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Sample records for macroseismic scale ems-98

  1. Extensions to EMS-98 to match the conditions of Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandi, H.; Borcia, I. S.

    2002-01-01

    EMS-98 (European Macroseismic Scale '98) was endorsed in 1998 by the European Seismological Commission and recommended for extensive use in the European area. A comparison of EMS-98 with previous macroseismic scales as e.g. MSK (also endorsed by ESC in the past) puts into evidence important elements of superiority of EMS and makes it possible to conclude that EMS-98 represents currently a peak development in the succession of macroseismic scales of traditional kind. Given this fact, it is reasonable if not mandatory to replace the current Romanian standard STAS 3684-71, which relies on the MSK-64 scale, by an official document endorsing the application in Romania of EMS-98. The developments presented rely on a project developed jointly by INCERC and the Institute of Geodynamics under support from the Ministry of Public Works, Transportation and Housing. The project was aimed at presenting a translation of the version of EMS-98 already published, with some additional developments aimed at providing a better applicability to the conditions of Romania (keeping in view, primarily, two facts: the features of ground motion due to Vrancea earthquakes and the features of the building stock that would generate, through its performance, the bulk of macroseismic information in the event of strong earthquakes). The features of ground motion due to Vrancea earthquakes are characterized, first of all, by a wide variety of spectral characteristics, varying during one event from one site to the other and, for many sites, also from one event to the other. This has obvious implications for the task of estimating intensity and should be reflected in some suitable way in the criteria for intensity assessment. Unfortunately, to date there is no concern in the frame of EMS-98 for the spectral characteristics of ground motion. Introducing criteria that could reflect the spectral characteristics would require a full rethinking and reshaping of EMS-98, so this aspect could not be tackled

  2. Analysis of the 2016 Amatrice earthquake macroseismic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Hofer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On August 24, 2016, a sudden MW 6.0 seismic event hit central Italy, causing 298 victims and significant damage to residential buildings and cultural heritage. In the days following the mainshock, a macroseismic survey was conducted by teams of the University of Padova, according to the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS98. In this contribution, a critical analysis of the collected macroseismic data is presented and some comparisons were performed with the recent 2012 Emilia sequence.

  3. Using structural damage statistics to derive macroseismic intensity within the Kathmandu valley for the 2015 M7.8 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, S. M.; Jaiswal, K. S.; Wald, D. J.

    2017-09-01

    We make and analyze structural damage observations from within the Kathmandu valley following the 2015 M7.8 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake to derive macroseismic intensities at several locations including some located near ground motion recording sites. The macroseismic intensity estimates supplement the limited strong ground motion data in order to characterize the damage statistics. This augmentation allows for direct comparisons between ground motion amplitudes and structural damage characteristics and ultimately produces a more constrained ground shaking hazard map for the Gorkha earthquake. For systematic assessments, we focused on damage to three specific building categories: (a) low/mid-rise reinforced concrete frames with infill brick walls, (b) unreinforced brick masonry bearing walls with reinforced concrete slabs, and (c) unreinforced brick masonry bearing walls with partial timber framing. Evaluating dozens of photos of each construction type, assigning each building in the study sample to a European Macroseismic Scale (EMS)-98 Vulnerability Class based upon its structural characteristics, and then individually assigning an EMS-98 Damage Grade to each building allows a statistically derived estimate of macroseismic intensity for each of nine study areas in and around the Kathmandu valley. This analysis concludes that EMS-98 macroseismic intensities for the study areas from the Gorkha mainshock typically were in the VII-IX range. The intensity assignment process described is more rigorous than the informal approach of assigning intensities based upon anecdotal media or first-person accounts of felt-reports, shaking, and their interpretation of damage. Detailed EMS-98 macroseismic assessments in urban areas are critical for quantifying relations between shaking and damage as well as for calibrating loss estimates. We show that the macroseismic assignments made herein result in fatality estimates consistent with the overall and district-wide reported values.

  4. Linking ground motion measurements and macro-seismic observations in France: A case study based on the RAP (accelerometric) and BCSF (macro-seismic) databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesueur, Ch.

    2011-01-01

    Comparison between accelerometric and macro-seismic observations is made for three mw∼4.5 earthquakes of eastern France between 2003 and 2005. Scalar and spectral instrumental parameters are processed from the accelerometric data recorded by nine accelerometric stations located between 29 km and 180 km from the epicentres. Macro-seismic data are based on the French internet reports. In addition to the individual macro-seismic intensity, analysis of the internal correlation between the encoded answers highlights four predominant fields of questions, bearing different physical meanings: 1) 'vibratory motions of small objects', 2) 'displacement and fall of objects', 3) 'acoustic noise', and 4) 'personal feelings'. Best correlations between macro-seismic and instrumental observations are obtained when the macro-seismic parameters are averaged over 10 km radius circles around each station. macro-seismic intensities predicted by published pgv-intensity relationships quite agree with the observed intensities, contrary to those based on pga. The correlations between the macro-seismic and instrumental data, for intensities between ii and v (ems-98), show that pgv is the instrumental parameter presenting the best correlation with all macro-seismic parameters. The correlation with response spectra, exhibits clear frequency dependence over a limited frequency range [0.5-33 hz]. Horizontal and vertical components are significantly correlated with macro-seismic parameters between 1 and 10 hz, a range corresponding to both natural frequencies of most buildings and high energy content in the seismic ground motion. Between 10 and 25 hz, a clear lack of correlation between macro-seismic and instrumental data is observed, while beyond 25 hz the correlation coefficient increases, approaching that of the PGA correlation level. (author)

  5. Ground motions from the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake constrained by a detailed assessment of macroseismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stacey; Hough, Susan E.; Hung, Charleen

    2015-01-01

    To augment limited instrumental recordings of the Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake on 25 April 2015 (Nepali calendar: 12 Baisakh 2072, Bikram Samvat), we collected 3831 detailed media and first-person accounts of macroseismic effects that include sufficiently detailed information to assign intensities. The resulting intensity map reveals the distribution of shaking within and outside of Nepal, with the key result that shaking intensities throughout the near-field region only exceeded intensity 8 on the 1998 European Macroseismic Scale (EMS-98) in rare instances. Within the Kathmandu Valley, intensities were generally 6–7 EMS. This surprising (and fortunate) result can be explained by the nature of the mainshock ground motions, which were dominated by energy at periods significantly longer than the resonant periods of vernacular structures throughout the Kathmandu Valley. Outside of the Kathmandu Valley, intensities were also generally lower than 8 EMS, but the earthquake took a heavy toll on a number of remote villages, where many especially vulnerable masonry houses collapsed catastrophically in 7–8 EMS shaking. We further reconsider intensities from the 1833 earthquake sequence and conclude that it occurred on the same fault segment as the Gorkha earthquake.

  6. Automatic single questionnaire intensity (SQI, EMS98 scale) estimation using ranking models built on the existing BCSF database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlupp, A.; Sira, C.; Schmitt, K.; Schaming, M.

    2013-12-01

    In charge of intensity estimations in France, BCSF has collected and manually analyzed more than 47000 online individual macroseismic questionnaires since 2000 up to intensity VI. These macroseismic data allow us to estimate one SQI value (Single Questionnaire Intensity) for each form following the EMS98 scale. The reliability of the automatic intensity estimation is important as they are today used for automatic shakemaps communications and crisis management. Today, the automatic intensity estimation at BCSF is based on the direct use of thumbnails selected on a menu by the witnesses. Each thumbnail corresponds to an EMS-98 intensity value, allowing us to quickly issue an intensity map of the communal intensity by averaging the SQIs at each city. Afterwards an expert, to determine a definitive SQI, manually analyzes each form. This work is time consuming and not anymore suitable considering the increasing number of testimonies at BCSF. Nevertheless, it can take into account incoherent answers. We tested several automatic methods (USGS algorithm, Correlation coefficient, Thumbnails) (Sira et al. 2013, IASPEI) and compared them with 'expert' SQIs. These methods gave us medium score (between 50 to 60% of well SQI determined and 35 to 40% with plus one or minus one intensity degree). The best fit was observed with the thumbnails. Here, we present new approaches based on 3 statistical ranking methods as 1) Multinomial logistic regression model, 2) Discriminant analysis DISQUAL and 3) Support vector machines (SVMs). The two first methods are standard methods, while the third one is more recent. Theses methods could be applied because the BCSF has already in his database more then 47000 forms and because their questions and answers are well adapted for a statistical analysis. The ranking models could then be used as automatic method constrained on expert analysis. The performance of the automatic methods and the reliability of the estimated SQI can be evaluated thanks to

  7. Fault parameters and macroseismic observations of the May 10, 1997 Ardekul-Ghaen earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, H.; Zare, M.; Ansari, A.

    2018-01-01

    The Ardekul (Zirkuh) earthquake (May 10, 1997) is the largest recent earthquake that occurred in the Ardekul-Ghaen region of Eastern Iran. The greatest destruction was concentrated around Ardekul, Haji-Abad, Esfargh, Pishbar, Bashiran, Abiz-Qadim, and Fakhr-Abad (completely destroyed). The total surface fault rupture was about 125 km with the longest un-interrupted segment in the south of the region. The maximum horizontal and vertical displacements were reported in Korizan and Bohn-Abad with about 210 and 70 cm, respectively; moreover, other building damages and environmental effects were also reported for this earthquake. In this study, the intensity value XI on the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS) and Environmental Seismic Intensity (ESI) scale was selected for this earthquake according to the maximum effects on macroseismic data points affected by this earthquake. Then, according to its macroseismic data points of this earthquake and Boxer code, some macroseismic parameters including magnitude, location, source dimension, and orientation of this earthquake were also estimated at 7.3, 33.52° N-59.99° E, 75 km long and 21 km wide, and 152°, respectively. As the estimated macroseismic parameters are consistent with the instrumental ones (Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) location and magnitude equal 33.58° N-60.02° E, and 7.2, respectively), this method and dataset are suggested not only for other instrumental earthquakes, but also for historical events.

  8. Early macroseismic maps in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozák, Jan; Vaněk, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2013), s. 43-53 ISSN 2330-1740 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : macroseismic maps * intensity scales * Central Europe * 19th century Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  9. Re-evaluation of the macroseismic effects produced by the March 4, 1977, strong Vrancea earthquake in Romanian territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelian Pantea

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the macroseismic effects of the subcrustal earthquake in Vrancea (Romania that occurred on March 4, 1977, have been re-evaluated. This was the second strongest seismic event that occurred in this area during the twentieth century, following the event that happened on November 10, 1940. It is thus of importance for our understanding of the seismicity of the Vrancea zone. The earthquake was felt over a large area, which included the territories of the neighboring states, and it produced major damage. Due to its effects, macroseismic studies were developed by Romanian researchers soon after its occurrence, with foreign scientists also involved, such as Medvedev, the founder of the Medvedev-Sponheuer-Karnik (MSK seismic intensity scale. The original macroseismic questionnaires were re-examined, to take into account the recommendations for intensity assessments according to the MSK-64 macroseismic scale used in Romania. After the re-evaluation of the macroseismic field of this earthquake, the intensity dataset was obtained for 1,620 sites in Romanian territory. The re-evaluation was necessary as it has confirmed that the previous macroseismic map was underestimated. On this new map, only the intensity data points are plotted, without tracing the isoseismals.

  10. Macroseismic intensity attenuation in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmaei-Sabegh, Saman

    2018-01-01

    Macroseismic intensity data plays an important role in the process of seismic hazard analysis as well in developing of reliable earthquake loss models. This paper presents a physical-based model to predict macroseismic intensity attenuation based on 560 intensity data obtained in Iran in the time period 1975-2013. The geometric spreading and energy absorption of seismic waves have been considered in the proposed model. The proposed easy to implement relation describes the intensity simply as a function of moment magnitude, source to site distance and focal depth. The prediction capability of the proposed model is assessed by means of residuals analysis. Prediction results have been compared with those of other intensity prediction models for Italy, Turkey, Iran and central Asia. The results indicate the higher attenuation rate for the study area in distances less than 70km.

  11. Transfrontier macroseismic data exchange in NW Europe: examples of non-circular intensity distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noten, Koen; Lecocq, Thomas; Hinzen, Klaus-G.; Sira, Christophe; Camelbeeck, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    Macroseismic data acquisition recently received a strong increase in interest due to public crowdsourcing through internet-based inquiries and real-time smartphone applications. Macroseismic analysis of felt earthquakes is important as the perception of people can be used to detect local/regional site effects in areas without instrumentation. We will demonstrate how post-processing macroseismic data improves the quality of real-time intensity evaluation of new events. Instead of using the classic DYFI representation in which internet intensities are averaged per community, we, first, geocoded all individual responses and structure the model area into 100 km2grid cells. Second, the average intensity of all answers within a grid cell is calculated. The resulting macroseismic grid cell distribution shows a less subjective and more homogeneous intensity distribution than the classical irregular community distribution and helps to improve the calculation of intensity attenuation functions. In this presentation, the 'Did You Feel It' (DYFI) macroseismic data of several >M4, e.g. the 2002 ML 4.9 Alsdorf and 2011 ML 4.3 Goch (Germany) and the 2015 ML 4.1 Ramsgate (UK), earthquakes felt in Belgium, Germany, The Netherlands, France, Luxemburg and UK are analysed. Integration of transfrontier DYFI data of the ROB-BNS, KNMI, BCSF and BGS networks results in a particular non-circular, distribution of the macroseismic data in which the felt area for all these examples extends significantly more in E-W than N-S direction. This intensity distribution cannot be explained by geometrical amplitude attenuation alone, but rather illustrates a low-pass filtering effect due to the south-to-north increasing thickness of cover sediments above the London-Brabant Massif. For the studied M4 to M5 earthquakes, the thick sediments attenuate seismic energy at higher frequencies and consequently less people feel the vibrations at the surface. This example of successful macroseismic data exchange

  12. GeoInt: the first macroseismic intensity database for the Republic of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varazanashvili, O.; Tsereteli, N.; Bonali, F. L.; Arabidze, V.; Russo, E.; Pasquaré Mariotto, F.; Gogoladze, Z.; Tibaldi, A.; Kvavadze, N.; Oppizzi, P.

    2018-05-01

    Our work is intended to present the new macroseismic intensity database for the Republic of Georgia—hereby named GeoInt—which includes earthquakes from the historical (from 1250 B.C. onwards) to the instrumental era. Such database is composed of 111 selected earthquakes and related 3944 intensity data points (IDPs) for 1509 different localities, reported in the Medvedev-Sponheuer-Karnik scale (MSK). Regarding the earthquakes, the M S is in the 3.3-7 range and the depth is in the 2-36 km range. The entire set of IDPs is characterized by intensities ranging from 2-3 to 9-10 and covers an area spanning from 39.508° N to 45.043° N in a N-S direction and from 37.324° E to 48.500° E in an E-W direction, with some of the IDPs located outside the Georgian border, in the (i) Republic of Armenia, (ii) Russian Federation, (iii) Republic of Turkey, and (iv) Republic of Azerbaijan. We have revised each single IDP and have reevaluated and homogenized intensity values to the MSK scale. In particular, regarding the whole set of 3944 IDPs, 348 belong to the Historical era (pre-1900) and 3596 belong to the instrumental era (post-1900). With particular regard to the 3596 IDPs, 105 are brand new (3%), whereas the intensity values for 804 IDPs have been reevaluated (22%); for 2687 IDPs (75%), intensities have been confirmed from previous interpretations. We introduce this database as a key input for further improvements in seismic hazard modeling and seismic risk calculation for this region, based on macroseismic intensity; we report all the 111 earthquakes with available macroseismic information. The GeoInt database is also accessible online at http://www.enguriproject.unimib.it and will be kept updated in the future.

  13. Analysis of the impact of fault mechanism radiation patterns on macroseismic fields in the epicentral area of 1998 and 2004 Krn Mountains earthquakes (NW Slovenia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosar, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    Two moderate magnitude (Mw = 5.6 and 5.2) earthquakes in Krn Mountains occurred in 1998 and 2004 which had maximum intensity VII-VIII and VI-VII EMS-98, respectively. Comparison of both macroseismic fields showed unexpected differences in the epicentral area which cannot be explained by site effects. Considerably, different distribution of the highest intensities can be noticed with respect to the strike of the seismogenic fault and in some localities even higher intensities have been estimated for the smaller earthquake. Although hypocentres of both earthquakes were only 2 km apart and were located on the same seismogenic Ravne fault, their focal mechanisms showed a slight difference: almost pure dextral strike-slip for the first event and a strike-slip with small reverse component on a steep fault plane for the second one. Seismotectonically the difference is explained as an active growth of the Ravne fault at its NW end. The radiation patterns of both events were studied to explain their possible impact on the observed variations in macroseismic fields and damage distribution. Radiation amplitude lobes were computed for three orthogonal directions: radial P, SV, and SH. The highest intensities of both earthquakes were systematically observed in directions of four (1998) or two (2004) large amplitude lobes in SH component (which corresponds mainly to Love waves), which have significantly different orientation for both events. On the other hand, radial P direction, which is almost purely symmetrical for the strike-slip mechanism of 1998 event, showed for the 2004 event that its small reverse component of movement has resulted in a very pronounced amplitude lobe in SW direction where two settlements are located which expressed higher intensities in the case of the 2004 event with respect to the 1998 one. Although both macroseismic fields are very complex due to influences of multiple earthquakes, retrofitting activity after 1998, site effects, and sparse

  14. Effective attenuation of macroseismic intensity with distance according to data on the Racha earthquake of April 29, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jibladze, E.; Butikashvili, N.; Glonti, E.

    2004-01-01

    The effective coefficient of attenuation of macroseismic intensity with distance is studied for the Racha earthquake region. The study is based on macroseismic data on the Racha earthquake of April 29, 1991. The Blake-Shebalin formula for macroseismic field was used. Proceeding from the energy model of the earthquake focus, we consider the intensity for point, linear and volumetric foci. (authors)

  15. Modelling macroseismic observations for historical earthquakes: the cases of the M = 7.0, 1954 Sofades and M = 6.8, 1957 Velestino events (central Greece)

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    Papazachos, Giannis; Papazachos, Costas; Skarlatoudis, Andreas; Kkallas, Harris; Lekkas, Efthimios

    2016-01-01

    We attempt to model the spatial distribution of the strong ground motion for the large M = 7.0, 1954 Sofades and M = 6.8, 1957 Velestino events (southern Thessaly basin, central Greece), using the macroseismic intensities ( I M M up to 9+) observed within the broader Thessaly area. For this reason, we employ a modified stochastic method realised by the EXSIM algorithm for extended sources, in order to reproduce the damage distribution of these earthquakes, in an attempt to combine existing earthquake information and appropriate scaling relations with surface geology and to investigate the efficiency of the available macroseismic data. For site-effects assessment, we use a new digital geological map of the broader Thessaly basin, where geological formations are grouped by age and mapped on appropriate NEHRP soil classes. Using the previous approach, we estimate synthetic time series for different rupture scenarios and employ various calibrating relations between PGA/PGV and macroseismic intensity, allowing the generation of synthetic (stochastic) isoseismals. Also, different site amplification factors proposed for the broader Aegean area, according to local geology, are tested. Finally, we also perform a sensitivity analysis of the fault location, taking into account the available neotectonic data for the broader southern Thessaly fault zone. The finally determined fault locations are different than previously proposed, in agreement with the available neotectonic information. The observed macroseismic intensities are in good agreement with the ones derived from the synthetic waveforms, verifying both the usefulness of the approach, as well as of the macroseismic data used. Finally, site-effects show clear correlation with the geological classification employed, with constant amplification factors for each soil class generally providing better results than generic transfer functions.

  16. Management and processing of the french macroseismic data base Sirene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levret, A.

    1991-01-01

    The safety requirements imposed by the development of the French nuclear program gave a new impetus to historical seismicity studies. This research has been persued on a regular basis, for the last 15 years, by the BRGM, the CEA and EDF. By gathering the original documentation describing past earthquakes, a vast data bank, has thus been progressively constituted, which in turn has given rise to the French macroseismic data base SIRENE, initially implanted on the IBM 370 macrocomputer. SIRENE's originality resides in the exhaustivity of the data it contains for any given event and the use of quality coefficients attached to all the information compiled. Since 1986, under the responsibility of the BRGM, it has been transformed into a relational data base, now managed via ORACLE software on a VAX 8530 computer. The base is comprised of 12 tables (more than 120 000 records), describing the nearly 6 000 events experienced in France over the last ten centuries. The direct query language is SQL, the base is updated each year, and a program was undertaken in 1990 for the storage of all basic documentation on digital optical disks. Various specific applications have been developed such as: graphic plotting (macroseismic maps, maps of epicenters), codes for calculation of focal depths, intensity attenuation, statistical sample analysis. About 200 earthquakes having numerous macroseismic observations have been processed to determine focal depths by fitting of the Sponheuer law. Then by grouping the earthquakes with the same range of focal depth and located in a same tectonic area various regional intensity attenuation laws have been calculated

  17. Thumbnail‐based questionnaires for the rapid and efficient collection of macroseismic data from global earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossu, Remy; Landes, Matthieu; Roussel, Frederic; Steed, Robert; Mazet-Roux, Gilles; Martin, Stacey S.; Hough, Susan E.

    2017-01-01

    The collection of earthquake testimonies (i.e., qualitative descriptions of felt shaking) is essential for macroseismic studies (i.e., studies gathering information on how strongly an earthquake was felt in different places), and when done rapidly and systematically, improves situational awareness and in turn can contribute to efficient emergency response. In this study, we present advances made in the collection of testimonies following earthquakes around the world using a thumbnail‐based questionnaire implemented on the European‐Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC) smartphone app and its website compatible for mobile devices. In both instances, the questionnaire consists of a selection of thumbnails, each representing an intensity level of the European Macroseismic Scale 1998. We find that testimonies are collected faster, and in larger numbers, by way of thumbnail‐based questionnaires than by more traditional online questionnaires. Responses were received from all seismically active regions of our planet, suggesting that thumbnails overcome language barriers. We also observed that the app is not sufficient on its own, because the websites are the main source of testimonies when an earthquake strikes a region for the first time in a while; it is only for subsequent shocks that the app is widely used. Notably though, the speed of the collection of testimonies increases significantly when the app is used. We find that automated EMSC intensities as assigned by user‐specified thumbnails are, on average, well correlated with “Did You Feel It?” (DYFI) responses and with the three independently and manually derived macroseismic datasets, but there is a tendency for EMSC to be biased low with respect to DYFI at moderate and large intensities. We address this by proposing a simple adjustment that will be verified in future earthquakes.

  18. Reevaluation of the macroseismic effects of the 1887 Sonora, Mexico earthquake and its magnitude estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Gerardo; Hough, Susan E.

    2008-01-01

    The Sonora, Mexico, earthquake of 3 May 1887 occurred a few years before the start of the instrumental era in seismology. We revisit all available accounts of the earthquake and assign Modified Mercalli Intensities (MMI), interpreting and analyzing macroseismic information using the best available modern methods. We find that earlier intensity assignments for this important earthquake were unjustifiably high in many cases. High intensity values were assigned based on accounts of rock falls, soil failure or changes in the water table, which are now known to be very poor indicators of shaking severity and intensity. Nonetheless, reliable accounts reveal that light damage (intensity VI) occurred at distances of up to ~200 km in both Mexico and the United States. The resulting set of 98 reevaluated intensity values is used to draw an isoseismal map of this event. Using the attenuation relation proposed by Bakun (2006b), we estimate an optimal moment magnitude of Mw7.6. Assuming this magnitude is correct, a fact supported independently by documented rupture parameters assuming standard scaling relations, our results support the conclusion that northern Sonora as well as the Basin and Range province are characterized by lower attenuation of intensities than California. However, this appears to be at odds with recent results that Lg attenuation in the Basin and Range province is comparable to that in California.

  19. Engineering seismology application of a computer base comprise of french macroseismic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godefroy, P.; Levret, A.

    1990-01-01

    France, a moderately seismic country, has compiled a computer base of macroseismic data for the purpose of satisfying safety requirements implicated in its nuclear electric program. This evolving base includes not only information about the event and its epicenter, but also all the individual macroseismic observations. The analysis of these data serves as an input to the deterministic assessment of seismic hazard for high-risk facilities. Current practice implements a seismotectonic approach wherein geological and seismic data are used to determine active faults or, when this is not possible, provinces shown to be homogeneous on the basis of a certain number of criteria. According to the safety procedure applied, the first step is to act as if this earthquake could occur at any spot within the entity to which it belongs, and thence at the point nearest the site. The maximum macroseismic intensity induced thereby on the site, either after displacing isoseismals or through use of laws of intensity attenuation versus distance, constitutes an initial level of seismic hazard with respect to which protective measures in the design of certain types of installation are taken. In the nuclear field, the regulations call for a second level of hazard, intended to afford an additional safety margin expected to cover, notably, uncertainties in the seismotectonic analysis or insufficiencies in the seismic data itself. This second level of hazard, designated Safety Design Earthquake, the effect of which is to raise the first-level intensity by one degree, is characterized by its response spectrum, in terms of which the facility's safety functions must remain unimpaired. Examples, drawn from south-eastern France, of the procedure just described will be presented

  20. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Delirium Rating Scale Revised-98 (DRS-R98).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Steven; Kishi, Yasuhiro; Trzepacz, Paula T; Franco, Jose G; Meagher, David J; Lee, Yanghyun; Kim, Jeong-Lan; Furlanetto, Leticia M; Negreiros, Daniel; Huang, Ming-Chyi; Chen, Chun-Hsin; Kean, Jacob; Leonard, Maeve

    2015-01-01

    Principal components analysis applied to the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 contributes to understanding the delirium construct. Using a multisite pooled international delirium database, the authors applied confirmatory factor analysis to Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 scores from 859 adult patients evaluated by delirium experts (delirium, N=516; nondelirium, N=343). Confirmatory factor analysis found all diagnostic features and core symptoms (cognitive, language, thought process, sleep-wake cycle, motor retardation), except motor agitation, loaded onto factor 1. Motor agitation loaded onto factor 2 with noncore symptoms (delusions, affective lability, and perceptual disturbances). Factor 1 loading supports delirium as a single construct, but when accompanied by psychosis, motor agitation's role may not be solely as a circadian activity indicator.

  1. Reassessment of the historical seismic activity with major impact on S. Miguel Island (Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Silveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available On account of its tectonic setting, both seismic and volcanic events are frequent in the Azores archipelago. During the historical period earthquakes and seismic swarms of tectonic and/or volcanic origin have struck S. Miguel Island causing a significant number of casualties and severe damages. The information present in historical records made possible a new macroseismic analysis of these major events using the European Macroseismic Scale-1998 (EMS-98. Among the strongest earthquakes of tectonic origin that affected S. Miguel Island, six events were selected for this study. The isoseismal maps drawn for these events enabled the identification of areas characterized by anomalous values of seismic intensity, either positive or negative, to constrain epicentre locations and to identify some new seismogenic areas. Regarding seismic activity associated with volcanic phenomena six cases were also selected. For each of the studied cases cumulative intensity values were assessed for each locality. The distribution of local intensity values shows that the effects are not homogeneous within a certain distance from the eruptive centre, the area of major impacts relates with the eruptive style and damages equivalent to high intensities may occur in Furnas and Sete Cidades calderas. Combining all the historical macroseismic data, a maximum intensity map was produced for S. Miguel Island.

  2. Towards Coupling of Macroseismic Intensity with Structural Damage Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouteva, Mihaela; Boshnakov, Krasimir

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge on basic data of ground motion acceleration time histories during earthquakes is essential to understanding the earthquake resistant behaviour of structures. Peak and integral ground motion parameters such as peak ground motion values (acceleration, velocity and displacement), measures of the frequency content of ground motion, duration of strong shaking and various intensity measures play important roles in seismic evaluation of existing facilities and design of new systems. Macroseismic intensity is an earthquake measure related to seismic hazard and seismic risk description. Having detailed ideas on the correlations between the earthquake damage potential and macroseismic intensity is an important issue in engineering seismology and earthquake engineering. Reliable earthquake hazard estimation is the major prerequisite to successful disaster risk management. The usage of advanced earthquake engineering approaches for structural response modelling is essential for reliable evaluation of the accumulated damages in the existing buildings and structures due to the history of seismic actions, occurred during their lifetime. Full nonlinear analysis taking into account single event or series of earthquakes and the large set of elaborated damage indices are suitable contemporary tools to cope with this responsible task. This paper presents some results on the correlation between observational damage states, ground motion parameters and selected analytical damage indices. Damage indices are computed on the base of nonlinear time history analysis of test reinforced structure, characterising the building stock of the Mediterranean region designed according the earthquake resistant requirements in mid XX-th century.

  3. Design and psychometric properties of The Sexual Machism Scale (EMS-Sexism-12

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    Cecilia Díaz Rodríguez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Sexual Machism Scale (EMS-Sexismo-12 evaluates in both men and women, sexism levels that could result in sexual health risk behaviors. Nowadays there is no Sexual Machism Scale. The analyses were made with 79 participants, 43 men and 36 women, with ages that go from 11 to 76 years. Originally 24 items were elaborated, however exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis guided the reduction of the scale. It is achieved to obtain a brief and precise scale (12 items, 0.91 alpha with only one factor that explains 98.1% of its variance and adequate goodness of fit indices in confirmatory factor analysis. We also analyzed differences between men and women founding higher scores in men than in women.

  4. USO DO ENXERTO ÓSSEO CORTICAL BOVINO CONSERVADO EM GLICERINA A 98% NA OSTEOTOMIA FEMORAL EM GATOS USE BOVINE CORTICAL BONE, PRESERVED IN 98% GLICERIN IN FEMORAL OSTEOTOMY IN CATS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Helena de Carvalho Penha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Enxerto cortical bovino, sob a forma de pino com 4mm de largura e 10cm de comprimento, conservado em glicerina a 98% por trinta dias no mínimo, foi implantado no canal medular de dez gatos e utilizado como único método de fixação, após osteotomia transversa da diáfise femoral esquerda, com o objetivo de avaliar clínica e radiograficamente a eficácia dos xenoenxertos como substitutos aos pinos de metal. Distribuíram-se os animais em dois grupos de cinco gatos, um com gatos jovens com idade inferior a um ano e um grupo de cinco gatos adultos com mais de um ano de idade. Em média, a deambulação normal ocorreu aos quinze dias, com união óssea radiográfica em 16,6 semanas. Dentre os cinco animais do grupo jovem, dois sofreram fratura do enxerto com desvio grave de eixo ósseo, mas sem fratura das corticais femorais e nos três animais restantes o processo de remodelação foi notado em tempo médio de 75 dias. Dos cinco animais do grupo adulto, todos sofreram acavalamento de vários graus, sendo considerado grave em dois animais, por estar associado com fratura das respectivas corticais femorais, mas sem desvio de eixo ósseo. Dos demais animais com acavalamento de grau leve, um apresentou união retardada, um apresentou fratura do enxerto e um apresentou calo ósseo não exuberante, encontrando-se em remodelação aos 110 dias. Pode-se concluir que o método de implantação intramedular de pino ósseo cortical bovino, preservado em glicerina a 98% em gatos jovens e adultos, foi adequadamente empregado, proporcionando suporte mecânico em tempo suficiente para união óssea.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Enxerto cortical bovino, fêmur, fratura, gatos, osteotomia. Cortical xenografts derived from bovine boné and shaped as intramedullary nails, with 4mm of width and 10cm or lenght, preserved in 98% glycerol for a minimum of 30 days were used as the sole method of internal fixation for transverse osteotomy of feline femoral diaphysis

  5. Transfrontier Macroseismic Data Exchange in Europe: Intensity Assessment of M>4 Earthquakes by a Grid Cell Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noten, K.; Lecocq, T.; Sira, C.; Hinzen, K. G.; Camelbeeck, T.

    2016-12-01

    In the US, the USGS is the only institute that gathers macroseismic data through its online "Did You Feel It?" (DYFI) system allowing a homogeneous and consistent intensity assessment. In Europe, however, we face a much more complicated situation. As almost every nation has its own inquiry in their national language(s) and both the EMSC and the USGS run an international DYFI inquiry, responses to European transfrontier-felt seismic events are strongly fragmented across different institutes. To make a realistic ground motion intensity assessment, macroseismic databases need to be merged in a consistent way hereby dealing with duplicated responses, different intensity calculations and legal issues (observer's privacy). In this presentation, we merge macroseismic datasets by a grid cell approach. Instead of using the irregularly-shaped, arbitrary municipal boundaries, we structure the model area into (100 km2) grid cells and assign an intensity value to each grid cell based on all institutional (geocoded) responses in that cell. The resulting macroseismic grid cell distribution shows a less subjective and more homogeneous intensity distribution than the classic community distribution despite less datapoints are used after geocoding the participant's location. The method is demonstrated on the 2011 ML 4.3 (MW 3.7) Goch (Germany) and the 2015 ML 4.2 (MW 3.7) Ramsgate (UK) earthquakes both felt in NW Europe. Integration of data results in a non-circular distribution in which the felt area extends significantly more in E-W than in N-S direction, illustrating a low-pass filtering effect due to the south-to-north increasing thickness of cover sediments above the regional London-Brabant Massif. Ground motions were amplified and attenuated at places with a shallow and deep basement, respectively. To large extend, the shape of the attenuation model derived through the grid cell intensity points is rather similar as the Atkinson and Wald (2007) CEUS prediction. The attenuation

  6. Korean Version of the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98: Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jian; Lee, Jinyoung; Kim, Hwi-Jung; Shin, Im Hee; Kim, Jeong-Lan; Trzepacz, Paula T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aims of the present study were 1) to standardize the validity and reliability of the Korean version of Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R98-K) and 2) to establish the optimum cut-off value, sensitivity, and specificity for discriminating delirium from other non-delirious psychiatric conditions. Methods Using DSM-IV criteria, 157 subjects (69 delirium, 29 dementia, 32 schizophrenia, and 27 other psychiatric patients) were enrolled. Subjects were evaluated using DRS-R98-K, DRS-K, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-K), and Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scale. Results DRS-R98-K total and severity scores showed high correlations with DRS-K. They were significantly different across all groups (p=0.000). However, neither MMSE-K nor CGI-S distinguished delirium from dementia. All DRS-R98-K diagnostic items (#14-16) and items #1 and 2 significantly discriminated delirium from dementia. Cronbach's alpha coefficient revealed high internal consistency for DRS-R98-K total (r=0.91) and severity (r=0.89) scales. Interrater reliability (ICC between 0.96 and 1) was very high. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, the area under the curve of DRS-R98-K total score was 0.948 between the delirium group and all other groups and 0.873 between the delirium and dementia groups. The best cut-off scores in DRS-R98-K total score were 18.5 and 19.5 between the delirium and the other three groups and 20.5 between the delirium and dementia groups. Conclusion We demonstrated that DRS-R98-K is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing delirium severity and diagnosis and discriminating delirium from dementia and other psychiatric disorders in Korean patients. PMID:21519534

  7. Comparative study of cryopreserved bone tissue and tissue preserved in a 98% glycerol solution Estudo comparativo entre o tecido ósseo criopreservado e o conservado em glicerol a 98%

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    Arlete Mazzini Miranda Giovani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the bone graft cryopreservation method (at -80ºC with a preservation method using a 98% glycerol solution at room temperature (10ºC-35ºC, by testing the antibacterial and fungal effects of 98% glycerol and comparatively analyzing the observed histological changes resulting from the use of both methods. METHOD: This study was of 30 samples of trabecular bone tissue from 10 patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. Each femoral head provided 3 samples that were randomized into 3 groups, namely, the control group, the cryopreserved group, and the group preserved in a 98% glycerol at room temperature for 1 year. The samples were submitted to histomorphologic, cell feasibility, and microbiologic analyses. The results were statistically analyzed using the McNemar test, with a statistical significance index of 0.05. RESULTS: Values obtained using the McNemar test to compare probability distributions of histomorphologic variables (mature or lamellar bone, immature bone, and necrosis and cell feasibility (osteoblasts and osteoclasts indicated that there is no difference between the distributions of variables under the 3 experimental conditions. Microbiological analysis of the 98% glycerol solution and bone fragments from samples stored for 1 year at room temperature did not show bacterial or fungal growth. The histological and microbiological investigation were performed at 2 different time points: immediately after the sample processing and after 1 year. CONCLUSION: The method used to preserve bone grafts kept in 98% glycerol at room temperature (10ºC-35ºC was similar to cryopreservation in terms of bone matrix preservation; no bacteria or fungi were found in the samples.OBJETIVO: Comparar o método da criopreservação de enxertos ósseos (- 80º C com o da conservação em glicerol a 98% em temperatura ambiente (10º C a 35º C, testando os efeitos antibacterianos e antifúngicos do glicerol a 98% e analisando

  8. A Bayesian framework for estimating moment magnitude and its uncertainty from macroseismic intensity measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, E.; Main, I. G.; Naylor, M.; Chandler, R. E.

    2016-12-01

    In moderate to low seismicity areas such as the UK, earthquakes represent a small but not negligible risk to sensitive structures such as nuclear power plants. As a part of the safety case in the planning and regulation of such structures, seismic activity must first be monitored and quantified to form a catalogue of past events. In a low or moderate seismicity zone, most of our knowledge of the most significant events comes from macroseismic intensity measures from the pre-instrumental period (before 1900). These historical records must then be combined and calibrated with modern analogue and digitally-recorded instrumental data on a common source magnitude scale, the most useful of which is the moment magnitude. The result is a unified catalogue that can be used for probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. An isoseismal map involves a set of contours that enclose the areas at which the event was felt at particular intensity values or higher, called felt areas. It has been common practice to draw these contours by hand with varying degrees of subjectivity. Here, we demonstrate a Bayesian method for constructing such maps objectively from macroseismic intensity measures and their observed locations. It involves using mathematical expressions to represent concentric ellipses and estimating their optimal parameters and uncertainties in a Bayesian framework. Inferred fault orientations in the UK are predominantly vertical, so the elliptical assumption is reasonable at least to first order or as a null hypothesis. Relevant physical constraints are used as priors where available. The resulting posterior distributions are used to calculate felt area at a given intensity, as well as a probability density function for the inferred epicentre. We then describe another Bayesian approach for deriving moment magnitude from felt areas based on their relationship and known constraints such as the frequency-magnitude distribution. The use of Bayesian inference allows us to quantify

  9. The MCS macroseismic survey of the Emilia 2012 earthquakes

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    Paolo Galli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of the inhabitants of northern Italy were woken up during the night of May 20, 2012, by the Mw 6.1 earthquake [QRCMT 2012] that occurred in the eastern Po Plain. The mainshock was preceded a few hours before by a Mw 4.3 shock, and it was followed by a dozen Ml >4 aftershocks in May and June, amongst which 11 had Ml ≥4.5. On May 29, 2012, a second Mw 6.0 mainshock struck roughly the same area [QRCMT 2012], which resulted in further victims, most of whom were caught under the collapse of industrial warehouses. Such earthquakes are an unexpected event in this region, as testified by the lack of local epicenters in the Italian seismic catalog [Rovida et al. 2011: CPTI11 from now] and by the consequent low level of the local seismic classification (seismic zone 3 [DPC 2012]. Apart from the warehouses and hundreds of old, crumbling farmsteads, severe damage was focused on ancient, tall buildings, such as churches, bell towers, castles, towers and palaces. Residential buildings generally suffered only light and/or moderate effects, apart from some exceptional cases. Using the Mercalli–Cancani–Sieberg (MCS scale [Sieberg 1930], we began a macroseismic survey in the early morning of May 20, 2012, that ultimately included visits to almost 200 localities, 52 of which were carried out before the second mainshock. […

  10. Propriedades tensiométricas do peritônio da paca (Cuniculus paca a fresco e conservado em glicerina 98%

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    Angela Daniele de Camargo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Na busca constante, tanto de material biológico alternativo para a realização de implantes, quanto de novas opções de modelos de experimentação animal, o objetivo desta investigação foi descrever o comportamento mecânico do peritônio da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 a fresco e conservado em glicerina a 98%. Amostras frescas e conservadas em glicerina por períodos de 30, 60 e 90 dias foram submetidas a testes mecânicos de tração. Quatro animais adultos, três machos e uma fêmeas, com peso corporal médio de oito quilogramas, foram utilizados para colheita das amostras de peritônio. Todos os tecidos conservados em glicerina a 98% apresentaram diminuição na rigidez e aumento na ductibilidade e tenacidade. Considerando-se a força máxima aplicada ao peritônio, evidenciou-se aumento significativo nos valores (p<0,01 das amostras conservadas por 60 e 90 dias, quando comparado ao material a fresco. Com relação a variável alongamento, notou-se aumento nos valores relativos aos materiais em glicerina em todos os tempos de conservação, verificando-se diferença significativa (p<0,01 entre os valores das amostras a fresco. A variável área também se apresentou significativa (p<0,01 entre os valores das amostras a fresco (5,40 mm² e os preservados em glicerina pelos períodos de 30 dias (4,50 mm², 60 dias (9,00 mm² e 90 dias (7,20 mm², indicando assim, que a área desta membrana aumentou em 0,033 mm² por dia. Mediante os resultados observados, concluiu-se que a glicerina 98% é uma substância eficiente para a conservação do peritônio da paca, pois melhorou suas propriedades mecânicas permitindo que as membranas suportem maiores forças de deformação. Assim, os resultados obtidos nos ensaios mecânicos do peritônio da paca sugerem sua utilização como mais uma opção de material biológico.

  11. Mapping seismic intensity using twitter data; A Case study: The February 26th, 2014 M5.9 Kefallinia (Greece) earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arapostathis, Stathis; Parcharidis, Isaak; Kalogeras, Ioannis; Drakatos, George

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we present an innovative approach for the development of seismic intensity maps in minimum time frame. As case study, a recent earthquake that occurred in Western Greece (Kefallinia Island, on February 26, 2014) is used. The magnitude of the earthquake was M=5.9 (Institute of Geodynamics - National Observatory of Athens). Earthquake's effects comprising damages in property and changes of the physical environment in the area. The innovative part of this research is that we use crowdsourcing as a source to assess macroseismic intensity information, coming out from twitter content. Twitter as a social media service with micro-blogging characteristics, a semantic structure which allows the storage of spatial content, and a high volume production of user generated content is a suitable source to obtain and extract knowledge related to macroseismic intensity in different geographic areas and in short time periods. Moreover the speed in which twitter content is generated affects us to have accurate results only a few hours after the occurrence of the earthquake. The method used in order to extract, evaluate and map the intensity related information is described in brief in this paper. At first, we pick out all the tweets that have been posted within the first 48 hours, including information related to intensity and refer to a geographic location. The geo-referencing of these tweets and their association with an intensity grade according to the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS98) based on the information they contain in text followed. Finally, we apply various spatial statistics and GIS methods, and we interpolate the values to cover all the appropriate geographic areas. The final output contains macroseismic intensity maps for the Lixouri area (Kefallinia Island), produced from twitter data that have been posted in the first six, twelve, twenty four and forty eight hours after the earthquake occurrence. Results are compared with other intensity maps for same

  12. Using H/V Spectral Ratio Analysis to Map Sediment Thickness and to Explain Macroseismic Intensity Variation of a Low-Magnitude Seismic Swarm in Central Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noten, K.; Lecocq, T.; Camelbeeck, T.

    2013-12-01

    Between 2008 and 2010, the Royal Observatory of Belgium received numerous ';Did You Feel It'-reports related to a 2-year lasting earthquake swarm at Court-Saint-Etienne, a small town in a hilly area 20 km SE of Brussels, Belgium. These small-magnitude events (-0.7 ≤ ML ≤ 3.2, n = c. 300 events) were recorded both by the permanent seismometer network in Belgium and by a locally installed temporary seismic network deployed in the epicentral area. Relocation of the hypocenters revealed that the seismic swarm can be related to the reactivation of a NW-SE strike-slip fault at 3 to 6 km depth in the basement rocks of the Lower Palaeozoic London-Brabant Massif. This sequence caused a lot of emotion in the region because more than 60 events were felt by the local population. Given the small magnitudes of the seismic swarm, most events were more often heard than felt by the respondents, which is indicative of a local high-frequency earthquake source. At places where the bedrock is at the surface or where it is covered by thin alluvial sediments ( 30 m). In those river valleys that have a considerable alluvial sedimentary cover, macroseismic intensities are again lower. To explain this variation in macroseismic intensity we present a macroseismic analysis of all DYFI-reports related to the 2008-2010 seismic swarm and a pervasive H/V spectral ratio (HVSR) analysis of ambient noise measurements to model the thickness of sediments covering the London-Brabant Massif. The HVSR method is a very powerful tool to map the basement morphology, particularly in regions of unknown subsurface structure. By calculating the soil's fundamental frequency above boreholes, we calibrated the power-law relationship between the fundamental frequency, shear wave velocity and the thickness of sediments. This relationship is useful for places where the sediment thickness is unknown and where the fundamental frequency can be calculated by H/V spectral ratio analysis of ambient noise. In a

  13. Os grandes eventos e a cultura em Portugal: sobre os Impactos culturais da Expo’98 e os Públicos do Porto 2001

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    Claudino Ferreira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Os livros em discussão sintetizam os resultados de duas investigações conduzidas pelo Observatório das Actividades Culturais, instituição que tem vindo a desempenhar um papel decisivo na produção de informação e no desenvolvimento da pesquisa sociológica sobre a cultura em Portugal. Os dois trabalhos representam um importante contributo para a compreensão do significado e das implicações culturais dos dois grandes eventos recentemente realizados no nosso país: a Expo’98 e a Porto 2001. Em amb...

  14. Preliminary results from EMERSITO, the rapid response network for site effect studies

    OpenAIRE

    Bordoni, P.; Azzara, R. M.; Cara, F.; Cogliano, R.; Cultrera, G.; Di Giulio, G.; Fodarella, A.; Milana, G.; Pucillo, S.; Riccio, G.; Rovelli, A.; Augliera, P.; Luzi, L.; Lovati, S.; Massa, M.

    2012-01-01

    On May 20, 2012, at 02:03 UTC, a ML 5.9 reverse-fault earthquake occurred in the Emilia-Romagna region, northern Italy, at a hypocentral depth of 6.3 km (http://iside.rm. ingv.it/), close to the cities of Modena and Ferrara in the plain of the Po River. The epicenter was near the village of Finale Emilia where macroseismic intensity was assessed at 7 EMS98 [Tertulliani et al. 2012, this issue], while the closest accelerometric station, MRN, located less than 20 km west-ward at Mirandola (F...

  15. Ethological parameters and performance of Hy Line W-98 and ISA Brown hens when housed in furnished cages Parâmetros etológicos e desempenho de poedeiras Hy line W-98 e Isa Brown alojadas em gaiolas enriquecidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F.B. Roll

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out throughout a laying period to compare the behaviour and performance of two groups of commercial layers, 180 ISA Brown and 120 Hy line W98, housed at 17 weeks of age in furnished cages with a nest box, perches, dust-bath, and claw shortening device. Based on productive parameters, the model of furnished cages studied is suitable for both, Isa Brown and Hy line hens. The study suggested that strain has a significant effect on feather condition and on some behavioural displays, particularly those related to the use of a dust-bath.Durante um ciclo completo de postura foram avaliados o comportamento e o desempenho de duas linhagens de poedeiras comerciais, 180 ISA Brown e 120 Hy line W98, alojadas com 17 semanas de idade em gaiolas enriquecidas com ninho, poleiros, banho de areia e dispositivos de desgaste de unhas. Em ambas as linhagens, Isa Brown e Hy line W98, o modelo de gaiola estudado foi apropriado em termos de desempenho produtivo. O estudo sugeriu que a linhagem teve efeito significativo sobre a condição da plumagem e sobre alguns aspectos comportamentais, particularmente, aqueles relacionados ao uso do banho de areia.

  16. Propriedades tensiométricas do peritônio da paca (Cuniculus paca) a fresco e conservado em glicerina 98%

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Daniele de Camargo; Paulo César de Camargo; Leonardo Martins Leal; Sérgio Pinter Garcia Filho; Leandro Luís Martins; Antônio Carlos Shimano; Márcia Rita Fernandes Machado

    2014-01-01

    Na busca constante, tanto de material biológico alternativo para a realização de implantes, quanto de novas opções de modelos de experimentação animal, o objetivo desta investigação foi descrever o comportamento mecânico do peritônio da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766) a fresco e conservado em glicerina a 98%. Amostras frescas e conservadas em glicerina por períodos de 30, 60 e 90 dias foram submetidas a testes mecânicos de tração. Quatro animais adultos, três machos e uma fêmeas, com pes...

  17. USGS "Did You Feel It?" internet-based macroseismic intensity maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, D.J.; Quitoriano, V.; Worden, B.; Hopper, M.; Dewey, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) "Did You Feel It?" (DYFI) system is an automated approach for rapidly collecting macroseismic intensity data from Internet users' shaking and damage reports and generating intensity maps immediately following earthquakes; it has been operating for over a decade (1999-2011). DYFI-based intensity maps made rapidly available through the DYFI system fundamentally depart from more traditional maps made available in the past. The maps are made more quickly, provide more complete coverage and higher resolution, provide for citizen input and interaction, and allow data collection at rates and quantities never before considered. These aspects of Internet data collection, in turn, allow for data analyses, graphics, and ways to communicate with the public, opportunities not possible with traditional data-collection approaches. Yet web-based contributions also pose considerable challenges, as discussed herein. After a decade of operational experience with the DYFI system and users, we document refinements to the processing and algorithmic procedures since DYFI was first conceived. We also describe a number of automatic post-processing tools, operations, applications, and research directions, all of which utilize the extensive DYFI intensity datasets now gathered in near-real time. DYFI can be found online at the website http://earthquake.usgs.gov/dyfi/. ?? 2011 by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia.

  18. Reparação traqueal em cães: transplante autógeno vs implante homógeno conservado em glicerina a 98% de cartilagem da pina Tracheal healing in dogs: autograft versus homograft implant preserved in 98% glycerin of pinna cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Antonio Contesini

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Diversas patologias acometem a traquéia dos animais domésticos de forma a comprometer o fluxo respiratório, inclusive a sobrevivência do animal. Obstrução por corpo estranho ou neoplasias, rupturas traumáticas, colapso e estenose são tidas como as principais. Reparações de defeitos induzidos experimentalmente em traquéias de 12 cães foram testadas comparativamente com o emprego de retalho de cartilagem da pina autógena em 6 cães (grupo I e homógena conservada em glicerina a 98% nos demais (grupo II. Para tal, removeu-se um terço da circunferência de três anéis da traquéia cervical. Esses animais permaneceram durante um período de 30 e 45 dias sob observação e avaliação clínica em descanso e exercício físico moderado, sem apresentar quaisquer complicações decorrentes da cirurgia. Ao final desse período, o segmento traqueal operado foi submetido à avaliação macro e microscópica, sendo observado macroscopicamente, encobrimento completo do retalho por uma estrutura delgada e esbranquiçada em todos os animais. A análise microscópica da região transplantada do grupo I revelou que a mesma foi invadida por tecido de granulação, a lâmina própria apresentou moderada infiltração de neutrófilos e pouca fibrose com focos de hiperplasia epitelial. Nos animais do grupo II, foram observadas, na região do implante, além disso, discreta invasão de macrófagos e vasos neoformados, com inflamação moderada na lâmina própria, e epitélio sem alteração. Essas observações sugerem que o implante de cartilagem da pina conservada em glicerina a 98%, induz resposta menos agressiva pelo leito receptor, embora isso não seja evidenciado macroscopicamente.Several patologies affect the trachea, compromising the respiratory stream and the animal survival. Foreign bodies, neoplasm, ruptures, collapse and stricture are the most common ones. The effects of canine pinna cartilage implantation were evaluated in 12 dogs. Six of

  19. O uso do peritônio de paca conservado em solução supersaturada de açúcar a 300% ou glicerina a 98% implantados na parede abdominal de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Leal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Na busca de material biológico alternativo para a realização de implantes, objetivou-se com o presente estudo avaliar comparativamente a implantação do peritônio de paca, uma nova opção de biomaterial, conservado em solução supersaturada de açúcar a 300% e conservado em glicerina a 98% na parede abdominal de ratos Wistar. Foram utilizados 60 ratos, machos, da linhagem Wistar, pesando entre 150 e 200 gramas, organizados nos seguintes grupos experimentais: grupo controle (GI, grupo peritônio conservado em solução supersaturada de açúcar a 300% (GII e grupo peritônio conservado em glicerina a 98% (GIII, cada um com 20 animais. Os grupos GII e GIII receberam o enxerto de peritônio da paca conservado em solução de açúcar 300% e glicerina 98%, respectivamente, e o grupo GI não recebeu a membrana. Cinco ratos de cada grupo foram submetidos à eutanásia em quatro momentos distintos: sete, 15, 30 e 60 dias de pós-operatório para avaliações macroscópicas e microscópicas da interface implante-tecido nativo. Apesar de reações adversas observadas em 57,5% dos animais do grupo GII e GIII, em 95% dos animais desses grupos houve boa cicatrização da membrana. Na análise histológica, verificou-se a presença de grande infiltrado inflamatório nos períodos iniciais (sete e 15 dias e grande presença de tecido conjuntivo nos momentos finais (30 e 60 dias. Concluiu-se que o peritônio da paca como membrana biológica conservado nos meios estudados pode ser utilizado com segurança na parede abdominal de ratos; ainda, que sua conservação em solução supersaturada de açúcar a 300% permitiu melhor maleabilidade no ato cirúrgico.

  20. Delirium subtype identification and the validation of the Delirium Rating Scale--Revised-98 (Dutch version) in hospitalized elderly patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, Sophia E.; van Munster, Barbara C.; Korevaar, Johanna C.; Casteelen, Gerty; Schuurmans, Marieke J.; van der Mast, Roos C.; Levi, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Delirium is the most common acute neuropsychiatric disorder in hospitalized elderly. The Dutch version of the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R-98) appears to be a reliable method to classify delirium. The aim of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the

  1. The ESI scale, an ethical approach to the evaluation of seismic hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfido, Sabina; Nappi, Rosa; De Lucia, Maddalena; Gaudiosi, Germana; Alessio, Giuliana; Guerrieri, Luca

    2015-04-01

    The dissemination of correct information about seismic hazard is an ethical duty of scientific community worldwide. A proper assessment of a earthquake severity and impact should not ignore the evaluation of its intensity, taking into account both the effects on humans, man-made structures, as well as on the natural evironment. We illustrate the new macroseismic scale that measures the intensity taking into account the effects of earthquakes on the environment: the ESI 2007 (Environmental Seismic Intensity) scale (Michetti et al., 2007), ratified by the INQUA (International Union for Quaternary Research) during the XVII Congress in Cairns (Australia). The ESI scale integrates and completes the traditional macroseismic scales, of which it represents the evolution, allowing to assess the intensity parameter also where buildings are absent or damage-based diagnostic elements saturate. Each degree reflects the corresponding strength of an earthquake and the role of ground effects, evaluating the Intensity on the basis of the characteristics and size of primary (e.g. surface faulting and tectonic uplift/subsidence) and secondary effects (e.g. ground cracks, slope movements, liquefaction phenomena, hydrological changes, anomalous waves, tsunamis, trees shaking, dust clouds and jumping stones). This approach can be considered "ethical" because helps to define the real scenario of an earthquake, regardless of the country's socio-economic conditions and level of development. Here lies the value and the relevance of macroseismic scales even today, one hundred years after the death of Giuseppe Mercalli, who conceived the homonymous scale for the evaluation of earthquake intensity. For an appropriate mitigation strategy in seismic areas, it is fundamental to consider the role played by seismically induced effects on ground, such as active faults (size in length and displacement) and secondary effects (the total area affecting). With these perspectives two different cases

  2. Membranas biológicas homólogas preservadas em solução alcalina seguida de liofilização, glicerina a 98% e por liofilização para implantação em eqüinos Homologous biological membranes persevered in alkaline solution and lyophilized, glycerin 98% and by lyophilization for equines implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valcinir Aloisio Scolla Vulcani

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar as alterações físico-químicas proporcionadas pelo tratamento de centros tendinosos diafragmáticos homólogos em solução alcalina seguida de liofilização, para implantação na fáscia interna do músculo reto do abdome de eqüinos. As amostras foram tratadas em períodos de 24, 48, 72, 120 e 144 horas, liofilizadas e analisadas quanto à homogeneidade, flexibilidade e resistência à sutura das amostras. Posteriormente foram caracterizadas por calorimetria exploratória diferencial e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Para a implantação nos eqüinos, foram utilizadas amostras tratadas por 72 horas seguidas de liofilização, amostras conservadas em glicerina 98% e amostras apenas liofilizadas, que foram retiradas após uma, nove e 18 semanas para avaliar a existência de aderências. Verificou-se que a homogeneidade e a flexibilidade são diretamente proporcionais ao aumento do tempo de tratamento em solução alcalina, enquanto que a resistência é inversamente proporcional ao aumento de tempo, sendo o tratamento por 72 horas intermediário para estas características. A calorimetria exploratória diferencial mostrou que o tratamento não desnatura o colágeno presente nas amostras. Na microscopia eletrônica de varredura, observou-se que o aumento de tempo de tratamento proporciona expansão de zonas menos densas do material. Em relação à formação de aderências, as amostras apenas liofilizadas apresentaram grau máximo na formação da classificação proposta, seguida pelas amostras conservadas em glicerina 98% com grau médio e as amostras tratadas em solução alcalina e liofilizadas, que foram classificadas em grau mínimo. Concluiu-se que o tratamento por 72 horas seria mais apropriado para implantação e que a integração tissular com a parede abdominal foi melhor em relação às amostras apenas liofilizadas e às conservadas em glicerina.The objectives in this research were

  3. Rapid Assessment of Seismic Vulnerability in Palestinian Refugee Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dabbeek, Jalal N.; El-Kelani, Radwan J.

    Studies of historical and recorded earthquakes in Palestine demonstrate that damaging earthquakes are occurring frequently along the Dead Sea Transform: Earthquake of 11 July 1927 (ML 6.2), Earthquake of 11 February 2004 (ML 5.2). In order to reduce seismic vulnerability of buildings, losses in lives, properties and infrastructures, an attempt was made to estimate the percentage of damage degrees and losses at selected refugee camps: Al Ama`ri, Balata and Dhaishe. Assessing the vulnerability classes of building structures was carried out according to the European Macro-Seismic Scale 1998 (EMS-98) and the Fedral Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The rapid assessment results showed that very heavy structural and non structural damages will occur in the common buildings of the investigated Refugee Camps (many buildings will suffer from damages grades 4 and 5). Bad quality of buildings in terms of design and construction, lack of uniformity, absence of spaces between the building and the limited width of roads will definitely increase the seismic vulnerability under the influence of moderate-strong (M 6-7) earthquakes in the future.

  4. Microzonation of seismic risk in a low-rise Latin American city based on the macroseismic evaluation of the vulnerability of residential buildings: Colima city, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobin, V. M.; Cruz-Bravo, A. A.; Ventura-Ramírez, F.

    2010-06-01

    A macroseismic methodology of seismic risk microzonation in a low-rise city based on the vulnerability of residential buildings is proposed and applied to Colima city, Mexico. The seismic risk microzonation for Colima consists of two elements: the mapping of residential blocks according to their vulnerability level and the calculation of an expert-opinion based damage probability matrix (DPM) for a given level of earthquake intensity and a given type of residential block. A specified exposure time to the seismic risk for this zonation is equal to the interval between two destructive earthquakes. The damage probability matrices were calculated for three types of urban buildings and five types of residential blocks in Colima. It was shown that only 9% of 1409 residential blocks are able to resist to the Modify Mercalli (MM) intensity VII and VIII earthquakes without significant damage. The proposed DPM-2007 is in good accordance with the experimental damage curves based on the macroseismic evaluation of 3332 residential buildings in Colima that was carried out after the 21 January 2003 intensity MM VII earthquake. This methodology and the calculated PDM-2007 curves may be applied also to seismic risk microzonation for many low-rise cities in Latin America, Asia, and Africa.

  5. Microzonation of seismic risk in a low-rise Latin American city based on the macroseismic evaluation of the vulnerability of residential buildings: Colima city, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Zobin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A macroseismic methodology of seismic risk microzonation in a low-rise city based on the vulnerability of residential buildings is proposed and applied to Colima city, Mexico. The seismic risk microzonation for Colima consists of two elements: the mapping of residential blocks according to their vulnerability level and the calculation of an expert-opinion based damage probability matrix (DPM for a given level of earthquake intensity and a given type of residential block. A specified exposure time to the seismic risk for this zonation is equal to the interval between two destructive earthquakes. The damage probability matrices were calculated for three types of urban buildings and five types of residential blocks in Colima. It was shown that only 9% of 1409 residential blocks are able to resist to the Modify Mercalli (MM intensity VII and VIII earthquakes without significant damage. The proposed DPM-2007 is in good accordance with the experimental damage curves based on the macroseismic evaluation of 3332 residential buildings in Colima that was carried out after the 21 January 2003 intensity MM VII earthquake. This methodology and the calculated PDM-2007 curves may be applied also to seismic risk microzonation for many low-rise cities in Latin America, Asia, and Africa.

  6. Designing a Method for AN Automatic Earthquake Intensities Calculation System Based on Data Mining and On-Line Polls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liendo Sanchez, A. K.; Rojas, R.

    2013-05-01

    Seismic intensities can be calculated using the Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) scale or the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS-98), among others, which are based on a serie of qualitative aspects related to a group of subjective factors that describe human perception, effects on nature or objects and structural damage due to the occurrence of an earthquake. On-line polls allow experts to get an overview of the consequences of an earthquake, without going to the locations affected. However, this could be a hard work if the polls are not properly automated. Taking into account that the answers given to these polls are subjective and there is a number of them that have already been classified for some past earthquakes, it is possible to use data mining techniques in order to automate this process and to obtain preliminary results based on the on-line polls. In order to achieve these goal, a predictive model has been used, using a classifier based on a supervised learning techniques such as decision tree algorithm and a group of polls based on the MMI and EMS-98 scales. It summarized the most important questions of the poll, and recursive divides the instance space corresponding to each question (nodes), while each node splits the space depending on the possible answers. Its implementation was done with Weka, a collection of machine learning algorithms for data mining tasks, using the J48 algorithm which is an implementation of the C4.5 algorithm for decision tree models. By doing this, it was possible to obtain a preliminary model able to identify up to 4 different seismic intensities with 73% correctly classified polls. The error obtained is rather high, therefore, we will update the on-line poll in order to improve the results, based on just one scale, for instance the MMI. Besides, the integration of automatic seismic intensities methodology with a low error probability and a basic georeferencing system, will allow to generate preliminary isoseismal maps

  7. Microzonation of seismic risk in a low-rise Latin American city based on the macroseismic evaluation of the vulnerability of residential buildings: Colima city, México

    OpenAIRE

    Zobin, V. M.; Cruz-Bravo, A. A.; Ventura-Ramírez, F.

    2010-01-01

    A macroseismic methodology of seismic risk microzonation in a low-rise city based on the vulnerability of residential buildings is proposed and applied to Colima city, Mexico. The seismic risk microzonation for Colima consists of two elements: the mapping of residential blocks according to their vulnerability level and the calculation of an expert-opinion based damage probability matrix (DPM) for a given level of earthquake intensity and a given type of residential block. A specified exposure...

  8. Design and psychometric properties of The Sexual Machism Scale (EMS-Sexism-12)

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Díaz Rodríguez; María Rosas Rodríguez; Mónica Teresa González Ramírez

    2013-01-01

    The Sexual Machism Scale (EMS-Sexismo-12) evaluates in both men and women, sexism levels that could result in sexual health risk behaviors. Nowadays there is no Sexual Machism Scale. The analyses were made with 79 participants, 43 men and 36 women, with ages that go from 11 to 76 years. Originally 24 items were elaborated, however exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis guided the reduction of the scale. It is achieved to obtain a brief and precise scale (12 items, 0.91 alpha) with only ...

  9. Regional earthquake loss estimation in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttenlau, Matthias; Winter, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Beside storm events geophysical events cause a majority of natural hazard losses on a global scale. However, in alpine regions with a moderate earthquake risk potential like in the study area and thereupon connected consequences on the collective memory this source of risk is often neglected in contrast to gravitational and hydrological hazards processes. In this context, the comparative analysis of potential disasters and emergencies on a national level in Switzerland (Katarisk study) has shown that earthquakes are the most serious source of risk in general. In order to estimate the potential losses of earthquake events for different return periods and loss dimensions of extreme events the following study was conducted in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol (Italy). The applied methodology follows the generally accepted risk concept based on the risk components hazard, elements at risk and vulnerability, whereby risk is not defined holistically (direct, indirect, tangible and intangible) but with the risk category losses on buildings and inventory as a general risk proxy. The hazard analysis is based on a regional macroseismic scenario approach. Thereby, the settlement centre of each community (116 communities) is defined as potential epicentre. For each epicentre four different epicentral scenarios (return periods of 98, 475, 975 and 2475 years) are calculated based on the simple but approved and generally accepted attenuation law according to Sponheuer (1960). The relevant input parameters to calculate the epicentral scenarios are (i) the macroseismic intensity and (ii) the focal depth. The considered macroseismic intensities are based on a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) of the Italian earthquake catalogue on a community level (Dipartimento della Protezione Civile). The relevant focal depth are considered as a mean within a defined buffer of the focal depths of the harmonized earthquake catalogues of Italy and Switzerland as well as

  10. Reproducibility of the Portuguese version of the PEDro Scale Reprodutibilidade da Escala de Qualidade PEDro em português

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    Silvia Regina Shiwa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to test the inter-rater reproducibility of the Portuguese version of the PEDro Scale. Seven physiotherapists rated the methodological quality of 50 reports of randomized controlled trials written in Portuguese indexed on the PEDro database. Each report was also rated using the English version of the PEDro Scale. Reproducibility was evaluated by comparing two separate ratings of reports written in Portuguese and comparing the Portuguese PEDro score with the English version of the scale. Kappa coefficients ranged from 0.53 to 1.00 for individual item and an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC of 0.82 for the total PEDro score was observed. The standard error of the measurement of the scale was 0.58. The Portuguese version of the scale was comparable with the English version, with an ICC of 0.78. The inter-rater reproducibility of the Brazilian Portuguese PEDro Scale is adequate and similar to the original English version.O objetivo foi testar a reprodutibilidade da versão em português da Escala de Qualidade PEDro. Sete fisioterapeutas avaliaram a qualidade metodológica de 50 estudos controlados aleatorizados em português, indexados na base de dados PEDro. Cada artigo já possuía sua respectiva avaliação nessa base de dados, utilizando a versão em inglês da escala PEDro. Foi calculada a confiabilidade da escala, assim como foi comparada a pontuação total de consenso com a pontuação das avaliações utilizando a escala em inglês. Os coeficientes kappa variaram entre 0,53 e 1,00 para itens individuais, e um coeficiente de correlação intraclasse (CCI de 0,82 foi obtido para a pontuação total. O erro-padrão de medida foi de 0,58 ponto. A versão em português da escala foi comparada com a versão em inglês e foi observado um CCI de 0,78. A reprodutibilidade da versão em língua portuguesa da Escala de Qualidade PEDro foi adequada e similar à versão em inglês.

  11. Epicentral Determination from Macroseismic Data: Insights from Four Centuries of Observations (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeliga, W. M.; Martin, S.; Hough, S.; Bilham, R.

    2009-12-01

    A new compilation of more than 8300 newly interpreted intensity observations from 570 earthquakes on the Indian subcontinent between 1636 and 2009 provides a rich data base for examining the utility of recently developed methods for deriving magnitude and location from macroseismic data. Instrumentally determined locations and magnitudes are available for 144 of these earthquakes since 1900, and for a subset of these earthquakes we can calculate differences between instrumental- and intensity-derived parameters. Using a modification of the Bakun and Wentworth (1997) algorithm we find that epicenters determined from well-conditioned intensity distributions are typically within one fault length of those determined from instrumental data. This encouraging result, however, applies to fewer than one third of the events. For a larger number of earthquakes, intensity-derived epicenters are poorly constrained, due to scatter in intensity amplitude and/or to poor spatial coverage. This raises concerns about the accuracy of rupture parameters determined for pre-instrumental earthquakes in India and elsewhere. We find moreover, that where dense spatial intensity values are available, location is recovered reasonably well (e.g. Bhuj 2001, Kashmir 2005), but magnitude is over-estimated by as much as one magnitude unit. This suggests that epicentral locations for well-documented M>7 historical earthquakes might be relatively reliable, but their magnitude might be significantly inflated. The cause for these erroneous locations and magnitudes are examined and we outline the results of our search for numerical rules to determine whether a given set of intensities will provide accurate or misleading results.

  12. Classification of the severe trauma patient with the Abbreviated Injury Scale: degree of correlation between versions 98 and 2005 (2008 update).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abajas Bustillo, Rebeca; Leal Costa, César; Ortego Mate, María Del Carmen; Zonfrillo, Mark R; Seguí Gómez, María; Durá Ros, María Jesús

    2018-02-01

    To explore differences in severity classifications according to 2 versions of the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS): version 2005 (the 2008 update) and the earlier version 98. To determine whether possible differences might have an impact on identifying severe trauma patients. Descriptive study and cross-sectional analysis of a case series of patients admitted to two spanish hospitals with out-of-hospital injuries between February 2012 and February 2013. For each patient we calculated the Injury Severity Score (ISS), the New Injury Severity Score (NISS), and the AIS scores according to versions 98 and 2005. The sample included 699 cases. The mean Severity (SD) age of patients was 52.7 (29.2) years, and 388 (55.5%) were males. Version 98 of the AIS correlated more strongly with both the ISS (2.6%) and the NISS (2.9%). The 2008 update of the AIS (version 2005) classified fewer trauma patients than version 98 at the severity levels indicated by the ISS and NISS.

  13. Symptom profile as assessed on delirium rating scale-revised-98 of delirium in respiratory intensive care unit: A study from India

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    Akhilesh Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the phenomenology of delirium in patients admitted in a Respiratory Intensive Care Unit (RICU. Methods: Consecutive patients admitted to RICU were screened for delirium using Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS, Confusion Assessment Method for ICU (CAM-ICU assessment tool and those found positive for delirium were evaluated by a psychiatrist to confirm the diagnosis. Those with a diagnosis of delirium as per the psychiatrist were evaluated on Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R-98 to study phenomenology. Results: All the 75 patients fulfilled the criteria of “acute onset of symptoms” and “presence of an underlying physical disorder” as per the DRS-R-98. Commonly seen symptoms of delirium included disturbances in attention (100%, thought process abnormality (100%, fluctuation in symptoms (97.33% disturbance in, sleep-wake cycle, language disturbance (94.7%, disorientation (81.33%, and short-term memory impairments (73.33%. No patient had delusions and very few (5.3% reported perceptual disturbances. According to RASS subtyping, hypoactive delirium was the most common subtype (n = 34; 45.33%, followed by hyperactive subtype (n = 28; 37.33% and a few patients had mixed subtype of delirium (n = 13; 17.33%. Factor structure of DRS-R-98 symptoms yielded 3 factors (Factor-1: cognitive factor; Factor-2: motoric factor; Factor-3; thought, language, and fluctuation factor. Conclusion: The phenomenology of delirium in ICU patients is similar to non-ICU patients, but hypoactive delirium is the most common subtype.

  14. The USGS "Did You Feel It?" Macroseismic Intensity Maps: Lessons Learned from a Decade of Citizen-Empowered Seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, D. J.; Worden, C. B.; Quitoriano, V. R.; Dewey, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) "Did You Feel It?" (DYFI) system is an automated approach for rapidly collecting macroseismic intensity (MI) data from Internet users' shaking and damage reports and generating intensity maps immediately following earthquakes; it has been operating for over a decade (1999-2012). The internet-based interface allows for a two-way path of communication between seismic data providers (scientists) and earthquake information recipients (citizens) by swapping roles: users looking for information from the USGS become data providers to the USGS. This role-reversal presents opportunities for data collection, generation of good will, and further communication and education. In addition, online MI collecting systems like DYFI have greatly expanded the range of quantitative analyses possible with MI data and taken the field of MI in important new directions. The maps are made more quickly, usually provide more complete coverage at higher resolution, and allow data collection at rates and quantities never before considered. Scrutiny of the USGS DYFI data indicates that one-decimal precision is warranted, and web-based geocoding services now permit precise locations. The high-quality, high-resolution, densely sampled MI assignments allow for peak ground motion (PGM) versus MI analyses well beyond earlier studies. For instance, Worden et al. (2011) used large volumes of data to confirm low standard deviations for multiple, proximal DYFI reports near a site, and they used the DYFI observations with PGM data to develop bidirectional, ground motion-intensity conversion equations. Likewise, Atkinson and Wald (2007) and Allen et al. (2012) utilized DYFI data to derive intensity prediction equations directly without intermediate conversion of ground-motion prediction equation metrics to intensity. Both types of relations are important for robust historic and real-time ShakeMaps, among other uses. In turn, ShakeMap and DYFI afford ample opportunities to

  15. Mean field theory of EM algorithm for Bayesian grey scale image restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Jun-ichi; Tanaka, Kazuyuki

    2003-01-01

    The EM algorithm for the Bayesian grey scale image restoration is investigated in the framework of the mean field theory. Our model system is identical to the infinite range random field Q-Ising model. The maximum marginal likelihood method is applied to the determination of hyper-parameters. We calculate both the data-averaged mean square error between the original image and its maximizer of posterior marginal estimate, and the data-averaged marginal likelihood function exactly. After evaluating the hyper-parameter dependence of the data-averaged marginal likelihood function, we derive the EM algorithm which updates the hyper-parameters to obtain the maximum likelihood estimate analytically. The time evolutions of the hyper-parameters and so-called Q function are obtained. The relation between the speed of convergence of the hyper-parameters and the shape of the Q function is explained from the viewpoint of dynamics

  16. Propriedades morfológicas do peritônio da paca (Cuniculus paca, L. 1766 a fresco e conservados em glicerina 98%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Daniele De Camargo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n4p185   Objetivou-se, com este estudo, descrever as características morfológicas de amostras de peritônio a fresco e conservadas em glicerina a 98%, por períodos de 30, 60 e 90 dias, de quatro pacas adultas. As amostras foram analisadas por meio da microscopia de luz e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Verificou-se um evidente arranjo entre o tecido conjuntivo denso modelado e o tecido conjuntivo denso não modelado, além de insignificante modificação na integridade tecidual do peritônio da paca, quando submetida a ação da glicerina nos diferentes períodos. Conclui-se que o peritônio da paca pode ser utilizado como mais uma opção de material biológico.

  17. Aspectos clínicos e macroscópicos da palatoplastia imediata com implante de cartilagem da pina articular, conservada em glicerina a 98%, após indução experimental de fenda palatina em cães Clinic and macroscopic view of immediate palatoplasty with auricular pinna cartilage preserved in 98% glycerin in canine experimental palat cleft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Antônio Contesini

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Os defeitos de espessura completa do palato que resultam em comunicação oro-nasal raramente cicatrizam espontaneamente. Eles requerem reparo cirúrgico, porém, pode ser difícil obter cicatrização satisfatória devido às condições próprias das cavidades nasal e oral. Neste experimento, foram utilizados 14 cães, reunidos em dois grupos de igual número. Todos animais foram submetidos à indução de fenda palatina experimental. O grupo G1 foi o controle, cuja palatoplastia foi realizada a partir da confecção de "flap" muco-periósteo. No grupo G2, foi utilizada cartilagem da pina auricular conservada em glicerina a 98% entre o osso palatino e o muco-periósteo. Os animais foram avaliados macroscopicamente quanto ao processo cicatricial, por radiografias para a regeneração óssea e por rinoscopia para observar a regeneração da mucosa nasal. Foi observada a cicatrização da mucosa oral a partir do 10º dia, com deiscência de sutura em dois animais do grupo G1. A radiografia demonstrou evolução na cicatrização óssea, num processo mais acelerado no grupo G2 quando comparado ao grupo G1. A rinoscopia revelou, aos 60 dias, completa regeneração da mucosa nasal em ambos os grupos. Ao final do período de avaliação foi observada macroscopicamente, completa fusão óssea nos animais do grupo G2 e incompleta nos do grupo G1, o que demonstrou a interferência benéfica do implante no processo cicatricial do grupo G2.The incomplete defects of hard palate result in oro-nasal fistula seldom cure themselves in a spontaneous way, due to limited condition in oral and nasal cavity it may be difficult to obtain satisfactory cicatrization, requiring surgery to interfere in the healing process. Fourteen dogs arranged in two groups were submitted to experimental hard palate cleft. The G1 group was the control group, in which palatoplasty was achieved with mucous-periosteum flap. In the G2 group, a preserved at 98% glycerin auricular pinna

  18. How <em>Varroa> Parasitism Affects the Immunological and Nutritional Status of the Honey Bee, <em>Apis melliferaem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Aronstein

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of the parasitic mite <em>Varroa destructorem> on the immunological and nutritional condition of honey bees, <em>Apis melliferaem>, from the perspective of the individual bee and the colony. Pupae, newly-emerged adults and foraging adults were sampled from honey bee colonies at one site in S. Texas, USA. <em>Varroa>‑infested bees displayed elevated titer of Deformed Wing Virus (DWV, suggestive of depressed capacity to limit viral replication. Expression of genes coding three anti-microbial peptides (<em>defensin1, abaecin, hymenoptaecinem> was either not significantly different between <em>Varroa>-infested and uninfested bees or was significantly elevated in <em>Varroa>-infested bees, varying with sampling date and bee developmental age. The effect of <em>Varroa> on nutritional indices of the bees was complex, with protein, triglyceride, glycogen and sugar levels strongly influenced by life-stage of the bee and individual colony. Protein content was depressed and free amino acid content elevated in <em>Varroa>-infested pupae, suggesting that protein synthesis, and consequently growth, may be limited in these insects. No simple relationship between the values of nutritional and immune-related indices was observed, and colony-scale effects were indicated by the reduced weight of pupae in colonies with high <em>Varroa> abundance, irrespective of whether the individual pupa bore <em>Varroa>.

  19. Atribuições dos Técnicos em Saúde Bucal na Estratégia Saúde da Família em Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Carla Aparecida Sanglard-Oliveira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar o autorrelato de funções executadas pelos Técnicos em Saúde Bucal no Estado de Minas Gerais. Estudo transversal e descritivo, realizado por meio de entrevista telefônica, com amostra representativa de 231 trabalhadores. A análise descritiva envolveu cálculo de proporções. Observou-se que 71,6% (IC 95%, 64,4-77,5 realizavam polimento coronário, 63,2% (IC 95%, 56,1-69,7 faziam raspagem de cálculo e 14,7% (IC 95%, 10,3-20,4 condensavam e inseriam materiais restauradores. Em relação às ações preventivas/coletivas, 100% (IC 95%, 97,6-100,0 participavam de ações educativas, 99,0% (IC 95%, 96,1-99,8 demonstravam técnicas de higiene bucal, 96,6% (IC 95%, 92,7-98,4 realizavam a aplicação tópica de flúor, 77,9% (IC 95%, 71,5-83,3 realizavam visitas domiciliares, e 96,6% (IC 95%, 92,7-98,4 realizavam ações coletivas, principalmente em escolas. Os Técnicos em Saúde Bucal têm desprendido seu tempo mais em atividades preventivas/coletivas do que em atividades assistenciais.

  20. The large 1956 earthquake in the South Aegean: Macroseismic field configuration, faulting, and neotectonics of Amorgos Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Pavlides, Spyros B.

    1992-10-01

    New field observations of the seismic intensity distribution of the large (M s = 7.4) South Aegean (Amorgos) earthquake of 9 July 1956 are presented. Interpretations based on local ground conditions, structural properties of buildings and peculiarities of the rupture process lead to a re-evaluation of the macroseismic field configuration. This, together with the aftershock epicentral distribution, quite well defines the earthquake rupture zone, which trends NE-SW and coincides with the Amorgos Astypalea trough. The lateral extent of the rupture zone, however, is about 40% smaller than that predicted for Aegean earthquakes of M s = 7.4. This discrepancy could be attributed to sea-bottom topography changes, which seem to control the rupture terminations, and to relatively high stressdrop with respect to other Aegean earthquakes. Fault plane solutions obtained by several authors indicate either mainly normal faulting with a significant right-lateral strike-slip component or predominantly strike-slip motion. The neotectonism of Amorgos Island, based on new field observations, aerial photograph analysis and fault mechanisms, is consistent with the dip-slip interpretation. The neotectonic master fault of Amorgos and the 1956 seismic faulting appear to belong to the same tectonic phase (NE-SW strike and a southeasterly dip). However, the significant right-lateral strike-slip component supports the idea that the Amorgos region deviates from the simple description for pure extension in back-arc conditions.

  1. Pino ósseo homólogo conservado em glicerina a 98% e hemicerclagem com fio poliglactina 910 na osteossíntese umeral de pombos domésticos Homologous bone pin conserved in glycerin at 98% and hemicerclagem with a thread of poliglactina 910 in humerus osteosyntesis of domestic pigeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Bolson

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a utilização de um pino intramedular ósseo homólogo, conservado em glicerina a 98%, associado à hemicerclagem com fio poliglactina 910 na osteossíntese umeral transversa de pombos domésticos (Columba livia. Utilizou-se como pino ósseo a parte distal do tibiotarso, conservado com medula óssea. Foram operados 20 pombos domésticos, adultos, não-sexados e clinicamente sadios. Esses animais foram separados ao acaso em cinco grupos, com quatro indivíduos. O úmero foi seccionado cirurgicamente na sua diáfise, de forma transversa, e o pino ósseo foi devidamente implantado no seio do osso. Orifícios foram realizados e por eles procedeu-se hemicerclagem do tipo pontos de Wolff com poliglactina 910. Os animais foram avaliados clinicamente, por meio de radiografias semanais, e histologicamente após os períodos de 15, 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias. A conservação do pino ósseo em glicerina a 98% foi avaliada por meio de exames microbiológicos. Em todos os animais, pode-se notar, clinicamente, excelente adaptação à cirurgia e normalidade do uso do membro já radiologicamente pode-se observar formação de calo ósseo e cicatrização da fratura. Histologicamente pode-se observar que ocorreu formação de calo ósseo 15 dias após a cirurgia e cicatrização com remodelação completa a partir dos 90 dias. Nesse exame, além de leve a moderada reação inflamatória no período inicial de avaliação, nenhum outro evento foi notado nos períodos subseqüentes. Concluiu-se que a técnica e os materiais utilizados se tornam uma opção altamente viável na osteossíntese umeral transversa de pombos domésticos.The objective of the present study was to evaluate the use of a homologous bone intramedullary pin, conserved in glycerin at 98% associated to hemicerclage with a thread of polyglactina 910 in the transverse humerus osteosynthesis of domestic pigeon (Columba livia. The distal part of the

  2. Chemical Composition of Essential Oils of <em>Litsea cubebaem> Harvested from Its Distribution Areas in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinqin Cui

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available <em>Litsea cubebaem> (Lour. Pers. is a promising industrial crop with fruits rich in essential oils. The chemical composition of essential oils of <em>L. cubebaem> (EOLC were determined for fruits harvested from eight regions in China. The overall essential oil content, obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS, ranged from 3.04% to 4.56%. In total, 59 compounds were identified, the dominant components being monoterpenes (94.4–98.4%, represented mainly by neral and geranial (78.7–87.4%. D-Limonene was unexpectedly a lesser constituent (0.7–5.3% in fruits, which differed from previous reports (6.0–14.6%. Several components were only detected in certain regions and compounds such as <em>o>-cymene and eremophilene have never before been reported in EOLC. These results demonstrate significant regional variation in the chemical composition of EOLC. This investigation provides important information with regard to the bioactivity, breeding work and industrial applications of <em>L. cubebaem>.

  3. Evaluation and considerations about fundamental periods of damaged reinforced concrete buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ditommaso

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is an empirical estimation of the fundamental period of reinforced concrete buildings and its variation due to structural and non-structural damage. The 2009 L'Aquila earthquake has highlighted the mismatch between experimental data and code provisions value not only for undamaged buildings but also for the damaged ones. The 6 April 2009 L'Aquila earthquake provided the first opportunity in Italy to estimate the fundamental period of reinforced concrete (RC buildings after a strong seismic sequence. A total of 68 buildings with different characteristics, such as age, height and damage level, have been investigated by performing ambient vibration measurements that provided their fundamental translational period. Four different damage levels were considered according with the definitions by EMS 98 (European Macroseismic Scale, trying to regroup the estimated fundamental periods versus building heights according to damage. The fundamental period of RC buildings estimated for low damage level is equal to the previous relationship obtained in Italy and Europe for undamaged buildings, well below code provisions. When damage levels are higher, the fundamental periods increase, but again with values much lower than those provided by codes. Finally, the authors suggest a possible update of the code formula for the simplified estimation of the fundamental period of vibration for existing RC buildings, taking into account also the inelastic behaviour.

  4. What will the /sup 98/Mo solar-neutrino experiment measure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahcall, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that the geochemical measurement of the solar-neutrino flux using /sup 98/Mo should yield the same value for the 8 B neutrino flux as is determined by contemporary observations using the /sup 37/Cl and Kamiokande II detectors. The /sup 98/Mo and contemporary fluxes should be equal to an accuracy of better than 1%, provided standard ideas regarding time scales in stellar evolution are correct

  5. Function of Nup98 subtypes and their fusion proteins, Nup98-TopIIβ and Nup98-SETBP1 in nuclear-cytoplasmic transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shoko; Yokokawa, Takafumi; Iizuka, Gemmei; Cigdem, Sadik; Okuwaki, Mitsuru; Nagata, Kyosuke

    2017-05-20

    Nup98 is a component of the nuclear pore complex. The nup98-fusion genes derived by chromosome translocations are involved in hematopoietic malignancies. Here, we investigated the functions of Nup98 isoforms and two unexamined Nup98-fusion proteins, Nup98-TopIIβ and Nup98-SETBP1. We first demonstrated that two Nup98 isoforms are expressed in various mouse tissues and similarly localized in the nucleus and the nuclear envelope. We also showed that Nup98-TopIIβ and Nup98-SETBP1 are localized in the nucleus and partially co-localized with full-length Nup98 and a nuclear export receptor XPO1. We demonstrated that Nup98-TopIIβ and Nup98-SETBP1 negatively regulate the XPO1-mediated protein export. Our results will contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanism by which the Nup98-fusion proteins induce tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk-Association of <em>CYP11A1em> Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer Among Han Chinese Women in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minying Sun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to endogenous sex hormones has been reported as a risk factor for breast cancer. The <em>CYP11A1em> gene encodes the key enzyme that catalyzes the initial and rate-limiting step in steroid hormone synthesis. In this study, the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in <em>CYP11A1em> and breast cancer susceptibility were examined. Six SNPs in <em>CYP11A1 em>were genotyped using the MassARRAY IPLEX platform in 530 breast cancer patients and 546 healthy controls. Association analyses based on a χ2 test and binary logistic regression were performed to determine the odds ratio (<em>OR> and 95% confidence interval (95% <em>CI> for each SNP. Two loci (rs2959008 and rs2279357 showed evidence of associations with breast cancer risk. The variant genotype C/T-C/C of rs2959008 was significantly associated with a decreased risk (age-adjusted<em> ORem>, 0.75; 95% <em>CI>, 0.58–0.96; <em>P em>= 0.023 compared with the wild-type TT. However, the homozygous TT variant of rs2279357 exhibited increased susceptibility to breast cancer (age-adjusted<em> ORem>, 1.44; 95% <em>CI>, 1.05–1.98; <em>P em>= 0.022. The locus rs2959003 also showed an appreciable effect, but no associations were observed for three other SNPs. Our results suggest that polymorphisms of <em>CYP11A1em> are related to breast cancer susceptibility in Han Chinese women of South China.

  7. Catalogue of European earthquakes with intensities higher than 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gils, J.M.; Leydecker, G.

    1991-01-01

    The catalogue of European earthquakes with intensities higher than 4 contains some 20 000 seismic events that happened in member countries of the European Communities, Switzerland and Austria. It was prepared on the basis of already existing national catalogues and includes historical data as well as present-day data. All historical data are harmonized as far as possible to the same intensity scale (MSK-scale) to make them suitable for computerization. Present-day data include instrumental and macroseismic data. Instrumental data are expressed in terms of magnitude (Richter scale) while macroseismic data are given in intensities. Compilation of seismic data can provide a basis for statistically supported studies of site selection procedures and the qualitative assessment of seismic risks. Three groups of seismic maps illustrate the content of the catalogue for different time periods and different intensities

  8. Observações no infravermelho médio de objetos estelares jovens em NGC 3576

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, C.; Damineli, A.; Blum, R.; Conti, P.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos os resultados de observações no infravermelho médio de candidatos a objetos estelares jovens e massivos em NGC 3576. As imagens de alta resolução foram obtidas no observatório Gemini Sul com o uso dos filtros em 10,8, 7,9, 9,8, 12,5 e 18,2 mm. Nossas imagens mostram a fonte IRS 1 resolvida em 4 objetos pela primeira vez em 10 mm. Para cada objeto obtivemos a distribuição espectral de energia de 1.2 até 18 mm, bem como a temperatura de cor, a distribuição espacial e a profundidade óptica em 9,8 mm da poeira circunstelar. Apresentamos uma estimativa das massas dos objetos estudados, baseados na luminosidade emitida no infravermelho médio, bem como um modelo para explicar as diferentes características observadas de cada objeto. Finalmente discutimos a possível localização da(s) fonte(s) de ionização de NGC 3576.

  9. March-april 98, DSIN's operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the different activities of the department of the safety of nuclear installations (DSIN) during march and april 98. For these 2 months 17 incidents happened and were classified on the first level of the international nuclear event scale (INES). 14 incidents occurred in nuclear power plants and 3 in other nuclear installations. The causes, the consequences and the evolution of each incident are thoroughly described. The activities of the inspection teams are reported, about 100 inspections have been performed. As for international cooperation the major events are reviewed. 14 certificates concerning nuclear transport have been issued. (A.C.)

  10. Do French macroseismic intensity observations agree with expectations from the European Seismic Hazard Model 2013?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Julien; Beauval, Céline; Douglas, John

    2018-02-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard assessments are the basis of modern seismic design codes. To test fully a seismic hazard curve at the return periods of interest for engineering would require many thousands of years' worth of ground-motion recordings. Because strong-motion networks are often only a few decades old (e.g. in mainland France the first accelerometric network dates from the mid-1990s), data from such sensors can be used to test hazard estimates only at very short return periods. In this article, several hundreds of years of macroseismic intensity observations for mainland France are interpolated using a robust kriging-with-a-trend technique to establish the earthquake history of every French mainland municipality. At 24 selected cities representative of the French seismic context, the number of exceedances of intensities IV, V and VI is determined over time windows considered complete. After converting these intensities to peak ground accelerations using the global conversion equation of Caprio et al. (Ground motion to intensity conversion equations (GMICEs): a global relationship and evaluation of regional dependency, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 105:1476-1490, 2015), these exceedances are compared with those predicted by the European Seismic Hazard Model 2013 (ESHM13). In half of the cities, the number of observed exceedances for low intensities (IV and V) is within the range of predictions of ESHM13. In the other half of the cities, the number of observed exceedances is higher than the predictions of ESHM13. For intensity VI, the match is closer, but the comparison is less meaningful due to a scarcity of data. According to this study, the ESHM13 underestimates hazard in roughly half of France, even when taking into account the uncertainty in the conversion from intensity to acceleration. However, these results are valid only for the acceleration range tested in this study (0.01 to 0.09 g).

  11. Do French macroseismic intensity observations agree with expectations from the European Seismic Hazard Model 2013?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Julien; Beauval, Céline; Douglas, John

    2018-05-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard assessments are the basis of modern seismic design codes. To test fully a seismic hazard curve at the return periods of interest for engineering would require many thousands of years' worth of ground-motion recordings. Because strong-motion networks are often only a few decades old (e.g. in mainland France the first accelerometric network dates from the mid-1990s), data from such sensors can be used to test hazard estimates only at very short return periods. In this article, several hundreds of years of macroseismic intensity observations for mainland France are interpolated using a robust kriging-with-a-trend technique to establish the earthquake history of every French mainland municipality. At 24 selected cities representative of the French seismic context, the number of exceedances of intensities IV, V and VI is determined over time windows considered complete. After converting these intensities to peak ground accelerations using the global conversion equation of Caprio et al. (Ground motion to intensity conversion equations (GMICEs): a global relationship and evaluation of regional dependency, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 105:1476-1490, 2015), these exceedances are compared with those predicted by the European Seismic Hazard Model 2013 (ESHM13). In half of the cities, the number of observed exceedances for low intensities (IV and V) is within the range of predictions of ESHM13. In the other half of the cities, the number of observed exceedances is higher than the predictions of ESHM13. For intensity VI, the match is closer, but the comparison is less meaningful due to a scarcity of data. According to this study, the ESHM13 underestimates hazard in roughly half of France, even when taking into account the uncertainty in the conversion from intensity to acceleration. However, these results are valid only for the acceleration range tested in this study (0.01 to 0.09 g).

  12. Recent results from the WA98 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peitzmann, T.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Agnihotri, A.; Ahammed, Z.; Angelis, A.L.S.; Antonenko, V.; Arefiev, V.; Astakhov, V.; Avdeitchikov, V.; Awes, T.C.; Baba, P.V.K.S.; Badyal, S.K.; Baldine, A.; Barabach, L.; Barlag, C.; Bathe, S.; Batiounia, B.; Bernier, T.; Bhalla, K.B.; Bhatia, V.S.; Blume, C.; Bohne, E.-M.; Bucher, D.; Buijs, A.; Buesching, H.; Carlen, L.; Chalyshev, V.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Cherbatchev, R.; Chujo, T.; Claussen, A.; Das, A.C.; Decowski, M.P.; Delagrange, H.; Djordjadze, V.; Donni, P.; Doubovik, I.; Dutt, S.; Dutta Majumdar, M.R.; El Chenawi, K.; Eliseev, S.; Enosawa, K.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Frolov, V.; Ganti, M.S.; Garpman, S.; Gavrishchuk, O.; Geurts, F.J.M.; Ghosh, T.K.; Glasow, R.; Gupta, S.K.; Guskov, B.; Gustafsson, H.A.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Higuchi, R.; Hrivnacova, I.; Ippolitov, M.; Kalechofsky, H.; Kamermans, R.; Kampert, K.-H.; Karadjev, K.; Karpio, K.; Kato, S.; Kim, H.; Kolb, B.W.; Kosarev, I.; Koutcheryaev, I.; Kugler, A.; Kulinich, P.; Kurata, M.; Kurita, K.; Kuzmin, N.; Langbein, I.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Loehner, H.; Luquin, L.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Manko, V.; Martin, M.; Martinez, G.; Maximov, A.; Mehdiyev, R.; Mgebrichvili, G.; Miake, Y.; Mikhalev, D.; Mir, Md.F.; Mishra, G.C.; Miyamoto, Y.; Mohanty, B.; Morrison, D.; Mukhopadhyay, D.S.; Myalkovski, V.; Naef, H.; Nandi, B.K.; Nayak, S.K.; Nayak, T.K.; Neumaier, S.; Nianine, A.; Nikitine, V.; Nikolaev, S.; Nilsson, P.; Nishimura, S.; Nomokonov, P.; Nystrand, J.; Obenshain, F.E.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.; Pachr, M.; Parfenov, A.; Pavliouk, S.; Petracek, V.; Plasil, F.; Pinganaud, W.; Purschke, M.L.; Raeven, B.; Rak, J.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ramamurthy, V.S.; Rao, N.K.; Retiere, F.; Reygers, K.; Roland, G.; Rosselet, L.; Roufanov, I.; Roy, C.; Rubio, J.M.; Sako, H.; Sambyal, S.S.; Santo, R.; Sato, S.; Schlagheck, H.; Schmidt, H.-R.; Schutz, Y.; Shabratova, G.; Shah, T.H.; Sibiriak, I.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Sinha, B.C.; Slavine, N.; Soederstroem, K.; Solomey, N.; Soerensen, S.P.; Stankus, P.; Stefanek, G.; Steinberg, P.; Stenlund, E.; Sumbera, M.; Svensson, T.; Trivedi, M.D.; Tsvetkov, A.; Tykarski, L.; Urbahn, J.; Pijll, E.C.V.D.; Eijndhoven, N.V.; Nieuwenhuizen, G.J.V.; Vinogradov, A.; Viyogi, Y.P.; Vodopianov, A.; Voeroes, S.; Wyslouch, B.; Yagi, K.; Yokota, Y.; Young, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    Recent results of the WA98 experiment with Pb induced reactions at 158. A GeV are presented. The scaling properties of the transverse energy and the charged particle multiplicity at midrapidity with the number of participants is studied. Neutral pion spectra are compared to hydrodynamical parameterizations. The analysis of collective flow at target rapidity and at midrapidity is presented. The status of the study of direct photons and the search for isospin fluctuations is discussed

  13. Seismic hazard assessment based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes: the Greater Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekrasova, A.; Kossobokov, V. G.

    2015-12-01

    Losses from natural disasters continue to increase mainly due to poor understanding by majority of scientific community, decision makers and public, the three components of Risk, i.e., Hazard, Exposure, and Vulnerability. Contemporary Science is responsible for not coping with challenging changes of Exposures and their Vulnerability inflicted by growing population, its concentration, etc., which result in a steady increase of Losses from Natural Hazards. Scientists owe to Society for lack of knowledge, education, and communication. In fact, Contemporary Science can do a better job in disclosing Natural Hazards, assessing Risks, and delivering such knowledge in advance catastrophic events. We continue applying the general concept of seismic risk analysis in a number of seismic regions worldwide by constructing regional seismic hazard maps based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes (USLE), i.e. log N(M,L) = A - B•(M-6) + C•log L, where N(M,L) is the expected annual number of earthquakes of a certain magnitude M within an seismically prone area of linear dimension L. The parameters A, B, and C of USLE are used to estimate, first, the expected maximum magnitude in a time interval at a seismically prone cell of a uniform grid that cover the region of interest, and then the corresponding expected ground shaking parameters including macro-seismic intensity. After a rigorous testing against the available seismic evidences in the past (e.g., the historically reported macro-seismic intensity), such a seismic hazard map is used to generate maps of specific earthquake risks (e.g., those based on the density of exposed population). The methodology of seismic hazard and risks assessment based on USLE is illustrated by application to the seismic region of Greater Caucasus.

  14. Investigation of various synthetic conditions for large-scale synthesis and electrochemical properties of Li{sub 3.98}Al{sub 0.06}Ti{sub 4.96}O{sub 12}/C as anode material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Guo-Hui, E-mail: dgh1516@gmail.com [Shanghai Shanshan Tech Co., Ltd., 3158 Jinhai Road, Shanghai 201209 (China); Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu, Hua-Jing; Zhou, Liang [Shanghai Shanshan Tech Co., Ltd., 3158 Jinhai Road, Shanghai 201209 (China); Shanghai Second Polytechnic University, 2360 Jinhai Road, Shanghai 201209 (China); Chong, Lina; Yang, Jun [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Qiao, Yong-Min; Zhang, Dian-Hao [Shanghai Shanshan Tech Co., Ltd., 3158 Jinhai Road, Shanghai 201209 (China)

    2014-12-05

    Graphical abstract: A gel and spray-drying method is demonstrated for large-scale preparation of Li{sub 3.98}Al{sub 0.06}Ti{sub 4.96}O{sub 12}/C secondary microspheres via optimizing various synthetic conditions. The electrochemical performances of the Li{sub 3.98}Al{sub 0.06}Ti{sub 4.96}O{sub 12}/C microspheres are investigated. - Highlights: • Various synthetic conditions are investigated. • Materials can be produced at ∼1 kg scale by using our demonstrated synthesis method. • Li{sub 3.98}Al{sub 0.06}Ti{sub 4.96}O{sub 12}/C sample possesses high electronic conductivity and rate property, and excellent cycling performance. • Secondary micro-spherical Li{sub 3.98}Al{sub 0.06}Ti{sub 4.96}O{sub 12}/C sample has high tap density et al. - Abstract: Poor electronic conductivity is one of the biggest obstacles for practical application of lithium titanate as lithium-ion battery anode material. Utilizing the advantages of coating and doping techniques to optimize the conductive and rate performances of lithium titanate was reported in this work. Herein, the effects of various synthetic conditions including calcination temperatures and holding times, lithium overdoses, carbon contents, doping contents and doping elements on phase, primary particles’ size and electrochemical performance were comprehensively investigated. The optimal Li{sub 3.98}Al{sub 0.06}Ti{sub 4.96}O{sub 12}/C secondary microspheres were synthesized, which possessed high electronic conductivity, tap density, reversible capacity and first columbic efficiency, and excellent rate performances. Furthermore, the synthesized samples were characterized by various techniques.

  15. Movimentação de metais pesados em Latossolo adubado com composto de lixo urbano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Fernando Carvalho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Em experimento realizado no campo, nos anos agrícolas 1996/97 e 1997/98, em Latossolo Amarelo distrófico, cultivado com cana-de-açúcar, avaliou-se o efeito de aplicações sucessivas de composto de lixo urbano sobre a movimentação, em profundidade, dos metais Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb e zinco. No primeiro ano agrícola, além do tratamento testemunha, o composto de lixo foi aplicado nas doses de 20, 40 e 60 Mg ha-1 (base seca. No segundo ano, o composto foi reaplicado nas doses de 24, 48 e 72 Mg ha-1. Em relação aos metais Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni e Pb não se observou nenhuma evidência de movimentação ao longo do perfil do solo. O Zn apresentou mobilidade no solo, onde se verificou, ao final de 1997/98, incrementos significativos até a camada de 0,4-0,6 m de profundidade.

  16. Bygningers varmebehov 98, Bv98

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygningers energibehov og i SBI-anvisning 189 Småhuse. Programmet kan anvendes på pc under operativsystemet Microsoft Windows 95, Windows 98 og Windows NT 4.0, Servicepack 3 eller nyere. Pc-programmet er en revideret og moderniseret udgave af pc-programmet Bygningers Varmebehov, BV95, som SBI udgav i 1995....

  17. Custos ecofisiológicos do cuidado maternal em Antiteuchus sepulcralis (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Adão V.; Albuquerque, Gilberto S.

    2001-01-01

    Para estudar as características biológicas relacionadas com o cuidado maternal em Antiteuchus sepulcralis (Fabricius), foram feitas observações em 28 fêmeas, com suas respectivas posturas, criadas na planta hospedeira Hibiscus pernambucensis Arruda (Malvaceae). As posturas foram individualizadas em gaiolas de filó e verificadas diariamente no período de setembro/97 a maio/98, à temperatura média de 27,7°C. Para observar as estratégias de defesa exibidas pela fêmea, colocaram-se um ou mais ind...

  18. Preambolo al Catalogo Sismico Nazionale (CSN. I criteri di informazione del Catalogo Sismico Nazionale (CSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. VECCHI

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available

    This note presents a study meant to set out a national catalogue
    (C.S.N. of seismic events the epicentres of which are to be found in
    Italian territory (or nearby. The catalogue, that will start from the
    year 1450 B.C., could be used for various purpose employing modern
    technologies.
    The complete C.S.N, is made of three main parts, each of which can
    also have a separate life:
    1 An Analytical Catalogue which comprises the greater part of
    data and is the most complete;
    2 A Macroseismic Atlas that shows the macroseismic aspect of
    the most relevant events;
    3 A Macroseismic Catalogue that translates in numeric terms the
    Atlas.

    To these is added a comprehensive Bibliography subdivided into 24
    chapters each of which covers one of the 24 time periods into which the
    catalogue has been subdivided.
    The Analytical Catalogue besides giving the main parameters for each
    earthquake (date, epicentre, hypocentral depth, MCS scale intensity, raagnitudo,
    each with its own reliability index gives indications also on the
    following sideline data:
    1 epicentral location (meaning by this the geographic region and
    the eventual indication that the epicentre is to be found on a borderline
    touching more geographic regions, or in the sea, or on the coast, or othermise
    in the external band (see text;
    2 with a reference to the Atlas, the event is shown as having been
    dealt with also mocroseismic data and it will con be found, as such, in
    the Atlas and in the Macroseismic Catalogue;
    3 indications on the typology of the earthquake: i.e. whether it is an
    « isolated » earthquake, or a « seismic period » (and if so with the indication
    of the foreshock, main or aftershocks or of a swarm;
    4 the possibility of indicating up to 7 sets of information suitably
    chose among 40 additional notes regarding instrumental, geophysical

  19. Scaling cigars in the Cuban tourism economy Configurar a escala dos charutos na economia do turismo em Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Simoni

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Taking scale as an object of analysis (Tsing 2000, this article examines how competing scale-making projects emerge in different layers of the Cuban tourism economy. I consider how tourists and Cubans interact along contested chains of production and distribution of cigars, and therefore become entangled in bundles of ideas, discourses, practices and materialities. These constitute different scaling propositions on which tourists and Cubans converge or diverge, and which inform the success of encounters within the tourism economy. Highlighted is the importance of understanding how scaling propositions are enacted and negotiated within tourism. I conclude that the realm of tourism is a particularly fruitful platform to investigate how competing scale-making projects and notions of scale are played out in the contemporary world.Tomando a escala (Tsing 2000 como objecto de análise, este artigo aborda a forma como emergem projectos concorrentes de configuração de escala a diferentes níveis da economia turística cubana. É examinada a interacção de turistas e cubanos no âmbito de cadeias de produção e distribuição controversas, e as formas como, assim, uns e outros se envolvem em conjuntos de ideias, discursos, práticas e materialidades. Estes constituem diferentes propostas de configuração de escala em que turistas e cubanos convergem ou divergem e que determinam o sucesso dos encontros no seio da economia turística. É aqui sublinhada a importância de compreendermos como as propostas de configuração de escala são apresentadas e negociadas no âmbito do turismo. Conclui-se que o campo do turismo constitui uma plataforma particularmente fértil para o estudo de como noções de escala e projectos de configuração de escala concorrentes se desenvolvem no mundo contemporâneo.

  20. Equivalência semântica e confiabilidade da versão em português da Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Rafael de Souza e Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Avaliar a equivalência semântica e a confiabilidade da Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale para o português (Brasil. Métodos O processo consistiu em cinco passos: tradução; retradução; revisão técnica e avaliação da equivalência semântica por profissionais; avaliação do instrumento por compreensão verbal por uma amostra de profissionais (n = 10 e de estudantes (n = 37; análise de consistência interna e estabilidade por meio do coeficiente de Cronbach e coeficiente de correlação intraclasse (CCI respectivamente, em uma amostra de 359 estudantes de graduação. Resultados O instrumento apresentou no fim um excelente nível de compreensão verbal pela população-alvo, alfa de Cronbach de 0,92 e CCI de 0,81. Conclusão A versão adaptada do instrumento para o uso em nosso ambiente resultou em um instrumento equivalente do ponto de visão de equivalência semântica, assegurando a transferência do significado geral e referencial, mantendo níveis satisfatórios de confiabilidade.

  1. ENC 98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This press dossier document reports on the main points presented by the Framatome group at the ENC'98 colloquium which took place in Nice (France) on September 25 1998. The summary comprises 4 main parts: the 1997-98 highlights (nuclear realizations in France, China and Turkey, nuclear services, nuclear fuels), the international activities in the nuclear domain (USA, China, Eastern Europe), the research and development activities (the French-German joint EPR project, the high temperature reactor (HTR) project), and the service and nuclear fuel activities (maintenance, improvements, control and expertise). (J.S.)

  2. Cistoplastia experimental em coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus com peritônio bovino conservado em glicerol a 98% Experimental cystoplasty in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus with bovine peritoneum conserved in 98% glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Catelan de Oliveira

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foi implantado um retalho de membrana peritoneal bovina em substituição a um fragmento da face ventral da bexiga de coelhos albinos, raça Nova Zelândia, adultos, machos não-castrados (n=12, com o intuito de avaliar o processo de reparação tecidual no que se refere à biocompatibilidade, à capacidade de reparação tecidual e a possíveis complicações. Aos sete, 14, 30 e 60 dias de pós-operatório, os animais foram eutanasiados, três em cada período, mediante o emprego de tiopental sódico (200mg kg-1, para posterior avaliação macroscópica e análise histopatológica da interface do implante com o tecido nativo. Macroscopicamente, foram observadas, em todos os períodos, aderências de estruturas adjacentes ao local do implante, presença de cálculos e ausência de sinais de rejeição. Sob microscopia de luz, aos sete, 14 e 30 dias de observação, o implante ainda estava presente, havia intensa reação inflamatória mista, neovascularização, fibroplasia e escassas fibras musculares, contudo, o epitélio e a lâmina própria não estavam reconstituídos. Aos 60 dias de avaliação, o implante não estava mais presente e todas as camadas vesicais encontravam-se reparadas. O implante foi biocompatível e forneceu arcabouço para orientação e desenvolvimento das camadas teciduais da bexiga, mediante processos de reparação, restabelecendo a estrutura do órgão.Bovine peritoneum was utilized to replace a section of ventral face of the bladder of New Zealand rabbits, adult and entire males (n=12 with the purpose of evaluating the tissue repair process in regard of its biocompatility, scar formation ability and possible complications. The animals were euthanized at 7, 14, 30 and 60 days post operative, three in each period, by the use of sodium thiopental (200mg kg-1, followed by macroscopic evaluation and histopathological analysis of the implant interface with the native tissue. Macroscopically it was observed

  3. MP98, an innovative reactivity control system for LWR and VHTR, tests results on prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emin, M.; Gagne, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    MP98' Reactivity Control System is now a technology tested on a real scale prototypes. Demonstrator is working at PWR real conditions (155 bars, 320 degree C), and many accidents configurations could be simulated. This paper presents the technology, describes the demonstrator design and presents some results. Mock up and demonstrator have permitted to optimize the design of MP98' devices to prepare industrialization. (authors)

  4. 40 CFR 98.418 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 98.418 Section 98.418 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Industrial Greenhouse Gases § 98.418 Definitions. All terms used in...

  5. The Macroseismic Intensity Distribution of the 30 October 2016 Earthquake in Central Italy (Mw 6.6): Seismotectonic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Paolo; Castenetto, Sergio; Peronace, Edoardo

    2017-10-01

    The central Italy Apennines were rocket in 2016 by the strongest earthquakes of the past 35 years. Two main shocks (Mw 6.2 and Mw 6.6) between the end of August and October caused the death of almost 300 people, and the destruction of 50 villages and small towns scattered along 40 km in the hanging wall of the N165° striking Mount Vettore fault system, that is, the structure responsible for the earthquakes. The 24 August southern earthquake, besides causing all the casualties, razed to the ground the small medieval town of Amatrice and dozens of hamlets around it. The 30 October main shock crushed definitely all the villages of the whole epicentral area (up to 11 intensity degree), extending northward the level of destruction and inducing heavy damage even to the 30 km far Camerino town. The survey of the macroseismic effects started the same day of the first main shock and continued during the whole seismic sequence, even during and after the strong earthquakes at the end of October, allowing the definition of a detailed picture of the damage distribution, day by day. Here we present the results of the final survey in terms of Mercalli-Cancani-Sieberg intensity, which account for the cumulative effects of the whole 2016 sequence (465 intensity data points, besides 435 related to the 24 August and 54 to the 26 October events, respectively). The distribution of the highest intensity data points evidenced the lack of any possible overlap between the 2016 earthquakes and the strongest earthquakes of the region, making this sequence a unique case in the seismic history of Italy. In turn, the cross matching with published paleoseismic data provided some interesting insights concerning the seismogenic behavior of the Mount Vettore fault in comparison with other active normal faults of the region.

  6. Histological evaluation of bovine tunica albuginea as biomaterial conserved in 98% glycerin and in 0.625% glutaraldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Leal Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Oliveira L.L., Barata J.S., Silva A.V.P., Caravalho E.C.Q., Nunes L.C. & Abílio E.J. [Histological evaluation of bovine tunica albuginea as biomaterial conserved in 98% glycerin and in 0.625% glutaraldehyde.] Avaliação histológica da túnica albugínea bovina como biomaterial conservada em glicerina a 98% e em glutaraldeído a 0,625%. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(4:309-315, 2015. Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Alto Universitário s/n, Guararema, Alegre, ES 29500-000, Brasil. E-mail: leticialealolive@hotmail.com Biomaterials have long been studied in reconstructive surgery, both natural and synthetic origin. It can be used as support to host tissue cells development and an efficient bed of stem cells for tissue engineering and regeneration of tissues and organs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tunica albuginea as biomaterial preserved in glycerin 98% and glutaraldehyde 0.625% and analyze its integrity for use in grafting therapy by microscopic examinations. Tunica albuginea were obtained from healthy adults crossbred cattle from slaughterhouse, tunicas albugineas were preserved in 98% glycerin and 0.625% glutaraldehyde for a period of 30 days at least. Tunica albuginea was fixed in 10% formalin, histologically processed and stained by hematoxylin-eosin, Masson’s trichrome and red picrosisrius polarization. Macroscopically there was a difference in the texture and color of tunica albuginea and in glutaraldehyde group were more firm and thick. Microscopic evaluation revealed that both the glycerin and the glutaraldehyde can be used as conservation medium in function of preserving the basic architecture tissue of the tunica albuginea, however, the glycerin was more efficient preservation of cellular structures. Histochemical techniques have highlighted the collagen and elastic fibers present in tunicas albugineas and highlight the predominance of type I

  7. 45 CFR 98.90 - Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Monitoring. 98.90 Section 98.90 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Monitoring, Non-compliance and Complaints § 98.90 Monitoring. (a) The Secretary will monitor programs funded under...

  8. 29 CFR 98.1000 - Respondent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Respondent. 98.1000 Section 98.1000 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.1000 Respondent. Respondent means a person against whom an agency has initiated a debarment or suspension action. ...

  9. 34 CFR 98.6 - Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reports. 98.6 Section 98.6 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STUDENT RIGHTS IN RESEARCH, EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMS, AND TESTING § 98.6 Reports. The Secretary may require the recipient to submit reports containing information necessary to...

  10. Addressing the multi-scale lapsus of landscape : multi-scale landscape process modelling to support sustainable land use : a case study for the Lower Guadalhorce valley South Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoorl, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    <em>"Addressing the Multi-scale Lapsus of Landscape"em> with the sub-title <em>"Multi-scale landscape process modelling to support sustainable land use: A case study for the Lower Guadalhorce valley South Spain"em> focuses on the role of

  11. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Ambientais - Curso de Mestrado - Universidade de Taubaté

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Magalhães Laçava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Em conformidade com a Resolução n° 05/83 do Conselho Federal de Educação, o Conselho de Ensino e Pesquisa - CONSEP da Universidade de Taubaté - UNITAU aprovou e promulgou a Deliberação n° 78/98 editada em 09/06/98 onde foram estabelecidas as normas referentes à organização e funcionamento do Programa de Pós-Graduação Stricto Sensu em Engenharia Ambiental - nível de Mestrado e Doutorado, consoante com os preceitos legais aplicáveis do Artigo 207 da Constituição Federal, da Lei de Diretrizes e Bases da Educação Nacional, Lei n° 9394, de 20/12/96, do Decreto n° 2.0306 de 19/ 08/97 e disposições do Estatuto e do Regimento Geral da Universidade de Taubaté, bem como a orientação da CAPES e outros órgãos pertinentes. Atendendo a proposta do Conselho do Programa, em 28/12/2000 o CONSEP homologou sua nova denominação para Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Ambientais, bem como a nova estrutura disciplinar, em atendimento às características de um Programa Multidisciplinar...

  12. 9 CFR 98.30 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 98.30 Section 98.30... EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal Semen § 98.30 Definitions. Whenever in this subpart of the... (England, Scotland, Wales, the Isle of Man, and Northern Ireland). Cattle. Animals of the bovine species...

  13. 29 CFR 98.1005 - State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true State. 98.1005 Section 98.1005 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.1005 State. (a) State means— (1) Any of the states of the United States; (2) The District of Columbia; (3) The...

  14. Calibration of Crustal Historical Earthquakes from Intra-Carpathian Region of Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Eugen; Popa, Mihaela; Rogozea, Maria

    2017-12-01

    The main task of the presented study is to elaborate a set of relations of mutual conversion macroseismic intensity - magnitude, necessary for the calibration of the historical crustal earthquakes produced in the Intra - Carpathian region of Romania, as a prerequisite for homogenization of the parametric catalogue of Romanian earthquakes. To achieve the goal, we selected a set of earthquakes for which we have quality macroseismic data and the Mw moment magnitude obtained instrumentally. These seismic events were used to determine the relations between the Mw and the peak/epicentral intensity, the isoseist surface area for I=3, I=4 and I=5: Mw = f (Imax / Io), Mw = f (Imax / Io, h), Mw = f (A3, A4; A5). We investigated several variants of such relationships and combinations, taking into account that the macroseismic data necessary for the re-evaluation of historical earthquakes in the investigated region are available in several forms. Thus, a number of investigations provided various information resulted after revising initial historical data: 1) Intensity data point (IDP) assimilated or not with the epicentre intensity after analysis of the correlation level with recent seismicity data and / or active tectonics / seismotectonics, 2) Sets of intensities obtained in several localities (IDPs) with variable values having maxims that can be considered equal to epicentral intensity (Io), 3) Sets of intensities obtained in several localities (IDPs) but without obvious maximum values, assimilable with the epicentral intensity, 4) maps with isoseismals, 5) Information on the areas in which the investigated earthquake was felt or the area of perceptiveness (e.g. I = 3 EMS during the day and I = 4 EMS at night) or the surfaces corresponding to a certain degree of well-defined intensity. The obtained relationships were validated using a set of earthquakes with instrumental source parameters (localization, depth, Mw). These relationships lead to redundant results meaningful in

  15. 49 CFR 98.10 - Appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Administration of Enforcement Proceedings § 98.10 Appeal. (a) Within 30 working days after receipt of a decision issued under § 98.8 or § 98.9 of this part, either the Departmental counsel or the former employee may appeal the decision to the Secretary. (b) In making a decision on an appeal, the Secretary shall consider...

  16. Evaluation of <em>HER2em> Gene Amplification in Breast Cancer Using Nuclei Microarray <em>in em>S>itu em>Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence<em> em>>in situ em>hybridization (FISH assay is considered the “gold standard” in evaluating <em>HER2/neu (HER2em> gene status. However, FISH detection is costly and time consuming. Thus, we established nuclei microarray with extracted intact nuclei from paraffin embedded breast cancer tissues for FISH detection. The nuclei microarray FISH (NMFISH technology serves as a useful platform for analyzing <em>HER2em> gene/chromosome 17 centromere ratio. We examined <em>HER2em> gene status in 152 cases of invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast that were resected surgically with FISH and NMFISH. <em>HER2em> gene amplification status was classified according to the guidelines of the American Society of Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists (ASCO/CAP. Comparison of the cut-off values for <em>HER2em>/chromosome 17 centromere copy number ratio obtained by NMFISH and FISH showed that there was almost perfect agreement between the two methods (κ coefficient 0.920. The results of the two methods were almost consistent for the evaluation of <em>HER2em> gene counts. The present study proved that NMFISH is comparable with FISH for evaluating <em>HER2em> gene status. The use of nuclei microarray technology is highly efficient, time and reagent conserving and inexpensive.

  17. 45 CFR 98.14 - Plan process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plan process. 98.14 Section 98.14 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND General Application Procedures § 98.14 Plan process. In the development of each Plan, as required pursuant to § 98.17...

  18. Neonatal Phosphate Nutrition Alters <em>in em>Vivo> and <em>in em>Vitro> Satellite Cell Activity in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad H. Stahl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite cell activity is necessary for postnatal skeletal muscle growth. Severe phosphate (PO4 deficiency can alter satellite cell activity, however the role of neonatal PO4 nutrition on satellite cell biology remains obscure. Twenty-one piglets (1 day of age, 1.8 ± 0.2 kg BW were pair-fed liquid diets that were either PO4 adequate (0.9% total P, supra-adequate (1.2% total P in PO4 requirement or deficient (0.7% total P in PO4 content for 12 days. Body weight was recorded daily and blood samples collected every 6 days. At day 12, pigs were orally dosed with BrdU and 12 h later, satellite cells were isolated. Satellite cells were also cultured <em>in vitroem> for 7 days to determine if PO4 nutrition alters their ability to proceed through their myogenic lineage. Dietary PO4 deficiency resulted in reduced (<em>P> < 0.05 sera PO4 and parathyroid hormone (PTH concentrations, while supra-adequate dietary PO4 improved (<em>P> < 0.05 feed conversion efficiency as compared to the PO4 adequate group. <em>In vivoem> satellite cell proliferation was reduced (<em>P> < 0.05 among the PO4 deficient pigs, and these cells had altered <em>in vitroem> expression of markers of myogenic progression. Further work to better understand early nutritional programming of satellite cells and the potential benefits of emphasizing early PO4 nutrition for future lean growth potential is warranted.

  19. Developing and validating the Perioperative Thirst Discomfort Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Pamela Rafaela; Fonseca, Lígia Fahl; Rossetto, Edilaine Giovanini

    2017-07-20

    Developing and validating a scale to assess perioperative thirst discomfort. A methodological research conducted in 2014 and 2015 at the surgical center of a public hospital in the north of Paraná, Brazil. The scale was developed after literature review, followed by face and content validation, and reliability assessment through its internal consistency and inter-observer equivalence. Seven items make up the scale: dry mouth; dry lips; thick tongue; thick saliva; dry throat, bad taste and desire to drink water. The content validity index for attributes and items was 0.98, and the reliability index was 1 for the scale attributes and items. Internal consistency assessed by Cronbach's alpha was 0.91 and inter-rater equivalence was 1, as measured by weighted kappa coefficient. ThePerioperative Thirst Discomfort Scaleshowed high content and reliability indexes. Elaborar e validar uma escala para avaliação do desconforto da sede perioperatória. Pesquisa metodológica realizada em 2014 e 2015, no centro cirúrgico de um hospital público do norte do Paraná. A escala foi elaborada após revisão bibliográfica, seguida de validação aparente e de conteúdo e avaliação da fidedignidade através de sua consistência interna e da equivalência inter observadores. Sete itens compuseram a escala: boca seca; lábios ressecados; língua grossa; saliva grossa; garganta seca; gosto ruim e vontade de beber água. O índice de validade de conteúdo para atributos e itens foi de 0,98, e o índice de fidedignidade foi de 1 para os atributos e itens da escala. A consistência interna avaliada pelo alfa de Cronbach foi de 0,91, e a equivalência interobservadores foi de 1, medida pelo coeficiente de kappa ponderado. A escala de desconforto da sede perioperatóriademonstrou altos índices de validade de conteúdo e fidedignidade.

  20. Tradução e adaptação cultural da Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) para aplicação em adultos brasileiros

    OpenAIRE

    Malloy-Diniz,Leandro Fernandes; Mattos,Paulo; Leite,Wellington Borges; Abreu,Neander; Coutinho,Gabriel; Paula,Jonas Jardim de; Tavares,Hermano; Vasconcelos,Alina Gomide; Fuentes,Daniel

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Os objetivos deste estudo foram traduzir, adaptar culturalmente e verificar a equivalência literal, semântica e idiomática da Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), que avalia a presença de manifestações da impulsividade tendo como base o modelo teórico proposto por Ernst Barratt. MÉTODOS: Inicialmente, a versão original em inglês da BIS-11 foi traduzida para o português por seis pesquisadores bilíngues. Em seguida, foi realizada uma tradução reversa para o inglês por uma tradutora ...

  1. Versão em português da Family Environment Scale: aplicação e validação Portuguese version of the Family Environment Scale: aplication and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia P T Vianna

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Traduzir a Escala do Ambiente Familiar (Family Environment Scale para a língua portuguesa e aplicar o instrumento para sua validação. MÉTODOS: A tradução foi aplicada a membros de famílias brasileiras, visando avaliação da consistência interna e a concordância entre membros da mesma família. Foram selecionados 154 voluntários não sujeitos a qualquer intervenção para lidar com problemas familiares, residentes na cidade de São Paulo, em 2003. As pontuações médias nas dez subescalas do instrumento foram comparadas entre homens e mulheres e entre membros da mesma família. Avaliou-se a consistência interna pelo alfa de Cronbach. RESULTADOS: A pontuação máxima possível era nove em cada subescala (bom funcionamento familiar, exceto em relação a conflito e controle. Na maioria das subescalas, a pontuação média da amostra estudada esteve entre 5,1 e 7,6 (homens e entre 5,4 e 7,7 (mulheres. Nas subescalas conflito e controle as médias variaram entre 1,8 e 4,6 (homens e entre 1,6 e 4,6 (mulheres, sendo semelhantes às relatadas em estudos internacionais, exceto maior pontuação nas subescalas coesão e organização, e menor na subescala conflito. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre as pontuações atingidas por homens e mulheres. A confiabilidade da escala avaliada pelo alfa de Cronbach variou entre 0,61 e 0,78 para as dez subescalas. CONCLUSÕES: Fatores culturais podem ter influenciado os resultados obtidos em algumas subescalas. A versão em português da Escala do Ambiente Familiar apresentou razoável consistência interna que permite sua utilização para avaliar alterações no ambiente ou funcionamento familiar, e após intervenções terapêuticas.OBJECTIVE: To translate the Family Environment Scale into Portuguese and apply the instrument to validate it. METHODS: The translation was applied to members of Brazilian families with the aim of evaluating its internal consistency and

  2. Utilização de plasma rico ou pobre em plaquetas, associado ou não a enxerto ósseo cortical alógeno, na reparação cirúrgica de falha ulnar em ovinos

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Patrícia Rodrigues da [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    A enxertia óssea alógena na ortopedia veterinária é meio seguro e de eleição na reposição de perdas e falhas ósseas em fraturas ou ressecções amplas. A glicerina a 98% é excelente meio de conservação de tecido ósseo, possui efeito bactericida, baixo custo e simplicidade operacional. O plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP) é produto orgânico, derivado do sangue autógeno, utilizado como fonte autógena de fatores de crescimento combinado aos diferentes enxertos e substitutos ósseos. O plasma pobre em p...

  3. Engagement no Trabalho em Residentes Médicos de Pediatria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Regina Teixeira

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivos Avaliar os índices de engagement no trabalho em residentes médicos de Pediatria. Métodos Amostra composta por 36 profissionais matriculados no programa de residência médica em Pediatria da Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto no ano de 2013. Os dados foram coletados de setembro de 2013 a fevereiro de 2014, utilizando-se a Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (Uwes – Escala Utrecht de Engajamento no Trabalho –, composta por 17 itens de autoavaliação com três dimensões, Vigor, Dedicação e Absorção, além de um escore geral do constructo. Resultados 91,67% eram do sexo feminino; a idade mediana foi de 28 anos (mínimo: 25; máximo: 34; 86,11% eram solteiros; 33,33% tinham renda familiar de 2 a 5 salários, e 44,44%, mais de 10 salários mínimos; 88,89% estavam satisfeitos com o trabalho; e 52,78% já pensaram em desistir do programa. Os índices de engagement variaram de 3,56 a 4,28. A dimensão Dedicação obteve índice alto (4,28±1,12, e as dimensões Absorção, Vigor e Engagement, médios (3,58±1,00; 3,56±0,98; 3,78±0,96. Quanto ao desejo de desistir do programa, ambos os grupos apresentaram índices médios para as dimensões Absorção e Vigor; nas dimensões Dedicação e Engagement, índices médios para os que já pensaram em desistir do programa e altos para aqueles que nunca pensaram em desistir. Sobre a satisfação com o programa, na dimensão Dedicação, os índices foram: alto para os satisfeitos e médio para os não satisfeitos (4,49 e 2,6; as dimensões Absorção, Vigor e Engagement apresentaram índices médios para ambos os grupos – 3,66, 3,68 e 3,92 entre os satisfeitos e 2,95, 2,54 e 2,7 para os não satisfeitos, respectivamente. Conclusão Os residentes em Pediatria da Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto apresentaram bons índices de engagement, principalmente no domínio Dedicação. Há um baixo percentual de profissionais com baixo índice de engagement em todos

  4. 45 CFR 98.33 - Consumer education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consumer education. 98.33 Section 98.33 Public... Program Operations (Child Care Services)-Parental Rights and Responsibilities § 98.33 Consumer education... public consumer education information that will promote informed child care choices including, at a...

  5. 45 CFR 98.32 - Parental complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Parental complaints. 98.32 Section 98.32 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Program Operations (Child Care Services)-Parental Rights and Responsibilities § 98.32 Parental complaints...

  6. 22 CFR 9.8 - Classification challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification challenges. 9.8 Section 9.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.8 Classification... classification status is improper are expected and encouraged to challenge the classification status of the...

  7. Digital monitoring of mycelium growth kinetics and vigor of shiitake (Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler on agar medium Monitoramento digital do crescimento e vigor do shiitake (Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler em meio de cultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Mamede de Castro Montini

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The mycelium growth kinetics and vigor of shiitake (Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler strains LE 96/17, LE 98/51, LE 98/53, and LE 98/56 were studied under different agar medium compositions. The strains were from the mycological collection of the Módulo de Cogumelos, Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas, Unesp-Botucatu, Brazil. Mycelium fragments from stock cultures were transferred to Petri dishes with Sawdust extract-Dextrose-Agar medium. The area of growth and vigor (density of the mycelia were daily recorded with a digital camera, during incubation, until the complete colonization of the Petri dish. The images were analyzed by the freeware UTHSCSA ImageTool, v. 2.0, developed by the University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio. The kinetics of mycelium growth, as measured by the mycelium area (mm², has as a deterministic component an exponential function of Gompertz. The vigor, as evaluated by mycelium color in gray scale, was similar for all strains, reached a maximal value between the 4th and 5th day of incubation and decreased further on. The velocity of growth of L. edodes strains was lower in enriched culture media, while vigor was higher. Digital monitoring permits a objective evaluation of the growth kinetics of L. edodes in vitro.Avaliou-se o crescimento e vigor das linhagens LE 96/17, LE 98/51, LE 98/53 e LE 98/56 de Lentinula edodes (Berk Pegler em diferentes composições de meio de cultura. As linhagens foram provenientes da Micoteca do Módulo de Cogumelos da Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas, Unesp, Campus de Botucatu. Os isolados foram obtidos por propagação vegetativa, pela transferência asséptica do micélio para o meio de cultura de extrato de serragem-dextrose-ágar. O crescimento e vigor do micélio foi fotografado diariamente com uma câmera digital, durante a incubação, até a colonização total da placa de Petri. As imagens foram analisadas pelo programa UTHSCSA ImageTool (freeware, versão 2

  8. 45 CFR 98.31 - Parental access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Parental access. 98.31 Section 98.31 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Program Operations (Child Care Services)-Parental Rights and Responsibilities § 98.31 Parental access. The...

  9. Tradução portuguesa, adaptação e validação da Perinatal Bereavement Grief Scale (PBGS em mulheres com perda de gravidez Traducción portuguesa, adaptación y validación de la Perinatal Bereavement Grief Scale (PBGS en mujeres con pérdida gestacional Portuguese translation, adaptation and validation of the Perinatal Bereavement Grief Scale (PBGS in women with pregnancy loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida Koch

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A perda precoce de uma gravidez, para muitas mulheres, pode constituir um significativo stressor psicossocial. Fazer o luto deste tipo de perda pode ser complexo e uma avaliação precoce pode permitir intervenções mais eficazes. São poucos os instrumentos existentes para esta avaliação. Assim, neste estudo pretendeu-se traduzir, adaptar, validar e avaliar a aplicabilidade da PBGS em mulheres em situação de perda involuntária da gravidez, analisando as suas capacidades de mensuração. A amostra constituiu-se por 100 mulheres entre as quatro e as seis semanas pós-perda. A análise de componentes principais permitiu confirmar a estrutura dimensional única da escala, proposta pelo autor. O nível de confiabilidade da escala evidenciado no nosso estudo (coeficiente Alpha de Cronbach 0,81, embora um pouco inferior ao apresentado originalmente, é igualmente bom. Apresenta uma boa estabilidade temporal (r = 0,98, p La pérdida precoz del embarazo para muchas mujeres, puede ser un factor estresante psicosocial significativo. Hacer el duelo de este tipo de pérdida puede ser complejo y una evaluación temprana puede permitir intervenciones más eficaces. Existen pocos instrumentos para esta evaluación. Asimismo, en este estudio se ha pretendido traducir, adaptar, validar y evaluar la aplicabilidad de la PBGS en mujeres en situación de pérdida involuntaria del embarazo, analizando sus capacidades de mensuración. La muestra está constituida por 100 mujeres entre las cuatro a seis semanas tras la pérdida. El análisis de componentes principales permitió confirmar la estructura dimensional única de la escala, propuesta por el autor. El nivel de fiabilidad de la escala evidenciado en nuestro estudio (coeficiente Alpha de Cronbach 0,81, aunque un poco inferior al presentado originalmente, es igualmente bueno. Presenta una buena estabilidad temporal (r = 0,98, p The early loss of pregnancy for many women may be a significant psychosocial

  10. Reference Gene Selection in the Desert Plant <em>Eremosparton songoricuem>m>

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    Dao-Yuan Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available <em>Eremosparton songoricum em>(Litv. Vass. (<em>E. songoricumem> is a rare and extremely drought-tolerant desert plant that holds promise as a model organism for the identification of genes associated with water deficit stress. Here, we cloned and evaluated the expression of eight candidate reference genes using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions. The expression of these candidate reference genes was analyzed in a diverse set of 20 samples including various <em>E. songoricumem> plant tissues exposed to multiple environmental stresses. GeNorm analysis indicated that expression stability varied between the reference genes in the different experimental conditions, but the two most stable reference genes were sufficient for normalization in most conditions.<em> EsEFem> and <em>Esα-TUB> were sufficient for various stress conditions, <em>EsEF> and <em>EsACT> were suitable for samples of differing germination stages, and <em>EsGAPDH>and <em>Es>UBQ em>were most stable across multiple adult tissue samples. The <em>Es18Sem> gene was unsuitable as a reference gene in our analysis. In addition, the expression level of the drought-stress related transcription factor <em>EsDREB2em>> em>verified the utility of<em> E. songoricumem> reference genes and indicated that no single gene was adequate for normalization on its own. This is the first systematic report on the selection of reference genes in <em>E. songoricumem>, and these data will facilitate future work on gene expression in this species.

  11. 29 CFR 98.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Civil judgment. 98.920 Section 98.920 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction...

  12. 45 CFR 98.30 - Parental choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Program Operations (Child Care Services)-Parental Rights and Responsibilities § 98.30 Parental choice. (a... category of care; or (2) Having the effect of limiting parental access to or choice from among such... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Parental choice. 98.30 Section 98.30 Public...

  13. 27 CFR 6.98 - Advertising service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising service. 6.98 Section 6.98 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.98 Advertising service. The listing of the names...

  14. VIABILIDADE DA ADIÇÃO DE LACTOBACILLUS CASEI (LC-1 PROTEGIDO COM TREALOSE E GOMA ACÁCIA EM SORVETES

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    Jean Clovis Bertuol de SOUZA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Os probióticos têm sido incorporados em sorvetes fermentados ou não, os quais são bons veículos para fornecer esses micro-organismos na dieta humana. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a viabilidade do micro-organismo probiótico Lactobacillus casei (LC-1 adicionado na forma livre ou protegido com trealose e goma acácia em sorvete durante 98 dias de armazenamento a -20°C, bem como avaliar a aceitabilidade do ponto de vista sensorial e as características físico-químicas desse produto. A sobrevivência do L. casei controle (sem prote- ção celular e do L. casei protegido com trealose e goma acácia foi monitorada durante 98 dias de estocagem do produto a -20℃. No início do armazenamento, foi observada população média de 9,20log UFC.g-1 para o L. casei livre e 9,80log UFC.g-1 para o L. casei protegido. Porém, após 98 dias de armazenamento a -20°C, essas populações diminuíram para 6,90 e 8,14log UFC.g-1, respectivamente. A adição do L. casei livre ou protegido não afetou as características sensoriais do sorvete. A proteção celular com trealose e goma acácia em L. casei melhorou a viabilidade desse micro-organismo quando adicionado em sorvete.

  15. 29 CFR 1915.98 - First aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid. 1915.98 Section 1915.98 Labor Regulations...) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT General Working Conditions § 1915.98 First aid...) Unless a first aid room and a qualified attendant are close at hand and prepared to render first aid to...

  16. 46 CFR 98.30-7 - Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Smoking. 98.30-7 Section 98.30-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Portable Tanks § 98.30-7 Smoking. No person may smoke within 50 feet of a...

  17. 49 CFR 98.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Administration. (5) The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (6) The Urban Mass Transportation... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 98.2 Section 98.2 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ENFORCEMENT OF RESTRICTIONS ON POST-EMPLOYMENT ACTIVITIES...

  18. Adubação foliar com micronutrientes em arroz irrigado, em área sistematizada

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    Marchezan Enio

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação de micronutrientes em arroz irrigado, em área de várzea após a sistematização. Foi realizado durante três anos agrícolas em PLANOSSOLO Hidromórfico eutrófico arênico, instalado em local de onde foi retirada uma camada de solo de cerca de 30cm de profundidade. A adubação com N, P e K foi realizada de acordo com a recomendação técnica para a cultura. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições, constituído de um tratamento denominado "completo", contendo os micronutrientes boro (H3BO3, cobre (CuSO4, ferro (FeSO4, manganês (MnCl2, molibdênio (Na2MoO4 e zinco (ZnSO4 e de seis outros formados pela omissão de um micronutriente de cada vez, além de testemunha sem micronutrientes. Em 1996/97, foram aplicados 70g ha-1 Zn, 70g ha-1 Mn, 40g ha-1 Fe, 50g ha-1 B, 12,5g ha-1 Cu e 4g ha-1 Mo, via foliar, no perfilhamento e no início da formação do primórdio floral das plantas de arroz. Em 1997/98, foram utilizadas as mesmas soluções, porém com aplicação apenas no perfilhamento. Em 1998/99, as doses dos micronutrientes foram alteradas para 35g ha-1 Zn, 35g ha-1 Mn, 100g ha-1 B, 20g ha-1 Cu e 12g ha-1 Mo, aplicados no perfilhamento, não sendo utilizado o ferro no tratamento completo nem na composição dos demais tratamentos. A sistematização da área causou redução no teor de matéria orgânica, macro e micronutrientes, exceto o boro e aumento de alumínio no solo. Verificou-se que não houve efeito da aplicação foliar de micronutrientes no rendimento de grãos de arroz irrigado.

  19. 49 CFR 98.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 98.1 Section 98.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ENFORCEMENT OF RESTRICTIONS ON POST-EMPLOYMENT ACTIVITIES... administrative enforcement procedures that the Department of Transportation will follow when there is an...

  20. Moléstias em tomateiro cultivado em estufas plásticas em quatro municípios da região central do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Blume Elena

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Moléstias podem atacar severamente hortaliças cultivadas em cultivos protegidos e, para o manejo integrado dessas moléstias, o conhecimento das condições climáticas que favorecem sua incidência nesses cultivos é fundamental. O trabalho teve o objetivo de identificar as moléstias em tomateiro cultivado em estufas plásticas em quatro municípios na região central do Rio Grande do Sul e as condições de temperatura e umidade relativa (UR do ar nas quais elas ocorrem. O estudo foi realizado nos municípios de São Pedro do Sul, São Sepé, Ivorá e Santa Maria (RS, no período de março a outubro de 1998. A temperatura e umidade relativa do ar foram medidas diariamente com um psicrômetro. As moléstias observadas e sua incidência máxima foram: requeima (Phytophthora infestans: 100,0%, pinta-preta (Alternaria solani: 98,1%, mofo cinzento (Botrytis cinerea: 55,4%, cladosporiose (Cladosporuim fulvum: 48,9%, septoriose (Septoria lycopersici: 37,5%, talo-oco (Erwinia spp.: 33,0%, murcha de fusarium (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici: 8,4% e podridão de esclerotínia (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum: 1,3%. Valores de UR superiores a 80%, de maneira geral, aumentaram a incidência das moléstias, em sua maioria de origem fúngica. A incidência de moléstias varia entre municípios de uma mesma região climática de acordo com os fatores meteorológicos e práticas de manejo da cultura.

  1. A specimen of <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>samniticus> in Barn Owl's pellets from Murge plateau (Apulia, Italy / Su di un <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>samniticus> (Insectivora, Soricidae rinvenuto in borre di <em>Tyto albaem> delle Murge (Puglia, Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Ferrara

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a lot of Barn Owl's pellets from the Murge plateau a specimen of <em>Sorex> sp. was detected. Thank to some morphological and morphometrical features, the cranial bones can be tentatively attributed to <em>Sorex samniticusem> Altobello, 1926. The genus <em>Sorex> was not yet included in the Apulia's fauna southwards of the Gargano district; the origin and significance of the above record is briefly discussed, the actual presence of a natural population of <em>Sorex> in the Murge being not yet proved. Riassunto Viene segnalato il rinvenimento di un esemplare di <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>samniticus> da borre di <em>Tyto albaem> delle Murge. Poiché il genere non era stato ancora segnalato nella Puglia a sud del Gargano, viene discusso il significato faunistico del reperto.

  2. Efecto de extractos vegetales de <em>Polygonum hydropiperoidesem>, <em>Solanum nigrumem> y <em>Calliandra pittieriem> sobre el gusano cogollero (<em>Spodoptera frugiperdaem>

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    Lizarazo H. Karol

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El gusano cogollero <em>Spodoptera frugiperdaem> es una de las plagas que más afectan los cultivos en la región de Sumapaz (Cundinamarca, Colombia. En la actualidad se controla principalmente aplicando productos de síntesis química, sin embargo la aplicación de extractos vegetales surge como una alternativa de menor impacto sobre el ambiente. Este control se emplea debido a que las plantas contienen metabolitos secundarios que pueden inhibir el desarrollo de los insectos. Por tal motivo, la presente investigación evaluó el efecto insecticida y antialimentario de extractos vegetales de barbasco <em>Polygonum hydropiperoidesem> (Polygonaceae, carbonero <em>Calliandra pittieriem> (Mimosaceae y hierba mora <em>Solanum nigrumem> (Solanaceae sobre larvas de <em>S. frugiperdaem> biotipo maíz. Se estableció una cría masiva del insecto en el laboratorio utilizando una dieta natural con hojas de maíz. Posteriormente se obtuvieron extractos vegetales utilizando solventes de alta polaridad (agua y etanol y media polaridad (diclorometano los cuales se aplicaron sobre las larvas de segundo instar. Los resultados más destacados se presentaron con extractos de <em>P. hydropiperoidesem>, obtenidos con diclorometano en sus diferentes dosis, con los cuales se alcanzó una mortalidad de 100% 12 días después de la aplicación y un efecto antialimentario representado por un consumo de follaje de maíz inferior al 4%, efectos similares a los del testigo comercial (Clorpiriphos.

  3. Rapid Development of Microsatellite Markers with 454 Pyrosequencing in a Vulnerable Fish<em>,> the Mottled Skate<em>, Raja em>pulchra>

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    Jung-Ha Kang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The mottled skate, <em>Raja pulchraem>, is an economically valuable fish. However, due to a severe population decline, it is listed as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. To analyze its genetic structure and diversity, microsatellite markers were developed using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 17,033 reads containing dinucleotide microsatellite repeat units (mean, 487 base pairs were identified from 453,549 reads. Among 32 loci containing more than nine repeat units, 20 primer sets (62% produced strong PCR products, of which 14 were polymorphic. In an analysis of 60 individuals from two <em>R. pulchra em>populations, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 1–10, and the mean allelic richness was 4.7. No linkage disequilibrium was found between any pair of loci, indicating that the markers were independent. The Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium test showed significant deviation in two of the 28 single-loci after sequential Bonferroni’s correction. Using 11 primer sets, cross-species amplification was demonstrated in nine related species from four families within two classes. Among the 11 loci amplified from three other <em>Rajidae> family species; three loci were polymorphic. A monomorphic locus was amplified in all three <em>Rajidae> family species and the <em>Dasyatidae> family. Two <em>Rajidae> polymorphic loci amplified monomorphic target DNAs in four species belonging to the Carcharhiniformes class, and another was polymorphic in two Carcharhiniformes species.

  4. Atitudes parentais em relação à educação inclusiva Parental attitudes toward inclusive education

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    Altemir José Gonçalves Barbosa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de descrever as atitudes parentais em relação à inclusão escolar, 445 pais de alunos de primeira à quarta série do ensino fundamental de duas escolas municipais da cidade de São Paulo, responderam um questionário e uma escala de atitudes tipo Likert denominada Inventário Geral de Atitudes quanto à Educação Inclusiva (IGAEI. Participaram do estudo 169 (37,98% pais de alunos com necessidades educacionais especiais em processo de inclusão (G1 e 276 (62,02% progenitores de discentes que, de acordo com as instituições, não possuíam tal característica (G2. Os instrumentos foram aplicados coletivamente em reunião de pais e mestres com resposta individual. Os resultados obtidos revelam que ambos os grupos de pais tendiam a possuir atitudes favoráveis em relação à educação inclusiva. Porém, as atitudes dos pais de estudantes com necessidades educacionais especiais eram mais favoráveis à inclusão. São apresentados, ainda, resultados referentes a outras variáveis pesquisadas, como, por exemplo, tipos de necessidades educacionais em processo de inclusão. O estudo tende a corroborar resultados obtidos em pesquisas realizadas em outros países, ainda que algumas discrepâncias tenham sido percebidas. Conclui-se enfatizando a necessidade de mais pesquisas sobre o tema no contexto brasileiro e ressaltando a importância dos pais no desenvolvimento de sistemas educacionais inclusivos.In order to describe parental attitudes toward school inclusion, 445 parents of elementary school students from first to fourth grade of two municipal schools of the city of São Paulo answered a questionnaire and the Likert scale General Inventory of Attitudes toward Inclusive Education (IGAEI for assessing attitudes. The participants were 169 (37,98% parents of students with special educational needs included in regular schools (G1 and 276 (62,02% parents of students the school directors said did not have special needs (G2. The

  5. Neighborhood walkability scale (news - brazilian version: validity and reliability

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    Leticia de Matos Malavasi

    2006-09-01

    dimensions, and the Spearman correlation test and intra-class correlation for all indicators from this questionnaire. The results found in this present study shows that the translation, and back translation of NEWS were considered good; the á value of the questionnaire was0,804; the dimensions presented strong correlation (R = 0,98-1,00 and good consistence (á = 0,655 a 0,904; the indicators showed moderated to strong values for reliability (rs= 0,55-0,99 and strong correlation (R= 0,98-1,00. The significance level adopted in this survey was p RESUMO A busca das razões para a falta de aderência à prática de atividades físicas instiga vários pesquisadores a procurarem respostas para esta situação. Dentre estas pesquisas, investigam-se “como” ou “o quê” motiva as pessoas a fazerem ou não qualquer tipo de atividade física. As condições ambientais apresentam importânciarelativa na obtenção de um estilo de vida mais saudável. No Brasil, a quantidade de escalas validadas sobre barreiras ambientais para a atividade física em comunidades, é um pouco restrita. A importância da validação e a adaptação cultural desses instrumentos não estão apenas na possibilidade da comparação com estudos de outros países, mas principalmente para auxiliar no planejamento de políticas públicas que facilitem a aderência à prática de atividades físicas. Sendo assim, o presente estudo buscou analisar a validade e a fidedignidade da versão para a línguaportuguesa do Neighborhood Environmental Walkability Scale (NEWS - versão brasileira. Os procedimentos metodológicos foram estruturados em três etapas. A primeira etapa constitui-se da tradução e retradução do NEWS (Neighborhood Environmental Walkability Scale. Na segunda parte, realizou-se a reprodutibilidade do questionário. A terceira etapa, juntamente com uma comissão de especialistas, perfez-se da validade de construto do NEWS por meio da aplicação em bairros de maior e menor mobilidade da cidade

  6. A New Natural Lactone from <em>Dimocarpus> <em>longan> Lour. Seeds

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    Zhongjun Li

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A new natural product named longanlactone was isolated from <em>Dimocarpus> <em>longan> Lour. seeds. Its structure was determined as 3-(2-acetyl-1<em>H>-pyrrol-1-yl-5-(prop-2-yn-1-yldihydrofuran-2(3H-one by spectroscopic methods and HRESIMS.

  7. Purification, Characterization and Antioxidant Activities <em>in Vitroem>> em>and <em>in Vivoem> of the Polysaccharides from <em>Boletus edulisem> Bull

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    Yijun Fan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A water-soluble polysaccharide (BEBP was extracted from <em>Boletus edulis em>Bull using hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. The polysaccharide BEBP was further purified by chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column, giving three major polysaccharide fractions termed BEBP-1, BEBP-2 and BEBP-3. In the next experiment, the average molecular weight (Mw, IR and monosaccharide compositional analysis of the three polysaccharide fractions were determined. The evaluation of antioxidant activities both <em>in vitroem> and <em>in vivo em>suggested that BEBP-3 had good potential antioxidant activity, and should be explored as a novel potential antioxidant.

  8. <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem> in red foxes (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> and badgers (<em>Meles melesem> from Central and Northern Italy

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    Marta Magi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During 2004-2005 and 2007-2008, 189 foxes (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> and 6 badgers (<em>Meles melesem> were collected in different areas of Central Northern Italy (Piedmont, Liguria and Tuscany and examined for <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem> infection. The prevalence of the infection was significantly different in the areas considered, with the highest values in the district of Imperia (80%, Liguria and in Montezemolo (70%, southern Piedmont; the prevalence in Tuscany was 7%. One badger collected in the area of Imperia turned out to be infected, representing the first report of the parasite in this species in Italy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role played by fox populations as reservoirs of infection and the probability of its spreading to domestic dogs.
    Riassunto <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem> nella volpe (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> e nel tasso (<em>Meles melesem> in Italia centro-settentrionale. Nel 2004-2005 e 2007-2008, 189 volpi (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> e 6 tassi (<em>Meles melesem> provenienti da differenti aree dell'Italia settentrionale e centrale (Piemonte, Liguria Toscana, sono stati esaminati per la ricerca di <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem>. La prevalenza del nematode è risultata significativamente diversa nelle varie zone, con valori elevati nelle zone di Imperia (80% e di Montezemolo (70%, provincia di Cuneo; la prevalenza in Toscana è risultata del 7%. Un tasso proveniente dall'area di Imperia è risultato positivo per A. vasorum; questa è la prima segnalazione del parassita in tale specie in Italia. Ulteriori studi sono necessari per valutare il potenziale della volpe come serbatoio e la possibilità di diffusione della parassitosi ai cani domestici.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-20.2-4442

  9. Notas sobre a versão em língua portuguesa da Escala de Bem-Estar Espiritual Notes on the Portuguese-language version of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale

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    Edson Zangiacomi Martinez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Testar a Escala de Bem-Estar Espiritual (EBE, a versão em português da Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWB, em uma amostra de universitários matriculados em cursos de pós-graduação da área da saúde, avaliando suas qualidades psicométricas. Entre os diferentes instrumentos que objetivam mensurar a espiritualidade, encontra-se a SWB, adaptada recentemente para a língua portuguesa. Os 20 itens desse instrumento originalmente dividem-se em duas dimensões: bem-estar religioso (BER e bem-estar existencial (BEE. MÉTODOS: A consistência interna dessas dimensões foi avaliada pelo coeficiente alfa de Cronbach. Foi utilizada análise fatorial com rotação oblíqua para avaliar a estrutura fatorial latente. Quatrocentos e quarenta e um indivíduos responderam ao instrumento. RESULTADOS: O instrumento apresenta satisfatória consistência interna, mas a análise fatorial sugere que os itens da dimensão BEE distribuem-se em dois fatores distintos, o que chama a atenção para a complexidade da estrutura fatorial do instrumento. CONCLUSÃO: A estrutura fatorial da escala EBE não é clara, e a presença de um efeito teto em grupos religiosos específicos pode prejudicar os estudos que buscam associações entre espiritualidade e aspectos relacionados à saúde. O uso do instrumento exige cautela, e posteriores estudos de revisão da escala são necessários.OBJECTIVE: This study aims to test the factor structure of the Portuguese-language version of the Spiritual Well-being Scale (SWB in a sample of postgraduate students of courses in the health area, assessing its psychometric qualities. Among the different instruments used to measure the spirituality, the SWB was recently adapted into Portuguese language. The 20 items of this instrument are originally divided into two dimensions: Religious Well-Being (RWB and Existential Well-Being (EWB subscales. METHODS: The internal consistency of the subscales was assessed by the Cronbach's alpha

  10. Erosão em sulcos em diferentes preparos e estados de consolidação do solo

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    M. J. Schäfer

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O preparo e a consolidação do solo alteram a sua capacidade em resistir à erosão em sulcos. Com o objetivo de estudar a erosão em sulcos em diferentes preparos e consolidação do solo, conhecer o diâmetro mediano dos sedimentos transportados e determinar a erodibilidade em sulcos (Kr e a tensão crítica de cisalhamento (τc do solo, foi realizado um experimento no campo, em 1997/98, em um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico arênico. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições. Os tratamentos constaram de: preparo convencional recente (CR, preparo convencional consolidado (consolidação de dois meses (CC, plantio direto sem palha (PDS e plantio direto com palha (PDC, 94% de cobertura. Usou-se chuva simulada de intensidade constante (65 mm h-1 até escoamento aproximadamente constante de água no solo. Em seguida, na extremidade superior do sulco, foram adicionadas descargas líquidas (Q crescentes de 0,0002 m³ s-1 até 0,0010 m³ s-1, para os tratamentos CR e CC, e de 0,0004 m³ s-1 até 0,0020 m³ s-1, para os tratamentos PDS e PDC, sendo as amostras coletadas na parte inferior de cada sulco. As parcelas foram delimitadas por chapas metálicas cravadas no solo no sentido do declive (0,20 m de largura por 6,00 m de comprimento. O valor de Kr determinado foi de 0,012 kg N-1 s-1 e o τc foi de 2,61 N m-2. A desagregação, as perdas de solo e o diâmetro mediano dos sedimentos apresentaram a seguinte seqüência em magnitude: CR, CC, PDS e PDC, particularmente nas maiores Q. O regime de escoamento foi turbulento supercrítico, com exceção da primeira Q aplicada, onde o regime foi laminar subcrítico, para o PDC, graças à presença de resíduos culturais, e laminar supercrítico, para os demais tratamentos. A consolidação e a cobertura do solo alteram o regime do escoamento e reduzem a erosão em sulcos e seus efeitos são complementares.

  11. 40 CFR 98.413 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculating GHG emissions. 98.413 Section 98.413 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Industrial Greenhouse Gases § 98.413 Calculating...

  12. 40 CFR 98.416 - Data reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data reporting requirements. 98.416 Section 98.416 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Industrial Greenhouse Gases § 98.416 Data...

  13. Assessment of Genetic Fidelity in <em>Rauvolfia em>s>erpentina em>Plantlets Grown from Synthetic (Encapsulated Seeds Following <em>in Vitroem> Storage at 4 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Anis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method was developed for plant regeneration and establishment from alginate encapsulated synthetic seeds of <em>Rauvolfia serpentinaem>. Synthetic seeds were produced using <em>in vitroem> proliferated microshoots upon complexation of 3% sodium alginate prepared in Llyod and McCown woody plant medium (WPM and 100 mM calcium chloride. Re-growth ability of encapsulated nodal segments was evaluated after storage at 4 °C for 0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks and compared with non-encapsulated buds. Effects of different media <em>viz>; Murashige and Skoog medium; Lloyd and McCown woody Plant medium, Gamborg’s B5 medium and Schenk and Hildebrandt medium was also investigated for conversion into plantlets. The maximum frequency of conversion into plantlets from encapsulated nodal segments stored at 4 °C for 4 weeks was achieved on woody plant medium supplement with 5.0 μM BA and 1.0 μM NAA. Rooting in plantlets was achieved in half-strength Murashige and Skoog liquid medium containing 0.5 μM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA on filter paper bridges. Plantlets obtained from stored synseeds were hardened, established successfully <em>ex vitroem> and were morphologically similar to each other as well as their mother plant. The genetic fidelity of <em>Rauvolfia em>clones raised from synthetic seeds following four weeks of storage at 4 °C were assessed by using random amplified polymorphic<em> em>DNA (RAPD and inter-simple sequence repeat<em> em>(ISSR markers. All the RAPD and ISSR profiles from generated plantlets were monomorphic and comparable<em> em>to the mother plant, which confirms the genetic<em> em>stability among the clones. This synseed protocol could be useful for establishing a particular system for conservation, short-term storage and production of genetically identical and stable plants before it is released for commercial purposes.

  14. The State of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Systems in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mould-Millman, Nee-Kofi; Dixon, Julia M; Sefa, Nana; Yancey, Arthur; Hollong, Bonaventure G; Hagahmed, Mohamed; Ginde, Adit A; Wallis, Lee A

    2017-06-01

    Introduction Little is known about the existence, distribution, and characteristics of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems in Africa, or the corresponding epidemiology of prehospital illness and injury. A survey was conducted between 2013 and 2014 by distributing a detailed EMS system questionnaire to experts in paper and electronic versions. The questionnaire ascertained EMS systems' jurisdiction, operations, finance, clinical care, resources, and regulatory environment. The discovery of respondents with requisite expertise occurred in multiple phases, including snowball sampling, a review of published scientific literature, and a rigorous search of the Internet. The survey response rate was 46%, and data represented 49 of 54 (91%) African countries. Twenty-five EMS systems were identified and distributed among 16 countries (30% of African countries). There was no evidence of EMS systems in 33 (61%) countries. A total of 98,574,731 (8.7%) of the African population were serviced by at least one EMS system in 2012. The leading causes of EMS transport were (in order of decreasing frequency): injury, obstetric, respiratory, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal complaints. Nineteen percent of African countries had government-financed EMS systems and 26% had a toll-free public access telephone number. Basic emergency medical technicians (EMTs) and Basic Life Support (BLS)-equipped ambulances were the most common cadre of provider and ambulance level, respectively (84% each). Emergency Medical Services systems exist in one-third of African countries. Injury and obstetric complaints are the leading African prehospital conditions. Only a minority (<9.0%) of Africans have coverage by an EMS system. Most systems were predominantly BLS, government operated, and fee-for-service. Mould-Millman NK , Dixon JM , Sefa N , Yancey A , Hollong BG , Hagahmed M , Ginde AA , Wallis LA . The state of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems in Africa. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(3):273-283.

  15. Sulla presenza di <em>Sorex antinoriiem>, <em>Neomys anomalusem> (Insectivora, Soricidae e <em>Talpa caecaem> (Insectivora, Talpidae in Umbria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Paci

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Lo scopo del contributo è di fornire un aggiornamento sulla presenza del Toporagno del Vallese <em>Sorex antinoriiem>, del Toporagno acquatico di Miller <em>Neomys anomalusem> e della Talpa cieca <em>Talpa caecaem> in Umbria, dove le specie risultano accertate ormai da qualche anno. A tal fine sono stati rivisitati i reperti collezionati e la bibliografia conosciuta. Toporagno del Vallese: elevato di recente a livello di specie da Brünner et al. (2002, altrimenti considerato sottospecie del Toporagno comune (<em>S. araneus antinoriiem>. È conservato uno di tre crani incompleti (mancano mandibole ed incisivi superiori al momento prudenzialmente riferiti a <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>antinorii>, provenienti dall?Appennino umbro-marchigiano settentrionale (dintorni di Scalocchio - PG, 590 m. s.l.m. e determinati sulla base della pigmentazione rossa degli ipoconi del M1 e M2; Toporagno acquatico di Miller: tre crani (Breda in Paci e Romano op. cit. e un esemplare intero (Paci, ined. sono stati trovati a pochi chilometri di distanza gli uni dall?altro tra i comuni di Assisi e Valfabbrica, in ambienti mediocollinari limitrofi al Parco Regionale del M.te Subasio (Perugia. In provincia di Terni la specie viene segnalata da Isotti (op. cit. per i dintorni di Orvieto. Talpa cieca: sono noti una femmina e un maschio raccolti nel comune di Pietralunga (PG, rispettivamente in una conifereta a <em>Pinus nigraem> (m. 630 s.l.m. e nelle vicinanze di un bosco misto collinare a prevalenza di <em>Quercus cerrisem> (m. 640 s.l.m.. Recentemente un terzo individuo è stato rinvenuto nel comune di Sigillo (PG, all?interno del Parco Regionale di M.te Cucco, sul margine di una faggeta a 1100 m s.l.m. In entrambi i casi l?areale della specie è risultato parapatrico con quello di <em>Talpa europaeaem>.

  16. Validação da versão em português da escala London Chest Activity of Daily Living (LCADL em doentes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Pitta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Introdução: Diversos questionários desenvolvidos em língua inglesa visam avaliar especificamente a limitação pela dispnéia durante actividades da vida diária (AVD em doentes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crónica (DPOC, como a escala London Chest Activity of Daily Living (LCADL. No entanto, nenhum destes questionários foi ainda traduzido para a língua portuguesa. O objectivo desse estudo foi verificar a validade e a reprodutibilidade da versão em português da LCADL em pacientes com DPOC. Métodos: Trinta e um doentes com DPOC (17 homens; 69±7 anos; FEV1 44±15% predito responderam por duas vezes à versão em português da LCADL com intervalo de uma semana. O tradicional questionário Saint George na doença respiratória (SGRQ, já validado em português, foi utilizado como critério de validação. Resultados: Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre a aplicação e a reaplicação da LCADL. O coeficiente de correlação intraclasse dos domínios da escala entre o dia 1 e dia 2 foi de: Cuidado pessoal r=0,96; doméstico r=0,99; actividade física r=0,92; lazer r=0,95; escore total r=0,98. Foram observadas correlações significativas do escore total da LCADL com os domínios e o escore total do SGRQ (0,36em língua portuguesa da LCADL demonstrou ser reprodutível e válida em pacientes com DPOC. Portanto, o presente estudo fornece uma nova e importante ferramenta para avaliar a limitação na capacidade de realizar AVD nessa população.Rev Port Pneumol 2008; XIV (1: 27-47 Abstract: Introduction: While there are several subjective English tools, such as the London Chest Activity of Daily Living scale

  17. 40 CFR 98.406 - Data reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data reporting requirements. 98.406 Section 98.406 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Natural Gas and Natural Gas Liquids § 98.406 Data...

  18. Four Novel Cellulose Synthase (CESA Genes from <em>Birch> (<em>Betula platyphylla em>Suk. Involved in Primary and Secondary Cell Wall Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Liu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose synthase (CESA, which is an essential catalyst for the generation of plant cell wall biomass, is mainly encoded by the <em>CesA> gene family that contains ten or more members. In this study; four full-length cDNAs encoding CESA were isolated from<em> Betula platyphyllaem> Suk., which is an important timber species, using RT-PCR combined with the RACE method and were named as <em>BplCesA3em>, <em>−4em>,> −7 em>and> −8em>. These deduced CESAs contained the same typical domains and regions as their <em>Arabidopsis> homologs. The cDNA lengths differed among these four genes, as did the locations of the various protein domains inferred from the deduced amino acid sequences, which shared amino acid sequence identities ranging from only 63.8% to 70.5%. Real-time RT-PCR showed that all four <em>BplCesAs> were expressed at different levels in diverse tissues. Results indicated that BplCESA8 might be involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis and floral development. BplCESA3 appeared in a unique expression pattern and was possibly involved in primary cell wall biosynthesis and seed development; it might also be related to the homogalacturonan synthesis. BplCESA7 and BplCESA4 may be related to the formation of a cellulose synthase complex and participate mainly in secondary cell wall biosynthesis. The extremely low expression abundance of the four BplCESAs in mature pollen suggested very little involvement of them in mature pollen formation in <em>Betula>. The distinct expression pattern of the four <em>BplCesAs> suggested they might participate in developments of various tissues and that they are possibly controlled by distinct mechanisms in <em>Betula.>

  19. 40 CFR 98.38 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Still Gas 0.143 66.72 Kerosene 0.135 75.20 Liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) 0.092 62.98 Propane 0.091 61... GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources § 98.38 Definitions. All terms used in... 93.65 Mixed (Industrial sector) 22.35 93.91 Mixed (Electric Power sector) 19.73 94.38 Natural gas mm...

  20. Microsatellite Loci in the Gypsophyte <em>Lepidium subulatum em>(Brassicaceae, and Transferability to Other <em>Lepidieae>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gabriel Segarra-Moragues

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the Ibero-North African, strict gypsophyte <em>Lepidium subulatumem> to unravel the effects of habitat fragmentation in levels of genetic diversity, genetic structure and gene flow among its populations. Using 454 pyrosequencing 12 microsatellite loci including di- and tri-nucleotide repeats were characterized in <em>L. subulatumem>. They amplified a total of 80 alleles (2–12 alleles per locus in a sample of 35 individuals of <em>L. subulatumem>, showing relatively high levels of genetic diversity, <em>H>O = 0.645, <em>H>E = 0.627. Cross-species transferability of all 12 loci was successful for the Iberian endemics <em>Lepidium cardaminesem>, <em>Lepidium stylatumem>, and the widespread, <em>Lepidium graminifoliumem> and one species each of two related genera, <em>Cardaria drabaem> and <em>Coronopus didymusem>. These microsatellite primers will be useful to investigate genetic diversity, population structure and to address conservation genetics in species of <em>Lepidium>.

  1. 40 CFR 98.412 - GHGs to report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false GHGs to report. 98.412 Section 98.412 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Industrial Greenhouse Gases § 98.412 GHGs to report. You must report...

  2. 40 CFR 98.411 - Reporting threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Industrial Greenhouse Gases § 98.411 Reporting threshold. Any supplier of industrial greenhouse gases who meets the requirements of § 98.2(a)(4) must report GHG...

  3. Comparison and validation of diagrammatic scales for brown eye spots in coffee tree leaves Comparação e validação de escalas diagramáticas para cercosporiose em folhas de cafeeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Augusto de Paiva Custódio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A diagrammatic scale with six levels (0.1-3.0; 3.1-6.0; 6.1-12.0; 12.1-18.0;18.1-30.0; 30.1-49.0% was developed, compared, and evaluated along with two other scales to measure the severity of brown eye spots in coffee trees leaves. The scale was designed based on two others already in use in order to increase the efficiency of evaluation and for estimation values to approach as close as possible to their actual values. Two evaluations were performed using each of the three diagrammatic scales and one was performed without a diagrammatic scale, in seven day intervals. Using the proposed scale, the evaluators demonstrated better precision levels, accuracy, reproducibility, and repeatability in the estimations, when compared to the evaluators who did not use the diagrammatic scale, or who used existing scales. The proposed diagrammatic scale provided a reliable estimation to evaluate brown eye spot severity on coffee tree leaves.Foi desenvolvida, comparada e avaliada com outras duas escalas uma escala diagramática com seis níveis (0,1-3,0; 3,1-6,0; 6,1-12,0; 12,1-18,0; 18,1-30,0; 30,1-49,0%, para medir a severidade da cercosporiose em folhas de cafeeiro. A escala foi construída baseada em outras duas já existentes, procurando aumentar a eficiência da avaliação e aproximar os valores estimados o mais próximo dos valores reais. Foram realizadas duas avaliações com a utilização de cada uma das três escalas diagramáticas e uma avaliação sem o seu auxílio, em intervalos de sete dias. Com o emprego da escala proposta, os avaliadores apresentaram melhores níveis de precisão, acurácia, reprodutibilidade e repetibilidade nas estimativas, quando comparados aos avaliadores que não utilizaram a escala diagramática, ou que utilizaram as escalas existentes. A escala diagramática proposta demonstrou fornecer uma estimativa confiável para avaliar a severidade da cercosporiose em folhas de cafeeiro.

  4. Immunomodulator therapy migration in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis: a study of 152 cases Migração medicamentosa de imunomoduladores em esclerose múltipla: estudo em 152 pacientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Semeraro Jordy

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since 1997, immunological modulators have been used for treatment of Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS in the Multiple Sclerosis Attendance and Treatment Center (CATEM with significant alterations in this disease natural history. AIM: To add data on the experience of CATEM for the treatment of RRMS patients that had immunomodulators. METHOD: RRMS patients that received continuously immunomodulator drugs were evaluated on adherence, migration, withdrawal and progression rates. The patients were divided in three groups by the period of immunomodulators intake. RESULTS: There were registered in Group 1 withdrawal in 98 patients (25% and adherence in 292 cases (74%; Group 2 interruption of therapy in 140 patients, 92 (31% due to progression for PSMS, 14 (5% for pregnancy, withdrawal in 34 (11%, adherence in 88%; Group 3 progression in 41 (26%, pregnancy in 3 (2% withdrawal in 42 (27% and adherence in 72%. The migration rate was about one third (31.57% and the principal cause was therapeutic failure; the mean migrating time was 0.5-2.5 years in group 3. CONCLUSION: Immunomodulatory treatment for RRMS patients may have significant levels of failure and side effects; the adherence was compatible with the international literature.INTRODUÇÃO: Na última década foram introduzidos os imunomoduladores para o tratamento da esclerose múltipla (EM forma remitente-recorrente (RR. OBJETIVO: Complementar o relato anterior da experiência de centro brasileiro no acompanhamento dos pacientes em uso dos imunomoduladores. MÉTODO: 390 pacientes que faziam uso de imunomoduladores no Centro de Atendimento à Esclerose Múltipla (CATEM, foram subdivididos por tempo de uso em três grupos, avaliando-se as ocorrências de: abandono, gravidez, conversão da forma RR para secundária progressiva (SP e da aderência. RESULTADOS: No Grupo 1, foram observados abandono do uso de imunomoduladores em 98 pacientes (25% e aderência de 292 casos (74%; no

  5. Constituents from <em>Vigna em>vexillata> and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Feng Chen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of <em>Vigna em>genus are important food resources and there have already been many reports regarding their bioactivities. In our preliminary bioassay, the chloroform layer of methanol extracts of<em> V. vexillata em>demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory bioactivity. Therefore, the present research is aimed to purify and identify the anti-inflammatory principles of <em>V. vexillataem>. One new sterol (1 and two new isoflavones (2,3 were reported from the natural sources for the first time and their chemical structures were determined by the spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. In addition, 37 known compounds were identified by comparison of their physical and spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. Among the isolates, daidzein (23, abscisic acid (25, and quercetin (40 displayed the most significant inhibition of superoxide anion generation and elastase release.

  6. 46 CFR 98.25-65 - Filling density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filling density. 98.25-65 Section 98.25-65 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL... § 98.25-65 Filling density. (a) The filling density, or the percent ratio of the liquefied gas that may...

  7. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Luminescent Property of Cd (II Complex with <em>N-Benzenesulphonyl-L>-leucine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xishi Tai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A new trinuclear Cd (II complex [Cd3(L6(2,2-bipyridine3] [L =<em> Nem>-phenylsulfonyl-L>-leucinato] has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. The results show that the complex belongs to the orthorhombic, space group<em> Pem>212121 with<em> aem> = 16.877(3 Å, <em>b> em>= 22.875(5 Å, <em>c em>= 29.495(6 Å, <em>α> em>= <emem>= <emem>= 90°, <em>V> em>= 11387(4 Å3, <em>Z> em>= 4, <em>Dc>= 1.416 μg·m−3, <emem>= 0.737 mm−1, <em>F> em>(000 = 4992, and final <em>R>1 = 0.0390, <em>ωR>2 = 0.0989. The complex comprises two seven-coordinated Cd (II atoms, with a N2O5 distorted pengonal bipyramidal coordination environment and a six-coordinated Cd (II atom, with a N2O4 distorted octahedral coordination environment. The molecules form one dimensional chain structure by the interaction of bridged carboxylato groups, hydrogen bonds and p-p interaction of 2,2-bipyridine. The luminescent properties of the Cd (II complex and <em>N-Benzenesulphonyl-L>-leucine in solid and in CH3OH solution also have been investigated.

  8. Using Reversed MFCC and IT-EM for Automatic Speaker Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheeraz Memon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes text independent automatic speaker verification system using IMFCC (Inverse/ Reverse Mel Frequency Coefficients and IT-EM (Information Theoretic Expectation Maximization. To perform speaker verification, feature extraction using Mel scale has been widely applied and has established better results. The IMFCC is based on inverse Mel-scale. The IMFCC effectively captures information available at the high frequency formants which is ignored by the MFCC. In this paper the fusion of MFCC and IMFCC at input level is proposed. GMMs (Gaussian Mixture Models based on EM (Expectation Maximization have been widely used for classification of text independent verification. However EM comes across the convergence issue. In this paper we use our proposed IT-EM which has faster convergence, to train speaker models. IT-EM uses information theory principles such as PDE (Parzen Density Estimation and KL (Kullback-Leibler divergence measure. IT-EM acclimatizes the weights, means and covariances, like EM. However, IT-EM process is not performed on feature vector sets but on a set of centroids obtained using IT (Information Theoretic metric. The IT-EM process at once diminishes divergence measure between PDE estimates of features distribution within a given class and the centroids distribution within the same class. The feature level fusion and IT-EM is tested for the task of speaker verification using NIST2001 and NIST2004. The experimental evaluation validates that MFCC/IMFCC has better results than the conventional delta/MFCC feature set. The MFCC/IMFCC feature vector size is also much smaller than the delta MFCC thus reducing the computational burden as well. IT-EM method also showed faster convergence, than the conventional EM method, and thus it leads to higher speaker recognition scores.

  9. Engajamento no Trabalho: Um Estudo em Profissionais Multidisciplinares de Saúde em um Município da Região Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Lori Ane Vargas de; Charão-Brito, Lucas

    2017-01-01

    Profissionais engajados demonstram maior entusiasmo, iniciativa e recursos internos para lidar com as exigências do trabalho. Diante disso, este estudo tem o objetivo de identificar e descrever o engajamento no trabalho em profissionais multidisciplinares de uma secretaria de saúde em um município da Região Sul. Para tanto, esta pesquisa está pautada em um estudo descritivo e quantitativo a partir da utilização do instrumento de coleta de dados Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES). Os dados o...

  10. <em>N>-Substituted 5-Chloro-6-phenylpyridazin-3(2<em>H>-ones: Synthesis, Insecticidal Activity Against <em>Plutella xylostella em>(L. and SAR Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of <em>N>-substituted 5-chloro-6-phenylpyridazin-3(2<em>H>-one derivatives were synthesized based on our previous work; all compounds were characterized by spectral data and tested for <em>in vitroem> insecticidal activity against <em>Plutella xylostellaem>. The results showed that the synthesized pyridazin-3(2<em>H>-one compounds possessed good insecticidal activities, especially the compounds 4b, 4d, and 4h which showed > 90% activity at 100 mg/L. The structure-activity relationships (SAR for these compounds were also discussed.

  11. The functional assessment Berg Balance Scale is better capable of estimating fall risk in the elderly than the posturographic Balance Stability System A avaliação funcional Berg Balance Scale é capaz de estimar melhor o risco de quedas em idosos do que a posturografia Balance Stability System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Vieira Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify which instrument better identifies recurrent falls in the elderly. Ninety-eight old people, with an average age of 80±4 years, were submitted to an assessment of balance and fall risk by means of the Berg Balance Scale (BBS and the posturographic Balance Stability System (BSS. The BBS was correlated with the BSS (r=-0.27; p=0.008, age (r=-0.38; pA proposta do estudo foi verificar o instrumento que melhor identifica o risco de quedas recorrentes em idosos. O estudo incluiu 98 idosos, com média de idade de 80±4 anos, submetidos à avaliação do equilíbrio e risco de quedas por meio da Berg Balance Scale (BBS e da posturografia Balance Stability System (BSS. A BBS foi correlacionada com a BSS (r=-0,27; p=0,008, com a idade (r=-0,38; p<0,001 e com o número de quedas (r=-0,25; p=0,013. A análise de regressão logística mostrou que idosos classificados com risco de quedas na BBS apresentaram 2,5 (95%IC 1,08-5,78 mais chances de identificar quem teve duas quedas ou mais no último ano. A BBS identificou que quanto maior a idade pior é o equilíbrio funcional e demonstrou maior capacidade de identificar o risco de quedas sofridas no último ano quando comparada a BSS.

  12. Conditional deletion of CD98hc inhibits osteoclast development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Tsumura

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The CD98 heavy chain (CD98hc regulates virus-induced cell fusion and monocyte fusion, and is involved in amino acid transportation. Here, we examined the role that CD98hc plays in the formation of osteoclasts using CD98hcflox/floxLysM-cre peritoneal macrophages (CD98hc-defect macrophages. Peritoneal macrophages were stimulated with co-cultured with osteoblasts in the presence of 1,25(OH2 vitamin D3, and thereafter stained with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining solution. The multinucleated osteoclast formation was severely impaired in the peritoneal macrophages isolated from the CD98hc-defect mice compared with those from wild-type mice. CD98hc mediates integrin signaling and amino acid transport through the CD98 light chain (CD98lc. In integrin signaling, suppression of the M-CSF-RANKL-induced phosphorylation of ERK, Akt, JNK and p130Cas were observed at the triggering phase in the CD98h-defect peritoneal macrophages. Moreover, we showed that the general control non-derepressible (GCN pathway, which was activated by amino acid starvation, was induced by the CD98hc-defect peritoneal macrophages stimulated with RANKL. These results indicate that CD98 plays two important roles in osteoclast formation through integrin signaling and amino acid transport.

  13. 46 CFR 98.30-11 - Cargo pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pumps. 98.30-11 Section 98.30-11 Shipping COAST..., ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Portable Tanks § 98.30-11 Cargo pumps. No person may operate a cargo pump to transfer a product to or from a portable tank unless the pump...

  14. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Burns Specific Pain Anxiety Scale - BSPAS to be used with Brazilian burned patients Adaptación transcultural de la "Burns Specific Pain Anxiety Scale - BSPAS" para ser aplicada en pacientes quemados brasileños Adaptação transcultural da "Burns Specific Pain Anxiety Scale - BSPAS" para ser aplicada em pacientes queimados brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Echevarría-Guanilo

    2006-08-01

    "Burns Specific Pain Anxiety Scale - BSPAS" e a "Impact of Event Scale - IES" para a língua portuguesa, disponibilizar dois instrumentos simples, curtos e de fácil aplicação e descrever os participantes do estudo, segundo os escores obtidos por meio da aplicação da Escala Visual Analógica e do Inventário de Ansiedade Traço-Estado. O processo de adaptação das escalas seguiu as seguintes etapas: tradução das escalas; obtenção do consenso em português; avaliação por um Comitê de Juízes; "back-translation"; obtenção do consenso em holandês; comparação das versões originais e consenso em holandês; análise semântica e pré-teste das versões em português. Os resultados mostraram que as escalas, em seu primeiro estágio de adaptação transcultural para o português, apresentaram índices elevados de consistência interna dos itens da escala. Foram obtidos maiores índices de dor após o banho e curativo. Os escores médios de ansiedade foram classificados como baixos ou médios.

  15. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia as a predictor factor for motor alteration at 6 months corrected age in premature infants Displasia broncopulmonar como fator predisponente para alterações motoras aos 6 meses em prematuros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Silveira Martins

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to assess bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD as a predisposing factor for alteration in the psychomotor development index (PDI in premature infants and verify the incidence of neuromotor alterations at 6 months corrected age. METHOD: This was a prospective cohort study that followed the neuromotor development of 152 very low birth weight premature infants, with psychomotor development index as the outcome. The study used the Bayley Scale of Infant Development at 6 months corrected age, and neurological examination. RESULTS: Incidence of BPD was 13.2% (n=20. Logistic regression analysis showed an association between BPD and altered psychomotor development index (OR 3.98; 95%CI: 1.04-15.1 after adjusting for confounding variables. Neurological examination was altered in 67.1% of the 152 infants. CONCLUSION: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia acted as an independent predisposing factor for alteration in the psychomotor development index in premature infants at 6 months corrected age.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a displasia broncopulmonar (DBP como fator predisponente para alteração no índice de desenvolvimento psicomotor em prematuros e verificar a incidência das alterações neuromotoras aos 6 meses de idade corrigida. MéTODO: Estudo de coorte prospectivo que acompanhou o desenvolvimento neuromotor de 152 prematuros de muito baixo peso, cujo desfecho foi o desenvolvimento psicomotor. Utilizou-se a Bayley Scale of Infant Development aos 6 meses de idade corrigida e exame neurológico. RESULTADOS: A incidência de DBP foi de 13,2% (n=20. A análise de regressão logística mostrou associação entre a DBP e alteração no índice de desenvolvimento psicomotor (RC 3,98 IC 95%:1,04-15,1 após ajuste para as variáveis de confundimento. O exame neurológico apresentou-se alterado em 67,1% das 152 crianças. CONCLUSão: A displasia broncopulmonar atuou como fator predisponente independente para alteração no índice de desenvolvimento

  16. 36 CFR 9.8 - Use of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.8 Use of water. (a) No operator may use for operations any water from... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of water. 9.8 Section 9.8... Regional Director. The Regional Director shall not approve a plan of operations requiring the use of water...

  17. New constraints on the magnitude of the 4 January 1907 tsunami earthquake off Sumatra, Indonesia, and its Indian Ocean-wide tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S. S.; Li, L.; Okal, E.; Kanamori, H.; Morin, J.; Sieh, K.; Switzer, A.

    2017-12-01

    On 4 January 1907, an earthquake and tsunami occurred off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia, causing at least 2,188 fatalities. The earthquake was given an instrumental surface-wave magnitude (MS) in the range of 7.5 to 8.0 at periods of ≈40s. The tsunami it triggered was destructive on the islands of Nias and Simeulue; on the latter, this gave rise to the legend of the S'mong. This tsunami appears in records in India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and as far as the island of La Réunion. In relation to published seismic magnitudes for the earthquake, the tsunami was anomalously large, qualifying it as a "tsunami earthquake." Relocations using reported arrival times suggest an epicentral location near the trench. However, unusually for a tsunami earthquake the reported macroseismic intensities were higher than expected on Nias (6-7 EMS). We present a new study of this event based on macroseismic and tsunami observations culled from published literature and colonial press reports, as well as existing and newly acquired digitized or print seismograms. This multidisciplinary combination of macroseismic and seismological data with tsunami modelling has yielded new insights into this poorly understood but scientifically and societally important tsunami earthquake in the Indian Ocean. With these new data, we discriminated two large earthquakes within an hour of each other with clear differences in seismological character. The first, we interpret to be a tsunami earthquake with low levels of shaking (3-4 EMS). For this event, we estimate a seismic moment (M0) between 0.8 and 1.2 x1021 Nm (≈MW 7.9 to 8.0) based on digitized Wiechert records at Göttingen in the frequency band 6-8 mHz. These records document a regular growth of moment with period and suggest possibly larger values of M0 at even longer periods. The second earthquake caused damage on Nias (6-7 EMS). We estimate MS 6 ¾ - 7 for the second event based on seismograms from Manila, Mizusawa, and Osaka. We also

  18. INFLUÊNCIA ESTOICA NA CONCEPÇÃO DE <em>STATUS> E <em>DICTUM> COMO <em> QUASI RES EM> (ὡσανεì τινά EM ABERLARDO STOIC INFLUENCE IN ABELARD'S CONCEPTION OF <em>STATUS> AND <em>DICTUM> AS <em>QUASI RESem> (ὡσανεì τινά.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Hamelin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Na sua obra, Pedro Abelardo (1079-1142 destaca duas noções metafísicas que fundamentam sua teoria lógica: o <em style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">statusem> e o <em style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">dictum propositionisem>, ao causar, respectivamente, a imposição (<em style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">impositioem> dos termos universais e o valor de verdade das proposições. Trata-se de expressões que se referem a naturezas ontológicas peculiares, na medida em que não são consideradas coisas (<em style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">resem>, mesmo que constituem causas. Todavia, também não são nada. Abelardo as chama de ‘quase coisas’ (<em style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">quasi resem>. No presente artigo, explicamos, primeiro, essas duas noções essenciais da lógica abelardiana, antes de tentar, em seguida, encontrar a fonte dessa metafísica particular. Em oposição a comentadores importantes da lógica de Abelardo, que estimam que haja uma forte influência platônica sobre essa concepção específica, defendemos antes, com apoio de textos significativos e de acordo com o nominalismo abelardiano, que a maior ascendência sobre a metafísica do nosso autor é a do estoicismo, sobretudo, antigo.In his work, Peter Abelard (1079-1142 highlights two metaphysical notions, which sustain his logical theory: the <em>status> and the <em>dictum propositionisem>, causing respectively both the imposition (<em>impositio> of universal terms and the thuth-value of propositions. Both expressions refer to peculiar ontological natures, in so far as they are not considered things (<em>res>, even if they constitute causes. Nevertheless, neither are they ‘nothing’. Abelard calls them ‘quasi-things’ (<em>quasi resem>. In the present article, we expound first these two essential notions of Abelardian logic before then trying to find the source of this particular metaphysics. Contrary to some important

  19. 14 CFR 61.98 - Flight proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight proficiency. 61.98 Section 61.98 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN...) Navigation; (viii) Slow flight and stalls; (ix) Emergency operations; and (x) Postflight procedures. (2) For...

  20. The Indigenous World, 1997-98 = El Mundo Indigena, 1997-98.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erni, Christian, Ed.

    This annual publication (published separately in English and Spanish) examines political, legal, social, environmental, and educational issues concerning indigenous peoples around the world during 1997-98. Part I highlights news events and ongoing situations in specific countries in nine world regions. In the Arctic and North America, these…

  1. Degradation of benzodiazepines after 120 days of EMS deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Jason T; Jones, Elizabeth; Barnhart, Bruce; Denninghoff, Kurt; Spaite, Daniel; Zaleski, Erin; Silbergleit, Robert

    2014-01-01

    EMS treatment of status epilepticus improves outcomes, but the benzodiazepine best suited for EMS use is unclear, given potential high environmental temperature exposures. To describe the degradation of diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam as a function of temperature exposure and time over 120 days of storage on active EMS units. Study boxes containing vials of diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam were distributed to 4 active EMS units in each of 2 EMS systems in the southwestern United States during May-August 2011. The boxes logged temperature every minute and were stored in EMS units per local agency policy. Two vials of each drug were removed from each box at 30-day intervals and underwent high-performance liquid chromatography to determine drug concentration. Concentration was analyzed as mean (and 95%CI) percent of initial labeled concentration as a function of time and mean kinetic temperature (MKT). 192 samples were collected (2 samples of each drug from each of 4 units per city at 4 time-points). After 120 days, the mean relative concentration (95%CI) of diazepam was 97.0% (95.7-98.2%) and of midazolam was 99.0% (97.7-100.2%). Lorazepam experienced modest degradation by 60 days (95.6% [91.6-99.5%]) and substantial degradation at 90 days (90.3% [85.2-95.4%]) and 120 days (86.5% [80.7-92.3%]). Mean MKT was 31.6°C (95%CI 27.1-36.1). Increasing MKT was associated with greater degradation of lorazepam, but not midazolam or diazepam. Midazolam and diazepam experienced minimal degradation throughout 120 days of EMS deployment in high-heat environments. Lorazepam experienced significant degradation over 120 days and appeared especially sensitive to higher MKT exposure.

  2. 42 CFR 460.98 - Service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service delivery. 460.98 Section 460.98 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED..., national origin, religion, sex, age, sexual orientation, mental or physical disability, or source of...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.98 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective dates. 1910.98 Section 1910.98 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... section, if any standard in 41 CFR part 50-204, other than a national consensus standard incorporated by...

  4. 46 CFR 98.25-75 - Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shall be fitted with efficient natural or mechanical ventilation. (b) Enclosed compartments in which... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation. 98.25-75 Section 98.25-75 Shipping COAST... Ventilation. (a) All enclosed spaces containing cargo tanks fitted with bottom outlet connections shall be...

  5. 50 CFR 665.98 - Management area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management area. 665.98 Section 665.98 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The American Samoa fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of the Territory of American...

  6. Natural Products from Antarctic Colonial Ascidians of the Genera <em>Aplidium> and <em>Synoicum>: Variability and Defensive Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conxita Avila

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ascidians have developed multiple defensive strategies mostly related to physical, nutritional or chemical properties of the tunic. One of such is chemical defense based on secondary metabolites. We analyzed a series of colonial Antarctic ascidians from deep-water collections belonging to the genera <em>Aplidium> and <em>Synoicum> to evaluate the incidence of organic deterrents and their variability. The ether fractions from 15 samples including specimens of the species <em>A.> <em>falklandicum>, <em>A.> <em>fuegiense>, <em>A.> <em>meridianum>, <em>A.> <em>millari> and <em>S.> <em>adareanum> were subjected to feeding assays towards two relevant sympatric predators: the starfish <em>Odontaster> <em>validus>, and the amphipod <em>Cheirimedon> <em>femoratus>. All samples revealed repellency. Nonetheless, some colonies concentrated defensive chemicals in internal body-regions rather than in the tunic. Four ascidian-derived meroterpenoids, rossinones B and the three derivatives 2,3-epoxy-rossinone B, 3-epi-rossinone B, 5,6-epoxy-rossinone B, and the indole alkaloids meridianins A–G, along with other minoritary meridianin compounds were isolated from several samples. Some purified metabolites were tested in feeding assays exhibiting potent unpalatabilities, thus revealing their role in predation avoidance. Ascidian extracts and purified compound-fractions were further assessed in antibacterial tests against a marine Antarctic bacterium. Only the meridianins showed inhibition activity, demonstrating a multifunctional defensive role. According to their occurrence in nature and within our colonial specimens, the possible origin of both types of metabolites is discussed.

  7. A scale to evaluate customer attitudes towards food risks in restaurants / Uma escala para avaliar as atitudes do cliente com relação aos riscos de alimentos em restaurantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Milhassi Vedovato

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative methods for exploratory social research allow a deep understanding of individuals’ knowledge, perceptions, values, and preferences. In this study, we aimed to develop a scale to measure customer attitudes toward food risks. In-depth interviews were conducted with customers from two different restaurants located in Sao Paulo, Brazil, to raise social representation constructs by means of the collective subject discourse technique to compose the scale items. A 5-point Likert scale was used to assess the degree of the respondent’s agreement/disagreement with each item (n = 24. The instrument developed was tested (n = 61 to evaluate validity and reliability; it yielded satisfactory internal consistency (α = 0.78, 17 items. The study offers a theoretical and methodological insight into scale development, and identifies customers’ social representations in buffet-style restaurants related to hygiene, risk management, food-hazards, responsibility, and trust in food systems. The proposed methodology is suitable to apply to further marketing research and effective risk management and communication regarding foodservices issues. -------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Métodos qualitativos em pesquisa social permitem uma compreensão mais aprofundada dos conhecimentos, percepções, valores, preferências dos indivíduos. Este estudo teve como objetivo o desenvolvimento de uma escala para avaliar as atitudes dos clientes em relação à segurança de alimentos. Entrevistas em profundidade foram realizadas com clientes de dois restaurantes em São Paulo, Brasil, para levantar construtos de representação social por meio da técnica do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo para compor os itens da escala. Uma escala de Likert 5-pontos foi utilizada para avaliar o grau de concordância/discordância dos respondentes com cada item (n = 24. O instrumento desenvolvido foi testado (n

  8. 7 CFR 98.4 - Analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Analytical methods. 98.4 Section 98.4 Agriculture....4 Analytical methods. (a) The majority of analytical methods used by the USDA laboratories to perform analyses of meat, meat food products and MRE's are listed as follows: (1) Official Methods of...

  9. Fumigant Antifungal Activity of Myrtaceae Essential Oils and Constituents from <em>Leptospermum petersoniiem> against Three <em>Aspergillus> Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Kwon Park

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Commercial plant essential oils obtained from 11 Myrtaceae plant species were tested for their fumigant antifungal activity against <em>Aspergillus ochraceusem>, <em>A. flavusem>, and <em>A. nigerem>. Essential oils extracted from<em> em>Leptospermum> <em>petersonii> at air concentrations of 56 × 10−3 mg/mL and 28 × 10−3 mg/mL completely inhibited the growth of the three <em>Aspergillus> species. However, at an air concentration of 14 × 10−3 mg/mL, inhibition rates of <em>L. petersoniiem> essential oils were reduced to 20.2% and 18.8% in the case of <em>A. flavusem> and <em>A. nigerem>, respectively. The other Myrtaceae essential oils (56 × 10−3 mg/mL only weakly inhibited the fungi or had no detectable affect. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified 16 compounds in <em>L. petersoniiem>> em>essential> em>oil.> em>The antifungal activity of the identified compounds was tested individually by using standard or synthesized compounds. Of these, neral and geranial inhibited growth by 100%, at an air concentration of 56 × 10−3 mg/mL, whereas the activity of citronellol was somewhat lover (80%. The other compounds exhibited only moderate or weak antifungal activity. The antifungal activities of blends of constituents identified in <em>L. petersoniiem> oil indicated that neral and geranial were the major contributors to the fumigant and antifungal activities.

  10. DESENVOLVIMENTO DE UMA ESCALA EM SILICONA PARA TONS DE PELE HUMANA DEVELOPMENT OF A SILICONE SCALE FOR SHADES OF HUMAN SKIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Christina Claro NEVES

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O autor desenvolveu em silicona uma escala de tonalidades de pele humana. Foram confeccionados vinte e sete corpos-de-prova em silicona acética (Silastic 732 RTV, pigmentados com óxidos de ferro e dióxido de titânio. A quantidade de silicona acética manteve-se constante (dois gramas em todos os corpos-de-prova, e os pigmentos foram misturados a ela em várias proporções até a obtenção de vinte e sete diferentes tonalidades. Através da comparação da cor dos corpos-de-prova com a cor da pele de quarenta e um indivíduos, foram selecionados os cinco corpos-de-prova com as tonalidades que mais se igualavam à cor da pele dos pacientes, compondo, assim, um guia de tonalidades. Com a metodologia empregada, foi possível desenvolver uma escala de tonalidades de pele que poderá facilitar a definição do tom da pele do paciente quando da confecção de próteses faciais em silicona, permitindo economia de tempo e de material no momento da seleção da cor.The author developed a scale in silicone of shades of human skin. Twenty-seven samples were produced in acetic silicone (Silastic 732 RTV, pigmented with iron oxides and titanium dioxide. The amount of acetic silicone was kept constant (two grams in all of the samples, and the pigments were mixed to it in varying proportions, until twenty-seven different shades were obtained. By comparing the color of the samples with the skin color of forty-one individuals, five samples were selected of the shades that best matched a patient's color of skin to form a shade guide. With the methodology employed, it was possible to develop a shade guide that will facilitate a definition of a patient's skin color in producing facial prostheses in silicone, to afford economy in time and in material at time for selecting the color.

  11. Neighborhood walkability scale (News - Brazil: Back translation and Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Both

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Existem, no Brasil, poucos instrumentos para avaliar a relação entre o ambiente físico e a prática de atividades físicas. O objetivo do estudo foi analisar a tradução, a retradução e a reprodutibilidade do questionário NEWS (Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale para o português do Brasil. Os procedimentos metodológicos foram estruturados em duas etapas. Primeiramente, efetuou-se a tradução e a retradução do NEWS com o intuito de verificar a linguagem do instrumento. Em seguida, realizou-se a reprodutibilidade do questionário por meio de teste e re-teste. A amostra desta pesquisa teve a participação de 75 pessoas (45 mulheres e 30 homens, com média de 33 ± 15 anos. A correlação intraclasse, a fidedignidade para as dimensões, o teste de correlação de Spearman e a correlação intraclasse para os indicadores de cada dimensão deste instrumento foram analisados com o auxílio do pacote estatístico SPSS (versão 11.0. O nível de significância adotado foi de p ABSTRACT In Brazil, there are few validated scales that establish the relationship between environmental barriers and physical activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the translation, back translation and reliability of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS into Brazilian Portuguese. The methodological procedures were structured in two phases. The first phase was to translate and back translate NEWS to verify the instrument language. The second phase was he test and re-test reliability of the questionnaire. The sample was composed of 75 people (45 women and 30 men, mean age of 33 ± 15 years. The statistical analyses to verify the Brazilian NEWS were performed with the SPSS program (version 11.0 for intra-class correlation and reliability for the dimensions; Spearman correlation test and intra-class correlation for all indicators from this questionnaire. The significance level adopted in this survey was p<0.05. The results in

  12. Inter rater reliability of Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH in patients with chronic leg ulcers Confiabilidad inter-observadores del Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH en pacientes con úlceras crónicas en la pierna Confiabilidade interobservadores do Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH, em pacientes com úlceras crônicas de perna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Conceição de Gouveia Santos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the inter rater reliability of the Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH, in its version adapted to the Portuguese language, in patients with chronic leg ulcers. Kappa index was used for the analysis. After accomplishing ethical issues, 41 patients with ulcers were examined. A total of 49% of the ulcers were located in the right leg and 36% of them were venous ulcers. The Kappa indices (0.97 to 1.00 obtained in the comparison between the observations of the clinical nurses and the stomal therapists for all sub-scales and for total score, confirmed the tool inter rater reliability, with statistical significance (pEl objetivo del estúdio fue probar la confiabilidad inter-observadores del Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH, en su versión adaptada al portugués, en pacientes con úlceras crónicas en la pierna. Para el análisis de concordancia se utilizó el Indice Kappa. Posterior a la aprobación del Comité de Ética, 41 pacientes con úlcera fueron examinados, siendo que 49% de las úlceras se localizaron a la derecha y 36% eran de etiología venosa. Los indices Kappa obtenidos (0,97 a 1,00, con un nivel significativo de pTestar a confiabilidade interobservadores do Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH, em sua versão adaptada para o português, em pacientes com úlceras crônicas de perna foi o objetivo deste estudo. Para a análise de concordância, utilizou-se o índice Kappa. Após aprovação pelo Comitê de Ética, pacientes com úlceras (41 úlceras foram examinados, sendo que 49% das úlceras localizavam-se à direita e 36% eram de etiologia venosa. Os índices Kappa obtidos (0,97 a 1,00, com significância estatística (p<0,001, ratificaram a confiabilidade interobservadores, ao ser obtida concordância de muito boa a total entre as observações de enfermeiros clínicos e especialistas em estomaterapia (padrão-ouro, para todas as subescalas do PUSH, como para o escore total. Esses resultados

  13. Clinical Relevance of <em>CDH1em> and <em>CDH13em> DNA-Methylation in Serum of Cervical Cancer Patients

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    Günther K. Bonn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the DNA-methylation status of <em>E>-cadherin (<em>CDH1em> and <em>H>-cadherin (<em>CDH13em> in serum samples of cervical cancer patients and control patients with no malignant diseases and to evaluate the clinical utility of these markers. DNA-methylation status of <em>CDH1em> and <em>CDH13em> was analyzed by means of MethyLight-technology in serum samples from 49 cervical cancer patients and 40 patients with diseases other than cancer. To compare this methylation analysis with another technique, we analyzed the samples with a denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC PCR-method. The specificity and sensitivity of <em>CDH1em> DNA-methylation measured by MethyLight was 75% and 55%, and for <em>CDH13em> DNA-methylation 95% and 10%. We identified a specificity of 92.5% and a sensitivity of only 27% for the <em>CDH1em> DHPLC-PCR analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that serum <em>CDH1em> methylation-positive patients had a 7.8-fold risk for death (95% CI: 2.2–27.7; <em>p> = 0.001 and a 92.8-fold risk for relapse (95% CI: 3.9–2207.1; <em>p> = 0.005. We concluded that the serological detection of <em>CDH1em> and <em>CDH13em> DNA-hypermethylation is not an ideal diagnostic tool due to low diagnostic specificity and sensitivity. However, it was validated that <em>CDH1em> methylation analysis in serum samples may be of potential use as a prognostic marker for cervical cancer patients.

  14. Empirical relations between instrumental and seismic parameters of some strong earthquakes of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin Arias, Juan Pablo; Salcedo Hurtado, Elkin de Jesus; Castillo Gonzalez, Hardany

    2008-01-01

    In order to establish the relationships between macroseismic and instrumental parameters, macroseismic field of 28 historical earthquakes that produced great effects in the Colombian territory were studied. The integration of the parameters was made by using the methodology of Kaussel and Ramirez (1992), for great Chilean earthquakes; Kanamori and Anderson (1975) and Coppersmith and Well (1994) for world-wide earthquakes. Once determined the macroseismic and instrumental parameters it was come to establish the model of the source of each earthquake, with which the data base of these parameters was completed. For each earthquake parameters related to the local and normal macroseismic epicenter were complemented, depth of the local and normal center, horizontal extension of both centers, vertical extension of the normal center, model of the source, area of rupture. The obtained empirical relations from linear equations, even show behaviors very similar to the found ones by other authors for other regions of the world and to world-wide level. The results of this work allow establishing that certain mutual non compatibility exists between the area of rupture and the length of rupture determined by the macroseismic methods, with parameters found with instrumental data like seismic moment, Ms magnitude and Mw magnitude.

  15. 46 CFR 98.33-11 - Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Smoking. 98.33-11 Section 98.33-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Portable Tanks for Certain Grade E Combustible Liquids and Other Regulated...

  16. 45 CFR 98.34 - Parental rights and responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Parental rights and responsibilities. 98.34 Section 98.34 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Program Operations (Child Care Services)-Parental Rights and Responsibilities § 98.34...

  17. 45 CFR 98.65 - Audits and financial reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Audits and financial reporting. 98.65 Section 98... DEVELOPMENT FUND Financial Management § 98.65 Audits and financial reporting. (a) Each Lead Agency shall have... independent standards. (g) The Secretary shall require financial reports as necessary. ...

  18. Controle de mosca doméstica em área de disposição de resíduos sólidos no Brasil House fly control in solid waste disposal area in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adair Ferreira Motta Teixeira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se uma metodologia de controle de Musca domestica (L. em áreas de disposição de resíduos sólidos. Dois mosquicidas à base de azametifós foram aplicados em diferentes superfícies: nas verticais, a formulação pó molhável foi aplicada com rolos de pintura e, através de pulverização, na superfície de leiras; nas horizontais, foi empregado o mosquicida na formulação granulada. O nível de infestação de moscas foi avaliado por meio do monitoramento em placas (Scudder Fly Grill. Nas áreas das leiras, reduções de 98,5% e 100% foram atingidas em 18 e 30 dias, respectivamente, após a aplicação do produto. Na estação de transferência do lixo, observaram-se reduções de 85,6% e 98,7% no mesmo período de tempo. A aplicação de azametifós em diferentes formulações mostrou ser eficiente no controle da Musca domestica por um período de 30 dias.A Musca domestica (L. control method in solid waste disposal areas was developed. Two fly control products based on azamethiphos were applied to different surfaces: on vertical surfaces, the wettable powder was used as spray or paint-on and on windrows, as spray; on horizontal surfaces granular bait was used. Fly infestation was evaluated by Scudder Fly Grills. In the windrows areas, reductions of 98,5% and 100 % were achieved 18 and 30 days respectively after application. In the waste transfer station 85,6% and 98,7 % reductions were achieved over the same period of time. Application of azamethiphos in different formulations was effective against M. domestica for 30 days.

  19. Extraction of Dihydroquercetin<em> em>from <em>Larix gmeliniem>i> em>with Ultrasound-Assisted and Microwave-Assisted Alternant Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuangang Zu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An ultrasound and microwave assisted alternant extraction method (UMAE was applied for extracting dihydroquercetin (DHQ from <em>Larix gmeliniem>i> wood. This investigation was conducted using 60% ethanol as solvent, 1:12 solid to liquid ratio, and 3 h soaking time. The optimum treatment time was ultrasound 40 min, microwave 20 min, respectively, and the extraction was performed once. Under the optimized conditions, satisfactory extraction yield of the target analyte was obtained. Relative to ultrasound-assisted or microwave-assisted method, the proposed approach provides higher extraction yield. The effect of DHQ of different concentrations and synthetic antioxidants on oxidative stability in soy bean oil stored for 20 days at different temperatures (25 °C and 60 °C was compared. DHQ was more effective in restraining soy bean oil oxidation, and a dose-response relationship was observed. The antioxidant activity of DHQ was a little stronger than that of BHA and BHT. Soy bean oil supplemented with 0.08 mg/g DHQ exhibited favorable antioxidant effects and is preferable for effectively avoiding oxidation. The <em>L. gmeliniiem> wood samples before and after extraction were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the UMAE method is a simple and efficient technique for sample preparation.

  20. Nucleoporin Nup98 mediates galectin-3 nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funasaka, Tatsuyoshi, E-mail: funasaka@staff.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Systems, Institute of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa (Japan); Balan, Vitaly; Raz, Avraham [Department of Oncology and Pathology, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Wong, Richard W., E-mail: rwong@staff.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Systems, Institute of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa (Japan); Bio-AFM Frontier Research Center, Kanazawa Kanazawa University, Ishikawa (Japan)

    2013-04-26

    Highlights: •Nuclear pore protein Nup98 is a novel binding partner of galectin-3. •Nup98 transports galectin-3 into cytoplasm. •Nup98 depletion leads to galectin-3 nuclear transport and induces growth retardation. •Nup98 may involve in ß-catenin pathway through interaction with galectin-3. -- Abstract: Nucleoporin Nup98 is a component of the nuclear pore complex, and is important in transport across the nuclear pore. Many studies implicate nucleoporin in cancer progression, but no direct mechanistic studies of its effect in cancer have been reported. We show here that Nup98 specifically regulates nucleus–cytoplasm transport of galectin-3, which is a ß-galactoside-binding protein that affects adhesion, migration, and cancer progression, and controls cell growth through the ß-catenin signaling pathway in cancer cells. Nup98 interacted with galectin-3 on the nuclear membrane, and promoted galectin-3 cytoplasmic translocation whereas other nucleoporins did not show these functions. Inversely, silencing of Nup98 expression by siRNA technique localized galectin-3 to the nucleus and retarded cell growth, which was rescued by Nup98 transfection. In addition, Nup98 RNA interference significantly suppressed downstream mRNA expression in the ß-catenin pathway, such as cyclin D1 and FRA-1, while nuclear galectin-3 binds to ß-catenin to inhibit transcriptional activity. Reduced expression of ß-catenin target genes is consistent with the Nup98 reduction and the galectin-3–nucleus translocation rate. Overall, the results show Nup98’s involvement in nuclear–cytoplasm translocation of galectin-3 and ß-catenin signaling pathway in regulating cell proliferation, and the results depicted here suggest a novel therapeutic target/modality for cancers.

  1. Efeitos da exposição ocupacional ao mercúrio em trabalhadores de uma indústria de lâmpadas elétricas localizada em Santo Amaro, São Paulo, Brasil Effects of occupational exposure to mercury in workers at a light bulb factory in Santo Amaro, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Zavariz

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar a intoxicação por mercúrio metálico em trabalhadores de uma indústria de lâmpadas elétricas situada em Santo Amaro, São Paulo. Foram realizadas visitas à empresa para verificação do ambiente e das condições de trabalho, além de reuniões com os trabalhadores para uma melhor compreensão acerca do processo produtivo e de suas repercussões na saúde. Foram investigados 91 trabalhadores, dos quais 77 (84,62% apresentaram quadro de intoxicação crônica. Entre os intoxicados, foram detectadas alterações nos testes neuropsicológicos em 76 (98,70%, alterações neurológicas em 69 (75,82%, alterações no exame clínico em 62 (68,13% e alterações psiquiátricas em 59 (63,96%.The aim of this research was to study metallic mercury poisoning in workers at a light bulb factory in Santo Amaro, São Paulo (Brazil. Visits were made to the factory to check both the work environment and the working conditions. Meetings with the workers took place in order to better understand the production process and how working conditions affect their health. Of the 91 workers investigated, 77 (84.62% were chronically poisoned. Among chronically poisoned workers, 76 (98.70% displayed neuropsychological alterations, 69 (75.82% suffered from neurological impairments, 62 (68.13% showed pathological findings under clinical examination, and 59 (63.96% displayed psychiatric disorders.

  2. Adventitious bud formation from bulb-scale explants of Lilium speciosum Thunb. in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aartrijk, van J.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis the interactive effects are described of tissue, medium, and other environmental factors on the process of adventitious bud formation <em>in vitroem> from bulb-scale explants of <em>Lilium speciosumem> Thunb. Besides, results are presented of experiments

  3. Trophic systems and chorology: data from shrews, moles and voles of Italy preyed by the barn owl / Sistemi trofici e corologia: dati su <em>Soricidae>, <em>Talpidae> ed <em>Arvicolidae> d'Italia predati da <em>Tyto albaem> (Scopoli 1769

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longino Contoli

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In small Mammals biogeography, available data are up to now by far too scanty for elucidate the distribution of a lot of taxa, especially with regard to the absence from a given area. In this respect, standardized quantitative sampling techniques, like Owl pellets analysis can enable not only to enhance faunistic knowledges, but also to estimate the actual absence probability of a given taxon "m", lacking from the diet of an individual raptor. For the last purpose, the relevant frequencies of "m" in the other ecologically similar sites of the same raptor species diets are averaged ($f_m$ : the relevant standard error (multiplicated by a coefficient, according to the desired degree of accuracy, in relation of the integral of probabilities subtracted ($overline{F}_m - a E$: then, the probability that a single specimen is not pertaining to "m" is obtained ($P_0 = 1 - F_m + a E$; lastly, the desiderate accuracy probability ($P_d$ is chosen. Now, "$N_d$" (the number of individuals of all prey species in a single site needed for obtain, with the desired probability, a specimen at least of "m" is obtained through $$N = frac{ln P_d}{ln P_0}$$ Obviously, every site-diet with more than "N" preyed individuals and without any "i" specimen is considered to be lacking of such taxon. A "usefulness index" for the above purposes is outlined and checked about three raptors. Some exanples about usefulness of the Owl pellet analysis method in biogeography are given, concerning <em>Tyto albaem> diets in peninsular Italy about: - <em>Sorex minutusem>, lacking in some quite insulated areas; - <em>Sorex araneusem> (sensu stricto, after GRAF et al., 1979, present also in lowland areas in Emilia-Romagna; - <em>Crocidura suaveolensem> and - <em>Suncus etruscusem>, present also in the southermost part of Calabria (Reggio province; - <em>Talpa caecaem>, present also in the Antiapennines of Latium (Cimini mounts; - <em>Talpa romanaem

  4. Relacao entre o nivel de atividade fisica estimado pelo Baltimore Activity Scale for Intermittent Claudication e a pedometria em pacientes com claudicacao intermitente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollianny Ramos Lopes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Os pacientes com claudicação intermitente apresentam níveis reduzidos de atividade física. A Baltimore Activity Scale for Intermittent Claudication (BASIC foi validada para quantificar o nível de atividade física destes pacientes. No entanto, esta validação se baseou em apenas dois dias de monitoramento com acelerômetros, de modo que ainda permanece incerto se a BASIC fornece informações sobre os níveis de atividade física semanal. OBJETIVO: Analisar a correlação entre o nível de atividade física estimada pela BASIC e o nível obtido pelo pedômetro em uma semana, em pacientes com claudicação intermitente. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 150 pacientes com claudicação intermitente, com idade entre 30 e 80 anos. Foram obtidos os dados sociodemográficos e verificada a presença de comorbidades e de fatores de risco cardiovascular, e a BASIC. O pedômetro foi utilizado por sete dias consecutivos, sendo a análise feita em três diferentes períodos de monitorização (todos os dias, dias da semana e do fim de semana. RESULTADOS: Foi observada correlação entre a BASIC e a média de passos de todos os dias (rho=0,343; p<0,001, dos dias de semana (rho=0,336; p<0,001 e dos dias do final de semana (rho=0,317; p<0,001. CONCLUSÃO: Em pacientes com claudicação intermitente, o nível de atividade física estimado pela BASIC se correlaciona com o nível de atividade física semanal.

  5. Caracterização dos pacientes em uso de drogas vasoativas internados em unidade de terapia intensiva Patients’ characterization in use of vasoactive drugs hospitalized in intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Mesquita Melo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Caracterizar o paciente internado em unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI em uso de drogas vasoativas (DVA. Métodos: Estudo descritivo, retrospectivo, abordagem quantitativa, com 85 pacientes internados na UTI de um hospital municipal, em Fortaleza-Ceará. Coleta dos dados realizada em março e abril de 2011, pela consulta ao relatório de enfermagem. Resultados: 55,3% eram do sexo feminino, com média de idade de 70 anos. O diagnóstico mais comum foi o acidente vascular encefálico (29,4%, seguido das pneumopatias (23,5%; 89,4% necessitaram de suporte ventilatório invasivo, 98,9% usaram sonda nasogástrica e 92,9% sonda vesical de demora; 92,9 % utilizaram acesso venoso central e 90,6% fizeram uso de antibióticos. Quanto aos níveis pressóricos, apenas 4,9% apresentaram normalidade; a noradrenalina foi a DVA mais utilizada (67,1% seguida da dopamina (35,3%; 64,7% evoluíram para óbito. Conclusão: O paciente grave apresenta especificidades que exigem conhecimento da equipe de enfermagem para uma assistência de qualidade.

  6. Estudo sobre a ocorrência de fungos e aflatoxina B1 na dieta de bovinos leiteiros em São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago P. Motta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade da dieta ofertada às vacas em lactação é uma preocupação dos agentes de saúde devido à possibilidade da detecção de micotoxinas prejudiciais a saúde humana e animal. Os objetivos do trabalho foram avaliar o perfil da micobiota, determinar a atividade de água (Aa e a ocorrência natural de aflatoxina B1 (AFB1 em dietas ofertadas a vacas em lactação de fazendas leiteiras no estado de São Paulo, Brasil. As amostragens das dietas foram realizadas diretamente dos cochos de lote de 15 vacas, em dois dias consecutivos com intervalos de 24h e a cada 15 dias, perfazendo um período de 45 dias de amostragens por fazenda. A purificação e determinação de AFB1 foram realizadas em colunas de imunoafinidade e Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE. O estudo da micobiota presente nas amostras das dietas (288 revelou que as leveduras foram predominantes em todas as dietas (83,97 a 99,98%. Foram isolados 15 gêneros de fungos filamentosos, com os gêneros Aspergillus spp (20,09%, Fusarium spp (14,16% e Penicillium spp (11,48% os mais prevalentes. As contagens de Unidades Formadoras de Colônias por grama de alimento (UFC. g-1 variaram de 102 a 1011. A atividade de água das amostras variou entre 0,91 a 0,98. Foi detectada a presença de AFB1 em 31,44% das amostras com teores entre 1,68 a 194,51μg.kg-1. Medidas de boas práticas de produção, estocagem e utilização devem ser tomadas para diminuir a ocorrência de AFB1 nas dietas ofertadas às vacas em lactação.

  7. Pigmentantes naturais em rações à base de sorgo para codornas japonesas em postura Natural pigments on sorghum-based rations for laying Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolpho Marlon Antoniol de Moura

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi realizada para avaliar os efeitos do uso de pigmentantes naturais e extratos de marigold e páprica em rações à base de sorgo para codornas japonesas. Foram utilizadas 180 codornas japonesas (Coturnix japonica, com 98 dias de idade, distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, composto por cinco tratamentos e seis repetições com seis aves cada. O experimento foi dividido em seis períodos de quatro dias, totalizando 24 dias. Foram analisados o desempenho produtivo e a qualidade dos ovos das codornas. A cor da gema foi avaliada a cada quatro dias durante 24 dias pelo método do escore colorimétrico DSM. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos sobre o desempenho e a qualidade dos ovos das codornas, à exceção da cor da gema. O extrato de marigold proporcionou escore colorimétrico da gema equivalente ao das aves alimentadas com milho. A suplementação associada dos extratos de marigold e páprica proporcionou maior escore colorimétrico e em menor tempo. A utilização de pigmentantes naturais deve ser analisada considerando o escore colorimétrico que se deseja obter e o custo da suplementação de cada fonte comercial.The objective was to evaluate the effects of natural pigments from marigold extract and paprika to Japanese quails fed sorghum-based diets. One hundred and eight Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica, with 98 days of age were distributed in a complete randomized design in a split plot arrangement, with five treatments and six replicates of six birds each. The experiment was divided into six periods of four days each, totaling 24 days. Parameters productive performance and quail egg quality were evaluated. Yolk color was evaluated every 4 days for 24 days by the DSM colorimetric score method. There was no effect of experimental diets on performance or quality of quail egg, except for egg yolk color. The extract of marigold promoted yolk color scores equivalent to those

  8. Tank 241-AP-106, Grab samples, 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 Analytical results for the final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FULLER, R.K.

    1999-02-23

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-106 grab samples. Three grab samples 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 were taken from riser 1 of tank 241-AP-106 on May 28, 1998 and received by the 222-S Laboratory on May 28, 1998. Analyses were performed in accordance with the ''Compatability Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan'' (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1998) and the ''Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatability Program (DQO). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report. No notification limits were exceeded. The request for sample analysis received for AP-106 indicated that the samples were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) suspects. The results of this analysis indicated that no PCBs were present at the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) regulated limit of 50 ppm. The results and raw data for the PCB analysis are included in this document.

  9. Tank 241-AP-106, Grab samples, 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 Analytical results for the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FULLER, R.K.

    1999-01-01

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-106 grab samples. Three grab samples 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 were taken from riser 1 of tank 241-AP-106 on May 28, 1998 and received by the 222-S Laboratory on May 28, 1998. Analyses were performed in accordance with the ''Compatability Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan'' (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1998) and the ''Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatability Program (DQO). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report. No notification limits were exceeded. The request for sample analysis received for AP-106 indicated that the samples were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) suspects. The results of this analysis indicated that no PCBs were present at the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) regulated limit of 50 ppm. The results and raw data for the PCB analysis are included in this document

  10. 45 CFR 98.3 - Effect on State law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect on State law. 98.3 Section 98.3 Public... Goals, Purposes and Definitions § 98.3 Effect on State law. (a) Nothing in the Act or this part shall be construed to supersede or modify any provision of a State constitution or State law that prohibits the...

  11. Developing empirical collapse fragility functions for global building types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, K.; Wald, D.; D'Ayala, D.

    2011-01-01

    Building collapse is the dominant cause of casualties during earthquakes. In order to better predict human fatalities, the U.S. Geological Survey’s Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) program requires collapse fragility functions for global building types. The collapse fragility is expressed as the probability of collapse at discrete levels of the input hazard defined in terms of macroseismic intensity. This article provides a simple procedure for quantifying collapse fragility using vulnerability criteria based on the European Macroseismic Scale (1998) for selected European building types. In addition, the collapse fragility functions are developed for global building types by fitting the beta distribution to the multiple experts’ estimates for the same building type (obtained from EERI’s World Housing Encyclopedia (WHE)-PAGER survey). Finally, using the collapse probability distributions at each shaking intensity level as a prior and field-based collapse-rate observations as likelihood, it is possible to update the collapse fragility functions for global building types using the Bayesian procedure.

  12. Validação da escala de depressão geriátrica em um ambulatório geral Validation of geriatric depression scale in a general outpatient clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emylucy Martins Paiva Paradela

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A Escala de Depressão Geriátrica, utilizada para o rastreamento de sintomas depressivos em idosos, ainda não teve suas características de medida avaliadas em ambulatórios gerais no Brasil. O objetivo foi estudar a validade da Escala, com 15 itens (EDG-15, na identificação de episódio de Depressão Maior ou Distimia em idosos atendidos em ambulatório geral. MÉTODOS: A Escala foi aplicada em 302 indivíduos com 65 anos ou mais, que em seguida foram examinados, de maneira independente, por um geriatra que não tinha conhecimento dos resultados da Escala. Os diagnósticos de Depressão Maior ou Distimia foram feitos utilizando-se os critérios do Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV. A sensibilidade e a especificidade nos vários pontos de corte foram expressas pela curva Receiver Operating Characteristic. RESULTADOS: O ponto de corte de melhor equilíbrio foi 5/6, obteve sensibilidade de 81% e especificidade de 71%; e o valor da área sob a curva Receiver Operating Characteristic foi de 0,85 (IC 95%: 0,79-0,91. CONCLUSÕES: A Escala de Depressão Geriátrica pode ser utilizada para o rastreamento de sintomas depressivos na população geriátrica ambulatorial brasileira. O ponto de corte 5/6, sugerido inicialmente por outros autores, mostrou-se adequado.OBJECTIVE: The Geriatric Depression Scale for screening depressive symptoms in the elderly has not been assessed in elderly outpatients who seek primary health care in Brazil. The objective was to determine the validity of the Short Scale for Major Depressive Episode or Dysthymia (GDS-15 in elderly outpatients. METHODS: The scale was applied in 302 subjects with 65 years and older and then examined by an independent geriatrician, blinded to the results. Major depression and dysthymia were diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated at several cutoff values and a Receiver

  13. Como avaliar a percepção de competência e aceitação social de crianças com paralisia cerebral?Estudo inicial para a determinação das propriedades psicométricas da versão portuguesa da Dutch Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance in Children with Cerebral Palsy How to measure children with cerebral palsy's perception of competence and social acceptance?Preliminary study to determinate the psychometric properties of the portuguese version of the Dutch Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Manuel Nunes Corredeira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O principal objectivo deste estudo consistiu na determinação das propriedades psicométricas da versão portuguesa da Dutch Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance in Children with Cerebral Palsy. Participaram neste estudo 108 crianças (60 rapazes e 48 raparigas com paralisia cerebral, com idades entre os 4 e os 9 anos, distribuídas em hemiplegicas, diplégicas e tetraplégicas e com um QI igual ou superior a 70. A maioria (n=98 frequentava o ensino regular, enquanto apenas 10 frequentavam escolas especiais. O instrumento foi aplicado num segundo momento a 41 das crianças, com um intervalo máximo de duas semanas. Os resultados da correlação de Pearson relativamente aos dois momentos (entre 0.80 e 0.98 bem como o valor do alfa de Cronbach (entre 0.69 e 0.93 evidenciam uma boa fiabilidade da versão portuguesa. Também os valores das inter-correlações entre as quatro subescalas (r=0.60 ou superior bem como os valores médios das respostas das crianças em função de diferentes características (idade, sexo, condição médica para as diferentes subescalas apoiam a validade interna do instrumento. Em suma, os resultados do nosso estudo, na sua globalidade, parecem confirmar as propriedades psicométricas da versão portuguesa da Dutch Pictorial Scale, pelo que esta parece constituir-se como um instrumento fiável e válido para a avaliação do modo como as crianças portuguesas com Paralisia Cerebral se percebem no domínio cognitivo, físico e social.The main purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Dutch Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance in Children with Cerebral Palsy. The sample was made up of 108 children (60 boys and 48 girls with cerebral palsy, aged between 4 and 9 years, who suffered hemiplegia, diplegia or quadriplegia and had an IQ of 70 or higher. Most of the children (n=98 attended regular schools (integrated in

  14. Proximate Composition, Nutritional Attributes and Mineral Composition of <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> L. (Ketumpangan Air Grown in Malaysia

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    Maznah Ismail

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the proximate and mineral composition of <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> L., an underexploited weed plant in Malaysia. Proximate analysis was performed using standard AOAC methods and mineral contents were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicated <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> to be rich in crude protein, carbohydrate and total ash contents. The high amount of total ash (31.22% suggests a high-value mineral composition comprising potassium, calcium and iron as the main elements. The present study inferred that <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> would serve as a good source of protein and energy as well as micronutrients in the form of a leafy vegetable for human consumption.

  15. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns and prevalence of group B Streptococcus isolated from pregnant women in Misiones, Argentina Sensibilidade a antibióticos e prevalência de Streptococcus do grupo B em mulheres grávidas em Missiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Quiroga

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine the susceptibility patterns and the colonization rate of Group B Streptococcus (GBS in a population of pregnant women. From January 2004 to December 2006, vaginal-rectal swabs were obtained from 1105 women attending Dr. Ramón Madariaga Hospital, in Posadas, Misiones, Argentina. The carriage rate of GBS among pregnant women was 7.6%. A total of 62 GBS strains were randomly selected for in vitro susceptibility testing to penicillin G, ampicillin, tetracycline, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, vancomycin, rifampicin, trimethoprim-sulfametoxazol, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, clindamycin and erythromycin, and determination of resistance phenotypes. No resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, and vancomycin was found. Of the isolates examined 96.8%, 98.3%, 46.8%, and 29.0% were susceptible to rifampicin, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim-sulfametoxazol and tetracycline, respectively. Rank order of susceptibility for the quinolones was: gatifloxacin (98.4% > levofloxacin (93.5% > ciprofloxacin (64.5%. The rate of resistance to erythromycin (9.7% was higher than that of other reports from Argentina. High-level resistance to gentamicin was not detected in any of the isolates. Based on our finding of 50% of GBS isolates with MIC to gentamicin equal o lower than 8 µg/ml, a concentration used in one of the selective media recommended for GBS isolation, we suggested, at least in our population, the use of nalidixic acid and colistin in selective media with the aim to improve the sensitivity of screening cultures for GBS carriage in women.Esse estudo objetivou determinar os padrões de sensibilidade a antibióticos e as taxas de colonização de Streptococcus do grupo B (GBS em uma população de mulheres grávidas. Entre janeiro de 2004 e dezembro de 2006, foram obtidos swabs vaginais-retais de 1105 mulheres no Hospital Dr. Ramon Madariaga, em

  16. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Aqueous Extracts and Fractionation of Different Parts of <em>Elsholtzia em>ciliata>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuangang Zu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activity of extract and fractions from various parts of <em>Elsholtzia ciliataem>. The inflorescences, leaves, stems and roots of <em>E. ciliataem> were extracted separately and two phenolic component enrichment methods: ethyl acetate-water liquid-liquid extraction and macroporous resin adsorption-desorption, were adopted in this study. The antioxidant activities of water extracts and fractions of <em>E. ciliataem> were examined using different assay model systems <em>in vitroem>. The fraction root E (purified by HPD300 macroporous resin exhibited the highest total phenolics content (497.2 ± 24.9 mg GAE/g, accompanied with the highest antioxidant activity against various antioxidant systems <em>in vitroem> compared to other fractions. On the basis of the results obtained, <em>E. ciliataem> extracts can be used potentially as a ready accessible and valuable bioactive source of natural antioxidants.

  17. Intensity assignments from historical earthquake data: issues of certainty and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. W. Musson

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of macroseismic data in assessing parameters for historical earthquakes for use in seismic hazard assessment has thrown more attention on the way in which these data are treated. The processes involved in selecting which macroseismic data from a historical earthquake survive to the present day can be modelled as a series of filters, most of which are outside the control of the seismologist/historian, and which cause distortion in the resulting picture of the earthquake. The ways in which the data become distorted should be taken into account when interpreting the data as intensity values. One can usefully discriminate between the certainty of an intensity assignment (how well the data fits the scale and the quality of an intensity assignment (how well one can trust that the value is a true reflection of what really happened. The expression of uncertainty is usually in the form of ranged intensity values; the expression of quality requires an extra symbol or rating of some sort. A system is presented for three types of quality problems: reliability of intensity assessment, locational certainty or uncertainty, and veracity of the original data. Each of these is treated as a binary variable, giving a final quality code ranging from 0 (best to 7 (worst. This single integer quality code preserves three types of information which can then be expanded as required by computer programs designed to handle macroseismic data.

  18. Retorno econômico dos investimentos em P&D na citricultura paulista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Garcia de Figueiredo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como principal objetivo medir o retorno econômico dos investimentos em P&D na citricultura paulista. O Brasil é o maior exportador mundial de suco de laranja, e o estado de São Paulo responde por 98% das exportações brasileiras de suco. A metodologia utilizada foi o cálculo da produtividade total dos fatores (PTF, através do Índice de Tornqüist, para posterior comparação com os gastos em pesquisa e desenvolvimento no setor. Verificou-se que, para cada R$ 1,00 investido na pesquisa citrícola, obtém-se aumento de R$ 13,67 no valor da produção de laranja no estado de São Paulo.

  19. Allometric and Isometric variations in the Italian <em>Apodemus sylvaticusem> and <em>Apodemus flavicollisem> with respect to the conditions of allopatry and sympatry / Variazioni allometriche e isometriche in <em>Apodemus sylvaticusem> e <em>Apodemus flavicollisem> italiani, rispetto alle condizioni di allopatria e simpatria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Amori

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Italy there are two species of <em>Apodemus> (<em>Sylvaemus>: <em>Apodemus sylvaticusem> on the mainland and the main island, and <em>Apodemus flavicollisem> only on the mainland. The trend of some morphometric characters of the skull (incisive foramen length - FI; interorbital breadth = IO; length of palatal bridge = PP; upper alveolar length = $M^1M^3$ was analized and some theoretical models verified for <em>A. sylvaticusem>. If one considers the sympatric population of <em>A. sylvaticusem> and <em>A. flavicollisem> simultaneously the characters PP, IO and $M^1M^3$ appear significantly isometric being directly correlated ($P leq O.O1$, while FI character results allometric with respect to the previous ones, as expected. If one considers the sympatric populations of each of the species separately, the scenario is different. For <em>A. sylvaticusem> only PP and $M^1M^3$ are isometric ($P leq 0.05$. For <em>A. flavicollisem> only $M^1M^3$ and FI appear to be correlated, although not as significantly as for <em>A. sylvaticusem> ($P le 0.05$; one tail. The insular populations of <em>A. sylvaticusem> do not show significant correlations, except for FI and $M^1M^3$ ($P le 0.05$. On the contrary, considering all populations, sympatric and allopatric, of <em>A. sylvaticusem> at the same time are significant correlations ($P le 0.05$ in all combinations of characters, except for those involving the IO. We suggest that the isometric relations in sympatric assemblages are confined within a morphological range available to the genus <em>Apodemus>. In such a space, the two species are split in two different and innerly homogeneous distributions. We found no evidence to confirm the niche variation hypothesis. On the contrary, the variability expressed as SO or CV's appears higher in the sympatric populations than in the allopatric ones, for three of the four characters, confirming previous results

  20. A Novel Apoptosis Correlated Molecule: Expression and Characterization of Protein Latcripin-1 from <em>Lentinula em>edodes> C91–3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Huang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An apoptosis correlated molecule—protein Latcripin-1 of <em>Lentinula> edodesem> C91-3—was expressed and characterized in <em>Pichia pastorisem> GS115. The total RNA was obtained from <em>Lentinula edodesem> C91–3. According to the transcriptome, the full-length gene of Latcripin-1 was isolated with 3'-Full Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE and 5'-Full RACE methods. The full-length gene was inserted into the secretory expression vector pPIC9K. The protein Latcripin-1 was expressed in <em>Pichia pastorisem> GS115 and analyzed by Sodium Dodecylsulfonate Polyacrylate Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and Western blot. The Western blot showed that the protein was expressed successfully. The biological function of protein Latcripin-1 on A549 cells was studied with flow cytometry and the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-Diphenyl-tetrazolium Bromide (MTT method. The toxic effect of protein Latcripin-1 was detected with the MTT method by co-culturing the characterized protein with chick embryo fibroblasts. The MTT assay results showed that there was a great difference between protein Latcripin-1 groups and the control group (<em>p em>< 0.05. There was no toxic effect of the characterized protein on chick embryo fibroblasts. The flow cytometry showed that there was a significant difference between the protein groups of interest and the control group according to apoptosis function (<em>p em>< 0.05. At the same time, cell ultrastructure observed by transmission electron microscopy supported the results of flow cytometry. The work demonstrates that protein Latcripin-1 can induce apoptosis of human lung cancer cells A549 and brings new insights into and advantages to finding anti-tumor proteins.

  1. 40 CFR 98.414 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. 98.414 Section 98.414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Industrial Greenhouse Gases § 98.414 Monitoring...

  2. 40 CFR 98.415 - Procedures for estimating missing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for estimating missing data. 98.415 Section 98.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Industrial Greenhouse Gases § 98.415...

  3. Tradução e adaptação cultural da Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11 para aplicação em adultos brasileiros Translation and cultural adaptation of Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11 for administration in Brazilian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Fernandes Malloy-Diniz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Os objetivos deste estudo foram traduzir, adaptar culturalmente e verificar a equivalência literal, semântica e idiomática da Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11, que avalia a presença de manifestações da impulsividade tendo como base o modelo teórico proposto por Ernst Barratt. MÉTODOS: Inicialmente, a versão original em inglês da BIS-11 foi traduzida para o português por seis pesquisadores bilíngues. Em seguida, foi realizada uma tradução reversa para o inglês por uma tradutora de origem norte-americana. As versões original, traduzida e retraduzida foram avaliadas por um comitê de juízes especialistas, os quais emitiram pareceres com as observações pertinentes, o que culminou em uma versão final traduzida da BIS-11. As versões original e traduzida foram aplicadas em duas amostras da população geral com proficiência na língua inglesa, a fim de investigar a equivalência literal, semântica e idiomática da versão traduzida por meio de análises de correlação. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados das análises quantitativas indicaram que a versão final do instrumento é satisfatória.OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to translate, make transcultural adaptation and assess the semantic, idiomatic and literal equivalence of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11. METHODS:This scale assesses the presence of impulsive manifestations from the theoretical model proposed by Ernst Barratt. Firstly, the BIS-11 original version in English was translated to Portuguese by six bilingual researches. After this, was made the back-translation to English by a translator that was born in United States. Then, the three versions (original, translated and back-translated were assessed by a specialists committee which made and analyze and comments about the process and then we reach the final translated version of BIS-11. The original and translated version of BIS-11 was applied in two samples from general population with

  4. 40 CFR 98.196 - Data reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data reporting requirements. 98.196 Section 98.196 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... use in a purification process). If CO2 was used on-site, provide the information in paragraphs (b)(17...

  5. Uso de antimicrobianos como promotores de crescimento e resistência em isolados de Escherichia coli e de Enterobacteriaceae lactose-negativa da microflora fecal de frangos de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pessanha R.P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram coletadas amostras de fezes de aves durante um ciclo de criação (45 dias e analisadas quantitativamente quanto à presença de Escherichia coli e de Enterobacteriaceae lactose-negativa (ELN. As contagens de colônias lactose-positivas e negativas foram realizadas em placas de ágar MacConkey e os isolados foram submetidos ao teste de susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos in vitro, pela técnica de difusão em gel. Os números desses microrganismos estabilizaram-se na faixa de 10(6 UFC/g de fezes para E. coli, e de 10(5 UFC/g de fezes para ELN. A resistência e a multirresistência aos antimicrobianos de isolados de E. coli foram observadas em 98,6% e 65,7%, e nos de ELN em 98,1% e 84,6%, respectivamente. Os espectros de resistência de E. coli e ELN foram: 52 e 57% ao cloranfenicol, 51 e 67% à cefalotina, 48 e 84% à tetraciclina, 45 e 74% ao ácido nalidíxico, 42 e 57% à ampicilina, 28 e 55% a sulfametoxazol + trimetoprim e 26 e 22% à gentamicina, respectivamente. O estudo demonstrou que os frangos de corte podem funcionar como reservatórios de genes de resistência a antibióticos importantes em medicina veterinária e humana.

  6. 2-D modelling and simulation of EM brake for liquid steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Necdet; Senturk, Kenan; Tessarotto, Massimo

    2003-11-01

    The problem of EM control of bottom tapping in steelmaking metallurgy is an old and well known challenge not only from the technological viewpoint but also, potentially, an interesting and still open theoretical problem, from the viewpoint of the investigation of the detailed MHD phenomena occurring in EM braking devices [1]. Purpose of the present work is the formulation of a 2-D MHD model for a DC EM braking device, which includes the consistent modelization of inductive EM fields produced by the conductive fluid, large scale turbulence, boundary conditions for the EM fields and thermal effects. The mathematical model has been implemented in a new 2-D MHD code developed for this purpose [2], based on the so-called fluctuation splitting and dual-time stepping methods, respectively, to advance in time the fluid fields and satisfy the relevant incompressibility-solenoidality conditions for the fluid mass velocity and the magnetic field. Main goal of the investigation is the analysis of the nonlinear phenomena occurring in the process of slowing down of a column of liquid steel under the action of the EM brake, and in particular the detailed description of the effects of large scale turbulence produced by the action of Lorentz force on the fluid, their influence on the magnitude of the inductive EM fields and the performance of the EM brake itself. REFERENCES [1] A.Codutti, A.Martinis, M.Pavlicevic, M.Tessarotto and D.Batic, Proc. 3rd International Symposium on EMP (Nagoya, Japan, April 2000), p.530 (2000). [2] N.Aslan, K.Senturk and M.Tessarotto, Efficient 2-D solver for incompressible magnefluids, communication at this Conference (2003).

  7. 42 CFR 482.98 - Condition of participation: Human resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Human resources. 482.98 Section 482.98 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Specialty Hospitals Transplant Center Process Requirements § 482.98 Condition of participation: Human...

  8. Excitation functions of the 98Mo+d reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarubin, P.P.; Padalko, V.Yu.; Khrisanfov, Yu.V.; Lebedev, P.P.; Podkopaev, Yu.N.

    The excitation functions of the 98 Mo+d reactions were studied. The energy dependence of (d,p),(d,n) and (d,α) reactions was investigated by the activation analysis. The energies of deuterons in the range (6-12) MeV were determined by means of the aluminium filters. 98 Mo foils with surface densities of 1.02, 0.23 and 0.14 mgxcm -2 with 98 Mo enrichment of 94.1% were used as targets. The gamma spectra were measured by a Ge(Li) detector. The 98 Mo(d,p) 99 Mo reaction excitation function was determined via detection of 739 and 181 keV γ-radiation of 99 Mo (Tsub(1/2)=66.47h); 140 keV γ-radiation of 99 Tc (Tsub(1/2)=6h) was detected for the 98 Mo(d,n) 99 Tc reaction excitation function determination and 460, 568, 1091, 1200 and 1492 keV γ-quanta of 96 Nb (Tsub(1/2)=23.35h) - for the 98 Mo(d,α) 96 Nb reaction. In the excitation function the wide extremum was observed at Esub(d) approximately 10 MeV. The ratio of cross sections σsup(m)(d,n)/σ(d,p) on the 98 Mo target was determined. The ratio σsup(m)(d,n)/σ(d,p) was found to be decreasing function of the deuteron energy. The relative cross sections were determined with an accuracy of +-5%, while for the absolute values of cross sections the accuracy was +-15%

  9. 45 CFR 98.13 - Applying for Funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... General Application Procedures § 98.13 Applying for Funds. The Lead Agency of a State or Territory shall... lobbying payments; (3) An assurance that the Lead Agency provides a drug-free workplace pursuant to 45 CFR... in § 98.17; and (d) Such other information as specified by the Secretary. ...

  10. 7 CFR 1786.98 - Discounted present value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discounted present value. 1786.98 Section 1786.98... Discounted present value. (a) The Discounted Present Value shall be calculated by RUS before prepayment is made by summing the present values of all remaining payments on all outstanding notes according to the...

  11. Momentos em freios e em embraiagens

    OpenAIRE

    Mimoso, Rui Miguel Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Mestrado Integrado em Engenharia Mecânica Nesta dissertação reúnem-se os modelos de cálculo utilizados na determinação dos momentos em freios e em embraiagens. Neste trabalho consideram-se os casos de freios e embraiagens de atrito seco e atrito viscoso. Nos freios de atrito viscoso são considerados casos em que as características dos fluidos não são induzidas, e outros em que são induzidas modificações a essas mesmas características. São a...

  12. DIAGRAMMATIC SCALE TO EVALUATE TARGET SPOT SEVERITY IN CUCUMBER PLANT LEAVES ESCALA DIAGRAMÁTICA PARA AVALIAÇÃO DA SEVERIDADE DA MANCHA ALVO EM FOLHAS DE PEPINEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise Cagnin Martins

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The lack of a diagrammatic scale to evaluate the cucumber target spot, caused by <em>Corynespora cassiicolaem>, led to the development of an assessment system for a faster and more reliable way to quantify this disease. So, a diagrammatic scale was elaborated considering the maximum and minimum severity limits of the disease observed in the field. The intermediate values followed logarithmic increments for the target spot symptoms (0.3%, 0.8%, 2%, 5%, 11.5%, 25%, and 46%. For validating the scale, eight raters quantified the disease severity on fifty leaves infected with different levels of the disease. Initially, the severity estimation was carried out without the aid of the scale. Then, the same raters used it to estimate the severity on the same leaves previously assessed. Assessments with the aid of the diagrammatic scale were more precise and accurate, according to most of the raters. The proposed diagrammatic scale was considered adequate to estimate the target spot severity in cucumber leaves, and it can be used in epidemiologic studies and in evaluation strategies for controlling this disease.

    40 CFR 98.33 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...)(2)(ii) of this section. MVC = Molar volume conversion factor (849.5 scf per kg-mole at standard... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources § 98.33 Calculating... volume of fuel combusted per year, from company records as defined in § 98.6 (express mass in short tons...

  13. Parasitic zoonoses: survey in foxes (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> in the northern Apennines / Zoonosi parassitarie: indagini in volpi (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> dell'Appennino settentrionale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Guberti

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A parasitological survey on 153 foxes was carried out in the northern Apennines, during the period 1984-1987. The following parasites were identified: <em>Toxocara canisem> (46.4%, <em>Taenia> sp. (17%, <em>Uncinaria stenocephalaem> (11.8%, <em>Mesocestoides lineatusem> (11.1%, <em>Ancylostoma caninumem> (3.9%, <em>Taenia hydatigenaem> (3.3%, <em>Trichuris vulpisem> (3.3%, <em>Dipylidium caninumem> (2.6%, <em>Taenia crassicepsem> (2%. All foxes were negative for <em>Trichinella> sp. A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate differences in the parasitic fauna according to the sex and age classes of the hosts. The role that the fox could have as a reservoir of helminthic zoonoses is discussed. The results are compared with those of similar studies carried out in Italy. Riassunto Nel periodo 1984-1987 è stata condotta un'indagine parassitologica su 153 volpi abbattute nell'Appennino romagnolo. Sono stati reperiti i seguenti parassiti: <em>Toxocara canisem> (46,4%, <em>Taenia> sp. (17%, <em>Uncinaria stenocephalaem> (11,8%, <em>Mesocestoides lineatusem> (11,1%, <em>Ancylostoma caninumem> (3,9%, <em>Taenia hydatigenaem> (3,3%, <em>Trichuris vulpisem> (3,3%, <em>Dipylidium caninumem> (2,6%, <em>Taenia crassicepsem> (2%. Tutte le volpi esaminate sono risultate negative per <em>Trichinella> sp. È stata effettuata l'analisi statistica dei dati per evidenziare eventuali differenze della fauna parassitaria in relazione al sesso e all'età delle volpi. Sulla base dei dati ottenuti viene discussa l'importanza che la Volpe può assumere come serbatoio di zoonosi elmintiche. I risultati acquisiti sono inoltre comparati con quelli ottenuti in analoghe ricerche condotte in Italia.

  14. Dynamic association of NUP98 with the human genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Liang

    Full Text Available Faithful execution of developmental gene expression programs occurs at multiple levels and involves many different components such as transcription factors, histone-modification enzymes, and mRNA processing proteins. Recent evidence suggests that nucleoporins, well known components that control nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking, have wide-ranging functions in developmental gene regulation that potentially extend beyond their role in nuclear transport. Whether the unexpected role of nuclear pore proteins in transcription regulation, which initially has been described in fungi and flies, also applies to human cells is unknown. Here we show at a genome-wide level that the nuclear pore protein NUP98 associates with developmentally regulated genes active during human embryonic stem cell differentiation. Overexpression of a dominant negative fragment of NUP98 levels decreases expression levels of NUP98-bound genes. In addition, we identify two modes of developmental gene regulation by NUP98 that are differentiated by the spatial localization of NUP98 target genes. Genes in the initial stage of developmental induction can associate with NUP98 that is embedded in the nuclear pores at the nuclear periphery. Alternatively, genes that are highly induced can interact with NUP98 in the nuclear interior, away from the nuclear pores. This work demonstrates for the first time that NUP98 dynamically associates with the human genome during differentiation, revealing a role of a nuclear pore protein in regulating developmental gene expression programs.

  15. Human Endometrial CD98 Is Essential for Blastocyst Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Francisco; Simón, Carlos; Quiñonero, Alicia; Ramírez, Miguel Ángel; González-Muñoz, Elena; Burghardt, Hans; Cervero, Ana; Martínez, Sebastián; Pellicer, Antonio; Palacín, Manuel; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Yáñez-Mó, María

    2010-01-01

    Background Understanding the molecular basis of embryonic implantation is of great clinical and biological relevance. Little is currently known about the adhesion receptors that determine endometrial receptivity for embryonic implantation in humans. Methods and Principal Findings Using two human endometrial cell lines characterized by low and high receptivity, we identified the membrane receptor CD98 as a novel molecule selectively and significantly associated with the receptive phenotype. In human endometrial samples, CD98 was the only molecule studied whose expression was restricted to the implantation window in human endometrial tissue. CD98 expression was restricted to the apical surface and included in tetraspanin-enriched microdomains of primary endometrial epithelial cells, as demonstrated by the biochemical association between CD98 and tetraspanin CD9. CD98 expression was induced in vitro by treatment of primary endometrial epithelial cells with human chorionic gonadotropin, 17-β-estradiol, LIF or EGF. Endometrial overexpression of CD98 or tetraspanin CD9 greatly enhanced mouse blastocyst adhesion, while their siRNA-mediated depletion reduced the blastocyst adhesion rate. Conclusions These results indicate that CD98, a component of tetraspanin-enriched microdomains, appears to be an important determinant of human endometrial receptivity during the implantation window. PMID:20976164

  16. Validação de escala diagramática para estimativa de desfolha provocada pela ferrugemasiática em soja Validation of diagrammatic scale for estimating defoliation caused by the Asian rust in soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Hirano

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a precisão e acurácia de avaliadores com o uso de escala diagramática, em estimativas de desfolha provocada por doenças em soja. A escala apresenta seis níveis de severidade de desfolha (5, 15, 45, 65, 85 e 100%. As imagens utilizadas para avaliação foram obtidas em parcelas atacadas por ferrugem asiática (Phakopsora pachyrhizi, apresentando diferentes níveis de desfolha. A validação foi feita por dez avaliadores, utilizando-se como parâmetro de comparação dados reais da área com cobertura foliar, obtidos através de processamento de imagens, nos softwares Paint Shop Pro 4, e Adobe Photoshop 7.0. Quando não foi utilizada a escala, os avaliadores apresentaram tendência de subestimar a severidade de desfolha nos níveis mais baixos e de superestimar em níveis altos. A acurácia e precisão dos avaliadores aumentaram com o auxílio da escala diagramática.This study aimed to evaluate the precision and accuracy of evaluators using diagrammatic scale to estimate defoliation caused by diseases in soybean. The scale had six levels of severity of defoliation (5, 15, 45, 65, 85 and 100%. The images used for evaluation were obtained in plots attacked by Asian soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi, presenting different levels of defoliation. The validation was performed by ten evaluators, comparing estimated data with the actual data of the area coverage leaf, obtained by processing images in Paint Shop Pro 4 software, and Adobe Photoshop 7.0. The evaluators presented tendency to underestimate the defoliation in the lower levels of severity and overestimate the defoliation in high levels of severity, when the scale was not used. The accuracy and precision of the evaluators increased with the use of the scale diagrammatic.

  17. <em>In Vivoem> Histamine Optical Nanosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather A. Clark

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this communication we discuss the development of ionophore based nanosensors for the detection and monitoring of histamine levels <em>in vivoem>. This approach is based on the use of an amine-reactive, broad spectrum ionophore which is capable of recognizing and binding to histamine. We pair this ionophore with our already established nanosensor platform, and demonstrate <em>in vitroem> and <em>in vivoem> monitoring of histamine levels. This approach enables capturing rapid kinetics of histamine after injection, which are more difficult to measure with standard approaches such as blood sampling, especially on small research models. The coupling together of <em>in vivoem> nanosensors with ionophores such as nonactin provide a way to generate nanosensors for novel targets without the difficult process of designing and synthesizing novel ionophores.

  18. Variabilità morfologica ed ecologica in <em>Neomys fodiensem> e <em>Neomys anomalusem> nell'Appennino settentrionale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Scaravelli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available I due <em>Neomys> italiani sono ancora da chiarire dal punto di vista della loro caratterizzazione morfologica e ecologica. Il lavoro prende in considerazione un campione di entrambe le specie proveniente da habitat forestali dell?Appennino settentrionale per i quali sono stati identificati i principali parametri ambientali. Vengono quindi descritte la variabilità dei tratti morfologici delle due specie in aree localizzate nel Parco Nazionale Foreste Casentinesi, Monte Falterona e Campigna nell?Appennino tosco-romagnolo. Risultano di sicuro effetto discriminatorio la maschera facciale, il rapporto piede posteriore/coda e i caratteri cranici. Sulla base dei criteri identificativi si sono realizzate rilevazioni di misure corporee per le due specie e una comparazione degli habitat utilizzati. <em>N. fodiensem> appare unica specie nelle faggete-abetine e dominante nei castagneti, mentre nell?Ontaneta e nelle zone aperte e termofile si registra la sola presenza di <em>N. anomalusem>. Mancano entrambi nei prati cespugliati, nella pecceta e nella cerreta. I gradienti presenti sono quindi illustrati. Non appare una differenza altitudinale nel campione esaminato, posto in stazioni tra i 400 e i 1300 m, ma per entrambe vi sono maggiori riscontri nella fascia tra 700 e 850 m. Nell?analisi multivariata rispetto alle altre specie e alle variabili ambientali si riscontra sempre una discreta correlazione con la presenza di acqua di una certa ampiezza, che comunque è significativa solo per <em>N. fodiensem>, mentre risulta di interesse la positiva correlazione di <em>N. anomalusem> con <em>Apodemus sylvaticusem>.

  19. Manejo da lagarta-do-cartucho em milho com formulações de nim e Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai Management of fall armyworm in corn with commercial neem and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcileyne Pessôa Leite de Lima

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A lagarta-do-cartucho, Spodoptera frugiperda, principal praga do milho, é comumente controlada com inseticidas sintéticos. Assim, na busca de alternativas eficientes e de baixo impacto ambiental, testou-se em campo as formulações comerciais de nim Natuneem® (10mL L-1 em 2005 e 15mL L-1 em 2006 e Neemseto® (5 e 10mL L-1 em 2005, e 10 e 15mL L-1 em 2006 e do inseticida biológico Bta (Xentari® 10g L-1 em 2005 e 2006, aplicados aos 15, 30 e 45 e aos 15, 25 e 35 dias, após a emergência das plantas, em 2005 e 2006, respectivamente. Antes de cada pulverização foram atribuídas notas de 0 a 5 para as injúrias foliares. Em 2005, somente Neemseto® 10mL L-1 foi eficiente aos 30 dias. Em 2006, Neemseto® 15mL L-1 e Bta 10g L-1, com notas médias de 0,93 e 0,98, diferiram da testemunha, com nota 2,38, na avaliação realizada aos 35 dias. Em casa-de-vegetação, plantas de milho foram pulverizadas com os inseticidas Natuneem®, Neemseto® e Xentari® e posteriormente infestadas, artificialmente, com lagartas recém-eclodidas. Após 10 dias, verificou-se que os tratamentos foram igualmente eficientes, diferindo da testemunha, tanto em relação às notas, quando ao número de lagartas sobreviventes.The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda is the main pest of corn in Brazil and the use of synthetic insecticides is the most commonly applied method to its control. Thus, searching for efficient and low environment impact alternatives, commercial formulations of the neem Natuneem® (10mL L-1 in 2005 and 15mL L-1 in 2006 and Neemseto® (5 and 10mL L-1 in 2005, and 10 and 15mL L-1 in 2006 and biological insecticide Bta Xentari® (10g L-1 in 2005 and 2006 applied at 15, 30 and 45 and at 15, 25 and 35 days after plant emerge in 2005 and 2006, respectively, were tested. Evaluations consisted of using a scale of foliar injury from 0 to 5 r before each spray. In 2005, only Neemseto® 10mL L-1 was efficient at 30 days. In 2006, Neemseto® 15mL L-1 and Bta

  1. Echolocation calls and morphology in the Mehelyi’s (<em>Rhinolophus mehelyiem> and mediterranean (<em>R. euryaleem> horseshoe bats: implications for resource partitioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egoitz Salsamendi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract <em>Rhinolophus euryaleem> and <em>R. mehelyiem> are morphologically very similar species and their distributions overlap extensively in the Mediterranean basin. We modelled their foraging behaviour using echolocation calls and wing morphology and, assuming niche segregation occurs between the two species, we explored how it is shaped by these factors. Resting frequency of echolocation calls was recorded and weight, forearm length, wing loading, aspect ratio and wing tip shape index were measured. <em>R. mehelyiem> showed a significantly higher resting frequency than <em>R. euryaleem>, but differences are deemed insufficient for dietary niche segregation. Weight and forearm length were significantly larger in <em>R. mehelyiem>. The higher values of aspect ratio and wing loading and a lower value of wing tip shape index in <em>R. melehyiem> restrict its flight manoeuvrability and agility. Therefore, the flight ability of <em>R. mehelyiem> may decrease as habitat complexity increases. Thus, the principal mechanism for resource partitioning seems to be based on differing habitat use arising from differences in wing morphology. Riassunto Ecolocalizzazione e morfologia nei rinolofi di Mehely (<em>Rhinolophus mehelyiem> e euriale (<em>R. euryaleem>: implicazioni nella segregazione delle risorse trofiche. <em>Rhinolophus euryaleem> e <em>R. mehelyiem> sono specie morfologicamente molto simili, la cui distribuzione risulta largamente coincidente in area mediterranea. Il comportamento di foraggiamento delle due specie è stato analizzato in funzione delle caratteristiche dei segnali di ecolocalizzazione e della morfologia alare, ed è stata valutata l’incidenza di questi fattori nell’ipotesi di una segregazione delle nicchie. È stata rilevata la frequenza a riposo dei segnali ultrasonori, così come il peso, la lunghezza dell’avambraccio, il carico alare, e due

  2. 46 CFR 98.25-50 - Filling and discharge pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... with a secondary remote control of a type acceptable to the Commandant. (c) The excess flow, internal... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filling and discharge pipes. 98.25-50 Section 98.25-50... § 98.25-50 Filling and discharge pipes. (a) Filling connections shall be provided with one of the...

  3. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activities of <em>Amaranthus cruentusem> L. and <em>Amaranthus hybridusem> L. Extracts

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    Jeanne F. Millogo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a preliminary assessment of the nutraceutical value of <em>Amaranthus cruentus (A. cruentusem> and <em>Amaranthus hybridus (A. hybridusem>, two food plant species found in Burkina Faso. Hydroacetonic (HAE, methanolic (ME, and aqueous extracts (AE from the aerial parts were screened for <em>in vitroem> antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins and betalains. Hydroacetonic extracts have shown the most diversity for secondary metabolites. The TLC analyses of flavonoids from HAE extracts showed the presence of rutin and other unidentified compounds. The phenolic compound contents of the HAE, ME and AE extracts were determined using the Folin–Ciocalteu method and ranged from 7.55 to 10.18 mg Gallic acid equivalent GAE/100 mg. Tannins, flavonoids, and flavonols ranged from 2.83 to 10.17 mg tannic acid equivalent (TAE/100 mg, 0.37 to 7.06 mg quercetin equivalent (QE /100 mg, and 0.09 to 1.31 mg QE/100 mg, respectively. The betacyanin contents were 40.42 and 6.35 mg Amaranthin Equivalent/100 g aerial parts (dry weight in <em>A. cruentusem> and <em>A. hybridusem>, respectively. Free-radical scavenging activity expressed as IC50 (DPPH method and iron reducing power (FRAP method ranged from 56 to 423 µg/mL and from 2.26 to 2.56 mmol AAE/g, respectively. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of extracts of <em>A. cruentus em>and <em>A. hybridusem> were 3.18% and 38.22%, respectively.<em> em>The> A. hybridusem> extract showed the best antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibition activities. The results indicated that the phytochemical contents of the two species justify their traditional uses as nutraceutical food plants.

  4. Dermatoses em renais cronicos em terapia dialitica

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    Luis Alberto Batista Peres

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: As desordens cutâneas e das mucosas são comuns em pacientes em hemodiálise a longo prazo. A diálise prolonga a expectativa de vida, dando tempo para a manifestação destas anormalidades. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a prevalência de problemas dermatológicos em pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC em hemodiálise. Métodos: Cento e quarenta e cinco pacientes com doença renal crônica em hemodiálise foram estudados. Todos os pacientes foram completamente analisados para as alterações cutâneas, de cabelos, mucosas e unhas por um único examinador e foram coletados dados de exames laboratoriais. Os dados foram armazenados em um banco de dados do Microsolft Excel e analisados por estatística descritiva. As variáveis contínuas foram comparadas pelo teste t de Student e as variáveis categóricas utilizando o teste do qui-quadrado ou o teste Exato de Fischer, conforme adequado. Resultados: O estudo incluiu 145 pacientes, com idade média de 53,6 ± 14,7 anos, predominantemente do sexo masculino (64,1% e caucasianos (90,0%. O tempo médio de diálise foi de 43,3 ± 42,3 meses. As principais doenças subjacentes foram: hipertensão arterial em 33,8%, diabetes mellitus em 29,6% e glomerulonefrite crônica em 13,1%. As principais manifestações dermatológicas observadas foram: xerose em 109 (75,2%, equimose em 87 (60,0%, prurido em 78 (53,8% e lentigo em 33 (22,8% pacientes. Conclusão: O nosso estudo mostrou a presença de mais do que uma dermatose por paciente. As alterações cutâneas são frequentes em pacientes em diálise. Mais estudos são necessários para melhor caracterização e manejo destas dermatoses.

  5. Cytotoxicity and Glycan-Binding Properties of an 18 kDa Lectin Isolated from the Marine Sponge <em>Halichondria em>okadai>

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    Yasuhiro Ozeki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A divalent cation-independent lectin—HOL-18, with cytotoxic activity against leukemia cells, was purified from a demosponge, <em>Halichondria okadaiem>. HOL-18 is a 72 kDa tetrameric lectin that consists of four non-covalently bonded 18 kDa subunits. Hemagglutination activity of the lectin was strongly inhibited by chitotriose (GlcNAcβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-4GlcNAc, fetuin and mucins from porcine stomach and bovine submaxillary gland. Lectin activity was stable at pH 4–12 and temperatures lower than 60 °C. Frontal affinity chromatography with 16 types of pyridylaminated oligosaccharides indicated that the lectin had an affinity for <em>N>-linked complex-type and sphingolipid-type oligosaccharides with <em>N>-acetylated hexosamines and neuramic acid at the non-reducing termini. The lectin killed Jurkat leukemia T cells and K562 erythroleukemia cells in a dose- and carbohydrate-dependent manner.

  6. Tratamento cirúrgico da endocardite em valva tricúspide por ressecção valvar

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    SANTIAGO Ricardo L. A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento cirúrgico da endocardite de valva tricúspide é controverso. Arbulu & Asfaw (7 indicam a exérese simples da valva tricúspide, podendo se optar ou não pelo implante da prótese em um segundo tempo. Outros autores, como Frater (8, indicam troca no mesmo tempo operatório e Évora et al. (9 a vegetectomia com plastia valvar. O objetivo do nosso trabalho é apresentar a evolução de 3 pacientes operados no período de 9/90 a 4/98, vítimas de endocardite isolada de valva tricúspide, através da técnica de exérese sem substituição valvar. Nenhum dos pacientes fazia uso de drogas injetáveis e foram operados em franca sepse. Um paciente faleceu devido a grave quadro de choque séptico e os outros 2 estão evoluindo em classe I e II da NYHA.

  7. Over-Expression of CYP2E1 mRNA and Protein: Implications of Xenobiotic Induced Damage in Patients with <em>De Novoem> Acute Myeloid Leukemia with inv(16(p13.1q22; <em>CBFβ>-MYH11em>

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    Carlos E. Bueso-Ramos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental exposure to benzene occurs through cigarette smoke, unleaded gasoline and certain types of plastic. Benzene is converted to hematotoxic metabolites by the hepatic phase-I enzyme CYP2E1, and these metabolites are detoxified by the phase-II enzyme NQO1. The genes encoding these enzymes are highly polymorphic and studies of these polymorphisms have shown different pathogenic and prognostic features in various hematological malignancies. The potential role of different cytochrome p450 metabolizing enzymes in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML in an area of active interest. In this study, we demonstrate aberrant CYP2E1 mRNA over-expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in 11 cases of <em>de novoem> AML with inv(16; CBFβ-MYH11. CYP2E1 mRNA levels correlated with <em>CBFβ>-MYH11 em>transcript levels and with bone marrow blast counts in all cases. CYP2E1 over-expression correlated positively with NQO1 mRNA levels (R2 = 0.934, n = 7. By immunohistochemistry, CYP2E1 protein was more frequently expressed in AML with inv(16 compared with other types of AML (<em>p> < 0.001. We obtained serial bone marrow samples from two patients with AML with inv(16 before and after treatment. CYP2E1 mRNA expression levels decreased in parallel with <em>CBFβ>-MYH11 em>transcript levels and blast counts following chemotherapy. In contrast, CYP1A2 transcript levels did not change in either patient. This is the first study to demonstrate concurrent over-expression of CYP2E1 and NQO1 mRNA in AML with inv(16. These findings also suggest that a balance between CYP2E1 and NQO1 may be important in the pathogenesis of AML with inv(16.

  8. Seismic Hazard and risk assessment for Romania -Bulgaria cross-border region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonova, Stela; Solakov, Dimcho; Alexandrova, Irena; Vaseva, Elena; Trifonova, Petya; Raykova, Plamena

    2016-04-01

    Among the many kinds of natural and man-made disasters, earthquakes dominate with regard to their social and economical impact on the urban environment. Global seismic hazard and vulnerability to earthquakes are steadily increasing as urbanization and development occupy more areas that are prone to effects of strong earthquakes. The assessment of the seismic hazard and risk is particularly important, because it provides valuable information for seismic safety and disaster mitigation, and it supports decision making for the benefit of society. Romania and Bulgaria, situated in the Balkan Region as a part of the Alpine-Himalayan seismic belt, are characterized by high seismicity, and are exposed to a high seismic risk. Over the centuries, both countries have experienced strong earthquakes. The cross-border region encompassing the northern Bulgaria and southern Romania is a territory prone to effects of strong earthquakes. The area is significantly affected by earthquakes occurred in both countries, on the one hand the events generated by the Vrancea intermediate-depth seismic source in Romania, and on the other hand by the crustal seismicity originated in the seismic sources: Shabla (SHB), Dulovo, Gorna Orjahovitza (GO) in Bulgaria. The Vrancea seismogenic zone of Romania is a very peculiar seismic source, often described as unique in the world, and it represents a major concern for most of the northern part of Bulgaria as well. In the present study the seismic hazard for Romania-Bulgaria cross-border region on the basis of integrated basic geo-datasets is assessed. The hazard results are obtained by applying two alternative approaches - probabilistic and deterministic. The MSK64 intensity (MSK64 scale is practically equal to the new EMS98) is used as output parameter for the hazard maps. We prefer to use here the macroseismic intensity instead of PGA, because it is directly related to the degree of damages and, moreover, the epicentral intensity is the original

  9. Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Spodoptera eridania (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em morangueiro e videira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Caroline Bortoli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A biologia de Spodoptera eridania foi estudada em laboratório (22±1ºC, UR 70±10%, fotofase de 14 horas, em folhas de morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa cv. 'Aromas' e videira (Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. A duração e a viabilidade do ciclo total foram, respectivamente, de 52,2±1,32 dias e 37,6% para morangueiro e 42,2±0,45 dias e 25,5% para videira. A razão sexual em morangueiro foi de 0,58, e 0,48 em videira. A longevidade média de machos e fêmeas em morangueiro foi de 16,3±1,16 e 15,8±1,85 dias, respectivamente, e 5,6±0,88 e 7,3±0,83 dias em videira. A fecundidade média total foi de 1.747,5±187,32 ovos por fêmea em morangueiro, e 1.764,9±289,04 em videira. A tabela de vida de fertilidade mostrou que a taxa líquida de reprodução e a razão finita de aumento foram de 394,89 e 1,10, respectivamente, para morangueiro, e de 213,98 e 1,12 para videira. As culturas do morangueiro cv. 'Aromas' e da videira cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon' são hospedeiras favoráveis e equivalentes quanto ao potencial de crescimento populacional de S. eridania.

  10. Epidemias em escala mundial e no Brasil Epidemics on a global scale and in Brazil

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    José da Rocha Carvalheiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidemias devem ser consideradas não como um tipo especial de doença, mas sim como parte de um complexo processo de distribuição de patologias no tempo e no espaço. Diversas classificações de doenças existem, sendo oficial a CID atualmente em sua décima versão. As cartas de controle, empregadas pelo serviço de saúde, permitem uma aproximação à fase, endêmica ou epidêmica, em que se encontram especialmente doenças sujeitas a vigilância em todo o mundo, as quarentenáveis. O conceito de surto deve ser encarado como um indício de concentração de episódios que merece estudo mais profundo. As mais importantes doenças transmissíveis no mundo em desenvolvimento são chamadas negligenciadas e merecem atenção especial das agências de fomento de pesquisa por não serem tidas como prioritárias pela indústria farmacêutica. No Brasil, a Agenda de Prioridades de Pesquisa em Saúde inclui diversas doenças dessa natureza e tem sido contempladas em editais do CNPq e do Ministério da Saúde.Epidemics must not be seen as a special kind of disease but as part of a complex process of distribution of pathologies over time and space. Among the different existing disease classifications, the ICD, currently in its 10th edition, is the official one. The control charts being employed by the health system allow estimating the stage of development, endemic or epidemic, of diseases, especially those subject to worldwide control, the quarantinable diseases. The concept outbreak should be understood as a signal for the concentration of episodes worth being studied in depth. The most important communicable diseases in the developing world, the so-called neglected diseases, deserve special attention from the research funding agencies for not ranging among the priorities of the pharmaceutical industry. In Brazil, the agenda of priorities in health research includes various diseases of this nature, which have been contemplated in calls for projects

  11. EMS mutant spectra generated by multi-parameter flow cytometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keysar, Stephen B. [Cell and Molecular Biology Graduate Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Fox, Michael H., E-mail: michael.fox@colostate.edu [Cell and Molecular Biology Graduate Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2009-12-01

    The CHO A{sub L} cell line contains a single copy of human chromosome 11 that encodes several cell surface proteins including glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) linked CD59 and CD90, as well as CD98, CD44 and CD151 which are not GPI-linked. The flow cytometry mutation assay (FCMA) measures mutations of the CD59 gene by the absence of fluorescence when stained with antibodies against the CD59 cell surface protein. We have measured simultaneous mutations in CD59, CD44, CD90, CD98 and CD151 to generate a mutant spectrum for ionizing radiation. After treatment with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) many cells have an intermediate level of CD59 staining. Single cells were sorted from CD59{sup -} regions with varying levels of fluorescence and the resulting clonal populations had a stable phenotype for CD59 expression. Mutant spectra were generated by flow cytometry using the isolated clones and nearly all clones were mutated in CD59 only. Interestingly, about 60% of the CD59 negative clones were actually GPI mutants determined by staining with the GPI specific fluorescently labeled bacterial toxin aerolysin (FLAER). The GPI negative cells are most likely caused by mutations in the X-linked pigA gene important in GPI biosynthesis. Small mutations of pigA and CD59 were expected for the alkylating agent EMS and the resulting spectra are significantly different than the large deletions found when analyzing radiation mutants. After analyzing the CD59{sup -} clonal populations we have adjusted the FCMA mutant regions from 1% to 10% of the mean of the CD59 positive peak to include the majority of CD59 mutants.

  12. ABUNDÂNCIA RELATIVA DAS ESPÉCIES DE CERAMBYCIDAE (INSECTA-COLEOPTERA EM POMAR DE FRUTÍFERAS MISTO RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF SPECIES OF THE CERAMBYCIDAE FAMILY (INSECTA-COLEOPTERA IN MIXED ORCHARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Rose Pereira da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Estudou-se a abundância relativa das espécies da família <em>Cerambycidae> (<em>Insecta-Coleoptera> em um pomar de frutíferas misto composto por 28 diferentes espécies, no período de dezembro de 1997 a maio de 1999 em Ceres, Estado de Goiás, Brasil. Foram utilizadas armadilhas luminosas modelo “Luiz de Queiroz” com lâmpadas Bl-15 wats. Essas armadilhas foram ligadas por 12 horas em dois dias consectivos num total de 24 horas de coletas semanais. Coletaram-se 1.474 cerambicídeos, agrupados em 39 gêneros e 49 espécies. <em>Acanthoderes jaspideaem>,<em> Achryson surinamumem>, <em>Chlorida> <em>festiva>, <em>Eurodacrys> <em>sexgutatta>, <em>Gnomibidion> <em>fulvipes>, <em>Lophopoeum> <em>timbouve>, <em>Megacyllene> <em>acuta>, <em>Rhopalophora> <em>collaris> e <em>Trichophorus> <em>distinctus> foram as espécies classificadas como muito abundantes. Das espécies coletadas, 48,98 % foram classificadas como raras, 12,24 % como dispersas, 20,41 % como comuns e 18,37 % como muito abundantes. Dentre os 39 gêneros, <em>Oreodera> foi representado por três espécies (6,13 %, os gêneros <em>Acanthoderes>, <em>Aerenica>, <em>Chrysoprasis>, <em>Colobothea>, <em>Eutrypanus>, <em>Megacylene>, <em>Myoxomorpha> e <em>Nyssodrysternum> por duas espécies (4,08 %, e os demais gêneros por apenas uma espécie.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Levantamento; riqueza de espécies; ecologia; comportamento.

    It was studied the relative abundance to the species of the family <em>Cerambycidae> (<em>Insecta-Coleoptera> in a mixed orchard composed by 28 diferent species in the period from decembre 1997 to may 1999 in Ceres, state of Goi

  13. Scaling relations between structure and rheology of ageing casein particle gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellema, M.

    2000-01-01

    Mellema, M. (Michel), <em>Scaling relations between structure and rheology of ageing casein particle gelsem> , PhD Thesis, Wageningen University, 150 + 10 pages, references by chapter, English and Dutch summaries (2000).

    The relation between (colloidal)

  14. Equivalência semântica da versão em português da Escala de Experiência de Quase-Morte Semantic equivalence of the Portuguese version of the Near-Death Experience Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Barcellos Serralta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Na literatura internacional, a experiência de quase-morte (EQM é avaliada principalmente por meio do instrumento The Near-Death Experience Scale (NDE, elaborado por Bruce Greyson, em 1983. O objetivo do presente estudo é verificar a existência de equivalência semântica entre a versão original da escala (em inglês e a versão traduzida ao português do Brasil, avaliando os significados geral e referencial. Após as diversas etapas de avaliação da equivalência semântica, a escala foi pré-testada em seis pacientes internados após alta de um Centro de Tratamento Intensivo (CTI de um Hospital Universitário. Na avaliação realizada por dois psicólogos e dois psiquiatras, constatou-se existir equivalência semântica entre a versão final em português e o original. Na aplicação da escala na população-alvo, verificou-se boa compreensão dos itens. Portanto, a escala está adequada à cultura brasileira, podendo ser utilizada para pesquisas sobre Experiências de Quase-Morte neste contexto.In the international literature, near-death experiences are often measured by The Near-Death Experience Scale (NDE, developed by Bruce Greyson in 1983. The aim of this study is to verify the existence of the semantic equivalence between the original version (in English and the translated version to Brazilian Portuguese, evaluating both the general and the referential meaning. The semantic evaluation was conducted according to the several steps. Thereafter, a pre-testing was performed in six post Intensive Care Unit patients of a University Hospital. The evaluations of two psychologists and two psychiatrists have found existence of semantic equivalence between the Brazilian and the original version of the scale. The pre-test applied on the target population proved the items were intelligible. Our findings suggest that the Brazilian version of the NDE might be used in the investigation of near-death experience in Brazilian culture.

  15. Níveis de lisina digestível em rações, em que se manteve ou não a relação aminoacídica, para frangos de corte de 1 a 21 dias de idade, mantidos em estresse por calor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Sandra Roseli

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dois ensaios foram conduzidos para avaliar os efeitos de níveis de lisina digestível em rações em que se manteve ou não a relação aminoacídica sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte machos de 1 a 21 dias de idade, criados em alta temperatura. O delineamento experimental utilizado em ambos os ensaios foi o inteiramente casualizado. As aves, no ensaio 1, foram distribuídas em cinco tratamentos (0,92; 0,98; 1,04; 1,10 e 1,16% de lisina digestível em ração convencional, oito repetições e dez aves por repetição. No ensaio 2, os frangos foram distribuídos em quatro tratamentos (1,04; 1,10; 1,16 e 1,22% de lisina digestível em rações mantendo a relação aminoacídica, oito repetições e dez aves por repetição. No ensaio 1, os tratamentos influenciaram quadraticamente o ganho de peso e o consumo de ração, que aumentaram até os níveis de 1,14 e 1,09% de lisina, respectivamente. Embora a conversão alimentar tenha melhorado de forma linear, o modelo LRP foi o que melhor se ajustou aos dados, estimando em 1,097% o nível de lisina a partir do qual ocorreu um platô. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos sobre os pesos absolutos do coração, fígado e intestinos, enquanto o peso absoluto da moela aumentou linearmente. O peso absoluto da carcaça aumentou, enquanto os pesos relativos do coração e do fígado reduziram quadraticamente com os tratamentos. No ensaio 2, os tratamentos influenciaram de forma linear crescente o ganho de peso e a conversão alimentar, enquanto o consumo de ração não variou. Os tratamentos influenciaram linearmente o peso absoluto da carcaça, enquanto os pesos absoluto e relativo das vísceras não variaram. Concluiu-se que frangos de corte machos, de 1 a 21 dias de idade, mantidos em estresse por calor, exigem, no mínimo, 1,14 e 1,22% de lisina digestível em ração convencional e em ração em que se manteve a relação aminoacídica, respectivamente.

  16. Ambientes climatizados, portaria 3.523 de 28/8/98 do Ministério da Saúde e padrões de qualidade do ar de interiores do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONTIJO FILHO PAULO PINTO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa criticamente a portaria 3.523 de 28/8/98 do Ministério da Saúde, com ênfase na questão dos contaminantes do ar e suas conseqüências para a saúde em ambientes climatizados. É feita, ainda, uma revisão concisa sobre as infecções hospitalares e as áreas hospitalares em que a transmissão por via aerógena pode ser importante, sendo necessários sistemas de ventilação especial. Os padrões de partículas, mais precisamente os biológicos, são considerados de forma detalhada, destacando-se os contaminantes microbianos mais comuns, as diferenças entre países dos Hemisférios Norte e Sul e as questões relativas à metodologia utilizada em sua análise. Conclui-se que não há, no momento, elementos para uma definição de padrões de partículas biológicas no país.

  17. Inserção de graduados em fonoaudiologia de uma universidade pública em programas de pós-graduação Insertion of speech and language therapy undergraduate students, from a public university, in communication disorder graduate programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Cristina de Castro Marino

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar a inserção de egressos do Curso de Fonoaudiologia da Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP - Marília, em Programas de Pós-Graduação (PPG Stricto Sensu brasileiros. MÉTODO: foram utilizadas listas de graduados e Curriculum Vitae do egresso e do orientador. RESULTADOS: dos 537 formados, 16,57% cursaram/estavam cursando PPG e destes, 98,88% em mestrado e 37,08% também em doutorado. Na grande área de conhecimento, 50% dos egressos de mestrado vincularam-se predominantemente a programas em Ciências da Saúde, 31,80% em Ciências Humanas e 13,64% em Linguística, Letras e Artes. No doutorado, 33, 33% em Ciências Humanas, 30,30% em Ciências da Saúde e em Linguística, Letras e Artes. Quanto à área de conhecimento, predominou a vinculação, no mestrado, de 30,68% em Fonoaudiologia, 28,41% em Educação, 13,64% em Linguística e 9,09% em Medicina I; e, no doutorado, de 33,33% em Educação, 30,30% em Linguística e 9,09% em Fonoaudiologia; 55,68% dissertações e 51,52% teses focalizaram a linguagem. A UNESP predominou com 39,77% no mestrado e 48,48% no doutorado. Predominou a vinculação a Programas com conceito 4 para 52,27% dos egressos do mestrado e 45,45% do doutorado. Quando constou a informação (55,68%, todos receberam fomento. O Teste de Razão de Verossimilhança não indicou diferenças significativas dos percentuais obtidos entre o mestrado e o doutorado. CONCLUSÃO: os resultados superaram os apresentados para o mesmo Estado, mostraram a característica interdisciplinar da Ciência Fonoaudiológica e o predomínio de temática em linguagem.PURPOSE: to characterize the insertion of undergraduate students from a Speech and Language Therapy Course at São Paulo State University - UNESP in Graduate Programs. METHOD: we used a list and the Curriculum Vitae of these students and their respective mentors. RESULTS: of the 537 graduates, 16.57% attended/were attending Graduate Programs, and of these, 98

  18. 40 CFR 98.70 - Definition of source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of source category. 98.70... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Ammonia Manufacturing § 98.70 Definition of source category...-based feedstock produced via steam reforming of a hydrocarbon. (b) Ammonia manufacturing processes in...

  19. Potential use of Piper nigrum ethanol extract against pyrethroid-resistant Aedes aegypti larvae Utilização em potencial do extrato alcoólico de Piper nigrum como larvicida em Aedes aegypti resistente a piretróides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Kato Simas

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Fractionation of Piper nigrum ethanol extract, biomonitored by assays on pyrethroid-resistant Aedes aegypti larvae yielded isolation of the larvicidal amides piperolein-A and piperine. Comparing LC50 values, the ethanol extract (0. 98 ppm was the most toxic, followed by piperolein-A (1. 46ppm and piperine (1. 53ppm.O fracionamento do extrato etanólico de Piper nigrum biomonitorado por ensaios em larvas de Aedes aegypti resistentes a piretróides resultou no isolamento das amidas larvicidas piperoleína-A e piperina. Comparando-se os valores de CL50, o extrato etanólico (0. 98ppm foi o mais tóxico, seguido pela piperoleína-A (1. 46ppm e piperina (1. 53ppm.

  20. 7 CFR 98.1 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., READY-TO-EAT (MRE's), MEATS, AND MEAT PRODUCTS MRE's, Meats, and Related Meat Food Products § 98.1 General. Analytical services of meat and meat food products are performed for fat, moisture, salt, protein...

  1. Thermal Studies of Zn(II, Cd(II and Hg(II Complexes of Some <em>N-Alkyl-N>-Phenyl-Dithiocarbamates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Ajibade

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The thermal decomposition of Zn(II, Cd(II and Hg(II complexes of <em>N-ethyl-N>-phenyl and <em>N-butyl-N>-phenyl dithiocarbamates have been studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The products of the decomposition, at two different temperatures, were further characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. The results show that while the zinc and cadmium complexes undergo decomposition to form metal sulphides, and further undergo oxidation forming metal oxides as final products, the mercury complexes gave unstable volatiles as the final product.

  2. Membrana amniótica preservada em glicerina no reparo de feridas cutâneas de membros locomotores de eqüinos

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Valdemir Alves de; Alvarenga,José de

    1998-01-01

    Neste estudo experimental, avaliou-se o uso de membrana amniótica eqüina preservada em glicerina 98%, à temperatura ambiente, em feridas com cura por segunda intenção, nos membros locomotores de eqüinos. Foram provocadas cirurgicamente feridas de 9,6cm² na face lateral da articulação metacarpo-falangeana, face medial do terço proximal do metacarpo e face lateral do terço médio do metatarso de ambos os membros locomotores de cinco eqüinos adultos, perfazendo total de trinta feridas. Foram cons...

  3. 40 CFR 98.417 - Records that must be retained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Industrial Greenhouse Gases § 98.417 Records that... reported under § 98.416. (2) Records documenting the initial and periodic calibration of the gas...

  4. Conservazione e gestione della Lepre italica (<em>Lepus corsicanusem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Riga

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Il recente riconoscimento dello <em>status> specifico della Lepre italica (<em>Lepus corsicanusem> e l?accertamento dell?areale distributivo rappresentano le azioni più importanti per la conservazione di un <em>taxon endemicoem> che si era creduto estinto. Nella penisola la specie presenta un areale discontinuo, il cui limite settentrionale è dato dal comune di Manciano (GR, sul versante tirrenico e da una linea che dalla provincia de L'Aquila arriva al Gargano. In Sicilia la distribuzione è relativamente continua anche in aree non protette. Dati genetici hanno permesso di confermare la presenza in Corsica. Al contrario, nell?Isola d'Elba, a seguito di estese ricerche, sono stati identificati solo esemplari di <em>L. europaeusem>. Nell?Italia peninsulare <em>L. corsicanusem> è spesso presente in simpatria con popolazioni di <em>L. europaeusem>, mentre in Sicilia la lepre europea non ha originato popolazioni stabili, nonostante l?immissione di molte migliaia di individui. La distribuzione ecologica di <em>L. corsicanusem> ed analisi ambientali specifiche, suggeriscono l?adattamento prevalente agli ambienti a clima mediterraneo, benché essa sia presente anche a quote elevate (> 1.500 m s.l.m.. Dati preliminari di abbondanza relativa hanno evidenziato una situazione diversificata tra la penisola e la Sicilia e tra aree a diverso regime di gestione; un confronto tra le aree protette ha evidenziato rispettivamente valori di 5,54 e 11,73 ind./km². La riduzione quali-quantitativa e la frammentazione dell?<em>habitat> delle lepri è un fenomeno potenzialmente pericoloso per la sopravvivenza delle popolazioni, determinando fenomeni di estinzione locale dovuti alle basse densità di popolazione, inducendo fenomeni di erosione della variabilità genetica e di riduzione della <em>fitness> degli individui. L?introduzione di <em>L. europaeusem> può costituire un importante fattore limitante sia per la possibile competizione

  5. 9 CFR 98.36 - Animal semen from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal semen from Canada. 98.36... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal Semen § 98.36 Animal semen from Canada. (a) General importation requirements for animal semen from Canada. If the product is . . . Then . . . (1) Equine semen...

  6. Methyl 2-Benzamido-2-(1<em>H>-benzimidazol-1-ylmethoxyacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alami Anouar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The heterocyclic carboxylic α-aminoester methyl 2-benzamido-2-(1<em>H>-benzimidazol-1-ylmethoxyacetate is obtained by <em>O>-alkylation of methyl α-azido glycinate <em>N>-benzoylated with 1<em>H>-benzimidazol-1-ylmethanol.

  7. Adding large EM stack support

    KAUST Repository

    Holst, Glendon

    2016-12-01

    Serial section electron microscopy (SSEM) image stacks generated using high throughput microscopy techniques are an integral tool for investigating brain connectivity and cell morphology. FIB or 3View scanning electron microscopes easily generate gigabytes of data. In order to produce analyzable 3D dataset from the imaged volumes, efficient and reliable image segmentation is crucial. Classical manual approaches to segmentation are time consuming and labour intensive. Semiautomatic seeded watershed segmentation algorithms, such as those implemented by ilastik image processing software, are a very powerful alternative, substantially speeding up segmentation times. We have used ilastik effectively for small EM stacks – on a laptop, no less; however, ilastik was unable to carve the large EM stacks we needed to segment because its memory requirements grew too large – even for the biggest workstations we had available. For this reason, we refactored the carving module of ilastik to scale it up to large EM stacks on large workstations, and tested its efficiency. We modified the carving module, building on existing blockwise processing functionality to process data in manageable chunks that can fit within RAM (main memory). We review this refactoring work, highlighting the software architecture, design choices, modifications, and issues encountered.

  8. Regression analysis of MCS Intensity and peak ground motion data in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faenza, L.; Michelini, A.

    2009-04-01

    Intensity scales are historically important because no instrumentation is necessary, and useful measurements of earthquake shaking can be made by an unequipped observer. The use of macroseismics data are essential for the revision of historical seismicity and of great importance for seismic hazard assessment of vulnerable areas. The procedure ShakeMap (Wald et al., Earthquake Spectra., 15, 1999) provides instrumentally based estimates of intensity maps. In Italy, intensities have been hitherto reported through the use of the MCS (Mercalli, Cancani Sieberg) intensity scale. The DBMI2004 (and the most recent DBMI08) report intensities for earthquakes in Italy that date back to Roman age. In order to exploit fully the potential of such a long intensity catalogue for past large events and with the aim of presenting ShakeMaps using an intensity scale consistent with that of the past, we have ri-calibrated the relationships between MCS intensity and observed peak ground motion (PGM) values in terms of both peak-ground acceleration and peak-ground velocities. To this end, we have used the two most updataed and complete dataset available for Italy - the strong motion Itaca database and the DBMI08 macroseismic database. In this work we have first assembled a data set consisting of PGM-intensity pairs and we have then determined the most suitable regressions parameters. Many tests have been made to quantify the accuracy and robustness of the results. The new instrumental intensity scale is going to be adopted for mapping the level of shaking resulting from earthquakes in Italy replacing the instrumental Modified Mercalli scale currently in use (Michelini et al., SRL, 79, 2008) and to determine shakemaps for historical events.

  9. Características epidemiológicas da leishmaniose tegumentar americana em uma região endêmica do Estado da Bahia: II leishmaniose canina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Air C. Barretto

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available Um inquérito em cães realizado na região de Três Braços, Bahia, mostrou que 3,0% de 98 animais tinham amastigotas em lesões de pele. Parasitos não foram encontrados em pele normal da orelha. De uma amostra selecionada de 13 cães, portadores de lesão cutânea ativa, nove (69,2% deles estavam comprovadamente infectados. Sete amostras de lesão produziram infecção em hamsters. O estudo biológico (crescimento em meio de cultura, evolução da lesão em hamster e desenvolvimento no tubo digestivo de Lutzomyia longipalpis identificou o parasito como pertencente ao complexo L. braziliensis. A caracterização bioquímica (mobilidade eletroforética de enzimas em placas de acetato de celulose e o estudo imunotaxonômico (anticorpos monoclonais definiram as amostras como L. braziliensis braziliensis. O papel do cão como um possível reservatório de L. b. braziliensis na região de Três Braços é discutido.During a survey of domestic and hunting dogs conducted in the Três Braços region, State of Bahia, 3,0% of 98 dogs had amastigotes in skin lesions. Parasites were not found in normal ear skin. In a nonrandomly selected sample of 13 dogs with active cutaneous lesions, infection was confirmed in nine (69,2%. Tissue biopsies from seven dog lesions produced infection in hamsters. The biological behaviour of the parasite (rate of growth in culture media, evolution of lesions in hamsters and development in the gut of Lutzomyia longipalpis, identified it to the Leishmania braziliensis complex. Characterization by biochemical means (eletrophoretic mobility of enzymes in cellulose acetate plates and immunotaxonomic studies (monoclonal antibodies defined the strains as L. braziliensis braziliensis. The role of dogs as a possible reservoir host of L. b. braziliensis in Três Braços region is discussed.

  10. Engagement no Trabalho em Residentes Médicos de Pediatria

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Priscila Regina; Lourenção, Luciano Garcia; Gazetta, Cláudia Eli; Gonsalez, Elizangela Gianini; Rotta, Daniela Salvagni; Pinto, Maria Helena; Peres, Lilian; Beretta, Denise

    2017-01-01

    RESUMO Objetivos Avaliar os índices de engagement no trabalho em residentes médicos de Pediatria. Métodos Amostra composta por 36 profissionais matriculados no programa de residência médica em Pediatria da Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto no ano de 2013. Os dados foram coletados de setembro de 2013 a fevereiro de 2014, utilizando-se a Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (Uwes) – Escala Utrecht de Engajamento no Trabalho –, composta por 17 itens de autoavaliação com três dimensões,...

  11. Development of 101 Gene-based Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers in Sea Cucumber, <em>Apostichopus japonicusem>>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are currently the marker of choice in a variety of genetic studies. Using the high resolution melting (HRM genotyping approach, 101 gene-based SNP markers were developed for <em>Apostichopus japonicusem>, a sea cucumber species with economic significance for the aquaculture industry in East Asian countries. HRM analysis revealed that all the loci showed polymorphisms when evaluated using 40 <em>A. japonicusem> individuals collected from a natural population. The minor allele frequency ranged from 0.035 to 0.489. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.050 to 0.833 and 0.073 to 0.907, respectively. Thirteen loci were found to depart significantly from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE after Bonferroni corrections. Significant linkage disequilibrium (LD was detected in one pair of markers. These SNP markers are expected to be useful for future quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis, and to facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS in <em>A. japonicusem>.

  12. Activity-Guided Isolation of Antioxidant Compounds from <em>Rhizophora apiculataem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Xiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available <em>Rhizophora apiculataem> (<em>R. apiculataem> contains an abundance of biologically active compounds due its special salt-tolerant living surroundings. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of various extract and fractions of stem of <em>R. apiculataem> were investigated. Results indicated that butanol fraction possesses the highest total phenolic content (181.84 mg/g GAE/g dry extract with strongest antioxidant abilities. Following <em>in vitroem> antioxidant activity-guided phytochemical separation procedures, lyoniresinol-3α-<em>O>-β-arabinopyranoside (1, lyoniresinol-3α-<em>O>-β-rhamnoside (2, and afzelechin-3-<em>O>-L-rhamno-pyranoside (3 were separated from the butanol fraction. These compounds showed more noticeable antioxidant activity than a BHT standard in the DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. HPLC analysis results showed that among different plant parts, the highest content of 13 was located in the bark (0.068%, 0.066% and 0.011%, respectively. The results imply that the <em>R. apiculataem> might be a potential source of natural antioxidants and 13 are antioxidant ingredients in <em>R. apiculataem>.

  13. Ploidia e fertilidade de pólen em progênies de citros Ploidy and pollen fertility in citrus hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cesar Brugnara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido para estimar a fertilidade do pólen e determinar o nível de ploidia em progênies dos cruzamentos da tangerineira 'Montenegrina' (C. deliciosa Ten. com a tangerineira 'King' (C. nobilis Lour. e com a laranjeira 'Caipira' (C. sinensis (L. Osb.. As plantas, de pés-francos e com idade entre 11 e 12 anos, são mantidas na Estação Experimental Agronômica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, em Eldorado do Sul. Avaliaram-se o nível de ploidia, através da contagem dos cromossomos em células em meiose, e a fertilidade do pólen, por coloração do pólen com carmim propiônico, em 2005 e 2006. Todos os híbridos avaliados são diplóides e a fertilidade de pólen variou de zero a 98%. C27 - híbrido de 'Montenegrina' x 'Caipira' - revelou-se praticamente estéril, e a fertilidade de C21, do mesmo cruzamento, é de 10%. A menor fertilidade observada no cruzamento da 'Montenegrina' x 'King' foi de 42%.This work was performed to estimate pollen fertility and determinate the ploidy level of 11 to 12 years old progenies of crosses of 'Montenegrina' mandarin (Citrus deliciosa Ten. with 'King' mandarin (C. nobilis Lour. and with 'Caipira' sweet orange (C. sinensis (L. Osb. maintained at Estação Experimental Agronômica of UFRGS, in Eldorado do Sul, Brazil. The ploidy level was determined by chromosome countings in meiosis cells and pollen fertility evaluated by staining pollen grains with propionic carmine. All evaluated hybrids are diploid and pollen fertility varied from zero to 98%. C27, a hybrid 'Montenegrina' x 'Caipira', was found is sterile, and C21, from the same cross, showed 10 % fertility. The lowest observed fertility in the progeny 'Montenegrina' x 'King' was 42 %.

  14. Synthesis and Spectroscopic Analysis of Novel 1<em>H-Benzo[d>]imidazoles Phenyl Sulfonylpiperazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad M. Qandil

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A group of benzimidazole analogs of sildenafil, 3-benzimidazolyl-4-methoxy-phenylsulfonylpiperazines 2–4 and 3-benzimidazolyl-4-methoxy-<em>N,N>-dimethyl- benzenesulfonamide (5, were efficiently synthesized. Compounds 2–5 were characterized by NMR and MS and contrary to the reported mass spectra of sildenafil, the spectra of the piperazine-containing compounds 2–4 showed a novel fragmentation pattern leading to an <em>m/z> = 316. A mechanism for the formation of this fragment was proposed.

  15. Scale covariant physics: a 'quantum deformation' of classical electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, Yehonatan; Yavneh, Irad

    2010-01-01

    We present a deformation of classical electrodynamics, continuously depending on a 'quantum parameter', featuring manifest gauge, Poincare and scale covariance. The theory, dubbed extended charge dynamics (ECD), associates a certain length scale with each charge which, due to scale covariance, is an attribute of a solution, not a parameter of the theory. When the EM field experienced by an ECD charge is slowly varying over that length scale, the dynamics of the charge reduces to classical dynamics, its emitted radiation reduces to the familiar Lienard-Wiechert potential and the above length scale is identified as the charge's Compton length. It is conjectured that quantum mechanics describes statistical aspects of ensembles of ECD solutions, much like classical thermodynamics describes statistical aspects of ensembles of classical solutions. A unique 'remote sensing' feature of ECD, supporting that conjecture, is presented, along with an explanation for the illusion of a photon within a classical treatment of the EM field. Finally, a novel conservation law associated with the scale covariance of ECD is derived, indicating that the scale of a solution may 'drift' with time at a constant rate, much like translation covariance implies a uniform drift of the (average) position.

  16. Orbital parameters of the multiple system EM Boo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkardeş, B.; Bakış, H.; Bakış, V.

    2018-02-01

    EM Boo is a relatively bright (V = 8.98 mag.) and short orbital period (P⁓2.45 days) binary star member of the multiple system WDS J14485+2445AB. There is neither photometric nor spectroscopic study of the system in the literature. In this work, we obtained spectroscopic orbital parameters of the system from new high resolution spectroscopic observations made with échelle spectrograph attached to UBT60 telescope of Akdeniz University. The spectroscopic solution yielded the values K1 = 100.7±2.6 km/s, K2 = 120.1±2.6 km/s and Vγ = -14.6±3.1 km/s, and thus the mass ratio of the system q = 0.838±0.064.

  17. Substituição valvar em idosos com biopróteses de pericárdio bovino: resultados tardios de 12 anos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRANDÃO Carlos Manoel de Almeida

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho é analisar os resultados tardios da substituição valvar em pacientes idosos com a utilização de biopróteses de pericárdio bovino no Instituto do Coração em São Paulo. No período de março de 1982 a dezembro de 1995, foram implantadas 463 biopróteses de pericárdio bovino FISICS-INCOR em 432 pacientes com idade superior a 65 anos. A idade média foi de 70,3 ± 4,3 anos e 58,1% eram do sexo masculino. Foram realizadas 286 substituições da valva aórtica, 144 da valva mitral, 16 duplas substituições mitro-aórticas e 1 tricúspide. Houve procedimentos associados em 158 (36,6% pacientes, sendo o mais freqüente a revascularização do miocárdio (19,2%. A mortalidade hospitalar foi de 12,2% (53 pacientes, sendo 18,7% para o grupo mitral, 7,7% para o grupo aórtico e 18,8% para o mitro-aórtico. As taxas linearizadas para os eventos calcificação, tromboembolismo, rotura, escape pára-valvar e endocardite foram, respectivamente, 0,4%; 0; 0,8%; 0,1% e 0,1% pacientes-ano. A sobrevida actuarial no grupo aórtico foi de 32,4 ± 15,5% em 12 anos, livre de endocardite de 100%, livre de calcificação de 98,3 ± 1,7%, livre de rotura de 91,6 ± 4,8%, livre de escape pára-valvar de 99,5 ± 0,5% e livre de reoperação de 89,6 ± 4,9%, em 12 anos. A sobrevida actuarial no grupo mitral foi de 14,5 ± 11,5% em 12 anos, livre de endocardite de 97,8 ± 2,2%, livre de calcificação de 98,0 ± 2,0%, livre de rotura de 91,7 ± 5,0%, livre de escape pára-valvar de 100% e livre de reoperação de 87,9 ± 5,5% em 12 anos. Não houve tromboembolismo. No período pós-operatório tardio, 293 (87,7% pacientes encontram-se em classe funcional I (NYHA. Concluímos que os resultados tardios com a utilização de biopróteses de pericárdio bovino FISICS-INCOR foram satisfatórios em pacientes idosos.

  18. Características epidemiológicas da leishmaniose tegumentar americana em uma região endêmica do Estado da Bahia: II leishmaniose canina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Air C. Barretto

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available Um inquérito em cães realizado na região de Três Braços, Bahia, mostrou que 3,0% de 98 animais tinham amastigotas em lesões de pele. Parasitos não foram encontrados em pele normal da orelha. De uma amostra selecionada de 13 cães, portadores de lesão cutânea ativa, nove (69,2% deles estavam comprovadamente infectados. Sete amostras de lesão produziram infecção em hamsters. O estudo biológico (crescimento em meio de cultura, evolução da lesão em hamster e desenvolvimento no tubo digestivo de Lutzomyia longipalpis identificou o parasito como pertencente ao complexo L. braziliensis. A caracterização bioquímica (mobilidade eletroforética de enzimas em placas de acetato de celulose e o estudo imunotaxonômico (anticorpos monoclonais definiram as amostras como L. braziliensis braziliensis. O papel do cão como um possível reservatório de L. b. braziliensis na região de Três Braços é discutido.

  19. Osservazioni in cattività sul ciclo stagionale del peso corporeo e sull'efficienza digestiva di <em>Pipistrellus kuhliiem> e <em>Hypsugo saviiem> (Chiroptera: Verspertilionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianna Dondini

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Captivity observation on body weight cycle and digestive efficiency in <em>Pipistrellus kuhliiem> and <em>Hypsugo saviiem> (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae Many bat species of cold-temperate climate are subject to seasonal variation of temperature and food availability. Fat reserve during summer-autumn is therefore a physiological adaptation to spend the winter months by hibernating or to sustain migration. During a research on bats in urban areas, two juveniles of Kuhl's bat (<em>Pipistrellus kuhliiem>, 2 females and two juveniles of Savi's bat (<em>Hypsugo saviiem>, 1 male and 1 female were collected in 1997 in the urban area of Florence (central Italy. Bats were kept in a cage of 50x40x30 cm with a temperature between 17° and 22° C. Every day they were weighted with an electronic balance before eating mealworms (<em>Tenebrio molitorem>. Digestive efficiency, calculated on dry material, was about 90% for both species. In about six months <em>P. kuhliiem> and <em>H. saviiem> increased on the average of 450% and 280% in weight respectively. Deposition of fat reserve seemed to be faster in <em>P. kuhliiem> than in <em>H. saviiem>. Both species showed a circannual cycle in the variation of weight. Riassunto Molte specie di pipistrelli dei climi temperato-freddi sono soggette a marcate variazioni stagionali di temperatura e disponibilità di cibo. L'accumulo di grasso in tarda estate-autunno è quindi un adattamento fisiologico per trascorrere in ibernazione i mesi invernali o per intraprendere la migrazione. Nell'ambito di una ricerca pluriennale sui pipistrelli in ambienti urbani, 4 esemplari giovani, di cui 2 di Pipistrello albolimbato (<em>Pipistrellus kuhliiem>, 2 femmine e due di Pipistrello di Savi (<em>Hypsugo saviiem>, 1 maschio e 1 femmina, sono stati raccolti nella pianura di Firenze durante l'estate del 1997 e mantenuti in un contenitore di 50x40x30 cm ad

  20. Water and nutrient budgets at field and regional scale : travel times of drainage water and nutrient loads to surface water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eertwegh, van den G.A.P.H.

    2002-01-01

    <em>

    Keywords> : water and nutrient budget, travel time of drainage water, dual-porosity concept, agricultural nutrient losses, loads to surface water, field-scale experiments, regional-scale

  1. Avaliação de indicadores de qualidade de prescrição de medicamentos em uma unidade de atenção primária com diferentes modelos de atenção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Oliveira de Melo

    Full Text Available Resumo OBJETIVO: descrever os indicadores de prescrição de medicamentos em uma unidade de atenção primária com diferentes modelos de atenção à saúde. MÉTODOS: estudo descritivo, com dados secundários das prescrições em uma unidade com três modelos de atenção à saúde - Assistência Médica Ambulatorial (AMA; Unidade Básica de Saúde (UBS; Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF - AMA/UBS Vila Nova Jaguaré, São Paulo-SP, em julho-outubro/2011, sobre indicadores de qualidade. RESULTADOS: foram estudadas 16.720 prescrições; a proporção de medicamentos da Relação Municipal de Medicamentos Essenciais (Remume foi maior em prescrições da ESF (98,9%, em relação à UBS (95,6% e à AMA (95,7%; igualmente, tanto o emprego do nome genérico dos medicamentos quanto a proporção de medicamentos fornecidos foi superior, comparando-se as prescrições da ESF (98,9% e 96,1%, respectivamente com as da UBS (94,4% e 92,9% e da AMA (94,0% e 92,7%. CONCLUSÃO: todos os indicadores de prescrição apresentaram resultados melhores para a ESF.

  2. Revascularização do miocárdio em idosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Fernandes da SILVA

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de conhecer a população de idosos submetida a revascularização do miocárdio com uso de circulação extracorpórea e sua morbimortalidade, realizou-se estudo retrospectivo de 41 pacientes, com idade igual ou superior a 70 anos (média de 73,2 anos. Houve predomínio do sexo masculino (65,8%, triarteriais (70,7% com angina instável (65,8%. Esses pacientes foram estudados segundo faixa etária, raça, sexo, clínica pré-operatória, achados eletrocardiográficos, radiológicos e cinecoronariográficos, evolução pós-operatória e suas complicações. Procedeu-se a análise estatística segundo teste T de Student, teste do Qui-quadrado e teste exato de Fischer. Ocorreram 19,2% de complicações menores. A mortalidade global foi de 9,8%, sendo maior em mulheres (21,4%. A alta hospitalar ocorreu em média no sétimo dia do pós-operatório. Os autores concluem que é possível realizar a revascularização do miocárdio com circulação extracorpórea em idosos com baixa morbimortalidade.In order to know the population and the results of myocardial revascularization (MR in aged patients, a retrospective study was done on 41 patients 70 years or older (average 73.2 years submitted to MR with Cardiopulmonary Bypass (CPB. Such patients were studied according to age; race; sex; pre-operative clinical; eletrocardiographic, radiologic and coronary arteriography findings; post-operative evolution and complications. Statistical analysis was conducted according to T-Student test, Chi-Square test and Fisher test. Male sex (65.8% and three vessel disease (70.7% with unstable angina (65.8% were predominant. Minor complications occurred in 19,2%. Global mortality was 9.8%. Mortality among women was greater (21.4%. Discharge from the hospital ocurred on an average 7 days after operation. The author concluded: MR with CPB on aged patients with low morbi-mortality is a possibility.

  3. 40 CFR 81.98 - Burlington-Keokuk Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.98 Section 81.98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.98 Burlington-Keokuk Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Burlington-Keokuk Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Iowa) is revised to consist of the...

  4. A thousand years of earthquakes in France. Catalogue of epicenters parameters and references

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, J.; Levret-Albaret, A.; Cushing, M.

    1996-11-01

    Considered as negligible at the worldwide scale and weak at the European scale, the seismicity of the French territory is typical of intra-continental areas with low level of crustal deformations. Therefore, the feedback period of major seismic events is long, and the seismic risk and its consequences on buildings is complex to evaluate. In todays context of urban areas development and because the number of industrial installations and collective equipments is increasing, the protection against this natural disaster even for small magnitude earthquakes is becoming a more and more important task. This statement led the French authorities to take great care of the seismic risk when the French electronuclear program started. Because of the incomplete geophysical, tectonic and seismic data available, a huge program of seismicity revision started in 1975 and has been carried out by the French Bureau of Geologic and Mining Research (BRGM) with the joint financial help of Electricite de France (EdF) and the French Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN). This work has led to the creation of the specific SIRENE database for the collection French historical macro-seismic data. This book is a catalogue of the major characteristics of historical French earthquakes (geographic coordinates, intensities, observations linked and datings) with respect to macro-seismic epicenters. This catalogue is completed by a bibliographic index, a list of references, and statistical diagrams. (J.S.)

  5. Corrosion '98: 53. annual conference and exposition, proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    This conference was divided into the following sections: Corrosion in Gas Treating; Problems and Solutions in Commercial Building Water Systems; Green Corrosion/Scale Inhibitors; Atmospheric Corrosion; AIRPOL Update/98; Rubber Lining--Answers to Many Problems; Interference Problems; Environmental Assisted Cracking: Fundamental Research and Industrial Applications; Corrosion in Nuclear Systems; New Developments in Scale and Deposit Control; Corrosion and Corrosion Protection in the Transportation Industries; What's All the Noise About--Electrochemical That Is; Refining Industry Corrosion; Corrosion Problems in Military Hardware: Case Histories, Fixes and Lessons Learned; Cathodic Protection Test Methods and Instrumentation for Underground and On-grade Pipelines and Tanks; Recent Developments in Volatile Corrosion Inhibitors; Corrosion in Supercritical Fluids; Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion; Advances in Understanding and Controlling CO 2 Corrosion; Managing Corrosion with Plastics; Material Developments for Use in Exploration and Production Environments; Corrosion in Cold Regions; The Effect of Downsizing and Outsourcing on Cooling System Monitoring and Control Practices; New Developments in Mechanical and Chemical Industrial Cleaning; Mineral Scale Deposit Control in Oilfield Related Operations; Biocides in Cooling Water; Corrosion and Corrosion Control of Reinforced Concrete Structures; Materials Performance for Fossil Energy Conversion Systems; Marine corrosion; Thermal Spray--Coating and Corrosion Control; Flow Effects on Corrosion in Oil and Gas Production; Corrosion Measurement Technologies; Internal Pipeline Monitoring--Corrosion Monitoring, Intelligent Pigging and Leak Detection; Cathodic Protection in Natural Waters; Corrosion in Radioactive Liquid Waste Systems; On-line Hydrogen Permeation Monitoring Equipment and Techniques, State of the Art; Water Reuse and Recovery; Performance of Materials in High Temperature Environments; Advances in Motor

  6. 40 CFR 98.57 - Records that must be retained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Records that must be retained. 98.57 Section 98.57 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...) Documentation of how process knowledge was used to estimate abatement technology destruction efficiency. (f...

  7. 40 CFR 98.214 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. 98.214 Section 98.214 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... standard method or other enhanced industry consensus standard method published by an industry consensus...

  8. 37 CFR 1.98 - Content of information disclosure statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Content of information disclosure statement. 1.98 Section 1.98 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing...

  9. Perspectivas das pesquisas em gerontologia e geriatria: revisão da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freitas Maria Célia de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo é exploratório e descritivo e objetivou identificar e analisar as tendências e perspectivas das pesquisas nas áreas de gerontologia e geriatria. Realizou-se levantamento bibliográfico, junto ao Banco de Dados Lilacs e acervo da Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto-USP, de publicações multiprofissionais, no período de 1980 a 2000. Apresentaram-se os resultados sob a forma de tabelas e gráficos, destacando-se os estudos com enfoque geriátrico (54%. Quanto às abordagens, houve, na última década (1990 a 2000, aumento, distribuindo-se em Biológica (32%, Recursos Humanos (18%, Social (17%, Psicológica (9,8%, Holística (4,0%, excetuando-se a Ética que permaneceu com o mesmo percentual nos dois períodos (0,8%. Em relação ao tipo de pesquisa, predominou a qualitativa (49,2%. Verifica-se, portanto, que as perspectivas em relação aos idosos indicaram interesse dos profissionais pela temática, tanto pelas transições demográficas e epidemiológicas quanto pela formação de recursos humanos, para o mundo do trabalho junto a idosos, no âmbito profissional e no domiciliar.

  10. Tratamento da desnutrição em crianças hospitalizadas em São Paulo Nutritional support for malnourished hospitalized children: experience of a referral center, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Oselka Saccardo Sarni

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a evolução antropométrica, terapia nutricional e mortalidade de crianças desnutridas hospitalizadas em centro de referência. MÉTODOS: Em estudo retrospectivo, avaliou-se 98 prontuários de crianças desnutridas (ZPIAIM:To study anthropometric development, nutritional support and mortality rate of malnourished children hospitalized in a referral center METHODS: In a retrospective study we surveyed 98 hospitalized malnourished children (ZW<-2 with no chronic disease. Data collected was: birth weight, gestational age, length of exclusive breast feeding, diagnosis at admission, formula used (type, delivery route and feeding tolerance and length of stay. Weight and height were controlled at admission and discharge. To classify and evaluate nutritional rehabilitation we used the Z-score: weight-for-age (ZW, height-for-age (ZH, weight-for-height (ZW/H. The nutritional therapy used was based on the World Health Organization (WHO guidelines, with minor modifications. All chosen formulas were industrialized: lactose-free polymeric formula (PLF for children with diarrhea, low lactose polymeric formula (PLL for children without diarrhea and cow's milk hydrolysate (CMH for sepsis or chronic diarrhea. At the rehabilitation phase, all children were given the PLL formula. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Student's t and chi-square tests. RESULTS: The median of age and length of stay were 9.8 months and 17 days, respectively and the mortality rate was of 2%. Diarrhea and/or pneumonia were diagnosed at admission in 81.6% of the children. An improvement of 17.3 % ZW, 82.7 % ZH and 92.2 % ZW/H was observed. PLF was more frequently given at admission (47.4% while CMH was given to only 7.4% of the children. Twenty-four percent of the children were tube fed and 5.1 % received parenteral nutrition. Tolerance of the initial formula was considered good in 66.7% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: The WHO guidelines were effective in the nutritional therapy of severely

  11. 28 CFR 0.98 - Functions of Commissioner of Federal Prison Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Prison Industries. 0.98 Section 0.98 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Prisons § 0.98 Functions of Commissioner of Federal Prison Industries. The Director of the Bureau of Prisons is authorized as ex officio Commissioner of Federal Prison Industries and...

  12. Avaliação de mudança em processos terapêuticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Medici Pizão Yoshida

    Full Text Available O estudo das psicoterapias tem sido marcado pelo uso de métodos de investigação intensiva do processo terapêutico voltados para a compreensão dos fatores que facilitam a mudança. Baseiam-se, usualmente, na análise intensiva de caso único, identificando regularidades características dos estados mentais, padrões de conduta, assim como interacionais, que são associadas com mudança. Contam com instrumentos de avaliação desenvolvidos segundo referencial teórico específico em que conceitos metapsicológicos são definidos operacionalmente. Dependem, em geral, da avaliação de juizes independentes, experientes na técnica avaliada, que se baseiam em vídeos e / ou áudios das sessões de terapia, além de considerarem o contexto. Têm permitido o estudo exaustivo de processos terapêuticos e a obtenção de julgamentos baseados em construtos que evidenciam validade preditiva, além de gozarem de precisão entre avaliadores. A título de ilustração apresentam-se pesquisas envolvendo as seguintes escalas: "Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales", "Rutgers Psychotherapy Progress Scale" e "Escala Diagnóstica Adaptativa Operacionalizada - Redefinida".

  13. 40 CFR 98.227 - Records that must be retained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Records that must be retained. 98.227 Section 98.227 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... significant changes to process. (b) Documentation of how process knowledge was used to estimate abatement...

  14. 40 CFR 98.40 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Electricity Generation § 98.40 Definition of the source... category does not include portable equipment, emergency equipment, or emergency generators, as defined in...

  15. Glycosylation of Vanillin and 8-Nordihydrocapsaicin by Cultured <em>Eucalyptus perrinianaem> Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoji Kubota

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylation of vanilloids such as vanillin and 8-nordihydrocapsaicin by cultured plant cells of <em>Eucalyptus perrinianaem> was studied. Vanillin was converted into vanillin 4-<em>O>-b-D-glucopyranoside, vanillyl alcohol, and 4-<em>O>-b-D-glucopyranosylvanillyl alcohol by <em>E. perriniana em>cells. Incubation of cultured <em>E. perrinianaem> cells with 8-nor- dihydrocapsaicin gave 8-nordihydrocapsaicin 4-<em>O>-b-D-glucopyranoside and 8-nordihydro- capsaicin 4-<em>O>-b-D-gentiobioside.

  16. 9 CFR 98.17 - Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... artificial insemination, natural breeding, and cleaning and disinfection, must be performed under the... unit and before entering any room or area listed in § 98.16 of this subpart. (d) Cleaning, disinfection... water and disinfected before being used to store the embryos. (7) The room used for cleaning and...

  17. 40 CFR 98.244 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NIST Handbook 44 (2009) (incorporated by reference, see § 98.7) or follow procedures specified by the... Natural Gas by Gas Chromatography (incorporated by reference, see § 98.7). (ii) ASTM D6060-96 (Reapproved..., Other Hydrocarbons, and Carbon Dioxide in High-Purity Ethylene by Gas Chromatography (incorporated by...

  18. Flash-sourcing or the rapid detection and characterisation of earthquake effects through clickstream data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossu, R.; Mazet-Roux, G.; Roussel, F.; Frobert, L.

    2011-12-01

    Rapid characterisation of earthquake effects is essential for a timely and appropriate response in favour of victims and/or of eyewitnesses. In case of damaging earthquakes, any field observations that can fill the information gap characterising their immediate aftermath can contribute to more efficient rescue operations. This paper presents the last developments of a method called "flash-sourcing" addressing these issues. It relies on eyewitnesses, the first informed and the first concerned by an earthquake occurrence. More precisely, their use of the EMSC earthquake information website (www.emsc-csem.org) is analysed in real time to map the area where the earthquake was felt and identify, at least under certain circumstances zones of widespread damage. The approach is based on the natural and immediate convergence of eyewitnesses on the website who rush to the Internet to investigate cause of the shaking they just felt causing our traffic to increase The area where an earthquake was felt is mapped simply by locating Internet Protocol (IP) addresses during traffic surges. In addition, the presence of eyewitnesses browsing our website within minutes of an earthquake occurrence excludes the possibility of widespread damage in the localities they originate from: in case of severe damage, the networks would be down. The validity of the information derived from this clickstream analysis is confirmed by comparisons with EMS98 macroseismic map obtained from online questionnaires. The name of this approach, "flash-sourcing", is a combination of "flash-crowd" and "crowdsourcing" intending to reflect the rapidity of the data collation from the public. For computer scientists, a flash-crowd names a traffic surge on a website. Crowdsourcing means work being done by a "crowd" of people; It also characterises Internet and mobile applications collecting information from the public such as online macroseismic questionnaires. Like crowdsourcing techniques, flash-sourcing is a

  19. Validade concorrente e confiabilidade da Alberta Infant Motor Scale em lactentes nascidos prematuros Concurrent validity and reliability of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênnea Martins Almeida

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a validade concorrente e a confiabilidade interobservador da Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS em lactentes prematuros acompanhados no ambulatório de seguimento do Instituto Fernandes Figueira, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (IFF/Fiocruz. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 88 lactentes nascidos prematuros no ambulatório de seguimento do IFF/Fiocruz entre fevereiro e dezembro de 2006. No estudo de validade concorrente, 46 lactentes com 6 (n = 26 ou 12 (n = 20 meses de idade corrigida foram avaliados pela AIMS e pela escala motora da Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2ª edição, por dois observadores diferentes, utilizando-se o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson para análise dos resultados. No estudo de confiabilidade, 42 lactentes entre 0 e 18 meses foram avaliados pela AIMS por dois observadores diferentes, utilizando-se o intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC para análise dos resultados. RESULTADOS: No estudo de validade concorrente, a correlação encontrada entre as duas escalas foi alta (r = 0,95 e estatisticamente significativa (p OBJECTIVE: To verify the concurrent validity and interobserver reliability of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS in premature infants followed-up at the outpatient clinic of Instituto Fernandes Figueira, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (IFF/Fiocruz, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: A total of 88 premature infants were enrolled at the follow-up clinic at IFF/Fiocruz, between February and December of 2006. For the concurrent validity study, 46 infants were assessed at either 6 (n = 26 or 12 (n = 20 months' corrected age using the AIMS and the second edition of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, by two different observers, and applying Pearson's correlation coefficient to analyze the results. For the reliability study, 42 infants between 0 and 18 months were assessed using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale, by two different observers and the results analyzed using the intraclass correlation

  20. Comparação de informações sobre saúde das populações brasileira e norte-americana baseada em dados da PNAD/98 e NHIS/96

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltrão Kaizô Iwakami

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho comparam-se informações sobre o estado de saúde geral referido das populações brasileira e norte-americana, desagregado por grupo etário, sexo e raça/cor. São comparadas, também desagregadas da mesma forma, taxas de prevalência de morbidades selecionadas, a saber: artrite/reumatismo, diabetes, bronquite/asma, hipertensão e doenças do coração. Os dados concernentes à população brasileira são oriundos do suplemento saúde da PNAD/1998, e os relativos à norte-americana, da NHIS/1996. Em linhas gerais, com respeito ao estado de saúde referido, as mulheres se declaram em pior estado em ambos os países, e os brasileiros se declaram em pior situação. Com respeito à morbidade, não há comportamento comum, e padrões de diferença raça/cor e sexo, via de regra, não se reproduzem igualmente para os dois países.

  1. Preferencia alimenticia del ácaro depredador <em>Balaustium> sp. en condiciones controladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Karen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Se evaluó la preferencia de presas de <em>Balaustium> sp., enemigo natural de diferentes artrópodos plaga, y el cual es nativo de la Sabana de Bogotá. En unidades experimentales construidas con foliolos de plantas de rosa se colocaron independientemente individuos de <em>Balaustium> sp. y se registró el número de presas consumidas. De esta manera se determinó la preferencia de los tres estados móviles del ácaro depredador <em>Balaustium> sp. por diferentes edades de tres presas. Las especies y edades de las presas estudiadas fueron: huevos, ninfas y adultos de <em>Trialeurodes vaporariorumem>, huevos, ninfas y adultos de <em>Tetranychus urticaeem>, y larvas de primer y segundo instar y adultos de <em>Frankliniella occidentalisem>. Los estados menos desarrollados fueron preferidos, aunque se observó que los adultos del depredador tienen gran habilidad para consumir adultos de <em>T. vaporariorumem>. La presa preferida por las larvas de <em>Balaustium> sp. fue los huevos de <em>T. urticaeem> con una proporción de consumo de 0,54 de los huevos que se ofrecieron de esta presa; las deutoninfas del depredador eligieron huevos de <em>T. vaporariorumem> (0,537 o de <em>T. urticaeem> (0,497 y los adultos de <em>Balaustium> sp. prefrieron los huevos de <em>T. vaporariorumem> (0,588.

  2. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from <em>Rosmarinus officinalisem>>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjian Zhao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from <em>Rosmarinus officinalisem>. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C8mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid–liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from <em>R. officinalisem>> em>compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential.

  3. The Berg Balance Scale has high intra- and inter-rater reliability but absolute reliability varies across the scale: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Stephen; Marquez, Jodie; Chiarelli, Pauline

    2013-06-01

    What is the intra-rater and inter-rater relative reliability of the Berg Balance Scale? What is the absolute reliability of the Berg Balance Scale? Does the absolute reliability of the Berg Balance Scale vary across the scale? Systematic review with meta-analysis of reliability studies. Any clinical population that has undergone assessment with the Berg Balance Scale. Relative intra-rater reliability, relative inter-rater reliability, and absolute reliability. Eleven studies involving 668 participants were included in the review. The relative intrarater reliability of the Berg Balance Scale was high, with a pooled estimate of 0.98 (95% CI 0.97 to 0.99). Relative inter-rater reliability was also high, with a pooled estimate of 0.97 (95% CI 0.96 to 0.98). A ceiling effect of the Berg Balance Scale was evident for some participants. In the analysis of absolute reliability, all of the relevant studies had an average score of 20 or above on the 0 to 56 point Berg Balance Scale. The absolute reliability across this part of the scale, as measured by the minimal detectable change with 95% confidence, varied between 2.8 points and 6.6 points. The Berg Balance Scale has a higher absolute reliability when close to 56 points due to the ceiling effect. We identified no data that estimated the absolute reliability of the Berg Balance Scale among participants with a mean score below 20 out of 56. The Berg Balance Scale has acceptable reliability, although it might not detect modest, clinically important changes in balance in individual subjects. The review was only able to comment on the absolute reliability of the Berg Balance Scale among people with moderately poor to normal balance. Copyright © 2013 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  4. Identificação do lactato mínimo de corredores adolescentes em teste de pista de três estágios incrementais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael da Costa Sotero

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a possibilidade de se determinar a velocidade de lactato mínimo (LM em corredores adolescentes utilizando-se apenas três estágios incrementais. MÉTODOS: Onze indivíduos (13,7 ± 1,0 anos; 47,3 ± 12,1kg; 160,0 ± 1,0cm; 18,3 ± 1,8kg/m² realizaram três testes de corrida em pista de atletismo em dias distintos: 1 desempenho de 3.000m (Vm3.000; 2 teste de LM que consistiu de um sprint de 500m para indução a hiperlactatemia, seguido de 10min de recuperação e seis séries de 800m em intensidades de 83, 86, 89, 92, 95 e 98% da Vm3.000; 3 teste de LM com três estágios (LMp3 semelhante ao protocolo anterior, porém, com três séries de 800m em intensidades de 83, 89 e 98% da Vm3.000. Durante o primeiro minuto de recuperação entre os estágios dos testes dois e três foram coletadas amostras de sangue para dosagem de lactato sanguíneo. Para determinação do LM foram empregadas: a inspeção visual (LM e b função polinomial de segunda ordem para identificar o LM em seis estágios (LMp e três estágios (LMp3. RESULTADOS: ANOVA demonstrou não haver diferenças entre as velocidades de lactato mínimo (m.min-1 identificadas pelos diferentes métodos (LM = 221,7 ± 15,4 vs. LMp = 227,1 ± 10,8 vs. LMp3 = 224,1 ± 11,2;. Altas correlações foram observadas entre os protocolos estudados e destes com a Vm3.000 (p < 0,01. CONCLUSÃO: Foi possível identificar a velocidade de corrida correspondente ao LM em adolescentes mesmo utilizando-se de apenas três estágios incrementais (LMp3.

  5. Um estudo sobre a validade de construto da Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC em uma amostra populacional urbana do Nordeste brasileiro A study on the construct validity of the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC in an urban population in Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Barreto Bonfim

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC tem sido um dos instrumentos mais utilizados internacionalmente para investigação da violência doméstica contra a criança, porém o uso segmentado de suas escalas tem se mostrado inadequado devido à complexidade do fenômeno. Esta pesquisa tem por objetivo estudar a estrutura fatorial das escalas da CTSPC em uma amostra populacional urbana do Nordeste brasileiro, sendo conduzido um estudo transversal com 1.370 crianças de uma coorte em Salvador, Bahia. Realizou-se análise fatorial com rotação oblíqua promax e calculou-se o coeficiente Kuder-Richardson. A análise fatorial revelou uma distribuição dos itens nos fatores de forma diferente da proposta do instrumento original. Verificou-se um perfil gradativo de violência em cada fator. Os valores obtidos para o Kuder-Richardson foram 0,63 para o Fator 1, 0,59 para o Fator 2 e 0,42 para o Fator 3. Os itens comportaram-se de forma diferente da proposta original do instrumento, corroborando estudos internacionais. Baseando-se nessas evidências, é possível propor um redimensionamento da CTSPC.The Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC is one of the most widely used instruments in the world for investigating domestic violence against children, but targeted use has proven inadequate given the phenomenon's complexity. This study focused on the factor structure of CTSPC scales in an urban population in Northeast Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a cohort of 1,370 children in Salvador, Bahia State. Factor analysis with promax oblique rotation was performed, and the Kuder-Richardson coefficient was calculated. Factor analysis showed a different distribution of items in the factors as compared to the original instrument. Violence showed a gradual profile in each factor. The Kuder-Richardson coefficient was 0.63 for factor 1, 0.59 for factor 2, and 0.42 for factor 3. The items behaved differently from the original instrument

  6. Metagenome sequencing and 98 microbial genomes from Juan de Fuca Ridge flank subsurface fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbluth, Sean P.; Amend, Jan P.; Rappé, Michael S.

    2017-03-01

    The global deep subsurface biosphere is one of the largest reservoirs for microbial life on our planet. This study takes advantage of new sampling technologies and couples them with improvements to DNA sequencing and associated informatics tools to reconstruct the genomes of uncultivated Bacteria and Archaea from fluids collected deep within the Juan de Fuca Ridge subseafloor. Here, we generated two metagenomes from borehole observatories located 311 meters apart and, using binning tools, retrieved 98 genomes from metagenomes (GFMs). Of the GFMs, 31 were estimated to be >90% complete, while an additional 17 were >70% complete. Phylogenomic analysis revealed 53 bacterial and 45 archaeal GFMs, of which nearly all were distantly related to known cultivated isolates. In the GFMs, abundant Bacteria included Chloroflexi, Nitrospirae, Acetothermia (OP1), EM3, Aminicenantes (OP8), Gammaproteobacteria, and Deltaproteobacteria, while abundant Archaea included Archaeoglobi, Bathyarchaeota (MCG), and Marine Benthic Group E (MBG-E). These data are the first GFMs reconstructed from the deep basaltic subseafloor biosphere, and provide a dataset available for further interrogation.

  7. 46 CFR 98.25-5 - How anhydrous ammonia may be carried.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How anhydrous ammonia may be carried. 98.25-5 Section 98... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-5 How anhydrous ammonia may be carried. (a) Anhydrous ammonia shall be..., except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) When anhydrous ammonia is to be...

  8. Antioxidant Profile of <em>Trifolium pratenseem> L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidy Schwartsova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the antioxidant properties of five different extracts of <em>Trifolium pratenseem> L. (Leguminosae leaves, various assays which measure free radical scavenging ability were carried out: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radical scavenger capacity tests and lipid peroxidation assay. In all of the tests, only the H2O and (to some extent the EtOAc extracts showed a potent antioxidant effect compared with BHT and BHA, well-known synthetic antioxidants. In addition, <em>in vivo em>experiments were conducted with antioxidant systems (activities of GSHPx, GSHR, Px, CAT, XOD, GSH content and intensity of LPx in liver homogenate and blood of mice after their treatment with extracts of <em>T. pratenseem> leaves, or in combination with CCl4. Besides, in the extracts examined the total phenolic and flavonoid amounts were also determined, together with presence of the selected flavonoids: quercetin, luteolin, apigenin, naringenin and kaempferol, which were studied using a HPLC-DAD technique. HPLC-DAD analysis showed a noticeable content of natural products according to which the examined <em>Trifolium pratenseem> species could well be regarded as a promising new source of bioactive natural compounds, which can be used both as a food supplement and a remedy.

  9. 40 CFR 98.420 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98.420 Section 98.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... distribution of CO2. (4) Purification, compression, or processing of CO2. (5) On-site use of CO2 captured on...

  10. 40 CFR 98.174 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Iron and Steel Production § 98.174 Monitoring and QA/QC... moisture content of the stack gas. (5) Determine the mass rate of process feed or process production (as... Fusion Techniques (incorporated by reference, see § 98.7) for iron and ferrous scrap. (v) ASM CS-104 UNS...

  11. Ochratoxin A in brazilian instant coffee Ocratoxina A em café solúvel brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana P. de Almeida

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the ochratoxin A (OTA contamination of instant coffee samples collected in the market of the city of São Paulo, Brazil from August to December, 2004. The EN 14133/2003 method, originally developed to quantify OTA in wine, grape juice and beer samples, was evaluated and approved for analyzing OTA in instant coffee samples. OTA was isolated in an immunoaffinity column and quantified by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The established detection and quantification limits were 0.16 and 0.52 ng/g, respectively. The recoveries from spiked samples were 92.6 ± 1.7, 83.7 ± 0.8, and 91.0 ± 1.2 % at levels of 3.0, 5.0, and 8.0 ng/g, respectively. Of a total of 82 samples analised, 81 (98.8% contained OTA at levels ranging from 0.17 to 6.29 ng/g. The high frequency of OTA occurrence in the instant coffee samples demonstrates the importance of an effective control of this product by governmental authorities and industries. The rapid methodology for OTA analysis in instant coffee used in this study was defined and validated, permitting it´s use for quality control of this product.O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a contaminação por OTA em amostras de café solúvel comercializadas na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil no período de agosto a dezembro de 2004. O método EN 14133/2003, originalmente desenvolvido para quantificar OTA em amostras de vinho, suco de uva e cerveja, foi avaliado e aprovado para análise de OTA em amostras de café solúvel. OTA foi isolada em coluna de imunoafinidade e quantificada por CLAE com detecção em fluorescência. Os limites de detecção e quantificação do método foram 0,16 e 0,52 ng/g, respectivamente. Os percentuais médios de recuperação foram de 92,6% (3 ng/g, 83,7% (5 ng/g e 91,0% (8 ng/g, com coeficientes de variação de 1,7 (3 ng/g, 0,8 (5 ng/g e 1,2 (8 ng/g. A análise das 82 amostras de café solúvel revelou a presença de ocratoxina A em 81 amostras (98

  12. 2020 Vision Project Summary, FY98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A Munoz; J. C. Clausen; K. P. Scott; K. W. Gordon

    1998-11-01

    The 2020 Vision project began in 1996 with two participating teachers and four classes. It has since grown to comprise more than a dozen participating teachers and hundreds of students across the country. Much of this growth took place in FY98, thanks to the accomplishment of several major goals: implementation of a mentor program, enhanced teacher training, a mid-year conference for students, recruitment of distant schools, and the development of an interactive Web site. The first part of this report describes these accomplishments, as well as future directions for 2020 Vision. The second part summarized the scenarios students wrote during the 1997-98 school year. it identifies recurrent themes in the students' scenarios and compares/contrasts them with scenarios written in the first two years of the project.

  13. 7 CFR 98.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., READY-TO-EAT (MRE's), MEATS, AND MEAT PRODUCTS MRE's, Meats, and Related Meat Food Products § 98.2... from clean and sound edible tissues from swine. Meals, Ready-To-Eat (MRE). Meals, Ready-To-Eat are... advertised solely to the medical profession is not included. Ready-to-eat. The term means consumers are...

  14. Bioassay-Guided Antidiabetic Study of <em>Phaleria macrocarpaem> Fruit Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Z. Asmawi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An earlier anti-hyperglycemic study with serial crude extracts of <em>Phaleria macrocarpaem> (PM fruit indicated methanol extract (ME as the most effective. In the present investigation, the methanol extract was further fractionated to obtain chloroform (CF, ethyl acetate (EAF, <em>n>-butanol (NBF and aqueous (AF fractions, which were tested for antidiabetic activity. The NBF reduced blood glucose (<em>p> < 0.05 15 min after administration, in an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT similar to metformin. Moreover, it lowered blood glucose in diabetic rats by 66.67% (<em>p> em>< 0.05, similar to metformin (51.11%, glibenclamide (66.67% and insulin (71.43% after a 12-day treatment, hence considered to be the most active fraction. Further fractionation of NBF yielded sub-fractions I (SFI and II (SFII, and only SFI lowered blood glucose (<em>p em>< 0.05, in IPGTT similar to glibenclamide. The ME, NBF, and SFI correspondingly lowered plasma insulin (<em>p em>< 0.05 and dose-dependently inhibited glucose transport across isolated rat jejunum implying an extra-pancreatic mechanism. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, terpenes and tannins, in ME, NBF and SFI, and LC-MS analyses revealed 9.52%, 33.30% and 22.50% mangiferin respectively. PM fruit possesses anti-hyperglycemic effect, exerted probably through extra-pancreatic action. Magniferin, contained therein may be responsible for this reported activity.

  15. Relationship between S. typhi R plasmid (pRST98) and macrophage apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Guorong; Wu Shuyan; Li Yuanyuan; Lv Jie; Xu Yang; Huang Rui

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between S. typhi R plasmid (pR ST98 ) and macrophage apoptosis. Methods: pR ST98 was transferred into a less virulent strain of S. typhimurium for creating a transconjugant pR ST98 /RIA, the standard S. typhimurium virulence strain SR-11 was used as the positive control, and RIA as the negative one. Infection with murine macrophage J 774A.1 occurred separately under the same conditions. J 774A.1 apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry and TUNEL at 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24 hours respectively. Mitochondria membrane potential was detected by JC-1 staining method. Viable bacteria was detected by serial dilution at the same time and viable cells stained with Trypan blue were counted. Results: SR-11 results in a higher apoptosis in J 774A.1 than pR ST98 /RIA, and a combined pR ST98 /RIA higher than RIA (P pR ST98 /RIA>SR-11 (P ST98 could increase the macrophage apoptosis. (authors)

  16. PRODUTIVIDADE E QUALIDADE DA 'CABERNET SAUVIGNON' SUSTENTADA EM ESPALDEIRA E MANJEDOURA NA FORMA DE Y

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÁRIO JOSÉ PEDRO JÚNIOR

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A uva ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ utilizada para elaboração de vinho tem tido seu plantio incrementado na região vitivinícola de São Roque (SP, sendo o sistema de sustentação mais usual a espaldeira. Recentemente, foi introduzido o sistema de sustentação em manjedoura na forma de Y, portanto foi realizado experimento objetivando caracterizar a produção e as características químicas do mosto da ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ sustentada em espaldeira e em Y. As avaliações foram feitas durante os anos agrícolas: 2010/2011, 2011/2012 e 2012/2013. As videiras sustentadas em Y apresentaram maiores médias de massa dos cachos e de produtividade quando comparadas às sustentadas em espaldeira. As médias de produtividade estimada variaram entre 9,89 e 13,64 t ha-1 para a espaldeira e entre 13,34 e 17,43 t ha-1 para a manjedoura na forma de Y. Em relação às características químicas do mosto (teor de sólidos solúveis, pH e acidez titulável, não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas entre os sistemas de sustentação das videiras. As médias do teor de sólidos solúveis variaram entre 17,3 e 19,3°Brix, e a acidez titulável total, entre 98 e 143 meq.L-1 para os diferentes anos agrícolas avaliados.

  17. Semelhanças e contrastes nos padrões de uso de crack em Santa Catarina, Brasil: capital vs Meio Oeste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Terezinha Zeferino

    Full Text Available Resumo O crack é um problema relevante de saúde pública no Brasil, em função dos danos e riscos individuais e sociais secundários ao seu uso/abuso. O objetivo deste artigo é descrever características das cenas de uso de crack na Capital e no Meio-Oeste de Santa Catarina. O projeto se valeu da metodologia Time-Location Sampling. Em janeiro-junho de 2011, foram mapeadas 41 cenas de uso de crack na Capital e 33 no Meio-Oeste catarinense. Após seleção aleatória das cenas a serem observadas, foram sorteados os dias e os turnos em que estas seriam observadas em detalhe, totalizando 98 cenas/turno na Capital e 62 no Meio-O-este. As observações foram registradas em caderno de campo, analisadas via análise de conteúdo de Bardin e discutidas à luz da literatura nacional e internacional. Os usuários de crack entrevistados eram majoritariamente adultos do sexo masculino, com uma maior associação entre estar em situação de rua e consumir a droga na Capital. Enquanto no Meio-Oeste a maioria das cenas estavam ativas no período noturno, na Capital, apresentaram-se ativas em todos os períodos. Foram identificadas práticas de risco associadas ao uso do crack, como associação de múltiplas drogas, prostituição, compartilhamento de cachimbo e favores sexuais em troca da substância.

  18. Alimentazione di <em>Marmota marmotaem> in praterie altimontane delle dolomiti bellunesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Rudatis

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of <em>Marmota marmotaem> in the mountain prairie of south-eastern Italian Alps. Diet composition of two family groups of alpine marmots was investigated in two areas of the Agordino’s Dolomites (Italian Alps in June-September 2001, by means of microscopic analysis of faeces and of direct observation of feeding activity. During the whole period of activity, a high consume of Angiosperms was confirmed, especially plants in flower; among them the “graminoids” seemed to play an important role only during the initial part of the active period. Generally vegetative parts predominated over flowers. The ingestion of animal preys was not confirmed by the analysis of droppings. Comparing diet composition of the two groups, Graminaceae (<em>Poa>, <em>Phleum>, Compositae (<em>Achillea>, Cyperaceae/Juncaceae, Leguminosae (<em>Anthyllis>, Rosaceae, and Labiatae (<em>Prunella>, <em>Stachys> formed the bulk of marmot diet in the study areas. Diet showed low diversity considering the abundance of plant species in the surrounding environment. Food resources were probably used in relation to their easy digestibility, with a high content in proteins, sugar and water. The knowledge of vegetation features in relation to marmot trophic habits can represent a useful tool for the management of this species. Riassunto Il regime alimentare di due gruppi di Marmotta alpina è stato studiato in giugno-settembre 2001 in due aree delle Dolomiti agordine (SE Italia, attraverso l’analisi microscopica delle feci e l’osservazione diretta dell’attività alimentare. Durante tutto il periodo di attività si è notato un forte consumo di Angiosperme, specialmente piante a fiore, mentre le ”graminoidi” sembra giochino un ruolo importante all’inizio della stagione. In generale le parti vegetali predominano sui fiori. L’ingestione di prede animali non è stata

  19. ALiEM Blog and Podcast Watch: Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaver, Fareen; Craddick, Michael; Sanford, Audrey; Sefa, Nana; Hughes, George; Lin, Michelle

    2017-10-01

    The WestJEM Blog and Podcast Watch presents high-quality open-access educational blogs and podcasts in emergency medicine based on the ongoing Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM) Approved Instructional Resources (AIR) and AIR-Professional (Pro) series. Both series critically appraise open-access educational blogs and podcasts in EM using an objective scoring instrument. This installment of the blog and podcast watch series curated and scored relevant posts in the specific topic of toxicology emergencies from the AIR-Pro Series. The AIR-Pro Series is a continuously building curriculum covering a new subject area every two months. For each area, eight EM chief residents identify 3-5 advanced clinical questions. Using FOAMsearch.net and FOAMSearcher to search blogs and podcasts, relevant posts are scored by eight reviewers from the AIR-Pro editorial board, which is comprised of EM faculty and chief residents at various institutions across North America. The scoring instrument contains five measurement outcomes based on seven-point Likert scales: recency, accuracy, educational utility, evidence based, and references. The AIR-Pro label is awarded to posts with a score of ≥28 (out of 35) points. An "honorable mention" label is awarded if board members collectively felt that the blogs were valuable and the scores were > 25. A total of 31 blog posts and podcasts were included. Key educational pearls from the six high-quality AIR-Pro posts and four honorable mentions are summarized. The WestJEM ALiEM Blog and Podcast Watch series is based on the AIR and AIR-Pro Series, which attempts to identify high-quality educational content on open-access blogs and podcasts. This series provides an expert-based, crowdsourced approach towards critically appraising educational social media content for EM clinicians. This installment focuses on toxicology emergencies.

  20. Metais pesados em LATOSSOLO tratado com lodo de esgoto e em plantas de cana-de-açúcar Heavy metals in an Oxisol treated with sewage sludge and in sugarcane plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Carvalho Oliveira

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A presença de metais pesados no lodo de esgoto constitui um dos maiores entraves para sua aplicação em solos agrícolas. Neste contexto, o presente trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar os efeitos de aplicações sucessivas de lodo de esgoto sobre o acúmulo de metais pesados num LATOSSOLO AMARELO Distrófico e em plantas de cana-de-açúcar e a fitodisponibilidade desses elementos através de extratores químicos. O experimento foi conduzido nos anos agrícolas 1996/97 e 1997/98 sendo que, no primeiro ano, além dos tratamentos calagem + adubação mineral e testemunha, foram aplicadas em área total, doses equivalentes a 33, 66 e 99 mg ha-1 (base seca de lodo de esgoto. Em 1997/98 o lodo foi reaplicado em doses equivalentes a 37, 74 e 110 mg ha-1 (base seca. Foram detectados acúmulos de Cu, Cr, Ni e Zn na camada 0 0,2 m do solo. As concentrações de Cd, Cr, Ni e Pb nas amostras de plantas de cana-de-açúcar estiveram abaixo dos limites de determinação do método analítico empregado, porém, no caldo, a presença de Cd, Cr e Ni, esteve abaixo de 0,02 mg kg-1. Os teores de Cu e Zn nas várias partes da cana-de-açúcar não foram superiores aos limites normais de variação encontrados na literatura. As soluções extratoras apresentaram eficiência apenas na avaliação da fitodisponibilidade do Zn, determinado nas amostras de colmo e caldo, no ano agrícola 1997/98.The concern about the presence of heavy metals in plants growing in soils treated with sewage sludge can be a restricting factor for the use of this waste in agriculture. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the possibility of heavy metal accumulation in an acid soil after two successive sewage sludge applications and the availability, using chemical extractants for a typic hapludox, of these metals to sugarcane plants. The experiment was managed during two years, 1996/1997 and 1997/1998, and had 5 treatments in a randomized block design: lime + mineral fertilization

  1. HOMOIMPLANTE ORTOTÓPICO DE TENDÃO CALCÂNEO EM CÃES: CONSERVAÇÃO, ASSEPSIA E IMPLANTAÇÃO ORTHOTOPIC HOMOLOGOUS COMMON CALCANEOUS TENDON GRAFT IN DOGS: CONSERVATION, ASEPSIS AND IMPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alceu Gaspar Raiser

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi elaborado um modelo experimental de conservação, assepsia e implantação de tendão homólogo ortotópico, para avaliar a resposta orgânica, em 48 cães. Os implantes foram conservados em glicerina a 98%, durante 45 dias a seis meses e, após, reidratados e submetidos à ação anti-séptica do iodo durante 24h antes da implantação. A avaliação clínica e histopatológica após 11, 22, 44 e 132 dias de evolução não evidenciou qualquer sinal de infecção ou rejeição. Tendões homólogos ortotópicos conservados em glicerina a 98% estão indicados para corrigir perdas tendíneas.An experimental model of conservation, asepsis and implantation of homologous glycerine 98%-stored tendon graft is presented in order to evaluate the tissue reaction to implantation in 48 dogs. Grafts were preverved in sterile glycerin from 45 days to six months period. Before implantation grafts were placed in isotônic saline with iodine, during 24h period for rehydration and asepsis. Clinical evaluation and histopathologic analisis of biopsies were made at 11st , 22nd, 44th and 132nd post-operative day. There was not evidence of infection or graft rejection. Orthotopic homologous glycerine-stored tendon graft are indicated in reconstructive tendon surgery.

  2. <em>Ipomoea aquaticaem> Extract Shows Protective Action Against Thioacetamide-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hamid A. Hadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Indian system of traditional medicine (Ayurveda it is recommended to consume <em>Ipomoea em>aquatica> to mitigate disorders like jaundice. In this study, the protective effects of ethanol extract of <em>I. aquaticaem> against liver damage were evaluated in thioacetamide (TAA-induced chronic hepatotoxicity in rats. There was no sign of toxicity in the acute toxicity study, in which Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were orally fed with <em>I. aquaticaem> (250 and 500 mg/kg for two months along with administration of TAA (i.p injection 200 mg/kg three times a week for two months. The results showed that the treatment of <em>I. aquaticaem> significantly lowered the TAA-induced serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALP, ALT, AST, protein, albumin, bilirubin and prothrombin time. The hepatic content of activities and expressions SOD and CAT that were reduced by TAA were brought back to control levels by the plant extract supplement. Meanwhile, the rise in MDA level in the TAA receiving groups also were significantly reduced by <em>I. aquaticaem> treatment. Histopathology of hepatic tissues by H&E and Masson trichrome stains displayed that <em>I. aquaticaem> has reduced the incidence of liver lesions, including hepatic cells cloudy swelling, infiltration, hepatic necrosis, and fibrous connective tissue proliferation induced by TAA in rats. Therefore, the results of this study show that the protective effect of <em>I. aquaticaem> in TAA-induced liver damage might be contributed to its modulation on detoxification enzymes and its antioxidant and free radical scavenger effects. Moreover, it confirms a scientific basis for the traditional use of <em>I. aquaticaem> for the treatment of liver disorders.

  3. Classe social: conceitos e esquemas operacionais em pesquisa em saude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Barradas Barata

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Discute-se a utilização do conceito de classe em pesquisas em saúde, as diferentes abordagens sociológicas de estratificação social e de estrutura de classes, o potencial explicativo do conceito em estudos de determinação social e desigualdades em saúde, os modelos de operacionalização elaborados para uso em pesquisas sociológicas, demográficas ou de saúde e os limites e possibilidades desses modelos. Foram destacados quatro modelos de operacionalização: de Singer para estudo da distribuição de renda no Brasil, adaptado por Barros para uso em pesquisas epidemiológicas; de Bronfman & Tuirán para o censo demográfico mexicano, adaptado por Lombardi et al para pesquisas epidemiológicas; de Goldthorpe para estudos socioeconômicos ingleses, adaptado pela Sociedade Espanhola de Epidemiologia; e o modelo de Wright para pesquisa em sociologia e ciência política, também usado em inquéritos populacionais em saúde. Em conclusão, conceitualmente cada um dos modelos apresentados é coerente com a concepção teórica que os embasam, mas não há como optar por qualquer deles, descartando os demais.

  4. Contrasting terrestrial carbon cycle responses to the 1997/98 and 2015/16 extreme El Niño events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Zeng, Ning; Wang, Meirong; Jiang, Fei; Wang, Hengmao; Jiang, Ziqiang

    2018-01-01

    Large interannual atmospheric CO2 variability is dominated by the response of the terrestrial biosphere to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, the behavior of terrestrial ecosystems differs during different El Niños in terms of patterns and biological processes. Here, we comprehensively compare two extreme El Niños (2015/16 and 1997/98) in the context of a multi-event composite El Niño. We find large differences in the terrestrial carbon cycle responses, even though the two events were of similar magnitude.More specifically, we find that the global-scale land-atmosphere carbon flux (FTA) anomaly during the 1997/98 El Niño was 1.64 Pg C yr-1, but half that quantity during the 2015/16 El Niño (at 0.73 Pg C yr-1). Moreover, FTA showed no obvious lagged response during the 2015/16 El Niño, in contrast to that during 1997/98. Separating the global flux by geographical regions, we find that the fluxes in the tropics and extratropical Northern Hemisphere were 1.70 and -0.05 Pg C yr-1 during 1997/98, respectively. During 2015/16, they were 1.12 and -0.52 Pg C yr-1, respectively. Analysis of the mechanism shows that, in the tropics, the widespread drier and warmer conditions caused a decrease in gross primary productivity (GPP; -0.73 Pg C yr-1) and an increase in terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TER; 0.62 Pg C yr-1) during the 1997/98 El Niño. In contrast, anomalously wet conditions occurred in the Sahel and East Africa during 2015/16, which caused an increase in GPP, compensating for its reduction in other tropical regions. As a result, the total 2015/16 tropical GPP and TER anomalies were -0.03 and 0.95 Pg C yr-1. GPP dominance during 1997/98 and TER dominance during 2015/16 accounted for the phase difference in their FTA. In the extratropical Northern Hemisphere, the large difference occurred because temperatures over Eurasia were warmer during the 2015/16, as compared with the cooling seen during the 1997/98 and the composite El Niño. These warmer

  5. Calagem na superfície em sistema plantio direto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Caires

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Existem informações conflitantes a respeito da eficiência da aplicação superficial de calcário em sistema plantio direto, particularmente na correção da acidez do subsolo, e de critérios de recomendação de calagem para tal sistema de cultivo. Com o objetivo de avaliar a correção da acidez do solo e a produção de grãos de culturas em rotação no sistema plantio direto, considerando a aplicação de calcário na superfície, foi realizado um experimento em um Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro distrófico textura média, em Ponta Grossa (PR, no período de 1993 a 1998. Os tratamentos, dispostos em blocos completos ao acaso com três repetições, constaram de quatro doses de calcário dolomítico: 0, 2, 4 e 6 t ha-1, calculadas para elevar a saturação por bases do solo a 50, 70 e 90%. O calcário foi aplicado em julho de 1993, a lanço, na superfície do solo. Foram cultivados, na seqüência, soja (1993/94, milho (1994/95, soja (1995/96, trigo (1996, soja (1996/97, triticale (1997 e soja (1997/98. A aplicação de calcário na superfície aumentou significativamente o pH, os teores de Ca + Mg trocáveis e a saturação por bases e reduziu significativamente os teores de H + Al do solo, até a profundidade de 60 cm. Estimou-se que a máxima eficiência técnica (MET e a econômica (MEE ocorreriam, respectivamente, com as doses de 3,8 e 3,3 t ha-1 de calcário. A dose de calcário para MEE foi a indicada pelo método da elevação da saturação por bases do solo a 65%, para amostra coletada na profundidade de 0-20 cm, mostrando ser este critério adequado para recomendação de calagem na superfície em sistema plantio direto. Todavia, a calagem na superfície deve ser recomendada somente para solo com pH (CaCl2 inferior a 5,6 ou saturação por bases inferior a 65%, na camada de 0-5 cm.

  6. 45 CFR 98.47 - Nondiscrimination in employment on the basis of religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... religion. 98.47 Section 98.47 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... Requirements § 98.47 Nondiscrimination in employment on the basis of religion. (a) In general, except as... religion. (1) Child care providers that receive assistance through grants or contracts under the CCDF shall...

  7. Desenvolvimento e exigências térmicas de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, criados em duas traças do tomateiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRATISSOLI DIRCEU

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a biologia de Trichogramma pretiosum em ovos de Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller e Tuta absoluta (Meyrick em diferentes temperaturas (18, 20, 22, 25, 30 e 32ºC, 70±10% de umidade relativa e fotofase de 14 horas, com o objetivo de se determinarem as exigências térmicas, bem como o número de gerações durante o ano. Houve correlação inversa entre a duração do ciclo e o aumento de temperatura na faixa térmica estudada. A razão sexual, no entanto, não foi afetada pela temperatura quando o hospedeiro foi T. absoluta. A viabilidade de T. pretiosum, criado em P. operculella foi mais afetada que em T. absoluta. A exigência térmica, calculada pelo método da hipérbole, foi maior no tocante a T. absoluta (131,3 graus dia em relação a P. operculella (120,9 graus dia, e o limiar térmico inferior, respectivamente, 12,98 e 13,53°C. No que tange a ambas as espécies de traças, a longevidade do parasitóide sempre obedeceu à distribuição de Weibull. O potencial de aumento foi avaliado, em ambas as espécies de traças, com base no número de gerações anuais.

  8. 40 CFR 98.7 - What standardized methods are incorporated by reference into this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hydraulic Cement, IBR approved for §§ 98.84(a), 98.84(b), and 98.84(c). (3) ASTM D235-02 (Reapproved 2007... Method for Density, Relative Density (Specific Gravity), or API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Liquid..., Compressibility Factor, and Relative Density of Gaseous Fuels, IBR approved for §§ 98.34(a) and 98.254(e). (21...

  9. Qualidade de vida em adultos com diabetes tipo 1 e validade do DQOL-Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Brasil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi estabelecer validade de critério e construto, e também, avaliar qualitativamente a versão brasileira do Questionário de Medida da Qualidade de Vida em Diabetes (DQOL-Brasil, quando utilizado em pacientes adultos com diabete melito (DM tipo 1. O DQOL-Brasil foi autoadministrado a 150 indivíduos (63,3% mulheres com tempo diagnóstico médio de DM tipo 1 de 14,17 anos e na faixa etária de 18 a 56 anos. O escore médio obtido foi de 2,46 (IC 95% 2,35 - 2,56. Entre os itens, os melhores e piores escores foram obtidos nos domínios de impacto da doença e preocupações com o DM, respectivamente. O instrumento como um todo apresentou elevada consistência interna, alfa de Cronbach = 0,94. Constatou-se validade convergente ao se co-administrar o questionário genérico de avaliação da qualidade de vida: Perfil de Saúde de Nottingham. O DQOL-Brasil foi readministrado a 52 pacientes em um intervalo médio de 98,25 dias, e constatou-se reprodutibilidade aceitável, através de coeficientes de correlação intraclasse superiores a 0,7. Entretanto, a análise fatorial comprovou deficiências. Deste modo, o DQOL-Brasil é válido para medida da qualidade de vida em pacientes adultos com DM tipo 1 e útil para aplicação em pesquisas e comparações com dados internacionais. Porém, para a prática clínica, recomenda-se seleção criteriosa dos itens do instrumento que sejam mais relacionados às características específicas da enfermidade em brasileiros; uma seleção ponderada de itens provavelmente seria útil às versões do DQOL traduzidas e validadas em outras nações.

  10. 45 CFR 98.46 - Nondiscrimination in admissions on the basis of religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... religion. 98.46 Section 98.46 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... Requirements § 98.46 Nondiscrimination in admissions on the basis of religion. (a) Child care providers (other... contracts under the CCDF shall not discriminate in admissions against any child on the basis of religion. (b...

  11. Expression of Leukemia-Associated Nup98 Fusion Proteins Generates an Aberrant Nuclear Envelope Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenkrog, Birthe; Martinelli, Valérie; Nilles, Nadine; Fruhmann, Gernot; Chatel, Guillaume; Juge, Sabine; Sauder, Ursula; Di Giacomo, Danika; Mecucci, Cristina; Schwaller, Jürg

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations involving the nucleoporin NUP98 have been described in several hematopoietic malignancies, in particular acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In the resulting chimeric proteins, Nup98's N-terminal region is fused to the C-terminal region of about 30 different partners, including homeodomain (HD) transcription factors. While transcriptional targets of distinct Nup98 chimeras related to immortalization are relatively well described, little is known about other potential cellular effects of these fusion proteins. By comparing the sub-nuclear localization of a large number of Nup98 fusions with HD and non-HD partners throughout the cell cycle we found that while all Nup98 chimeras were nuclear during interphase, only Nup98-HD fusion proteins exhibited a characteristic speckled appearance. During mitosis, only Nup98-HD fusions were concentrated on chromosomes. Despite the difference in localization, all tested Nup98 chimera provoked morphological alterations in the nuclear envelope (NE), in particular affecting the nuclear lamina and the lamina-associated polypeptide 2α (LAP2α). Importantly, such aberrations were not only observed in transiently transfected HeLa cells but also in mouse bone marrow cells immortalized by Nup98 fusions and in cells derived from leukemia patients harboring Nup98 fusions. Our findings unravel Nup98 fusion-associated NE alterations that may contribute to leukemogenesis.

  12. The diet of the fox (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> in woodlands of Orobie Alps (Lombardy region, Northern Italy / Alimentazione della Volpe (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> in aree boscate delle Alpi Orobie

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    Marco Cantini

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of the fox was investigated by analysis of 273 scats, collected along standard trails from April to November 1987 and 1988. Food habits of foxes were described for three altitudinal ranges. Mammals, mainly <em>Clethrionomys glareolusem> and <em>Microtus multiplexem>, were the staple food (percentage of frequency 42.8%, followed by fruits and other vegetables (26.7% and 37.3% respectively. Birds, Invertebrates (mainly Insects and garbage were little eaten. The game species (ungulates, hares, pheasants occurred with a low frequency (8.4% in the diet. The trophic niche breadth varied little through the altitudinal ranges and the seasons. The trophic niche overlap between the fox and the genus <em>Martes> (190 scats of <em>M. martesem> and <em>M. foinaem> were examined is relatively wide (O=0.868. Riassunto La dieta della Volpe (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> in aree boscate delle Alpi Orobie (Val Lesina è stata indagata nel periodo aprile-novembre 1987 e 1988 mediante l'analisi di 273 feci, raccolte lungo percorsi-campione ricadenti in tre piani vegetazionali. I Mammiferi, in particolare <em>Clethrionomys glareolusem> e <em>Microtus multiplexem>, sono la componente principale della dieta (frequenza percentuale 42,8%. Rilevante è anche il consumo di frutti (soprattutto in estate e autunno e di altri vegetali (26,7% e 37,3% rispettivamente, mentre poco frequente è quello di Uccelli, Invertebrati e rifiuti. Complessivamente ridotta è l'azione predatoria della Volpe nei confronti delle specie di interesse venatorio (Ungulati, lepri, Galliformi. L'ampiezza della nicchia trofica mostra modeste variazioni stagionali e altitudinali. I1 grado di sovrapposizione tra la nicchia trofica della Volpe e quella del genere <em>Martes>, quest'ultima ricavata dall'analisi di 190 feci di Martora (<em>M. martesem> e Faina (<em>M. foinaem>, è elevato (O=0,868. Tuttavia, poiché in condizioni di

  13. Regeneration of 98Mo enriched from waste 99mTc generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khujaev, S.; Mirzaeva, N.A.; Ashrapov, U.T.; Berdieva, M.; Nushtaeva, L.B.

    2002-01-01

    Radioisotope generator of technetium-99m have found widespread application in nuclear medicine for production of sodium pertechnetate solution ( 99m Tc). In technology of radioisotope generator making, which developed in Institute of Nuclear Physics of Uzbekistan Academy of Science the parent radioisotopes of molybdenum-90 are produced with neutron capture reaction of the enriched isotope of molybdenum-98 in nuclear reactor of WWR-SM. The specific activity of 99 Mo is reached to 5.0 Ci/g after activation process of original material ( 98 Mo). The basic mass of the original materials ( 98 Mo) which took for the irradiation is remained inactive. The high cost of enriched 97 Mo to make up necessity of development of method of 98 Mo regeneration with end in view of its recurring in manufacture. In general, the chromatographic type generator are produced in manufacture with aluminium oxide as sorbent for the parent radionuclides. So we studied the description conditions of molybdenum from aluminium oxide phase, its purification from possible accompanying admixtures and production of molybdenum in goods state. The systems: sulphur acid, ammonium and ammonium with hydrogen peroxide have been considered for molybdenum desorption from aluminium oxide phase. The sulphur oxid solution is most optimal medium for molybdenum desorption with concentration 0.5 M and elution rate for this makes up 2.0-2.05 ml/min. The 98 Mo yield makes up not over 87 %. The subsequent purification of the desorption of molybdenum-98 from the possible admixture are realized by using column with tetra-phosphonium alkali. At first , 98 Mo sorption is realized by anion exchange resin, after that sorbate is washing and dispiriting by solution with composition: 1.0 M NH 4 NO 3 +8.0 % NH 4 OH+10 -2 % H 2 O 2 . The 98 Mo yield makes up under 80 %. Further from obtained solution is realized by precipitation of molybdenum-98 in acid medium and separation of sediments from liquid phase, drying if sediments and

  14. Úlcera por pressão em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia: incidência e fatores associados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Scarlatti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available As úlceras por pressão constituem um dos principais indicadores da qualidade do cuidado na assistência perioperatória. Este é um estudo longitudinal, do tipo série de casos, com o objetivo de estimar a incidência de úlceras por pressão em pacientes submetidos a cirurgias de médio e grande portes; classificá-las segundo estágio e localização, verificar a associação das variáveis sexo, idade, índice de massa corpórea, comorbidades, posição cirúrgica, tempo cirúrgico, anestesia e uso de dispositivos de posicionamento com a presença ou ausência de úlceras por pressão. Os dados foram coletados em 2007, em São Paulo, com 199 pacientes, dos quais 20,6% apresentaram úlceras por pressão, 98,6% nos estágios I e II, com localização predominante no tronco frontal (35,1%. As variáveis: posição, tempo cirúrgico, anestesia geral e uso de dispositivos apresentaram associação estatística significativa. Concluiu-se que a incidência de úlceras por pressão em pacientes cirúrgicos é elevada, demandando ações que visem à redução desse tipo de lesão.

  15. Assessing Empathy across Childhood and Adolescence: Validation of the Empathy Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (EmQue-CA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Overgaauw

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Empathy plays a crucial role in healthy social functioning and in maintaining positive social relationships. In this study, 1250 children and adolescents (10–15 year olds completed the newly developed Empathy Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (EmQue-CA that was tested on reliability, construct validity, convergent validity, and concurrent validity. The EmQue-CA aims to assess empathy using the following scales: affective empathy, cognitive empathy, and intention to comfort. A Principal Components Analysis, which was directly tested with a Confirmatory Factor Analysis, confirmed the proposed three-factor model resulting in 14 final items. Reliability analyses demonstrated high internal consistency of the scales. Furthermore, the scales showed high convergent validity, as they were positively correlated with related scales of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis, 1983. With regard to concurrent validity, higher empathy was related to more attention to others’ emotions, higher friendship quality, less focus on own affective state, and lower levels of bullying behavior. Taken together, we show that the EmQue-CA is a reliable and valid instrument to measure empathy in typically developing children and adolescents aged 10 and older.

  16. Tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura em reator UASB e filtro anaeróbio em série seguidos de filtro biológico percolador Treatment of swine wastewater in UASB reactor and anaerobic filter in series followed of trickling filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Maria Duda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de um reator anaeróbio de fluxo ascendente com manta de lodo (UASB seguido de um filtro anaeróbio, instalados em série, com volume total de 300 L e 190 L, respectivamente, no tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura. As cargas orgânicas volumétricas aplicadas no reator UASB foram de 12,4;15,5; 23,2 e 26,3 g DQOtotal (L d-1. Para o pós-tratamento do efluente do sistema anaeróbio em dois estágios utilizou-se um filtro biológico percolador com volume total de 250 L. O meio suporte utilizado nos filtros anaeróbio e biológico percolador foi composto por anéis de bambu. No sistema de tratamento anaeróbio e de pós-tratamento foram observadas eficiências médias de remoção de demanda química de oxigênio total (DQOtotal, sólidos suspensos totais (SST, nitrogênio total (NT, fósforo total (P-total, Cu e Zn de até 98, 99, 78, 84, 99 e 98%, respectivamente.The performance of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB followed by the anaerobic filter, installed in series, was evaluated for the treatment of swine wastewater. The total volume of UASB and anaerobic filter were of 300 L and 190 L, respectively. The organic load rate applied on the reactor UASB were of 12.4, 15.5, 23.2 and 26.3 g total COD (L d-1. For the post-treatment of effluent the anaerobic system was used a trickling filter with total volume of 250 L. The supports used in the anaerobic filter and trickling filter were composed by bamboo rings. The efficiencies of removal the chemical oxygen demand, total solids suspended, nitrogen, total phosphorus, Cu and Zn were of up to 98, 99, 78, 84, 99 and 98%, respectively, for the anaerobic and aerobic treatment system.

  17. Osservazioni in cattività sul ciclo stagionale del peso corporeo e sull'efficienza digestiva di <em>Pipistrellus kuhliiem> e <em>Hypsugo saviiem> (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianna Dondini

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Molte specie di pipistrelli delle fasce climatiche temperato-fredde sono soggette a marcate variazioni stagionali di temperatura e disponibilità di cibo. L'accumulo di grasso in autunno è quindi un adattamento per trascorrere, in uno stato di profondo torpore definibile ibernazione, i mesi invernali, aumentando così la probabilità di sopravvivenza durante tale periodo. Nell?ambito di una attività pluriennale relativa alla raccolta, studio e, quando possibile, riabilitazione di pipistrelli in ambienti urbani, due esemplari di <em>Pipistrellus kuhliiem> (2 femmine e due di <em>Hypsugo saviiem> (1 maschio e 1 femmina, in entrambi casi giovani che ancora non avevano acquisito una sufficiente capacità nel volo e quindi non liberabili, sono stati raccolti nella pianura di Firenze durante l?estate del 1998 e mantenuti in condizioni di temperatura ambientale oscillante tra i 17 e i 22°C, in un contenitore di 150x40x30 cm. Ogni sera sono stati pesati, prima della somministrazione di cibo e acqua, con una bilancia elettronica con precisione di 0.1 g (modello Tanita 1479. L'alimentazione è stata a base di vermi della farina (<em>Tenebrio molitorem>. L?efficienza digestiva è calcolata nel seguente modo, su materiale disidratato: (quantità ingerita ? quantità escrementi/quantità ingerita*100. Per il calcolo di tale indice gli esemplari delle due specie sono stati separati e mantenuti per 24 ore a partire dalla successiva sera dell?ultima somministrazione, favorendo così lo svuotamento dell?intestino. Successivamente, per due giorni è stato fornito del cibo <em>ad libitumem>, pesando i singoli esemplari una volta terminata la fase di alimentazione, per determinare la quantità ingerita. Al termine abbiamo mantenuto gli esemplari a digiuno per 24 ore successive all?ultima somministrazione per permettere lo svuotamento dell?intestino. Gli escrementi raccolti sono stati posti in forno elettrico a 90 °C per 24 ore e successivamente pesati

  18. Avaliação do crescimento micelial de linhagens de shiitake, da produção em toras de eucalipto e de alterações físicas da madeira = Evaluation of mycelium growth of shiitake strains, of production in Eucalyptus logs and of physical alteration of the wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Taylor Durgante Severo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o crescimento micelial das linhagens de shiitake LE-95/01, LE-96/18, LE-96/13, LE-98/55, LE-98/47, LE-95/02, LE-95/06 e LE-95/07, a sua produção em toras de eucalipto e as conseqüentes alterações em características físicas da madeira em decorrência da inoculação com a linhagem LE-96/18. O crescimento micelial foi avaliado em meio de cultura SA (serragem enriquecida com farelo-ágar a 25°C. No cultivo em toras, cada linhagem foi inoculada em 40 toras de Eucalyptus grandis com 1 m de comprimento e 9 a 14 cm de diâmetro. As toras foram mantidas em estufa climatizada, com temperatura de 25°C ± 3 e umidade relativa entre 75-90%, durante 6 meses. Em seguida, foi realizado um “choque de indução”, seguido da produção de basidiomas. Verificou-se que: (1 a linhagem LE-95/01 obteve as maiores produções, mesmo tendo crescimento mais lento no teste in vitro; (2 houve crescimento lento da linhagem LE-95/06 in vitro e baixa produção de basidiomas; (3 o teor de umidade das toras inoculadas com a linhagem LE-96/18 sofreu aumento ao longo do cultivo, enquanto a massa específica sofreu diminuição.The growth rate of 8 strains of shiitake (LE-95/01, LE-96/18, LE-96/13, LE-98/55, LE-98/47, LE-95/02, LE-95/06 and LE-95/07, the production of these in Eucalyptus logs at the first flush, and consequent alterations in physical characteristics of the wood due the inoculation with the strain LED-96/18 were evaluated. The mycelium growth was inoculated in SA medium (sawdust enriched with crumb-agar, in the absence of light, at 25°C. In log cultivation, each strain was inoculated in 40 logs of Eucalyptus grandis with 1 meter length and 9 to 14 cm of diameter. The logs were maintained at 25°C ± 3 and relative humidity of 75-90%, for 6 months. Subsequently, the first flush was accomplished, and it was verified: (1 the lineageLE-95/01 obtained the largest production and slower mycelium growth in vitro; (2 there was slow growth of the

  19. Intervenção coronária em hospital geral no Piauí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portela Antenor

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar o índice de sucesso e complicações das intervenções coronárias realizadas em hospital geral do Piauí, em um laboratório de hemodinâmica com baixo volume de procedimentos por ano. MÉTODOS: Cento e vinte e dois pacientes, submetidos a 146 procedimentos de intervenção coronária, de agosto/91 a janeiro/98 tiveram seus dados clínicos e angiográficos analisados retrospectivamente. As cineangiocoronariografias e as intervenções foram realizadas em aparelho com sistema de fluoroscopia com câmara e monitor de TV de 525 linhas. As variáveis analisadas foram o sucesso inicial do procedimento (estenose residual <50% e fluxo TIMI III e as complicações maiores (oclusão aguda, infarto, cirurgia de urgência e óbito. Foram revisados os dados clínicos e as características morfológicas das lesões (ACC/AHA Task Force. RESULTADOS: A média etária foi de 61 anos, variando de 25 a 85, 67% dos pacientes eram do sexo masculino, 85% apresentavam síndrome isquêmica aguda (infarto agudo do miocárdio, angina pós infarto ou angina de repouso, 5% apresentavam-se em choque cardiogênico. 88% das lesões eram tipo B. O índice de sucesso imediato foi de 93%. A taxa de complicações maiores (oclusão aguda, cirurgia de urgência, infarto e óbito foi de 3,5%. CONCLUSÃO: A despeito de um baixo volume de procedimentos por ano e um equipamento de cineangiocoronariografia convencional, o índice de sucesso desta instituição foi excelente em uma população de pacientes diversa e complexa com taxa de complicações semelhante à encontrada na literatura.

  20. Net Energy, CO2 Emission and Land-Based Cost-Benefit Analyses of <em>Jatropha> em>Biodiesel: A Case Study of the Panzhihua Region of Sichuan Province in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangzheng Deng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioenergy is currently regarded as a renewable energy source with a high growth potential. Forest-based biodiesel, with the significant advantage of not competing with grain production on cultivated land, has been considered as a promising substitute for diesel fuel by many countries, including China. Consequently, extracting biodiesel from <em>Jatropha> curcasem> has become a growing industry. However, many key issues related to the development of this industry are still not fully resolved and the prospects for this industry are complicated. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the net energy, CO2 emission, and cost efficiency of <em>Jatropha> biodiesel as a substitute fuel in China to help resolve some of the key issues by studying data from this region of China that is well suited to growing <em>Jatropha>. Our results show that: (1 <em>Jatropha> biodiesel is preferable for global warming mitigation over diesel fuel in terms of the carbon sink during <em>Jatropha> tree growth. (2 The net energy yield of <em>Jatropha> biodiesel is much lower than that of fossil fuel, induced by the high energy consumption during <em>Jatropha> plantation establishment and the conversion from seed oil to diesel fuel step. Therefore, the energy efficiencies of the production of <em>Jatropha> and its conversion to biodiesel need to be improved. (3 Due to current low profit and high risk in the study area, farmers have little incentive to continue or increase <em>Jatropha> production. (4 It is necessary to provide more subsidies and preferential policies for <em>Jatropha> plantations if this industry is to grow. It is also necessary for local government to set realistic objectives and make rational plans to choose proper sites for <em>Jatropha> biodiesel development and the work reported here should assist that effort. Future research focused on breading high-yield varieties, development of efficient field

  1. Seismic risk assessment of Navarre (Northern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Rivas-Medina, A.; García Rodríguez, M. J.; Benito, B.; Tsige, M.; Martínez-Díaz, J. J.; Murphy, P.

    2009-04-01

    on rock conditions (for the same probability level). Again, the highest hazard is found in the northeastern part of the region. The lowest hazard is obtained along major river valleys The vulnerability assessment of the Navarra building stock is accomplished using as proxy a combination of building age, location, number of floors and the implantation of building codes. Field surveys help constraining the extent of traditional and technological construction types. The vulnerability characterization is carried out following three methods: European Macroseismic Scale (EMS 98), RISK UE vulnerability index and the capacity spectrum method implemented in Hazus. Vulnerability distribution maps for each Navarrean municipality are provided, adapted to the EMS98 vulnerability classes. The vulnerability of Navarre is medium to high, except for recent urban, highly populated developments. For each vulnerability class and expected ground motion, damage distribution is estimated by means of damage probability matrixes. Several damage indexes, embracing relative and absolute damage estimates, are used. Expected average damage is low. Whereas the largest amounts of damaged structures are found in big cities, the highest percentages are obtained in some muniucipalities of northeastern Navarre. Additionally, expected percentages and amounts of affected persons by earthquake damage are calculated for each municipality. Expected amounts of affected people are low, reflecting the low expected damage degree.

  2. 49 CFR 98.12 - Administrative sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... an administrative sanction against a former employee who, after a final administrative decision under... imposed under subsection (a) of this section are: (1) Prohibiting the former employee from making, on... ACTIVITIES Administrative Sanctions § 98.12 Administrative sanctions. (a) The Secretary, in decisions under...

  3. Threatening “the Good Order”: West Meets East in Cecil B. DeMille’s <em>The Cheatem> and John Updike’s <em>Terrorist>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley M. Freeman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Despite almost a hundred years of separation, both Cecil B. DeMille’s film <em>The Cheatem> (1915 and John Updike’s novel <em>Terrorist> (2006 deploy a clear-cut territorial divide between Western and Eastern spaces in order to envision a unified American space. These narratives superimpose a “natural” division on these historically opposed spaces and thereby suggest that any contact between these spaces will have dangerous consequences. These consequences include the potential dissolution and eventual destruction of American productivity, surveillance, and territorial integrity. DeMille’s film and Updike’s novel represent America as a nation-state that must be protected from the East. In 1915, <em>The Cheatem> warned against an interracial America and the upsurge in immigration that characterized the turn of the century. Nearly a century later, <em>Terrorist> presupposes an interracial America but still constructs an East that threatens the security of America. While registering the particular concerns of two distinct historical moments, these narratives represent a larger attempt in American aesthetics to imagine an East that jeopardizes the utopian possibilities of an overly idealized American space.

  4. <em>In Vitro em>Phytotoxicity and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Patrizia Aquino

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of flavonoids involved in plant-plant interactions and their mechanisms of action are poor and, moreover, the structural characteristics required for these biological activities are scarcely known. The objective of this work was to study the possible <em>in vitro em>phytotoxic effects of 27 flavonoids on the germination and early radical growth of <em>Raphanus sativus em>L.> and <em>Lepidium sativumem> L., with the aim to evaluate the possible structure/activity relationship. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the same compounds was also evaluated. Generally, in response to various tested flavonoids, germination was only slightly affected, whereas significant differences were observed in the activity of the various tested flavonoids against radical elongation. DPPH test confirms the antioxidant activity of luteolin, quercetin, catechol, morin, and catechin. The biological activity recorded is discussed in relation to the structure of compounds and their capability to interact with cell structures and physiology. No correlation was found between phytotoxic and antioxidant activities.

  5. Validation of the Portuguese version of the London Chest Activity of Daily Living Scale (LCADL in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Pitta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: While there are several subjective English tools, such as the London Chest Activity of Daily Living scale (LCADL, aimed at assessing dyspnoea during activities of daily living (ADL in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD, none of these questionnaires has ever been translated into Portuguese. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity and reproducibility of the LCADL's Portuguese version in patients with COPD. Methods: 31 patients with COPD (17 male; 69 ± 7 years; FEV1 44 ± 15%predicted completed the Portuguese version of the LCADL twice with a 1-week interval. The traditional Saint George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, already validated in Portuguese, was used as the criterion method. Results: There were no significant differences between test and retest of the LCADL. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient between test and retest concerning the different scale components was Self-care r = 0.96; Domestic r = 0.99; Physical r = 0.92; Leisure r = 0.95; Total Score r = 0.98. There were significant correlations of the LCADL Total Score with the SGRQ's different components and total score (0.36 < r < 0.74; p < 0.05 for all. The LCADL Total Score was also significantly correlated with the 6-minute walking distance test (r =  -0.48; p = 0.006. Conclusion: The Portuguese version of the LCADL is valid and reproducible in patients with COPD, making this study a new and important tool for assessing the limitations of performing ADL in this population. Resumo: Introdução: Diversos questionários desenvolvidos em língua inglesa visam avaliar especificamente a limitação pela dispnéia durante actividades da vida diá ria (AVD em doentes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crónica (DPOC, como a escala London Chest Activity of Daily Living (LCADL. No entanto, nenhum destes questionários foi ainda traduzido para a l

  6. Desenvolvimento e avaliação de um teste ELISA indireto para o diagnóstico sorológico do mormo em equídeos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Andreey A. Teles

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O mormo é uma enfermidade infecto-contagiosa de caráter agudo ou crônico que acomete principalmente os equídeos, causando enormes prejuízos na cadeia produtiva do cavalo. Para controlar a enfermidade o Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA instituiu medidas sanitárias obrigatórias em todo território nacional que incluem o diagnóstico oficial pela fixação do complemento (FC, maleinização e sacrifício dos animais positivos. Os kits atuais utilizados no diagnóstico da doença são importados, dificultando e encarecendo sua aplicação na rotina. Objetivou-se com este estudo padronizar um teste de ELISA indireto utilizando o extrato protéico de Burkholderia mallei isolada a partir de equídeo portador no estado de Pernambuco. As amostras foram cultivadas em ágar sangue 10%, incubada por 48h a 37°C; posteriormente caracterizou-se fenotípica e genotipicamente uma das colônias isoladas, e em seguida a cultivou em BHI para enriquecimento; logo após, esta foi repicada para o meio Dor-set Henley o qual foi incubado a 37ºC sob 60rpm por oito semanas. Para padronização do teste utilizou-se o Conjugado Proteína G Peroxidase Sigma na diluição de 1:90.000, com soros diluídos em 1:100 e o antígeno em 1:400. Utilizou-se 60 soros como controle negativo testados frente à FC para determinação do ponto de corte o qual ficou em 0,042nm. Feitas as padronizações, foram testadas 300 amostras, onde 99% (297 foram concordantes com os resultados obtidos na FC. Ao final, o ensaio apresentou 100% de sensibilidade e 98,2% de especificidade com valores preditivo positivo e negativo de 97,7% e 100%, respectivamente. O teste de concordância kappa foi 0,98 e a repetibilidade intra e interplaca ficaram em 8,8 e 10,3%, respectivamente. Diante dos resultados obtidos durante os ensaios, conclui-se que o teste de ELISA indireto pode ser utilizado como uma ferramenta de diagnóstico eficiente. Entretanto, mais ensaios devem ser

  7. The Joint Action of Destruxins and Botanical Insecticides (Rotenone, Azadirachtin and Paeonolum Against the Cotton Aphid, <em>Aphis gossypiiem> Glover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiying Hu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The joint action of destruxins and three botanical insecticides, rotenone (Rot, azadirachtin (Aza and paeonolum (Pae against the cotton aphid,<em> Aphis gossypiiem>, was bioassayed. In laboratory experiment, several synergistic groups of destruxins with botanical insecticides were found by means of Sun’s Co-toxicity Coefficients (CTC and Finney’s Synergistic Coefficient (SC. The best synergistic effect was discovered in the ratio group Des/Rot 1/9 with the CTC or SC and LC50 values of 479.93 or 4.8 and 0.06 μg/mL, respectively. The second and third synergistic effects were recorded in the ratio groups Des/Rot 7/3 and 9/1. Although the ratio groups Des/Aza 6/4, Des/Pae 4/6, 3/7 and 2/8 indicated synergism by Sun’s CTC, they were determined as additive actions by Finney’s SC. Additive actions were also found in most of the ratio groups, but antagonism were recorded only in three ratio groups: Des/Pae 9/1, 7/3 and 6/4. In greenhouse tests, the highest mortality was 98.9% with the treatment Des/Rot 1/9 at 0.60 μg/mL, meanwhile, the treatments Des/Pae 4/6 and Des/Aza 6/4 had approximately 88% mortality.

  8. Confiabilidade de escalas de comprometimento neurológico em pacientes com acidente vascular cerebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caneda Marco Aurélio Gralha de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Escalas de comprometimento neurológico são utilizadas na avaliação de novos tratamentos, no acompanhamento da evolução clínica e em decisões terapêuticas. Estudamos a confiabilidade de três escalas: a Escala de Rankin (ER, o Índice de Barthel (IB e a National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS versadas em português, em 51 indivíduos com acidente vascular cerebral, estimando a concordância entre resultados de diferentes examinadores. Utilizamos os coeficientes de concordância Kappa e Coeficiente de Correlação Intraclasse. A ER teve coeficientes moderados, substanciais ou excelentes. No IB estes foram substanciais ou excelentes nos totais e nos itens, assim como quando foi estratificado em agrupamentos prognósticos e funcionais. A NIHSS apresentou coeficientes excelentes nos totais, substanciais nos itens e moderados e excelentes nas estratificações em grupos de pontos e de itens afins. Estes resultados indicam que as versões em português da ER, o IB e a NIHSS apresentam adequada confiabilidade.

  9. Órfãos de terapia medicamentosa: a administração de medicamentos por via intravenosa em crianças hospitalizadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterlini Maria Angélica Sorgini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudo descritivo, realizado em um hospital universitário, que verificou quantidade e tipo de medicamentos administrados por via intravenosa em crianças, além da adequação da apresentação farmacológica para uso em pediatria e custo estimado de administração de algumas drogas. Em trinta dias, foram administradas 8.245 doses de medicamentos, com média diária de 274,83 doses, e projeção anual de 98.940. Os principais medicamentos utilizados foram metilpredinosolona, vancomicina, furosemida, ranitidina, penicilina, amicacina, midazolan, fentanil, ceftriaxone e cefalotina. Nenhum dos 41 medicamentos identificados possuía apresentação pediátrica, acarretando, em alguns casos, maior manipulação durante o preparo, risco de contaminação e perda da estabilidade. Observou-se que a falta de apresentação pediátrica gerou aumento dos custos de atendimento; na prescrição de uma criança em pós-operatório, com tempo de internação estimado de cinco dias, a terapia administrada diária foi de US$ 6.71, e US$ 39.52 de medicamentos tiveram que ser desprezados, por excederem as necessidades terapêuticas da criança.

  10. Eficiência da adubação nitrogenada do tomateiro em duas épocas de cultivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magna Maria Macedo Ferreira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A eficiência da adubação nitrogenada do tomateiro, na presença da adubação orgânica, foi avaliada em dois experimentos de campo conduzidos em duas épocas: primavera/verão (nov./98 a fev./99 e outono/primavera (maio/99 a out/99. Os dois experimentos foram instalados na horta da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, em solo da classe Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo Câmbico. Em ambos, as doses de N aplicadas, na forma de nitrocálcio, foram 0,0; 93,3; 187,0; 374,0; e 748,0 kg/ha, e as doses de adubação orgânica, na forma de esterco bovino curtido, foram 0 e 8 t/ha de matéria seca. Os experimentos seguiram o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, no arranjo fatorial 5 x 2, com quatro repetições. O peso e o número de frutos comercializáveis de tomate, por planta, são aumentados com o aumento do nível de N no solo. A percentagem de frutos comercialmente desclassificáveis é maior na primavera/verão do que no outono/primavera. A eficiência da adubação nitrogenada pelo tomateiro é maior no outono/primavera do que na primavera/verão. Na primavera/verão ela foi maior quando não houve adição de matéria orgânica ao solo, o contrário ocorrendo no outono/primavera.

  11. Glycoprotein CD98 as a receptor for colitis-targeted delivery of nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bo; Yang, Yang; Viennois, Emilie; Zhang, Yuchen; Ayyadurai, Saravanan; Baker, Mark; Laroui, Hamed; Merlin, Didier

    2014-03-21

    Treatment strategies for inflammatory bowel disease have been constrained by limited therapeutic efficacy and serious adverse effects owing to a lack of receptor for targeted drug delivery to the inflamed colon. Upon inflammation, CD98 expression is highly elevated in colonic epithelial cells and infiltrating immune cells. To investigate whether CD98 can be used as a colitis-targeted delivery receptor, we constructed CD98 Fab'-bearing quantum dots (QDs)-loaded nanoparticles (Fab'-NPs). The resultant Fab'-NPs had desired particle size (~458 nm) with a narrow size distribution and zeta-potential (approximately +19 mV), low cytotoxicity, and excellent fluorescence properties. Electron microscopy images provided direct evidence for the well-dispersed distribution of QDs within spherical Fab'-NPs. Cellular uptake experiments demonstrated that Fab'-NPs were efficiently internalized into Colon-26 and RAW 264.7 cells through the CD98-mediated endocytosis pathway, and showed that the targeting effect of CD98 Fab' markedly increased their cellular uptake efficiency compared with control pegylated QDs-loaded NPs (PEG-NPs). Furthermore, ex vivo studies showed much more effective accumulation of Fab'-NPs in colitis tissue than that of PEG-NPs. These findings suggest that because of inflammation-dependent over-expression of CD98, active colitis-targeted delivery can be accomplished using NPs decorated with CD98 antibody.

  12. Eficácia do fenbendazole (Hoe 881 em doses múltiplas na ascaridiose, ancilostomose e tricocefalose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleudson Castro

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores trataram 98 indivíduos, sendo 73 com fenbendazoie e 25 com mebendazoie. O controle de cura foi de quatro exames de fezes em um mês. A tolerância foi ótima para ambas as drogas. O fenbendazoie negativou 17 (100% com A. lumbricoides, 32 (68% com ancilostomideos e 50 (79,3% com T. trichiurus. Comparativamente o mebendazoie negativou 10 (91%, parasitados pelo A. lumbricoides, 13 (92,8% parasitados pelos ancilostomideos e 20 (100% parasitados pelo T.trichiurus. O mebendazoie é preferível ao fenbendazoie.

  13. Scaling and predicting solute transport processes in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. González-Pinzón; R. Haggerty; M. Dentz

    2013-01-01

    We investigated scaling of conservative solute transport using temporal moment analysis of 98 tracer experiments (384 breakthrough curves) conducted in 44 streams located on five continents. The experiments span 7 orders of magnitude in discharge (10-3 to 103 m3/s), span 5 orders of magnitude in...

  14. Dislipidemia em pacientes com dermatomiosite juvenil

    OpenAIRE

    Katia Tomie Kozu

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de dislipidemia em pacientes com dermatomiosite juvenil (DMJ) e seus possíveis fatores de risco. MÉTODO: 25 pacientes com DMJ foram comparados a 25 controles de acordo com dados demográficos, composição corporal, perfil lipídico, glicêmico, autoanticorpos e enzimas musculares. Foram avaliados os instrumentos de atividade da DMJ: Disease Activity Score (DAS), Childhood Myositis Assessment Scale (CMAS), Manual Muscle Testing (MMT), Myositis Disease Activity Assessme...

  15. Ecocardiografia transesofágica em anestesiologia: caracterização do perfil de uso em um hospital terciário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Alves da Silva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVO: Desde sua introdução, na década de 1980, a ecocardiografia transesofágica (ETE não só ganhou popularidade como também passou por grandes avanços tecnológicos e atualmente constitui-se numa ferramenta extremamente valiosa no período intraoperatório. No Brasil ainda não há dados publicados sobre o perfil de seu uso no período intraoperatório por anestesiologistas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever o perfil de uso da ETE no intraoperatório por Serviço de Anestesiologia em um hospital privado de nível terciário. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo feito através da coleta de dados das fichas preenchidas em todos os casos em que o paciente foi monitorado com a ETE. A monitoração foi aplicada nos pacientes enquadrados nas classes I e II de acordo com a Sociedade Americana de Ecocardiografia e que não apresentassem contraindicação ao exame. No fim do procedimento, após a conclusão do exame, uma anotação na ficha classificou a monitoração quanto à sua utilidade no período intraoperatório em três grupos: grupo 1 - a ETE não interferiu na conduta cirúrgica ou anestésica; grupo 2 - a ETE motivou mudança na conduta anestésica quanto à administração de volume, introdução e/ou modificação de drogas vasoativas (aqui a ETE gerou a mudança de conduta anestésica em conjunto com os outros monitores, porém sendo ela o fator decisivo; grupo 3 - a ETE levou a mudança de conduta ou revisão do procedimento cirúrgico. RESULTADOS: De janeiro de 2009 a janeiro de 2011, 164 ETE intraoperatórias foram feitas em nosso serviço, sendo 41 pacientes pediátricos e 123 adultos. Em todos os pacientes o exame foi feito com sucesso e não houve problemas com relação à introdução da sonda transesofágica. No grupo dos pacientes pediátricos, 10 ficaram no grupo 1 (24,4%, 27 no grupo 2 (65,8% e quatro no grupo 3 (9,8%. Entre os adultos, o grupo 1 ficou com 38 pacientes (30,9%, o grupo 2

  16. ISO-PC Version 1.98: User`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rittmann, P.D.

    1995-05-02

    This document describes how to use Version 1.98 of the shielding program named ISO-PC. Version 1.98 corrects all known errors in ISOSHLD-II. In addition, a few numeric problems have been eliminated. There are three new namelist variables, 25 additional shielding materials, and 5 more energy groups. The two major differences with the original ISOSHLD-II are the removal of RIBD(radioisotope buildup and decay) source generator, and the removal of the non-uniform source distribution parameter, SSV1. This version of ISO-PC works with photon energies from 10 KeV to 10 MeV using 30 energy groups.

  17. Dominant Suppression of β1 Integrin by Ectopic CD98-ICD Inhibits Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is currently the third most common cause of cancer-related death in the Asia-Pacific region. Our previous work showed that knockdown of CD98 significantly inhibits malignant HCC cell phenotypes in vitro and in vivo. The level of CD98 in the membrane is tightly regulated to mediate complex processes associated with cell–cell communication and intracellular signaling. In addition, the intracellular domain of CD98 (CD98-ICD seems to be of vital importance for recycling CD98 to the membrane after it is endocytosed. The intracellular and transmembrane domains of CD98 associate with β-integrins (primarily β1 but also β3, and this association is essential for CD98 mediation of integrin-like signaling and complements dominant suppression of β1-integrin. We speculated that isolated CD98-ICD would similarly suppress β1-integrin activation and inhibit the malignant behaviors of cancer cells. In particular, the exact role of CD98-ICD has not been studied independently in HCC. In this study, we found that ectopic expression of CD98-ICD inhibited the malignant phenotypes of HCC cells, and the mechanism possibly involves β1-integrin suppression. Moreover, the expression levels of CD98, β1-integrin-A (the activated form of β1-integrin and Ki-67 were significantly increased in HCC tissues relative to those of normal liver tissues. Therefore, our preliminary study indicates that ectopic CD98-ICD has an inhibitory role in the malignant development of HCC, and shows that CD98-ICD acts as a dominant negative mutant of CD98 that attenuates β1-integrin activation. CD98-ICD may emerge as a promising candidate for antitumor treatment.

  18. Busca de estruturas em grandes escalas em altos redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris, N. V.; Sodré, L., Jr.; Cypriano, E.

    2003-08-01

    A busca por estruturas em grandes escalas (aglomerados de galáxias, por exemplo) é um ativo tópico de pesquisas hoje em dia, pois a detecção de um único aglomerado em altos redshifts pode por vínculos fortes sobre os modelos cosmológicos. Neste projeto estamos fazendo uma busca de estruturas distantes em campos contendo pares de quasares próximos entre si em z Â3 0.9. Os pares de quasares foram extraídos do catálogo de Véron-Cetty & Véron (2001) e estão sendo observados com os telescópios: 2,2m da University of Hawaii (UH), 2,5m do Observatório de Las Campanas e com o GEMINI. Apresentamos aqui a análise preliminar de um par de quasares observado nos filtros i'(7800 Å) e z'(9500 Å) com o GEMINI. A cor (i'-z') mostrou-se útil para detectar objetos "early-type" em redshifts menores que 1.1. No estudo do par 131046+0006/J131055+0008, com redshift ~ 0.9, o uso deste método possibilitou a detecção de sete objetos candidatos a galáxias "early-type". Num mapa da distribuição projetada dos objetos para 22 escala. Um outro argumento em favor dessa hipótese é que eles obedecem uma relação do tipo Kormendy (raio equivalente X brilho superficial dentro desse raio), como a apresentada pelas galáxias elípticas em z = 0.

  19. Encapsulation-Induced Stress Helps <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae em>Resist Convertible Lignocellulose Derived Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan O. Westman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability of macroencapsulated <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae em>CBS8066<em> em>to withstand readily and not readily <em>in situem> convertible lignocellulose-derived inhibitors was investigated in anaerobic batch cultivations. It was shown that encapsulation increased the tolerance against readily convertible furan aldehyde inhibitors and to dilute acid spruce hydrolysate, but not to organic acid inhibitors that cannot be metabolized anaerobically. Gene expression analysis showed that the protective effect arising from the encapsulation is evident also on the transcriptome level, as the expression of the stress-related genes <em>YAP1em>, <em>ATR1em> and <em>FLR1em> was induced upon encapsulation. The transcript levels were increased due to encapsulation already in the medium without added inhibitors, indicating that the cells sensed low stress level arising from the encapsulation itself. We present a model, where the stress response is induced by nutrient limitation, that this helps the cells to cope with the increased stress added by a toxic medium, and that superficial cells in the capsules degrade convertible inhibitors, alleviating the inhibition for the cells deeper in the capsule.

  20. Atitudes em relação à estatística e à matemática Attitudes toward statistics and toward mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Borim da Silva

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se as atitudes em relação à estatística poderiam estar relacionadas às atitudes em relação à matemática desenvolvidas durante a trajetória escolar do estudante. Os sujeitos foram 330 alunos de graduação que cursavam estatística introdutória em 1998. Foi aplicado um questionário, uma escala de atitudes em relação à estatística e outra em relação à matemática. As duas escalas apresentaram altos coeficientes de consistência interna. Verificou-se que os alunos apresentaram atitudes mais positivas em relação à matemática do que em relação à estatística. Não foram encontradas diferenças por gênero nas pontuações das duas escalas. Os alunos de exatas apresentaram atitudes mais positivas em relação à matemática e os de humanas atitudes mais negativas em relação à estatística. Os resultados indicaram que existe uma associação das atitudes em relação à matemática na formação das atitudes em relação à estatística e que essa associação é mais forte para os alunos de humanas.This study verified if the attitudes toward statistics should be related by the attitudes toward mathematics developed during the students school life. The subjects were 330 undergraduate students who passed in Introductory Statistics in 1998. It was applied a questionnaire, a scale of attitudes towards statistics and a scale of attitudes towards mathematics. Both the scales presented a high intern consistent. The students presented more positive attitudes toward mathematics instead of statistics. There wasn’t attitudes difference in relation to gender. The exacts science students presented attitudes more positive toward mathematics and the science human students presented attitudes more negative toward statistics. The results indicated that there is a association of the attitudes towards mathematics with a the attitudes towards statistics and this association is more strong in students

  1. Direct photons in WA98

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Angelis, Aris L S; Antonenko, V G; Arefev, V; Astakhov, V A; Avdeichikov, V; Awes, T C; Baba, P V K S; Badyal, S K; Barlag, C; Bathe, S; Batyunya, B; Bernier, T; Bhalla, K B; Bhatia, V S; Blume, C; Bock, R; Bohne, E M; Böröcz, Z K; Bucher, D; Buijs, A; Büsching, H; Carlén, L; Chalyshev, V; Chattopadhyay, S; Cherbachev, R; Chujo, T; Claussen, A; Das, A C; Decowski, M P; Delagrange, H; Dzhordzhadze, V; Dönni, P; Dubovik, I; Dutt, S; Dutta-Majumdar, M R; El-Chenawi, K F; Eliseev, S; Enosawa, K; Foka, P Y; Fokin, S L; Ganti, M S; Garpman, S; Gavrishchuk, O P; Geurts, F J M; Ghosh, T K; Glasow, R; Gupta, S K; Guskov, B; Gustafsson, Hans Åke; Gutbrod, H H; Higuchi, R; Hrivnacova, I; Ippolitov, M S; Kalechofsky, H; Kamermans, R; Kampert, K H; Karadzhev, K; Karpio, K; Kato, S; Kees, S; Klein-Bösing, C; Knoche, S; Kolb, B W; Kosarev, I G; Kucheryaev, I; Krümpel, T; Kugler, A; Kulinich, P A; Kurata, M; Kurita, K; Kuzmin, N A; Langbein, I; Lee, Y Y; Löhner, H; Luquin, Lionel; Mahapatra, D P; Man'ko, V I; Martin, M; Martínez, G; Maksimov, A; Mgebrishvili, G; Miake, Y; Mir, M F; Mishra, G C; Miyamoto, Y; Mohanty, B; Morrison, D; Mukhopadhyay, D S; Naef, H; Nandi, B K; Nayak, S K; Nayak, T K; Neumaier, S; Nyanin, A; Nikitin, V A; Nikolaev, S; Nilsson, P O; Nishimura, S; Nomokonov, V P; Nystrand, J; Obenshain, F E; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Pachr, M; Pavlyuk, S; Peitzmann, Thomas; Petracek, V; Pinganaud, W; Plasil, F; Von Poblotzki, U; Purschke, M L; Rak, J; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ramamurthy, V S; Rao, N K; Retière, F; Reygers, K; Roland, G; Rosselet, L; Rufanov, I A; Roy, C; Rubio, J M; Sako, H; Sambyal, S S; Santo, R; Sato, S; Schlagheck, H; Schmidt, H R; Schutz, Y; Shabratova, G; Shah, T H; Sibiryak, Yu; Siemiarczuk, T; Silvermyr, D; Sinha, B C; Slavin, N V; Söderström, K; Solomey, Nickolas; Sood, G; Sørensen, S P; Stankus, P; Stefanek, G; Steinberg, P; Stenlund, E; Stüken, D; Sumbera, M; Svensson, S; Trivedi, M D; Tsvetkov, A A; Tykarski, L; Urbahn, J; Van den Pijll, E C; van Eijndhoven, N; van Nieuwenhuizen, G J; Vinogradov, A; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopyanov, A S; Vörös, S; Wyslouch, B; Yagi, K; Yokota, Y; Young, G R

    2002-01-01

    A measurement of direct photon production in /sup 208/Pb+/sup 208/Pb collisions at 158 A GeV has been carried out in the CERN WA98 experiment. The invariant yield of direct photons was extracted as a function of transverse momentum in the interval 0.51.5 GeV/c. the result constitutes the first observation of direct photons in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. (19 refs).

  2. Morphological identification of the Soprano Pipistrelle (<em>Pipistrellus pygmaeusem> Leach, 1825 in Croatia.

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    Igor Pavlinić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract After the discovery of two different phonic types within the common pipistrelle (<em>Pipistrellus pipistrellusem>, mtDNA analysis confirmed the existence of two separate species named as common pipistrelle (<em>P. pipistrellusem> and soprano pipistrelle (<em>P. pygmaeusem>. The discrimination of these two cryptic species using external characters and measures has proved to be somewhat problematic. We examined two colonies of soprano pipistrelle from Donji Miholjac, Croatia. As a result, only two characters proved to be of help for field identification: wing venation (89% of cases and penis morphology and colour for males. The difference in length between the 2nd and 3rd phalanxes of the 3rd finger should be discarded as diagnostic trait between <em>P. pipistrellusem> and <em>P. pygmaeusem> in Croatia. Riassunto Identificazione su basi morfologiche del pipistrello pigmeo (<em>Pipistrellus pygmeausem>, Leach, 1825 in Croazia. A seguito della descrizione di due differenti "tipi fonici" nel pipistrello nano (<em>Pipistrellus pipistrellusem> e della successiva conferma su basi genetiche dell'esistenza di due specie distinte, designate come pipistrello nano (<em>P. pipistrellusem> e pipistrello pigmeo (<em>P. pygmaeusem>, la distinzione delle due specie in base a caratteristiche morfologiche esterne si è dimostrata un problema di difficile soluzione. Sulla base delle caratteristiche distintive e delle differenze biometriche proposte da altri Autori, sono state esaminate due colonie di pipistrello pigmeo a Donji Miholjac, in Croazia. I risultati ottenuti evidenziano che, tra tutti i potenziali caratteri sinora proposti, solo due risultano utili per un'identificazione diretta sul campo: la venatura delle ali, risultata utile alla discriminazione nell'89% degli esemplari analizzati, e la colorazione e morfologia del pene nei maschi. La

  3. Eficácia do fenbendazole (Hoe 881 em doses múltiplas na ascaridiose, ancilostomose e tricocefalose

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    Cleudson Castro

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores trataram 98 indivíduos, sendo 73 com fenbendazoie e 25 com mebendazoie. O controle de cura foi de quatro exames de fezes em um mês. A tolerância foi ótima para ambas as drogas. O fenbendazoie negativou 17 (100% com A. lumbricoides, 32 (68% com ancilostomideos e 50 (79,3% com T. trichiurus. Comparativamente o mebendazoie negativou 10 (91%, parasitados pelo A. lumbricoides, 13 (92,8% parasitados pelos ancilostomideos e 20 (100% parasitados pelo T.trichiurus. O mebendazoie é preferível ao fenbendazoie.The authors treated 98 individuals, 73 with fenbendazoie and 25 with mebendazoie. The control of cure was by four stool examinations in a month. The tolerance of both drugs was excellent. Fenbendazoie cured 17 (100% with A. lumbricoides, 32 (68% with hookworm and 50 (79.3% with T.trichuris. Comparatively mebendazoie cured 10 (91% patients with A. lumbricoides, 13 (92.8% with hookworm and 20 (100% with T.trichuris. Mebendazoie is preferable to fenbendazoie.

  4. Altitudinal distribution of the common longeared bat <em>Plecotus auritusem> (Linnaeus, 1758 and grey long-eared bat <em>Plecotus austriacusem> (J. B. Fischer, 1829 (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae in the Tatra mountains (southern Poland

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    Krzysztof Piksa

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto Distribuzione altitudinale di Orecchione bruno (<em>Plecotus auritusem> e Orecchione meridionale (<em>Plecotus austriacusem> nei Monti Tatra (Polonia meridionale. Vengono riportati nuovi dati relativi alla distribuzione altitudinale nei Monti Tatra (Polonia meridionale di <em>Plecotus auritusem> e <em>P. austriacusem>. Tali segnalazioni incrementano le conoscenze relative alla presenza di questi chirotteri a quote elevate, in particolare per la Polonia. In inverno <em>P. auritusem> è stato rinvenuto a 1921 m s.l.m. mentre in estate è stato rinvenuto a 2250 m s.l.m.; in aggiunta, sono stati ritrovati resti ossei a 1929 m s.l.m. <em>P. austriacusem> è stato segnalato in ibernazione a 1294 m s.l.m.

  5. Action of Chitosan Against <em>Xanthomonas> Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from <em>Euphorbia pulcherrimaem>

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    Yanli Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity and mechanism of two kinds of chitosan were investigated against twelve <em>Xanthomonas> strains recovered from <em>Euphorbia pulcherrimaem>. Results indicated that both chitosans markedly inhibited bacterial growth based on OD loss. Furthermore, the release of DNA and RNA from three selected strains was increased by both chitosans. However, the release of intracellular proteins was inhibited by both chitosans at different concentration and incubation times, except chitosan A at 0.1 mg/mL for 0.5 h incubation and 0.2 mg/mL for 2.0 h incubation increased the release of proteins, indicating the complexity of the interaction and cell membranes, which was affected by incubation time, bacterial species, chitosan type and concentration. Transmission electron microscopic observations revealed that chitosan caused changes in protoplast concentration and surface morphology. In some cells, the membranes and walls were badly distorted and disrupted, while other cells were enveloped by a thick and compact ribbon-like layer. The contrary influence on cell morphology may explain the differential effect in the release of material. In addition, scanning electron microscope and biofilm formation test revealed that both chitosans removed biofilm biomass. Overall, this study showed that membrane and biofilm play an important role in the antibacterial mechanism of chitosan.

  6. Study of the <em>in Vitroem> Antiplasmodial, Antileishmanial and Antitrypanosomal Activities of Medicinal Plants from Saudi Arabia

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    Nawal M. Al-Musayeib

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the <em>in vitroem> antiprotozoal activity of sixteen selected medicinal plants. Plant materials were extracted with methanol and screened <em>in vitroem> against erythrocytic schizonts of <em>Plasmodium falciparumem>, intracellular amastigotes of <em>Leishmania infantum em>and <em>Trypanosoma cruzi em>and free trypomastigotes of<em> T. bruceiem>. Cytotoxic activity was determined against MRC-5 cells to assess selectivity<em>. em>The criterion for activity was an IC50 < 10 µg/mL (4. Antiplasmodial activity was found in the<em> em>extracts of<em> em>>Prosopis julifloraem> and <em>Punica granatumem>. Antileishmanial activity<em> em>against <em>L. infantumem> was demonstrated in <em>Caralluma sinaicaem> and <em>Periploca aphylla.em> Amastigotes of<em> T. cruzi em>were affected by the methanol extract of<em> em>>Albizia lebbeckem>> em>pericarp, <em>Caralluma sinaicaem>,> Periploca aphylla em>and <em>Prosopius julifloraem>. Activity against<em> T. brucei em>was obtained in<em> em>>Prosopis julifloraem>. Cytotoxicity (MRC-5 IC50 < 10 µg/mL and hence non-specific activities were observed for<em> em>>Conocarpus lancifoliusem>.>

  7. 45 CFR 98.16 - Plan provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in the TANF work requirement applicable to a single custodial parent caring for a child under age six... for purposes of child care eligibility; and whether respite care is provided to custodial parents of... meet the needs of certain families specified at § 98.50(e). (5) Any additional eligibility criteria...

  8. Beyond-laboratory-scale prediction for channeling flows through subsurface rock fractures with heterogeneous aperture distributions revealed by laboratory evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Takuya; Watanabe, Noriaki; Hirano, Nobuo; Okamoto, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluates aperture distributions and fluid flow characteristics for variously sized laboratory-scale granite fractures under confining stress. As a significant result of the laboratory investigation, the contact area in fracture plane was found to be virtually independent of scale. By combining this characteristic with the self-affine fractal nature of fracture surfaces, a novel method for predicting fracture aperture distributions beyond laboratory scale is developed. Validity of this method is revealed through reproduction of the results of laboratory investigation and the maximum aperture-fracture length relations, which are reported in the literature, for natural fractures. The present study finally predicts conceivable scale dependencies of fluid flows through joints (fractures without shear displacement) and faults (fractures with shear displacement). Both joint and fault aperture distributions are characterized by a scale-independent contact area, a scale-dependent geometric mean, and a scale-independent geometric standard deviation of aperture. The contact areas for joints and faults are approximately 60% and 40%. Changes in the geometric means of joint and fault apertures (µm), em, joint and em, fault, with fracture length (m), l, are approximated by em, joint = 1 × 102 l0.1 and em, fault = 1 × 103 l0.7, whereas the geometric standard deviations of both joint and fault apertures are approximately 3. Fluid flows through both joints and faults are characterized by formations of preferential flow paths (i.e., channeling flows) with scale-independent flow areas of approximately 10%, whereas the joint and fault permeabilities (m2), kjoint and kfault, are scale dependent and are approximated as kjoint = 1 × 10-12 l0.2 and kfault = 1 × 10-8 l1.1.

  9. Psychometric properties of Frustration Discomfort Scale in a Turkish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Bilge Uzun; Demir, Ayhan; Harrington, Neil

    2012-08-01

    The present study assessed the psychometric properties of the Frustration Discomfort Scale for Turkish college students. The Frustration Discomfort Scale (FDS), Procrastination Assessment Scale-Student, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were administered to a sample of 171 (98 women, 73 men) Turkish college students. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis yielded fit index values demonstrating viability of the four-dimensional solution as in the original. Findings also revealed that, as predicted, the Discomfort Intolerance subscale of Turkish FDS was most strongly correlated with procrastination. Overall results provided evidence for the factor validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the scale for use in a Turkish population.

  10. <em>Trichoderma harzianumem> como promotor del crecimiento vegetal del maracuyá (<em>Passiflora edulisem> var. <em>flavicarpa> Degener

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    Cubillos-Hinojosa Juan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Se realizó un experimento en condiciones de laboratorio e invernadero, con el propósito de evaluar el efecto de la cepa nativa TCN-014 y la cepa comercial TCC-005 de <em>Trichoderma harzianumem> sobre la germinación y el crecimiento temprano del maracuyá. Se adecuaron inóculos de 104, 106 y 108 conidias/mL para cada cepa y se aplicaron a semillas de maracuyá; se evaluó el número de semillas germinadas durante 15 días; se calculó el porcentaje de germinación, el índice de velocidad de germinación y el tiempo medio de germinación. Posteriormente las semillas germinadas se llevaron a condiciones de invernadero y transcurridos dos meses se midió la altura de las plántulas, el grosor del tallo, el número de hojas, la longitud de la raíz y el peso seco total. Todos los tratamientos estimularon la germinación de las semillas y el desarrollo de las plántulas; sin embargo la cepa nativa en concentraciones 106 y 108 conidias/mL mostró resultados superiores frente a la cepa comercial. Los resultados sugieren una acción efectiva de <em>T. harzianumem> como promotor de crecimiento vegetal, mostrando que tiene potencial para la elaboración de un bioproducto útil para el manejo ecológico del cultivo de maracuyá.

  11. Desesperança, ideação suicida e depressão em pacientes renais crônicos em tratamento por hemodiálise ou transplante

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    Sibela Vasconcelos Andrade

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Sintomas de desesperança, ideação suicida e depressão influenciam na qualidade e expectativa de vida de doentes renais crônicos. Objetivo: Avaliar se existe diferença nos sintomas de desesperança, ideação suicida e depressão entre pacientes renais crônicos em hemodiálise ou transplantados. Analisamos também se variáveis sociodemográficas como atividade laboral, ter dependentes, sexo e estado civil interferem nesses sintomas. Métodos: Estudo comparativo, de corte transversal, em que 50 pacientes em hemodiálise crônica e 50 transplantados renais, clinicamente estáveis, sem psicopatologias, pareados por sexo e idade, foram selecionados aleatoriamente. Instrumentos -Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS, Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSI e Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Resultados: BHS: 2% de cada grupo tiveram escore > 8 (p = 1,00. BSI: 4% em hemodiálise e 6% dos transplantados tinham escore > 1 (p = 1,00. BDI: 20% em hemodiálise e 12% dos transplantados apresentaram escore > 14 (p = 0,275. Não houve relação entre as variáveis testadas e os sintomas de desesperança e ideação suicida. Não exercer atividade laboral implicou mais sintomas depressivos (escore médio BDI: 10,5 vs. 7,3, p = 0,027. Transplantados de doadores falecidos apresentaram mais sintomas depressivos comparados aos receptores de doadores vivos (escore médio BDI: 11,0 vs. 6,7, p = 0,042. Conclusão: Não houve diferença na intensidade dos sintomas de desesperança, ideação suicida e depressão entre pacientes estáveis em hemodiálise e transplantados. Não exercer atividade laboral e receber transplante de doador falecido levou a mais sintomas depressivos. A prevalência de ideação suicida e sintomas depressivos, nas duas modalidades, merece atenção e indica a necessidade de monitorização e cuidados nesses pacientes.

  12. Intoxicação mercurial: resultados preliminares em duas áreas garimpeiras - PA

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    Rosa Carmina de Sena Couto

    1988-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar o problema da intoxicação mercurial em garimpeiros, foi realizado um estado-piloto em duas áreas de garimpo no Estado do Pará: Cachoeiro e Cumaru. Foram coletadas 35 amostras de cabelos seguindo-se as recomendações da International Atonde Energy Agency. Para a dosagem dos teores de mercúrio nestas amostras foi utilizado o método de absorção atômica pela técnica de vapor frio. O mercúrio total foi detectado em 100% das amostras analisadas. No grupo de garimpeiros do Cachoeiro o teor de mercúrio encontrado variou numa amplitude de 1,97 - 68,98 ppm, X = 11,49 ppm; enquanto que no grupo de garimpeiros do Cumaru a amplitude foi de 1,50 - 13,68 ppm, X = 5,18 ppm. Estes resultados demonstram o alto risco de exposição da população garimpeira. Levantamos a hipótese que outros grupos sociais nesta área estejam sendo atingidos indiretamente, como os Índios caiapó da Reserva Gorotire.With the purpose of checking the problem concerning mercury poisoning in prospectors, it was carried out a pilot study in two prospect areas in the State of Pará: Cachoeiro and Cumaru. We collected 35 samples of hair following the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency. For dosing mercury contents in these samples we used the method of atomic absorption through the technique of cold steam. The overall mercury was detected in 100% of the samples which have been analysed. In the group of prospectors of Cachoeiro the mercury contents found varied with an amplitude of 1.97 - 68.98 ppm, X = 11.49 ppm, while in the group of prospectors of Cumaru the amplitude was of 1.50 - 13.68 ppm, X = 5.18 ppm. These results show the high risk of exposition to which the population of prospectors in subjected. We hipothezed that other social groups in this area, e.g., caiapó natives of the Gorotire Reserve, are being indirectly affected.

  13. Desenvolvimento pós-embrionário de Pattonella intermutans (Thomson (Diptera: Sarcophagidae em diferentes dietas Post-embryonary development of Pattonella intermutans (Thomson, 1869 in different diets

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    Marcio S. Loureiro

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A proposta deste estudo foi de avaliar o desenvolvimento pós-embrionário de Pattonella intermutans (Thomson, 1869 em dietas artificiais preparadas com agar-agar. Dieta D1: leite em pó integral + fermento biológico; Dieta D2: leite em pó integral + fermento biológico + caseína; Dieta D3: leite em pó integral + ovo cru; Dieta D4: carne bovina moída (dieta controle. A carne bovina moída foi a dieta mais eficiente (peso larval de 195,63 mg e viabilidade de neolarva a adulto de 86,5%, quando comparada com as dietas artificiais. Os seguintes resultados foram obtidos para o grupo experimental: Dieta D3: 180,15 mg e 63,5%; Dieta D2: 141,07 mg e 61% e na Dieta D1: 147,98 mg e 51,5%.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the post-embryonary development of Pattonella intermutans (Thomson, 1969 in artificial diets composed of agar-agar. Diet D1: whole dried milk + dried brewer's yeast; Diet D2: whole dried milk + dried brewer's yeast+ casein; Diet D3: whole dried milk + whole egg; Diet D4: bovine meal (control diet. The bovine meat was the best diet (larval weight 195.63mg and viability from larvae to adult 86,5%, when compared to all other artificial diets. The following performances were obtained for experimental groups: diet D3: 180.15 mg and 63.5%; diet D2: 141.07 mg and 61% and diet D1: 147.98 mg e 51.5%.

  14. Regional EM studies in the 80's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelt, S. E.

    1987-09-01

    The review describes in broad terms the development of regional EM studies during the last five-six years. Large simultaneous magnetometer arrays, broadband and dense profiling with five component instruments, the use of remote reference techniques and in-field data processing have increased both the number and the quality of EM surveys. The increase has been strong all over the world. An extensive list of references, divided geographically, is presented. Selected examples of regional resisitivity-versus-depth curves are shown for Africa, the Baikal region, the Baltic Shield, the Canadian Shield, the Carpathian regions, the Central Andes, Iceland, India, the Juan de Fuca Plate, the Münsterland Basin, the Rio Grande rift, the Scottish Caledonides, the Tasman Sea, and for the United States in general. Because of the influence of tectonic settings and the metamorphic grade of rocks, only qualitative aspects of the results are relevant. ‘Classical’ array studies, especially in Australia, in the Carpathian regions, in India, in North Germany and in Scotland have been reinterpreted and completed with more accurate 2D modelling and dense MT profiling. In the USA and Canada also new regions have been surveyed extensively. New regional EM work has been conducted extensively on the Baltic Shield and in Central and North Africa, Siberia, China, in the areas around the Caspian and Black Seas and in South America. The newest studies are supported by or compared with other geophysical data, which also are used in extrapolating for missing EM data density. There are several successful large-scale projects in operation: the European Geotraverse (EGT), the KAPG International Geotraverses and the EMSLAB project (with its first preliminary results). Regional EM studies have been increasingly applied to geothermal, hydrocarbon and mineral prospecting as well as local structural studies, e.g. studies of sites for nuclear waste disposal.

  15. Effect of β,β-Dimethylacrylshikonin on Inhibition of Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Growth <em>in Vitro em>and <em>in Vivoem>

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    Ting Feng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Chinese medicine, shikonin and its derivatives, has been used in East Asia for several years for the prevention and treatment of several diseases, including cancer. We previously identified that β,β-dimethylacrylshikonin (DA could inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma growth. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of DA on human colorectal cancer (CRC cell line HCT-116 <em>in vitroem> and <em>in vivoem>. A viability assay showed that DA could inhibit tumor cell growth in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry showed that DA blocks the cell cycle at G0/G1 phase. Western blotting results demonstrated that the induction of apoptosis by DA correlated with the induction of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, and Bid, and a decrease in the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl. Furthermore, treatment of HCT-116 bearing nude mice with DA significantly retarded the growth of xenografts. Consistent with the results <em>in vitroem>, the DA-mediated suppression of HCT-116 xenografts correlated with Bax and Bcl-2. Taken together, these results suggest that DA could be a novel and promising approach to the treatment of CRC.

  16. An instrumental earthquake catalogue for northeastern Italy since 1900

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margottini, C.; Martini, G.; Slejko, D.

    1991-01-01

    An earthquake catalogue of instrumental data for northeastern Italy since 1900 is presented. The different types of magnitude, which are the main parameters of the present study, have been evaluated so as to be as homogeneous as possible. Comparisons of the different magnitude values show linear dependence, at least in the medium magnitude range represented by the available data set. Correlations between the magnitude most significant for this region and chosen macroseismic data indicate a methodology for assessing the macroseismic magnitude of historical earthquakes which seems to be stable. (author)

  17. Energia digestível em rações para porcas primíparas em lactação Digestible energy in the diet of primiparous lactating sows

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    F.P. Paiva

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se 48 porcas primíparas, de genética PIC, com média de peso de 185,03±15,78kg, para avaliar diferentes níveis de energia digestível (3.350, 3.500, 3.650 e 3.800kcal/kg na ração, durante a lactação (19,98±1,04 dias. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e 12 repetições, sendo a porca considerada a unidade experimental. O consumo total de ração não variou entre os animais dos tratamentos, sendo que as porcas consumiram em média 4,0kg de ração por dia. O consumo de energia digestível aumentou de forma linear, de acordo com o nível de energia na ração. Não se observou efeito do nível de energia da ração sobre a mobilização de reserva corporal, as características reprodutivas e o nível de insulina no soro das porcas. Observou-se aumento linear do ganho de peso dos leitões em função do consumo de energia das porcas. Conclui-se que porcas primíparas em lactação exigem 3.800kcal/kg de ração, correspondente a um consumo de 14.307kcal/dia.Forty-eight primiparous sows (PIC, weighting in average of 185.03±15.78kg, were used to evaluate different levels of digestible energy (3,350; 3,500; 3,650 and 3,800 kcal/kg during lactation (19.98±1.04 days. A completely randomized design was used with four treatments, 12 replicates, being the sow considered as the experimental unit. The sows were daily fed with 4.0kg of the experimental diet. Energy intake increased linearly, according to the level of digestible energy in the diet. The energy level in the diet did not affect the mobilization of corporal reserve, the reproductive characteristics and the levels of insulin of the serum of the sows. Weight gain of piglets and litter increased linearly, according to the dietary energy levels. It was concluded that primiparous lactating sows need to intake at least 14,307kcal/day.

  18. Enrichment and Purification of Syringin, Eleutheroside E and Isofraxidin from <em>Acanthopanax> <em>senticosus> by Macroporous Resin

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    Yuangang Zu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to screen a suitable resin for the preparative simultaneous separation and purification of syringin, eleutheroside E and isofraxidin from <em>Acanthopanax> <em>senticosus>, the adsorption and desorption properties of 17 widely used commercial macroporous resins were evaluated. According to our results, HPD100C, which adsorbs by the molecular tiers model, was the best macroporous resin, offering higher adsorption and desorption capacities and higher adsorption speed for syringin, eleutheroside E and isofraxidin than other resins. Dynamic adsorption and desorption tests were carried out to optimize the process parameters. The optimal conditions were as follows: for adsorption, processing volume: 24 BV, flow rate: 2 BV/h; for desorption, ethanol–water solution: 60:40 (v/v, eluent volume: 4 BV, flow rate: 3 BV/h. Under the above conditions, the contents of syringin, eleutheroside E and isofraxidin increased 174-fold, 20-fold and 5-fold and their recoveries were 80.93%, 93.97% and 93.79%, respectively.

  19. MicroRNA-98 Suppress Warburg Effect by Targeting HK2 in Colon Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weimin; Huang, Yijiao; Pan, Qi; Xiang, Pei; Xie, Nanlan; Yu, Hao

    2017-03-01

    Warburg effect is a hallmark of cancer cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRs) could regulate such metabolic reprograming. Aberrant expression of miR-98 has been observed in many types of cancers. However, its functions and significance in colon cancer remain largely elusive. To investigate miR-98 expression and the biological functions in colon cancer progression. miR-98 expression levels were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in 215 cases of colon cancer samples. miR-98 mimic or inhibitor was used to test the biological functions in SW480 and HCT116 cells, followed by cell proliferation assay, lactate production, glucose uptake, and cellular ATP levels assay and extracellular acidification rates measurement. Western blot and luciferase assay were used to identify the target of miR-98. miR-98 was significantly down-regulated in colon cancer tissues compared to adjacent colon tissues and acted as a suppressor for Warburg effect in cancer cells. miR-98 inhibited glycolysis by directly targeting hexokinase 2, or HK2, illustrating a novel pathway to mediate Warburg effect of cancer cells. In vitro experiments further indicated that HK2 was involved in miR-98-mediated suppression of glucose uptake, lactate production, and cell proliferation. In addition, we detected HK2 expression in colon cancer tissues and found that the expressions of miR-98 and HK2 were negatively correlated. miR-98 acts as tumor suppressor gene and inhibits Warburg effect in colon cancer cells, which provided potential targets for clinical treatments.

  20. Sodium-immersed self-cooled electromagnetic pump design and development of a large-scale coil for high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oto, Akihiro; Naohara, Nobuyuki; Ishida, Masayoshi; Katsuki, Kenji; Kumazawa, Ryouji

    1995-01-01

    A sodium-immersed, self-cooled electromagnetic (EM) pump was recently studied as a prospective innovative technology to simplify a fast breeder reactor plant system. The EM pump for a primary pump, a pump type, was designed, and the structural concept and the system performance were clarified. For the flow control method, a constant voltage/frequency method was preferable from the point of view of pump performance and efficiency. The insulation life was tested on a large-scale coil at high temperature as part of the development of a large-capacity EM pump. Mechanical and electrical damage were not observed, and the insulation performance was quite good. The insulation system could also be applied to large-scale coils

  1. Tracoma em pacientes com conjuntivite alérgica Trachoma in patients with allergic conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo de Lucena Bezerra

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Este trabalho teve o objetivo de identificar possível associação entre conjuntivite alérgica e infecção por Chlamydia trachomatis. Método: Realizamos um estudo prospectivo em 104 olhos de 52 pacientes com hipótese diagnóstica de conjuntivite alérgica primaveril e atópica. Os pacientes foram examinados no Núcleo Especializado em Oftalmologia de João Pessoa - NEO. Foi realizada em todos os 52 pacientes, a citologia conjuntival, uma vez que pode evidenciar a presença de eosinófilos e corpúsculos de inclusões no esfregaço do raspado conjuntival, como também a imunofluorescência direta por ser o exame de escolha para confirmação de infecção por Chlamydia trachomatis. Todos os procedimentos foram aprovados pelo Comitê de Ética em pesquisa. Resultados: Dos 52 pacientes, 41 (78,8% apresentou conjuntivite primaveril e 11 (21,2% conjuntivite atópica. Quarenta e um (78,8% eram do sexo masculino e 11 (21,2% do feminino. As idades variaram de 3 a 19 anos, com uma média de 9,8 anos. Quanto à distribuição racial, 16 (30,8% pacientes eram brancos, 14 (26,9% eram negros e 22 (42,3% eram pardos. Pacientes com doença alérgica sistêmica observou-se que 25 (48,1% pacientes apresentaram asma brônquica, 20 (38,5% rinite alérgica e 5 (9,6% dermatite atópica. Os principais sintomas relatados pelos pacientes foram coriza (59,6%, prurido ocular (98,1%, ardor ou queimação (61,5%, lacrimejamento (65,3% e fotofobia (61,5%. Os principais sinais clínicos foram: hiperemia ocular (100%, bilateralidade (100%, papilas no tarso (92,3% e secreção mucosa (82,7%. A citologia do raspado conjuntival encontrou o eosinófilo em 86,5% dos casos. Apenas 7 pacientes não apresentaram eosinófilos no raspado conjuntival. Observamos que 3 pacientes (5,8% apresentou imunofluorescência positiva para Chlamydia, evidenciando associação entre conjuntivite alérgica e tracoma. Conclusão: É importante determinar a existência simultânea de

  2. Enumeration of smallest intervention strategies in genome-scale metabolic networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel von Kamp

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One ultimate goal of metabolic network modeling is the rational redesign of biochemical networks to optimize the production of certain compounds by cellular systems. Although several constraint-based optimization techniques have been developed for this purpose, methods for systematic enumeration of intervention strategies in genome-scale metabolic networks are still lacking. In principle, Minimal Cut Sets (MCSs; inclusion-minimal combinations of reaction or gene deletions that lead to the fulfilment of a given intervention goal provide an exhaustive enumeration approach. However, their disadvantage is the combinatorial explosion in larger networks and the requirement to compute first the elementary modes (EMs which itself is impractical in genome-scale networks. We present MCSEnumerator, a new method for effective enumeration of the smallest MCSs (with fewest interventions in genome-scale metabolic network models. For this we combine two approaches, namely (i the mapping of MCSs to EMs in a dual network, and (ii a modified algorithm by which shortest EMs can be effectively determined in large networks. In this way, we can identify the smallest MCSs by calculating the shortest EMs in the dual network. Realistic application examples demonstrate that our algorithm is able to list thousands of the most efficient intervention strategies in genome-scale networks for various intervention problems. For instance, for the first time we could enumerate all synthetic lethals in E.coli with combinations of up to 5 reactions. We also applied the new algorithm exemplarily to compute strain designs for growth-coupled synthesis of different products (ethanol, fumarate, serine by E.coli. We found numerous new engineering strategies partially requiring less knockouts and guaranteeing higher product yields (even without the assumption of optimal growth than reported previously. The strength of the presented approach is that smallest intervention strategies can be

  3. 9 CFR 98.33 - Ports designated for the importation of certain animal semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of certain animal semen. 98.33 Section 98.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal Semen § 98.33 Ports designated for the importation of certain animal semen. (a) Air and ocean ports. The following air and ocean...

  4. Training for Defense? From Stochastic Traits to Synchrony in Giant Honey Bees (<em>Apis dorsataem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Kastberger

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In Giant Honey Bees, abdomen flipping happens in a variety of contexts. It can be either synchronous or cascaded, such as in the collective defense traits of shimmering and rearing-up, or it can happen as single-agent behavior. Abdomen flipping is also involved in flickering behavior, which occurs regularly under quiescent colony state displaying singular or collective traits, with stochastic, and (semi- synchronized properties. It presumably acts via visual, mechanoceptive, and pheromonal pathways and its goals are still unknown. This study questions whether flickering is preliminary to shimmering which is subject of the <em>fs em>(flickering-shimmering-transition> hypothesis? We tested the respective prediction that trigger sites (<em>ts> at the nest surface (where shimmering waves had been generated show higher flickering activity than the alternative non-trigger sites (<em>nts>. We measured the flickering activity of <em>ts>- and <em>nts>-surface bees from two experimental nests, before and after the colony had been aroused by a dummy wasp. Arousal increased rate and intensity of the flickering activity of both <em>ts>- and <em>nts> cohorts (P < 0.05, whereby the flickering intensity of <em>ts>-bees were higher than that of <em>nts>-bees (P < 0.05. Under arousal, the colonies also increased the number of flickering-active <em>ts>- and <em>nts>-cohorts (P < 0.05. This provides evidence that cohorts which are specialist at launching shimmering waves are found across the quiescent nest zone. It also proves that arousal may reinforce the responsiveness of quiescent curtain bees for participating in shimmering, practically by recruiting additional trigger site bees for expanding repetition of rate and intensity of shimmering waves. This finding confirms the <em>fs-transition> hypothesis and constitutes evidence that flickering is part of a basal colony-intrinsic information system

  5. Versão em português do Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire: estudo da validade e reprodutibilidade Portuguese-language version of the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire: a validity and reproducibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciane Laender Moreira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a validade e a reprodutibilidade de uma versão em português do Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ em pacientes com DPOC. MÉTODOS: A versão em português do CRQ (fornecida pela Universidade de McMaster, detentora dos direitos do questionário foi aplicada a 50 pacientes portadores de DPOC (32 homens; 70 ± 8 anos; VEF1 = 47 ± 18% predito em dois momentos, com intervalo de uma semana. O CRQ tem quatro domínios (dispneia, fadiga, função emocional e autocontrole e foi aplicado em formato de entrevista. O Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, já validado em português, foi utilizado como o critério de validação. A espirometria e o teste da caminhada de seis minutos (TC6 foram realizados para a análise das correlações com os valores do CRQ. RESULTADOS: Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre a aplicação e a reaplicação do CRQ (p > 0.05 para todos os domínios. O coeficiente de correlação intraclasse entre a aplicação e a reaplicação foi de 0,98; 0,97; 0,98 e 0,95 para os domínios dispneia, fadiga, função emocional e autocontrole, respectivamente. O coeficiente alfa de Cronbach foi 0,91. Os domínios do CRQ se correlacionaram significativamente com os domínios do SGRQ (-0.30 OBJECTIVE: To determine the validity and reproducibility of a Portuguese-language version of the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ in patients with COPD. METHODS: A Portuguese-language version of the CRQ (provided by McMaster University, the holder of the questionnaire copyright was applied to 50 patients with COPD (70 ± 8 years of age; 32 males; FEV1 = 47 ± 18% of predicted on two occasions, one week apart. The CRQ has four domains (dyspnea, fatigue, emotional function, and mastery and was applied as an interviewer-administered instrument. The Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, already validated for use in Brazil, was used as the criterion for validation. Spirometry and the six

  6. A scaling analysis of alloy solidification in presence of electromagnetic stirring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Arvind; Dutta, Pradip

    2006-01-01

    Application of electromagnetic stirring (EMS) during continuous casting shears off the dendrites from the solidification front to produce billets with a non-dendritic microstructure. In the present study, a systematic approach to the scaling analysis of momentum, energy and species conservation equations pertaining to the case of the solidification of a binary alloy in the presence of EMS is outlined. With suitable choices of non-dimensionalizing parameters, the governing equations coupled with appropriate boundary conditions are first scaled, and then the relative significance of various terms appearing in them are analysed. In the physical domain two regions are identified, one where the electromagnetic forces play a dominant role in the momentum equations, and the other where the inertia and viscous effects play major roles. Using the scaling predictions, the influence of various processing parameters on the system variables can be utilized for the selection of appropriate electromagnetic forces to shear off the dendrites from the solidification area. For the sake of assessment of the scaling analysis, the predictions are validated against corresponding computational results

  7. Complete BWR--EM LOCA analysis using the WRAP--EM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmeyer, R.R.; Gregory, M.V.; Buckner, M.R.

    1979-01-01

    The Water Reactor Analysis Package, Evaluation Model (WRAP--EM), provides a complete analysis of postulated loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCA's) in light--water nuclear power reactors. The system is being developed at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) for use by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to interpret and evaluate reactor vendor, evaluation model (EM) analyses. The initial version of the WRAP--EM system for analysis of boiling water reactors (BWR's) is operational. To demonstrate the complete capability of the WRAP--BWR--EM system, a LOCA analysis has been performed for the Hope Creek Plant

  8. Epidemiologia dos acidentes cerebrovasculares em Joinville, Brasil: estudo institucional Epidemiology of cerebrovascular disease in Joinville, Brazil: an institutional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto L. Cabral

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available A carência de dados epidemiológicos e a impressão prévia de elevada incidência de acidente vascular cerebral (AVC no Brasil criou o estímulo para estudo institucional prospectivo em Joinville. No período de 1-março-1995 a 1-março-1996, avaliamos o primeiro episódio e episódios recorrentes em AVC, incidência, mortalidade, taxa de fatalidade-caso em 30 dias (letalidade, freqüência de fatores de risco, tempo para admissão hospitalar e distribuição dos infartos cerebrais por subtipos patológicos. Registramos 429 pacientes no período, 320 destes com primeiro episódio. Tomografia de crânio foi realizada em 98% dos casos. A taxa de incidência anual ajustada por idade em primeiro episódio de AVC foi de 156/100000. A distribuição por diagnóstico foi: 73,4% para infarto cerebral, 18.4% para hemorragia cerebral e 7,5% para hemorragia subaracnóide. A taxa de mortalidade anual padronizada foi 25/100000. A letalidade foi 26%. Hipertensão, AVC prévio e diabetes foram os fatores de risco mais freqüentes. Somente 25% dos pacientes chegaram ao hospital nas primeiras três horas iniciais. Concluímos que a taxa de incidência em primeiro episódio de AVC em pacientes institucionalizados em Joinville, Brasil, é elevada. A taxa de mortalidade e letalidade são similares as de outras populações.The paucity of epidemiologic data, and the previous impression of high incidence of cerebrovascular disease in Brazil, made us elaborate a prospective institutional study in Joinville, Brazil, with the objective of identifying first and recurrent episodes in stroke. This study occurred from March 1995 to March 1996. We evaluated during the first episode of stroke: incidence, mortality and fatality-case rate (in 30 days letality, frequency of risk factor, time in hospital and distribution of cerebral infarcts by pathological subtypes. In this period, 429 patients with stroke were registered, 320 with the first episode. 98% of all the patients

  9. Validação de escala optométrica regionalizada para pré-escolares: contribuição da enfermagem Validación de una escala optométrica regionalizada para preescolares: contribución de la enfermaría Validation of a regionalized optometric scale for preschool children: nursing contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Arruda Dantas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se escala de figuras regionalizadas (RAD. Objetivou-se validar a escala, avaliar a correlação entre os coeficientes da acuidade visual, verificar a associação entre os testes e verificar a concordância das medidas. Este é um estudo de validação de tecnologia, experimental, aleatório, triplo-cego, com 246 escolares. Enquanto a sensibilidade foi 88,6 RAD1 e 85,7 RAD2 para o olho direito (OD e 78,6 e 92,9 para o esquerdo (OE, a especificidade do OD foi 95,3 RAD 1 e 98,1 RAD2 e do OE 97,7 e 98,6, respectivamente. Quanto ao valor preditivo positivo, RAD1 foi 75,6 OD e 81,5 OE e RAD2 88,2 OD e 89,7 OE. Já o valor preditivo negativo em RAD1 foi de 98,0 OD e 97,3 OE e em RAD2 97,6 OD e 99,1 OE. Para correlação e associação no OD e OE, o valor considerado de p = 0,0001. O Alfa de Crombach foi 0,929. Houve significância entre o critério padrão e a escala.Se desarrolló una escala de figuras regionalizadas (RAD. Los objetivos fueron: validar la escala; evaluar la correlación entre los coeficientes de la acuidad visual; verificar la asociación entre las pruebas; y, verificar la concordancia de las medidas. Se trata de un estudio de validación de tecnología, experimental, aleatorio, triple ciego, con 246 escolares. En lo que se refiere a la sensibilidad fue 88,6 RAD1 y 85,7 RAD2 para el ojo derecho (OD, 78,6 y 92,9 para el izquierdo (OE, la especificidad del OD fue 95,3 RAD 1 y 98,1 RAD2 y del OE 97,7 y 98,6. En lo que se refiere al valor predictivo positivo, RAD1 fue 75,6 OD y 81,5 OE y RAD2 88,2 OD y 89,7 OE. Ya el valor predictivo negativo en RAD1 fue de 98,0 OD y 97,3 OE y en RAD 2 97,6 OD y 99,1 OE. Para correlación y asociación en el OD y OE, p = 0,0001. El Alfa de Cronbach fue de 0,929. Hubo significancia entre el criterio estándar y la escala.A regionalized figure scale (RAD was developed. The objective was to validate the scale, evaluate the correlation between the visual acuity coefficients, verify the

  10. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of <em>Eucalyptus globulusem> Bark—A Promising Approach for Triterpenoid Production<em>>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus bark contains significant amounts of triterpenoids with demonstrated bioactivity, namely triterpenic acids and their acetyl derivatives (ursolic, betulinic, oleanolic, betulonic, 3-acetylursolic, and 3-acetyloleanolic acids. In this work, the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE of <em>Eucalyptus> <em>globulus> deciduous bark was carried out with pure and modified carbon dioxide to recover this fraction, and the results were compared with those obtained by Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane. The effects of pressure (100–200 bar, co-solvent (ethanol content (0, 5 and 8% wt, and multistep operation were studied in order to evaluate the applicability of SFE for their selective and efficient production. The individual extraction curves of the main families of compounds were measured, and the extracts analyzed by GC-MS. Results pointed out the influence of pressure and the important role played by the co-solvent. Ethanol can be used with advantage, since its effect is more important than increasing pressure by several tens of bar. At 160 bar and 40 °C, the introduction of 8% (wt of ethanol greatly improves the yield of triterpenoids more than threefold.

  11. <em>Helicobacter pyloriem> Disrupts Host Cell Membranes, Initiating a Repair Response and Cell Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Fen Juan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available <em>Helicobacter pyloriem> (<em>H. pyloriem>, the human stomach pathogen, lives on the inner surface of the stomach and causes chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. Plasma membrane repair response is a matter of life and death for human cells against physical and biological damage. We here test the hypothesis that <em>H. pyloriem> also causes plasma membrane disruption injury, and that not only a membrane repair response but also a cell proliferation response are thereby activated. Vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA have been considered to be major <em>H. pyloriem> virulence factors. Gastric cancer cells were infected with <em>H. pyloriem> wild type (vacA+/cagA+, single mutant (ΔvacA or ΔcagA or double mutant (ΔvacA/ΔcagA strains and plasma membrane disruption events and consequent activation of membrane repair components monitored. <em>H. pyloriem> disrupts the host cell plasma membrane, allowing localized dye and extracellular Ca2+ influx. Ca2+-triggered members of the annexin family, A1 and A4, translocate, in response to injury, to the plasma membrane, and cell surface expression of an exocytotic maker of repair, LAMP-2, increases. Additional forms of plasma membrane disruption, unrelated to <em>H.> pylori em>exposure, also promote host cell proliferation. We propose that <em>H. pyloriem> activation of a plasma membrane repair is pro-proliferative. This study might therefore provide new insight into potential mechanisms of <em>H. pyloriem>-induced gastric carcinogenesis.

  12. 45 CFR 98.20 - A child's eligibility for child care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., ethnic background, sex, religious affiliation, or disability; (2) Limit parental rights provided under... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false A child's eligibility for child care services. 98.20 Section 98.20 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD...

  13. Scaling up Copy Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xian; Dong, Xin Luna; Lyons, Kenneth B.; Meng, Weiyi; Srivastava, Divesh

    2015-01-01

    Recent research shows that copying is prevalent for Deep-Web data and considering copying can significantly improve truth finding from conflicting values. However, existing copy detection techniques do not scale for large sizes and numbers of data sources, so truth finding can be slowed down by one to two orders of magnitude compared with the corresponding techniques that do not consider copying. In this paper, we study {\\em how to improve scalability of copy detection on structured data}. Ou...

  14. NATURE AND LAW IN THE <em>INSTITUTAS> OF GAIO NATUREZA E DIREITO NAS <em>INSTITUTAS> DE GAIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Carlos Storck

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In a very famous passage of his <em>Institutes>, the ancient jurist Gaius had divided the Roman Private Law in two parts: the Civil Law and the Law of People. The former is the Law created by the Roman people, whereas the latter is the Law followed by every nation.

    Despite its classical origin, there is some disagreement among specialists about the right way to interpret this distinction. By the beginning of the 20th century, historians like Michel Villey had seen in this distinction the influence of Greek philosophy (Stoic but even Aristotelian among the Roman jurists. But Levy and more recently Kelly have challenged this view and proposed that, in the roman period, philosophers and jurists had completely distinct notions of nature and natural law. The aim of this paper is not to prove the exact influence of Greek philosophy among jurists, but only to suggest that it is not possible to give an interpretation of the classical texts without ascribing to them a theoretical notion of the natural law.

    Em uma famosa passagem de suas <em>Institutas>, o jurista romano Gaio dividiu o direito privado em duas partes: o direito civil e o direito dos povos. O primeiro é o direito criado pelo povo romano enquanto o segundo é o direito seguido por todas as nações. A despeito de sua origem clássica, os especialistas discordam acerca do modo de interpretar essa tese. No início do século XX, historiadores como Michel Villey viram na distinção sinais da influência da filosofia grega (estóica e mesmo aristotélica entre os juristas romanos. Posteriormente Levy e mais recentemente Kelly contestaram essa afirmação e defenderam que filósofos e juristas possuíam, no período clássico, noções de natureza e direito natural completamente distintas. O objetivo desse artigo não está em provar a exata influência da filosofia grega entre os juristas, mas apenas em sugerir que não é possível fornecer uma interpretação dos

  15. Glycoprotein CD98 as a receptor for colitis-targeted delivery of nanoparticle†

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Bo; Yang, Yang; Viennois, Emilie; Zhang, Yuchen; Ayyadurai, Saravanan; Baker, Mark; Laroui, Hamed; Merlin, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Treatment strategies for inflammatory bowel disease have been constrained by limited therapeutic efficacy and serious adverse effects owing to a lack of receptor for targeted drug delivery to the inflamed colon. Upon inflammation, CD98 expression is highly elevated in colonic epithelial cells and infiltrating immune cells. To investigate whether CD98 can be used as a colitis-targeted delivery receptor, we constructed CD98 Fab′-bearing quantum dots (QDs)-loaded nanoparticles (Fab′-NPs). The re...

  16. Local feeding specialization of the red fox (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> in response to eastern cottontail (<em>Sylvilagus floridanusem> introduction (NW Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Balestrieri

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To appreciate the influence of the introduction of the Eastern cottontail (<em>Sylvilagus floridanusem> on the food habits of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes, between June 1998 and February 2000 fox diet was investigated by means of scat analysis (N=115 in a 250 ha wide Natural Reserve of NW Italy, and compared with data collected in the same area prior to cottontail colonization (1988-1989. Comparison included also the diet of badgers (<em>Meles melesem>, considered as potential competitors for food resources. Alien lagomorphs (mean percent volume, Vm% = 68% represented by far the most exploited resource, only three other food items reaching values of mean percent volume barely higher than 5%. Cottontails frequency of occurrence did not vary according either to season or to their reproductive cycle (II-IX vs. X-I, whilst diet niche breadth varied inversely proportional to the use of this key-resource. Overall fox trophic niche breadth varied from 0.64 in 1988-89 to 0.31 in 1998-00 (B, Levin’s index. These findings led us to consider the feeding habits of the fox in the study area as a result of local specialization of a typical generalist carnivore, according to the predictions of optimal foraging theory. No variation occurred in the badger niche breadth since cottontail introduction, whilst niche overlap between foxes and badgers decreased from 0.59 to 0.13 (O, Pianka’s index, possibly reducing competition for food in summer. Riassunto Specializzazione alimentare a livello locale della Volpe <em>Vulpes vulpesem> in risposta all’introduzione del Silvilago <em>Sylvilagus floridanusem> (Italia nord occidentale. Per valutare gli effetti dell’introduzione del Silvilago (<em>Sylvilagus floridanusem> sul comportamento alimentare della volpe (<em>Vulpes vulpesem>, nel periodo giugno 1998-febbraio 2000, la dieta del carnivoro è stata definita tramite l’analisi di 115

  17. Determinação do 5-hidroximetilfurfural em méis utilizando cromatografia eletrocinética capilar micelar Determination of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde in honey by micellar eletrokinetic capillary electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Jussara Nunes da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi investigado o índice de HMF (5-hidroximetilfurfural em méis comercializados em Porto Alegre - RS, utilizando Cromatografia Capilar Eletrocinética Micelar. O HMF, produto da condensação da frutose, é um indicador da qualidade e conservação do mel. Foram analisadas 11 marcas de méis comercializados na cidade de Porto Alegre. O composto estudado esteve presente em todas as amostras, em um intervalo de concentração de 0,191 a 6,206 mg.kg-1. Para quantificar o HMF presente nos méis, utilizou-se a técnica de adição de padrão. A taxa de recuperação foi de 98% e o limite de detecção foi de 0,025 mg.kg-1. O limite permitido de HMF em méis, segundo a legislação brasileira, é de 60 mg.kg-1.In this work, the occurrence of HMF (5-hydroxymethylfurfural in honey marketed in Porto Alegre - RS was investigated using Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography. The HMF, which is the product of the fructose condensation, is an indicator of honey quality and conservation. Eleven types of honey commercialized in Porto Alegre were analyzed, and all of them contained HMF in a range from 0.191 to 6.206 mg.kg-1. In order to quantify the HMF present in the samples, the technique of standard addition was employed. The recovery was 98% and the detection limit was 0.025 mg.kg-1. The allowed limit of HMF in honey, according to the Brazilian Legislation, is 60 mg.kg-1.

  18. 29 CFR 98.600 - How do suspension and debarment actions start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do suspension and debarment actions start? 98.600 Section 98.600 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION... debarment actions start? When we receive information from any source concerning a cause for suspension or...

  19. List of isozyme loci - RGP gmap98 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us RGP gmap98 List of isozyme loci Data detail Data name List of isozyme loci DOI 10.18908/lsdb...he present high-density linkage map, and that were putatively identified as isozyme genes. Data file File name: rgp_gmap98_iso...gmap98/LATEST/rgp_gmap98_isozyme_loci.zip File size: 611 B Simple search URL http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/...0001 were considered as functionally identical clones. And we have selected the ones that hit the isozyme ge...his Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us List of isozyme loci - RGP gmap98 | LSDB Archive ...

  20. Fluxos de CO2 em Plantio de Palma de Óleo no Leste da Amazônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Neves da Fonseca

    Full Text Available Resumo Os ecossistemas terrestres são importantes para compreender as trocas de CO2 entre superfície e atmosfera. Este trabalho apresenta as condições atmosféricas e medidas de CO2 em palma de óleo com híbrido interespecífico no leste da Amazônia, durante ano de El niño. O experimento foi realizado em Moju - Pará, onde foi instalada uma torre micrometeorológica para obtenção de dados meteorológicos e de CO2 durante o período de janeiro-dezembro de 2015. Os valores médios diurnos de absorção de CO2 atingiram o máximo por volta do meio dia, com 22,3 (± 0,98 μmol m-2 s-1 no período chuvoso e 21,0 (± 0,47 μmol m-2 s-1 no período menos chuvoso. Houve pouca variação noturna nos valores médios de emissão de CO2, 5 (± 0,20 μmol m-2 s-1, em ambos os períodos. Os valores médios diurnos da concentração de CO2 foram menores e os valores médios noturnos foram maiores. Em geral, o ciclo diário de troca de CO2 apresentou diferença entre o período chuvoso e menos chuvoso. Esses resultados contribuem para melhor compreensão da tendência temporal dos fluxos de CO2 em cultivo agrícola em ano de seca no leste da Amazônia, gerando informações novas sobre a interação entre palma de óleo e atmosfera.

  1. Metabolic Profiling of <em>Lactococcus lactisem> Under Different Culture Conditions

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    Normah Mohd Noor

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS and headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS/GC-MS were used to study metabolites produced by <em>Lactococcus lactisem> subsp. <em>cremoris> MG1363 grown at a temperature of 30 °C with and without agitation at 150 rpm, and at 37 °C without agitation. It was observed that <em>L. lactisem> produced more organic acids under agitation. Primary alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and polyols were identified as the corresponding trimethylsilyl (TMS derivatives, whereas amino acids and organic acids, including fatty acids, were detected through methyl chloroformate derivatization. HS analysis indicated that branched-chain methyl aldehydes, including 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, and 2-methylpropanal are degdradation products of isoleucine, leucine or valine. Multivariate analysis (MVA using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA revealed the major differences between treatments were due to changes of amino acids and fermentation products.

  2. Dissection of the transformation of primary human hematopoietic cells by the oncogene NUP98-HOXA9.

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    Enas R Yassin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available NUP98-HOXA9 is the prototype of a group of oncoproteins associated with acute myeloid leukemia. It consists of an N-terminal portion of NUP98 fused to the homeodomain of HOXA9 and is believed to act as an aberrant transcription factor that binds DNA through the homeodomain. Here we show that NUP98-HOXA9 can regulate transcription without binding to DNA. In order to determine the relative contributions of the NUP98 and HOXA9 portions to the transforming ability of NUP98-HOXA9, the effects of NUP98-HOXA9 on primary human CD34+ cells were dissected and compared to those of wild-type HOXA9. In contrast to previous findings in mouse cells, HOXA9 had only mild effects on the differentiation and proliferation of primary human hematopoietic cells. The ability of NUP98-HOXA9 to disrupt the differentiation of primary human CD34+ cells was found to depend primarily on the NUP98 portion, whereas induction of long-term proliferation required both the NUP98 moiety and an intact homeodomain. Using oligonucleotide microarrays in primary human CD34+ cells, a group of genes was identified whose dysregulation by NUP98-HOXA9 is attributable primarily to the NUP98 portion. These include RAP1A, HEY1, and PTGS2 (COX-2. Their functions may reflect the contribution of the NUP98 moiety of NUP98-HOXA9 to leukemic transformation. Taken together, these results suggest that the effects of NUP98-HOXA9 on gene transcription and cell transformation are mediated by at least two distinct mechanisms: one that involves promoter binding through the homeodomain with direct transcriptional activation, and another that depends predominantly on the NUP98 moiety and does not involve direct DNA binding.

  3. Inhibition of CRM1-mediated nuclear export of transcription factors by leukemogenic NUP98 fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Akiko; Sarma, Nayan J; Abdul-Nabi, Anmaar M; Yaseen, Nabeel R

    2010-05-21

    NUP98 is a nucleoporin that plays complex roles in the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of macromolecules. Rearrangements of the NUP98 gene in human leukemia result in the expression of numerous fusion oncoproteins whose effect on nucleocytoplasmic trafficking is poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of leukemogenic NUP98 fusion proteins on CRM1-mediated nuclear export. NUP98-HOXA9, a prototypic NUP98 fusion, inhibited the nuclear export of two known CRM1 substrates: mutated cytoplasmic nucleophosmin and HIV-1 Rev. In vitro binding assays revealed that NUP98-HOXA9 binds CRM1 through the FG repeat motif in a Ran-GTP-dependent manner similar to but stronger than the interaction between CRM1 and its export substrates. Two NUP98 fusions, NUP98-HOXA9 and NUP98-DDX10, whose fusion partners are structurally and functionally unrelated, interacted with endogenous CRM1 in myeloid cells as shown by co-immunoprecipitation. These leukemogenic NUP98 fusion proteins interacted with CRM1, Ran, and the nucleoporin NUP214 in a manner fundamentally different from that of wild-type NUP98. NUP98-HOXA9 and NUP98-DDX10 formed characteristic aggregates within the nuclei of a myeloid cell line and primary human CD34+ cells and caused aberrant localization of CRM1 to these aggregates. These NUP98 fusions caused nuclear accumulation of two transcription factors, NFAT and NFkappaB, that are regulated by CRM1-mediated export. The nuclear entrapment of NFAT and NFkappaB correlated with enhanced transcription from promoters responsive to these transcription factors. Taken together, the results suggest a new mechanism by which NUP98 fusions dysregulate transcription and cause leukemia, namely, inhibition of CRM1-mediated nuclear export with aberrant nuclear retention of transcriptional regulators.

  4. Matérias estranhas em canela em pó e páprica em pó, comercializadas no estado de São Paulo

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    CORREIA Marlene

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivos de padronizar metodologias para matérias estranhas em canela em pó e páprica em pó e de avaliar as condições higiênicas desses condimentos, foram adquiridas, no período de agosto a novembro de 1998, 78 amostras de canela em pó e 56 de páprica em pó, em estabelecimentos comerciais de seis cidades do Estado de São Paulo. Foram utilizados métodos da Association of Official Analytical Chemists International (AOAC - 1995, 16.14.12/968.38b para canela em pó e 16.14.22/977.25B para páprica em pó. Os métodos mostraram-se adequados, sem resíduos interferentes no papel de filtro que dificultasse o diagnóstico da análise e viáveis de serem utilizados nos laboratórios de Microscopia de Alimentos. Os resultados obtidos indicaram 100% das amostras contendo fragmentos de insetos; pêlos de roedor foram isolados em 73,1% de amostras de canela em pó e 34,0% de páprica em pó, enquanto ácaros mortos apareceram, respectivamente, em 37,2% e 12,5% de amostras. É necessário revisão da legislação de alimentos em vigor, com o estabelecimento de níveis de tolerância para fragmentos de insetos.

  5. Referências de periódicos médicos brasileiros em publicações nacionais

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    Renan Kleber Costa Teixeira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar se há preferência pela citação de periódicos internacionais em detrimento dos nacionais em 10 periódicos nacionais de medicina em dois períodos de tempo distintos. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas todas as referências dos artigos publicados nos periódicos Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia, Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular, Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira, São Paulo Medical Journal, Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia, Clinics, Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia, Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria e Acta Ortopédica Brasileira nos anos de 2011 e 2007, verificando a quantidade de artigos provenientes de revistas nacionais e internacionais. RESULTADOS: Foram analisadas 36.125 referências dispostas em 1.462 artigos nas 10 revistas analisadas. Desse total, 4.242 (11,74% foram de periódicos nacionais. Não houve diferença significativa entre os dois períodos analisados. Artigos que citaram artigo de periódico nacional somaram 453 (30,98% artigos não citaram nenhum artigo de periódico nacional, enquanto 81 artigos (5,54% citaram mais artigos nacionais que estrangeiros. CONCLUSÃO: Do total de referências utilizadas, 11,74% foram referentes a artigos de periódicos brasileiros. Esse valor, quando comparado à porcentagem da produção brasileira no mundo na área de medicina, demonstra uma boa citação dos artigos nacionais.

  6. 40 CFR 98.362 - GHGs to report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... because of emissions from manure management system components is not required to report emissions from... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Manure Management § 98.362 GHGs to report. (a) Livestock facilities must report...

  7. Casuística de pacientes com queixa principal de alta estatura atendidos em serviço de referência em Salvador, Bahia Analysis of patients with chief complaint of tall stature seen at a referral hospital in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

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    Crésio Alves

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever uma casuística de pacientes atendidos em serviço de referência em endocrinologia pediátrica com queixa principal de alta estatura. MÉTODOS: Revisão de prontuários de 1.980 pacientes atendidos no período de janeiro de 2003 a janeiro de 2007, incluindo apenas os indivíduos cuja queixa principal, na primeira consulta, fosse sua alta estatura. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados 16 pacientes (0,8% do total de primeiras consultas. Destes, 12 preenchiam critérios diagnósticos de alta estatura (escore Z do indicador estatura para idade-ZE/I>2. Sete (58% eram do sexo masculino. A idade em primeira consulta variou entre 3 anos e 4 meses e 13 anos e 3 meses. O ZE/I variou de 2,18 a 5,99 e a altura-alvo, de -1,10 a 1,24. Em relação às causas da alta estatura, concluiu-se que: sete pacientes (58% tinham alta estatura familiar; dois (17% idiopática e três (25% sofriam de causas patológicas (síndrome de Marfan em um e adenoma hipofisário em dois deles. Nos quatro demais, o ZE/I variou de 1,86 a 1,98, não preenchendo critérios para alta estatura. Nestes, a etiologia do crescimento excessivo foi idiopática em dois, familiar em um e causado pela síndrome de Weaver em outro. CONCLUSÕES: A distribuição das etiologias de pacientes avaliados com a queixa de alta estatura está de acordo com a literatura, que relata ser familiar a principal causa. Embora alta estatura seja uma queixa principal pouco freqüente no consultório de endocrinologia pediátrica, a investigação deve ser cuidadosa a fim de se afastarem causas patológicas, que constituíram 25% dos casos.OBJECTIVE: To describe patients followed at a referral service in pediatric endocrinology with the chief complaint of tall stature. METHODS: Chart review of 1,980 patients evaluated from January 2003 to January 2007, being selected only individuals whose main complaint in the first consultation was tall stature. RESULTS: 16 patients were selected (0.8% and 12 of them

  8. Identification of <em>Colletotrichum> species causing anthracnose on Tahiti lime, tree tomato and mango

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    Martínez Erika P.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available

    In Colombia, citrus, tree tomato and mango crops are likely to suffer considerable losses from anthracnose caused by several <em>Colletotrichum> species, which were identified by the present study on infected organs of the three fruit crops, sampled in different regions of the country. Identification was based on their morphological and molecular characteristics, as well as on fungicide (benomyl and copper hydroxide sensitivity and pathogenicity tests. The latter assessed infectivity on both the original hosting crop and the other two crops (crossed infection, by putting the fungi in contact with organs taken from the three fruit crops. Molecular identification of the <em>Colletotrichum> species was carried out through amplification of rDNA ITS regions by means of <em>C. gloeosporioidesem> (CgInt and <em>C. acutatumem> (CaInt2 specific primer PCR combining the use of ITS4 universal primer. The results indicate that <em>C. acutatumem> is the infectious agent in Tahiti lime and tree tomato, and so is <em>C. gloeosporioidesem> in mango. Although <em>C. acutatumem> is the infectious agent in two diferent fruit species, the strains proved to be specific of their original hosts.

  9. A comparison of outcomes according to different diagnostic systems for delirium (DSM-5, DSM-IV, CAM, and DRS-R98).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamis, Dimitrios; Meagher, David; Rooney, Siobhan; Mulligan, Owen; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2018-04-01

    ABSTRACTStudies indicate that DSM-5 criteria for delirium are relatively restrictive, and identify different cases of delirium compared with previous systems. We evaluate four outcomes of delirium (mortality, length of hospital stay, institutionalization, and cognitive improvement) in relation to delirium defined by different DSM classification systems.Prospective, longitudinal study of patients aged 70+ admitted to medical wards of a general hospital. Participants were assessed up to a maximum of four times during two weeks, using DSM-5 and DSM-IV criteria, DRS-R98 and CAM scales as proxies for DSM III-R and DSM III.Of the 200 assessed patients (mean age 81.1, SD = 6.5; and 50% female) during hospitalization, delirium was identified in 41 (20.5%) using DSM-5, 45 (22.5%) according to DSM-IV, 46 (23%) with CAM positive, and 37 (18.5%) with DRS-R98 severity score >15. Mortality was significantly associated with delirium according to any classification system, but those identified with DSM-5 were at greater risk. Length of stay was significantly longer for those with DSM-IV delirium. Discharge to a care home was associated only with DRS-R98 defined delirium. Cognitive improvement was only associated with CAM and DSM-IV. Different classification systems for delirium identify populations with different outcomes.

  10. STS-98 Crew Interview: Tom Jones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The STS-98 Mission Specialist Tom Jones is seen being interviewed. He answers questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut, his career path, and his training. He gives details on the mission's goals and significance, and the payload and hardware it brings to the International Space Station (ISS). Mr. Jones discusses his role in the mission's spacewalks and activities.

  11. Produção de pessegueiro e nectarina no planalto médio do Rio Grande do Sul em anos de inverno ameno

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    Nienow Alexandre Augusto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo do comportamento produtivo de pessegueiros e nectarineiras visou obter informações no sentido de auxiliar na determinação dos cultivares e seleções mais promissores para a região do Planalto Médio do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram estudados doze cultivares e nove seleções de pessegueiro; dois cultivares e uma seleção de nectarineira, com exigências em frio menor que 7,2 ºC variando entre 150 e 400 horas. A coleção, constituída de três plantas por cultivar, conduzidas no espaçamento 6 x 3 m, no sistema de vaso aberto, sem irrigação, encontrava-se, em 1997, iniciando o sexto ciclo vegetativo. Observadas três safras agrícolas (1997/98, 1998/99 e 1999/00, os resultados obtidos demonstraram que a antecipação em maior ou menor grau da floração, dependendo do cultivar ou seleção, decorrente da elevação das temperaturas no final de junho e em julho, repercutiram na data de início da colheita, antecipando em até 20 dias. Diversos cultivares e seleções apresentaram rendimentos satisfatórios, acima de 15 t ha-1, porém, para a indicação dos materiais mais promissores, levando em conta o clima atípico, os estudos deverão ter prosseguimento, em que pese os cvs. Chimarrita, Marli e Eldorado já serem amplamente cultivados na região.

  12. Isolamento de micobactérias em Felis concolor em cativeiro

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    María Julia Traversa

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado em uma reserva natural da Argentina com antecedentes de tuberculose em uma suçuarana adulta. O objetivo foi identificar por meio de técnicas bacteriológicas e de biologia molecular as espécies isoladas da orofaringe de cinco suçuaranas que apresentavam sinais clínicos inespecíficos. As amostras foram colhidas das suçuaranas após sedação. Posteriormente foram processadas para obtenção do isolamento e identificação por meio de provas bioquímicas do gênero Mycobacterium pela técnica de PCR. Investigou-se a presença das seqüências de inserção IS6110 e IS1081 e hsp65. Obtiveram-se resultados positivos à coloração de Ziehl-Neelsen de quatro amostras, isolando cinco cepas de crescimento lento. As cepas foram classificadas como M. gordonae em dois casos e M. simiae, M scrofulaceum e M. avium/intracellulare em um. Por PRA, identificou-se o padrão de M. gordonae em três cepas e M. avium III ou M. simiae em dois.

  13. Caracterização bromatológica de oito linhagens de Lentinula edodes (Shiitake cultivadas em toras de Eucalyptus grandis Bromatological characterization of Lentinula edodes strains (Shiitake grown on Eucalyptus grandis logs

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    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O Lentinula edodes é um alimento de qualidade elevada, sendo rico em proteínas, vitaminas e sais minerais e pobre em calorias e gorduras. No entanto, seu valor nutricional varia em função da linhagem cultivada, do processamento após a colheita, do estágio de desenvolvimento do basidioma e do substrato utilizado. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar bromatologicamente os basidiomas de oito linhagens de L. edodes (LE-95/01, LE-95/02, LE-95/07, LE-96/17, LE-96/18, LE-98/47, LE-98/55 e LE-96/13, inteiros ou em partes (estípete e píleo, produzidos em toras de E. grandis. Verificou-se que tanto as linhagens de L. edodes como as partes dos basidiomas analisados influenciaram nas respostas nutricionais das amostras. O estípete apresentou as maiores médias de fibra bruta e as menores médias de proteína bruta. O píleo, por sua vez, apresentou as maiores médias de cinzas. Nas avaliações de basidiomas inteiros, as maiores médias, quanto ao teor de proteína bruta, foram obtidas nas linhagens LE-95/07, LE-96/17 e LE-96/18. Já a maior média de fibra bruta foi obtida pela linhagem LE-96/13 de L. edodes. O conteúdo de lipídios do píleo e do estípete não variaram entre as linhagens de L. edodes.Lentinula edodes is high quality food which is rich in proteins, vitamins, and minerals and poor in calories and fat. However, its nutritional value is variable according to the strain grown, processing after harvest, development stage of basidiomata, and substrate used. Thus, the objective of this paper was to carry out the bromatological characterization of basidiomatas from eight (LE-95/01, LE-95/02, LE-95/07, LE-96/17, LE-96/18, LE-98/47, LE-98/55 e LE-96/13 L. edodes strains, whole or in parts (stalk and pileus, produced in E. grandis logs. We verified that both the L. edodes strains and parts of basidiomatas analyzed influenced nutritional responses of the samples. The stalk presented the highest raw fiber averages and the

  14. Marketing em moda

    OpenAIRE

    Leães, Sabrina Durgante

    2008-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Design e Marketing O actual estado do Marketing em Moda é uma das questões ainda complexa com que se debate a sociedade global. As questões do Marketing em Moda percorrem alguns aspectos fundamentais tais como as constantes mutações do meio envolvente, a forma de como é percebida e comunicada a identidade das marcas de moda, em busca da melhor forma de segmentar o mercado e definir o seu posicionamento, bem como a reacção ao produto de moda do consumidor final. ...

  15. Synthesis and Antibacterial Evaluation of New <em>N>-acylhydrazone Derivatives from Dehydroabietic Acid

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    Wen Gu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of new <em>N>-acylhydrazone derivatives were synthesized in good yields through the reactions of dehydroabietic acid hydrazide with a variety of substituted arylaldehydes. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR, ESI-MS, elemental analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction. From the crystal structure of compound 4l, the C=N double bonds of these <em>N>-acylhydrazones showed (<em>E>-configuration, while the NMR data of compounds 4aq indicated the existence of two rotamers for each compound in solution. The target compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against four microbial strains. The result suggested that several compounds exhibited pronounced antibacterial activities. Particularly, compound 4p exhibited good antibacterial activity against <em>Staphylococcus aureusem> and <em>Bacillus subtilisem> comparable to positive control. The possible antibacterial metabolism and the strategy for further optimization of this compound were also discussed.

  16. Níveis de treonina digestível em dietas para codorna japonesa em postura Digestible threonine levels in diets for laying Japanese quail

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    Regina Tie Umigi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para estimar o nível de treonina digestível para codornas japonesas em postura, durante 63 dias. Quatrocentas codornas, com idade inicial de 57 dias, foram distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos, oito repetições e 10 aves por unidade experimental. A dieta basal, deficiente em treonina e com 20% PB, 2.910 kcal EM/kg, foi suplementada com cinco níveis de L-treonina 98% (0,018; 0,074; 0,128; 0,183 e 0,239%, correspondendo à relação treonina digestível:lisina digestível de 0,65; 0,70; 0,75; 0,80 e 0,85, respectivamente, para compor os tratamentos experimentais. As características estudadas foram: consumo de ração, consumo de treonina, produção de ovos, produção de ovos comercializáveis, peso do ovo, massa de ovos, conversão alimentar por massa de ovos, conversão alimentar por dúzia de ovos, qualidade dos ovos (gema, albúmen e casca, altura e diâmetro dos ovos e gravidade específica. Observou-se efeito linear dos tratamentos somente sobre o consumo de treonina. Concluiu-se que, para proporcionar os melhores resultados de desempenho e de qualidade de ovos, a codorna japonesa não exige mais que 0,65% de treonina digestível para um consumo de 149,2 mg de treonina digestível/dia ou um consumo diário de 14,34 mg de treonina digestível/g ovo, correspondendo à relação treonina digestível:lisina digestível de 0,65.The experiment was carried out to estimate the level of digestible threonine for laying japanese quail during 63 days. A total of 400 japanese quails, with inicial age of 57 days were allotted to a complete randomized experimental design with five treatments, eight replicates and ten birds per experimental unit. The basal diet, deficient in threonine and with 20% C, 2,910kcal ME/kg, was supplemented with five levels of L-threonine 98% (0.018, 0.074, 0.128, 0.183, and 0.239%, corresponding to digestible threonine: digestible lysine ratios 0.65, 0

  17. Morphometry and granulosa cells number of preantral ovarian follicles from bovine (“Bos indicus” preserved at 4ºC in saline solution for different periods of time Morfometria e número de células da granulosa de folículos ovarianos pré-antrais de bovino ("Bos indicus" preservados a 4ºC em solução salina por diferentes períodos de tempo

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    Hélder Silva Luna

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study had the objective to evaluate the effect of cooling at 4 ºC, at different periods of time, in the morphometry and number of granulosa cells of preantral ovarian follicles of bovines. Ovaries were gotten from slaughterhouse, divided in 4 parts and distributed in 4 groups: control (without cooling and groups cooled for 12, 24 and 48 h in saline solution (NaCl 0.9% at 4 ºC. After treatment, samples were fixed in Carnoy and forwarded to classic histology techniques. The follicles were analyzed with optic and ocular microscope with micrometric scale. Total of 340 follicles were analyzed, which 242 were primordial and 98 primary. Results indicated that the primordial and primary follicles when cooled in saline solution at 4 ºC did not present variation in oocyte and diameter and amount of cells of the granulosa when comparing the control group to 12, 24 and 48 h groups (P > 0.05. In conclusion, the temperature at 4 ºC does not influence the morphometry of the follicles and the amount of the granulosa cells.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do resfriamento a 4 ºC, em diferentes períodos de tempo, na morfometria e número de células da granulosa de folículos pré-antrais de ovário bovino. Os ovários foram obtidos em abatedouro, divididos em 4 partes e distribuídos em 4 grupos: controle (sem resfriamento e grupos resfriados por 12, 24 e 48 h em solução salina (NaCl a 0,9% a 4 ºC. Após tratamento, as amostras foram fixadas em Carnoy e encaminhadas para rotina histológica clássica. Para análise folicular, utilizou-se microscópio óptico e ocular com escala micrométrica. Foram analisados um total de 340 folículos, sendo 242 primordiais e 98 primários. Os resultados obtidos indicam que os folículos primordiais e primários, quando resfriados em solução salina a 4 ºC, não apresentam variação em sua morfometria e quantidade de células da granulosa, quando comparado o grupo controle com

  18. Morfologia e duração do desenvolvimento pós-embrionário de Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae em condições de laboratório

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    Karine Brenda Barros-Cordeiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A morfologia e o tempo de desenvolvimento pós-embrionário de Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius criada em condições de laboratório e em dieta de carne bovina, foi descrita e comparada ao de outras espécies. Os parâmetros analisados foram à duração dos instares larvais e a morfologia. Para isso as larvas foram fixadas e preservadas em intervalos de tempo de 2 horas, desde a eclosão das larvas até a 50ª hora, a fim de se determinar o tempo de desenvolvimento de cada estágio. O tempo total de desenvolvimento larval para C. megacephala foi de 98 horas, com média de comprimento 15,51 mm. Essa espécie tem comportamento necrobiontófago e de importância sanitária e médico-legal, usada na estimativa do intervalo post-mortem em investigação criminal.Morphology and duration of the post-embryonary development of Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae in laboratory conditions. The morphology and developmental time of the post-embryonic stage of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius reared in laboratory on a beef diet, is described and compared to those of other blow-flies species. The parameters analyzed were the duration of the larval stages and the morphology. Larvae were fixed and preserved at 2 hours intervals, from larval eclosion until the 50th hour of life, in order to determine the duration of each stage. The total period of larval development in C. megacephala was 98 hours and their mean length was 15.51 mm. This species presents a necrobiontophagous behavior and has sanitary and medico-legal importance, being used for estimating postmortem interval in criminal investigations.

  19. O uso de medicamentos em puérpuras interfere nas recomendações quanto ao aleitamento materno?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamounier Joel A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: estudar a freqüência do uso de medicamentos no pós-parto imediato e verificar possíveis interferências nas recomendações quanto à amamentação.Métodos: foi realizado um estudo transversal em quatro maternidades de Belo Horizonte, no período de julho de 1998 a julho de 1999, incluindo 2.173 parturientes. A amostra foi calculada com base em dados da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde sobre o número de partos ocorridos nessas instituições, no ano de 1995, ou seja, em torno de 5% do total em um ano. A distribuição da amostra foi aleatória, utilizando o calendário de semanas epidemiológicas. Através de entrevistas junto às mães, usando um questionário próprio, e da coleta de dados obtidos de prontuários médicos da mãe e do recém-nascido, foi avaliada a freqüência do uso de medicamentos no pós-parto imediato. Os medicamentos foram agrupados em categorias quanto à compatibilidade com amamentação, à incompatibilidade, ao uso criterioso em monitorar e observar o recém-nascido para possíveis efeitos indesejáveis.Resultados: de um total de 2.173 mulheres, em 2.090 (96,2% foram prescritos medicamentos no pós-parto imediato. Dos medicamentos utilizados, 2.054 (98,3% foram de drogas sem contra-indicação à amamentação natural; 338 (16,2% foram de drogas sem informações seguras, e 3 (0,14% de drogas contra-indicadas à amamentação. Conclusões: observou-se um amplo uso de medicamentos pelas mães nas maternidades de Belo Horizonte, no pós-parto imediato. A maioria das drogas é compatível com a amamentação, o que parece não influenciar negativamente a prática do aleitamento materno.

  20. Special Issue on Time Scale Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 IOP PUBLISHING METROLOGIA Metrologia 45 (2008) doi:10.1088/0026-1394/45/6/E01...special issue of Metrologia presents selected papers from the Fifth International Time Scale Algorithm Symposium (VITSAS), including some of the...scientists, and hosted by the Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada (ROA) in San Fernando, Spain, whose staff further enhanced their nation’s high

  1. Correlação entre as escalas visual analógica, de Melbourne e filamentos de Von Frey na avaliação da dor pós-operatória em cadelas submetidas à ovariossalpingohisterectomia Correlation between visual analog scale, Melbourne pain scale and Von Frey filaments in post-operatory pain evaluation in bitches submitted to ovaryhysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia Heinze Pohl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação da dor em animais necessita da utilização de escalas de avaliação, que dependem da interpretação realizada por observadores. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a correlação entre a escala visual analógica (EVA, escala de Melbourne e os filamentos de Von Frey, na avaliação da dor pós-operatória em 42 cadelas adultas e saudáveis, submetidas à ovariossalpingohisterectomia (OSH. A dor pós-operatória foi avaliada por dois observadores cegos aos tratamentos analgésicos, em intervalos de uma hora, utilizando a EVA, a escala de Melbourne e os filamentos de Von Frey, aplicados ao redor da incisão cirúrgica. Foram considerados como critérios para realização da analgesia resgate uma pontuação de 50mm na EVA ou de 13 pontos na escala de Melbourne. A EVA revelou-se a escala mais sensível, uma vez que 100% dos animais receberam resgate seguindo esse método. Os valores obtidos na EVA e na escala de Melbourne determinaram boa correlação, com r=0,74, o que não ocorreu com os filamentos de Von Frey (r=-0,18. Já a correlação entre a escala de Melbourne e os filamentos de Von Frey foi de -0.37. Apesar de a EVA e a escala de Melbourne apresentarem boa correlação, sugere-se que se considere uma pontuação menor na escala de Melbourne como critério para administração de analgesia resgate.Pain evaluation in animals requires the use of evaluation scales, which depend on the interpretation made by observers. The present study aimed to evaluate the correlation between visual analog scale (VAS, Melbourne pain scale and Von Frey filaments in the evaluation of post-operatory pain in fourty two healthy adult bitches submited to ovariohysterectomy. Post-operatory pain was evaluated by two observers unaware of the analgesic protocol used, in one-hour intervals, using VAS, Melbourne pain scale and Von Frey filaments, applied around the surgical wound. A score of 50mm in VAS or 13 points in the Melbourne pain scale were

  2. EMS-physicians' self reported airway management training and expertise; a descriptive study from the Central Region of Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rognås Leif K

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prehospital advanced airway management, including prehospital endotracheal intubation is challenging and recent papers have addressed the need for proper training, skill maintenance and quality control for emergency medical service personnel. The aim of this study was to provide data regarding airway management-training and expertise from the regional physician-staffed emergency medical service (EMS. Methods The EMS in this part of The Central Region of Denmark is a two tiered system. The second tier comprises physician staffed Mobile Emergency Care Units. The medical directors of the programs supplied system data. A questionnaire addressing airway management experience, training and knowledge was sent to the EMS-physicians. Results There are no specific guidelines, standard operating procedures or standardised program for obtaining and maintaining skills regarding prehospital advanced airway management in the schemes covered by this study. 53/67 physicians responded; 98,1% were specialists in anesthesiology, with an average of 17,6 years of experience in anesthesiology, and 7,2 years experience as EMS-physicians. 84,9% reported having attended life support course(s, 64,2% an advanced airway management course. 24,5% fulfilled the curriculum suggested for Danish EMS physicians. 47,2% had encountered a difficult or impossible PHETI, most commonly in a patient in cardiac arrest or a trauma patient. Only 20,8% of the physicians were completely familiar with what back-up devices were available for airway management. Conclusions In this, the first Danish study of prehospital advanced airway management, we found a high degree of experience, education and training among the EMS-physicians, but their equipment awareness was limited. Check-outs, guidelines, standard operating procedures and other quality control measures may be needed.

  3. Infracommunities of intestinal helminths of the Red Fox <em>Vulpes vulpesem> (Linnaeus, 1758 from Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rita Di Cerbo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available <em>Vulpes vulpesem> (Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the most common carnivore in Italy and its spread includes almost the whole national territory. The species shows an high ecological plasticity and a variable diet composition connected in part to human sources. This high adaptability permits the red foxes to colonize different habitats like the suburbs of large cities as well as the small villages located in mountain areas. On the other hand, the tourism pressure seems to assume a great importance in the Alps, also in those areas where the foxes live. So, indirect interactions could take place between these animals and the humans. The role of <em>V. vulpesem> in the zoonoses has not to be understated since this carnivore could transmit parasitic diseases that are able to cause serious pathologies in humans. This study aims just to investigate on intestinal communities of helmiths of <em>V. vulpesem> in order to make progress in current knowledge on epidemiological situation in Italian Alps. During 1998-2003, we have examined 450 foxes from Trentino Alto Adige, Veneto, Lombardia and Valle d'Aosta. The specimens collected were found dead or have been hunted (according to national law n. 157/92 in localities situated between 170 and 2200 m a.s.l. The carcasses were carried to the provincial sections of Zooprofilattici Institutes, where the intestine was drawn by each sample and all the material was sent to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Milan. Parasitological examination of the small intestines was performed by the analysis of the whole sediment and counting technique (SCT. Parasites were preserved in alcohol 70° before to be clarified or stained and identified by microscope (Zeiss Axioscop. Mean abundance, mean intensity and prevalence were calculated for each taxon of helminth. Dates of sampling were grouped within the four seasons. Statistic tests were performed with software package SPSS rel. 11.5 and spatial analysis with the

  4. 40 CFR 98.73 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...). MW = Molecular weight of the gaseous feedstock (kg/kg-mole). MVC = Molar volume conversion factor... stream (kg/kg-mole). MVC = Molar volume conversion factor (849.5 scf per kg-mole at standard conditions... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Ammonia Manufacturing § 98.73 Calculating GHG emissions. You...

  5. 40 CFR 98.243 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... feedstock). (MWf)i = Molecular weight of gaseous feedstock i (kg/kg-mole). MVC = Molar volume conversion... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petrochemical Production § 98.243 Calculating GHG emissions. (a) If you route all process vent emissions and emissions from combustion of process off-gas to one...

  6. Propriedades psicométricas de uma escala de autoeficácia para a prática de atividade física em adultos brasileiros Psychometric properties of a self-efficacy scale for physical activity in Brazilian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Ricardo Rech

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a validade e a fidedignidade de uma escala de autoeficácia para a prática de atividade física (AF em adultos brasileiros. MÉTODOS: A escala de autoeficácia foi aplicada juntamente com um questionário multidimensional face a face em 1 418 indivíduos (63,4% mulheres com idade > 18 anos. O instrumento foi submetido à análise de validade (fatorial e construto e fidedignidade (consistência interna e estabilidade temporal. O procedimento de teste-reteste foi aplicado em 74 indivíduos para verificar a estabilidade temporal do instrumento. RESULTADOS: A análise fatorial exploratória apresentou dois fatores distintos: autoeficácia para a prática de caminhada e autoeficácia para a prática de AF moderada e vigorosa (AFMV. Ambos os fatores explicaram 65,4% da variância total da escala (20,9 e 44,5% para caminhada e AFMV, respectivamente. Foram obtidos valores de α = 0,83 (caminhada e 0,90 (AFMV, que indicam elevada consistência interna. Ambos os fatores da escala apresentaram correlação positiva e significativa (rho > 0,17; P OBJECTIVE: To test the validity and reliability of a self-efficacy scale for physical activity (PA in Brazilian adults. METHODS: A self-efficacy scale was applied jointly with a multidimensional questionnaire through face-to-face interviews with 1418 individuals (63.4% women aged > 18 years. The scale was submitted to validity (factorial and construct and reliability analysis (internal consistency and temporal stability. A test-retest procedure was conducted with 74 individuals to evaluate temporal stability. RESULTS: Exploratory factor analyses revealed two independent factors: self-efficacy for walking and self-efficacy for moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA. Together, these two factors explained 65.4% of the total variance of the scale (20.9% and 44.5% for walking and MVPA, respectively. Cronbach's alpha values were 0.83 for walking and 0.90 for MVPA, indicating high internal consistency. Both

  7. Sequential computation of elementary modes and minimal cut sets in genome-scale metabolic networks using alternate integer linear programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hyun-Seob; Goldberg, Noam; Mahajan, Ashutosh; Ramkrishna, Doraiswami

    2017-03-27

    Elementary (flux) modes (EMs) have served as a valuable tool for investigating structural and functional properties of metabolic networks. Identification of the full set of EMs in genome-scale networks remains challenging due to combinatorial explosion of EMs in complex networks. It is often, however, that only a small subset of relevant EMs needs to be known, for which optimization-based sequential computation is a useful alternative. Most of the currently available methods along this line are based on the iterative use of mixed integer linear programming (MILP), the effectiveness of which significantly deteriorates as the number of iterations builds up. To alleviate the computational burden associated with the MILP implementation, we here present a novel optimization algorithm termed alternate integer linear programming (AILP). Results: Our algorithm was designed to iteratively solve a pair of integer programming (IP) and linear programming (LP) to compute EMs in a sequential manner. In each step, the IP identifies a minimal subset of reactions, the deletion of which disables all previously identified EMs. Thus, a subsequent LP solution subject to this reaction deletion constraint becomes a distinct EM. In cases where no feasible LP solution is available, IP-derived reaction deletion sets represent minimal cut sets (MCSs). Despite the additional computation of MCSs, AILP achieved significant time reduction in computing EMs by orders of magnitude. The proposed AILP algorithm not only offers a computational advantage in the EM analysis of genome-scale networks, but also improves the understanding of the linkage between EMs and MCSs.

  8. Large-Scale Context-Aware Volume Navigation using Dynamic Insets

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Awami, Ali

    2012-07-01

    Latest developments in electron microscopy (EM) technology produce high resolution images that enable neuro-scientists to identify and put together the complex neural connections in a nervous system. However, because of the massive size and underlying complexity of this kind of data, processing, navigation and analysis suffer drastically in terms of time and effort. In this work, we propose the use of state-of- the-art navigation techniques, such as dynamic insets, built on a peta-scale volume visualization framework to provide focus and context-awareness to help neuro-scientists in their mission to analyze, reconstruct, navigate and explore EM neuroscience data.

  9. Enzymatic Properties and Mutational Studies of Chalcone Synthase from <em>Physcomitrella patensem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahiran Basri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available <em>Pp>CHS is a member of the type III polyketide synthase family and catalyses the synthesis of the flavonoid precursor naringenin chalcone from <em>p>-coumaroyl-CoA. Recent research reports the production of pyrone derivatives using either hexanoyl-CoA or butyryl-CoA as starter molecule. The Cys-His-Asn catalytic triad found in other plant chalcone synthase predicted polypeptides is conserved in <em>Pp>CHS. Site directed mutagenesis involving these amino acids residing in the active-site cavity revealed that the cavity volume of the active-site plays a significant role in the selection of starter molecules as well as product formation. Substitutions of Cys 170 with Arg and Ser amino acids decreased the ability of the <em>Pp>CHS to utilize hexanoyl-CoA as a starter molecule, which directly effected the production of pyrone derivatives (products. These substitutions are believed to have a restricted number of elongations of the growing polypeptide chain due to the smaller cavity volume of the mutant’s active site.

  10. Manejo do nitrogênio no milho em sucessão a plantas de cobertura de solo, sob plantio direto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Basso

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Estabelecida a hipótese de que a antecipação da adubação nitrogenada promove acréscimo no rendimento de grãos de milho pela maior disponibilidade de N nos estádios iniciais de desenvolvimento, foi realizado um trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes manejos de N para o milho cultivado em sucessão a plantas de cobertura de solo. O experimento foi desenvolvido em área do Departamento de Solos da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (RS, nos anos agrícolas de 1996/97, 1997/98 e 1998/99, em Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico (Hapludalf. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. Nas parcelas principais (25 x 5 m, foram cultivadas três espécies para cobertura de solo no inverno: aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schieb, aveia preta + ervilhaca (Vicia sativa L. e nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus. Nas subparcelas (5 x 5 m, aplicou-se N para o milho da seguinte maneira: (a 00-00-00, (b 00-30-90, (c 30-30-60, (d 60-30-30 e (e 90-30-00, cuja seqüência para cada tratamento corresponde à quantidade de N em kg ha-1 aplicado em pré-semeadura-semeadura-cobertura do milho. A aplicação de N em pré-semeadura foi realizada após o manejo das plantas de cobertura de solo no inverno, enquanto em cobertura o N foi aplicado quando as plantas de milho estavam com quatro a seis folhas desenroladas. Utilizou-se uréia como fonte de N. Segundo os resultados, o milho cultivado em sucessão ao consórcio com aveia preta + ervilhaca mostrou melhor desempenho do que quando cultivado sobre resíduos de aveia preta e nabo forrageiro. A aplicação de N em pré-semeadura do milho é uma atitude de risco, sendo mais segura a aplicação de N na semeadura e em cobertura.

  11. A ordem errática e a instituição do modelo de gestão previsto no decreto-lei 115-A/98 : narrativas de uma vivência

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Zélia Maria de Oliveira Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Este trabalho desenvolve-se em torno da análise sociopolítica e teórico-conceptual da realidade educativa e escolar, aquando da aplicação do decreto-lei n.º 115-A/98 que aparece nas estruturas do Ministério da Educação, como o normativo que vem regulamentar os órgãos de direção e gestão e, consequentemente, aprofundar a autonomia das escolas. Procura abordar, fundamentalmente, as interconexões entre as duas dimensões organizadas, estudadas no âmbito da teoria das organizações: a dimensão raci...

  12. Validation of the Brazilian version of the Clinical Gait and Balance Scale and comparison with the Berg Balance Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Almeida Oliveira Baggio

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To validate the Clinical Gait and Balance Scale (GABS for a Brazilian population of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD and to compare it to the Berg Balance Scale (BBS. Methods One hundred and seven PD patients were evaluated by shortened UPDRS motor scale (sUPDRSm, Hoehn and Yahr (HY, Schwab and England scale (SE, Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I, Freezing of Gait Questionnaire (FOG-Q, BBS and GABS. Results The internal consistency of the GABS was 0.94, the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability were 0.94 and 0.98 respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was 0.72, with a sensitivity of 0.75 and specificity of 0.6, to discriminate patients with a history of falls in the last twelve months, for a cut-off score of 13 points. Conclusions Our study shows that the Brazilian version of the GABS is a reliable and valid instrument to assess gait and balance in PD.

  13. The influence of castanhão reservoir on nutrient and suspended matter transport during rainy season in the ephemeral Jaguaribe river (CE, Brazil Influência do açude Castanhão no transporte de nutrientes e materiais em suspensão durante a estação chuvosa no intermitente rio Jaguaribe (CE, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM. Molisani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of nutrient and suspended matter concentrations and loads entering and leaving the Castanhão reservoir during the rainy season were carried out to assess the influence of this large reservoir on land-sea fluvial transport in the ephemeral Jaguaribe river basin. Spatial variation indicated statistically significant attenuation of concentrations only for total phosphorous and suspended matter across the reservoir. Strong retention of nutrients and suspended matter loads by the reservoir was observed with average trapping efficiency of 89% for dissolved silicon, 98% of soluble reactive phosphorus, 71% for ammonium, 87% for total nitrogen, 98% for total phosphorus and 97% for suspended matter compared to the reservoir inflow. The dam operational procedure defined by the ephemeral conditions of the river reduced water releases compared to reservoir inflow and induced strong retention of nutrient and suspended matter loads within the reservoir when fluvial transfer occurs in this semiarid watershed.Medidas de concentrações e fluxos de nutrientes e material particulado em suspensão de entrada e saída do Açude Castanhão foram efetuadas para determinar a influência de um grande reservatório no transporte fluvial entre o continente e o oceano na bacia hidrográfica intermitente do Rio Jaguaribe. A variação espacial indicou uma atenuação estatisticamente significativa ao longo do reservatório somente para as concentrações de fósforo total e material particulado em suspensão. Os resultados indicam uma forte retenção de nutrientes e do material particulado em suspensão com eficiências de retenção de 89% para sílica dissolvida, 98% para fósforo solúvel reativo, 71% para amônia, 87% para nitrogênio total, 98% para fósforo total e 97% para o material particulado em suspensão em relação aos fluxos de entrada no reservatório. A rotina de operação da barragem definida pela condição intermitente do Rio Jaguaribe

  14. The Impact of Emotional Priming on MMPI-2 Scale Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tayla T. C.; Forbey, Johnathan D.; Ritchey, Kristin A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated potential emotional priming effects on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scale scores. Participants included 98 college students who completed a personal narrative intended to induce temporary mood states, the MMPI-2, and a mood rating inventory. Results of the mood manipulation indicated that…

  15. 40 CFR 98.76 - Data reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... facility uses gaseous feedstock, the molar volume conversion factor of the gaseous feedstock (scf per kg... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Ammonia Manufacturing § 98.76 Data reporting requirements. In...). (14) Volume of the waste recycle stream for month n for each ammonia process unit (scf) (15) Method...

  16. EM simulation assisted parameter extraction for the modeling of transferred-substrate InP HBTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Weimann, Nils; Doerner, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    In this paper an electromagnetic (EM) simulation assisted parameters extraction procedure is demonstrated for accurate modeling of down-scaled transferred-substrate InP HBTs. The external parasitic network associated with via transitions and device electrodes is carefully extracted from calibrate...

  17. Accumulation, Biotransformation, Histopathology and Paralysis in the Pacific Calico Scallop <em>Argopecten ventricosusem> by the Paralyzing Toxins of the Dinoflagellate <em>Gymnodinium catenatumem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalba Alonso-Rodriguez

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The dinoflagellate <em>Gymnodinium catenatumem> produces paralyzing shellfish poisons that are consumed and accumulated by bivalves. We performed short-term feeding experiments to examine ingestion, accumulation, biotransformation, histopathology, and paralysis in the juvenile Pacific calico scallop <em>Argopecten ventricosusem> that consume this dinoflagellate. Depletion of algal cells was measured in closed systems. Histopathological preparations were microscopically analyzed. Paralysis was observed and the time of recovery recorded. Accumulation and possible biotransformation of toxins were measured by HPLC analysis. Feeding activity in treated scallops showed that scallops produced pseudofeces, ingestion rates decreased at 8 h; approximately 60% of the scallops were paralyzed and melanin production and hemocyte aggregation were observed in several tissues at 15 h. HPLC analysis showed that the only toxins present in the dinoflagellates and scallops were the <em>N>-sulfo-carbamoyl toxins (C1, C2; after hydrolysis, the carbamate toxins (epimers GTX2/3 were present. C1 and C2 toxins were most common in the mantle, followed by the digestive gland and stomach-complex, adductor muscle, kidney and rectum group, and finally, gills. Toxin profiles in scallop tissue were similar to the dinoflagellate; biotransformations were not present in the scallops in this short-term feeding experiment.

  18. Identification of Volatile Components of Liverwort (<em>Porella cordaeanaem> Extracts Using GC/MS-SPME and Their Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisabetta Guerzoni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical constituents of liverwort (<em>Porella cordaeanaem> extracts have been identified using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS. The methanol, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts were rich in terpenoids such as sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (53.12%, 51.68%, 23.16%, and monoterpene hydrocarbons (22.83%, 18.90%, 23.36%, respectively. The dominant compounds in the extracts were β-phellandrene (15.54%, 13.66%, 12.10% and β-caryophyllene (10.72%, 8.29%, 7.79%, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was evaluated against eleven food microorganisms using the microdilution and disc diffusion methods. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC varied from 0.50 to 2.00 mg/mL for yeast strains (<em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae 635em>, <em>Zygosacharomyces bailii 45em>, <em>Aerobasidium pullulans L6Fem>, <em>Pichia membranaefaciens OC 71em>, <em>Pichia membranaefaciens OC 70em>, <em>Pichia anomalaem> <em>CBS 5759em>, <em>Pichia anomala DBVPG 3003em> and<em> em>>Yarrowia lipolytica RO13em>, and from 1.00 to 3.00 mg/mL for bacterial strains<em> em>(Salmonella> <em>enteritidis 155em>, <em>Escherichia coli 555em> and <em>Listeria monocytogenes 56Lyem>. Methanol extract showed better activity in comparison with ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts. High percentages of monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons could be responsible for the better antimicrobial activity.

  19. Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade do pulgão-preto em cultivares de videira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cléber Antonio Baronio

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a biologia e a tabela de vida de fertilidade do pulgão-preto da videira [Aphis illinoisensis (Hemiptera: Aphididae], em mudas das cultivares de Vitis labrusca Bordô, e de V. vinifera Cabernet Franc, Itália e Moscato Bianco. O experimento foi conduzido em 50 minigaiolas de confinamento, com um inseto em cada gaiola por tratamento, fixadas em mudas de videira mantidas em câmara de crescimento do tipo fitotron (a 25±1°C, umidade relativa de 75±10% e fotófase de 14 horas. Avaliaram-se diariamente a duração e a viabilidade ninfal, a fecundidade e a longevidade do período reprodutivo da espécie. O pulgão-preto da videira completou o ciclo biológico nas mudas das mencionadas cultivares, com duração da fase de ninfa de 7,9±0,3, 6,8±0,2, 6,2±0,2 e 6,7±0,2 dias, e viabilidade de 58, 82, 98 e 80% para 'Bordô', 'Cabernet Franc', 'Itália' e 'Moscato Bianco', respectivamente. 'Cabernet Franc' e 'Moscato Bianco' foram mais favoráveis ao desenvolvimento do pulgão-preto, com base na tabela de vida de fertilidade, com 51,3 e 55,6 descendentes por fêmea, por geração, respectivamente. 'Bordô' foi a menos adequada ao desenvolvimento do afídeo, com 12,55 descendentes por fêmea, por geração, o que indica resistência do tipo antibiose ou não preferência do inseto pela cultivar.

  20. Fatores associados ao tracoma em área hipoendêmica da Região Sudeste, Brasil Factors associated with trachoma in a low-endemic area in Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Kazuye Koda D'Amaral

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi desenvolvido um estudo caso-controle pareado por idade e escola (n = 121 pares entre escolares e pré-escolares residentes em área periférica da região metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil, com o objetivo de investigar fatores associados ao tracoma em área de baixa prevalência. Foi utilizada a definição de caso proposta pela Organização Mundial da Saúde. Os casos foram identificados em inquérito prévio e os controles selecionados na mesma população, mediante sorteio entre os que não apresentavam a condição de interesse. A variável dependente foi tracoma e as independentes: estrato sócio-econômico, hospedar pessoas originárias de áreas endêmicas, hábitos de higiene, escolaridade do chefe da família, acesso à água, contato com outro caso na família e residir em favela. As odds ratios (OR não ajustada e ajustada e os respectivos intervalos de de confiança de 95%(IC95% foram estimados por regressão logística condicional. Mostraram-se independentemente associados ao tracoma: pertencer ao estrato social de menor poder aquisitivo (OR = 8,21; IC95%: 1,50-44,81, hospedar pessoas originárias de área endêmica (OR = 2,44; IC95%: 1,1-5,46, contato com outro caso na família (OR = 2,52; IC95%: 0,98-6,48 e higiene facial (OR = 0,5; IC95%: 0,26-0,98.A case-control study matched by age and school (n = 121 pairs was carried out among pre-elementary and elementary students from low-income families living in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil, with the objective of investigating factors associated with trachoma in a low prevalence area. The case definition for trachoma was that proposed by the World Health Organization. The dependent variable was trachoma and the independent variables were social stratum, housing of migrants from endemic areas, facial hygiene habits, head of family's schooling, access to potable water, contact with another case in the family, and slum residence. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR

  1. EM International. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  2. Core Capabilities and Technical Enhancement -- FY-98 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David Lynn

    1999-04-01

    The Core Capability and Technical Enhancement (CC&TE) Program, a part of the Verification, Validation, and Engineering Assessment Program, was implemented to enhance and augment the technical capabilities of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The purpose for strengthening the technical capabilities of the INEEL is to provide the technical base to serve effectively as the Environmental Management Laboratory for the Office of Environmental Management (EM). An analysis of EM's science and technology needs as well as the technology investments currently being made by EM across the complex was used to formulate a portfolio of research activities designed to address EM's needs without overlapping work being done elsewhere. An additional purpose is to enhance and maintain the technical capabilities and research infrastructure at the INEEL. This is a progress report for fiscal year 1998 for the five CC&TE research investment areas: (a) transport aspects of selective mass transport agents, (b) chemistry of environmental surfaces, (c) materials dynamics, (d) characterization science, and (e) computational simulation of mechanical and chemical systems. In addition to the five purely technical research areas, this report deals with the science and technology foundations element of the CC&TE from the standpoint of program management and complex-wide issues. This report also provides details of ongoing and future work in all six areas.

  3. Core capabilities and technical enhancement, FY-98 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.L.

    1999-04-01

    The Core Capability and Technical Enhancement (CCTE) Program, a part of the Verification, Validation, and Engineering Assessment Program, was implemented to enhance and augment the technical capabilities of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The purpose for strengthening the technical capabilities of the INEEL is to provide the technical base to serve effectively as the Environmental Management Laboratory for the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM). An analysis of EM's science and technology needs as well as the technology investments currently being made by EM across the complex was used to formulate a portfolio of research activities designed to address EM's needs without overlapping work being done elsewhere. An additional purpose is to enhance and maintain the technical capabilities and research infrastructure at the INEEL. This is a progress report for fiscal year 1998 for the five CCTE research investment areas: (a) transport aspects of selective mass transport agents, (b) chemistry of environmental surfaces, (c) materials dynamics, (d) characterization science, and (e) computational simulation of mechanical and chemical systems. In addition to the five purely technical research areas, this report deals with the science and technology foundations element of the CCTE from the standpoint of program management and complex-wide issues. This report also provides details of ongoing and future work in all six areas.

  4. RRDF-98. Russian reactor dosimetry file. Summary documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashchenko, A.B.

    1999-01-01

    This document summarizes the contents and documentation of the new version of tile Russian Reactor Dosimetry File (RRDF-98) released in December 1998 by the Russian Center on Nuclear Data (CJD) at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Russian Federation. This file contains the original evaluations of cross section data and covariance matrixes for 22 reactions which are used for neutron flux dosimetry by foil activation. The majority of the evaluations included in previous versions of the Russian Reactor Dosimetry Files (BOSPOR-80, RRGF-94 and RRDF-96) have been superseded by new evaluations. The evaluated cross sections of RRDF-98 averaged over 252-Cf and 235-U fission spectra are compared with relevant integral data. The data file is available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section on diskette, cost free. (author)

  5. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley

    2016-01-01

    .93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice......Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated...... the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age...

  6. Home range dynamics of mountain hare (<em>Lepus timidusem> in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Genini-Gamboni

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Little is known on the ecology and behaviour of alpine mountain hare (<em>Lepus timidusem>. Between 1996 and 1997 we analysed by radiotracking the pattern of space use of 8 mountain hares from the Swiss Alps. We estimated home range size using both the kernel density estimator and the minimum convex polygon. We found smaller ranges (38 ha compared to those reported for the species in boreal or arctic habitats, but similar to ranges in Scotland. Hares did not use a centre of major activity (core area and showed high home range overlap, confirming their non-territorial behaviour. Smaller ranges were used during winter compared to the other seasons, whilst no difference in size was found between sexes. Riassunto Dinamica dell'uso dello spazio della lepre bianca (<em>Lepus timidusem> nelle Alpi Svizzere Le informazioni relative all'ecologia e al comportamento della lepre alpina (<em>Lepus timidusem> sono ad oggi scarse. In questo studio abbiamo analizzato l'utilizzo dello spazio di una popolazione di lepre bianca sulle Alpi Svizzere. Tra il 1996 e il 1997 sono stati marcati con redio collare 8 individui di lepre alpina. L'<em>home rangeem> è stato calcolato utilizzando lo stimatore di densità kernel (KDE ed il metodo del minimo poligono convesso (MCP. L'ampiezza degli <em>home rangeem> (38 ha è risultata inferiore a quella riportata per la specie in habitat boreali ed artici. ma simile a quella riscontrata in Scozia. All'interno dell <em>home rangeem> non è stato rilevato alcun centro di maggiore attività (<em>core areaem> ed è stata evidenziata una notevole sovrapposizione tra gli stessi, confermando la non territorialità della specie. Le aree frequentate in inverno sono risultate più piccole rispetto alle altre stagioni e non sono state riscontrate differenze tra i sessi.

  7. 7 CFR 98.5 - Fees and charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MEALS, READY-TO-EAT (MRE's), MEATS, AND MEAT PRODUCTS MRE's, Meats, and Related Meat Food Products § 98.5 Fees and charges. (a) The fee charged for any single laboratory analysis of meat, meat food..., meat food products, and MRE's, not covered by a cooperative agreement, shall result in an additional...

  8. <em>Botulinum Neurotoxinem> A Injections Influence Stretching of the Gastrocnemius Muscle-Tendon Unit in an Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Tuohy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available <em>Botulinum Neurotoxinem> A (BoNT-A injections have been used for the treatment of muscle contractures and spasticity. This study assessed the influence of (BoNT-A injections on passive biomechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit. Mouse gastrocnemius muscle (GC was injected with BoNT-A (<em>n> = 18 or normal saline (<em>n> = 18 and passive, non-destructive, <em>in vivoem> load relaxation experimentation was performed to examine how the muscle-tendon unit behaves after chemical denervation with BoNT-A. Injection of BoNT-A impaired passive muscle recovery (15% <em>vs.> 35% recovery to pre-stretching baseline, <em>p> < 0.05 and decreased GC stiffness (0.531 ± 0.061 N/mm <em>vs.> 0.780 ± 0.037 N/mm, <em>p> < 0.05 compared to saline controls. The successful use of BoNT-A injections as an adjunct to physical therapy may be in part attributed to the disruption of the stretch reflex; thereby modulating <em>in vivoem> passive muscle properties. However, it is also possible that BoNT-A injection may alter the structure of skeletal muscle; thus modulating the <em>in vivoem> passive biomechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit.

  9. Prevalência e fatores de risco para a leptospirose em bovinos de Mato Grosso do Sul Prevalence and risk factors for bovine leptospirosis in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline de O. Figueiredo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Foi investigada a prevalência de anticorpos antileptospira em fêmeas bovinas com idade igual ou superior a 24 meses, provenientes de 178 rebanhos de 22 municípios do estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, bem como identificados fatores de risco associados à infecção. Foram analisadas 2.573 amostras de soro sangüíneo por meio do teste de soroaglutinação microscópica perante 10 sorovares de leptospira. Títulos iguais ou superiores a 100 para um ou mais sorovares foram detectados em 1.801 fêmeas (98,8% de 161 (96,5% rebanhos. O sorovar Hardjo (65,6% foi apontado como o mais provável, seguido do sorovar Wolffi (12,3%. Os resultados demonstram que a leptospirose bovina se encontra presente em todos os municípios estudados, com alta prevalência, tanto em animais como em rebanhos. Os fatores de risco identificados neste estudo e associados à infecção por bactérias do gênero lepstopira foram o tipo de exploração pecuária de corte e a raça Zebu.The prevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies was estimated for female cattle aged 24 months or older. The sample comprised 178 herds from 22 counties in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The risk factors associated with the presence of infeccion were investigated. A total of 2,573 blood serum samples were tested against 10 leptospira serovars using the microagglutination test (MAT. Titers of 100 or higher for one or more serovars were detected in 1,801 females (98.8% from 161 herds (96.5%. Serovar Hardjo (65.6% was the most frequent, followed by serovar Wolffi (12.3%. These results suggest that bovine leptospirosis is widespread in all the counties under study, with a high prevalence both at the animal and the herd level. Beef farms and the Zebu breed were associated to the higher risk of herd infection by leptospiras.

  10. Seasonal changes of trophic niche overlap in the stone marten (<em>Martes foinaem> and the red fox (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> in a mountainous area of the Northern Apennines (N-Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Brangi

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Between 1989 and 1991, 284 scats of stone marten (<em>Martes foinaem> and 642 scats of red fox (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> were collected in a 280 km² mountainous area in the northern Apennines. The scats were analyzed to identify differences between the two species' diets. The prey were grouped in 6 food categories: Fruits, Other Vegetables, Small Mammals, Other Vertebrates, Invertebrates and Garbage. Annual trophic niche was wider in the Red fox (0.62 than in the stone marten (0.53. We also found a large overlap between the two species with some small differences: Other Vertebrates, Small Mammals and Other Vegetables were more used by the Red fox, while Fruits were more used by the stone marten. Riassunto Variazioni stagionali della sovrapposizione di nicchia trofica della faina (<em>Martes foinaem> e della volpe (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> in un'area montana degli Appennini settentrionali - Tra il 1989 e il 1991 sono state raccolte 284 feci di faina (<em>Martes foinaem> e 642 feci di volpe (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> in un'area montuosa di 280 km² situata nell'Appennino settentrionale. Le feci sono state analizzate per evidenziare le eventuali differenze nella dieta delle due specie. Le singole prede sono state raggruppate in 6 categorie alimentari: Frutta, Altri Vegetali, Micromammiferi, Altri Vertebrati, Invertebrati, Rifiuti. L'ampiezza annuale della dieta è risultata maggiore nella Volpe (0,62 che non nella Faina (0,53. È stata trovata inoltre una larga sovrapposizione tra le due specie con alcune differenze nell'uso degli Altri Vertebrati, dei Micromammiferi e degli Altri Vegetali che è maggiore nella Volpe e della Frutta, maggiore nella Faina.

  11. Biología y ciclo reproductivo de <em>Apanteles gelechiidivorisem> (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, parasitoide de <em>Tuta absolutaem> (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajonero Johanna

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    <em>Apanteles gelechiidivorisem> es un parasitoide de larvas de <em>Tuta absolutaem> (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, una plaga importante de cultivos como el tomate y la papa. El uso de este insecto para el control biológico no se ha implementado eficientemente debido a la falta de conocimiento de la biología, específicamente del ciclo de vida y el efecto de factores externos, como la temperatura, en su capacidad parasítica. Se evaluó el desarrollo y la capacidad reproductiva de <em>A. gelechiidivorisem> en cuatro condiciones térmicas: 14, 20, 26 y 32 °C. En la evaluación del desarrollo se realizó una descripción del ciclo, se determinó la duración total de este, se estimaron los umbrales térmicos para cada estadio utilizando el modelo de Lactin y se hallaron los grados día. En la evaluación de la capacidad reproductiva se variaron las densidades del hospedero ofrecidas a una pareja recién emergida de la avispa de 5 hasta 160 y se contó el número de adultos emergidos con los cuales se evaluó longevidad y fecundidad. Adicionalmente se ajustó un modelo de respuesta funcional. La duración del ciclo de vida para las temperaturas evaluadas fue de 39 días en 14 °C, 34 en 20 °C, 19 en 26 °C y 17 en 32 °C. La longevidad fue de 7,5 (14 °C, 7 (20 °C, 5 (26 °C y 2,4 (32 °C días. La temperatura a la cual se pueden optimizar los parámetros reproductivos de esta avispa se encuentra entre 20 y 26 °C.

  12. Potential Impact of Large Scale Abstraction on the Quality of Shallow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRO

    Significant increase in crop production would not, however, be ... sounding) using Geonics EM34-3 and Abem SAS300C Terrameter to determine the aquifer (fresh water lens) ..... Final report on environmental impact assessment of large scale.

  13. Feeding habits of the genet <em>Genetta genettaem> in an Iberian continental wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Sánchez

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study quantified the diet of the genet <em>Genetta genettaem> in an Iberian continental wetland, the Galachos Nature Reserve, northern Spain, based on the frequency with which items appeared in five monthly-surveyed latrines during 2004-2005. Prey types were identified <em>de visuem> using identification keys and expert advice. the genet was confirmed as an opportunistic and generalist predator, its diet including mammals (95.0%, plants (68.3% and arthropods (60.0% as main prey. With the exception of a newly available prey species, the alien crayfish <em>Procambarus clarkiiem>, the genet probably consumed arthropods because of chance encounters rather than active search. The consumption of fruits and small mammals varied seasonally. Riassunto Alimentazione della genetta <em>Genetta genettaem> in un'area umida continentale della penisola iberica La dieta della genetta è stata investigata in un'area umida interna della Spagna settentrionale, la riserva Naturale dei Galachos. La frequenza di ciascuna categoria alimentare è stata espressa come numero di occorrenze mansili in cinque latrine monitorate per il periodo 2004-2005. Le categorie sono state identificate <em>de visuem> tramite chiavi per il riconoscimento o l'intervento di singoli esperti. I risultati confermano il comportamento alimentare generalista e opportunista della genetta. La dieta ha incluso principalmente mammiferi (95%, vegetali (68.3% e artropodi (60%. Questi ultimi, con l'eccezione del gambero <em>Procambarus clarkiiem>, introdotto e di recente presenza, sono probabilmente utilizzati in modo opportunistico, piuttosto che in seguito a ricerca attiva. L'uso dei frutti e dei micromammiferi varia stagionalmente.

  14. Fire and EMS Districts, These layers show the geographic area of each Fire and EMS responder contained in the County of Polk, Wisconsin., Published in 2006, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Polk County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Fire and EMS Districts dataset current as of 2006. These layers show the geographic area of each Fire and EMS responder contained in the County of Polk, Wisconsin..

  15. Semeadura direta de genótipos de arroz irrigado em sucessão a espécies de cobertura de inverno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menezes Valmir Gaedke

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A adoção do sistema de semeadura direta de arroz em sucessão a espécies de cobertura de solo no inverno é uma importante alternativa para possibilitar o cultivo em uma mesma área todos os anos. Com o objetivo de avaliar espécies de cobertura do solo no inverno mais apropriadas para participarem de um sistema de sucessão de culturas com semeadura direta de genótipos de arroz irrigado, conduziu-se um experimento na Estação Experimental do Arroz do Instituto Rio Grandense do Arroz, em Cachoeirinha, RS, nas estações de crescimento de 1996/97, 1997/98 e 1998/99. Os tratamentos constaram de quatro genótipos de arroz irrigado (BRS6, BR-IRGA 409, IRGA 416 e IRGA 417 instalados em semeadura direta, sobre parcelas com as coberturas de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Scheib, aveia-branca (Avena sativa L., azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam., serradela nativa [Ornithopus micranthus (Benth. Arechavaleta] e de vegetação espontânea e com solo desnudo (testemunha. Quanto ao rendimento de grãos, houve interação entre sistemas de cobertura de solo e estações de crescimento. Nas três estações de crescimento, somente o arroz cultivado em sucessão à leguminosa serradela nativa apresentou rendimento de grãos similar ao obtido no sistema de cultivo convencional. Por outro lado, o arroz cultivado em sucessão ao azevém foi o único a apresentar rendimento de grãos inferior em relação ao sistema de cultivo convencional nas três estações de crescimento.

  16. Roost selection by barbastelle bats (<em>Barbastella barbastellusem>, Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae in beech woodlands of central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Russo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The barbastelle bat, <em>Barbastella barbastellusem> (Schreber, 1774 is a medium-sized, tree-dwelling vespertilionid classified as ?Endangered? in Italy; in western Europe it may be one of the rarest bat species. <em>B. barbastellusem> shows roosting preferences that should be regarded as a key point in conservation protocols. We examined roost selection in a breeding population of <em>B. barbastellusem> from the Abruzzo Lazio and Molise National Park (central Italy at three levels: woodland structure and management type; tree characteristics; and cavity characteristics. In 2001-2002, we fitted 31 adult <em>B. barbastellusem> (29 lactating females, one pregnant female and one male with 0.48g radio-tags and tracked them to their roost-trees. The bats were tracked for 4.5 ± 3.7 days (range: 0-12 days. We located 33 roosts used by 25 subjects (1.8±1.2 roosts/bat, range 1-5. The bats switched roosts frequently: 13 bats used more than one tree over the study period. A chi-square analysis showed that the roosts were not distributed at random across woodland categories: unmanaged woodland was positively selected, whereas shelterwood-harvested woodland was used in proportion to its availability, and ?pastures+scattered trees? was avoided. Twenty out of 33 roost trees were dead <em>Fagus sylvaticaem> trees; conversely, living <em>F. sylvaticaem> dominated in a tree sample obtained at random; dead trees were used more than expected (Χ² test, <em>P> <0.001. Overall, roost trees were significantly taller and had a larger diameter at breast?s height and more cavities than random trees; they also had a lower percent canopy closure than random trees. To highlight which variables were actually associated with selection, we devised a logistic regression model. The full model was significant (<em>P> <0.001; removal of tree type and tree height affected the model significantly, but the other variables did not produce detectable effects. The

  17. Detection of a Giardia lamblia coproantigen by using a commercially available immunoenzymatic assay, in Belo Horizonte, Brazil Avaliação do ProSpeT Giardia ensaio em microplaca na detecção de coproantígenos de Giardia lamblia, em fezes de pacientes de Belo Horizonte, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Míriam Oliveira e ROCHA

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available It is known that fecal examination to detect Giardia lamblia cysts or trophozoites produces a high percentage of false-negative results. A commercially available immunoenzymatic assay (ProSpecT Giardia Microplate Assay, Alexon, Inc., BIOBRÁS to detect G. lamblia specific coproantigen was evaluated for the first time in Brazil. A total of 90 specimens were tested. Each specimen was first tested as unpreserved stool, and then it was preserved in 10% Formalin to be tested 2 months later. The assay was able to identify all the 30 positive patients (sensitivity = 100.0% by visual or spectrophotometric examination in the unpreserved specimens and was negative in 57 of the 60 patients without G. lamblia (specificity = 95.0%. The assay identified 27 of the 30 positive patients (sensitivity = 90.0% and was negative in 59 of the 60 negatives (specificity = 98.3% in the preserved stools according to both readings. A marked difference was observed in the optical densities in both groups, preserved and unpreserved stools, when the G. lamblia-positive specimens were compared to the negative or positive for other intestinal parasites than G. lamblia. The assay seems a good alternative for giardiasis diagnosis, especially when the fecal examination was repeatedly negative and the patient presents giardiasislike symptoms.O diagnóstico da giardíase através da pesquisa de trofozoítos ou cistos do parasita nas fezes apresenta uma elevada percentagem de resultados falso-negativos. No presente trabalho foi feita, pela primeira vez no Brasil, uma avaliação do ProSpecT Giardia Ensaio em Microplaca (Alexon, Inc., BIOBRÁS, utilizando amostras fecais de pacientes de Belo Horizonte, Brasil. Um total de 90 amostras fecais foram testadas, primeiramente como fezes frescas e, então, preservadas em formalina 10%, para um novo teste 2 meses após. Com as amostras frescas, o ensaio imunoenzimático, através de leitura visual ou no espectrofotômetro, foi capaz de

  18. Produtividade de híbridos de milho em função da velocidade de semeadura Corn hibrids yield as a function of seeding speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson J. R. Mello

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido na área experimental do Laboratório de Máquinas e Mecanização Agrícola da UNESP - Jaboticabal, em um Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico, em preparo convencional. Avaliaram-se o desenvolvimento e os componentes de produção de dois híbridos de milho (DKB 390, simples e DKB 435, duplo em função de três velocidades do conjunto trator-semeadora-adubadora (5,4; 6,8 e 9,8 km h-1, totalizando seis tratamentos, com quatro repetições, em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2 x 3. Os resultados evidenciaram que o aumento da velocidade do conjunto trator-semeadora-adubadora reduziu a produtividade de grãos para o híbrido simples e não interferiu na produtividade do híbrido duplo. Apenas na menor velocidade (5,4 km h-1, o híbrido simples apresentou maior produtividade de grãos, comparado com o híbrido duplo. O aumento da velocidade na operação de semeadura reduziu a percentagem de espaçamentos normais entre as sementes, independentemente do híbrido estudado.The present work was lead in the experimental area of the Laboratory of Machines and Agricultural Mechanization of the São Paulo State University, Jaboticabal, Brazil, in a soil classified as Haplustox, in conventional tillage. It had been evaluated the development and the components of production of two hybrids of corn (DKB 390, simple and DKB 435, double in function of three speeds of the set tractor-seeder-fertilizer (5.4; 6.8 and 9.8 km h-1, totalizing six treatments with four repetitions in a randomized block-type design, factorial 2 x 3. The results had evidenced that the increase of the speed of the tractor-seeder-fertilizer set, reduced the productivity of grains for the simple hybrid and did not interfered with the productivity of the double hybrid. But in the lower speed the simple hybrid presented greater productivity of grains when compared with the double hybrid. The increase of the speed in the operation of seeding

  19. Synthesis and Sensory Evaluation of <em>ent>-Kaurane Diterpene Glycosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Sai Prakash Chaturvedula

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic hydrogenation of the three <em>ent>-kaurane diterpene glycosides isolated from <em>Stevia rebaudianaem>, namely rubusoside, stevioside, and rebaudioside-A has been carried out using Pd(OH2 and their corresponding dihydro derivatives have been isolated as the products. Synthesis of reduced steviol glycosides was performed using straightforward chemistry and their structures were characterized on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectral data and chemical studies. Also, we report herewith the sensory evaluation of all the reduced compounds against their corresponding original steviol glycosides and sucrose for the sweetness property of these molecules.

  20. 40 CFR 98.173 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Iron and Steel Production § 98.173 Calculating GHG emissions... for the process as specified in paragraphs (b)(1)(i) through (b)(1)(vii) of this section. The... the gaseous fuel (kg/kg-mole). MVC = Molar volume conversion factor (849.5 scf per kg-mole at standard...

  1. 38 CFR 17.98 - Mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mental health services... Outpatient Treatment § 17.98 Mental health services. (a) Following the death of a veteran, bereavement... mental health services in connection with treatment of the veteran under 38 U.S.C. 1710, 1712, 1712A...

  2. 40 CFR 98.163 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... = Molecular weight of the gaseous fuel and feedstock (kg/kg-mole). MVC = Molar volume conversion factor (849.5... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Hydrogen Production § 98.163 Calculating GHG emissions. You... = Volume of the gaseous fuel and feedstock used in month n (scf (at standard conditions of 68 °F and...

  3. Massage Therapy for 98 Cases of Ankle Sprain Patients%按摩治疗踝关节扭伤98

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周合成

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To observe the efficacy of treating ankle sprain by massage therapy. Methods:98 cases of ankle sprain patients were all treated by massage therapy. Results:88 cases were cured, 6 cases had marked effect, 2 cases were effecitve, 2 cases had no effect, the total effective rate was 97.95%. Conclusion:Massage therapy has a significant curative effect on ankle sprain.%目的:观察按摩治疗踝关节扭伤的疗效。方法:对98例踝关节扭伤患者进行按摩治疗。结果:痊愈88例,显效6例,有效2例,无效2例,总有效率为97.95%。结论:按摩治疗踝关节扭伤疗效显著。

  4. Scaling a Convection-Resolving RCM to Near-Global Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutwyler, D.; Fuhrer, O.; Chadha, T.; Kwasniewski, G.; Hoefler, T.; Lapillonne, X.; Lüthi, D.; Osuna, C.; Schar, C.; Schulthess, T. C.; Vogt, H.

    2017-12-01

    In the recent years, first decade-long kilometer-scale resolution RCM simulations have been performed on continental-scale computational domains. However, the size of the planet Earth is still an order of magnitude larger and thus the computational implications of performing global climate simulations at this resolution are challenging. We explore the gap between the currently established RCM simulations and global simulations by scaling the GPU accelerated version of the COSMO model to a near-global computational domain. To this end, the evolution of an idealized moist baroclinic wave has been simulated over the course of 10 days with a grid spacing of up to 930 m. The computational mesh employs 36'000 x 16'001 x 60 grid points and covers 98.4% of the planet's surface. The code shows perfect weak scaling up to 4'888 Nodes of the Piz Daint supercomputer and yields 0.043 simulated years per day (SYPD) which is approximately one seventh of the 0.2-0.3 SYPD required to conduct AMIP-type simulations. However, at half the resolution (1.9 km) we've observed 0.23 SYPD. Besides formation of frontal precipitating systems containing embedded explicitly-resolved convective motions, the simulations reveal a secondary instability that leads to cut-off warm-core cyclonic vortices in the cyclone's core, once the grid spacing is refined to the kilometer scale. The explicit representation of embedded moist convection and the representation of the previously unresolved instabilities exhibit a physically different behavior in comparison to coarser-resolution simulations. The study demonstrates that global climate simulations using kilometer-scale resolution are imminent and serves as a baseline benchmark for global climate model applications and future exascale supercomputing systems.

  5. Theoretical analysis of items from an American scale for assessment of inclusive kindergartens in Brazil Análise teórica de itens de uma escala americana para avaliação do atendimento em creches inclusivas brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandrea Rodrigues Menegasso Gennaro

    2012-11-01

    coletivos de educação infantil sob diferentes aspectos como ambiente físico, interação, atividadese atendimento às crianças com necessidades especiais. Estudos vêm investigando a viabilidade da ITERS-R para o contexto brasileiro. Na direção destes estudos, a pesquisa teve como objetivo verificar a compreensão dostermos e a pertinência do conteúdo dos itens da Infant/Toddler EnvironmentRating Scale – Revised Edition, relacionados a pessoas com deficiência. Foram identificados e traduzidos 12 itens da escala que se referem às necessidades educacionais especiais por especialista bilingue. Os itens foram submetidos à análise de conteúdo por sete especialistas em educação infantil e educação especial, para que avaliassem a pertinência dos itens, e à análise semântica por sete alunos do curso de psicologia, por meio de registro em protocolos de respostas. Os dados foram transcritos e analisadosde maneira qualitativa. Os resultados indicaram que os itens são pertinentes e apontam caminhos para torná-los mais acurados para avaliação de creches brasileiras. Conclui-se que os itens analisados podem contribuir para a promoção e avaliação da qualidade em creches, em relação às pessoascom deficiência, ainda que haja a necessidade de aprimorar a acurácia doconteúdo dos itens.Palavras-chave: Creche; Avaliação de qualidade; Escala ITERS-R.

  6. Comparação entre mutagênicos químico e físico em populações de aveia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coimbra Jefferson Luís Meirelles

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparou-se a campo a variabilidade genética em populações de aveia hexaplóide tratadas com agentes mutagênicos físico e químico, através do caráter ciclo vegetativo de plantas. Foram realizados experimentos em duas safras agrícolas em Pelotas, RS, em 1997/98 e 1998/99. As sementes foram irradiadas no Centro Regional de Oncologia da Faculdade de Medicina da UFPel, com uma taxa de dose de 0,25Gy min-1. As doses totais absorvidas para o mutagênico físico foram 100, 200 e 400Gy e, para o mutagênico químico 0,5, 1,5 e 3,0% por tratamento de 1200 sementes aproximadamente, em cada genótipo fixo de aveia avaliado. Foi obtida diferença na eficiência entre os agentes mutagênicos testados. O agente mutagênico físico foi sempre superior em relação ao agente mutagênico químico, independente da geração segregante avaliada, proporcionando assim um incremento maior no número de classes fenotípicas, tanto para redução quanto para o aumento do número de dias entre a emergência e o florescimento. Os genótipos mostraram sensibilidade diferenciada em relação à dose dos agentes mutagênicos avaliados, indicando que a eficiência dos tratamentos em alterar a variabilidade genética para precocidade e aumento do ciclo vegetativo foi variável. De modo geral, os dados indicaram decréscimo do caráter ciclo vegetativo com o acréscimo da dose dos agentes mutagênicos testados. O estudo das populações UPF-16 nas doses 100 e 200 gray submetidas ao tratamento com o agente mutagênico físico apontaram o maior grau de divergência genética e de dominância para o caráter ciclo vegetativo de plantas.

  7. Ploidia de DNA em astrocitomas: estudo em 66 pacientes brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KRUTMAN-ZVEIBIL DEBORAH

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A determinação do conteúdo de DNA nuclear (fração de fase S e ploidia de DNA foi realizada por meio de análise de imagem em 66 astrocitomas, a partir de material fixado em formalina e seccionado em cortes de 5 micrômetros corados pela técnica de Feulgen. Nossos resultados mostraram forte relação entre a idade do paciente, grau histológico e sobrevida , com a ploidia de DNA e o percentual de células em fase de síntese. A análise da atividade proliferativa de astrocitomas intracranianos é a nosso ver muito útil no entendimento do comportamento biológico , do prognóstico e para o planejamento terapêutico dessas lesões.

  8. Spatial performance of RegEM climate field reconstruction techniques in a realistic pseudoproxy context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Emile-Geay, J.; Guillot, D.

    2011-12-01

    Several methods of climate field reconstructions (CFRs) have been introduced in the past few years to estimate past climate variability from proxy data over the Common Era. The pseudoproxy framework has become a tool of choice for assessing the relative merits of such methods. Here we compare four variants of the RegEM algorithm [Schneider, 2001], using a pseudoproxy network mimicking the key spatio-temporal characteristics of the network of Mann et al., 2008 (hereinafter M08); the methods are (1) RegEM TTLS (2) RegEM iTTLS (3) GraphEM and (4) RegEM iRIDGE. To ensure continuity with previous work [Smerdon et al. 2011], pseudoproxy series are designed as a white-noise degraded version of the simulated temperature field [Amman et al. 2007] over 850-1980 C.E. colocated with 1138 M08 proxies. We use signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of: ∞ (no noise), 1.0, 0.5 and 0.25, to simulate differences in proxy quality. Two novelties in pseudoproxy design are introduced here: (1) the decrease in proxy availability over time follows that found in M08, (2) a realistic case where the SNR is empirically derived from correlations between each M08 proxy and the HadCRUT3v temperature field. It is found that this realistic SNR is clustered around 0.3, but ranges from 0.1 to 0.8. Verification statistics such as RE, CE, r2, bias, standard deviation ratio and RMSE are presented for each method at each SNR level. The results show that all methods perform relatively well at SNR levels higher than 0.5, but display drastically different performances at lower SNR levels. Compared with results using pseudoproxy network of Mann et al., 1998, (hereinafter MBH98), the reconstruction skill of the M08 network is relatively improved, in line with the findings of Smerdon et al., 2011. Overall, we find that GraphEM and iTTLS tend to produce more robust estimates of the temperature field at low SNR levels than other schemes, while preserving a higher amount of variance in the target field. Ammann, C. M., F

  9. Monitores de diagnóstico em Mamografia : (Os 5MP em Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Timóteo, Maria Teresa

    2012-01-01

    O carcinoma da mama é o mais comum nas mulheres, em Portugal morrem cerca de 1500 mulheres por ano devido a esta patologia. Serviu o presente estudo para investigar se os Hospitais da Região de Lisboa e Vale do Tejo estão equipados, com monitores de diagnóstico em mamografia, que correspondam com as guidelines europeias. O serviço de Mamografia, em Portugal rege-se por estas guidelines, em que é referenciado que para um correcto diagnóstico, com toda a sensibilidade e especific...

  10. Ocorrência de Giardia, Cryptosporidium e microsporídios em animais silvestres em área de desmatamento no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Occurrence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and microsporidia in wild animals from a deforestation area in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anete Lallo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de Giardia, Cryptosporidium e microsporídios foi investigada por meio da análise de 98 amostras fecais de animais silvestres capturados em uma área de desmatamento para a construção das barragens de Paraitinga e Biritiba, localizadas nos Municípios de Mogi das Cruzes, Salesópolis e Biritiba-Mirim, no Estado de São Paulo. As amostras foram obtidas de 46 roedores, 21 marsupiais, 16 sapos, nove morcegos, três primatas e três lagartos. As técnicas de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco, de Kinyoun e a coloração de Gram-Chromotrope foram utilizadas, respectivamente, para a pesquisa de Giardia, de Cryptosporidium e de microsporídios. O total de animais parasitados por um dos protozoários investigados foi de 17,35% (17/98. Cistos de Giardia foram encontrados em amostras fecais de dois pequenos roedores da espécie Coendou villosus (ouriço-cacheiro. Os três animais positivos para Cryptosporidium foram roedores das espécies Akodon montensis, Thaptomys nigrita (ambos conhecidos como ratos do mato e Sciurus aestuans (serelepe ou caxinguelê. Esporos de microsporídios foram encontrados nas fezes de 12 animais, sendo seis roedores das espécies Oligoryzomys sp.(um, Akodon montensis (três e Coendou villosus (dois, três marsupiais pertencentes às espécies Didelphis aurita (dois e Marmosops incanus (um e três morcegos da espécie Diphylla ecaudata. Este é o primeiro relato de microsporidiose em animais silvestres no Brasil. A presente investigação enfatiza a importância de animais silvestres, particularmente pequenos mamíferos, como potenciais fontes de infecção desses protozoários para outras populações animais, incluindo o homem, em áreas de desmatamento.The occurrence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and microsporidia was investigated in 98 faecal specimens from wildlife animals, captured in an area of deforestation for the construction of two water reservoirs (Paraitinga and Biritiba, located in the

  11. RRDF-98. Russian reactor dosimetry file. Summary documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashchenko, A B

    1999-03-01

    This document summarizes the contents and documentation of the new version of tile Russian Reactor Dosimetry File (RRDF-98) released in December 1998 by the Russian Center on Nuclear Data (CJD) at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Russian Federation. This file contains the original evaluations of cross section data and covariance matrixes for 22 reactions which are used for neutron flux dosimetry by foil activation. The majority of the evaluations included in previous versions of the Russian Reactor Dosimetry Files (BOSPOR-80, RRGF-94 and RRDF-96) have been superseded by new evaluations. The evaluated cross sections of RRDF-98 averaged over 252-Cf and 235-U fission spectra are compared with relevant integral data. The data file is available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section on diskette, cost free. (author) 9 refs, 22 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Are EM's communication tools effective? Evaluation research of two EM publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wight, Evelyn; Gardner, Gene; Harvey, Tony

    1992-01-01

    As a reflection of its growing culture of openness, and in response to the public's need for accurate information about its activities, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) has increased the amount of information available to the public through communication tools such as brochures, fact sheets, and a travelling exhibit with an interactive computer display. Our involvement with this effort has been to design, develop, and critique booklets, brochures, fact sheets and other communication tools for EM. This paper presents an evaluation of the effectiveness of two communication tools we developed: the EM Booklet and the EM Fact Sheets. We measured effectiveness using non-parametric testing. This paper describes DOE's culture change, EM's communication tools and their context within DOE'S new open culture, our research, test methods and results, the significance of our research, and our plans for future research. (author)

  13. 27 CFR 19.98 - Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. 19.98 Section 19.98 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.98 Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. Untaxpaid spirits or...

  14. Psalm 98: Sing 'n nuwe lied tot lof van die Koning, Jahwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psalm 98: Sing 'n nuwe lied tot lof van die Koning, Jahwe. W S Prinsloo. Universiteit van Pretoria. Abstract. Sing a new song in praise of the king, Yahweh. This article surveys the problems of interpreting Psalm. 98. The chief problems are those concerned with determining the Gattung, the redactional history, strophic ...

  15. ESTABILIDADE DO ÁCIDO ASCÓRBICO EM SUCO DE LARANJA (Citrus sinensis) IN NATURA, EM SUCO REFRIGERADO E EM PREPARADOS QUENTES

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Ana Paula de Faria; Santos, Janine V.; Neves, Laudelina B.; Sereia, Maria Josiane

    2008-01-01

    Foi realizada avaliação comparativa da retenção da vitamina C (ácido Ascórbico – AA) em suco fresco de laranjas íntegras, suco de laranja estocada sob refrigeração e em bolo contendo suco de laranja após a cocção em forno culinário convencional. O teor de AA em suco de laranjas armazenadas sob refrigeração por oito semanas variou entre 74,94 e 51,55 mg% com taxa de redução de 0,92% ao dia. Em suco fresco de laranja armazenado sob refrigeração durante sete dias, o teor médio de AA foi de 49,62...

  16. Cyclophosphamide identification in wipe test by GC-MS and solid phase extraction Identificação de ciclofosfamida em wipe teste por CG-EM com prévia extração em fase sólida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isarita Martins

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study cyclophosphamide was quantified after adapting a prior analytical method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after solid phase purification and derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride. The analyte was measured by analysis in wipe test from infusion bags, which may be contaminated by contact with the gloves used during preparation of the drugs. Surface of bag contaminated may be an important source of contamination for workers in the others chemoterapy handling areas, such as administration rooms. This drug, in fact, is one of the most frequently used alkylating antineoplastic agents for different types of tumors and it is furthermore classified as a human carcinogen by IARC. Ifosfamide was used as internal standard and the quantification was carried out by reference to calibration curves within a range from 1 to 100 ng/mL. The limit of detection was 0.4 ng/mL. The values of the variation coefficient varied from 0.5 to 10% (intra-assay and from 0 to 19% (interassay. Frozen reference wipe samples containing cyclophosphamide were analysed over one month and no significant loss was observed. The range obtained for bias assay was 83-116% and the recovery was 98.9%. Cyclophosphamide was measured in 36 of 42 infusion bags collected from different hospitals with values ranging from 90 to 41874 ng (median= 607.5 ng. The results, well related to those reported in the literature, suggest that this method can be used to identify cyclophosphamide from wipe samples and can be considered useful in exposure assessment to this drug.A ciclofosfamida é uma agente alquilante freqüentemente utilizado na prática clínica para diferentes tipos de tumores e, é classificado como carcinógeno para humanos pelo IARC. Neste estudo, o fármaco foi quantificado, após adaptação de um método analítico, utilizando a cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massa com prévia extração em fase sólida e derivação com anidrido

  17. La profondità ipocentrale con metodi macrosismici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. SPADEA

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present work is to determine the hypocentral depth of
    an earthquake by macroseismic methods.
    A short hystorical review of the main relations between macroseismic
    intensity, acceleration and hypocentral depth from Cancani to the present time has been carried out. Particular care has been pointed out to
    Kovesligethy and Blake works. Being the Blake's relation the basis of
    all modern methods the y experimental value has been investigated to
    apply in Italy in the formula
    (/„ _ /„ = y log (Dn/h
    using some earthquakes with analitical depth known. There are singled
    of two intermediate values of y; one (y valid for Italy in general
    Y, = 4.382 ± 2.282
    another (yc more specific for central Italy
    Y„ = 3.989 ± 1.344
    From the investigation the AA. deem that the macroseismic method
    cannot anyhow be applied, hence the AA. suggest the following application
    limits:
    1 for the isoseismals to be used (not more than three around the epic.
    2 for the hypocentral depths (only within the crust: h < 33 km
    3 for the y value (y < 7.0
    To determine quickly the depth (h + 5h, when the intermediate radii rc
    of the circles equivalent to the I, II, III isoseismal areas of an earthquake
    are been calculated (or measured, a table 3 has been calculated.
    In table 4 both the macroseismic and the analitical depths relating
    to untilized earthquakes, are compared.
    The results obtained in the present work can be improved when the
    researchers will have access to a greater lot of earthquakes with known
    analitical depth and will be able to associate to a general intermediate
    value Y, specific values of ± 5y; for each homogeneous structural unit.
    In any case, the results obtained by that, as well by different macroseismic
    methods, have always to retain approximate, even if the AA.
    tried to furnish a range of ind

  18. Synthesis and Cytotoxicity Evaluation of 13-<em>n>-Alkyl Berberine and Palmatine Analogues as Anticancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available By introducing long carbon-chain alkyl groups at the C-13 position of berberine and palmatine, 13-<em>n>-hexyl/13-<em>n>-octyl berberine and palmatine chloride analogues 4ad were synthesized and examined by MTT assays for cytotoxic activity in seven human cancer cell lines (7701QGY, SMMC7721, HepG2, CEM, CEM/VCR, KIII, Lewis, yielding IC50 values of 0.02 ± 0.01–13.58 ± 2.84 μM. 13-<em>n>-Octyl palmatine (compound 4d gave the most potent inhibitor activity, with an IC50 of 0.02 ± 0.01 μM for SMMC7721. In all cases, the 13-<em>n>-alkyl berberine and palmatine analogues 4ad were more cytotoxic than berberine and palmatine. In addition, compounds 4ad also exhibited more potent cytotoxicity than berberine and palmatine in mice with S180 sarcoma xenografted<em> in vivoem>. The primary screening results indicated that the 13-<em>n>-hexyl/13-<em>n>-octyl berberine and palmatine analogues might be valuable source for new potent anticancer drug candidates.

  19. Cryptosporidium spp. infection in mares and foals of the northwest region of São Paulo State, Brazil Infecção por Cryptosporidium spp. em éguas e potros da região noroeste do estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Valéria Inácio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to analyze the occurrence of infection by Cryptosporidium spp. in mares and their respective foals. This study was carried out in 11 farms located in the municipalities of Araçatuba, Birigui, Guararapes and Santo Antônio do Aracangua, in the northwest region of the State of Sao Paulo, from November 2010 to March 2011. A total of 98 mares and 98 foals of several breeds were analyzed; among foals, 59 were males and 39 females, aged from three to 330 days. Feces were collected directly from the rectal ampulla, purified and processed according to modified Kinyoun stain. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 21.4% (21/98 for foals and 18.4% (18/98 for mares. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. had significant association with breeds and age of animals. Results obtained led to the conclusion that foals older than two months and Mangalarga animals are less susceptible to the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp.O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a ocorrência da infecção por Cryptosporidium spp. em éguas e seus respectivos potros. Este estudo foi realizado em 11 fazendas localizadas nos municípios de Araçatuba, Birigui, Guararapes e Santo Antônio do Aracangua, na região Noroeste do Estado de São Paulo, de novembro de 2010 a março de 2011. Um total de 98 éguas e 98 potros de diversas raças foram analisados, sendo que, entre os filhotes, 59 eram machos e 39 fêmeas, cujas idades variavam de três até 330 dias. Fezes foram colhidas diretamente da ampola retal, purificadas e processadas pela técnica de Kinyoun modificada. A ocorrência de Cryptosporidium spp. observada foi de 21,4% (21/98 para potros e 18,4% (18/98 para éguas. A ocorrência de Cryptosporidium spp. teve uma associação significativa com a raça e a idade dos animais. A partir dos resultados obtidos, conclui-se neste estudo que potros com idade superior a dois meses e animais da raça Mangalarga foram menos susceptíveis à ocorrência de

  20. Enfermidades diagnosticadas em bezerros na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia D. Assis-Brasil

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi relatar a frequência das enfermidades que ocorrem em bovinos até um ano de idade na área de influência do Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico (LRD da Faculdade de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel estabelecendo os principais fatores epidemiológicos associados à ocorrência dessas enfermidades. Foram revisados os protocolos de necropsias realizadas e de materiais de bovinos até um ano de idade, encaminhados ao LRD/UFPel entre 2000 e 2011. Em 35,6% dos casos, os bezerros eram de raças leiteiras e em 33,98% eram animais de raças de corte, 18,3% dos bezerros não tinham raça definida e em 12,1% dos casos não constava a raça no protocolo de necropsia. Os sistemas mais afetados foram o sistema nervoso central (22,7%, o digestivo (18,6% e o respiratório (16,8%. Os diagnósticos foram divididos por faixa etária sendo que 88 bezerros tinham 1-90 dias de idade; 42 casos corresponderam a animais de 4-6 meses; 32 casos corresponderam a bezerros com 7-9 meses e 44 eram bezerros com 10-12 meses de idade. As enfermidades mais frequentemente diagnosticadas nos bezerros de 1-90 dias foram pneumonias, malformações e encefalites/meningoencefalites com 19,3%, 15,9% e 11,3% dos casos, respectivamente. Nos bezerros com 4-6 meses de idade, as pneumonias ocorreram em 16,5% dos casos e o carbúnculo sintomático e as enterites representaram 7,1% dos diagnósticos cada. Nos bezerros de 7-9 meses, as enfermidades mais frequentes foram pneumonias e tétano com 9,3% dos casos e babesiose e parasitoses gastrintestinais com 6,2% cada. Nos bezerros de 10-12 meses a infecção por BoHV-5 representou 13,6% dos casos e as pneumonias, a raiva e as parasitoses foram observadas em 9,% dos casos cada. Com base nos resultados deste trabalho pode-se concluir que as doenças infecciosas relacionadas ao sistema respiratório foram importantes causas de mortalidade em bezerros de todas as faixas etárias na área de influ

  1. Work ability and stress in a bus transportation company in Belo Horizonte, Brazil Avaliação da capacidade para o trabalho e estresse em uma empresa de transporte coletivo de Belo Horizonte, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Ferreira Sampaio

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Demographic, occupational and psychosocial characteristics affect the health and occupational performance of workers. The objective of the present study was to elaborate a profile of the work ability and factors that affect it in a bus transportation company in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The instruments used included a socio-demographic and occupational questionnaire, the Work Ability Index and the Job Stress Scale. Demographic information revealed that 85.7% of the 126 employees of the company were active workers, 98% were males, with an average of 39 years of age (SD= 10 and 79 months working in the company (SD= 68; more than half reported having a low schooling level. In terms of personal habits, 88% were exposed to one or more risk factors, especially a sedentary lifestyle. The average strain value (as a consequence of stress was 0.78 (SD= 0.2 and 75.3% reported episodes of violence at the workplace. The work ability was good to excellent among 89% of the workers. Results from the logistic regression analysis showed that strain was the only significant variable in relation to the Work Ability Index, (estimated odds ratio of 0.02. The results suggest that psychosocial factors presented the greatest association with work ability, and preventive and/or corrective measures should be implemented.Características demográficas, ocupacionais e psicossociais afetam a saúde e o desempenho dos trabalhadores. O objetivo deste estudo foi elaborar um perfil da capacidade para o trabalho e fatores que a afetam em uma empresa de transporte coletivo de Belo Horizonte, Brasil. Os instrumentos utilizados foram o Índice de Capacidade para o Trabalho, a Job Stress Scale e um questionário sociodemográfico e ocupacional. Dos 126 trabalhadores, 14,3% estavam aposentados ou afastados, todos por doença. Entre os ativos, a maioria era do sexo masculino (98%, com idade média de 39 anos (DP=10, baixa escolaridade (acima de 50% e tempo médio na empresa de 79 meses

  2. Assessing Empathy across Childhood and Adolescence: Validation of the Empathy Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (EmQue-CA)

    OpenAIRE

    Sandy Overgaauw; Sandy Overgaauw; Carolien Rieffe; Evelien Broekhof; Eveline A. Crone; Eveline A. Crone; Berna Güroğlu; Berna Güroğlu

    2017-01-01

    Empathy plays a crucial role in healthy social functioning and in maintaining positive social relationships. In this study, 1250 children and adolescents (10–15 year olds) completed the newly developed Empathy Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (EmQue-CA) that was tested on reliability, construct validity, convergent validity, and concurrent validity. The EmQue-CA aims to assess empathy using the following scales: affective empathy, cognitive empathy, and intention to comfort. A Princ...

  3. Isojacareubin from the Chinese Herb <em>Hypericum japonicumem>: Potent Antibacterial and Synergistic Effects on Clinical Methicillin-Resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureusem> (MRSA

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    Gen-Chun Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Through bioassay-guided fractionation of the extracts from the aerial parts of the Chinese herb <em>Hypericum japonicumem> Thunb. Murray, Isojacareubin (ISJ was characterized as a potent antibacterial compound against the clinical methicillin-resistant S<em>taphylococcus aureusem> (MRSA. The broth microdilution assay was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs of ISJ alone. The results showed that its MICs/MBCs ranged from 4/16 to 16/64 μg/mL, with the concentrations required to inhibit or kill 50% of the strains (MIC50/MBC50 at 8/16 μg/mL. Synergistic evaluations of this compound with four conventional antibacterial agents representing different types were performed by the chequerboard and time-kill tests. The chequerboard method showed significant synergy effects when ISJ was combined with Ceftazidime (CAZ, Levofloxacin (LEV and Ampicillin (AMP, with the values of 50% of the fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICI50 at 0.25, 0.37 and 0.37, respectively. Combined bactericidal activities were also observed in the time-kill dynamic assay. The results showed the ability of ISJ to reduce MRSA viable counts by log10CFU/mL at 24 h of incubation at a concentration of 1 × MIC were 1.5 (LEV, additivity, 0.92 (CAZ, indifference and 0.82 (AMP, indifference, respectively. These <em>in vitroem> anti-MRSA activities of ISJ alone and its synergy with conventional antibacterial agents demonstrated that ISJ enhanced their efficacy, which is of potential use for single and combinatory therapy of patients infected with MRSA.

  4. Consumo de alcohol en trabajadores de una industria en Monterrey, México Consumo de álcool em trabalhadores de uma indústria em Monterrey, México Alcohol consumption among industrial workers in Monterrey , Mexico

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    Teresita de Jesús Campa Magallón

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available El objectivo fue describir el consumo de alcohol en 129 trabajadores de una industria. La recolección de datos se realizó a través de los cuestionarios AUDIT y CECA. El mayor consumo fue en operarios masculinos con 31 años de edad, 9,8 años de escolaridad, 5 años de antigüedad laboral, casados, con consumo de 3 a 4 bebidas por ocasión (38,5%. Un consumo de 6 copas o más al mês se presentó en 32,7% de los operarios. La frecuencia de consumo mensual fue de 2 o 4 veces. 46,5% fueron considerados dependientes. Ocurrieron daños en 55% de los operarios y empleados. Los empleados refirieron consumo de alcohol en reuniones sociales con compañeros (63,6%. Los consecuencies del consumo fueron: cansancio físico (44,2%, problemas físicos (29,5%, disminución de rendimiento laboral (29,5% y la disminución de reflejos (21,7%. Delante del mayor consumo de alcohol, los trabajdores perciben menores consecuencias respecto a este consumo. Los que refirieron el no consumo se encontraban en la etapa de precontemplación.O objetivo foi descrever o consumo de álcool entre 129 trabalhadores de uma indústria. A coleta de dados foi realizada a través dos instrumentos AUDIT e CECA. A maior porcentagem de consumo foi em operários masculinos de 31 anos, escolaridade de 9,8 anos, tempo de trabalho 5 anos, casados. Identificou-se um consumo de 3 a 4 bebidas por ocasião (38,5%. Obteve-se o consumo de 6 copos ou mais por mês em 32,7% dos operários. A freqüência de consumo mensal foi de 2 ou 4 vezes, a dependência correspondeu a 46,5% e a ocorrência de danos a 55% dos operários e empregados. Os trabalhadores informaram consumo de álcool em encontros sociais com amigos (63,6%. As conseqüências desse consumo foram: cansaço físico (44,2%, problemas físicos (29,5%, diminuição do rendimento de trabalho (29,5% e diminuição de reflexos (21,7%. Diante de um maior consumo de álcool, os trabalhadores percebem menores conseqüências em relação a

  5. Prevalência e fatores associados à obesidade abdominal em pacientes em hemodiálise em Goiânia - GO

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    Ana Tereza Vaz de Souza Freitas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A presença de excesso de peso, especialmente obesidade visceral, contribui para o maior risco de complicações metabólicas e cardiovasculares em pacientes com doença renal crônica. OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência e os fatores associados à obesidade abdominal em pacientes em hemodiálise (HD. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 344 pacientes maiores de 18 anos. A obesidade abdominal foi definida pela circunferência da cintura > 94 cm nos homens e > 80 cm nas mulheres. As variáveis independentes envolveram aspectos socioeconômicos, demográficos, hábitos de vida, tempo em HD, consumo alimentar e índice de massa corporal (IMC. A análise dos fatores associados foi realizada por regressão de Poisson múltipla, permanecendo no modelo final as variáveis com p 25 kg/m². Nos homens, a classe econômica D/E também permaneceu associada à obesidade abdominal, p < 0,05. CONCLUSÃO: Observou-se alta prevalência de obesidade abdominal em pacientes em hemodiálise. Idade superior a 40 anos, classes econômicas mais baixas, ingestão proteica inferior ao recomendado e excesso de peso foram associados à obesidade abdominal.

  6. Effect of Using Effective Microorganisms EM-1 on the Performance of Extended Aeration Activated Sludge in Treating Domestic Wastewater

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    Waleed M. Sheet

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available       This research concerning with the effect of using the effective microorganisms on the efficiency of extended Aeration Activated Sludge Units which consist from many strain of Bacteria, Fungi and Actinomycetes  in addition to board spectrum of nutrient and elements which important to growth, The use of this product is practically applied by using two bench scale laboratory units where they are operated to treat the wastewater after completing and preparing the activated sludge units to work under the same conditions of temperature and detention time (DT.54One bench scale is fed with wastewater and the other is operated by using a mixture of EM-1 along with the wastewater. It is noticed that the use of EM-1 with wastewater has reduced the smell resulting from disintegration in the aeration basin. Further, the color of sludge in the unit where EM-1 is added is light brown which means more activity and vitality. Besides, the concentration of mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS is increased by using EM-1 by 30% due to the increase of nutrients and a reduction in the sludge volume index (SVI which is an important factor in the performance of the secondary settling basins which means a reduction in bulking of sludge, which is considered one of the most notable operating problem in activated sludge units. As a result bulking of sludge reduced by25% when EM-1 is used. Thus, EM-1 has participated in solving three important operating problems suffered by operators of these treatment units easily and without using complicated technologies or appliances. Further, EM-1 improves the removal efficiency of the units about 6-8% due to the reduction in chemical oxygen demand in the treated wastewater leaving the unit by 32%.

  7. Variabilità microsatellitare in popolazioni italiane di martora, <em>Martes martesem>

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    Licia Colli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available La martora, <em>Martes martesem>, è un mustelide storicamente presente su gran parte del territorio italiano, soprattutto dove siano presenti foreste mature altamente strutturate e ricche di risorse. Nel corso dei decenni passati, cause quali la deforestazione con conseguente frammentazione dell'habitat, la caccia e la persecuzione da parte dell'uomo hanno portato ad un sensibile declino sia nel numero d'individui sia di popolazioni in tutta l'Europa. Frammentazione degli areali e diminuzione del numero di soggetti costituiscono le cause principali di un limitato flusso genico con conseguente formazione di popolazioni isolate di martora e perdita di variabilità genetica (Kyle <em>et al.em>, 2003. Per queste ragioni la martora risulta attualmente tutelata secondo quanto previsto dalla Convenzione di Berna (appendice III e dalla Direttiva europea 92/43/CEE "Habitats & Species". Di fronte a prospettive di tipo conservazionistico, diventa necessario disporre di metodologie per la valutazione della variabilità residua nella specie a livello d'individui e di popolazioni. Secondo numerosi Autori, i microsatelliti costituiscono marcatori molto efficaci nella descrizione della struttura genetica e della storia demografica di specie (Beaumont & Bruford, 1999; Linares, 1999. Il presente lavoro propone i risultati ottenuti attraverso il confronto di due campioni costituiti da individui di <em>Martes martesem> provenienti dalla Sardegna (25 esemplari e dal territorio italiano (6 esemplari. L'analisi è stata condotta a livello di 7 loci microsatellitari dinucleotidici polimorfici. Il valore di FST calcolato dal confronto dei due gruppi è risultato pari a 0,102 e ricade nel <em>range> di variazione identificato di recente in popolazioni nord-europee di martora (Kyle <em>et al.em>, 2003. L'analisi della varianza molecolare (AMOVA, condotta a due livelli gerarchici, ha permesso in particolare di ripartire la varianza del campione

  8. Retratos em movimento.

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    Luiz Carlos Oliveira Junior

    Full Text Available resumo O artigo aborda aspectos da relação do cinema com a arte do retrato. Buscamos, em primeiro lugar, uma definição estética do que seria um retrato cinematográfico, sempre em tensão com os critérios formais e padrões estilísticos que historicamente constituíram o retrato pictórico. Em seguida, relacionamos essa questão com a importância que se deu à representação do close-up de rosto nas primeiras décadas do cinema, quando foi atribuído aos filmes um papel inédito no estudo da fisionomia e da expressão facial. Por fim, apresentamos exemplos de autorretratos na pintura e no cinema para expor a forma como a autorrepresentação põe em crise as noções de subjetividade e identidade em que a definição clássica do retrato se apoiava.

  9. Estabilidade da resistência de genótipos de caupi a Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr. em gerações sucessivas

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    Lima Marcileyne Pessôa Leite de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae é a principal praga do caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. armazenado em condições tropicais e subtropicais. Avaliaram-se a estabilidade da resistência e a capacidade de adaptação de C. maculatus a genótipos de caupi, durante seis gerações. Utilizou-se o teste sem chance de escolha, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial, com dez tratamentos, seis gerações do inseto e cinco repetições. Cada repetição constou de 30 grãos infestados com dois casais da praga. O número de ovos/fêmea diferiu entre os genótipos de caupi apenas na sexta geração, e entre as gerações em BR14-Mulato, Bico de Pato, TE90-180-3E e TE87-98-8G. A viabilidade de ovos diferiu entre as gerações em BR17-Gurguéia, BR14-Mulato, IT89KD-260 e IT89KD-245, e entre os genótipos nas terceira, quinta e sexta gerações. Os genótipos diferiram entre e dentro das gerações, em relação à duração e a viabilidade da fase imatura. Observou-se redução na emergência, especialmente em IT89KD-245, IT89KD-260, CNC 0434, Bico de Pato, TE90-180-10F e BR14-Mulato, provavelmente devido a substâncias químicas presentes nos grãos que afetaram a sobrevivência dos insetos, ao longo das gerações. Os genótipos IT89KD-245 e IT89KD-260 comportaram-se como moderadamente resistentes. Não se observou adaptação de C. maculatus aos genótipos, mantendo-se a resistência estável através das gerações.

  10. Morfologia e vascularização arterial das glândulas tireóides em gansos domésticos

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    Cheston César Honorato Pereira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar a morfologia e o comportamento das artérias que se destinam às glândulas tireóides, abordando seu número, origem e ordenação em 30 gansos domésticos (Anser domestica, injetados com Neoprene látex 450 corado e fixados em solução aquosa de formalina a 10%. As glândulas tireóides apresentam-se pares, ovóides e localizam-se na extremidade cranial da cavidade tóraco-abdominal, relacionam-se com o nervo vago, veia jugular e artéria carótida comum, e possuem em média de 0,97; 0,69 e 0,43 cm no antímero direito e 1,04; 0,62 e 0,38 cm no antímero esquerdo, para comprimento, largura e espessura, respectivamente. As glândulas tireóides recebem colaterais das artérias: carótida comum, cervical cutânea ascendente, esofagotraqueobronquial, esofágica ascendente, comum do nervo vago ipsilateralmente e ramo esofágico, sendo estes dois últimos somente para a glândula direita. O número de vasos variou de 1 a 5 vasos, sendo 2 vasos (15 casos, 50% ± 10 para o antímero direito e 3 vasos (12 casos, 40% ± 9,8 para o antímero esquerdo, o padrão mais freqüentemente observado. As artérias tireóideas cranial, média cranial, média, média caudal e caudal estiveram presentes no antímero direito em 29, 8, 8, 14 e 29 gansos respectivamente, e no antímero esquerdo em 28, 5, 14, 5 e 28 gansos respectivamente. Um único ramo, a artéria tireóidea, destinou-se a glândula em um animal à direita e em dois animais a esquerda.