno

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Las características del paisaje afectan la distribución y abundancia de los insectos dentro y entre los lotes de cultivos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el efecto de los elementos del paisaje agrícola sobre la abundancia de los individuos en dispersión de las especies de Delphacidae. Éstas son vectores de virus patogénicos que transmiten enfermedades de importancia económica para la producción agropecuaria. El estudio se realizó en el área central de la provincia de Córdoba, Argentina; los insectos fueron capturados con trampas pegajosas ubicadas dentro de parches de hospedadores. Las métricas del paisaje analizadas fueron: área del parche, índice de proximidad media y porcentaje del paisaje cubierto por parches de una clase de hospedador. La abundancia de Delphacodes kuscheli tuvo relación positiva con el área de los parches de pasturas de invierno. El índice de proximidad media tuvo relación positiva con las abundancias de D. kuscheli y D . balboae en los parches de pasturas de invierno y el porcentaje del paisaje cubierto con parches de pasturas de invierno se relacionó positivamente con las abundancias de D. kuscheli, D. balboae y D. haywardi. Las abundancias de Toya propincua no mostraron relación con ninguna de las métricas del paisaje analizadas.Landscape configuration can affect the distribution and abundance of insect species. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of landscape elements configuration on the abundance of dispersing individuals of Delphacidae species. Delphacid species are important vectors of pathogenic viruses causing diseases of economic importance on grain production. The study was performed in the central area of Córdoba Province, Argentina; the insects were collected with sticky traps placed in plant host patches. The landscape metrics estimated were: host patch area, Mean Proximity Index (MPI and the Percentage of Landscape occupied (PLAND by host patches of the same class. The abundance of Delphacodes kuscheli showed a positive relationship with patch area of the winter pastures. There was a positive relationship between Mean Proximity Index of winter pastures patches and D. kuscheli and D . balboae abundances. The Percentage of Landscape occupied by the winter pastures patches also showed a positive relationship with Delphacodes kuscheli, Delphacodes balboae and Delphacodes haywardi abundances. Finally we found no relationship between Toya propinqua abundance and any of the landscape metrics analyzed in this work. These results show that landscape configuration has a different effect on the dispersing population of the different species of Delphacidae.

  7. Fungal Planet description sheets: 154–213

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Wingfield, M.J.; Guarro, J.; Cheewangkoon, R.; Bank, van der M.; Swart, W.J.; Stchigel, A.M.; Cano-Lira, J.F.; Roux, J.; Madrid, H.; Damm, U.; Wood, A.R.; Shuttleworth, L.A.; Hodges, C.S.; Munster, M.; Jesús Yáñez-Morales, de M.; Zúñiga-Estrada, L.; Cruywagen, E.M.; Hoog, de G.S.; Silvera, C.; Najafzadeh, J.; Davison, E.M.; Davison, P.J.N.; Barrett, M.D.; Barrett, R.L.; Manamgoda, D.S.; Minnis, A.M.; Kleczewski, N.M.; Flory, S.L.; Castlebury, L.A.; Clay, K.; Hyde, K.D.; Maússe-Sitoe, S.N.D.; Chen, S.; Lechat, C.; Hairaud, M.; Lesage-Meessen, L.; Pawlowska, J.; Wilk, M.; Sliwinska-Wyrzychowska, A.; Metrak, M.; Wrzosek, M.; Pavlic-Zupanc, D.; Maleme, H.M.; Slippers, B.; Mac Cormack, W.P.; Archuby, D.I.; Grünwald, N.J.; Tellería, M.T.; Dueñas, M.; Martín, M.P.; Marincowitz, S.; Beer, de Z.W.; Perez, C.A.; Gené, J.; Marin-Felix, Y.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2013-01-01

    Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Camarosporium aloes, Phaeococcomyces aloes and Phoma aloes from Aloe, C. psoraleae, Diaporthe psoraleae and D. psoraleae-pinnatae from Psoralea, Colletotrichum euphorbiae from Euphorbia, Coniothyrium

  8. 75 FR 34114 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ..., oil radish, poppy seed, rapeseed, sesame, sweet rocket, calendula, castor oil plant, Chinese... seed, rapeseed, sesame, sweet rocket, calendula, castor oil plant, Chinese tallowtree, euphorbia..., sesame, sweet rocket, calendula, castor oil plant, Chinese tallowtree, euphorbia, evening primrose...

  9. Occurrence of coccinellids that prey on Diaphorinia citri (Hemiptera:Liviidae) on Euphorbia heterophylla (Euphorbiacea) and Chamaecrista fasciculata (Fabaceae) in a south Florida residential area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adding plant-based nutritional resources to a landscape may help to recruit and retain predaceous and parasitic arthropods. As a first step in determining whether the addition of nectary plants can increase the abundance and diversity of biocontrol agents of Diaphorina citri and psyllid suppression ...

  10. Pollination and seed dispersal in the endangered succulent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dwarf succulent euphorbia Euphorbia brevitorta (Euphorbiaceae) is a localized and potentially threatened endemic species with limited distributed across rocky grasslands in central and southern Kenya. The pollination ecology and seed dispersal of E. brevitorta was investigated by direct observation. Euphorbia ...

  11. Understanding biological control of greenhouse whitefly with the parasitoid Encarsia formosa : from individual behaviour to population dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roermund, van H.J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Homoptera, Aleyrodidae), is a very common, highly polyphagous pest insect all over the world. Biological control of whiteflies with the parasitoid Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) was already applied in the 1920s in

  12. Intraguild predation by the generalist predator Orius majusculus on the parasitoid Encarsia formosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohrabi, Fariba; Enkegaard, Annie; Shishehbor, Parviz

    2013-01-01

    Intraguild predation of Orius majusculus (Reuter) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) on Encarsia formosa (Gahan) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), both natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), was studied under laboratory conditions. The experiments quantified prey consumption b...

  13. Occurrence of Diaretiella rapae (Mc´Intosh, 1855 (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae Parasitising Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach, 1843 and Brevicoryne brassicae (L. 1758 (Homoptera: Aphididae in Brassica napus in Mato Grosso do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mussury Rosilda Mara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Diaretiella rapae parasitising Lipaphis erysimi and Brevicoryne brassicae in canola field (Brassica napus was evaluated through two sample methods in Dourados-MS. The methods, used weekly, were: entomologic sweep net and plants sacking. The aphids population was observed from initial to the senescence plant development. Aphids were more abundant during the flowering phase, and they were usually located in the stems of the inflorescence and development fruits. In this phase the largest parasitism level for D. rapae (89,7% occurred. The sample method with a sweep net captured significantly (t=4,484, P <= 0,01 more D. rapae while sacking method captured more parasitise aphids (t=2,199 with P <= 0,05 and active aphids (t=3,513, P <= 0,01.

  14. 贵州斑大叶蝉属三新种(同翅目:大叶蝉科)%THREE NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS ANATKINA FROM GUIZHOU PROVINCE,CHINA(HOMOPTERA:CICADELLIDAE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨茂发; 李子忠

    2001-01-01

    In this paper three new species of the genus Anatkina are described from Guizhou,China.All the type specimens are deposited in the Agricultural College of Guizhou University. 1 Anatkina livimacula sp.nov. (Figs.1-7)   Length(incl.teg.):♂ 9.6?mm,♀9.0-9.3?mm.   This species resembles A.xanthomacula Kuoh in appearance,but can be distinguished from the latter by its crown with three distinct black markings;pronotum with four or two brown spots near anterior margin and a transverse black band in posterior portion;scutellum uniform black;forewing red with a blue marking on claval base and a pink marking in middle part of costal area;the shape of male pygofer process,subgenital plate,aedeagus and style also distinctly different.   Holotype ♂,Guizhou:Maolan(25°30′N,108°10′E),30 May 1998,collected by LI Zi-Zhong.Paratype 1♀,same location as holotype,18 May 1995,by CHEN Xiang-Sheng;1♀,Guizhou:Ziyun,18 Jul. 1988,by WEI Lian-Meng. 2 Anatkina rubipennis sp.nov. (Figs.8-16)   Length (incl.teg.):♂ 13.2?mm.   This species is similar to A.nigriventris Li,but can be easily distinguished from the latter by the pronotum black-brown without distinct black spots;forewing dark red with a black spot in base of clavus and confluent dark markings bordering base of apical cells;the end of male paraphysis furcate,pygofer process smooth,subgenital plate curved abruptly dorsad with macrosetae not uniseriate.   Holotype ♂,Guizhou:Maolan (25°30′N,108°10′E),19 May 1995,collected by CHEN Xiang-Sheng. 3 Anatkina bistriata sp.nov. (Figs.17-25)   Length (incl.teg.):♂10.0?mm-10.6?mm,♀10.0?mm.   This species has unique colour pattern on head and pronotum,forewing black with two red stripes in basal half,which are different from those of any other species of the genus.   Holotype ♂,Guizhou:Maolan(25°30′N,108°10′E),21 May 1995,by CHEN Xiang-Sheng.Paratypes 2 ♂♂,1♀,same data as holotype.%记述斑大叶蝉属Anatkina Young 3新种,即蓝斑大叶蝉A.livimacula sp.nov.;红翅斑大叶蝉A.rubipennis sp.nov.;双条斑大叶蝉A.bistriata sp.nov.,模式标本保存在贵州大学农学院。

  15. Effectiveness of two insect growth regulators against Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and their impact on population densities of arthropod predators in cotton in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogi, Muhammad D; Sarfraz, Rana M; Dosdall, Lloyd M; Arif, Muhammad J; Keddie, Andrew B; Ashfaq, Muhammad

    2006-10-01

    Field efficacies of two insect growth regulators (IGRs) at two recommended application rates, buprofezin at 370 and 555 g AI ha(-1) and lufenuron at 37 and 49 g AI ha(-1), were determined against the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), and the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), in experimental plots of cotton at the Directorate of Cotton Research, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Adverse effects of the IGRs on populations of associated arthropod predators, namely geocorids, chrysopids, coccinellids, formicids and arachnids, were also assessed. Both IGRs significantly reduced populations of B. tabaci at each application rate 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment, and higher doses were more effective than lower doses. Buprofezin was not effective against H. armigera at any tested dose for any time of treatment in any spray. Lufenuron applied at 37 and 49 g AI ha(-1) effectively suppressed H. armigera populations, resulting in significant reductions in crop damage. At lower doses, both IGRs appeared safe to predator populations, which did not differ significantly in IGR-treated versus untreated control plots. Population densities of formicids and coccinellids were significantly lower at high concentrations of both IGRs in treatment plots, possibly as a result of reduced prey availability. The potential role of buprofezin and lufenuron for control of B. tabaci and H. armigera in a spray programme and the likelihood of direct toxic effects of IGRs on predatory fauna of cotton are discussed.

  16. Effect of a genetically modified potato on aphids and their predatory gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rond.) (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hussein, Hany; Havelka, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2005), s. 123-127 ISSN 1110-1768 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS5007102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : aphid-predator-interactions * GNA * Macrosiphum eubhorbiae Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  17. De verspreiding van virusziekten van de aardappel (Solanum tuberosum L.) door insekten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elze, D.L.

    1927-01-01

    The object was to study the relation between virus and the transmitting insect, especially the aphids Myzus persicae Sulz., Myzus pseudosolani Theob., Macrosiphum solanifold Ashm., Aphis rhamni Fonsc. and Aphis fabae Scop. The diseases studied were leafroll, common mosaic (virus A), crinckle (virus

  18. Phenotypic plasticity in the response of aphids to host plant quality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thieme, T.; Truberg, B.; Dixon, Anthony F. G.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2014), s. 92-96 ISSN 1805-0174 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : lupin * alkaloids * aphids * Macrosiphum albifrons * biological performance Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  19. Four new species of Pteromalus Swederus (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae) and redescriptions of three other species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijswijt, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    A key to the European species of the Pteromalus altus group is presented. The relationship between this group and species of the genus Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) is confirmed. One new species: P. villosae, associated with Euphorbia villosa Waldst. & Kit.is presented. Two new species of the albipennis

  20. Efficacy of Aqueous and Methanol Extracts of Some Medicinal Plants for Potential Antibacterial Activity

    OpenAIRE

    PAREKH, Jigna; JADEJA, Darshana; CHANDA, Sumitra

    2014-01-01

    Twelve medicinal plants were screened, namely Abrus precatorius L., Caesalpinia pulcherrima Swartz., Cardiospermum halicacabum L., Casuarina equisetifolia L., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Delonix regia L., Euphorbia hirta L., Euphorbia tirucalli L., Ficus benghalensis L., Gmelina asiatica L., Santalum album L., and Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem, for potential antibacterial activity against 5 medically important bacterial strains, namely Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633, Staphylococcus epidermidis A...

  1. Green factories for liquid fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, G.J.; Calvin, M.

    1978-04-01

    Various plants that could be and are being used for the production of synthetic fuels are discussed. Among these are Hevea brasiliensis, Euphorbia tirucalli, and Euphorbia lathyris. Advantages of fuel production from renewable plant resources are presented; cost estimates are included. (JGB)

  2. Previsual detection of two conifer-infesting adelgid species in North American forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Cook; Karen Humes; Ryan Hruska; Christopher Williams; Grant Fraley

    2010-01-01

    The balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae, and hemlock woolly adelgid, A. tsugae (Homoptera: Adelgidae), are invasive pests of coniferous forests in both the Eastern and Western United States. Balsam woolly adelgid is capable of attacking and killing native North American firs, with Fraser fir (Abies fraseri...

  3. Characterizing pathways of invasion using Sternorryhncha on imported plant material in cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy T. Work

    2011-01-01

    Non-indigenous Homoptera, mainly scales, aphids, and mealy bugs, intercepted on plants destined for cultivation represent an elevated risk for the establishment of invasive insects in North America. These insects [grouped as the suborder Sternorrhyncha] are often parthenogenic and are imported on viable host plants.

  4. Nigerian Journal of Horticultural Science - Vol 13, No 1 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spread of the spiraling white fly Aleurodicus dispersus (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and its parasitoids Encarcia species (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) on horticultural plants in ... Nutrient release patterns of kola pod husk and pacesetter grade b fertilizer during incubation in the laboratory · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  5. Tissue location of resistance in apple to the rosy apple aphid established by electrical penetration graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchetti, E.; Civolani, S.; Leis, M.; Chicca, M.; Tjallingii, W.F.; Pasqualini, E.; Baroni, P.

    2009-01-01

    A study of the constitutive resistance of the apple cultivar Florina, Malus domestica Borkh. (Rosaceae), to the rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini) (Homoptera Aphididae), was performed for the first time by the electrical penetration graph (DC-EPG) system, using the susceptible apple

  6. Significance and transmission of maize streak virus disease in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... soil nutrients, altitude and temperature on the biology of maize streak virus (MSV) / vector populations is discussed. ... status of maize host plants and its effects on population dynamics of Cicadulina mbila Naudé. (Homoptera: ..... time necessary for the leafhopper to reach the mesophyll of the leaf and ingest ...

  7. Short Communication: Occurrence of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Homoptera: Aphididae), on wild annual and perennial leguminous plants was studied at two locations (Adet and Wondata) in West Gojam, Ethiopia in 1999/2000 seasons. Annual and perennial leguminous wild or volunteer plants encountered in the study areas ...

  8. Resistance to lettuce aphid (Nasonovia ribisnigri) biotype 0 in wild lettuce accessions PI 491093 and PI 274378

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri Mosley (Homoptera : Aphididae), is a major insect pest of lettuce, Lactuca sativa L, in many commercial lettuce productions areas around the world. Resistance to lettuce aphid was first reported in Lactuca virosa L. accession IVT 280 and characterized as complete,...

  9. Fungal Endophytes of Wild Barley and their Effects on Diuraphis noxia Population Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.L. Clement; A. Dan Wilson; D.G. Lester; C.M. Davitt

    1997-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to compare the expression of Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) (Homoptera: Aphididae) resistance in four plant introduction (PI) lines of wild barley (Hordeum) infected with different species or strains of endophytic fungi (tribe Balansieae, family Clavicipitaceae, Neotyphodium gen. nov. [formerly...

  10. Infection of potato plants with potato leafroll virus changes attraction and feeding behaviour of Myzus persicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez, A.E.; Garzo, E.; Verbeek, M.; Vosman, B.; Dicke, M.; Tjallingii, W.F.

    2007-01-01

    Potato leafroll virus (PLRV; genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) is a persistently transmitted circulative virus that depends on aphids for spreading. The primary vector of PLRV is the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae). Solanum tuberosum L. potato cv. Kardal (Solanaceae) has a

  11. Stimulation des défenses naturelles par l’application d’un Lombricompost. Effet sur les paramètres populationnels d’Aphis fabae scop. (Homoptera: Aphididae et la qualité Phytochimique de la fève

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahr-Eddine Djazouli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chaichi, W. Djazouli, Z. Djemai, I. Abdelkader, S. Ribera, I. and Nancé, J. 2017. Stimulation of natural defences by the application of lombricompost. Effect on the Aphis fabae scop. (Homoptéra: Aphididae population and phytochemical quality of faba bean. Lebanese Science Journal, 18(1: 81-97. The integrated production in durable agriculture aims to improve the efficiency of biological inputs through formulations extending the remanence in the field or the incorporation of synergistic products which, being themselves nontoxic at used quantities, increase the protective action of the viabe cultivations. The lombricultivation represents an appropriate technology to enhance the value of the farm residues and manage, on a long term basis, plant health. The study focused on the stimulation of natural defenses of bean through the use of a lombricompost dilutions produced in two different seasons. The effect of lombricompost has been evaluated based on the Aphis fabae population density in relation to the phytochemical quality of the nutritional support. Variations of biochemical molecule contents and major mineral elements during the leaf expanding phase have been noticed. These changes affect the biological performance as well as the density of A. fabae population. The results allowed detecting a positive effect of lombricompost on plant chemistry. On the other hand, enrichment in proteins and proline under the effect of strong dilution was noticed. Finally, results related to the repressive effect of the different forms of lombricompost showed a marked difference between treatments and the control, with a stronger effect on the winged forms. Results also indicated some variability of the Aphis Fabae populational structure in relation to the phytochemical enrichments established by the application of lombricompost.

  12. Flavonoids distribution in selected medicinal plants of Margalla Hills and surroundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.M.; Qureshi, R.A.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2012-01-01

    The present studies comprise the distribution of important flavonoids amongst the selected 13 medicinal plants viz., Woodfordia fruticosa, Adhatoda vasica, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Viburnum cotinifolium, Euphorbia hirta, Vitex negundo, Peganum harmala, Broussonetia papyrifera, Taraxacum officinale, Urtica dioica, Verbascum thapsus, Caryopteris grata and Mimosa rubicaulis collected from Margalla Hills for their authentication. Kaemferol was only detected in Verbascum thapsus. Myrcetin was detected in Woodfordia fruticosa, Viburnum cotinifolium, Euphorbia hirta, Vitex negundo and Broussonetia papyrifera. Catechin was detected in Woodfordia fruticosa , Chenopodium ambrosoides and Caryopteris grata. Vitexin was found absent in all the plants under study except Adhatoda vasica, Chenopodium ambrosoides and Peganum harmala. Orientin was detected in Woodfordia fruticosa, Adhatoda vasica, Viburnum cotinifolium, Euphorbia hirta, Vitex negundo, Peganum harmala, Urtica dioica and Caryopteris grata. Rutin and Kaempferol-7-neohesperoside were detected only in Broussonetia papyrifera. Quercitin was detected in Euphorbia hirta, Verbascum thapsus, Caryopteris grata and Mimosa rubicaulis. Luteolin was common among all the species. (author)

  13. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    3Department of Primary School Teaching, Faculty of Education, Firat ... Euphorbia is a genus of flowering plants belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. ... is to evaluate the potential antimicrobial activities of E. aleppica, E. szovitsii var.

  14. Journal of East African Natural History - Vol 99, No 1 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollination and seed dispersal in the endangered succulent Euphorbia brevitorta. EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. DJ Martins. http://dx.doi.org/10.2982/028.099.0104 ...

  15. Vegetation change over 40 years in the WeenenIMuden area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    indica and of the dwarf. stem succulent shrub, Euphorbia pseudocactus have occurred. Fire is no longer a component of this landscape which together with the open condition in 1955, resulting from overgrazing. may account for the vegetation ...

  16. Immediate skin and mucosal symptoms from pot plants and vegetables in gardeners and greenhouse workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, E; Skov, Per Stahl; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1998-01-01

    cacti, Stephanotis floribunda, Euphorbia pulcherrima and Gerbera reactions. Other new species implicated in immediate-type reactions included Ficus pumila, Gardenia jasminoides, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Campanula, Columnea, Epipremnum aureum, Pelargonium and Primula vulgaris. Because of the high...

  17. Methodological aspects of mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broertjes, C.; Roest, S.; Bokelmann, G.S.

    1980-01-01

    The authors discuss the development of the in vitro adventitious bud technique for Chrysanthemum morifolium, Solanum tuberosum, Begonia x hieemalis, Dianthus caryophyllus, Muscari, Euphorbia pulcherrima, and Forsythia intermedia. (G.T.H.)

  18. Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science - Vol 20 (1987)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary study of pre-harvest insect infestation and storability of four Ghanaian ... Seed germination and growth of Eleucine indica and Euphorbia heterophylla as ... Lambing and neonatal behaviour of Djallonke x Sahel crossbred sheep.

  19. Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phlobatannin and cardic glycoside distribution in ten medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Cleome nutidosperma, Emilia coccinea, Euphorbia heterophylla, Physalis angulata, ...

  20. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    2014-02-18

    Feb 18, 2014 ... Blue method and standard MTT colorimetric method). The Euphorbia ... MATERIALS AND METHODS .... were identified as Oximes, alkenes, aminoacids and aromatic .... and vincristine), which were both obtained from the.

  1. Anatomical Basis for Optimal Use of Water for Maintenance of Three Xerophytic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Alanamu ABDULRAHAMAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Three xerophytic plant species namely Agave americana Linn., Aloe vera Tourn. and Linn. and Euphorbia milii Des Moul. were propagated in a greenhouse each with 5 varying soil moisture contents i.e. 1.25%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 20% and subjected to 4 watering frequencies i.e. daily, weekly, biweekly and monthly. Euphorbia milii was the most xerophytic species having relatively lower rate of transpiration than Aloe vera and Agave americana. It was suggested that the high rate of transpiration in Aloe vera and Agave americana may be due to the large tetracytic stomata as compared to the small paracytic stomata of Euphorbia milii. It was also observed that Aloe vera was least tolerant of high soil moisture in daily watering as well as low soil moisture in monthly regime. Agave americana and Euphorbia milii were species that were more robust with capacity to cope well with low and high watering regimes than Aloe vera.

  2. The potential of energy farming in the southeastern California desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, V.

    1980-04-01

    The use of energy forms to provide future sources of energy for California is considered. Marginal desert lands in southeastern California are proposed for the siting of energy farms using acacia, eucalyptus, euphorbia, guayule, jojoba, mesquite, or tamarisk.

  3. Oils and rubber from arid land plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. D.; Hinman, C. W.

    1980-05-01

    In this article the economic development potentials of Cucurbita species (buffalo gourd and others), Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba), Euphorbia lathyris (gopher plant), and Parthenium argentatum (guayule) are discussed. All of these plants may become important sources of oils or rubber.

  4. Diversité floristique et dégré d\\'infestation par les mauvaises herbes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative floristic analysis shows that the more frequent species are Chromolaena odorata, Panicum laxum, Pouzolzia guineensis, Solanum erianthum, Lapotea aestuens, Spigelia anthelmia and Mariscus cylindristachyus and the weeds that more cause damage are Chromolaena odorata, Euphorbia heterophylla, ...

  5. Phytochemical Screening and Mosquito Repellent Activity of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2014-12-24

    Dec 24, 2014 ... that the stem bark contains alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, terpenoids and sterols. The ethanol extract of the stem bark of Euphorbia balsamifera (commonly known ..... Journal of Agricultural Technology.

  6. Irritant and allergenic potential of some latex producing Indian plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Pasricha

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The iatex exuding from the freshly sliced stems/leaves of 11 Indian plants was tested on 10 volunteers each by the open patch test and in 5 volunteers each by the 48 hour occluded patch test technique. In the open patch test, there was no reaction with (1 calotropis procera, (2 Alstonia scholaris,(3 Euphorbia splendens, (4 Euphorbia clarkina (5 Nerium indicum, and (6 Padilanthus tithymaloides (Green and white leaf variety, while mild reactions were observed with Euphorbia pulcherrima in 3 volunteers, Ficus elastida in 2 volunteers, and Pedilanthus tithymaloidas (Green leaf variety and Plumeria indica in one volunteer each Sapium sebiferum on the other hand produced severe itching, burning and erythema in all the 10 volunteers. The 48 hour occluded patch test produced definite reactions with Pedilanthus tithymaloides (Green leaf varietyin 2 cases and calotropis procera and Euphorbia clarkina in 1 case each. Sapium sebiferum on the other hand produced cauterization type of reactions in all the cases.

  7. Noticias botánicas colombianas, II: Especies nuevas y críticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1943-12-01

    Full Text Available Orbignya Cuatrecasana Dugand, sp. nov. / Syagrus Sancona. (RBK. Karst. / Synechanthus Warscewiczianus / Manicaria saccifera / Socratea elegans / Trichilia lamellulata Dugand, sp. nov. / Euphorbia mesembryanthemifolia / Pseudobombax subandinum Dugand, sp, nov. / Bombax obtusum / Peschiera cymosa (Jacq. Dugand, comb. nov.

  8. Assessment of plant-derived hydrocarbons. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFadden, K.; Nelson, S.H.

    1981-09-30

    A number of hydrocarbon producing plants are evaluated as possible sources of rubber, liquid fuels, and industrial lubricants. The plants considered are Euphorbia lathyris or gopher plant, milkweeds, guayule, rabbit brush, jojoba, and meadow foam. (ACR)

  9. 泽漆水浸液及茶皂素浸提液对浮萍的抑制效果%Study on the inhibitory effect of Euphorbia helioscopia L.aqueous extract with and without tea saponin on Lemna minor L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乐婷; 张饮江; 张曼曼; 金晶; 陈晓君; 段婷; 王芳

    2014-01-01

    通过对浮萍表观生长状态的观察记录以及对其抗氧化酶、丙二醛含量的测定,研究泽漆水浸液对浮萍(Lemna minor L.)的抑制活性,并探索利用茶皂素作为浸提辅助剂,检测是否提高泽漆对浮萍的抑制作用.结果表明:低浓度泽漆水浸液(0.001、0.003、0.005 g/mL)胁迫下,浮萍部分抗氧化酶系统遭受破坏,过氧化氢酶、过氧化物酶活性下降,超氧化物歧化酶活性先升高后降低,未出现明显表观受伤症状;高浓度泽漆水浸液(0.01、0.015、0.02 g/mL)胁迫36 h,90%~100%个体受伤严重甚至死亡,受伤个体、程度与浓度、时间成正比,茶皂素助浸液胁迫36 h时,出现明显受伤症状的个体数≤10%.茶皂素作为浸提辅助剂所得泽漆浸提液没有加强对浮萍的抑制作用,反而减弱了这种作用.泽漆水浸液对浮萍有明显的抑制作用,今后可进一步分析泽漆水浸液和其茶皂素助浸液之间化学成分种类和含量的差异,这有助于抑制浮萍有效成分的鉴定.

  10. Annual predictions of the peak numbers of Sitobion avenae infesting winter wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honěk, A.; Martinková, Z.; Dixon, Anthony F. G.; Saska, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 141, č. 5 (2017), s. 352-362 ISSN 0931-2048 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : metopolophium-dirhodum wlk * cereal aphid populations * rhopalosiphum-padi l * english grain aphid * field populations * growth-stages * fixed levels * yield loss * homoptera * dynamics * abundance * ears * growth * leaves * maximum * population Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Biodiversity conservation Impact factor: 1.641, year: 2016

  11. A Molecular Phylogeny of Hemiptera Inferred from Mitochondrial Genome Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Nan; Liang, Ai-Ping; Bu, Cui-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Classically, Hemiptera is comprised of two suborders: Homoptera and Heteroptera. Homoptera includes Cicadomorpha, Fulgoromorpha and Sternorrhyncha. However, according to previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on 18S rDNA, Fulgoromorpha has a closer relationship to Heteroptera than to other hemipterans, leaving Homoptera as paraphyletic. Therefore, the position of Fulgoromorpha is important for studying phylogenetic structure of Hemiptera. We inferred the evolutionary affiliations of twenty-five superfamilies of Hemiptera using mitochondrial protein-coding genes and rRNAs. We sequenced three mitogenomes, from Pyrops candelaria, Lycorma delicatula and Ricania marginalis, representing two additional families in Fulgoromorpha. Pyrops and Lycorma are representatives of an additional major family Fulgoridae in Fulgoromorpha, whereas Ricania is a second representative of the highly derived clade Ricaniidae. The organization and size of these mitogenomes are similar to those of the sequenced fulgoroid species. Our consensus phylogeny of Hemiptera largely supported the relationships (((Fulgoromorpha,Sternorrhyncha),Cicadomorpha),Heteroptera), and thus supported the classic phylogeny of Hemiptera. Selection of optimal evolutionary models (exclusion and inclusion of two rRNA genes or of third codon positions of protein-coding genes) demonstrated that rapidly evolving and saturated sites should be removed from the analyses. PMID:23144967

  12. A molecular phylogeny of Hemiptera inferred from mitochondrial genome sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Song

    Full Text Available Classically, Hemiptera is comprised of two suborders: Homoptera and Heteroptera. Homoptera includes Cicadomorpha, Fulgoromorpha and Sternorrhyncha. However, according to previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on 18S rDNA, Fulgoromorpha has a closer relationship to Heteroptera than to other hemipterans, leaving Homoptera as paraphyletic. Therefore, the position of Fulgoromorpha is important for studying phylogenetic structure of Hemiptera. We inferred the evolutionary affiliations of twenty-five superfamilies of Hemiptera using mitochondrial protein-coding genes and rRNAs. We sequenced three mitogenomes, from Pyrops candelaria, Lycorma delicatula and Ricania marginalis, representing two additional families in Fulgoromorpha. Pyrops and Lycorma are representatives of an additional major family Fulgoridae in Fulgoromorpha, whereas Ricania is a second representative of the highly derived clade Ricaniidae. The organization and size of these mitogenomes are similar to those of the sequenced fulgoroid species. Our consensus phylogeny of Hemiptera largely supported the relationships (((Fulgoromorpha,Sternorrhyncha,Cicadomorpha,Heteroptera, and thus supported the classic phylogeny of Hemiptera. Selection of optimal evolutionary models (exclusion and inclusion of two rRNA genes or of third codon positions of protein-coding genes demonstrated that rapidly evolving and saturated sites should be removed from the analyses.

  13. Modern pollen rain in Canary Island ecosystems and its implications for the interpretation of fossil records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Nascimento, Lea; Nogué, Sandra; Fernández-Lugo, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    -represented (.Pinus, Morella and Ericaceae trees, Chenopodiaceae, Poaceae, Rumex and Urticaceae herbs and shrubs) or under-represented (Lauraceae trees, Fabaceae and Euphorbia shrubs). Results indicate that pollen composition is a good reflection of vegetation in Canarian ecosystems and can be used effectively...

  14. Extended Low Temperature Impacts Dormancy Status, Flowering Competence, and Transcript Profiles in Crown Buds of Leafy Spurge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is an herbaceous perennial weed that reproduces vegetatively from an abundance of underground adventitious buds. In this study we report the effects of different growth conditions on vegetative reproduction and flowering competence, and determine molecular mechanisms a...

  15. Why are chillies pungent?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ultrapotent analogue of capsaicin, resiniferatoxin, is found in the latex of the succulent spiny shrub. Euphorbia resinifera, and its use in pain mediation has been known since Roman times (Appendino and Szallasi 1997). Resiniferatoxin has been shown to have acute emetic effects in the house musk shrew (Andrews et al ...

  16. Severe plant invasions can increase mycorrhizal fungal abundance and diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lekberg, Ylva; Gibbons, Sean; Rosendahl, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Invasions by non-native plants can alter ecosystem functions and reduce native plant diversity, but relatively little is known about their effect on belowground microbial communities. We show that invasions by knapweed (Centaurea stoebe) and leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula, hereafter spurge...... plant provenance.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 14 March 2013; doi:10.1038/ismej.2013.41....

  17. Estimation of cancerolytic properties of thionine from plants seeds by inclusion of C14-thymidine in tumoral cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pshenichnov, E.A.; Sultanova, E.M.; Kuznetsova, N.N.; Khashimova, Z.S.; Veshkurova, O.N.; Sadikov, A.A.; Salikhov, Sh.I.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: It has been earlier shown that cysteine rich peptides - thionine from seeds of various plants possess expressed fungitoxic activity. It is connected to influence of thionine on cellular membranes of fungi. It was possible to assume that the substances showing cytotoxic activity will be active in relation to tumoral cells. We isolated peptide fractions from seeds bamia (Hibiscus esculentus), kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), abutilon (Abutilon theophrasti), euphorbia (Euphorbia virgata), palma Christi (Ricinus communis) and horse sorrel (Rumex confertus) and studied their antineoplastic and fungitoxic activity. Antiproliferative action of peptides to melanoma cells of mice was estimated in cytotoxic test by inclusion of C 14 -thymidine to DNA. This researches have shown that peptides from seeds of horse sorrel and palma Christi did not change a level of synthesis of DNA while peptides from euphorbia and bamia considerably reduced inclusion of labeled nucleotide to DNA and suppressed growth of tumoral cells on 14 and 39 % accordingly. Parallel tests of these peptides on fungitoxic activity in relation to virulent strains of Verticillium dahliae have shown suppression of conidial growth on 17 and 26 % accordingly. Thus, peptides from seeds of bamia and euphorbia possess the expressed property to suppress growth of tumoral cells and can be used at creation a new cancerolytic preparations for treatment of human cancer. Work is executed under the financial support of fundamental grants F - 4.19 and F-4.1.44

  18. Foliar glyphosate treatment alters transcript and hormone profiles in crown buds of leafy spurge and induces dwarfed and bushy phenotypes throughout its perennial life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is an invasive weed of North America and its perennial nature is attributed to underground adventitious buds (UABs) that undergo seasonal cycles of para-, endo- and eco-dormancy. Recommended field rates of glyphosate (~1 kg/ha) destroys above-ground shoots of leafy spu...

  19. Activity guided isolation of chemical constituents from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we investigated the chemical constituents of bioactive methanol extract of Euphorbia schimperi C. Presl. For this the methanol extract was fractionated into 20, 40, 60, 80% MeOH in CHCl3, and 100% MeOH fractions respectively by vacuum liquid chromatography. Excision wound surface of the animals were ...

  20. Test d'efficacité d'un herbicide en culture d'ananas, à la station d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 août 2014 ... this study, which has good effectiveness in the fight against weeds in pineapple crops. This related to the .... Tableau 2 : Échelle de notation d'efficacité des traitements herbicides selon l'European Weeds Research Council. (EWRC). Notation .... nouvellement parues tandis que Chloris pilosa et. Euphorbia ...

  1. Plants diversity and phytoaccumulators identification on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dominant taxa on the old waste dumpsite having an average density superior to 5 plants/m2 and occurring less frequently on the control site were Alternanthera sessilis, Amaranthus spinosus, Cyperus rotundus, Cyperus iria, Eleusine indica, Euphorbia glomerifera, Ipomoea triloba, Portulaca oleracea and Trianthema ...

  2. (AIT) AGAINST ANOPHELES GAMBIAE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    These extracts were tested for repellence against Anopheles gambiae using the human-bait technique ... Synthetic chemicals and insecticides used for control of vectors are causing ... basil, for use as topical repellents against both diurnal and nocturnal .... The physical properties of Euphorbia balsamifera. (Table 1) reveal ...

  3. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Prairie Potholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    glyptosperma ribseed sandmat 0 Euphorbia maculata Spotted Spurge 0 Euthamia graminifolia Flat-top Goldentop 6 Fragaria virginiana Wild Strawberry 4...Foxtail UK Setaria viridis Pennisetum viridis Green Foxtail 0 Silene sp. Catchfly UK Sisyrinchium campestre White-eyed Grass 10 Sium suave

  4. Historical note: Drumine--a new Australian local anaesthetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R J

    1977-02-01

    An article in the Australiasian Medical Gazette of October, 1886 indicates the method of extraction, experimentation and therapeutic application of an active principle, prepared from Euphorbia Drummondii. Further correspondence is noted, refining the method of extraction, reporting cases, answering criticisms, and announcing eventually, drumine's commercial preparation. Despite enthusiastic support, the drug soon disappears from the therapeutic scene.

  5. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    big timmy

    column and preparative thin layer chromatography for isolation and purification of the compounds. ... medicinal properties in the indigenous system of ... the plant. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Plant Material. The latex of Euphorbia drupifera, 250 ml, was obtained from a standing plant in Ipe/Oka akoko area of Ondo State in ...

  6. Dehydration and vernalization treatments identify overlapping molecular networks impacting endodormancy maintenance in leafy spurge crown buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) is an herbaceous perennial weed that reproduces vegetatively from an abundance of underground adventitious buds (UABs), which undergo well-defined phases of seasonal dormancy (para-, endo- and eco-dormancy). In this study, the effects of dehydration-stress on vegeta...

  7. Cloning and expression of cell wall acid invertase gene fragment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fragment of invertase gene containing catalytic sites of cysteine was cloned from poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima wild.) by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The length of the fragment was 521 bp, encoding 173 amino acids and containing a part of open reading frames, but no intron. It had a high ...

  8. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory and Antioxidant Properties of Euphorbiacharacias Latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Pintus

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory capacity and the antioxidant properties of extracts of Euphorbia characias latex, a Mediterranean shrub. We performed a new extraction method involving the use of the trichloroacetic acid. The extract showed high antioxidant activity, was rich in total polyphenolic and flavonoid content and exhibited substantial inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity.

  9. Local adaptation of annual weed populations to habitats differing in disturbance regime

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malíková, Lenka; Latzel, Vít; Šmilauer, P.; Klimešová, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 5 (2016), s. 861-876 ISSN 0269-7653 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06802S; GA ČR GPP504/12/P540 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Local adaptation * Euphorbia peplus * Disturbance Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.818, year: 2016

  10. Relative Efficacy of On-Farm Weeds as Soil-Amendement for Managing Dry Root Rot of Clusterbean in an Arid Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mawar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of certain on-farm weeds as soil amendments was ascertained against Macrophomina phaseolina, a soil-borne pathogen causing dry root rot of crops grown under rainfed conditions in arid regions. Population changes in M. phaseolina were determined in soils amended separately with residues (1%, w:w of Aerva persica, Celosia argentea, Corchorus depressus, Euphorbia hirta, Heliotropium subulatum and Polycarpaea corymbosa, for a period of 90 days. Significant reductions by 90.4–100% in the population of M. phaseolina were achieved with all the weed residues except P. corymbosa. Celosia and Euphorbia residues completely eradicated viable propagules of M. phaseolina. A strong increase (44–61% in the population of antagonistic actinomycetes was also found in soil amended with Corchorus and Euphorbia. In field tests, soil amended (50 g m2 with Euphorbia, Aerva and Celosia residues significantly reduced dry root rot incidence on clusterbean and also reduced M. phaseolina propagules in the soil. However, dry root rot incidence in Polycarpaea-amended soil (5.8–24.6% was not significantly different from that in non-amended soil (4.3–25.3% in both years of the experiment. P. corymbosa also increased the number of propagules of M. phaseolina in the soil. The results demonstrate that dry root rot of rainfed-cultivated annual crops in arid land can be managed with certain weeds as a soil amendment.

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 418 ... Vol 3, No 1 (2014), In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Euphorbia ... A low cost microcontroller-based automated irrigation system for two ... and antagonistic activity of selected traditional medicinal plants and ...

  12. Bio-evaluation of South African plants for insecticidal properties

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maharaj, R

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Flacourtia indica Maytenus senegalensis Psiadia punctulata Ximenia caffra Dodonaea viscosa Helichrysum species Nuxia floribunda Pterocarpus angolensis Euphorbia tirucalli Lippia javanica Parinari curatellifolia Rauvolfia caffra Hyptis pectinata Parinari... crispus Schefflera umbellifera Rauvolfia caffra Schefflera umbellifera Strychnos madagascariensis Ricinus communis Spirostachys africana Vangueria infausta Rumex crispus Strychnos potatorum Warburgia salutaris Schefflera umbellifera Vernonia myriantha...

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pitch canker fungus, Fusarium circinatum: implications for South African forestry. Abstract · Vol 73, No 3&4 (2011) - Articles Lasiodiplodia species associated with dying Euphorbia ingens in South Africa Abstract · Vol 73, No 3&4 (2011) - Articles A single dominant Ganoderma species is responsible for root rot of Acacia ...

  14. Testing an Invasive Weed Prediction Model for Leafy Spurge using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) is a noxious invasive weed that infests over 1.2 million hectares of land in North America. One of the fundamental needs in leafy spurge management is cost-effective, large-scale, and long-term documentation and monitoring of plant populations. Leafy spurge is a g...

  15. ORIGINAL ARTILE 141

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boaz

    extracts employed were from Azadirachta indica (Neem), Anacardium occidentale (Cashew), Euphorbia hirta (Asthma weed),Jatropha curcas (Physic nut), ... d'inhibition complète à l'égard d'aucun des isolats cliniques à 100 mg/ml mais montrent un souci nettement inférieur à la plus faible concentration de. 25 mg/ml mieux.

  16. Antibacterial activities and toxicological potentials of crude ethanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-04

    Jul 4, 2007 ... crude ethanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta. J. N. Ogbulie1*, C. C. Ogueke2, I. C. Okoli3 and B. N Anyanwu1. 1Department of Industrial Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri. P. M. B. 1526 Owerri, Nigeria. 2Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, ...

  17. Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice treated with aqueous ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Euphorbia tirucalli extract inhibits Ehrlich ascites tumor in mice, but the therapeutic ... traditional treatment of cancer. ... can be used with therapeutic purposes, this .... investigation suggested an antitumor action of E. .... Prasad SB, Giri A. Antitumor effect of cisplatin against ... Identification of the molecular basis of.

  18. Plantkenmerken in relatie tot de veilingprijs, plantwaardering door consumenten en handel bij poinsettia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benninga, J.

    1997-01-01

    De kerstster (poinsettia/Euphorbia pulcherrima) is een typisch seizoenproduct, waarvan het prijsverloop tussen de jaren en binnen één aanvoerseizoen vaak een grillig verloop heeft. Het is ook een product waar gemakkelijk zichtbare afwijkingen bij optreden. Uit literatuur is bekend dat met eenvoudige

  19. Holiday Plants with Toxic Misconceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabrina N. Evens

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Several plants are used for their decorative effect during winter holidays. This review explores the toxic reputation and proposed management for exposures to several of those, namely poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima, English holly (Ilex aquifolium, American holly (Ilex opaca,bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara, Jerusalem cherry (Solanum pseudocapsicum, Americanmistletoe (Phoradendron serotinum, and European mistletoe (Viscum album.

  20. Invasive Species Guidebook for Department of Defense Installations in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed: Identification, Control, and Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Crown vetch Coronilla varia MD, VA 14 Leafy spurge Euphorbia esula VA 15 Ground ivy Glechoma hederacea DC, MD, PA, VA, WV 17 Cogongrass Imperata ...INSTALLATIONS IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY WATERSHED IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL METHODS Cogongrass ( Imperata cylindrica) Description & Biology – A large

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 72 of 72 ... Vol 12 (2008), Suspension Properties Of Binary Mixtures Of Tragacanth Gum And Irvingia gabonensis Gum, Abstract. MA Momoh, JI Ogbonna, UE Nwachi, EC Ibezim. Vol 14 (2010), The Anti-Sickling Properties of Ethanol Extracts of Euphorbia heterophylla and Moringa oleifera Leaves, Abstract.

  2. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angbo-Kouakou, Cho Euphrasie Monique. Vol 9, No 4 (2015) - Articles Essai préliminaire de production d'oeufs des poules pondeuses (ISA Warren) enrichis en acides gras polyinsaturés oméga 3 avec les graines de Euphorbia heterophylla L. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1997-342X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  3. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traore, Gnantro Cheick. Vol 9, No 4 (2015) - Articles Essai préliminaire de production d'oeufs des poules pondeuses (ISA Warren) enrichis en acides gras polyinsaturés oméga 3 avec les graines de Euphorbia heterophylla L. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1997-342X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  4. Antibacterial activities and toxicological potentials of crude ethanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaves of Euphorbia hirta used in traditional medicine for the treatments of boils, wounds and control of diarrhoea and dysentery were extracted by maceration in ethanol. The agar diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ...

  5. Effet de l'herbe de Guinée ( Panicum maximum Jacq.) associée à l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effet de l'herbe de Guinée ( Panicum maximum Jacq.) associée à l'herbe de lait ( Euphorbia heterophylla L.) ou aux feuilles de patate douce ( Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) sur la croissance des lapins ( Oryctolagus cuniculus L.)

  6. 2466-IJBCS-Article-Kouakou N'goran D V

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    In Africa, notion of nutritional quality of layers' eggs seems to be abstract. To remedy it, this study aims to determining the effect of a diet supplemented with seeds of Euphorbia heterophylla on the nutritional quality of layers' eggs. For this purpose, twenty-four hens (ISA Warren) 1,4 kg for 28 days received either a control diet ...

  7. Antifeedant Activty Of Different Organic Solvent Crude Extracts Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antifeedant activity of different organic solvents (acetone, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, diethyl ether and ethyl alcohol) crude extracts of latex of Euphorbia hirta (family Euphobiaceae) against Limicolaria aurora was investigated, and compared with a control, using pawpaw, (Carica papaya) as bait, at a concentration ...

  8. PESTS OF ORNAMENTAL TREES AND SHRUBS IN THE PARKS OF PITEŞTI AND METHODS OF FIGHTING THEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bărbuceanu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The observations carried-out in 2008 to ornamental trees and shrubs from parks of ADP Pitesti conducted to identified of the follows pests species: Macrosiphum rosae (L., Aphis spiraephaga Müll., Cinara cupressi Buckton, Hyphantria cunea Drury, Oxycarenus lavaterae (F.. Cinara cupressi and Oxycarenus lavaterae are mentioned for the first time in Romania. Cinara cupressi was noticed on an imported Abies nordmanniana specimen in a park from this city. O. lavaterae, a Mediterranean species from Tilia sp., currently it is expanding his area in northern regions. We recommend carefully monitoring of imported ornamental plants, because they can be infested and open ways to invasion for the pests with devastated potential.

  9. Comparison of exclusion and imidacloprid for reduction of oviposition damage to young trees by periodical cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Robert G; Frank, Steven D; Raupp, Michael J

    2005-12-01

    Insecticides are traditionally used to control periodical cicadas (Homoptera: Cicadidae) and to reduce associated injury caused by oviposition. However, research has shown that conventional insecticides have low or variable season-long efficacy in reducing injury caused by cicadas. New systemic neonicotinoid insecticides provide excellent levels of control against a variety of sucking insects. We compared the efficacy of a neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid, and a nonchemical control measure, netting, to reduce cicada injury. Netted trees sustained very little injury, whereas unprotected trees were heavily damaged. Fewer eggnests, scars, and flags were observed on trees treated with imidacloprid compared with unprotected trees; however, the hatching of cicada eggs was unaffected by imidacloprid.

  10. Plantas hospederas de Aphis gossypii (Aphididae), vector de virus del melón Cucumis melo (Cucurbitaceae) en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, M.V.; Agüero, R.; Rivera, C.

    2001-01-01

    Se identificaron las especies hospederas naturales de Aphis gossypii Glover (Aphididae: Homoptera) en plantaciones comerciales de melón para la exportación en Costa Rica. El estudio se realizó en dos fincas, ubicadas una en la provincia de Guanacaste y la otra en la provincia de Puntarenas, correspondientes a dos zonas de vida vegetal diferentes. Se identificaron como especies hospederas del áfido todas aquellas especies vegetales en las que se observó la presencia del áfido en su forma ápter...

  11. Food Composition of the Snake-Eyed Lizard, Ophisops elegans Ménétriés, 1832 (Reptilia: Sauria: Lacertidae from Gökçeada (Imbros, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Varol Tok

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study presents data on the food composition of the snake-eyed lizard (Ophisops elegans, from Gökçeada (Imbros, Çanakkale, Turkey. A total of 94 preys were determined in thedigestive systems of 20 individuals (10 males, 10 females examined in the study. Insects (67%constitute most of its food composition. Major prey groups in the food composition are included inAranea (13%, Lepidoptera (13%, Coleoptera (19%, and Homoptera (20% in numeric proportion.No significant difference was observed between sexes considering food composition.

  12. Assessing the effects of cultivating genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant varieties of soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) on populations of field arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imura, Osamu; Shi, Kun; Iimura, Keiji; Takamizo, Tadashi

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the effects of cultivating two genetically modified (GM) glyphosate-tolerant soybean varieties (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) derived from Event 40-3-2 and a Japanese conventional variety on arthropods under field conditions, with weed control using glyphosate and conventional weed control for two years. Plant height and dry weight of the conventional variety were significantly larger than those of the GM varieties, but the GM varieties bore more pods than the conventional variety. We found arthropods of nine taxonomic orders (Araneae, Acari, Thysanoptera, Homoptera, Heteroptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera) on the plants. The arthropod incidence (number per plant unit weight pooled for each taxonomic order) on the soybean stems and leaves generally did not differ significantly between the GM and conventional varieties. However, the incidence of Thysanoptera and total incidence (all orders combined) were greater on the GM variety in the second year. The weed control regimes had no significant influence on the arthropod incidence on the soybean stems and leaves. The number of flower-inhabiting Thysanoptera (the dominant arthropod in the flowers) was not significantly different between the GM and conventional varieties. Asphondylia yushimai (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) was more numerous on the pods of the GM variety in both years. Neither the soybean variety nor the weed control regime significantly affected the density of soil macro-organisms. However, the glyphosate weed control affected arthropods between the rows of plants by decreasing the abundances of Homoptera, Heteroptera, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera, and diversity of arthropods. © ISBR, EDP Sciences, 2011.

  13. Hydrocarbons from plants: Analytical methods and observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Melvin

    1980-11-01

    We have suggested that certain plants rich in hydrocarbon-like materials might be cultivated for renewable photosynthetic products. Two species were selected for experimental plantations: Euphorbia lathyris, an annual from seed and Euphorbia tirucalli, a perennial from cuttings, The yield from each species is over 10 barrels of oil/acre/year without genetic or agronomic improvement. In addition to plants, there are trees, such as species of Copaifera in Brazil and other tropical areas, which produce a diesel-like oil upon tapping. Each tree produces approximately 40 liters of hydrocarbon per year, and this material can be used directly by a diesel-powered car. Further efforts to develop plants as alternate energy sources are underway, as well as a continuing search for additional plant species throughout the world which have a similar capability.

  14. Authentication of ruta graveolens and its adulterant using internal transcribed spacer (its) sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qurainy, F.A.; Khan, S.; Ali, M.A.; Hemaid, M.A.; Ashraf, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) is commonly known as 'Sudab' which is well known for hippocratic medicine and is commonly used in indigenous health-care system in India. Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. (Euphorbiaceae) in raw drug trading has almost similar morphology to R. graveolens in dried state, is being sold locally or used clinically as an adulterant of R. graveolens (genuine) at a relatively low price under the same name 'Sudab' which has ultimately reduced the efficacy and quality of this herb. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence of nuclear ribosomal DNA gene of genuine and adulterant were sequenced and analyzed to assess species admixture in raw drug trading of genuine herbal drug. The BLAST search results of ITS sequence of genuine sample of 'Sudab' i.e., R. graveolens showed 99% similarity to the sequence of R. graveolens, however, E. dracunculoides showed 100% similarity to the species of Euphorbia and did not show any similarity with R. graveolens. The sequence alignment of both species was entirely different to each other. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS sequence of adulterant sample i.e., E. dracunculoides together with sequences of Euphorbia species available in the GenBank has also clearly showed its nesting within the Euphorbia tree. The generated ITS sequences of both samples in the present study may be referred hereafter as species-specific DNA barcode signature, which can be used in authenticating and validating the exact species identities to discriminate the genuine sample of 'Sudab' from its adulterants if any available to guarantee the quality and purity of this drug in the herbal drug market. (author)

  15. National Register Testing of 42 Prehistoric Archeological Sites on Fort Hood, Texas: The 1996 Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    the mussel shells belong to the family Unionidae, but no attempt to identify genus or species was made. At least nine different genera of mussels...ornaments or tools. Four of the modified shells are identifiable to genus : two are cf. Lampsilis sp. (one from 41CV578 and one from 41CV1250), one is... Diospyros texana Eragrostis intermedia Eragrostis trichodes Erigeron tenuis Erioneuron pilosum Erodium texanum Euphorbia roemeriana Evax

  16. Rational sub-division of plant trypanosomes (Phytomonas spp.) based on minicircle conserved region analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sturm, N. R.; Dollet, M.; Lukeš, Julius; Campbell, D. A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 5 (2007), s. 570-576 ISSN 1567-1348 Grant - others:Centre de coopération internationale(FR) CIRAD/ATP2002/30 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : coconut * hartrot * fruit * kinetoplast DNA * oil palm * marchitez sorpresiva * phloem * Euphorbia * insect Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.407, year: 2007

  17. Aktuální zaplevelení vybraných polních plodin v provozních podmínkách

    OpenAIRE

    Vykydalová, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to identifily the current coverage of fields by plants on a specific farm. The chosen farm was Uniagris a.s. Observation took place in growth areas of winter rate, winter wheat and corn wheat. Evalution was carried out counting methods. The results of the weed infestation evaluation were processed with the DCA analysis. The canonical corespondence analysis showed that, in the winter rape were found Thlaspi arvense, Triticum aestivum, Euphorbia helioscopia, Lamium purpu...

  18. Linhagens de Lentinula edodes inibem fungos fitopatogênicos e o vírus da estomatite vesicular, sorotipo Alagoas

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Selma H.; Linhares, Rosa E.C.; Nozawa, Carlos M.; Montalván, Ricardo; Paccola-Meirelles, Luzia D.

    2001-01-01

    Four Lentinula edodes strains (Le10, 46, K2, Assai) were assessed for their antagonistic effect on four filamentous fungus species of agricultural importance (Helminthosporium euphorbiae, Helminthosporium sp, Fusarium solani and Phomopsis sojae) and on Alagoas serotype of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSA). The L. edodes strains studied had variable effects on the filamentous fungi and on VSA. The K2 and Le10 strains were antagonistic on the fungi assessed and the 46 and K2 strains were efficie...

  19. Evaluation of Nutrient and Anti-nutrient Contents of Parkia biglobosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that of Aloe vera (4.2 ± 0.9%) , Euphorbia radians (4.9 ± 1.7% ) and Arbutus xalapensis (3.9. ± 0.5%) as reported by Sotelo et al. (2007) and. 5.3% for C. esculenta (Richard et al., 1996). The low lipid content of the plants is in agreement with general observation that vegetables are low lipid containing foods (Lintas, 1992).

  20. Ensaios preliminares em laboratório para verificar a ação moluscicida de algumas espécies da flora brasileira Preliminary laboratory tests of the molluscicide activity of some species of Brazilian flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelymar Martineli Mendes

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se em laboratório a atividade moluscicida de 68 extratos de 23 plantas brasileiras. As soluções em água desclorada dos extratos hexânicos e etanólico, nas concentrações de 1, 10 e 100 ppm, foram testadas sobre caramujos adultos e desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata, criados em laboratório. As plantas que demonstraram ação moluscicida na concentração de 100 ppm foram: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G.Don., Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L.,Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell,Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham, e Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L., e Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.The molluscicide activity of sixty-eight extracts from twenty-three Brazilian plants was studied in the laboratory. The solutions, in dechlorinated water, of hexanic and ethylic extracts at 1, 10 and 100 ppm concentrations, were tested on adult snails and egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata, reared in the laboratory. The plants with molluscicide activity on adult snails and/or egg masses at 100 ppm concentration were: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G. Don, Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L., Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell, Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham. and Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L. and Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.

  1. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Réduction des coûts alimentaires des lapins (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) par la distribution de l'herbe de lait (Euphorbia heterophylla (L.) Klotz. & Garcke) associée à l'herbe de Guinée (Panicum maximum Jacq.) Lam... Abstract PDF · Vol 101 (2016) - Articles Effet d'un aliment commercial de poules pondeuses sur la teneur ...

  2. Systematic significance of anatomical characterization in some euphorbiaceous species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahra, N.B.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2014-01-01

    The study was aimed to explore the systematic potential of anatomical characters for identification and delimitation among Euphorbia species. Eight species of leafy spurges of genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae) were evaluated for variations in micro morphological characters of foliar epidermal anatomy. While anatomical observations are of importance in the assessments and appraisals, use of these characters as an effective tool in interpreting phyletic evaluations and systematic delineations has its limitations too. The epidermal cell wall in majority of species was wavy to undulate on both adaxial and abaxial surfaces. The observations made in this study indicate that there is not a single type of stomata which appears as characteristic of the genus Euphorbia. Also their distribution whether epistomatic or hypostomatic is not a genus-characteristic. The trichomes found were simple, unicellular or multicellular, uniseriate. Present investigation revealed the utility of both qualitative and quantitative characters in systematic studies; also the potential influence in the delimitation of species cannot be ignored. Our results show that the micro-morphology of anatomical characters play an important role in definition of taxa at species and sectional levels. (author)

  3. Plant Communities Suitable for Green Roofs in Arid Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Gioannini

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In extensive green roof settings, plant communities can be more robust than monocultures. In addition, native plants might be hardier and more ecologically sound choices than non-native plants in green roof systems. The objectives of this research were to (1 compare the performance of plant communities with that of monocultures and (2 compare the growth of natives to non-natives in a simulated green roof setting. We conducted a two-year experiment at an outdoor site in a desert environment using four plant morphological types (groundcover, forb, succulent and grass. Native plants selected were Chrysactinia mexicana, Melampodium leucanthum, Euphorbia antisyphilitica, and Nassella tenuissima, and non-natives were Delosperma nubigenum, Stachys byzantina, Sedum kamtschiaticum and Festuca glauca. Plants were assigned randomly to either monoculture or community and grown in 1 m × 1 m custom-built trays filled with 15 cm of a proprietary blend of 50/20/30 lightweight aggregate/sand/compost (by volume. Native forb, Melampodium, in community had greater coverage for four of the five measurements in the first year over native forb in monoculture and non-native forb regardless of setting. Native forb coverage was also greater than non-native forb for three of the four measurements in year 2, regardless of setting. Coverage of native grass was significantly greater than non-native grasses throughout the experiment. Coverage was also greater for eight of nine measurements for native succulent over non-natives succulent. However, non-native groundcover coverage was significantly greater than native groundcover for seven of nine measurements. On 1 November 2016, relative water content (RWC for succulents (p = 0.0424 was greatest for native Euphorbia in monoculture at 88%. Native Euphorbia also had greater RWC than non-native Sedum on 4 April 2017 (78% and 4 July 2017 (80%. However, non-native Sedum had greater root length (6548 cm, root dry weight (12.1 g

  4. Respon Fungsional Menochilus sexmaculatus Fabricius terhadap Aphis Gossypii Glover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. X. Wagiman

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and field-cage experiments were conducted at the Universiti Pertanian Malaysia. Objective of the study was to determine the functional response of Menochilus sexmaculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae predating on chilli aphid Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae. The larvae and adults of the predaceous coccinellid exhibited the Hulling's Type II functional response. A first instar of the coccinellid predating on single first instar of the aphid within 24.6 minutes in the laboratory and 16.8 minutes in the field. While a fourth instar and an adult of the coccinellid predating on single fourth instar of the aphid within 4.2 and 1.5 minutes respectively.

  5. Secondary metabolites from the endophytic fungus Talaromyces pinophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinale, F; Nicoletti, R; Lacatena, F; Marra, R; Sacco, A; Lombardi, N; d'Errico, G; Digilio, M C; Lorito, M; Woo, S L

    2017-08-01

    Endophytic fungi have a great influence on plant health and growth, and are an important source of bioactive natural compounds. Organic extracts obtained from the culture filtrate of an endophytic strain of Talaromyces pinophilus isolated from strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) were studied. Metabolomic analysis revealed the presence of three bioactive metabolites, the siderophore ferrirubin, the platelet-aggregation inhibitor herquline B and the antibiotic 3-O-methylfunicone. The latter was the major metabolite produced by this strain and displayed toxic effects against the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Homoptera Aphidiidae). This toxicity represents an additional indication that the widespread endophytic occurrence of T. pinophilus may be related to a possible role in defensive mutualism. Moreover, the toxic activity on aphids could promote further study on 3-O-methylfunicone, or its derivatives, as an alternative to synthetic chemicals in agriculture.

  6. Etude morphologique et biologique de la coccinelle Scymnus couturieri Chazeau (Coleoptera-Coccinellidae prédatrice de la cochenille farineuse du manioc Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obame Minko, D.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and Biological Study of Scymnus couturieri Chazeau (Coleoptera-Coccinellidae, Predator of Cassava Mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Homoptera-Pseudococcidae in Ivory Coast. Scymnus couturieri is a coccinellidae which was first described from Ivory Coast (2. But that morphological description was just based on the adult. The trophic action developed by Scymnus couturieri in the regulation of the abundance of the cassava mealybug led us to precise that description and to extend our knowledge of the coccinellidae by studying the morphological aspects and the biological parameters. The study brings to the fore the holometaboly development, the low fecondity and the long-lasting biological cycle of the predator.

  7. Ant tending influences soldier production in a social aphid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingleton, A W; Foster, W A

    2000-09-22

    The aphid Pseudoregma sundanica (Van der Goot) (Homoptera: Aphididae) has two defence strategies. It is obligatorily tended by various species of ant and also produces sterile soldiers. We investigated how they allocate their investment in these two strategies. We measured the size, number of soldiers, number and species of tending ant, and number and species of predators in P. sundanica populations. We found that the level of ant tending correlated negatively with soldier investment in P. sundanica. The species of tending ant also influenced soldier investment. We excluded ants from aphid populations and recorded changes in population size and structure over four weeks. Ant exclusion led to population decline and extinction. At the same time, surviving populations showed a significant increase in soldier investment. The data demonstrate that social aphids can adjust their investment in soldiers in direct response to environmental change.

  8. [Anthropoentomophagic biodiversity of the Zongolica region, Veracruz, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta; Landero-Torres, Ivonne; Murguía-González, Joaquín; Pino, José M M

    2008-03-01

    Anthropoentomophagic biodiversity of the Zongolica region, Veracruz, Mexico. During two and a half years (2003-2005) we recorded the insect species used as food at Zongolica, Veracruz State, Mexico. Interviews were made among people (200) of this municipality to know which insects they consumed. The total of registered species was 57 (Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Homoptera, Megaloptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera). The Orthoptera was the most frequently ingested. Twenty-four of these species were new records for edible insects of Mexico. They are eaten in immature stages or as adults, generally only roasted. Consumption is seasonal. Some species are commercialized in the "tianguis" (little town markets) and/or in the larger Zongolica market. There is a "protoculture" of three species, one cockroach (Periplaneta australasiae Fabricius) and two moths (Latebraria amphipyroides Guenée and Arsenura armida armida Cramer). In Zongolica, anthropoentomophagy is an ancestral habit.

  9. Shallot aphids, Myzus ascalonicus, in strawberry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enkegaard, Annie; Sigsgaard, Lene; Kristensen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The parasitization capacity of 3 parasitoids and the predation capacity of 3 predators towards the shallot aphid, Myzus ascalonicus Doncaster (Homoptera: Aphididae), on strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae) cv. Honeoye, were examined in laboratory experiments. In Petri dish...... other parasitoid-induced causes. However, the host feeding rate was reduced to only 1.2 ± 0.8%, and no significant parasitization mortality was observed on strawberry plants, suggesting that host plants interfered with A. abdominalis activity. This parasitoid does not, therefore, seem to be suited...... to either inoculative or inundative biocontrol of shallot aphids in strawberry. The three predators studied were the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Steph. (Neuroptera: Chrysopi-dae), the two-spotted lady beetle, Adalia bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and the gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza...

  10. Food habits of Nyctinomops macrotis at a maternity roost in New Mexico, as indicated by analysis of guano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, D.W.; Valdez, E.W.

    2003-01-01

    We examined 56 fecal pellets from under a maternity colony of big free-tailed bats (Nyctinomops macrotis) in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico. The most important food items, listed in order of decreasing percent volume, were Cicadellidae, leafhoppers (26.7% volume, 58.9% frequency); Ichneumonidae, Ichneumon wasps (19.3% volume, 35.7% frequency); and Lepidoptera, moths (17.2% volume, 82.1% frequency). Overall, the most important orders as prey consumed, listed by decreasing percent volume, were Homoptera (27.6% volume, 62.5% frequency), Hymenoptera (19.5% volume, 37.5% frequency), Lepidoptera (17.2% volume, 82.1% frequency), Hemiptera (11.7% volume, 37.5% frequency), and Diptera (10.6% volume, 50.0% frequency). Our study documents an unusually varied diet, as previous studies indicated that these bats fed almost exclusively on moths.

  11. Food habits of introduced rodents in high-elevation shrubland of Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, F. Russell; Loope, Lloyd L.; Medeiros, Arthur C.; Howe, Cameron E.; Anderson, Laurel J.

    2000-01-01

    Mus musculus and Rattus rattus are ubiquitous consumers in the high-elevation shrubland of Haleakala National Park. Food habits of these two rodent species were determined from stomach samples obtained by snaptrapping along transects located at four different elevations during November 1984 and February, May, and August 1985. Mus musculus fed primarily on fruits, grass seeds, and arthropods. Rattus rattus ate various fruits, dicot leaves, and arthropods. Arthropods, many of which are endemic, were taken frequently by Mus musculus throughout the year at the highest elevation where plant food resources were scarce. Araneida, Lepidoptera (primarily larvae), Coleoptera, and Homoptera were the main arthropod taxa taken. These rodents, particularly Mus musculus, exert strong predation pressure on populations of arthropod species, including locally endemic species on upper Haleakala Volcano.

  12. Insect symbiosis: derivation of yeast-like endosymbionts within an entomopathogenic filamentous lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, S O; Noda, H; Blackwell, M

    2001-06-01

    Yeast-like endosymbionts (YLSs) of insects often are restricted to specific hosts and are essential to the host's survival. For example, in planthoppers (Homoptera: Delphacidae), endosymbionts function in sterol utilization and nitrogen recycling for the hosts. Our study, designed to investigate evolutionary changes in the YLS lineage involved in the planthopper association, strongly suggests an origin of the YLSs from within the filamentous ascomycetes (Euascomycetes), not the true yeasts (Saccharomycetes), as their morphology might indicate. During divergence of the planthopper YLSs, dramatic changes would have occurred in the insect-fungus interaction and the fungal morphology that have previously been undescribed in filamentous ascomycetes. Phylogenetic trees were based on individual and combined data sets of 2.6 kb of the nuclear small- and large-subunit ribosomal RNA genes for YLSs from three rice planthoppers (Laodelphax striatellus, Nilaparvata lugens, and Sogatella furcifera) compared with 56 other fungi. Parsimony analysis placed the planthopper YLSs within Cordyceps (Euascomycetes: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), a genus of filamentous insects and a few fungal pathogenic ascomycetes. Another YLS species restricted to the aphid Hamiltonaphis styraci (Homoptera: Aphididae) was a sister taxon to the planthopper YLSS: Filamentous insect pathogens (Metarhizium and Beauveria) specific to the same species of insect hosts as the YLSs also formed lineages within the Clavicipitaceae, but these were distinct from the clade comprising YLS species. Trees constrained to include the YLSs in families of the Hypocreales other than the Clavicipitaceae were rejected by the Kishino-Hasegawa test. In addition, the results of this study support a hypothesis of two independent origins of insect-associated YLSs from among filamentous ascomycetes: the planthopper YLSs in the Clavicipitaceae and the YLSs associated with anobiid beetles (Symbiotaphrina species). Several lineages of

  13. Entomopathogenic fungi from 'El Eden' Ecological Reserve, Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Barragán; Anaya, Ana Luisa; Alatorre, Raquel; Toriello, Conchita

    2004-07-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi were isolated and identified from insects collected from the tropical forest and an agricultural area at El Eden Ecological Reserve, Quintana Roo, Mexico. These fungi were studied to determine their potential as biological control agents of greenhouse Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), and to contribute to the knowledge of biodiversity of this area. No pest insects were observed in the tropical forest. In contrast, all insects collected in the agricultural area were considered important pests by the local farmers, with the whitefly, as the most relevant, plentiful in Cucurbitaceae plants. From approximately 3400 collected insects in three different surveys, different anamorphic Ascomycetes were recovered. One isolate of Aspergillus sp., two of Penicillium sp., three of Paecilomyces marquandii, and three of Verticillium sp. out of 308 insects (2.9%) from three insect orders, Hymenoptera, Diptera and Isoptera in the tropical forest. In contrast, a higher number of fungal isolates were recovered from the agricultural area: three isolates from Aspergillus parasiticus, 100 of Fusarium moniliforme, one of Aschersonia sp., and 246 of Fusarium oxysporum out of 3100 insects (11.3%) from three insect orders, Homoptera, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera. The results of this study show Fusarium moniliforme and F oxysporum as highly virulent to infected insects in the agricultural area, with 100 and 246 isolates respectively, out of 350 infected insects of 3100 studied specimens. Laboratory whitefly nymph bioassays with isolates Ed29a of F. moniliforme, Ed322 of F. oxysporum, and Ed22 of P marquandii showed 96 to 97.5% insect mortality with no significant differences (P < 0.05) among them. F. oxysporum Ed322 produced no mortality when inoculated on tomato, bean, squash and maize seedlings (with and without injuries) compared to the 100% mortality caused by phytopathogenic strains, F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis

  14. Biological control of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) through parasitoid augmentative releases: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, Pablo; Liedo, Pablo

    2000-01-01

    Fruit flies are among the main pests affecting the world fruit industry (Aluja 1993). Bait sprays have traditionally been used successfully to control them; however, the side effects on the environment and health hazards commonly associated with pesticides, have resulted in strong public opposition to the use of bait sprays. This is particularly so when sprays are applied in urban areas or in coffee plantations where, although Medflies are present, they do not pose a danger to crops. Alternative methods that are effective and environmental friendly to suppress fruit fly populations are highly desirable. Biological control, the use of natural enemies to suppress pest populations, represents such an alternative. Some of the most successful cases of biological control are the control of Iceria purchasi Maskell (Homoptera: Margarodidae) by Rodolia cardinalis Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in California (De Bach 1968, van den Bosch et al. 1982), and the control of Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) mainly by Encarsia (=Prospaltella) opulenta Silv. (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in Mexico (Jimenez 1961, 1971), both using the classical approach. However, this approach has been limited to certain conditions of environmental stability and biodiversity which are only found in a few ecosystems. Other factors, such as types of pests, the economic threshold and product quality requirements represent additional limitations. The best option in many cases could be augmentative biological control, which could overcome some of the deficiencies of the classical approach (Sivinski 1996). According to Knipling (1992) and Barclay (1987), augmentative biological control can be considered as a formal alternative for suppressing pest populations and even for use in eradication programmes, after integration with the sterile insect technique (SIT). In this approach, mass production of natural enemies is required and this production has to be cost effective

  15. Levantamento de plantas infestantes em lavouras de milho 'safrinha'no estado de São Paulo Weed survey in autumn corn crops in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aildson P. Duarte

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Fez-se o levantamento da flora infestante na lavoura do milho "safrinha" nas duas principais regiões de plantio no Estado de São Paulo, em 1995. Foram visitadas 85 lavouras na Região do Médio Vale do Paranapanema e 29 na Região Norte. Nesta, em quatro lavouras fez-se a semeadura na palha e em 25, em solo com preparo de gradagem simples, todos sem herbicida. Naquela, a semeadura na palha foi em 68 lavouras, em 11 fez-se gradagem simples e, em seis, gradagem dupla, havendo aplicação de herbicidas de POS em algumas áreas. As espécies que ocorreram, segundo a sua freqüência, foram, na Região Norte: Glycine max> Amaranthus retroflexus> Acanthospermum hispidum = Bidens pilosa = Alternanthera tenella > Cenchrus echinatus > Euphorbia heterophylla > Ipomoea spp. > Commelina benghalensis > Sida spp. = Eleusine indica; e, na Região do Médio Vale do Paranapanema: Euphorbia heterophylla = Glycine max = Commelina benghalensis > Bidens pilosa = Raphanus sativus > Cenchrus echinatus = Acanthospermum hispidum > Brachiaria plantaginea > Sida spp. = Coronopus didymus > Eleusine indica > Digitaria horizontalis > Amaranthus retroflexus. O preparo do solo com gradagem dupla, resultou em menor índice de ocorrência de alta infestação, seguida da gradagem simples. O uso de herbicidas, de modo geral, também reduziu esse índice. As espécies Commelina benghalensis, Digitaria horizontalis, Sida spp., Eleusine indica e Amaranthus hibridus ocorreram apenas com a semeadura direta na Região do Paranapanema. Na Região Norte, Ipomoea spp. e Euphorbia heterophylla só ocorreram nas áreas com gradagem simples.A weed infestation survey was carried out in the two main cultivation regions of autumn corn crops in the State of São Paulo. In the Médio Vale do Paranapanema 85 plantations were visited and in the Região Norte 29 plantations. In this region four crops were sowed directly and 25 after soil preparation with a single harrowing, all without herbicides

  16. Soil modification by invasive plants: Effects on native and invasive species of mixed-grass prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, N.R.; Larson, D.L.; Huerd, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    Invasive plants are capable of modifying attributes of soil to facilitate further invasion by conspecifics and other invasive species. We assessed this capability in three important plant invaders of grasslands in the Great Plains region of North America: leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula), smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum). In a glasshouse, these three invasives or a group of native species were grown separately through three cycles of growth and soil conditioning in both steam-pasteurized and non-pasteurized soils, after which we assessed seedling growth in these soils. Two of the three invasive species, Bromus and Agropyron, exhibited significant self-facilitation via soil modification. Bromus and Agropyron also had significant facilitative effects on other invasives via soil modification, while Euphorbia had significant antagonistic effects on the other invasives. Both Agropyron and Euphorbia consistently suppressed growth of two of three native forbs, while three native grasses were generally less affected. Almost all intra- and interspecific effects of invasive soil conditioning were dependent upon presence of soil biota from field sites where these species were successful invaders. Overall, these results suggest that that invasive modification of soil microbiota can facilitate plant invasion directly or via 'cross-facilitation' of other invasive species, and moreover has potential to impede restoration of native communities after removal of an invasive species. However, certain native species that are relatively insensitive to altered soil biota (as we observed in the case of the forb Linum lewisii and the native grasses), may be valuable as 'nurse'species in restoration efforts. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  17. Functional plant types drive plant interactions in a Mediterranean mountain range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr eMacek

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Shrubs have both positive (facilitation and negative (competition effects on understory plants, the net interaction effect being modulated by abiotic conditions. Overall shrubs influence to great extent the structure of plant communities where they have significant presence. Interactions in a plant community are quite diverse but little is known about their variability and effects at community level. Here we checked the effects of co-occurring shrub species from different functional groups on a focal understory species, determining mechanisms driving interaction outcome, and tested whether effects measured on the focal species were a proxy for effects measured at the community level. Growth, physiological, and reproductive traits of Euphorbia nicaeensis, our focal species, were recorded on individuals growing in association with four dominant shrub species and in adjacent open areas. We also recorded community composition and environmental conditions in each microhabitat.Shrubs provided environmental conditions for plant growth, which contrasted with open areas, including moister soil, greater N content, higher air temperatures, and lower radiation. Shrub-associated individuals showed lower reproductive effort and greater allocation to growth, while most physiological traits remained unaffected. Euphorbia individuals were bigger and had more leaf N under N-fixing than under non-fixing species. Soil moisture was also higher under N-fixing shrubs; therefore soil conditions in the understory may counter reduced light conditions.There was a significant effect of species identity and functional types in the outcome of plant interactions with consistent effects at individual and community levels. The contrasting allocation strategies to reproduction and growth in Euphorbia plants, either associated or not with shrubs, showed high phenotypic plasticity and evidence its ability to cope with contrasting environmental conditions.

  18. Botanical environmental monitors for zinc pollution resulting from vehicular traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaf, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Botanical samples were used as monitors for zinc pollution resulting from vehicular traffic. Euphorbia terracina and Calotropis procera were the botanical monitors used in this work. Zinc concentrations were reported alongside a motorway stretch of 50 km. Variations in concentration with respect to the perpendicular distance from the roadside were also reported. The effect of wind turbulence and the wind direction on the concentrations is discussed. In addition, differences between open areas and confined areas with respect to the elemental uptake were also discussed. INAA, using reactor neutrons, was employed for the determination of Zn concentrations in the samples. (author)

  19. Fungal Planet description sheets: 154-213.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Guarro, J; Cheewangkoon, R; van der Bank, M; Swart, W J; Stchigel, A M; Cano-Lira, J F; Roux, J; Madrid, H; Damm, U; Wood, A R; Shuttleworth, L A; Hodges, C S; Munster, M; de Jesús Yáñez-Morales, M; Zúñiga-Estrada, L; Cruywagen, E M; de Hoog, G S; Silvera, C; Najafzadeh, J; Davison, E M; Davison, P J N; Barrett, M D; Barrett, R L; Manamgoda, D S; Minnis, A M; Kleczewski, N M; Flory, S L; Castlebury, L A; Clay, K; Hyde, K D; Maússe-Sitoe, S N D; Chen, Shuaifei; Lechat, C; Hairaud, M; Lesage-Meessen, L; Pawłowska, J; Wilk, M; Sliwińska-Wyrzychowska, A; Mętrak, M; Wrzosek, M; Pavlic-Zupanc, D; Maleme, H M; Slippers, B; Mac Cormack, W P; Archuby, D I; Grünwald, N J; Tellería, M T; Dueñas, M; Martín, M P; Marincowitz, S; de Beer, Z W; Perez, C A; Gené, J; Marin-Felix, Y; Groenewald, J Z

    2013-12-01

    Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Camarosporium aloes, Phaeococcomyces aloes and Phoma aloes from Aloe, C. psoraleae, Diaporthe psoraleae and D. psoraleae-pinnatae from Psoralea, Colletotrichum euphorbiae from Euphorbia, Coniothyrium prosopidis and Peyronellaea prosopidis from Prosopis, Diaporthe cassines from Cassine, D. diospyricola from Diospyros, Diaporthe maytenicola from Maytenus, Harknessia proteae from Protea, Neofusicoccum ursorum and N. cryptoaustrale from Eucalyptus, Ochrocladosporium adansoniae from Adansonia, Pilidium pseudoconcavum from Greyia radlkoferi, Stagonospora pseudopaludosa from Phragmites and Toxicocladosporium ficiniae from Ficinia. Several species were also described from Thailand, namely: Chaetopsina pini and C. pinicola from Pinus spp., Myrmecridium thailandicum from reed litter, Passalora pseudotithoniae from Tithonia, Pallidocercospora ventilago from Ventilago, Pyricularia bothriochloae from Bothriochloa and Sphaerulina rhododendricola from Rhododendron. Novelties from Spain include Cladophialophora multiseptata, Knufia tsunedae and Pleuroascus rectipilus from soil and Cyphellophora catalaunica from river sediments. Species from the USA include Bipolaris drechsleri from Microstegium, Calonectria blephiliae from Blephilia, Kellermania macrospora (epitype) and K. pseudoyuccigena from Yucca. Three new species are described from Mexico, namely Neophaeosphaeria agaves and K. agaves from Agave and Phytophthora ipomoeae from Ipomoea. Other African species include Calonectria mossambicensis from Eucalyptus (Mozambique), Harzia cameroonensis from an unknown creeper (Cameroon), Mastigosporella anisophylleae from Anisophyllea (Zambia) and Teratosphaeria terminaliae from Terminalia (Zimbabwe). Species from Europe include Auxarthron longisporum from forest soil (Portugal), Discosia pseudoartocreas from Tilia (Austria), Paraconiothyrium polonense and P. lycopodinum from Lycopodium

  20. PARTICIPATORY CARTOGRAPHY IN A TRADITIONAL GOAT PRODUCTION SYSTEM OF A SMALLHOLDER COMMUNITY IN NORTHERN MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Pinos Rodríguez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A community mapping procedure was developed to identify and characterize communal land area used for a traditional goat production system. Participatory cartography indicated that producers have good knowledge of their territory; more than 80% of the spatial distribution and localization of the elements and shapes present in the community map agreed with the map constructed with GIS. All flocks were mainly grazed on communal rangelands where the most important native forage plants were Opuntia spp. Yucca filifera, Condalia mexicana, Dalea spp. and Euphorbia cinerasiens, and corn stover the main crop by-product supplement used during dry season.

  1. Diet of Eared Doves (Zenaida auriculata, Aves, Columbidae in a sugar-cane colony in South-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. RANVAUD

    Full Text Available Farmers in the Paranapanema Valley (São Paulo, Brazil have reported problems with flocks of Eared Doves (Zenaida auriculata eating sprouting soybeans. In this region these birds breed colonially in sugar-cane, and eat four crop seeds, using 70% of the dry weight, in the following order of importance: maize, wheat, rice, and soybeans. Three weeds (Euphorbia heterophylla, Brachiaria plantaginea, and Commelina benghalensis were important. This information suggests that the doves adapted particularly well to the landscape created by the agricultural practices in the region, exploiting many available foods.

  2. Guayule and jojoba: agriculture in semi-arid regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maugh, II, T H

    1977-01-01

    A discussion on the possible culture on Indian lands of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), whose seeds contain up to 60% liquid wax. It tolerates saline alkaline soil and saline irrigation water. One hectare of 5-year-old jojoba should yield 200 kg of oil without genetic improvement. Guayule (Parthenium argentatum) may become important once again as an American source of rubber. Other species requiring further research include Euphorbia lathyrus and E. tirucalli, as sources of hydrocarbons, and Cucurbita foetidessima, which produces an edible oil with up to 35% protein.

  3. Begomoviruses infecting weeds in Cuba: increased host range and a novel virus infecting Sida rhombifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Navas-Castillo, Jesús; Moriones, Enrique; Martínez-Zubiaur, Yamila

    2012-01-01

    As a result of surveys conducted during the last few years to search for wild reservoirs of begomoviruses in Cuba, we detected a novel bipartite begomovirus, sida yellow mottle virus (SiYMoV), infecting Sida rhombifolia plants. The complete genome sequence was obtained, showing that DNA-A was 2622 nucleotides (nt) in length and that it was most closely related (87.6% nucleotide identity) to DNA-A of an isolate of sida golden mosaic virus (SiGMV) that infects snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Florida. The DNA-B sequence was 2600 nt in length and shared the highest nucleotide identity (75.1%) with corchorus yellow spot virus (CoYSV). Phylogenetic relationship analysis showed that both DNA components of SiYMoV were grouped in the Abutilon clade, along with begomoviruses from Florida and the Caribbean islands. We also present here the complete nucleotide sequence of a novel strain of sida yellow vein virus found infecting Malvastrum coromandelianum and an isolate of euphorbia mosaic virus that was found for the first time infecting Euphorbia heterophylla in Cuba.

  4. Comparison of leaf beetle assemblages of deciduous trees canopies in Hungary (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vig, K; Markó, V

    2005-01-01

    The species richness and species composition of Coleoptera assemblages were investigated in deciduous tree canopies in Hungary. Apple and pear orchards were investigated in Nagykovácsi, Kecskemét and Sárospatak in 1990-94, and limes and maples in Keszthely in 1999-2002. Faunistic results and conclusions of these investigations were published elsewhere. Examination of the fauna of parks, avenues and other planted urban plant stocks has only begun to occupy researchers in the last decade in Hungary. The proportion of leaf-beetle species in the material gathered on maples and limes ranged between 17.0 and 21.3 per cent. The commonest leaf-beetle specimens collected in the lime canopy were Aphthona euphorbiae, Chaetocnema tibialis, Longitarsus lycopi, L. pellucidus, L. pratensis and L. succineus. The commonest on maple were Aphthona euphorbiae, Chaetocnema concinna, C. tibialis, Longitarsus lycopi, L. pellucidus, L. succineus, Phyllotreta cruciferae and P. vittula. This study presents the details on the composition of the chrysomelid communities that was compared by metric ordination using the Syntax 5.1 program.

  5. Identification and characterisation of a highly divergent geminivirus: evolutionary and taxonomic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Pauline; Golden, Michael; Akram, Mohammad; Naimuddin; Nadarajan, Nagaswamy; Fernandez, Emmanuel; Granier, Martine; Rebelo, Anthony G; Peterschmitt, Michel; Martin, Darren P; Roumagnac, Philippe

    2013-10-01

    During a large scale "non a priori" survey in 2010 of South African plant-infecting single stranded DNA viruses, a highly divergent geminivirus genome was isolated from a wild spurge, Euphorbia caput-medusae. In addition to being infectious in E. caput-medusae, the cloned viral genome was also infectious in tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana. The virus, named Euphorbia caput-medusae latent virus (EcmLV) due to the absence of infection symptoms displayed by its natural host, caused severe symptoms in both tomato and N. benthamiana. The genome organisation of EcmLV is unique amongst geminiviruses and it likely expresses at least two proteins without any detectable homologues within public sequence databases. Although clearly a geminivirus, EcmLV is so divergent that we propose its placement within a new genus that we have tentatively named Capulavirus. Using a set of highly divergent geminiviruses genomes, it is apparent that recombination has likely been a primary process in the genus-level diversification of geminiviruses. It is also demonstrated how this insight, taken together with phylogenetic analyses of predicted coat protein and replication associated protein (Rep) amino acid sequences indicate that the most recent common ancestor of the geminiviruses was likely a dicot-infecting virus that, like modern day mastreviruses and becurtoviruses, expressed its Rep from a spliced complementary strand transcript. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities screening of some Brazilian medicinal plants used in Governador Valadares district Triagem das atividades antimicrobiana e citotóxica de algumas plantas medicinais brasileiras usadas na cidade de Governador Valadares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Gonçalves Brasileiro

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extracts from medicinal plants commonly used by Governador Valadares people were tested for antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity (BST assay. The field survey was conducted during the years 1997-2000 by means of direct interviews with healing men ("raizeiros" who showed familiarity with local used remedies. A total of 33 crude extracts from 32 plant species was studied. Ten extracts (Costus pisonis, Cymbopogon nardus, Eclipta alba, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erigium foetidium, Euphorbia tirucalli, Mikania hirsutissima, Momordica charantia, Solidago microglossa and Plectranthus ornatus presented brine shrimp toxicity (LD50Os extratos etanólicos de plantas medicinais utilizadas por moradores da cidade de Governador Valadares foram avaliados quanto às atividades antimicrobiana e citotóxica. A pesquisa de campo foi realizada durante o período de 1997-2000, por meio de entrevistas com os raizeiros locais. Foram avaliados 33 extratos brutos de um total de 32 espécies. Desses extratos, dez apresentaram toxicidade às larvas de Artemia salina (DL50<1000 ppm: Costus pisonis, Cymbopogon nardus, Eclipta alba, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erigium foetidium, Euphorbia tirucalli, Mikania hirsutissima, Momordica charantia, Solidago microglossa e Plectranthus ornatus. Quanto à atividade antimicrobiana, nenhum dos extratos apresentou atividade contra Escherichia coli. Entretanto, treze extratos mostraram-se ativos contra Staphylococcus aureus: E. alba, Scoparia sp., Arctium lappa, Chammomila tinctoria, E. bulbosa, M. hirsutíssima, S. microglossa, Stachytarpheta dichotoma, Pffafia glomerata, Stenorrhyrchnus lanceolatum, Vernonia condensata e Lippia alba.

  7. Isolation, in vitro culture, ultrastructure study, and characterization by lectin-agglutination tests of Phytomonas isolated from tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) and cherimoyas (Anona cherimolia) in southeastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Moreno, M; Fernandez-Becerra, C; Mascaro, C; Rosales, M J; Dollet, M; Osuna, A

    1995-01-01

    Plants of Lycopersicon esculentum (grown in greenhouses) and Anona cherimolia cultivated in southeastern Spain were examined for the presence of trypanosomatid flagellates. Kinetoplastid protozoa were found in the fruits but not in the phloem or other plant tissues. Parasites were detected from the onset of fruiting. Isolates were detected from the onset of fruiting. Isolates were adapted to in vitro culturing in monophase media. The form and the structural organization was studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The parasites showed an ultrastructural pattern similar to that of other species of the genus Phytomonas. In tomatoes experimentally inoculated with flagellates cultivated in vitro, we observed that the parasites did not lose their infectious capacity. Three strains of trypanosomatids of the genus Phytomonas, isolated from different species of Euphorbia (E. characias and E. hyssopifolia) and from Cocos nucifera, were compared with our isolates by lectin-agglutination tests. Our isolates were different from the two strains isolated from Euphorbia, but with this technique we could not differentiate our isolates from those of the coconut, nor could we differentiate between the isolates, their ultrastructural similarity together with their similar behavior in the lectin-agglutination test suggesting that these isolates have a common origin.

  8. Potential plant poisonings in dogs and cats in southern Africa : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Botha

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant poisoning occurs less commonly in dogs and cats than in herbivorous livestock, but numerous cases have been documented worldwide, most of them caused by common and internationally widely cultivated ornamental garden and house plants. Few cases of poisoning of cats and dogs have been reported in southern Africa, but many of the plants that have caused poisoning in these species elsewhere are widely available in the subregion and are briefly reviewed in terms of toxic principles, toxicity, species affected, clinical signs, and prognosis. The list includes Melia azedarach (syringa, Brunfelsia spp. (yesterday, today and tomorrow, Datura stramonium (jimsonweed, stinkblaar, a wide variety of lilies and lily-like plants, cycads, plants that contain soluble oxalates, plants containing cardiac glycosides and other cardiotoxins and euphorbias (Euphorbia pulcherrima, E. tirucalli. Poisoning by plant products such as macadamia nuts, onions and garlic, grapes and raisins, cannabis (marijuana, dagga or hashish and castor oil seed or seedcake is also discussed. Many of the poisonings are not usually fatal, but others frequently result in death unless rapid action is taken by the owner and the veterinarian, underlining the importance of awareness of the poisonous potential of a number of familiar plants.

  9. Study of in vitro antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of selected Saharan plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palici, Ionut F; Liktor-Busa, Erika; Zupkó, István; Touzard, Blaise; Chaieb, Mohamed; Urbán, Edit; Hohmann, Judit

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was the evaluation of the antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of selected Saharan species, which are applied in the traditional medicine but not studied thoroughly from chemical and pharmacological point of view. The studied plants, namely Anthyllis henoniana, Centropodia forskalii, Cornulaca monacantha, Ephedra alata var. alenda, Euphorbia guyoniana, Helianthemum confertum, Henophyton deserti, Moltkiopsis ciliata and Spartidium saharae were collected from remote areas of North Africa, especially from the Tunisian region of Sahara. After drying and applying the appropriate extraction methods, the plant extracts were tested in antimicrobial screening assay, performed on 19 Gram-positive and -negative strains of microbes. The inhibition zones produced by plant extracts were determined by disc-diffusion method. Remarkable antibacterial activities were exhibited by extracts of Ephedra alata var. alenda and Helianthemum confertum against B. subtilis, M. catarrhalis and methicillin-resistant and non-resistant S. aureus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of these two species were also determined. Antiproliferative effects of the extracts were evaluated against 4 human adherent cell lines (HeLa, A431, A2780 and MCF7). Notable cell growth inhibition was found for extract of Helianthemum confertum and Euphorbia guyoniana. Our results provided data for selection of some plant species for further detailed pharmacological and phytochemical examinations.

  10. Biodiversidad antropoentomofágica de la región de Zongolica, Veracruz, México

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    Julieta Ramos-Elorduy

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante dos años y medio (2003-2005 se rastrearon a los insectos que se ingieren en el área de Zongolica, Veracruz: para ello se entrevistó a la gente de ese municipio (200, para conocer cuáles especies ingerían. El total de especies registradas, ascendió a 57 distribuidas en los órdenes Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Homoptera, Megaloptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera e Hymenoptera, correspondiendo el mayor consumo al primer orden. De las especies registradas, 24 son nuevos registros de insectos comestibles para México. Estos se consumen tanto en estado inmaduro como en estado adulto y generalmente se ingieren asados. Hay una secuenciación estacional en el consumo de las diferentes especies y algunas de ellas (las cucarachas, la cuetla, la cuecla, los chapulines, los toritos, etc. se comercializan en los tianguis (puestos de venta callejeros informales que se realizan un día a la semana en diversos lugares del país o en el día de mercado en Zongolica. Existe el "protococultivo" de tres especies: una cucaracha (Periplaneta australasiae Fabricius y dos mariposas (Latebraria amphipyroides Guenée y Arsenura armida armida Cramer. La antropoentomofagía es un hábito ancestral en Zongolica.Anthropoentomophagic biodiversity of the Zongolica region, Veracruz, Mexico. During two and a half years (2003-2005 we recorded the insect species used as food at Zongolica, Veracruz State, Mexico. Interviews were made among people (200 of this municipality to know which insects they consumed. The total of registered species was 57 (Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Homoptera, Megaloptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera. The Orthoptera was the most frequently ingested. Twenty-four of these species were new records for edible insects of Mexico. They are eaten in immature stages or as adults, generally only roasted. Consumption is seasonal. Some species are commercialized in the "tianguis" (little town markets and/or in the larger Zongolica market. There is a

  11. Responses of prairie arthropod communities to fire and fertilizer: Balancing plant and arthropod conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, M.K.; Rogers, W.E.; Siemann, E.; Grace, J.

    2007-01-01

    Fire is an important tool for limiting woody plant invasions into prairies, but using fire management to maintain grassland plant communities may inadvertently reduce arthropod diversity. To test this, we established twenty-four 100 m2 plots in a tallgrass prairie in Galveston County, Texas, in spring 2000. Plots were assigned a fire (no burn, one time burn [2000], two time burn [2000, 2001]) and fertilization treatment (none, NPK addition) in a full factorial design. Fertilization treatments allowed us to examine the effects of fire at a different level of productivity. We measured plant cover by species and sampled arthropods with sweep nets during the 2001 growing season. Path analysis indicated that fertilization reduced while annual fires increased arthropod diversity via increases and decreases in woody plant abundance, respectively. There was no direct effect of fire on arthropod diversity or abundance. Diptera and Homoptera exhibited particularly strong positive responses to fires. Lepidoptera had a negative response to nutrient enrichment. Overall, the negative effects of fire on the arthropod community were minor in contrast to the strong positive indirect effects of small-scale burning on arthropod diversity if conservation of particular taxa is not a priority. The same fire regime that minimized woody plant invasion also maximized arthropod diversity.

  12. The Effects of Dispersal and Predator Density on Prey Survival in an Insect-Red Clover Metacommunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasek, David J; Radl, James N; Crist, Thomas O

    2018-01-01

    Trophic interactions are often studied within habitat patches, but among-patch dispersal of individuals may influence local patch dynamics. Metacommunity concepts incorporate the effects of dispersal on local and community dynamics. There are few experimental tests of metacommunity theory using insects compared to those conducted in microbial microcosms. Using connected experimental mesocosms, we varied the density of the leafhopper Agallia constricta Van Duzee (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) and a generalist insect predator, the damsel bug (Nabis spp., Heteroptera: Nabidae), to determine the effects of conspecific and predator density and varying the time available to dispersal among mesocosms on predation rates, dispersal rates, and leafhopper survival. Conspecific and damsel bug density did not affect dispersal rates in leafhoppers, but this may be due to leafhoppers' aversion to leaving the host plants or the connecting tubes between mesocosms hindering leafhopper movement. Leafhopper dispersal was higher in high-dispersal treatments. Survival rates of A. constricta were also lowest in treatments where dispersal was not limited. This is one of the first experimental studies to vary predator density and the time available to dispersal. Our results indicate that dispersal is the key to understanding short-term processes such as prey survival in predator-prey metacommunities. Further work is needed to determine how dispersal rates influence persistence of communities in multigenerational studies. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  13. Isolation and in vitro cultivation of the aphid pathogenic fungus Entomophthora planchoniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimoser, F M; Jensen, A B; Tuor, U; Aebi, M; Eilenberg, J

    2001-12-01

    Entomophthora planchoniana is an important fungal pathogen of aphids. Although Entomophthora chromaphidis has been considered a synonym for E. planchoniana, the two species are now separated, and E. planchoniana is reported not to grow in vitro. In this paper, we describe for the first time the isolation and cultivation of this species. Entomophthora planchoniana was isolated from a population of Ovatus crataegarius (Homoptera, Aphididae), which was infected by E. planchoniana only. The isolates did not sporulate, but the sequence of the small subunit rDNA and the restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns of the first part of the large subunit rDNA and the ITS II region confirm that the isolates were E. planchoniana. The isolated fungus grew in a medium consisting of Grace's insect cell culture medium supplemented with lactalbumin hydrolysate, yeastolate, and 10% fetal bovine serum or in GLEN medium with 10% fetal bovine serum. Vegetative cells of E. planchoniana were long and club-shaped and did not stain with Calcofluor, thus suggesting that they were protoplasts.

  14. Mutualisme pucerons – fourmis : étude des bénéfices retirés par les colonies d'Aphis fabae en milieu extérieur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verheggen F.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aphid – ant mutualism: an outdoor study of the benefits for Aphis fabae. Aphid – ant relationships are common examples of mutualism. Aphids are indeed submitted to predation and therefore require protection, while ants are continuously looking for new sugar sources. The present work aimed to study the benefits that a mutualistic relationship with Lasius niger (Hymenoptera, Formicidae could bring to the black bean aphid Aphis fabae (Homoptera, Aphididae. Several parameters were observed in the field, on broad bean plants infested with an initial amount of 100 A. fabae and in presence or not of a L. niger colony. More aphids were observed on plants being visited by ants as well as a higher proportion of winged individuals. One explanation is that fewer predators were observed on plants being visited by ants, demonstrating their protective role. However, the number of parasitized aphids was not reduced in presence of L. niger. On the other hand, fewer different aphid species were present on plants foraged by ants, what suggests that they could exert a predation on unattended aphids. Our observations do not allow to conclude on any impact of L. niger on the fitness of the aphid host plant, although fewer exuvia and honeydew spots were observed when they were present. All these results confirm that L. niger increase the fitness of A. fabae colonies mainly by decreasing the number of predators and by reducing competition from aphid species unattended by ants.

  15. Use of biorational for the vegetable pest control in the north of Sinaloa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Berenice González Maldonado

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Sinaloa the vegetable and cucurbits production are important agricultural activities, so each year a high volume of chemicalinsecticides are applied to pest control that attack these crops. This paper present the main pests insects in the region, as wellas an analysis about effects of biorational insecticides on these pests. Was found that for control of Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae is used Neem oil 0.2%., for kill nymphs of Bactericera cockerelli Sulc. (Homoptera: Psyllidae soursop Annona muricata L. (Annonales: Annonaceae at doses of 2500-5000 mg/L., for Liriomyza trifolii Burgess (Diptera: Agromyzidae neem seeds 2%., to Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae rapeseed oil at doses 920 g/L (2% v/v., to Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae spinosad (Conserve® 48-60 mg/L., and for Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae granular viruses (105 OBs/mL combined with neem (DalNeem TM emulsifiable oil and NeemAzal TM -T/S at doses of 8 mg/L, everyone. The use of these products and the dose depends on the type of pest and crop. In general these products cause insect mortality greater than 95%, besides having low toxicity on natural enemies, so that these can be used individually or in combination in integrated pest control schemes against vegetable pests, and also for disease vectors insects in the northern of Sinaloa.

  16. Relative degree of susceptibility and resistance of different brassica campestris l. genotypes against aphid myzus persicae- a field investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Field evaluation of twenty three Brassica campestris L. genotypes was conducted for aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) resistance during 2008 crop season. The parameters used to assess tolerance of germplasm lines included pest population during growth season and grain yield at crop maturity. Aphids showed obvious preferences for all of the germplasm investigated; however, the evaluation for resistance to pest identified several genotypes with variable potential for tolerance and sensitivity. Estimated grain yield also varied significantly due to variable pest intensity noted, and seemed to be more appropriately dependent on the pest population conditions at the experimental site. Among the germplasm, the estimation obtained regarding both the parameters sorted out MM-II/02-3 and MM-I285 genotypes as most tolerant due to less pest infestation and damage. Peak infestations by aphid caused severe crop fatalities on S-9-S-97-0.75+75/55 and S-9-1006/95 genotypes, affecting the seed weight and resulting an immense reduction in grain Brassica genotypes appeared to be governed by means of varietals characteristics of diverse germplasms. The result of resistance test conducted under field environment is an effective and consistent approach in the practical selection of crop lines resistant or partially resistant to pests for use in future breeding programs. (author)

  17. Temporal and spatial changes in the diet of Hyla pulchella (Anura, Hylidae in southern Uruguay

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    Inés da Rosa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we report the diet of a population of the hylid frogHyla pulchella from southeastern Uruguay. We collected the specimens in ponds, where we identified microenvironments defined by the invertebrate assemblage, during one year divided into two seasons (warm and cold. We taxonomically determined 10365 invertebrates belonging to 21 categories in the digestive tracts of frogs. Weestimated the diversity of the diet and alimentary preference according to microenvironments and seasons. We estimated the expected richness of both diet and prey availability using a null model based on the hypergeometric distribution. We performed Discriminant Analyses and Kruskal-Wallis tests to detect changes in prey availability among microenvironments and between seasons. The overall diet in terms of frequencies was composed primarily of arthropods (mainly Araneae, Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Coleoptera and in terms of volume, by larvae. The most relevantitems to study the microenvironmental and seasonal variation in the available preys were Araneae, Collembola, Homoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, Dictioptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and larvae. Based on the null model curves and preference indexes we inferred positive selection by larvae, Isopoda, Dictioptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera, and negative selection by Collembola and Hymenoptera. The diversityof diet and the null model curves indicated that the diet changes among microenvironments and seasons. This frog may be considered as a middle generalist predator, with some selective behavior and a combined search strategy (active and sit-and-wait. We conclude that the knowledge about the availability of preys is a relevant tool for trophic studies.

  18. For the Aphid fauna in the territory of Yenisei river basin. Communication 1. Aphids on coniferous plants

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    A. V. Gurov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on new and previously not well-known data on insufficiently studied fauna of aphids living on coniferous trees in Central Siberia of the basin of Yenisei river. This region is the extensive transect of latitudinal geographic zones from semi-desert in the South to the arctic deserts in the North. That is why this region is very peculiar. This is the reason for insufficient study of regional entomological fauna. Aphids (Homoptera: Aphidoideaare a very taxonomically and ecologically heterogeneous group of insects. The aphids living on conifer trees are notstudied completely on the territory of Yenisei basin. Due to this, the studying of not well-known and economicallyimportant aphids is actual. For example, the insufficient study of regional aphids is confirmed by the fact, that duringthree weeks only of the work for INTAS-94-0930 Project two new aphid species were found and described on thisterritory. Also, the new species of family Mindaridae, which was described in Mongolia in 1980, was found in Siberiafor the first time. These finds indicate the real possibility to describe an interesting conifer aphid complex in the absolutely unstudied forested territory between Angara and Lower Tunguska rivers. Geographical location, dates ofcollection and feeding preferences of different species are described. A general review of Yenisei basin Siberian aphidfauna is suggested for the first time ever.

  19. Ovary structure in a presocial insect, Elasmucha grisea (Heteroptera, Acanthosomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogorzałek, Antoni; Trochimczuk, Artur

    2009-11-01

    First generation egg clusters of Elasmucha grisea are more closely guarded than second generation clusters. The ovaries of this species are structured to enhance this behavior. The population of E. grisea from S-W Poland breeds in the spring (May-June) and late summer (July-August). The second generation clutches contain fewer eggs and are destroyed 3-4 days after oviposition by predators and parasitoids. The ovary structure in the studied species differs from that found in other Heteroptera. The average number of ovarioles per ovary is 24 while in the other investigated species the number of ovarioles per ovary is 6-7. Lateral oviducts are elongated and the ovarioles are arranged in a pennate pattern. Each ovariole contains only one growing ovarian follicle. Differentiation of the ovarioles and ovarian follicles is synchronised thus enabling simultaneous oviposition. A comparative analysis of the ovary structure during the life cycle, particularly the presence of atresive ovarian follicles in the ovarioles of egg- and nymph guarding females, as well as the shape and structure of the apical part of the tropharium all support the hypothesis of cooperation between females in E. grisea. A similar ovary structure has been observed in the Coccoidea (Hemiptera, Homoptera) which indicates presocial behavior.

  20. Are cicadas (Diceroprocta apache) both a "keystone" and a "critical-link" species in lower Colorado River riparian communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Douglas C.

    1994-01-01

    Apache cicada (Homoptera: Cicadidae: Diceroprocta apache Davis) densities were estimated to be 10 individuals/m2 within a closed-canopy stand of Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) and Goodding willow (Salix gooddingii) in a revegetated site adjacent to the Colorado River near Parker, Arizona. Coupled with data drawn from the literature, I estimate that up to 1.3 cm (13 1/m2) of water may be added to the upper soil layers annually through the feeding activities of cicada nymphs. This is equivalent to 12% of the annual precipitation received in the study area. Apache cicadas may have significant effects on ecosystem functioning via effects on water transport and thus act as a critical-link species in this southwest desert riverine ecosystem. Cicadas emerged later within the cottonwood-willow stand than in relatively open saltcedar-mesquite stands; this difference in temporal dynamics would affect their availability to several insectivorous bird species and may help explain the birds' recent declines. Resource managers in this region should be sensitive to the multiple and strong effects that Apache cicadas may have on ecosystem structure and functioning.

  1. BIOLOGY OF CHRYSOPA PHYLLOCHROMA WESMAEL (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE). Ⅱ: INTRASPECIFIC INTERFERENCE AND SEARCHING CAPACITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-weiSu; Xiang-huiLiu; Neng-wenXiao; FengGe

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined intraspecific interference and searching behavior of Chrysopa phyllochroma Wesmael (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) for Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae) nymphs under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. The results were shown as follow: 1) In four different arenas (i.e. Petri dish, glass vessel, glass vessel with barriers in it, and cage with potted cotton plant), the predaceous efficiency of C. phyllochroma larvae varied with the predator density, the hunt constant (Q) and the intraspecific interference (m)increased with the prey density but decreased with the space heterogeneity; 2) In cage with potted cotton plant, the first- and second-instar green lacewing larvae consumed 13.6 and 29.4 cotton aphids/day respectively. The number of cotton aphids consumed by C. phyllochroma on lower leaves was significantly less than that on upper leaves; and 3) In cage with potted cotton plant, the percentage of the first- and second-instar green lacewing larvae located on upper leaves was significant less than that on lower leaves.

  2. Insectes ravageurs et propriétés biocides de Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae : synthèse bibliographique

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    Abdoul Habou, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Insect pests and biocidal properties of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae. A review. Jatropha curcas is a Euphorbiaceae shrub widely distributed in many tropical countries. Its seeds are rich in oil that can be used as biofuel in modified diesel engines. Several insect species, mainly belonging to Hemiptera, Coleoptera and Orthoptera, have been referenced as insect pests of J. curcas. These insects attack the plant and cause damage to fruits, inflorescences and leaves. The most frequently observed pests belong to the genus Pachycoris (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae, which are widely distributed in Mexico, Australia, United States of America, Brazil and Nicaragua. Pachycoris spp. cause significant damage to the fruits, leading to the malformation of seeds and a reduction in their oil content. Although Jatropha shrubs are subjected to insect infestations, the oil has been shown to demonstrate biocidal activity, including insecticidal effects against several insect pests, including Busseola fusca (Fuller (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Sesamia calamistis Hampson (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae and Callosobruchus chinensis L. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae. In the present paper, we summarize the work carried out on inventories of J. curcas insect pests as well as on the biocidal activity of its oil.

  3. Anagrus breviphragma Soyka Short Distance Search Stimuli

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    Elisabetta Chiappini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anagrus breviphragma Soyka (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae successfully parasitises eggs of Cicadella viridis (L. (Homoptera: Cicadellidae, embedded in vegetal tissues, suggesting the idea of possible chemical and physical cues, revealing the eggs presence. In this research, three treatments were considered in order to establish which types of cue are involved: eggs extracted from leaf, used as a control, eggs extracted from leaf and cleaned in water and ethanol, used to evaluate the presence of chemicals soluble in polar solvents, and eggs extracted from leaf and covered with Parafilm (M, used to avoid physical stimuli due to the bump on the leaf surface. The results show that eggs covered with Parafilm present a higher number of parasitised eggs and a lower probing starting time with respect to eggs washed with polar solvents or eggs extracted and untreated, both when the treatments were singly tested or when offered in sequence, independently of the treatment position. These results suggest that the exploited stimuli are not physical due to the bump but chemicals that can spread in the Parafilm, circulating the signal on the whole surface, and that the stimuli that elicit probing and oviposition are not subjected to learning.

  4. Original Article. An evaluation of some eco-friendly biopesticides against Bemisia tabaci on two greenhouse tomato varieties in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Razek Atef S.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study has two main approaches. First, it exploits the susceptibility of tomato cultivars as a prophylactic measure to detect auto resistance characters of the tested tomato varieties against Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae. Secondly, it evaluates the efficacy of different bio-rational insecticides against B. tabaci under greenhouse conditions. The results exhibited a special significance in B. tabaci infestation suitability between the two tomato varieties with a high infestation significance found in the Shifa F1 hybrid tomato variety compared to the Savera F1 hybrid tomato variety in the first plantation period. Subsequently, in the second plantation period, there was a significant difference between the two tomato varieties. Bemisia tabaci showed a preference for the Shifa F1 hybrid over the Savera F1 hybrid tomato variety. These differences occurred during the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th, 7th, 8th, and 10th weeks. In the experimental trial for the efficacy of eco-friendly biorational insecticides, spinosad, azadirachtin, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, there were significant differences between the treated and untreated plants during the two plantation periods. A high efficacy of spinosad on the B. tabaci population was found. Bemisia tabaci infestation under all the applications was reduced from 50 to 94.61% for the two plantation periods. This obvious decrease in B. tabaci population increase attention to benefits of the different bio-rational insecticides.

  5. Food habits of the southwestern willow flycatcher during the nesting season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Charles A.; Paxton, Eben H.; Sogge, Mark K.; Whitfield, Mary J.

    2003-01-01

    The food habits and prey base of the endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) are not well known. We analyzed prey remains in 59 fecal samples from an intensively-studied population of this flycatcher at the Kern River Preserve in southern California. These samples were collected during the nesting season in 1996 and 1997 from adults caught in mist nets, and from nestlings temporarily removed from the nest for banding. A total of 379 prey individuals were identified in the samples. Dominant prey taxa, both in total numbers and in percent occurrence, were true bugs (Hemiptera), flies (Diptera), and beetles (Coleoptera). Leafhoppers (Homoptera: Cicadellidae), spiders (Araneae), bees and wasps (Hymenoptera), and dragonflies and damselflies (Odonata) were also common items. Diet composition was significantly different between years, due to a large difference in the numbers of spiders between 1996 and 1997. There was also a significant difference between the diet of young and adults, with the diet of young birds having significantly higher numbers of odonates and beetles. There was a trend toward diet differences between males and females, but this was not significant at the P = 0.05 level.

  6. Aspectos biológicos y poblacionales de Nasonovia ribisnigri y Aulacorthum solani sobre lechuga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasicek Araceli

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estimó la influencia de los cultivares Criolla Blanca, Cuatro Estaciones y Gallega, sobre la biología y los parámetros poblacionales de Nasonovia ribisnigri y Aulacorthum solani (Homoptera: Aphidoidea a 10±1ºC y HR de 90%. Los períodos ninfal, pre-reproductivo y post-reproductivo de N. ribisnigri fueron más largos sobre Cuatro Estaciones, no así el reproductivo. En A. solani el período ninfal fue más largo sobre Criolla Blanca y Cuatro Estaciones resultando el reproductivo mayor sobre Cuatro Estaciones. Las tasas intrínsecas de crecimiento natural (r m de N. ribisnigri y A. solani fueron mayores sobre Criolla Blanca y Gallega, respectivamente. De acuerdo a la especie predominante convendría utilizar Cuatro Estaciones para N. ribisnigri y Criolla Blanca para A. solani, en épocas frías.

  7. Comparison of the ionizing radiation effects on cochineal, annatto and turmeric natural dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Helio M.; Takinami, Patricia Y. I.; del Mastro, Nelida L.

    2016-07-01

    As studies on radiation stability of food dyes are scarce, commercially important natural food grade dyes were evaluated in terms of their sensitivity against gamma ionizing radiation. Cochineal, annatto and turmeric dyes with suitable concentrations were subjected to increasing doses up to 32 kGy and analyzed by spectrophotometry and capillary electrophoresis. The results showed different pattern of absorbance versus absorbed dose for the three systems. Carmine, the glucosidal coloring matter from the scale insect Coccus cacti L., Homoptera (cochineal) remained almost unaffected by radiation up to doses of about 32 kGy (absorbance at 494 nm). Meanwhile, at that dose, a plant-derived product annatto or urucum (Bixa orellana L.) tincture presented a nearly 58% reduction in color intensity. Tincture of curcumin (diferuloylmethane) the active ingredient in the eastern spice turmeric (Curcuma longa) showed to be highly sensitive to radiation when diluted. These data shall be taken in account whenever food products containing these food colors were going to undergo radiation processing.

  8. Entomofauna associated to horticultural crops under organic and conventional practices in Cordoba, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalazar, Laura; Salvo, Adriana

    2007-01-01

    Farming practices and the addition of chemical synthetic substances in conventional agroecosystems are detrimental mainly to natural enemies of phytophagous insects, diminishing the natural regulation of pest insects. On the other hand, in organic agriculture, biological processes and care of the environment are favoured, hence an increase in insect biodiversity is predicted in this type of systems. In this work, abundance, richness of insects and proportion of functional groups were compared through a single quantitative sampling of insects in horticultural crop fields, three under organic and three under conventional management practices. Insect species richness, total and for guilds (phytophagous and entomophagous insects) were significantly higher in organic orchards, and also was the abundance of entomophagous insects. Richness and abundance of all insect orders (with exception of Homoptera abundance), were higher in orchards under organic management, being significant the differences for richness of Coleoptera and richness and abundance of Hymenoptera. Similar tendencies were observed in data obtained through sweep net in weeds. These results suggest that organic practices increase the diversity of species, particularly that of natural enemies. (author)

  9. Arthropod prey of Wilson's Warblers in the understory of Douglas-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, J.C.; Dugger, K.M.; Starkey, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    Availability of food resources is an important factor in avian habitat selection. Food resources for terrestrial birds often are closely related to vegetation structure and composition. Identification of plant species important in supporting food resources may facilitate vegetation management to achieve objectives for providing bird habitat. We used fecal analysis to describe the diet of adult Wilson's Warblers (Wilsonia pusilla) that foraged in the understory of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests in western Oregon during the breeding season. We sampled arthropods at the same sites where diet data were collected, and compared abundance and biomass of prey among seven common shrub species. Wilson's Warblers ate more caterpillars (Lepidoptera larvae), flies (Diptera), beetles (Coleoptera), and Homoptera than expected based on availability. Deciduous shrubs supported higher abundances of arthropod taxa and size classes used as prey by Wilson's Warblers than did evergreen shrubs. The development and maintenance of deciduous understory vegetation in conifer forests of the Pacific Northwest may be fundamental for conservation of food webs that support breeding Wilson's Warblers and other shrub-associated, insectivorous songbirds.

  10. Diet of Wilson's warblers and distribution of arthropod prey in the understory of Douglas-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, Joan C.; Dugger, Kate; Starkey, Edward E.

    2007-01-01

    Availability of food resources is an important factor in avian habitat selection. Food resources for terrestrial birds often are closely related to vegetation structure and composition. Identification of plant species important in supporting food resources may facilitate vegetation management to achieve objectives for providing bird habitat. We used fecal analysis to describe the diet of adult Wilson's Warblers (Wilsonia pusilla) that foraged in the understory of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests in western Oregon during the breeding season. We sampled arthropods at the same sites where diet data were collected, and compared abundance and biomass of prey among seven common shrub species. Wilson's Warblers ate more caterpillars (Lepidoptera larvae), flies (Diptera), beetles (Coleoptera), and Homoptera than expected based on availability. Deciduous shrubs supported higher abundances of arthropod taxa and size classes used as prey by Wilson's Warblers than did evergreen shrubs. The development and maintenance of deciduous understory vegetation in conifer forests of the Pacific Northwest may be fundamental for conservation of food webs that support breeding Wilson's Warblers and other shrub-associated, insectivorous songbirds.

  11. With or without pheromone habituation: possible differences between insect orders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, David Maxwell; Stringer, Lloyd D; Jiménez-Pérez, Alfredo; Walter, Gimme H; Sullivan, Nicola; El-Sayed, Ashraf M

    2018-06-01

    Habituation to sex pheromones is one of the key mechanisms in mating disruption, an insect control tactic. Male moths often show reduced sexual response after pre-exposure to female sex pheromone. Mating disruption is relatively rare in insect orders other than Lepidoptera. As a positive control we confirmed habituation in a moth (Epiphyas postvittana) using 24 h pre-exposure to sex pheromone to reduce subsequent activation behaviour. We then tested the impact of pre-exposure to sex or trail pheromone on subsequent behavioural response with insects from three other orders. Similar pre-exposure for 24 h to either sex pheromone [Pseudococcus calceolariae (Homoptera) and apple leaf curling midge Dasineura mali (Diptera), or trail pheromone of Argentine ants (Linepithema humile (Hymenoptera)], followed by behavioural assay in clean air provided no evidence of habituation after pre-exposure in these latter cases. The moths alone were affected by pre-exposure to pheromone. For pests without habituation, sustained attraction to a point source may make lure and kill more economical. Improved knowledge of behavioural processes should lead to better success in pest management and mechanisms should be investigated further to inform studies and practical efforts generally enhancing effectiveness of pheromone-based management. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Aphid wing induction and ecological costs of alarm pheromone emission under field conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Hatano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris, (Homoptera: Aphididae releases the volatile sesquiterpene (E-beta-farnesene (EBF when attacked by a predator, triggering escape responses in the aphid colony. Recently, it was shown that this alarm pheromone also mediates the production of the winged dispersal morph under laboratory conditions. The present work tested the wing-inducing effect of EBF under field conditions. Aphid colonies were exposed to two treatments (control and EBF and tested in two different environmental conditions (field and laboratory. As in previous experiments aphids produced higher proportion of winged morphs among their offspring when exposed to EBF in the laboratory but even under field conditions the proportion of winged offspring was higher after EBF application (6.84+/-0.98% compared to the hexane control (1.54+/-0.25%. In the field, the proportion of adult aphids found on the plant at the end of the experiment was lower in the EBF treatment (58.1+/-5.5% than in the control (66.9+/-4.6%, in contrast to the climate chamber test where the numbers of adult aphids found on the plant at the end of the experiment were, in both treatments, similar to the numbers put on the plant initially. Our results show that the role of EBF in aphid wing induction is also apparent under field conditions and they may indicate a potential cost of EBF emission. They also emphasize the importance of investigating the ecological role of induced defences under field conditions.

  13. Development of a lateral flow test to detect metabolic resistance in Bemisia tabaci mediated by CYP6CM1, a cytochrome P450 with broad spectrum catalytic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauen, Ralf; Wölfel, Katharina; Lueke, Bettina; Myridakis, Antonis; Tsakireli, Dimitra; Roditakis, Emmanouil; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia; Stephanou, Euripides; Vontas, John

    2015-06-01

    Cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) is a major sucking pest in many agricultural and horticultural cropping systems globally. The frequent use of insecticides of different mode of action classes resulted in populations resisting treatments used to keep numbers under economic damage thresholds. Recently it was shown that resistance to neonicotinoids such as imidacloprid is linked to the over-expression of CYP6CM1, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase detoxifying imidacloprid and other neonicotinoid insecticides when recombinantly expressed in insect cells. However over-expression of CYP6CM1 is also known to confer cross-resistance to pymetrozine, an insecticide not belonging to the chemical class of neonicotinoids. In addition we were able to demonstrate by LC-MS/MS analysis the metabolisation of pyriproxyfen by recombinantly expressed CYP6CM1. Based on our results CYP6CM1 is one of the most versatile detoxification enzymes yet identified in a pest of agricultural importance, as it detoxifies a diverse range of chemical classes used to control whiteflies. Therefore we developed a field-diagnostic antibody-based lateral flow assay which detects CYP6CM1 protein at levels providing resistance to neonicotinoids and other insecticides. The ELISA based test kit can be used as a diagnostic tool to support resistance management strategies based on the alternation of different modes of action of insecticides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Entomofauna associated to horticultural crops under organic and conventional practices in Cordoba, Argentina; Entomofauna asociada a cultivos horticolas organicos y convencionales en Cordoba, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalazar, Laura; Salvo, Adriana [Universidade Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas Fisicas y Naturales. Centro de Investigaciones Entomologicas de Cordoba (CIEC)

    2007-09-15

    Farming practices and the addition of chemical synthetic substances in conventional agroecosystems are detrimental mainly to natural enemies of phytophagous insects, diminishing the natural regulation of pest insects. On the other hand, in organic agriculture, biological processes and care of the environment are favoured, hence an increase in insect biodiversity is predicted in this type of systems. In this work, abundance, richness of insects and proportion of functional groups were compared through a single quantitative sampling of insects in horticultural crop fields, three under organic and three under conventional management practices. Insect species richness, total and for guilds (phytophagous and entomophagous insects) were significantly higher in organic orchards, and also was the abundance of entomophagous insects. Richness and abundance of all insect orders (with exception of Homoptera abundance), were higher in orchards under organic management, being significant the differences for richness of Coleoptera and richness and abundance of Hymenoptera. Similar tendencies were observed in data obtained through sweep net in weeds. These results suggest that organic practices increase the diversity of species, particularly that of natural enemies. (author)

  15. Comparison of the ionizing radiation effects on cochineal, annatto and turmeric natural dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosentino, Helio M.; Takinami, Patricia Y.I.; Mastro, Nelida L. del

    2016-01-01

    As studies on radiation stability of food dyes are scarce, commercially important natural food grade dyes were evaluated in terms of their sensitivity against gamma ionizing radiation. Cochineal, annatto and turmeric dyes with suitable concentrations were subjected to increasing doses up to 32 kGy and analyzed by spectrophotometry and capillary electrophoresis. The results showed different pattern of absorbance versus absorbed dose for the three systems. Carmine, the glucosidal coloring matter from the scale insect Coccus cacti L., Homoptera (cochineal) remained almost unaffected by radiation up to doses of about 32 kGy (absorbance at 494 nm). Meanwhile, at that dose, a plant-derived product annatto or urucum (Bixa orellana L.) tincture presented a nearly 58% reduction in color intensity. Tincture of curcumin (diferuloylmethane) the active ingredient in the eastern spice turmeric (Curcuma longa) showed to be highly sensitive to radiation when diluted. These data shall be taken in account whenever food products containing these food colors were going to undergo radiation processing. - Highlights: • Comparison of radiosensitivity of food colors was performed. • Carmine showed the highest resistance to radiation. • Annatto and turmeric behaved sensitive to radiation when diluted. • Turmeric was the most affected by ionizing radiation.

  16. Hairy nightshade as a potential Potato leafroll virus (Luteoviridae: Polerovirus) inoculum source in Pacific Northwest potato ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R; Alvarez, J M

    2008-09-01

    Hairy nightshade, Solanum sarrachoides, is a solanaceous weed found abundantly in Pacific Northwest potato ecosystems. It serves as a reservoir for one of the important potato viruses, Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) (Luteoviridae: Polerovirus), and its most important vector, the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae). Laboratory research indicated an increased green peach aphid settling and performance on S. sarrachoides than on potato. It also revealed that green peach aphids transmitted PLRV more efficiently from S. sarrachoides to potato than from potato to potato. To test the efficiency of S. sarrachoides as an inoculum source in the field, a two season (2004 and 2005) trial was conducted at Kimberly, Idaho. Two inoculum sources, PLRV-infected potato and PLRV-infected S. sarrachoides, were compared in this trial. Green peach aphid density and temporal and spatial PLRV spread were monitored at weekly intervals. Higher densities of green peach aphids were observed on plots with S. sarrachoides and inoculum sources (PLRV-infected S. sarrachoides and potato) than on plots without S. sarrachoides and inoculum sources. PLRV infection in plots with PLRV-infected S. sarrachoides was similar to or slightly higher than in plots with PLRV-infected potato as an inoculum source. Temporal and spatial PLRV spread was similar in plots with either inoculum source. Thus, S. sarrachoides is as efficient as or a better PLRV inoculum source than potato.

  17. Analysis of the feeding habits of the swallow-tailed hummingbird, Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788, in an urban park in southeastern Brazil

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    MCB. Toledo

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to observe and describe the feeding habits and available food resources of the swallow-tailed hummingbird, Eupetomena macroura. The study was carried out in a municipal park located in the city of Taubaté, in the state of São Paulo. The observations took place between December 2003 and October 2004, recording the following variables: 1 the plant species visited for feeding and territorial defense; 2 the kinds of food resources; and 3 the kinds of flight to procure and obtain food. E. macroura visited 12 plant species. For territorial defense, Mangifera indica was the most visited, whereas Malvaviscus arboreus was most visited for feeding. The foliage was the plant part that received the most frequent visits. In order to obtain nectar, the only species visited was M. arboreus; to obtain arthropods, the species most visited were Mangifera indica and Hymenaea stilbocarpa. In the dry season, the hummingbirds visited flowers, whereas in the rainy season they visited leaves to acquire food. The arthropod groups most frequently found on leafy branches were Homoptera and Psocoptera. Finally, the results of the type of flight analysis showed that flight used to capture food was more often observed than were flights to search for food. In conclusion, these observations suggest that E. macroura shows plasticity in feeding behavior, which can help it to persist in urban areas.

  18. ON THE PALEOFAUNA INVERTEBRATES (MOLLUSCA, ARTROPODA; INSECTA OF DIATOMITE DEPOSITS OF SHAMB–1 LOCALITY (SISIAN SUITE, EARLY PLEISTOCENE, ARMENIA

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    М. A. Маrjanyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The study of fossil insects from diatomaceous sediments of Shamb-1 locality of Sisian Suite (Early Pleistocene. The collection of fossils plants and animals of Institute of Botany of NAS RA and authors' findings served as material for study.Methods. The material is processed and prepared for study by conventional methods in paleontology for prints and fossils of insects from diatomaceous sediments. There are 654 samples studied: 2 samples were with mollusks’ imprints and 652 samples with imprints of insects, from which preserved marks on 291samples allowed to identify them up to order, family, genus and species.Results. The studied material refers to the Mollusca and Arthropoda (Insecta types. Insects are represented by species of orders Orthoptera (2 fam., Homoptera (1 fam., Heteroptera (2 fam., Coleoptera (15 fam., Hymenoptera (2 fam., Diptera (1 fam.. Coleopteras dominate among them and are presented with following species of the family – Carabidae, Dytiscidae, Hydrophilidae, Histeridae, Staphylinidae, Silphidae, Elateridae, Buprestidae, Lampyridae, Scarabaeidae, Chrysomelidae, Tenebrionidae, Coccinellidae, Cerambycidae, Curculionidae.Main conclusions. An analysis of the taxonomic composition of paleofauna was done, which corresponds to the recent fauna and with considering modern ecological characteristics of systematical groups and species. In the investigated location of Shamb-1 a version is suggested about the palaeolandscapes and palaeoclimate in the Early Pleistocene.

  19. Búsqueda y reconocimiento de los enemigos naturales y hospedantes alternos de las principales plagas. En flores bajo invernadero en la sabana de Bogotá

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    Martha E. Andrade

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Las plagas que atacan cultivos de llores bajo invernadero son cada vez más importantes por la gravedad de su daño y por la alta densidad con que suelen presentarse. Para su control se ha acudido principalmente a la utilización de productos químicos, lo cual conduce a un aumento en los costos de producción, a contaminar el medio ambiente, a afectar la salud humana y a crear resistencia de los insectos a los insecticidas. Debido a esto, es necesario incluír dentro de los programas de control a los reguladores naturales de las plagas: parasitoides, depredadores y microorganismos entornógenos. En el presente trabajo se registran los enemigos naturales más importantes de las principales plagas en llores bajo invernadero (crisantemo, rosa y clavel: Liriomyza huidobrensis Blanchard, L. trifolii Burgess (Diptera: Agrornyzídae; Myzuz persicae Sulzer (Homoptera: Aphididae; Tetranychus urticae Koch y T. cinnabarinus Boísduval (Acarina: Tetranychidae; también se señalan las plantas hospedantes alternas presentes en las localidades donde se realizó la investigación.

  20. A survey of syrphid predators of Nasonovia ribisnigri in organic lettuce on the central coast of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hugh A; Chaney, William E

    2007-02-01

    Organic lettuce, Lactuca sativa L., producers on California's Central Coast rely on endemic syrphid flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) to suppress populations of Nasonovia ribisnigri Mosley (Homoptera: Aphididae) and other aphids affecting lettuce. Growers are using various forms of habitat manipulation to enhance biological control. We surveyed syrphids collected from organic romaine in and around the Salinas Valley from March through September 2005 to gain a better understanding of the species responsible for aphid suppression and to examine possible implications for biocontrol. The primary species of syrphid fly reared were Toxomerus marginatus (Say) (39%), Platycheirus stegnus (Say) (27%), Sphaerophoria sulfuripes (Thomson) (13%), and Allograpta obliqua (Say) (10%). Syrphus opinator Osten Sacken (2%), Toxomerus occidentalis (Curran) (1.3%), and Eupeodes volucris Osten Sacken (1%) were less common. Sphaerophoria pyrrhina Bigot, Scaeva pyrastri (L.), Platycheirus obscurus Say, Allograpta exotica Wiedemann, and Eupeodes americanus Wiedemann each made up aphids. P. stegnus was observed to deposit in clusters of eggs, and was only reared in significant numbers from highly infested fields. Approximately 5% of syrphid larvae overall were parasitized by either Diplazon sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) or Pachyneuron sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).