WorldWideScience

Sample records for macroseismic intensity assessment

  1. The 24 August 2016 Amatrice earthquake: macroseismic survey in the damage area and EMS intensity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QUEST W.G. :

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The 24 August 2016 earthquake very heavily struck the central sector of the Apennines among the Lazio,Umbria, Marche and Abruzzi regions, devastating the town of Amatrice, the nearby villages and other localities along the Tronto valley. In this paper we present the results of the macroseismic field survey carried out using the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS to take the heterogeneity of the building stock into account. We focused on the epicentral area, where geological conditions may also have contributed to the severity of damage. On the whole, we investigated 143 localities; the maximum intensity 10 EMS has been estimated for Amatrice, Pescara del Tronto and some villages in between. The severely damaged area (8-9 EMS covers a strip trending broadly N-S and extending 15 km in length and 5 km in width; minor damage occurred over an area up to 35 km northward from the epicenter.

  2. Transfrontier Macroseismic Data Exchange in Europe: Intensity Assessment of M>4 Earthquakes by a Grid Cell Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noten, K.; Lecocq, T.; Sira, C.; Hinzen, K. G.; Camelbeeck, T.

    2016-12-01

    In the US, the USGS is the only institute that gathers macroseismic data through its online "Did You Feel It?" (DYFI) system allowing a homogeneous and consistent intensity assessment. In Europe, however, we face a much more complicated situation. As almost every nation has its own inquiry in their national language(s) and both the EMSC and the USGS run an international DYFI inquiry, responses to European transfrontier-felt seismic events are strongly fragmented across different institutes. To make a realistic ground motion intensity assessment, macroseismic databases need to be merged in a consistent way hereby dealing with duplicated responses, different intensity calculations and legal issues (observer's privacy). In this presentation, we merge macroseismic datasets by a grid cell approach. Instead of using the irregularly-shaped, arbitrary municipal boundaries, we structure the model area into (100 km2) grid cells and assign an intensity value to each grid cell based on all institutional (geocoded) responses in that cell. The resulting macroseismic grid cell distribution shows a less subjective and more homogeneous intensity distribution than the classic community distribution despite less datapoints are used after geocoding the participant's location. The method is demonstrated on the 2011 ML 4.3 (MW 3.7) Goch (Germany) and the 2015 ML 4.2 (MW 3.7) Ramsgate (UK) earthquakes both felt in NW Europe. Integration of data results in a non-circular distribution in which the felt area extends significantly more in E-W than in N-S direction, illustrating a low-pass filtering effect due to the south-to-north increasing thickness of cover sediments above the regional London-Brabant Massif. Ground motions were amplified and attenuated at places with a shallow and deep basement, respectively. To large extend, the shape of the attenuation model derived through the grid cell intensity points is rather similar as the Atkinson and Wald (2007) CEUS prediction. The attenuation

  3. Macroseismic intensity evaluation with the <>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Guidoboni

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of a macroseismic scale often requires subjective choices and judgments which may produce inhomogeneities and biases in the resulting intensities. To get over this problem it would be necessary to formalize the decision process leading to the estimation of the macroseismic intensity but, on historical records, this is often hindered by the poorness and incompleteness of the aLailable information and by the intrinsical ambiguity of the common language. Moreover. all the intensity scales have always been created and updated to be used <macroseismic intensity which makes use of the <>T. his approach reproduces the taslts performed by the hurnan brain which. taking advantage of the tolerance of imprecision. is able to handle with information bearing only an approximate relation to the data. This allows to understand and make explicit some passes of the evaluation process that are unconsciously followed by the macroseismic exper

  4. Towards Coupling of Macroseismic Intensity with Structural Damage Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouteva, Mihaela; Boshnakov, Krasimir

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge on basic data of ground motion acceleration time histories during earthquakes is essential to understanding the earthquake resistant behaviour of structures. Peak and integral ground motion parameters such as peak ground motion values (acceleration, velocity and displacement), measures of the frequency content of ground motion, duration of strong shaking and various intensity measures play important roles in seismic evaluation of existing facilities and design of new systems. Macroseismic intensity is an earthquake measure related to seismic hazard and seismic risk description. Having detailed ideas on the correlations between the earthquake damage potential and macroseismic intensity is an important issue in engineering seismology and earthquake engineering. Reliable earthquake hazard estimation is the major prerequisite to successful disaster risk management. The usage of advanced earthquake engineering approaches for structural response modelling is essential for reliable evaluation of the accumulated damages in the existing buildings and structures due to the history of seismic actions, occurred during their lifetime. Full nonlinear analysis taking into account single event or series of earthquakes and the large set of elaborated damage indices are suitable contemporary tools to cope with this responsible task. This paper presents some results on the correlation between observational damage states, ground motion parameters and selected analytical damage indices. Damage indices are computed on the base of nonlinear time history analysis of test reinforced structure, characterising the building stock of the Mediterranean region designed according the earthquake resistant requirements in mid XX-th century.

  5. Macroseismic investigation of the 2008-2010 low magnitude seismic swarm in the Brabant Massif, Belgium. The link between macroseismic intensity and geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noten, Koen; Lecocq, Thomas; Vleminckx, Bart; Camelbeeck, Thierry

    2013-04-01

    Between July 2008 and January 2010 a seismic swarm took place in a region 20 km south of Brussels, Belgium. The sequence started on the 12th of July 2008 with a ML = 2.2 event and was followed the day after by the largest event in the sequence (ML = 3.2). Thanks to a locally installed temporary seismic monitoring system more than 300 low magnitude events, with events as low as ML = -0.7, have been detected. Results of the relocations of the different hypocenters and analysis of the focal mechanisms show that the majority of these earthquakes took place at several km's depth (3 to 6 km) along a (possibly blind) 1.5 km long NW-SE fault (zone) situated in the Cambrian basement rocks of the Brabant Massif. Remarkably, 60 events (0.6 ˜ ML ˜ 3.2) were felt, or heard only sometimes, by the local population. This was detected by the "Did you feel it?" macroseismic inquiries on the ROB seismology website (www.seismology.be). For each event a classical macroseismic intensity map has been constructed based on the average macroseismic intensity of each community. Within a single community, however, the reported macroseismic intensities locally often vary ranging between non-damaging intensities of I and IV (on the EMS-98 scale). Using the average macroseismic intensity of a community therefore often oversimplificates the local intensity, especially in hilly areas in which local site effects could have influenced the impact of the earthquakes at the surface. In this presentation we investigate if the perception of the people of how they experienced the small events (sound, vibrations) was influenced by local geomorphological site effects. First, based on available borehole and outcrop data a sediment thickness map of the Cenozoic and Quaternary cover above the basement rocks of the Brabant Massif is constructed in a 200 km2 area around the different epicenters. Second, several electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) profiles are conducted in order to locally improve the

  6. Predicting the macroseismic intensity from early radiated P wave energy for on-site earthquake early warning in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondi, P.; Picozzi, M.; Emolo, A.; Zollo, A.; Mucciarelli, M.

    2015-10-01

    Earthquake Early Warning Systems (EEWS) are potentially effective tools for risk mitigation in active seismic regions. The present study explores the possibility of predicting the macroseismic intensity within EEW timeframes using the squared velocity integral (IV2) measured on the early P wave signals, a proxy for the P wave radiated energy of earthquakes. This study shows that IV2 correlates better than the peak displacement measured on P waves with both the peak ground velocity and the Housner Intensity, with the latter being recognized by engineers as a reliable proxy for damage assessment. Therefore, using the strong motion recordings of the Italian Accelerometric Archive, a novel relationship between the parameter IV2 and the macroseismic intensity (IM) has been derived. The validity of this relationship has been assessed using the strong motion recordings of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia Strong Motion Data and Osservatorio Sismico delle Strutture databases, as well as, in the case of the MW 6, 29 May 2012 Emilia earthquake (Italy), comparing the predicted intensities with the ones observed after a macroseismic survey. Our results indicate that P wave IV2 can become a key parameter for the design of on-site EEWS, capable of proving real-time predictions of the IM at target sites.

  7. Transfrontier macroseismic data exchange in NW Europe: examples of non-circular intensity distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noten, Koen; Lecocq, Thomas; Hinzen, Klaus-G.; Sira, Christophe; Camelbeeck, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    Macroseismic data acquisition recently received a strong increase in interest due to public crowdsourcing through internet-based inquiries and real-time smartphone applications. Macroseismic analysis of felt earthquakes is important as the perception of people can be used to detect local/regional site effects in areas without instrumentation. We will demonstrate how post-processing macroseismic data improves the quality of real-time intensity evaluation of new events. Instead of using the classic DYFI representation in which internet intensities are averaged per community, we, first, geocoded all individual responses and structure the model area into 100 km2grid cells. Second, the average intensity of all answers within a grid cell is calculated. The resulting macroseismic grid cell distribution shows a less subjective and more homogeneous intensity distribution than the classical irregular community distribution and helps to improve the calculation of intensity attenuation functions. In this presentation, the 'Did You Feel It' (DYFI) macroseismic data of several >M4, e.g. the 2002 ML 4.9 Alsdorf and 2011 ML 4.3 Goch (Germany) and the 2015 ML 4.1 Ramsgate (UK), earthquakes felt in Belgium, Germany, The Netherlands, France, Luxemburg and UK are analysed. Integration of transfrontier DYFI data of the ROB-BNS, KNMI, BCSF and BGS networks results in a particular non-circular, distribution of the macroseismic data in which the felt area for all these examples extends significantly more in E-W than N-S direction. This intensity distribution cannot be explained by geometrical amplitude attenuation alone, but rather illustrates a low-pass filtering effect due to the south-to-north increasing thickness of cover sediments above the London-Brabant Massif. For the studied M4 to M5 earthquakes, the thick sediments attenuate seismic energy at higher frequencies and consequently less people feel the vibrations at the surface. This example of successful macroseismic data exchange

  8. An analytic method for separating local from regional effects on macroseismic intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gasparini

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available nterpretation of macroseismic data is hazardous, due to its qualitative nature. This, linked with errors in eval- uation, and the variations of local intensity, makes it difficult to draw valid conclusions. This study presents a statistical method as the basis for distinguishing the diverse components that constitute a macroseismic field. The method is based on the polar transformation of the coordinate system and on the analysis of the fractal di- mension of the intensity values, exposed to the gradually increasing action of a two-dimensional filter. The fractal dimension is shown to be an ideaI parameter with which to measure out the filtering process in order to separate the local components from the regional trend. This method has been applied to two Italian events and to an earthquake which took pIace in the Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia (FYROM.

  9. Macroseismic intensity investigation of the November 2014, M=5.7, Vrancea (Romania crustal earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Petruta Constantin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available On November 22, 2014 at 21:14:17 local hour (19:14:17 GMT a  ML=5.7 crustal earthquake occurred in the area of Marasesti city of Vrancea county (Romania - the epicenter was located at north latitude 45.87° and east longitude 27.16°, with a focal depth of 39 km. This earthquake is the main shock of a sequence that started with this and lasted until the end of January. During the sequence, characterized by the absence of foreshocks, a number of 75 earthquakes were recorded in 72 hours, the largest of which occurred in the same day with the main shock, at 22:30 (ML= 3.1. The crustal seismicity of Vrancea seismogenic region is characterized by moderate earthquakes with magnitudes that have not exceeded MW 5.9, this value being assigned to an earthquake that occurred in historical times on March 1, 1894 (Romplus catalogue. Immediately after the 2014 earthquake occurrence, the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP sent macroseismic questionnaires in all affected areas, in order to define the macroseismic field of ground shaking. According to macroseismic questionnaires survey, the intensity of epicentral area reached VI MSK, and the seismic event was felt in all the extra-Carpathian area. This earthquake caused general panic and minor to moderate damage to the buildings in the epicentral area and the northeast part of country. The main purpose of this paper is to present the macroseismic map of the earthquake based on the MSK-64 intensity scale.

  10. Rapid Estimation of Macroseismic Intensity for On-site Earthquake Early Warning in Italy from Early Radiated Energ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emolo, A.; Zollo, A.; Brondi, P.; Picozzi, M.; Mucciarelli, M.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake Early Warning System (EEWS) are effective tools for the risk mitigation in active seismic regions. Recently, a feasibility study of a nation-wide earthquake early warning systems has been conducted for Italy considering the RAN Network and the EEW software platform PRESTo. This work showed that a reliable estimations in terms of magnitude and epicentral localization would be available within 3-4 seconds after the first P-wave arrival. On the other hand, given the RAN's density, a regional EEWS approach would result in a Blind Zone (BZ) of 25-30 km in average. Such BZ dimension would provide lead-times greater than zero only for events having magnitude larger than 6.5. Considering that in Italy also smaller events are capable of generating great losses both in human and economic terms, as dramatically experienced during the recent 2009 L'Aquila (ML 5.9) and 2012 Emilia (ML 5.9) earthquakes, it has become urgent to develop and test on-site approaches. The present study is focused on the development of a new on-site EEW metodology for the estimation of the macroseismic intensity at a target site or area. In this analysis we have used a few thousands of accelerometric traces recorded by RAN related to the largest earthquakes (ML>4) occurred in Italy in the period 1997-2013. The work is focused on the integral EW parameter Squared Velocity Integral (IV2) and on its capability to predict the peak ground velocity PGV and the Housner Intensity IH, as well as from these latters we parameterized a new relation between IV2 and the Macroseismic Intensity. To assess the performance of the developed on-site EEW relation, we used data of the largest events occurred in Italy in the last 6 years recorded by the Osservatorio Sismico delle Strutture, as well as on the recordings of the moderate earthquake reported by INGV Strong Motion Data. The results shows that the macroseismic intensity values predicted by IV2 and the one estimated by PGV and IH are in good agreement.

  11. Regional macroseismic field and intensity residuals of the August 24, 2016, Mw=6.0 central Italy earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio De Rubeis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A macroseismic investigation of the August 24, 2016, Mw=6.0 Central Italy earthquake, was carried out through an online web survey. Data were collected through a macroseismic questionnaire available at the website www.haisentitoilterremoto.it, managed by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV. Over 12000 questionnaires were compiled soon after the seismic occurrence, coming from over 2600 municipalities. A statistical analysis was applied to the data collected in order to investigate the spatial distribution of intensity of the earthquake. The macroseismic intensity field (I was described by identifying three main components: an isotropic component (II, a regional anisotropic component (IA and a local random variations parameter (. The anisotropic component highlighted specific and well-defined geographical areas of amplification and attenuation. In general, the area between the Adriatic coast and Apennines Chain was characterized by an amplification of intensity, while the West side of the Apennines showed attenuation, in agreement with the domains found by other works focused on the analysis of instrumental data. Moreover, the regional macroseismic field showed similarities with instrumental PGA data. The results of our analysis confirm the reliability of web questionnaire data.

  12. USGS "Did You Feel It?" internet-based macroseismic intensity maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, D.J.; Quitoriano, V.; Worden, B.; Hopper, M.; Dewey, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) "Did You Feel It?" (DYFI) system is an automated approach for rapidly collecting macroseismic intensity data from Internet users' shaking and damage reports and generating intensity maps immediately following earthquakes; it has been operating for over a decade (1999-2011). DYFI-based intensity maps made rapidly available through the DYFI system fundamentally depart from more traditional maps made available in the past. The maps are made more quickly, provide more complete coverage and higher resolution, provide for citizen input and interaction, and allow data collection at rates and quantities never before considered. These aspects of Internet data collection, in turn, allow for data analyses, graphics, and ways to communicate with the public, opportunities not possible with traditional data-collection approaches. Yet web-based contributions also pose considerable challenges, as discussed herein. After a decade of operational experience with the DYFI system and users, we document refinements to the processing and algorithmic procedures since DYFI was first conceived. We also describe a number of automatic post-processing tools, operations, applications, and research directions, all of which utilize the extensive DYFI intensity datasets now gathered in near-real time. DYFI can be found online at the website http://earthquake.usgs.gov/dyfi/. ?? 2011 by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia.

  13. Preliminary macroseismic survey of the 2016 Amatrice seismic sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Angelo Zanini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available After the recent destructive L’Aquila 2009 and Emilia-Romagna 2012 earthquakes, a sudden Mw 6.0 seismic event hit Central Italy on August 24, 2016. A low population density characterizes the area but, due to its nighttime occurrence, about 300 victims were registered. This work presents the first preliminary results of a macroseismic survey conducted by two teams of the University of Padova in the territories that suffered major damages. Macroseismic intensities were assessed according to the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS98 for 180 sites.

  14. Procedure to estimate maximum ground acceleration from macroseismic intensity rating: application to the Lima, Perú data from the October-3-1974-8.1-Mw earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ocola

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-disaster reconstruction management of urban areas requires timely information on the ground response microzonation to strong levels of ground shaking to minimize the rebuilt-environment vulnerability to future earthquakes. In this paper, a procedure is proposed to quantitatively estimate the severity of ground response in terms of peak ground acceleration, that is computed from macroseismic rating data, soil properties (acoustic impedance and predominant frequency of shear waves at a site. The basic mathematical relationships are derived from properties of wave propagation in a homogeneous and isotropic media. We define a Macroseismic Intensity Scale IMS as the logarithm of the quantity of seismic energy that flows through a unit area normal to the direction of wave propagation in unit time. The derived constants that relate the IMS scale and peak acceleration agree well with coefficients derived from a linear regression between MSK macroseismic rating and peak ground acceleration for historical earthquakes recorded at a strong motion station, at IGP's former headquarters, since 1954. The procedure was applied to 3-October-1974 Lima macroseismic intensity data at places where there was geotechnical data and predominant ground frequency information. The observed and computed peak acceleration values, at nearby sites, agree well.

  15. Comparing USGS national seismic hazard maps with internet-based macroseismic intensity observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Sum; Schorlemmer, Danijel

    2016-04-01

    Verifying a nationwide seismic hazard assessment using data collected after the assessment has been made (i.e., prospective data) is a direct consistency check of the assessment. We directly compared the predicted rate of ground motion exceedance by the four available versions of the USGS national seismic hazard map (NSHMP, 1996, 2002, 2008, 2014) with the actual observed rate during 2000-2013. The data were prospective to the two earlier versions of NSHMP. We used two sets of somewhat independent data, namely 1) the USGS "Did You Feel It?" (DYFI) intensity reports, 2) instrumental ground motion records extracted from ShakeMap stations. Although both are observed data, they come in different degrees of accuracy. Our results indicated that for California, the predicted and observed hazards were very comparable. The two sets of data gave consistent results, implying robustness. The consistency also encourages the use of DYFI data for hazard verification in the Central and Eastern US (CEUS), where instrumental records are lacking. The result showed that the observed ground-motion exceedance was also consistent with the predicted in CEUS. The primary value of this study is to demonstrate the usefulness of DYFI data, originally designed for community communication instead of scientific analysis, for the purpose of hazard verification.

  16. Using H/V Spectral Ratio Analysis to Map Sediment Thickness and to Explain Macroseismic Intensity Variation of a Low-Magnitude Seismic Swarm in Central Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noten, K.; Lecocq, T.; Camelbeeck, T.

    2013-12-01

    Between 2008 and 2010, the Royal Observatory of Belgium received numerous ';Did You Feel It'-reports related to a 2-year lasting earthquake swarm at Court-Saint-Etienne, a small town in a hilly area 20 km SE of Brussels, Belgium. These small-magnitude events (-0.7 ≤ ML ≤ 3.2, n = c. 300 events) were recorded both by the permanent seismometer network in Belgium and by a locally installed temporary seismic network deployed in the epicentral area. Relocation of the hypocenters revealed that the seismic swarm can be related to the reactivation of a NW-SE strike-slip fault at 3 to 6 km depth in the basement rocks of the Lower Palaeozoic London-Brabant Massif. This sequence caused a lot of emotion in the region because more than 60 events were felt by the local population. Given the small magnitudes of the seismic swarm, most events were more often heard than felt by the respondents, which is indicative of a local high-frequency earthquake source. At places where the bedrock is at the surface or where it is covered by thin alluvial sediments ( 30 m). In those river valleys that have a considerable alluvial sedimentary cover, macroseismic intensities are again lower. To explain this variation in macroseismic intensity we present a macroseismic analysis of all DYFI-reports related to the 2008-2010 seismic swarm and a pervasive H/V spectral ratio (HVSR) analysis of ambient noise measurements to model the thickness of sediments covering the London-Brabant Massif. The HVSR method is a very powerful tool to map the basement morphology, particularly in regions of unknown subsurface structure. By calculating the soil's fundamental frequency above boreholes, we calibrated the power-law relationship between the fundamental frequency, shear wave velocity and the thickness of sediments. This relationship is useful for places where the sediment thickness is unknown and where the fundamental frequency can be calculated by H/V spectral ratio analysis of ambient noise. In a

  17. Re-evaluation of the macroseismic effects produced by the March 4, 1977, strong Vrancea earthquake in Romanian territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelian Pantea

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the macroseismic effects of the subcrustal earthquake in Vrancea (Romania that occurred on March 4, 1977, have been re-evaluated. This was the second strongest seismic event that occurred in this area during the twentieth century, following the event that happened on November 10, 1940. It is thus of importance for our understanding of the seismicity of the Vrancea zone. The earthquake was felt over a large area, which included the territories of the neighboring states, and it produced major damage. Due to its effects, macroseismic studies were developed by Romanian researchers soon after its occurrence, with foreign scientists also involved, such as Medvedev, the founder of the Medvedev-Sponheuer-Karnik (MSK seismic intensity scale. The original macroseismic questionnaires were re-examined, to take into account the recommendations for intensity assessments according to the MSK-64 macroseismic scale used in Romania. After the re-evaluation of the macroseismic field of this earthquake, the intensity dataset was obtained for 1,620 sites in Romanian territory. The re-evaluation was necessary as it has confirmed that the previous macroseismic map was underestimated. On this new map, only the intensity data points are plotted, without tracing the isoseismals.

  18. The 7 and 11 May 1984 earthquakes in Abruzzo-Latium (Central Italy): reappraisal of the existing macroseismic datasets according to the EMS98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, Laura; Tertulliani, Andrea; Maramai, Alessandra; Rossi, Antonio; Arcoraci, Luca

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a complete and reliable macroseismic knowledge of the events that stroke a large area in Central Italy on 7 and 11 May 1984. Previous studies, together with original accounts integrated with new and unpublished information, have been gathered and examined in order to re-evaluate macroseismic intensities in terms of the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS98). New intensity maps have been compiled; the total number of localities with available information for both the shocks increases from 1254 of the previous study to 1576. On the basis of the new dataset, the macroseismic magnitude of the first shock is MW 5.6 which is lower than the previous macroseismic computation (MW 5.7). Moreover, the topic of assessing macroseismic intensity in the presence of multiple shocks has been also investigated, proposing an unconventional approach to presenting the macroseismic data: an overall picture of the cumulative effects produced by all the seismic sequence is given to support a partial but faithful reconstruction of the second shock. This approach is inspired by the common experience in interpreting historical seismic sequences and gives a picture of the impact of the 1984 events on the territory.

  19. Advances and Limitations of Modern Macroseismic Data Gathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, D. J.; Dewey, J. W.; Quitoriano, V. P. R.

    2016-12-01

    All macroseismic data are not created equal. At about the time that the European Macroseismic Scale 1998 (EMS-98; itself a revision of EMS-92) formalized a procedure to account for building vulnerability and damage grade statistics in assigning intensities from traditional field observations, a parallel universe of internet-based intensity reporting was coming online. The divergence of intensities assigned by field reconnaissance and intensities based on volunteered reports poses unique challenges. U.S. Geological Survey's Did You Feel It? (DYFI) and its Italian (National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology) counterpart use questionnaires based on the traditional format, submitted by volunteers. The Italian strategy uses fuzzy logic to assign integer values of intensity from questionnaire responses, whereas DYFI assigns weights to macroseismic effects and computes real-valued intensities to a 0.1 MMI unit precision. DYFI responses may be grouped together by postal code, or by smaller latitude-longitude boxes; calculated intensities may vary depending on how observations are grouped. New smartphone-based procedures depart further from tradition by asking respondents to select from cartoons corresponding to various intensity levels that best fit their experience. While nearly instantaneous, these thumbnail-based intensities are strictly integer values and do not record specific macroseismic effects. Finally, a recent variation on traditional intensity assignments derives intensities not from field surveys or questionnaires sent to target audiences but rather from media reports, photojournalism, and internet posts that may or may not constitute the representative observations needed for consistent EMS-98 assignments. We review these issues and suggest due-diligence strategies for utilizing varied macroseismic data sets within real-time applications and in quantitative hazard and engineering analyses.

  20. Critical considerations on the evaluation of macroseismic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. SPADEA

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available The definition of some of the standards used for evaluating local effects
    and optimizing the relative macroseismic procedures are critically
    considered, also from the different interpretative points of view to have
    come out of the « Earthquake Catalogue » work group of the Italian Geodynamics
    Projetc (PFG. Particular stress has been laid on the significance
    and reliability of the main macroseismic parameters which depend
    most directly on the investigative criteria used and on their ability to
    characterize efficiently the interaction of earthquakes and environment.
    Essentially, the analysis is of critical considerations and field-observations,
    the fruit of macroseismic investigations carried out prevalently in
    the Calabro-Peloritan Arc region. The seismic intensity, the use of macroseismic
    scales, the investigatory criteria, the macroseismic field and its anomalies are the topics chosen for a study which — even if limited from
    certain aspects — it is hoped will stimulate further thought and evaluations.

  1. Simulation of macroseismic field in Central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Drakopoulos

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of seismic intensity is generally influenced by major geological and tectonic features and, on a smaller scale, by local geological conditions, such as the type of surface soil, the surface-to-bedrock soil structure in sedimentary basins and the depth of the saturated zone, The present paper attempted to determine the distribution of macroseismic intensities based on published attenuation laws in the area of Central Greece, using the epicentral intensity, magnitude, length and direction of fault and a considerable number of observation sites, for which the above mentioned information is available, The expected intensity values were then compared to those observed in the same sites, from four earthquakes in Volos, Central Greece, for which the fault plane solutions are also known. The deviations of the observed values from the theoretical model were then related to the local geological conditions and the corresponding correction factor determined for each site.

  2. Assessment of earthquake-induced landslides hazard in El Salvador after the 2001 earthquakes using macroseismic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Eliana; Violante, Crescenzo; Giunta, Giuseppe; Ángel Hernández, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Two strong earthquakes and a number of smaller aftershocks struck El Salvador in the year 2001. The January 13 2001 earthquake, Mw 7.7, occurred along the Cocos plate, 40 km off El Salvador southern coast. It resulted in about 1300 deaths and widespread damage, mainly due to massive landsliding. Two of the largest earthquake-induced landslides, Las Barioleras and Las Colinas (about 2x105 m3) produced major damage to buildings and infrastructures and 500 fatalities. A neighborhood in Santa Tecla, west of San Salvador, was destroyed. The February 13 2001 earthquake, Mw 6.5, occurred 40 km east-southeast of San Salvador. This earthquake caused over 300 fatalities and triggered several landslides over an area of 2,500 km2 mostly in poorly consolidated volcaniclastic deposits. The La Leona landslide (5-7x105 m3) caused 12 fatalities and extensive damage to the Panamerican Highway. Two very large landslides of 1.5 km3 and 12 km3 produced hazardous barrier lakes at Rio El Desague and Rio Jiboa, respectively. More than 16.000 landslides occurred throughout the country after both quakes; most of them occurred in pyroclastic deposits, with a volume less than 1x103m3. The present work aims to define the relationship between the above described earthquake intensity, size and areal distribution of induced landslides, as well as to refine the earthquake intensity in sparsely populated zones by using landslide effects. Landslides triggered by the 2001 seismic sequences provided useful indication for a realistic seismic hazard assessment, providing a basis for understanding, evaluating, and mapping the hazard and risk associated with earthquake-induced landslides.

  3. Intensity attenuation in the Campania region, Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    M. B. Sørensen; Dietrich Stromeyer; Gottfried Grünthal

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Ground motion prediction equations (GMPE) in terms of macroseismic intensity are a prerequisite for intensity-based shake maps and seismic hazard assessment and have the advantage of direct relation to earthquake damage and good data availability also for historical events. In this study, we derive GMPE for macroseismic intensity for the Campania region in southern Italy. This region is highly exposed to the seismic hazard related to the high seismicity with moderate- to l...

  4. Intensity assessment from documentary data. Criteria and procedures in the daily practice of seismologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Albarello

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A major problem in assessing macroseismic intensity from historical records is the lack of a standardized procedure for processing documentary sources and supplying unequivocal intensity estimates. In fact, most macroseismic, scales do not include detailed descriptions of procedures for intensity assessment and many divergent interpretations of intensity values arc obtained by different operators. In order to disclose these problems an experiment was made in Italy in 1994, in the framework of GNDT "Seismicity" Working Group. A set of selected documents concerning origil1al descriptions of effects produced by earthquakes which had occurred in Italy from 15th to 20th century, was supplied to a number of independent researchers. Each of them was invited to assess on this basis the intensity values and to explain his intellectual path by describing it in detail. This documentation was finally collected and, during a meeting devoted to this topic, the researchers involved were invited to discuss their personal experiences. The discussion indicated that the discrepancies between the estimate obtained by the different authors from the same documentary source are, in many cases, greater than 1 degree. This implies that the effect of personal choices may play an important role in intensity assessment and makes intensity estimates performed by the different authors less comparable. At present no definitive conclusions about these problems can be drawn but the topics focused during the meeting may represent a useful basis for a wider discussion to define a standardized procedure for thc assessment of intensity from documentary data.

  5. Design and first tests of a Macroseismic Sensor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueckl, Ewald; Polydor, Stefan; Ableitinger, Klaus; Rafeiner-Magor, Walter; Kristufek, Werner; Mertl, Stefan; Lenhardt, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    Seismic observatories are located in remote, low-noise areas for good reason and do not probe areas of dense and sensitive infrastructure. Complementary macroseismic data provide dense, qualitative information on ground motion in populated areas. Motivated by the QCN (Quake Catcher Network), a new low-cost sensor system (Macroseismic Sensor System = MSS) has been developed to support the evaluation of macroseismic data with quantitative information on ground movement in populated and industrial areas. Scholars, alumni and teachers from a technical high school contributed substantially to this development within the Sparkling Science project Schools & Quakes and the Citizen Science project QuakeWatch Austria. The MSS uses horizontal 4.5 Hz geophones and 16Bit AD conversion, and 100 Hz sampling, formatting to MiniSeed, and continuous data transmission via LAN or WLAN to a server are controlled by an integrated microcomputer (Raspberry Pi). Real-time generation of shake and source maps (based on proxies of the PGV in successive time windows) allows for differentiation between local seismic events (e.g., traffic noise, shock close to the sensor) and signals from earthquakes or quarry blasts. The inherent noise of the MSS is about 1% of the PGV corresponding to the lower boundary of intensity I = 2, which is below the ambient noise level at stations in highly populated or industrial areas. The MSS is already being tested at locations around a quarry with regular production blasts. An expansion to a local network in the Vienna Basin will be the next step.

  6. Analysis of the 2016 Amatrice earthquake macroseismic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Hofer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On August 24, 2016, a sudden MW 6.0 seismic event hit central Italy, causing 298 victims and significant damage to residential buildings and cultural heritage. In the days following the mainshock, a macroseismic survey was conducted by teams of the University of Padova, according to the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS98. In this contribution, a critical analysis of the collected macroseismic data is presented and some comparisons were performed with the recent 2012 Emilia sequence.

  7. Geological and Macroseismic Data For Seismotectonic Purpose: The 1706 Maiella (Abruzzo, Italy) Earthquake Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nardis, R.; Pace, B.; Lavecchia, G.; Visini, F.; Boncio, P.

    2008-12-01

    The nature and distribution of the seismicity and of the active structures in central Italy show that the active deformation field is mainly characterised by extension in the axial zone of the Apennines and by co-axial contraction on the frontal part of the belt. In this tectonic context become crucial, from the seismic hazard point of view, the seismotectonic characterization of the major earthquake localised between the two seismotectonic provinces. The 1706 (Io=IX-X), 1933 (Io=VIII-IX) and 1881 (Io=VIII) Maiella earthquakes stroke areas extending outward of the easternmost, NNW-SSE, active normal fault alignment and inward of the N-S oriented active thrust front. These earthquakes have been attributed by some authors to thrust faulting, while partly to upper crust normal faulting and partly to thrust faulting by others. Due to the poor local configuration of the national seismic network, the available seismic instrumental data are inadequate to constrain the active deformation pattern of the Maiella area. On the other hand, the shallow and deep tectonic setting is rather well known and macroseismic data of the afore-mentioned earthquakes available. The present study has been carried on mainly focusing on the 1706 event, following and integrating three methodological steps: a) selection and definition of the likely 3D seismogenic source models; b) evaluation of possible local effects on the macroseismic field data; d) estimation of seismic scenario in terms of macroseismic intensity, calculating synthetic strong motion time histories starting from different configuration and depths of the seismogenic source models, with a stochastic finite-fault modelling of the ground motion. The method involves discretization of fault plane into smaller sub- faults; the contribution from all the sub-faults is summed to produce the synthetic acceleration time history. For each point of the 1706 macroseismic field, peak ground acceleration and velocity were determined in order to

  8. The October 4th, 1983 — Magnitude 4 earthquake in Phlegraean Fields: Macroseismic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branno, A.; Esposito, E. G. I.; Luongo, G.; Marturano, A.; Porfido, S.; Rinaldis, V.

    1984-06-01

    On Oct. 4th, 1983 the area of Phlegraean Fields, near Naples (Southern Italy) was shaked by an earthquake of magnitude ( M L) 4.0 that caused some damage in the town of Pozzuoli and its surroundings. This seismic event was the largest one recorded during the recent (1982 84) inflation episode occurred in the Phlegraean volcanic area, and a detailed macroseismic reconstruction of the event was carried out. Failing macroseismic data on other earthquakes occurred in Phlegraean Fields, the attenuation law of the intensity as a function of the distance as obtained for the Oct. 4th earthquake was compared with those obtained for other volcanic areas in central Italy — i.e., Tolfa, Monte Amiata — in order to check the reliability of the results obtained for Phlegraean Fields. The Blake's model of the earthquake of Oct. 4th, 1983 does not agree with the experimental data because isoseismals contain areas larger than those shown by the model. This result has been interpreted as an effect of energy focusing due to a reflecting layer 6 8 km deep.

  9. Reevaluation of the macroseismic effects of the 1887 Sonora, Mexico earthquake and its magnitude estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Gerardo; Hough, Susan E.

    2008-01-01

    The Sonora, Mexico, earthquake of 3 May 1887 occurred a few years before the start of the instrumental era in seismology. We revisit all available accounts of the earthquake and assign Modified Mercalli Intensities (MMI), interpreting and analyzing macroseismic information using the best available modern methods. We find that earlier intensity assignments for this important earthquake were unjustifiably high in many cases. High intensity values were assigned based on accounts of rock falls, soil failure or changes in the water table, which are now known to be very poor indicators of shaking severity and intensity. Nonetheless, reliable accounts reveal that light damage (intensity VI) occurred at distances of up to ~200 km in both Mexico and the United States. The resulting set of 98 reevaluated intensity values is used to draw an isoseismal map of this event. Using the attenuation relation proposed by Bakun (2006b), we estimate an optimal moment magnitude of Mw7.6. Assuming this magnitude is correct, a fact supported independently by documented rupture parameters assuming standard scaling relations, our results support the conclusion that northern Sonora as well as the Basin and Range province are characterized by lower attenuation of intensities than California. However, this appears to be at odds with recent results that Lg attenuation in the Basin and Range province is comparable to that in California.

  10. Macroseismic survey of the April 6, 2009 L’Aquila earthquake (central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camassi, R.; Azzaro, R.; Bernardini, F.; D'Amico, S.; Ercolani, E.; Rossi, A.; Tertulliani, A.; Vecchi, M.; Galli, P.

    2009-12-01

    On April 6, 2009, at 01:33 GMT, central Italy has been hit by a strong earthquake (Ml 5.8, Mw 6.3) representing the mainshock of a seismic sequence of over 20.000 aftershocks recorded in about five months. The event, located in the inner of the Abruzzi region just a few kilometres SW of the town of L’Aquila, has produced destructions and heavy damage in a 30 km wide area and was felt in almost Italy, as far as the coasts of Slovenia, Croatia and Albania. In all, 308 people lost their lives. A macroseismic survey was carried out soon after the earthquake by the QUEST group (QUick Earthquake Survey Team) with the aim to define, for Civil Protection purposes, the damage scenario over a territory which is densely urbanised. Damage generally depended on the high vulnerability of the buildings both for problems related to the old age of the buildings - it is the case of the historical centre of l’Aquila - and to site effects, as in some quarters of the town and in the nearby villages. Rubble-stone and masonry buildings suffered heaviest damage - a lot of old small villages almost entirely collapsed - while reinforced concrete (RC) frame buildings generally experienced moderate structural damage except in particular condition. The macroseismic effects reached intensity IX-X MCS (Mercalli-Cancani-Sieberg scale) at Onna and Castelnuovo, while many others villages reached VIII-IX MCS, amongst which the historical centre of L’Aquila. This town was investigated in detail due to the striking difference of damage between the historical centre and the more recent surrounding areas. In all, more than 300 localities have been investigated (Galli and Camassi, 2009). The earthquake has also provoked effects on natural surroundings (EMERGEO WG, 2009). Two types of phenomena have been detected: (i) surface cracks mainly observed along previously mapped faults and (ii) slope instability processes, such as landslides and secondary fractures. The pattern of macroseismic effects

  11. Procesos geológicos e intensidad macrosísmica Inqua del sismo de Pisco del 15/08/2007, Perú Geological process and INQUA macro-seismic intensity scale of Pisco earthquake 15/08/2007, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilberto Zavala

    2009-12-01

    the National Institute of Civil Defense totaled 519 casualties and 655 to 679 damaged houses. Cities like Pisco, San Clemente and Tambo de Mora were severely affected, as well as agricultural areas in Pisco and Cañete valleys. The Panamericana highway was considerablely affected. In the National Reserve Paracas many tourist places were destroyed and many secondary roads that connect the coastal area with the high part of the Andes (Ica, Huancavelica and Lima were blocked due to rock falls. Small towns in the Andes placed on ancient landslide deposits were damaged (Laraos, Chocos, Huangascar, Tantará. Seaside resorts, creeks and small docks in the coastal area and some chicken farms were affected by the tsunami. Coseismic and postseismic geological processes were responsible for the damage in a 200 km radius from the epicenter. Ground deformation and lateral spreading happened in Tertiary sediments due to a shallow of the ground water table. Mass movements (rock fall, collapsing and landslides are located between 32 and 198 km from the epicenter, with accumulated volumes of 14,750 m³ (Coastal area and 9, 585 m³ (Andes area. The tsunami waves got 10 m of run up (Yumaque beach and up to 2 km of flooding at the beach zone (Lagunillas beach in the National Reserve of Paracas. The geological and geomorphological descriptions of this process determine that that the Pisco earthquake reached a VII and VIII grade on the INQUA macro-seismic intensity scale.

  12. Analysis of the impact of fault mechanism radiation patterns on macroseismic fields in the epicentral area of 1998 and 2004 Krn Mountains earthquakes (NW Slovenia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosar, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    Two moderate magnitude (Mw = 5.6 and 5.2) earthquakes in Krn Mountains occurred in 1998 and 2004 which had maximum intensity VII-VIII and VI-VII EMS-98, respectively. Comparison of both macroseismic fields showed unexpected differences in the epicentral area which cannot be explained by site effects. Considerably, different distribution of the highest intensities can be noticed with respect to the strike of the seismogenic fault and in some localities even higher intensities have been estimated for the smaller earthquake. Although hypocentres of both earthquakes were only 2 km apart and were located on the same seismogenic Ravne fault, their focal mechanisms showed a slight difference: almost pure dextral strike-slip for the first event and a strike-slip with small reverse component on a steep fault plane for the second one. Seismotectonically the difference is explained as an active growth of the Ravne fault at its NW end. The radiation patterns of both events were studied to explain their possible impact on the observed variations in macroseismic fields and damage distribution. Radiation amplitude lobes were computed for three orthogonal directions: radial P, SV, and SH. The highest intensities of both earthquakes were systematically observed in directions of four (1998) or two (2004) large amplitude lobes in SH component (which corresponds mainly to Love waves), which have significantly different orientation for both events. On the other hand, radial P direction, which is almost purely symmetrical for the strike-slip mechanism of 1998 event, showed for the 2004 event that its small reverse component of movement has resulted in a very pronounced amplitude lobe in SW direction where two settlements are located which expressed higher intensities in the case of the 2004 event with respect to the 1998 one. Although both macroseismic fields are very complex due to influences of multiple earthquakes, retrofitting activity after 1998, site effects, and sparse

  13. The MCS macroseismic survey of the Emilia 2012 earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Galli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of the inhabitants of northern Italy were woken up during the night of May 20, 2012, by the Mw 6.1 earthquake [QRCMT 2012] that occurred in the eastern Po Plain. The mainshock was preceded a few hours before by a Mw 4.3 shock, and it was followed by a dozen Ml >4 aftershocks in May and June, amongst which 11 had Ml ≥4.5. On May 29, 2012, a second Mw 6.0 mainshock struck roughly the same area [QRCMT 2012], which resulted in further victims, most of whom were caught under the collapse of industrial warehouses. Such earthquakes are an unexpected event in this region, as testified by the lack of local epicenters in the Italian seismic catalog [Rovida et al. 2011: CPTI11 from now] and by the consequent low level of the local seismic classification (seismic zone 3 [DPC 2012]. Apart from the warehouses and hundreds of old, crumbling farmsteads, severe damage was focused on ancient, tall buildings, such as churches, bell towers, castles, towers and palaces. Residential buildings generally suffered only light and/or moderate effects, apart from some exceptional cases. Using the Mercalli–Cancani–Sieberg (MCS scale [Sieberg 1930], we began a macroseismic survey in the early morning of May 20, 2012, that ultimately included visits to almost 200 localities, 52 of which were carried out before the second mainshock. […

  14. Clinical swallowing assessment in intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovani, Aline Rodrigues; Moraes, Danielle Pedroni; Sassi, Fernanda Chiarion; Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim de

    2013-01-01

    To report the results of the full clinical swallowing assessment in acute-care population in a large Brazilian teaching hospital. A prospective, descriptive clinical study was conducted during three months in a 30-bed adult clinical emergency ICU from a large Brazilian teaching hospital. Thirty-five patients consecutively referred to the Speech-Language Pathology Service according to our standard clinical practice were included. A full clinical swallowing assessment was completed and includes a Preliminary Assessment Protocol (PAP), a Dysphagia Risk Evaluation Protocol (DREP) and an Oral Feeding Transition Protocol (OFTP). In this study, the prevalence of OD in the ICU setting was of 63%, most of which were classified as moderate and moderate-severe (39%). Patients submitted to orotracheal intubation were very frequently referred to swallowing assessment (74%). The results of the statistical analyses revealed clinical indicators that could correctly classify patients as either having or not having OD on clinical tests. These include cough strength, coordination between breathing and speaking, dysphonia severity, and laryngeal elevation. Twenty six patients (74%) completed all protocols. Of these total, 38% were able to eat a regular diet. The practice with standardized protocols adds an important option for the management of oropharyngeal dysphagia in intensive care unit.

  15. Microzonation of seismic risk in a low-rise Latin American city based on the macroseismic evaluation of the vulnerability of residential buildings: Colima city, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Zobin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A macroseismic methodology of seismic risk microzonation in a low-rise city based on the vulnerability of residential buildings is proposed and applied to Colima city, Mexico. The seismic risk microzonation for Colima consists of two elements: the mapping of residential blocks according to their vulnerability level and the calculation of an expert-opinion based damage probability matrix (DPM for a given level of earthquake intensity and a given type of residential block. A specified exposure time to the seismic risk for this zonation is equal to the interval between two destructive earthquakes. The damage probability matrices were calculated for three types of urban buildings and five types of residential blocks in Colima. It was shown that only 9% of 1409 residential blocks are able to resist to the Modify Mercalli (MM intensity VII and VIII earthquakes without significant damage. The proposed DPM-2007 is in good accordance with the experimental damage curves based on the macroseismic evaluation of 3332 residential buildings in Colima that was carried out after the 21 January 2003 intensity MM VII earthquake. This methodology and the calculated PDM-2007 curves may be applied also to seismic risk microzonation for many low-rise cities in Latin America, Asia, and Africa.

  16. Do seismologists agree upon epicentre determination from macroseismic data? A survey of ESC Working Group ' Macroseismology'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stucchi

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the case of instrumental data, the procedures for epicentral parameter determination (coordinates and I0 from macroseismic data are not very well established. Although there are some "rules", upon which most seismologists agree (centre of the isoseismal of largest degree, and so on, the practical application of, such rules displays many problems. Therefore, it is commonly seismologists' practice to find their own pro cedures and solutions; this is particularly evident in the more complicated cases, Such as offshore epicentres or, as in many cases of historical earthquakes, poor sets of data. One of the major consequences is that parametric catalogues are not homogeneous with respect to macroseismic parameters; moreover, merging catalogues compiled according to different criteria can introduce high noise in any catalogue built in such a way. In order to survey the current practice of epicentre determination from macroseismic data in Europe, a set of cases was distributed to the participants of the first meeting of the ESC WG "Macroseismology". A comparison of the 15 sets of results provided by 16 authors, who gave their own solutions and the explanation., of the adopted procedures is given, showing that in some cases the ideas and results are rather distant.

  17. Clinical risk assessment in intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Asefzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinical risk management focuses on improving the quality and safety of health care services by identifying the circumstances and opportunities that put patients at risk of harm and acting to prevent or control those risks. The goal of this study is to identify and assess the failure modes in the ICU of Qazvin′s Social Security Hospital (Razi Hospital through Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA. Methods: This was a qualitative-quantitative research by Focus Discussion Group (FDG performed in Qazvin Province, Iran during 2011. The study population included all individuals and owners who are familiar with the process in ICU. Sampling method was purposeful and the FDG group members were selected by the researcher. The research instrument was standard worksheet that has been used by several researchers. Data was analyzed by FMEA technique. Results: Forty eight clinical errors and failure modes identified, results showed that the highest risk probability number (RPN was in respiratory care "Ventilator′s alarm malfunction (no alarm" with the score 288, and the lowest was in gastrointestinal "not washing the NG-Tube" with the score 8. Conclusions: Many of the identified errors can be prevented by group members. Clinical risk assessment and management is the key to delivery of effective health care.

  18. Assessment of delirium in the intensive care unit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Delirium is a prevalent problem in the intensive care unit (ICU),1–4 with an associated ... central nervous system; assessment of delirium impaired by lack of verbal ..... processed by the South Africa National Health Laboratory Service. Table 4: ...

  19. Assessment of liquefaction potential during earthquakes by arias intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, R.E.; Mitchell, J.K.

    1997-01-01

    An Arias intensity approach to assess the liquefaction potential of soil deposits during earthquakes is proposed, using an energy-based measure of the severity of earthquake-shaking recorded on seismograms of the two horizontal components of ground motion. Values representing the severity of strong motion at depth in the soil column are associated with the liquefaction resistance of that layer, as measured by in situ penetration testing (SPT, CPT). This association results in a magnitude-independent boundary that envelopes initial liquefaction of soil in Arias intensity-normalized penetration resistance space. The Arias intensity approach is simple to apply and has proven to be highly reliable in assessing liquefaction potential. The advantages of using Arias intensity as a measure of earthquake-shaking severity in liquefaction assessment are: Arias intensity is derived from integration of the entire seismogram wave form, incorporating both the amplitude and duration elements of ground motion; all frequencies of recorded motion are considered; and Arias intensity is an appropriate measure to use when evaluating field penetration test methodologies that are inherently energy-based. Predictor equations describing the attenuation of Arias intensity as a function of earthquake magnitude and source distance are presented for rock, deep-stiff alluvium, and soft soil sites.

  20. Seismological, geodetic, macroseismic and historical context of the 2016 Mw 6.7 Tamenglong (Manipur) India earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahalaut, V. K.; Martin, Stacey S.; Srinagesh, D.; Kapil, S. L.; Suresh, G.; Saikia, Saurav; Kumar, Vikas; Dadhich, Harendra; Patel, Aqeel; Prajapati, Sanjay K.; Shukla, H. P.; Gautam, J. L.; Baidya, P. R.; Mandal, Saroj; Jain, Ashish

    2016-10-01

    The 2016 Mw 6.7 Tamenglong earthquake (in the state of Manipur in northeastern India) on 4 January 2016 at 04:35 Indian Standard Time (3 January, 23:05 UTC) was the strongest earthquake to strike Manipur since 1988. Using data from Indian stations, we constrain the hypocentral depth of the mainshock at 59 ± 3.8 km and determine a strike-slip mechanism with a moderate reverse component on a steeply dipping plane. Though coseismic offsets from GPS measurements from four nearby sites were inadequate to provide further constraints on the focal mechanism, they were consistent with the magnitude and hypocentral depth of the earthquake. The epicentre of the mainshock was located 15-km west of the Churachandpur Mao Fault (CMF) but it was unrelated to this structure and was instead a typical intra-slab earthquake within the Indian plate. A strong motion instrument at the Loktak Power Station (LOK), 56-km from the epicentre, recorded a peak ground acceleration (PGA) of 0.027g while a PGA of 0.103g was recorded at Shillong (SHL) at an epicentral distance of 111-km. We also present macroseismic observations from 461 locations in north-eastern India and the adjacent areas for this earthquake. The highest intensities ( 7 EMS) were observed in the Manipur Valley and in the hills to the west while shaking was perceptible as far as Delhi and Jaipur. Lastly, we present a catalogue of 333 felt earthquakes in Manipur from 1588 ± 1 CE to 1955 derived from the royal chronicle of the kings of Manipur known as the Cheitharon Kumpapa, discuss important historical earthquakes in the region, and also estimate intensity magnitudes for the 1852 (MI 6.5 ± 0.8), 1869 (MI 7.1 ± 0.7), 1880 (MI 6.3 ± 0.7) and 2016 (MI 6.8 ± 0.8) earthquakes.

  1. Site response of the Ganges Basin inferred from re-evaluated macroseismic observations from the 1897 Shillong, 1905 Kangra and 1934 Nepal earthquakes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Susan E Hough; Roger Bilham

    2008-11-01

    We analyze previously published geodetic data and intensity values for the = 8.1 Shillong (1897), = 7.8 Kangra (1905), and = 8.2 Nepal/Bihar (1934) earthquakes to investigate the rupture zones of these earthquakes as well as the amplification of ground motions throughout the Punjab, Ganges and Brahmaputra valleys. For each earthquake we subtract the observed MSK intensities from a synthetic intensity derived from an inferred planar rupture model of the earthquake, combined with an attenuation function derived from instrumentally recorded earthquakes. The resulting residuals are contoured to identify regions of anomalous intensity caused primarily by local site effects. Observations indicative of liquefaction are treated separately from other indications of shaking severity lest they inflate inferred residual shaking estimates. Despite this precaution we find that intensites are 1–3 units higher near the major rivers, as well as at the edges of the Ganges basin. We find evidence for a post-critical Moho reflection from the 1897 and 1905 earthquakes that raises intensities 1–2 units at distances of the order of 150 km from the rupture zone, and we find that the 1905 earthquake triggered a substantial subsequent earthquake at Dehra Dun, at a distance of approximately 150 km. Four or more = 8 earthquakes are apparently overdue in the region based on seismic moment summation in the past 500 years. Results from the current study permit anticipated intensities in these future earthquakes to be refined to incorporate site effects derived from dense macroseismic data.

  2. Central arterial pressure assessment with intensity POF sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Cátia; Gonçalves, Steve; Antunes, Paulo; Bastos, José M.; Pinto, João. L.; André, Paulo

    2015-09-01

    The central pressure monitoring is considered a new key factor in hypertension assessment and cardiovascular prevention. In this work, it is presented the central arterial systolic pressure assessment with an intensity based POF sensor. The device was tested in four subjects, and stable pulse waves were obtained, allowing the calculation of the central pressure for all the subjects. The results shown that the sensor performs reliably, being a simple and low-cost solution to the intended application.

  3. Intensive Stuttering Modification Therapy: A Multidimensional Assessment of Treatment Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomgren, Michael; Roy, Nelson; Callister, Thomas; Merrill, Ray M.

    2005-01-01

    Nineteen adults who stutter participated in a 3-week intensive stuttering modification treatment program (the Successful Stuttering Management Program [SSMP]). A series of 14 fluency and affective-based measures were assessed before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 6 months after treatment. Measures included stuttering frequency; the…

  4. A New Tool to Assess the Perception of Stretching Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Sandro R; Vaz, João R; Gomes, Luis; Silvestre, Rui; Hilário, Edgar; Cordeiro, Nuno; Carnide, Filomena; Pezarat-Correia, Pedro; Mil-Homens, Pedro

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to develop a valid and reliable scale to assess the perception of stretching intensity below and above the maximal range of motion. Experiments were conducted through a passive leg extension angle-torque assessment to healthy population (n = 90). In the study's first phase, the visual, numerical, and description of the stretching intensity scale (SIS) components were developed. The visual analog scale (VAS) score, absolute magnitude estimation (AME) score, and verbal stretching intensity symptom descriptors were assessed for different stretching intensities. In the second phase, the SIS was tested for validity, reliability, scale production, and estimation properties as well as responsiveness to stretching. In the first phase, a high correlation was found between SIS score and range of motion (ROM), as well as SIS and torque in both submaximal (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.89-0.99, r = 0.88-0.99) and supramaximal (ICC = 0.75-0.86, r = 0.68-0.88) stretching intensities. The AME and VAS scores fitted well in an exponential model for submaximal stretching intensities (y = 14.829e, ICC = 0.97 [0.83-0.99], r = 0.98), and in a linear model for supramaximal stretching intensities (y = 0.7667x - 25.751, ICC = 0.97 [0.89-0.99], r = 0.9594). For the second phase, a high correlation was found between SIS score and ROM (r = 0.70-0.76, ICC = 0.76-0.85), as well as SIS and torque (r = 0.62-0.88, ICC = 0.57-0.85). The interday reliability was high to produce (r = 0.70, ICC = 0.70 [0.50-0.83]) or estimate (r = 0.89, ICC = 0.89 [0.82-0.93]) stretching intensities. The acute stretching effects on ROM and passive torque were detectable using the SIS. It is expected a high application in assessing the stretch intensity using the SIS in future studies and practical interventions.

  5. Quality assessment of randomized clinical trial in intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Giulliano Peixoto; Barbosa, Fabiano Timbó; Barbosa, Luciano Timbó; Duarte, José Lira

    2009-03-01

    A randomized clinical trial is a prospective study that compares the effect and value of interventions in human beings, of one or more groups vs. a control group. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of published randomized clinical trials in Intensive care in Brazil. All randomized clinical trials in intensive care found by manual search in Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva from January 2001 to March 2008 were assessed to evaluate their description by the quality scale. Descriptive statistics and a 95 % confidence interval were used for the primary outcome. Our primary outcome was the randomized clinical trial quality. Our search found 185 original articles, of which 14 were randomized clinical trials. Only one original article (7.1%) showed good quality. There was no statistical significance between the collected data and the data shown in the hypothesis of this search. It can be concluded that in the sample of assessed articles 7% of the randomized clinical trials in intensive care published in a single intensive care journal in Brazil, present good methodological quality.

  6. Sensory intensity assessment of olive oils using an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, Ana C A; Dias, Luís G; Rodrigues, Nuno; Pereira, José A; Peres, António M

    2016-01-01

    Olive oils may be commercialized as intense, medium or light, according to the intensity perception of fruitiness, bitterness and pungency attributes, assessed by a sensory panel. In this work, the capability of an electronic tongue to correctly classify olive oils according to the sensory intensity perception levels was evaluated. Cross-sensitivity and non-specific lipid polymeric membranes were used as sensors. The sensor device was firstly tested using quinine monohydrochloride standard solutions. Mean sensitivities of 14±2 to 25±6 mV/decade, depending on the type of plasticizer used in the lipid membranes, were obtained showing the device capability for evaluating bitterness. Then, linear discriminant models based on sub-sets of sensors, selected by a meta-heuristic simulated annealing algorithm, were established enabling to correctly classify 91% of olive oils according to their intensity sensory grade (leave-one-out cross-validation procedure). This capability was further evaluated using a repeated K-fold cross-validation procedure, showing that the electronic tongue allowed an average correct classification of 80% of the olive oils used for internal-validation. So, the electronic tongue can be seen as a taste sensor, allowing differentiating olive oils with different sensory intensities, and could be used as a preliminary, complementary and practical tool for panelists during olive oil sensory analysis.

  7. Assessment of Delirium in Intensive Care Unit Patients: Educational Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Judith M; Van Aman, M Nancy; Schneiderhahn, Mary Elizabeth; Edelman, Robin; Ercole, Patrick M

    2017-05-01

    Delirium is an acute brain dysfunction associated with poor outcomes in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Critical care nurses play an important role in the prevention, detection, and management of delirium, but they must be able to accurately assess for it. The Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) instrument is a reliable and valid method to assess for delirium, but research reveals most nurses need practice to use it proficiently. A pretest-posttest design was used to evaluate the success of a multimodal educational strategy (i.e., online learning module coupled with standardized patient simulation experience) on critical care nurses' knowledge and confidence to assess and manage delirium using the CAM-ICU. Participants (N = 34) showed a significant increase (p assess and manage delirium following the multimodal education. No statistical change in knowledge of delirium existed following the education. A multimodal educational strategy, which included simulation, significantly added confidence in critical care nurses' performance using the CAM-ICU. J Contin Nurs Educ. 2017;48(5):239-244. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. [Pain assessment in the premature newborn in Intensive Care Unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Luciano Marques; Pereira, Monick Piton; dos Santos, Leandro Feliciano Nery; de Santana, Rosana Castelo Branco

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the process of pain identification in premature by the professional staff of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a public hospital in the interior of Bahia, Brazil. This is a quantitative descriptive exploratory study that was made through a form applied to twenty-four health professional of a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The data were analyzed in the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. The results showed 100% of professionals believed that newborns feel pain, 83.3% knew the pain as the fifth vital sign to be evaluated; 54,8% did not know the pain assessment scales; 70.8% did not use scales and highlighted behavioral and physiological signs of the newborn as signs suggestive of pain. Thus, it is important that professionals understand the pain as a complex phenomenon that demands early intervention, ensuring the excellence of care.

  9. Damage-consistent hazard assessment - the revival of intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klügel, Jens-Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Proposed key-note speech (Introduction of session). Current civil engineering standards for residential buildings in many countries are based on (frequently probabilistic) seismic hazard assessments using ground motion parameters like peak ground accelerations or pseudo displacements as hazard parameters. This approach has its roots in the still wide spread force-based design of structures using simplified methods like linear response spectra in combination with equivalent static forces procedures for the design of structures. In the engineering practice this has led to practical problems because it's not economic to design structures against the maximum forces of earthquakes. Furthermore, a completely linear-elastic response of structures is seldom required. Different types of reduction factors (performance-dependent response factors) considering for example overstrength, structural redundancy and structural ductility have been developed in different countries for compensating the use of simplified and conservative design methods. This has the practical consequence that the methods used in engineering as well as the output results of hazard assessment studies are poorly related to the physics of damaging. Reliable predictions for the response of structures under earthquake loading using such simplified design methods are not feasible. In dependence of the type of structures damage may be controlled by hazard parameters that are different from ground motion accelerations. Furthermore, a realistic risk assessment has to be based on reliable predictions of damage. This is crucial for effective decision-making. This opens the space for a return to the use of intensities as the key output parameter of seismic hazard assessment. Site intensities (e.g. EMS-98) are very well correlated to the damage of structures. They can easily be converted into the required set of engineering parameters or even directly into earthquake time-histories suitable for structural analysis

  10. Assessing Internet energy intensity: A review of methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coroama, Vlad C., E-mail: vcoroama@gmail.com [Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Hilty, Lorenz M. [Department of Informatics, University of Zurich, Binzmühlestrasse 14, 8050 Zurich (Switzerland); Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Lerchenfeldstr. 5, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Centre for Sustainable Communications, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Lindstedtsvägen 5, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-02-15

    Assessing the average energy intensity of Internet transmissions is a complex task that has been a controversial subject of discussion. Estimates published over the last decade diverge by up to four orders of magnitude — from 0.0064 kilowatt-hours per gigabyte (kWh/GB) to 136 kWh/GB. This article presents a review of the methodological approaches used so far in such assessments: i) top–down analyses based on estimates of the overall Internet energy consumption and the overall Internet traffic, whereby average energy intensity is calculated by dividing energy by traffic for a given period of time, ii) model-based approaches that model all components needed to sustain an amount of Internet traffic, and iii) bottom–up approaches based on case studies and generalization of the results. Our analysis of the existing studies shows that the large spread of results is mainly caused by two factors: a) the year of reference of the analysis, which has significant influence due to efficiency gains in electronic equipment, and b) whether end devices such as personal computers or servers are included within the system boundary or not. For an overall assessment of the energy needed to perform a specific task involving the Internet, it is necessary to account for the types of end devices needed for the task, while the energy needed for data transmission can be added based on a generic estimate of Internet energy intensity for a given year. Separating the Internet as a data transmission system from the end devices leads to more accurate models and to results that are more informative for decision makers, because end devices and the networking equipment of the Internet usually belong to different spheres of control. -- Highlights: • Assessments of the energy intensity of the Internet differ by a factor of 20,000. • We review top–down, model-based, and bottom–up estimates from literature. • Main divergence factors are the year studied and the inclusion of end devices

  11. Intensity attenuation in the Pannonian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Győri, Erzsébet; Gráczer, Zoltán; Szanyi, Gyöngyvér

    2015-04-01

    Ground motion prediction equations play a key role in seismic hazard assessment. Earthquake hazard has to be expressed in macroseismic intensities in case of seismic risk estimations where a direct relation to the damage associated with ground shaking is needed. It can be also necessary for shake map generation where the map is used for prompt notification to the public, disaster management officers and insurance companies. Although only few instrumental strong motion data are recorded in the Pannonian Basin, there are numerous historical reports of past earthquakes since the 1763 Komárom earthquake. Knowing the intensity attenuation and comparing them with relations of other areas - where instrumental strong motion data also exist - can help us to choose from the existing instrumental ground motion prediction equations. The aim of this work is to determine an intensity attenuation formula for the inner part of the Pannonian Basin, which can be further used to find an adaptable ground motion prediction equation for the area. The crust below the Pannonian Basin is thin and warm and it is overlain by thick sediments. Thus the attenuation of seismic waves here is different from the attenuation in the Alp-Carpathian mountain belt. Therefore we have collected intensity data only from the inner part of the Pannonian Basin and defined the boundaries of the studied area by the crust thickness of 30 km (Windhoffer et al., 2005). 90 earthquakes from 1763 until 2014 have sufficient number of macroseismic data. Magnitude of the events varies from 3.0 to 6.6. We have used individual intensity points to eliminate the subjectivity of drawing isoseismals, the number of available intensity data is more than 3000. Careful quality control has been made on the dataset. The different types of magnitudes of the used earthquake catalogue have been converted to local and momentum magnitudes using relations determined for the Pannonian Basin. We applied the attenuation formula by Sorensen

  12. Needs assessment to improve neonatal intensive care in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, K J; Kowalkowski, M A; Treviño, R; Cabrera-Meza, G; Thomas, E J; Kaplan, H C; Profit, J

    2015-08-01

    At the time of the research, Dr Weiss was a clinical fellow in neonatal-perinatal medicine at Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital. Dr Profit was on faculty at Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology. He held a secondary appointment in the Department of Medicine, Section of Health Services Research and conducted his research at the VA Health Services Research and Development Center of Excellence where he collaborated with Dr Kowalkowski.: Improving the quality of neonatal intensive care is an important health policy priority in Mexico. A formal assessment of barriers and priorities for quality improvement has not been undertaken. To provide guidance to providers and policy makers with regard to addressing opportunities for better care delivery in Mexican neonatal intensive care units. To conduct a needs assessment regarding improvement of quality of neonatal intensive care delivery in Mexico. Spanish-language survey administered to a volunteer sample of Mexican neonatal care providers attending a large paediatric conference in Mexico in June 2011. Survey domains included institutional context of quality improvement, barriers, priorities, safety culture, and respondents' characteristics. Results were analysed using descriptive analyses of frequencies, proportions and percentage positive response (PPR) rates. Of 91 respondents, the majority identified neonatology as their primary specialty (n = 48, 65%) and were physicians (n = 55, 73%). Generally, providers expressed a desire to improve quality of care (PPR 69%) but reported notable deterrents. Respondents (n, %) identified family inability to pay (38, 48%), overcrowded work areas (38, 44%), insufficient financial reimbursement (25, 36%), lack of availability of nurses (26, 30%), ancillary staff (25, 29%), and subspecialists (22, 25%) as the principal barriers. Respiratory care (27, 39%)--reduction of mechanical ventilation and

  13. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment in Greece – Part 1: Engineering ground motion parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G-A. Tselentis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seismic hazard assessment represents a basic tool for rational planning and designing in seismic prone areas. In the present study, a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment in terms of peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, Arias intensity and cumulative absolute velocity computed with a 0.05 g acceleration threshold, has been carried out for Greece. The output of the hazard computation produced probabilistic hazard maps for all the above parameters estimated for a fixed return period of 475 years. From these maps the estimated values are reported for 52 Greek municipalities. Additionally, we have obtained a set of probabilistic maps of engineering significance: a probabilistic macroseismic intensity map, depicting the Modified Mercalli Intensity scale obtained from the estimated peak ground velocity and a probabilistic seismic-landslide map based on a simplified conversion of the estimated Arias intensity and peak ground acceleration into Newmark's displacement.

  14. Assessing Low-Intensity Relationships in Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Andreas; Gimmler, Anna; Stoeck, Thorsten; Zweig, Katharina Anna; Horvát, Emőke-Ágnes

    2016-01-01

    Many large network data sets are noisy and contain links representing low-intensity relationships that are difficult to differentiate from random interactions. This is especially relevant for high-throughput data from systems biology, large-scale ecological data, but also for Web 2.0 data on human interactions. In these networks with missing and spurious links, it is possible to refine the data based on the principle of structural similarity, which assesses the shared neighborhood of two nodes. By using similarity measures to globally rank all possible links and choosing the top-ranked pairs, true links can be validated, missing links inferred, and spurious observations removed. While many similarity measures have been proposed to this end, there is no general consensus on which one to use. In this article, we first contribute a set of benchmarks for complex networks from three different settings (e-commerce, systems biology, and social networks) and thus enable a quantitative performance analysis of classic node similarity measures. Based on this, we then propose a new methodology for link assessment called z* that assesses the statistical significance of the number of their common neighbors by comparison with the expected value in a suitably chosen random graph model and which is a consistently top-performing algorithm for all benchmarks. In addition to a global ranking of links, we also use this method to identify the most similar neighbors of each single node in a local ranking, thereby showing the versatility of the method in two distinct scenarios and augmenting its applicability. Finally, we perform an exploratory analysis on an oceanographic plankton data set and find that the distribution of microbes follows similar biogeographic rules as those of macroorganisms, a result that rejects the global dispersal hypothesis for microbes. PMID:27096435

  15. Assessing Low-Intensity Relationships in Complex Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Andreas; Gimmler, Anna; Stoeck, Thorsten; Zweig, Katharina Anna; Horvát, Emőke-Ágnes

    2016-01-01

    Many large network data sets are noisy and contain links representing low-intensity relationships that are difficult to differentiate from random interactions. This is especially relevant for high-throughput data from systems biology, large-scale ecological data, but also for Web 2.0 data on human interactions. In these networks with missing and spurious links, it is possible to refine the data based on the principle of structural similarity, which assesses the shared neighborhood of two nodes. By using similarity measures to globally rank all possible links and choosing the top-ranked pairs, true links can be validated, missing links inferred, and spurious observations removed. While many similarity measures have been proposed to this end, there is no general consensus on which one to use. In this article, we first contribute a set of benchmarks for complex networks from three different settings (e-commerce, systems biology, and social networks) and thus enable a quantitative performance analysis of classic node similarity measures. Based on this, we then propose a new methodology for link assessment called z* that assesses the statistical significance of the number of their common neighbors by comparison with the expected value in a suitably chosen random graph model and which is a consistently top-performing algorithm for all benchmarks. In addition to a global ranking of links, we also use this method to identify the most similar neighbors of each single node in a local ranking, thereby showing the versatility of the method in two distinct scenarios and augmenting its applicability. Finally, we perform an exploratory analysis on an oceanographic plankton data set and find that the distribution of microbes follows similar biogeographic rules as those of macroorganisms, a result that rejects the global dispersal hypothesis for microbes.

  16. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Ullah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Central Asia is one of the seismically most active regions in the world. Its complex seismicity due to the collision of the Eurasian and Indian plates has resulted in some of the world’s largest intra-plate events over history. The region is dominated by reverse faulting over strike slip and normal faulting events. The GSHAP project (1999, aiming at a hazard assessment on a global scale, indicated that the region of Central Asia is characterized by peak ground accelerations for 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years as high as 9 m/s2. In this study, carried out within the framework of the EMCA project (Earthquake Model Central Asia, the area source model and different kernel approaches are used for a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA for Central Asia. The seismic hazard is assessed considering shallow (depth < 50 km seismicity only and employs an updated (with respect to previous projects earthquake catalog for the region. The seismic hazard is calculated in terms of macroseismic intensity (MSK-64, intended to be used for the seismic risk maps of the region. The hazard maps, shown in terms of 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years, are derived by using the OpenQuake software [Pagani et al. 2014], which is an open source software tool developed by the GEM (Global Earthquake Model foundation. The maximum hazard observed in the region reaches an intensity of around 8 in southern Tien Shan for 475 years mean return period. The maximum hazard estimated for some of the cities in the region, Bishkek, Dushanbe, Tashkent and Almaty, is between 7 and 8 (7-8, 8.0, 7.0 and 8.0 macroseismic Intensity, respectively, for 475 years mean return period, using different approaches. The results of different methods for assessing the level of seismic hazard are compared and their underlying methodologies are discussed.

  17. Benchmarking Dosimetric Quality Assessment of Prostate Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthi, Sashendra, E-mail: sasha.senthi@petermac.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Center, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Gill, Suki S. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Center, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Haworth, Annette; Kron, Tomas; Cramb, Jim [Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Center, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Rolfo, Aldo [Radiation Therapy Services, Peter MacCallum Cancer Center, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Thomas, Jessica [Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Center, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Duchesne, Gillian M. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Center, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Hamilton, Christopher H.; Joon, Daryl Lim [Radiation Oncology Department, Austin Repatriation Hospital, Heidelberg, VIC (Australia); Bowden, Patrick [Radiation Oncology Department, Tattersall' s Cancer Center, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Foroudi, Farshad [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Center, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To benchmark the dosimetric quality assessment of prostate intensity-modulated radiotherapy and determine whether the quality is influenced by disease or treatment factors. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data from 155 consecutive men treated radically for prostate cancer using intensity-modulated radiotherapy to 78 Gy between January 2007 and March 2009 across six radiotherapy treatment centers. The plan quality was determined by the measures of coverage, homogeneity, and conformity. Tumor coverage was measured using the planning target volume (PTV) receiving 95% and 100% of the prescribed dose (V{sub 95%} and V{sub 100%}, respectively) and the clinical target volume (CTV) receiving 95% and 100% of the prescribed dose. Homogeneity was measured using the sigma index of the PTV and CTV. Conformity was measured using the lesion coverage factor, healthy tissue conformity index, and the conformity number. Multivariate regression models were created to determine the relationship between these and T stage, risk status, androgen deprivation therapy use, treatment center, planning system, and treatment date. Results: The largest discriminatory measurements of coverage, homogeneity, and conformity were the PTV V{sub 95%}, PTV sigma index, and conformity number. The mean PTV V{sub 95%} was 92.5% (95% confidence interval, 91.3-93.7%). The mean PTV sigma index was 2.10 Gy (95% confidence interval, 1.90-2.20). The mean conformity number was 0.78 (95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.79). The treatment center independently influenced the coverage, homogeneity, and conformity (all p < .0001). The planning system independently influenced homogeneity (p = .038) and conformity (p = .021). The treatment date independently influenced the PTV V{sub 95%} only, with it being better at the start (p = .013). Risk status, T stage, and the use of androgen deprivation therapy did not influence any aspect of plan quality. Conclusion: Our study has benchmarked measures

  18. Nature of the macroseismic paradox of the deep-focus earthquake in the Sea of Okhotsk on May 24, 2013 ( M w = 8.3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzin, I. P.; Lobkovskii, L. I.; Dozorova, K. A.

    2016-08-01

    We analyzed macroseismic data and considered the effect of extremely long range propagation of sensible shocks during the deep-focus earthquake in the Sea of Okhotsk on May 24, 2013 ( M w = 8.3). In order to explain this effect, we formulated and qualitatively solved the problem of superposition of P-waves over the radial mode 0 S 0 of the natural oscillations of the Earth during this earthquake. Our results confirmed the possibility of such an interpretation of the observed macroseismic effect and also allowed us to explain the fact of anomalously low decay of seismic disturbances with distance.

  19. Using the Perceived Intensity-Level Assessment Task as an Instructional Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Natalie

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Perceived Intensity-Level Assessment Task (PILAT), an instructional tool designed as an assessment device to help students feel various intensity levels and properly code themselves as they jump rope in a regular physical education class. The paper highlights justification for its use, instructional uses and procedures, instructional…

  20. Characterizing and Assessing the Agricultural Land Use Intensity of the Beijing Mountainous Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, land use and land cover change have received increased attention, and an approach is required that can assess agricultural land use intensity on a general basis. This study demonstrated the usefulness of a tool for characterizing and assessing agricultural land use intensity in Beijing mountainous region. An emergy analysis and principal component analysis (PCA were adopted to obtain agricultural input and output intensity data. Correlation and regression analyses were used to study the relationship among land capability, agricultural input, output intensity, and agricultural system sustainability. Ultimately, the agricultural land use intensity types in the Beijing mountainous region were identified through a cluster analysis. The results produced five indices of agricultural input intensity and five indices of output intensity. Non-renewable energy was the overwhelming input, and grain, meat, eggs, and vegetables were the major outputs of the agricultural system. The results also showed that there was better natural land quality, higher input intensity, greater output intensity, and lower agricultural system sustainability. Eight types of agricultural intensity were classified and assessed, and they may be used to evaluate and monitor sustainable land use and provide baseline measurements of land use intensity for land use analyses and change detection.

  1. Pain Assessment in INTensive care (PAINT): an observational study of physician-documented pain assessment in 45 intensive care units in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, H I; Bantel, C; Gordon, F; Brett, S J; Laycock, H C

    2017-06-01

    Pain is a common and distressing symptom experienced by intensive care patients. Assessing pain in this environment is challenging, and published guidelines have been inconsistently implemented. The Pain Assessment in INTensive care (PAINT) study aimed to evaluate the frequency and type of physician pain assessments with respect to published guidelines. This observational service evaluation considered all pain and analgesia-related entries in patients' records over a 24-h period, in 45 adult intensive care units (ICUs) in London and the South-East of England. Data were collected from 750 patients, reflecting the practice of 362 physicians. Nearly two-thirds of patients (n = 475, 64.5%, 95%CI 60.9-67.8%) received no physician-documented pain assessment during the 24-h study period. Just under one-third (n = 215, 28.6%, 95%CI 25.5-32.0%) received no nursing-documented pain assessment, and over one-fifth (n = 159, 21.2%, 95%CI 19.2-23.4)% received neither a doctor nor a nursing pain assessment. Two of the 45 ICUs used validated behavioural pain assessment tools. The likelihood of receiving a physician pain assessment was affected by the following factors: the number of nursing assessments performed; whether the patient was admitted as a surgical patient; the presence of tracheal tube or tracheostomy; and the length of stay in ICU. Physician-documented pain assessments in the majority of participating ICUs were infrequent and did not utilise recommended behavioural pain assessment tools. Further research to identify factors influencing physician pain assessment behaviour in ICU, such as human factors or cultural attitudes, is urgently needed. © 2017 The Authors. Anaesthesia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  2. Physical Therapy Observation and Assessment in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Eilish; Campbell, Suzann K.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the elements of the Observation and Assessment section of the Infant Care Path for Physical Therapy in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The types of physical therapy assessments presented in this path are evidence-based and the suggested timing of these assessments is primarily based on practice knowledge from expert…

  3. Student Attitudes toward the Assessment Criteria in Writing-Intensive College Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Mixed quantitative and qualitative methods were used to assess student attitudes toward the assessment criteria for higher-order critical and analytical thinking skills in writing-intensive curricula in first-year, general education courses. The courses varied in emphasis on critical thinking in the criteria used to assess writing. The analysis is…

  4. Student Attitudes toward the Assessment Criteria in Writing-Intensive College Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Mixed quantitative and qualitative methods were used to assess student attitudes toward the assessment criteria for higher-order critical and analytical thinking skills in writing-intensive curricula in first-year, general education courses. The courses varied in emphasis on critical thinking in the criteria used to assess writing. The analysis is…

  5. The role of instrumental versus macroseismic locations for earthquakes of the last century: a discussion based on the seismicity of the North-Western Apennines (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Solarino

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Many seismological observatories began to record and store seismic events in the early years of the twentieth century, contributing to the compilation of very valued databases of both phase pickings and waveforms. However, despite the availability of the instrumental data for some of the events of the last century, an instrumental location for these earthquakes is not always computed; moreover, when available, the macroseismic location is strongly preferred even if the number of points that have been used for it is low or the spatial distribution of the observations is not optimal or homogeneous. In this work I show how I computed an instrumental location for 19 events which occurred in the Garfagnana-Lunigiana region (Northern Tuscany, Italy beginning from 1902. The location routine is based on a Joint Hypocentral Determination in which, starting from a group of master events, the systematic errors that may affect the data are summed up in the corrective factors complementing the velocity propagation model. All non-systematic errors are carefully checked and possibly discarded by going back to the original data, if necessary. The location is then performed using the classic approach of the inverse problem and solved iteratively. The obtained locations are then compared to those already available from other macroseismic studies with the aim to check the role to be attributed to the instrumental locations. The study shows that in most cases the locations match, in particular when considering the different significance of the location parameters, especially for the strongest events: the instrumental location provides the point where the rupture begins, while the macroseismic one is an estimate of the area where the earthquake possibly took place. This paper is not meant to discuss the importance and the necessity of macroseismic data; instead, the aim is to show that instrumental data can be used to obtain locations even for older

  6. Application of Environmental Seismic Intensity scale (ESI 2007) to Krn Mountains 1998 Mw = 5.6 earthquake (NW Slovenia) with emphasis on rockfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosar, A.

    2012-05-01

    The 12 April 1998 Mw = 5.6 Krn Mountains earthquake with a maximum intensity of VII-VIII on the EMS-98 scale caused extensive environmental effects in the Julian Alps. The application of intensity scales based mainly on damage to buildings was limited in the epicentral area, because it is a high mountain area and thus very sparsely populated. On the other hand, the effects on the natural environment were prominent and widespread. These facts and the introduction of a new Environmental Seismic Intensity scale (ESI 2007) motivated a research aimed to evaluate the applicability of ESI 2007 to this event. All environmental effects were described, classified and evaluated by a field survey, analysis of aerial images and analysis of macroseismic questionnaires. These effects include rockfalls, landslides, secondary ground cracks and hydrogeological effects. It was realized that only rockfalls (78 were registered) are widespread enough to be used for intensity assessment, together with the total size of affected area, which is around 180 km2. Rockfalls were classified into five categories according to their volume. The volumes of the two largest rockfalls were quantitatively assessed by comparison of Digital Elevation Models to be 15 × 106 m3 and 3 × 106 m3. Distribution of very large, large and medium size rockfalls has clearly defined an elliptical zone, elongated parallel to the strike of the seismogenic fault, for which the intensity VII-VIII was assessed. This isoseismal line was compared to the tentative EMS-98 isoseism derived from damage-related macroseismic data. The VII-VIII EMS-98 isoseism was defined by four points alone, but a similar elongated shape was obtained. This isoseism is larger than the corresponding ESI 2007 isoseism, but its size is strongly controlled by a single intensity point lying quite far from others, at the location where local amplification is likely. The ESI 2007 scale has proved to be an effective tool for intensity assessment in

  7. An accelerometry-based approach to assess loading intensity of physical activity on bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Sarah; Hopkinson, Georgina; Strike, Siobhan; Luo, Jin; Lee, Raymond

    2014-06-01

    The purpose was to develop a new method for assessing the potential bone-loading intensities of different locomotion activities by using accelerometers. Thirty participants (women, N = 19; men, N = 11) with an average age of 40 years (SD = 18 years), performed 8 activities (3 self-selected speeds of walking, 3 self-selected speeds of running, and ascending and descending stairs) in the workplace or at home while wearing an accelerometer. The loading intensity for each activity was calculated from measured acceleration by a new method that considers both loading magnitude and frequency. A 1-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was employed to examine whether type of activity had any significant influence on the loading intensity. The 8 activities showed different loading intensities (p walking and ascending or descending stairs (p speed of walking or running, the higher the loading intensity (p < .05, Cohen's d = 1.15). The increase of loading intensity in different activities was induced by both the increase of loading magnitude and the shift of loading frequency. This study developed a new method to measure loading intensity of physical activity on bone by using an accelerometer. This method can provide new insight for the assessment of exercise intensity in relation to bone health.

  8. Assessing a Writing Intensive General Education Capstone: Research as Faculty Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Juli; Hesse, Doug; Bateman, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    We explain how collaboratively assessing a writing-intensive general education capstone seminar constituted a high-impact practice for faculty development. Students at the University of Denver complete an Advanced Seminar taught by faculty across the curriculum. Topics and themes vary widely, as do types of assigned writing, making assessment an…

  9. Assessing the quality of interdisciplinary rounds in the intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Have, Elsbeth C. M.; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Holman, Nicole D.; Nap, Raoul E.; Sanderman, Robbert; Tulleken, Jaap E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Interdisciplinary rounds (IDRs) in the intensive care unit (ICU) are increasingly recommended to support quality improvement, but uncertainty exists about assessing the quality of IDRs. We developed, tested, and applied an instrument to assess the quality of IDRs in ICUs. Materials and Meth

  10. Accelerometer-assessed light-intensity physical activity and mortality among those with mobility limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Emily; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2017-08-31

    Emerging research demonstrates that light-intensity physical activity is favorably associated with numerous health outcomes among the general population, even independent of high-intensity physical activity. To examine the association between accelerometer-assessed light-intensity physical activity and mortality in a national sample of American adults with mobility limitations. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were utilized. Participants were followed through 2011. Based on self-report, analyzed participants included those with mobility limitations (N = 1369). Light-intensity physical activity was assessed via waist-mounted accelerometry. For the sample, 108,010 person-months occurred with an all-cause mortality rate of 2.07 per 1000 person-months. After adjustments, for every 60 min/day increase in light-intensity physical activity, participants with mobility limitations had a 14% reduced risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.75-0.98; P = 0.03). These findings underscore the importance of promoting light-intensity physical activity to those with mobility limitations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Physical activity and quality of life: assessing the influence of activity frequency, intensity, volume, and motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustyk, M Kathleen B; Widman, Laura; Paschane, Amy A E; Olson, Karen C

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, the authors investigated the impact of exercise frequency, intensity, and volume along with exercise motives on quality of life (QOL) reports. The authors assessed exercise habits with the Godin Leisure Time Activity Scale and measured exercise motives with the Reasons for Exercise Inventory. The Quality of Life Inventory assessed satisfaction in 16 domains including health, work, and recreation. High-frequency exercisers reported significantly higher health, helping, and community-related QOL than those who exercised less frequently. The authors noted significantly higher health-related QOL in the heavy volume group compared with the other volume groups. Multiple regression tests revealed that activity intensity and exercise motives significantly predicted QOL reports. The strongest bivariate correlations with QOL existed for mild activity and exercising for fitness and health reasons. Thus, high-frequency activity of mild intensity that produces high kcal utilization and is performed to improve health and fitness has the strongest influence on QOL reports.

  12. Hurricane damage assessment for residential construction considering the non-stationarity in hurricane intensity and frequency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cao; LI Quanwang; PANG Long; ZOU Aming; ZHANG Long

    2016-01-01

    Natural hazards such as hurricanes may cause extensive economic losses and social disruption for civil structures and infrastructures in coastal areas, implying the importance of understanding the construction performance subjected to hurricanes and assessing the hurricane damages properly. The intensity and frequency of hurricanes have been reported to change with time due to the potential impact of climate change. In this paper, a probability-based model of hurricane damage assessment for coastal constructions is proposed taking into account the non-stationarity in hurricane intensity and frequency. The non-homogeneous Poisson process is employed to model the non-stationarity in hurricane occurrence while the non-stationarity in hurricane intensity is reflected by the time-variant statistical parameters (e.g., mean value and/or standard deviation), with which the mean value and variation of the cumulative hurricane damage are evaluated explicitly. The Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA, is chosen to illustrate the hurricane damage assessment method proposed in this paper. The role of non-stationarity in hurricane intensity and occurrence rate due to climate change in hurricane damage is investigated using some representative changing patterns of hurricane parameters.

  13. Seismic hazard assessment based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes: the Greater Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekrasova, A.; Kossobokov, V. G.

    2015-12-01

    Losses from natural disasters continue to increase mainly due to poor understanding by majority of scientific community, decision makers and public, the three components of Risk, i.e., Hazard, Exposure, and Vulnerability. Contemporary Science is responsible for not coping with challenging changes of Exposures and their Vulnerability inflicted by growing population, its concentration, etc., which result in a steady increase of Losses from Natural Hazards. Scientists owe to Society for lack of knowledge, education, and communication. In fact, Contemporary Science can do a better job in disclosing Natural Hazards, assessing Risks, and delivering such knowledge in advance catastrophic events. We continue applying the general concept of seismic risk analysis in a number of seismic regions worldwide by constructing regional seismic hazard maps based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes (USLE), i.e. log N(M,L) = A - B•(M-6) + C•log L, where N(M,L) is the expected annual number of earthquakes of a certain magnitude M within an seismically prone area of linear dimension L. The parameters A, B, and C of USLE are used to estimate, first, the expected maximum magnitude in a time interval at a seismically prone cell of a uniform grid that cover the region of interest, and then the corresponding expected ground shaking parameters including macro-seismic intensity. After a rigorous testing against the available seismic evidences in the past (e.g., the historically reported macro-seismic intensity), such a seismic hazard map is used to generate maps of specific earthquake risks (e.g., those based on the density of exposed population). The methodology of seismic hazard and risks assessment based on USLE is illustrated by application to the seismic region of Greater Caucasus.

  14. Impact of intensity and loss assessment following the great Wenchuan Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yifan

    2008-01-01

    The great Wenchuan Earthquake occurred on May 12, 2008 in the Sichuan Province of China, and had a magnitude of 8.0. It is the most serious earthquake disaster in China since the great Tangshan Earthquake (M=7.8, July 28, 1976). According to official reports, there were 69,225 deaths, 379,640 injuries and 17,939 missing as of Aug. 11, 2008. The China Earthquake Administration quickly sent hundreds of experts to the field immediately after the event, to investigate the damage and assess the economic losses. This paper emphasizes the impact of seismic intensity and presents a preliminary loss assessment. A brief description of the geological features of the affected region is provided, followed by a summary of the earthquake damage. An isoseismal map is developed that shows that the high intensity region is distributed like a belt around the seimogenic fault, and that the epicentral intensity reached XI (Chinese Intensity Scale, similar to the Modified Mercalli Scale). The direct economic loss resulting from the earthquake is 692 billions RMB (about 100 billions US$).

  15. Assessment of Sedation and Analgesia in Mechanically Ventilated Patients in Intensive Care Unit

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Post traumatic stress resulting from an intensive care unit(ICU) stay may be prevented by adequate level of sedation and analgesia. Aims of the study were reviewing the current practices of sedation and analgesia in our ICU setup and to assess level of sedation and analgesia to know the requirement of sedative and analgesics in mechani-cally ventilated ICU patients. This prospective observational study was conducted on 50 consecutive mechanically ventilated patients in ICU over a period of 6 ...

  16. Pulmonary Edema Assessed by Ultrasound: Impact in Cardiology and Intensive Care Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Pablo A; Cianciulli, Tomás F

    2016-05-01

    Pulmonary edema is a frequent condition found in adult patients hospitalized in cardiology wards and intensive care units. Ultrasonography is a diagnostic modality with a high sensitivity for the detection of extravascular lung water, visualized as B lines, and usually caused by cardiogenic or noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. This paper highlights a simple method for the assessment of patients with pulmonary edema, which allows for a differential diagnosis of its possible mechanism and contributes to therapeutic intervention guiding and monitoring.

  17. Assessing the Value Dimensions for Customers in Knowledge Intensive Business Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sole, Francesco; Carlucci, Daniela; Schiuma, Giovanni

    With the rise of knowledge economy, the importance of Knowledge Intensive Business Services (KIBS) has gradually increased as well as their overall impact on economy. However, in comparison with the manufacturing sectors, KIBS sector remains poorly studied. Especially little prior research has been done about the description and assessment of service value dimensions from a business customer's perspective. This paper, on the basis of a literature review, identifies and describes eight different value dimensions. These dimensions represent the building blocks of a conceptual model proposed for assessing the value created by KIBS for business customers. Moreover, the paper describes an application of the model in a real case.

  18. Assess pain intensity using photoplethysmography signal in chronic myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jing-Jhao; Lee, Kuan-Ting; Chou, Ying-Yu; Sie, Hung-Hai; Huang, Ju-Nan; Chuang, Chiung-Cheng

    2017-05-14

    Efficacy of pain assessment is the basis for effective therapy. Clinically, assessing pain is by subjective scale, but these methods have some shortcomings. Therefore, studies have been conducted on assessment of pain using physiological signals. Photoplethysmography (PPG) signal provides much information about the cardiovascular system. PPG- derived parameters (PPG parameters) reflect nociceptive stimulation, and obtain an approximation of the R-R interval from PPG period. The aim of this study was to evaluate PPG signal for assessment of pain intensity in chronic myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) patients. This study recruited 37 patients with chronic MPS, all of them were treated with electrotherapy and thermotherapy. The difference of PPG parameters between pre- and post- therapy, and correlation between pulse rate variability (PRV) and heart rate variability (HRV) were determined. We also obtained patients' pain intensity scores by Visual analogue scale (VAS), visual rating scale (VRS) and Wong-Banker face pain rating scale (Wong-Banker). PPG and PRV/HRV parameters showed significant difference between pre- and post-treatment. The variation trend of PRV was similar with HRV in heart rate (HR), R-R interval (RRI), low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), and LF/HF; in addition, a high correlation between the parameters was observed either in the pre- or post-therapy. PPG parameters indicated increased sympathetic tone. The results of the study indicated that PRV may substitute for HRV in assessment of pain intensity in chronic MPS reflected parasympathetic nervous tone increase, and PPG parameters might reflect stress stimulation on skin. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of a pesticide exposure intensity algorithm in the agricultural health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kent W; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Coble, Joseph B; Hoppin, Jane A; Sheldon, Linda S; Chapa, Guadalupe; Croghan, Carry W; Jones, Paul A; Knott, Charles E; Lynch, Charles F; Sandler, Dale P; Blair, Aaron E; Alavanja, Michael C

    2010-09-01

    The accuracy of the exposure assessment is a critical factor in epidemiological investigations of pesticide exposures and health in agricultural populations. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate questionnaire-based exposure metrics. The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective cohort study of pesticide applicators who provided detailed questionnaire information on their use of specific pesticides. A field study was conducted for a subset of the applicators enrolled in the AHS to assess a pesticide exposure algorithm through comparison of algorithm intensity scores with measured exposures. Pre- and post-application urinary biomarker measurements were made for 2,4-D (n=69) and chlorpyrifos (n=17) applicators. Dermal patch, hand wipe, and personal air samples were also collected. Intensity scores were calculated using information from technician observations and an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Correlations between observer and questionnaire intensity scores were high (Spearman's r=0.92 and 0.84 for 2,4-D and chlorpyrifos, respectively). Intensity scores from questionnaires for individual applications were significantly correlated with post-application urinary concentrations for both 2,4-D (r=0.42, P<0.001) and chlorpyrifos (r=0.53, P=0.035) applicators. Significant correlations were also found between intensity scores and estimated hand loading, estimated body loading, and air concentrations for 2,4-D applicators (r-values 0.28-0.50, P-values<0.025). Correlations between intensity scores and dermal and air measures were generally lower for chlorpyrifos applicators using granular products. A linear regression model indicated that the algorithm factors for individual applications explained 24% of the variability in post-application urinary 2,4-D concentration, which increased to 60% when the pre-application urine concentration was included. The results of the measurements support the use of the algorithm for estimating questionnaire

  20. Assessing Earthquake Hazard Map Performance Using Historical Shaking Intensity Data and Instrumental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Edward; Stein, Seth; Spencer, Bruce; Peresan, Antonella

    2017-04-01

    Assessing the performance of earthquake hazard maps is important but challenging, and various approaches can be taken. In principle, map performance can be assessed for any given observation period t years and map return period T, because the probability p that shaking will exceed the mapped value should be described by Poissonian probability p = 1 - exp(-t/T). However, because any real earthquake shaking history is one sample of many possible ones, a real history could easily deviate from this ideal behavior for t/T small, even if the hazard map is quite good. The observed shaking should be closer to ideal behavior for larger t/T. Hence the longer the observation period is compared to the map return period, the better the map's performance can be assessed. Given the short time period since hazard maps began to be made, typical maps with return periods of hundreds or thousands of years may be usefully assessed using historical intensity data. We are using such data for Italy and Japan, comparing historical intensity catalogs to national hazard maps.

  1. New characteristics of intensity assessment of Sichuan Lushan "4.20" M s7.0 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baitao; Yan, Peilei; Chen, Xiangzhao

    2014-08-01

    The post-earthquake rapid accurate assessment of macro influence of seismic ground motion is of significance for earthquake emergency relief, post-earthquake reconstruction and scientific research. The seismic intensity distribution map released by the Lushan earthquake field team of the China Earthquake Administration (CEA) five days after the strong earthquake ( M7.0) occurred in Lushan County of Sichuan Ya'an City at 8:02 on April 20, 2013 provides a scientific basis for emergency relief, economic loss assessment and post-earthquake reconstruction. In this paper, the means for blind estimation of macroscopic intensity, field estimation of macro intensity, and review of intensity, as well as corresponding problems are discussed in detail, and the intensity distribution characteristics of the Lushan "4.20" M7.0 earthquake and its influential factors are analyzed, providing a reference for future seismic intensity assessments.

  2. ASSESSING PATHOLOGIES ON VILLAMAYOR STONE (SALAMANCA, SPAIN BY TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNER INTENSITY DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. García-Talegón

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the assessing of pathologies in façades using a variety of intensity data provided by different terrestrial laser scanner. In particular, a complex building built in the Villamayor Stone that is to be candidate as a Global Heritage Stone Resource has been chosen as study case. The Villamayor Stone were quarrying for the construction and ornamentation of monuments in Salamanca, declared World Heritage City by UNESCO in 1988. The objective of this paper is to assess the pathologies of Villamayor Stone and compare the results obtained through the laser techniques with the classical techniques of mapped pathologies (i.e. visual inspection. For that intensity data coming from laser scanners will be used as non-destructive techniques applied to the façades and several retired plaques (after of building restoration of Villamayor Stone with pathologies (fissures, scales, loss of matter, humidity/biological colonization carried to the laboratory. Subsequently it will perform different comparisons between the accuracy reached with the different sensors and a high precision model setup on laboratory which performs as “ground truth”. In particular, the following objectives will be pursued: i accuracy assessment of the results obtained in in situ and laboratory; ii an automation or semi-automation of the detection of pathologies in Villamayor Stone; iii discriminate the different types of Villamayor Stone used in the façades in function of the radiometric response; iv establish a methodology for detection and assessing of pathologies based on laser scanner intensity data applied to monuments and modern buildings built in Villamayor Stone.

  3. A correlation between damage and intensity on old masonry churches in Colima, Mexico by the 2003 M7.5 earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Preciado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Strong damage was observed in Colima Mexico on most of the cultural patrimony (mainly churches after the 2003 M7.5 earthquake. In order to find a correlation between the observed damage on the historical buildings and the earthquake intensity, the vulnerability is assessed by qualitative methods, including the vulnerability class method (VCM and the vulnerability index method (VIM. The latter method is modified and adapted in this research to assess the seismic vulnerability of historical buildings such as churches and cathedrals located in areas from high to very high seismicity. The results are intended to serve as preliminary indicators of expected damage levels that allow the local authorities to take measures oriented to disaster prevention. The assessment using both methodologies is developed on 15 historical masonry churches, most of them from XIX century. With the results, a correlation between damage and intensity taking into account a Macroseismic Scale is developed and the qualitative methodologies to assess the seismic vulnerability of historical constructions are compared each other.

  4. Assessment of subjective intensity of pain during ultrasonic supragingival calculus removal: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Malagi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The background of the following study is to measure the subjective intensity of pain using the verbal rating scale (VRS during supragingival scaling in relation to mandibular anteriors, with an ultrasonic scaler, with 2 different inserts (Slimline and Focus spray- split mouth study. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 subjects with a combination of 17 males and 13 females with the chronic generalized gingivitis with a minimum calculus score of 1 (CSSI - Ennever J 1961 who reported to Department of Periodontics, Yenepoya Dental College, Mangalore were chosen for the study. Ultrasonic magnetostrictive scaler unit CAVITRON BOBCAT PRO ® - (DENTSPLY with maximum power setting at 130A and 25kHZ frequency with 2 different inserts i.e., Slim line insert and Focus spray (DENTSPLY were used for supragingival scaling in the study. A VRS was used to assess the subjective intensity of pain. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in pain perception when the scores were compared using Wilcoxon signed rank test. VRS rating scores with slimline inserts showed a pain intensity of 2 in 43.3%, 1 in 53.3% and 0 in 3.3%, whereas the focus spray insert showed a pain intensity of 1 in 23.3% and 0 in 76.7%. Statistical analysis showed a P = 0.251 and a z - 1.147 a . Conclusions: The use of both Slim line insert and Focus spray inserts when used at same settings of the scaling unit, showed no statistical significant difference in the intensity of pain perceived and it showed no correlation between patient acceptance and their pain perception.

  5. Relative emissions intensity of dairy production systems: employing different functional units in life-cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S A; Topp, C F E; Ennos, R A; Chagunda, M G G

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the merit and suitability of individual functional units (FU) in expressing greenhouse gas emissions intensity in different dairy production systems. An FU provides a clearly defined and measurable reference to which input and output data are normalised. This enables the results from life-cycle assessment (LCA) of different systems to be treated as functionally equivalent. Although the methodological framework of LCA has been standardised, selection of an appropriate FU remains ultimately at the discretion of the individual study. The aim of the present analysis was to examine the effect of different FU on the emissions intensities of different dairy production systems. Analysis was based on 7 years of data (2004 to 2010) from four Holstein-Friesian dairy systems at Scotland's Rural College's long-term genetic and management systems project, the Langhill herd. Implementation of LCA accounted for the environmental impacts of the whole-farm systems and their production of milk from 'cradle to farm gate'. Emissions intensity was determined as kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalents referenced to six FU: UK livestock units, energy-corrected milk yield, total combined milk solids yield, on-farm land used for production, total combined on- and off-farm land used for production, and the proposed new FU-energy-corrected milk yield per hectare of total land used. Energy-corrected milk was the FU most effective for reflecting differences between the systems. Functional unit that incorporated a land-related aspect did not find difference between systems which were managed under the same forage regime, despite their comprising different genetic lines. Employing on-farm land as the FU favoured grazing systems. The proposed dual FU combining both productivity and land use did not differentiate between emissions intensity of systems as effectively as the productivity-based units. However, this dual unit displayed potential to quantify in a simple way

  6. Risk-Informed Safety Assurance and Probabilistic Assessment of Mission-Critical Software-Intensive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarro, Sergio B.

    2010-01-01

    This report validates and documents the detailed features and practical application of the framework for software intensive digital systems risk assessment and risk-informed safety assurance presented in the NASA PRA Procedures Guide for Managers and Practitioner. This framework, called herein the "Context-based Software Risk Model" (CSRM), enables the assessment of the contribution of software and software-intensive digital systems to overall system risk, in a manner which is entirely compatible and integrated with the format of a "standard" Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), as currently documented and applied for NASA missions and applications. The CSRM also provides a risk-informed path and criteria for conducting organized and systematic digital system and software testing so that, within this risk-informed paradigm, the achievement of a quantitatively defined level of safety and mission success assurance may be targeted and demonstrated. The framework is based on the concept of context-dependent software risk scenarios and on the modeling of such scenarios via the use of traditional PRA techniques - i.e., event trees and fault trees - in combination with more advanced modeling devices such as the Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM) or other dynamic logic-modeling representations. The scenarios can be synthesized and quantified in a conditional logic and probabilistic formulation. The application of the CSRM method documented in this report refers to the MiniAERCam system designed and developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center.

  7. Nurses' Knowledge and Responsibility toward Nutritional Assessment for Patients in Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Al Kalaldeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutritional assessment is a prerequisite for nutritional delivery. Patients in intensive care suffer from under-nutrition and nutritional failure due to poor assessment. Nursing ability to early detect nutritional failure is the key for minimizing imparities in practice and attaining nutritional goals. Aim of this article is to examine the ability of Jordanian ICU nurses to assess the nutritional status of critically ill patients, considering biophysical and biochemical measures.Methods: This cross sectional study recruited nurses from different health sectors in Jordan. ICU nurses from the governmental sector (two hospitals and private sectors (two hospitals were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. Nurses' knowledge and responsibility towards nutritional assessment were examined.Results: A total of 220 nurses from both sectors have completed the questionnaire. Nurses were consistent in regard to knowledge, responsibility, and documentation of nutritional assessment. Nurses in the governmental hospitals inappropriately perceived the application of aspiration reduction measures. However, they scored higher in applying physical examination and anthropometric assessment.  Although both nurses claimed higher use of biochemical measurements, biophysical measurements were less frequently used. Older nurses with longer clinical experience exhibited better adherence to biophysical measurement than younger nurses.Conclusion: Nursing nutritional assessment is still suboptimal to attain nutritional goals. Assessment of body weight, history of nutrition intake, severity of illness, and function of gastrointestinal tract should be considered over measuring albumin and pre-albumin levels.  A well-defined evidence-based protocol as well as a multidisciplinary nutritional team for nutritional assessment is the best to minimize episodes of under-nutrition.

  8. Psychometric assessment of the Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit questionnaire in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, David A; Ferrando-Vivas, Paloma; Wright, Stephen E; McColl, Elaine; Heyland, Daren K; Rowan, Kathryn M

    2017-04-01

    To establish the psychometric properties of the Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit 24-item (FS-ICU-24) questionnaire in the United Kingdom. The Family-Reported Experiences Evaluation study recruited family members of patients staying at least 24 hours in 20 participating intensive care units. Questionnaires were evaluated for nonresponse, floor/ceiling effects, redundancy, and construct validity. Internal consistency was evaluated with item-to-own scale correlations and Cronbach α. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were used to explore the underlying structure. Twelve thousand three hundred forty-six family members of 6380 patients were recruited and 7173 (58%) family members of 4615 patients returned a completed questionnaire. One family member per patient was included in the psychometric assessment. Six items had greater than 10% nonresponse; 1 item had a ceiling effect; and 11 items had potential redundancy. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach α, overall .96; satisfaction with care, .94; satisfaction with decision making, .93). The 2-factor solution was not a good fit. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that satisfaction with decision making encompassed 2 constructs-satisfaction with information and satisfaction with the decision-making process. The Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit 24-item questionnaire demonstrated good psychometric properties in the United Kingdom setting. Construct validity could be improved by use of 3 domains and some scope for further improvement was identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A plastic stress intensity factor approach to turbine disk structural integrity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shlyannikov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study based on a new fracture mechanics parameter is concerned with assessing the integrity of cracked steam turbine disk which operate under startup-shutdown cyclic loading conditions. Damage accumulation and growth in service have occurred on the inner surface of slot fillet of key. In order to determine elastic-plastic fracture mechanics parameters full-size stress-strain state analysis of turbine disk was performed for a quote-elliptical part-through cracks under considering loading conditions. As a result distributions of elastic and plastic stress intensity factors along crack front in slot fillet of key of turbine disk depending on surface crack form are defined. An engineering approach to the prediction of carrying capacity of cracked turbine disk which is sensitive to the loading history at maintenance is proposed. The predictions of the rate of crack growth and residual lifetime of steam turbine disk are compared for elastic and elastic-plastic solutions. It is shown that the previously proposed elastic crack growth models provide overestimate the lifetime with respect to the present one. An advantage to use the plastic stress intensity factor to characterize the fracture resistance as the self-dependent unified parameter for a variety of turbine disk configurations rather than the magnitude of the elastic stress intensity factors alone is discussed.

  10. Advantages and Psychometric Validation of Proximal Intensive Assessments of Patient Reported Outcomes Collected in Daily Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Eve B.; Field, Nigel P.; Ruzek, Josef I.; Bryant, Richard A.; Dalenberg, Constance J.; Keane, Terence M.; Spain, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Ambulatory assessment data collection methods are increasingly used to study behavior, experiences, and patient reported outcomes (PROs) such as emotions, cognitions, and symptoms in clinical samples. Data collected close in time at frequent and fixed intervals can assess PROs that are discrete or changing rapidly and provide information about temporal dynamics or mechanisms of change in clinical samples and individuals, but clinical researchers have not yet routinely and systematically investigated the reliability and validity of such measures or their potential added value over conventional measures. The present study provides a comprehensive, systematic evaluation of the psychometrics of several Proximal Intensive Assessment (PIA) measures in a clinical sample and investigates whether PIA appears to assess meaningful differences in phenomena over time. Methods Data was collected on a variety of psychopathology constructs on handheld devices every 4 hours for 7 days from 62 adults recently exposed to traumatic injury of themselves or a family member. Data was also collected on standard self-report measures of the same constructs at the time of enrollment, one week after enrollment, and two months after injury. Results For all measure scores, results showed good internal consistency across items and within persons over time, provided evidence of convergent, divergent, and construct validity, and showed significant between and within-subject variability. Conclusions Results indicate that PIA measures can provide valid measurement of psychopathology in a clinical sample. PIA may be useful to study mechanisms of change in clinical contexts, identify targets for change, and gauge treatment progress. PMID:26567018

  11. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Juan, E-mail: lijuan@craes.org.cn [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Yang, Yang [College of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Xi, Beidou, E-mail: xibd413@yeah.net [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Lv, Ningqing [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Wu, Yi [Guizhou Academy of Environmental Science and Designing, Guizhou 550000 (China); Xie, Yiwen, E-mail: qin3201@126.com [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan, 523808 (China); Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China)

    2016-05-01

    index-based methodology to assess the groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). • GPI assessment includes PSH assessment and GIV assessment. • Measures to prevent and control groundwater pollution based on GPI assessment. • An index-based methodology for prevention and control technologies (PCT) screening. • PCT screening based on GPI assessment results and TOPSIS method.

  12. Assessment of Sedation and Analgesia in Mechanically Ventilated Patients in Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udita Naithani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Post traumatic stress resulting from an intensive care unit(ICU stay may be prevented by adequate level of sedation and analgesia. Aims of the study were reviewing the current practices of sedation and analgesia in our ICU setup and to assess level of sedation and analgesia to know the requirement of sedative and analgesics in mechani-cally ventilated ICU patients. This prospective observational study was conducted on 50 consecutive mechanically ventilated patients in ICU over a period of 6 months. Patient′s sedation level was assessed by Ramsay Sedation Scale (RSS = 1 : Agitated; 2,3 : Comfortable; 4,5,6 : Sedated and pain intensity by Behavioural Pain Scale (BPS = 3 :No pain, to 16 : Maximum pain. BPS, mean arterial pressure(MAP and heart rate(HR were assessed before and after painful stimulus (tracheal suction. Although no patient had received sedative and analgesics, mean Ramsay score was 3.52±1.92 with 30% patients categorized as ′agitated′, 12% as ′comfortable′ and 58% as ′sedated′ because of depressed consciousness level. Mean BPS at rest was 4.30±1.28 revealing background pain that further increased to 6.18±1.88 after painful stimulus. There was significant rise in HR (10.30%, MAP (7.56% and BPS (40.86% after painful stimulus, P< 0.0001. The correlation between BPS and Ramsay Score was negative and significant (P< 0.01. We conclude that there should be regular definition of the appropriate level of sedation and analgesia as well as monitoring of the desired level, using sedation and pain scales as a part of the total care for mechanically ventilated patients.

  13. Assessing Climate change Impacts to Rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves over the Florida Panhandle &Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, D. K.; Wang, D.; Obeysekera, J.; Hagen, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    The type, amount, intensity and frequency of rainfall are being directly influenced and altered due to potential climate changes. Consideration should be given to a revision of the rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curve, developed based on the historical rainfall data, for storm water drainage design and flood control facilities. Proper adaptation by quantifying the potential effects of climate changes is one of the major ways to reduce vulnerability. As a result, updating IDF curves based on the future climate condition is very important for managing the hydraulic structures. In this study, the climate change impact to rainfall IDF curves over the Florida panhandle and peninsula are assessed using the COAPS Regional Downscaling data from the Florida Climate Institute. The COAPS Land-Atmosphere Regional Ensemble Climate Change Experiment for the Southeast United States at 10-km resolution consists of three regional climate models (RCM) by downscaling the general circulation models: the Community Climate System Model (CCSM), the Hadley Centre Coupled Model version 3 (HadCM3), and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory GCM (GFDL). The RCMs have been performed for the historical simulations (1969-1999) and the future projections (2038-2070) under the AR4 A2 emissions scenario. In this study, more than 30-years of hourly precipitation data are gathered from 57 weather stations in Florida. The performance of the RCMs is evaluated by comparing historical simulations with observations. The parameters of generalized extreme value (GEV) distributions including location, scale, and shape parameters are mapped for the period of 1969-1999 and 2038-2070. The spatial distribution map of rainfall intensity under various durations and return periods will be presented. The response on the Florida panhandle will be compared and contrasted with that of the larger peninsula. These maps will provide insight that can lead to a useful engineering tool for designing the

  14. Assessment of intensity effort of middle-aged adults practicing regular walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson A. Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Walking is one of the most commonly recommended activities for sedentary individuals. When performed at the correct intensity, it can provide cardiovascular, respiratory, metabolic, and other benefits by providing a training effect in addition to reducing the risk of death from cardiovascular diseases and other chronic health conditions. Objectives: The primary aim of this study was to assess whether individuals who practiced regular unsupervised walking carry out the activity safely and with sufficient effort intensity parameters to have a positive physiological (training effect. The secondary objective was to compare the training heart rate (HR and the stability of the HR within the ideal range of training between the sexes. Method: Individuals were selected from walking tracks within the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The study included subjects from 40 to 60 years of age who had practiced walking for at least two months prior to the study, walking at least three times a week. Individuals who agreed to participate in the survey were asked to walk 15 minutes at their usual pace with their HR measured every 5 minutes using a heart rate monitor. Their average walking HR was compared to the average training HR based on the formula: (220 - age × 70 to 80% that would result in a positive physiological training effect. Results: Of the 142 individuals evaluated, 25.4% achieved the average training HR. This result was significantly lower than those who did not achieve the average training HR while walking (p=0.002. There were significant differences between men and women who had reached the training HR (p=0.0001. Conclusion: The authors found that individuals who walk regularly performed outside the range of the ideal HR intensity that would cause a positive physiological effect and therefore would probably not achieve a beneficial training effect while walking.

  15. Assessing Overreaching With Heart-Rate Recovery: What Is the Minimal Exercise Intensity Required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Meur, Yann; Buchheit, Martin; Aubry, Anaël; Coutts, Aaron J; Hausswirth, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    Faster heart-rate recovery (HRR) after high to maximal exercise (≥90% of maximal heart rate) has been reported in athletes suspected of functional overreaching (f-OR). This study investigated whether this response would also occur at lower exercise intensity. Responses of HRR and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were compared during an incremental intermittent running protocol to exhaustion in 20 experienced male triathletes (8 control subjects and 13 overload subjects led to f-OR) before and immediately after an overload training period and after a 1-wk taper. Both groups demonstrated an increase in HRR values immediately after the training period, but this change was very likely to almost certainly larger in the f-OR group at all running intensities (large to very large differences, eg, +16 ± 7 vs +3 ± 5 beats/min, in the f-OR and control groups at 11 km/h, respectively). The highest between-groups differences in changes in HRR were reported at 11 km/h (13 ± 4 beats/min) and 12 km/h (10 ± 6 beats/min). A concomitant increase in RPE at all intensities was reported only in the f-OR group (large to extremely large differences, +2.1 ± 1.5 to +0.7 ± 1.5 arbitrary units). These findings confirm that faster HRR does not systematically predict better physical performance. However, when interpreted in the context of the athletes' fatigue state and training phase, HRR after submaximal exercise may be more discriminant than HRR measures taken after maximal exercise for monitoring f-OR. These findings may be applied in practice by regularly assessing HRR after submaximal exercise (ie, warm-up) for monitoring endurance athletes' responses to training.

  16. Validation of a measurement tool for self-assessment of teamwork in intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, J; Shulruf, B; Torrie, J; Frengley, R; Boyd, M; Paul, A; Yee, B; Dzendrowskyj, P

    2013-09-01

    Teamwork is an important contributor to patient safety and a validated teamwork measurement tool could help healthcare teams identify areas for improvement and measure progress. We explored the psychometric properties of a teamwork measurement tool when used for self-assessment. We hypothesized that the tool had a valid factor structure and that scores from participants and external assessors would correlate. Forty intensive care teams (one doctor, three nurses) participated in four simulated emergencies, and each independently rated their team's performance at the end of each case using the teamwork measurement tool, without prior training in the use of the tool. We used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and compared factor structure between participants and external assessors (using previously reported data). Scores from participants and external assessors were compared using Pearson's correlation coefficient. EFA demonstrated items loaded onto three distinct factors which were supported by the CFA. We found significant correlations between external and participant scores for overall teamwork scores and the three factors. Participants agreed with external assessors on the ranking of overall team performance but scored themselves significantly higher than external assessors. The teamwork measurement tool has a valid structure when used for self-assessment. Participant and external assessor scores correlated significantly, suggesting that participants could discriminate between different levels of performance, although leniency in self-assessed scores indicated the need for calibration. This tool could help structure reflection on teamwork and potentially facilitate self-directed, workplace-based improvement in teamwork.

  17. Assessing resource intensity and renewability of cellulosic ethanol technologies using eco-LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Anil; Bakshi, Bhavik R; Smith, Raymond L

    2012-02-21

    Recognizing the contributions of ecosystem services and the lack of their comprehensive accounting in life cycle assessment (LCA), an in-depth analysis of their contribution in the life cycle of cellulosic ethanol derived from five different feedstocks was conducted, with gasoline and corn ethanol as reference fuels. The relative use intensity of natural resources encompassing land and ecosystem goods and services by cellulosic ethanol was estimated using the Eco-LCA framework. Despite being resource intensive compared to gasoline, cellulosic ethanol offers the possibility of a reduction in crude oil consumption by as much as 96%. Soil erosion and land area requirements can be sources of concern for cellulosic ethanol derived directly from managed agriculture. The analysis of two broad types of thermodynamic metrics, namely: various types of physical return on investment and a renewability index, which indicate competitiveness and sustainability of cellulosic ethanol, respectively, show that only ethanol from waste resources combines a favorable thermodynamic return on investment with a higher renewability index. However, the production potential of ethanol from waste resources is limited. This finding conveys a possible dilemma of biofuels: combining high renewability, high thermodynamic return on investment, and large production capacity may remain elusive. A plot of renewability versus energy return on investment is suggested as one of the options for providing guidance on future biofuel selection.

  18. The prevalence, intensity, and assessment of craving for MDMA/ecstasy in recreational users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alan K; Rosenberg, Harold

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence, intensity, and correlates of craving for MDMA/ecstasy among recreational users employing a new multi-item, self-report questionnaire reflecting experiences of desire, intention to use, and anticipated loss of control. Using a web-based data collection procedure, we recruited MDMA/ecstasy users (n = 240) to rate their agreement with eight craving statements immediately before and immediately following 90 seconds of exposure to either ecstasy-related or control stimuli. Participants then completed questionnaires to measure ecstasy refusal self-efficacy, passionate engagement in ecstasy use, substance use history, and demographic information. Fifty percent of participants indicated some level of agreement with at least two (out of eight) statements indicative of craving and 30% agreed at some level with six or more such statements. The questionnaire used to assess craving was internally consistent, unidimensional, and had excellent one-week test-retest reliability. Craving scores varied as a function of both cue exposure and frequency of ecstasy use, and were significantly associated with ecstasy-related attitudes. Recreational users of MDMA/ecstasy endorse some experiences indicative of craving for this drug, even though only a minority report intense craving following explicit cue exposure.

  19. The compressed average image intensity metric for stereoscopic video quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczewski, Grzegorz

    2016-09-01

    The following article depicts insights towards design, creation and testing of a genuine metric designed for a 3DTV video quality evaluation. The Compressed Average Image Intensity (CAII) mechanism is based upon stereoscopic video content analysis, setting its core feature and functionality to serve as a versatile tool for an effective 3DTV service quality assessment. Being an objective type of quality metric it may be utilized as a reliable source of information about the actual performance of a given 3DTV system, under strict providers evaluation. Concerning testing and the overall performance analysis of the CAII metric, the following paper presents comprehensive study of results gathered across several testing routines among selected set of samples of stereoscopic video content. As a result, the designed method for stereoscopic video quality evaluation is investigated across the range of synthetic visual impairments injected into the original video stream.

  20. Level and intensity of objectively assessed physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjorth Mads F

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women in low-income countries are generally considered to have a high physical workload which is sustained during pregnancy. Although most previous studies have been based on questionnaires a recent meta-analysis of doubly labeled water data has raised questions about the actual amount of physical activity performed. In this study we report objectively assessed levels of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness among pregnant urban Ethiopian women, and their association with demographic characteristics and anthropometric measures. Methods Physical activity was measured for seven consecutive days in 304 women using a combined uniaxial accelerometer and heart rate sensor. Activity energy expenditure was determined using a group calibration in a branched equation model framework. Type and duration of activities were reported using a 24-hour physical activity recall and grip strength was assessed using a dynamometer. Results Median (interquartile-range, IQR activity energy expenditure was 31.1 (23.7-42.0 kJ/kg/day corresponding to a median (IQR physical activity level of 1.46 (1.39-1.58. Median (IQR time in sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous intensity was 1100 (999–1175, 303 (223–374 and 40 (22–69 min/day, respectively. Mean (standard deviation sleeping heart rate was 73.6 (8.0 beats/min and grip strength was 21.6 (4.5 kg. Activity energy expenditure was 14% higher for every 10 cm2 difference in arm muscle area and 10% lower for every 10 cm2 difference in arm fat area and 10-week difference in gestational age. Conclusion The level and intensity of physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia is low compared to non-pregnant women from other low income countries as well as pregnant European women from high-income countries.

  1. Assessing progress and outcome of early intensive behavioral intervention for toddlers with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Rebecca; Parry-Cruwys, Diana; Dupere, Sally; Ahearn, William

    2014-12-01

    Intensive behavioral intervention for young children diagnosed with autism can produce large gains in social, cognitive, and language development. Although several studies have identified behaviors that are possible indicators of best outcome, changes in performance are typically measured using norm-referenced standardized scores referencing overall functioning level rather than via repeated observational measures of autism-specific deficits (i.e., social behavior). In the current study, 83 children with autism (CWA), aged 1, 2 and 3 years, and 58 same-aged typically developing children (TDC) were directly observed in the areas of cognitive skills, joint attention (JA), play, and stereotypic behavior using a measure called the Early Skills Assessment Tool (ESAT; MacDonald et al., 2006). CWA were assessed at entry into an EIBI program and again after 1 year of treatment. Changes in performance were compared pre- and post-treatment as well as to the normative data by age. Results indicate significant gains on the ESAT across all age groups with the greatest gains seen in the children who entered treatment prior to their second birthday. Increases were seen on direct measures of JA, play, imitation and language while decreases were seen in stereotypy regardless of level of performance at entry into EIBI. The ESAT, a direct measurement tool, served as a sensitive tool to measure changes in autism symptomatology following EIBI treatment.

  2. Pain prevalence, intensity, assessment and management in a hospitalized pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Lori J; Kost-Byerly, Sabine; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Thompson, Carol B; Vasquenza, Kelly J; Rothman, Sharon K; Billett, Carol; White, Elizabeth D; Yaster, Myron; Monitto, Constance L

    2014-03-01

    New research, regulatory guidelines, and practice initiatives have improved pain management in infants, children, and adolescents, but obstacles remain. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and demographics of pain, as well as pain management practice patterns in hospitalized children in a tertiary-care university hospital. We prospectively collected data including patient demographics, presence/absence and location of pain, pain intensity, pain assessment documentation, analgesic use, side effects of analgesic therapy, and patient/family satisfaction. Two hundred male (58%) and female, medical and surgical (61%) patients, averaging 9 ± 6.2 years were studied. Pain was common (86%) and often moderate to severe (40%). Surgical patients reported pain more frequently when enrolled than did medical patients (99% vs. 65%). Female gender, age ≥ 5 years, and Caucasian race were all associated with higher mean pain scores. Furthermore, females and Caucasian children consumed more opioids than males and non-Caucasians. Identified obstacles to optimal analgesic management include lack of documented physician pain assessment (patient/family dissatisfaction with pain management (2%-7%). The data demonstrated that despite a concentrated focus on improving pain management over the past decade, pain remains common in hospitalized children. Identification of patient populations and characteristics that predispose to increased pain (e.g., female, Caucasian, postoperative patient) as well as obstacles to analgesic management provide a focus for the development of targeted interventions and research to further improve care.

  3. [What non invasive haemodynamic assessment in paediatric intensive care unit in 2009?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissaud, O; Guichoux, J; Villega, F; Orliaguet, G

    2010-03-01

    The haemodynamic assessment of the patients is a daily activity in paediatric intensive care unit. It completes and is guided by the clinical examination. The will to develop the least invasive possible coverage of the patients is a constant concern. The haemodynamic monitoring, all the more if it is invasive, ceaselessly has to put in balance the profit and the risk of beginning this technique at a fragile patient. In the last three decades, numerous non-invasive haemodynamic tools were developed. The ideal one must be reliable, reproducible, with a time of fast, easily useful answer, with a total harmlessness, cheap and allowing a monitoring continues. Among all the existing tools (oesophageal Doppler ultrasound method, transthoracic echocardiography, NICO, thoracic impedancemetry, plethysmography, sublingual capnography), no one allies all these qualities. We can consider that the transthoracic echocardiography gets closer to most of these objectives. We shall blame it for its cost and for the fact that it is an intermittent monitoring but both in the diagnosis and in the survey, it has no equal among the non-invasive tools of haemodynamic assessment from part the quality and the quantity of the obtained information. The learning of the basic functions (contractility evaluation, cardiac output, cardiac and the vascular filling) useful for the start of a treatment is relatively well-to-do. We shall miss the absence of training in this tool in France in its paediatric and neonatal specificity within the university or interuniversity framework.

  4. Quantifying the media bias in intensity surveys: Lessons from the 2001 Bhuj, India, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, S.E.; Pande, P.

    2007-01-01

    Many seismologists have looked at the 26 January 2001 Bhuj earthquake as a key modern calibration event that could be used to improve estimates of magnitudes of large historic mainshocks in stable continental regions. Since no instrumental data are available for important historic events such as the 1819 Allah Bund, India, and the 1811-1812 New Madrid, central U.S. mainshocks, calibration hinges on comparisons of the macroseismic effects of these earthquakes with those of comparable modern earthquakes for which a reliable, instrumentally determined moment magnitude is available. However, although such a comparison is conceptually straightforward, in practice it is complicated by potentially significant inconsistencies in methods used to quantify macroseismic effects in different regions and/or times. For the Bhuj earthquake, extensive intensity data sets have been compiled and published from both media accounts and detailed direct surveys. Comparing the two provides a quantification of the previously suspected media bias, whereby earthquake effects can be exaggerated in media accounts. This bias is a strong function of intensity level, with substantial bias at the highest shaking levels and significantly less bias at low intensities. Because only sparse documentary data are in general available for older historic earthquakes, the results of this study suggest that their inferred intensity distributions might be similarly biased. We further use the survey-based intensity values to develop a new relationship between intensities and ground motions.

  5. [Improving shared decision-making for hospital patients: Description and evaluation of a treatment intensity assessment tool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amblàs-Novellas, Jordi; Casas, Sílvia; Catalán, Rosa María; Oriol-Ruscalleda, Margarita; Lucchetti, Gianni Enrico; Quer-Vall, Francesc Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Shared decision-making between patients and healthcare professionals is crucial to guarantee adequate coherence between patient values and preferences, caring aims and treatment intensity, which is key for the provision of patient-centred healthcare. The assessment of such interventions are essential for caring continuity purposes. To do this, reliable and easy-to-use assessment systems are required. This study describes the results of the implementation of a hospital treatment intensity assessment tool. The pre-implementation and post-implementation results were compared between two cohorts of patients assessed for one month. Some record of care was registered in 6.1% of patients in the pre-implementation group (n=673) compared to 31.6% of patients in the post-implementation group (n=832) (P<.01), with differences between services. Hospital mortality in both cohorts is 1.9%; in the pre-implementation group, 93.75% of deceased patients had treatment intensity assessment. In hospital settings, the availability of a specific tool seems to encourage very significantly shared decision-making processes between patients and healthcare professionals -multiplying by more than 5 times the treatment intensity assessment. Moreover, such tools help in the caring continuity processes between different teams and the personalisation of caring interventions to be monitored. More research is needed to continue improving shared decision-making for hospital patients. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Cardiac Risk Assessment, Morbidity Prediction, and Outcome in the Vascular Intensive Care Unit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dover, Mary

    2013-09-17

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to examine the predictive value of the Lee revised cardiac risk index (RCRI) for a standard vascular intensive care unit (ICU) population as well as assessing the utility of transthoracic echocardiography and the impact of prior coronary artery disease (CAD) and coronary revascularization on patient outcome. Design: This is a retrospective review of prospectively maintained Vascubase and prospectively collected ICU data. Materials and Methods: Data from 363 consecutive vascular ICU admissions were collected. Findings were used to calculate the RCRI, which was then correlated with patient outcomes. All patients were on optimal medical therapy (OMT) in the form of cardioselective β-blocker, aspirin, statin, and folic acid. Results: There was no relationship found between a reduced ejection fraction and patient outcome. Mortality was significantly increased for patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) as identified on echo (14.9% vs 6.5%, P = .028). The overall complication rates were significantly elevated for patients with valvular dysfunction. Discrimination for the RCRI on receiver-operating characteristic analysis was poor, with an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of .621. Model calibration was reasonable with an Hosmer-Lemeshow Ĉ statistic of 2.726 (P = .256). Of those with known CAD, 41.22% of the patients receiving best medical treatment developed acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared to 35.3% of those who previously underwent percutaneous cardiac intervention and 23.5% of those who had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting. There was 3-fold increase in major adverse clinical events in patients with troponin rise and LVH. Conclusions: The RCRI\\'s discriminatory capacity is low, and this raises difficulties in assessing cardiac risk in patients undergoing vascular intervention. The AMI is highest in the OMT group without prior cardiac intervention, which mandates protocols to

  7. Effects of enhanced bioturbation intensities on the toxicity assessment of legacy-contaminated sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remaili, Timothy M; Simpson, Stuart L; Jolley, Dianne F

    2017-07-01

    Many benthic communities within estuarine ecosystems are highly degraded due to the close proximity of urban and industrial contamination sources. The maintenance of recolonised, healthy ecosystems following remediation is a challenge, and better techniques are required for monitoring their progressive recovery. Rates of ecosystem recovery are influenced by the changes in the concentrations and forms of contaminants, the sensitivity of recolonising organisms to bioavailable contaminants, and a range of abiotic and biotic factors influencing the exposure of organisms to the contamination. Here we investigate the influence of bioturbation by an active amphipod (Victoriopisa australiensis) on the bioavailability of metals and hydrocarbons in highly contaminated sediments. Changes in contaminant bioavailability were evaluated by assessing sublethal effects to a smaller cohabiting amphipod (Melita plumulosa). For predominantly metal-contaminated sediments, the presence of V. australiensis generally increased survival and reproduction of M. plumulosa when compared to treatments with only M. plumulosa present (from 42 to 93% survival and 3-61% reproduction). The decrease in toxic effects to M. plumulosa corresponded with lower dissolved copper and zinc concentrations in the overlying waters (14-9 μg Cu L(-1), and 14 to 6 μg Zn L(-1) for absence to presence of V. australiensis). For sediments contaminated with both hydrocarbons and metals, the increased bioturbation intensity by V. australiensis resulted in decreased reproduction of M. plumulosa, despite lower dissolved metal exposure, and indicated increased bioavailability of the hydrocarbon contaminants. Thus, the presence of a secondary active bioturbator can enhance or suppress toxicity to co-inhabiting organisms, and may depend on the contaminant class and form. The results highlight the need to consider both abiotic and biotic interactions when using laboratory studies to evaluate the ability of organisms

  8. Normalized maximum intensity time ratio maps and morphological descriptors for assessment of malignancy in MR mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertas, Gokhan; Gulcur, H Ozcan; Tunaci, Mehtap

    2008-05-01

    Effectiveness of morphological descriptors based on normalized maximum intensity-time ratio (nMITR) maps generated using a 3 x 3 pixel moving mask on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetoresistance (MR) mammograms are studied for assessment of malignancy. After a rough indication of volume of interest on the nMITR maps, lesions are automatically segmented. Two-dimensional (2D) convexity, normalized complexity, extent, and eccentricity as well as three-dimensional (3D) versions of these descriptors and contact surface area ratio are computed. On a data set consisting of dynamic contrast-enhanced MR DCE-MR mammograms from 51 women that contain 26 benign and 32 malignant lesions, 3D convexity, complexity, and extent are found to reflect aggressiveness of malignancy better than 2D descriptors. Contact surface area ratio which is easily adaptable to different imaging resolutions is found to be the most significant and accurate descriptor (75% sensitivity, 88% specificity, 89% positive predictive values, and 74% negative predictive values).

  9. Critical Zone services as environmental assessment criteria in intensively managed landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Meredith; Kumar, Praveen

    2017-06-01

    The Critical Zone (CZ) includes the biophysical processes occurring from the top of the vegetation canopy to the weathering zone below the groundwater table. CZ services provide a measure for the goods and benefits derived from CZ processes. In intensively managed landscapes, cropland is altered through anthropogenic energy inputs to derive more productivity, as agricultural products, than would be possible under natural conditions. However, the actual costs of alterations to CZ functions within landscape profiles are unknown. Through comparisons of corn feed and corn-based ethanol, we show that valuation of these CZ services in monetary terms provides a more concrete tool for characterizing seemingly abstract environmental damages from agricultural production systems. Multiple models are combined to simulate the movement of nutrients throughout the soil system, enabling the measurement of agricultural anthropogenic impacts to the CZ's regulating services. Results indicate water quality and atmospheric stabilizing services, measured by soil carbon storage, carbon respiration, and nitrate leaching, among others, can cost more than double that of emissions estimated in previous studies. Energy efficiency in addition to environmental impact is assessed to demonstrate how the inclusion of CZ services is necessary in accounting for the entire life cycle of agricultural production systems. These results conclude that feed production systems are more energy efficient and less environmentally costly than corn-based ethanol.

  10. The assessment of the intensive poultry rearing farms within the context of the IPPC Directive (B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHĂIESCU Tania

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Poultry production in intensive farms has been steadily increasing since the 1970s. This has occurredthrough a number of factors including increased feed supply through greater use of nitrogen (N fertilizer andincreased use of supplementary forage feeds. Potentially, the integration of low-protein forage (e.g. maize, toreduce dietary-N concentration, or management practices (e.g. deep layer, cage tier, to reduce excreta to waste,water and soil, can mitigate environmental N emissions and increase efficiency. However, effects of thesemitigation practices on resource use efficiency and environmental emissions, such as greenhouse gas emissionsand N leaching, are becoming more and more substantial, as the production on wider basis increased. This is oneof the reasons for including the large scale poultry farms on the list of the economical activities with significantimpact on environment, being subjected to more and stricter regulations. The direct and indirect environmentalimpacts of poultry farming are currently being investigated by using simulation modelling. The model simulationusing a life cycle assessment approach indicates that N fertilizer increases production and economic efficiencybut decreases environmental efficiency through predicted increases in N leaching and greenhouse gas emissions.In contrast, using forage increases the use of land and production efficiency, with a decrease in N leaching andno increase in greenhouse gas emissions (per capita. A comparison of an average poultry farm applying the BestAvailable Technologies versus an older technology is provided, together with considerations regarding themitigation of impacts on various scales.

  11. MR ASSESSMENT OF LUNG DEVELOPMENT IN FETAL ANOMALIES USING RATIO OF LUNG TO LIVER SIGNAL INTENSITIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the monitoring and diagnostic potential of MR in fetal lung development using lung signal intensity changes in the fetus. Methods The lung-to-liver intensity ratio was calculated by means of region-of-interest analysis in all 35 fetuses including 7 bilateral urinary anomalies, 9 unilateral urinary anomalies, 5 pulmonary anomalies, and 14 others. Results All fetuses with urinary anomalies and pulmonary anomalies showed low ratio of lung-to-liver signal intensity. Conclusion Low ratio of lung-to-liver signal intensity on MR imaging indicates pulmonary hypoplasia after 22 weeks' gestation.

  12. Assessment and Monitoring Tumor Vascularity With Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Maximum Intensity Persistence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pysz, Marybeth A.; Foygel, Kira; Panje, Cedric M.; Needles, Andrew; Tian, Lu; Willmann, Jürgen K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging is increasingly being used in the clinic for assessment of tissue vascularity. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of different contrast administration parameters on the in vivo ultrasound imaging signal in tumor-bearing mice using a maximum intensity persistence (MIP) algorithm and to evaluate the reliability of in vivo MIP imaging in assessing tumor vascularity. The potential of in vivo MIP imaging for monitoring tumor vascularity during antiangiogenic cancer treatment was further evaluated. Materials and Methods In intraindividual experiments, varying contrast microbubble concentrations (5 × 105, 5 × 106, 5 × 107, 5 × 108 microbubbles in 100 µL saline) and contrast injection rates (0.6, 1.2, and 2.4 mL/min) in subcutaneous tumor-bearing mice were applied and their effects on in vivo contrast-enhanced ultrasound MIP imaging plateau values were obtained using a dedicated small animal ultrasound imaging system (40 MHz). Reliability of MIP ultrasound imaging was tested following 2 injections of the same micro-bubble concentration (5 × 107 microbubbles at 1.2 mL/min) in the same tumors. In mice with subcutaneous human colon cancer xenografts, longitudinal contrast-enhanced ultrasound MIP imaging plateau values (baseline and at 48 hours) were compared between mice with and without antiangiogenic treatment (anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody). Ex vivo CD31 immunostaining of tumor tissue was used to correlate in vivo MIP imaging plateau values with microvessel density analysis. Results In vivo MIP imaging plateau values correlated significantly (P = 0.001) with contrast microbubble doses. At 3 different injection rates of 0.6, 1.2, and 2.4 mL/min, MIP imaging plateau values did not change significantly (P = 0.61). Following 2 injections with the same microbubble dose and injection rate, MIP imaging plateau values were obtained with high reliability with an intraclass correlation

  13. Towards the creation of a welfare assessment system in intensive beef cattle farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop an assessment scheme for the evaluation at farm level of beef cattle welfare in the intensive rearing system that is capable of both identifying weak points in animal welfare and grading farms to such extent. The basic principle of the method was the avoidance of animal handling and the prolonged observation of cattle using animal-based and resource provision measures grouped in four classes of parameters: 1 Housing systems and facilities; 2 Health and cleanliness; 3 Animal behaviour and reactivity; 4 Quality of management and stockmanship. Each parameter was graded giving the highest scores to the best option for animal welfare, and the threshold value for distinguishing good from poor welfare conditions was set primarily on the results of scientific reports and investigations. An overall Welfare Index was calculated summing the scores of the 4 classes of parameters to formulate a general judgement of the farm and to allow comparison among them. The protocol was applied to 102 Italian intensive beef cattle farms rearing more than 300 young bulls/year. Regarding housing and facilities, the study showed that space allowance and space at the manger were the most frequent critical points. Within the “poor welfare” farms, more than 80% provided less than 3.5 m2/head to bulls weighing more than 500 kg, and none adopted a feeding frontage of at least 60 cm/head. Negatively judged farms compared to those ranked in the good welfare area for health and cleanliness showed a higher incidence of emergency slaughter (score 1.7: >1% vs score 3: 0.5-1%, P<0.05 and lameness (score 1.9: 1.5-3% vs score 3.3: <1.5%, P<0.05. Animal behaviour and reactivity parameters showed that in the “poor welfare” farms, bulls had a quicker flight reaction to the presence of both farmer and observer (P<0.01 likely due to a negative human-animal interaction. The quality of stockmanship was the category in which the highest number of farms

  14. An index of forest management intensity based on assessment of harvested tree volume, tree species composition and dead wood origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiemo Kahl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Forest management intensity often affects biodiversity, ecosystem processes and ecosystem services. To assess the influence of past management intensity on current ecosystem properties, management intensity must be quantified in a meaningful and reproducible approach. Here we developed the simple yet effective Forest Management Intensity index (ForMI, which is based only on inventory data of the living stand, stumps and dead wood. The ForMI is the sum of three components taking into account: 1. the proportion of harvested tree volume (Iharv, 2. the proportion of tree species that are not part of the natural forest community (Inonat and 3. the proportion of dead wood showing signs of saw cuts (Idwcut. Each component ranges between 0 (no sign of management and 1 (intensive management. Our analysis suggests that the ForMI can be used to assess management intensity in Central European forests for the last 30 to 40 years, depending on decay rates of stumps and dead wood. Our approach was tested using data of 148 forest plots of 1 ha in size in Germany. We found a significant distinction between plots that were previously described as managed and unmanaged as well as between plots comprising trees species of the natural forest community and those with additional, introduced coniferous tree species. We conclude that the index is applicable to a wide range of forest management types, but should not be misinterpreted as an index for old-growth structure.

  15. Assessing the effect of wind speed/direction changes on urban heat island intensity of Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perim Temizoz, Huriye; Unal, Yurdanur S.

    2017-04-01

    Assessing the effect of wind speed/direction changes on urban heat island intensity of Istanbul. Perim Temizöz, Deniz H. Diren, Cemre Yürük and Yurdanur S. Ünal Istanbul Technical University, Department of Meteorological Engineering, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey City or metropolitan areas are significantly warmer than the outlying rural areas since the urban fabrics and artificial surfaces which have different radiative, thermal and aerodynamic features alter the surface energy balance, interact with the regional circulation and introduce anthropogenic sensible heat and moisture into the atmosphere. The temperature contrast between urban and rural areas is most prominent during nighttime since heat is absorbed by day and emitted by night. The intensity of the urban heat island (UHI) vary considerably depending on the prevailent meteorological conditions and the characteristics of the region. Even though urban areas cover a small fraction of Earth, their climate has greater impact on the world's population. Over half of the world population lives in the cities and it is expected to rise within the coming decades. Today almost one fifth of the Turkey's population resides in Istanbul with the percentage expected to increase due to the greater job opportunities compared to the other cities. Its population has been increased from 2 millions to 14 millions since 1960s. Eventually, the city has been expanded tremendously within the last half century, shifting the landscape from vegetation to built up areas. The observations of the last fifty years over Istanbul show that the UHI is most pronounced during summer season. The seasonal temperature differences between urban and suburban sites reach up to 3 K and roughly haft degree increase in UHI intensity is observed after 2000. In this study, we explore the possible range of heat load and distribution over Istanbul for different prevailing wind conditions by using the non-hydrostatic MUKLIMO3 model developed by DWD

  16. Pain still hurts : pain assessment and pain management in intensive care patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.G.M. Ahlers (Sabine)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntensive care patients are subject to many factors that may influence the patients’ state of comfort or distress. Pain is the main cause of distress experienced by many adult intensive care patients, which can be caused by different factors like underlying disease, prolonged immobility

  17. Assessment of MR signal intensity of cranium and cervical spine bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Min; Joh, Young Duk; Huh, Jin Do; Kim, So Sun [Kosin Medical College, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-11-15

    The components of bore marrow change dramatically during lifetime. To evaluate the bone marrow of cranium and upper cervical spine, the authors retrospectively evaluated 300 examinations of cranium and the second cervical bone in patients without known bone marrow abnormality. T1-weighted images were used to analyze the changes of lone marrow signal intensity according to the age and sex. The signal intensity of bone marrow of cranium increased most rapidly from birth to age of 10 years. Between 11 and 20 years of age, gradual increase of signal intensity was noted. There was minimal augment of signal intensity after age of 20 tears. The examination of signal intensity of bone marrow of the cranium revealed slightly higher score in male than in female. The synchondrosis of the second cervical vertebra was visible in 97%. These results may be useful in the detection of abnormal bone marrow signal of cranium and upper cervical spine.

  18. The validity of physiological variables to assess training intensity in kayak athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, D

    2004-01-01

    It appears that training benefits are compromised if excessive training is performed at intensities that are either too low or too high. This suggests a need for accurate methods to monitor training intensity. It has been suggested that heart rate (HR) or lactate concentration ([La -]) can be used to accurately monitor training intensity. The purpose of the present study therefore, was to examine whether the relationship between HR, [La -] and intensity determined during a kayak graded exercise test (GXT) remained stable during constant-intensity kayak exercise. Sixteen trained kayak paddlers, (22 +/- 4 y, peak V.O (2) = 3.7 +/- 0.9 l x min (-1)) performed a GXT on a wind-braked kayak ergometer. They then performed a 20-min constant-load test on the kayak ergometer at a power output corresponding to their lactate inflection (LI) intensity. Eight subjects also performed a 20-min constant-load test at a power output corresponding to their lactate threshold (LT) intensity. Differences between constant-load and GXT values were determined using one-way ANOVA (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between values for HR and V.O (2) derived from the GXT and those measured during both constant-load tests. However, while [La -] also provided a valid marker of the LI training intensity (1.8 +/- 0.3 v 2.1 +/- 0.8 mmol x l (-1)), [La -] did not provide a valid marker of the LT training intensity (3.8 +/- 0.7 v 5.1 +/- 1.4 mmol x l (-1)). These results suggest that HR, but not [La -1], is similar during both a GXT and constant-load exercise at the LT intensity.

  19. Assessment of surfactant use in preterm infants as a marker of neonatal intensive care unit quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorch Scott A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proposed neonatal quality measures have included structural measures such as average daily census, and outcome measures such as mortality and rates of complications of prematurity. However, process measures have remained largely unexamined. The objective of this research was to examine variation in surfactant use as a possible process measure of neonatal quality. Methods We obtained data on infants 30 to 34 weeks gestation admitted with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS within 48 hours of birth to 16 hospitals participating in the Pediatric Health Information Systems database from 2001-2006. Models were developed to describe hospital variation in surfactant use and identify patient and hospital predictors of use. Another cohort of all infants admitted within 24 hours of birth was used to obtain adjusted neonatal intensive care unit (NICU mortality rates. To assess the construct validity of surfactant use as a quality metric, adjusted hospital rates of mortality and surfactant use were compared using Kendall's tau. Results Of 3,633 infants, 46% received surfactant. For individual hospitals, the adjusted odds of surfactant use varied from 2.2 times greater to 5.9 times less than the hospital with the median adjusted odds of surfactant use. Increased annual admissions of extremely low birth weight infants to the NICU were associated with greater surfactant use (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.02-3.19. The correlation between adjusted hospital rates of surfactant use and in-hospital mortality was 0.37 (Kendall's tau p = 0.051. Conclusions Though results were encouraging, efforts to examine surfactant use in infants with RDS as a process measure reflecting quality of care revealed significant challenges. Difficulties related to adequate measurement including defining RDS using administrative data, accounting for care received prior to transfer, and adjusting for severity of illness will need to be addressed to improve the utility of this

  20. Assessment of satisfaction with care among family members of survivors in a neuroscience intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, David Y; Yagoda, Daniel; Perrey, Hilary M; Tehan, Tara M; Guanci, Mary; Ananian, Lillian; Currier, Paul F; Cobb, J Perren; Rosand, Jonathan

    2014-04-01

    Many prior nursing studies regarding family members specifically of neuroscience intensive care unit (neuro-ICU) patients have focused on identifying their primary needs. A concept related to identifying these needs and assessing whether they have been met is determining whether families explicitly report satisfaction with the care that both they and their loved ones have received. The objective of this study was to explore family satisfaction with care in an academic neuro-ICU and compare results with concurrent data from the same hospital's medical ICU (MICU). Over 38 days, we administered the Family Satisfaction-ICU instrument to neuro-ICU and MICU patients' families at the time of ICU discharge. Those whose loved ones passed away during ICU admission were excluded. When asked about the respect and compassion that they received from staff, 76.3% (95% CI [66.5, 86.1]) of neuro-ICU families were completely satisfied, as opposed to 92.7% in the MICU (95% CI [84.4, 101.0], p = .04). Respondents were less likely to be completely satisfied with the courtesy of staff if they reported participation in zero formal family meeting. Less than 60% of neuro-ICU families were completely satisfied by (1) frequency of physician communication, (2) inclusion and (3) support during decision making, and (4) control over the care of their loved ones. Parents of patients were more likely than other relatives to feel very included and supported in the decision-making process. Future studies may focus on evaluating strategies for neuro-ICU nurses and physicians to provide better decision-making support and to implement more frequent family meetings even for those patients who may not seem medically or socially complicated to the team. Determining satisfaction with care for those families whose loved ones passed away during their neuro-ICU admission is another potential avenue for future investigation.

  1. Validation and Evaluation of Two Observational Pain Assessment Tools in a Trauma and Neurosurgical Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Topolovec-Vranic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated that patients in the intensive care unit experience high levels of pain. While many of these patients are nonverbal at some point during their stay, there are few valid tools available to assess pain in this group.

  2. A new motion compensation algorithm of floating lidar system for the assessment of turbulence intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Ishihara, Takeshi

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a new motion compensation algorithm was proposed and verified by using numerical simulation. Compensated horizontal mean wind speed by using conventional method shows good agreement with reference wind speed regardless of the motion of the floater. However, turbulence intensity is always overestimated. The overestimation is more significant when the maximum pitch angle of the floater motion is larger. When proposed method is used, the overestimation of the turbulent intensity is improved and estimated turbulent intensity shows better agreement with reference value. There still remains underestimation of the turbulence intensity with the bias of -1.1%. This is probably caused by the low sampling frequency in LIDAR measurement and further research is needed to model the high frequency component of the wind speed for LIDAR measurement.

  3. Neonatal Mortality Risk Assessment in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Eshrati

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to assess the utility of a scoring system as predictor of neonatal mortality rate among the neonates admitted within one year to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of the Childrens Medical Center in Tehran, Iran.Material & Methods: Data were gathered from 213 newborns admitted to the NICU from September 2003 to August 2004. In addition to demographic data, Apgar scores at 1 minute and 5 minutes, history and duration of previous hospitalization, initial diagnosis and final diagnosis, and scoring system by using the score for the neonatal acute physiology-perinatal extension II (SNAP-PE II were carried out within 12 hours after admission to the NICU. All of the parameters were prospectively applied to the admitted newborns. The exclusion criteria were discharge or death in less than 24 hours after NICU admission.Findings: 198 newborn infants met the inclusion criteria. The mean and standard deviation (SD of the variables including postnatal age, birth weight, SNAP, and finally Apgar scores at 1 minute and 5 minutes of neonates under this study were 7.6 (0.5 days, 2479.8 (29.4 grams, 21.6 (1.1, 7.47 0.08(, and 7.71 (0.06, respectively. Twenty five of the 198 patients died (12.6%. Gestational age (P=0.03, birth weight (P=0.02, Apgar score at 5 minutes (0.001, and SNAP-PE II (P=0.04 were significantly related to the mortality rate. By Analyzing through logistic regression to evaluate the predictive value of these variables in relation to the risk of mortality, it was shown that only SNAP-PE II and Apgar score at 5 minutes could significantly predict the neonatal mortality.Conclusion: According to this study SNAP-PE II and Apgar score at 5 minutes can be used to predict mortality among the NICU patients. SNAP-PE II score had the best performance in predicting mortality in this study. More studies with larger samples are suggested to evaluate all of the above-mentioned parameters among neonates who are admitted to NICUs

  4. Exploring intensive care nurses' team performance in a simulation-based emergency situation, - expert raters' assessments versus self-assessments: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballangrud, Randi; Persenius, Mona; Hedelin, Birgitta; Hall-Lord, Marie Louise

    2014-01-01

    Effective teamwork has proven to be crucial for providing safe care. The performance of emergencies in general and cardiac arrest situations in particular, has been criticized for primarily focusing on the individual's technical skills and too little on the teams' performance of non-technical skills. The aim of the study was to explore intensive care nurses' team performance in a simulation-based emergency situation by using expert raters' assessments and nurses' self-assessments in relation to different intensive care specialties. The study used an explorative design based on laboratory high-fidelity simulation. Fifty-three registered nurses, who were allocated into 11 teams representing two intensive care specialties, participated in a videotaped simulation-based cardiac arrest setting. The expert raters used the Ottawa Crisis Resource Management Global Rating Scale and the first part of the Mayo High Performance Teamwork Scale to assess the teams' performance. The registered nurses used the first part of the Mayo High Performance Teamwork Scale for their self-assessments, and the analyses used were Chi-square tests, Mann-Whitney U tests, Spearman's rho and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient Type III. The expert raters assessed the teams' performance as either advanced novice or competent, with significant differences being found between the teams from different specialties. Significant differences were found between the expert raters' assessments and the registered nurses' self-assessments. Teams of registered nurses representing specialties with coronary patients exhibit a higher competence in non-technical skills compared to team performance regarding a simulated cardiac arrest. The use of expert raters' assessments and registered nurses' self-assessments are useful in raising awareness of team performance with regard to patient safety.

  5. Development of Social Intensity Database Using Asian International Input–Output Table for Social Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seksan Papong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The social impacts of products and service life cycles are increasingly of interest among policy makers and stakeholders. Workers’ issues are considered to be a source of key inventory data to assess social impacts, and are crucial in moving towards social sustainability. There is a need to develop a social inventory database for evaluating social impacts of products and services. This study aimed at the development of a social intensity dataset using an input–output analysis framework. The 2005 Asian International input–output table is used in this work. Six social issues are considered: total employment, paid workers, vulnerable employment, wages, fatal, and non-fatal occupational injuries. To verify the acceptability of this study, an estimation of total social footprint deduced from final consumption rates was carried out. The social intensities associated with 10 countries and 76 economic sectors were constructed. The results show that the social intensities from cradle to gate the agricultural sector has the highest in terms of total employment and vulnerable employment. Meanwhile, the mining sector in China has a higher non-fatal and fatal occupational injuries than the agriculture sector, secondary sector, and tertiary sector. The public administration sector and the education and research sector had a higher wages intensity than any other sectors due to these sectors being labor intensive and having higher wages. The social intensity in terms of total employment, paid workers, vulnerable employment, non-fatal injuries, and fatal accident cases in the developing countries was higher than the developed countries whereas wages intensity in developing countries was lower than that of developed countries. The social footprints resulting from the final consumption of each country show that the social footprints had transferred from the developing countries to the developed countries. Exports from China to the USA, Japan, South Korea

  6. Reducing added sugar intake in Norway by replacing sugar sweetened beverages with beverages containing intense sweeteners - a risk benefit assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husøy, T; Mangschou, B; Fotland, T Ø; Kolset, S O; Nøtvik Jakobsen, H; Tømmerberg, I; Bergsten, C; Alexander, J; Frost Andersen, L

    2008-09-01

    A risk benefit assessment in Norway on the intake of added sugar, intense sweeteners and benzoic acid from beverages, and the influence of changing from sugar sweetened to diet beverages was performed. National dietary surveys were used in the exposure assessment, and the content of added sugar and food additives were calculated based on actual contents used in beverages and sales volumes provided by the manufactures. The daily intake of sugar, intense sweeteners and benzoic acid were estimated for children (1- to 13-years-old) and adults according to the current intake level and a substitution scenario where it was assumed that all consumed beverages contained intense sweeteners. The change from sugar sweetened to diet beverages reduced the total intake of added sugar for all age groups but especially for adolescent. This change did not result in intake of intense sweeteners from beverages above the respective ADIs. However, the intake of acesulfame K approached ADI for small children and the total intake of benzoic acid was increased to above ADI for most age groups. The highest intake of benzoic acid was observed for 1- to 2-year-old children, and benzoic acid intake in Norwegian children is therefore considered to be of special concern.

  7. Assessing infrared intensity using the evaporation rate of liquid hydrogen inside a cryogenic integrating sphere for laser fusion targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwano, K.; Iwamoto, A.; Asahina, T.; Yamanoi, K.; Arikawa, Y.; Nagatomo, H.; Nakai, M.; Norimatsu, T.; Azechi, H.

    2017-07-01

    Infrared (IR) heating processes have been studied to form a deuterium layer in an inertial confinement fusion target. To understand the relationship between the IR intensity and the fuel layering time constant, we have developed a new method to assess the IR intensity during irradiation. In our method, a glass flask acting as a dummy target is filled with liquid hydrogen (LH2) and is then irradiated with 2-μm light. The IR intensity is subsequently calculated from the time constant of the LH2 evaporation rate. Although LH2 evaporation is also caused by the heat inflow from the surroundings and by the background heat, the evaporation rate due to IR heating can be accurately determined by acquiring the time constant with and without irradiation. The experimentally measured IR intensity is 0.66 mW/cm2, which agrees well with a value estimated by considering the IR photon energy balance. Our results suggest that the present method can be used to measure the IR intensity inside a cryogenic system during IR irradiation of laser fusion targets.

  8. On the modeling of strong motion parameters and correlation with historical macroseismic data: an application to the 1915 Avezzano earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Longhi

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the results of a ground motion modeling study of the 1915 Avezzano earthquake. The goal was to test assuinptions regarding the rupture process of this earthquake by attempting to model the damage to historical monuments and populated habitats during the earthquake. The methodology used combines stochastic and deterministic modeling techniques to synthesize strong ground motion, starting from a simple characterization of the earthquake source on an extended fault plane. The stochastic component of the methodology is used to simulate high-frequency ground motion oscillations. The envelopes of these synthetic waveforms, however, are simulated in a deterministic way based on the isochron formulation for the calculation of radiated seismic energy. Synthetic acceleration time histories representative of ground motion experienced at the towns of Avezzano, Celano, Ortucchio, and Sora are then analyzed in terms of the damage to historical buildings at these sites. The article also discusses how the same methodology can be adapted to efficiently evaluate various strong motion parameters such as duration and amplitude of ground shaking, at several hundreds of surface sites and as a function of rupture process. The usefulness of such a technique is illustrated through the inodeling of intensity data from the Avezzano earthquake. One of the most interesting results is that it is possible to distinguish between different rupture scenarios for the 1915 earthquake based on the goodness of fit of theoretical intensities to observed values.

  9. Effects of high-intensity interval exercise versus continuous moderate-intensity exercise on postprandial glycemic control assessed by continuous glucose monitoring in obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Jonathan P; Jung, Mary E; Wright, Amy E; Wright, Wendi; Manders, Ralph J F

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of acute high-intensity interval training (HIIT) compared with continuous moderate-intensity (CMI) exercise on postprandial hyperglycemia in overweight or obese adults. Ten inactive, overweight or obese adults (41 ± 11 yrs, BMI = 36 ± 7 kg/m(2)) performed an acute bout of HIIT (10 × 1 min at approximately 90% peak heart rate (HRpeak) with 1-min recovery periods) or matched work CMI (30 min at approximately 65% HRpeak) in a randomized, counterbalanced fashion. Exercise was performed 2 h after breakfast, and glucose control was assessed by continuous glucose monitoring under standardized dietary conditions over 24 h. Postprandial glucose (PPG) responses to lunch, dinner, and the following day's breakfast were analyzed and compared with a no-exercise control day. Exercise did not affect the PPG responses to lunch, but performing both HIIT and CMI in the morning significantly reduced the PPG incremental area under the curve (AUC) following dinner when compared with control (HIIT = 110 ± 35, CMI = 125 ± 34, control = 162 ± 46 mmol/L × 2 h, p HIIT = 125 ± 53, CMI = 186 ± 55, control = 194 ± 96 mmol/L × 2 h) and the PPG spike (HIIT = Δ2.1 ± 0.9, CMI = Δ3.0 ± 0.9, control = Δ3.0 ± 1.5 mmol/l) following breakfast on the following day were significantly lower following HIIT compared with both CMI and control (p HIIT, CMI, or control for any meal (p > 0.05 for all). We conclude that a single session of HIIT has greater and more lasting effects on reducing incremental PPG when compared with CMI.

  10. Nucleotide excision repair pathway assessment in DNA exposed to low-intensity red and infrared lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, A S; Campos, V M A; Magalhães, L A G; Paoli, F

    2015-10-01

    Low-intensity lasers are used for prevention and management of oral mucositis induced by anticancer therapy, but the effectiveness of treatment depends on the genetic characteristics of affected cells. This study evaluated the survival and induction of filamentation of Escherichia coli cells deficient in the nucleotide excision repair pathway, and the action of T4endonuclease V on plasmid DNA exposed to low-intensity red and near-infrared laser light. Cultures of wild-type (strain AB1157) E. coli and strain AB1886 (deficient in uvrA protein) were exposed to red (660 nm) and infrared (808 nm) lasers at various fluences, powers and emission modes to study bacterial survival and filamentation. Also, plasmid DNA was exposed to laser light to study DNA lesions produced in vitro by T4endonuclease V. Low-intensity lasers:i) had no effect on survival of wild-type E. coli but decreased the survival of uvrA protein-deficient cells,ii) induced bacterial filamentation, iii) did not alter the electrophoretic profile of plasmids in agarose gels, andiv) did not alter the electrophoretic profile of plasmids incubated with T4 endonuclease V. These results increase our understanding of the effects of laser light on cells with various genetic characteristics, such as xeroderma pigmentosum cells deficient in nucleotide excision pathway activity in patients with mucositis treated by low-intensity lasers.

  11. Nucleotide excision repair pathway assessment in DNA exposed to low-intensity red and infrared lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, A.S.; Campos, V.M.A.; Magalhaes, L.A.G., E-mail: adnfonseca@ig.com.br [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria. Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas; Paoli, F. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas. Departamento de Morfologia

    2015-10-15

    Low-intensity lasers are used for prevention and management of oral mucositis induced by anticancer therapy, but the effectiveness of treatment depends on the genetic characteristics of affected cells. This study evaluated the survival and induction of filamentation of Escherichia coli cells deficient in the nucleotide excision repair pathway, and the action of T{sub 4} endonuclease V on plasmid DNA exposed to low-intensity red and near-infrared laser light. Cultures of wild-type (strain AB1157) E. coli and strain AB1886 (deficient in uvrA protein) were exposed to red (660 nm) and infrared (808 nm) lasers at various fluences, powers and emission modes to study bacterial survival and filamentation. Also, plasmid DNA was exposed to laser light to study DNA lesions produced in vitro by T{sub 4} endonuclease V. Low-intensity lasers: i) had no effect on survival of wild-type E. coli but decreased the survival of uvrA protein-deficient cells, ii) induced bacterial filamentation, iii) did not alter the electrophoretic profile of plasmids in agarose gels, and iv) did not alter the electrophoretic profile of plasmids incubated with T{sub 4} endonuclease V. These results increase our understanding of the effects of laser light on cells with various genetic characteristics, such as xeroderma pigmentosum cells deficient in nucleotide excision pathway activity in patients with mucositis treated by low-intensity lasers. (author)

  12. Assessing Process Mass Intensity and Waste via an "aza"-Baylis-Hillman Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go´mez-Biagi, Rodolfo F.; Dicks, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    A synthetic procedure is outlined where upper-level undergraduate organic chemistry students perform a two-week, semimicroscale "aza"-Baylis-Hillman reaction to generate an allylic sulfonamide product. Students evaluate several green chemistry reaction metrics of industrial importance (process mass intensity (PMI), E factor, and reaction…

  13. Collaborative Infrastructures for Mobilizing Intellectual Resources: assessing intellectual bandwidth in a knowledge intensive organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Verhoef; S. Qureshi (Sadja)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe use of intellectual assets of key professionals to provide customized goods and services is seen to be a key characteristic of knowledge intensive organizations. While knowledge management efforts have become popular in organizations that depend on the knowledge and skills of their e

  14. Assessment of dietary intake of 10 intense sweeteners by the Italian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Donne, Cinzia; Mistura, Lorenza; Goscinny, Séverine; Janvier, Steven; Cuypers, Koenraad; D'Addezio, Laura; Sette, Stefania; Catasta, Giovina; Ferrari, Marika; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Van Loco, Joris; Turrini, Aida

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to monitor the consumption of foods containing intense sweeteners present on the Italian food market and to investigate whether the Italian general population (aged >3-65+) was at risk for exceeding the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of 10 intense sweeteners. A food label survey was performed in Rome (Italy), using market share data to identify the brands more representative of the market. A sample of 326 foods (table-top sweeteners included), beverages and food supplements containing intense sweeteners was collected and analyzed in order to establish the concentration levels. Intense sweeteners were only found in foods belonging to 8 sugar-free food categories out of 37 regulated. The dietary exposure was estimated using the tiered approach. Food consumption data from the last Italian national survey (INRAN-SCAI 2005-06) were combined with Maximum Levels at Tier 2, and with the actual concentration of sweeteners in the collected food products at Tier 3. The estimated exposure among consumers of sweeteners in Italy was well below the ADIs, in both tiers; non-alcoholic beverages, table-top sweeteners and food supplements were main contributors to exposure.

  15. [Assessment of diagnostic methods for the catheter-related bloodstream infections in intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataman Hatipoğlu, Ciğdem; Ipekkan, Korhan; Oral, Behiç; Onde, Ufuk; Bulut, Cemal; Demiröz, Ali Pekcan

    2011-01-01

    The majority of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI) are associated with central venous catheters (CVCs) and most of them develop in patients staying at intensive care units (ICUs). The aim of this study was to assess the performance of different methods for the diagnosis of CR-BSI in neurology and neurosurgery ICUs of our hospital. This prospective study was carried out between January 2007 and January 2008 and all of the patients were followed daily for CR-BSI after the insertion of CVCs. Blood cultures were taken simultaneously from the catheter lumen and from at least one peripheral vein when there was a suspicion of CR-BSI. Additionally, from patients whose CVCs were removed, catheter tip cultures were taken and from patients with exit site infection, cultures of the skin surrounding the catheter entrance were taken. Catheter tip cultures were done by using quantitative and semiquantitative culture methods. Blood cultures taken from the catheter lumen and peripheral vein were incubated in the BACTEC 9050 (Becton Dickinson, USA) automated blood culture system. Gram and acridine orange (AO) staining were used for the smears prepared from the catheter tips and blood cultures. To evaluate the value of culture and staining methods in the diagnosis of CR-BSI; sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, respectively) of each method were determined. A total of 148 patients (66 male, 82 female; age range: 1-94 years, mean age: 58.7 ± 21.8 years) were included in the study, of whom 67 (45.3%) were from neurology and 81 (54.7%) were from neurosurgery ICUs. One hundred ninety-nine CVC application performed in 148 patients were evaluated. Mean duration of catheterization was 8.5 ± 5.2 days. Thirty-two episodes of CR-BSI among 199 catheterizations (16%) in 29 patients among a total of 148 patients (19.6%) were determined. The most frequently isolated microorganisms were methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci

  16. Water intensity assessment of shale gas resources in the Wattenberg field in northeastern Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Stephen; Carlson, Ken; Knox, Ken; Douglas, Caleb; Rein, Luke

    2014-05-20

    Efficient use of water, particularly in the western U.S., is an increasingly important aspect of many activities including agriculture, urban, and industry. As the population increases and agriculture and energy needs continue to rise, the pressure on water and other natural resources is expected to intensify. Recent advances in technology have stimulated growth in oil and gas development, as well as increasing the industry's need for water resources. This study provides an analysis of how efficiently water resources are used for unconventional shale development in Northeastern Colorado. The study is focused on the Wattenberg Field in the Denver-Julesberg Basin. The 2000 square mile field located in a semiarid climate with competing agriculture, municipal, and industrial water demands was one of the first fields where widespread use of hydraulic fracturing was implemented. The consumptive water intensity is measured using a ratio of the net water consumption and the net energy recovery and is used to measure how efficiently water is used for energy extraction. The water and energy use as well as energy recovery data were collected from 200 Noble Energy Inc. wells to estimate the consumptive water intensity. The consumptive water intensity of unconventional shale in the Wattenberg is compared with the consumptive water intensity for extraction of other fuels for other energy sources including coal, natural gas, oil, nuclear, and renewables. 1.4 to 7.5 million gallons is required to drill and hydraulically fracture horizontal wells before energy is extracted in the Wattenberg Field. However, when the large short-term total freshwater-water use is normalized to the amount of energy produced over the lifespan of a well, the consumptive water intensity is estimated to be between 1.8 and 2.7 gal/MMBtu and is similar to surface coal mining.

  17. Intensity-distance attenuation law in the continental Portugal using intensity data points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Boris; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Borges, José Fernando

    2013-04-01

    Several attempts have been done to evaluate the intensity attenuation with the epicentral distance in the Iberian Peninsula [1, 2]. So far, the results are not satisfying or not using the intensity data points of the available events. We developed a new intensity law for the continental Portugal, using the macroseismic reports that provide intensity data points, instrumental magnitudes and instrumental locations. We collected 31 events from the Instituto Portugues do Mar e da Atmosfera (IPMA, Portugal; ex-IM), covering the period between 1909 and 1997, with a largest magnitude of 8.2, closed to the African-Eurasian plate boundary. For each event, the intensity data points are plotted versus the distance and different trend lines are achieved (linear, exponential and logarithmic). The better fits are obtained with the logarithmic trend lines. We evaluate a form of the attenuation equation as follow: I = c0(M) + c1(M).ln(R) (1) where I, M and R are, respectively, the intensity, the magnitude and the epicentral distance. To solve this equation, we investigate two methods. The first one consists in plotting the slope of the different logarithmic trends versus the magnitude, to estimate the parameter c1(M), and to evaluate how the intensity behaves in function of the magnitude. Another plot, representing the intercepts versus the magnitude, allows to determine the second parameter, c0(M). The second method consists in using the inverse theory. From the data, we recover the parameters of the model, using a linear inverse matrix. Both parameters, c0(M) and c1(M), are provided with their associated errors. A sensibility test will be achieved, using the macroseismic data, to estimate the resolution power of both methods. This new attenuation law will be used with the Bakun and Wentworth method [3] in order to reestimate the epicentral region and the magnitude estimation of the 1909 Benavente event. This attenuation law may also be adapted to be used in Probabilistic Seismic

  18. Rapid Measurements of Intensities for Safety Assessment of Advanced Imaging Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Stuart, Matthias Bo

    2014-01-01

    faster (minutes rather than hours) and the nal intensity level calculation can be made generic and reused for any kind of scan sequence by just knowing the number of imaging lines and the pulse repetition time. The scheme has been implemented on the Acoustic Intensity Measurement System AIMS III (Onda......, Sunnyvale, California, USA). The research scanner SARUS is used for the experiments, where one of the channels is used for the hydrophone signal. A 3 MHz BK 8820e (BK Medical, Herlev, Denmark) convex array with 192 elements is used along with an Onda HFL-0400 hydrophone connected to a AH-2010 pre......-amplier (Onda Corporation, Sunnyvale, USA). A single emission sequence is employed for testing and calibrating the approach. The measurements using the AIMS III and SARUS systems after calibration agree within a relative standard deviation of 0.24%. A duplex B-mode and ow sequence is also investigated...

  19. A continent-wide assessment of the form and intensity of large mammal herbivory in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempson, Gareth P; Archibald, Sally; Bond, William J

    2015-11-27

    Megafaunal extinctions and a lack of suitable remote sensing technology impede our understanding of both the ecological legacy and current impacts of large mammal herbivores in the Earth system. To address this, we reconstructed the form and intensity of herbivory pressure across sub-Saharan Africa ~1000 years ago. Specifically, we modeled and mapped species-level biomass for 92 large mammal herbivores using census data, species distributions, and environmental covariates. Trait-based classifications of these species into herbivore functional types, and analyses of their biomass surfaces, reveal four ecologically distinct continental-scale herbivory regimes, characterized by internally similar forms and intensities of herbivory pressure. Associations between herbivory regimes, fire prevalence, soil nutrient status, and rainfall provide important insights into African ecology and pave the way for integrating herbivores into global-scale studies. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Spatially intensive sampling by electrofishing for assessing longitudinal discontinuities in fish distribution in a headwater stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pichon, Céline; Tales, Évelyne; Belliard, Jérôme; Torgersen, Christian E.

    2017-01-01

    Spatially intensive sampling by electrofishing is proposed as a method for quantifying spatial variation in fish assemblages at multiple scales along extensive stream sections in headwater catchments. We used this method to sample fish species at 10-m2 points spaced every 20 m throughout 5 km of a headwater stream in France. The spatially intensive sampling design provided information at a spatial resolution and extent that enabled exploration of spatial heterogeneity in fish assemblage structure and aquatic habitat at multiple scales with empirical variograms and wavelet analysis. These analyses were effective for detecting scales of periodicity, trends, and discontinuities in the distribution of species in relation to tributary junctions and obstacles to fish movement. This approach to sampling riverine fishes may be useful in fisheries research and management for evaluating stream fish responses to natural and altered habitats and for identifying sites for potential restoration.

  1. Modelling and assessment of urban flood hazards based on rainfall intensity-duration-frequency curves reformation

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazavi, Reza; Moafi Rabori, Ali; Ahadnejad Reveshty, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Estimate design storm based on rainfall intensity–duration–frequency (IDF) curves is an important parameter for hydrologic planning of urban areas. The main aim of this study was to estimate rainfall intensities of Zanjan city watershed based on overall relationship of rainfall IDF curves and appropriate model of hourly rainfall estimation (Sherman method, Ghahreman and Abkhezr method). Hydrologic and hydraulic impacts of rainfall IDF curves change in flood properties was evaluated via Stormw...

  2. Assessment of the Exercise Intensity of Short Stick Exercises in Elderly Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurasawa, Shigeki; Yokoi, Katsushi; Miyai, Nobuyuki; Takemura, Shigeki; Miyashita, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    The present study was to obtain basic data for applying the short stick exercises to frail elderly individuals. A total of 20 individuals aged ≥60 years (10 men, and 10 women) with independence in activities of daily living participated in a short stick exercise program. During the exercise program, the time required and the number of times the short stick was dropped were investigated. The exercise intensity was also evaluated based on expired gas and heart rate measurements. The mean exercise intensity of the short stick exercises was 1.9 ± 0.3 metabolic equivalents (METs), equivalent to talking while standing or walking indoors. Compared to the early elderly (those aged 60 to 74 years), the late elderly (those aged ≥75 years) had a significantly higher number of stick drops and significantly lower increase in heart rate from resting to the warming-up exercise. The short stick exercises had a low exercise intensity and can be applicable to exercise interventions of the frail elderly individuals. However, in the case of the late elderly, the high frequency of short stick drops and the change in heart rate during warming up must be considered. PMID:25734017

  3. Assessment of the Exercise Intensity of Short Stick Exercises in Elderly Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeki Kurasawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was to obtain basic data for applying the short stick exercises to frail elderly individuals. A total of 20 individuals aged ≥60 years (10 men, and 10 women with independence in activities of daily living participated in a short stick exercise program. During the exercise program, the time required and the number of times the short stick was dropped were investigated. The exercise intensity was also evaluated based on expired gas and heart rate measurements. The mean exercise intensity of the short stick exercises was 1.9 ± 0.3 metabolic equivalents (METs, equivalent to talking while standing or walking indoors. Compared to the early elderly (those aged 60 to 74 years, the late elderly (those aged ≥75 years had a significantly higher number of stick drops and significantly lower increase in heart rate from resting to the warming-up exercise. The short stick exercises had a low exercise intensity and can be applicable to exercise interventions of the frail elderly individuals. However, in the case of the late elderly, the high frequency of short stick drops and the change in heart rate during warming up must be considered.

  4. Assessment of energetic neutral He atom intensities expected from the IBEX Ribbon

    CERN Document Server

    Swaczyna, P; Bzowski, M

    2014-01-01

    Full sky maps of energetic neutral atoms (ENA) obtained with the Interstellar Boundary Explorer revealed a bright, arc-like Ribbon. We compare possible, thought as yet undetected, He ENA emission in two models of the Ribbon origin. The models were originally developed for hydrogen ENA. In the first one, ENA are produced outside the heliopause from the ionized neutral solar wind in the direction where the local interstellar magnetic field is perpendicular to the line-of-sight. The second model proposes production at the interface between the Local Interstellar Cloud (LIC) and the Local Bubble (LB). The models are redesigned to helium using relevant interactions between atoms and ions. Resulting intensities are compared with possible emission of helium ENA from the heliosheath. In the first model, expected intensity is ~ 0.014 (cm^2 s sr keV)^-1, i.e., of the order of the He emission from the heliosheath, whereas in the second, the LIC/LB interface model, the intensity is ~ (2 - 7) (cm^2 s sr keV)^-1, i.e., a f...

  5. Assessment and Treatment of Pain in Adult Intensive Care Unit Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Mo Park

    2014-08-01

    Because pain is quite subjective, the accurate assessment of pain is very difficult in the patients with impaired communication ability. The current most valid and reliable behavioral pain scales used to assess pain in adult ICU patients are the Behavioral Pain Scale and the Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool. Once pain has been accurately assessed using these methods, various pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies should be performed by the multidisciplinary care team. Accurate assessment and proper treatment of pain in adult ICU patients will improve patients outcome, which reduces the stress response and decreases the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder.

  6. Assessment of salinity status in intensively cultivated soils under semiarid climate, Murcia, SE Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acosta, J.A.; Faz, A.; Jansen, B.; Kalbitz, K.; Martínez-Martínez, S.

    2011-01-01

    This research presents the results from the assessment of the salinity status of a highly productive agricultural area, under a semiarid climate. The objectives were to: identify the origin of salts, assess seasonal changes of salt contents, and examine spatio-temporal and vertical variability of th

  7. Application of a Multiplex Quantitative PCR to Assess Prevalence and Intensity Of Intestinal Parasite Infections in a Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey Llewellyn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate quantitative assessment of infection with soil transmitted helminths and protozoa is key to the interpretation of epidemiologic studies of these parasites, as well as for monitoring large scale treatment efficacy and effectiveness studies. As morbidity and transmission of helminth infections are directly related to both the prevalence and intensity of infection, there is particular need for improved techniques for assessment of infection intensity for both purposes. The current study aimed to evaluate two multiplex PCR assays to determine prevalence and intensity of intestinal parasite infections, and compare them to standard microscopy.Faecal samples were collected from a total of 680 people, originating from rural communities in Timor-Leste (467 samples and Cambodia (213 samples. DNA was extracted from stool samples and subject to two multiplex real-time PCR reactions the first targeting: Necator americanus, Ancylostoma spp., Ascaris spp., and Trichuris trichiura; and the second Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia. duodenalis, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Samples were also subject to sodium nitrate flotation for identification and quantification of STH eggs, and zinc sulphate centrifugal flotation for detection of protozoan parasites. Higher parasite prevalence was detected by multiplex PCR (hookworms 2.9 times higher, Ascaris 1.2, Giardia 1.6, along with superior polyparasitism detection with this effect magnified as the number of parasites present increased (one: 40.2% vs. 38.1%, two: 30.9% vs. 12.9%, three: 7.6% vs. 0.4%, four: 0.4% vs. 0%. Although, all STH positive samples were low intensity infections by microscopy as defined by WHO guidelines the DNA-load detected by multiplex PCR suggested higher intensity infections.Multiplex PCR, in addition to superior sensitivity, enabled more accurate determination of infection intensity for Ascaris, hookworms and Giardia compared to microscopy, especially in samples

  8. The Assessment of Dyspnea during the Vigorous Intensity Exercise by Three Dyspnea Rating Scales in Inactive Medical Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intarakamhang, Patrawut; Wangjongmeechaikul, Piyathida

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that exercise is good for health especially as it’s known to prevent metabolic syndromes such as diabetes, hypertension and heart disease. To reap the benefits from exercise the most appropriate level of intensity must be determined, the level of intensity ranging from low, low to moderate to hard (vigorous). This study is aimed to 1. To investigate and evaluate 3 subjective rating scales. The Borg scale, the Combined Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) + FACES Dyspnea Rating Scale (FACES) and the Likert scale, during hard (vigorous) exercise. 2. To compare the effectiveness of the Borg scale and Combined Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) + FACES Dyspnea Rating Scale during the hard (vigorous) intensity exercise. This study uses a descriptive methodology. The sample group was 73 medical personnel that were leading an inactive life style, volunteers from Phramongkutklao Hospital. Participants were randomly divided into 3 groups. Group 1, those to report using the Borg Scale, group 2 using NRS + FACES, and group 3 to subjectively assess the intensity of the exercise using the Likert scale during a treadmill Exercise Stress Test (EST) using the Bruce protocol. The upper limit of the intensity in the study was equal to 85% of the maximal heart rate of all participants. The subjective reporting of the experienced level of dyspnea was undertaken immediately after the completion of exercise. The average age of participants was 23.37 years old. The 26 participants reporting using the Borg scale had mean Borg scale score of 13.46+1.77, a mode score of 15. The 24 participants reporting intensity levels through NRS +FACES had a mean NRS + FACES score of 6.83+1.09 and mode on the NRS + FACES scale equal to 7. The Likert scale group evaluated 23 participants with a mean Likert scale score of 2.74. That is those choosing Levels 2 and 3 were 6 (26.9%) and 17 participants (73.95%), respectively. Comparing the two groups with the Borg scale at equal to or greater than

  9. The assessment of dyspnea during the vigorous intensity exercise by three Dyspnea Rating Scales in inactive medical personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intarakamhang, Patrawut; Wangjongmeechaikul, Piyathida

    2013-07-24

    It is well recognized that exercise is good for health especially as it's known to prevent metabolic syndromes such as diabetes, hypertension and heart disease. To reap the benefits from exercise the most appropriate level of intensity must be determined, the level of intensity ranging from low, low to moderate to hard (vigorous). This study is aimed to 1. To investigate and evaluate 3 subjective rating scales. The Borg scale, the Combined Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) + FACES Dyspnea Rating Scale (FACES) and the Likert scale, during hard (vigorous) exercise. 2. To compare the effectiveness of the Borg scale and Combined Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) + FACES Dyspnea Rating Scale during the hard (vigorous) intensity exercise. This study uses a descriptive methodology. The sample group was 73 medical personnel that were leading an inactive life style, volunteers from Phramongkutklao Hospital. Participants were randomly divided into 3 groups. Group 1, those to report using the Borg Scale, group 2 using NRS + FACES, and group 3 to subjectively assess the intensity of the exercise using the Likert scale during a treadmill Exercise Stress Test (EST) using the Bruce protocol. The upper limit of the intensity in the study was equal to 85% of the maximal heart rate of all participants. The subjective reporting of the experienced level of dyspnea was undertaken immediately after the completion of exercise. The average age of participants was 23.37 years old. The 26 participants reporting using the Borg scale had mean Borg scale score of 13.46+1.77, a mode score of 15. The 24 participants reporting intensity levels through NRS +FACES had a mean NRS + FACES score of 6.83+1.09 and mode on the NRS + FACES scale equal to 7. The Likert scale group evaluated 23 participants with a mean Likert scale score of 2.74. That is those choosing Levels 2 and 3 were 6 (26.9%) and 17 participants (73.95%), respectively. Comparing the two groups with the Borg scale at equal to or greater than 15

  10. MR assessment of fetal lung development using lung volumes and signal intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Thomas M.; Michel, Sven C.A.; Marincek, Borut [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091, Zurich (Switzerland); Rake, Annett; Wisser, Josef [Department of Obstetrics, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091, Zurich (Switzerland); Seifert, Burkhardt [Department of Biostatistics, University of Zurich, Sumatrastrasse 30, 8006, Zurich (Switzerland); Kubik-Huch, Rahel A. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091, Zurich (Switzerland); Institute of Radiology, Kantonsspital Baden, 5404, Baden (Switzerland)

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the monitoring and diagnostic potential of MRI in fetal lung development and disease using lung volume and signal intensity changes through gestation. Thirty-five healthy fetuses (22-42 weeks) were examined on a 1.5- T MR system using sagittal T2w single-shot fast spin-echo imaging (TR indefinite, TE 90 ms, slice thickness/gap 3-5/0 mm, FOV 26-40 cm, NEX 0.5). Fetal body and lung were segmented manually and volumes calculated. Signal intensities (SI) of fetal lung and three reference values were measured on the section best displaying the lung. Regions of interests were defined by including the maximal organ area possible. The following SI ratios were generated: lung/liver, lung/amniotic fluid, lung/muscle, liver/fluid and liver/muscle. Volumes and ratios were correlated with gestational age. Data from seven fetuses with pulmonary pathology were compared with these normative values. Absolute lung volume varied from 12.3 to 143.5 cm{sup 3} in correlation with gestational age (P<0.001); lung volume relative to total body volume ranged from 1.6 to 5.0%, decreasing with gestational age (P=0.001). (orig.)

  11. Metabolically assessed muscle fibre recruitment in brief isometric contractions at different intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltman, J G M; de Haan, A; Haan, H; Gerrits, H L; van Mechelen, W; Sargeant, A J

    2004-08-01

    This study investigated the recruitment of type I, IIA and IIAX fibres after seven isometric contractions at 40, 70 and 100% maximal voluntary knee extension torque (MVC, 1 s on/1 s off). Biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle were collected from seven subjects at rest and immediately post-exercise. Fibre fragments were dissected from the freeze-dried samples and characterized as type I, IIA and IIAX using mATPase staining. Phosphocreatine (PCr) and creatine (Cr) content were measured in the remaining part of characterized fibres. A decline in the ratio of PCr to Cr (PCr/Cr) was used as an indication of activation. The mean peak torques were, respectively, 39 (2), 72 (2) and 87 (6)% MVC. Cumulative distributions of type I and IIA fibres were significantly shifted to lower PCr/Cr ratios at all intensities (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, P<0.05). The cumulative distribution of type IIAX fibres showed a significant leftward shift only at 87% MVC ( P<0.05). A hierarchical order of fibre activation with increasing intensity of exercise was found, with some indication of rate coding for type I and IIA fibres. Evidence for activation of type IIAX fibres was only found at 87% MVC.

  12. [Critical review of instruments to assess pain in the non communicative brain injured persons in intensive care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulin, Marie-José; Goulet, Céline; Ramelet, Anne-Sylvie

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to critically appraise the pain assessment tools for non communicative persons in intensive care available in the literature and to determine their relevance for those with brain injury. Nursing and medical electronic databases were searched to identify pain tools, with a description of psychometric proprieties, in English and French. Seven of the ten tools were considered relevant and systematically evaluated according to the criteria and the indicators in the following five areas: conceptualisation, target population, feasibility and clinical utility, reliability and validity. Results indicate a number of well designed pain tools, but additional work is necessary to establish their accuracy and adequacy for the brain injured non communicative person in intensive care. Recommendations are made to choose the best tool for clinical practice and for research.

  13. Vulnerability Assessment of Housing Damage in the Philippines Due to an Increase Increase in Typhoon Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Miguel; Stromberg, Per; Gasparatos, Alexandros

    2010-05-01

    It is currently feared that the increase in surface sea temperature resulting from increasing level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere could result in higher tropical cyclone intensity in the future. Although the vulnerability of infrastructure and economic systems have been studied for a number of developed countries, very little work has been done on developing countries. The present work first attempts to evaluate the vulnerability of different regions in the Philippines to the passage of tropical cyclones. To this effect a total of 22 typhoons and tropical storms that affected the Philippines were analysed for the period 2003-2008. The data used was collected by the National Disaster Coordinating Council of the Philippines, who issue "SitRep" NDCC Reports after each major storm. This agency provides damage data for each region, including number of casualties, affected people, damaged and destroyed houses, and losses in the infrastructure and agriculture. The likely economic effects of increased typhoon intensity by using a Monte Carlo Simulation that magnifies the intensity of historical tropical cyclones between the years 1978 and 2008 to simulate the economic damage by 2085. The methodology used is based on the work of Esteban et al. (2009), which in turn uses the results of Knutson and Tuleya (2004) for the estimation of the increase in tropical cyclone intensity in 2085. The results show that downtime could increase from a national 1% to 1.3% by 2050 if economic and population growth are taken into account (29 to 36bn USD, from a total GDP of 2,757bn USD by 2050). If these are ignored the time lost each year can be estimated to cost around 630m USD (PPP) for the control scenario, which could increase to between 766m or 945mm USD by the year 2085 for the two different scenarios considered. This indirect damage depends on the geographical location and is for example higher in some areas of the northern island of Luzon, while the island of Mindanao in the

  14. Recent development of the earthquake strong motion-intensity catalog and intensity prediction equations for Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Mehdi

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to develop a new earthquake strong motion-intensity catalog as well as intensity prediction equations for Iran based on the available data. For this purpose, all the sites which had both recorded strong motion and intensity values throughout the region were first searched. Then, the data belonging to the 306 identified sites were processed, and the results were compiled as a new strong motion-intensity catalog. Based on this new catalog, two empirical equations between the values of intensity and the ground motion parameters (GMPs) for the Iranian earthquakes were calculated. At the first step, earthquake "intensity" was considered as a function of five independent GMPs including "Log (PHA)," "moment magnitude (MW)," "distance to epicenter," "site type," and "duration," and a multiple stepwise regression was calculated. Regarding the correlations between the parameters and the effectiveness coefficients of the predictors, the Log (PHA) was recognized as the most effective parameter on the earthquake "intensity," while the parameter "site type" was removed from the equations since it was determines as the least significant variable. Then, at the second step, a simple ordinary least squares (OLS) regression was fitted only between the parameters intensity and the Log (PHA) which resulted in more over/underestimated intensity values comparing to the results of the multiple intensity-GMPs regression. However, for rapid response purposes, the simple OLS regression may be more useful comparing to the multiple regression due to its data availability and simplicity. In addition, according to 50 selected earthquakes, an empirical relation between the macroseismic intensity (I0) and MW was developed.

  15. Methodology for assessing the lighting of pedestrian crossings based on light intensity parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomczuk Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the possible preventive measures that could improve safety at crossings is to assess the state of illumination of the lighting installation located in the transition area for pedestrians. The City of Warsaw has undertaken to comprehensively assess the pedestrian crossings to determine the level of road safety and the condition of lighting. The lighting conditions related to pedestrian crossings without traffic lights in three central districts of the city were investigated. The conducted field research and the work of the team of experts lead to the development of tools to assess the level of risk due to the lighting conditions measured at night. The newly developed and used method of assessment and the experience gained should provide a valuable contribution to the development of uniform risk assessment rules for pedestrian crossings in Poland. The authors of this paper have attempted to systematize the description of the method of evaluation of the lighting installed in the area of pedestrian crossings.

  16. Validity and reliability of the Thai version of the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipanmekaporn T

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tanyong Pipanmekaporn,1 Nahathai Wongpakaran,2 Sirirat Mueankwan,3 Piyawat Dendumrongkul,2 Kaweesak Chittawatanarat,3 Nantiya Khongpheng,3 Nongnut Duangsoy31Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 3Division of Surgical Critical Care and Trauma, Department of Surgery, Chiang Mai University Hospital, Chiang Mai, ThailandPurpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Thai version of the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU, when compared to the diagnoses made by delirium experts.Patients and methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in both surgical intensive care and subintensive care units in Thailand between February–June 2011. Seventy patients aged 60 years or older who had been admitted to the units were enrolled into the study within the first 48 hours of admission. Each patient was randomly assessed as to whether they had delirium by a nurse using the Thai version of the CAM-ICU algorithm (Thai CAM-ICU or by a delirium expert using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision.Results: The prevalence of delirium was found to be 18.6% (n=13 by the delirium experts. The sensitivity of the Thai CAM-ICU’s algorithms was found to be 92.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] =64.0%-99.8%, while the specificity was 94.7% (95% CI =85.4%-98.9%. The instrument displayed good interrater reliability (Cohen’s κ=0.81; 95% CI =0.64-0.99. The time taken to complete the Thai CAM-ICU was 1 minute (interquatile range, 1-2 minutes.Conclusion: The Thai CAM-ICU demonstrated good validity, reliability, and ease of use when diagnosing delirium in a surgical intensive care unit setting. The use of this diagnostic tool should be encouraged for daily, routine use, so as to promote the early detection

  17. Quantitative Assessment of Right Ventricular Systolic Function by the Analysis of Right Ventricular Contrast Time-intensity Curve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林; 邓又斌; 李天亮; 杨好意

    2004-01-01

    To study reliability and reliable indices of quantitative assessment of right ventricular systolic function by time-intensity curve (TIC)with right ventricular contrast, 5 % sonicated human albumin was injected intravenously at a does of 0. 08 ml/kg into 10 dogs at baseline status and cardiac insufficiency. Apical four-chamber view was observed for washinand washout of contrast agent from right ventricle. The parameters of TIC were obtained by curve fitting. The differences of parameters were analyzed in different states of cardiac functions. Among the parameters derived from TIC, the time constant (k) was decreased significantly with decline of cardiac function(P<0.001). But half-time of decent of peak intensity (HT) and mean-transit-time (MTT) of washout were increased significantly (P<0. 001). The k was strongly related to cardiac output of right ventricle (CO) and ejection fraction (EF) of left ventricle and fractional shortening (FS)of left ventricle. Right ventricular systolic function could be assessed reliably by the parameters derived from TIC with right ventricular contrast echocardiography. The k, HT and MTT are reliable indices for quantitative assessment of right ventricular systolic function.

  18. Routine use of the confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit : a multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, Maarten M.; van den Boogaard, Mark; van Marum, Rob J.; Benner, Paul; Eikelenboom, Piet; Honing, Marina L.; van der Hoven, Ben; Horn, Janneke; Izaks, Gerbrand J.; Kalf, Annette; Karakus, Attila; Klijn, Ine A.; Kuiper, Michael A.; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik; de Man, Tjarda; van der Mast, Roos C.; Osse, Robert-Jan; Rooij, de Sophia; Spronk, Peter E.; van der Voort, Peter H.; van Gool, Willem A.; Slooter, Arjen J.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Delirium is often unrecognized in ICU patients and associated with poor outcome. Screening for ICU delirium is recommended by several medical organizations to improve early diagnosis and treatment. The Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU) has high sensitivity and specificity

  19. Routine use of the confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit: a multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, M.M. van; Boogaard, M.H.W.A. van den; Marum, R.J. van; Benner, P.; Eikelenboom, P.; Honing, M.L.H.; Hoven, B. van der; Horn, J.; Izaks, G.J.; Kalf, A.; Karakus, A.; Klijn, I.A.; Kuiper, M.A.; Leeuw, F.E. de; Man, T. de; Mast, R.C. van der; Osse, R.J.; Rooij, S.E. De; Spronk, P.E.; Voort, P.H. van der; Gool, W.A. van; Slooter, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    RATIONALE: Delirium is often unrecognized in ICU patients and associated with poor outcome. Screening for ICU delirium is recommended by several medical organizations to improve early diagnosis and treatment. The Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU) has high sensitivity and specificity

  20. Routine use of the confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit : a multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, Maarten M; van den Boogaard, Mark; van Marum, Rob J; Benner, Paul; Eikelenboom, Piet; Honing, Marina L; van der Hoven, Ben; Horn, Janneke; Izaks, Gerbrand J; Kalf, Annette; Karakus, Attila; Klijn, Ine A; Kuiper, Michael A; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik; de Man, Tjarda; van der Mast, Roos C; Osse, Robert-Jan; de Rooij, Sophia E; Spronk, Peter E; van der Voort, Peter H; van Gool, Willem A; Slooter, Arjen J

    2011-01-01

    RATIONALE: Delirium is often unrecognized in ICU patients and associated with poor outcome. Screening for ICU delirium is recommended by several medical organizations to improve early diagnosis and treatment. The Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU) has high sensitivity and specificity

  1. Caries Risk Assessment for Determination of Focus and Intensity of Prevention in a Dental School Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Michael W. J.; Suddick, Richard P.

    1995-01-01

    A study at the University of Texas, San Antonio's dental school resulted in development of a system of caries risk assessment, applied to all undergraduate clinic patients. The rationale, structure, elements, and application of the system are outlined, and course content supporting the system is noted. Need for validation and other improvements is…

  2. Dyspnoea assessed by visual analogue scale in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease during progressive and high intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noseda, A; Carpiaux, J P; Schmerber, J; Yernault, J C

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A study was carried out to determine whether rating of dyspnoea by means of a visual analogue scale during a progressive exercise test is affected by the subject's awareness of the progressive nature of the protocol. METHODS: Nineteen patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (FEV1 mean (SE) 1.06 (0.07) 1) were studied. A preliminary incremental test was carried out with a work rate increasing by 10 watts every minute until the subject could no longer exercise, to determine the maximum work load (Wmax) and to anchor the upper end of the visual analogue scale. This was followed by two exercise tests performed one day apart in randomised sequence, with two different protocols. One was a 12 minute protocol that included two sudden bursts of three minute high intensity exercise, up to the subject's Wmax, each preceded by three minutes of low level exercise. The other test was a conventional three minute incremental test lasting 12 minutes. On both study days the only information given to the subject about the temporal profile of load was that a change would be made every three minutes. The relation between dyspnoea, as assessed by the visual analogue scale, and ventilation, measured during high intensity or progressive exercise, was studied. RESULTS: The mean (SE) rates of increase of dyspnoea with increasing ventilation (% of line length 1(-1) min) obtained by linear regression analysis were similar for the two tests (2.86 (0.20) for progressive exercise and 2.87 (0.25) for high intensity exercise); it was 2.59 (0.25) for the initial burst of high intensity exercise when the data on this were analysed separately. In six subjects with stable disease studied again two months later the reproducibility of the rating of dyspnoea was reasonably good for both protocols. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that in most patients with chronic obstructive lung disease the assessment of exercise induced dyspnoea by means of a visual analogue scale during a

  3. Groundwater quality assessment and pollution source apportionment in an intensely exploited region of northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Wang, Huiwei; Wang, Yanchao; Yang, Mingnan; Zhu, Liang

    2017-07-01

    Deterioration in groundwater quality has attracted wide social interest in China. In this study, groundwater quality was monitored during December 2014 at 115 sites in the Hutuo River alluvial-pluvial fan region of northern China. Results showed that 21.7% of NO3(-) and 51.3% of total hardness samples exceeded grade III of the national quality standards for Chinese groundwater. In addition, results of gray relationship analysis (GRA) show that 64.3, 10.4, 21.7, and 3.6% of samples were within the I, II, IV, and V grades of groundwater in the Hutuo River region, respectively. The poor water quality in the study region is due to intense anthropogenic activities as well as aquifer vulnerability to contamination. Results of principal component analysis (PCA) revealed three major factors: (1) domestic wastewater and agricultural runoff pollution (anthropogenic activities), (2) water-rock interactions (natural processes), and (3) industrial wastewater pollution (anthropogenic activities). Using PCA and absolute principal component scores-multivariate linear regression (APCS-MLR), results show that domestic wastewater and agricultural runoff are the main sources of groundwater pollution in the Hutuo River alluvial-pluvial fan area. Thus, the most appropriate methods to prevent groundwater quality degradation are to improve capacities for wastewater treatment and to optimize fertilization strategies.

  4. Assessing and developing critical-thinking skills in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinny, Betsy

    2010-01-01

    A lot of resources are spent on the development of new staff in the intensive care unit (ICU). These resources are necessary because the environment in the ICU is complex and the patients are critically ill. Nurses need an advanced knowledge base, the ability to accurately define and change priorities rapidly, good communication and teamwork skills, and the ability to work in a stressful environment in order to succeed and give their patients quality care. Critical thinking helps the nurse to navigate the complex and stressful environment of the ICU. Critical thinking includes more than just nursing knowledge. It includes the ability to think through complex, multifaceted problems to anticipate needs, recognize potential and actual complications, and to expertly communicate with the team. A nurse who is able to think critically will give better patient care. Various strategies can be used to develop critical thinking in ICU nurses. Nurse leaders are encouraged to support the development of critical-thinking skills in less experienced staff with the goal of improving the nurse's ability to work in the ICU and improving patient outcomes.

  5. On the use of Standardized Precipitation Index(SPI) for drought intensity assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, M Naresh; Sai, M V R Sesha; Roy, P S

    2015-01-01

    Monthly rainfall data from June to October for 39 years was used to generate Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) values based on Gamma distribution for a low rainfall and a high rainfall district of Andhra Pradesh state, India. Comparison of SPI, with actual rainfall and rainfall deviation from the mean indicated that SPI values under-estimate the intensity of dryness/wetness when the rainfall is very low/very high respectively. As a result, the SPI in the worst drought years of 2002 and 2006 in the low rainfall district has indicated only moderate dryness instead of extreme dryness. The range of SPI values of the high rainfall district indicated better stretching, compared to that of the low rainfall district. Further, the SPI values of longer time scale (2-, 3- and 4- months) showed an extended range compared to 1-month, but the sensitivity in drought years has not improved significantly. To ascertain whether non normality of SPI is a possible reason, normality tests were conducted. The Shapiro-Wilk stat...

  6. Risk assessment study of the pressure ulcers in intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekeci, Hakan; Kucukardali, Yasar; Top, Cihan; Onem, Yalçin; Celik, Serkan; Oktenli, Cağatay

    2009-07-01

    In this research, we studied the incidence of pressure ulcer and risk factors and screening of the patients for pressure ulcers at intensive care unit on the first day of admission in 142 patients. All patients were evaluated according to National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel during the ICU period strictly. Pressure ulcer risk evaluation was performed according to Norton Scale. Nutritional state was evaluated according to nutritional risk screening 2002. Age, hospitalization period, mean arterial pressure, pressure ulcer degree, hemoglobin and albumin levels, body mass index, APACHE-II scores and comorbidities were evaluated. In the following parameters, first value represents PU (+) cases, and second value represents PU (-) cases. On the admittance: 14 (9.8%) patients had PU (prevalence). NRS-2002: 5.4+/-1.9 and 4.3+/-2.1 (p0.05). Mean pressure ulcer degree was 2.15. On the discharge: first values represent new developed PU (+) patients and second values represent PU (-) cases. 25 (17.6%) patients had PU. Incidence was 7.8%. NRS-2002: 6.4 and 3.6 (p0.05). Two or more co morbidity, neurophyschiatric disorders, infections and medications were more prevalent in PU (+) group (pmalnutrition and hypoalbuminemia were significant in patients with PU; however, BMI and hemoglobin were not significant. The studies focusing on the relation between the effect of optimization of these parameters from the first day of admittance and pressure ulcer are required.

  7. The Allocation of Sexually Transgressive Juveniles to Intensive Specialized Treatment: An Assessment of the Application of RNR Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Beek, Ellis; van der Rijken, Rachel E A; Kuiper, Chris H Z; Hendriks, Jan; Stams, Geert Jan J M

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare results of and develop guidelines for mandatory allocation of sexually transgressive juveniles to Multisystemic Therapy - Problem Sexual Behavior (MST-PSB), Secure Youth Care (SYC), or Forensic Youth Care (FYC), based on the risk-need-responsivity model. Results of current allocation showed a population with relatively less treatment needs to receive community-based MST-PSB, compared with populations receiving residential SYC and FYC. Furthermore, estimated recidivism risk levels did not always support the need for risk reduction by the imposition of limitation of freedom of movement and maximum supervision, provided by all three treatment modalities. Based on the assessed sexual recidivism risk, 38% of the juveniles in FYC, 7% in SYC, and 24% in MST-PSB received treatment that was too intensive, which is considered detrimental to motivation and development. Future allocation practices could benefit from assessing treatment needs and recidivism risk, by use of an actuarial tool.

  8. The Development and Evaluation of Delirium Assessment and Nursing Care Decision-Making Assistant Mobile Application for Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fangyu; Ji, Meihua; Ding, Shu; Wu, Ying; Chang, Polun; Lin, Chiawei; Yang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Delirium is a common complication among patients in ICU settings. Although it has been repeatedly confirmed that Confusion Assessment Model for Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU), one of the most commonly used ICU delirium assessment tool, is highly accurate in validation studies, it's sensitivity and specificity is relatively low during routine practice among bedside nurses. The aim of this study is to develop a mobile application (app) to detect delirium and to test its reliability and validity both by research nurses and among ICU bedside nurses. The app was programmed with Java and installed on a mobile device with Android system. After completion of reliability and validity testing, the app will be integrated into the existing Hospital Information System in order to automatically retrieve essential information for risk factor identification and formulation of care plan accordingly to prevent or manage ICU delirium.

  9. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Yang, Yang; Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Lv, Ningqing; Wu, Yi; Xie, Yiwen; Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China. Copyright © 2015

  10. [Stress level assessment of the nursing staff in the Intensive Care Unit of a university hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-García, C; Ríos-Rísquez, M I; Martínez-Hurtado, R; Noguera-Villaescusa, P

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to determine the work stress level among nursing staff in the Intensive Care Unit of a university hospital and to analyse its relationship with the various sociodemographic and working variables of the studied sample. A study was designed using a quantitative, descriptive and cross-sectional approach. The target population of the study was the nursing staff selected by non-random sampling. The instrument used was the Job Content Questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 20. The mean, ranges and standard deviation for each of the variables were calculated. A bivariate analysis was also performed on the social and occupational variables of the sample. The participation rate was 80.90% (N=89). The mean of the Social support dimension was 3.13±0.397, for the Psychological demands at work dimension it was 3.10±0.384, with a mean of 2.96±0.436 being obtained for the Control over the work dimension. In the analysis of sociodemographic and work variables of the sample, only the professional category was significant, with nurses recording higher values in perception of job demands and control over their work compared to nursing assistants. In conclusion, there is a moderate perception of work stress in the analysed group of professionals. Among the sources of stress in the workplace was the low control in decision-making by practitioners, as well as the need to continually learn new things. On the other hand, the support received from colleagues is valued positively by the sample.

  11. Clinical usefulness of carotid arterial wave intensity in assessing left ventricular systolic and early diastolic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohte, Nobuyuki; Narita, Hitomi; Sugawara, Motoaki; Niki, Kiyomi; Okada, Takashi; Harada, Akimitsu; Hayano, Junichiro; Kimura, Genjiro

    2003-07-01

    Wave intensity (WI) is a novel hemodynamic index, which is defined as (d P/d t) x (d U/d t) at any site of the circulation, where d P/d t and d U/d t are the derivatives of blood pressure and velocity with respect to time, respectively. However, the pathophysiological meanings of this index have not been fully elucidated in the clinical setting. Accordingly, we investigated this issue in 64 patients who underwent invasive evaluation of left ventricular (LV) function. WI was obtained at the right carotid artery using a color Doppler system for blood velocity measurement combined with an echo-tracking method for detecting vessel diameter changes. The vessel diameter changes were automatically converted to pressure waveforms by calibrating its peak and minimum values by systolic and diastolic brachial blood pressures. The WI of the patients showed two sharp positive peaks. The first peak was found at the very early phase of LV ejection, while the second peak was observed near end-ejection. The magnitude of the first peak of WI significantly correlated with the maximum rate of LV pressure rise (LV max. d P/d t) (r = 0.74, P WI significantly correlated with the time constant of LV relaxation (r = -0.77, P WI reflects LV contractile performance, and the amplitude of the second peak of WI is determined by LV behavior during the period from late systole to isovolumic relaxation. WI is a noninvasively obtained, clinically useful parameter for the evaluation of LV systolic and early diastolic performance at the same time.

  12. Life cycle assessment of intensive striped catfish farming in the Mekong Delta for screening hotspots as input to environmental policy and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R.H.; Pham Thi Ahn,; Potting, J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Intensive striped catfish production in the Mekong Delta has, in recent years, raised environmental concerns. We conducted a stakeholder-based screening life cycle assessment (LCA) of the intensive farming system to determine the critical environmental impact and their causative processes in

  13. Reliability and Validity of the Therapy Intensity Level Scale : Analysis of Clinimetric Properties of a Novel Approach to Assess Management of Intracranial Pressure in Traumatic Brain Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuercher, Patrick; Groen, Justus L.; Aries, Marcel J. H.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Maas, Andrew I. R.; Ercole, Ari; Menon, David K.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the Therapy Intensity Level scale (TIL) for intracranial pressure (ICP) management. We reviewed the medical records of 31 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in two European intensive care units (ICUs). The ICP TIL was derived over a 4-day

  14. Can more become less? Effects of an intensive assessment environment on students' learning performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, M. Asif; Prusty, Gangadhara B.; Ford, Robin A. J.; Marcus, Nadine; Russell, Carol

    2013-12-01

    Online interactive systems offer the beguiling prospect of an improved environment for learning at minimum extra cost. We have developed online interactive tutorials that adapt the learning environment to the current learning status of each individual student. These Adaptive Tutorials (ATs) modify the tasks given to each student according to their previous responses. Feedback, assessment and remediation are also adapted. Over a three-year period we progressively blended ATs into notoriously challenging courses in introductory Engineering Mechanics. We assessed the impact of this initiative by reviewing three lines of data: (i) the built-in diagnostics of the system, (ii) changes in student grades from year-to-year and (iii) supplementary surveys. Generally, students liked the new blended system and grades improved. Detailed analysis revealed nuances in the measures of student learning, such as differences between high-performing and low-performing students. With these insights we are able to further adapt the system to meet the learning needs of our students.

  15. EXPERIMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETERS PERTAINING TO BLANK TWO-DIMENSIONAL CIRCULAR MOTION ON INTENSITY OF ITS CUTTING AND QUALITY OF MACHINED SURFACE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. G. Kiselev; A. V. Drozdov; S. G. Monich; D. A. Yamnaya

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to make an experimental impact assessment of parameters pertaining to blank two-dimensional circular blank motion on intensity of its cutting and quality of the machined surfaces...

  16. Nurses' and physicians' perceptions of Confusion Assessment Method for the intensive care unit for delirium detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenbøll-Collet, Marie; Egerod, Ingrid; Christensen, Vibeke;

    2017-01-01

    of this study was to identify nurses' and physicians' perceived professional barriers to using the CAM-ICU in Danish ICUs. METHODS: This study uses a qualitative explorative multicentre design using focus groups and a semi-structured interview guide. Five focus groups with nurses (n = 20) and four...... with physicians (n = 14) were conducted. Strategic sampling was used to include participants with varying CAM-ICU experience at units, with variable implementation of the tool. RESULTS: Using a hermeneutical approach, three main themes and nine sub-themes emerged. The main themes were (1) Professional role issues......: CAM-ICU screening affected nursing care, clinical judgment and professional integrity; (2) Instrument reliability: nurses and physicians expressed concerns about CAM-ICU assessment in non-sedated patients, patients with multi-organ failure or patients influenced by residual sedatives/opioids; and (3...

  17. Routine use of the confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eijk, Maarten M; van den Boogaard, Mark; van Marum, Rob J; Benner, Paul; Eikelenboom, Piet; Honing, Marina L; van der Hoven, Ben; Horn, Janneke; Izaks, Gerbrand J; Kalf, Annette; Karakus, Attila; Klijn, Ine A; Kuiper, Michael A; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik; de Man, Tjarda; van der Mast, Roos C; Osse, Robert-Jan; de Rooij, Sophia E; Spronk, Peter E; van der Voort, Peter H; van Gool, Willem A; Slooter, Arjen J

    2011-08-01

    Delirium is often unrecognized in ICU patients and associated with poor outcome. Screening for ICU delirium is recommended by several medical organizations to improve early diagnosis and treatment. The Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU) has high sensitivity and specificity for delirium when administered by research nurses. However, test characteristics of the CAM-ICU as performed in routine practice are unclear. To investigate the diagnostic value of the CAM-ICU in daily practice. Teams of three delirium experts including psychiatrists, geriatricians, and neurologists visited 10 ICUs twice. Based on cognitive examination, inspection of medical files, and Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, Text Revision criteria for delirium, the expert teams classified patients as awake and not delirious, delirious, or comatose. This served as a gold standard to which the CAM-ICU as performed by the bedside ICU-nurses was compared. Assessors were unaware of each other's conclusions. Fifteen delirium experts assessed 282 patients of whom 101 (36%) were comatose and excluded. In the remaining 181 (64%) patients, the CAM-ICU had a sensitivity of 47% (95% confidence interval [CI], 35%-58%); specificity of 98% (95% CI, 93%-100%); positive predictive value of 95% (95% CI, 80%-99%); and negative predictive value of 72% (95% CI, 64%-79%). The positive likelihood ratio was 24.7 (95% CI, 6.1-100) and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.5 (95% CI, 0.4-0.8). Specificity of the CAM-ICU as performed in routine practice seems to be high but sensitivity is low. This hampers early detection of delirium by the CAM-ICU.

  18. Life cycle assessment of intensive striped catfish farming in the Mekong Delta for screening hotspots as input to environmental policy and research agenda

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Intensive striped catfish production in the Mekong Delta has, in recent years, raised environmental concerns. We conducted a stakeholder-based screening life cycle assessment (LCA) of the intensive farming system to determine the critical environmental impact and their causative processes in producing striped catfish. Additional to the LCA, we assessed water use and flooding hazards in the Mekong Delta. Materials and methods The goal and scope of the LCA were defined in a stakeholder ...

  19. Intensity earthquake scenario (scenario event - a damaging earthquake with higher probability of occurrence) for the city of Sofia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, Irena; Simeonova, Stela; Solakov, Dimcho; Popova, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Among the many kinds of natural and man-made disasters, earthquakes dominate with regard to their social and economical impact on the urban environment. Global seismic risk to earthquakes are increasing steadily as urbanization and development occupy more areas that a prone to effects of strong earthquakes. Additionally, the uncontrolled growth of mega cities in highly seismic areas around the world is often associated with the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures, and undertaken with an insufficient knowledge of the regional seismicity peculiarities and seismic hazard. The assessment of seismic hazard and generation of earthquake scenarios is the first link in the prevention chain and the first step in the evaluation of the seismic risk. The earthquake scenarios are intended as a basic input for developing detailed earthquake damage scenarios for the cities and can be used in earthquake-safe town and infrastructure planning. The city of Sofia is the capital of Bulgaria. It is situated in the centre of the Sofia area that is the most populated (the population is of more than 1.2 mil. inhabitants), industrial and cultural region of Bulgaria that faces considerable earthquake risk. The available historical documents prove the occurrence of destructive earthquakes during the 15th-18th centuries in the Sofia zone. In 19th century the city of Sofia has experienced two strong earthquakes: the 1818 earthquake with epicentral intensity I0=8-9 MSK and the 1858 earthquake with I0=9-10 MSK. During the 20th century the strongest event occurred in the vicinity of the city of Sofia is the 1917 earthquake with MS=5.3 (I0=7-8 MSK). Almost a century later (95 years) an earthquake of moment magnitude 5.6 (I0=7-8 MSK) hit the city of Sofia, on May 22nd, 2012. In the present study as a deterministic scenario event is considered a damaging earthquake with higher probability of occurrence that could affect the city with intensity less than or equal to VIII

  20. Spatial distribution and health risk assessment for groundwater contamination from intensive pesticide use in arid areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Alfy, Mohamed; Faraj, Turki

    2017-02-01

    Arid and semiarid areas face major challenges in the management of scarce groundwater. This valuable resource is under pressures of population, economic expansion, contamination and over-exploitation. This research investigates groundwater vulnerability to pesticide contamination in the Al-Kharj area of Saudi Arabia. It explores the spatial distribution of pesticide concentrations in groundwater and other relevant factors. Thin permeable soils, permeable aquifers and shallow water tables, which are prevalent in the area, are especially vulnerable to pesticides. Analyses of 40 groundwater samples were performed using a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer coupled with a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a GC column. The analysis was conducted to detect 32 pesticides from different chemical families, and a total of 22 pesticides were detected. All 40 water samples were positive for at least one of the pesticides studied. In total, 21 compounds were above the quantification limit and 10 of them exceeded the legal limit. Total pesticide levels ranged from 0.18 to 2.21 μg/L, and 68 % of the analyzed samples exceeded the maximum allowable pesticide concentrations established by the European Community. Comparison of the daily intake peak (DIP) and daily intake mean (DIM) relative to the acceptable daily intake (ADI) shows that groundwater contamination with pesticides is a serious problem. Prolonged exposure to pesticides can cause adverse effects to human health and the ecosystem. Spatial distribution maps of groundwater contamination were developed using GIS. These maps will help risk managers identify vulnerable sources and provide a relative assessment of pesticide hazards to human health and the environment.

  1. Method to Reduce the Computational Intensity of Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessments Using Cokriging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, M. J.; Boucher, A.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2009-12-01

    Wind energy represents the fastest growing renewable energy resource, sustaining double digit growth for the past 10 years with approximately 94,000 MW installed by the end of 2007. Although winds over the ocean are generally stronger and often located closer to large urban electric load centers, offshore wind turbines represent about 1% of installed capacity. In order to evaluate the economic potential of an offshore wind resource, wind resource assessments typically involve running large mesoscale model simulations, validated with sparse in-situ meteorological station data. These simulations are computationally expensive limiting their temporal coverage. Although a wealth of other wind data does exist (e.g. QuickSCAT satellite, SAR satellite, radar/SODAR wind profiler, and radiosounde) these data are often ignored or interpolated trivially because of the widely varying spatial and temporal resolution. A spatio-temporal cokriging approach with non-parametric covariances was developed to interpolate these empirical data and compare it with previously validated surface winds output by the PSU/NCAR MM5 for coastal California. The spatio-temporal covariance model is assumed to be the product of a spatial and a temporal covariance component. The temporal covariance is derived from in-situ wind speed measurements at 10 minutes intervals measured by offshore buoys and variograms are calculated non-parametrically using a FFT. Spatial covariance tables are created using MM5 or QuikSCAT data with a similar 2D FFT method. The cokriging system was initially validated by predicting “missing” hours of PSU/NCAR MM5 data and has displayed reasonable skill. QuikSCAT satellite winds were also substituted for MM5 data when calculating the spatial covariance, with the goal of reducing the computer time needed to accurately predict a wind energy resource.

  2. Predictive validity and reliability of the Braden scale for risk assessment of pressure ulcers in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Serrano, M; González-Méndez, M I; Martín-Castaño, C; Alonso-Araujo, I; Lima-Rodríguez, J S

    2017-02-15

    Contribution to validation of the Braden scale in patients admitted to the ICU, based on an analysis of its reliability and predictive validity. An analytical, observational, longitudinal prospective study was carried out. Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Virgen del Rocío, Seville (Spain). Patients aged 18years or older and admitted for over 24hours to the ICU were included. Patients with pressure ulcers upon admission were excluded. A total of 335 patients were enrolled in two study periods of one month each. None. The presence of gradei-iv pressure ulcers was regarded as the main or dependent variable. Three categories were considered (demographic, clinical and prognostic) for the remaining variables. The incidence of patients who developed pressure ulcers was 8.1%. The proportion of gradei andii pressure ulcer was 40.6% and 59.4% respectively, highlighting the sacrum as the most frequently affected location. Cronbach's alpha coefficient in the assessments considered indicated good to moderate reliability. In the three evaluations made, a cutoff point of 12 was presented as optimal in the assessment of the first and second days of admission. In relation to the assessment of the day with minimum score, the optimal cutoff point was 10. The Braden scale shows insufficient predictive validity and poor precision for cutoff points of both 18 and 16, which are those accepted in the different clinical scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of speckle-pattern quality in digital image correlation based on gray intensity and speckle morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jihyuk; Yoon, Sungsik; Kwon, Tae-Hyun; Park, Kyoungsoo

    2017-04-01

    In digital image correlation (DIC), speckle patterns are generated on the surface of a specimen to resolve uniqueness issues. Thus, speckle patterns significantly affect the accuracy of image correlation. To assess the quality of speckle patterns, the standard deviation of gray intensities within each speckle (SDGIS) is introduced as a new metric. On the basis of the cumulative distribution of SDGIS, speckle-pattern quality measurement (ρ) is proposed, which integrates the features of gray intensity and speckle morphology. Twelve speckle patterns are generated by changing the spraying time and nozzle sizes of an airbrush because these are associated with the speckle volume fraction and speckle size, respectively. In addition, three displacement fields are used to investigate the effects of speckle patterns on the accuracy of the DIC results. For the 12 speckle images associated with the three displacement fields, the correlation results demonstrate that the proposed speckle-pattern quality measurement is inversely proportional to the averaged error of the subset method. This is statistically confirmed by evaluating the correlation coefficient and p-value. Furthermore, the error of the subset method is more affected by speckle patterns than the subset size when the subset size is sufficiently large.

  4. Intensive educational efforts combined with external quality assessment improve the preanalytical phase in general practitioner offices and nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sølvik, Una Ørvim; Bjelkarøy, Wenche Iren; Berg, Kari van den; Saga, Anne Lise; Hager, Helle Borgstrøm; Sandberg, Sverre

    2017-05-05

    Errors in the preanalytical phase in clinical laboratories affect patient safety. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of intensive educational efforts together with external quality assessment (EQA) of the preanalytical phase from 2013 to 2015 to improve patient identification in primary health care in Norway. In addition, routines for venous and capillary blood sampling were investigated. A preanalytical EQA was circulated in 2013 by the Norwegian Quality Improvement of Laboratory Examinations (Noklus) to general practitioner offices and nursing homes (n=2000) to obtain information about important issues to focus on before launching an intensive educational program with courses, posters and visits in 2013-2015. Preanalytical EQA surveys were further circulated in 2014 and 2015. The response rate varied between 42% and 55%. The percentages of participants asking for the patients' name and the Norwegian identification number increased from about 8% in 2013 to about 35% in 2015. The increase was similar for those participating in only one EQA survey and for those who participated in EQA surveys both in 2013 and 2015. Guidelines for venous and capillary blood sampling were not always followed. Educational efforts more than the preanalytical EQA influenced the actions and resulted in an increase in the percentages of participants that followed the guidelines for patient identification. Some aspects of blood sampling routines need improvement.

  5. Assessment of lung development in isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia using signal intensity ratios on fetal MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Brugger, Peter C; Weber, Michael; Csapo, Bence; Herold, Christian; Prayer, Daniela

    2010-04-01

    To investigate developmental changes in the apparently unaffected contralateral lung by using signal intensity ratios (SIR) and lung volumes (LV), and to search for correlation with clinical outcome. Twenty-five fetuses (22-37 weeks' gestation) were examined. Lung/liver signal intensity ratios (LLSIR) were assessed on T1-weighted and T2-weighted sequences for both lungs, then together with LV compared with age-matched controls of 91 fetuses by using the U test. Differences in LLSIRs and lung volumes were correlated with neonatal outcomes. LLSIRs in fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) were significantly higher in both lungs on T1-weighted images and significantly lower on T2-weighted images, compared with normals (p < 0.05), increasing on T2-weighted imaging and decreasing on T1-weighted imaging during gestation. Total LV were significantly smaller in the CDH group than in controls (p < 0.05). No significant differences in LLSIR of the two lungs were found. Outcomes correlated significantly with total LV, but not with LLSIR. Changes in LLSIR seem to reflect developmental impairment in CDH; however, they provide no additional information in predicting outcome. LV remains the best indicator on fetal MR imaging of neonatal survival in isolated, left-sided CDH.

  6. Assessment of lung development in isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia using signal intensity ratios on fetal MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Herold, Christian; Prayer, Daniela [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Medical University of Vienna, Centre of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Vienna (Austria); Csapo, Bence [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Obstetrics and Gyneocology, Vienna (Austria)

    2010-04-15

    To investigate developmental changes in the apparently unaffected contralateral lung by using signal intensity ratios (SIR) and lung volumes (LV), and to search for correlation with clinical outcome. Twenty-five fetuses (22-37 weeks' gestation) were examined. Lung/liver signal intensity ratios (LLSIR) were assessed on T1-weighted and T2-weighted sequences for both lungs, then together with LV compared with age-matched controls of 91 fetuses by using the U test. Differences in LLSIRs and lung volumes were correlated with neonatal outcomes. LLSIRs in fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) were significantly higher in both lungs on T1-weighted images and significantly lower on T2-weighted images, compared with normals (p < 0.05), increasing on T2-weighted imaging and decreasing on T1-weighted imaging during gestation. Total LV were significantly smaller in the CDH group than in controls (p < 0.05). No significant differences in LLSIR of the two lungs were found. Outcomes correlated significantly with total LV, but not with LLSIR. Changes in LLSIR seem to reflect developmental impairment in CDH; however, they provide no additional information in predicting outcome. LV remains the best indicator on fetal MR imaging of neonatal survival in isolated, left-sided CDH. (orig.)

  7. Initial audiologic assessment of infants referred from well baby, special care, and neonatal intensive care unit nurseries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karzon, Roanne K; Lieu, Judith E Cho

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 2-hr initial audiologic assessment appointment for infants referred from area universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) programs to a clinical audiology department in an urban hospital. A prospective auditory brainstem response (ABR)-based protocol, including clicks, frequency-specific tone bursts, and bone-conducted stimuli, was administered by 10 audiologists to 375 infants. Depending on the ABR findings, additional test options included distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), high-frequency tympanometry, and/or otologic examination. In 88% of the 2-hr test sessions, at least 4 ABR threshold estimates were obtained (i.e., bilateral clicks and either a 500- or 1000-Hz tone burst and a 4000-Hz frequency tone burst for the better ear). The incidence of hearing loss was significantly different across nursery levels: 18% for Level I (well baby), 29% for Level II (special care), and 52% for Level III (neonatal intensive care unit). Hearing loss type was defined at the initial assessment for 35 of the 51 infants with bilateral hearing loss based on bone-conduction ABR, latency measures, DPOAEs, high-frequency tympanometry, and/or otologic examination. Our findings indicate that a 2-hr test appointment is appropriate for all nursery levels to diagnose severity and type of hearing loss in the majority of infants referred from UNHS. Examination by an otolaryngologist within 24-48 hr further defines the hearing loss and facilitates treatment plans.

  8. Assessing client self-narrative change in emotion-focused therapy of depression: an intensive single case analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Lynne E; Kagan, Fern

    2013-12-01

    Personality researchers use the term self-narrative to refer to the development of an overall life story that places life events in a temporal sequence and organizes them in accordance to overarching themes. In turn, it is often the case that clients seek out psychotherapy when they can no longer make sense of their life experiences, as a coherent story. Angus and Greenberg (L. Angus and L. Greenberg, 2011, Working with narrative in emotion-focused therapy: Changing stories, healing lives. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press) view the articulation and consolidation of an emotionally integrated self-narrative account as an important part of the therapeutic change process that is essential for sustained change in emotion-focused therapy of depression. The purpose of the present study was to investigate client experiences of change, and self-narrative reconstruction, in the context of one good outcome emotion-focused therapy dyad drawn from the York II Depression Study. Using the Narrative Assessment Interview (NAI) method, client view of self and experiences of change were assessed at three points in time--after session one, at therapy termination, and at 6 months follow-up. Findings emerging from an intensive narrative theme analyses of the NAI transcripts--and 1 key therapy session identified by the client--are reported and evidence for the contributions of narrative and emotion processes to self-narrative change in emotion-focused therapy of depression are discussed. Finally, the implications of assessing clients' experiences of self-narrative change for psychotherapy research and practice are addressed.

  9. Performance assessment of the SOFA, APACHE II scoring system, and SAPS II in intensive care unit organophosphate poisoned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Hwan; Yeo, Jung Hoon; Kang, Mun Ju; Lee, Jun Ho; Cho, Kwang Won; Hwang, SeongYoun; Hong, Chong Kun; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Yang Weon

    2013-12-01

    This study assessed the ability of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and Acute Physiology, Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scoring systems, as well as the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II method to predict group mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients who were poisoned with organophosphate. The medical records of 149 organophosphate poisoned patients admitted to the ICU from September 2006 to December 2012 were retrospectively examined. The SOFA, APACHE II, and SAPS II were calculated based on initial laboratory data in the Emergency Department, and during the first 24 hr of ICU admission. The probability of death was calculated for each patient based on the SOFA score, APACHE II score, and SAPS II equations. The ability to predict group mortality by the SOFA score, APACHE II score, and SAPS II method was assessed using two by two decision matrices and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. A total of 131 patients (mean age, 61 yr) were enrolled. The sensitivities, specificities, and accuracies were 86.2%, 82.4%, and 83.2% for the SOFA score, respectively; 65.5%, 68.6%, and 67.9% for the APACHE II scoring system, respectively; and 86.2%, 77.5%, and 79.4% for the SAPS II, respectively. The areas under the curve in the ROC curve analysis for the SOFA score, APACHE II scoring system, and SAPS II were 0.896, 0.716, and 0.852, respectively. In conclusion, the SOFA, APACHE II, and SAPS II have different capability to discriminate and estimate early in-hospital mortality of organophosphate poisoned patients. The SOFA score is more useful in predicting mortality, and easier and simpler than the APACHE II and SAPS II.

  10. A novel operant conflict procedure using incrementing shock intensities to assess the anxiolytic and anxiogenic effects of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenden, John; Ross, Laurie; Jonak, Gerald; Zhou, Jin

    2009-05-01

    There is a need for novel anxiolytics, which are effective, but do not cause sedation, tolerance, and rebound anxiety on discontinuation. To investigate a procedure that can be used to assess these characteristics preclinically, rats were initially trained to press a lever at a high rate to obtain food. Once trained, periods of punishment were introduced in which electric shocks were superimposed. The intensity of these electric shocks was increased every 90 s from very low (0.01 mA) to sufficiently high to stop most subjects responding (0.4 mA), so that a complete rate/intensity function was obtained during each punishment period. The benzodiazepine, chlordiazepoxide, and two novel subtype-selective gamma-aminobutyric acid-A agonists, TP003 and TPA023, significantly increased response rates mildly suppressed by intermediate levels of electric shock without any effect on unpunished response rate. Two clinically anxiogenic agents, yohimbine and flumazenil, reduced the rate of punished responding. Aripiprazole and amphetamine reduced both punished and unpunished responding. Repeated treatment with diazepam 2.5 mg/kg daily for 15 days, initially markedly reduced unpunished response rates, but also increased punished response rates, an effect which became greater with repeated treatment. Abrupt cessation of diazepam treatment produced a reduction in punished responding. Diazepam (5 mg/kg daily) produced a greater reduction in unpunished responding, a smaller increase in punished responding, and a larger and longer lasting reduction in punished rates on withdrawal. In conclusion, the procedure detected anxiolytic and anxiogenic effects of drugs, and the sedative side effects, development of tolerance, and rebound-anxiety on discontinuation of a benzodiazepine. This procedure should have utility in the characterization of novel treatments of anxiety.

  11. Combined DNA extraction and antibody elution from filter papers for the assessment of malaria transmission intensity in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidjoe, Amrish; Stone, Will; Ploemen, Ivo; Shagari, Shehu; Grignard, Lynn; Osoti, Victor; Makori, Euniah; Stevenson, Jennifer; Kariuki, Simon; Sutherland, Colin; Sauerwein, Robert; Cox, Jonathan; Drakeley, Chris; Bousema, Teun

    2013-08-02

    Informing and evaluating malaria control efforts relies on knowledge of local transmission dynamics. Serological and molecular tools have demonstrated great sensitivity to quantify transmission intensity in low endemic settings where the sensitivity of traditional methods is limited. Filter paper blood spots are commonly used a source of both DNA and antibodies. To enhance the operational practicability of malaria surveys, a method is presented for combined DNA extraction and antibody elution. Filter paper blood spots were collected as part of a large cross-sectional survey in the Kenyan highlands. DNA was extracted using a saponin/chelex method. The eluate of the first wash during the DNA extraction process was used for antibody detection and compared with previously validated antibody elution procedures. Antibody elution efficiency was assessed by total IgG ELISA for malaria antigens apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) and merozoite-surface protein-1 (MSP-142). The sensitivity of nested 18S rRNA and cytochrome b PCR assays and the impact of doubling filter paper material for PCR sensitivity were determined. The distribution of cell material and antibodies throughout filter paper blood spots were examined using luminescent and fluorescent reporter assays. Antibody levels measured after the combined antibody/DNA extraction technique were strongly correlated to those measured after standard antibody elution (p DNA extraction increased sensitivity. The concentration of cell and antibody material was not homogenously distributed throughout blood spots. Combined DNA extraction and antibody elution is an operationally attractive approach for high throughput assessment of cumulative malaria exposure and current infection prevalence in endemic settings. Estimates of antibody prevalence are unaffected by the combined extraction and elution procedure. The choice of target gene and the amount and source of filter paper material for DNA extraction can have a marked impact on

  12. [DEVELOPMENTAL CARE IN THE NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT ACCORDING TO NEWBORN INDIVIDUALIZED DEVELOPMENTAL CARE AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (NIDCAP)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, Dalia; Litmanovitz, Ita

    2016-01-01

    During hospitalization in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), the brain of the preterm infant undergoes a particularly vulnerable and sensitive period of development. Brain development might be negatively influenced by direct injury as well as by complications of prematurity. Over the past few years, stress has come to be increasingly recognized as a potential risk factor. The NICU environment contains numerous stress factors due to maternal deprivation and over-stimulation, such as light, sound and pain, which conflict with the brain's developmental requirements. Developmental care is a caregiving approach that addresses the early developmental needs of the preterm infant as an integral component of quality neonatal care. NIDCAP (Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program) is a comprehensive program that aims to reduce environmental stress, to support the infant's neuro-behavioral maturation and organization, and to promote early parent-infant relationships. The implementation of developmental care based on NIDCAP principles is a gradual, in-depth systems change process, which affects all aspects of care in the NICU. This review describes the theoretical basis of the NIDCAP approach, summarizes the scientific evidence and addresses some of the implications of the transition from a traditional to a developmental care NICU.

  13. Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score for Evaluating Organ Failure and Outcome of Severe Maternal Morbidity in Obstetric Intensive Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Oliveira-Neto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the performance of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA score in cases of severe maternal morbidity (SMM. Design. Retrospective study of diagnostic validation. Setting. An obstetric intensive care unit (ICU in Brazil. Population. 673 women with SMM. Main Outcome Measures. mortality and SOFA score. Methods. Organ failure was evaluated according to maximum score for each one of its six components. The total maximum SOFA score was calculated using the poorest result of each component, reflecting the maximum degree of alteration in systemic organ function. Results. highest total maximum SOFA score was associated with mortality, 12.06 ± 5.47 for women who died and 1.87 ± 2.56 for survivors. There was also a significant correlation between the number of failing organs and maternal mortality, ranging from 0.2% (no failure to 85.7% (≥3 organs. Analysis of the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve (AUC confirmed the excellent performance of total maximum SOFA score for cases of SMM (AUC = 0.958. Conclusions. Total maximum SOFA score proved to be an effective tool for evaluating severity and estimating prognosis in cases of SMM. Maximum SOFA score may be used to conceptually define and stratify the degree of severity in cases of SMM.

  14. Measurement properties and implementation of a checklist to assess leadership skills during interdisciplinary rounds in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Have, Elsbeth C M; Nap, Raoul E; Tulleken, Jaap E

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of interdisciplinary teams in the intensive care unit (ICU) has focused attention on leadership behavior. A daily recurrent situation in ICUs in which both leadership behavior and interdisciplinary teamwork are integrated concerns the interdisciplinary rounds (IDRs). Although IDRs are recommended to provide optimal interdisciplinary and patient-centered care, there are no checklists available for leading physicians. We tested the measurement properties and implementation of a checklist to assess the quality of leadership skills in interdisciplinary rounds. The measurement properties of the checklist, which included 10 essential quality indicators, were tested for interrater reliability and internal consistency and by factor analysis. The interrater reliability among 3 raters was good (κ, 0.85) and the internal consistency was acceptable (α, 0.74). Factor analysis showed all factor loadings on 1 domain (>0.65). The checklist was further implemented during videotaped IDRs which were led by senior physicians and in which 99 patients were discussed. Implementation of the checklist showed a wide range of "no" and "yes" scores among the senior physicians. These results may underline the need for such a checklist to ensure tasks are synchronized within the team.

  15. Measurement Properties and Implementation of a Checklist to Assess Leadership Skills during Interdisciplinary Rounds in the Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsbeth C. M. Ten Have

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of interdisciplinary teams in the intensive care unit (ICU has focused attention on leadership behavior. A daily recurrent situation in ICUs in which both leadership behavior and interdisciplinary teamwork are integrated concerns the interdisciplinary rounds (IDRs. Although IDRs are recommended to provide optimal interdisciplinary and patient-centered care, there are no checklists available for leading physicians. We tested the measurement properties and implementation of a checklist to assess the quality of leadership skills in interdisciplinary rounds. The measurement properties of the checklist, which included 10 essential quality indicators, were tested for interrater reliability and internal consistency and by factor analysis. The interrater reliability among 3 raters was good (κ, 0.85 and the internal consistency was acceptable (α, 0.74. Factor analysis showed all factor loadings on 1 domain (>0.65. The checklist was further implemented during videotaped IDRs which were led by senior physicians and in which 99 patients were discussed. Implementation of the checklist showed a wide range of “no” and “yes” scores among the senior physicians. These results may underline the need for such a checklist to ensure tasks are synchronized within the team.

  16. Assessment of potential hazards of fluoride contamination in drinking groundwater of an intensively cultivated district in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Manik Chandra; Mandal, Biswapati

    2009-05-01

    We assessed the potential of fluoride (F) contamination in drinking groundwater of an intensively cultivated district in India as a function of its lithology and agricultural activities. Three hundred and eight groundwater samples were collected at different depths from various types of wells and analyzed for pH, EC, NO(3)-N load and F content. A typical litholog was constructed and database on fertilizer and pesticide uses were also recorded for the district. The water samples were almost neutral in reaction and non-saline in nature with low NO(3)-N content (0.02 to 4.56 microg mL(-1)). Fluoride content in water was also low (0.01 to 1.18 microg mL(-1)) with only 2.27% of them exceeding 1.0 microg mL(-1) posing a potential threat of fluorosis. On average, its content varied little spatially and along depth of sampling aquifers because of homogeneity in lithology of the district. The F content in these samples showed a significant positive correlation (r = 0.12, P < or = 0.05) with the amount of phosphatic fertilizer (single super phosphate) used for agriculture but no such relation either with the anthropogenic activities of pesticide use or NO(3)-N content, pH and EC values of the samples was found. The results suggest that the use of phosphatic fertilizer may have some role to play in F enrichment of groundwater.

  17. Construction and validation of a tool to Assess the Use of Light Technologies at Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Pabliane Matias Lordelo; Campos, Maria Pontes de Aguiar; Rodrigues, Eliana Ofélia Llapa; Gois, Cristiane Franca Lisboa; Barreto, Ikaro Daniel de Carvalho

    2016-12-19

    to construct and validate a tool to assess the use of light technologies by the nursing team at Intensive Care Units. methodological study in which the tool was elaborated by means of the psychometric method for construction based on the categorization of health technologies by Merhy and Franco, from the National Humanization Policy, using the Nursing Intervention Classification taxonomy to categorize the domains of the tool. Agreement Percentages and Content Validity Indices were used for the purpose of validation. The result of the application of the Interrater Agreement Percentage exceeded the recommended level of 80%, highlighting the relevance for the proposed theme in the assessment, with an agreement rate of 99%. the tool was validated with four domains (Bond, Autonomy, Welcoming and Management) and nineteen items that assess the use of light technologies at Intensive Care Units. construir e validar um instrumento para avaliação do uso de tecnologias leves, pela equipe de enfermagem, em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva. estudo metodológico no qual o instrumento foi elaborado utilizando o método psicométrico para construção com base na categorização das tecnologias em saúde de Merhy e Franco, da Política Nacional de Humanização, utilizando-se a taxonomia Nursing Intervention Classification para categorizar os domínios do instrumento. Utilizou-se o Percentual de Concordância e o Índice de Validade de Conteúdo (IVC) para validação. o resultado da aplicação do Percentual de Concordância entre os juízes foi superior ao recomendado de 80%, havendo destaque na avaliação da pertinência ao tema proposto, apresentando um percentual de concordância de 99%. o instrumento foi validado com quatro domínios (Vínculo, Autonomia, Acolhimento e Gestão) e dezenove itens que avaliam o uso das tecnologias leves em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. construir y validar un instrumento para evaluación del uso de tecnologías leves, por el equipo de enfermer

  18. Assessing nursing quality in paediatric intensive care units: a cross-sectional study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxia; Liu, Linxia; Hu, Jing; Zhang, Yanhong; Lu, Guoping; Li, Guangyu; Zuo, Zelan; Lu, Hua; Zou, Huan; Wang, Zaihua; Huang, Quelan

    2016-05-23

    Nursing-sensitive indicators are considered effective tools for improving the quality of care in hospitals. However, these have not been used in paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) in China. To develop nursing-sensitive indicators for PICUs and to assess the quality of nursing in PICUs in China based on the nursing-sensitive indicators. Multi-centre, cross-sectional study. Structure, process and outcome indicators were developed and measured from 1 January to 31 March 2014 in seven PICUs in China. The structure indicators showed that one nurse cared for an average of 2·8 patients in a PICU, and 44% of nurses had a bachelor's degree. The process indicators revealed that hand-washing compliance varied across PICUs, whereas pain management and physical restraint have not been adequately addressed in China. The outcome indicators revealed that the incidence rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia and central-line-associated blood stream infections were 2·96 and 0·7, respectively, per 1000 device days. Patients were intubated for a total of 4392 mechanical ventilator days, and 32 patients (7·29‰) had an unplanned extubation. Nurses were moderately satisfied in their jobs (3·1 ± 0·3), and parents reported that nurses provide high quality of care. This study developed and used nursing-sensitive indicators to assess the quality of nursing in PICUs in China, which provided a reference for national and international comparisons of nursing quality in PICUs. Nursing staffing levels and education should be improved. Pain management and physical restraints should be regulated in China's PICUs. Nurse managers need to explore staff attitudes towards implementation of family-centred care. The development of a national database of nursing quality indicators can contribute to quality and safety improvement. This study developed a set of nursing-sensitive indicators, and these indicators were used to assess and improve the quality of nursing in PICUs. © 2016 British

  19. Arterial spin-labeling assessment of normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity as a predictor of histologic grade of astrocytic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtner, J; Schöpf, V; Schewzow, K; Kasprian, G; Weber, M; Woitek, R; Asenbaum, U; Preusser, M; Marosi, C; Hainfellner, J A; Widhalm, G; Wolfsberger, S; Prayer, D

    2014-03-01

    Pulsed arterial spin-labeling is a noninvasive MR imaging perfusion method performed with the use of water in the arterial blood as an endogenous contrast agent. The purpose of this study was to determine the inversion time with the largest difference in normalized intratumoral signal intensity between high-grade and low-grade astrocytomas. Thirty-three patients with gliomas, histologically classified as low-grade (n = 7) or high-grade astrocytomas (n = 26) according to the World Health Organization brain tumor classification, were included. A 3T MR scanner was used to perform pulsed arterial spin-labeling measurements at 8 different inversion times (370 ms, 614 ms, 864 ms, 1114 ms, 1364 ms, 1614 ms, 1864 ms, and 2114 ms). Normalized intratumoral signal intensity was calculated, which was defined by the signal intensity ratio of the tumor and the contralateral normal brain tissue for all fixed inversion times. A 3-way mixed ANOVA was used to reveal potential differences in the normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity between high-grade and low-grade astrocytomas. The difference in normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity between high-grade and low-grade astrocytomas obtained the most statistically significant results at 370 ms (P = .003, other P values ranged from .012-.955). The inversion time by which to differentiate high-grade and low-grade astrocytomas by use of normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity was 370 ms in our study. The normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity values at this inversion time mainly reflect the labeled intra-arterial blood bolus and therefore could be referred to as normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity. Our data indicate that the use of normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity values allows differentiation between low-grade and high-grade astrocytomas and thus may serve as a new, noninvasive marker for astrocytoma grading.

  20. Seismic Hazard and risk assessment for Romania -Bulgaria cross-border region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonova, Stela; Solakov, Dimcho; Alexandrova, Irena; Vaseva, Elena; Trifonova, Petya; Raykova, Plamena

    2016-04-01

    Among the many kinds of natural and man-made disasters, earthquakes dominate with regard to their social and economical impact on the urban environment. Global seismic hazard and vulnerability to earthquakes are steadily increasing as urbanization and development occupy more areas that are prone to effects of strong earthquakes. The assessment of the seismic hazard and risk is particularly important, because it provides valuable information for seismic safety and disaster mitigation, and it supports decision making for the benefit of society. Romania and Bulgaria, situated in the Balkan Region as a part of the Alpine-Himalayan seismic belt, are characterized by high seismicity, and are exposed to a high seismic risk. Over the centuries, both countries have experienced strong earthquakes. The cross-border region encompassing the northern Bulgaria and southern Romania is a territory prone to effects of strong earthquakes. The area is significantly affected by earthquakes occurred in both countries, on the one hand the events generated by the Vrancea intermediate-depth seismic source in Romania, and on the other hand by the crustal seismicity originated in the seismic sources: Shabla (SHB), Dulovo, Gorna Orjahovitza (GO) in Bulgaria. The Vrancea seismogenic zone of Romania is a very peculiar seismic source, often described as unique in the world, and it represents a major concern for most of the northern part of Bulgaria as well. In the present study the seismic hazard for Romania-Bulgaria cross-border region on the basis of integrated basic geo-datasets is assessed. The hazard results are obtained by applying two alternative approaches - probabilistic and deterministic. The MSK64 intensity (MSK64 scale is practically equal to the new EMS98) is used as output parameter for the hazard maps. We prefer to use here the macroseismic intensity instead of PGA, because it is directly related to the degree of damages and, moreover, the epicentral intensity is the original

  1. Confusion assessment method para analisar delirium em unidade de terapia intensiva: revisão de literatura Confusion assessment method to analyze delirium in intensive care unit: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satomi Mori

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O delirium é freqüentemente observado em pacientes internados em unidades de terapia intensiva e a sua ocorrência relaciona-se com o aumento da morbimortalidade, do período de internação, declínio funcional e custos elevados. O Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit é um instrumento que facilita a identificação precoce e a ocorrência de delirium em pacientes intubados. Este trabalho tem como objetivo verificar aspectos já estudados sobre o delirium utilizando o Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit. Foi realizada uma revisão narrativa nas bases de dados LILACS, MedLine, PubMed e CINAHL que compreendeu desde o ano de validação do Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit (2001 até março de 2008. Os descritores utilizados nas bases de dados LILACS, MedLine, PubMed foram delirium e intensive care unit e na CINAHAL foram delirium e intensive care. Do total de 293 artigos encontrados foram selecionados 35. Em relação aos aspectos estudados constatou-se incidência variável dos tipos de delirium em diferentes tipos de unidades de terapia intensiva. Quanto a sensibilidade do Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit este apresentou uma variação de 93 a 100% e a especificidade foi de 89 a 100% sendo considerado um instrumento valioso na detecção, caracterização e controle do delirium e suas repercussões. Além disso, sua utilização permite o controle mais eficaz dos pacientes graves que apresentam o distúrbio ou riscos para desenvolvê-lo.Delirium is frequently observed in intensive care unit patients and its occurrence is related to increased morbidity and mortality, length of stay, functional decline and high costs. The Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit is a tool that facilitates early identification and occurrence of delirium among intubated patients. Objective: To verify the aspects of delirium studied by means of the Confusion Assessment Method for

  2. Measurement properties and implementation of a checklist to assess leadership skills during interdisciplinary rounds in the intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Have, Elsbeth C M; Nap, Raoul E; Tulleken, Jaap E

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of interdisciplinary teams in the intensive care unit (ICU) has focused attention on leadership behavior. A daily recurrent situation in ICUs in which both leadership behavior and interdisciplinary teamwork are integrated concerns the interdisciplinary rounds (IDRs). Although IDRs

  3. Sensitivity and specificity of the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) and the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC) for detecting post-cardiac surgery delirium: A single-center study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Katsuji; Yokoyama, Kanako; Yamauchi, Noriko; Koizumi, Masako; Harasawa, Nozomi; Yasuda, Taeko; Mimura, Chizuru; Igita, Hazuki; Suzuki, Eriko; Uchiide, Yoko; Seino, Yusuke; Nomura, Minoru; Yamazaki, Kenji; Ishigooka, Jun

    2016-01-01

    To compare the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) and the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC) for detecting post-cardiac surgery delirium. These tools have not been tested in a specialized cardio-surgical ICU. Sensitivities and specificities of each tool were assessed in a cardio-surgical ICU in Japan by two trained nurses independently. Results were compared with delirium diagnosed by psychiatrists using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision. There were 110 daily, paired assessments in 31 patients. The CAM-ICU showed 38% sensitivity and 100% specificity for both nurses. All 20 false-negative cases resulted from high scores in the auditory attention screening in CAM-ICU. The ICDSC showed 97% and 94% sensitivity, and 97% and 91% specificity for the two nurses (cutoff ≥4). In a Japanese cardio-surgical ICU, the ICDSC had a higher sensitivity than the CAM-ICU. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Renal ablation using magnetic resonance-guided high intensity focused ultrasound: Magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maythem Saeed; Roland Krug; Loi Do; Steven W Hetts; Mark W Wilson

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To use magnetic resonance-guided high intensity focused ultrasound(MRg-HIFU), magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) and histopathology for noninvasively ablating, quantifying and characterizing ablated renal tissue. METHODS: Six anesthetized/mechanically-ventilated pigs underwent single/double renal sonication(n = 24) using a 3T-MRg-HIFU(1.1 MHz frequency and 3000J-4400 J energies). T2-weighted fast spin echo(T2-W), perfusion saturation recovery gradient echo and contrast enhanced(CE) T1-weighted(T1-W) sequences were used for treatment planning, temperature monitoring, lesion visualization, characterization and quantification, respectively. Histopathology was conducted in excised kidneys to quantify and characterize cellular and vascular changes. Paired Student’s t-test was used and a P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.RESULTS: Ablated renal parenchyma could not be differentiated from normal parenchyma on T2-W or nonCE T1-W sequences. Ablated renal lesions were visible as hypoenhanced regions on perfusion and CE T1-W MRI sequences, suggesting perfusion deficits and necrosis. Volumes of ablated parenchyma on CE T1-W images invivo(0.12-0.36 cm3 for single sonication 3000 J, 0.50-0.84 cm3, for double 3000 J, 0.75-0.78 cm3 for single 4400 J and 0.12-2.65 cm3 for double 4400J) and at postmortem(0.23-0.52 cm3, 0.25-0.82 cm3, 0.45-0.68 cm3 and 0.29-1.80 cm3, respectively) were comparable. The ablated volumes on 3000 J and 4400 J double sonication were significantly larger than single(P < 0.01), thus, the volume and depth of ablated tissue depends on the applied energy and number of sonication. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations confirmed the locations and presence of coagulation necrosis, vascular damage and interstitial hemorrhage, respectively.CONCLUSION: Contrast enhanced MRI provides assessment of MRg-HIFU renal ablation. Histopathology demonstrated coagulation necrosis, vascular damage and confirmed the volume of damage seen on MRI.

  5. Green cheese: partial life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and energy intensity of integrated dairy production and bioenergy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Villegas, H A; Passos-Fonseca, T H; Reinemann, D J; Armentano, L E; Wattiaux, M A; Cabrera, V E; Norman, J M; Larson, R

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of integrating dairy and bioenergy systems on land use, net energy intensity (NEI), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A reference dairy farm system representative of Wisconsin was compared with a system that produces dairy and bioenergy products. This integrated system investigates the effects at the farm level when the cow diet and manure management practices are varied. The diets evaluated were supplemented with varying amounts of dry distillers grains with solubles and soybean meal and were balanced with different types of forages. The manure-management scenarios included manure land application, which is the most common manure disposal method in Wisconsin, and manure anaerobic digestion (AD) to produce biogas. A partial life cycle assessment from cradle to farm gate was conducted, where the system boundaries were expanded to include the production of biofuels in the analysis and the environmental burdens between milk and bioenergy products were partitioned by system expansion. Milk was considered the primary product and the functional unit, with ethanol, biodiesel, and biogas considered co-products. The production of the co-products was scaled according to milk production to meet the dietary requirements of each selected dairy ration. Results indicated that land use was 1.6 m2, NEI was 3.86 MJ, and GHG emissions were 1.02 kg of CO2-equivalents per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) for the reference system. Within the integrated dairy and bioenergy system, diet scenarios that maximize dry distillers grains with solubles and implement AD had the largest reduction of GHG emissions and NEI, but the greatest increase in land use compared with the reference system. Average land use ranged from 1.68 to 2.01 m2/kg of FPCM; NEI ranged from -5.62 to -0.73 MJ/kg of FPCM; and GHG emissions ranged from 0.63 to 0.77 kg of CO2-equivalents/kg of FPCM. The AD contributed 65% of the NEI and 77% of the GHG

  6. A partial life cycle assessment approach to evaluate the energy intensity and related greenhouse gas emission in dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelia Murgia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dairy farming is constantly evolving towards more intensive levels of mechanization and automation which demand more energy consumption and result in higher economic and environmental costs. The usage of fossil energy in agricultural processes contributes to climate change both with on-farm emissions from the combustion of fuels, and by off-farm emissions due to the use of grid power. As a consequence, a more efficient use of fossil resources together with an increased use of renewable energies can play a key role for the development of more sustainable production systems. The aims of this study were to evaluate the energy requirements (fuels and electricity in dairy farms, define the distribution of the energy demands among the different farm operations, identify the critical point of the process and estimate the amount of CO2 associated with the energy consumption. The inventory of the energy uses has been outlined by a partial Life Cycle Assessment (LCA approach, setting the system boundaries at the farm level, from cradle to farm gate. All the flows of materials and energy associated to milk production process, including crops cultivation for fodder production, were investigated in 20 dairy commercial farms over a period of one year. Self-produced energy from renewable sources was also accounted as it influence the overall balance of emissions. Data analysis was focused on the calculation of energy and environmental sustainability indicators (EUI, CO2-eq referred to the functional units. The production of 1 kg of Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM required on average 0.044 kWhel and 0.251 kWhth, corresponding to a total emission of 0.085 kg CO2-eq. The farm activities that contribute most to the electricity requirements were milk cooling, milking and slurry management, while feeding management and crop cultivation were the greatest diesel fuel consuming operation and the largest in terms of environmental impact of milk production (73% of

  7. The MCS intensity distribution of the devastating 24 August 2016 earthquake in central Italy (MW 6.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Galli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe the macroseismic survey of the 24 August 2016 earthquake in central Italy (M_W 6.2. By applying a revised version of the Mercalli-Cancani-Sieberg scale, we estimated the site intensity in more than 300 localities of Lazio, Abruzzi, Umbria and Marche regions, providing the Civil Protection with a quick and robust snapshot of the earthquake. The most severe effects are focused south of the instrumental epicenter, in the Amatrice intermountain basin, where intensity reached 10-11 MCS. Highest damage (area inside 9 MCS isoseismal is focused in a NNW-SSE belt of the hangingwall of the causative faults, i.e. the southern segment of the Mount Vettore fault system and the northern segment of the Laga Mounts fault system, with northward damage propagation in the far-field. The intensity dataset allows to evaluate a M_W 6.16±0.5, which is very close to the instrumental magnitude, with a seismogenic box striking N161°, mimicking the geological active faults. Epicentral intensity is I_0 10 MCS, I_MAX 10-11. The elevated level of destruction is mainly due to the high vulnerability of buildings, mostly made by cobblestone masonry. Integrating the macroseismic information with the geological, geodetical and geophysical data it is possible to hypothesize a bidirectional rupture propagation (toward NNW and SSE along the two different faults. It is also possible to attribute the 1639, M_W 6.0 earthquake to the same source of the southern 2016 rupture (northernmost Laga Mounts faults.

  8. Fast algal eco-toxicity assessment: Influence of light intensity and exposure time on Chlorella vulgaris inhibition by atrazine and DCMU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camuel, Alexandre; Guieysse, Benoit; Alcántara, Cynthia; Béchet, Quentin

    2017-06-01

    In order to develop a rapid assay suitable for algal eco-toxicity assessments under conditions representative of natural ecosystems, this study evaluated the short-term (atrazine and DCMU using oxygen productivity measurements. When Chlorella vulgaris was exposed to these herbicides under 'standard' low light intensity (as prescribed by OECD201 guideline), the 20min-EC50 values recorded via oxygen productivity (atrazine: 1.32±0.07μM; DCMU: 0.31±0.005μM) were similar the 96-h EC50 recorded via algal growth (atrazine: 0.56μM; DCMU: 0.41μM), and within the range of values reported in the literature. 20min-EC50 values increased by factors of 3.0 and 2.1 for atrazine and DCMU, respectively, when light intensity increased from 60 to 1400μmolm(-2)s(-1) of photosynthetically active radiation, or PAR. Further investigation showed that exposure time significantly also impacted the sensitivity of C. vulgaris under high light intensity (>840μmolm(-2)s(-1) as PAR) as the EC50 for atrazine and DCMU decreased by up to 6.2 and 2.1 folds, respectively, after 50min of exposure at a light irradiance of 1400μmolm(-2)s(-1) as PAR. This decrease was particularly marked at high light intensities and low algae concentrations and is explained by the herbicide disruption of the electron transfer chain triggering photo-inhibition at high light intensities. Eco-toxicity assessments aiming to understand the potential impact of toxic compounds on natural ecosystems should therefore be performed over sufficient exposure times (>20min for C. vulgaris) and under light intensities relevant to these ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Individual assessment of intensity-level for exercise training in patients with coronary artery disease is necessary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwland, W; Berkhuysen, MA; Van Veldhuisen, DJ; Rispens, P

    Background: Target intensity-level of exercise training in patients with coronary artery disease is adjusted usually by a target heart rate (THR). This THR is aimed to be at or nearby the anaerobic threshold (AT) and is calculated commonly from parameters of regular exercise training, instead of an

  10. Electronic diary assessment of pain-related fear, attention to pain, and pain intensity in chronic low back pain patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, J.; Peters, M.L.; Patijn, J.; Schouten, E.G.; Vlaeyen, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between pain-related fear, attention to pain, and pain intensity in daily life in patients with chronic low back pain. An experience sampling methodology was used in which electronic diary data were collected by means of palmtop computers from 40 chro

  11. Electronic diary assessment of pain-related fear, attention to pain, and pain intensity in chronic low back pain patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, J.; Peters, M.L.; Patijn, J.; Schouten, E.G.; Vlaeyen, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between pain-related fear, attention to pain, and pain intensity in daily life in patients with chronic low back pain. An experience sampling methodology was used in which electronic diary data were collected by means of palmtop computers from 40 chro

  12. A prospective, longitudinal study to assess use of continuous and reactive low-pressure mattresses to reduce pressure ulcer incidence in a pediatric intensive care unit

    OpenAIRE

    García Molina, Pablo; Balaguer López, Evelin; Torra i Bou, Joan Enric; Álvarez Ordiales, Adán; Quesada Ramos, Cristina; Verdú Soriano, José

    2012-01-01

    Pressure between bony prominences and sleep surfaces, as well as pressure from the use of medical devices, put children admitted to pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) at risk of developing pressure ulcers (PUs). To assess the effect of two pediatric-specific, continuous and reactive low-pressure mattresses on the incidence of PUs, an observational, descriptive, prospective, longitudinal (2009–2011) study was conducted among PICU patients. The two pediatric mattresses — one for children we...

  13. Predictive Performance of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and the Initial Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) Score in Acutely Ill Intensive Care Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granholm, Anders; Møller, Morten Hylander; Kragh, Mette

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Severity scores including the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score are used in intensive care units (ICUs) to assess disease severity, predict mortality and in research. We aimed to assess the predictive performance of SAPS II...... compared the discrimination of SAPS II and initial SOFA scores, compared the discrimination of SAPS II in our cohort with the original cohort, assessed the calibration of SAPS II customised to our cohort, and compared the discrimination for 90-day mortality vs. in-hospital mortality for both scores....... Discrimination was evaluated using areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves (AUROC). Calibration was evaluated using Hosmer-Lemeshow's goodness-of-fit Ĉ-statistic. RESULTS: AUROC for in-hospital mortality was 0.80 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77-0.83) for SAPS II and 0.73 (95% CI 0...

  14. Cardiometry: pioneering experience in assessment of the heart performance and evaluation of fatal arrhythmia risks in intensive care unit patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Chepenko

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper presented is an application study of the heart performance phase mechanism with the use of the Cardiocode analyzer based on principles of cardiometry for evaluating iatrogenic complications caused by antiarrhythmic therapy and monitoring the quality of treatment of hemodynamic disorders in inhospital intensive care units. The aim of the study is a thorough estimation of the diagnostic and functional quality of the performance of the Cardiocode device and developing a new methodology of its application under the conditions of the intensive care units, when predicting fatal arrhythmia progression. 50 patients with true cardiogenic shock of different degrees of severity have been examined with Cardiocode. As a result, it is established that the application of the heart cycle phase analysis in diagnostics, hemodynamics evaluation and management with the medication and infusion therapy supported by the Cardiocode device allows reducing the mortality rate by 32 ± 3.4%.

  15. Assessment of the intensity and spatial variability of urban heat islands over the Indian cities for Regional Climate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, S.; Satyanarayana, A. N. V.

    2016-12-01

    The Urban heat island (UHI) in general developed over cities, due to the drastic changes in land use and land cover (LULC), has profound impact on the atmospheric circulation patterns due to the changes in the energy transport mechanism which in turn affect the regional climate. In this study, an attempt has been made to quantify the intensity of UHI, and to identify the pockets of UHI over cities during last decade over fast developing cosmopolitan Indian cities such as New Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata. For this purpose, Landsat TM and ETM+ images during winter period, in about 5 year intervals from 2002 to 2013, has been selected to retrieve the brightness temperatures and land use/cover, from which Land Surface Temperature (LST) has been estimated using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Normalized Difference Build-up Index (NDBI) and Normalized Difference Bareness Index (NDBaI) are estimated to extract build-up areas and bare land from the satellite images to identify the UHI pockets over the study area. For this purpose image processing and GIS tools were employed. Results reveal a significant increase in the intensity of UHI and increase in its area of influence over all the three cities. An increase of 2 to 2.5 oC of UHI intensity over the study regions has been noticed. The range of increase in UHI intensity is found to be more over New Delhi compared to Mumbai and Kolkata which is more or less same. The number of hotspot pockets of UHI has also been increased as seen from the spatial distribution of LST, NDVI and NDBI. This result signifies the impact of rapid urbanization and infrastructural developments has a direct consequence in modulating the regional climate over the Indian cities.

  16. Direct Assessment of Wall Shear Stress by Signal Intensity Gradient from Time-of-Flight Magnetic Resonance Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kap-Soo; Lee, Sang Hyuk; Ryu, Han Uk; Park, Se-Hyoung; Chung, Gyung-Ho; Cho, Young I; Jeong, Seul-Ki

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to calculate the arterial wall signal intensity gradient (SIG) from time-of-flight MR angiography (TOF-MRA) and represent arterial wall shear stress. We developed a new algorithm that uses signal intensity (SI) of a TOF-MRA to directly calculate the signal intensity gradient (SIG). The results from our phantom study showed that the TOF-MRA SIG could be used to distinguish the magnitude of blood flow rate as high (mean SIG ± SD, 2.2 ± 0.4 SI/mm for 12.5 ± 2.3 L/min) and low (0.9 ± 0.3 SI/mm for 8.5 ± 2.6 L/min) in vessels (p SIG values were highly correlated with various flow rates (β = 0.96, p SIG was greater than 0.8 in each section at the carotid artery (p SIG and thereby the WSS. Thus, the TOF-MRA SIG can provide clinicians with an accurate and efficient screening method for making rapid decisions on the risk of vascular disease for a patient in clinical practice.

  17. Magnetic resonance signal intensity ratio of gray/white matter in children; Quantitative assessment in developing brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maezawa, Mariko (Tokyo Saiseikai Central Hospital (Japan)); Seki, Tohru; Imura, Soichi; Akiyama, Kazunori; Takikawa, Itsuro; Yuasa, Yuji

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in 87 children with various clinical entities were used to determine the signal intensity ratio of gray/white matter in T[sub 1]-weighted and T[sub 2]-weighted images using a 1.5 T MR scanner. Signal intensity ratio changes in both T[sub 1]- and T[sub 2]-weighted images correlated well with advancing age (y=0.9349-0.001575, r=0.584, P<0.0001 in T[sub 1]-weighted images; y=0.9798+0.002854, r=0.723, P<0.0001 in T[sub 2]-weighted images), but the correlation was more linear when we included only normally developed (34) children (y=0.9689-0.001967, r=-0.654, P<0.0001 in T[sub 1]-weighted images; y=0.9882+0.002965, r=0.747, P<0.0001 in T[sub 2]-weighted images). Abnormal ratios were observed in patients with congenital hydrocephalus, inherited metabolic diseases and cerebral palsy. Although the gray/white matter differentiation would not delineate the myelination itself, measurement of the signal intensity ratio of gray/white matters is a practical way to evaluate delayed myelination in a busy MR center. (author).

  18. Verification of a investment appeal assessment technique of the IT introduction project at the hi-tech knowledge-intensive enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Shkarupeta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Need of an assessment of investment appeal of projects, according to authors, is caused also by the fact that the investment project is the independent object of the analysis entering the general program of development, both the knowledge-intensive enterprise, and economy in general. Results of the investment analysis allow the potential owner to determine the term necessary for return of originally invested sum, to calculate real increments of assets from acquisition of property, to estimate potential stability to risks of the cash flow formed by concrete object of property. In article features of an assessment of investment appeal of innovative projects on introduction of information technologies are considered. Methodical approach to innovative development of the knowledge-intensive enterprise is created. Within this approach the main evaluation stages are defined, approaches to an assessment of a discountrate of the IT and innovative project are specified, calculation of key indicators of investment appeal of the innovative project is made. The offered assessment procedure of investment appeal of the investment project of introduction of information technologies will allow the enterprise to choose an optimal variant of implementation of IT solutions which will give the chance to solve the problems revealed during an assessment of his activity. Research is based on the theoretical and methodological provisions, classical and modern fundamental concepts which are contained in works of classics of economic and administrative science and also the domestic and foreign scientists working in the field of the organization and management, the organization and management of innovative development of the knowledge-intensive enterprises. For the solution of the tasks set in article the complex of scientific basic and applied theories, approaches and methods has been used, namely: theory of systems and system analysis, theory of management, theory of

  19. Assessing environmental risks for high intensity agriculture using the material flow analysis method--a case study of the Dongting Lake basin in South Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guanyi; Liu, Liming; Yuan, Chengcheng

    2015-07-01

    This study primarily examined the assessment of environmental risk in high intensity agricultural areas. Dongting Lake basin was taken as a case study, which is one of the major grain producing areas in China. Using data obtained from 1989 to 2012, we applied Material Flow Analysis (MFA) to show the material consumption, pollutant output and production storage in the agricultural-environmental system and assessed the environmental risk index on the basis of the MFA results. The results predicted that the status of the environmental quality of the Dongting Lake area is unsatisfactory for the foreseeable future. The direct material input (DMI) declined by 13.9%, the domestic processed output (DPO) increased by 28.21%, the intensity of material consumption (IMC) decreased by 36.7%, the intensity of material discharge (IMD) increased by 10%, the material productivity (MP) increased by 27 times, the environmental efficiency (EE) increased by 15.31 times, and the material storage (PAS) increased by 0.23%. The DMI and DPO was higher at rural places on the edge of cities, whereas the risk of urban agriculture has arisen due to the higher increasing rate of DMI and DPO in cities compared with the counties. The composite environmental risk index increased from 0.33 to 0.96, indicating that the total environmental risk changed gradually but seriously during the 24 years assessed. The driving factors that affect environmental risk in high intensity agriculture can be divided into five classes: social, economic, human, natural and disruptive incidents. This study discussed a number of effective measures for protecting the environment while ensuring food production yields. Additional research in other areas and certain improvements of this method in future studies may be necessary to develop a more effective method of managing and controlling agricultural-environmental interactions.

  20. Reliability and Validity of the Therapy Intensity Level Scale: Analysis of Clinimetric Properties of a Novel Approach to Assess Management of Intracranial Pressure in Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuercher, Patrick; Groen, Justus L; Aries, Marcel J H; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Maas, Andrew I R; Ercole, Ari; Menon, David K

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the Therapy Intensity Level scale (TIL) for intracranial pressure (ICP) management. We reviewed the medical records of 31 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in two European intensive care units (ICUs). The ICP TIL was derived over a 4-day period for 4-h (TIL4) and 24-h epochs (TIL24). TIL scores were compared with historical schemes for TIL measurement, with each other, and with clinical variables. TIL24 scores in ICU patients with TBI were compared with two control groups: patients with extracranial trauma necessitating intensive care (Trauma_ICU; n = 20) and patients with TBI not needing ICU care (TBI_WARD; n = 19), to further determine the discriminative validity of the TIL for ICP-related ICU interventions. Interrater and intraobserver agreement were excellent for TIL4 and TIL24 (Cohen κ: 0.98-0.99; intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.99-1; p intensity level of ICP management in patients with TBI.

  1. On the Edge of Life, I: Assessment of, Reaction to, and Management of the Terminally Ill Recorded in an Intensive Care Unit Journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeres, Mikkael A.; Stern, Theodore A.

    2002-10-01

    BACKGROUND: In a general hospital, few clinical settings match the intensity of the intensive care unit (ICU) experience. Clinical rotations in ICUs elicit and emphasize the struggles house officers face on a daily basis throughout their training. METHOD: These struggles were recorded by hundreds of residents in a journal maintained in the Massachusetts General Hospital's Medical ICU for the past 20 years. We systematically reviewed these unsolicited entries to define and to illustrate how house officers respond to caring for terminally ill patients. The 3 overarching topics that surfaced repeatedly were assessment of terminally ill patients, reaction to their prognosis, and management of their disease or their eventual demise. RESULTS: House officers record affective reactions and cognitive assessments to cope with the stress and dysfunction associated with the care of the critically ill and to facilitate their management of these patients. Journal entries by residents reveal a deep concern for the welfare of their patients, conflict about the technological advances and limitations of the system, and reflection on how involved physicians should become with their patients. CONCLUSION: House officer journal entries reflect a combination of newly gained medical knowledge and coping strategies in managing terminally ill patients. House officers also demonstrate a deep concern for the welfare of their patients. Insight from years of reflection from past house officers can help prepare trainees and residency programs for the breadth and intensity of the ICU experience and for work in clinical practice settings that follow completion of training.

  2. Implementation of pharmacists’ interventions and assessment of medication errors in an intensive care unit of a Chinese tertiary hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang SP

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sai-Ping Jiang,1,* Jian Chen,2,* Xing-Guo Zhang,1 Xiao-Yang Lu,1 Qing-Wei Zhao1 1Department of Pharmacy, 2Intensive Care Unit, the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Pharmacist interventions and medication errors potentially differ between the People’s Republic of China and other countries. This study aimed to report interventions administered by clinical pharmacists and analyze medication errors in an intensive care unit (ICU in a tertiary hospital in People’s Republic of China.Method: A prospective, noncomparative, 6-month observational study was conducted in a general ICU of a tertiary hospital in the People’s Republic of China. Clinical pharmacists performed interventions to prevent or resolve medication errors during daily rounds and documented all of these interventions and medication errors. Such interventions and medication errors were categorized and then analyzed.Results: During the 6-month observation period, a total of 489 pharmacist interventions were reported. Approximately 407 (83.2% pharmacist interventions were accepted by ICU physicians. The incidence rate of medication errors was 124.7 per 1,000 patient-days. Improper drug frequency or dosing (n=152, 37.3%, drug omission (n=83, 20.4%, and potential or actual occurrence of adverse drug reaction (n=54, 13.3% were the three most commonly committed medication errors. Approximately 339 (83.4% medication errors did not pose any risks to the patients. Antimicrobials (n=171, 35.0% were the most frequent type of medication associated with errors.Conclusion: Medication errors during prescription frequently occurred in an ICU of a tertiary hospital in the People’s Republic of China. Pharmacist interventions were also efficient in preventing medication errors. Keywords: pharmacist, medication error, preva­lence rate, type, severity, intensive care

  3. Considering the ranges of uncertainties in the New Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment of Germany - Version 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunthal, Gottfried; Stromeyer, Dietrich; Bosse, Christian; Cotton, Fabrice; Bindi, Dino

    2017-04-01

    The seismic load parameters for the upcoming National Annex to the Eurocode 8 result from the reassessment of the seismic hazard supported by the German Institution for Civil Engineering . This 2016 version of hazard assessment for Germany as target area was based on a comprehensive involvement of all accessible uncertainties in models and parameters into the approach and the provision of a rational framework for facilitating the uncertainties in a transparent way. The developed seismic hazard model represents significant improvements; i.e. it is based on updated and extended databases, comprehensive ranges of models, robust methods and a selection of a set of ground motion prediction equations of their latest generation. The output specifications were designed according to the user oriented needs as suggested by two review teams supervising the entire project. In particular, seismic load parameters were calculated for rock conditions with a vS30 of 800 ms-1 for three hazard levels (10%, 5% and 2% probability of occurrence or exceedance within 50 years) in form of, e.g., uniform hazard spectra (UHS) based on 19 sprectral periods in the range of 0.01 - 3s, seismic hazard maps for spectral response accelerations for different spectral periods or for macroseismic intensities. The developed hazard model consists of a logic tree with 4040 end branches and essential innovations employed to capture epistemic uncertainties and aleatory variabilities. The computation scheme enables the sound calculation of the mean and any quantile of required seismic load parameters. Mean, median and 84th percentiles of load parameters were provided together with the full calculation model to clearly illustrate the uncertainties of such a probabilistic assessment for a region of a low-to-moderate level of seismicity. The regional variations of these uncertainties (e.g. ratios between the mean and median hazard estimations) were analyzed and discussed.

  4. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of noise at moderate intensities on extra-auditory system in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noura Gannouni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise has long been realized as an environmental stress causing physiological, psychological and behavioral changes in humans. The aim of the present study was to determinate the effect of chronic noise at moderate intensities on both glandular and cardiac function and oxidative status. Our problem comes from working conditions in call centers where operators are responsible for making simple and repetitive tasks. One wishes to ascertain the effects of moderate sound levels on rats exposed to the same noise levels during similar periods to those experienced by call center operators. Male Wistar rats were exposed to 70 and 85 dB(A to an octave-band noise (8-16 kHz 6 h/day for 3 month. Corticosterone levels, oxidative status and functional exploration of adrenal and thyroid glands and cardiac tissue were determined. Exposure to long-term noise for different intensities (70 and 85 dB(A resulted in increased corticosterone levels, affected various parameters of the endocrine glands and cardiac function. Markers of oxidative stress (catalase, superoxide dismutase and lipid peroxidation were increased. These results imply that long-term exposure to noise even at moderate levels may enhance physiological function related to neuroendocrine modulation and oxidative imbalance. In these data, the physiological changes occur during the different sounds suggests the concept of allostatic load or homeostatic response of the body.

  5. Assessment of pruritus intensity: prospective study on validity and reliability of the visual analogue scale, numerical rating scale and verbal rating scale in 471 patients with chronic pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Ngoc Quan; Blome, Christine; Fritz, Fleur; Gerss, Joachim; Reich, Adam; Ebata, Toshiya; Augustin, Matthias; Szepietowski, Jacek C; Ständer, Sonja

    2012-09-01

    The most commonly used tool for self-report of pruritus intensity is the visual analogue scale (VAS). Similar tools are the numerical rating scale (NRS) and verbal rating scale (VRS). In the present study, initiated by the International Forum for the Study of Itch assessing reliability of these tools, 471 randomly selected patients with chronic itch (200 males, 271 females, mean age 58.44 years) recorded their pruritus intensity on VAS (100-mm line), NRS (0-10) and VRS (four-point) scales. Re-test reliability was analysed in a subgroup of 250 patients after one hour. Statistical analysis showed a high reliability and concurrent validity (r>0.8; pscales showed a high correlation. In conclusion, high reliability and concurrent validity was found for VAS, NRS and VRS. On re-test, higher correlation and less missing values were observed. A training session before starting a clinical trial is recommended.

  6. Development of stress ulcers assessed by gastric electrical potential difference, pH of gastric juice, and endoscopy in patients in the intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubinstein, E; Gjørup, I; Schulze, S

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess measurement of gastric electrical potential difference, pH of gastric mucosa, and endoscopic findings in patients in intensive care units who are at risk of developing stress ulcers. DESIGN: Open comparison with age- and sex-matched control subjects. SETTING: Herlev Hospital...... which any lesions that were found were scored according to severity, the gastric potential difference, and the pH of gastric juice were measured. OUTCOME MEASURES: Correlation between the incidence of stress ulceration found at endoscopy, gastric potential difference, and gastric pH. RESULTS: Gastric...... potential difference was significantly reduced and gastric pH significantly increased in the patients in the intensive care unit (p less than 0.05 in both cases), all of whom had stress ulcers in more than one gastric segment. Nine of the patients had gastric pH readings of greater than 4. CONCLUSION...

  7. Environmental monitoring and assessment of landscape dynamics in southern coast of the Caspian Sea through intensity analysis and imprecise land-use data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasani, Mohammad; Sakieh, Yousef; Dezhkam, Sadeq; Ardakani, Tahereh; Salmanmahiny, Abdolrassoul

    2017-04-01

    A hierarchical intensity analysis of land-use change is applied to evaluate the dynamics of a coupled urban coastal system in Rasht County, Iran. Temporal land-use layers of 1987, 1999, and 2011 are employed, while spatial accuracy metrics are only available for 2011 data (overall accuracy of 94%). The errors in 1987 and 1999 layers are unknown, which can influence the accuracy of temporal change information. Such data were employed to examine the size and the type of errors that could justify deviations from uniform change intensities. Accordingly, errors comprising 3.31 and 7.47% of 1999 and 2011 maps, respectively, could explain all differences from uniform gains and errors including 5.21 and 1.81% of 1987 and 1999 maps, respectively, could explain all deviations from uniform losses. Additional historical information is also applied for uncertainty assessment and to separate probable map errors from actual land-use changes. In this regard, historical processes in Rasht County can explain different types of transition that are either consistent or inconsistent to known processes. The intensity analysis assisted in identification of systematic transitions and detection of competitive categories, which cannot be investigated through conventional change detection methods. Based on results, built-up area is the most active gaining category in the area and wetland category with less areal extent is more sensitive to intense land-use change processes. Uncertainty assessment results also indicated that there are no considerable classification errors in temporal land-use data and these imprecise layers can reliably provide implications for informed decision making.

  8. Seismic hazard assessment in the Catania and Siracusa urban areas (Italy) through different approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzera, Francesco; Lombardo, Giuseppe; Rigano, Rosaria

    2010-05-01

    The seismic hazard assessment (SHA) can be performed using either Deterministic or Probabilistic approaches. In present study a probabilistic analysis was carried out for the Catania and Siracusa towns using two different procedures: the 'site' (Albarello and Mucciarelli, 2002) and the 'seismotectonic' (Cornell 1968; Esteva, 1967) methodologies. The SASHA code (D'Amico and Albarello, 2007) was used to calculate seismic hazard through the 'site' approach, whereas the CRISIS2007 code (Ordaz et al., 2007) was adopted in the Esteva-Cornell procedure. According to current international conventions for PSHA (SSHAC, 1997), a logic tree approach was followed to consider and reduce the epistemic uncertainties, for both seismotectonic and site methods. The code SASHA handles the intensity data taking into account the macroseismic information of past earthquakes. CRISIS2007 code needs, as input elements, a seismic catalogue tested for completeness, a seismogenetic zonation and ground motion predicting equations. Data concerning the characterization of regional seismic sources and ground motion attenuation properties were taken from the literature. Special care was devoted to define source zone models, taking into account the most recent studies on regional seismotectonic features and, in particular, the possibility of considering the Malta escarpment as a potential source. The combined use of the above mentioned approaches allowed us to obtain useful elements to define the site seismic hazard in Catania and Siracusa. The results point out that the choice of the probabilistic model plays a fundamental role. It is indeed observed that when the site intensity data are used, the town of Catania shows hazard values higher than the ones found for Siracusa, for each considered return period. On the contrary, when the Esteva-Cornell method is used, Siracusa urban area shows higher hazard than Catania, for return periods greater than one hundred years. The higher hazard observed

  9. Automatic single questionnaire intensity (SQI, EMS98 scale) estimation using ranking models built on the existing BCSF database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlupp, A.; Sira, C.; Schmitt, K.; Schaming, M.

    2013-12-01

    In charge of intensity estimations in France, BCSF has collected and manually analyzed more than 47000 online individual macroseismic questionnaires since 2000 up to intensity VI. These macroseismic data allow us to estimate one SQI value (Single Questionnaire Intensity) for each form following the EMS98 scale. The reliability of the automatic intensity estimation is important as they are today used for automatic shakemaps communications and crisis management. Today, the automatic intensity estimation at BCSF is based on the direct use of thumbnails selected on a menu by the witnesses. Each thumbnail corresponds to an EMS-98 intensity value, allowing us to quickly issue an intensity map of the communal intensity by averaging the SQIs at each city. Afterwards an expert, to determine a definitive SQI, manually analyzes each form. This work is time consuming and not anymore suitable considering the increasing number of testimonies at BCSF. Nevertheless, it can take into account incoherent answers. We tested several automatic methods (USGS algorithm, Correlation coefficient, Thumbnails) (Sira et al. 2013, IASPEI) and compared them with 'expert' SQIs. These methods gave us medium score (between 50 to 60% of well SQI determined and 35 to 40% with plus one or minus one intensity degree). The best fit was observed with the thumbnails. Here, we present new approaches based on 3 statistical ranking methods as 1) Multinomial logistic regression model, 2) Discriminant analysis DISQUAL and 3) Support vector machines (SVMs). The two first methods are standard methods, while the third one is more recent. Theses methods could be applied because the BCSF has already in his database more then 47000 forms and because their questions and answers are well adapted for a statistical analysis. The ranking models could then be used as automatic method constrained on expert analysis. The performance of the automatic methods and the reliability of the estimated SQI can be evaluated thanks to

  10. Responses of European forest ecosystems to 21st century climate: assessing changes in interannual variability and fire intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dury M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant climatic changes are currently observed and, according to projections, will be strengthened over the 21st century throughout the world with the continuing increase of the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Climate will be generally warmer with notably changes in the seasonality and in the precipitation regime. These changes will have major impacts on the biodiversity and the functioning of natural ecosystems. The CARAIB dynamic vegetation model driven by the ARPEGE/Climate model under forcing from the A2 IPCC emission scenario is used to illustrate and analyse the potential impacts of climate change on forest productivity and distribution as well as fire intensity over Europe. The potential CO2 fertilizing effect is studied throughout transient runs of the vegetation model over the 1961-2100 period assuming constant and increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. Without fertilisation effect, the net primary productivity (NPP might increase in high latitudes and altitudes (by up to 40 % or even 60-100 % while it might decrease in temperate (by up to 50 % and in warmer regions, e.g., Mediterranean area (by up to 80 %. This strong decrease in NPP is associated with recurrent drought events occurring mostly in summer time. Under rising CO2 concentration, NPP increases all over Europe by as much as 25-75%, but it is not clear whether or not soils might sustain such an increase. The model indicates also that interannual NPP variability might strongly increase in the areas which will undergo recurrent water stress in the future. During the years exhibiting summer drought, the NPP might decrease to values much lower than present-day average NPP even when CO2 fertilization is included. Moreover, years with such events will happen much more frequently than today. Regions with more severe droughts might also be affected by an increase of wildfire frequency and intensity, which may have large impacts on vegetation density and distribution. For

  11. Simultaneous Prediction of New Morbidity, Mortality, and Survival without New Morbidity from Pediatric Intensive Care: A New Paradigm for Outcomes Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Murray M.; Holubkov, Richard; Funai, Tomohiko; Berger, John T.; Clark, Amy E.; Meert, Kathleen; Berg, Robert A.; Carcillo, Joseph; Wessel, David L.; Moler, Frank; Dalton, Heidi; Newth, Christopher J. L.; Shanley, Thomas; Harrison, Rick E.; Doctor, Allan; Jenkins, Tammara L.; Tamburro, Robert; Dean, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective Assessments of care including quality assessments adjusted for physiological status should include the development of new morbidities as well as mortalities. We hypothesized that morbidity, like mortality, is associated with physiological dysfunction and could be predicted simultaneously with mortality. Design Prospective cohort study from December 4, 2011 to April 7, 2013. Setting and Patients General and cardiac/cardiovascular pediatric intensive care units at 7 sites. Measurements and Main Results Among 10,078 admissions, the unadjusted morbidity rates (measured with the Functional Status Scale (FSS), and defined as an increase of ≥ 3 from pre-illness to hospital discharge) were 4.6% (site range 2.6% to 7.7%) and unadjusted mortality rates were 2.7% (site range 1.3% – 5.0%). Morbidity and mortality were significantly (p0.20). Predictive ability assessed with the volume under the surface (VUS) was 0.50 ± 0.019 (derivation) and 0.50 ± 0.034 (validation) (versus chance performance = 0.17). Site-level standardized morbidity ratios were more variable than standardized mortality ratios. Conclusions New morbidities were associated with physiological status and can be modeled simultaneously with mortality. Trichotomous outcome models including both morbidity and mortality based on physiological status are suitable for research studies, and quality and other outcome assessments. This approach may be applicable to other assessments presently based only on mortality. PMID:25985385

  12. Implementation of pharmacists' interventions and assessment of medication errors in an intensive care unit of a Chinese tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Sai-Ping; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Xing-Guo; Lu, Xiao-Yang; Zhao, Qing-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacist interventions and medication errors potentially differ between the People's Republic of China and other countries. This study aimed to report interventions administered by clinical pharmacists and analyze medication errors in an intensive care unit (ICU) in a tertiary hospital in People's Republic of China. A prospective, noncomparative, 6-month observational study was conducted in a general ICU of a tertiary hospital in the People's Republic of China. Clinical pharmacists performed interventions to prevent or resolve medication errors during daily rounds and documented all of these interventions and medication errors. Such interventions and medication errors were categorized and then analyzed. During the 6-month observation period, a total of 489 pharmacist interventions were reported. Approximately 407 (83.2%) pharmacist interventions were accepted by ICU physicians. The incidence rate of medication errors was 124.7 per 1,000 patient-days. Improper drug frequency or dosing (n=152, 37.3%), drug omission (n=83, 20.4%), and potential or actual occurrence of adverse drug reaction (n=54, 13.3%) were the three most commonly committed medication errors. Approximately 339 (83.4%) medication errors did not pose any risks to the patients. Antimicrobials (n=171, 35.0%) were the most frequent type of medication associated with errors. Medication errors during prescription frequently occurred in an ICU of a tertiary hospital in the People's Republic of China. Pharmacist interventions were also efficient in preventing medication errors.

  13. Children as donors: a national study to assess procurement of organs and tissues in pediatric intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebelink, Marion J; Albers, Marcel J I J; Roodbol, Petrie F; Van de Wiel, Harry B M

    2012-12-01

    A shortage of size-matched organs and tissues is the key factor limiting transplantation in children. Empirical data on procurement from pediatric donors is sparse. This study investigated donor identification, parental consent, and effectuation rates, as well as adherence to the national protocol. A national retrospective cohort study was conducted in all eight Dutch pediatric intensive care units. Records of deceased children were analyzed by an independent donation officer. Seventy-four (11%) of 683 deceased children were found to be suitable for organ donation and 132 (19%) for tissue donation. Sixty-two (84%) potential organ donors had been correctly identified; the parental consent and effectuation rate was 42%. Sixty-three (48%) potential tissue donors had been correctly identified; the parental consent and effectuation rate was 27%. Correct identification increased with age (logistic regression, organs: P = .024; tissues: P = .011). Although an overall identification rate of 84% of potential organ donors may seem acceptable, the variation observed suggests room for improvement, as does the overall low rate of identification of pediatric tissue donors. Efforts to address the shortage of organs and tissues for transplantation in children should focus on identifying potential donors and on the reasons why parents do not consent.

  14. Modified mercalli intensities for nine earthquakes in central and western Washington between 1989 and 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocher, Thomas M.; Dewey, James W.; Cassidy, John F.

    2017-08-15

    We determine Modified Mercalli (Seismic) Intensities (MMI) for nine onshore earthquakes of magnitude 4.5 and larger that occurred in central and western Washington between 1989 and 1999, on the basis of effects reported in postal questionnaires, the press, and professional collaborators. The earthquakes studied include four earthquakes of M5 and larger: the M5.0 Deming earthquake of April 13, 1990, the M5.0 Point Robinson earthquake of January 29, 1995, the M5.4 Duvall earthquake of May 3, 1996, and the M5.8 Satsop earthquake of July 3, 1999. The MMI are assigned using data and procedures that evolved at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its Department of Commerce predecessors and that were used to assign MMI to felt earthquakes occurring in the United States between 1931 and 1986. We refer to the MMI assigned in this report as traditional MMI, because they are based on responses to postal questionnaires and on newspaper reports, and to distinguish them from MMI calculated from data contributed by the public by way of the internet. Maximum traditional MMI documented for the M5 and larger earthquakes are VII for the 1990 Deming earthquake, V for the 1995 Point Robinson earthquake, VI for the 1996 Duvall earthquake, and VII for the 1999 Satsop earthquake; the five other earthquakes were variously assigned maximum intensities of IV, V, or VI. Starting in 1995, the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) published MMI maps for four of the studied earthquakes, based on macroseismic observations submitted by the public by way of the internet. With the availability now of the traditional USGS MMI interpreted for all the sites from which USGS postal questionnaires were returned, the four Washington earthquakes join a rather small group of earthquakes for which both traditional USGS MMI and some type of internet-based MMI have been assigned. The values and distributions of the traditional MMI are broadly similar to the internet-based PNSN intensities; we discuss some

  15. Diagnostic performance of three-dimensional MR maximum intensity projection for the assessment of synovitis of the hand and wrist in rheumatoid arthritis: A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xubin, E-mail: lixb@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Radiology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Reseaech Center for Cancer, Tianjin, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin 300060 (China); Liu, Xia; Du, Xiangke [Department of Radiology, Peking University People' s Hospital, Beijing 100044 (China); Ye, Zhaoxiang [Department of Radiology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Reseaech Center for Cancer, Tianjin, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin 300060 (China)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of three-dimensional (3D) MR maximum intensity projection (MIP) in the assessment of synovitis of the hand and wrist in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared to 3D contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI). Materials and methods: Twenty-five patients with RA underwent MR examinations. 3D MR MIP images were derived from the enhanced images. MR images were reviewed by two radiologists for the presence and location of synovitis of the hand and wrist. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 3D MIP were, respectively, calculated with the reference standard 3D CE-MRI. Results: In all subjects, 3D MIP images yielded directly and clearly the presence and location of synovitis with just one image. Synovitis demonstrated high signal intensity on MIP images. The k-values for the detection of articular synovitis indicated excellent interobserver agreements using 3D MIP images (k = 0.87) and CE-MR images (k = 0.91), respectively. 3D MIP demonstrated a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 91.07%, 98.57% and 96.0%, respectively, for the detection of synonitis. Conclusion: 3D MIP can provide a whole overview of lesion locations and a reliable diagnostic performance in the assessment of articular synovitis of the hand and wrist in patients with RA, which has potential value of clinical practice.

  16. Assessment of Organ Motion in Postoperative Endometrial and Cervical Cancer Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Eleanor E.R., E-mail: Eleanor.harris@moffitt.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL (United States); Latifi, Kujtim; Rusthoven, Chad; Javedan, Ken; Forster, Kenneth [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) may be useful to reduce toxicity in gynecologic cancer patients requiring postoperative pelvic irradiation. This study was undertaken to quantify vaginal wall organ motion during the course of postoperative pelvic irradiation using pelvic IMRT. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two consecutive patients treated with postoperative pelvic IMRT on helical tomotherapy had fiducial markers placed at the vaginal apex prior to simulation then daily megavoltage computed tomography (CT) scans for positioning. The daily positions of the fiducials were registered and measured in reference to the initial CT scan to quantify the degree of vaginal wall organ motion during the entire course of therapy. Results: The total motion of the fiducials center of mass (COM) was a median of 5.8 mm (range, 0.6-20.2 mm), and 95% of all COM positions fell within 15.7 mm of their original position. Directional margins of 3.1 mm along the right-left axis, 9.5 mm along the superoinferior axis, and of 12.1 mm along the anteroposterior axis encompassed the vaginal fiducials in 95% of treatments. Mean organ deformation for all patients was 3.9 mm, (range, 0-27.5 mm; standard deviation, 3.1 mm), with significant distortions of greater than 10 mm in 17% of secondary image sets. Conclusions: These data suggest a planning target volume margin of 16 mm will account for maximal organ motion in the majority of gynecologic patients undergoing postoperative pelvic IMRT, and it may be possible to incorporate directional motion into the planning target volume margin.

  17. A comparative assessment of intensive and extensive wastewater treatment technologies for removing emerging contaminants in small communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros, Víctor; Rodríguez, Yolanda; Albaigés, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem pollution due to the lack of or inefficient wastewater treatment coverage in small communities is still a matter of great concern, even in developed countries. This study assesses the seasonal performance of 4 different full-scale wastewater technologies that have been used in small communities (constructed wetland (CW) and a waste stabilization pond (WSP)), all located in north-eastern Spain. The studied compounds belonged to the groups of pharmaceuticals, sunscreen compounds, fragrances, antiseptics, flame retardants, surfactants, pesticides and plasticizers. The 25 ECs occurred in wastewater at concentrations ranging from undetectable to 80 μg L(-1). The average removal efficiency was 42% for the CW, 62% for the AS, 63% for the RBC and 82% for the WSP. All the technologies except the WSP system showed seasonal variability in the removal of ECs. The ecotoxicological assessment study revealed that, whilst all the technologies were capable of decreasing the aquatic risk, only the WSP yielded no risk in both seasons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preliminary quantitative assessment of earthquake casualties and damages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badal, J.; Vázquez-Prada, M.; González, Á.

    2005-01-01

    of casualties within areas of different intensity is computed using an application developed in a geographic information system (GIS) environment, taking advantage of the possibilities of such a system for the treatment of space-distributed data. The casualty rate, defined as the number of killed people divided...... the local social wealth as a function of the gross domestic product of the country. This last step is performed on the basis of the relationship of the macroseismic intensity to the earthquake economic loss in percentage of the wealth. Such an approach to the human casualty and damage levels is carried out...... for sites near important cities located in a seismically active zone of Spain, thus contributing to an easier taking of decisions in emergency preparedness planning, contemporary earthquake engineering and seismic risk prevention....

  19. Impact of low signal intensity assessed by cine magnetic resonance imaging on detection of poorly viable myocardium in patients with prior myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Shingo; Tanimoto, Takashi; Orii, Makoto; Hirata, Kumiko; Shiono, Yasutsugu; Shimamura, Kunihiro; Matsuo, Yoshiki; Yamano, Takashi; Ino, Yasushi; Kitabata, Hironori; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Kubo, Takashi; Tanaka, Atsushi; Imanishi, Toshio; Akasaka, Takashi

    2015-05-13

    Late gadolinium enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (LGE-MRI) has been established as a modality to detect myocardial infarction (MI). However, the use of gadolinium contrast is limited in patients with advanced renal dysfunction. Although the signal intensity (SI) of infarct area assessed by cine MRI is low in some patients with prior MI, the prevalence and clinical significance of low SI has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate how low SI assessed by cine MRI may relate to the myocardial viability in patients with prior MI. Fifty patients with prior MI underwent both cine MRI and LGE-MRI. The left ventricle was divided into 17 segments. The presence of low SI and the wall motion score (WMS) of each segment were assessed by cine MRI. The transmural extent of infarction was evaluated by LGE-MRI. LGE was detected in 329 of all 850 segments (39%). The low SI assessed by cine MRI was detected in 105 of 329 segments with LGE (32%). All segments with low SI had LGE. Of all 329 segments with LGE, the segments with low SI showed greater transmural extent of infarction (78 [72 - 84] % versus 53 [38 - 72] %, P cine MRI may be effective for detecting poorly viable myocardium in patients with prior MI.

  20. Life cycle assessment of an intensive sewage treatment plant in Barcelona (Spain) with focus on energy aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, L; Ferrer, I

    2011-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment was used to evaluate environmental impacts associated to a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Barcelona Metropolitan Area, with a treatment capacity of 2 million population equivalent, focussing on energy aspects and resources consumption. The wastewater line includes conventional pre-treatment, primary settler, activated sludge with nitrogen removal, and tertiary treatment; and the sludge line consists of thickening, anaerobic digestion, cogeneration, dewatering and thermal drying. Real site data were preferably included in the inventory. Environmental impacts of the resulting impact categories were determined by the CLM 2 baseline method. According to the results, the combustion of natural gas in the cogeneration engine is responsible for the main impact on Climate Change and Depletion of Abiotic Resources, while the combustion of biogas in the cogeneration unit accounts for a minor part. The results suggest that the environmental performance of the WWTP would be enhanced by increasing biogas production through improved anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

  1. Physical functional outcome assessment of patients with major burns admitted to a UK Burn Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smailes, Sarah T; Engelsman, Kayleen; Dziewulski, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Determining the discharge outcome of burn patients can be challenging and therefore a validated objective measure of functional independence would assist with this process. We developed the Functional Assessment for Burns (FAB) score to measure burn patients' functional independence. FAB scores were taken on discharge from ICU (FAB 1) and on discharge from inpatient burn care (FAB 2) in 56 patients meeting the American Burn Association criteria for major burn. We retrospectively analysed prospectively collected data to measure the progress of patients' physical functional outcomes and to evaluate the predictive validity of the FAB score for discharge outcome. Mean age was 38.6 years and median burn size 35%. Significant improvements were made in the physical functional outcomes between FAB 1 and FAB 2 scores (ppatients were discharged home, 8 of these with social care. 8 patients were transferred to another hospital for further inpatient rehabilitation. FAB 1 score (≤ 9) is strongly associated with discharge outcome (pburn patients.

  2. Assessment of knowledge of participants on basic molecular biology techniques after 5-day intensive molecular biology training workshops in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yisau, J I; Adagbada, A O; Bamidele, T; Fowora, M; Brai, B I C; Adebesin, O; Bamidele, M; Fesobi, T; Nwaokorie, F O; Ajayi, A; Smith, S I

    2017-07-08

    The deployment of molecular biology techniques for diagnosis and research in Nigeria is faced with a number of challenges, including the cost of equipment and reagents coupled with the dearth of personnel skilled in the procedures and handling of equipment. Short molecular biology training workshops were conducted at the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research (NIMR), to improve the knowledge and skills of laboratory personnel and academics in health, research, and educational facilities. Five-day molecular biology workshops were conducted annually between 2011 and 2014, with participants drawn from health, research facilities, and the academia. The courses consisted of theoretical and practical sessions. The impact of the workshops on knowledge and skill acquisition was evaluated by pre- and post-tests which consisted of 25 multiple choice and other questions. Sixty-five participants took part in the workshops. The mean knowledge of molecular biology as evaluated by the pre- and post-test assessments were 8.4 (95% CI 7.6-9.1) and 13.0 (95 CI 11.9-14.1), respectively. The mean post-test score was significantly greater than the mean pre-test score (p biology workshop significantly increased the knowledge and skills of participants in molecular biology techniques. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(4):313-317, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  3. Assessment of Critical Care Provider's Application of Preventive Measures for Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Amiri-Abchuyeh, Maryam; Gholipour-Baradari, Afshin; Yazdani-Cherati, Jamshid; Nikkhah, Attieh

    2015-08-01

    The implementation of guidelines for the prevention of Ventilator-associated pneumonia has been shown to have a significant effect in reducing the incidence of VAP. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the implementation of the preventive strategies for VAP in ICUs of university hospitals of Sari, Iran. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 600 beds/day in the ICUs of university hospitals of Sari from April to June 2012. Sampling was done by availability technique in patients receiving mechanical ventilation in the ICU. The implementation of the preventive measures was assessed by a standard checklist with previously approved validity and reliability. The percentage of implementing each of the measures was as follows: sterile suction, 88.44%; semi-recumbent position, 76.8%; oral hygiene, 58.45%; using heat and moisture exchanges (HMEs), 58%; controlling cuff pressure, 46.8%; hand hygiene, 32.8%; using anti-coagulants, 26.8% and physiotherapy, 25.5%. Closed suction system, continuous drainage of subglottic secretions and kinetic beds were not used at all. The overall mean percentage of implementing preventive measures was low and required designing integrated guidelines by considering the conditions of the ICUs in each country, as well as educating and encouraging the staffs to use the recommended guidelines.

  4. Prospective assessment of the quality of life before, during and after image guided intensity modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveistrup, Joen; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Bjørner, Jakob B.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy (RT) in combination with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PCa) carries a risk of gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary toxicity, which might affect the quality of life (QoL). The purpose of this study was to assess the QoL in patients with PCa...... before, during and after radiotherapy (RT) and to compare the QoL 1 year after RT to a normal population. METHODS: The QoL was evaluated prospectively by the self-administered questionnaire SF-36 in 87 patients with PCa. The SF-36 was completed before RT (baseline), at start of RT, at end of RT and 1...... year after RT. A mixed model analysis was used to determine the changes in QoL at each time point compared to baseline. The patients' QoL 1 year after RT was compared to a normal population consisting of 462 reference subjects matched on age and education. RESULTS: One year after RT, patients reported...

  5. Assessment and management of pain in newborns hospitalized in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sposito, Natália Pinheiro Braga; Rossato, Lisabelle Mariano; Bueno, Mariana; Kimura, Amélia Fumiko; Costa, Taine; Guedes, Danila Maria Batista

    2017-09-12

    to determine the frequency of pain, to verify the measures adopted for pain relief during the first seven days of hospitalization in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and to identify the type and frequency of invasive procedures to which newborns are submitted. cross-sectional retrospective study. Out of the 188 hospitalizations occurred during the 12-month period, 171 were included in the study. The data were collected from the charts and the presence of pain was analyzed based on the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale and on nursing notes suggestions of pain. For statistical analysis, the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was used, and the significance level was set at 5%. there was at least one record of pain in 50.3% of the hospitalizations, according to the pain scale adopted or nursing note. The newborns underwent a mean of 6.6 invasive procedures per day. Only 32.5% of the pain records resulted in the adoption of pharmacological or non-pharmacological intervention for pain relief. newborns are frequently exposed to pain and the low frequency of pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions reinforces the undertreatment of this condition. determinar a frequência de dor e verificar as medidas realizadas para seu alívio durante os sete primeiros dias de internação na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal, bem como identificar o tipo e frequência de procedimentos invasivos aos quais os recém-nascidos foram submetidos. estudo retrospectivo transversal. Das 188 internações ocorridas no período estipulado de 12 meses, 171 foram incluídas na pesquisa. Os dados foram coletados a partir dos prontuários e a presença de dor foi analisada tanto com base na escala de dor Neonatal Infant Pain Scale quanto mediante anotação de enfermagem sugestiva de dor. Para análise estatística, utilizou-se o programa Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, adotando-se nível de significância de 5%. em 50,3% das internações houve ao menos um registro de dor

  6. Nurse titrated analgesia and sedation in intensive care increases the frequency of comfort assessment and reduces midazolam use in paediatric patients following cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Grace E; McKeever, Stephen

    2017-03-08

    Pain and sedation protocols are suggested to improve the outcomes of patients within paediatric intensive care. However, it is not clear how protocols will influence practice within individual units. Evaluate a nurse led pain and sedation protocols impact on pain scoring and analgesic and sedative administration for post-operative cardiac patients within a paediatric intensive care unit. A retrospective chart review was performed on 100 patients admitted to a tertiary paediatric intensive care unit pre and post introduction of an analgesic and sedative protocol. Stata12 was used to perform Chi 2 or student t tests to compare data between the groups. Post protocol introduction documentation of pain assessments increased (pre protocol 3/24h vs post protocol 5/24h, p=0.006). Along with a reduction in administration of midazolam (57.6mcg/kg/min pre protocol vs 24.5mcg/kg/min post protocol, p=0.0001). Children's pain scores remained unchanged despite this change, with a trend towards more scores in the optimal range in the post protocol group (5 pre protocol vs 12 post protocol, p=0.06). Introducing a pain and sedation protocol changed bedside nurse practice in pain and sedation management. The protocol has enabled nurses to provide pain and sedation management in a consistent and timely manner and reduced the dose of midazolam required to maintain comfort according to the patients COMFORT B scores. Individual evaluation of practice change is recommended to units who implement nurse led analgesic and sedative protocols to monitor changes in practice. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sound Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, M.J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  8. Increased objectively assessed vigorous-intensity exercise is associated with reduced stress, increased mental health and good objective and subjective sleep in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Herrmann, Christian; Colledge, Flora; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    The role of physical activity as a factor that protects against stress-related mental disorders is well documented. Nevertheless, there is still a dearth of research using objective measures of physical activity. The present study examines whether objectively assessed vigorous physical activity (VPA) is associated with mental health benefits beyond moderate physical activity (MPA). Particularly, this study examines whether young adults who accomplish the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM) vigorous-intensity exercise recommendations differ from peers below these standards with regard to their level of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, perceived pain, and subjective and objective sleep. A total of 42 undergraduate students (22 women, 20 men; M=21.24years, SD=2.20) volunteered to take part in the study. Stress, pain, depressive symptoms, and subjective sleep were assessed via questionnaire, objective sleep via sleep-EEG assessment, and VPA via actigraphy. Meeting VPA recommendations had mental health benefits beyond MPA. VPA was associated with less stress, pain, subjective sleep complaints and depressive symptoms. Moreover, vigorous exercisers had more favorable objective sleep pattern. Especially, they had increased total sleep time, more stage 4 and REM sleep, more slow wave sleep and a lower percentage of light sleep. Vigorous exercisers also reported fewer mental health problems if exposed to high stress. This study provides evidence that meeting the VPA standards of the ACSM is associated with improved mental health and more successful coping among young people, even compared to those who are meeting or exceeding the requirements for MPA.

  9. Peripheral venous blood gas analysis: An alternative to arterial blood gas analysis for initial assessment and resuscitation in emergency and intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Shilpi; Rani, Raka; Malviya, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis is the gold standard method for assessment of oxygenation and acid base analysis, yielding valuable information about a variety of disease process. This study is aimed to determine the extent of correlation between arterial and peripheral venous samples for blood gases and acid base status in critically ill and emergency department patients and to evaluate if venous sample may be a better alternative for initial assessment and resuscitation. The prospective study was conducted on 45 patients of either sex in the age group of 15-80 years of intensive care unit and emergency ward. Relevant history, presenting complaints, vital signs, and indication for testing were recorded. Arterial and peripheral venous samples were drawn simultaneously in a pre-heparinized syringe and analyzed immediately for blood gases and acid base status. Mean difference and Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient was used to compare the result. After statistical evaluation, the present study shows minimal mean difference and good correlation (r > 0.9) between arterial and peripheral venous sample for blood gases and acid base status. Correlation in PO2 measurement was poor (r blood may be a useful alternative to arterial blood during blood gas analysis obviating the need for arterial puncture in difficult clinical situation especially trauma patients, for initial emergency department assessment and early stages of resuscitation.

  10. Sound Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, M.J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  11. Sound intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, Malcolm J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1998-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  12. A novel approach to assess temporal sensory perception of muscle foods: application of a time-intensity technique to diverse Iberian meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorido, Laura; Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Although dynamic sensory techniques such as time-intensity (TI) have been applied to certain meat products, existing knowledge regarding the temporal sensory perception of muscle foods is still limited. The objective of the present study was to apply TI to the flavour and texture perception of three different Iberian meat products: liver pâté, dry-cured sausages ("salchichon") and dry-cured loin. Moreover, the advantages of using dynamic versus static sensory techniques were explored by subjecting the same products to a quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). TI was a suitable technique to assess the impact of composition and structure of the three meat products on flavour and texture perception from a dynamic perspective. TI parameters extracted from the TI-curves and related to temporal perception enabled the detection of clear differences in sensory temporal perception between the meat products and provided additional insight on sensory perception compared to the conventional static sensory technique (QDA).

  13. Arias intensity assessment of liquefaction test sites on the east side of San Francisco Bay affected by the Loma Prieta, California, earthquake of 17 October 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract. Uncompacted artificial-fill deposits on the east side of San Francisco Bay suffered severe levels of soil liquefaction during the Loma Prieta earthquake of 17 October 1989. Damaged areas included maritime-port facilities, office buildings, and shoreline transportation arteries, ranging from 65 to 85 km from the north end of the Loma Prieta rupture zone. Typical of all these sites, which represent occurrences of liquefaction-induced damage farthest from the rupture zone, are low cone penetration test and Standard Penetration Test resistances in zones of cohesionless silty and sandy hydraulic fill, and underlying soft cohesive Holocene and Pleistocene sediment that strongly amplified ground motions. Postearthquake investigations at five study sites using standard penetration tests and cone penetration tests provide a basis for evaluation of the Arias intensity-based methodology for assessment of liquefaction susceptibility. ?? 1997 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  14. Intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy for severe music performance anxiety: assessment, process, and outcome of psychotherapy with a professional orchestral musician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Dianna T; Arthey, Stephen; Abbass, Allan

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports on the process and outcome of therapy using intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy (ISTDP) with a professional musician who had suffered severe music performance anxiety over the course of his entire 30-year career. In this paper, we describe the nature of the therapy, the case history of the musician, the first assessment and trial therapy session, and the course and successful outcome of therapy. The patient underwent 10 sessions of ISTDP over a period of 4 months. This paper reports on the first 6 sessions, which were most relevant to the understanding and treatment of the patient's severe music performance anxiety. This case study is the first reported application of ISTDP to a professional musician. We believe that this case study provides initial support that moderate to severe performance anxiety, in at least some cases, has its origins in unresolved complex emotions and defences arising from ruptures to early attachment relationships.

  15. The paediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (pCAM-ICU: Translation and cognitive debriefing for the German-speaking area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens de Grahl

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To date there are only a few studies published, dealing with delirium in critically ill patients. The problem with these studies is that prevalence rates of delirium could only be estimated because of the lack of validated delirium assessment tools for the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU. The paediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (pCAM-ICU was specifically developed and validated for the detection of delirium in PICU patients. The purpose of this study was the translation of the English pCAM-ICU into German according to international validated guidelines. Methods: The translation process was performed according to the principles of good practice for the translation and cultural adaptation process for patient reported outcomes measures: From three independently created German forward-translation versions one preliminary German version was developed, which was then retranslated to English by a certified, state-approved translator. The back-translated version was submitted to the original author for evaluation. The German translation was evaluated by clinicians and specialists anonymously (German grades in regards to language and content of the translation. Results: The results of the cognitive debriefing revealed good to very good results. After that the translation process was successfully completed and the final version of the German pCAM-ICU was adopted by the expert committee. Conclusion: The German version of the pCAM-ICU is a result of a translation process in accordance with internationally acknowledged guidelines. Particularly, with respect to the excellent results of the cognitive debriefing, we could finalise the translation and cultural adaptation process for the German pCAM-ICU.

  16. EXPERIMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETERS PERTAINING TO BLANK TWO-DIMENSIONAL CIRCULAR MOTION ON INTENSITY OF ITS CUTTING AND QUALITY OF MACHINED SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Kiselev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to make an experimental impact assessment of parameters pertaining to blank two-dimensional circular blank motion on intensity of its cutting and quality of the machined surfaces. Experimental data have been obtained that reveal efficiency in application of blank circular motion and improvement of its output cutting indices.A methodology has been developed for execution of comparative experimental investigations on cutting glass, nephrite and jasper specimens as under conventional conditions required for the operation so while transferring induced oscillations to boom suspension assembly that ensure specimen.The proposed methodology makes it possible to assess quantitatively intensity of specimen cutting and quality of its machined surface. The paper has shown that a positive impact of the specimen circular motion on quality improvement of its cross-cut surface is related to peculiar kinematics features pertaining to relative motion of disc side surface with cross-cut portions of the specimen surface. It has been shown that the intensifying impact of the specimen circular motion on the cutting process is primarily related to the changes in dynamic conditions of its interaction with the cutting edge of the disc. In contrast to conventional cutting when the process is going on under static pressure of contacting surfaces there is their periodical impact-frictional interaction due to transfer of circular motion to the specimen along elliptical trajectory. In this case the rate of the positive impact of the specimen circular motion on its cross-cut surface becomes higher while increasing vertical velocity component that concerns its sliding relative to disc side surface that is ensured by increasing oscillation frequency which is transferred to the boom suspension assembly. Moreover, the rate of positive impact of the specimen circulatory motion on the quality of its cross-cut surface becomes higher while increasing

  17. Building vulnerability and human loss assessment in different earthquake intensity and time: a case study of the University of the Philippines, Los Baños (UPLB) Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusydy, I.; Faustino-Eslava, D. V.; Muksin, U.; Gallardo-Zafra, R.; Aguirre, J. J. C.; Bantayan, N. C.; Alam, L.; Dakey, S.

    2017-02-01

    Study on seismic hazard, building vulnerability and human loss assessment become substantial for building education institutions since the building are used by a lot of students, lecturers, researchers, and guests. The University of the Philippines, Los Banos (UPLB) located in an earthquake prone area. The earthquake could cause structural damage and injury of the UPLB community. We have conducted earthquake assessment in different magnitude and time to predict the posibility of ground shaking, building vulnerability and estimated the number of casualty of the UPLB community. The data preparation in this study includes the earthquake scenario modeling using Intensity Prediction Equations (IPEs) for shallow crustal shaking attenuation to produce intensity map of bedrock and surface. Earthquake model was generated from the segment IV and the segment X of the Valley Fault System (VFS). Building vulnerability of different type of building was calculated using fragility curve of the Philippines building. The population data for each building in various occupancy time, damage ratio, and injury ratio data were used to compute the number of casualties. The result reveals that earthquake model from the segment IV and the segment X of the VFS could generate earthquake intensity between 7.6 – 8.1 MMI in the UPLB campus. The 7.7 Mw earthquake (scenario I) from the segment IV could cause 32% - 51% damage of building and 6.5 Mw earthquake (scenario II) occurring in the segment X could cause 18% - 39% structural damage of UPLB buildings. If the earthquake occurs at 2 PM (day-time), it could injure 10.2% - 18.8% for the scenario I and could injure 7.2% - 15.6% of UPLB population in scenario II. The 5 Pm event, predicted will injure 5.1%-9.4% in the scenario I, and 3.6%-7.8% in scenario II. A nighttime event (2 Am) cause injury to students and guests who stay in dormitories. The earthquake is predicted to injure 13 - 66 students and guests in the scenario I and 9 - 47 people in

  18. Urban seismic risk assessment: statistical repair cost data and probable structural losses based on damage scenario—correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriadou, Anastasia K.; Baltzopoulou, Aikaterini D.; Karabinis, Athanasios I.

    2016-06-01

    The current seismic risk assessment is based on two discrete approaches, actual and probable, validating afterwards the produced results. In the first part of this research, the seismic risk is evaluated from the available data regarding the mean statistical repair/strengthening or replacement cost for the total number of damaged structures (180,427 buildings) after the 7/9/1999 Parnitha (Athens) earthquake. The actual evaluated seismic risk is afterwards compared to the estimated probable structural losses, which is presented in the second part of the paper, based on a damage scenario in the referring earthquake. The applied damage scenario is based on recently developed damage probability matrices (DPMs) from Athens (Greece) damage database. The seismic risk estimation refers to 750,085 buildings situated in the extended urban region of Athens. The building exposure is categorized in five typical structural types and represents 18.80 % of the entire building stock in Greece. The last information is provided by the National Statistics Service of Greece (NSSG) according to the 2000-2001 census. The seismic input is characterized by the ratio, a g/ a o, where a g is the regional peak ground acceleration (PGA) which is evaluated from the earlier estimated research macroseismic intensities, and a o is the PGA according to the hazard map of the 2003 Greek Seismic Code. Finally, the collected investigated financial data derived from different National Services responsible for the post-earthquake crisis management concerning the repair/strengthening or replacement costs or other categories of costs for the rehabilitation of earthquake victims (construction and function of settlements for earthquake homeless, rent supports, demolitions, shorings) are used to determine the final total seismic risk factor.

  19. [The assessment of the impact of rehabilitation on the pain intensity level in patients with herniated nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koszela, Kamil; Krukowska, Sylwia; Woldańska-Okońska, Marta

    2017-06-23

    Back disorders are very common phenomena in modern society. One of the methods of spinal pain treatment is performing surgery. Unfortunately, this method is not one hundred percent effective. Some patients show no improvement after surgery, the pain persists and even increases. In these cases, it is reasonable to use the term Failed Back Surgery Syndrome (FBSS), i.e. back pain syndrome after unsuccessful spine surgery. The aim of the study is to assess the impact of rehabilitation on the pain intensity level in patients with FBSS. The study was conducted in a group of 38 patients aged from 32 to 87 (mean age 61 years), including 20 women and 18 men. All patients were operated for spinal pain syndrome. Afterwards, they underwent rehabilitation because of persisting pain after the surgery. For the pain assessment was used The Visual- Analogue Scale and The Laitinen Modified Questionnaire Indicators of Pain. The results were statistically analyzed. The study showed the high efficacy of specialized rehabilitation in patients with FBSS. The rehabilitation in patients with FBSS has a significant analgesic effect. Rehabilitation should be a gold standard in patients with FBSS.

  20. Predictive validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the risk assessment pressure sore scale in intensive care patients: results of a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günes, Ülkü Yapucu; Efteli, Elçin

    2015-04-01

    Multiple pressure ulcer (PU) risk assessment instruments have been developed and tested, but there is no general consensus on which instrument to use for specific patient populations and care settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and predictive validity of the Turkish version of the Risk Assessment Pressure Sore (RAPS) instrument, which includes 12 variables--5 from the modified Norton Scale, 3 from the Braden Scale, and 3 from other research results--for use in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. The English version of the RAPS instrument was translated into Turkish and tested for internal consistency and predictive validity (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value) using a convenience sample of 122 patients consecutively admitted to an ICU unit in Turkey. The patients were assessed within 24 hours of admission, and after that, once a week until the development of a PU or discharge from the unit. The incidence of PUs in this population was 23%. The majority of ulcers that developed were Stage I. Internal consistency of the RAPS tool was adequate (Cronbach's α = 0.81). The best balance between sensitivity and specificity for ICU patients was reached at a cut-off point of ≤ 27 (ie, sensitivity = 74.2%, specificity = 31.8%, positive predictive value = 38.7%, and negative predictive value 91.3%). This is lower than the cut-off point reported in other studies of the RAPS scale. In this population of ICU patients, the RAPS scale was found to have acceptable reliability and poor validity. Additional studies to evaluate the predictive validity and reliability of the RAPS scale in other patient populations and care settings are needed.

  1. Historical intensity VIII earthquakes along the Rhone valley (Valais, Switzerland): primary and secondary effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsche, S.; Faeh, D.; Schwarz-Zanetti, G.

    2012-06-15

    In recent years the upper Rhone Valley has been one of the most intensively investigated regions by the Swiss Seismological Service. The high seismicity in the region encourages research in the seismological field and one main focus has been historical seismology. This report presents the state of the art of our historical investigations by giving an overview of the effects of four damaging earthquakes with intensity larger than VII, for which a fairly large number of documents could be found and analyzed. The overview includes the events of 1584 (Aigle, epicentral intensity VIII), 1755 (Brig, epicentral intensity VIII), 1855 (Visp, epicentral intensity VIII), and 1946 (Sierre, epicentral intensity VIII for the main shock and intensity VII for the largest aftershock). The paper focuses mainly on primary and secondary effects in the epicentral region, providing the key data and a general characterization of the event. Generally, primary effects such as the reaction of the population and impact on buildings took more focus in the past. Thus building damage is more frequently described in historic documents. However, we also found a number of sources describing secondary effects such as landslides, snow avalanches, and liquefaction. Since the sources may be useful, we include citations of these documents. The 1584 Aigle event, for example, produced exceptional movements in the Lake of Geneva, which can be explained by an expanded sub aquatic slide with resultant tsunami and seiche. The strongest of the aftershocks of the 1584 event triggered a destructive landslide covering the villages Corbeyrier and Yvorne, Vaud. All macroseismic data on the discussed events are accessible through the web page of the Swiss Seismological Service (http://www.seismo.ethz.ch). (authors)

  2. Prospective Preference Assessment of Patients' Willingness to Participate in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Versus Proton Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Anand [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Efstathiou, Jason A.; Paly, Jonathan J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Halpern, Scott D. [Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Center for Bioethics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bruner, Deborah W. [Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Christodouleas, John P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Coen, John J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Deville, Curtiland; Vapiwala, Neha [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Shipley, William U.; Zietman, Anthony L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bekelman, Justin E., E-mail: bekelman@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate patients' willingness to participate (WTP) in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with proton beam therapy (PBT) for prostate cancer (PCa). Methods and Materials: We undertook a qualitative research study in which we prospectively enrolled patients with clinically localized PCa. We used purposive sampling to ensure a diverse sample based on age, race, travel distance, and physician. Patients participated in a semi-structured interview in which they reviewed a description of a hypothetical RCT, were asked open-ended and focused follow-up questions regarding their motivations for and concerns about enrollment, and completed a questionnaire assessing characteristics such as demographics and prior knowledge of IMRT or PBT. Patients' stated WTP was assessed using a 6-point Likert scale. Results: Forty-six eligible patients (33 white, 13 black) were enrolled from the practices of eight physicians. We identified 21 factors that impacted patients' WTP, which largely centered on five major themes: altruism/desire to compare treatments, randomization, deference to physician opinion, financial incentives, and time demands/scheduling. Most patients (27 of 46, 59%) stated they would either 'definitely' or 'probably' participate. Seventeen percent (8 of 46) stated they would 'definitely not' or 'probably not' enroll, most of whom (6 of 8) preferred PBT before their physician visit. Conclusions: A substantial proportion of patients indicated high WTP in a RCT comparing IMRT and PBT for PCa.

  3. Practical Dyspnea Assessment: Relationship Between the 0-10 Numerical Rating Scale and the Four-Level Categorical Verbal Descriptor Scale of Dyspnea Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysham, Nicholas G; Miriovsky, Benjamin J; Currow, David C; Herndon, James E; Samsa, Gregory P; Wilcock, Andrew; Abernethy, Amy P

    2015-10-01

    Measurement of dyspnea is important for clinical care and research. To characterize the relationship between the 0-10 Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) and four-level categorical Verbal Descriptor Scale (VDS) for dyspnea assessment. This was a substudy of a double-blind randomized controlled trial comparing palliative oxygen to room air for relief of refractory breathlessness in patients with life-limiting illness. Dyspnea was assessed with both a 0-10 NRS and a four-level categorical VDS over the one-week trial. NRS and VDS responses were analyzed in cross section and longitudinally. Relationships between NRS and VDS responses were portrayed using descriptive statistics and visual representations. Two hundred twenty-six participants contributed responses. At baseline, mild and moderate levels of breathlessness were reported by 41.9% and 44.6% of participants, respectively. NRS scores demonstrated increasing mean and median levels for increasing VDS intensity, from a mean (SD) of 0.6 (±1.04) for VDS none category to 8.2 (1.4) for VDS severe category. The Spearman correlation coefficient was strong at 0.78 (P < 0.0001). Based on the distribution of NRS scores within VDS categories, we calculated test characteristics of two different cutpoint models. Both models yielded 75% correct translations from NRS to VDS; however, Model A was more sensitive for moderate or greater dyspnea, with fewer misses downcoded. There is strong correlation between VDS and NRS measures for dyspnea. Proposed practical cutpoints for the relationship between the dyspnea VDS and NRS are 0 for none, 1-4 for mild, 5-8 for moderate, and 9-10 for severe. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Tsunami potential assessment based on rupture zones, focal mechanisms and repeat times of strong earthquakes in the major Atlantic-Mediterranean seismic fracture zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agalos, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Kijko, Andrzej; Papageorgiou, Antonia; Smit, Ansie; Triantafyllou, Ioanna

    2016-04-01

    In the major Atlantic-Mediterranean seismic fracture zone, extended from Azores islands in the west to the easternmost Mediterranean Sea in the east, including the Marmara and Black Seas, a number of 22 tsunamigenic zones have been determined from historical and instrumental tsunami documentation. Although some tsunamis were produced by volcanic activity or landslides, the majority of them was generated by strong earthquakes. Since the generation of seismic tsunamis depends on several factors, like the earthquake size, focal depth and focal mechanism, the study of such parameters is of particular importance for the assessment of the potential for the generation of future tsunamis. However, one may not rule out the possibility for tsunami generation in areas outside of the 22 zones determined so far. For the Atlantic-Mediterranean seismic fracture zone we have compiled a catalogue of strong, potentially tsunamigenic (focal depth less than 100 km) historical earthquakes from various data bases and other sources. The lateral areas of rupture zones of these earthquakes were determined. Rupture zone is the area where the strain after the earthquake has dropped substantially with respect the strain before the earthquake. Aftershock areas were assumed to determine areas of rupture zones for instrumental earthquakes. For historical earthquakes macroseismic criteria were used such as spots of higher-degree seismic intensity and of important ground failures. For the period of instrumental seismicity, focal mechanism solutions from CMT, EMMA and other data bases were selected for strong earthquakes. From the geographical distribution of seismic rupture zones and the corresponding focal mechanisms in the entire Atlantic-Mediterranean seismic fracture zone we determined potentially tsunamigenic zones regardless they are known to have produced seismic tsunamis in the past or not. An attempt has been made to calculate in each one of such zones the repeat times of strong

  5. Volumetric ablation of uterine fibroids using Sonalleve high-intensity focused ultrasound in a 3 Tesla scanner--first clinical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorenberg, Eric J; Courivaud, Frédéric; Ring, Eva; Hald, Kirsten; Jakobsen, Jarl Å; Fosse, Erik; Hol, Per Kristian

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of the Sonalleve high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU; Philips Healthcare, Vantaa, Finland) system in ablating uterine fibroids in a 3T magnet. Seven women were included in this study. Treatment was performed according to the manufacturer's recommendation. Technical data describing the HIFU procedures were collected. On MR images at baseline, immediately and 30 days after ablation, we evaluated the volumes of the uterus, the dominant fibroid and the ablation zone. The Uterine Fibroid Symptom and Quality of Life (UFS-QOL) questionnaire was used to assess potential clinical response. The procedure was technically feasible in all patients. The median number of sonications performed during each procedure was 20 (range 2-27) per patient, the maximum temperature in all sonication cells was about 68°C. The median procedure time was 156 minutes (range 95-164). The non-perfused volume after treatment ranged from 1 to 27 ml and was unchanged or decreased in all but one patient at 30 days follow-up. There were no major adverse events. In our 3T magnet the system was able to heat tissue and induce areas of non-enhancement within uterine fibroids without major complications. Clinical benefit remains to be proven.

  6. Assessment of pesticide contamination in soil samples from an intensive horticulture area, using ultrasonic extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, C; Alpendurada, M F

    2005-03-15

    In order to reduce the amount of sample to be collected and the time consumed in the analytical process, a broad range of analytes should be preferably considered in the same analytical procedure. A suitable methodology for pesticide residue analysis in soil samples was developed based on ultrasonic extraction (USE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). For this study, different classes of pesticides were selected, both recent and old persistent molecules: parent compounds and degradation products, namely organochlorine, organophosphorous and pyrethroid insecticides, triazine and acetanilide herbicides and other miscellaneous pesticides. Pesticide residues could be detected in the low- to sub-ppb range (0.05-7.0mugkg(-1)) with good precision (7.5-20.5%, average 13.7% R.S.D.) and extraction efficiency (69-118%, average 88%) for the great majority of analytes. This methodology has been applied in a monitoring program of soil samples from an intensive horticulture area in Póvoa de Varzim, North of Portugal. The pesticides detected in four sampling programs (2001/2002) were the following: lindane, dieldrin, endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDD, atrazine, desethylatrazine, alachlor, dimethoate, chlorpyrifos, pendimethalin, procymidone and chlorfenvinphos. Pesticide contamination was investigated at three depths and in different soil and crop types to assess the influence of soil characteristics and trends over time.

  7. Radial artery applanation tonometry for continuous non-invasive arterial pressure monitoring in intensive care unit patients: comparison with invasively assessed radial arterial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meidert, A S; Huber, W; Müller, J N; Schöfthaler, M; Hapfelmeier, A; Langwieser, N; Wagner, J Y; Eyer, F; Schmid, R M; Saugel, B

    2014-03-01

    Radial artery applanation tonometry technology can be used for continuous non-invasive measurement of arterial pressure (AP). The purpose of this study was to evaluate this AP monitoring technology in intensive care unit (ICU) patients in comparison with invasive AP monitoring using a radial arterial catheter. In 24 ICU patients (German university hospital), AP values were simultaneously recorded on a beat-to-beat basis using radial artery applanation tonometry (T-Line system; Tensys Medical, San Diego, CA, USA) and a radial arterial catheter (contralateral arm). The primary endpoint of the study was to investigate the accuracy and precision of the non-invasively assessed AP measurements with the Bland-Altman method based on averaged 10 beat AP epochs (n=2993 10 beat epochs). For mean AP (MAP), systolic AP (SAP), and diastolic AP (DAP), we observed a bias (±standard deviation of the bias; 95% limits of agreement; percentage error) of +2 mm Hg (±6; -11 to +15 mm Hg; 15%), -3 mm Hg (±15; -33 to +27 mm Hg; 23%), and +5 mm Hg (±7; -9 to +19 mm Hg; 22%), respectively. In ICU patients, MAP and DAP measurements obtained using radial artery applanation tonometry show clinically acceptable agreement with invasive AP determination with a radial arterial catheter. While the radial artery applanation tonometry technology also allows SAP measurements with high accuracy, its precision for SAP measurements needs to be further improved.

  8. An intensive field trial to assess hazards to birds and mammals from the use of methiocarb as a bird repellent on ripening cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, A R; Westlake, G E; Lloyd, G A; Brown, P M; Greig-Smith, P W; Fletcher, M R; Tarrant, K A; Stanley, P I

    1993-03-01

    : A field trial was carried out in Kent, UK, in 1980, to assess the possible hazards to wildlife of methiocarb used as a spray to protect ripening cherries from damage by birds. A broad range of studies was undertaken on a single site subjected to a series of five applications. Ground deposition was measured by analysis of strips of chromatography paper and petri dishes placed between lines of trees. Airborne drift was measured on targets up to 11 m above the ground, and methiocarb residues were measured in samples of cherries. Birds were captured by intensive mist-netting throughout the trial, and breeding success was monitored in nest boxes and natural nest sites. Livetraps were set to catch small mammals in the orchard on five occasions during the trial. Systematic searches for possible casualties were made, resulting in the discovery of 21 birds found dead or incapacitated. Levels of activity of plasma, liver and brain esterases were measured in samples taken from several species, and liver slices from House Sparrows, Starlings and Thrushes were examined histologically for signs of cell damage. Samples of breast muscle tissue from Starlings and House Sparrows were analysed by GLC for residues of methiocarb and its principal breakdown product, methiocarb sulfoxide. Overall, the trial revealed that many birds and mammals were exposed to methiocarb, but its effects were largely transient and sublethal. Even a heavy repeated programme of spray applications did not cause any serious hazard to wildlife populations.

  9. Markers for Routine Assessment of Fatigue and Recovery in Male and Female Team Sport Athletes during High-Intensity Interval Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiewelhove, Thimo; Raeder, Christian; Meyer, Tim; Kellmann, Michael; Pfeiffer, Mark; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Aim Our study aimed to investigate changes of different markers for routine assessment of fatigue and recovery in response to high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Methods 22 well-trained male and female team sport athletes (age, 23.0 ± 2.7 years; V̇O2max, 57.6 ± 8.6 mL·min·kg−1) participated in a six-day running-based HIIT-microcycle with a total of eleven HIIT sessions. Repeated sprint ability (RSA; criterion measure of fatigue and recovery), countermovement jump (CMJ) height, jump efficiency in a multiple rebound jump test (MRJ), 20-m sprint performance, muscle contractile properties, serum concentrations of creatinkinase (CK), c-reactive protein (CRP) and urea as well as perceived muscle soreness (DOMS) were measured pre and post the training program as well as after 72 h of recovery. Results Following the microcycle significant changes (p HIIT induced fatigue and subsequent recovery. However, low accuracy of a single or combined use of these markers requires the verification of their applicability on an individual basis. PMID:26444557

  10. Effect of biological characteristics of different types of uterine fibroids, as assessed with T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, on ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wen-Peng; Chen, Jin-Yun; Chen, Wen-Zhi

    2015-02-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the effects of the biological characteristics of different types of uterine fibroids, as assessed with T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), on ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USgHIFU) ablation. Thirty-five patients with 39 symptomatic uterine fibroids who underwent myomectomy or hysterectomy were enrolled. Before surgery, the uterine fibroids were subdivided into hypo-intense, iso-intense, heterogeneous hyper-intense and homogeneous hyper-intense categories based on signal intensity on T2-weighted MRI. Tissue density and moisture content were determined in post-operative samples and normal uterine tissue, the isolated uterine fibroids were subjected to USgHIFU, and the extent of ablation was measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and sirius red staining were undertaken to investigate the organizational structure of the uterine fibroids. Estrogen and progesterone receptor expression was assayed via immunohistochemical staining. The mean diameter of uterine fibroids was 6.9 ± 2.8 cm. For all uterine fibroids, the average density and moisture content were 10.7 ± 0.7 mg/mL and 75.7 ± 2.4%, respectively; and for the homogeneous hyper-intense fibroids, 10.3 ± 0.5 mg/mL and 76.6 ± 2.3%. The latter subgroup had lower density and higher moisture content compared with the other subgroups. After USgHIFU treatment, the extent of ablation of the hyper-intense fibroids was 102.7 ± 42.1 mm(2), which was significantly less than those of the hypo-intense and heterogeneous hyper-intense fibroids. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and sirius red staining revealed that the homogeneous hyper-intense fibroids had sparse collagen fibers and abundant cells. Immunohistochemistry results revealed that estrogen and progesterone receptors were highly expressed in the homogeneous hyper-intense fibroids. This study revealed that lower density, higher moisture content, sparse collagen

  11. Intensive mobilities:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannini, Phillip; Bissell, David; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper explores the intensities of long distance commuting journeys as a way of exploring how bodily sensibilities are being changed by the mobilities that they undertake. The context of this paper is that many people are travelling further to work than ever before owing to a variety of facto....... By exploring how experiences of long-distance workers become constituted by a range of different material forces enables us to more sensitively consider the practical, technical, and political implications of this increasingly prevalent yet underexplored regime of work....... which relate to transport, housing and employment. Yet we argue that the experiential dimensions of long distance mobilities have not received the attention that they deserve within geographical research on mobilities. This paper combines ideas from mobilities research and contemporary social theory...... with fieldwork conducted in Canada, Denmark and Australia to develop our understanding of the experiential politics of long distance workers. Rather than focusing on the extensive dimensions of mobilities that are implicated in patterns and trends, our paper turns to the intensive dimensions of this experience...

  12. 儿童加强监护病房患儿营养状况的调查%Nutritional assessment in a pediatric intensive care unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张哲哲; 钱素云; 祝益民

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解危重患儿的营养状况,探讨营养状况与病情严重程度及预后的相关性,为临床对危重患儿进行合理的营养支持提供一定理论依据.方法 采集2010.11-2011.01期间入住北京儿童医院儿童加强监护病房(pediatric intensive care unit,PICU)的所有患儿作为研究对象.采用前瞻性研究方法,对入组患儿的身长、体质量等人体参数进行测量及营养评估.收集基础疾病、危重病例评分、住院时间、机械通气时间等临床资料.结果 196例患儿中,营养不良共43例,营养不良现患率为21.9%.营养不良组的儿童死亡危险评分大于营养正常组(P<0.05);机械通气使用率高于营养正常组(P<0.05);营养正常组患儿28 d存活率高于营养不良组(P<0.05).结论 PICU入院患儿中营养不良的患病率为21.9%.营养不良组患儿儿童死亡危险评分、机械通气使用率高于营养正常组,28 d存活率低于与营养正常组,提示营养不良与疾病严重程度和预后相关.%Objective To assess nutritional status of critically ill children,and to investigate the correlation of nutritional status with illness severity and clinical outcomes,so as to provide a theoretical basis for rational nutrition support of critically ill children.Methods All patients hospitalized in the pediatric intensive care unit of Beijing Children's Hospital from November,2010 to January 2011 were enrolled and studied prospectively.We collected anthropometric parameters (body length/height,body weight,head circumference,etc) for nutritional assessment,as well as their clinical data such as underlying diseases,pediatric risk of mortality scores (PRISM),length of hospital stay and mechanical ventilation duration.Results tn 196 cases,the prevalence of malnutrition was 21.9% (43/196).Malnutrition group had greater PRISM scores,higher mechanical ventilation rate and a lower 28-day survival rate than normal nutritional status group (all P

  13. Longitudinal microvascularity in achilles tendinopathy (power doppler ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging time-intensity curves and the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles questionnaire): a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Paula J. [University Hospital of North Staffordshire NHS Trust (UHNS), Stoke on Trent, Staffordshire (United Kingdom); Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire (United Kingdom); North Staffs. Royal Infirmary, X-ray Department, Stoke on Trent, Staffordshire (United Kingdom); McCall, Iain W. [Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire (United Kingdom); North Staffordshire NHS Trust, Stoke on Trent, Staffordshire (United Kingdom); Day, Christopher [University Hospital of North Staffordshire NHS Trust (UHNS), Stoke on Trent, Staffordshire (United Kingdom); Belcher, John [Cardiff University, Department of Primary Care and Public Health, North Wales Clinical School, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Maffulli, Nicola [Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    To evaluate the imaging of the natural history of Achilles tendinopathy microvascularisation in comparison with symptoms, using a validated disease-specific questionnaire [the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A)]. A longitudinal prospective pilot study of nine patients with post-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), time-intensity curve (TIC) enhancement, ultrasound (US) and power Doppler (PD) evaluation of tendinopathy of the mid-Achilles tendon undergoing conservative management (eccentric exercise) over 1 year. There were five men and four women [mean age 47 (range 30-62) years]. Six asymptomatic tendons with normal US and MRI appearance showed less enhancement than the tibial metaphysis did and showed a flat, constant, but very low rate of enhancement in the bone and Achilles tendon (9-73 arbitrary TIC units). These normal Achilles tendons on imaging showed a constant size throughout the year (mean 4.9 mm). At baseline the TIC enhancement in those with tendinopathy ranged from 90 arbitrary units to 509 arbitrary units. Over time, 11 abnormal Achilles tendons, whose symptoms settled, were associated with a reduction in MRI enhancement mirrored by a reduction in the number of vessels on power Doppler (8.0 to 2.7), with an improvement in morphology and a reduction in tendon size (mean 15-10.6 mm). One tendon did not change its abnormal imaging features, despite improving symptoms. Two patients developed contralateral symptoms and tendinopathy, and one had more abnormal vascularity on power Doppler and higher MRI TIC peaks in the asymptomatic side. In patient with conservatively managed tendinopathy of the mid-Achilles tendon over 1 year there was a reduction of MRI enhancement and number of vessels on power Doppler, followed by morphological improvements and a reduction in size. Vessels per se related to the abnormal morphology and size of the tendon rather than symptoms. Symptoms improve before the Achilles size reduces and the

  14. Development of a new P3 (Probability, Protection, and Precipitation) method for vulnerability, hazard, and risk intensity index assessments in karst watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Timothy P.; Gao, Yongli

    2017-06-01

    Vulnerability, hazard, and risk intensity index (RII) maps are valuable tools for water managers to protect aquifers from contamination. However, in karst aquifers the development of vulnerability and RII maps is subject to explorational bias due to the impracticality of identifying all karst features within watersheds. The P3 method (Probability, Protection, and Precipitation) is proposed to minimize explorational bias through a decision tree model generated from probability maps and nearest neighbor analysis to assign a reduction in aquifer protection based on the probability of encountering karst features. This new method was used in conjunction with previously mapped hazards to assess the vulnerability and RII of nitrate contamination in 2 karst watersheds in semi-arid climate conditions. Validation of the P3 method was conducted with spring hydrographs, tracer tests, nitrate results, and output from a previously developed SWAT model. The maps generated with the P3 method were compared with maps generated from the COP method (Concentration of flow, Overlying layers, Precipitation) using known karst features as well as karst features inferred from analyzing a high resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) (COP-DEM method). Validation results show the P3 method most closely estimates the aquifer's vulnerability and RII by minimizing explorational bias. Conversely, the COP method using known karst features underestimates vulnerability and RII by not accounting for all karst features and the COP-DEM method overestimates vulnerability and RII due to false positives of karst features. The P3 method is suitable for all karst aquifers and offers improvements over existing vulnerability mapping methodologies. Namely, the P3 method minimizes explorational bias without requiring knowledge of the location of all karst features within a study area.

  15. Measuring paediatric intensive care nursing knowledge in Australia and New Zealand: how the Basic Knowledge Assessment Tool for pediatric critical care nurses (PEDS-BKAT4) performs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Debbie; Young, Jeanine; Rickard, Claire M; Mitchell, Marion L

    2013-02-01

    Validated professional knowledge measures are limited in paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) nursing. The Basic Knowledge Assessment Tool for Pediatric Critical Care Nurses (PEDS-BKAT4) measures knowledge, however content and practice differences exist between various PICUs. The study aim was to evaluate the PEDS-BKAT4 in the Australian and New Zealand setting. A panel of 10 experts examined item and scale content validity. Items were evaluated for 31 evidence-based item writing flaws and for cognitive level, by a 4-person expert panel. Thirty-six PICU nurses completed the PEDS-BKAT4, with reliability and item analysis conducted. Mean item content validity was 0.70, and 43% of items had content validity less than 0.8. Overall (Scale) content validity was 0.71. Thirty-five percent of items were classified as flawed. Thirty-five percent of items were written at the 'knowledge' level, and 58% at 'understanding'. The mean PEDS-BKAT4 score was 60.8 (SD=9.6), KR-20 reliability 0.81. The mean item difficulty was 0.62, and the mean discrimination index was 0.23. The PEDS-BKAT4 was not a reliable and valid measure of basic PICU nursing knowledge in Australian and New Zealand. Further research into the types of knowledge and skills required of PICU nurses in this setting are needed to inform the development of a future tool. Copyright © 2012 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Robust patella motion tracking using intensity-based 2D-3D registration on dynamic bi-plane fluoroscopy: towards quantitative assessment in MPFL reconstruction surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otake, Yoshito; Esnault, Matthieu; Grupp, Robert; Kosugi, Shinichi; Sato, Yoshinobu

    2016-03-01

    The determination of in vivo motion of multiple-bones using dynamic fluoroscopic images and computed tomography (CT) is useful for post-operative assessment of orthopaedic surgeries such as medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction. We propose a robust method to measure the 3D motion of multiple rigid objects with high accuracy using a series of bi-plane fluoroscopic images and a multi-resolution, intensity-based, 2D-3D registration. A Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES) optimizer was used with a gradient correlation similarity metric. Four approaches to register three rigid objects (femur, tibia-fibula and patella) were implemented: 1) an individual bone approach registering one bone at a time, each with optimization of a six degrees of freedom (6DOF) parameter, 2) a sequential approach registering one bone at a time but using the previous bone results as the background in DRR generation, 3) a simultaneous approach registering all the bones together (18DOF) and 4) a combination of the sequential and the simultaneous approaches. These approaches were compared in experiments using simulated images generated from the CT of a healthy volunteer and measured fluoroscopic images. Over the 120 simulated frames of motion, the simultaneous approach showed improved registration accuracy compared to the individual approach: with less than 0.68mm root-mean-square error (RMSE) for translation and less than 1.12° RMSE for rotation. A robustness evaluation was conducted with 45 trials of a randomly perturbed initialization showed that the sequential approach improved robustness significantly (74% success rate) compared to the individual bone approach (34% success) for patella registration (femur and tibia-fibula registration had a 100% success rate with each approach).

  17. Markers for Routine Assessment of Fatigue and Recovery in Male and Female Team Sport Athletes during High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thimo Wiewelhove

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to investigate changes of different markers for routine assessment of fatigue and recovery in response to high-intensity interval training (HIIT.22 well-trained male and female team sport athletes (age, 23.0 ± 2.7 years; V̇O2 max, 57.6 ± 8.6 mL · min · kg(-1 participated in a six-day running-based HIIT-microcycle with a total of eleven HIIT sessions. Repeated sprint ability (RSA; criterion measure of fatigue and recovery, countermovement jump (CMJ height, jump efficiency in a multiple rebound jump test (MRJ, 20-m sprint performance, muscle contractile properties, serum concentrations of creatinkinase (CK, c-reactive protein (CRP and urea as well as perceived muscle soreness (DOMS were measured pre and post the training program as well as after 72 h of recovery.Following the microcycle significant changes (p < 0.05 in RSA as well as in CMJ and MRJ performance could be observed, showing a decline (%Δ ± 90% confidence limits, ES = effect size; RSA: -3.8 ± 1.0, ES = -1.51; CMJ: 8.4 ± 2.9, ES = -1.35; MRJ: 17.4 ± 4.5, ES = -1.60 and a return to baseline level (RSA: 2.8 ± 2.6, ES = 0.53; CMJ: 4.1 ± 2.9, ES = 0.68; MRJ: 6.5 ± 4.5, ES = 0.63 after 72 h of recovery. Athletes also demonstrated significant changes (p < 0.05 in muscle contractile properties, CK, and DOMS following the training program and after the recovery period. In contrast, CRP and urea remained unchanged throughout the study. Further analysis revealed that the accuracy of markers for assessment of fatigue and recovery in comparison to RSA derived from a contingency table was insufficient. Multiple regression analysis also showed no correlations between changes in RSA and any of the markers.Mean changes in measures of neuromuscular function, CK and DOMS are related to HIIT induced fatigue and subsequent recovery. However, low accuracy of a single or combined use of these markers requires the verification of their applicability on an individual basis.

  18. Instrumental Intensity as a Tool for Post-Earthquake Damage Assessment: Validation for the Strong Vrancea Earthquakes of August 1986 and May 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Sorin BORCIA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The frequency-dependent spectrum based seismic intensity, also called instrumental intensity, is calculated basically from the integration of the square values of spectral acceleration ordinates. The values of the instrumental intensity are calibrated to match the values of the EMS-98 intensity scale, providing a promising analytical indicator for estimating the destructive potential of earthquakes. Previous studies have shown that the proposed index could be used as a basis for the development of a new improved seismic intensity scale. The paper presents a set of maps describing the spatial distribution of instrumental intensity ordinates for three seismic events recorded in 1986 and 1990. These events, generated by the Vrancea source, are the strongest earthquakes in Romania for which accelerographic data was recorded at multiple stations. Intensity maps were generated for separate significant frequency bands, in order to reveal the destructiveness of the considered earthquakes for different building categories. Results were compared and correlated with previous studies on Vrancea earthquakes and with information provided by building damage reports from the considered earthquakes.

  19. Approaches of Seismic Vulnerability Assessments in Near Real Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, Nina; Larionov, Valery; Bonnin, Jean; Ugarov, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Data on seismic vulnerability of existing building stock and other elements at risk are rather important for near real time earthquake loss estimations by global systems. These data together with information on regional peculiarities of seismic intensity attenuation and other factors contribute greatly to the reliability of strong event consequences estimated in emergency mode. There are different approaches for vulnerability functions' development and the empirical one is most often used. It is based on analysis of engineering consequences of past strong events when well documented descriptions of damage to different building types and other elements at risk are available for the earthquake prone area under consideration. In the case such data do not exist the information from macroseismic scales may be used. Any approach of vulnerability functions' development requires the proper classification of buildings and structures under consideration. According to national and international building codes, as well as macroseismic scales different buildings' classifications exist. As a result the global systems, such as Extremum and PAGER, as well as GEM project make use of the non-unified information on building stock distribution worldwide. The paper addresses the issues of buildings' classification and city models in terms of these classifications. Distribution of different buildings types in Extremum and PAGER/GEM systems is analyzed for earthquake prone countries. The comparison of city models revealed significant differences which influence greatly earthquake loss estimations in emergency mode. The paper describes the practice of city models' development which make use of space images and web technology in social networks. It is proposed to use the G8 country (and other) initiatives related to open data and transparency aimed at improving building stock distribution and global population databases.

  20. Estimates of embodied global energy and air-emission intensities of Japanese products for building a Japanese input-output life cycle assessment database with a global system boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansai, Keisuke; Kondo, Yasushi; Kagawa, Shigemi; Suh, Sangwon; Nakajima, Kenichi; Inaba, Rokuta; Tohno, Susumu

    2012-08-21

    To build a life cycle assessment (LCA) database of Japanese products embracing their global supply chains in a manner requiring lower time and labor burdens, this study estimates the intensity of embodied global environmental burden for commodities produced in Japan. The intensity of embodied global environmental burden is a measure of the environmental burden generated globally by unit production of the commodity and can be used as life cycle inventory data in LCA. The calculation employs an input-output LCA method with a global link input-output model that defines a global system boundary grounded in a simplified multiregional input-output framework. As results, the intensities of embodied global environmental burden for 406 Japanese commodities are determined in terms of energy consumption, greenhouse-gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, perfluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, and their summation), and air-pollutant emissions (nitrogen oxide and sulfur oxide). The uncertainties in the intensities of embodied global environmental burden attributable to the simplified structure of the global link input-output model are quantified using Monte Carlo simulation. In addition, by analyzing the structure of the embodied global greenhouse-gas intensities we characterize Japanese commodities in the context of LCA embracing global supply chains.

  1. Development and Validation of an Instrument to Assess the Implementation of Family-Centred Care in Traditional Open Bay Neonatal Intensive Care Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Motlaq, Mohammad A.; Abuidhail, Jamila; Salameh, Taghreed; Awwad, Wesam

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To develop an instrument to study family-centred care (FCC) in traditional open bay Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs). Methods: The development process involved constructing instrument's items, establishing content validity by an expert panel and testing the instrument for validity and reliability with a convenience sample of 25…

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects ...

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects ...

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4: ... ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity ...

  5. On the consideration of scaling properties of extreme rainfall in Madrid (Spain) for developing a generalized intensity-duration-frequency equation and assessing probable maximum precipitation estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Castillo, M. Carmen; Rodríguez-Solà, Raúl; Navarro, Xavier; Russo, Beniamino; Lastra, Antonio; González, Paula; Redaño, Angel

    2016-11-01

    The fractal behavior of extreme rainfall intensities registered between 1940 and 2012 by the Retiro Observatory of Madrid (Spain) has been examined, and a simple scaling regime ranging from 25 min to 3 days of duration has been identified. Thus, an intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) master equation of the location has been constructed in terms of the simple scaling formulation. The scaling behavior of probable maximum precipitation (PMP) for durations between 5 min and 24 h has also been verified. For the statistical estimation of the PMP, an envelope curve of the frequency factor (k m ) based on a total of 10,194 station-years of annual maximum rainfall from 258 stations in Spain has been developed. This curve could be useful to estimate suitable values of PMP at any point of the Iberian Peninsula from basic statistical parameters (mean and standard deviation) of its rainfall series.

  6. Multiplanar reformations and minimum intensity projections using multi-detector row CT for assessing anomalies and disorders of the pancreaticobiliary tree

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun Cheol; Yang, Dal Mo; Jin, Wook; Ryu, Chang Woo; Ryu, Jung Kyu; Park, Sung Il; Park, Seong Jin; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Il Young

    2007-01-01

    CT scan is regarded as the imaging modality of choice in patients with pancreaticobiliary ductal abnormalities. However, the axial orientation of the CT images provides only limited anatomical view of pancreaticobiliary ductal abnormalities. The technological advances of multi-detector row CT and three-dimensional image processing in workstations allows rapid image acquisition and a short postprocessing time. In particular, multiplanar reformations (MPR) and minimum intensity projections (Min...

  7. Harmonizing influenza primary-care surveillance in the United Kingdom: piloting two methods to assess the timing and intensity of the seasonal epidemic across several general practice-based surveillance schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, H K; Charlett, A; Moran-Gilad, J; Fleming, D; Durnall, H; Thomas, D Rh; Cottrell, S; Smyth, B; Kearns, C; Reynolds, A J; Smith, G E; Elliot, A J; Ellis, J; Zambon, M; Watson, J M; McMenamin, J; Pebody, R G

    2015-01-01

    General Practitioner consultation rates for influenza-like illness (ILI) are monitored through several geographically distinct schemes in the UK, providing early warning to government and health services of community circulation and intensity of activity each winter. Following on from the 2009 pandemic, there has been a harmonization initiative to allow comparison across the distinct existing surveillance schemes each season. The moving epidemic method (MEM), proposed by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control for standardizing reporting of ILI rates, was piloted in 2011/12 and 2012/13 along with the previously proposed UK method of empirical percentiles. The MEM resulted in thresholds that were lower than traditional thresholds but more appropriate as indicators of the start of influenza virus circulation. The intensity of the influenza season assessed with the MEM was similar to that reported through the percentile approach. The MEM pre-epidemic threshold has now been adopted for reporting by each country of the UK. Further work will continue to assess intensity of activity and apply standardized methods to other influenza-related data sources.

  8. Developing the PTSD Checklist-I/F for the DSM-IV (PCL-I/F: Assessing PTSD Symptom Frequency and Intensity in a Pilot Study of Male Veterans with Combat-Related PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Holliday

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The widely used posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD Checklist (PCL has established reliability and validity, but it does not differentiate posttraumatic symptom frequency from intensity as elements of posttraumatic symptom severity. Thus, the PCL in its existing form may not provide a comprehensive appraisal of posttraumatic symptomatology. Because of this, we modified the PCL to create the PCL-I/F that measures both frequency and intensity of PTSD symptoms via brief self-report. To establish validity and internal consistency of the PCL-I/F, we conducted a pilot study comparing PCL-I/F scores to structured diagnostic interview for PTSD (the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale [CAPS] in a male combat veteran sample of 92 participants. Statistically significant correlations between the PCL-I/F and the CAPS were found, suggesting initial validation of the PCL-I/F to screen and assess frequency and intensity of combat-related PTSD symptoms. Implications are discussed for screening and assessment of PTSD related to combat and non-combat trauma.

  9. [Guidelines for specialized nutritional and metabolic support in the critically-ill patient. Update. Consensus of the Spanish Society of Intensive Care Medicine and Coronary Units-Spanish Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (SEMICYUC-SENPE): nutritional assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Santana, S; Arboleda Sánchez, J A; Abilés, J

    2011-11-01

    Current parameters to assess nutritional status in critically-ill patients are useful to evaluate nutritional status prior to admission to the intensive care unit. However, these parameters are of little utility once the patient's nutritional status has been altered by the acute process and its treatment. Changes in water distribution affect anthropometric variables and biochemical biomarkers, which in turn are affected by synthesis and degradation processes. Increased plasma levels of prealbumin and retinol -proteins with a short half-life- can indicate adequate response to nutritional support, while reduced levels of these proteins indicate further metabolic stress. The parameters used in functional assessment, such as those employed to assess muscular or immune function, are often altered by drugs or the presence of infection or polyneuropathy. However, some parameters can be used to monitor metabolic response and refeeding or can aid prognostic evaluation.

  10. Randomized controlled trial for assessment of Internet of Things system to guide intensive glucose control in diabetes outpatients: Nagoya Health Navigator Study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoue, Takeshi; Goto, Motomitsu; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Tominaga, Takashi; Ando, Masahiko; Honda, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Yasuko; Tosaki, Takahiro; Yokoi, Hisashi; Kato, Sawako; Maruyama, Shoichi; Arima, Hiroshi

    2017-08-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) allows collecting vast amounts of health-relevant data such as daily activity, body weight (BW), and blood pressure (BP) automatically. The use of IoT devices to monitor diabetic patients has been studied, but could not evaluate IoT-dependent effects because health data were not measured in control groups. This multicenter, open-label, randomized, parallel group study will compare the impact of intensive health guidance using IoT and conventional medical guidance on glucose control. It will be conducted in outpatients with type 2 diabetes for a period of 6 months. IoT devices to measure amount of daily activity, BW, and BP will be provided to IoT group patients. Healthcare professionals (HCPs) will provide appropriate feedback according to the data. Non-IoT control, patients will be given measurement devices that do not have a feedback function. The primary outcome is glycated hemoglobin at 6 months. The study has already enrolled 101 patients, 50 in the IoT group and 51 in the non-IoT group, at the two participating outpatient clinics. The baseline characteristics of two groups did not differ, except for triglycerides. This will be the first randomized, controlled study to evaluate IoT-dependent effects of intensive feedback from HCPs. The results will validate a new method of health-data collection and provision of feedback suitable for diabetes support with increased effectiveness and low cost.

  11. ICU患者疼痛评估工具研究进展%Research progress of pain assessment tools for Intensive Care Unit patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈杰; 路潜; 张海燕

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate pain management in critically ill patients greatly depends on a clinician’s ability to perform reliable and valid pain assessment. Subjective pain assessment tools are available to clinicians when patients are able to complete self-report tools, the“gold standard”of pain assessment;however, objective pain assessment tools may be appropriate when patients are not capable of adequate communication because of sedation or mechanical ventilation. The pain assessment tools for critically ill patients were elaborated in this article to provide reference for improving the process of pain assessment and management.%疼痛是ICU患者的常见问题,有效的评估是疼痛管理的基础。由于镇静或其他原因,ICU患者的疼痛评估往往比较复杂。能获得患者主诉时可以使用主观疼痛评估工具,不能获得患者主诉时宜使用客观疼痛评估工具。本文就ICU患者常用的主观和客观疼痛评估工具进行综述,为完善ICU患者的疼痛评估和疼痛管理流程提供科学的依据。

  12. RADIOLOGICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT FOR THE EXPERIMENTAL AREA OF A HYPER-INTENSE LASER WITH PEAK-POWER OF 1PW-CETAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florescu, M G; Duliu, O G; Pantazi, D; Ticos, C M; Sporea, D; Vasilache, R; Ionescu, V; Oane, M

    2016-09-24

    Ultra-high intensity lasers in use are connected with ionizing radiation sources that raise a real concern in relation to installations, personnel, population and environment protection. The shielding of target areas in these facilities has to be evaluated from the conceptual stage of the building design. The sizing of the protective concrete walls was determined using computer codes such as Fluka. For the experiments to be carried out in the facility of the Center for Advanced Laser Technologies (CETAL), both proton beams with the energy of 100 MeV and electron beams with 300 MeV energy were considered to calculate the dimensions of structural shielding and to establish technical solutions fulfilling the radiation protection constraints imposed by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control.

  13. Implementation of RIFLE criteria and assessment of factors that affect the prognosis in patients with acute renal failure in intensive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celil Alper Usluoğulları

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Acute renal failure (ARF was seen in 5-20%of patients in intensive care unit (ICU. The disturbancesof metabolic and hormonal functions contribute to increasethe rate of mortality and morbidity in the patientswhose have ARF. In our study, firstly we separated thepatients, have ARF, into the groups as RIFLE classificationafter that we compared the collected data from clinicand laboratory, at the same time we evaluated the factorsmay effects the prognosis of patients.Methods: The fifty patients that have ARF in the intensivecare unit of Başkent Universty Hospital were included.The patients divided into three groups, which are calledrisk, injury and failure according to RIFLE classification.The grouped patients are compared as laboratory andclinical features. We planned that divide the patients intotwo groups as died and alive according to prospective followup, when we put diagnosis, we record the vital signsand laboratory values.Results: There is a considerable difference as statisticalbetween RIFLE groups about insulin resistance (HOMAIR.(p =0,034, p =0,004. When we compare the patientwhether they needs hemodialysis or not, during the patientbeing at intensive care unit, and mortality rate, wesaw considerable difference as statistical (p =0,017, p=0,010, p =0,001. Glucose, insulin level, and HOMA-IRobserved meaningful as statistical in the exitus groups. (p=0,040, p=0.048, p =0,001.Conclusion: We think that the close monitoring of bloodglucose and the controlled insulin treatment may be beneficialby taking into consideration of high mortality rate inthe patient with ARF accompanying hyperglycemia andinsulin resistance.Key words: ARF, RIFLE classification, hyperglycemia,prognosis

  14. A longitudinal study to assess the persistence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) on an intensive broiler farm in the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Migura, Lourdes; Liebana, Ernesto; Jensen, Lars Bogø;

    2007-01-01

    Seven years after the ban of avoparcin, VREF could still be isolated within sectors of the UK broiler industry. The aim of this study was to assess whether there is a carryover of VREF between consecutive flocks of birds, to conduct a preliminary investigation of possible routes of entry of VREF ...

  15. Intensive genetic assessment of the mating system and reproductive success in a semi-closed population of the mottled sculpin, Cottus bairdi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony C. Fiumera; Brady A. Porter; Gary D. Grossman; John C. Avise

    2002-01-01

    Most genetic surveys of parentage in nature sample only a small fraction of the breeding population. Here we apply micro satellite markers to deduce the genetic mating system and assess the reproductive success of females and males in an extensively collected, semiclosed stream population of the mottled sculpin fish, Cottus bairdi. In this species,...

  16. Inter-Reader Reliability of Early FDG-PET/CT Response Assessment Using the Deauville Scale after 2 Cycles of Intensive Chemotherapy (OEPA) in Hodgkin's Lymphoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kluge, Regine

    2016-01-01

    The five point Deauville (D) scale is widely used to assess interim PET metabolic response to chemotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients. An International Validation Study reported good concordance among reviewers in ABVD treated advanced stage HL patients for the binary discrimination between score D1,2,3 and score D4,5. Inter-reader reliability of the whole scale is not well characterised.

  17. Low intensity transcranial electric stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antal, Andrea; Alekseichuk, I; Bikson, M

    2017-01-01

    Low intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) in humans, encompassing transcranial direct current (tDCS), transcutaneous spinal Direct Current Stimulation (tsDCS), transcranial alternating current (tACS), and transcranial random noise (tRNS) stimulation or their combinations, appears...... following stimulation as well as prickling and burning sensations occurring during tDCS at peak-to-baseline intensities of 1-2mA and during tACS at higher peak-to-peak intensities above 2mA. The prevalence of published AEs is different in studies specifically assessing AEs vs. those not assessing them......, being higher in the former. AEs are frequently reported by individuals receiving placebo stimulation. The profile of AEs in terms of frequency, magnitude and type is comparable in healthy and clinical populations, and this is also the case for more vulnerable populations, such as children, elderly...

  18. Classification of knowledge-intensive organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart, Edward J.

    Managing knowledge workers in knowledge-intensive organizations has become important because knowledge itself is emerging as a primary sustainable competitive advantage. This dissertation traces the development of two important items related to knowledge-intensive organizations. First, it documents a careful study of the literature which allows for the construction of a Knowledge-Intensity Continuum. This continuum then forms the basis for the development of a Knowledge-Intensity Assessment survey instrument which allows an organization to be placed along this continuum. A cross-section of research, consulting, and manufacturing organizations was surveyed using this instrument. The findings provided evidence that supports the validity of the Knowledge-Intensity Continuum. Additionally, onsite interviews provided evidence that the Knowledge-Intensity Assessment survey can be used as a tool to locate any organization on this continuum. Using this survey to clearly identify knowledge-intensive organizations will allow for further research into effective management systems for knowledge workers in these organizations.

  19. A simple multiplex PCR for assessing prevalence of extended-spectrumβ-lactamases producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Intensive Care Units of a referral hospital in Shiraz, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Younes Ghasemi; Talieh Archin; Mohammad Kargar; Milad Mohkam

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To identify three common genes (blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M) responsible for ESBL production in Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) isolated from Intensive Care Units of Namazi Hospital, Shiraz, Iran. Methods:A total of 60 non-repetitive nosocomial isolates from 60 patients were selected during 2009-2010. The phenotypic identification of ESBL production was confirmed by Double Disk Synergy Test (DDST) according to CLSI guidelines. The ESBL’s genotype was then analyzed by multiplex PCR of blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes and DNA sequencing. Results: The primary susceptibility tests of K. pneumoniae showed that among 10 examined antibiotics, the most resistant and susceptible antibiotics identified in this study were ampicillin and imipenem, respectively. The phenotypic determination of ESBL by DDST showed that 60%(n=36) of isolates produced ESBL. Multiplex PCR of genes among K. pneumoniae isolates showed that 39% (n=18) of them have TEM, 39% (n=18) of them have both CTX-M and TEM and 13% (n=8) of them have TEM, SHV, CTX-M. Conclusions:Our findings reveal the high prevalence (60%) of ESBL producing K. pneumoniae from ICU patients along with a new pattern of blaTEM distribution differ from other countries.

  20. Assessment of the carcinogenic potential of high intense-sweeteners through the test for detection of epithelial tumor clones (warts) in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Mirley Alves; Orsolin, Priscila Capelari; Silva-Oliveira, Rosiane Gomes; Nepomuceno, Júlio César; Spanó, Mário Antônio

    2017-03-01

    High intensity-sweeteners (HIS) are natural or synthetic substances, sweeter than sugar, providing sweetness without calories. Sweeteners are mainly used as an aid in losing weight, preventing obesity and controlling blood sugar levels for diabetics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of the sweeteners aspartame, sucralose, sodium saccharin and steviol glycoside, using the test for detection of epithelial tumor clones in Drosophila melanogaster. Larvae of 72 ± 4h, obtained from wts/TM3 female mated with mwh/mwh males, were treated for approximately 48h with different concentrations of aspartame (0.85, 1.7, 3.4, 6.8 or 13.6 mM ); sucralose (0.5, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0 or 10 mM); sodium saccharin (25; 50; 100; 200 or 400 mM) and steviol glycoside (2.5; 5.0; 10; 20 or 40 mM). Water (Reverse Osmosis) and doxorubicin (DXR 0.4 mM) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed (p > 0.05) in tumor frequencies in individuals treated with all concentrations of these sweeteners when compared to negative control. It was therefore concluded that, in these experimental conditions, aspartame, sucralose, sodium saccharin and steviol glycoside have no carcinogenic effect in D. melanogaster. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of RUSLE method to assess the intensity of erosion due to land use changes in a small Polish Carpathians catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucała-Hrabia, Anna; Kijowska-Strugała, Małgorzata; Demczuk, Piotr

    2017-04-01

    Intensity of soil erosion is mainly depends on land cover changes, soil properties, heavy rainfalls and slope gradients. This study compared the influence of land use changes on soil erosion in the Homerka catchment, an area of 19.3 km2 located in the West Polish Carpathians, using GIS techniques such the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) method and cartographic materials from 1977, 1987, 1996 and 2009. RUSLE is the most common method which allows to predict the average size of the soil erosion due to specific soil properties, relief as well as rainfall erosivity factor. The period between 1977 and 2009 covers the transformation of the Polish economy from a communist system to a free-market economy after 1989. The analysis indicates an increase in the forest area of the Homerka catchment by 18.14% and a decrease of cultivated land by 82.64%. The grasslands did not change significantly in their area, however, their spatial pattern was very dynamic related to their reduction due to forest expansion and enlargement due to cultivated land abandonment.

  2. Assessment of risk factors related to healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection at patient admission to an intensive care unit in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogura Hiroshi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA infection in intensive care unit (ICU patients prolongs ICU stay and causes high mortality. Predicting HA-MRSA infection on admission can strengthen precautions against MRSA transmission. This study aimed to clarify the risk factors for HA-MRSA infection in an ICU from data obtained within 24 hours of patient ICU admission. Methods We prospectively studied HA-MRSA infection in 474 consecutive patients admitted for more than 2 days to our medical, surgical, and trauma ICU in a tertiary referral hospital in Japan. Data obtained from patients within 24 hours of ICU admission on 11 prognostic variables possibly related to outcome were evaluated to predict infection risk in the early phase of ICU stay. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for HA-MRSA infection. Results Thirty patients (6.3% had MRSA infection, and 444 patients (93.7% were infection-free. Intubation, existence of open wound, treatment with antibiotics, and steroid administration, all occurring within 24 hours of ICU admission, were detected as independent prognostic indicators. Patients with intubation or open wound comprised 96.7% of MRSA-infected patients but only 57.4% of all patients admitted. Conclusions Four prognostic variables were found to be risk factors for HA-MRSA infection in ICU: intubation, open wound, treatment with antibiotics, and steroid administration, all occurring within 24 hours of ICU admission. Preemptive infection control in patients with these risk factors might effectively decrease HA-MRSA infection.

  3. Human influence on tropical cyclone intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Adam H.; Camargo, Suzana J.; Hall, Timothy M.; Lee, Chia-Ying; Tippett, Michael K.; Wing, Allison A.

    2016-07-01

    Recent assessments agree that tropical cyclone intensity should increase as the climate warms. Less agreement exists on the detection of recent historical trends in tropical cyclone intensity. We interpret future and recent historical trends by using the theory of potential intensity, which predicts the maximum intensity achievable by a tropical cyclone in a given local environment. Although greenhouse gas-driven warming increases potential intensity, climate model simulations suggest that aerosol cooling has largely canceled that effect over the historical record. Large natural variability complicates analysis of trends, as do poleward shifts in the latitude of maximum intensity. In the absence of strong reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, future greenhouse gas forcing of potential intensity will increasingly dominate over aerosol forcing, leading to substantially larger increases in tropical cyclone intensities.

  4. Nurses' knowledge and perception of delirium screening and assessment in the intensive care unit: Long-term effectiveness of an education-based knowledge translation intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickin, Sharon L; White, Sandra; Knopp-Sihota, Jennifer

    2017-08-01

    To determine the impact of education on nurses' knowledge of delirium, knowledge and perception of a validated screening tool, and delirium screening in the ICU. A quasi-experimental single group pretest-post-test design. A 16 bed ICU in a Canadian urban tertiary care centre. Nursing knowledge and perception were measured at baseline, 3-month and 18-month periods. Delirium screening was then assessed over 24-months. During the study period, 197 surveys were returned; 84 at baseline, 53 at 3-months post education, and 60 at the final assessment period 18-months post intervention. The significant improvements in mean knowledge scores at 3-months post intervention (7.2, SD 1.3) were not maintained at 18-months (5.3, SD 1.1). Screening tool perception scores remained unchanged. Improvements in the perception of utility were significant at both time periods (p=0.03, 0.02 respectively). Physician value significantly improved at 18-months (p=0.01). Delirium screening frequency improved after education (pdelirium knowledge and screening; however, without sustained effort, progress is transient. Education improved perceived tool utility and over time utility perception and physician value improved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. ASSESSMENT OF BIOFILM FORMATION BY THE CAUSATIVE ORGANISMS OF VENTILATOR ASSOCIATED PNEUMONIA AT INTENSIVE CARE UNIT OF A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulla Summaiya A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The endotracheal tube participates in the pathogenesis of ventilator-associated pneumonia by the elimination of natural defense mechanisms, thereby allowing the entry of bacteria by the aspiration of subglottic secretions and ultimately these all will play role in the formation of biofilm on the endotracheal tube. Aims and objectives: Present study was done to assess biofilm formation by bacterial clinical isolates from endotracheal tube of ventilator associated pneumonia patients and to assess drug resistance in association with biofilm. Material and method: All isolates are identified by standard biochemical reaction and antibiotic susceptibility testing was done as per CLSI guidelines. Detection of biofilm is done by using tissue culture plate method. Results: Total 56 isolates are recovered from 42 patients of ventilator associated pneumonia; from it 34 (65.4% isolates are strongly positive by tissue culture plate method. Most common organisms isolated which producing strong biofilm are Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. Conclusion: The presence of an endotracheal tube in the airway, although critical for the management of the mechanically ventilated patient, also contributes to the development of ventilator associated pneumonia by disrupting normal protective mechanism which is associated with the intraluminal formation of biofilm by multidrug resistant organisms. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(1.000: 15-18

  6. Determinants of procedural pain intensity in the intensive care unit. The Europain® study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puntillo, Kathleen A; Max, Adeline; Timsit, Jean-Francois;

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE: Intensive care unit (ICU) patients undergo several diagnostic and therapeutic procedures every day. The prevalence, intensity, and risk factors of pain related to these procedures are not well known. OBJECTIVES: To assess self-reported procedural pain intensity versus baseline pain, ex...

  7. Multi-parametric monitoring and assessment of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) boiling by harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU): an ex vivo feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Gary Y; Marquet, Fabrice; Wang, Shutao; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2014-03-07

    Harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU) is a recently developed high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment monitoring method with feasibilities demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. Here, a multi-parametric study is performed to investigate both elastic and acoustics-independent viscoelastic tissue changes using the Harmonic Motion Imaging (HMI) displacement, axial compressive strain and change in relative phase shift during high energy HIFU treatment with tissue boiling. Forty three (n = 43) thermal lesions were formed in ex vivo canine liver specimens (n = 28). Two-dimensional (2D) transverse HMI displacement maps were also obtained before and after lesion formation. The same method was repeated in 10 s, 20 s and 30 s HIFU durations at three different acoustic powers of 8, 10, and 11 W, which were selected and verified as treatment parameters capable of inducing boiling using both thermocouple and passive cavitation detection (PCD) measurements. Although a steady decrease in the displacement, compressive strain, and relative change in the focal phase shift (Δϕ) were obtained in numerous cases, indicating an overall increase in relative stiffness, the study outcomes also showed that during boiling, a reverse lesion-to-background displacement contrast was detected, indicating potential change in tissue absorption, geometrical change and/or, mechanical gelatification or pulverization. Following treatment, corresponding 2D HMI displacement images of the thermal lesions also mapped consistent discrepancy in the lesion-to-background displacement contrast. Despite the expectedly chaotic changes in acoustic properties with boiling, the relative change in phase shift showed a consistent decrease, indicating its robustness to monitor biomechanical properties independent of the acoustic property changes throughout the HIFU treatment. In addition, the 2D HMI displacement images confirmed and indicated the increase in the thermal lesion size with

  8. Multi-parametric monitoring and assessment of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) boiling by Harmonic Motion Imaging for Focused Ultrasound (HMIFU): An ex vivo feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Gary Y.; Marquet, Fabrice; Wang, Shutao; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2014-01-01

    Harmonic Motion Imaging for Focused Ultrasound (HMIFU) is a recently developed high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment monitoring method with feasibilities demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. Here, a multi-parametric study is performed to investigate both elastic and acoustics-independent viscoelastic tissue changes using the Harmonic Motion Imaging (HMI) displacement, axial compressive strain and change in relative phase-shift during high energy HIFU treatment with tissue boiling. Forty three (n=43) thermal lesions were formed in ex vivo canine liver specimens (n=28). Two dimensional (2D) transverse HMI displacement maps were also obtained before and after lesion formation. The same method was repeated in 10-s, 20-s and 30-s HIFU durations at three different acoustic powers of 8, 10, and 11W, which were selected and verified as treatment parameters capable of inducing boiling using both thermocouple and Passive Cavitation Detection (PCD) measurements. Although a steady decrease in the displacement, compressive strain, and relative change in the focal phase shift (Δφ) were obtained in numerous cases, indicating an overall increase in relative stiffness, the study outcomes also showed that during boiling, a reverse lesion-to-background displacement contrast was detected, indicating potential change in tissue absorption, geometrical change and/or, mechanical gelatification or pulverization. Following treatment, corresponding 2D HMI displacement images of the thermal lesions also mapped consistent discrepancy in the lesion-to-background displacement contrast. Despite unpredictable changes in acoustic properties with boiling, the relative change in phase shift showed a consistent decrease, indicating its robustness to monitor biomechanical properties independent of the acoustic property change throughout the HIFU treatment. In addition, the 2D HMI displacement images confirmed and indicated the increase in the thermal lesion size with treatment duration

  9. Dynamic bioluminescence imaging for quantitative tumour burden assessment using IV or IP administration of d-luciferin: effect on intensity, time kinetics and repeatability of photon emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyaerts, Marleen; Vanhove, Chris; Caveliers, Vicky; Bossuyt, Axel; Lahoutte, Tony [Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), In Vivo Cellular and Molecular Imaging (ICMI) Laboratory, Brussels (Belgium); University Hospital Brussels (UZ-Brussel), Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brussels (Belgium); Verschueren, Jacob [University of Antwerp, Bio-Imaging lab, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Antwerp (Belgium); Bos, Tomas J. [Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Department of Haematology and Immunology, Brussels (Belgium); Tchouate-Gainkam, Lea O.; Peleman, Cindy [Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), In Vivo Cellular and Molecular Imaging (ICMI) Laboratory, Brussels (Belgium); Breckpot, Karine [Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Therapy, Department of Physiology and Immunology, Brussels (Belgium)

    2008-05-15

    In vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI) is a promising technique for non-invasive tumour imaging. d-luciferin can be administrated intraperitonealy or intravenously. This will influence its availability and, therefore, the bioluminescent signal. The aim of this study is to compare the repeatability of BLI measurement after IV versus IP administration of d-luciferin and assess the correlation between photon emission and histological cell count both in vitro and in vivo. Fluc-positive R1M cells were subcutaneously inoculated in nu/nu mice. Dynamic BLI was performed after IV or IP administration of d-luciferin. Maximal photon emission (PE{sub max}) was calculated. For repeatability assessment, every acquisition was repeated after 4 h and analysed using Bland-Altman method. A second group of animals was serially imaged, alternating IV and IP administration up to 21 days. When mice were killed, PE{sub max} after IV administration was correlated with histological cell number. The coefficients of repeatability were 80.2% (IV) versus 95.0% (IP). Time-to-peak is shorter, and its variance lower for IV (p < 0.0001). PE{sub max} was 5.6 times higher for IV. A trend was observed towards lower photon emission per cell in larger tumours. IV administration offers better repeatability and better sensitivity when compared to IP. In larger tumours, multiple factors may contribute to underestimation of tumour burden. It might, therefore, be beneficial to test novel therapeutics on small tumours to enable an accurate evaluation of tumour burden. (orig.)

  10. Knowing more than they can tell: An assessment of genre awareness among students in writing intensive zoology and civil engineering courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Joleen Kidwell

    Developing genre awareness as a means of "learning how to learn" in new writing situations is a goal of four recently proposed writing pedagogies that recognize the context-dependent nature of standards for "good writing" (Devitt, Reiff, and Bawarshi (2004); Beaufort (2007); Johns (2008); Downs and Wardle (2007)). Yet other scholars argue that useful genre knowledge cannot be taught explicitly in the classroom, but must be acquired tacitly through participation in a workplace or other discourse community (Dias et al. (1999); Freedman (1994); Smit (2004)). This qualitative study investigates the range of variability and potential sources of genre awareness among undergraduates who had not received explicit teaching about genre awareness. It presents students' explicit understanding of why particular genre conventions are followed in a particular context by examining what they could tell about learning the advanced lab report in writing-in-the-major courses in either Zoology or Civil Engineering. Research data includes surveys of all students in three courses (n=112), interviews with a subset in each course (n=24) and with all instructors (n=7), samples of graded student lab reports, and classroom observations. Overall, few study participants demonstrated genre awareness as defined by Devitt. Students showed limited awareness of the rhetorical purposes of the advanced lab report and even less awareness of the values and beliefs embedded in its discourse conventions. Disciplinary identification and mentoring experiences were found to be factors that might contribute to the development of genre awareness. Unexpected findings were that some insecure writers showed relatively high overall genre awareness, while some confident writers showed relatively low genre awareness. Further research is needed to refine an assessment instrument that could be readily used by other researchers. However, the instrument for assessing genre awareness that was developed for this project

  11. Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geoff Brindley

    2005-01-01

    @@ Introduction TERMINOLOGY AND KEY CONCEPTS The term assessment refers to a variety of ways of collecting information on a learner's language ability or achievement. Although testing and assessment are often used interchangeably, the latter is an umbrella term encompassing measurement instruments administered on a ‘one-off’ basis such as tests, as well as qualitative methods of monitoring and recording student learning such as observation, simulations of project work. Assessment is also distinguished from evaluation which is concerned with the overall language programme and not just with what individual students have learnt. Proficiency assessment refers to the assessment of general language abilities acquired by the learner independent of a course of study.This kind of assessment is often done through the administration of standardised commercial language-proficency tests. On the other hand, assessment of achievement aims to establish what a student had learned in relation to a particular course or curriculum (thus frequently carried out by the teacher) .Achievement assesssment may be based either on the specific content of the course or on the course objectives (Hughes 1989).

  12. Inter-Reader Reliability of Early FDG-PET/CT Response Assessment Using the Deauville Scale after 2 Cycles of Intensive Chemotherapy (OEPA) in Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Regine; Chavdarova, Lidia; Hoffmann, Martha; Kobe, Carsten; Malkowski, Bogdan; Montravers, Françoise; Kurch, Lars; Georgi, Thomas; Dietlein, Markus; Wallace, W. Hamish; Karlen, Jonas; Fernández-Teijeiro, Ana; Cepelova, Michaela; Wilson, Lorrain; Bergstraesser, Eva; Sabri, Osama; Mauz-Körholz, Christine; Körholz, Dieter; Hasenclever, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The five point Deauville (D) scale is widely used to assess interim PET metabolic response to chemotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients. An International Validation Study reported good concordance among reviewers in ABVD treated advanced stage HL patients for the binary discrimination between score D1,2,3 and score D4,5. Inter-reader reliability of the whole scale is not well characterised. Methods Five international expert readers scored 100 interim PET/CT scans from paediatric HL patients. Scans were acquired in 51 European hospitals after two courses of OEPA chemotherapy (according to the EuroNet-PHL-C1 study). Images were interpreted in direct comparison with staging PET/CTs. Results The probability that two random readers concord on the five point D score of a random case is only 42% (global kappa = 0.24). Aggregating to a three point scale D1,2 vs. D3 vs. D4,5 improves concordance to 60% (kappa = 0.34). Concordance if one of two readers assigns a given score is 70% for score D1,2 only 36% for score D3 and 64% for D4,5. Concordance for the binary decisions D1,2 vs. D3,4,5 is 67% and 86% for D1,2,3 vs D4,5 (kappa = 0.36 resp. 0.56). If one reader assigns D1,2,3 concordance probability is 92%, but only 64% if D4,5 is called. Discrepancies occur mainly in mediastinum, neck and skeleton. Conclusion Inter-reader reliability of the five point D-scale is poor in this interobserver analysis of paediatric patients who underwent OEPA. Inter-reader variability is maximal in cases assigned to D2 or D3. The binary distinction D1,2,3 versus D4,5 is the most reliable criterion for clinical decision making. PMID:26963909

  13. Assessment of the effect of methionine supplementation and inclusion of hydrolyzed wheat protein in milk protein-based milk replacers on the performance of intensively fed Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, J J; Hwang, G H; Saito, A; Vermeire, D A; Drackley, J K

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare 2 milk replacers containing only milk proteins with or without supplemental Met, and to compare a milk replacer containing hydrolyzed wheat protein at 4.5% of dry matter (DM) and supplemental Lys and Met against the 2 all-milk-protein formulas, by assessing their effect on the growth performance, efficiency, and plasma urea nitrogen of pre-weaning Holstein calves. Thus, 57 Holstein calves were allotted to the following 3 treatments: (1) a skim milk plus whey protein concentrate-based milk replacer (SMWP) containing about 2.6% Lys and 0.6% Met on a DM basis; (2) SMWP + M based on skim milk and whey proteins, containing about 2.6% Lys, and supplemental Met to reach 0.9% on a DM basis; and (3) a skim milk plus whey protein concentrate plus 4.5% of the DM as hydrolyzed wheat protein based milk replacer (HWP + LM) where the wheat protein replaced 50% of the whey protein concentrate, and also contained supplemental Lys and Met to match the profile of SMWP + M (i.e., Lys 2.6 and Met 0.9% on DM basis). No difference in any of the responses was observed by supplementing the milk protein based formula with Met or when hydrolyzed wheat protein was added to the formula. Results indicate that (1) a milk replacer based on skim milk protein and whey protein with a Lys concentration of ~2.6% does not benefit from Met supplementation, and (2) milk replacer containing 4.5% of the DM as hydrolyzed wheat protein and supplemented with Lys and Met can support the same growth performance as milk protein-based formulas.

  14. Regional assessment of cadmium pollution in agricultural lands and the potential health risk related to intensive mining activities:A case study in Chenzhou City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Limei; LIAO Xiaoyong; CHEN Tongbin; YAN Xiulan; XIE Hua; WU Bin; WANG Lixia

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of cadmium (Cd) contamination in agricultural soil and its potential risk for people.Soils,rice,and vegetables from Chenzhou City,Southern China were sampled and analyzed.In the surface soils.the 95% confidence interval for the mean concentration of Cd varied between 2.72 and 4.83 mg/kg (P<0.05) in the survey, with a geometric mean concentration of 1.45 mg/kg.Based on the GIS map,two hot spot areas of Cd in agricultural soils with high Cd concentrations were identified to be located around the Shizhuyuan,Jinshiling,and Yaogangxian mines,and the Baoshan and Huangshaping mines,in the center of the city.About 60% of the total investigated area, where the agricultural soil Cd concentration iS above 1 mg/kg, is distributed in a central belt across the region.The critical distances, at which the soil Cd concentration were increased by the mining activities, from the mines of the soils were 23 km for the Baoshan mine,46 km for the Huangshaping mine,and 63 km for the Shizhuyuan mine,respectively.These are distances calculated from models.The Cd concentrations in rice samples ranged from 0.01 to 4.43 mg/kg and the mean dietary Cd intake from rice for an adult was 191 μg/d.Results of risk indexes showed that soil Cd concentrations possessed risks to local residents whose intake of Cd from rice and vegetables grown in soils in the vicinity of the mine was 596 μg/d.

  15. Inter-Reader Reliability of Early FDG-PET/CT Response Assessment Using the Deauville Scale after 2 Cycles of Intensive Chemotherapy (OEPA) in Hodgkin's Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Regine; Chavdarova, Lidia; Hoffmann, Martha; Kobe, Carsten; Malkowski, Bogdan; Montravers, Françoise; Kurch, Lars; Georgi, Thomas; Dietlein, Markus; Wallace, W Hamish; Karlen, Jonas; Fernández-Teijeiro, Ana; Cepelova, Michaela; Wilson, Lorrain; Bergstraesser, Eva; Sabri, Osama; Mauz-Körholz, Christine; Körholz, Dieter; Hasenclever, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The five point Deauville (D) scale is widely used to assess interim PET metabolic response to chemotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients. An International Validation Study reported good concordance among reviewers in ABVD treated advanced stage HL patients for the binary discrimination between score D1,2,3 and score D4,5. Inter-reader reliability of the whole scale is not well characterised. Five international expert readers scored 100 interim PET/CT scans from paediatric HL patients. Scans were acquired in 51 European hospitals after two courses of OEPA chemotherapy (according to the EuroNet-PHL-C1 study). Images were interpreted in direct comparison with staging PET/CTs. The probability that two random readers concord on the five point D score of a random case is only 42% (global kappa = 0.24). Aggregating to a three point scale D1,2 vs. D3 vs. D4,5 improves concordance to 60% (kappa = 0.34). Concordance if one of two readers assigns a given score is 70% for score D1,2 only 36% for score D3 and 64% for D4,5. Concordance for the binary decisions D1,2 vs. D3,4,5 is 67% and 86% for D1,2,3 vs D4,5 (kappa = 0.36 resp. 0.56). If one reader assigns D1,2,3 concordance probability is 92%, but only 64% if D4,5 is called. Discrepancies occur mainly in mediastinum, neck and skeleton. Inter-reader reliability of the five point D-scale is poor in this interobserver analysis of paediatric patients who underwent OEPA. Inter-reader variability is maximal in cases assigned to D2 or D3. The binary distinction D1,2,3 versus D4,5 is the most reliable criterion for clinical decision making.

  16. Inter-Reader Reliability of Early FDG-PET/CT Response Assessment Using the Deauville Scale after 2 Cycles of Intensive Chemotherapy (OEPA in Hodgkin's Lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regine Kluge

    Full Text Available The five point Deauville (D scale is widely used to assess interim PET metabolic response to chemotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL patients. An International Validation Study reported good concordance among reviewers in ABVD treated advanced stage HL patients for the binary discrimination between score D1,2,3 and score D4,5. Inter-reader reliability of the whole scale is not well characterised.Five international expert readers scored 100 interim PET/CT scans from paediatric HL patients. Scans were acquired in 51 European hospitals after two courses of OEPA chemotherapy (according to the EuroNet-PHL-C1 study. Images were interpreted in direct comparison with staging PET/CTs.The probability that two random readers concord on the five point D score of a random case is only 42% (global kappa = 0.24. Aggregating to a three point scale D1,2 vs. D3 vs. D4,5 improves concordance to 60% (kappa = 0.34. Concordance if one of two readers assigns a given score is 70% for score D1,2 only 36% for score D3 and 64% for D4,5. Concordance for the binary decisions D1,2 vs. D3,4,5 is 67% and 86% for D1,2,3 vs D4,5 (kappa = 0.36 resp. 0.56. If one reader assigns D1,2,3 concordance probability is 92%, but only 64% if D4,5 is called. Discrepancies occur mainly in mediastinum, neck and skeleton.Inter-reader reliability of the five point D-scale is poor in this interobserver analysis of paediatric patients who underwent OEPA. Inter-reader variability is maximal in cases assigned to D2 or D3. The binary distinction D1,2,3 versus D4,5 is the most reliable criterion for clinical decision making.

  17. Assessing heavy metal pollution in the surface soils of a region that had undergone three decades of intense industrialization and urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Liu, Xueping; Bai, Jinmei; Shih, Kaimin; Zeng, Eddy Y; Cheng, Hefa

    2013-09-01

    Heavy metals in the surface soils from lands of six different use types in one of the world's most densely populated regions, which is also a major global manufacturing base, were analyzed to assess the impact of urbanization and industrialization on soil pollution. A total of 227 surface soil samples were collected and analyzed for major heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) by using microwave-assisted acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Multivariate analysis combined with enrichment factors showed that surface soils from the region (>7.2 × 10(4) km(2)) had mean Cd, Cu, Zn, and As concentrations that were over two times higher than the background values, with Cd, Cu, and Zn clearly contributed by anthropogenic sources. Soil pollution by Pb was more widespread than the other heavy metals, which was contributed mostly by anthropogenic sources. The results also indicate that Mn, Co, Fe, Cr, and Ni in the surface soils were primarily derived from lithogenic sources, while Hg and As contents in the surface soils were controlled by both natural and anthropogenic sources. The pollution level and potential ecological risk of the surface soils both decreased in the order of: urban areas > waste disposal/treatment sites ∼ industrial areas > agricultural lands ∼ forest lands > water source protection areas. These results indicate the significant need for the development of pollution prevention and reduction strategies to reduce heavy metal pollution for regions undergoing fast industrialization and urbanization.

  18. Assessment of intense pulsed light in the treatment of erythromelanosis follicularis faciei et colli%强脉冲光治疗面颈部毛囊性红斑黑变病疗效评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈慧明; 王娜; 张衍国

    2015-01-01

    目的::评价强脉冲光治疗面颈部毛囊红斑黑变病的疗效。方法:采用强脉冲光治疗15例患者,波长560~585 nm,脉宽20~40 ms,能量密度18~23 J/cm2,每4周治疗1次,共治疗3~8次。结果:痊愈3例,显效7例,好转4例,无效1例,有效率为66.67%。治疗后15例患者均无疤痕形成。结论:强脉冲光治疗面颈部毛囊红斑黑变病安全有效。%Objective: To assess the efficacy of intense pulsed light in the treatment of erythromelanosis follicularis faciei et colli. Methods:Fifteen patients were treated with intense pulsed light ( wavelengths 560-585 nm, pulse-band 20-30 ms and energy density 18-23 J/cm2 ) , once every 4 weeks for 3-8 times. Re-sults:Three patients were cured, 7 were significantly improved, 4 were improved and 1 was ineffective. The effective rate was 66.67%. There was no scar in all the 15 patients. Conclusion:Intense pulsed light is effec-tive and safe in the treatment of erythromelanosis follicularis faciei et colli.

  19. Iowa Intensive Archaeological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file contains intensive level archaeological survey areas for the state of Iowa. All intensive Phase I surveys that are submitted to the State Historic...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a breath. Absolute Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. ...

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion ( ... a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived ...

  2. Extreme erosion response after wildfire in the Upper Ovens, south-east Australia: Assessment of catchment scale connectivity by an intensive field survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, Walter; Keestra, Saskia; Nyman, Petter; Langhans, Christoph; Sheridan, Gary

    2015-04-01

    South-eastern Australia is generally regarded as one of the world's most fire-prone environments because of its high temperatures, low rainfall and flammable native Eucalyptus forests. Modifications to the landscape by fire can lead to significant changes to erosion rates and hydrological processes. Debris flows in particular have been recognised as a process which increases in frequency as a result of fire. This study used a debris flow event in the east Upper Ovens occurred on the 28th of February 2013 as a case study for analysing sediment transport processes and connectivity of sediment sources and sinks. Source areas were identified using a 15 cm resolution areal imagery and a logistic regression model was made based on fire severity, aridity index and slope to predict locations of source areas. Deposits were measured by making cross-sections using a combination of a differential GPS and a total station. In total 77 cross-sections were made in a 14.1 km2 sub-catchment and distributed based on channel gradient and width. A more detailed estimation was obtained by making more cross-sections where the volume per area is higher. Particle size distribution between sources and sink areas were obtained by combination of field assessment, photography imagery analyses and sieve and laser diffraction. Sediment was locally eroded, transported and deposited depending on factors such as longitude gradient, stream power and the composition of bed and bank material. The role of headwaters as sediment sinks changed dramatically as a result of the extreme erosion event in the wildfire affected areas. Disconnected headwaters became connected to low order streams due to debris flow processes in the contributing catchment. However this redistribution of sediment from headwaters to the drainage network was confined to upper reaches of the Ovens. Below this upper part of the catchment the event resulted in redistribution of sediment already existing in the channel through a

  3. Rainfed intensive crop systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed.......This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed....

  4. Assessing the Transferability of Statistical Predictive Models for Leaf Area Index Between Two Airborne Discrete Return LiDAR Sensor Designs Within Multiple Intensely Managed Loblolly Pine Forest Locations in the South-Eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumnall, Matthew; Peduzzi, Alicia; Fox, Thomas R.; Wynne, Randolph H.; Thomas, Valerie A.; Cook, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Leaf area is an important forest structural variable which serves as the primary means of mass and energy exchange within vegetated ecosystems. The objective of the current study was to determine if leaf area index (LAI) could be estimated accurately and consistently in five intensively managed pine plantation forests using two multiple-return airborne LiDAR datasets. Field measurements of LAI were made using the LiCOR LAI2000 and LAI2200 instruments within 116 plots were established of varying size and within a variety of stand conditions (i.e. stand age, nutrient regime and stem density) in North Carolina and Virginia in 2008 and 2013. A number of common LiDAR return height and intensity distribution metrics were calculated (e.g. average return height), in addition to ten indices, with two additional variants, utilized in the surrounding literature which have been used to estimate LAI and fractional cover, were calculated from return heights and intensity, for each plot extent. Each of the indices was assessed for correlation with each other, and was used as independent variables in linear regression analysis with field LAI as the dependent variable. All LiDAR derived metrics were also entered into a forward stepwise linear regression. The results from each of the indices varied from an R2 of 0.33 (S.E. 0.87) to 0.89 (S.E. 0.36). Those indices calculated using ratios of all returns produced the strongest correlations, such as the Above and Below Ratio Index (ABRI) and Laser Penetration Index 1 (LPI1). The regression model produced from a combination of three metrics did not improve correlations greatly (R2 0.90; S.E. 0.35). The results indicate that LAI can be predicted over a range of intensively managed pine plantation forest environments accurately when using different LiDAR sensor designs. Those indices which incorporated counts of specific return numbers (e.g. first returns) or return intensity correlated poorly with field measurements. There were

  5. Knowledge of intensive care nurses in selected care areas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of intensive care nurses in selected care areas commonly ... To assess the knowledge of nurses working in intensive care units (ICUs) in respect of pain management, ... An analytical, cross-sectional survey design was used.

  6. Avaliação da qualidade dos ensaios clínicos aleatórios em terapia intensiva Quality assessment of randomized clinical trial in intensive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulliano Peixoto Gonçalves

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O ensaio clínico aleatório é um estudo prospectivo que compara o efeito e o valor das intervenções em seres humanos, utilizando um ou mais grupos contra o grupo controle. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade dos ensaios clínicos aleatórios publicados em terapia intensiva no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Todos os ensaios clínicos aleatórios encontrados através da busca manual na Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva de janeiro de 2001 a março de 2008 foram analisados para avaliar sua descrição através da escala de qualidade. Foi utilizada uma estatística descritiva e intervalo de confiança de 95% para a variável primária. A variável primária foi a qualidade dos ensaios clínicos aleatórios. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados 185 artigos originais, sendo 14 de ensaios clínicos aleatórios. Apenas um artigo original analisado (7,1% mostrou-se de boa qualidade. Não houve significância estatística entre os dados coletados e os dados mostrados na hipótese desta pesquisa. CONCLUSÃO: Pode-se concluir que na amostra de artigos avaliada 7% dos ensaios clínicos aleatórios em terapia intensiva publicados em uma revista no Brasil são de boa qualidade metodológica.OBJECTIVE: A randomized clinical trial is a prospective study that compares the effect and value of interventions in human beings, of one or more groups vs. a control group. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of published randomized clinical trials in Intensive care in Brazil. METHODS: All randomized clinical trials in intensive care found by manual search in Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva from January 2001 to March 2008 were assessed to evaluate their description by the quality scale. Descriptive statistics and a 95 % confidence interval were used for the primary outcome. Our primary outcome was the randomized clinical trial quality. RESULTS: Our search found 185 original articles, of which 14 were randomized clinical trials. Only

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion (Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale) ...

  8. A prospective, longitudinal study to assess use of continuous and reactive low-pressure mattresses to reduce pressure ulcer incidence in a pediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Molina, Pablo; Balaguer-López, Evelin; Torra I Bou, Joan Enric; Alvarez-Ordiales, Adan; Quesada-Ramos, Cristina; Verdú-Soriano, José

    2012-07-01

    Pressure between bony prominences and sleep surfaces, as well as pressure from the use of medical devices, put children admitted to pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) at risk of developing pressure ulcers (PUs). To assess the effect of two pediatric-specific, continuous and reactive low-pressure mattresses on the incidence of PUs, an observational, descriptive, prospective, longitudinal (2009-2011) study was conducted among PICU patients. The two pediatric mattresses - one for children weighing between 500 g and 6 Kg and another for children weighing more than 6 Kg - were provided to patients at risk for PUs (Braden-Q ≤16, Neonatal Skin Risk Assessment Scale [NSRAS] ≤13, or per nurse assessment of clinical need). Between 2009 and 2011, 30 children (13 [43.3%] girls and 17 [56.7%] boys), ages 0 to 10 years, at risk of developing PUs (NSRAS risk: n = 14 [13.2 ± 3.03] and Braden-Q risk: n = 10 [10.4 ± 2.4]) were placed on the study mattresses for a median of 4 (range 1 to 25) days. Primary reasons for PICU admission included disorders of the respiratory system (40%), infectious and parasitic diseases (23.3%), and illnesses of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue (10%). All other PU prevention strategies (eg, repositioning, specialty devices) used as part of standard care protocols also were implemented. Of the 30 participants, only one (3.3%) (confidence interval [CI] 95% = 0.08 -17.2%) developed a nondevice-related PU. No adverse events occurred. A 2008 incidence study in the same PICU, before use of these special surfaces, found a cumulative incidence of 20% nondevice-related PUs. The observed incidence rate of nonmedical device-related PUs in this high-risk population placed on these mattresses is encouraging and warrants future research.

  9. Bounded Intensity Process and Its Applications in Reliability Assessment of NC Machine Tools%数控机床可靠性评估中的边界强度过程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智明; 杨建国

    2012-01-01

    Based on Akaike information criterion,Bayesian information criterion and the root-mean-square error of the fitting failure data,the best non-homogeneous Poisson process model of reliability analysis for repairable system was proposed.The point maximum likelihood and interval estimators of the parameters,as well as the reliability indices of the bounded intensity process model were given using the asymptotic lognormal distribution of the maximum likelihood estimation and the Fisher information matrix method.The failure data with time truncation of multiple NC machine tools were analyzed.The results show that the bounded intensity process is suitable for reliability assessment of deterioration machine tools with frequent maintenance actions.%基于Akaike信息准则(AIC)、Bayesian信息准则(BIC)及故障数据拟合的均方根误差(RMSE),提出了可修系统可靠性分析的非齐次泊松过程模型的选择方法,利用最大似然估计的渐近对数正态分布特性,用Fisher信息矩阵法给出了边界强度过程模型参数及系统可靠性指标的点估计及区间估计,分析了多台数控机床时间截尾的故障过程.结果表明,对于维修频繁的性能恶化数控机床,边界强度故障模型适合于其可靠性评估.

  10. Development and evaluation of the feasibility and effects on staff, patients, and families of a new tool, the Psychosocial Assessment and Communication Evaluation (PACE), to improve communication and palliative care in intensive care and during clinical uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, Irene J; Koffman, Jonathan; Hopkins, Philip; Prentice, Wendy; Burman, Rachel; Leonard, Sara; Rumble, Caroline; Noble, Jo; Dampier, Odette; Bernal, William; Hall, Sue; Morgan, Myfanwy; Shipman, Cathy

    2013-10-01

    There are widespread concerns about communication and support for patients and families, especially when they face clinical uncertainty, a situation most marked in intensive care units (ICUs). Therefore, we aimed to develop and evaluate an interventional tool to improve communication and palliative care, using the ICU as an example of where this is difficult. Our design was a phase I-II study following the Medical Research Council Guidance for the Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions and the (Methods of Researching End-of-life Care (MORECare) statement. In two ICUs, with over 1900 admissions annually, phase I modeled a new intervention comprising implementation training and an assessment tool. We conducted a literature review, qualitative interviews, and focus groups with 40 staff and 13 family members. This resulted in the new tool, the Psychosocial Assessment and Communication Evaluation (PACE). Phase II evaluated the feasibility and effects of PACE, using observation, record audit, and surveys of staff and family members. Qualitative data were analyzed using the framework approach. The statistical tests used on quantitative data were t-tests (for normally distributed characteristics), the χ2 or Fisher's exact test (for non-normally distributed characteristics) and the Mann-Whitney U-test (for experience assessments) to compare the characteristics and experience for cases with and without PACE recorded. PACE provides individualized assessments of all patients entering the ICU. It is completed within 24 to 48 hours of admission, and covers five aspects (key relationships, social details and needs, patient preferences, communication and information status, and other concerns), followed by recording of an ongoing communication evaluation. Implementation is supported by a training program with specialist palliative care. A post-implementation survey of 95 ICU staff found that 89% rated PACE assessment as very or generally useful. Of 213 family members

  11. Pediatric intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintire, D K

    1999-07-01

    To provide optimal care, a veterinarian in a pediatric intensive care situation for a puppy or kitten should be familiar with normal and abnormal vital signs, nursing care and monitoring considerations, and probable diseases. This article is a brief discussion of the pediatric intensive care commonly required to treat puppies or kittens in emergency situations and for canine parvovirus type 2 enteritis.

  12. Health Assessment of Wetlands in Suzhou Using Cell-based Inverse-distance Weighting Landscape Development Intensity%基于CIWLDI方法的苏州湿地景观健康评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨朝辉; 冯育青; 苏群; 钱新强; 陈志辉; 张铭连

    2016-01-01

    研制改进的基于空间最小景观单元的反距离权重景观开发强度法(CIWLDI方法),通过累积效应整合不同的土地利用分类,从能值的角度反映湿地生物完整性,客观有效地评价大面积湿地的景观健康。研究表明:大部分健康良好的湿地分布在苏州市郊,受到人类干扰相对较小,相反临近重点开发区域的湿地则退化严重。与其它方法相比,本方法可以有效地评价不同湿地之间的整体健康状况以及单个湿地内部的健康差异情况。在缺少现场观测数据的条件下,仅使用土地利用分类图就可以在短时间内完成对大范围湿地的健康评价。%Using improved method of cell-based inverse-distance weighting landscape development intensity, wetland health at landscape level was assessed objectively and efficiently. Different types of land uses were integrated to relfect the completeness of the biological system. Results showed that most wetlands with good health conditions, which were less affected by human disturbance, were located in suburban areas. In contrast, those with poor health conditions were degraded and commonly close to heavily developed areas. Compared with other assessment methods, our method can be used to assess the overall health situation of all the wetlands and the differences of health of individual wetlands. When lacking data of field observation, our method can implement health assessment in large area in short time using only the land-use classiifcation map.

  13. Urban Land Intensive Use Assessment Based on the Entire-Array- Polygon Indictor Method%基于全排列多边形图示指标法的西宁市土地集约利用评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周伟; 曹银贵; 乔陆印

    2012-01-01

    研究目的:利用具有问题诊断、现状分析、模式评价和政策指导的评价方法分析西宁市土地集约利用变化特征。研究方法:采用全排列多边形图示指标法对西宁市西部开发以来城乡建设用地集约利用变化进行量化评价。研究结果:(1)全排列多边形图示指标法可用于土地集约利用的评价,其优势在于从机理上考虑了评价对象具有多因素和系统性的整合性,指标值计算减少了主观因素的影响,且评价结果数图结合;(2)单项指标显示,西宁市城乡建设用地扩张及集约利用水平提高的主要驱动力是经济增长因素,即属于经济驱动型;城乡建设用地扩张主要表现在城镇规模的增长,农村居民点规模变化不大;(3)西宁市土地集约利用综合指数总体呈增长态势,且前阶段的增长速度慢于后阶段,经济增长方式发生改变。研究结论:西宁市在未来一段时间应通过增强新增建设用地的投资强度和产出绩效,不断提高土地集约利用水平;在土地资源供应缺乏、城市空间扩张受阻的情况下,积极开展城乡增减挂钩土地综合整治,优化城乡建设用地结构,提高土地集约利用水平。%This paper aims at analyzing the variation characters of land intensive use in Xining city based on the problem diagnosis, situation analysis, pattern assessment, and policy recommendation. The entire-array-polygon indictor method, which has the merits such as problem diagnosis, current situation analysis, model evaluation and policy direction, is used to quantitatively analyze the changes of urban.- rural construction land intensity in Xining city for the period since the implementation of the so-called Western Development Program in China started. The results show that 1) the entire-array-polygon indictor method can be used in evaluating the land use intensity. It also has an advantage that it

  14. Assessment of earthquake effects - contribution from online communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Sebastiano; Agius, Matthew; Galea, Pauline

    2014-05-01

    The rapid increase of social media and online newspapers in the last years have given the opportunity to make a national investigation on macroseismic effects on the Maltese Islands based on felt earthquake reports. A magnitude 4.1 earthquake struck close to Malta on Sunday 24th April 2011 at 13:02 GMT. The earthquake was preceded and followed by a series of smaller magnitude quakes throughout the day, most of which were felt by the locals on the island. The continuous news media coverage during the day and the extensive sharing of the news item on social media resulted in a strong public response to fill in the 'Did you feel it?' online form on the website of the Seismic Monitoring and Research Unit (SMRU) at the University of Malta (http://seismic.research.um.edu.mt/). The results yield interesting information about the demographics of the island, and the different felt experiences possibly relating to geological settings and diverse structural and age-classified buildings. Based on this case study, the SMRU is in the process of developing a mobile phone application dedicated to share earthquake information to the local community. The application will automatically prompt users to fill in a simplified 'Did you feel it?' report to potentially felt earthquakes. Automatic location using Global Positioning Systems can be incorporated to provide a 'real time' intensity map that can be used by the Civil Protection Department.

  15. Intensity Biased PSP Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Chelakara S.; Amer, Tahani R.; Oglesby, Donald M.; Burkett, Cecil G., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The current pressure sensitive paint (PSP) technique assumes a linear relationship (Stern-Volmer Equation) between intensity ratio (I(sub o)/I) and pressure ratio (P/P(sub o)) over a wide range of pressures (vacuum to ambient or higher). Although this may be valid for some PSPs, in most PSPs the relationship is nonlinear, particularly at low pressures (less than 0.2 psia when the oxygen level is low). This non-linearity can be attributed to variations in the oxygen quenching (de-activation) rates (which otherwise is assumed constant) at these pressures. Other studies suggest that some paints also have non-linear calibrations at high pressures; because of heterogeneous (non-uniform) oxygen diffusion and quenching. Moreover, pressure sensitive paints require correction for the output intensity due to light intensity variation, paint coating variation, model dynamics, wind-off reference pressure variation, and temperature sensitivity. Therefore to minimize the measurement uncertainties due to these causes, an insitu intensity correction method was developed. A non-oxygen quenched paint (which provides a constant intensity at all pressures, called non-pressure sensitive paint, NPSP) was used for the reference intensity (I(sub NPSP) with respect to which all the PSP intensities (I) were measured. The results of this study show that in order to fully reap the benefits of this technique, a totally oxygen impermeable NPSP must be available.

  16. Regional macroseismic field of the 1980 Irpinia earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. SPADEA

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available E presentata un'analisi del campo macrosismico del terremoto irpino del 1980
    che per magnitudo ed estensione dell'area interessata risulta il maggiore evento
    sismico verificatosi in Italia negli ultimi cinquanta anni.
    L'insieme dei dati rilevati mediante indagini dirette e/o a mezzo scheda
    macrosismica consente la definizione dell'intensità sismica in 1286 centri abitati di
    13 regioni.
    Il campo regionale confrontato con i modelli di Blake (Y= 5.0, risulta
    compatibile con i seguenti parametri focali
    I0 = X" MSK ; = 9.99 ± 0.5 MSK ; h,, = 15 Km.
    L'anisotropia del campo regionale è analizzata mediante la determinazione
    dell'attenuazione azimutale dell'intensità (a. z i cui valori estremi risultano
    2 . 0 - IO"3 e 3.9 • IO"3, rispettivamente lungo le direzioni NNW e SW.
    e 3.9 • IO"3, rispettivamente lungo le direzioni NNW e SW.
    L'area mesosismica risulta caratterizzata principalmente da domini strutturali,
    rilevati con il metodo shadow, con direzione appenninica (NW-SE, antiappenninica
    e meridiana (N-S.

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. In general, if ... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For ...

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... energy used by the body while doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water aerobics Bicycling slower than 10 miles per hour ...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion (Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale) Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter your ... ...

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water aerobics Bicycling slower than 10 miles per hour Tennis (doubles) Ballroom dancing General gardening Vigorous Intensity Race walking, jogging, or running Swimming ...

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion (Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale) Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter your email ... ...

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be able to say more than a few words without pausing for a breath. Absolute Intensity The ... per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water aerobics Bicycling slower than 10 miles per hour ...

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be able to say more than a few words without pausing for a breath. Absolute Intensity The ... site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart ...

  6. [Intensive medicine in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Intensive care medicine is a medical specialty that was officially established in our country in 1978, with a 5-year training program including two years of common core training followed by three years of specific training in an intensive care unit accredited for training. During this 32-year period, intensive care medicine has carried out an intense and varied activity, which has allowed its positioning as an attractive and with future specialty in the hospital setting. This document summarizes the history of the specialty, its current situation, the key role played in the programs of organ donation and transplantation of the National Transplant Organization (after more than 20 years of mutual collaboration), its training activities with the development of the National Plan of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, with a trajectory of more than 25 years, its interest in providing care based on quality and safety programs for the severely ill patient. It also describes the development of reference registries due to the need for reliable data on the care process for the most prevalent diseases, such as ischemic heart disease or ICU-acquired infections, based on long-term experience (more than 15 years), which results in the availability of epidemiological information and characteristics of care that may affect the practical patient's care. Moreover, features of its scientific society (SEMICYUC) are reported, an organization that agglutinates the interests of more than 280 ICUs and more than 2700 intensivists, with reference to the journal Medicina Intensiva, the official journal of the society and the Panamerican and Iberian Federation of Critical Medicine and Intensive Care Societies. Medicina Intensiva is indexed in the Thompson Reuters products of Science Citation Index Expanded (Scisearch(®)) and Journal Citation Reports, Science Edition. The important contribution of the Spanish intensive care medicine to the scientific community is also analyzed, and in relation to

  7. Data-intensive science

    CERN Document Server

    Critchlow, Terence

    2013-01-01

    Data-intensive science has the potential to transform scientific research and quickly translate scientific progress into complete solutions, policies, and economic success. But this collaborative science is still lacking the effective access and exchange of knowledge among scientists, researchers, and policy makers across a range of disciplines. Bringing together leaders from multiple scientific disciplines, Data-Intensive Science shows how a comprehensive integration of various techniques and technological advances can effectively harness the vast amount of data being generated and significan

  8. Towards higher intensities

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 2 weeks, commissioning of the machine protection system has advanced significantly, opening up the possibility of higher intensity collisions at 3.5 TeV. The intensity has been increased from 2 bunches of 1010 protons to 6 bunches of 2x1010 protons. Luminosities of 6x1028 cm-2s-1 have been achieved at the start of fills, a factor of 60 higher than those provided for the first collisions on 30 March.   The recent increase in LHC luminosity as recorded by the experiments. (Graph courtesy of the experiments and M. Ferro-Luzzi) To increase the luminosity further, the commissioning crews are now trying to push up the intensity of the individual proton bunches. After the successful injection of nominal intensity bunches containing 1.1x1011 protons, collisions were subsequently achieved at 450 GeV with these intensities. However, half-way through the first ramping of these nominal intensity bunches to 3.5 TeV on 15 May, a beam instability was observed, leading to partial beam loss...

  9. Rapid Assessment of Seismic Vulnerability in Palestinian Refugee Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dabbeek, Jalal N.; El-Kelani, Radwan J.

    Studies of historical and recorded earthquakes in Palestine demonstrate that damaging earthquakes are occurring frequently along the Dead Sea Transform: Earthquake of 11 July 1927 (ML 6.2), Earthquake of 11 February 2004 (ML 5.2). In order to reduce seismic vulnerability of buildings, losses in lives, properties and infrastructures, an attempt was made to estimate the percentage of damage degrees and losses at selected refugee camps: Al Ama`ri, Balata and Dhaishe. Assessing the vulnerability classes of building structures was carried out according to the European Macro-Seismic Scale 1998 (EMS-98) and the Fedral Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The rapid assessment results showed that very heavy structural and non structural damages will occur in the common buildings of the investigated Refugee Camps (many buildings will suffer from damages grades 4 and 5). Bad quality of buildings in terms of design and construction, lack of uniformity, absence of spaces between the building and the limited width of roads will definitely increase the seismic vulnerability under the influence of moderate-strong (M 6-7) earthquakes in the future.

  10. Reassessment of the historical seismic activity with major impact on S. Miguel Island (Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Silveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available On account of its tectonic setting, both seismic and volcanic events are frequent in the Azores archipelago. During the historical period earthquakes and seismic swarms of tectonic and/or volcanic origin have struck S. Miguel Island causing a significant number of casualties and severe damages. The information present in historical records made possible a new macroseismic analysis of these major events using the European Macroseismic Scale-1998 (EMS-98. Among the strongest earthquakes of tectonic origin that affected S. Miguel Island, six events were selected for this study. The isoseismal maps drawn for these events enabled the identification of areas characterized by anomalous values of seismic intensity, either positive or negative, to constrain epicentre locations and to identify some new seismogenic areas. Regarding seismic activity associated with volcanic phenomena six cases were also selected. For each of the studied cases cumulative intensity values were assessed for each locality. The distribution of local intensity values shows that the effects are not homogeneous within a certain distance from the eruptive centre, the area of major impacts relates with the eruptive style and damages equivalent to high intensities may occur in Furnas and Sete Cidades calderas. Combining all the historical macroseismic data, a maximum intensity map was produced for S. Miguel Island.

  11. Evaluation of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T-cell immunity for the assessment of the risk of active CMV infection in non-immunosuppressed surgical and trauma intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clari, María A; Aguilar, Gerardo; Benet, Isabel; Belda, Javier; Giménez, Estela; Bravo, Dayana; Carbonell, José A; Henao, Liliana; Navarro, David

    2013-10-01

    The current study was designed to assess the predictive value of the evaluation of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T-cell immunity early following admission to the intensive care unit for inferring the risk of active CMV infection in non-immunosuppressed surgical and trauma patients. A total of 31 CMV-seropositive patients were included. Patients were screened for the presence of CMV DNA in plasma and in tracheal aspirates by real-time PCR. Enumeration of CMV pp65 and IE-1-specific IFN-γ CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells was performed by flow cytometry for intracellular cytokine staining. Virological and immunological monitoring was conducted once or twice a week. Active CMV infection occurred in 17 out of 31 patients. Undetectable levels of pp65 and IE-1-specific IFN-γ CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-cell subsets cells were observed in 10 patients who developed active CMV infection and in one who did not (at a median of 2 days following ICU admission). Peak CMV DNA loads in both tracheal aspirates and plasma were substantially higher (P = 0.018 and P = 0.091, respectively) in patients with undetectable IFN-γ T-cell responses than in patients with detectable responses. The expansion of both CMV-specific T-cell subsets following detection of active CMV infection was demonstrated in 9 out of 14 patients with active CMV infection. In conclusion, the evaluation of CMV pp65 and IE-1-specific IFN-γ-producing CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells early following ICU admission may allow the identification of patients most at risk of either having or developing an episode of active CMV infection, particularly those associated with high-level virus replication.

  12. Sleep in intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyko, Yuliya; Jennum, Poul; Nikolic, Miki

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine if improving intensive care unit (ICU) environment would enhance sleep quality, assessed by polysomnography (PSG), in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Randomized controlled trial, crossover design. The night intervention "quiet routine......" protocol was directed toward improving ICU environment between 10pm and 6am. Noise levels during control and intervention nights were recorded. Patients on mechanical ventilation and able to give consent were eligible for the study. We monitored sleep by PSG.The standard (American Association of Sleep...... Medicine) sleep scoring criteria were insufficient for the assessment of polysomnograms. Modified classification for sleep scoring in critically ill patients, suggested by Watson et al. (Crit Care Med 2013;41:1958-1967), was used. RESULTS: Sound level analysis showed insignificant effect...

  13. 脑电双频指数在儿科ICU镇静监测的临床应用价值%Sedation assessment by using bispectral index in the pediatric intensive care unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕国良; 姚军; 龚小慧; 张宇鸣

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨脑电双频指数(BIS)在儿科ICU危重患儿镇静深度监测中的应用价值.方法 前瞻性收集我院PICU的42例6个月~13岁的危重患儿,以咪唑安定持续静脉滴注镇静治疗,在应用镇静剂后的10个时间段以Ramsay评分评价镇静深度的同时进行BIS监测,分析BIS与Ramsay评分在儿童危重症镇静评估的相关性及影响因素.结果 42例危重症患儿中共采集420对BIS与Ramsay对照数据,并做Spearman等级相关分析,BIS与Ramsay评分呈明显负相关(r=-0.8879,P0.05);BIS范围在55~80之间为危重症患儿合适的镇静分值.结论 BIS与Ramsay评分在危重症镇静深度评估中具有较好相关性.BIS监测具有操作简单、省时、连续性好等优点,可作为PICU患儿镇静深度判断的客观指标.%Objective To evaluate the applicability of bispectral index (BIS) in assessing sedation in pediatric intensive care unit. Methods Patients in pediatric ICU,aged six months to thirteen years and requi-ring sedation were given midazolam as sedative drug. The Ramsay score was assessed by physicians after mi-dazolam was given at ten time interval and these data were compared with the blinded BIS score. Results A total of 42 children were included in the study,420 valid paired observation of BIS values and Ramsay score were performed. According to Spearman's scale analysis, the correlation coefficient between BIS value and Ramsay score was -0.887 9 (P0.05). Conclusion BIS values cor-relate fairly well with the Ramsay scores in PICU patient. With the advantages such as simpleness, time-sav-ing,continuity and etc,BIS monitoring is a good objective tool for judging sedation depth of PICU patients.

  14. The intense neutron generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, W.B

    1966-07-01

    The presentation discusses both the economic and research contexts that would be served by producing neutrons in gram quantities at high intensities by electrical means without uranium-235. The revenue from producing radioisotopes is attractive. The array of techniques introduced by the multipurpose 65 megawatt Intense Neutron Generator project includes liquid metal cooling, superconducting magnets for beam bending and focussing, super-conductors for low-loss high-power radiofrequency systems, efficient devices for producing radiofrequency power, plasma physics developments for producing and accelerating hydrogen, ions at high intensity that are still far out from established practice, a multimegawatt high voltage D.C. generating machine that could have several applications. The research fields served relate principally to materials science through neutron-phonon and other quantum interactions as well as through neutron diffraction. Nuclear physics is served through {mu}-, {pi}- and K-meson production. Isotope production enters many fields of applied research. (author)

  15. Challenges and opportunities in mapping land use intensity globally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuemmerle, Tobias; Erb, Karlheinz; Meyfroidt, Patrick;

    2013-01-01

    we lack appropriate datasets to assess land use intensity across broad geographic extents. Here, we review the state of the art regarding approaches for mapping land use intensity and provide a comprehensive overview of available global-scale datasets on land use intensity. We also outline major...... challenges and opportunities for mapping land use intensity for cropland, grazing, and forestry systems, and identify key issues for future research. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  16. Stochastic conditional intensity processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauwens, Luc; Hautsch, Nikolaus

    2006-01-01

    model allows for a wide range of (cross-)autocorrelation structures in multivariate point processes. The model is estimated by simulated maximum likelihood (SML) using the efficient importance sampling (EIS) technique. By modeling price intensities based on NYSE trading, we provide significant evidence...

  17. Calculation of Stress Intensity Factor in Typical Fatigue Assessment for Container Ships%集装箱船典型疲劳评估节点应力强度因子计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘帆; 黄小平

    2015-01-01

    在基于疲劳裂纹扩展理论的疲劳评估方法中需要确定疲劳热点,并准确求解热点处裂纹应力强度因子。论文将 CCS 在规范中规定的疲劳评估节点分为四类:①典型对接接头和 T 型接头焊趾处,②趾端底板,③趾端肘板,④垂直三构件相交角点。分别使用三维有限元技术求解第一类、第二类、第三类节点的应力强度因子修正系数并和BS7910公式对比。结果表明:第一类节点与BS7910公式吻合良好;第二类节点裂纹扩展在趾端范围内时应力强度因子修正系数较 BS7910公式大,超过趾端范围内时,应力强度因子修正系数发生突变快速下降并逐渐趋近于1;第三类节点应力强度因子修正系数在整个范围内较BS7910公式大。第二类构件、第三类构件应力强度因子修正系数和 BS7910公式误差都很大。为此,分别对第二、三类节点提出了各自的修正公式,它们和有限元计算结果吻合良好。%In the fatigue crack growth theory based fatigue assessment method, fatigue hot spots need to be identified and stress intensity factor of crack should be determined accurately. In this paper, fatigue assessment nodes defined in CCS Standard are divided into four categories: weld toe of butt-joints and T-joints, bottom plate of bracket toe, bracket plate of bracket toe, and intersection point of three perpendicular components. The SIFs of surface cracks at the first three categories are analyzed with 3D FEA and compared with the results of SIF magnification factors calculated with equations recommended in BS7910.The results show that the SIF magnification factors of surface crack at first category is close to that of BS7910, while the results of second and third categories are quite different from BS7910. Correction formulas are proposed respectively for second and third categories, and the results show well agreement with that from FEA.

  18. Intensive culture”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Anders Ib

    2012-01-01

    Scott Lash argumenterer i bogen Intensive Culture for en vending fra ”ekstensiv” til ”intensiv” i den nutidige globalisering. Bogens udgangspunkt er en stadig mere ekstensiv og gennemtrængende globalisering af kultur, forbrugs- og vareformer, ”comtemporary culture, today’s capitalism – our global...... information society – is ever more extensive”. Dette medfører imidlertid et paradoks, fordi den ekstensive kultur slår om i intensive kulturformer: ”Given this growing extensification of contemporary culture, on another level and at the same time, we seem to be experiencing a parallel phenomenon whose colours......, samlivsmøstre etc.; ”the sheer pace of life in the streets of today’s mega-city would seem somehow to be intensive”....

  19. Intensities of Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissell, David; Vannini, Phillip; Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the intensities of long-distance commuting journeys in order to understand how bodily sensibilities become attuned to the regular mobilities which they undertake. More people are travelling farther to and from work than ever before, owing to a variety of factors which relate...... to complex social and geographical dynamics of transport, housing, lifestyle, and employment. Yet, the experiential dimensions of long-distance commuting have not received the attention that they deserve within research on mobilities. Drawing from fieldwork conducted in Australia, Canada, and Denmark...... this paper aims to further develop our collective understanding of the experiential particulars of long-distance workers or ‘supercommuters’. Rather than focusing on the extensive dimensions of mobilities that are implicated in broad social patterns and trends, our paper turns to the intensive dimensions...

  20. Depletion of intense fields

    CERN Document Server

    Seipt, D; Marklund, M; Bulanov, S S

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of charged particles and photons with intense electromagnetic fields gives rise to multi-photon Compton and Breit-Wheeler processes. These are usually described in the framework of the external field approximation, where the electromagnetic field is assumed to have infinite energy. However, the multi-photon nature of these processes implies the absorption of a significant number of photons, which scales as the external field amplitude cubed. As a result, the interaction of a highly charged electron bunch with an intense laser pulse can lead to significant depletion of the laser pulse energy, thus rendering the external field approximation invalid. We provide relevant estimates for this depletion and find it to become important in the interaction between fields of amplitude $a_0 \\sim 10^3$ and electron bunches with charges of the order of nC.

  1. Depletion of Intense Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipt, D.; Heinzl, T.; Marklund, M.; Bulanov, S. S.

    2017-04-01

    The interaction of charged particles and photons with intense electromagnetic fields gives rise to multiphoton Compton and Breit-Wheeler processes. These are usually described in the framework of the external field approximation, where the electromagnetic field is assumed to have infinite energy. However, the multiphoton nature of these processes implies the absorption of a significant number of photons, which scales as the external field amplitude cubed. As a result, the interaction of a highly charged electron bunch with an intense laser pulse can lead to significant depletion of the laser pulse energy, thus rendering the external field approximation invalid. We provide relevant estimates for this depletion and find it to become important in the interaction between fields of amplitude a0˜1 03 and electron bunches with charges of the order of 10 nC.

  2. Intense fusion neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  3. Performance and burnout in intensive care units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, GJ; Schaufeli, WB; LeBlanc, P; Zwerts, C; Miranda, DR

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between three different performance measures and burnout was explored in 20 Dutch Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Burnout (i.e. emotional exhaustion and depersonalization) proved to be significantly related to nurses' perceptions of performance as well as to objectively assessed unit p

  4. Pandemic influenza and pediatric intensive care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nap, Raoul E.; Andriessen, Maarten P. H. M.; Meessen, Nico E. L.; Albers, Marcel J. I. J.; van der Werf, Tjip S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the adequacy of preparedness planning for an influenza pandemic by modeling the pediatric surge capacity of healthcare facility and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) requirements over time. Governments and Public Health authorities have planned preparedness activities and tra

  5. Performance and burnout in intensive care units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, GJ; Schaufeli, WB; LeBlanc, P; Zwerts, C; Miranda, DR

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between three different performance measures and burnout was explored in 20 Dutch Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Burnout (i.e. emotional exhaustion and depersonalization) proved to be significantly related to nurses' perceptions of performance as well as to objectively assessed unit

  6. Stretching Effects: High-intensity & Moderate-duration vs. Low-intensity & Long-duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, S R; Vaz, J R; Bruno, P M; Andrade, R; Mil-Homens, P

    2016-03-01

    This study examined whether a high-intensity, moderate-duration bout of stretching would produce the same acute effects as a low-intensity, long-duration bout of stretching. 17 volunteers performed 2 knee-flexor stretching protocols: a high-intensity stretch (i. e., 100% of maximum tolerable passive torque) with a moderate duration (243.5 ± 69.5-s); and a low-intensity stretch (50% of tolerable passive torque) with a long duration (900-s). Passive torque at a given sub-maximal angle, peak passive torque, maximal range of motion (ROM), and muscle activity were assessed before and after each stretching protocol (at intervals of 1, 30 and 60 min). The maximal ROM and tolerable passive torque increased for all time points following the high-intensity stretching (p0.05). 1 min post-stretching, the passive torque decreased in both protocols, but to a greater extent in the low-intensity protocol. 30 min post-test, torque returned to baseline for the low-intensity protocol and had increased above the baseline for the high-intensity stretches. The following can be concluded: 1) High-intensity stretching increases the maximal ROM and peak passive torque compared to low-intensity stretching; 2) low-intensity, long-duration stretching is the best way to acutely decrease passive torque; and 3) high-intensity, moderate-duration stretching increases passive torque above the baseline 30 min after stretching. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. VISUAL ACUITY IN DIFFERENT INTENSITIES OF LIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruthi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available : BACKGROUND: Visual acuity is the resolving power of eyes which enables to distinguish the details and shapes of the objects. It is influenced by the intensity (illumination of light falling on the object. Measuring visual acuity is a simple test in assessing-health of the eyes, the pathway and visual brain. Intact normal vision is mandatory for selection of posts related to driving and traffic services. Intactness of visual acuity is influenced by a number of factors and one among them is intensity of ambient light. Hence, this study is undertaken to assess optimum light intensity for better visual perception. AIM: To evaluate the association between visual acuity and intensity of light and the optimum intensity of light to carry out for better perception of vision. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 100 literate subjects - 50 males and 50 females between 15-45 years, act both as cases and controls. Subjects, instructed to read alphabets and numbers from Snellen chart in 15 watts, 20 watts, 40 watts, 60 watts, 100 watts, 200 watts were considered as the study group and the same subjects in this study in day light as controls. Chart was placed at 6m distance. Both right and left eyes were tested separately in dark room illuminated with controlled light intensities. Number of correct characters read were noted for different illuminations and compared with that of controls. RESULTS: Reduced illumination significantly increased the no of incorrect choices and was statistically significant (P < 0.05 between 15 - 100 W. Visual acuity was best in 200 W in comparison with day light but was not statistically significant. However Visual acuity showed no significant difference between males and females for different intensities of light.

  8. 基于物质流分析的高集约化农区环境风险评价%Environmental risk assessment in high intensive farming area based on material flow analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷冠羿; 刘黎明; 起晓星; 袁承程; 卓东

    2015-01-01

    This study applied the material flow analysis (MFA) method to investigate the changes of resource input-pollution output flows from 2001 to 2012 in a high-intensive farming area in Taojiang County, China. In order to get an integrated index of total environmental risk, we built a comprehensive environmental risk assessment model on the basis of MFA. Direct material input (DMI), domestic processed output(DPO), material input per capita(IMC), material output per capita(IMD), material productivity(MP), environmental efficiency (EE) and production stock(Stock) were taken into the material flow analysis. DMI was divided into three large classes (solid, gases and liquid input) and eight subclasses including fertilizer (M1), pesticide(M2), mulching film (M3), O2 consumed by livestock respiration (M4), O2consumed by soil respiration(M5), O2consumed by crop respiration(M6), irrigation water(M7) and diesel (M8). DPO was divided into three large classes (solid, gases and liquid output), and nine subclasses including livestock manure(N1), mulching film residue(N2), pesticide leaching(N3), fertilizer leaching(N4), CO2discharged by soil respiration(N5), CO2discharged by livestock respiration(N6), CO2discharged by crop respiration(N7), CH4discharged by livestock(N8), straw burning contaminants(N9), and diesel burning contaminants (N10). In addition, Stock was divided into four classes: crop products (P1), animal products (P2), forest products (P3), and aquatic products (P4). The results showed that due to the effect of population,economic output, arable area and agricultural technology, the stock increased by 56.52%,while material input and output index changed synchronously, which indicated that the increase of material input had brought the augment of pollution emissions. DMI increased from 52.10 million tons in 2001 to 65.05 million tons in 2012. Irrigation water was the main part of DMI. Among the gases input, M5 was the main part, which occupied 40.96% of gases consumption

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies Worksite Physical Activity Steps to Wellness Walkability Audit Tool Sample Audit Glossary Selected References Discount Fitness Club Network Assessing Need and Interest Selecting a ...

  10. Relationship between isoseismal area and magnitude of historical earthquakes in Greece by a hybrid fuzzy neural network method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tselentis, G.-A.; Sokos, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we suggest the use of diffusion-neural-networks, (neural networks with intrinsic fuzzy logic abilities) to assess the relationship between isoseismal area and earthquake magnitude for the region of Greece. It is of particular importance to study historical earthquakes for which we often have macroseismic information in the form of isoseisms but it is statistically incomplete to assess magnitudes from an isoseismal area or to train conventional artificial neural networks for magnitude estimation. Fuzzy relationships are developed and used to train a feed forward neural network with a back propagation algorithm to obtain the final relationships. Seismic intensity data from 24 earthquakes in Greece have been used. Special attention is being paid to the incompleteness and contradictory patterns in scanty historical earthquake records. The results show that the proposed processing model is very effective, better than applying classical artificial neural networks since the magnitude macroseismic intensity target function has a strong nonlinearity and in most cases the macroseismic datasets are very small.

  11. 21 cm Intensity Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Jeffrey B; Ansari, Reza; Bandura, Kevin; Bond, Dick; Bunton, John; Carlson, Kermit; Chang, Tzu-Ching; DeJongh, Fritz; Dobbs, Matt; Dodelson, Scott; Darhmaoui, Hassane; Gnedin, Nick; Halpern, Mark; Hogan, Craig; Goff, Jean-Marc Le; Liu, Tiehui Ted; Legrouri, Ahmed; Loeb, Avi; Loudiyi, Khalid; Magneville, Christophe; Marriner, John; McGinnis, David P; McWilliams, Bruce; Moniez, Marc; Palanque-Delabruille, Nathalie; Pasquinelli, Ralph J; Pen, Ue-Li; Rich, Jim; Scarpine, Vic; Seo, Hee-Jong; Sigurdson, Kris; Seljak, Uros; Stebbins, Albert; Steffen, Jason H; Stoughton, Chris; Timbie, Peter T; Vallinotto, Alberto; Wyithe, Stuart; Yeche, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Using the 21 cm line, observed all-sky and across the redshift range from 0 to 5, the large scale structure of the Universe can be mapped in three dimensions. This can be accomplished by studying specific intensity with resolution ~ 10 Mpc, rather than via the usual galaxy redshift survey. The data set can be analyzed to determine Baryon Acoustic Oscillation wavelengths, in order to address the question: 'What is the nature of Dark Energy?' In addition, the study of Large Scale Structure across this range addresses the questions: 'How does Gravity effect very large objects?' and 'What is the composition our Universe?' The same data set can be used to search for and catalog time variable and transient radio sources.

  12. Cosmic Dawn Intensity Mapper

    CERN Document Server

    Cooray, Asantha; Burgarella, Denis; Chary, Ranga; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Doré, Olivier; Fazio, Giovanni; Ferrara, Andrea; Gong, Yan; Santos, Mario; Silva, Marta; Zemcov, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic Dawn Intensity Mapper is a "Probe Class" mission concept for reionization studies of the universe. It will be capable of spectroscopic imaging observations between 0.7 to 6-7 microns in the near-Infrared. The primary observational objective is pioneering observations of spectral emission lines of interest throughout the cosmic history, but especially from the first generation of distant, faint galaxies when the universe was less than 800 million years old. With spectro-imaging capabilities, using a set of linear variable filters (LVFs), CDIM will produce a three-dimensional tomographic view of the epoch of reionization (EoR). CDIM will also study galaxy formation over more than 90% of the cosmic history and will move the astronomical community from broad-band astronomical imaging to low-resolution (R=200-300) spectro-imaging of the universe.

  13. Workload modelling for data-intensive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lassnig, Mario

    This thesis presents a comprehensive study built upon the requirements of a global data-intensive system, built for the ATLAS Experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. First, a scalable method is described to capture distributed data management operations in a non-intrusive way. These operations are collected into a globally synchronised sequence of events, the workload. A comparative analysis of this new data-intensive workload against existing computational workloads is conducted, leading to the discovery of the importance of descriptive attributes in the operations. Existing computational workload models only consider the arrival rates of operations, however, in data-intensive systems the correlations between attributes play a central role. Furthermore, the detrimental effect of rapid correlated arrivals, so called bursts, is assessed. A model is proposed that can learn burst behaviour from captured workload, and in turn forecast potential future bursts. To help with the creation of a full representative...

  14. The Danish Intensive Care Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian Fynbo; Møller, Morten Hylander; Nielsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of this database is to improve the quality of care in Danish intensive care units (ICUs) by monitoring key domains of intensive care and to compare these with predefined standards. STUDY POPULATION: The Danish Intensive Care Database (DID) was established in 2007...

  15. The Taxonomy of Intervention Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Malone, Amelia S.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the Taxonomy of Intervention Intensity, which articulates 7 dimensions for evaluating and building intervention intensity. We explain the Taxonomy's dimensions of intensity. In explaining the Taxonomy, we rely on a case study to illustrate how the Taxonomy can systematize the process by which special…

  16. Whistler intensities above thunderstorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fiser

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a study of penetration of the VLF electromagnetic waves induced by lightning to the ionosphere. We compare the fractional hop whistlers recorded by the ICE experiment onboard the DEMETER satellite with lightning detected by the EUCLID detection network. To identify the fractional hop whistlers, we have developed software for automatic detection of the fractional-hop whistlers in the VLF spectrograms. This software provides the detection times of the fractional hop whistlers and the average amplitudes of these whistlers. Matching the lightning and whistler data, we find the pairs of causative lightning and corresponding whistler. Processing data from ~200 DEMETER passes over the European region we obtain a map of mean amplitudes of whistler electric field as a function of latitudinal and longitudinal difference between the location of the causative lightning and satellite magnetic footprint. We find that mean whistler amplitude monotonically decreases with horizontal distance up to ~1000 km from the lightning source. At larger distances, the mean whistler amplitude usually merges into the background noise and the whistlers become undetectable. The maximum of whistler intensities is shifted from the satellite magnetic footprint ~1° owing to the oblique propagation. The average amplitude of whistlers increases with the lightning current. At nighttime (late evening, the average amplitude of whistlers is about three times higher than during the daytime (late morning for the same lightning current.

  17. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-08-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of each lesson were analysed to identify individual student's emotions. Results from two representative students are presented as case studies. Using a theoretical perspective drawn from theories of emotions founded in sociology, two assertions emerged. First, during the demonstration activity, students experienced the emotions of wonder and surprise; second, during a laboratory activity, students experienced the intense positive emotions of happiness/joy. Characteristics of these activities that contributed to students' positive experiences are highlighted. The study found that choosing activities that evoked strong positive emotional experiences, focused students' attention on the phenomenon they were learning, and the activities were recalled positively. Furthermore, such positive experiences may contribute to students' interest and engagement in science and longer term memorability. Finally, implications for science teachers and pre-service teacher education are suggested.

  18. Intensity Frontier Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettell S.; Rameika, R.; Tshirhart, B.

    2013-09-24

    The fundamental origin of flavor in the Standard Model (SM) remains a mystery. Despite the roughly eighty years since Rabi asked “Who ordered that?” upon learning of the discovery of the muon, we have not understood the reason that there are three generations or, more recently, why the quark and neutrino mixing matrices and masses are so different. The solution to the flavor problem would give profound insights into physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM) and tell us about the couplings and the mass scale at which the next level of insight can be found. The SM fails to explain all observed phenomena: new interactions and yet unseen particles must exist. They may manifest themselves by causing SM reactions to differ from often very precise predictions. The Intensity Frontier (1) explores these fundamental questions by searching for new physics in extremely rare processes or those forbidden in the SM. This often requires massive and/or extremely finely tuned detectors.

  19. Assessment and Comparison of Homogeneity and Conformity Indexes in Step-and-Shoot and Compensator-Based Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy (3D CRT) in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Marzieh; Abi, Kaveh Shirani Tak; Nedaie, Hassan Ali; Hassani, Hossein; Gharaati, Hussain; Samei, Mahmood; Shahi, Rezgar; Zarei, Hamed

    2017-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D CRT) are two treatment modalities in prostate cancer, which provide acceptable dose distribution in tumor region with sparing the surrounding normal tissues. IMRT is based on inverse planning optimization; in which, intensity of beams is modified by using multileaf collimators and also compensators with optimum shapes in step and shoot (SAS) and compensator-based method, respectively. In the recent study, some important parameters were compared in two IMRT and 3D CRT methods. Prescribed dose was 80 Gy for both IMRT procedures and 70 Gy for 3D CRT. Treatment plans of 15 prostate cancer candidates were compared to target the minimum dose, maximum dose, V 76 Gy (for IMRT plans) V 66.5 Gy (for 3D CRT), mean dose, conformity index (CI), and homogeneity index (HI). Dose conformity in compensators-based IMRT was better than SAS and 3D CRT. The same outcome was also achieved for homogeneity index. The target coverage was achieved 95% of prescribed dose to 95% of planning target volume (PTV) in 3D CRT and 95% of prescribed dose to 98% of PTV in IMRT methods. IMRT increases maximum dose of tumor region, improves CI and HI of target volume, and also reduces dose of organs at risks.

  20. Delirium assessment in Intensive Care Unit in one hospital:current practice and perceived barriers%某医院ICU护士谵妄评估现状及障碍因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李智; 田永明; 李霞; 唐志红; 胡秀英

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the current practices of delirium assessment and analyze the perceived barriers among ICU nurses, and to provide reference to improve delirium assessment in ICU. Methods: A questionnaire survey was implemented among 256 ICU nurses in one hospital in Sichuan province. Results: 94.9% nurses had the experiences of caring delirium patients in ICU. Preferred methods for assessing delirium included clinical experience (80.5%), delirium assessment tools (14.5%), and psychiatric consultation (5.0%). The top three perceived barriers were dififculties in assessing intubated patients, assessing sedative patients and lack of delirium assessment knowledge. Nurses who assessed by clinical experience, who had never received related educations and who thought they had insufifcient knowledge, had higher scores of barriers. Conclusion: The current practices of ICU delirium assessment were unsatisfying, and the main barriers were lack of skills and knowledge.%目的:调查ICU护士谵妄评估实施现状,分析影响其评估的障碍因素,为促进ICU谵妄评估实践提供参考依据。方法:采用自行设计的问卷对四川省某医院256位ICU护士进行调查。结果:94.9%的护士护理过谵妄患者,80.5%的护士通过临床经验识别谵妄,14.5%通过评估工具,5.0%则是通过精神科医生会诊意见。插管患者评估困难、镇静患者评估困难及认为自己缺乏ICU谵妄评估相关知识是ICU谵妄评估的三大障碍因素。通过临床经验评估谵妄者、未接受过谵妄评估培训者、自评相关知识不能满足临床工作者的障碍因素得分更高,差异有统计学意义。结论:ICU谵妄评估现状尚须改善,护士缺乏谵妄评估相关技能和知识是主要障碍因素。

  1. Intensity of interprofessional collaboration among intensive care nurses at a tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Gemes, G; Rich-Ruiz, M

    To measure the intensity of interprofessional collaboration (IPC) in nurses of an intensive care unit (ICU) at a tertiary hospital, to check differences between the dimensions of the Intensity of Interprofessional Collaboration Questionnaire, and to identify the influence of personal variables. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 63 intensive care nurses selected by simple random sampling. Explanatory variables: age, sex, years of experience in nursing, years of experience in critical care, workday type and work shift type; variable of outcome: IPC. The IPC was measured by: Intensity of Interprofessional Collaboration Questionnaire. Descriptive and bivariate statistical analysis (IPC and its dimensions with explanatory variables). 73.8% were women, with a mean age of 46.54 (±6.076) years. The average years experience in nursing and critical care was 23.03 (±6.24) and 14.25 (±8.532), respectively. 77% had a full time and 95.1% had a rotating shift. 62.3% obtained average IPC values. Statistically significant differences were found (P<.05) between IPC (overall score) and overall assessment with years of experience in critical care. This study shows average levels of IPC; the nurses with less experience in critical care obtained higher IPC and overall assessment scores. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Caregiving intensity and retirement status in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Josephine C; Laporte, Audrey; Van Houtven, Courtney H; Coyte, Peter C

    2014-02-01

    A number of OECD countries have implemented policies encouraging longer labour force participation in tandem with policies encouraging informal care provision in the community. To better understand how these policies may affect the available pool of caregivers and labour force participants, we need more evidence about how informal caregiving is related to retirement status and timing. We assessed the association between caregiving intensity and retirement status for individuals aged 55 to 69 using the Canadian 2007 General Social Survey, a cross-sectional survey with 23,404 individuals. We used multinomial logistic regressions to determine whether providing different intensities of informal care (i.e. hours of weekly care) was significantly associated with the likelihood that an individual was fully retired, had retired and returned to work, had never retired and was working part-time or full-time, or was a labour market non-participant. We found that higher intensity caregiving was associated with being fully retired (relative to working full-time) for men and women (relative risk ratios, 2.93 and 2.04, respectively). For women, high intensity caregiving was also associated with working part-time (1.84) and being a labour force non-participant (1.99). Male and female high intensity caregivers were more likely to be retired before age 65. Our results highlight the importance of measuring caregiving intensity and multiple paths to retirement, which are often overlooked in the caregiving and retirement literature. They also indicate that a policy context encouraging both later retirement and more informal care may not be reasonable without flexible work arrangement options.

  3. Transcranial magnetic stimulation intensities in cognitive paradigms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob A Kaminski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS has become an important experimental tool for exploring the brain's functional anatomy. As TMS interferes with neural activity, the hypothetical function of the stimulated area can thus be tested. One unresolved methodological issue in TMS experiments is the question of how to adequately calibrate stimulation intensities. The motor threshold (MT is often taken as a reference for individually adapted stimulation intensities in TMS experiments, even if they do not involve the motor system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether it is reasonable to adjust stimulation intensities in each subject to the individual MT if prefrontal regions are stimulated prior to the performance of a cognitive paradigm. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Repetitive TMS (rTMS was applied prior to a working memory task, either at the 'fixed' intensity of 40% maximum stimulator output (MSO, or individually adapted at 90% of the subject's MT. Stimulation was applied to a target region in the left posterior middle frontal gyrus (pMFG, as indicated by a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI localizer acquired beforehand, or to a control site (vertex. Results show that MT predicted the effect size after stimulating subjects with the fixed intensity (i.e., subjects with a low MT showed a greater behavioral effect. Nevertheless, the individual adaptation of intensities did not lead to stable effects. CONCLUSION: Therefore, we suggest assessing MT and account for it as a measure for general cortical TMS susceptibility, even if TMS is applied outside the motor domain.

  4. The language of pain: intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, C A; Davidson, P O

    1976-09-01

    Thirty-nine adjectives which may be used to describe a pain experience were rated on an "intensity" continuum by 93 subjects, and in a second study by an additional 90 subjects. In each study these ratings were intercorrelated and factor-analyzed. The first 6 factors extracted were rotated to a simple structure criterion. The first factor was identified as an "intensity" factor. Examination of the adjectives indicated that intensity relates to "affective-evaluative" adjectives rather than "sensory" ones. The implications of these findings for the language a patient may use to communicate the intensity of a pain are discussed.

  5. Handbook of data intensive computing

    CERN Document Server

    Furht, Borko

    2011-01-01

    Data Intensive Computing refers to capturing, managing, analyzing, and understanding data at volumes and rates that push the frontiers of current technologies. The challenge of data intensive computing is to provide the hardware architectures and related software systems and techniques which are capable of transforming ultra-large data into valuable knowledge. Handbook of Data Intensive Computing is written by leading international experts in the field. Experts from academia, research laboratories and private industry address both theory and application. Data intensive computing demands a fund

  6. Greater clinical benefit of more intensive oral antiplatelet therapy with prasugrel in patients with diabetes mellitus in the trial to assess improvement in therapeutic outcomes by optimizing platelet inhibition with prasugrel-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 38.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiviott, S.D.; Braunwald, E.; Angiolillo, D.J.; Meisel, S.; Dalby, A.J.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Goodman, S.G.; Corbalan, R.; Purdy, D.A.; Murphy, S.A.; McCabe, C.H.; Antman, E.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are at high risk for recurrent cardiovascular events after acute coronary syndromes, in part because of increased platelet reactivity. The Trial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet Inhibition With Prasugrel-Thrombolysi

  7. High-intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation of Soft-tissue Tumors and Assessment of Treatment Response with Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Preliminary Study Using Rabbit VX2 Tumor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Won Kim

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Extracorporeal HIFU treatment for soft-tissue tumor may be a feasible approach with adjustment of input energy level. For post-treatment assessment, functional MRI techniques including DCE-MRI and ADC map may be useful and complementary to conventional MRI.

  8. Catfish production using intensive aeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the last 3 years, researchers at UAPB and NWAC have been monitoring and verifying production yields in intensively aerated catfish ponds with aeration rates greater than 6 hp/acre. We now have three years of data on commercial catfish production in intensively aerated ponds. With stocking densi...

  9. The Dynamics of Intensive Cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Bidard

    2008-01-01

    An increase in the demand for agricultural goods leads to the use of more intensive cultivation methods. Though Ricardo sees no difficulties in the intensification process, their existence is revealed by the possible occurrence of multiple equilibria. A general theory of intensive rent is based on a formal parallel with single-product systems without land.

  10. Traffic light intensity meter, TIM®

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leden, N. van der; Varkevisser, J.; Vroom, J. de; Oijen, T van

    2005-01-01

    The intensity of traffic lights decreases over time as a result of pollution and ageing. The Dutch Traffic Research Centre of the Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management is searching for a convenient method for measuring the luminous intensity of traffic lights on the road, in order

  11. MRI intensity inhomogeneity correction by combining intensity and spatial information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vovk, Uros; Pernus, Franjo; Likar, Bostjan [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Trzaska 25, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2004-09-07

    We propose a novel fully automated method for retrospective correction of intensity inhomogeneity, which is an undesired phenomenon in many automatic image analysis tasks, especially if quantitative analysis is the final goal. Besides most commonly used intensity features, additional spatial image features are incorporated to improve inhomogeneity correction and to make it more dynamic, so that local intensity variations can be corrected more efficiently. The proposed method is a four-step iterative procedure in which a non-parametric inhomogeneity correction is conducted. First, the probability distribution of image intensities and corresponding second derivatives is obtained. Second, intensity correction forces, condensing the probability distribution along the intensity feature, are computed for each voxel. Third, the inhomogeneity correction field is estimated by regularization of all voxel forces, and fourth, the corresponding partial inhomogeneity correction is performed. The degree of inhomogeneity correction dynamics is determined by the size of regularization kernel. The method was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated on simulated and real MR brain images. The obtained results show that the proposed method does not corrupt inhomogeneity-free images and successfully corrects intensity inhomogeneity artefacts even if these are more dynamic.

  12. Intense electron and ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Molokovsky, Sergey Ivanovich

    2005-01-01

    Intense Ion and Electron Beams treats intense charged-particle beams used in vacuum tubes, particle beam technology and experimental installations such as free electron lasers and accelerators. It addresses, among other things, the physics and basic theory of intense charged-particle beams; computation and design of charged-particle guns and focusing systems; multiple-beam charged-particle systems; and experimental methods for investigating intense particle beams. The coverage is carefully balanced between the physics of intense charged-particle beams and the design of optical systems for their formation and focusing. It can be recommended to all scientists studying or applying vacuum electronics and charged-particle beam technology, including students, engineers and researchers.

  13. The economics of intense exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, David O; Jena, Anupam B

    2010-05-01

    Despite the well-known benefits of exercise, the time required for exercise is widely understood as a major reason for low levels of exercise in the US. Intensity of exercise can change the time required for a given amount of total exercise but has never been studied from an economic perspective. We present a simple model of exercise behavior which suggests that the intensity of exercise should increase relative to time spent exercising as wages increase, holding other determinants of exercise constant. Our empirical results identify an association between income and exercise intensity that is consistent with the hypothesis that people respond to increased time costs of exercise by increasing intensity. More generally, our results suggest that time costs may be an important determinant of exercise patterns and that factors that can influence the time costs of exercise, such as intensity, may be important concerns in designing interventions to promote exercise.

  14. Spatial distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans (PCDDs/Fs) in dust, soil, sediment and health risk assessment from an intensive electronic waste recycling site in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianfang; Xiao, Xiao; Peng, Ping'an; Huang, Weilin; Chen, Deyi; Cai, Ying

    2013-10-01

    Workshop dust, soil and sediment samples were collected to investigate the level and spatial distribution of PCDDs/Fs at an intensive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site in Southern China, and also to characterize the dioxin emission in different e-waste recycling procedures. The concentrations of total PCDDs/Fs ranged from 1866 to 234292 ng kg(-1) for the dust samples, from 3187 to 63998 ng kg(-1) dry wt for the top soils, and 33718 ng kg(-1) for the surface sediment. All the samples were characterized by abnormally high concentrations of OCDD and an extremely low portion of PCDFs. Different e-waste recycling procedures may generate different congener profiles. Open burning and dismantling were the two procedures emitting relatively higher concentrations of PCDDs/Fs in this case, indicating that low-tech recycling operations were one of the major contributors of PCDDs/Fs to the environment. The variation and distinction of the concentrations and homologue/congener profiles among different environmental matrices reveal the characteristics of contaminant environmental behavior and fate during the transportation from "source" to "sink". Daily intake of PCDDs/Fs through soil ingestion and dermal absorption was negligible, but the rough estimated total PCDD/F intake dose far exceeded the tolerance daily intake value of 4 pg-TEQ per kg per day recommended by WHO, indicating that residents in Longtang were at a high risk of exposure to dioxins, especially children.

  15. 胰岛素强化治疗后黄斑区视网膜厚度的早期观察%Early assessment of macular thickness after intensive insulin therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢纯洁; 陈镇国; 林思思; 陈嘉纬; 钟洪亮; 田蓓; 魏文斌

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the change of macular thickness after intensive insulin therapy by using Heidelberg retinal tomography Ⅱ (HRT Ⅱ) and optical coherence tomography (OCT).Methods This was a prospective case series study,80 eyes of 40 patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus with Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (NPDR) under intensive insulin therapy were included into study.HRT Ⅱ was used to obtain the macular edema index (e-value) and the OCT was used to obtain the value of macular thickness.The follow times were at pre-treatment and 1 month,3months and 6 months after intensive insulin therapy.The repeated measurement and LSD pairwise comparison were used to analyze the data. Results The e-value and the macular thickness of the first-ring,the second-ring and the third-ring of macular area were analyzed respectively,the difference among the pre-treatment and 1 month,3 months and 6 months post-treatment had no statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusions No significant change of macular thickness of type 2 diabetes mellitus with NPDR is observed after a short term intensive insulin therapy.%目的 应用海德堡视网膜断层扫描仪(HRTⅡ)和光学相干断层扫描(optical coherence tomography,OCT),对初次进行胰岛素强化治疗的2型糖尿病患者黄斑区视网膜厚度进行评价.方法 前瞻性病例研究.对40例初次进行胰岛索强化治疗的合并非增殖期糖尿病性视网膜病变的2型糖尿病患者,分别用HRTⅡ和OCT检查胰岛素强化治疗前,治疗后1月、3月和6月的黄斑区水肿指数e值和视网膜厚度变化并进行比较.结果 黄斑区一环、二环和三环胰岛素强化治疗后1月、3月、6月的e值与强化治疗前比较均差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);黄斑区一环胰岛素强化治疗后1月、3月、6月OCT所测的视网膜厚度值分别与强化治疗前视网膜厚度值比较均差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);二环强化治疗后1月OCT所测的视网膜厚

  16. Avaliação da intensidade de dor e da funcionalidade no pós-operatório recente de cirurgia cardíaca Pain intensity and postoperative functional assessment after heart surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Bassalobre Carvalho Borges

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a intensidade de dor e o nível de funcionalidade em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca nos períodos pré-operatório, 7º pós-operatório e alta hospitalar, relacionando-os entre si. Relacionar funcionalidade com: sexo, faixa etária, primeira cirurgia cardíaca ou reoperação, uso de circulação extracorpórea (CEC, tipo de cirurgia e acompanhamento fisioterapêutico. MÉTODO: Foram estudados 41 pacientes que realizaram cirurgia cardíaca eletiva por toracotomia médio-esternal (TME no HC da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu/UNESP. A intensidade de dor foi avaliada pela escala de VAS e a funcionalidade, pela escala MIF (medida de independência funcional no domínio físico. RESULTADOS: A intensidade de dor mais elevada foi no 7º pós-operatório comparado com os momentos pré-operatório e alta. No pré-operatório, não houve índice de dor; na alta, a intensidade mediana foi 3 (dor moderada. Os níveis mais elevados de perda funcional ocorreram no 7º pós-operatório, quando comparados com os escores totais do pré-operatório e da alta. Verificou-se correlação significativa entre dor e funcionalidade, demonstrando que o decréscimo do nível de dor entre o 7º pós-operatório e a alta contribuiu para a elevação dos níveis funcionais. CONCLUSÃO: As avaliações realizadas no pré-operatório proporcionaram resultados preditivos a serem alcançados. As avaliações realizadas no 7º pós-operatório e na alta possibilitaram a classificação dos pacientes de acordo com perdas e ganhos, indicando aqueles que necessitavam de maior cuidado e treinamento em suas capacidades.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, in patients submitted to heart surgery, the intensity of pain and the level of functionality during the preoperative period, on the 7th postoperative day and at hospital discharge. A secondary objective was to evaluate any possible relationship between pain and functionality taking into account the following

  17. Intensive insulin therapy in the intensive cardiac care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasin, Tal; Eldor, Roy; Hammerman, Haim

    2006-01-01

    Treatment in the intensive cardiac care unit (ICCU) enables rigorous control of vital parameters such as heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, oxygen saturation, serum electrolyte levels, urine output and many others. The importance of controlling the metabolic status of the acute cardiac patient and specifically the level of serum glucose was recently put in focus but is still underscored. This review aims to explain the rationale for providing intensive control of serum glucose levels in the ICCU, especially using intensive insulin therapy and summarizes the available clinical evidence suggesting its effectiveness.

  18. Intensive Measurement Designs for Research on Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rast, Philippe; Macdonald, Stuart W S; Hofer, Scott M

    2012-01-01

    Intensive measurement burst designs permit analysis of behavioral and biological processes as they unfold over short and long periods of time and providing the opportunity to identify change from an individual's normative level of functioning. The measurement burst design permits statistical decomposition of short-term variation and learning effects that overlay normative aging and provide stronger bases for detecting accelerated change due to pathological processes. We provide an overview of design features and analysis of measurement burst data in Project MIND. The objective of intensive measurement designs is to obtain greater resolution of processes of interest that permit reliable and sensitive assessments of functioning and change in functioning and of key determinants underlying short-term variation and long-term aging and health-related change.

  19. TASKS OF THE "INTENSIVE READING"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍向梅

    1984-01-01

    @@ To Chinese students who are learning English as a foreign language, the "intensive reading" course is of great practical value,especially in the intermediate stage,i.e.senior-middle school or the second or third year in college. "Intensive reading"implies the recognition of the configuration, pronunciation, grammatical inflexion and structure of words, sentences, paragraphs, and the whole text. It strength ens listening and speaking, affords language, content, and models for writing.It helps the student lay a solid foundation of the language. Thus, the tasks assigned to the "intensive reading" are worth studying.

  20. High intensity protons in RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montag, C.; Ahrens, L.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J. M.; Drees, K. A.; Fischer, W.; Huang, H.; Minty, M.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Thieberger, P.; Yip, K.

    2012-01-05

    During the 2012 summer shutdown a pair of electron lenses will be installed in RHIC, allowing the beam-beam parameter to be increased by roughly 50 percent. To realize the corresponding luminosity increase bunch intensities have to be increased by 50 percent, to 2.5 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} protons per bunch. We list the various RHIC subsystems that are most affected by this increase, and propose beam studies to ensure their readiness. The proton luminosity in RHIC is presently limited by the beam-beam effect. To overcome this limitation, electron lenses will be installed in IR10. With the help of these devices, the headon beam-beam kick experienced during proton-proton collisions will be partially compensated, allowing for a larger beam-beam tuneshift at these collision points, and therefore increasing the luminosity. This will be accomplished by increasing the proton bunch intensity from the presently achieved 1.65 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} protons per bunch in 109 bunches per beam to 2.5 {center_dot} 10{sup 11}, thus roughly doubling the luminosity. In a further upgrade we aim for bunch intensities up to 3 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} protons per bunch. With RHIC originally being designed for a bunch intensity of 1 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} protons per bunch in 56 bunches, this six-fold increase in the total beam intensity by far exceeds the design parameters of the machine, and therefore potentially of its subsystems. In this note, we present a list of major subsystems that are of potential concern regarding this intensity upgrade, show their demonstrated performance at present intensities, and propose measures and beam experiments to study their readiness for the projected future intensities.

  1. Medication administration errors in an intensive care unit in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background Medication administration errors in patient care have been shown to be frequent and serious. Such errors are particularly prevalent in highly technical specialties such as the intensive care unit (ICU). In Ethiopia, the prevalence of medication administration errors in the ICU is not studied. Objective To assess medication administration errors in the intensive care unit of Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH), Southwest Ethiopia. Methods Prospective observation based cross...

  2. Merging ultrasound in the intensive care routine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobson, Daniel J; Shemesh, Iftach

    2013-11-01

    Goal-oriented ultrasound examination is gaining a place in the intensive care unit. Some protocols have been proposed but the applicability of ultrasound as part of a routine has not been studied. To assess the influence of ultrasound performed by intensive care physicians. This retrospective descriptive clinical study was performed in a medical-surgical intensive care unit of a university-affiliated general hospital. Data were collected from patients undergoing ultrasound examinations performed by a critical care physician during the period 2010 to June 2011. A total of 299 ultrasound exams were performed in 113 mechanically ventilated patients (70 males, mean age 65 years). Exams included trans-cranial Doppler (n = 24), neck evaluation before tracheostomy (n = 15), chest exam (n = 83), focuse cardiac echocardiography (n = 60), abdominal exam (n = 41), and comprehensive screening at patient admission (n = 30). Ultrasound was used to guide invasive procedures for vascular catheter insertion (n = 42), pleural fluid drainage (n = 24), and peritoneal fluid drainage (n = 7). One pneumothorax was seen during central venous line insertion but no complications were observed after pleural or abdominal drainage. The ultrasound study provided good quality visualization in 86% (258 of 299 exams) and was a diagnostic tool that induced a change in treatment in 58% (132 of 226 exams). Bedside ultrasound examinations performed by critical care physicians provide an important adjunct to diagnostic and therapeutic performance, improving quality of care and patient safety.

  3. GIS-mapping of environmental assessment of the territories in the region of intense activity for the oil and gas complex for achievement the goals of the Sustainable Development (on the example of Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolaev, Oleg

    2014-05-01

    The uniform system of complex scientific-reference ecological-geographical should act as a base for the maintenance of the Sustainable Development (SD) concept in the territories of the Russian Federation subjects or certain regions. In this case, the assessment of the ecological situation in the regions can be solved by the conjugation of the two interrelated system - the mapping and the geoinformational. The report discusses the methodological aspects of the Atlas-mapping for the purposes of SD in the regions of Russia. The Republic of Tatarstan viewed as a model territory where a large-scale oil-gas complex "Tatneft" PLC works. The company functions for more than 60 years. Oil fields occupy an area of more than 38 000 km2; placed in its territory about 40 000 oil wells, more than 55 000 km of pipelines; more than 3 billion tons of oil was extracted. Methods for to the structure and requirements for the Atlas's content were outlined. The approaches to mapping of "an ecological dominant" of SD conceptually substantiated following the pattern of a large region of Russia. Several trends of thematically mapping were suggested to be distinguished in the Atlas's structure: • The background history of oil-fields mine working; • The nature preservation technologies while oil extracting; • The assessment of natural conditions of a humans vital activity; • Unfavorable and dangerous natural processes and phenomena; • The anthropogenic effect and environmental surroundings change; • The social-economical processes and phenomena. • The medical-ecological and geochemical processes and phenomena; Within these groups the other numerous groups can distinguished. The maps of unfavorable and dangerous processes and phenomena subdivided in accordance with the types of processes - of endogenous and exogenous origin. Among the maps of the anthropogenic effects on the natural surroundings one can differentiate the maps of the influence on different nature's spheres

  4. Assessment and intervention of neonatal pain in neonatal intensive care unit%新生儿重症监护病房新生儿疼痛的评估及其干预措施的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石碧珍; 刘玲; 胡颦; 陈姝姝; 刘燕斐; 罗睿

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the pain controlling effects of non-pharmaceutical interventions in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) setting. Methods Infants who received radial artery puncture were assigned into control group, non-nutritive sucking (NNS) group and NNS plus glucose (NNS + GS) group according to their admission sequences. Each group contained 20 patients. Heart rate ( HR), respiratory rate (RR) and oxygen saturation (SpO2 ) before and after the procedure were monitored using Multi-Parameter Monitor ECG. Neonatal pain was evaluated using the preterm infant pain profile (PIPP). Results Among all three groups, after radial artery puncture, HR and RR were significantly increased, and SpO2 was significantly decreased (P < 0. 01). HR, RR and SpO2 variations in NNS group and NNS + GS group were less significant than the control group (P < 0. 05), and recovered to baseline more quickly. During the radial artery puncture, PIPP scores of infants in NNS and NNS + GS group were significantly lower than the control group (P < 0. 01), with NNS + GS group lower than NNS group (P <0. 05). Conclusions HR, RR and SpO2 can be used as physiological indicators of neonatal pain. PIPP score is simple and practical to be used in NICU setting. Both NNS and NNS + GS can partially relieve neonatal pain, and NNS + GS works better.%目的:通过对新生儿重症监护病房(NICU)接受桡动脉穿刺的新生儿进行疼痛评分,观察其非药物干预的止痛效果。方法将接受桡动脉穿刺的新生儿按入院顺序随机分为3组:(1)对照组;(2)非营养性吸吮组(NNS 组);(3)非营养性吸吮+葡萄糖组(NNS + GS 组)。应用多参数心电监护仪监测各组新生儿穿刺前后经皮血氧饱和度(SpO2)、心率和呼吸频率变化及应用新生儿疼痛评分简表(PIPP)对各组新生儿疼痛进行评分。结果各组新生儿在遭受桡动脉穿刺时的心率、呼吸频率均增快,SpO2降低(P 均<0.01),其中 NNS 组及 NNS + GS

  5. Intensive Early Rehabilitation in the Intensive Care Unit for Liver Transplant Recipients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, Pierre; Wiramus, Sandrine; Bensoussan, Laurent; Bienvenu, Laurence; Haddad, Eric; Morange, Sophie; Fathallah, Mohamed; Hardwigsen, Jean; Viton, Jean-Michel; Le Treut, Y Patrice; Albanese, Jacques; Gregoire, Emilie

    2017-08-01

    To validate the feasibility and tolerance of an intensive rehabilitation protocol initiated during the postoperative period in an intensive care unit (ICU) in liver transplant recipients. Prospective randomized study. ICU. Liver transplant recipients over a period of 1 year (N=40). The "usual treatment group" (n=20), which benefited from the usual treatment applied in the ICU (based on physician prescription for the physiotherapist, with one session a day), and the experimental group (n=20), which followed a protocol of early and intensive rehabilitation (based on a written protocol validated by physicians and an evaluation by physiotherapist, with 2 sessions a day), were compared. Our primary aims were tolerance, assessed from the number of adverse events during rehabilitation sessions, and feasibility, assessed from the number of sessions discontinued. The results revealed a small percentage of adverse events (1.5% in the usual treatment group vs 1.06% in the experimental group) that were considered to be of low intensity. Patients in the experimental group sat on the edge of their beds sooner (2.6 vs 9.7d; P=.048) and their intestinal transit resumed earlier (5.6 vs 3.7d; P=.015) than patients in the usual treatment group. There was no significant difference between the 2 arms regarding length of stay (LOS), despite a decrease in duration in the experimental group. The introduction of an intensive early rehabilitation program for liver transplant recipients was well tolerated and feasible in the ICU. We noted that the different activities proposed were introduced sooner in the experimental group. Moreover, there is a tendency to decreased LOS in the ICU for the experimental group. These results now need to be confirmed by studies on a larger scale. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Exercise intensity differentially impacts sensitivity thresholds to specific tastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakanishi Y

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of exercise intensity on sensitivity to four major tastes of sweet, sour, salty, and bitter. Ten subjects completed two separate 30-min cycling exercise bouts, one at low intensity (50% V •O2max and the other at high intensity (70% V •O2max. Sensitivity to the four tastes was assessed before and after each exercise bout, using taste discs. Comparative data were analyzed using paired t-tests and the relationships between work-related physiologic measures and taste sensitivities were calculated using Pearson correlation. Significance was established at the 0.05 level of probability. Post-exercise sourness threshold was higher (p≤0.05 following the high intensity exercise compared to the low intensity exercise, sweetness threshold decreased following the higher intensity exercise (p≤0.05, while no differences were observed in threshold sensitivities for the other two tastes at either workload. The increased sensitivity to sweetness (decreased threshold was strongly related to changes in blood glucose following both low (r2=0.62; p<0.01 and high (r2=0.50; p≤0.05 intensity exercises. As well, changes observed in sourness threshold were directly related to the changes in core temperature (r2=0.49; p≤0.05 but only for the low intensity exercise bout.

  7. Distinct memories of odor intensity and quality in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Pavel; Heisenberg, Martin

    2008-10-14

    Even in a simple Pavlovian memory task an animal may form several associations that can be independently assessed by the appropriate tests. Studying conditioned odor discrimination of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster we found that animals store quality and intensity of an odor as separate memory traces. The trace of odor intensity is short-lived, decaying in <3 h. Only the last intensity value is stored. In contrast to odor-quality memory, odor-intensity memory does not require the rutabaga-dependent cAMP signaling pathway. Flies rely on their memory of intensity in a narrow concentration range in which they can generalize intensity. Larger concentration differences they treat like different qualities. This study shows that the perceptual identity of an odor is based on at least three lines of processing in the brain: (i) a memory of odor quality, (ii) a memory of odor intensity, and (iii) a range of intensities (and qualities), in which the odor is generalized.

  8. [The future of intensive medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palencia Herrejón, E; González Díaz, G; Mancebo Cortés, J

    2011-05-01

    Although Intensive Care Medicine is a young specialty compared with other medical disciplines, it currently plays a key role in the process of care for many patients. Experience has shown that professionals with specific training in Intensive Care Medicine are needed to provide high quality care to critically ill patients. In Europe, important steps have been taken towards the standardization of training programs of the different member states. However, it is now necessary to take one more step forward, that is, the creation of a primary specialty in Intensive Care Medicine. Care of the critically ill needs to be led by specialists who have received specific and complete training and who have the necessary professional competences to provide maximum quality care to their patients. The future of the specialty presents challenges that must be faced with determination, with the main objective of meeting the needs of the population.

  9. Nanostructured intense-laser cleaner

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiao Feng; Kong, Qing; Wang, Ping Xiao; Yu, Qin; Gu, Yan Jan; Qu, Jun Fan

    2016-01-01

    A nanostructured target is proposed to enhance an intense-laser contrast: when a laser prepulse is injected on a nanostructured solid target surface, the prepulse is absorbed effectively by the nanostructured surface. The nanostructure size should be less than the laser wavelength. After the prepulse absorption, the front part of the main pulse destroys the microstructure and makes the surface a flat plasma mirror. The body of the main pulse is reflected almost perfectly. Compared with the plasma mirrors, the nanostructured surface is effective for the absorption of the intense laser prepulse, higher than 10^14 W/cm2. By the nanostructured laser cleaner, the laser pulse contrast increases about a hundredfold. The nanostructured laser cleaner works well for near-future intense lasers.

  10. Raman spectroscopy an intensity approach

    CERN Document Server

    Guozhen, Wu

    2017-01-01

    This book summarizes the highlights of our work on the bond polarizability approach to the intensity analysis. The topics covered include surface enhanced Raman scattering, Raman excited virtual states and Raman optical activity (ROA). The first chapter briefly introduces the Raman effect in a succinct but clear way. Chapter 2 deals with the normal mode analysis. This is a basic tool for our work. Chapter 3 introduces our proposed algorithm for the Raman intensity analysis. Chapter 4 heavily introduces the physical picture of Raman virtual states. Chapter 5 offers details so that the readers can have a comprehensive idea of Raman virtual states. Chapter 6 demonstrates how this bond polarizability algorithm is extended to ROA intensity analysis. Chapters 7 and 8 offer details on ROA, showing many findings on ROA mechanism that were not known or neglected before. Chapter 9 introduces our proposed classical treatment on ROA which, as combined with the results from the bond polarizability analysis, leads to a com...

  11. Is there a level of competition intensity that maximizes investment in the mobile telecommunications industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Houngbonon, Georges Vivien; Jeanjean, Francois

    2014-01-01

    This paper empirically assesses the impact of the intensity of competition on investment in new technologies within the mobile telecommunications industry. Using firm level panel data and an instrumental variable estimation it finds an inverted-U relationship between competition intensity and investment. The intermediate level of competition intensity that maximizes investment stands at 62 percent, whereby competition intensity is measured by 1-Lerner index at the firm level. This means that ...

  12. Sound intensity and its measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    The paper summarises the basic theory of sound intensity and its measurement and gives an overview of the state of the art with particular emphasis on recent developments in the field. Eighty references are given, most of which to literature published in the past two years. The paper describes...... and discusses the sources of error in measurement of sound intensity and the resulting limitations imposed on various applications of such measurements. Finally, some unresolved problems are mentioned, and the possibility of improving the instrumentation is discussed....

  13. [Physiotherapy in intensive care medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessizius, S

    2014-10-01

    A high amount of recently published articles and reviews have already focused on early mobilisation in intensive care medicine. However, in the clinical setting the problem of its practicability remains as each professional group in the mobility team has its own expectations concerning the interventions made by physiotherapy. Even though there are as yet no standard operation procedures (SOP), there do exist distinctive mobilisation concepts that are well implemented in certain intensive care units (http://www.fruehmobilisierung.de/Fruehmobilisierung/Algorithmen.html). Due to these facts and the urgent need for SOPs this article presents the physiotherapeutic concept for the treatment of patients in the intensive care unit which has been developed by the author: First the patients' respiratory and motor functions have to be established in order to classify the patients and allocate them to their appropriate group (one out of three) according to their capacities; additionally, the patients are analysed by checking their so-called "surrounding conditions". Following these criteria a therapy regime is developed and patients are treated accordingly. By constant monitoring and re-evaluation of the treatment in accordance with the functions of the patient a dynamic system evolves. "Keep it simple" is one of the key features of that physiotherapeutic concept. Thus, a manual for the classification and the physiotherapeutic treatment of an intensive care patient was developed. In this article it is demonstrated how this concept can be implemented in the daily routine of an intensive care unit. Physiotherapy in intensive care medicine has proven to play an important role in the patients' early rehabilitation if the therapeutic interventions are well adjusted to the needs of the patients. A team of nursing staff, physiotherapists and medical doctors from the core facility for medical intensive care and emergency medicine at the medical university of Innsbruck developed the

  14. Reliability assessment of numerical control machine tools with whole lifecycle based on bounded bathtub intensity process%基于边界浴盆强度过程的数控机床全寿命周期可靠性评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任丽娜; 任帅; 王先芝; 刘宇

    2014-01-01

    This paper presented a reliability assessment method for numerical control machine tool based on bounded bathtub in-tensity process (BBIP)model.The method can assess the whole lifecycle reliability of numerical control (NC)machine tools in minimal repair.Bounded bathtub intensity function of failure times was built,and a formula for calculating the lasting time of ear-ly failure period was derived.The maximum likelihood estimation (MLE)for model parameters and reliability indices were given. The failure process of a single NC machine tool with failure truncation was analyzed.The results show that the lasting time of early failure period for NC machine tool is about 5 months.The estimated time is basically consistent with the actual situation.It is demonstrated that BBIP model can accurately evaluate the lasting time of early failure period and can provide a theoretical basis for improving the reliability of NC machine tools.%在最小维修情况下,为实现数控机床的全寿命周期可靠性评估,提出基于边界浴盆强度过程(bounded bathtub intensity process,BBIP)模型的数控机床可靠性评估方法。建立了故障时间的边界浴盆强度函数式,推导了早期故障期持续时间的计算公式,并给出了模型参数和可靠性指标的极大似然点估计。采用该评估方法分析了单台数控机床故障截尾的故障过程,结果表明:该数控机床早期故障期的持续时间大约为5个月,与机床的实际情况基本一致,说明BBIP模型可准确地评估早期故障期的持续时间,为提高机床可靠性提供了一定的理论依据。

  15. Intensity-intensity and intensity-amplitude correlation of microwave photons from a superconducting artificial atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Feng, Xunli; Oh, C. H.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the dynamics of the microwave-frequency nonclassical correlations in a three-level Δ -configuration artificial atom, which is realized by superconducting quantum circuits. The intensity-intensity correlation and intensity field are strongly dependent on the relative phase Φ of the driven fields. It is found that two interference loops are formed in the dressed state picture at Φ =0 or π, which are responsible for the generation of nonclassical microwave photons. When the phase is changed into Φ =π /2 or 3π /2 , the temporal correlation functions exhibit different oscillating behaviors. The phase-sensitive nonclassical correlations of fluorescence photons may find practical application in the design of all-optical switches and quantum information processing.

  16. Sound intensity and its measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    The paper summarises the basic theory of sound intensity and its measurement and gives an overview of the state of the art with particular emphasis on recent developments in the field. Eighty references are given, most of which to literature published in the past two years. The paper describes...

  17. Intensive care of haematological patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magid, Tobias; Haase, Nicolai; Andersen, Jakob Steen

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the treatment results of 320 consecutive patients with malignant haematological diagnoses admitted to a tertiary intensive care unit at a Danish University hospital over a six-year period (2005-2010). With reference to international publications, we describe the development...

  18. Perceiving the Intensity of Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Dale; Williams, S. Mark; Nundy, Surajit; Lotto, R. Beau

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between luminance (i.e., the photometric intensity of light) and its perception (i.e., sensations of lightness or brightness) has long been a puzzle. In addition to the mystery of why these perceptual qualities do not scale with luminance in any simple way, "illusions" such as simultaneous brightness contrast, Mach bands,…

  19. How is intensive care reimbursed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bittner, Martin-Immanuel; Donnelly, Maria; van Zanten, Arthur Rh

    2013-01-01

    Reimbursement schemes in intensive care are more complex than in other areas of healthcare, due to special procedures and high care needs. Knowledge regarding the principles of functioning in other countries can lead to increased understanding and awareness of potential for improvement. This can ...

  20. A Methodological Approach to Quantifying Plyometric Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Mark M; Graham-Smith, Phil; Comfort, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Jarvis, MM, Graham-Smith, P, and Comfort, P. A Methodological approach to quantifying plyometric intensity. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2522-2532, 2016-In contrast to other methods of training, the quantification of plyometric exercise intensity is poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the suitability of a range of neuromuscular and mechanical variables to describe the intensity of plyometric exercises. Seven male recreationally active subjects performed a series of 7 plyometric exercises. Neuromuscular activity was measured using surface electromyography (SEMG) at vastus lateralis (VL) and biceps femoris (BF). Surface electromyography data were divided into concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) phases of movement. Mechanical output was measured by ground reaction forces and processed to provide peak impact ground reaction force (PF), peak eccentric power (PEP), and impulse (IMP). Statistical analysis was conducted to assess the reliability intraclass correlation coefficient and sensitivity smallest detectable difference of all variables. Mean values of SEMG demonstrate high reliability (r ≥ 0.82), excluding ECC VL during a 40-cm drop jump (r = 0.74). PF, PEP, and IMP demonstrated high reliability (r ≥ 0.85). Statistical power for force variables was excellent (power = 1.0), and good for SEMG (power ≥0.86) excluding CON BF (power = 0.57). There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in CON SEMG between exercises. Eccentric phase SEMG only distinguished between exercises involving a landing and those that did not (percentage of maximal voluntary isometric contraction [%MVIC] = no landing -65 ± 5, landing -140 ± 8). Peak eccentric power, PF, and IMP all distinguished between exercises. In conclusion, CON neuromuscular activity does not appear to vary when intent is maximal, whereas ECC activity is dependent on the presence of a landing. Force characteristics provide a reliable and sensitive measure enabling precise description of intensity

  1. The Gibraltar Arc seismogenic zone (part 2): Constraints on a shallow east dipping fault plane source for the 1755 Lisbon earthquake provided by tsunami modeling and seismic intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutscher, M.-A.; Baptista, M. A.; Miranda, J. M.

    2006-10-01

    The Great Lisbon earthquake has the largest documented felt area of any shallow earthquake and an estimated magnitude of 8.5-9.0. The associated tsunami ravaged the coast of SW Portugal and the Gulf of Cadiz, with run-up heights reported to have reached 5-15 m. While several source regions offshore SW Portugal have been proposed (e.g.— Gorringe Bank, Marquis de Pombal fault), no single source appears to be able to account for the great seismic moment as well as all the historical tsunami amplitude and travel time observations. A shallow east dipping fault plane beneath the Gulf of Cadiz associated with active subduction beneath Gibraltar, represents a candidate source for the Lisbon earthquake of 1755. Here we consider the fault parameters implied by this hypothesis, with respect to total slip, seismic moment, and recurrence interval to test the viability of this source. The geometry of the seismogenic zone is obtained from deep crustal studies and can be represented by an east dipping fault plane with mean dimensions of 180 km (N-S) × 210 km (E-W). For 10 m of co-seismic slip an Mw 8.64 event results and for 20 m of slip an Mw 8.8 earthquake is generated. Thus, for convergence rates of about 1 cm/yr, an event of this magnitude could occur every 1000-2000 years. Available kinematic and sedimentological data are in general agreement with such a recurrence interval. Tsunami wave form modeling indicates a subduction source in the Gulf of Cadiz can partly satisfy the historical observations with respect to wave amplitudes and arrival times, though discrepancies remain for some stations. A macroseismic analysis is performed using site effect functions calculated from isoseismals observed during instrumentally recorded strong earthquakes in the region (M7.9 1969 and M6.8 1964). The resulting synthetic isoseismals for the 1755 event suggest a subduction source, possibly in combination with an additional source at the NW corner of the Gulf of Cadiz can satisfactorily

  2. An Assessment of Soil Disturbance from Five Harvesting Intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Klepac; Stephen E. Reutebuch; Robert B. Rummer

    1999-01-01

    Surface soil disturbance was compared among a commercial thinning, group selection, patch cut, 2-age, and clearcut. The thinning, group selection and patch cut units had significantly higher percentages of undisturbed area. The 2-age unit had a significantly higher percentage of area disturbed with litter in place. The clearcut unit had a significantly higher...

  3. Assessment of delirium in the intensive care unit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia is co-published by Medpharm Publications, NISC (Pty) Ltd and Informa UK Limited ..... Management of Pain, Agitation, and Delirium in Adult Patients in ..... Korean J Anesthesiol. 2013 ...

  4. NARRCAP and Reanalysis Verification on Precipitation Intensity and Frequency Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, V. R.

    2015-12-01

    Heavy rainfall events due to climate change is expected in many regions around the world. Also, urbanization and resulted land use changes such as reduction in vegetation cover, land surface grading, and increased impervious soil surface area also have profound effects on surface runoff to streams compounded by these precipitation events. We evaluate both historic and future precipitation scenarios using the NARRCAP data via Weather Research Forecasting Model over Northern Virginia, Maryland and Hampton Roads region. A pilot study of WRF-Hydro and Variable Infiltration Capacity model to simulate flows at multiple gaging locations will be attempted at a high resolution (3 km). The results will be beneficial to delineate flood prone areas so that managers and public are better prepared for anticipating and protecting the infrastructure and property.

  5. Sound intensity radiated by Gaohu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Gaohu is one of the main bowed stringed instruments used in Guangdong music and Chinese native Orchestra. However its sound intensity has never been carefully measured. In this paper the sound power measurements of Gaohu were performed in a reverberation chamber according to the Chinese national standard. Two qualified musicians performed on their own instruments. The mean sound power levels and the dynamic ranges of Gaohu were investigated by four channel acoustic measuring equipments when single notes, music scale and melodies were performed under pp, mp, f and ff dynamics. Great differences were found when Gaohu performed single notes, while the sound power levels were quite close when music scale were performed under f dynamic to those when melodies were performed under normal dynamic mark, the sound power levels of Gaohu when music scale was performed under f dynamics were suggested as the typical and representative value of the sound intensities of Gaohu instrument.

  6. IN DEFENCE OF INTENSIVE READING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    In his article‘Why Intensive Reading Hinders the Development of Both English Language Teachingand English Language Learning in China’.Ian Cotton.a British lecturer in Chongqing University,concludes thai the teaching method of Intensive Reading(IR)in China is mainly responsible for the,comparatively low level of Chinese students skills in listening and speaking.He believes IRcontributes nothing to the development of English language teaching and learning in China.Such aconclusion,in my.opinion,is extreme and does not reflect the actual situation of ELT in China.Infact.IR has proved to be an effective teaching method to improve students’English.The question ishow to use the method effectively.

  7. CIM—Compact intensity modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleuel, M.; Lang, E.; Gähler, R.; Lal, J.

    2008-07-01

    Compact intensity modulation (CIM), a new method to modulate the intensity of a neutron beam is demonstrated. CIM allows the production of arbitrary signals where the focus point can be chosen and changed without any constraints. A novel feature in this technique compared to spin echo techniques is that the neutron polarization is kept parallel or anti-parallel to the static fields during the passage through the magnetic fields and the beating pattern at the detector is produced by an amplitude modulation (AM) of the adiabatic RF-spin flippers rather than Larmor precession like in neutron spin echo (NSE) instruments; thus, the achievable contrast is very high and the instrument resolution can be changed very quickly. This gives the fascinating possibility at pulsed neutron sources to sweep the modulation frequency of the flippers in order to increase dynamic resolution range during the same neutron pulse.

  8. Ultrahigh-intensity inverse bremsstrahlung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukov, I. Yu.; Rax, J.-M.

    1999-01-01

    We study inverse bremsstrahlung in the ultrahigh intensity relativistic regime. The fully relativistic ultrahigh intensity absorption (emission) coefficient is derived for an arbitrary scattering potential and small-angle scattering. We find that in the Coulomb field case this absorption (emission) coefficient can be calculated as a function of the quiver energy, drift momentum, and impact parameter in two complementary regimes: (i) for remote collisions when the impact parameter is larger than the amplitude of the quiver motion, and (ii) for instantaneous collisions when the scattering time is shorter than the period of the wave. Both circular and linear polarizations are considered, and this study reveals that in this relativistic regime inverse bremsstrahlung absorption can be viewed as a harmonic Compton resonance heating of the laser-driven electron by the virtual photon of the ion Coulomb field. The relativistic modification of Marcuse's effect [Bell Syst. Tech. J. 41, 1557 (1962)] are also discussed, and relations with previous nonrelativistic results are elucidated.

  9. Neutrino physics with an intense \

    CERN Document Server

    Henning, R

    2010-01-01

    We study some of the physics potential of an intense $1\\,\\mathrm{MCi}$ $^{51}\\mathrm{Cr}$ source combined with the {\\sc Majorana Demonstrator} enriched germanium detector array. The {\\sc Demonstrator} will consist of detectors with ultra-low radioactive backgrounds and extremely low energy thresholds of~$\\sim 400\\,\\mathrm{eV}$. We show that it can improve the current limit on the neutrino magnetic dipole moment. We briefly discuss physics applications of the charged-current reaction of the $^{51}\\mathrm{Cr} neutrino with the $^{73}\\mathrm{Ge} isotope. Finally, we argue that the rate from a realistic, intense tritium source is below the detectable limit of even a tonne-scale HPGe experiment

  10. Intensive temperature and quantum correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, Alessandro; Acin, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    We consider quantum systems of coupled harmonic oscillators and study the question of whether temperature is an intensive quantity, in the sense that a block of a thermal state can be approximated by an effective thermal state at the same temperature as the whole system. We identify instances in which this approximation is not valid, as the block state and the reference thermal state are distinguishable. Contrary to the standard thermodynamic intuition, this distinguishability may even increase with the block size. However, we also show that the two states do become less distinguishable with the block size for standard coarse-grained measurements. Finally, we point out the role entanglement plays in this problem: in general, the thermodynamic paradigm of local intensive temperature applies whenever entanglement is not present in the system.

  11. Pediatric intensive care in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, E J

    1993-09-01

    8.2% of the gross domestic product is spent annually on health care in Argentina, a country of 32 million people. There is 1 medical doctor of every 147,000 beds in a total 3180 hospitals. The infant mortality rate in Argentina is 24.5/1000 live births which is high compared to developed countries. Perinatal causes and congenital anomalies are the main cause of death after the neonatal period, and accidents, cardiac disease, and respiratory tract infections are the main causes of death among children over age 1 year. Argentina has approximately 35 pediatric intensive care units (ICU), but 154 of 244 beds are within or near the capital. Only 2 hospitals have pediatric intensive care fellowship programs, so full time dedicated staff is rare. 250 registered pediatricians dedicated to intensive care are in the Argentine Pediatric Society and the nurse/bed ratio is 1:2-1:3. Moreover, the country has neither postanesthesia recuperation units, burn units, chronic ventilation units, nor approved home assistance programs, and intermediate care is not clearly standardized. These inadequacies have led to a shortage of beds and the caring for of critically ill children in general pediatric or emergency wards in hospitals which lack adequate equipment; patients are often discharged inappropriately to clear bed space. Even so, prehospital and emergency room care tends to be provided without the necessary coordination with the pediatric ICU, and structural conditions regarding electrical self-sufficiency, air conditioning, and circulation are met in only few units. Despite the existence of these adverse conditions for the care of critically ill children, a pediatric organ transplant program developed since 1987 has demonstrated 70% to 100% survival rates for 16l orthotopic liver and 9 heart transplants, respectively. Alternatives to improving intensive care in Argentina include optimizing the response of emergency and critical care delivery systems, categorizing hospitals and

  12. INTENSIVE PROCESSES OF RETAIL INTERNATIONALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak Mesic

    2010-01-01

    Integration and globalization of world market have resulted in trade internationalization, especially in the sector of retailing. Global trade, and in particular global retail, has become more intensive. Free European market has speeded up cross border retail expansion within European Union. Retail internationalization, with increased tempo, has redefined relationships in distribution channels on a global scale. Even though the speed of retail internationalization is, without a doubt, increas...

  13. IONIS: Approximate atomic photoionization intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinäsmäki, Sami

    2012-02-01

    A program to compute relative atomic photoionization cross sections is presented. The code applies the output of the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method for atoms in the single active electron scheme, by computing the overlap of the bound electron states in the initial and final states. The contribution from the single-particle ionization matrix elements is assumed to be the same for each final state. This method gives rather accurate relative ionization probabilities provided the single-electron ionization matrix elements do not depend strongly on energy in the region considered. The method is especially suited for open shell atoms where electronic correlation in the ionic states is large. Program summaryProgram title: IONIS Catalogue identifier: AEKK_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKK_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1149 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 12 877 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 95 Computer: Workstations Operating system: GNU/Linux, Unix Classification: 2.2, 2.5 Nature of problem: Photoionization intensities for atoms. Solution method: The code applies the output of the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock codes Grasp92 [1] or Grasp2K [2], to compute approximate photoionization intensities. The intensity is computed within the one-electron transition approximation and by assuming that the sum of the single-particle ionization probabilities is the same for all final ionic states. Restrictions: The program gives nonzero intensities for those transitions where only one electron is removed from the initial configuration(s). Shake-type many-electron transitions are not computed. The ionized shell must be closed in the initial state. Running time: Few seconds for a

  14. LHC Report: reaching high intensity

    CERN Multimedia

    Jan Uythoven

    2015-01-01

    After both beams having been ramped to their full energy of 6.5 TeV, the last two weeks saw the beam commissioning process advancing on many fronts. An important milestone was achieved when operators succeeded in circulating a nominal-intensity bunch. During the operation, some sudden beam losses resulted in beam dumps at top energy, a problem that needed to be understood and resolved.   In 2015 the LHC will be circulating around 2800 bunches in each beam and each bunch will contain just over 1 x 1011 protons. Until a few days ago commissioning was taking place with single bunches of 5 x 109 protons. The first nominal bunch with an intensity of 1 x 1011 protons was injected on Tuesday, 21 April. In order to circulate such a high-intensity bunch safely, the whole protection system must be working correctly: collimators, which protect the aperture, are set at preliminary values known as coarse settings; all kicker magnets for injecting and extracting the beams are commissioned with beam an...

  15. Discomfort and factual recollection in intensive care unit patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Leur, JP; van der Schans, CP; Loef, BG; Deelman, BG; Geertzen, JHB; Zwaveling, JH

    2004-01-01

    Introduction A stay in the intensive care unit (ICU), although potentially life-saving, may cause considerable discomfort to patients. However, retrospective assessment of discomfort is difficult because recollection of stressful events may be impaired by sedation and severe illness during the ICU

  16. Training surface and intensity: inflammation, hemolysis, and hepcidin expression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeling, P.; Dawson, B.; Goodman, C.; Landers, G.; Wiegerinck, E.T.G.; Swinkels, D.W.; Trinder, D.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: This investigation assessed the effects of training intensity and ground surface type on hemolysis, inflammation, and hepcidin activity during running. METHODS: Ten highly trained male endurance athletes completed a graded exercise test, two continuous 10-km runs on a grass (GRASS) and a bi

  17. An Intensive Training Program for Effective Teaching Assistants in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragisich, Vera; Keller, Valerie; Zhao, Meishan

    2016-01-01

    We report an intensive graduate teaching assistant (GTA) training program developed at The University of Chicago. The program has been assessed and has been successful in preparing GTAs for effective discussion and laboratory teaching for both general and organic chemistry. We believe that this training program can provide insightful information…

  18. Discomfort and factual recollection in intensive care unit patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Leur, JP; van der Schans, CP; Loef, BG; Deelman, BG; Geertzen, JHB; Zwaveling, JH

    2004-01-01

    Introduction A stay in the intensive care unit (ICU), although potentially life-saving, may cause considerable discomfort to patients. However, retrospective assessment of discomfort is difficult because recollection of stressful events may be impaired by sedation and severe illness during the ICU s

  19. [Convalescence and decline in physical function level following intensive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, J.B.; Moller, K.; Perner, A.

    2009-01-01

    More patients survive critical illness, which emphasises the need to assess outcome measures other than mortality. A prolonged decline in physical function is frequently observed after discharge in the critically ill. Neuromuscular dysfunction and muscle atrophy incurred during intensive care may...

  20. Further Evaluation of a Brief, Intensive Teacher-Training Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Dorothea C.; Tetreault, Allison; Hovanetz, Alyson; Strobel, Margaret; Garro, Joanie

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to further evaluate the outcomes of a model program that was designed to train current teachers of children with autism. Nine certified special education teachers participating in an intensive 5-day summer training program were taught a relatively large number of specific skills in two areas (preference assessment and…

  1. Training in data definitions improves quality of intensive care data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, DGT; Bosman, RJ; de Jonge, E; Joore, JCA; de Keizer, NF

    2003-01-01

    Background Our aim was to assess the contribution of training in data definitions and data extraction guidelines to improving quality of data for use in intensive care scoring systems such as the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II and Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS)

  2. Training surface and intensity: inflammation, hemolysis, and hepcidin expression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeling, P.; Dawson, B.; Goodman, C.; Landers, G.; Wiegerinck, E.T.G.; Swinkels, D.W.; Trinder, D.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: This investigation assessed the effects of training intensity and ground surface type on hemolysis, inflammation, and hepcidin activity during running. METHODS: Ten highly trained male endurance athletes completed a graded exercise test, two continuous 10-km runs on a grass (GRASS) and a bi

  3. Optimization of Axial Intensity Point Spread Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Haifeng; GAN Fuxi; CHEN Zhongyu

    2001-01-01

    It is known that for the converged laser beam, the axial intensity distribution corresponds to a Gaussian curve, that is, the intensity on the focal plane is the peak intensity. When it defocuses, the intensity would decrease rapidly. In optical data storage, for instance, we expect the intensity within a certain distance to be almost equal. In this paper, we propose to use a pure phase superresolution apodizer to optimize the axial intensity distribution of the converged laser beam and at the same time improve the resolution. The intensity point spread function remains almost identical in a wide range within the focal depth.

  4. Repeated high-intensity exercise in professional rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Damien; Gabbett, Tim; Jenkins, David

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the frequency, duration, and nature of repeated high-intensity exercise in Super 14 rugby union. Time-motion analysis was used during seven competition matches over the 2008 and 2009 Super 14 seasons; five players from each of four positional groups (front row forwards, back row forwards, inside backs, and outside backs) were assessed (20 players in total). A repeated high-intensity exercise bout was considered to involve three or more sprints, and/or tackles and/or scrum/ruck/maul activities within 21 s during the same passage of play. The range of repeated high-intensity exercise bouts for each group in a match was as follows: 11-18 for front row forwards, 11-21 for back row forwards, 13-18 for inside backs, and 2-11 for outside backs. The durations of the most intense repeated high-intensity exercise bouts for each position ranged from 53 s to 165 s and the minimum recovery periods between repeated high-intensity exercise bouts ranged from 25 s for the back row forwards to 64 s for the front row forwards. The present results show that repeated high-intensity exercise bouts vary in duration and activities relative to position but all players in a game will average at least 10 changes in activity in the most demanding bouts and complete at least one tackle and two sprints. The most intense periods of activity are likely to last as long as 120 s and as little as 25 s recovery may separate consecutive repeated high-intensity exercise bouts. The present findings can be used by coaches to prepare their players for the most demanding passages of play likely to be experienced in elite rugby union.

  5. Data intensive ATLAS workflows in the Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Rzehorz, Gerhard Ferdinand; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    This contribution reports on the feasibility of executing data intensive workflows on Cloud infrastructures. In order to assess this, the metric ETC = Events/Time/Cost is formed, which quantifies the different workflow and infrastructure configurations that are tested against each other. In these tests ATLAS reconstruction Jobs are run, examining the effects of overcommitting (more parallel processes running than CPU cores available), scheduling (staggered execution) and scaling (number of cores). The desirability of commissioning storage in the cloud is evaluated, in conjunction with a simple analytical model of the system, and correlated with questions about the network bandwidth, caches and what kind of storage to utilise. In the end a cost/benefit evaluation of different infrastructure configurations and workflows is undertaken, with the goal to find the maximum of the ETC value

  6. Data intensive ATLAS workflows in the Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Rzehorz, Gerhard Ferdinand; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This contribution reports on the feasibility of executing data intensive workflows on Cloud infrastructures. In order to assess this, the metric ETC = Events/Time/Cost is formed, which quantifies the different workflow and infrastructure configurations that are tested against each other. In these tests ATLAS reconstruction Jobs are run, examining the effects of overcommitting (more parallel processes running than CPU cores available), scheduling (staggered execution) and scaling (number of cores). The desirability of commissioning storage in the Cloud is evaluated, in conjunction with a simple analytical model of the system, and correlated with questions about the network bandwidth, caches and what kind of storage to utilise. In the end a cost/benefit evaluation of different infrastructure configurations and workflows is undertaken, with the goal to find the maximum of the ETC value.

  7. Low intensity laser treatment of nerve injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Luo, Qing-Ming

    2007-05-01

    The neural regeneration and functional recovery after nerve injuries has long been an important field in neuroscience. Low intensity laser (LIL) irradiation is a novel and useful tool for the treatment of many injuries and disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the role of LIL irradiation in the treatment of peripheral and central nerve injuries. Some animal experiments and clinical investigations have shown beneficial effects of LIL irradiation on neural tissues, but its therapeutic value and efficacy are controversial. Reviewing the data of experimental and clinical studies by using the biological information model of photobiomodulation, we conclude that LIL irradiation in specific parameters can promote the regeneration of injured peripheral and central nerves and LIL therapy is a safe and valuable treatment for superficial peripheral nerve injuries and spinal cord injury. The biological effects of LIL treatment depend largely on laser wavelength, power and dose per site and effective irradiation doses are location-specific.

  8. Burnout in the intensive care unit professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpalatha K Guntupalli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professional burnout has been widely explored in health care. We conducted this study in our hospital intensive care unit (ICU in United States to explore the burnout among nurses and respiratory therapists (RT. Materials and Methods: A survey consisting of two parts was used to assess burnout. Part 1 addressed the demographic information and work hours. Part 2 addressed the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey. Results: The analysis included 213 total subjects; Nurses 151 (71% and RT 62 (29%. On the emotional exhaustion (EE scale, 54% scored "Moderate" to "High" and 40% scored "Moderate" to "High" on the depersonalization (DP scale. Notably 40.6% scored "Low" on personal accomplishment (PA scale. Conclusion: High level of EE, DP and lower PAs were seen among two groups of health care providers in the ICUs.

  9. Delirium in the intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Arumugam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Delirium is characterized by impaired cognition with nonspecific manifestations. In critically ill patients, it may develop secondary to multiple precipitating or predisposing causes. Although it can be a transient and reversible syndrome, its occurrence in Intensive Care Unit (ICU patients may be associated with long-term cognitive dysfunction. This condition is often under-recognized by treating physicians, leading to inappropriate management. For appropriate management of delirium, early identification and risk factor assessment are key factors. Multidisciplinary collaboration and standardized care can enhance the recognition of delirium. Interdisciplinary team working, together with updated guideline implementation, demonstrates proven success in minimizing delirium in the ICU. Moreover, should the use of physical restraint be necessary to prevent harm among mechanically ventilated patients, ethical clinical practice methodology must be employed. This traditional narrative review aims to address the presentation, risk factors, management, and ethical considerations in the management of delirium in ICU settings.

  10. Delirium in the Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Suresh; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Hassani, Ammar; Strandvik, Gustav; Asim, Mohammad; Mekkodithal, Ahammed; Mudali, Insolvisagan; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Delirium is characterized by impaired cognition with nonspecific manifestations. In critically ill patients, it may develop secondary to multiple precipitating or predisposing causes. Although it can be a transient and reversible syndrome, its occurrence in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients may be associated with long-term cognitive dysfunction. This condition is often under-recognized by treating physicians, leading to inappropriate management. For appropriate management of delirium, early identification and risk factor assessment are key factors. Multidisciplinary collaboration and standardized care can enhance the recognition of delirium. Interdisciplinary team working, together with updated guideline implementation, demonstrates proven success in minimizing delirium in the ICU. Moreover, should the use of physical restraint be necessary to prevent harm among mechanically ventilated patients, ethical clinical practice methodology must be employed. This traditional narrative review aims to address the presentation, risk factors, management, and ethical considerations in the management of delirium in ICU settings.

  11. Burnout in the intensive care unit professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntupalli, Kalpalatha K.; Wachtel, Sherry; Mallampalli, Antara; Surani, Salim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Professional burnout has been widely explored in health care. We conducted this study in our hospital intensive care unit (ICU) in United States to explore the burnout among nurses and respiratory therapists (RT). Materials and Methods: A survey consisting of two parts was used to assess burnout. Part 1 addressed the demographic information and work hours. Part 2 addressed the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey. Results: The analysis included 213 total subjects; Nurses 151 (71%) and RT 62 (29%). On the emotional exhaustion (EE) scale, 54% scored “Moderate” to “High” and 40% scored “Moderate” to “High” on the depersonalization (DP) scale. Notably 40.6% scored “Low” on personal accomplishment (PA) scale. Conclusion: High level of EE, DP and lower PAs were seen among two groups of health care providers in the ICUs. PMID:24701063

  12. A Compilation of the Historical Earthquakes Database for Marmara Region from 2000 B.C. and 1900 A.D. in frame of Marsite and Mardim Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basarir Basturk, Nilay; Meral Ozel, Nurcan

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed at contributing to creation of a scenario database for tsunamigenic earthquakes occurred in Marmara Region through the investigation of the historical earthquakes under the frame of Marsite and also Mardim Projects for the work package 5 (WP5). Furthermore, this work provides an evaluation of earthquake history in Marmara Region which is important for seismic risk assesment in İstanbul and preparing an active fault map of the Sea of Marmara,which is one of the goals of the work package 7 (WP7) of Marmara Supersite Project. For this purpose, we have created a digital database containing 576 earthquakes with some parameters such as location and intensity, also including macroseismic explanations for Turkey between the dates of 2000 B.C. and 1900 A.D. by compiling over 20 available sources such as Ambraseys(2009), Ambraseys and Finkel(1995), Ergin et al. (1967 and 1971), Soysal et al. (1981), Guidoboni et al. (1994), Papazachos et al. (1997), Shebalin & Tatevossian (1997), Ambraseys & Jackson (1998), Kondorskaya & Ulomov (1999), Ambraseys & Jackson (2000), Guidoboni & Comastri(2005), Stucchi et al(2012), Papazachos&P.,(2003). Among these sources, the basic reference that we used for many earthquakes is the Soysal et al. (1981), including earthquake parameters such as macroseismic epicenter and intensity. Another important catalogue for the assessment of historical events is the Ambraseys (2009) which is a comprehensive review and contains macroseismic explanations of the earthquakes in Turkey from 2000 B.C. to 1900 A.D. Evaulation of every possible sources for the old earthquakes have enabled us to cross check differences among them , find dublicate events and debate the earthquakes in terms of their reliability. In the scope of this study, the historical earthquakes were classified to date, location, intensity, macroseismic explanations using available information. In addition, the coordinate and intensity were assigned to 343 and 114 events

  13. [Intensity of depression in pedagogy students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietras, Tadeusz; Witusik, Andrzej; Panek, Michał; Zielińska-Wyderkiewicz, Ewa; Kuna, Piotr; Górski, Paweł

    2012-03-01

    The teacher's profession is regarded to be susceptible to professional burnout. Its early markers include high neuroticism and tendency to depressive reactions. The aim of the study was to assess the depression intensity and the occurrence of mood disorders in the population of full-time and extramural course students of pedagogy aged 19-30, as well as the difference in intensity of the measured constructs between men and women. The study was carried out on the group of 223 women and 162 men aged 19-30 studying pedagogy at Piotrków Trybunalski Division of Jan Kochanowski Memorial University in Kielce in the years 2008-2011. The control group consisted of 76 women and 88 men studying economics. Students of full-time and extramural courses were included. All the participants were assessed with Beck Depression Inventory. Depression as a syndrome was diagnosed if the score of 10 of more was obtained. Among female students of pedagogy, 21 out of 223 obtained Beck Depression Inventory scores equal to, or above 10; whereas among female students of economics 1 out of 76 obtained such a result. The relative risk of developing depression (understood as Beck Depression Inventory result of 10 or more) was found to be significantly higher among female pedagogues (OR 7.797; CI 1.0306 to 58.9856) than among female economists. Among male pedagogy students, 2 out of 162 obtained 10 points, or more. It means that the risk of depression in female pedagogues was as much as over eight-fold higher than in male pedagogues (OR 8.3168; CI 1.9215 - 35.9979). The risk of depression in men studying pedagogy was not higher than in men studying economics, who obtained the Beck Depression Inventory scores of 10 or more in 1 case out of 88 (OR 1.1; CI 0.0983 to 12.3032). Considering all pedagogues irrespectively of gender versus all economists, the risk of depression in the group of pedagogues is over five-fold higher than among economists (OR 5.1464; CI 1.1991 to 22.0885). In the whole group of

  14. Intense sweetness surpasses cocaine reward.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalie Lenoir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Refined sugars (e.g., sucrose, fructose were absent in the diet of most people until very recently in human history. Today overconsumption of diets rich in sugars contributes together with other factors to drive the current obesity epidemic. Overconsumption of sugar-dense foods or beverages is initially motivated by the pleasure of sweet taste and is often compared to drug addiction. Though there are many biological commonalities between sweetened diets and drugs of abuse, the addictive potential of the former relative to the latter is currently unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report that when rats were allowed to choose mutually-exclusively between water sweetened with saccharin-an intense calorie-free sweetener-and intravenous cocaine-a highly addictive and harmful substance-the large majority of animals (94% preferred the sweet taste of saccharin. The preference for saccharin was not attributable to its unnatural ability to induce sweetness without calories because the same preference was also observed with sucrose, a natural sugar. Finally, the preference for saccharin was not surmountable by increasing doses of cocaine and was observed despite either cocaine intoxication, sensitization or intake escalation-the latter being a hallmark of drug addiction. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings clearly demonstrate that intense sweetness can surpass cocaine reward, even in drug-sensitized and -addicted individuals. We speculate that the addictive potential of intense sweetness results from an inborn hypersensitivity to sweet tastants. In most mammals, including rats and humans, sweet receptors evolved in ancestral environments poor in sugars and are thus not adapted to high concentrations of sweet tastants. The supranormal stimulation of these receptors by sugar-rich diets, such as those now widely available in modern societies, would generate a supranormal reward signal in the brain, with the potential to override self

  15. Intensive treatment of leg lymphedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira de Godoy Jose

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite of all the problems caused by lymphedema, this disease continues to affect millions of people worldwide. Thus, the identification of the most efficacious forms of treatment is necessary. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel intensive outpatient treatment for leg lymphedema. Methods: Twenty-three legs of 19 patients were evaluated in a prospective randomized study. The inclusion criteria were patients with Grade II and III lymphedema, where the difference, measured by volumetry, between the affected limb below the knee and the healthy limb was greater than 1.5 kg. Intensive treatment was carried out for 6- to 8-h sessions in the outpatient clinic. Analysis of variance was utilized for statistical analysis with an alpha error of 5% (P-value < 0.05 being considered significant. Results: All limbs had significant reductions in size with the final mean loss being 81.1% of the volume of edema. The greatest losses occurred in the first week (P-value < 0.001. Losses of more than 90% of the lymphedema occurred in 9 (39.13% patients; losses of more than 80% in 13 (56.52%, losses of more than 70% in 17 (73.91% and losses of more than 50% were recorded for 95.65% of the patients; only 1 patient lost less than 50% (37.9% of the edema. Conclusion: The intensive treatment of lymphedema in the outpatient clinic can produce significant reductions in the volume of edema over a short period of time and can be recommended for any grade of lymphedema, in particular the more advanced degrees.

  16. [Intensive care medicine -- update 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohé, S; Lendemans, S; Schmitz, D; Waydhas, C

    2006-06-01

    This manuscript gives a review about important studies addressing problems in intensive care medicine that have been published in journals focussing on critical care medicine and surgery in 2005. Only clinical studies are included in this review, mostly meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials and a few important or interesting observational studies. In addition to describing major results a critical appraisal of each study is undertaken, which, however, is neither comprehensive nor complete. It is merely intended to address some important aspects for the reader who should be stimulated to go deeper into one or the other topic or study. The publication of the new CPR-guidelines of the American Heart Association and the European Resuscitation Council as well as the newly developed SAPS III score to predict intensive care unit outcome are among the outstanding topics. Several randomized trials and meta-analyses deal with aspects of drug therapy of septic patients. Some important and relevant findings have been reported with respect to the efficiency of the open-lung concept, non-invasive ventilation, the use of heat and moisture exchanger filters compared to active humidifiers and of closed systems for endotracheal suctioning. The role of immuno-nutrition in adults and children as well as of early enteral nutrition can be defined more clearly. Whether corticosteroids should be used in the treatment of severe traumatic brain injury can be definitely answered now. There are some new insights reported into the management of patients infected or contaminated with MRSA in the intensive care unit. Last but not least an impressive study shows that not only the newest therapeutic developments but the stringent use of the already known treatment options may result in dramatic improvements of patient outcome.

  17. Neuroimaging craving: urge intensity matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen J; Sayette, Michael A

    2015-02-01

    Functional neuroimaging has become an increasingly common tool for studying drug craving. Furthermore, functional neuroimaging studies, which have addressed an incredibly diverse array of questions regarding the nature and treatment of craving, have had a substantial impact on theoretical models of addiction. Here, we offer three points related to this sizeable and influential body of research. First, we assert that the craving most investigators seek to study represents not just a desire but a strong desire to use drugs, consistent with prominent theoretical and clinical descriptions of craving. Secondly, we highlight that, despite the clear conceptual and clinical emphasis on craving as an intense desire, brain imaging studies often have been designed explicitly in a way that reduces the ability to generate powerful cravings. We illustrate this point by reviewing the peak urge levels endorsed by participants in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of cigarette craving in nicotine-deprived versus non-deprived smokers. Thirdly, we suggest that brain responses measured during mild states of desire (such as following satiety) differ in fundamental ways from those measured during states of overpowering desire (i.e. craving) to use drugs. We support this position by way of a meta-analysis revealing that fMRI cue exposure studies using nicotine-deprived smokers have produced different patterns of brain activation to those using non-deprived smokers. Regarding brain imaging studies of craving, intensity of the urges matter, and more explicit attention to urge intensity in future work has the potential to yield valuable information about the nature of craving. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Photoelectric effect at ultrahigh intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, A A; Bobashev, S V; Feigl, T; Tiedtke, K; Wabnitz, H; Richter, M

    2007-11-23

    In the spectral range of the extreme ultraviolet at a wavelength of 13.3 nm, we have studied the photoionization of xenon at ultrahigh intensities. For our ion mass-to-charge spectroscopy experiments, irradiance levels from 10(12) to 10(16) W cm(-2) were achieved at the new free-electron laser in Hamburg FLASH by strong beam focusing with the aid of a spherical multilayer mirror. Ion charges up to Xe21+ were observed and investigated as a function of irradiance. Our surprising results are discussed in terms of a perturbative and nonperturbative description.

  19. [Advances in neonatal intensive medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-González, J; Olivares, J L; Ventura, P; Fabre, E

    1983-09-01

    In the last few year a significative reduction on the rates of neonatal morbimortality have appeared. This has been achieved because a better understanding of embrio-fetal physiology, emerged under the patronage of technological development: new diagnostic techniques, monitorization (physiological and therapeutical) in both, pre and postnatal periods. This model of attendance (perinatology) has its' climax in neonatal intensive care. New scientific plans have to be examined continuously in a critical way, according with ethical reasons related with this type of medical assistance.

  20. How intensive does anomia therapy for people with aphasia need to be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Karen; Snell, Claerwen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2011-01-01

    The intensity of aphasia therapy has been a key clinical question. The aim of this case-series study was to compare the outcome of intensive and non-intensive therapy in the relearning of words for people with aphasia. Eight participants took part in a study comparing the intensity of delivery of the therapy. Participants received two courses of the same therapy (each lasting 10 sessions) delivered either intensively or non-intensively. Therapy consisted of confrontation naming with progressive phonemic and orthographic cues. Post-therapy assessments were carried out immediately after the study and one month later. Performance was also monitored during each therapy session. Immediately post-therapy, both types of therapy had improved naming accuracy considerably and there was no significant difference between the two interventions. One month later, seven out of eight participants showed a small yet significant difference in naming accuracy, favouring non-intensive over intense therapy. There were no differences in the learning patterns during the therapy sessions between the intensive and non-intensive therapies. For the majority of people with aphasia post-stroke, both intense and non-intense therapy for anomia leads to improved naming performance. Retention at one-month post therapy is relatively superior after non-intensive therapy.

  1. Effect of high intensity ultrasound on the allergenicity of shrimp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The tropomyosin fraction of shrimp proteins is potentially responsible for allergic reaction in individuals with genetic predisposition to allergy. However, there are no efficient and safe methods to reduce its allergenicity. High intensity ultrasound is known to change the structure of proteins. This study is aimed at assessing high intensity ultrasound's effect on the allergenicity of shrimp allergen. Shrimp and purified shrimp allergen were treated with high intensity ultrasound for 30~180 min. Extracts of treated samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with pool serum of shrimp allergy patients and polyclonal anti-allergen antibodies and by immunoblotting after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Shrimp treated with high intensity ultrasound showed a decrease in allergenicity measured with ELISA. A linear relationship between the immune response induced by treated shrimp allergen and the applied treatment time was observed. The decrease in allergenicity was confirmed by immunoblot assays with shrimp allergic patients serum. Allergenicity of shrimp allergen extracted from treated shrimp was higher than that of purified shrimp allergen with the same treatment time. Gel-filtration HPLC was applied for analysis of shrimp allergen after treatment with high intensity ultrasound. Some fractions were appeared with increasing treatment time. The results suggested that high intensity ultrasound could be used to reduce the allergenicity of shrimp.

  2. Whooping crane stopover site use intensity within the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Brandt, David A.; Harrell, Wade C.; Metzger, Kristine L.; Baasch, David M.; Hefley, Trevor J.

    2015-09-23

    Whooping cranes (Grus americana) of the Aransas-Wood Buffalo population migrate twice each year through the Great Plains in North America. Recovery activities for this endangered species include providing adequate places to stop and rest during migration, which are generally referred to as stopover sites. To assist in recovery efforts, initial estimates of stopover site use intensity are presented, which provide opportunity to identify areas across the migration range used more intensively by whooping cranes. We used location data acquired from 58 unique individuals fitted with platform transmitting terminals that collected global position system locations. Radio-tagged birds provided 2,158 stopover sites over 10 migrations and 5 years (2010–14). Using a grid-based approach, we identified 1,095 20-square-kilometer grid cells that contained stopover sites. We categorized occupied grid cells based on density of stopover sites and the amount of time cranes spent in the area. This assessment resulted in four categories of stopover site use: unoccupied, low intensity, core intensity, and extended-use core intensity. Although provisional, this evaluation of stopover site use intensity offers the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and partners a tool to identify landscapes that may be of greater conservation significance to migrating whooping cranes. Initially, the tool will be used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and other interested parties in evaluating the Great Plains Wind Energy Habitat Conservation Plan.

  3. Blood Pulsation Intensity Video Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Borges, Pedro Henrique de M

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we make non-invasive, remote, passive measurements of the heart beat frequency and determine the map of blood pulsation intensity in a region of interest (ROI) of skin. The ROI used was the forearm of a volunteer. The method employs a regular video camera and visible light, and the video acquisition takes less than 1 minute. The mean cardiac frequency found in our volunteer was within 1 bpm of the ground-truth value simultaneously obtained via earlobe plethysmography. Using the signals extracted from the video images, we have determined an intensity map for the blood pulsation at the surface of the skin. In this paper we present the experimental and data processing details of the work and well as limitations of the technique. ----------------------------------------- Neste estudo medimos a frequ\\^encia card\\'iaca de forma n\\~ao invasiva, remota e passiva e determinamos o mapa da atividade de pulsa\\c{c}\\~ao sangu\\'inea numa regi\\~ao de interesse (ROI) da pele. A ROI utilizada foi o antebra\\c{c}o...

  4. Avaliação da qualidade das anotações de enfermagem em unidade semi-intensiva Evaluaión de la calidad de las anotaciones de enfermería en una unidad semeintensiva Quality assessment of nursing records in a semi-intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josy Anne Silva

    2012-09-01

    la atención y la legitimación del trabajo de enfermería.Nursing records can be used as a method to assess quality of care. The aim of this study was to assess quality of nursing records in a semi-intensive care unit. Data were collected using a guide for retrospective audit, gathering information from 16 patients awaiting admittance into an Intensive Care Unit, admitted in the period of December 2009 to January 2010, with an average of 8 days of hospitalization. Regarding identification, the percentage of filled in records was 74.8%, which is close to acceptable standards (80%. However, the percentage of complete filled in items were respectively: nursing records, procedures and nursing prescription, intensive care and execution of medical orders accounting for 54.7%, 41.1%, 39.3%, 34.9% and 25%. The reduced levels of complete filled in records reveal a major flaw in recording care provided in this unit which may be hindering the continuance of care and is prejudicial to the legitimization of care provided by nurses.

  5. Instrumentos para la valoración de las necesidades de los familiares de pacientes ingresados en cuidados intensivos: una revisión sistemática Instruments for the assessment of the needs of family members of patients in intensive care units: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Olano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El ingreso de un familiar en una unidad de cuidados intensivos es un evento estresante para los miembros de la familia. Durante ese periodo, la familia padece situaciones de miedo, incertidumbre y cansancio, y dedica toda su atención a la evolución del familiar ingresado. En ese contexto, resulta imprescindible el apoyo y la atención por parte de los profesionales sanitarios mediante la valoración de las necesidades propias de la familia. Existen diversos instrumentos creados para la valoración de dichas necesidades. A través de esta revisión sistemática, se pretende identificar cuáles son esos cuestionarios y analizar críticamente sus características para ofrecer a los profesionales que trabajan en áreas de críticos unos cuestionarios válidos y fiables que puedan utilizar en el abordaje a las familias.The hospitalisation of a family member in an intensive care unit is a stressful event for the rest of the family members. During hospitalisation, the family suffers situations of fear, uncertainty and tiredness, and focuses on the medical evolution of their ill member. In this context, support and attention from health care professionals through the assessment of the needs of the family are crucial. There are different instruments for the assessment of a family´s needs. This systematic review aims to identify these questionnaires and to critically analyse their characteristics, so as to offer professionals valid and reliable questionnaires that they can use when caring for families in critical units.

  6. Basic competence in intensive and critical care nursing: development and psychometric testing of a competence scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakanmaa, Riitta-Liisa; Suominen, Tarja; Perttilä, Juha; Ritmala-Castrén, Marita; Vahlberg, Tero; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2014-03-01

    To develop a scale to assess basic competence in intensive and critical care nursing. In this study, basic competence denotes preliminary competence to practice in an intensive care unit. There is a need for competence assessment scales in intensive care nursing practice and education. The nursing care performed in the intensive care unit is special by its nature and needs to be assessed as such. At this moment, however, there is no tested, reliable and valid scale in this field. A multi-phase, multi-method development and psychometric testing of the scale was conducted. The scale was developed in three phases. First, following a literature review and Delphi study, the items were created. Second, the scale was pilot tested twice by nursing students (n1 = 18, n2 = 56) and intensive care nurses (n1 = 12, n2 = 54), and revisions were made. Third, reliability and construct validity were tested by graduating nursing students (n = 139) and intensive care nurses (n = 431). The Intensive and Critical Care Nursing Competence Scale (ICCN-CS-1) is a self-assessment test consisting of 144 items. Basic competence is divided into patient-related clinical competence and general professional competence. In addition, basic competence is comprised of knowledge base, skill base, attitude and value base and experience base. ICCN-CS-1 is a reliable and tolerably valid scale. The ICCN-CS-1 is a promising scale for use among nursing students and nurses. Future research is needed to evaluate its construct validity further and to assess its suitability for completion during intensive care unit's orientation programmes and nursing students' clinical practice in an intensive care unit. The ICCN-CS-1 can be used for basic competence assessment in professional development discussions in intensive care units, in mentor evaluation situations during nursing students' clinical practice and in intensive care nursing education. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Muscle interstitial potassium kinetics during intense exhaustive exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai; Mohr, Magni; Pedersen, Lasse Dannemann

    2003-01-01

    was assessed by measurement of carnosine in the dialysate, because carnosine is only expected to be found intracellularly. Changes in [K+]i could be reproduced, when exhaustive leg exercise was performed on two different days, with a between-day difference of approximately 0.5 mM at rest and 1.5 m...... dialysate content of carnosine was elevated by exercise, but low-intensity exercise resulted in higher dialysate carnosine concentrations than subsequent intense exercise. Furthermore, no relationship was found between carnosine concentrations and [K+]i. Thus the present data suggest...

  8. Avaliação do grau de controle clínico, espirométrico e da intensidade do processo inflamatório na asma Assessing clinical and spirometric control and the intensity of the inflammatory process in asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia R. de Andrade

    2010-04-01

    FINDINGS: Clinical assessment aids with assessing asthma control and is widely recommended. However, patients may have airway inflammation and obstruction despite normal clinical findings. Spirometry quantifies the degree of airway obstruction and helps with diagnosis, while the bronchial responsiveness test may be indicated for when asthma is suspected but spirometry is normal. The results of assaying the inflammatory markers in exhaled breath condensate, induced sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage and bronchial biopsy specimens are abnormal in asthma patients, but these are complex techniques almost always restricted to research. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO is elevated in patients with asthma, is reproducible and noninvasive and reduces with treatment. Studies have investigated using FeNO to help with adjusting inhaled corticoid dosages, but the benefits are not clear. CONCLUSIONS: A range of different methods are needed to accurately assess disease control, all with their advantages and limitations. Clinical and functional assessment is useful for diagnosing asthma, but is of limited use for precisely evaluating the intensity of the inflammatory process in the airways. More randomized and controlled studies with adequate statistical power should be carried out to investigate the true utility of noninvasive inflammatory markers, especially FeNO, for asthma management.

  9. Intensive Care for Eclampic Coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moroz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to enhance the efficiency of treatment of puerperas with eclampic coma, by substantiating, developing, and introducing new algorithms for correction of systemic hemodynamic, metabolic disturbances, and perfusion-metabolic changes in brain tissues. Subjects and methods. Studies were conducted in 18 puerperas with eclampic coma (Group 2 in whom the authors used a new treatment algorithm aimed at maintaining baseline cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP, restoring volemic levels at the expense of interstitial fluid. A control group (Group 1 included 30 patients who received conventional standard therapy. Regional cerebral circulation was measured by a non-invasive (inhalation radioisotopic method, by applying the tracer 131Xe, as described by V. D. Obrist et al., on a modified КПРДИ-1 apparatus (USSR. The rate of brain oxygen uptake was determined from the oxygen content between the artery and the internal jugular vein. Central hemodynamic parameters were studied by the direct method of right heart catheterization using a flow-directed Swan-Ganz catheter. The volumes of total and extracellular fluids were estimated using 20% urea and mannitol solutions, respectively, at 0.2 g/kg weight by the procedure of V. M. Mogen. Circulating blood volume (CBV was determined by a radioisotopic method using 131iodine albumin on an УPI-7 apparatus (USSR. Cerebral spinal fluid pressure was measured by an ИиНД apparatus. Studies were made in four steps: 1 on admission; 2 on days 2—3; 3 during emergence from coma; 4 before transition. Results. The use of the new algorithm for intensive care for eclampic coma, which is aimed at improving the perfusion metabolic provision of brain structures, with a reduction in mean blood pressure by 10—15% of the baseline level, by administering magnesium sulfate and nimodipine, and at compensating for CBV by high-molecular-weight hydroxyethylated starch (stabizol, ensured early emergence from a comatose state

  10. Exploring the dose-response relationship between resistance exercise intensity and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Etnier, Jennifer L

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the dose-response relationship between resistance exercise intensity and cognitive performance. Sixty-eight participants were randomly assigned into control, 40%, 70%, or 100% of 10-repetition maximal resistance exercise groups. Participants were tested on Day 1 (baseline) and on Day 2 (measures were taken relative to performance of the treatment). Heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion, self-reported arousal, and affect were assessed on both days. Cognitive performance was assessed on Day 1 and before and following treatment on Day 2. Results from regression analyses indicated that there is a significant linear effect of exercise intensity on information processing speed, and a significant quadratic trend for exercise intensity on executive function. Thus, there is a dose-response relationship between the intensity of resistance exercise and cognitive performance such that high-intensity exercise benefits speed of processing, but moderate intensity exercise is most beneficial for executive function.

  11. HI intensity mapping with FAST

    CERN Document Server

    Bigot-Sazy, Marie-Anne; Battye, Richard A; Browne, Ian W A; Chen, Tianyue; Dickinson, Clive; Harper, Stuart; Maffei, Bruno; Olivari, Lucas C; Wilkinson, Peter N

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the detectability of large-scale HI intensity fluctuations using the FAST telescope. We present forecasts for the accuracy of measuring the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations and constraining the properties of dark energy. The FAST $19$-beam L-band receivers ($1.05$--$1.45$ GHz) can provide constraints on the matter power spectrum and dark energy equation of state parameters ($w_{0},w_{a}$) that are comparable to the BINGO and CHIME experiments. For one year of integration time we find that the optimal survey area is $6000\\,{\\rm deg}^2$. However, observing with larger frequency coverage at higher redshift ($0.95$--$1.35$ GHz) improves the projected errorbars on the HI power spectrum by more than $2~\\sigma$ confidence level. The combined constraints from FAST, CHIME, BINGO and Planck CMB observations can provide reliable, stringent constraints on the dark energy equation of state.

  12. MR image intensity inhomogeneity correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    (Vişan Pungǎ, Mirela; Moldovanu, Simona; Moraru, Luminita

    2015-01-01

    MR technology is one of the best and most reliable ways of studying the brain. Its main drawback is the so-called intensity inhomogeneity or bias field which impairs the visual inspection and the medical proceedings for diagnosis and strongly affects the quantitative image analysis. Noise is yet another artifact in medical images. In order to accurately and effectively restore the original signal, reference is hereof made to filtering, bias correction and quantitative analysis of correction. In this report, two denoising algorithms are used; (i) Basis rotation fields of experts (BRFoE) and (ii) Anisotropic Diffusion (when Gaussian noise, the Perona-Malik and Tukey's biweight functions and the standard deviation of the noise of the input image are considered).

  13. Beam intensity upgrade at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchionni, A.; /Fermilab

    2006-07-01

    The performance of the Fermilab proton accelerator complex is reviewed. The coming into operation of the NuMI neutrino line and the implementation of slip-stacking to increase the anti-proton production rate has pushed the total beam intensity in the Main Injector up to {approx} 3 x 10{sup 13} protons/pulse. A maximum beam power of 270 kW has been delivered on the NuMI target during the first year of operation. A plan is in place to increase it to 350 kW, in parallel with the operation of the Collider program. As more machines of the Fermilab complex become available with the termination of the Collider operation, a set of upgrades are being planned to reach first 700 kW and then 1.2 MW by reducing the Main Injector cycle time and by implementing proton stacking.

  14. Intensive Insulin Therapy: Tight Blood Sugar Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... insulin therapy can help you achieve desired blood sugar control and what intensive insulin therapy requires of ... aggressive treatment approach designed to control your blood sugar levels. Intensive insulin therapy requires close monitoring of ...

  15. Conversion of logarithmic channel numbers into relative linear fluorescence intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, I; Schmid, P; Giorgi, J V

    1988-11-01

    We describe a simple, reproducible, and generally applicable method to assess the performance of log amplifiers by using a fluorescent sample that provides multiple peaks of different intensities. The channel differences between multiple peaks are used to evaluate the logarithmic behavior of the fluorescence signal amplifier on the flow cytometer. A calibration curve can be created to correct the channel numbers for deviations from true logarithmic behavior and then convert data into relative linear intensities. By using these linear fluorescent intensities, we compared the capacity of different antisera against HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1) peptides to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CEM, a CD4-positive T-cell line. A wide range of applications for this calibration procedure can be envisioned and the method is valuable for monitoring instrument performance over time.

  16. Observed emotion frequency versus intensity as predictors of socioemotional maladjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Maciel M; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Spinrad, Tracy L; VanSchyndel, Sarah K; Diaz, Anjolii; Berger, Rebecca H; Silva, Kassondra M; Southworth, Jody; Piña, Armando A

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether observed emotional frequency (the proportion of instances an emotion was observed) and intensity (the strength of an emotion when it was observed) uniquely predicted kindergartners' (N = 301) internalizing and externalizing problems. Analyses were tested in a structural equation modeling (SEM) framework with data from multireporters (reports of problem behaviors from teachers and parents) and naturalistic observations of emotion in the fall semester. For observed positive emotion, both frequency and intensity negatively predicted parent- or teacher-reported internalizing symptoms. Anger frequency positively predicted parent- and teacher-reported externalizing symptoms, whereas anger intensity positively predicted parent- and teacher-reported externalizing and parent-reported internalizing symptoms. The findings support the importance of examining both aspects of emotion when predicting maladjustment.

  17. Data concurrency is required for estimating urban heat island intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuqing; Zhou, Decheng; Liu, Shuguang

    2016-01-01

    Urban heat island (UHI) can generate profound impacts on socioeconomics, human life, and the environment. Most previous studies have estimated UHI intensity using outdated urban extent maps to define urban and its surrounding areas, and the impacts of urban boundary expansion have never been quantified. Here, we assess the possible biases in UHI intensity estimates induced by outdated urban boundary maps using MODIS Land surface temperature (LST) data from 2009 to 2011 for China's 32 major cities, in combination with the urban boundaries generated from urban extent maps of the years 2000, 2005 and 2010. Our results suggest that it is critical to use concurrent urban extent and LST maps to estimate UHI at the city and national levels. Specific definition of UHI matters for the direction and magnitude of potential biases in estimating UHI intensity using outdated urban extent maps.

  18. Observed Emotion Frequency Versus Intensity as Predictors of Socioemotional Maladjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Maciel M.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Spinrad, Tracy L.; VanSchyndel, Sarah K.; Diaz, Anjolii; Berger, Rebecca H.; Silva, Kassondra M.; Southworth, Jody; Pina, Armando A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether observed emotional frequency (the proportion of instances an emotion was observed) and intensity (the strength of an emotion when it was observed) uniquely predicted kindergartners’ (N = 301) internalizing and externalizing problems. Analyses were tested in a structural equation modeling (SEM) framework with data from multireporters (reports of problem behaviors from teachers and parents) and naturalistic observations of emotion in the fall semester. For observed positive emotion, both frequency and intensity negatively predicted parent- or teacher- reported internalizing symptoms. Anger frequency positively predicted parent- and teacher-reported externalizing symptoms, whereas anger intensity positively predicted parent- and teacher-reported externalizing and parent-reported internalizing symptoms. The findings support the importance of examining both aspects of emotion when predicting maladjustment. PMID:26214568

  19. On the Cultivation of Intensive Reading Skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪琴

    2008-01-01

    This paper concerns the importance of the cultivation of reading skills,the characteristics of intensive reading and how to cultivate the intensive reading skills.Since the focus of this papre is how to cultivate the intensive reading skills,we make a systematic exposition from three points: word study,grammar patterns and text.

  20. Treatment Intensity and Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namasivayam, Aravind K.; Pukonen, Margit; Goshulak, Debra; Hard, Jennifer; Rudzicz, Frank; Rietveld, Toni; Maassen, Ben; Kroll, Robert; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intensive treatment has been repeatedly recommended for the treatment of speech deficits in childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). However, differences in treatment outcomes as a function of treatment intensity have not been systematically studied in this population. Aim: To investigate the effects of treatment intensity on outcome…

  1. Subjective intensity and pleasantness in taste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis contains studies on intensity and pleasantness in taste perception. There is a formal relationship between intensity and hedonic value of stimuli, which can be expressed in an inverted U. The fact that pleasantness depends partially on stimulus intensity poses a problem when one wants to

  2. 7 CFR 29.3011 - Color intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color intensity. 29.3011 Section 29.3011 Agriculture... Color intensity. The varying degree of saturation or chroma. Color intensity as applied to tobacco describes the strength or weakness of a specific color or hue. It is applicable to all colors...

  3. 7 CFR 29.1006 - Color intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color intensity. 29.1006 Section 29.1006 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1006 Color intensity. The varying degree of saturation or chroma. Color intensity as applied to tobacco describes the strength or weakness of a specific color or hue. (See Elements of...

  4. 7 CFR 29.2508 - Color intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color intensity. 29.2508 Section 29.2508 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2508 Color intensity. The varying degree of saturation or chroma. Color intensity